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Sample records for strenuous exercise reduce

  1. Short-term ubiquinol supplementation reduces oxidative stress associated with strenuous exercise in healthy adults: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Alvaro; Diaz-Castro, Javier; Pulido-Moran, Mario; Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Kajarabille, Naroa; Chirosa, Ignacio; Guisado, Isabel M; Javier Chirosa, Luis; Guisado, Rafael; Ochoa, Julio J

    2016-11-12

    Studies about Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) supplementation on strenuous exercise are scarce, especially those related with oxidative stress associated with physical activity and virtually nonexistent with the reduced form, Ubiquinol. The objective of this study was to determine, for the first time, whether a short-term supplementation with Ubiquinol can prevent oxidative stress associated to strenuous exercise. The participants (n = 100 healthy and well trained, but not on an elite level) were classified in two groups: Ubiquinol (experimental group), and placebo group (control). The protocol consisted of conducting two identical strenuous exercise tests with a rest period between tests of 24 h. Blood and urine samples were collected from the participants before supplementation (basal value) (T1), after supplementation (2 weeks) (T2), after first physical exercise test (T3), after 24 h of rest (T4), and after second physical exercise test (T5).The increase observed in the lactate, isoprostanes, DNA damage, and hydroperoxide levels reveals the severity of the oxidative damage induced by the exercise. There was a reduction in the isoprostanes, 8-OHdG, oxidized LDL, and hydroperoxydes in the supplemented Ubiquinol group, an increase in total antioxidant status, fat soluble antioxidant (both plasma and membrane), and CAT activity. Also, NO in the Ubiquinol-supplemented group was maintained within a narrow range. Oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise is accumulative and increases transiently in subsequent sessions of physical activity. A short-term supplementation (2 weeks) with Ubiquinol (200 mg/day) before strenuous exercise, decreases oxidative stress and increases plasma NO, fact that could improve endothelial function, energetic substrate supply, and muscle recovery after strenuous exercise. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(6):612-622, 2016.

  2. Slowed response to peripheral visual stimuli during strenuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Ando, Soichi; Komiyama, Takaaki; Kokubu, Masahiro; Sudo, Mizuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Higaki, Yasuki

    2016-07-01

    Recently, we proposed that strenuous exercise impairs peripheral visual perception because visual responses to peripheral visual stimuli were slowed during strenuous exercise. However, this proposal was challenged because strenuous exercise is also likely to affect the brain network underlying motor responses. The purpose of the current study was to resolve this issue. Fourteen participants performed a visual reaction-time (RT) task at rest and while exercising at 50% (moderate) and 75% (strenuous) peak oxygen uptake. Visual stimuli were randomly presented at different distances from fixation in two task conditions: the Central condition (2° or 5° from fixation) and the Peripheral condition (30° or 50° from fixation). We defined premotor time as the time between stimulus onset and the motor response, as determined using electromyographic recordings. In the Central condition, premotor time did not change during moderate (167±19ms) and strenuous (168±24ms) exercise from that at rest (164±17ms). In the Peripheral condition, premotor time significantly increased during moderate (181±18ms, P<0.05) and strenuous exercise (189±23ms, P<0.001) from that at rest (173±17ms). These results suggest that increases in Premotor Time to the peripheral visual stimuli did not result from an impaired motor-response network, but rather from impaired peripheral visual perception. We conclude that slowed response to peripheral visual stimuli during strenuous exercise primarily results from impaired visual perception of the periphery.

  3. Pulmonary diffusion limitation after prolonged strenuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Manier, G; Moinard, J; Téchoueyres, P; Varène, N; Guénard, H

    1991-02-01

    To determine the effect of strenuous prolonged exercise on alveolo-capillary membrane diffusing capacity, 11 marathon runners aged 37 +/- 7 years (mean +/- SD) were studied before and during early recovery (28 +/- 14 min) from a marathon race. Lung capillary blood volume (Vc) and the alveolo-capillary diffusing capacity (Dm) were determined in a one-step maneuver by simultaneous measurements of CO and NO lung transfer (DLCO and DLNO, respectively) using the single breath, breath-holding method. After the race, both DLCO and DLNO were significantly decreased in all subjects (-10.9 +/- 4.8%, P less than 10(-4) and -29.0 +/- 11.1%, P less than 10(-4), respectively). The mean value of the derived DmCO decreased by -29.3 +/- 11.1%, whereas Vc had not entirely returned to control resting value. Although these results do not indicate the detailed mechanism involved, interstitial lung fluid was suspected to accumulate, particularly in alveoli, during the race. We concluded that the high overall work load and the extended duration of the exercise both contributed to a transient change in the structure of the alveolo-capillary membrane thereby affecting the diffusing capacity of the alveolo-capillary membrane.

  4. The Effect of Strenuous Exercise on Blood Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvancara, Victor

    1992-01-01

    Presents a laboratory experiment designed to help students understand the concept of diastolic blood pressure, the pressure during which the left ventricle of the heart is not contracting. Examines the effect of strenuous exercise on blood pressure. Includes materials needed, procedures, results, and discussion of the results. (MDH)

  5. Strenuous physical exercise inhibits granulocyte activation induced by high altitude.

    PubMed

    Choukèr, Alexander; Demetz, Florian; Martignoni, André; Smith, Leslie; Setzer, Florian; Bauer, Andreas; Hölzl, Joseph; Peter, Klaus; Christ, Frank; Thiel, Manfred

    2005-02-01

    To test the hypothesis of whether strenuous physical exercise inhibits neutrophils that can get activated by hypobaric hypoxia, we analyzed the effects of both high altitude and strenuous exercise alone and in combination on potentially cytotoxic functions of granulocytes in healthy volunteers (n = 12 men; average age 27.6 yr; range 24-38 yr). To this end, a field study was prospectively performed with an open-labeled within-subject design comprising three protocols. Protocol I (high altitude) involved a helicopter ascent, overnight stay at 3,196 m, and descent on the following day. Protocol II (physical exercise) involved hiking below an altitude of 2,100 m with repetitive ascents amounting to a total ascent to that of protocol III. Protocol III (combination of physical exercise and high altitude) involved climbing from 1,416 to 3,196 m, stay overnight, and descent on the following day. In protocol I, number of granulocytes did not change, but potentially cytotoxic functions of cells (CD18 expression and superoxide production) were early and significantly upregulated. In protocol II, subjects developed granulocytosis, but functions of cells were inhibited. In protocol III, granulocytosis occurred at higher values than those observed under protocol II. Potentially cytotoxic functions of cells, however, were strongly inhibited again. In conclusion, high altitude alone, even moderate in extent, can activate potentially cytotoxic functions of circulating granulocytes. Strenuous physical exercise strongly inhibits this activation, which may give protection from an otherwise inflammatory injury.

  6. Effects of Compression Garment Pressure on Recovery from Strenuous Exercise.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jessica; Howatson, Glyn; van Someren, Ken; Gaze, David; Legg, Hayley; Lineham, Jack; Pedlar, Charles

    2017-01-04

    Compression garments are frequently used to facilitate recovery from strenuous exercise. Purpose To identify the effects of two different grades of compression garment on recovery indices following strenuous exercise. Methods Forty five recreationally active participants (n=26 males and n=19 females) completed an eccentric exercise protocol consisting of 100 drop jumps. Following the exercise protocol participants were matched for body mass and randomly but equally assigned to either a high (HI) compression pressure group, a low (LOW) compression pressure group, or a sham ultrasound group (SHAM). Participants in the high (HI) and low (LOW) compression groups wore the garments for 72 h post-exercise; participants in the SHAM group received a single treatment of 10 minutes sham ultrasound. Measures of perceived muscle soreness, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), counter movement jump height (CMJ), creatine kinase (CK), C-reactive protein (CRP) and myoglobin (Mb) were assessed before the exercise protocol and again at 1, 24, 48 and 72 h post exercise. Data were analysed using a repeated measures ANOVA. Results Recovery of MVC and CMJ was significantly improved with the HI compression garment (p < 0.05). A significant time by treatment interaction was also observed for jump height at 24 h post exercise (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for parameters of soreness and plasma CK, CRP and Mb. Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that the pressures exerted by a compression garment affect recovery following exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), with a higher pressure improving recovery of muscle function.

  7. Effect of Yoga Practice on Levels of Inflammatory Markers After Moderate and Strenuous Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Doreswamy, Venkatesh; Narasipur, Omkar Subbaramajois; Kunnavil, Radhika; Srinivasamurthy, Nandagudi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives To evaluate the effect of yoga practice and exercise challenge on Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and lipid profile. Materials and Methods Two hundred and eighteen subjects participated in the study. One hundred and nine volunteers (51 males and 58 females) in the age group of 20 to 60 years, who practiced yoga regularly for over five years for a period of one hour daily, performed a bout of moderate exercise and a bout of strenuous exercise as per Standardized Shuttle Walk test protocol. Anthropometrically matched, age matched and gender matched subjects, who did not practice yoga (non-yoga group) were chosen as controls (non-yoga, n=109). The non-yoga group also performed similar exercises. The blood samples of both the groups were collected before and after the exercises. TNF-α and IL-6 was analysed before and after the exercise by Sandwich ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Results Resting plasma TNF-α concentration was significantly higher in non-yoga group when compared to yoga group (p<0.05). There was an increase in TNF-α levels in both the groups in response to strenuous exercise. There was no gender difference in TNF-α and IL-6 levels before and after exercise in yoga and non-yoga groups. Conclusion Regular practice of yoga lowers basal TNF-α and IL-6 levels. It also reduces the extent of increase of TNF-α and IL-6 to a physical challenge of moderate exercise and strenuous exercise. There is no significant gender difference in the TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Regular practice of yoga can protect the individual against inflammatory diseases by favourably altering pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. PMID:26266115

  8. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting. PMID:24127588

  9. Strenuous exercise induces mitochondrial damage in skeletal muscle of old mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sangho; Kim, Minjung; Lim, Wonchung; Kim, Taeyoung; Kang, Chounghun

    2015-05-29

    Strenuous exercise is known to cause excessive ROS generation and inflammation. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of mitochondrial integrity in the senescent muscle during high-intensity exercise (HE) are not well studied. Here, we show that HE suppresses up-regulation of mitochondrial function despite increase in mitochondrial copy number, following excessive ROS production, proinflammatory cytokines and NFκB activation. Moreover, HE in the old group resulted in the decreasing of both fusion (Mfn2) and fission (Drp1) proteins that may contribute to alteration of mitochondrial morphology. This study suggests that strenuous exercise does not reverse age-related mitochondrial damage and dysfunction by the increased ROS and inflammation. - Highlights: • Effect of exercise on mitochondrial function of aged skeletal muscles was studied. • Strenuous exercise triggered excessive ROS production and inflammatory cytokines. • Strenuous exercise suppressed mitochondrial function in senescent muscle.

  10. The Impaired Function of Macrophages Induced by Strenuous Exercise Could Not Be Ameliorated by BCAA Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Weihua; Chen, Peijie; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Linlin

    2015-10-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strenuous exercise on the functions of peritoneal macrophages in rats and to test the hypothesis that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation will be beneficial to the macrophages of rats from strenuous exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: (C) Control, E) Exercise, (E1) Exercise with one week to recover, (ES) Exercise + Supplementation and (ES1) Exercise + Supplementation with 1 week to recover. All rats except those of the sedentary control were subjected to four weeks of strenuous exercise. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone and BCAA levels were tested. Peritoneal macrophages functions were also determined at the same time. The data showed that hemoglobin, testosterone, BCAA levels, and body weight in group E decreased significantly as compared with that of group C. Meanwhile, phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 17.07%, p = 0.031), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (decreased by 26%, p = 0.003) and MHC II mRNA (decreased by 22%, p = 0.041) of macrophages decreased in the strenuous exercise group as compared with group C. However, the chemotaxis of macrophages did not change significantly. In addition, BCAA supplementation could slightly increase the serum BCAA levels of rats from strenuous exercise (increased by 6.70%, p > 0.05). Moreover, the body weight, the blood hemoglobin, the serum testosterone and the function of peritoneal macrophages in group ES did not change significantly as compared with group E. These results suggest that long-term intensive exercise impairs the function of macrophages, which is essential for microbicidal capability. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunosuppression induced by strenuous exercise. Moreover, the impaired function of macrophage induced by strenuous exercise could not be ameliorated by BCAA supplementation in the dosing and timing used for this study.

  11. Does intermittent pneumatic leg compression enhance muscle recovery after strenuous eccentric exercise?

    PubMed

    Cochrane, D J; Booker, H R; Mundel, T; Barnes, M J

    2013-11-01

    Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) has gained rapid popularity as a post-exercise recovery modality. Despite its widespread use and anecdotal claims for enhancing muscle recovery there is no scientific evidence to support its use. 10 healthy, active males performed a strenuous bout of eccentric exercise (3 sets of 100 repetitions) followed by IPC treatment or control performed immediately after exercise and at 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Muscular performance measurements were taken prior to exercise and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise and included single-leg vertical jump (VJ) and peak and average isometric [knee angle 75º] (ISO), concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) contractions performed at slow (30° · s⁻¹) and fast (180° · s⁻¹) velocities. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) samples were taken at pre- and post-exercise 24, 48 and 72 h. Strenuous eccentric exercise resulted in a significant decrease in peak ISO, peak and average CON (30° · s⁻¹) at 24 h compared to pre-exercise for both IPC and control, however VJ performance remained unchanged. There were no significant differences between conditions (IPC and control) or condition-time interactions for any of the contraction types (ISO, CON, ECC) or velocities (CON, ECC 30° · s⁻¹ and 180° · s⁻¹). However, CK was significantly elevated at 24 h compared to pre-exercise in both conditions (IPC and control). IPC did not attenuate muscle force loss following a bout of strenuous eccentric exercise in comparison to a control. While IPC has been used in the clinical setting to treat pathologic conditions, the parameters used to treat muscle damage following strenuous exercise in healthy participants are likely to be very different than those used to treat pathologic conditions.

  12. Effects of strenuous maternal exercise on fetal organ weights and skeletal muscle development in rats.

    PubMed

    Mottola, M F; Bagnall, K M; Belcastro, A N

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the effects of strenuous maternal aerobic exercise throughout gestation on fetal outcome in the rat. The strenuous exercise intensity consisted of a treadmill speed of 30 m.min-1 on a 10 degrees incline, for 120 min.day-1, 5 days.week-1. The rats were conditioned to run on a motor-driven treadmill by following a progressive two-week exercise program, so that by the end of the two weeks the rats were capable of running comfortably at this strenuous intensity in the non-pregnant state. Following the two-week running programme, the rats were paired by weight and randomly assigned to either a pregnant group that continued the running program throughout gestation (pregnant runner), or a pregnant group that did not continue the running program throughout pregnancy (pregnant control). At birth the neonates born to the pregnant running group did not differ in average neonatal body weight values, number per litter or total litter weight values when compared to controls, nor were superficial gross abnormalities observed in neonates born to the pregnant control or pregnant running groups. The strenuous maternal exercise intensity did not alter neonatal organ weight values (brain, heart, liver, lung, kidney), nor neonatal skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius, sternomastoid, diaphragm) when compared to control values. It is suggested that maternal exercise of this intensity throughout gestation does not affect fetal outcome in the rat, and may be due to the animals accustomization to the strenuous exercise protocol prior to pregnancy.

  13. Regional brain activity and strenuous exercise: predicting affective responses using EEG asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Hall, Eric E; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Petruzzello, Steven J

    2007-05-01

    Previous research using the model proposed by Davidson has shown that resting frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry can predict affective responses to aerobic exercise at moderate intensities. Specifically, greater relative left frontal activity has been shown to predict positive affect (i.e., energy) following exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if resting frontal EEG asymmetry would predict affective responses following strenuous exercise. Thirty participants (13 women, 17 men) completed a maximal graded exercise test on a treadmill. EEG was recorded prior to exercise. Affect was measured by the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List prior to the graded exercise test, immediately following, 10 and 20-min following exercise. Greater relative left frontal activity predicted tiredness and calmness during recovery from exercise, but not tension or energy. Tiredness and calmness following exercise covaried, suggesting that tiredness following exercise might not have been linked with displeasure. These findings offer further support for the link between EEG asymmetry and affective responses to exercise.

  14. Effects of strenuous exercise on visual perception are independent of visual resolution.

    PubMed

    Ando, Soichi; Kokubu, Masahiro; Nakae, Satoshi; Kimura, Misaka; Hojo, Tatsuya; Ebine, Naoyuki

    2012-05-15

    Strenuous exercise may have the detrimental effects on visual perception. However, it is unclear whether visual resolution is related to the detrimental effects on visual perception. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the effects of strenuous exercise on visual perception are dependent on visual resolution. Given that visual resolution decreases in the periphery of the visual field, we hypothesized that if visual resolution plays a role in the detrimental effects on visual perception, the detrimental effects may be exaggerated toward the periphery of the visual field. Simple visual reaction time was measured at rest and during cycling at 40% and 75% peak oxygen uptakes (VO(2)). Visual stimuli were randomly presented at 2°, 10°, 30°, and 50° to either the right or left of the midpoint between the eyes with equal probability. RT was fractionated into premotor and motor components (i.e. premotor time and motor time) based on electromyographic recording. The premotor time during exercise at 40% peak VO(2) was not different from that at rest. In contrast, the premotor time during exercise at 75% peak VO(2) was significantly longer than that at rest (p=0.018). The increase in the premotor time was observed irrespective of eccentricity, and the detrimental effects were not exaggerated toward the periphery of the visual field. The motor time was not affected by exercise. The current findings suggest that the detrimental effects of strenuous exercise on visual perception are independent of visual resolution.

  15. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Oxidative Damage and Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Strenuous Exercise in Rats.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ning-Ning

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol supplementation on oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation induced by strenuous exercise in rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: a sedentary control group, an exercise control group, and three treatment exercise groups administered increasing doses of resveratrol (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight). Resveratrol was administered by oral gavage once daily for four weeks. At the end of the four-week period, the rats performed a strenuous exercise on the treadmill, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured. The results showed that resveratrol supplementation had protective effects against strenuous exercise-induced oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation by lowering the levels of LDH, CK, MDA, 4-HNE, and 8-OHdG in the serum or muscle of rats. These beneficial effects are probably owing to the inherent antioxidant activities of resveratrol.

  16. The Elite Athlete and Strenuous Exercise in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pivarnik, James M; Szymanski, Linda M; Conway, Michelle R

    2016-09-01

    Highly trained women continue to exercise during pregnancy, but there is little information available to guide them, and their health care providers, in how to maximize performance without jeopardizing the maternal-fetal unit. Available evidence focusing on average women who perform regular vigorous exercise suggests that this activity is helpful in preventing several maladies of pregnancy, with little to no evidence of harm. However, some studies have shown that there may be a limit to how intense an elite performer should exercise during pregnancy. Health care providers should monitor these women athletes carefully, to build trust and understanding.

  17. Evaluation of Dogs with Border Collie Collapse, Including Response to Two Standardized Strenuous Exercise Protocols.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Shmon, Cindy; Su, Lillian; Epp, Tasha; Minor, Katie; Mickelson, James; Patterson, Edward; Shelton, G Diane

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and metabolic variables were evaluated in 13 dogs with border collie collapse (BCC) before, during, and following completion of standardized strenuous exercise protocols. Six dogs participated in a ball-retrieving protocol, and seven dogs participated in a sheep-herding protocol. Findings were compared with 16 normal border collies participating in the same exercise protocols (11 retrieving, five herding). Twelve dogs with BCC developed abnormal mentation and/or an abnormal gait during evaluation. All dogs had post-exercise elevations in rectal temperature, pulse rate, arterial blood pH, PaO2, and lactate, and decreased PaCO2 and bicarbonate, as expected with strenuous exercise, but there were no significant differences between BCC dogs and normal dogs. Electrocardiography demonstrated sinus tachycardia in all dogs following exercise. Needle electromyography was normal, and evaluation of muscle biopsy cryosections using a standard panel of histochemical stains and reactions did not reveal a reason for collapse in 10 dogs with BCC in which these tests were performed. Genetic testing excluded the dynamin-1 related exercise-induced collapse mutation and the V547A malignant hyperthermia mutation as the cause of BCC. Common reasons for exercise intolerance were eliminated. Although a genetic basis is suspected, the cause of collapse in BCC was not determined.

  18. The effects of strenuous exercises on resting heart rate, blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Oh, Deuk-Ja; Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of strenuous exercises on resting heart rate, blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake. To achieve the purpose of the study, a total of 30 subjects were selected, including 15 people who performed continued regular exercises and 15 people as the control group. With regard to data processing, the IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 21.0 was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation. The difference of mean change between groups was verified through an independent t-test. As a result, there were significant differences in resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, maximal systolic blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake. However, the maximal systolic blood pressure was found to be an exercise-induced high blood pressure. Thus, it is thought that a risk diagnosis for it through a regular exercise stress test is necessary.

  19. Social control and strenuous exercise among late adolescent college students: parents versus peers as influence agents.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, John A; Okun, Morris A

    2014-07-01

    In the context of a model of health-related social control, we compared the associations among social control strategies, affective and behavioral reactions, and exercise for parental and peer influence agents. Late adolescent college students (n = 227) completed questionnaires that focused on social control from a parent or a peer who attempted to increase their exercising. Results from this cross-sectional study revealed that most relationships in the model were similar for parent and peer influence agents, however, (a) negative social control was a stronger predictor of reactance among parents than peers; (b) positive affect was a stronger predictor of attempts to change among peers than parents; and (c) positive affect predicted frequency of strenuous exercise only among parents. Decreasing parents' use of negative social control strategies and increasing adolescents' positive affective reactions to parental social control agents may be keys to promoting positive lifestyle changes in late adolescence.

  20. Interactions between immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems following strenuous physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Menicucci, Danilo; Piarulli, Andrea; Mastorci, Francesca; Sebastiani, Laura; Laurino, Marco; Garbella, Erika; Castagnini, Cinzia; Pellegrini, Silvia; Lubrano, Valter; Bernardi, Giulio; Metelli, Maria; Bedini, Remo; L'abbate, Antonio; Pingitore, Alessandro; Gemignani, Angelo

    2013-09-01

    Physical exercise represents a eustress condition that promotes rapid coordinated adjustments in the immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems, for maintaining homeostasis in response to increased metabolic demands. Compared to the tight multisystem coordination during exercise, evidence of between-systems cross talk in the early post exercise is still lacking. This study was aimed at identifying possible interactions between multiple systems following strenuous physical exercise (Ironman race) performed by twenty well-trained triathletes. Cardiac hemodynamics, left ventricle systolic and diastolic function and heart rate variability were measured along with plasma concentrations of immune messengers (cytokines and C-reactive protein) and stress-related hormones (catecholamines and cortisol) both 24h before and within 20 min after the race. Observed changes in antiinflammatory pathways, stress-related hormones and cardiovascular function were in line with previous findings; moreover, correlating parameters' changes (post versus pre-race) highlighted a dependence of cardiovascular function on the post-race biohumoral milieu: in particular, individual post-race variations of heart rate and diastolic function were strongly correlated with individual variations of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while individual baroreflex sensitivity changes were linked to IL-8 increase. Multiple correlations between anti-inflammatory cytokines and catecholamines were also found according with the autonomic regulation of immune function. Observed post-race cytokine and hormone levels were presumptively representative of the increases reached at the effort end while the cardiovascular parameters after the race were measured during the cardiovascular recovery; thus, results suggest that sustained strenuous exercise produced a stereotyped cardiovascular early recovery, whose speed could be conditioned by the immune and stress-related hormonal milieu.

  1. Plasma glucose levels after prolonged strenuous exercise correlate inversely with glycemic response to food consumed before exercise.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D E; Brotherhood, J R; Miller, J B

    1994-12-01

    It was hypothesized that slowly digested carbohydrates, that is, low glycemic index (GI) foods, eaten before prolonged strenuous exercise would increase the blood glucose concentration toward the end of exercise. Six trained cyclists pedaled on a cycle ergometer at 65-70% VO2max 60 min after ingestion of each of four test meals: a low-GI and a high-GI powdered food and a low-GI and a high-GI breakfast cereal, all providing 1 g of available carbohydrate per kilogram of body mass. Plasma glucose levels after more that 90 min of exercise were found to correlate inversely with the observed GI of the foods (p < .01). Free fatty acid levels during the last hour of exercise also correlated inversely with the GI (p < .05). The findings suggest that the slow digestion of carbohydrate in the prevent food favors higher concentrations of fuels in the blood toward the end of exercise.

  2. Bio-energetic changes in human gastrocnemius muscle 1-2 days after strenuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Kemp, G J; Taylor, D J; Radda, G K; Rajagopalan, B

    1992-09-01

    [31P]magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to study the metabolic sequelae of intense muscular activity in gastrocnemius of seven subjects 1-2 days after a 67-mile bicycle ride. The muscle was examined at rest, during a test exercise and during recovery from test exercise. Post-ride and pre-ride results were compared. At rest, the ratio of phosphocreatine to ATP (PCr/ATP) was increased post-ride; during test exercise PCr/(PCr+Pi) was lower post-ride; and the recoveries of PCr, Pi and PCr/(PCr+Pi) after test exercise were delayed, with decreased 'overshoot' of PCr/(PCr+Pi) (which is due to recovery of Pi to below its resting value). Mild mitochondrial damage (perhaps due to exposure to high cytosolic [Pi] during the bicycle ride) may explain some of these results. In contrast to reports of largely eccentric exercise there was no increase in resting Pi/ATP. We have thus demonstrated perturbations of muscle bio-energetics 1-2 days after strenuous exercise, in the absence of convincing enzymological evidence of muscle damage.

  3. Phlebodium decumanum is a natural supplement that ameliorates the oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling induced by strenuous exercise in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Castro, Javier; Guisado, Rafael; Kajarabille, Naroa; García, Carmen; Guisado, Isabel M; De Teresa, Carlos; Ochoa, Julio J

    2012-08-01

    Strenuous exercise induces muscle damage due to a highly increased generation of free radicals and inflammatory response and therefore, in this type of exercise, it is important to reduce both oxidative stress and inflammation, at least their negative aspects. The purpose of this study was investigate, for the first time, whether a purified, standard water-soluble fraction obtained from Phlebodium decamanum could reduce the over-expression of inflammation and oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise. The physical test consisted of a constant run that combined several degrees of high effort (mountain run and ultra-endurance), in permanent climbing. Biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators were assessed. The results showed that oral supplementation of P. decumanum during high-intensity exercise effectively reduces the degree of oxidative stress (decreased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and isoprostanes generation, increased antioxidant enzyme activities in erythrocyte and total antioxidant status in plasma). The data obtained also indicate that this supplementation is efficient in reducing the inflammatory response through the decrease of TNF-α and increase of sTNF-RII, but kept the levels of IL-6 and IL-1ra. In conclusion, oral supplementation of P. decamanum extract during high-intensity exercise effectively reduces the degree of oxidative stress and has anti-inflammatory protective effects, preventing the over-expression of TNF-α but keeping the levels and effects of IL-6. These findings provide a basis for similar Phlebodium supplementation for both professional and amateur athletes performing strenuous exercise in order to reduce the undesirable effects of the oxidative stress and inflammation signalling elicited during high-intensity exercise.

  4. Microarray analysis after strenuous exercise in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Capomaccio, S; Cappelli, K; Barrey, E; Felicetti, M; Silvestrelli, M; Verini-Supplizi, A

    2010-12-01

    It is known that moderate physical activity may have beneficial effects on health, whereas strenuous effort induces a state resembling inflammation. The molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular response to exercise remain unclear, although it is clear that the immune system plays a key role. It has been hypothesized that the physio-pathological condition that develops in athletes subjected to heavy training is caused by derangement of cellular immune regulation. The purpose of the present study was to obtain information on endurance horse gene transcription under strenuous conditions and to identify candidate genes causing immune system derangement. We performed a wide gene expression scan, using microarray technology, on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ten horses chosen from high-level participants in national and international endurance races. The use of three different timepoints revealed changes in gene expression when post-effort samples (T1, taken immediately after the race; and T2, taken 24 h after the race) were compared with basal sample (T0, at rest). Statistical analysis showed no differences in gene expression between T0 and T2 samples, indicating complete restoration of homeostasis by 24 h after racing, whereas T1 showed strong modulation of expression, affecting 132 genes (97 upregulated, 35 downregulated). Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that the main mechanisms and biofunctions involved were significantly associated with immunological and inflammatory responses. Real-time PCR was performed on 26 gene products to validate the array data.

  5. Antioxidant status in haemoglobin E carriers after acute and chronic strenuous exercises.

    PubMed

    Palasuwan, Attakorn; Soogarun, Suphan; Suksom, Daroonwan; Pitaksathienkul, Chatchadaporn; Rousseau, Anne-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Haemoglobin E (HbE), an unstable haemoglobin, is highly susceptible to oxidative damages. We examined how acute or chronic physiological challenge induced by exercise affects antioxidant response in HbE carriers. Two independent studies were conducted in individuals with HbE trait and paired normal Hb. In study 1, sedentary participants were tested in a graded maximal exercise and blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and 45 minutes after an acute exercise. Our data showed that erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity failed to recover in HbE carriers after 45 minutes of rest. In study 2, athletes were trained in a 10-week strenuous training and blood samples were collected before and after training period. We found that athletes with HbE carriers showed a larger increase in plasma GPx activity compared to those with normal Hb. These data suggest that HbE carriers could cope with exercise-induced oxidative stress by adjusting endogenous antioxidant markers.

  6. GBT440 Inhibits Sickling of Sickle Cell Trait Blood Under In Vitro Conditions Mimicking Strenuous Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Dufu, Kobina; Lehrer-Graiwer, Josh; Ramos, Eleanor; Oksenberg, Donna

    2016-01-01

    In sickle cell trait (SCT), hemoglobin A (HbA) and S (HbS) are co-expressed in each red blood cell (RBC). While homozygous expression of HbS (HbSS) leads to polymerization and sickling of RBCs resulting in sickle cell disease (SCD) characterized by hemolytic anemia, painful vaso-occlusive episodes and shortened life-span, SCT is considered a benign condition usually with minor or no complications related to sickling. However, physical activities that cause increased tissue oxygen demand, dehydration and/or metabolic acidosis leads to increased HbS polymerization and life-threatening complications including death. We report that GBT440, an agent being developed for the treatment of SCD, increases the affinity of oxygen for Hb and inhibits in vitro polymerization of a mixture of HbS and HbA that simulates SCT blood. Moreover, GBT440 prevents sickling of SCT blood under in vitro conditions mimicking strenuous exercise with hypoxia, dehydration and acidosis. Together, our results indicate that GBT440 may have the potential to protect SCT individuals from sickling-related complications during conditions that favor HbS polymerization. PMID:27757216

  7. Acute alcohol consumption aggravates the decline in muscle performance following strenuous eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Matthew J; Mündel, Toby; Stannard, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute moderate alcohol intake on muscular performance during recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. Eleven healthy males performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscles of one leg on an isokinetic dynamometer. They then consumed a beverage containing 1g/kg bodyweight ethanol (as vodka and orange juice) (ALC). On another occasion they performed an equivalent bout of eccentric exercise on the contralateral leg after which they consumed an isocaloric quantity of orange juice (OJ). Measurement of maximal isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) and isometric torque produced across the knee, plasma creatine kinase (CK) concentrations and muscle soreness were made before and at 36 and 60h following each exercise bout. All measures of muscle performance were significantly reduced at 36 and 60h post-exercise compared to pre-exercise measures (all p<0.05). The greatest decreases in peak strength were observed at 36h with losses of 12%, 28% and 19% occurring for OJ isometric, concentric, and eccentric contractions, respectively. However, peak strength loss was significantly greater in ALC with the same performance measures decreasing by 34%, 40% and 34%, respectively. Post-exercise plasma creatine kinase activity and ratings of muscle soreness were not different between conditions (both p>0.05). These results indicate that consumption of even moderate amounts of alcohol following eccentric-based exercise magnifies the normally observed losses in dynamic and static strength. Therefore, to minimise exercise related losses in muscle function and expedite recovery, participants in sports involving eccentric muscle work should avoid alcohol-containing beverages in the post-event period.

  8. Effects of strenuous exercise on Th1/Th2 gene expression from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of marathon participants.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lianbin; Rehm, Kristina E; Marshall, Gailen D

    2014-08-01

    Physical stressors, such as strenuous exercise, can have numerous effects on the human body including the immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression profile of Th1/Th2 cytokines and related transcription factor genes in order to investigate possible immune imbalances before and after a marathon. Blood samples were collected from 16 normal volunteers 24-48 h before and one week after completing a marathon race. Gene expression of Th1 and Th2 related cytokines from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was analyzed using Human Th1-Th2-Th3 RT(2) Profiler PCR Array and qRT-PCR that measured the transcript levels of 84 genes related to T cell activation. We found that PBMC express a characteristic Th2-like gene profile one week post-marathon compared to pre-marathon. The majority of genes up-regulated one week post-marathon such as IL-4, GATA3, and CCR4 were Th2 associated. For Th1-related genes, CXCR3 and IRF1 were up-regulated one week post-marathon. There was a trend of down-regulation of two Th1 related genes, T-bet and STAT1. Th3-related gene expression patterns did not change in the study. The ratios of both IFN-γ/IL-4 and T-bet/GATA3 gene expressions were significantly lower one week after marathon. These findings suggest that a Th1/Th2 immune imbalance persisted at least 1 week after completion of a marathon which offers a mechanistic rationale for the increased risk of upper respiratory tract infections often reported after strenuous exercise.

  9. A Prospective Randomized Trial of Moderately Strenuous Aerobic Exercise After an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD)

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Cynthia M.; Glenny, Robb W.; Burr, Robert L.; Flo ARNP, Gayle L.; Kudenchuk, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite its salutary effects on health, aerobic exercise is often avoided after receipt of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) because of fears that exercise may provoke acute arrhythmias. We prospectively evaluated the effects of a home aerobic exercise training and maintenance program (EX) on aerobic performance, ICD shocks and hospitalizations exclusively in ICD recipients. Methods and Results One hundred sixty (124 men, 36 women) were randomized who had an ICD for primary (43%) or secondary (57%) prevention to EX or usual care (UC). The primary outcome was peak oxygen consumption (peakVO2), measured with cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline, 8 and 24 weeks. EX consisted of 8 weeks of home walking 1 hour/day, 5 days/week at 60-80% of heart rate reserve, followed by 16 weeks of maintenance home walking for 150 minutes/week. Adherence to EX was determined from exercise logs, ambulatory HR recordings of exercise, and weekly telephone contacts. UC received no exercise directives and were monitored by monthly telephone contact. Adverse events were identified by ICD interrogations, patient reports and medical records. ICD recipients averaged 55±12 years and mean ejection fraction of 40.6±15.7, all were taking beta blocker medications. EX significantly increased peakVO2 ml/kg/min (EX 26.7±7.0; UC 23.9±6.6, p=0.002) at 8 weeks, which persisted during maintenance exercise at 24 weeks (EX 26.9±7,7; UC 23.4±6.0, p<0.001). ICD shocks were infrequent (EX=4 vs UC=8), with no differences in hospitalizations or deaths between groups. Conclusions Prescribed home exercise is safe and significantly improves cardiovascular performance in ICD recipients without causing shocks or hospitalizations. PMID:25792557

  10. The influence of low versus high carbohydrate diet on a 45-min strenuous cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Kavouras, Stavros A; Troup, John P; Berning, Jacqueline R

    2004-02-01

    To examine the effects of a 3-day high carbohydrate (H-CHO) and low carbohydrate (L-CHO) diet on 45 min of cycling exercise, 12 endurance-trained cyclists performed a 45-min cycling exercise at 82 +/- 2% VO2peak following an overnight fast, after a 6-day diet and exercise control. The 7-day protocol was repeated under 2 randomly assigned dietary trials H-CHO and L-CHO. On days 1-3, subjects consumed a mixed diet for both trials and for days 4-6 consumed isocaloric diets that contained either 600 g or 100 g of carbohydrates, for the H-CHO and the L-CHO trials, respectively. Muscle biopsy samples, taken from the vastus lateralis prior to the beginning of the 45-min cycling test, indicated that muscle glycogen levels were significantly higher (p < .05) for the H-CHO trial (104.5 +/- 9.4 mmol/kg wet wt) when compared to the L-CHO trial (72.2 +/- 5.6 mmol/kg wet wt). Heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, oxygen uptake, and respiratory quotient during exercise were not significantly different between the 2 trials. Serum glucose during exercise for the H-CHO trial significantly increased (p < .05) from 4.5 +/- 0.1 mmol x L(-1) (pre) to 6.7 +/- 0.6 mmol x L(-1) (post), while no changes were found for the L-CHO trial. In addition, post-exercise serum glucose was significantly greater (p < .05) for the H-CHO trial when compared to the L-CHO trial (H-CHO, 6.7 +/- 0.6 mmol x L(-1); L-CHO, 5.2 +/- 0.2 mmol x L(-1)). No significant changes were observed in serum free fatty acid, triglycerides, or insulin concentration in either trial. The findings suggest that L-CHO had no major effect on 45-min cycling exercise that was not observed with H-CHO when the total energy intake was adequate.

  11. Combined effects of sleep deprivation and strenuous exercise on cognitive performances during The North Face® Ultra Trail du Mont Blanc® (UTMB®).

    PubMed

    Hurdiel, Rémy; Pezé, Thierry; Daugherty, Johanna; Girard, Julien; Poussel, Mathias; Poletti, Laurence; Basset, Patrick; Theunynck, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of combined sleep deprivation and strenuous exercise on cognitive and neurobehavioral performance among long-distance runners completing one of the most difficult ultramarathons in the world. Seventeen runners participated. Each had a wrist-worn actigraph throughout the race to record their sleep time. In addition, each individual's performance in 10-min response-time tests before and after the race was recorded and a questionnaire enabled participants to report any difficulties they experienced during the competition. During race completion times of 27 to 44 h, combined acute lack of sleep (12 ± 17 min of rest during the race) and strenuous exercise (168.0 km) had marked adverse effects on cognitive performances ranging from mere lengthening of response time to serious symptoms such as visual hallucinations. This study suggests that regardless of rest duration and time in race, cognitive performances of ultramarathoners are adversely affected.

  12. Physiological measurements in horses after strenuous exercise in hot, humid conditions.

    PubMed

    Art, T; Votion, D; Lekeux, P

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was 1) to measure and compare some physiological parameters in horses during a standardised treadmill exercise performed either in temperate atmospheric conditions (TC) (ambient temperature: 15 degrees C; relative humidity: 55%), or in hot and humid conditions (HHC) (ambient temperature: 30 degrees C; relative humidity: 75%) and 2) to follow the recovery of the same horses during 1 h after both tests. Five healthy fit Standardbred horses were investigated twice at 8 days interval, in TC and in HHC. Some measurements were made during a standardised treadmill exercise test (SET), others during a 1 h recovery period. The SET consisted of 8 min warm-up and 8 min exercise. During the SET, respiratory airflow and O2 and CO2 fraction in the respiratory gases were continuously recorded, using 2 ultrasonic pneumotachographs connected to a face mask and a mass spectrometer. Oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide output, respiratory quotient and expired minute volume (VE) were obtained on a breath-by-breath basis. The maximal values obtained during the highest intensity of the SET and the values obtained 2 min after the end of the test were used for the comparison between both tests. Heart rate (HR) and skin temperature were continuously recorded, using a heart rate recording system and a real time infrared thermographic unit, respectively. After both SETs in TC and HHC, the horses recovered in TC. Heart rate, respiratory frequency (f) and rectal temperature were regularly measured during 1 h after the test. Venous blood was sampled after the completion of the test for biochemical analysis, namely plasma electrolytes and enzymatic activities. Exercising in HHC induced a reduction of the aerobic metabolism to the total energy requirement, i.e. a 20% decrease of VO2 and 55% increase in lactate, as well as a decrease in VE. The increase in rectal and skin temperature, the dehydration and the weight loss were higher in HHC than in TC. During the recovery

  13. Near-Infrared Light Therapy to Attenuate Strength Loss After Strenuous Resistance Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Larkin-Kaiser, Kelly A.; Christou, Evangelos; Tillman, Mark; George, Steven; Borsa, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Near-infrared (NIR) light therapy is purported to act as an ergogenic aid by enhancing the contractile function of skeletal muscle. Improving muscle function is a new avenue for research in the area of laser therapy; however, very few researchers have examined the ergogenic effects of NIR light therapy and the influence it may have on the recovery process during rehabilitation. Objective: To evaluate the ergogenic effect of NIR light therapy on skeletal muscle function. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Controlled laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-nine healthy men (n = 21) and women (n = 18; age = 20.0 ± 0.2 years, height = 169 ± 2 cm, mass = 68.4 ± 1.8 kg, body mass index = 23.8 ± 0.4 kg/m2). Intervention(s): Each participant received active and sham treatments on the biceps brachii muscle on 2 separate days. The order of treatment was randomized. A class 4 laser with a cumulative dose of 360 J was used for the active treatment. After receiving the treatment on each day, participants completed an elbow-flexion resistance-exercise protocol. Main Outcome Measure(s): The dependent variables were elbow range of motion, muscle point tenderness, and strength (peak torque). Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to assess changes in these measures between treatments at baseline and at follow-up, 48 hours postexercise. Additionally, immediate strength loss postexercise was compared between treatments using a paired t test. Results: Preexercise to postexercise strength loss for the active laser treatment, although small, was less than with the sham treatment (P = .05). Conclusions: Applied to skeletal muscle before resistance exercise, NIR light therapy effectively attenuated strength loss. Therefore, NIR light therapy may be a beneficial, noninvasive modality for improving muscle function during rehabilitation after musculoskeletal injury. However, future studies using higher treatment doses are warranted. PMID:25397864

  14. The in vivo effect of melatonin on cellular activation processes in human blood during strenuous physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Johe, Paul D; Østerud, Bjarne

    2005-10-01

    Melatonin has been reported to have anti- as well as pro-inflammatory properties. Because physical stress is associated with the activation of blood cells, the present study examines melatonin's role in exercise-induced cell activation processes. Eight healthy volunteers (aged 20-62 yr, mean = 31), exercised on an 'Ergometric' bike for 30 min at 80% of their calculated maximum pulse rate. Blood samples were taken just before melatonin administration, directly after exercise, and 2 hr after exercise completion. Cytokine and eicosanoid parameters were measured in plasma from blood stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 2 hr whereas tissue factor (TF) activity was measured in isolated monocytes. Melatonin significantly decreased LPS-induced TF activity by 48% (P < 0.01) directly after exercise, and a 44% reduction was seen 2 hr later (P < 0.02). Furthermore, melatonin significantly reduced the lymphocyte count rise produced directly after exercising by more than 30% (P < 0.01). A trend was also seen for melatonin suppressing the increase of WBC by around 10% and to strengthen the platelet increase by about 8% after physical stress. Melatonin also significantly lowered RBC and hemoglobin counts by 5 and 3-4% during exercise (P < 0.005 and <0.02 respectively). Two hours after exercise, melatonin tended to lower leukotriene B4 levels by 30%. Interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels tended to be lower in individuals who had taken melatonin following hard physical activity and a larger sample size may show significance. Thromboxane B2 production seemed unaffected by melatonin during exercise. In conclusion, in vivo intake of melatonin appears to suppress LPS-induced activation of monocytes in whole blood reactions associated with physical exercise and facilitates the down-regulation of inflammatory mediators.

  15. Effects of the consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated instant coffee beverages on oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Viana, André Luiz Machado; Fonseca, Miriam das Dores Mendes; Meireles, Elisson Lamin Jerônimo; Duarte, Stella Maris da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Rita; Paula, Fernanda Borges de Araujo

    2012-03-01

    Many authors attribute the antioxidant activity of brewed coffee to its caffeine content. In addition, caffeine intake has been associated with increased performance during physical exercise. This study analyzed the in vivo effects of drinking caffeinated and decaffeinated instant coffee (8%, w/v) on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in the anterior tibialis muscles of rats subjected to intense exercise. It was observed that exercise induced lipid peroxidation (estimated using malondialdehyde) and protein oxidation (evaluated by determining the formation of carbonyl groups) in the muscle (P < 0.05). Decaffeinated instant coffee and caffeine solution did not exhibit antioxidant activity in vivo. Caffeinated instant coffee beverage intake did not induce changes in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities but was able to diminish lipid and protein oxidation in the anterior tibialis muscles of rats after exercise (P < 0.05), contributing to a reduction in the oxidative stress triggered by exercise.

  16. The Effect of Strenuous Exercise Calorie Deficiency and Sleep Deprivation on White Blood Cells Plasma Immunoglobulins and Cytokines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    mononuclear cell subpopulations and in vitro proliferative responses. Scand J Immunol 1989; 29:383-9. 22 Hoffman-Goetz L, Simpson JS, Cipp N, Arumugam Y...granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Blood 1986;67:37-45. 40 Hoffmann-Goetz L, Pedersen BK. Exercise and the immune system: a model of the

  17. Effect of a booster vaccination against influenza and equine herpes virus on cardio-respiratory adjustments to strenuous exercise and training in thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Art, T; Lekeux, P

    1993-09-01

    This study was conducted in order to assess whether exercise- and training-induced cardio-respiratory adjustments are modified during the 10-day period which follows a booster vaccination with an oily adjuvanted inactivated vaccine against influenza and equine herpesvirus-1 (Equiffa). Nine healthy vaccinated thoroughbred horses were used. Six were revaccinated and three were kept as control. All the horses completed a standardised exercise test (SET) that was repeated 4 times, i.e. 10 (SET1) and 2 (SET2) days before revaccination, and 2 (SET3) and 10 (SET4) days after revaccination. During the whole experimental period the horses were trained 6 days per week according to an interval training schedule. Respiratory airflow, tidal volume, respiratory rate and expired minute volume (VE) were measured using a face mask and 2 ultra-sonic pneumotachographs. The oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were obtained on a breath-by-breath basis, using a mass spectrometer. Heart rate (HR) was continuously measured with a polar horse tester. Venous blood was sampled before and after the test and analysed for biochemical determinations. Blood was also sampled before and 21 days after the booster vaccination for circulating antibody titration. The peak VO2, VCO2, ventilatory equivalent (VE/VO2) and oxygen pulse (VO2/HR) were significantly improved by the 3-week training period. The other cardio-respiratory parameters as well as most of the blood parameters remained unchanged throughout the 4 SETs. The revaccination did not impair any of the parameters measured before, during, or after the SETs. All revaccinated horses showed a rise in antibodies against influenza virus type A1 and A2 and EVH-1 compared to the control horses. It was concluded that, in our horses, revaccination with an oily adjuvanted inactivated vaccine against influenza and EVH-1 did not impair their cardiorespiratory and metabolic adjustments to strenuous exercise and intense training, and that

  18. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living with Chronic Lung Disease Common Feelings Anxiety Depression Sleep Intimacy Importance of Being Together Body Changes with Age Communicating with Your Partner Exercise and Sexual Activity Less Strenuous Positions for Sexual ...

  19. Protected by nature? Effects of strenuous physical exercise on FVIII activity in moderate and mild haemophilia A patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Groen, W G; den Uijl, I E M; van der Net, J; Grobbee, D E; de Groot, Ph G; Fischer, K

    2013-07-01

    Increase of factor VIII activity (FVIII) after physical exercise has been reported in healthy subjects and small-scale studies in patients with coagulopathies. The aim was to study whether moderate and mild haemophilia A patients are able to increase their endogenous FVIII activity levels by physical activity. We studied changes in FVIII activity levels after high-intensity exercise in 15 haemophilia A patients, 20-39 years, eight with moderate, seven with mild haemophilia. Patients cycled until volitional exhaustion, blood samples were drawn before and 10 min after the exercise test. FVIII activity increased 2.5 times (range 1.8-7.0 times), for both severities. Absolute increases were markedly different: median 7 IU dL(-1) (range 3-9 IU dL(-1) ) in patients with moderate, compared to 15 IU dL(-1) (range 6-62 IU dL(-1) ) in mild haemophilia patients. VWF and VWFpp increased independently of severity; median 50% (range 8-123%) and median 165% (range 48-350%), respectively, reflecting acute release of VWF. These observations may be used to promote high-intensity activities before participating in sports for moderate and mild haemophilia A patients, to reduce bleeding risk. Further studies are warranted to fully appreciate the clinical significance of exercise on different levels of intensity in patients with mild and moderate haemophilia A.

  20. Strenuous exercise activates growth factors and chemokines over-expression in human serum of top-level triathlon athletes during a competitive season.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Migliorini, Sergio; Pedroni, Francesca; Galliera, Emanuela; Dogliotti, Giada; Malavazos, Alexis E; Corsi, Massimiliano M

    2008-01-01

    Regular exercise offers protection against all-cause mortality, primarily by protection against atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. There is evidence that physical training is effective as a treatment in patients with chronic heart diseases and type 2 diabetes. With excessive repetition of the training stimulus, local inflammation can generate a systemic inflammatory response. Cytokines play an important role in these processes. Our data confirm that cytokines that are considered to induce systemic bioactivity following exercise are not alone, but also growth factors and chemokines, which are secreted in exercise without the involvement of traditional proinflammatory cytokines, could be potent angiogenic factors.

  1. Caffeine reduces myocardial blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed

    Higgins, John P; Babu, Kavita M

    2013-08-01

    Caffeine consumption has been receiving increased interest from both the medical and lay press, especially given the increased amounts now available in energy products. Acute ingestion of caffeine usually increases cardiac work; however, caffeine impairs the expected proportional increase in myocardial blood flow to match this increased work of the heart, most notably during exercise. This appears to be mainly due to caffeine's effect on blocking adenosine-induced vasodilatation in the coronary arteries in normal healthy subjects. This review summarizes the available medical literature specifically relating to pure caffeine tablet ingestion and reduced exercise coronary blood flow, and suggests possible mechanisms. Further studies are needed to evaluate this effect for other common caffeine-delivery systems, including coffee, energy beverages, and energy gels, which are often used for exercise performance enhancement, especially in teenagers and young athletes.

  2. Effect of microtitanium impregnated tape on the recovery of triceps surae musculotendinous function following strenuous running.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jonathan D; Fink, Philip W; Graham, David F; Rowlands, David S

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported increased running economy and joint range of motion (ROM) during subsequent exercise performed 48-h following strenuous exercise while wearing garments containing micro-titanium particles generated from high-pressure aqueous processing of titanium (AQUA TITAN(TM)). Here we utilised an isolated plantarflexion triceps surae model and AQUA TITAN-treated flexible tape to determine if dermal application of the micro-titanium could account for meaningful changes in functional properties of the musculotendinous unit. In a randomised double-blind crossover, 20 trained men day 1, baseline measures, AQUA TITAN or placebo tape covering the triceps surae, intermittent high-intensity treadmill running; day 2, rest; day 3, post-stress post-treatment outcome measures. Outcomes comprised: plantarflexion ROM via isokinetic dynamometry; short latency reflex from electromyography; Achilles tendon stiffness from isometric dynamometry, ultrasonography (Achilles-medial-gastrocnemius junction), motion analysis, and force-length modelling. High-intensity exercise with placebo tape reduced tendon stiffness (-16.5%; 95% confidence limits ±8.1%; small effect size), relative to non-taped baseline, but this effect was negligible (-5.9%; ±9.2%) with AQUA TITAN (AQUA TITAN-placebo difference -11.3%; ±11.6%). Change in latency relative to baseline was trivial with placebo (1.6%; ±3.8%) but large with AQUA TITAN (-11.3%; ±3.3%). The effects on ROM with AQUA TITAN (1.6%; ±2.0%) and placebo were trivial (-1.6% ±1.9%), but the small difference (3.1%; ±2.7%) possibly greater with AQUA TITAN. AQUA TITAN tape accelerated the reflex response and attenuated reduced Achilles tendon stiffness following fatiguing exercise. Altered neuromuscular control of tendon stiffness via dermal application of micro-titanium treated materials may facilitate restoration of musculotendinous contractile performance following prior strenuous exercise.

  3. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Ralf; Shields, Kevin A.; Lowery, Ryan P.; De Souza, Eduardo O.; Partl, Jeremy M.; Hollmer, Chase; Purpura, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29) recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm) were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO) or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC) in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01), with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08). The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (−39.8 watts, −5.3%, p = 0.03)), whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%). Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage, improves recovery

  4. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Ralf; Shields, Kevin A; Lowery, Ryan P; De Souza, Eduardo O; Partl, Jeremy M; Hollmer, Chase; Purpura, Martin; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29) recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm) were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO) or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC) in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01), with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08). The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (-39.8 watts, -5.3%, p = 0.03)), whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%). Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage, improves recovery

  5. Does post-exercise massage treatment reduce delayed onset muscle soreness? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, E.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a frequent problem after unaccustomed exercise. No universally accepted treatment exists. Massage therapy is often recommended for this condition but uncertainty exists about its effectiveness. AIM: To determine whether post-exercise massage alleviates the symptoms of DOMS after a bout of strenuous exercise. METHOD: Various computerised literature searches were carried out and located seven controlled trials. RESULTS: Most of the trials were burdened with serious methodological flaws, and their results are far from uniform. However, most suggest that post-exercise massage may alleviate symptoms of DOMS. CONCLUSIONS: Massage therapy may be a promising treatment for DOMS. Definitive studies are warranted. 


 PMID:9773168

  6. Aerobic exercise reduces neuronal responses in food reward brain regions.

    PubMed

    Evero, Nero; Hackett, Laura C; Clark, Robert D; Phelan, Suzanne; Hagobian, Todd A

    2012-05-01

    Acute exercise suppresses ad libitum energy intake, but little is known about the effects of exercise on food reward brain regions. After an overnight fast, 30 (17 men, 13 women), healthy, habitually active (age = 22.2 ± 0.7 yr, body mass index = 23.6 ± 0.4 kg/m(2), Vo(2peak) = 44.2 ± 1.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) individuals completed 60 min of exercise on a cycle ergometer or 60 min of rest (no-exercise) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. After each condition, blood oxygen level-dependent responses to high-energy food, low-energy food, and control visual cues, were measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Exercise, compared with no-exercise, significantly (P < 0.005) reduced the neuronal response to food (high and low food) cues vs. control cues in the insula (-0.37 ± 0.13 vs. +0.07 ± 0.18%), putamen (-0.39 ± 0.10 vs. -0.10 ± 0.09%), and rolandic operculum (-0.37 ± 0.17 vs. 0.17 ± 0.12%). Exercise alone significantly (P < 0.005) reduced the neuronal response to high food vs. control and low food vs. control cues in the inferior orbitofrontal cortex (-0.94 ± 0.33%), insula (-0.37 ± 0.13%), and putamen (-0.41 ± 0.10%). No-exercise alone significantly (P < 0.005) reduced the neuronal response to high vs. control and low vs. control cues in the middle (-0.47 ± 0.15%) and inferior occipital gyrus (-1.00 ± 0.23%). Exercise reduced neuronal responses in brain regions consistent with reduced pleasure of food, reduced incentive motivation to eat, and reduced anticipation and consumption of food. Reduced neuronal response in these food reward brain regions after exercise is in line with the paradigm that acute exercise suppresses subsequent energy intake.

  7. Exercise to reduce vasomotor and other menopausal symptoms: a review.

    PubMed

    Daley, A J; Stokes-Lampard, H J; Macarthur, C

    2009-07-20

    Many women are reluctant to consider HRT as a therapeutic option for menopausal symptoms and are keen to use non-pharmacological treatments. Evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) concerning the effects of aerobic exercise on vasomotor and other menopausal symptoms is limited but what evidence we do have suggests that aerobic exercise can improve psychological health and quality of life in vasomotor symptomatic women. In addition, several RCTs of middle-aged/menopausal-aged women have found that aerobic exercise can invoke significant improvements in several common menopause-related symptoms (e.g. mood, health-related QoL and insomnia), relative to non-exercise comparison groups. There is some evidence that alternative forms of low intensity exercise such as yoga are beneficial in reducing vasomotor symptoms and improving psychological well-being in menopausal women. Collectively, these RCTs highlight the broader potential that exercise could have for women during the menopause transition. Whilst both the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists in the UK and the North American Menopause Society have recommended that women be advised to consider aerobic exercise as a treatment for vasomotor menopausal symptoms, to make any evidence-based conclusions regarding the effectiveness of exercise in managing these symptoms, more high quality research is needed.

  8. Piroxicam fails to reduce myocellular enzyme leakage and delayed onset muscle soreness induced by isokinetic eccentric exercise

    PubMed Central

    Croisier, J-L.; Monfils, T.; Deby-Dupon, G.; Fafchamps, M.; Venneman, I.; Crielaard, J-M.; Juchmès-Ferir, A.; Lhermerout, C.; Lamy, M.; Deby, C.

    1996-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS) following intense eccentric muscle contraction could be due to increased production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), ten healthy male subjects were studied. Using a double-blind randomized crossover design, each subject performed two isokinetic tests separated by a period of at least 6 weeks: once with placebo, and once with piroxicam (Feldene®). They were given one capsule containing either placebo or piroxicam (20 mg) per day for 6 days with initial doses given starting 3 days prior to isokinetic testing. Exercise consisted of eight stages of five maximal contractions of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups of both legs separated by 1 min rest phases, on a Kin Trex device at 60°/s angular velocity. The subjective presence and intensity of DOMS were evaluated using a visual analogue scale immediately after, and 24 and 48 h after each test. The mean plasma concentration of PGE2 measured at rest and after exercise was significantly lower in the group treated with piroxicam (p < 0.05). However, statistical analysis (two-way ANOVA test) revealed that exercise did not cause any significant change of mean plasma PGE2 over time in either of the two groups. Eccentric work was followed by severe muscle pain in extensor and flexor muscle groups. Maximal soreness was noted 48 h postexercise. Serum creatine kinase activity and the serum concentration of myoglobin increased significantly, and reached peak values 48 h after exercise in both experimental conditions (p < 0.001). By paired t-test, it appeared that there were no significant differences in the serum levels of these two markers of muscle damage between the two groups at any time point. We conclude that: (1) oral administration of piroxicam fails to reduce muscle damage and DOMS caused by strenuous eccentric exercise; and (2) the hypothetical role of increased PGE2 production in eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage, DOMS, and reduced isokinetic

  9. Exercise reduces depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis: Evidential value

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine whether evidential value exists that exercise reduces depression in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. METHODS Utilizing data derived from a prior meta-analysis of 29 randomized controlled trials comprising 2449 participants (1470 exercise, 979 control) with fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus, a new method, P-curve, was utilized to assess for evidentiary worth as well as dismiss the possibility of discriminating reporting of statistically significant results regarding exercise and depression in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. Using the method of Stouffer, Z-scores were calculated to examine selective-reporting bias. An alpha (P) value < 0.05 was deemed statistically significant. In addition, average power of the tests included in P-curve, adjusted for publication bias, was calculated. RESULTS Fifteen of 29 studies (51.7%) with exercise and depression results were statistically significant (P < 0.05) while none of the results were statistically significant with respect to exercise increasing depression in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. Right-skew to dismiss selective reporting was identified (Z = −5.28, P < 0.0001). In addition, the included studies did not lack evidential value (Z = 2.39, P = 0.99), nor did they lack evidential value and were P-hacked (Z = 5.28, P > 0.99). The relative frequencies of P-values were 66.7% at 0.01, 6.7% each at 0.02 and 0.03, 13.3% at 0.04 and 6.7% at 0.05. The average power of the tests included in P-curve, corrected for publication bias, was 69%. Diagnostic plot results revealed that the observed power estimate was a better fit than the alternatives. CONCLUSION Evidential value results provide additional support that exercise reduces depression in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. PMID:27489782

  10. Milk Consumption Following Exercise Reduces Subsequent Energy Intake in Female Recreational Exercisers

    PubMed Central

    Rumbold, Penny; Shaw, Emily; James, Lewis; Stevenson, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of skimmed milk as a recovery drink following moderate–vigorous cycling exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy, female recreational exercisers. Utilising a randomised cross-over design, nine female recreational exercisers (19.7 ± 1.3 years) completed a V˙O2peak test followed by two main exercise trials. The main trials were conducted following a standardised breakfast. Following 30 min of moderate-vigorous exercise (65% V˙O2peak), either 600 mL of skimmed milk or 600 mL of orange drink (475 mL orange juice from concentrate, 125 mL water), which were isoenergetic (0.88 MJ), were ingested, followed 60 min later with an ad libitum pasta meal. Absolute energy intake was reduced 25.2% ± 16.6% after consuming milk compared to the orange drink (2.39 ± 0.70 vs. 3.20 ± 0.84 MJ, respectively; p = 0.001). Relative energy intake (in relation to the energy content of the recovery drinks and energy expenditure) was significantly lower after milk consumption compared to the orange drink (1.49 ± 0.72 vs. 2.33 ± 0.90 MJ, respectively; p = 0.005). There were no differences in AUC (× 1 h) subjective appetite parameters (hunger, fullness and desire to eat) between trials. The consumption of skimmed milk following 30 min of moderate-vigorous cycling exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers. PMID:25569624

  11. Fish oil reduces heart rate and oxygen consumption during exercise.

    PubMed

    Peoples, Gregory E; McLennan, Peter L; Howe, Peter R C; Groeller, Herbert

    2008-12-01

    Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are readily incorporated into heart and skeletal muscle membranes where, in the heart, animal studies show they reduce O2 consumption. To test the hypothesis that omega-3 PUFAs alter O2 efficiency in humans, the effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on O2 consumption during exercise were evaluated. Sixteen well-trained men (cyclists), randomly assigned to receive 8 x 1 g capsules per day of olive oil (control) or FO for 8 weeks in a double-blind, parallel design, completed the study (control: n = 7, age 27.1 +/- 2.7 years; FO: n = 9, age 23.2 +/- 1.2 years). Subjects used an electronically braked cycle ergometer to complete peak O2 consumption tests (VO 2peak) and sustained submaximal exercise tests at 55% of peak workload (from the VO 2peak test) before and after supplementation. Whole-body O2 consumption and indirect measurements of myocardial O2 consumption [heart rate and rate pressure product (RPP)] were assessed. FO supplementation increased omega-3 PUFA content of erythrocyte cell membranes. There were no differences in VO 2peak (mL kg(-1) min(-1)) (control: pre 66.8 +/- 2.4, post 67.2 +/- 2.3; FO: pre 68.3 +/- 1.4, post 67.2 +/- 1.2) or peak workload after supplementation. The FO supplementation lowered heart rate (including peak heart rate) during incremental workloads to exhaustion (P < 0.05). In addition, the FO supplementation lowered steady-state submaximal exercise heart rate, whole-body O2 consumption, and RPP (P < 0.01). Time to voluntary fatigue was not altered by FO supplementation. This study indicates that FOs may act within the healthy heart and skeletal muscle to reduce both whole-body and myocardial O2 demand during exercise, without a decrement in performance.

  12. Exercise based transportation reduces oil consumption and carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, P. A.

    2004-12-01

    Current abuse and misrepresentation of science hinders society's ability to address climate change. Scientific abuse results, in part, from a widespread perception that curbing emissions will require substantial economic, political, or personal sacrifice. Here I provide one example to illustrate that this perception is false. Simply walking or biking the amount recommended for a healthy lifestyle could reduce carbon emissions up to 11 percent if the distances traveled were substituted for car travel. This level of exercise is also sufficient to eliminate obese and overweight conditions in a few years without draconian diet plans. A reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of roughly 35 percent is possible if the revenue saved through decreased health care spending on obesity is redirected toward carbon abatement. This emissions reduction far exceeds that required by the Kyoto Protocol at no net cost. Finally, widespread substitution of driving with distances traveled during recommended daily exercise would considerably ease societal dependence on oil, which leads not only to climate change but also to air pollution, political and economic instability and habitat degradation. Thus, exercise based transportation constitutes a potentially favorable alternative to the energy and diet plans that are currently under consideration and a substantial step toward dealing with the threat of climate change.

  13. Reduced Tic Symptomatology in Tourette Syndrome After an Acute Bout of Exercise: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Elena; Glazebrook, Cris; Hollis, Chris; Jackson, Georgina M

    2014-03-01

    In light of descriptive accounts of attenuating effects of physical activity on tics, we used an experimental design to assess the impact of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on tic expression in young people (N = 18) with Tourette Syndrome (TS). We compared video-based tic frequency estimates obtained during an exercise session with tic rates obtained during pre-exercise (baseline) and post-exercise interview-based sessions. Results showed significantly reduced tic rates during the exercise session compared with baseline, suggesting that acute exercise has an attenuating effect on tics. Tic rates also remained reduced relative to baseline during the post-exercise session, likely reflecting a sustained effect of exercise on tic reduction. Parallel to the observed tic attenuation, exercise also had a beneficial impact on self-reported anxiety and mood levels. The present findings provide novel empirical evidence for the beneficial effect of exercise on TS symptomatology bearing important research and clinical implications.

  14. How Do Humans Control Physiological Strain during Strenuous Endurance Exercise?

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Lucia, Alejandro; deKoning, Jos J.; Foster, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Background Distance running performance is a viable model of human locomotion. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate the physiologic strain during competitions ranging from 5–100 km, we evaluated heart rate (HR) records of competitive runners (n = 211). We found evidence that: 1) physiologic strain (% of maximum HR (%HRmax)) increased in proportional manner relative to distance completed, and was regulated by variations in running pace; 2) the %HRmax achieved decreased with relative distance; 3) slower runners had similar %HRmax response within a racing distance compared to faster runners, and despite differences in pace, the profile of %HRmax during a race was very similar in runners of differing ability; and 4) in cases where there was a discontinuity in the running performance, there was evidence that physiologic effort was maintained for some time even after the pace had decreased. Conclusions/Significance The overall results suggest that athletes are actively regulating their relative physiologic strain during competition, although there is evidence of poor regulation in the case of competitive failures. PMID:18698405

  15. Healthy Pre-Pregnancy Diet and Exercise May Reduce Risk of Gestational Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staff Profiles Multimedia Healthy Pre-Pregnancy Diet and Exercise May Reduce Risk of Gestational Diabetes Skip sharing ... that women who maintain a healthy diet and exercise before they become pregnant are less likely to ...

  16. Selected hormonal and immunological responses to strenuous live-fire firefighting drills.

    PubMed

    Smith, D L; Petruzzello, S J; Chludzinski, M A; Reed, J J; Woods, J A

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of strenuous live-fire firefighting drills and a 90 min recovery period on selected hormonal, immunological and psychological variables. Apparently healthy, male, professional firefighters (n = 11) performed three trials of standardized firefighting tasks in a live-fire training structure. There was significant leukocytosis immediately post firefighting activity that persisted following recovery, although there was a variable response among the leukocyte subsets. Most notable was the decrease in number and percentage of lymphocytes following 90 min of recovery. Plasma levels of ACTH and cortisol were significantly elevated post firefighting activity and cortisol remained elevated following 90 min of recovery. Elevated cortisol immediately following activity was related to reduced feelings of energy. These data demonstrate the magnitude of the physiological and psychological disruption following strenuous firefighting activity and suggest that immune function may be altered following such activity. This is a finding that may have practical consequences for this group of first responders.

  17. Physiology and pathophysiology of splanchnic hypoperfusion and intestinal injury during exercise: strategies for evaluation and prevention.

    PubMed

    van Wijck, Kim; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Grootjans, Joep; Wijnands, Karolina A P; Poeze, Martijn; van Loon, Luc J C; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Buurman, Wim A

    2012-07-15

    Physical exercise places high demands on the adaptive capacity of the human body. Strenuous physical performance increases the blood supply to active muscles, cardiopulmonary system, and skin to meet the altered demands for oxygen and nutrients. The redistribution of blood flow, necessary for such an increased blood supply to the periphery, significantly reduces blood flow to the gut, leading to hypoperfusion and gastrointestinal (GI) compromise. A compromised GI system can have a negative impact on exercise performance and subsequent postexercise recovery due to abdominal distress and impairments in the uptake of fluid, electrolytes, and nutrients. In addition, strenuous physical exercise leads to loss of epithelial integrity, which may give rise to increased intestinal permeability with bacterial translocation and inflammation. Ultimately, these effects can deteriorate postexercise recovery and disrupt exercise training routine. This review provides an overview on the recent advances in our understanding of GI physiology and pathophysiology in relation to strenuous exercise. Various approaches to determine the impact of exercise on the individual athlete's GI tract are discussed. In addition, we elaborate on several promising components that could be exploited for preventive interventions.

  18. Does exercise reduce brain oxidative stress? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Camiletti-Moirón, D; Aparicio, V A; Aranda, P; Radak, Z

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to investigate the influence of different exercise programs on brain oxidative stress. A search of the literature was conducted up to 1 December 2012 across five databases: PUBMED, SCOPUS, SPORTS DISCUS, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library. The search strategy used in the electronic databases mentioned was established as: (swim* OR exercise OR training) AND ("oxidative stress" AND brain) for each database. A methodological quality assessment valuation/estimation was additionally carried out in the final sample of studies. Of 1553 potentially eligible papers, 19 were included after inclusion and exclusion criteria. The methodological quality assessment showed a total score in the Quality Index between 40% and 80%, with a mean quality of 56.8%. Overall, regular moderate aerobic exercise appears to promote antioxidant capacity on brain. In contrast, anaerobic or high-intensity exercise, aerobic-exhausted exercise, or the combination of both types of training could deteriorate the antioxidant response. Future investigations should be focused on establishing a standardized exercise protocol, depending on the exercise metabolism wanted to test, which could enhance the objective knowledge in this topic.

  19. Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST

  20. The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

  1. Exercise is associated with a reduced incidence of sleep-disordered breathing

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Karim M.; Malhotra, Atul; Barnet, Jodi H; Quan, Stuart F.; Peppard, Paul E

    2012-01-01

    Background The effect of exercise on sleep-disordered breathing is unknown. While diet and weight loss have been shown to reduce the severity of sleep-disordered breathing, it is unclear whether exercise has an independent effect. Methods A population-based longitudinal epidemiologic study of adults measured the association between exercise and incidence and severity of sleep-disordered breathing. Hours of weekly exercise were assessed by two mailed surveys (1988 and 2000). Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed by 18-channel in-laboratory polysomnography at baseline and at follow up. Results Associations were modeled using linear and logistic regression, adjusting for body mass index, age, sex, and other covariates. Hours of exercise were associated with reduced incidence of mild (Odds Ratio = 0.76, p= 0.011) and moderate (Odds Ratio = 0.67, p= 0.002) sleep-disordered breathing. Also a decrease in exercise duration was associated with worsening sleep-disordered breathing, as measured by the apnea-hypopnea index, AHI (ß = 2.368, p= 0.048). Adjustment for body mass index attenuated these effects. Conclusions Exercise is associated with a reduced incidence of mild and moderate sleep-disordered breathing and decreasing exercise is associated with worsening of sleep-disordered breathing. The effect of exercise on sleep-disordered breathing appears to be largely, but perhaps not entirely, mediated by changes in body habitus. PMID:22482846

  2. Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides Reduce Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Xiaozhong; Zhou, Junlai; Ma, Tao; Chai, Qiongxia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on exercise-induced oxidative stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups, i.e., one control group and three LBP treated groups. The animals received an oral administration of physiological saline or LBP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. On the day of the exercise test, rats were required to run to exhaustion on the treadmill. Body weight, endurance time, malondialdehyde (MDA), super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) level of rats were measured. The results showed that the body weight of rats in LBP treated groups were not significantly different from that in the normal control group before and after the experiment (P > 0.05). After exhaustive exercise, the mean endurance time of treadmill running to exhaustion of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly prolonged compared with that in the normal control group. MDA levels of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly decreased compared with that in the normal control group (P < 0.05). SOD and GPX levels of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly increased compared with that in the normal control group (P < 0.05). Together, these results indicate that LBP was effective in preventing oxidative stress after exhaustive exercise. PMID:21541044

  3. Reduced catecholamine response to exercise in amenorrheic athletes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have found an array of endocrine disturbances related to energy deprivation in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Purpose: We examined the catecholamine response to exercise in five eumenorrheic (EU) and five amenorrheic (AM) athletes, matched by age (mean T SEM: EU = 29.8 T 2.5 ...

  4. Vitamin D3 Reduces Tissue Damage and Oxidative Stress Caused by Exhaustive Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Chun-Yen; Yang, Fwu-Lin; Wu, Wen-Tien; Chung, Chen-Han; Lee, Ru-Ping; Yang, Wan-Ting; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Liao, Kuang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise results in inflammation and oxidative stress, which can damage tissue. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D has both anti-inflammatory and antiperoxidative activity. Therefore, we aimed to test if vitamin D could reduce the damage caused by exhaustive exercise. Rats were randomized to one of four groups: control, vitamin D, exercise, and vitamin D+exercise. Exercised rats received an intravenous injection of vitamin D (1 ng/mL) or normal saline after exhaustive exercise. Blood pressure, heart rate, and blood samples were collected for biochemical testing. Histological examination and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were performed on lungs and kidneys after the animals were sacrificed. In comparison to the exercise group, blood markers of skeletal muscle damage, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the vitamin D+exercise group. The exercise group also had more severe tissue injury scores in the lungs (average of 2.4 ± 0.71) and kidneys (average of 3.3 ± 0.6) than the vitamin D-treated exercise group did (1.08 ± 0.57 and 1.16 ± 0.55). IHC staining showed that vitamin D reduced the oxidative product 4-Hydroxynonenal in exercised animals from 20.6% to 13.8% in the lungs and from 29.4% to 16.7% in the kidneys. In summary, postexercise intravenous injection of vitamin D can reduce the peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise and ameliorate tissue damage, particularly in the kidneys and lungs. PMID:26941574

  5. The Band Effect-Physically Strenuous Music Making Increases Esthetic Appreciation of Music.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Thomas H; Schneider, Lydia; Villringer, Arno

    2016-01-01

    The esthetic appreciation of music is strongly influenced by cultural background and personal taste. One would expect that this would complicate the utilizability of musical feedback in paradigms, such that music would only be perceived as a reward if it complies to personal esthetic appreciation. Here we report data where we assessed esthetic appreciation of music after 1. a physically strenuous music improvisation and 2. after passive music listening (where participants esthetically assessed similar music). Data are reported from two experiments with different patient groups: 1. Drug abuse patients, and 2. Chronic pain patients. Participants in both experiments performed Jymmin, a music feedback method where exercise equipment is modified in such a way that it can be played like musical instruments by modulating musical parameters in a composition software. This combines physical exertion with musical performance in a fashion that has previously been shown to have a number of positive psychological effects such as enhanced mood and reduced perceived exertion. In both experiments esthetic appreciation of musical presentations during Jymmin and a control condition without musical agency were compared. Data show that both patient groups perceived the musical outcome of their own performance as more esthetically pleasing than similar music they listened to passively. This suggests that the act of making music (when combined with physical exertion) is associated with a positivity bias about the perceived esthetical quality of the musical outcome. The outcome of personal musical agency thus tends to be perceived as rewarding even if it does not comply with personal esthetic appreciation. This suggests that musical feedback interventions may not always have to be highly individualized because individual taste may not always be crucial. The results also suggest that the method applied here may be efficient at encouraging music listeners to actively explore new musical

  6. The Band Effect—Physically Strenuous Music Making Increases Esthetic Appreciation of Music

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Thomas H.; Schneider, Lydia; Villringer, Arno

    2016-01-01

    The esthetic appreciation of music is strongly influenced by cultural background and personal taste. One would expect that this would complicate the utilizability of musical feedback in paradigms, such that music would only be perceived as a reward if it complies to personal esthetic appreciation. Here we report data where we assessed esthetic appreciation of music after 1. a physically strenuous music improvisation and 2. after passive music listening (where participants esthetically assessed similar music). Data are reported from two experiments with different patient groups: 1. Drug abuse patients, and 2. Chronic pain patients. Participants in both experiments performed Jymmin, a music feedback method where exercise equipment is modified in such a way that it can be played like musical instruments by modulating musical parameters in a composition software. This combines physical exertion with musical performance in a fashion that has previously been shown to have a number of positive psychological effects such as enhanced mood and reduced perceived exertion. In both experiments esthetic appreciation of musical presentations during Jymmin and a control condition without musical agency were compared. Data show that both patient groups perceived the musical outcome of their own performance as more esthetically pleasing than similar music they listened to passively. This suggests that the act of making music (when combined with physical exertion) is associated with a positivity bias about the perceived esthetical quality of the musical outcome. The outcome of personal musical agency thus tends to be perceived as rewarding even if it does not comply with personal esthetic appreciation. This suggests that musical feedback interventions may not always have to be highly individualized because individual taste may not always be crucial. The results also suggest that the method applied here may be efficient at encouraging music listeners to actively explore new musical

  7. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Bretland, Rachel Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout. Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males) previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control). Randomised control trial design was employed. Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted. Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs. PMID:25870778

  8. Fatiguing exercise initiated later in life reduces incidence of fibrillation and improves sleep quality in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lan; Feng, Yue; Wen, Deng Tai; Wang, Hui; Wu, Xiu Shan

    2015-08-01

    As the human body ages, the risk of heart disease and stroke greatly increases. While there is evidence that lifelong exercise is beneficial to the heart's health, the effects of beginning exercise later in life remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether exercise training started later in life is beneficial to cardiac aging in Drosophila. We examined 4-week-old wild-type virgin female flies that were exposed to exercise periods of either 1.5, 2.0, or 2.5 h per day, 5 days a week for 2 weeks. Using M-mode traces to analyze cardiac function by looking at parameters including heart rate, rhythmicity, systolic and diastolic diameter, and interval and fractional shortening, we found that cardiac function declined with age, shown by an increase in the number of fibrillation events and a decrease in fractional shortening. About 2.0 and 2.5 h of exercise per day displayed a reduced incidence of fibrillation events, and only physical exercise lasting 2.5-h period increased fractional shortening and total sleep time in Drosophila. These data suggested that training exercise needs to be performed for longer duration to exert physiological benefits for the aging heart. Additionally, climbing ability to assess the exercise-induced muscle fatigue was also measured. We found that 2.0 and 2.5 h of exercise caused exercise-induced fatigue, and fatiguing exercise is beneficial for cardiac and healthy aging overall. This study provides a basis for further study in humans on the impact of beginning an exercise regimen later in life on cardiac health.

  9. Aerobic Exercise Reduces Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Fetzner, Mathew G; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests aerobic exercise has anxiolytic effects; yet, the treatment potential for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and responsible anxiolytic mechanisms have received little attention. Emerging evidence indicates that attentional focus during exercise may dictate the extent of therapeutic benefit. Whether benefits are a function of attentional focus toward or away from somatic arousal during exercise remains untested. Thirty-three PTSD-affected participants completed two weeks of stationary biking aerobic exercise (six sessions). To assess the effect of attentional focus, participants were randomized into three exercise groups: group 1 (attention to somatic arousal) received prompts directing their attention to the interoceptive effects of exercise, group 2 (distraction from somatic arousal) watched a nature documentary, and group 3 exercised with no distractions or interoceptive prompts. Hierarchal linear modeling showed all groups reported reduced PTSD and anxiety sensitivity (AS; i.e., fear of arousal-related somatic sensations) during treatment. Interaction effects between group and time were found for PTSD hyperarousal and AS physical and social scores, wherein group 1, receiving interoceptive prompts, experienced significantly less symptom reduction than other groups. Most participants (89%) reported clinically significant reductions in PTSD severity after the two-week intervention. Findings suggest, regardless of attentional focus, aerobic exercise reduces PTSD symptoms.

  10. Reduced muscle activation during exercise related to brain oxygenation and metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, P; Nielsen, J; Overgaard, M; Krogh-Madsen, R; Gjedde, A; Secher, N H; Petersen, N C

    2010-06-01

    Maximal exercise may be limited by central fatigue defined as an inability of the central nervous system to fully recruit the involved muscles. This study evaluated whether a reduction in the cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate index (OCI) and in the cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension relate to the ability to generate a maximal voluntary contraction and to the transcranial magnetic stimulated force generation. To determine the role of a reduced OCI and in central fatigue, 16 males performed low intensity, maximal intensity and hypoxic cycling exercise. Exercise fatigue was evaluated by ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), arm maximal voluntary force (MVC), and voluntary activation of elbow flexor muscles assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Low intensity exercise did not produce any indication of central fatigue or marked cerebral metabolic deviations. Exercise in hypoxia (0.10) reduced cerebral oxygen delivery 25% and decreased 11+/-4 mmHg (P<0.001) together with OCI (6.2+/-0.7 to 4.8+/-0.5, P<0.001). RPE increased while MVC and voluntary activation were reduced (P<0.05). During maximal exercise declined 8+/-4 mmHg (P<0.05) and OCI to 3.8+/-0.5 (P<0.001). RPE was 18.5, and MVC and voluntary activation were reduced (P<0.05). We observed no signs of muscular fatigue in the elbow flexors and all control MVCs were similar to resting values. Exhaustive exercise provoked cerebral deoxygenation, metabolic changes and indices of fatigue similar to those observed during exercise in hypoxia indicating that reduced cerebral oxygenation may play a role in the development of central fatigue and may be an exercise capacity limiting factor.

  11. Respiratory factors limiting exercise.

    PubMed

    Bye, P T; Farkas, G A; Roussos, C

    1983-01-01

    The question of respiratory factors limiting exercise has been examined in terms of possible limitations arising from the function of gas exchange, the respiratory mechanics, the energetics of the respiratory muscles, or the development of respiratory muscle fatigue. Exercise capacity is curtailed in the presence of marked hypoxia, and this is readily observed in patients with chronic airflow limitation and interstitial lung disease and in some athletes at high intensities of exercise. In patients with interstitial lung disease, gas exchange abnormality--partly the result of diffusion disequilibrium for oxygen transfer--occurs during exercise despite abnormally high ventilations. In contrast, in certain athletes arterial hypoxemia has been documented during heavy exercise, apparently as a result of relative hypoventilation. During strenuous exercise the maximum expiratory flow volume curves are attained both by patients with chronic airflow limitation and by normal subjects, in particular when they breathe dense gas, so that a mechanical constraint is imposed on further increases in ventilation. Similarly, the force velocity characteristics of the inspiratory muscles may also impose a constraint to further increases in inspiratory flows that affects the ability to increase ventilation. In addition, the oxygen cost of maintaining high ventilations is large. Analysis of results from blood flow experiments reveal a substantial increase in blood flow to the respiratory muscles during exercise, with the result that oxygen supply to the rest of the body may be lessened. Alternatively, high exercise ventilations may not be sustained indefinitely owing to the development of respiratory muscle fatigue that results in hypoventilation and reduced arterial oxygen tension.

  12. Aerobic Exercise for Reducing Migraine Burden: Mechanisms, Markers, and Models of Change Processes

    PubMed Central

    Irby, Megan B.; Bond, Dale S.; Lipton, Richard B.; Nicklas, Barbara; Houle, Timothy T.; Penzien, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Engagement in regular exercise routinely is recommended as an intervention for managing and preventing migraine, and yet empirical support is far from definitive. We possess at best a weak understanding of how aerobic exercise and resulting change in aerobic capacity influence migraine, let alone the optimal parameters for exercise regimens as migraine therapy (eg, who will benefit, when to prescribe, optimal types, and doses/intensities of exercise, level of anticipated benefit). These fundamental knowledge gaps critically limit our capacity to deploy exercise as an intervention for migraine. Overview Clear articulation of the markers and mechanisms through which aerobic exercise confers benefits for migraine would prove invaluable and could yield insights on migraine pathophysiology. Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory pathways, including an effect on obesity or adiposity, are obvious candidates for study given their role both in migraine as well as the changes known to accrue with regular exercise. In addition to these biological pathways, improvements in aerobic fitness and migraine alike also are mediated by changes in psychological and sociocognitive factors. Indeed a number of specific mechanisms and pathways likely are operational in the relationship between exercise and migraine improvement, and it remains to be established whether these pathways operate in parallel or synergistically. As heuristics that might conceptually benefit our research programs here forward, we: (1) provide an extensive listing of potential mechanisms and markers that could account for the effects of aerobic exercise on migraine and are worthy of empirical exploration and (2) present two exemplar conceptual models depicting pathways through which exercise may serve to reduce the burden of migraine. Conclusion Should the promise of aerobic exercise as a feasible and effective migraine therapy be realized, this line of endeavor stands to benefit migraineurs (including the

  13. Reduced hemodynamic coupling and exercise are associated with vascular stiffening in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bellofiore, Alessandro; Dinges, Eric; Naeije, Robert; Mkrdichian, Hamorabi; Beussink-Nelson, Lauren; Bailey, Melissa; Cuttica, Michael J.; Sweis, Ranya; Runo, James R.; Keevil, Jon G.; Francois, Christopher J.; Shah, Sanjiv J.; Chesler, Naomi C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Inadequate right ventricular (RV) and pulmonary arterial (PA) functional responses to exercise are important yet poorly understood features of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This study combined invasive catheterization with echocardiography to assess RV afterload, RV function and ventricular-vascular coupling in subjects with PAH. Methods Twenty-six subjects with PAH were prospectively recruited to undergo right heart catheterization and Doppler echocardiography at rest and during incremental exercise, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at rest. Measurements at rest included basic hemodynamics, RV function and coupling efficiency (η). Measurements during incremental exercise included pulmonary vascular resistance (Z0), characteristic impedance (ZC, a measure of proximal PA stiffness) and proximal and distal PA compliance (CPA). Results In PAH patients, the proximal PAs were significantly stiffer at maximum exercise (ZC = 2.31 ± 0.38 vs. 1.33 ± 0.15 mmHg min/ml/m2 at rest; p=0.003) and PA compliance was decreased (CPA = 0.88 ± 0.10 vs. 1.32 ± 0.17 mL/mmHg/m2 at rest; p=0.0002). Z0 did not change with exercise. As a result, the resistance-compliance (RC) time decreased with exercise (1.00 ± 0.07 at vs. 0.67 ± 0.05 s; p<10−6). When patients were grouped according to resting coupling efficiency, those with poorer η exhibited stiffer proximal PAs at rest, a lower maximum exercise level, and more limited CPA reduction at maximum exercise. Conclusions In PAH, exercise causes proximal and distal PA stiffening, which combined with preserved Z0 results in decreased RC time with exercise. Stiff PAs at rest may also contribute to poor hemodynamic coupling, reflecting reduced pulmonary vascular reserve that contributes to limit the maximum exercise level tolerated. PMID:27566296

  14. Acute exercise ameliorates reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Andreas; Stoy, Meline; Graetz, Barbara; Scheel, Michael; Wittmann, André; Gallinat, Jürgen; Lang, Undine E; Dimeo, Fernando; Hellweg, Rainer

    2010-04-01

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in depression and anxiety. Antidepressants and exercise increase BDNF expression, and both have an antidepressant and anxiolytic activity. To further characterize the association of anxiety, BDNF and exercise, we studied panic disorder patients (n=12) and individually matched healthy control subjects (n=12) in a standardized exercise paradigm. Serum samples for BDNF analyses were taken before and after 30min of exercise (70 VO(2max)) or quiet rest. The two conditions were separated by 1 week and the order was randomized. Non-parametric statistical analyses were performed. There was a negative correlation of BDNF concentrations and subjective arousal at baseline (r=-0.42, p=0.006). Compared to healthy control subjects, patients with panic disorder had significantly reduced BDNF concentrations at baseline and 30min of exercise significantly increased BDNF concentrations only in these patients. Our results suggest that acute exercise ameliorates reduced BDNF concentrations in panic disorder patients and raise the question whether this is also found after long-term exercise training and if it is related to the therapeutic outcome.

  15. Familial hypercholesterolemia impairs exercise-induced systemic vasodilation due to reduced NO bioavailability.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Vincent J; Merkus, Daphne; Bender, Shawn B; Tharp, Darla L; Bowles, Douglas K; Duncker, Dirk J; Laughlin, M Harold

    2013-12-01

    Hypercholesterolemia impairs endothelial function [e.g., the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic GMP-phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) pathway], limits shear stress-induced vasodilation, and is therefore expected to reduce exercise-induced vasodilation. To assess the actual effects of hypercholesterolemia on endothelial function and exercise-induced vasodilation, we compared the effects of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and PDE5 inhibition in chronically instrumented Yucatan (Control) and Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine, at rest and during treadmill exercise. The increases in systemic vascular conductance produced by ATP (relative to nitroprusside) and exercise were blunted in FH compared with Control swine. The vasoconstrictor response to eNOS inhibition, with nitro-l-arginine (NLA), was attenuated in FH compared with Control swine, both at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, whereas the vasodilator response to nitroprusside was enhanced slightly, the vasodilator response to PDE5 inhibition, with EMD360527, was reduced in FH compared with Control swine. Finally, in the pulmonary circulation, FH resulted in attenuated vasodilator responses to ATP, while maintaining the responses to both NLA and EMD360527. In conclusion, hypercholesterolemia reduces exercise-induced vasodilation in the systemic but not the pulmonary circulation. This reduction appears to be the principal result of a decrease in NO bioavailability, which is mitigated by a lower PDE5 activity.

  16. A Dyadic Exercise Intervention to Reduce Psychological Distress Among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Heckler, Charles; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Peppone, Luke J.; McMahon, James M.; Morrow, Gary R.; Bowen, Deborah; Mustian, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Studies have found disparities in psychological distress between lesbian and gay cancer survivors and their heterosexual counterparts. Exercise and partner support are shown to reduce distress. However, exercise interventions haven't been delivered to lesbian and gay survivors with support by caregivers included. Methods: In this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT), ten lesbian and gay and twelve heterosexual survivors and their caregivers were randomized as dyads to: Arm 1, a survivor-only, 6-week, home-based, aerobic and resistance training program (EXCAP©®); or Arm 2, a dyadic version of the same exercise program involving both the survivor and caregiver. Psychological distress, partner support, and exercise adherence, were measured at baseline and post-intervention (6 weeks later). We used t-tests to examine group differences between lesbian/gay and heterosexual survivors and between those randomized to survivor-only or dyadic exercise. Results: Twenty of the twenty-two recruited survivors were retained post-intervention. At baseline, lesbian and gay survivors reported significantly higher depressive symptoms (P = .03) and fewer average steps walked (P = .01) than heterosexual survivors. Post-intervention, these disparities were reduced and we detected no significant differences between lesbian/gay and heterosexual survivors. Participation in dyadic exercise resulted in a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than participation in survivor-only exercise for all survivors (P = .03). No statistically significant differences emerged when looking across arm (survivor-only vs. dyadic) by subgroup (lesbian/gay vs. heterosexual). Conclusion: Exercise may be efficacious in ameliorating disparities in psychological distress among lesbian and gay cancer survivors, and dyadic exercise may be efficacious for survivors of diverse sexual orientations. Larger trials are needed to replicate these findings. PMID:26652029

  17. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Chris; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of ‘natural’ breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m), yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises. PMID:26240648

  18. Muscle blood flow is reduced with dehydration during prolonged exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    González-Alonso, José; Calbet, José A L; Nielsen, Bodil

    1998-01-01

    The present study examined whether the blood flow to exercising muscles becomes reduced when cardiac output and systemic vascular conductance decline with dehydration during prolonged exercise in the heat. A secondary aim was to determine whether the upward drift in oxygen consumption (V̇O2) during prolonged exercise is confined to the active muscles.Seven euhydrated, endurance-trained cyclists performed two bicycle exercise trials in the heat (35 °C; 40–50% relative humidity; 61 ± 2% of maximal V̇O2), separated by 1 week. During the first trial (dehydration trial, DE), they bicycled until volitional exhaustion (135 ± 4 min, mean ± s.e.m.), while developing progressive dehydration and hyperthermia (3.9 ± 0.3% body weight loss; 39.7 ± 0.2 °C oesophageal temperature, Toes). In the second trial (control trial), they bicycled for the same period of time while maintaining euhydration by ingesting fluids and stabilizing Toes at 38.2 ± 0.1 °C after 30 min exercise.In both trials, cardiac output, leg blood flow (LBF), vascular conductance and V̇O2 were similar after 20 min exercise. During the 20 min-exhaustion period of DE, cardiac output, LBF and systemic vascular conductance declined significantly (8–14%; P < 0.05) yet muscle vascular conductance was unaltered. In contrast, during the same period of control, all these cardiovascular variables tended to increase. After 135 ± 4 min of DE, the 2.0 ± 0.6 l min−1 lower blood flow to the exercising legs accounted for approximately two-thirds of the reduction in cardiac output. Blood flow to the skin also declined markedly as forearm blood flow was 39 ± 8% (P < 0.05) lower in DE vs. control after 135 ± 4 min.In both trials, whole body V̇O2 and leg V̇O2 increased in parallel and were similar throughout exercise. The reduced leg blood flow in DE was accompanied by an even greater increase in femoral arterial-venous O2 (a-vO2) difference.It is concluded that blood flow to the exercising muscles declines

  19. Does aquatic exercise reduce hip and knee joint loading? In vivo load measurements with instrumented implants

    PubMed Central

    Kutzner, Ines; Dymke, Jörn; Damm, Philipp; Duda, Georg N.; Günzl, Reiner; Bergmann, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic exercises are widely used for rehabilitation or preventive therapies in order to enable mobilization and muscle strengthening while minimizing joint loading of the lower limb. The load reducing effect of water due to buoyancy is a main advantage compared to exercises on land. However, also drag forces have to be considered that act opposite to the relative motion of the body segments and require higher muscle activity. Due to these opposing effects on joint loading, the load-reducing effect during aquatic exercises remains unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the joint loads during various aquatic exercises and to determine the load reducing effect of water. Instrumented knee and hip implants with telemetric data transfer were used to measure the resultant joint contact forces in 12 elderly subjects (6x hip, 6x knee) in vivo. Different dynamic, weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities were performed by the subjects on land and in chest-high water. Non-weight-bearing hip and knee flexion/extension was performed at different velocities and with additional Aquafins. Joint forces during aquatic exercises ranged between 32 and 396% body weight (BW). Highest forces occurred during dynamic activities, followed by weight-bearing and slow non-weight-bearing activities. Compared to the same activities on land, joint forces were reduced by 36–55% in water with absolute reductions being greater than 100%BW during weight-bearing and dynamic activities. During non-weight-bearing activities, high movement velocities and additional Aquafins increased the joint forces by up to 59% and resulted in joint forces of up to 301%BW. This study confirms the load reducing effect of water during weight-bearing and dynamic exercises. Nevertheless, high drag forces result in increased joint contact forces and indicate greater muscle activity. By the choice of activity, movement velocity and additional resistive devices joint forces can be modulated individually in

  20. Tissue taurine depletion alters metabolic response to exercise and reduces running capacity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Natsumi; Schaffer, Stephen W; Azuma, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid found in very high concentration in skeletal muscle. Taurine deficient mice engineered by knocking out the taurine transporter gene exhibit skeletal muscle wasting, structural defects, and exercise intolerance. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the development of metabolic abnormalities and exercise intolerance in muscle of the TauTKO phenotype. Running speed and endurance time of TauTKO mice were lower than those of control mice. Blood lactate level was elevated by >3-fold during treadmill running in TauTKO mice but remained largely unaltered by exercise in WT mice. Blood glucose was cleared faster during treadmill running in TauTKO mice than WT mice. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) β-2 subunit was reduced in TauTKO muscle concomitant with a reduction in α1 and α2 subunits of AMPK. The level of PPARα and its targets, Gpx3, Cpt2, and Echs1, were also decreased in TauTKO muscle. Collectively, taurine depletion impairs metabolic adaptation to exercise in skeletal muscle, a phenomenon associated with a downregulation of AMPK and diminished NADH utilization by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These findings suggest a crucial role of taurine in regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercising TauTKO mice, changes that contribute to impaired exercise endurance.

  1. Tissue Taurine Depletion Alters Metabolic Response to Exercise and Reduces Running Capacity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Natsumi; Schaffer, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid found in very high concentration in skeletal muscle. Taurine deficient mice engineered by knocking out the taurine transporter gene exhibit skeletal muscle wasting, structural defects, and exercise intolerance. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the development of metabolic abnormalities and exercise intolerance in muscle of the TauTKO phenotype. Running speed and endurance time of TauTKO mice were lower than those of control mice. Blood lactate level was elevated by >3-fold during treadmill running in TauTKO mice but remained largely unaltered by exercise in WT mice. Blood glucose was cleared faster during treadmill running in TauTKO mice than WT mice. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) β-2 subunit was reduced in TauTKO muscle concomitant with a reduction in α1 and α2 subunits of AMPK. The level of PPARα and its targets, Gpx3, Cpt2, and Echs1, were also decreased in TauTKO muscle. Collectively, taurine depletion impairs metabolic adaptation to exercise in skeletal muscle, a phenomenon associated with a downregulation of AMPK and diminished NADH utilization by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These findings suggest a crucial role of taurine in regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercising TauTKO mice, changes that contribute to impaired exercise endurance. PMID:25478210

  2. Hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Lee, Joshua F; Berbert, Amanda; Witman, Melissa A H; Nativi-Nicolau, Jose; Stehlik, Josef; Richardson, Russell S; Wray, D Walter

    2014-11-15

    To better understand the mechanisms responsible for exercise intolerance in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), the present study sought to evaluate the hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in this cohort. In 25 HFrEF patients (64 ± 2 yr) and 17 healthy, age-matched control subjects (64 ± 2 yr), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and limb blood flow were examined during graded static-intermittent handgrip (HG) and dynamic single-leg knee-extensor (KE) exercise. During HG exercise, MAP increased similarly between groups. CO increased significantly (+1.3 ± 0.3 l/min) in the control group, but it remained unchanged across workloads in HFrEF patients. At 15% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), forearm blood flow was similar between groups, while HFrEF patients exhibited an attenuated increase at the two highest intensities compared with controls, with the greatest difference at the highest workload (352 ± 22 vs. 492 ± 48 ml/min, HFrEF vs. control, 45% MVC). During KE exercise, MAP and CO increased similarly across work rates between groups. However, HFrEF patients exhibited a diminished leg hyperemic response across all work rates, with the most substantial decrement at the highest intensity (1,842 ± 64 vs. 2,675 ± 81 ml/min; HFrEF vs. control, 15 W). Together, these findings indicate a marked attenuation in exercising limb perfusion attributable to impairments in peripheral vasodilatory capacity during both arm and leg exercise in patients with HFrEF, which likely plays a role in limiting exercise capacity in this patient population.

  3. Moderate physical exercise reduces parasitaemia and protects colonic myenteric neurons in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Neide M; Santos, Franciele d N; Toledo, Max Jean d O; Moraes, Solange M F d; Araujo, Eduardo J d A; Sant'Ana, Debora d M G; Araujo, Silvana M d

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of moderate physical exercise on the myenteric neurons in the colonic intestinal wall of mice that had been infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitology and immunological aspects of the mice were considered. Forty-day-old male Swiss mice were divided into four groups: Trained Infected (TI), Sedentary Infected (SI), Trained Control (TC), and Sedentary Control (SC). The TC and TI were subjected to a moderate physical exercise program on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Three days after finishing exercise, the TI and SI groups were inoculated with 1,300 blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain-T. cruzi. After 75 days of infection results were obtained. Kruskal-Wallis or Analyze of variance (Tukey post hoc test) at 5% level of significance was performed. Moderate physical exercise reduced both the parasite peak (day 8 of infection) and total parasitemia compared with the sedentary groups (P < 0.05). This activity also contributed to neuronal survival (P < 0.05). Exercise caused neuronal hypertrophy (P < 0.05) and an increase in the total thickness of the intestinal wall (P < 0.05). The TI group exhibited an increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (P > 0.05). In trained animals, the number of goblet cells was reduced compared with sedentary animals (P < 0.05). Physical exercise prevented the formation of inflammatory foci in the TI group (P < 0.05) and increased the synthesis of TNF-α (P < 0.05) and TGF-β (P > 0.05). The present results demonstrated the benefits of moderate physical exercise, and reaffirmed the possibility of that it may contribute to improving clinical treatment in Chagas' disease patients. PMID:24205797

  4. Physical exercise reduces synthesis of ADMA, SDMA, and L-Arg.

    PubMed

    Riccioni, Graziano; Scotti, Luca; Guagnano, Maria Teresa; Bosco, Gabriella; Bucciarelli, Valentina; Di Ilio, Emanuela; Speranza, Lorenza; Martini, Filippo; Bucciarelli, Tonino

    2015-06-01

    Increased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and low plasma level of L-arginine (L-ARG) are all conditions likely to decrease nitric oxide (NO) production. Aim of this study is to evaluate ADMA, SDMA, and L-ARG plasmatic levels before and after physical exercise in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We studied 30 patient with mean age 52 + 4.5 years. After inclusion in the study, before the execution of physical exercise, heparinized blood sample was drawn from an indwelling arterial line for determination of ADMA, L-ARG and SDMA (baseline values). Subsequently a blood sample was drawn after the physical exercise. The mean plasma concentrations of ADMA (0.68 + 0.06 vs 0.48 + 0.05 µmol/L) and SDMA (0.45 + 0.03 vs 0.30 + 0.03 µmol/L) were significantly lower after physical exercise in comparison to baseline value, while L-ARG mean levels were increased (44.20 + 10.5 vs 74.13 + 11.2 µmol/L). Physical exercise has a beneficial effect by reducing plasmatic ADMA and SDMA levels, and increasing L-ARG substrate for endothelial NO.

  5. Exercise and Arrhythmias: A Double-Edged Sword.

    PubMed

    Manolis, Antonis S; Manolis, Antonis A

    2016-07-01

    Ample evidence indicates that moderate regular exercise is beneficial for both normal individuals and patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease. However, intense and strenuous exercise in individuals with evident or occult underlying CV abnormalities may have adverse effects with provocation and exacerbation of arrhythmias that may lead to life-threatening situations. Both of these aspects of exercise-induced effects are herein reviewed.

  6. Hypertension in Children and Adolescents. Part I: Exercising Nonpharmacologic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephen Ra.; Loggie, Jennifer M. H.

    1992-01-01

    Essential hypertension is diagnosed with increasing frequency in children and adolescents. Studies indicate exercise can be a clinically useful treatment, though strenuous exercise may be contraindicated for some. The article discusses the physician's role in diagnosis, nonpharmacologic interventions, exercise safety and effectiveness, and…

  7. The effects of compensatory workplace exercises to reduce work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain1

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas-Swerts, Fabiana Cristina Taubert; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain. METHOD: quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages: first: pre-test with the application of the questionnaires to the subjects; second: Workplace Exercise taking place twice a week, for 15 minutes, during a period of 10 weeks; third: post-test in which the subjects answered the questionnaires again. For data analysis, the descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics were used through the Wilcoxon Test. RESULTS: work-related stress was present in the assessed workers, but there was no statistically significant reduction in the scores after undergoing Workplace Exercise. However, there was a statistically significant pain reduction in the neck, cervical, upper, middle and lower back, right thigh, left leg, right ankle and feet. CONCLUSION: the Workplace Exercise promoted a significant pain reduction in the spine, but did not result in a significant reduction in the levels of work-related stress. PMID:25296147

  8. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Babb, Tony G

    2016-01-15

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70-80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60 W cycling: +DOE (n=12, RPB≥4, 37±7 years, 34±4 kg/m(2)) and -DOE (n=10, RPB≤2, 32±6 years, 33±3 kg/m(2)). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training,peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12±7, -DOE: 14±8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the +DOE (4.7±1.0-2.5±1.0) and remained low in the -DOE group (1.2±0.6-1.3±1.0) (interaction p<0.001). The reduction in RPB was not significantly correlated with the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Aerobic exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women.

  9. A shorter set reduces the loss of cardiac autonomic and baroreflex control after resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Xián; Iglesias-Soler, Eliseo; Carballeira-Fernández, Eduardo; Fernández-Del-Olmo, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    Set configuration may affect the recovery pattern of cardiac vagal autonomic and reflex modulation after a resistance exercise, since it is closely associated with intensity and volume and determines the metabolic involvement of the session. We tested the hypothesis that longer set configurations have a higher impact on cardiac autonomic control and baroreflex sensitivity compared with shorter set configurations. We studied the effects of three set configurations with the same components of work on the cardiac autonomic control and baroreflex sensitivity. Seventeen subjects performed one control session and three experimental sessions of a leg-press exercise with the same volume (40 repetitions), resting time (720 s) and intensity (10RM load): (a) 5 sets of 8 repetitions with 3 min of rest between sets (8S), (b) 10 sets of 4 repetitions with 80 s of rest between sets (4S) and (c) 40 sets of 1 repetition with 18.5 s of rest between each repetition (1S). Longer set configurations (8S and 4S) induced greater reductions of the vagal cardiac autonomic control and baroreflex sensitivity (p ≤ .001) compared with a shorter set configuration (1S). Also, 1S had non-significant reductions versus the control session (p > .05). These findings suggest that a shorter set configuration can reduce the impact of resistance exercise on the post-exercise cardiac vagal autonomic control and baroreflex sensitivity.

  10. The independent and combined effects of exercise training and reducing sedentary behavior on cardiometabolic risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Lyden, Kate; Staudenmayer, John; Hickey, Amanda; Viskochil, Richard; Braun, Barry; Freedson, Patty S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This pilot study examined if the combination of exercise training and reducing sedentary time (ST) results in greater changes to health markers than either intervention alone. Methods Fifty-seven overweight/obese participants (19M/39F) (mean ± SD; age 43.6 ± 9.9 y, BMI 35.1 ± 4.6 kg/m2) completed the 12-week study and were randomly assigned to 1) EX: exercise 5-days/week for 40-minutes/session at moderate intensity; 2) rST: reduce ST and increase non-exercise physical activity; 3) EX-rST: combination of EX and rST and 4) CON: maintain behavior. Fasting lipids, blood pressure (BP), VO2 peak, BMI and 2-hr oral glucose tolerance tests were completed pre- and post-intervention. Results EX and EX-rST increased VO2 peak by ~10% and decreased systolic BP (both p<0.001). BMI decreased by −3.3% (95% CI: −4.6 to −1.9%) for EX-rST and −2.2% (−3.5 to 0.0%) for EX. EX-rST significantly increased C-ISI by 17.8% (2.8 to 32.8%) and decreased insulin area-under-the-curve by 19.4% (−31.4 to −7.3%). No other groups improved in insulin action variables. rST group decreased ST by 7% (~50 min/day), however BP was the only health-related outcome that improved. Conclusions EX and EX-rST improved VO2 peak and BMI providing further evidence that moderate intensity exercise is beneficial. The within-group analysis provides preliminary evidence that exercising and reducing ST may result in improvements in metabolic biomarkers that are not seen with exercise alone, though between group differences did not reach statistical significance. Future studies, with larger samples, should examine health-related outcomes resulting from greater reductions in ST over longer intervention periods. PMID:24971677

  11. Triathlete characterization and response to prolonged strenuous competition.

    PubMed

    Holly, R G; Barnard, R J; Rosenthal, M; Applegate, E; Pritikin, N

    1986-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize triathletes and to assess their responses to prolonged, strenuous competition. Nine triathletes (6 males, 3 females) participated. Mean V0(2)max and percentage of body fat were 72.0 ml X kg-1 X min-1 and 7.1%, respectively, in the four males who finished in the top 15. This compared to values of 58.4 ml X kg-1 X min-1/10.2% and 58.7 ml X kg-1 X min-1/12.6% in the other males and females, respectively. In the 5 wk preceding competition (Hawaii "Ironman Triathlon World Championship") the average daily training of the four top 15 male competitors consisted of swimming 2720 m, running 13.6 km, and biking 84.0 km. This was approximately 1.5 times greater than that of the other athletes. The average training diet was 59% carbohydrate, 21% fat, and 20% protein. Immediately following competition, SGOT, SGPT, and serum LDH were increased 700, 262, and 222% (P less than 0.004), respectively, and still remained marginally elevated 5-6 d later (P less than 0.02). Immediately following competition, serum triglycerides remained unchanged, while serum glucose, glycerol, and nonesterified fatty acids increased 52, 248, and 191% (P less than 0.005), respectively. By 5-6 d post-competition glucose had returned to normal, while triglycerides were elevated 94% (P less than 0.005) and nonsterified fatty acids were decreased 58% (P less than 0.01).

  12. NOS inhibition increases bubble formation and reduces survival in sedentary but not exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Wisløff, Ulrik; Richardson, Russell S; Brubakk, Alf O

    2003-01-15

    Previously we have shown that chronic as well as a single bout of exercise 20 h prior to a simulated dive protects rats from severe decompression illness (DCI) and death. However, the mechanism behind this protection is still not known. The present study determines the effect of inhibiting nitric oxide synthase (NOS) on bubble formation in acutely exercised and sedentary rats exposed to hyperbaric pressure. A total of 45 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (270-320 g) were randomly assigned into exercise or sedentary control groups, with and without NOS inhibition, using L-NAME (0.05 or 1 mg ml(-1)) (a nonselective NOS inhibitor). Exercising rats ran intervals on a treadmill for 1.5 h, 20 h prior to the simulated dive. Intervals alternated between 8 min at 85-90 % of maximal oxygen uptake, and 2 min at 50-60 %. Rats were compressed (simulated dive) in a pressure chamber, at a rate of 200 kPa min(-1) to a pressure of 700 kPa, and maintained for 45 min breathing air. At the end of the exposure period, rats were decompressed linearly to the "surface" (100 kPa) at a rate of 50 kPa min(-1). Immediately after reaching the surface the animals were anaesthetised and the right ventricle was insonated using ultrasound. The study demonstrated that sedentary rats weighing more than 300 g produced a large amount of bubbles, while those weighing less than 300 g produced few bubbles and most survived the protocol. Prior exercise reduced bubble formation and increased survival in rats weighing more than 300 g, confirming the results from the previous study. During NOS inhibition, the simulated dive induced significantly more bubbles in all sedentary rats weighing less than 300 g. However, this effect could be attenuated by a single bout of exercise 20 h before exposure. The present study demonstrates two previously unreported findings: that administration of L-NAME allows substantial bubble formation and decreased survival in sedentary rats, and that a single bout of exercise

  13. Could a vegetarian diet reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Denise; Knez, Wade; Sinclair, Wade

    2010-10-01

    Oxidative stress is a natural physiological process that describes an imbalance between free radical production and the ability of the antioxidant defence system of the body to neutralize free radicals. Free radicals can be beneficial as they may promote wound healing and contribute to a healthy immune response. However, free radicals can have a detrimental impact when they interfere with the regulation of apoptosis and thus play a role in the promotion of some cancers and conditions such as cardiovascular disease. Antioxidants are molecules that reduce the damage associated with oxidative stress by counteracting free radicals. Regular exercise is a vital component of a healthy lifestyle, although it can increase oxidative stress. As a typical vegetarian diet comprises a wide range of antioxidant-rich foods, it is plausible that the consumption of these foods will result in an enhanced antioxidant system capable of reducing exercise-induced oxidative stress. In addition, a relationship between a vegetarian diet and lower risks of cardiovascular disease and some cancers has been established. This review explores the current available evidence linking exercise, vegetarians, antioxidants, and oxidative stress.

  14. Reduced Metaboreflex Control of Blood Pressure during Exercise in Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Possible Contributor to Exercise Intolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dipla, K.; Zafeiridis, A.; Papadopoulos, S.; Koskolou, M.; Geladas, N.; Vrabas, I. S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the hemodynamic responses to isometric handgrip exercise (HG) and examine the role of the muscle metaboreflex in the exercise pressor response in individuals with intellectual disability (IID) and non-disabled control subjects. Eleven males with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities and eleven non-disabled males…

  15. Resistance Exercise Reduces Seizure Occurrence, Attenuates Memory Deficits and Restores BDNF Signaling in Rats with Chronic Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Lopim, Glauber Menezes; Vannucci Campos, Diego; Fernandes, Jansen; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2017-04-01

    Epilepsy is a disease characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. Cognitive impairment is an important comorbidity of chronic epilepsy. Human and animal model studies of epilepsy have shown that aerobic exercise induces beneficial structural and functional changes and reduces the number of seizures. However, little is yet understood about the effects of resistance exercise on epilepsy. We evaluated the effects of a resistance exercise program on the number of seizures, long-term memory and expression/activation of signaling proteins in rats with epilepsy. The number of seizures was quantified by video-monitoring and long-term memory was assessed by an inhibitory avoidance test. Using western blotting, multiplex and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we determined the effects of a 4-week resistance exercise program on IGF-1 and BDNF levels and ERK, CREB, mTOR activation in the hippocampus of rats with epilepsy. Rats with epilepsy submitted to resistance exercise showed a decrease in the number of seizures compared to non-exercised epileptic rats. Memory deficits were attenuated by resistance exercise. Rats with epilepsy showed an increase in IGF-1 levels which were restored to control levels by resistance exercise. BDNF levels and ERK and mTOR activation were decreased in rats with epilepsy and resistance exercise restored these to control levels. In conclusion, resistance exercise reduced seizure occurrence and mitigated memory deficits in rats with epilepsy. These resistance exercise-induced beneficial effects can be related to changes in IGF-1 and BDNF levels and its signaling protein activation. Our findings indicate that the resistance exercise might be included as complementary therapeutic strategy for epilepsy treatment.

  16. Does Eccentric Exercise Reduce Pain and Improve Strength in Physically Active Adults With Symptomatic Lower Extremity Tendinosis? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wasielewski, Noah J; Kotsko, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To critically review evidence for the effectiveness of eccentric exercise to treat lower extremity tendinoses. Data Sources: Databases used to locate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included PubMed (1980–2006), CINAHL (1982–2006), Web of Science (1995–2006), SPORT Discus (1980–2006), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and the Cochrane Collaboration Database. Key words included tendon, tendonitis, tendinosis, tendinopathy, exercise, eccentric, rehabilitation, and therapy. Study Selection: The criteria for trial selection were (1) the literature was written in English, (2) the research design was an RCT, (3) the study participants were adults with a clinical diagnosis of tendinosis, (4) the outcome measures included pain or strength, and (5) eccentric exercise was used to treat lower extremity tendinosis. Data Extraction: Specific data were abstracted from the RCTs, including eccentric exercise protocol, adjunctive treatments, concurrent physical activity, and treatment outcome. Data Synthesis: The calculated post hoc statistical power of the selected studies (n = 11) was low, and the average methodologic score was 5.3/10 based on PEDro criteria. Eccentric exercise was compared with no treatment (n = 1), concentric exercise (n = 5), an alternative eccentric exercise protocol (n = 1), stretching (n = 2), night splinting (n = 1), and physical agents (n = 1). In most trials, tendinosis-related pain was reduced with eccentric exercise over time, but only in 3 studies did eccentric exercise decrease pain relative to the control treatment. Similarly, the RCTs demonstrated that strength-related measures improved over time, but none revealed significant differences relative to the control treatment. Based on the best evidence available, it appears that eccentric exercise may reduce pain and improve strength in lower extremity tendinoses, but whether eccentric exercise is more effective than other forms of therapeutic exercise for the resolution

  17. Fish oil supplementation reduces markers of oxidative stress but not muscle soreness after eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Gray, Patrick; Chappell, Andrew; Jenkinson, Alison McE; Thies, Frank; Gray, Stuart R

    2014-04-01

    Due to the potential anti-inflammatory properties of fish-derived long chain n-3 fatty acids, it has been suggested that athletes should regularly consume fish oils-although evidence in support of this recommendation is not clear. While fish oils can positively modulate immune function, it remains possible that, due to their high number of double bonds, there may be concurrent increases in lipid peroxidation. The current study aims to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on exercise-induced markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage. Twenty males underwent a 6-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled supplementation trial involving two groups (fish oil or placebo). After supplementation, participants undertook 200 repetitions of eccentric knee contractions. Blood samples were taken presupplementation, postsupplementation, immediately, 24, 48, and 72 hr postexercise and muscle soreness/maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) assessed. There were no differences in creatine kinase, protein carbonyls, endogenous DNA damage, muscle soreness or MVC between groups. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were lower (p < .05) at 48 and 72 hr post exercise and H2O2 stimulated DNA damage was lower (p < .05) immediately postexercise in the fish oil, compared with the control group. The current study demonstrates that fish oil supplementation reduces selected markers of oxidative stress after a single bout of eccentric exercise.

  18. Capsaicin Supplementation Reduces Physical Fatigue and Improves Exercise Performance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yi-Ju; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Liu, Yan-Lin; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Chiu, Chun-Hui; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP) is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. However, there is limited evidence around the effects of CAP on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CAP on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Female Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice from four groups (n = 8 per group) were orally administered CAP for 4 weeks at 0, 205, 410, and 1025 mg/kg/day, which were respectively designated the vehicle, CAP-1X, CAP-2X, and CAP-5X groups. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The grip strength and exhaustive swimming time of the CAP-5X group were significantly higher than other groups. CAP supplementation dose-dependently reduced serum lactate, ammonia, BUN and CK levels, and increased glucose concentration after the 15-min swimming test. In addition, CAP also increased hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise. The possible mechanism was relevant to energy homeostasis and the physiological modulations by CAP supplementation. Therefore, our results suggest that CAP supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, performance improvement and fatigue amelioration. PMID:27775591

  19. Capsaicin Supplementation Reduces Physical Fatigue and Improves Exercise Performance in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Ju; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Liu, Yan-Lin; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Chiu, Chun-Hui; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2016-10-20

    Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP) is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. However, there is limited evidence around the effects of CAP on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CAP on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Female Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice from four groups (n = 8 per group) were orally administered CAP for 4 weeks at 0, 205, 410, and 1025 mg/kg/day, which were respectively designated the vehicle, CAP-1X, CAP-2X, and CAP-5X groups. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The grip strength and exhaustive swimming time of the CAP-5X group were significantly higher than other groups. CAP supplementation dose-dependently reduced serum lactate, ammonia, BUN and CK levels, and increased glucose concentration after the 15-min swimming test. In addition, CAP also increased hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise. The possible mechanism was relevant to energy homeostasis and the physiological modulations by CAP supplementation. Therefore, our results suggest that CAP supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, performance improvement and fatigue amelioration.

  20. Capsiate, a non-pungent capsaicin analog, reduces body fat without weight rebound like swimming exercise in mice.

    PubMed

    Haramizu, Satoshi; Kawabata, Fuminori; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Inoue, Naohiko; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Yazawa, Susumu; Fushiki, Tohru

    2011-08-01

    Enhancement of energy expenditure and reducing energy intake are crucial for weight control. Capsiate, a non-pungent capsaicin analog, is known to suppress body fat accumulation and reduce body weight by enhancing of energy expenditure in both mice and humans. However, it is poorly understood whether suppressing body fat accumulation by capsiate administration is equal to exercise or not. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of repeated administration of capsiate and exercise and to investigate the weight rebound after repeated capsiate administration and/or exercise. In the present study, we report that 2 weeks treatment of capsiate and exercise increased energy metabolism and suppressed body fat accumulation during 4 more weeks of ad libitum feeding. The body weight in capsiate and exercise groups was significantly lower than that of control group. The oxygen consumption was significanlty increased in capsiate and exercise groups than in the vehicle administered mice. In addition, the abdominal adipose tissue weight in capsiate and exercise groups was significantly lower than that of control group. These results indicate that suppressing body fat accumulation by capsiate intake is beneficial for maintaining an ideal body weight as exercise.

  1. Is recovery driven by central or peripheral factors? A role for the brain in recovery following intermittent-sprint exercise

    PubMed Central

    Minett, Geoffrey M.; Duffield, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged intermittent-sprint exercise (i.e., team sports) induce disturbances in skeletal muscle structure and function that are associated with reduced contractile function, a cascade of inflammatory responses, perceptual soreness, and a delayed return to optimal physical performance. In this context, recovery from exercise-induced fatigue is traditionally treated from a peripheral viewpoint, with the regeneration of muscle physiology and other peripheral factors the target of recovery strategies. The direction of this research narrative on post-exercise recovery differs to the increasing emphasis on the complex interaction between both central and peripheral factors regulating exercise intensity during exercise performance. Given the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in motor-unit recruitment during exercise, it too may have an integral role in post-exercise recovery. Indeed, this hypothesis is indirectly supported by an apparent disconnect in time-course changes in physiological and biochemical markers resultant from exercise and the ensuing recovery of exercise performance. Equally, improvements in perceptual recovery, even withstanding the physiological state of recovery, may interact with both feed-forward/feed-back mechanisms to influence subsequent efforts. Considering the research interest afforded to recovery methodologies designed to hasten the return of homeostasis within the muscle, the limited focus on contributors to post-exercise recovery from CNS origins is somewhat surprising. Based on this context, the current review aims to outline the potential contributions of the brain to performance recovery after strenuous exercise. PMID:24550837

  2. Exercise, muscle, and CHO metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, M

    2015-12-01

    Carbohydrates (CHO) are a key source of energy for contracting skeletal muscle during strenuous exercise and fatigue during such exercise often coincides with CHO depletion. Our current understanding of the importance of CHO for exercise metabolism has its foundations in classic studies in the early 20th century by Scandinavian physiologists and Bengt Saltin contributed significantly to that tradition. This brief review summarizes our contemporary understanding of key aspects of muscle glycogen and glucose metabolism during exercise, through the lens of seminal studies by Bengt Saltin.

  3. Dietary nitrate does not reduce oxygen cost of exercise or improve muscle mitochondrial function in mitochondrial myopathy patients.

    PubMed

    Nabben, Miranda; Schmitz, Joep P J; Ciapaite, Jolita; Le Clercq, Carlijn M P; van Riel, Natal A; Haak, Harm R; Nicolay, Klaas; de Coo, Irenaeus F; Smeets, Hubert J M; Praet, Stephan F; van Loon, Luc J C; Prompers, Jeanine J

    2017-02-08

    Muscle weakness and exercise intolerance negatively affect the quality of life of mitochondrial myopathy patients. Short-term dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to improve exercise performance and reduce oxygen cost of exercise in healthy humans and trained athletes. We investigated if 1 week of dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation decreases the oxygen cost of exercise and improves mitochondrial function in mitochondrial myopathy patients. Ten mitochondrial myopathy patients (40 ± 5 years, maximal whole-body oxygen uptake = 21.2 ± 3.2 mL/min/kg body weight, maximal workload = 122 ± 26 W) received 8.5 mg/kg body weight/day of inorganic nitrate (~7 mmol) for 8 days. Whole-body oxygen consumption at 50% of the maximal workload, in vivo skeletal muscle oxidative capacity (evaluated from post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and ex vivo mitochondrial oxidative capacity in permeabilized skinned muscle fibers (measured with high-resolution respirometry) were determined before and after nitrate supplementation. Despite a 6-fold increase in plasma nitrate levels, nitrate supplementation did not affect whole-body oxygen cost during submaximal exercise. Additionally, no beneficial effects of nitrate were found on in vivo or ex vivo muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity. This is the first time that the therapeutic potential of dietary nitrate for mitochondrial myopathy patients was evaluated. We conclude that 1 week of dietary nitrate supplementation does not reduce oxygen cost of exercise or improve mitochondrial function in the group of patients tested.

  4. Diet and exercise training reduce blood pressure and improve autonomic modulation in women with prehypertension.

    PubMed

    Sales, Allan R K; Silva, Bruno M; Neves, Fabricia J; Rocha, Natália G; Medeiros, Renata F; Castro, Renata R T; Nóbrega, Antonio C L

    2012-09-01

    Despite mortality from heart disease has been decreasing, the decline in death in women remains lower than in men. Hypertension (HT) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, approaches to prevent or delay the onset of HT would be valuable in women. Given this background, we investigated the effect of diet and exercise training on blood pressure (BP) and autonomic modulation in women with prehypertension (PHT). Ten women with PHT (39 ± 6 years, mean ± standard deviation) and ten with normotension (NT) (35 ± 11 years) underwent diet and exercise training for 12 weeks. Autonomic modulation was assessed through heart rate (HR) and systolic BP (SBP) variability, using time and frequency domain analyses. At preintervention, women with PHT had higher SBP (PHT: 128 ± 7 vs. NT: 111 ± 6 mmHg, p < 0.05) and lower HR variability [standard deviation of normal-to-normal beats (SDNN), PHT: 41 ± 18 vs. NT: 60 ± 19 ms, p < 0.05]. At post-intervention, peak oxygen consumption and muscular strength increased (p < 0.05), while body mass index decreased in both groups (p < 0.05). However, SBP decreased (118 ± 8 mmHg, p < 0.05 vs. preintervention) and total HR variability tended to increase (total power: 1,397 ± 570 vs. 2,137 ± 1,110 ms(2), p = 0.08) only in the group with PHT; consequently, HR variability became similar between groups at post-intervention (p > 0.05). Moreover, reduction in SBP was associated with augmentation in SDNN (r = -0.46, p < 0.05) and reduction in low-frequency power [LF (n.u.); r = 0.46, p < 0.05]. In conclusion, diet and exercise training reduced SBP in women with PHT, and this was associated with augmentation in parasympathetic and probably reduction in sympathetic cardiac modulation.

  5. Exercise Programs for Citizens Sixty and Over--Why Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Frank; Anderson, Gene

    An outline is given of an exercise program for older adults which is designed to increase strength, endurance, and flexibility. Brief descriptions are provided of exercises progressing from modest tone-ups for flexibility to activities involving mildly strenuous physical efforts such as jogging, bicycling, and hiking. Suggestions are offered for…

  6. Exercise reduces activation of microglia isolated from hippocampus and brain of aged mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with low-grade neuroinflammation that includes basal increases in proinflammatory cytokines and expression of inflammatory markers on microglia. Exercise can reduce neuroinflammation following infection in aged animals, but whether exercise modulates basal changes in microglia activation is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated changes in basal microglia activation in cells isolated from the hippocampus and remaining brain following running-wheel access. Methods Adult (4 months) and aged (22 months) male and female BALB/c mice were housed with or without running wheels for 10 weeks. Microglia were isolated from the hippocampus or remaining brain. Flow cytometry was used to determine microglia (CD11b+ and CD45low) that co-labeled with CD86, CD206, and MHC II. Results Aged mice showed a greater proportion of CD86 and MHC II positive microglia. In aged females, access to a running wheel decreased proportion of CD86+ and MHC II+ microglia in the hippocampus whereas aged males in the running group showed a decrease in the proportion of CD86+ microglia in the brain and an increase in the proportion of MHC II+ microglia in hippocampus and brain. Conclusion Overall, these data indicate that running-wheel access modulates microglia activation, but these effects vary by age, sex, and brain region. PMID:24044641

  7. Fish oil supplementation reduces severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Mickleborough, Timothy D; Murray, Rachael L; Ionescu, Alina A; Lindley, Martin R

    2003-11-15

    In elite athletes, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) may respond to dietary modification, thereby reducing the need for pharmacologic treatment. Ten elite athletes with EIB and 10 elite athletes without EIB (control subjects) participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover study. Subjects entered the study on their normal diet, and then received either fish oil capsules containing 3.2 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.2 g docohexaenoic acid (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid [PUFA] diet; n = 5) or placebo capsules containing olive oil (placebo diet; n = 5) taken daily for 3 weeks. Diet had no effect on preexercise pulmonary function in either group or on postexercise pulmonary function in control subjects. However, in subjects with EIB, the n-3 PUFA diet improved postexercise pulmonary function compared with the normal and placebo diets. FEV1 decreased by 3 +/- 2% on n-3 PUFA diet, 14.5 +/- 5% on placebo diet, and 17.3 +/- 6% on normal diet at 15 minutes postexercise. Leukotriene (LT)E4, 9alpha, 11beta-prostaglandin F2, LTB4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1beta, all significantly decreased on the n-3 PUFA diet compared with normal and placebo diets and after the exercise challenge. These data suggest that dietary fish oil supplementation has a markedly protective effect in suppressing EIB in elite athletes, and this may be attributed to their antiinflammatory properties.

  8. Caffeine intake improves intense intermittent exercise performance and reduces muscle interstitial potassium accumulation.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Magni; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Bangsbo, Jens

    2011-11-01

    The effect of oral caffeine ingestion on intense intermittent exercise performance and muscle interstitial ion concentrations was examined. The study consists of two studies (S1 and S2). In S1, 12 subjects completed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) test with prior caffeine (6 mg/kg body wt; CAF) or placebo (PLA) intake. In S2, 6 subjects performed one low-intensity (20 W) and three intense (50 W) 3-min (separated by 5 min) one-legged knee-extension exercise bouts with (CAF) and without (CON) prior caffeine supplementation for determination of muscle interstitial K(+) and Na(+) with microdialysis. In S1 Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 16% better (P < 0.05) in CAF compared with PLA. In CAF, plasma K(+) at the end of the Yo-Yo IR2 test was 5.2 ± 0.1 mmol/l with no difference between the trials. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) were higher (P < 0.05) in CAF than PLA at rest and remained higher (P < 0.05) during exercise. Peak blood glucose (8.0 ± 0.6 vs. 6.2 ± 0.4 mmol/l) and plasma NH(3) (137.2 ± 10.8 vs. 113.4 ± 13.3 μmol/l) were also higher (P < 0.05) in CAF compared with PLA. In S2 interstitial K(+) was 5.5 ± 0.3, 5.7 ± 0.3, 5.8 ± 0.5, and 5.5 ± 0.3 mmol/l at the end of the 20-W and three 50-W periods, respectively, in CAF, which were lower (P < 0.001) than in CON (7.0 ± 0.6, 7.5 ± 0.7, 7.5 ± 0.4, and 7.0 ± 0.6 mmol/l, respectively). No differences in interstitial Na(+) were observed between CAF and CON. In conclusion, caffeine intake enhances fatigue resistance and reduces muscle interstitial K(+) during intense intermittent exercise.

  9. Dietary Supplementation with the Microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) Reduces Prolonged Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Carfagna, Simona; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Pinto, Gabriele; Venditti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25874021

  10. Exercise and neuromodulators: choline and acetylcholine in marathon runners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Sabounjian, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Certain neurotransmitters (i.e., acetylcholine, catecholamines, and serotonin) are formed from dietary constituents (i.e., choline, tyrosine and tryptophan). Changing the consumption of these precursors alters release of their respective neurotransmitter products. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the neuromuscular junction and from brain. It is formed from choline, a common constituent in fish, liver, and eggs. Choline is also incorporated into cell membranes; membranes may likewise serve as an alternative choline source for acetylcholine synthesis. In trained athletes, running a 26 km marathon reduced plasma choline by approximately 40%, from 14.1 to 8.4 uM. Changes of similar magnitude have been shown to reduce acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction in vivo. Thus, the reductions in plasma choline associated with strenuous exercise may reduce acetylcholine release, and could thereby affect endurance or performance.

  11. Capsiate supplementation reduces oxidative cost of contraction in exercising mouse skeletal muscle in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yashiro, Kazuya; Tonson, Anne; Pecchi, Émilie; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Fur, Yann; Bernard, Monique; Bendahan, David; Giannesini, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Chronic administration of capsiate is known to accelerate whole-body basal energy metabolism, but the consequences in exercising skeletal muscle remain very poorly documented. In order to clarify this issue, the effect of 2-week daily administration of either vehicle (control) or purified capsiate (at 10- or 100-mg/kg body weight) on skeletal muscle function and energetics were investigated throughout a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements in mice. Mechanical performance and energy metabolism were assessed strictly non-invasively in contracting gastrocnemius muscle using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Regardless of the dose, capsiate treatments markedly disturbed basal bioenergetics in vivo including intracellular pH alkalosis and decreased phosphocreatine content. Besides, capsiate administration did affect neither mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 gene expression nor both basal and maximal oxygen consumption in isolated saponin-permeabilized fibers, but decreased by about twofold the Km of mitochondrial respiration for ADP. During a standardized in vivo fatiguing protocol (6-min of repeated maximal isometric contractions electrically induced at a frequency of 1.7 Hz), both capsiate treatments reduced oxidative cost of contraction by 30-40%, whereas force-generating capacity and fatigability were not changed. Moreover, the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis during the post-electrostimulation recovery period remained unaffected by capsiate. Both capsiate treatments further promoted muscle mass gain, and the higher dose also reduced body weight gain and abdominal fat content. These findings demonstrate that, in addition to its anti-obesity effect, capsiate supplementation improves oxidative metabolism in exercising muscle, which strengthen this compound as a natural compound for improving health.

  12. Serum free light chains are reduced in endurance trained older adults: Evidence that exercise training may reduce basal inflammation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Jennifer L J; Phillips, Anna C; Drayson, Mark T; Campbell, John P

    2016-05-01

    Traditionally, free light chains (FLCs) are used as key serum biomarkers in the diagnosis and monitoring of plasma cell malignancies, but polyclonal FLCs can also be used as an accurate real-time indicator of immune-activation and inflammation. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the effects of exercise training status on serum FLCs in older adults, and secondly, to examine if training status moderated serum FLC responses to acute exercise. Kappa and lambda serum FLC levels were measured in 45 healthy older adults (aged ≥ 60 years) who were either sedentary, physically active or endurance trained. FLCs were measured at baseline and in response to an acute bout of submaximal exercise. The endurance trained group had significantly lower levels of kappa and lambda serum FLCs compared with physically active or sedentary elderly adults; these effects were independent of age, BMI and renal function. There was no significant difference in whole immunoglobulins between groups. Exercise training status had no effect on serum FLC responses to acute exercise, which were marginal. In conclusion, endurance training was associated with lower FLC levels compared with less physically active individuals. These findings suggest that long-term endurance training may be beneficial in reducing basal inflammation in older adults as well as elevated FLCs present in inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, often associated with ageing. FLCs may serve as a useful biomarker for monitoring the efficacy of exercise intervention studies in healthy and clinical populations.

  13. Raised troponin T and echocardiographic abnormalities after prolonged strenuous exercise—the Australian Ironman Triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Tulloh, L; Robinson, D; Patel, A; Ware, A; Prendergast, C; Sullivan, D; Pressley, L

    2006-01-01

    Background There is concern about whether cardiac damage occurs as a result of prolonged strenuous exercise. Objective To investigate whether competing in a triathlon is associated with cardiac damage based on a sustained increase in cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and whether such an increase correlates with echocardiographic changes Methods cTnT and echocardiographic measurements were made in 38 participants in the 2001 Australian ironman triathlon. cTnT was measured the day before, immediately after, and the day following the race. Echocardiography was done the day before, immediately after, and two to six weeks later for measurement of ejection fraction, stroke volume, cardiac output, wall motion analysis, and global left ventricular function (LVF). Results No subject had detectable cTnT in the pre‐race sample. Following the race, 32 subjects (86.5%) had detectable levels of cTnT (>0.01 ng/ml), with six (16.2%) having >0.10 ng/ml. The day after the race, nine subjects (23.7%) still had detectable cTnT, with two recording a level >0.10 ng/ml. Previously described echocardiographic changes of “cardiac fatigue” were observed in the whole cohort. There was a modest but significant correlation between change in ejection fraction and peak cTnT level (p = 0.02, r = 0.39). Athletes with a post‐race cTnT >0.10 ng/ml had a greater decrease in global LVF (p = 0.02) and a trend toward a greater fall in ejection fraction and stroke volume than athletes with cTnT levels <0.10 ng/ml. Cardiac output fell in the group with cTnT >0.10 ng/ml (p>0.05). Conclusions Participation in ironman triathlon often resulted in persistently raised cTnT levels, and the troponin rise was associated with echocardiographic evidence of abnormal left ventricular function. The clinical significance and long term sequelae of such damage remains to be determined. PMID:16611724

  14. Acute caffeine ingestion enhances strength performance and reduces perceived exertion and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Stanley, Michelle; Parkhouse, Natalie; Cook, Kathryn; Smith, Mike

    2013-01-01

    . With caffeine, pain perception was significantly higher in the deadlift and back squat compared to the bench press. However, with placebo, pain perception was significantly higher for the deadlift and back squat compared to the prone row only. Therefore, acute caffeine ingestion not only enhances resistance exercise performance to failure but also reduces perception of exertion and muscle pain.

  15. Aerobic exercise training increases plasma Klotho levels and reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Tomoko; Miyaki, Asako; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Choi, Youngju; Ra, Song-Gyu; Tanahashi, Koichiro; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Oikawa, Satoshi; Maeda, Seiji

    2014-02-01

    The Klotho gene is a suppressor of the aging phenomena, and the secretion as well as the circulation of Klotho proteins decrease with aging. Although habitual exercise has antiaging effects (e.g., a decrease in arterial stiffness), the relationship between Klotho and habitual exercise remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of habitual exercise on Klotho, with a particular focus on arterial stiffness. First, we examined the correlation between plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness (carotid artery compliance and β-stiffness index) or aerobic exercise capacity [oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold (VT)] in 69 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) by conducting a cross-sectional study. Second, we tested the effects of aerobic exercise training on plasma Klotho concentrations and arterial stiffness. A total of 19 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) were divided into two groups: control group and exercise group. The exercise group completed 12 wk of moderate aerobic exercise training. In the cross-sectional study, plasma Klotho concentrations positively correlated with carotid artery compliance and VT and negatively correlated with the β-stiffness index. In the interventional study, aerobic exercise training increased plasma Klotho concentrations and carotid artery compliance and decreased the β-stiffness index. Moreover, the changes in plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness were found to be correlated. These results suggest a possible role for secreted Klotho in the exercise-induced modulation of arterial stiffness.

  16. Hypoglycemia during moderate intensity exercise reduces counterregulatory responses to subsequent hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Cade, W Todd; Khoury, Nadia; Nelson, Suzanne; Shackleford, Angela; Semenkovich, Katherine; Krauss, Melissa J; Arbeláez, Ana María

    2016-09-01

    Hypoglycemia, which occurs commonly during and following exercise in people with diabetes, is thought to be due to attenuated counterregulation in the setting of therapeutic insulin excess. To better understand the pathophysiology of counterregulation, we aimed to determine if dextrose administration to maintain euglycemia during moderate intensity exercise alters the attenuation of counterregulatory responses to subsequent hypoglycemia in healthy adults : Counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia were assessed in 18 healthy adults after bed rest and following exercise with (n = 9) and without (n = 9) dextrose infusion. Responses were measured during a stepped euglycemic-hypoglycemic clamp 24 h after either bed rest or two 90-min bouts of exercise at 70% peak oxygen uptake : Hypoglycemia occurred during the second bout of exercise without dextrose infusion. Plasma glucagon and epinephrine responses to stepped hypoglycemia after antecedent exercise without dextrose infusion were significantly lower at the 45 mg/dL glycemic level compared to after bed rest. However, no attenuation of the counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia was evident after antecedent exercise when dextrose was infused. This study suggests that the attenuation of the counterregulatory responses during hypoglycemia after exercise is likely due to the hypoglycemia that occurs during moderate prolonged exercise and not solely due to exercise or its intensity.

  17. Signs and Symptoms of Heat Exhaustion During Strenuous Heat Acclimation Exercise,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    between the number of SAS and physical 2 characteristics were: age - 0.31, height - 0.16, mass - 0.03, surface area - 0.00, surface area/mass - 0.10, VO2 ...is the most commonly recognized heat disorder observed during athletic competiton (25) or military maneuvers (19,21,24), and is the subject of this...34 % . . - - -. -. -. - . - . -. , -. - . . grade. The following values were calculated for each subject each day: mean treadmill speed selected, mean % VO2 max

  18. Rhabdomyolysis-induced compartment syndrome secondary to atorvastatin and strenuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Louise; Morhij, Rossel; Tucker, Sarah

    2017-03-16

    A 50-year-old male UK resident with a history of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia presented to the emergency department with a 48-hour history of sudden onset bilateral thigh swelling and pain unrelieved by regular analgesia. 3 days prior to presentation, he performed a vigorous workout in the gym. His medications included ramipril 5 mg once daily and atorvastatin 20 mg at night time. He was a non-smoker and did not consume alcohol. He reported no known drug allergies. Physical examination confirmed bilateral swollen thighs, with no overlying skin changes, clinically suggestive of compartment syndrome. His creatine kinase was >50 000 IU with normal renal and liver function tests. Further investigation with MRI-identified prominent swelling of the vastus intermedius and medialis muscles, more marked on the left, with extensive diffuse short tau inversion recovery (STIR) signal hyperintensity and isointensity on T1 sequences, suggestive of rhabdomyolysis. He underwent bilateral fasciotomies of his thighs and aggressive intravenous fluid resuscitation with close monitoring of his electrolytes. Intraoperatively his muscle was healthy, with no evidence of haematoma or necrosis. His medication atorvastatin was stopped due to his rhabdomyolysis. 48 hours later, he returned to theatre and review of his fasciotomy wounds was unremarkable. 4 days later, he was discharged uneventfully. His postoperative recovery was complicated by a serous discharge from his left medial thigh wound. Further investigation with an ultrasound confirmed a 4×1×1cm multiloculated collection within the superficial tissue directly underlying the wound. An aspirate was performed and cultures revealed no growth. He remains under review in the department of plastic surgery. This case report discusses the aetiological spectrum, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, investigations, management and complications of rhabdomyolysis.

  19. Aerobic exercise, but not flexibility/resistance exercise, reduces serum IL-18, CRP, and IL-6 independent of beta-blockers, BMI, and psychosocial factors in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kohut, M L; McCann, D A; Russell, D W; Konopka, D N; Cunnick, J E; Franke, W D; Castillo, M C; Reighard, A E; Vanderah, E

    2006-05-01

    Increased serum levels of inflammatory mediators have been associated with numerous disease states including atherosclerosis, Type II diabetes, hypertension, depression, and overall mortality. We hypothesized that a long-term exercise intervention among older adults would reduce serum inflammatory cytokines, and this reduction would be mediated, in part, by improvements in psychosocial factors and/or by beta-adrenergic receptor mechanisms. Adults age 64 were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise treatment (CARDIO) or a flexibility/strength exercise treatment (FLEX) 3 days/week, 45 min/day for 10 months. A subgroup of subjects treated with non-selective beta(1)beta(2) adrenergic antagonists were included to evaluate the potential role of beta-adrenergic receptor adaptations as mediators of an exercise-induced change in inflammation. The inflammatory mediators [C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-18] and the psychosocial factors (depression, perceived stress, optimism, sense of coherence, and social support) were measured pre- and post-intervention. The CARDIO treatment resulted in significant reductions in serum CRP, IL-6, and IL-18 compared to the FLEX treatment (significant treatment x time interaction, p<.05), whereas TNFalpha declined in both groups (main effect of time, p=.001). However, several psychosocial factors (depression, optimism, and sense of coherence) improved in both groups suggesting that the reduction of CRP, IL-6, and IL-18 in the CARDIO group was not mediated by improvements in psychosocial scores. With respect to the potential role of beta-adrenergic receptors, both CARDIO subjects treated with beta-adrenergic antagonists and those who were not treated with those medications demonstrated similar reductions in serum CRP, IL-6, IL-18, and TNFalpha. In summary, we have observed that an aerobic exercise intervention can significantly reduce serum inflammatory mediators, but beta-adrenergic receptors

  20. Development of Countermeasures and Exercise Protocols to Reduce the Effects of Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Pandurang M.

    2000-01-01

    I have helped scientists at NASA-JSC in analyzing data from many projects. Some of the major ones are: (1) cardiovascular responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) following bed rest, (2) the effects of dietary sodium, (3) in-flight cycle exercise mitigates reduced oxygen consumption at submaximal heart rates following space flight, (4) exercise thermoregulation after 13 days of head down bed rest, and (5) bed rest induced orthostatic intolerance. Many of the projects have now been completed and some of them are in the process of being published and others have been presented at national meetings. These projects have helped me be a true statistician and given me a real-life perspective of how interesting and complicated data can be. As a by-product of of these involvements I have been able to write and publish some methodological research that have applications in NASA and elsewhere. For instance, while I was at JSC, I happened to meet Dr. Al Feiveson and got into a discussion of the Space Shuttle Reliability. This led us to rethink about the way the data on the accelerated life testing of space shuttle pressure vessels had been analyzed. This has resulted in a major statistical paper and the paper has appeared in one of the top journals in the field of Statistics. A review of the paper by the editor of the journal was published in AmStatNews, a copy is attached with this report. I have presented these findings at the national/international statistics conference and at other places. I have also written another paper on reliability and a paper on calibration techniques that have applications in the engineering and the biomedical branches of NASA. Further, I am currently in the process of writing at least two more papers that have direct applications in NASA related studies.

  1. Aerobic exercise reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular changes of small mesenteric and coronary arteries in hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Fernanda R; Briones, Ana M; García-Redondo, Ana B; Galán, María; Martínez-Revelles, Sonia; Avendaño, Maria S; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Fernandes, Tiago; Vassallo, Dalton V; Oliveira, Edilamar M; Salaices, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Regular physical activity is an effective non-pharmacological therapy for prevention and control of hypertension. We investigated the effects of aerobic exercise training in vascular remodelling and in the mechanical and functional alterations of coronary and small mesenteric arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Experimental Approach Normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY), SHR and SHR trained on a treadmill for 12 weeks were used to evaluate vascular structural, mechanical and functional properties. Key Results Exercise did not affect lumen diameter, wall thickness and wall/lumen ratio but reduced vascular stiffness of coronary and mesenteric arteries from SHR. Exercise also reduced collagen deposition and normalized altered internal elastic lamina organization and expression of MMP-9 in mesenteric arteries from SHR. Exercise did not affect contractile responses of coronary arteries but improved the endothelium-dependent relaxation in SHR. In mesenteric arteries, training normalized the increased contractile responses induced by U46619 and by high concentrations of acetylcholine. In vessels from SHR, exercise normalized the effects of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and the NOS inhibitor l-NAME in vasodilator or vasoconstrictor responses, normalized the increased O2− production and the reduced Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase expression and increased NO production. Conclusions and Implications Exercise training of SHR improves endothelial function and vascular stiffness in coronary and small mesenteric arteries. This might be related to the concomitant decrease of oxidative stress and increase of NO bioavailability. Such effects demonstrate the beneficial effects of exercise on the vascular system and could contribute to a reduction in blood pressure. PMID:22994554

  2. Evidence for the role of isometric exercise training in reducing blood pressure: potential mechanisms and future directions.

    PubMed

    Millar, Philip J; McGowan, Cheri L; Cornelissen, Véronique A; Araujo, Claudio G; Swaine, Ian L

    2014-03-01

    Hypertension, or the chronic elevation in resting arterial blood pressure (BP), is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease and estimated to affect ~1 billion adults worldwide. The goals of treatment are to lower BP through lifestyle modifications (smoking cessation, weight loss, exercise training, healthy eating and reduced sodium intake), and if not solely effective, the addition of antihypertensive medications. In particular, increased physical exercise and decreased sedentarism are important strategies in the prevention and management of hypertension. Current guidelines recommend both aerobic and dynamic resistance exercise training modalities to reduce BP. Mounting prospective evidence suggests that isometric exercise training in normotensive and hypertensive (medicated and non-medicated) cohorts of young and old participants may produce similar, if not greater, reductions in BP, with meta-analyses reporting mean reductions of between 10 and 13 mmHg systolic, and 6 and 8 mmHg diastolic. Isometric exercise training protocols typically consist of four sets of 2-min handgrip or leg contractions sustained at 20-50 % of maximal voluntary contraction, with each set separated by a rest period of 1-4 min. Training is usually completed three to five times per week for 4-10 weeks. Although the mechanisms responsible for these adaptations remain to be fully clarified, improvements in conduit and resistance vessel endothelium-dependent dilation, oxidative stress, and autonomic regulation of heart rate and BP have been reported. The clinical significance of isometric exercise training, as a time-efficient and effective training modality to reduce BP, warrants further study. This evidence-based review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the effects of isometric exercise training on resting BP.

  3. Central blockade of nitric oxide transmission impairs exercise-induced neuronal activation in the PVN and reduces physical performance.

    PubMed

    Lima, Paulo M A; Santiago, Henrique P; Szawka, Raphael E; Coimbra, Cândido C

    2014-09-01

    The blockade of central nitric oxide (NO) signaling modifies the thermoregulatory and metabolic adjustments that occur during exercise, thereby impairing physical performance. However, the brain areas involved in this response remain unknown. Nitrergic neurons are present in the hypothalamic areas that are activated during exercise and participate in autonomic and neuroendocrine responses, such as, the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON). To investigate whether brain NO signaling affects thermoregulation during exercise through the activation of hypothalamic neurons, rats underwent acute submaximal treadmill exercise (18 mmin(-1), 5% inclination) until fatigue received an intracerebroventricular injection of 1.43 μmol Nω-nitro-l-arginine metil ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, or saline (SAL). Skin tail temperature (Tsk) and internal body temperature (Ti) were continuously recorded and c-Fos expression was determined in the PVN and the SON. L-NAME treatment reduced physical performance by 48%, which was positively correlated with tail vasodilation capacity, which was reduced by 28%, and negatively correlated with heat storage rate (HSR), which was increased by 38%. Physical exercise until fatigue increased the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the PVN and the SON. L-NAME-treatment significantly reduced the exercise-induced c-Fos expression in the PVN, whereas it had no effect in the SON. Interestingly, the number of c-Fos-ir neurons in the PVN was closely correlated with physical performance and inversely associated with HSR. Thus, the inhibition of central NO attenuates neuronal activation induced by exercise in the PVN, impairs the autonomic regulation of heat dissipation, and anticipates the fatigue. Brain NO seems to play a role in exercise performance through the regulation of neuronal activation in the PVN, but not in the SON, although the SON neurons are also activated by running

  4. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise.

    PubMed

    Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Ottone, Vinícius de Oliveira; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90-100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB) stimulation, lymphocyte proliferation decreased and the IL-2 concentration increased after the HIIT session. However, the HIIT session had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation or IL-2 response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation. The HIIT session also induced lymphocyte redox imbalance, characterized by an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Lymphocyte viability was not affected by the HIIT session. The frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ T helper and B lymphocytes in response to superantigen stimulation were lower after exercise, suggesting that superantigen-induced lymphocyte activation was reduced by HIIT. However, HIIT also led to a reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD19+ cells, so the frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ cells within the CD4 and CD19 cell populations were not affected by HIIT. These data indicate that the reduced lymphocyte proliferation observed after HIIT is not due to reduced early lymphocyte activation by superantigen. Our findings show that an acute HIIT session promotes lymphocyte redox imbalance and reduces lymphocyte proliferation in response to superantigenic, but not to mitogenic stimulation. This observation cannot be explained by alteration of the early lymphocyte activation response to superantigen. The manner in which lymphocyte function modulation by an acute HIIT session can affect individual immunity and susceptibility to infection is important

  5. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Ottone, Vinícius de Oliveira; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90–100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB) stimulation, lymphocyte proliferation decreased and the IL-2 concentration increased after the HIIT session. However, the HIIT session had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation or IL-2 response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation. The HIIT session also induced lymphocyte redox imbalance, characterized by an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Lymphocyte viability was not affected by the HIIT session. The frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ T helper and B lymphocytes in response to superantigen stimulation were lower after exercise, suggesting that superantigen-induced lymphocyte activation was reduced by HIIT. However, HIIT also led to a reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD19+ cells, so the frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ cells within the CD4 and CD19 cell populations were not affected by HIIT. These data indicate that the reduced lymphocyte proliferation observed after HIIT is not due to reduced early lymphocyte activation by superantigen. Our findings show that an acute HIIT session promotes lymphocyte redox imbalance and reduces lymphocyte proliferation in response to superantigenic, but not to mitogenic stimulation. This observation cannot be explained by alteration of the early lymphocyte activation response to superantigen. The manner in which lymphocyte function modulation by an acute HIIT session can affect individual immunity and susceptibility to infection is important

  6. Examining exercise dependence symptomatology from a self-determination perspective.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Jemma; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Duda, Joan L

    2006-11-01

    Background Pulling from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985), this study examined whether individuals classified as 'nondependent-symptomatic' and 'nondependent-asymptomatic' for exercise dependence differed in terms of reported levels of exercise-related psychological need satisfaction, self-determined versus controlling motivation and exercise behavior. In addition, we examined the type of motivational regulations predicting exercise behavior among these different groups, and their role as mediators between psychological need satisfaction and behavioral outcomes. Methods Participants (N = 339) completed measures of exercise-specific psychological need satisfaction, motivational regulations, exercise behavior and exercise dependence. Results Nondependent-symptomatic individuals reported higher levels of competence need satisfaction and all forms of motivational regulation, compared to nondependent-asymptomatic individuals. Introjected regulation approached significance as a positive predictor of strenuous exercise behavior for symptomatic individuals. Identified regulation was a positive predictor of strenuous exercise, and completely mediated the relationship between competence need satisfaction and strenuous exercise behavior, for asymptomatic individuals. Conclusions The findings reinforce the applicability of SDT to understanding the quantity and quality of engagement in exercise.

  7. Exercise Leads to Faster Postural Reflexes, Improved Balance and Mobility, and Reduced Falls in Older Persons with Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Marigold, Daniel S.; Eng, Janice J.; Dawson, Andrew S.; Inglis, J. Timothy; Harris, Jocelyn E.; Gylfadóttir, Sif

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the effect of two different community-based group exercise programs on functional balance, mobility, postural reflexes, and falls in older adults with stroke. DESIGN A randomized, clinical trial. SETTING Community centre. PARTICIPANTS Total of 61 community-dwelling older adults with chronic stroke. INTERVENTION Participants were randomly assigned to an Agility (n = 30) or Stretching/weight-shifting (n = 31) exercise group. Both groups exercised three times a week for 10 weeks. MEASUREMENTS Participants were assessed prior to, immediately after, and one-month following the intervention for Berg Balance, Timed Up and Go, step reaction time, Activities-specific Balance Confidence, and Nottingham Health Profile. Testing of standing postural reflexes and induced falls evoked by a translating platform was also performed. In addition, falls in the community were tracked for one year from the start of the interventions. RESULTS Although exercise led to improvements in all clinical outcome measures for both groups, the Agility group demonstrated greater improvement in step reaction time and paretic rectus femoris postural reflex onset latency compared to the Stretching/weight-shifting group. Further, induced falls on the platform were reduced in the Agility group. CONCLUSION Group exercise programs that include Agility or Stretching/weight shifting exercises improve postural reflexes, functional balance and mobility and may lead to a reduction of falls in older adults with chronic stroke. PMID:15743283

  8. Exercise Interventions to Reduce Cancer-Related Fatigue and Improve Health-Related Quality of Life in Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kelly; Posmontier, Bobbie

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is the most common and debilitating side effect of patients receiving treatment of cancer. It is reported that 60% to 100% of patients will develop CRF as a result of the treatment or the cancer itself. The effects last for years posttreatment and lower overall quality of life. The purpose of this integrative review was to determine whether exercise interventions could reduce CRF and improve overall health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among selected cancer patients. Clinical Key, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, Cochrane Library, Mosby's Nursing Consult, and MEDLINE (Ovid) were the databases searched. Key terms searched were fatigue, exercise, cancer fatigue, holistic, spiritual, quality of life, and prevention. Findings from most studies suggest that exercise can decrease the effects of CRF among cancer patients, leading to an overall improved HRQOL. No negative results on the effects of exercise on CRF were reported. Nurses can be instrumental in developing holistic multidisciplinary exercise programs to assist in the management of CRF and improve HRQOL among cancer patients during and after cancer treatment. Recommendations for future research include the need for larger study sample sizes, a universal definition of fatigue, determination of the best exercise regimens, more consistent fatigue measures to facilitate better comparison across studies, and specifically assess patient improvements in overall mental and spiritual well-being within a holistic framework.

  9. Short-term Aerobic Exercise Reduces Nitroglycerin-induced Orthostatic Intolerance in Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Kenneth M.; Lockhart, Chris K.; Potter, Tiffany F.; Cuff, Darcye J.; Meneilly, Graydon S.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Older adults are at a high risk for syncope due to orthostatic intolerance (OI), and this risk increases with comorbid type 2 diabetes and vasoactive medications. Despite many benefits, previous investigations have shown worsening OI with aerobic training. We examined whether aerobic exercise reduced OI in older adults with type 2 diabetes who were given a short-acting vasoactive agent (nitroglycerin). Methods Forty older adults (25 males and 15 females, mean age 71.4 ± 0.7 years, ranging in age from 65 to 83 years) with type 2 diabetes were recruited. Subjects were randomized to each of 2 groups: an aerobic group (3 months of vigorous aerobic exercise) and a nonaerobic (no aerobic exercise) group. Exercise sessions were supervised by a certified exercise trainer 3 times per week. After being given 400 μg of sublingual nitroglycerin, each subject was placed in a 70° head-up tilt for 30 minutes. Results When the 2 groups were compared using a Cox proportional hazards model, tilt table tolerance was significantly better in the aerobic group as compared to in the nonaerobic group (χ2MC = 7.271, P = 0.007). Conclusions Our findings indicate that a relatively short aerobic exercise intervention can improve postnitroglycerin orthostatic tolerance in older adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:21346593

  10. Exercise in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hinman, Sally K.; Smith, Kristy B.; Quillen, David M.; Smith, M. Seth

    2015-01-01

    Context: Health professionals who care for pregnant women should discuss potential health benefits and harms of exercise. Although most pregnant women do not meet minimal exercise recommendations, there are a growing number of physically active women who wish to continue training throughout pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the Web of Science database of articles and reviews available in English through 2014. The search terms exercise pregnancy, strenuous exercise pregnancy, and vigorous exercise pregnancy were used. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: With proper attention to risk stratification and surveillance, exercise is safe for the mother and fetus. Benefits of exercise in pregnancy include reduction in Cesarean section rates, appropriate maternal and fetal weight gain, and managing gestational diabetes. Exercise as a means of preventing gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, or perinatal depression cannot be reliably supported. Overall, the current evidence suffers from a lack of rigorous study design and compliance with physical activity interventions. Conclusion: Research thus far has been unable to consistently demonstrate proposed benefits of exercise in pregnancy, such as preventing gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, or perinatal depression. However, moderate- and high-intensity exercise in normal pregnancies is safe for the developing fetus and clearly has several important benefits. Thus, exercise should be encouraged according to the woman’s preconception physical activity level. PMID:26502446

  11. Glutathione administration reduces mitochondrial damage and shifts cell death from necrosis to apoptosis in ageing diabetic mice hearts during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, S; Botta, A; Gottfred, S; Nusrat, A; Laher, I; Ghosh, S

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The effect of antioxidants on ageing type 2 diabetic (T2D) hearts during exercise is unclear. We hypothesized that GSH therapy during exercise reduces mitochondrial oxidative stress (mOXS) and cell death in ageing db/db mice hearts. Experimental Approach The effect of GSH on cardiac mOXS and cell death was evaluated both in vivo and in vitro. Key Results During exercise, GSH treatment protected db/db hearts from exaggerated mOXS without reducing total cell death. Despite similar cell death, investigations on apoptosis-specific single-stranded DNA breaks and necrosis-specific damage provided the first in vivo evidence of a shift from necrosis to apoptosis, with reduced fibrosis following GSH administration in exercised db/db hearts. Further support for a GSH-regulated ‘switch’ in death phenotypes came from NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and H9c2 cardiomyocytes treated with H2O2, a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Similar to in vivo findings, augmenting GSH by overexpressing glutamyl cysteine ligase (GCLc) protected fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes from necrosis induced by H2O2, but elevated caspase-3 and apoptosis instead. Similar to in vivo findings, where GSH therapy in normoglycaemic mice suppressed endogenous antioxidants and augmented caspase-3 activity, GCLc overexpression during staurosporine-induced death, which was not characterized by ROS, increased GSH efflux and aggravated death in fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes, confirming that oxidative stress is required for GSH-mediated cytoprotection. Conclusions and Implications While GSH treatment is useful for reducing mOXS and attenuating necrosis and fibrosis in ageing T2D hearts during exercise, such antioxidant treatment could be counterproductive in the healthy heart during exercise. PMID:25039894

  12. The efficacy of a movement control exercise programme to reduce injuries in youth rugby: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, M D; Stokes, K A; Williams, S; McKay, C D; England, M; Kemp, S P T

    2016-01-01

    Background Injuries to youth rugby players have become an increasingly prominent health concern, highlighting the importance of developing and implementing appropriate preventive strategies. A growing body of evidence from other youth sports has demonstrated the efficacy of targeted exercise regimens to reduce injury risk. However, studies have yet to investigate the effect of such interventions in youth contact sport populations like rugby union. Objective To determine the efficacy of an evidence-based movement control exercise programme compared with a sham exercise programme to reduce injury risk in youth rugby players. Exercise programme compliance between trial arms and the effect of coach attitudes on compliance will also be evaluated. Setting School rugby coaches in England will be the target of the researcher intervention, with the effects of the injury prevention programmes being measured in male youth players aged 14–18 years in school rugby programmes over the 2015–2016 school winter term. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial with schools randomly allocated to either a movement control exercise programme or a sham exercise programme, both of which are coach-delivered. Injury measures will derive from field-based injury surveillance, with match and training exposure and compliance recorded. A questionnaire will be used to evaluate coach attitudes, knowledge, beliefs and behaviours both prior to and on the conclusion of the study period. Outcome measures Summary injury measures (incidence, severity and burden) will be compared between trial arms, as will the influence of coach attitudes on compliance and injury burden. Additionally, changes in these outcomes through using the exercise programmes will be evaluated. Trial registration number ISRTCNN13422001. PMID:27900148

  13. Lack of Nrf2 reduces voluntary exercise in mice: influences of sex and diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exercise is generally accepted to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the regulatory mechanisms that are involved in the adaptations occurring during exercise are not well understood. The Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathway adapts cells to elevated ROS. We tested...

  14. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reduces glucose uptake during exercise in individuals with type 2 diabetes more than in control subjects.

    PubMed

    Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Formosa, Melissa; Muhlmann, Michael; Bradley, Scott J; McConell, Glenn K

    2002-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition reduces leg glucose uptake during cycling without reducing leg blood flow (LBF) in young, healthy individuals. This study sought to determine the role of NO in glucose uptake during exercise in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Nine men with type 2 diabetes and nine control subjects matched for age, sex, peak pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO(2) peak), and weight completed two 25-min bouts of cycling exercise at 60 +/- 2% VO(2) peak, separated by 90 min. N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) (total dose 6 mg/kg) or placebo was administered into the femoral artery for the final 15 min of exercise in a counterbalanced, blinded, crossover design. LBF was measured by thermodilution in the femoral vein, and leg glucose uptake was calculated as the product of LBF and femoral arteriovenous glucose difference. During exercise with placebo, glucose uptake was not different between control subjects and individuals with diabetes; however, LBF was lower and arterial plasma glucose and insulin levels were higher in individuals with diabetes. L-NMMA had no effect on LBF or arterial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations during exercise in both groups. L-NMMA significantly reduced leg glucose uptake in both groups, with a significantly greater reduction (P = 0.04) in the diabetic group (75 +/- 13%, 5 min after L-NMMA) compared with the control group (34 +/- 14%, 5 min after L-NMMA). These data suggest a greater reliance on NO for glucose uptake during exercise in individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with control subjects.

  15. The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on the Inflammatory Response to eccentric strength exercise

    PubMed Central

    Jouris, Kelly B.; McDaniel, Jennifer L.; Weiss, Edward P.

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) have anti-inflammatory properties. However, it is not known if omega-3 supplementation attenuates exercise-induced inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that omega-3 supplementation reduces inflammation that is induced by eccentric arm curl exercise. Healthy adult men and women (n=11; 35 ± 10 y) performed eccentric biceps curls on two occasions, once after 14d of dietary omega-3 restriction (control trial) and again after 7d of 3,000 mg/d omega-3 supplementation (omega-3 trial). Before and 48 h after eccentric exercise, signs of inflammation was assessed by measuring soreness ratings, swelling (arm circumference and arm volume), and temperature (infrared skin sensor). Arm soreness increased (p < 0.0001) in response to eccentric exercise; the magnitude of increase in soreness was 15% less in the omega-3 trial (p = 0.004). Arm circumference increased after eccentric exercise in the control trial (p = 0.01) but not in the omega-3 trial (p = 0.15). However, there was no difference between trials (p = 0.45). Arm volume and skin temperature did not change in response to eccentric exercise in either trial. These findings suggest that omega-3 supplementation decreases soreness, as a marker of inflammation, after eccentric exercise. Based on these findings, omega-3 supplementation could provide benefits by minimizing post-exercise soreness and thereby facilitate exercise training in individuals ranging from athletes undergoing heavy conditioning to sedentary subjects or patients who are starting exercise programs or medical treatments such as physical therapy or cardiac rehabilitation. Key points Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids has been shown to reduce inflammation in numerous inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and Chrohn’s disease. Although strenuous exercise is known to cause acute increases in inflammation, it is not clear if omega-3 fatty acid supplementation attenuates this

  16. Hemodynamic responses are reduced with aerobic compared with resistance blood flow restriction exercise.

    PubMed

    May, Anthony K; Brandner, Christopher R; Warmington, Stuart A

    2017-02-01

    The hemodynamics of light-load exercise with an applied blood-flow restriction (BFR) have not been extensively compared between light-intensity, BFR, and high-intensity forms of both resistance and aerobic exercise in the same participant population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use a randomized crossover design to examine the hemodynamic responses to resistance and aerobic BFR exercise in comparison with a common high-intensity and light-intensity non-BFR exercise. On separate occasions participants completed a leg-press (resistance) or treadmill (aerobic) trial. Each trial comprised a light-intensity bout (LI) followed by a light-intensity bout with BFR (80% resting systolic blood pressure (LI+BFR)), then a high-intensity bout (HI). To characterize the hemodynamic response, measures of cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate and blood pressure were taken at baseline and exercise for each bout. Exercising hemodynamics for leg-press LI+BFR most often resembled those for HI and were greater than LI (e.g. for systolic blood pressure LI+BFR = 152 ± 3 mmHg; HI = 153 ± 3; LI = 143 ± 3 P < 0.05). However, exercising hemodynamics for treadmill LI+BFR most often resembled those for LI and were lower than HI (e.g. for systolic pressure LI+BFR = 124 ± 2 mmHg; LI = 123 ± 2; HI = 140 ± 3 P < 0.05). In conclusion, the hemodynamic response for light aerobic (walking) BFR exercise suggests this mode of BFR exercise may be preferential for chronic use to develop muscle size and strength, and other health benefits in certain clinical populations that are contraindicated to heavy-load resistance exercise.

  17. Falls exercise interventions and reduced falls rate: always in the patient's interest?

    PubMed

    Laybourne, A H; Biggs, S; Martin, F C

    2008-01-01

    Falls are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in older adults. Physical, psychological and social consequences include injury, fall-related fear and loss of self-efficacy. In turn, these may result in decreased physical activity, reduced functional capacity, and increased risk of institutionalisation. Falls prevention exercise programmes (FPEP) are now widespread within the National Health Service, often part of multifactorial interventions, and are designed to minimise impairments that impact physical function, such as strength and balance. Assessment of the clinical efficacy of FPEPs has therefore focused on the measurement of physical function and rate of falls. Whilst important, this approach may be too narrow to capture the highly variable and multidimensional responses that individuals make to a fall and to a FPEP. We argue that the current focus may miss a paradoxical lack of or even deleterious impact on quality of life, despite a reduction in physical performance-related falls risk. We draw upon the Selective Optimisation and Compensation (SOC) model, developed by Paul and Margret Baltes, to explore how this paradox may be a result of the coping strategies adopted by individuals in response to a fall.

  18. A Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise Reduces Anxiety Sensitivity But Not Intolerance of Uncertainty or Distress Tolerance: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    LeBouthillier, Daniel M; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been posited for the anxiolytic effects of exercise, including reductions in anxiety sensitivity through interoceptive exposure. Studies on aerobic exercise lend support to this hypothesis; however, research investigating aerobic exercise in comparison to placebo, the dose-response relationship between aerobic exercise anxiety sensitivity, the efficacy of aerobic exercise on the spectrum of anxiety sensitivity and the effect of aerobic exercise on other related constructs (e.g. intolerance of uncertainty, distress tolerance) is lacking. We explored reductions in anxiety sensitivity and related constructs following a single session of exercise in a community sample using a randomized controlled trial design. Forty-one participants completed 30 min of aerobic exercise or a placebo stretching control. Anxiety sensitivity, intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance were measured at baseline, post-intervention and 3-day and 7-day follow-ups. Individuals in the aerobic exercise group, but not the control group, experienced significant reductions with moderate effect sizes in all dimensions of anxiety sensitivity. Intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance remained unchanged in both groups. Our trial supports the efficacy of aerobic exercise in uniquely reducing anxiety sensitivity in individuals with varying levels of the trait and highlights the importance of empirically validating the use of aerobic exercise to address specific mental health vulnerabilities. Aerobic exercise may have potential as a temporary substitute for psychotherapy aimed at reducing anxiety-related psychopathology.

  19. Muscle strengthening exercises during pregnancy are associated with increased energy and reduced fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Ward-Ritacco, Christie; Poudevigne, Melanie S.; O’Connor, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Physical inactivity likely contributes to fatigue and low energy during pregnancy but whether acute resistance exercise attenuates these symptoms is unknown. METHODS Twenty-six women performed six low-to-moderate intensity resistance exercises twice per week from weeks 23 to 35 of pregnancy and measurements were made before and after each workout using the Mental and Physical State Energy and Fatigue Scales. RESULTS Acute resistance exercise usually increased perceived physical and mental energy (92% to 96% of workouts, respectively). These increases did not differ significantly across the 24 exercise sessions for feelings of physical energy or mental energy, even after adjusting for variations in attendance (median = 22/24 workouts). Acute resistance exercise usually decreased perceived physical and mental fatigue (79% to 88% of workouts, respectively), and ANCOVA showed these decreases did not differ significantly across the 24 exercise sessions for feelings of physical fatigue or mental fatigue even after adjusting for variations in attendance. DISCUSSION The results suggest acute, low-to-moderate intensity muscle strengthening exercise during pregnancy is effective for transiently improving feelings of energy and fatigue. PMID:26984583

  20. Load Variation Influences on Joint Work During Squat Exercise in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John K.; Fincke, Renita S.; Logan, Rachel L.; Guilliams, Mark E.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance exercises that load the axial skeleton, such as the parallel squat, are incorporated as a critical component of a space exercise program designed to maximize the stimuli for bone remodeling and muscle loading. Astronauts on the International Space Station perform regular resistance exercise using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). Squat exercises on Earth entail moving a portion of the body weight plus the added bar load, whereas in microgravity the body weight is 0, so all load must be applied via the bar. Crewmembers exercising in microgravity currently add approx.70% of their body weight to the bar load as compensation for the absence of the body weight. This level of body weight replacement (BWR) was determined by crewmember feedback and personal experience without any quantitative data. The purpose of this evaluation was to utilize computational simulation to determine the appropriate level of BWR in microgravity necessary to replicate lower extremity joint work during squat exercise in normal gravity based on joint work. We hypothesized that joint work would be positively related to BWR load.

  1. A systematic review to evaluate exercise for anterior cruciate ligament injuries: does this approach reduce the incidence of knee osteoarthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Koji J; Chopp-Hurley, Jaclyn N; Maly, Monica R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Among a variety of conservative and surgical options to treat anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, we do not understand which options could potentially prevent knee osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence pertaining to exercise treatment of ACL injuries in the context of knee OA. Methods Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PubMed, and PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) databases were systematically searched using keywords encompassed within four primary key terms: knee, osteoarthritis, anterior cruciate ligament, and exercise. Clinical studies evaluating the effect of an exercise treatment for ACL injuries on the development of knee OA in adult humans were included. The PEDro scale was used to critically assess the studies included in the review. Results Eighteen studies were included in this review, with a median PEDro score of 6/11 (range, 2/11–9/11). Three studies provided statistical evidence that exercise following ACL injury lowered the risk for knee OA development. Nine studies demonstrated no benefit of exercise in preventing knee OA incidence relative to either operative treatment or the contralateral, unaffected knee. However, exercise resulted in higher knee instability. Nonetheless, there were no significant differences in subjective or objective knee outcomes for early versus late ACL reconstruction. Limitations This review was not registered through PROSPERO. Conclusion The relationship between a rehabilitative exercise for ACL injuries and long-term knee OA prevalence is inconclusive. However, research suggests initial conservative treatment with optional late ACL reconstruction because this treatment strategy may reduce the risk of knee OA. More research, ideally randomized controlled trials or comparable designs, is required prior to establishing clinical guidelines for ACL injury management. PMID:27843365

  2. Combined intervention of medium-chain triacylglycerol diet and exercise reduces body fat mass and enhances energy expenditure in rats.

    PubMed

    Ooyama, Katsuhiko; Wu, Jian; Nosaka, Naohisa; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Kasai, Michio

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies indicated that a medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) diet could inhibit body fat accumulation. It is also well established that exercise can reduce fat mass. However, the effects of a combination of MCT diet and exercise on reduction of fat mass have not been studied. Here we examined whether MCT diet and exercise intervention exert cooperative effects on body composition. Rats were assigned to 4 groups: 1. LCT diet, control (LCT-C); 2. MCT diet, control (MCT-C); 3. LCT diet, exercise (LCT-E); 4. MCT diet, exercise (MCT-E). After the 6-wk intervention, visceral fat mass was measured by CT scan and dissection, and energy expenditure was estimated for 24 h. The value of the visceral fat mass showed a significant correlation between CT scan and dissection (r=0.995, p<0.001). Visceral fat mass in the MCT-C group was lower than that in the LCT-C group. Furthermore, the fat-lowering effects were greater in the MCT-E group than that in either intervention alone. Thus significant effects of the MCT diet and exercise on the reduction of visceral fat mass were observed. Energy expenditure was significantly higher in the MCT-E group than in the other groups. Our present findings suggest that combined intervention of MCT diet and exercise has an additive effect on reduction of visceral and subcutaneous fat accumulation, and that this effect may be partially related to increased energy expenditure. However, future studies are necessary to define the relationship between energy expenditure and fat mass accumulation.

  3. Experimentally induced pain perception is acutely reduced by aerobic exercise in people with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Shepanski, Melissa A; Mackenzie, Sean P; Clifford, Philip S

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether subjects with chronic low back pain demonstrate exercise-induced analgesia to experimentally induced pressure pain. We employed a repeated measures design to study eight subjects with chronic low back pain (mean +/- standard deviation age = 40 +/- 10, duration of pain = 7 +/- 4 years). Pain ratings were measured immediately before and 2 minutes and 32 minutes after 25 minutes of cycle ergometry (5 minutes at 50% peak oxygen uptake, then 20 minutes at 70% peak oxygen uptake). We based the pain ratings on subject input on a visual analog scale at 10-second intervals during the 2-minute pressure pain stimulus to the nondominant index finger. Compared with preexercise values, pain ratings were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased after exercise at both 2 and 32 minutes postexercise. We conclude that pressure pain perception can be reduced for more than 30 minutes following aerobic exercise from leg cycling among people with chronic low back pain.

  4. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Christensen, Peter M; Pavlovic, Davor; Shattock, Michael J; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of intensive training in combination with marked reduction in training volume on phospholemman (FXYD1) expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise. Eight well-trained cyclists replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (10-12 × ∼30-s sprints) two or three times per week and aerobic high-intensity training (4-5 × 3-4 min at 90-95% of peak aerobic power output) 1-2 times per week for 7 wk and reduced the training volume by 70%. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and during a repeated high-intensity exercise protocol, and protein expression and phosphorylation were determined by Western blot analysis. Expression of FXYD1 (30%), actin (40%), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (12%), phospholamban (PLN) (16%), and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) γ/δ (25%) was higher (P < 0.05) than before the training intervention. In addition, after the intervention, nonspecific FXYD1 phosphorylation was higher (P < 0.05) at rest and during exercise, mainly achieved by an increased FXYD1 Ser-68 phosphorylation, compared with before the intervention. CaMKII, Thr-287, and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 Thr-56 phosphorylation at rest and during exercise, overall PKCα/β, Thr-638/641, and mTOR Ser-2448 phosphorylation during repeated intense exercise as well as resting PLN Thr-17 phosphorylation were also higher (P < 0.05) compared with before the intervention period. Thus, a period of high-intensity training with reduced training volume increases expression and phosphorylation levels of FXYD1, which may affect Na(+)/K(+) pump activity and muscle K(+) homeostasis during intense exercise. Furthermore, higher expression of CaMKII and PLN, as well as increased phosphorylation of CaMKII Thr-287 may have improved intracellular Ca(2+) handling.

  5. Exercise, Behavioral Therapy Reduce Menopausal Symptoms Caused by Breast Cancer Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Women with breast cancer who were suffering from treatment-related menopausal symptoms experienced symptom relief with cognitive behavioral therapy, physical exercise, or both, according to a Dutch study.

  6. Oral branched-chain amino acid supplements that reduce brain serotonin during exercise in rats also lower brain catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sujean; Disilvio, Briana; Fernstrom, Madelyn H; Fernstrom, John D

    2013-11-01

    Exercise raises brain serotonin release and is postulated to cause fatigue in athletes; ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), by competitively inhibiting tryptophan transport into brain, lowers brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin synthesis and release in rats, and reputedly in humans prevents exercise-induced increases in serotonin and fatigue. This latter effect in humans is disputed. But BCAA also competitively inhibit tyrosine uptake into brain, and thus catecholamine synthesis and release. Since increasing brain catecholamines enhances physical performance, BCAA ingestion could lower catecholamines, reduce performance and thus negate any serotonin-linked benefit. We therefore examined in rats whether BCAA would reduce both brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Sedentary and exercising rats received BCAA or vehicle orally; tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis rates were measured 1 h later in brain. BCAA reduced brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations, and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. These reductions in tyrosine concentrations and catecholamine synthesis, but not tryptophan or serotonin synthesis, could be prevented by co-administering tyrosine with BCAA. Complete essential amino acid mixtures, used to maintain or build muscle mass, were also studied, and produced different effects on brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Since pharmacologically increasing brain catecholamine function improves physical performance, the finding that BCAA reduce catecholamine synthesis may explain why this treatment does not enhance physical performance in humans, despite reducing serotonin synthesis. If so, adding tyrosine to BCAA supplements might allow a positive action on performance to emerge.

  7. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deitrick, Ronald W.; Hillman, Angela R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8 ± 3.0 years old, VO2max: 59.1 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK: 19172 ± 4542 kJ versus NoBK: 15312 ± 4513 kJ; p < 0.001) and evening (BK: 12265 ± 4278 kJ versus NoBK: 10833 ± 4065; p = 0.039) energy intake and RQ (BK: 0.90 ± 0.03 versus NoBK: 0.86 ± 0.03; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise (5.2 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L; p = 0.025). Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management. PMID:27738523

  8. Exercise reduces adipose tissue via cannabinoid receptor type 1 which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta}

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Zhencheng; Liu Daoyan; Zhang Lili; Shen Chenyi; Ma Qunli; Cao Tingbing; Wang Lijuan; Nie Hai; Zidek, Walter; Tepel, Martin; Zhu Zhiming . E-mail: zhuzm@yahoo.com

    2007-03-09

    Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta} (PPAR-{delta})-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow or a high-fat diet without and with regular endurance exercise. Exercise in rats on high-fat diet significantly reduced visceral fat mass, blood pressure, and adipocyte size (each p < 0.05). Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by increased CB1 expression in adipose tissue, whereas exercise significantly reduced CB1 expression (each p < 0.05). CB1 receptor expression and adipocyte differentiation were directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by reduced PPAR-{delta}. Furthermore, selective silencing of PPAR-{delta} by RNA interference in 3T3-L1-preadipocyte cells significantly increased CB1 expression from 1.00 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3) to 1.91 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and increased adipocyte differentiation, whereas adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PPAR-{delta} significantly reduced CB1 expression to 0.39 {+-} 0.03 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and reduced adipocyte differentiation. In the presence of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant adipocyte differentiation in stimulated 3T3 L1 preadipocyte cells was significantly reduced. The study indicates that high-fat diet-induced hypertrophy of adipocytes is associated with increased CB1 receptor expression which is directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Both CB1 and PPAR-{delta} are intimately involved in therapeutic interventions against a most important cardiovascular risk factor.

  9. Cardiorespiratory responses and reduced apneic time to cold-water face immersion after high intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidou, Sylvia; Soultanakis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Apnea after exercise may evoke a neurally mediated conflict that may affect apneic time and create a cardiovascular strain. The physiological responses, induced by apnea with face immersion in cold water (10 °C), after a 3-min exercise bout, at 85% of VO2max,were examined in 10 swimmers. A pre-selected 40-s apnea, completed after rest (AAR), could not be met after exercise (AAE), and was terminated with an agonal gasp reflex, and a reduction of apneic time, by 75%. Bradycardia was evident with immersion after both, 40-s of AAR and after AAE (P<0.05). The dramatic elevation of, systolic pressure and pulse pressure, after AAE, were indicative of cardiovascular stress. Blood pressure after exercise without apnea was not equally elevated. The activation of neurally opposing functions as those elicited by the diving reflex after high intensity exercise may create an autonomic conflict possibly related to oxygen-conserving reflexes stimulated by the trigeminal nerve, and those elicited by exercise.

  10. Effect of eccentric exercise with reduced muscle glycogen on plasma interleukin-6 and neuromuscular responses of musculus quadriceps femoris.

    PubMed

    Gavin, James P; Myers, Stephen D; Willems, Mark E T

    2016-07-01

    Eccentric exercise can result in muscle damage and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion. Glycogen availability is a potent stimulator of IL-6 secretion. We examined effects of eccentric exercise in a low-glycogen state on neuromuscular function and plasma IL-6 secretion. Twelve active men (23 ± 4 yr, 179 ± 5 cm, 77 ± 10 kg, means ± SD) completed two downhill treadmill runs (gradient, -12%, 5 × 8 min; speed, 12.1 ± 1.1 km/h) with normal (NG) and reduced muscle glycogen (RG) in randomized order and at least 6 wk apart. Muscle glycogen was reduced using an established cycling protocol until exhaustion and dietary manipulation the evening before the morning run. Physiological responses were measured up to 48 h after the downhill runs. During recovery, force deficits of musculus quadriceps femoris by maximal isometric contractions were similar. Changes in low-frequency fatigue were larger with RG. Voluntary activation and plasma IL-6 levels were similar in recovery between conditions. It is concluded that unaccustomed, damaging eccentric exercise with low muscle glycogen of the m. quadriceps femoris 1) exacerbated low-frequency fatigue but 2) had no additional effect on IL-6 secretion. Neuromuscular impairment after eccentric exercise with low muscle glycogen appears to have a greater peripheral component in early recovery.

  11. Acute resistance exercise reduces increased gene expression in muscle atrophy of ovariectomised arthritic rats

    PubMed Central

    Furlanetto, Roberto; de Paula Souza, Aletéia; de Oliveira, Anselmo Alves; Nunes, Paulo Ricardo Prado; Michelin, Márcia Antoniazi; Chica, Javier Emilio Lazo; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido

    2017-01-01

    Objective We studied the effect of resistance exercise (RE) on mRNA levels of atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and myostatin in the gastrocnemius muscle of arthritic rats after loss of ovarian function (LOF). Material and methods Thirty female Wistar rats (nine weeks old, 195.3 ±17.4 grams) were randomly allocated into five groups: control group (CT-Sham; n = 6); group with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 6); group with rheumatoid arthritis subjected to RE (RAEX; n = 6); ovariectomy group with rheumatoid arthritis (RAOV; n = 6); and an ovariectomy group with rheumatoid arthritis subjected to RE (RAOVEX; n = 6). After 15 days of intra-articular injections with Met-BSA the animals were subjected to RE and six hours after workout were euthanised. Results The rheumatoid arthritis provoked reduction in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of muscle fibres, but the CSA was lower in the RAOV when compared to the RA groups. Skeletal muscle atrogin-1 mRNA level was increased in arthritic rats (RA and RAOV), but the atrogin-1 level was higher in RAOV group when compared to other arthritic groups. The Muscle MuRF-1 mRNA level was also increased in the RAOV group. The increased atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 mRNA levels were lower in the RAOVEX group than in the RAOV group. The myostatin mRNA level was similar in all groups, except for the RAOVEX group, in which it was lower than the other groups. Conclusions LOF results in increased loss of skeletal muscle-related ubiquitin ligases (atrogin-1 and MuRF-1). However, the RE reduces the atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and myostatin mRNA levels in muscle of arthritic rats affected by LOF. PMID:28250722

  12. The Effect of Cardiac Rehabilitation Exercise Training on Cardiopulmonary Function in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy With Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect and safety of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) exercise in ischemic cardiomyopathy and to compare the results between patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and reduced LVEF. Methods Patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy with LVEF <50% were included as subjects. The patients were classified into the preserved LVEF (pLVEF; LVEF 41%–49%) group and the reduced LVEF (rLVEF; LVEF ≤40%) group. Patients underwent hourly aerobic exercise training sessions with an intensity of 60%–85% of heart rate reserve, three times a week for 6 weeks. Graded exercise test and transthoracic echocardiogram were performed in all study patients before and after completion of the CR exercise program. Results After completion of the CR exercise program, both groups (pLVEF, n=30; rLVEF, n=18) showed significant increases in LVEF and VO2max. In the pLVEF group, LVEF and VO2max increased from 45.1%±4.8% to 52.5%±9.6% (p<0.001) and from 24.1±6.3 to 28.1±8.8 mL/kg/min (p=0.002), respectively. In the rLVEF group, LVEF and VO2max increased from 29.7%±7.7% to 37.6%±10.3% (p<0.001) and from 17.6±4.7 to 21.2±5.1 mL/kg/min (p<0.001), respectively. Both groups completed their exercise program safely. Conclusion In both groups, patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy who completed a 6-week supervised CR exercise program demonstrated remarkable improvements in cardiopulmonary function. This result implies that neither of the two groups showed higher efficacy in comparison to each other, but we can conclude that CR exercise in the rLVEF group was as effective and safe as that in the pLVEF group. PMID:27606271

  13. Acute high-intensity exercise with low energy expenditure reduced LDL-c and total cholesterol in men.

    PubMed

    Lira, Fabio S; Zanchi, Nelo E; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Pires, Flávio O; Bertuzzi, Rômulo C; Santos, Ronaldo V; Caperuto, Erico C; Kiss, Maria A; Seelaender, Marília

    2009-09-01

    A reduction in LDL cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol levels are clinically relevant parameters for the treatment of dyslipidaemia, and exercise is often recommended as an intervention. This study aimed to examine the effects of acute, high-intensity exercise ( approximately 90% VO(2max)) and varying carbohydrate levels (control, low and high) on the blood lipid profile. Six male subjects were distributed randomly into exercise groups, based on the carbohydrate diets (control, low and high) to which the subjects were restricted before each exercise session. The lipid profile (triglycerides, VLDL, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol) was determined at rest, and immediately and 1 h after exercise bouts. There were no changes in the time exhaustion (8.00 +/- 1.83; 7.82 +/- 2.66; and 9.09 +/- 3.51 min) and energy expenditure (496.0 +/- 224.8; 411.5 +/- 223.1; and 592.1 +/- 369.9 kJ) parameters with the three varying carbohydrate intake (control, low and high). Glucose and insulin levels did not show time-dependent changes under the different conditions (P > 0.05). Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were reduced after the exhaustion and 1 h recovery periods when compared with rest periods only in the control carbohydrate intake group (P < 0.05), although this relation failed when the diet was manipulated. These results indicate that acute, high-intensity exercise with low energy expenditure induces changes in the cholesterol profile, and that influences of carbohydrate level corresponding to these modifications fail when carbohydrate (low and high) intake is manipulated.

  14. Effects of Short-Term Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation after Eccentric Strength Exercise in Women

    PubMed Central

    Corder, Katherine E.; Newsham, Katherine R.; McDaniel, Jennifer L.; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R.; Weiss, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive (pain inhibiting) effects. Because strenuous exercise often results in local inflammation and pain, we hypothesized that DHA supplementation attenuates the rise in markers of local muscle inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that occur after eccentric strength exercise. Twenty-seven, healthy women (33 ± 2 y, BMI 23.1±1.0 kg·m-2) were randomized to receive 9d of 3000 mg/d DHA or placebo in a double-blind fashion. On day 7 of the supplementation period, the participants performed 4 sets of maximal-effort eccentric biceps curl exercise. Before and 48h after the eccentric exercise, markers of inflammation were measured including measures of muscle soreness (10-point visual analog pain scale, VAS), swelling (arm circumference), muscle stiffness (active and passive elbow extension), skin temperature, and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. As expected, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased while active and passive elbow extension decreased. The increase in soreness was 23% less in the DHA group (48h increase in VAS soreness ratings: 4.380.4 vs. 5.600.5, p=0.02). Furthermore, the number of subjects who were able to achieve full active elbow extension 48h after eccentric exercise was greater in the DHA group (71% vs. 15%, p = 0.006), indicating significantly less muscle stiffness. No between-group differences were observed for passive elbow extension (p = 0.78) or arm swelling (p = 0.75). Skin temperature and salivary CRP concentrations did not change from baseline to 48h after exercise in either group. These findings indicate that short-term DHA supplementation reduces exercise-induced muscle soreness and stiffness. Therefore, in addition to other health benefits that n-3 fatty acids have been associated with, DHA supplementation could be beneficial for improving tolerance to new and/or strenuous exercise programs and thereby might

  15. Effects of Short-Term Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation after Eccentric Strength Exercise in Women.

    PubMed

    Corder, Katherine E; Newsham, Katherine R; McDaniel, Jennifer L; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R; Weiss, Edward P

    2016-03-01

    The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive (pain inhibiting) effects. Because strenuous exercise often results in local inflammation and pain, we hypothesized that DHA supplementation attenuates the rise in markers of local muscle inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that occur after eccentric strength exercise. Twenty-seven, healthy women (33 ± 2 y, BMI 23.1±1.0 kg·m(-2)) were randomized to receive 9d of 3000 mg/d DHA or placebo in a double-blind fashion. On day 7 of the supplementation period, the participants performed 4 sets of maximal-effort eccentric biceps curl exercise. Before and 48h after the eccentric exercise, markers of inflammation were measured including measures of muscle soreness (10-point visual analog pain scale, VAS), swelling (arm circumference), muscle stiffness (active and passive elbow extension), skin temperature, and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. As expected, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased while active and passive elbow extension decreased. The increase in soreness was 23% less in the DHA group (48h increase in VAS soreness ratings: 4.380.4 vs. 5.600.5, p=0.02). Furthermore, the number of subjects who were able to achieve full active elbow extension 48h after eccentric exercise was greater in the DHA group (71% vs. 15%, p = 0.006), indicating significantly less muscle stiffness. No between-group differences were observed for passive elbow extension (p = 0.78) or arm swelling (p = 0.75). Skin temperature and salivary CRP concentrations did not change from baseline to 48h after exercise in either group. These findings indicate that short-term DHA supplementation reduces exercise-induced muscle soreness and stiffness. Therefore, in addition to other health benefits that n-3 fatty acids have been associated with, DHA supplementation could be beneficial for improving tolerance to new and/or strenuous exercise programs and thereby might

  16. Intense Exercise during the First Two Trimesters of Unapparent Pregnancy: Case Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Gloria C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This report presents nonexperimental retrospective data on the weights, menstrual cycle intervals, pregnancy symptoms, and running programs of two women who exercised intensely during their first two trimesters. Although these two cases suggest that strenuous anaerobic exercise during pregnancy is not harmful, more studies are needed. (IAH)

  17. Erythrocyte membrane fluidity and indices of plasmatic oxidative damage after acute physical exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Berzosa, C; Gómez-Trullén, E M; Piedrafita, E; Cebrián, I; Martínez-Ballarín, E; Miana-Mena, F J; Fuentes-Broto, L; García, J J

    2011-06-01

    Optimal levels of membrane fluidity are essential for numerous cell functions including cell growth, solute transport and signal transduction. Since exercise enhances free radical production, our aim was to evaluate in healthy male subjects the effects of an acute bout of maximal and submaximal exercise on the erythrocyte membrane fluidity and its possible relation to the oxidative damage overproduction due to exercise. Subjects (n = 34) performed three cycloergometric tests: a continuous progressive exercise, a strenuous exercise until exhaustion and an acute bout of exercise at an intensity corresponding to 70% of maximal work capacity for 30 min. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after these exercises. Erythrocyte membrane fluidity was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxyalkenals (4-HDA) concentrations and carbonyl content of plasmatic proteins were used as an index of lipid and protein oxidation, respectively. Exercise produced a dramatic drop in the erythrocyte membrane fluidity as compared to resting time, but this was not accompanied by significant changes in the plasmatic MDA and 4-HDA concentrations. The highest erythrocyte membrane rigidity was detected immediately after strenuous exercise until exhaustion was performed. Protein carbonyl levels were higher after exhaustive exercises than at rest. Continuous progressive and strenuous exercises until exhaustion, but not submaximal workload, resulted in a significant enhanced accumulation of carbonylated proteins in the plasma. These findings are consistent with the idea that exercise exaggerates oxidative damage, which may contribute, at least partially, to explain the rigidity in the membrane of the erythrocytes due to acute exercise.

  18. Prophylactic tolperisone for post-exercise muscle soreness causes reduced isometric force--a double-blind randomized crossover control study.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Prem; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Madeleine, Pascal; Svensson, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The role of tolperisone hydrochloride, a centrally acting muscle relaxant in relieving painful muscle spasm is recently being discussed. The present study hypothesizes that the prophylactic use of tolperisone hydrochloride may effectively relieve post-exercise muscle soreness, based on the spasm theory of exercise pain. Twenty male volunteers, aged 25.2 +/- 0.82 years (mean +/- SEM) participated in 10 sessions in which they received oral treatment with placebo or the centrally acting muscle relaxant tolperisone hydrochloride (150 mg) three times daily for 8 days, in randomized crossover double-blind design. Time course assessments were made for pressure pain threshold, Likert's pain score (0-5), pain areas, range of abduction, isometric force, and electromyography (EMG) root mean square (RMS) during maximum voluntary isometric force on day 1 and 6, immediately after an eccentric exercise of first dorsal interosseous muscle, and 24 and 48 h after the exercise. Treatment with placebo or tolperisone hydrochloride was initiated immediately after the assessments on the first day baseline assessments. On the sixth day baseline investigations were repeated and then the subjects performed six bouts of standardized intense eccentric exercise of first dorsal interosseous muscle for provocation of post-exercise muscle soreness (PEMS). Perceived intensity of warmth, tiredness, soreness and pain during the exercise bouts were recorded on a 10 cm visual analogue pain scale. VAS scores and pressure pain thresholds did not differ between tolperisone and placebo treatment. All VAS scores increased during the exercise bouts 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 as compared to bout 1. Increased pain scores and pain areas were reported immediately after, 24 and 48 h after exercise. Pressure pain thresholds were reduced at 24 and 48 h after the exercise in the exercised hand. Range of abduction of the index finger was reduced immediately after the exercise and was still reduced at 24 h as compared to the

  19. Concurrent Intervention With Exercises and Stabilized Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy Reduced the Disease Activity in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hui; Li, Wen-Rong; Zhang, Hua; Tian, Xu; Wei, Wei; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Since the use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy is becoming wider, the effects of concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are different. The study aimed to objectively evaluate whether concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. A search from PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was electronically performed to collect studies which compared concurrent intervention with exercise and TNF inhibitor to conventional approach in terms of disease activity in patients with AS published from their inception to June 2015. Studies that measured the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), and chest expansion as outcomes were included. Two independent investigators screened the identified articles, extracted the data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. Quantitative analysis was performed with Review Manager (RevMan) software (version 5.3.0). A total of 5 studies comprising 221 participants were included in the study. Meta-analyses showed that concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy significantly reduced the BASMI scores (MD, −0.99; 95% CI, −1.61 to −0.38) and BASDAI scores (MD, −0.58; 95% CI, −1.10 to −0.06), but the BASFI scores (MD, −0.31; 95% CI, −0.76 to 0.15) was not reduced, and chest expansion (MD, 0.80; 95% CI, −0.18 to 1.78) was not increased. Concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high-quality, large-scale, and appropriate follow-up are warranted to further establish the benefit of concurrent intervention with

  20. Estrogen supplementation reduces whole body leucine and carbohydrate oxidation and increases lipid oxidation in men during endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Hamadeh, Mazen J; Devries, Michaela C; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2005-06-01

    Healthy active men exhibit higher rates of carbohydrate (CHO) and leucine oxidation and lower rates of lipid oxidation compared with their female counterparts both at rest and during moderate intensity endurance exercise. We postulated that this reduced dependence on amino acids as a fuel source in women was due to the female sex hormone estrogen. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of supplementing 12 recreationally active men with estrogen on whole body substrate oxidation and leucine kinetics at rest and during moderate intensity endurance exercise. Subjects cycled for 90 min at an intensity of 65% maximum O(2) consumption after 8 d of either estrogen supplementation (2 mg 17beta-estradiol/d) or placebo (polycose). After a 2-wk washout period, they repeated the test after 8 d of the alternate treatment. On the test day, after a primed continuous infusion of l-[(13)C]leucine, O(2) consumption, CO(2) production, steady-state breath (13)CO(2), and plasma alpha-[(13)C]ketoisocaproate enrichments were measured at rest and at 60, 75, and 90 min during exercise in the postabsorptive state. Exercise increased energy expenditure more than 5-fold, CHO oxidation more than 6-fold, lipid oxidation more than 4-fold, and leucine oxidation 2.2-fold (all P < 0.0001), whereas it decreased the ratio of lipid to CHO oxidation by 50-70% (P = 0.003) compared with values at rest. Estrogen supplementation decreased respiratory exchange ratio during exercise (P = 0.03). Estrogen supplementation significantly decreased CHO oxidation by 5-16% (P = 0.04) and leucine oxidation by 16% (P = 0.01), whereas it significantly increased lipid oxidation by 22-44% (P = 0.024) at rest and during exercise. We conclude that estrogen influences fuel source selection at rest and during endurance exercise in recreationally active men, characterized by a reduced dependence on amino acids and CHO and an increased reliance on lipids as a fuel

  1. A reduced cerebral metabolic ratio in exercise reflects metabolism and not accumulation of lactate within the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Quistorff, Bjørn; Danielsen, Else R; Selmer, Christian; Vogelsang, Thomas; Secher, Niels H

    2004-01-01

    During maximal exercise lactate taken up by the human brain contributes to reduce the cerebral metabolic ratio, O2/(glucose + 1/2 lactate), but it is not known whether the lactate is metabolized or if it accumulates in a distribution volume. In one experiment the cerebral arterio-venous differences (AV) for O2, glucose (glc) and lactate (lac) were evaluated in nine healthy subjects at rest and during and after exercise to exhaustion. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was drained through a lumbar puncture immediately after exercise, while control values were obtained from six other healthy young subjects. In a second experiment magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was performed after exhaustive exercise to assess lactate levels in the brain (n = 5). Exercise increased the AVO2 from 3.2 ± 0.1 at rest to 3.5 ± 0.2 mm (mean ± s.e.m.; P < 0.05) and the AVglc from 0.6 ± 0.0 to 0.9 ± 0.1 mm (P < 0.01). Notably, the AVlac increased from 0.0 ± 0.0 to 1.3 ± 0.2 mm at the point of exhaustion (P < 0.01). Thus, maximal exercise reduced the cerebral metabolic ratio from 6.0 ± 0.3 to 2.8 ± 0.2 (P < 0.05) and it remained low during the early recovery. Despite this, the CSF concentration of lactate postexercise (1.2 ± 0.1 mm; n = 7) was not different from baseline (1.4 ± 0.1 mm; n = 6). Also, the 1H-MRS signal from lactate obtained after exercise was smaller than the estimated detection limit of ∼1.5 mm. The finding that an increase in lactate could not be detected in the CSF or within the brain rules out accumulation in a distribution volume and indicates that the lactate taken up by the brain is metabolized. PMID:14608005

  2. Swimming exercise reduces preference for a high-fat diet by increasing insulin sensitivity in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Jun; Yang, Hong-Tao; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of 4-week swimming training on the preference for a high-fat diet and insulin sensitivity in mice. C57BL/6 J mice were placed on either a low-fat diet or a choice diet (with both low-fat and high-fat diets available) for 6 weeks. During this period, a group of mice on the free-choice diet were randomly selected to receive a 4-week swimming exercise intervention. Mice that received the swimming exercise intervention showed a reduced preference for the high-fat diet as well as a slower rate of weight gain. Moreover, changes in insulin sensitivity, tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens system, and the expression of IRS2, IRS2, and high-fat diet-induced Akt phosphorylation in the nucleus accumbens were delayed in the swimming exercise intervention group. Taken together, these results suggest that swimming exercise regulates the dopaminergic reward system to decrease high-fat diet intake, thereby controlling body weight to prevent obesity, in a manner likely mediated by increased insulin signal transduction in the nucleus accumbens.

  3. Exercise in heart failure patients supported with a left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mette Holme; Gustafsson, Finn

    2015-04-01

    After implantation of a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD), exercise capacity in heart failure patients remains reduced with peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) values averaging from 11 to 20 ml/kg/min. Total cardiac output in CF-LVAD patients during exercise is predominantly determined by pump speed, the pressure difference across the pump, and in some cases ejection through the aortic valve. Fixed pump speed utilized in CF-LVADs may provide insufficient support, resulting in a moderate cardiac output increase during increased physical strain. Ongoing studies are evaluating whether pump speed changes in response to varied loading conditions may enable LVADs to provide sufficient support even during strenuous exercise. In the currently used devices, evidence suggests that focus on optimizing non-cardiac peripheral parameters is vital. Extra-cardiac potentially reversible factors are anemia with low oxygen-carrying capacity, obesity and general deconditioning with low muscle mass. In addition, exercise training in CF-LVAD patients can improve peak VO2. To design interventions to improve functional capacity in patients treated with modern durable LVADs, a detailed understanding of exercise physiology in a continuous-flow circulatory system is necessary. In this review we address the different components of exercise physiology in LVAD patients and point out potential solutions or areas of future research.

  4. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and cortisol concentrations are associated with overreaching during strenuous military training.

    PubMed

    Tanskanen, Minna M; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Uusitalo, Arja L; Huovinen, Jukka; Nissilä, Juuso; Kinnunen, Hannu; Atalay, Mustafa; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2011-03-01

    The purpose was (a) to study the effect of an 8-week Finnish military basic training period (BT) on physical fitness, body composition, mood state, and serum biochemical parameters among new conscripts; (b) to determine the incidence of overreaching (OR); and (c) to evaluate whether initial levels or training responses differ between OR and noOR subjects. Fifty-seven males (19.7 ± 0.3 years) were evaluated before and during BT. Overreaching subjects had to fulfill 3 of 5 criteria: decreased aerobic physical fitness (VO2max), increased rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in 45-minute submaximal test at 70% of VO2max or sick absence from these tests, increased somatic or emotional symptoms of OR, and high incidence of sick absence from daily service. VO2max improved during the first 4 weeks of BT. During the second half of BT, a stagnation of increase in VO2max was observed, basal serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) increased, and insulin-like growth factor-1 and cortisol decreased. Furthermore, submaximal exercise-induced increases in cortisol, maximum heart rate, and postexercise increase in blood lactate were blunted. Of 57 subjects, 33% were classified as OR. They had higher basal SHBG before and after 4 and 7 weeks of training and higher basal serum cortisol at the end of BT than noOR subjects. In addition, in contrast to noOR, OR subjects exhibited no increase in basal testosterone/cortisol ratio but a decrease in maximal La/RPE ratio during BT. As one-third of the conscripts were overreached, training after BT should involve recovery training to prevent overtraining syndrome from developing. The results confirm that serum SHBG, cortisol, and testosterone/cortisol and maximal La/RPE ratios could be useful tools to indicate whether training is too strenuous.

  5. Exercise and melatonin in humans: reciprocal benefits.

    PubMed

    Escames, Germaine; Ozturk, Guler; Baño-Otálora, Beatriz; Pozo, María J; Madrid, Juan A; Reiter, Russel J; Serrano, Eric; Concepción, Melquiades; Acuña-Castroviejo, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to update the reader as to the association between physical exercise and melatonin, and to clarify how the melatonin rhythm may be affected by different types of exercise. Exercise may act as a zeitgeber, although the effects of exercise on the human circadian system are only now being explored. Depending on the time of the day, on the intensity of light, and on the proximity of the exercise to the onset or decline of the circadian production of melatonin, the consequence of exercise on the melatonin rhythm varies. Moreover, especially strenuous exercise per se induces an increased oxidative stress that in turn may affect melatonin levels in the peripheral circulation because indole is rapidly used to combat free radical damage. On the other hand, melatonin also may influence physical performance, and thus, there are mutually interactions between exercise and melatonin production which may be beneficial.

  6. A Comparison of Exercise and Meditation in Reducing Physiological Response to Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sime, Wesley E.

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of brief treadmill exercise and meditation with a placebo-control treatment for reduction in several physiological and psychological measures of stress, anxiety, and tension before and after a written final examination in 48 high-test anxiety subjects. The subjects, 24 men and 24 women,…

  7. A single session of low-volume high-intensity interval exercise reduces ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive males.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Teresa C B; Farias Júnior, Luiz F; Frazão, Danniel T; Silva, Paulo H M; Sousa Junior, Altieres E; Costa, Ingrid B B; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M; Forjaz, Cláudia L M; Duhamel, Todd A; Costa, Eduardo C

    2016-10-17

    The magnitude and duration of post-exercise hypotension (PEH) may provide valuable information on the efficacy of an exercise approach to blood pressure (BP) control. We investigated the acute effect of a time-efficient high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on ambulatory BP. Twenty-one normotensive males (23.6 ± 3.6 years) completed two experimental sessions in a randomized order: 1) control (no exercise); and 2) low-volume HIIE: 10 x 1 min at 100% of maximal treadmill velocity interspersed with 1 min of recovery. After each experimental session, an ambulatory BP monitoring was initiated. Paired sample t-test was used to compare BP averages for awake, asleep and 20h periods between the control and the low-volume HIIE sessions. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze hourly BP following both experimental sessions. BP averages during the awake (systolic: 118 ± 6 vs. 122 ± 6 mmHg; diastolic: 65 ± 7 vs. 67 ± 7 mmHg) and 20h (systolic: 115 ± 7 vs. 118 ± 6 mmHg; diastolic: 62 ± 7 vs. 64 ± 7 mmHg) periods were lower following the low-volume HIIE compared to the control (p<0.05). Systolic and diastolic PEH presented medium (Cohen's d = 0.50-0.67) and small (Cohen's d = 0.29) effect sizes, respectively. Systolic PEH occurred in a greater magnitude during the first five hours (3-5 mmHg). No changes were found in asleep BP (p>0.05). In conclusion, a single session of low-volume HIIE reduced ambulatory BP in normotensive males. PEH occurred mainly in systolic BP during the first five hours post-exercise.

  8. Triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise improves session volume load and reduces muscle damage in strength-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Bird, Stephen P; Mabon, Tom; Pryde, Mitchell; Feebrey, Sarah; Cannon, Jack

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise would enhance muscular performance, produce a more favorable anabolic profile, and reduce biochemical markers of muscle damage in strength-trained athletes. Fifteen male strength-trained athletes completed two acute lower-body resistance exercise sessions to fatigue 7 days apart. After a 4-hour fast, participants consumed either a multinutrient supplement (Musashi 1-2-3 Step System, Notting Hill, Australia) (SUPP) or placebo (PLA) beverage preexercise (PRE), during (DUR), and immediately postexercise (IP). Session volume loads were calculated as kilograms × repetitions. Lower-body peak power was measured using unloaded repeated countermovement jumps, and blood samples were collected to assess biochemistry, serum hormones, and muscle damage markers at PRE, DUR, IP, 30 minutes postexercise (P30), and 24 hours postexercise (P24h). The SUPP demonstrated increased glucose concentrations at DUR and IP compared with at PRE (P < .01), whereas PLA demonstrated higher glucose at P30 compared with at PRE (P < .001). Session volume load was higher for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). Cortisol increased at DUR, IP, and P30 compared with at PRE in both treatments (P < .05); however, SUPP also displayed lower cortisol at P24h compared with at PRE and PLA (P < .01). The total testosterone response to exercise was higher for PLA compared with SUPP (P < .01); however, total creatine kinase and C-reactive protein responses to exercise were lower for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). These data indicate that although triphasic multinutrient supplementation did not produce a more favorable anabolic profile, it improved acute resistance exercise performance while attenuating muscle damage in strength-trained athletes.

  9. Reduced fitness and abnormal cardiopulmonary responses to maximal exercise testing in children and young adults with sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Robert I; Reddy, Madhuri; Pelligra, Stephanie A; Savant, Adrienne P; Fernhall, Bo; Rodeghier, Mark; Thompson, Alexis A

    2015-01-01

    Physiologic contributors to reduced exercise capacity in individuals with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are not well understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the cardiopulmonary response to maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and determine factors associated with reduced exercise capacity among children and young adults with SCA. A cross-sectional cohort of 60 children and young adults (mean 15.1 ± 3.4 years) with hemoglobin SS or S/β0 thalassemia and 30 matched controls (mean 14.6 ± 3.5 years) without SCA or sickle cell trait underwent maximal CPET by a graded, symptom-limited cycle ergometry protocol with breath-by-breath, gas exchange analysis. Compared to controls without SCA, subjects with SCA demonstrated significantly lower peak VO2 (26.9 ± 6.9 vs. 37.0 ± 9.2 mL/kg/min, P < 0.001). Subjects demonstrated slower oxygen uptake (ΔVO2/ΔWR, 9 ± 2 vs. 12 ± 2 mL/min/watt, P < 0.001) and lower oxygen pulse (ΔVO2/ΔHR, 12 ± 4 vs. 20 ± 7 mL/beat, P < 0.001) as well as reduced oxygen uptake efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVO2, 42 ± 8 vs. 32 ± 5, P < 0.001) and ventilation efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVCO2, 30.3 ± 3.7 vs. 27.3 ± 2.5, P < 0.001) during CPET. Peak VO2 remained significantly lower in subjects with SCA after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin, which were independent predictors of peak VO2 for subjects with SCA. In the largest study to date using maximal CPET in SCA, we demonstrate that children and young adults with SCA have reduced exercise capacity attributable to factors independent of anemia. Complex derangements in gas exchange and oxygen uptake during maximal exercise are common in this population. PMID:25847915

  10. Reduced fitness and abnormal cardiopulmonary responses to maximal exercise testing in children and young adults with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Liem, Robert I; Reddy, Madhuri; Pelligra, Stephanie A; Savant, Adrienne P; Fernhall, Bo; Rodeghier, Mark; Thompson, Alexis A

    2015-04-01

    Physiologic contributors to reduced exercise capacity in individuals with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are not well understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the cardiopulmonary response to maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and determine factors associated with reduced exercise capacity among children and young adults with SCA. A cross-sectional cohort of 60 children and young adults (mean 15.1 ± 3.4 years) with hemoglobin SS or S/β(0) thalassemia and 30 matched controls (mean 14.6 ± 3.5 years) without SCA or sickle cell trait underwent maximal CPET by a graded, symptom-limited cycle ergometry protocol with breath-by-breath, gas exchange analysis. Compared to controls without SCA, subjects with SCA demonstrated significantly lower peak VO2 (26.9 ± 6.9 vs. 37.0 ± 9.2 mL/kg/min, P < 0.001). Subjects demonstrated slower oxygen uptake (ΔVO2/ΔWR, 9 ± 2 vs. 12 ± 2 mL/min/watt, P < 0.001) and lower oxygen pulse (ΔVO2/ΔHR, 12 ± 4 vs. 20 ± 7 mL/beat, P < 0.001) as well as reduced oxygen uptake efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVO2, 42 ± 8 vs. 32 ± 5, P < 0.001) and ventilation efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVCO2, 30.3 ± 3.7 vs. 27.3 ± 2.5, P < 0.001) during CPET. Peak VO2 remained significantly lower in subjects with SCA after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin, which were independent predictors of peak VO2 for subjects with SCA. In the largest study to date using maximal CPET in SCA, we demonstrate that children and young adults with SCA have reduced exercise capacity attributable to factors independent of anemia. Complex derangements in gas exchange and oxygen uptake during maximal exercise are common in this population.

  11. Whole-body cryostimulation as an effective way of reducing exercise-induced inflammation and blood cholesterol in young men.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Ewa; Olek, Robert A; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Kaczor, Jan J; Antosiewicz, Jędrzej; Skrobot, Wojciech; Kujach, Sylwester; Laskowski, Radosław

    2014-03-01

    Inflammation may accompany obesity and a variety of diseases, or result from excessive exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of whole-body cryostimulation on the inflammatory response induced by eccentric exercise under laboratory conditions. The study also sought to establish if cold treatment changes the lipid profile and modifies energy expenditure in young people. Eighteen healthy and physically active, college-aged men volunteered to participate in the experiment. They were divided into two subgroups: CRY- submitted to whole-body cryostimulation, and CONT- a control group. Both groups performed eccentric work to induce muscle damage. Blood samples were collected before and 24 h after the exercise. Over the five days that followed, the CRY group was exposed to a series of 10 sessions in a cryogenic chamber (twice a day, for 3 min, at a temperature of -110̊C). After this period of rest, both groups repeated a similar eccentric work session, following the same schedule of blood collection. The perceived pain was noted 24h after each session of eccentric workout. A 30-minute step up/down work-out induced delayed-onset muscle soreness in both groups. The five-day recovery period accompanied by exposure to cold significantly enhanced the concentration of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. It also led to a pronounced reduction in levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, and reduced muscle damage. The values for IL-10 before the second bout of eccentric exercise in the CRY group were 2.0-fold higher in comparison to baseline, whereas in the CONT group, the concentration remained unchanged. Furthermore, blood concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β fell significantly in the CRY group. The main finding of this study was that a series of 10 sessions of whole body cryostimulation significantly reduced the inflammatory response induced by eccentric exercise. The lipid profile was also improved, but there

  12. Simulations of exercise and brain effects of acute exposure to carbon monoxide in normal and vascular-diseased persons.

    PubMed

    Benignus, Vernon A; Coleman, Thomas G

    2010-04-01

    At some level, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) due to inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) reduces maximum exercise duration in both normal and ischemic heart patients. At high COHb levels in normal subjects, brain function is also affected and behavioral performance is impaired.These are findings from published experiments that are, due to ethical or practical considerations, incomplete in that higher or lower ranges of COHb, and exercise have not been well studied. To fill in this knowledge base, a whole-body human physiological model was used to make estimates of physiological functioning by the simulation of parametric exposures to CO and various exercise levels. Ischemic heart disease was simulated by introducing a stenosis in the left heart arterial supply. Brain blood flow was also limited by such a stenosis. To lend credibility to such estimation, the model was tested by simulating experiments from the published literature. Simulations permitted several new conclusions. Increases in COHb produced the largest decreases in exercise duration when exercise was least strenuous and when COHb was smallest. For ischemic heart disease subjects, the greatest change in exercise duration produced by COHb increase was when ischemia and COHb was smallest. Brain aerobic metabolism was unaffected until COHb exceeded 25%, unless the maximum brain blood supply was limited by a stenosis greater than 50% of normal. For higher levels of stenosis, aerobic brain metabolism was reduced for any increase in COHb level, implying that behavior would be impaired with no "threshold" for COHb.

  13. Process Evaluation of Workplace Interventions with Physical Exercise to Reduce Musculoskeletal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zebis, Mette K.

    2014-01-01

    Process evaluation is important to explain success or failure of workplace interventions. This study performs a summative process evaluation of workplace interventions with physical exercise. As part of a randomized controlled trial 132 office workers with neck and shoulder pain were to participate in 10 weeks of elastic resistance training five times a week at the workplace; the 2 min group performed a single set of lateral raise to failure, and the 12 min group performed 5-6 sets with 8–12 repetitions. Participants received a single instructional session together with a training diary and manual at baseline (100% dose delivered and 100% dose received), and 59 and 57 participants, respectively, replied to the process evaluation questionnaire at 10-week follow-up. Results showed that in the 2 and 12 min groups, respectively, 82% and 81% of the participants completed more than 30 training sessions. However, two-thirds of the participants would have preferred more than a single exercise to vary between. In the 12 versus 2 min group more participants experienced the training sessions as too long (30% versus 5%). Most participants (67–92%) found the training diary and manual helpful, adequacy in a single instructional session, and satisfaction with the type of training. Among those with low adherence, lack of time (51%) and difficulties in starting exercising after illness (26%) were common barriers for regular training. Among those with low adherence, 52% felt that five training sessions per week were too much, and 29% would rather have trained a completely different kind of exercise. In conclusion, resistance training at the workplace is generally well received among office workers with neck-shoulder pain, but a one-size-fits-all approach is not feasible for all employees. PMID:25574172

  14. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity.

    PubMed

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-02-02

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns.

  15. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-01-01

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns. PMID:26836414

  16. Exercise Habit

    MedlinePlus

    ... minutes at a time throughout your day. Remember: exercise has so many health benefits that any amount is better than none.How ... The cost might give you an incentive to exercise on a regular basis.Benefits of regular exerciseReduces your risk of heart disease, ...

  17. Strenuous Treadmill Running Induces a Chondrocyte Phenotype in Rat Achilles Tendons

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shao-Yong; Li, Shu-Fen; Ni, Guo-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background Although tendinopathy is common, its underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the possible pathogenesis of tendinopathy. Material/Methods In this study, a total of 24 rats were randomly and evenly divided into a control (CON) group and a strenuous treadmill running (STR) group. Animals in the STR group were subjected to a 12-week treadmill running protocol. Subsequently, all Achilles tendons were harvested to perform histological observation or biochemical analyses. Results Histologically, hypercellularity and round cells, as well as disorganized collagen fibrils, were presented in rat Achilles tendon sections from the STR group. Furthermore, our results showed that the expression of aggrecan, collagen type II (Col II), and Sex-Determining Region Y Box 9 (Sox 9) were markedly increased in the STR group compared with that in the CON group. Additionally, the mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and biglycan was significantly up-regulated in the STR group in contrast to that in CON group. Conclusions These results suggest that a 12-week strenuous treadmill running regimen can induce chondrocyte phenotype in rat Achilles tendons through chondrogenic differentiation of tendon stem cells (TSCs) by BMP-2 signaling. PMID:27742920

  18. Exercise-induced muscle damage impairs insulin signaling pathway associated with IRS-1 oxidative modification.

    PubMed

    Aoi, W; Naito, Y; Tokuda, H; Tanimura, Y; Oya-Ito, T; Yoshikawa, T

    2012-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces delayed-onset muscle damage including oxidative damage of cellular components. Oxidative stress to muscle cells impairs glucose uptake via disturbance of insulin signaling pathway. We investigated glucose uptake and insulin signaling in relation to oxidative protein modification in muscle after acute strenuous exercise. ICR mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups. Mice in the exercise group performed downhill running exercise at 30 m/min for 30 min. At 24 hr after exercise, metabolic performance and insulin-signaling proteins in muscle tissues were examined. In whole body indirect calorimetry, carbohydrate utilization was decreased in the exercised mice along with reduction of the respiratory exchange ratio compared to the rested control mice. Insulin-stimulated uptake of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose in damaged muscle was decreased after acute exercise. Tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and phosphatidyl-3-kinase/Akt signaling were impaired by exercise, leading to inhibition of the membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4. We also found that acute exercise caused 4-hydroxy-nonenal modification of IRS-1 along with elevation of oxidative stress in muscle tissue. Impairment of insulin-induced glucose uptake into damaged muscle after strenuous exercise would be related to disturbance of insulin signal transduction by oxidative modification of IRS-1.

  19. Reduced resting skeletal muscle protein synthesis is rescued by resistance exercise and protein ingestion following short-term energy deficit.

    PubMed

    Areta, José L; Burke, Louise M; Camera, Donny M; West, Daniel W D; Crawshay, Siobhan; Moore, Daniel R; Stellingwerff, Trent; Phillips, Stuart M; Hawley, John A; Coffey, Vernon G

    2014-04-15

    The myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) response to resistance exercise (REX) and protein ingestion during energy deficit (ED) is unknown. In young men (n = 8) and women (n = 7), we determined protein signaling and resting postabsorptive MPS during energy balance [EB; 45 kcal·kg fat-free mass (FFM)(-1)·day(-1)] and after 5 days of ED (30 kcal·kg FFM(-1)·day(-1)) as well as MPS while in ED after acute REX in the fasted state and with the ingestion of whey protein (15 and 30 g). Postabsorptive rates of MPS were 27% lower in ED than EB (P < 0.001), but REX stimulated MPS to rates equal to EB. Ingestion of 15 and 30 g of protein after REX in ED increased MPS ~16 and ~34% above resting EB (P < 0.02). p70 S6K Thr(389) phosphorylation increased above EB only with combined exercise and protein intake (~2-7 fold, P < 0.05). In conclusion, short-term ED reduces postabsorptive MPS; however, a bout of REX in ED restores MPS to values observed at rest in EB. The ingestion of protein after REX further increases MPS above resting EB in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that combining REX with increased protein availability after exercise enhances rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis during short-term ED and could in the long term preserve muscle mass.

  20. Reduced AMPK-ACC and mTOR signaling in muscle from older men, and effect of resistance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mengyao; Verdijk, Lex B.; Sakamoto, Kei; Ely, Brian; van Loon, Luc J.C.; Musi, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key energy-sensitive enzyme that controls numerous metabolic and cellular processes. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is another energy/nutrient-sensitive kinase that controls protein synthesis and cell growth. In this study we determined whether older versus younger men have alterations in the AMPK and mTOR pathways in skeletal muscle, and examined the effect of a long term resistance type exercise training program on these signaling intermediaries. Older men had decreased AMPKα2 activity and lower phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream signaling substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). mTOR phosphylation also was reduced in muscle from older men. Exercise training increased AMPKα1 activity in older men, however, AMPKα2 activity, and the phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC and mTOR, were not affected. In conclusion, older men have alterations in the AMPK-ACC and mTOR pathways in muscle. In addition, prolonged resistance type exercise training induces an isoform-selective up regulation of AMPK activity. PMID:23000302

  1. Beneficial effects of exercise on offspring obesity and insulin resistance are reduced by maternal high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Saskia; Klaus, Susanne; Kanzleiter, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Scope We investigated the long-term effects of maternal high-fat consumption and post-weaning exercise on offspring obesity susceptibility and insulin resistance. Methods C57BL/6J dams were fed either a high-fat (HFD, 40% kcal fat) or low-fat (LFD, 10% kcal fat) semi-synthetic diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring of both maternal diet groups (mLFD; mHFD) received a LFD. At week 7, half of the mice got access to a running wheel (+RW) as voluntary exercise training. To induce obesity, all offspring groups (mLFD +/-RW and mHFD +/-RW) received HFD from week 15 until week 25. Results Compared to mLFD, mHFD offspring were more prone to HFD-induced body fat gain and exhibited an increased liver mass which was not due to increased hepatic triglyceride levels. RW improved the endurance capacity in mLFD, but not in mHFD offspring. Additionally, mHFD offspring +RW exhibited higher plasma insulin levels during glucose tolerance test and an elevated basal pancreatic insulin production compared to mLFD offspring. Conclusion Taken together, maternal HFD reduced offspring responsiveness to the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise training regarding the improvement of endurance capacity, reduction of fat mass gain, and amelioration of HFD-induced insulin resistance. PMID:28235071

  2. The mechano‐gated channel inhibitor GsMTx4 reduces the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joyce S.; Ruiz‐Velasco, Victor; Kaufman, Marc P.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Mechanical and metabolic stimuli from contracting muscles evoke reflex increases in blood pressure, heart rate and sympathetic nerve activity. Little is known, however, about the nature of the mechano‐gated channels on the thin fibre muscle afferents that contribute to evoke this reflex, termed the exercise pressor reflex.We determined the effect of GsMTx4, an inhibitor of mechano‐gated Piezo channels, on the exercise pressor reflex evoked by intermittent contraction of the triceps surae muscles in decerebrated, unanaesthetized rats.GsMTx4 reduced the pressor, cardioaccelerator and renal sympathetic nerve responses to intermittent contraction but did not reduce the pressor responses to femoral arterial injection of compounds that stimulate the metabolically‐sensitive thin fibre muscle afferents.Expression levels of Piezo2 channels were greater than Piezo1 channels in rat dorsal root ganglia.Our findings suggest that mechanically‐sensitive Piezo proteins contribute to the generation of the mechanical component of the exercise pressor reflex in rats. Abstract Mechanical and metabolic stimuli within contracting skeletal muscles evoke reflex autonomic and cardiovascular adjustments. In cats and rats, gadolinium has been used to investigate the role played by the mechanical component of this reflex, termed the exercise pressor reflex. Gadolinium, however, has poor selectivity for mechano‐gated channels and exerts multiple off‐target effects. We tested the hypothesis that GsMTX4, a more selective mechano‐gated channel inhibitor than gadolinium and a particularly potent inhibitor of mechano‐gated Piezo channels, reduced the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate rats. Injection of 10 μg of GsMTx4 into the arterial supply of the hindlimb reduced the peak pressor (control: 24  ±  5, GsMTx4: 12 ± 5 mmHg, P < 0.01), cardioaccelerator and renal sympathetic nerve responses to tendon stretch, a purely mechanical stimulus, but had no effect

  3. Exercise training reduces PGE2 levels and induces recovery from steatosis in tumor-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Lira, F S; Yamashita, A; Carnevali, L C; Gonçalves, D C; Lima, W P; Rosa, J C; Caperuto, E C; Rosa, L F C; Seelaender, M

    2010-12-01

    The effects of endurance training on PGE (2) levels and upon the maximal activity of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) system were studied in rats bearing the Walker 256 carciosarcoma. Animals were randomly assigned to a sedentary control (SC), sedentary tumor-bearing (ST), exercised control (EC), and as an exercised tumor-bearing (ET) group. Trained rats ran on a treadmill (60% VO (2) max) for 60 min/day, 5 days/week, for 8 weeks. We examined the mRNA expression (RT-PCR) and maximal activity (radioassay) of the carnitine palmitoyltransferase system enzymes (CPT I and CPT II), as well as the gene expression of fatty-acid-binding protein (L-FABP) in the liver. PGE (2) content was measured in the serum, in tumor cells, and in the liver (ELISA). CPT I and CPT II maximal activity were decreased (p<0.01) in ST when compared with SC. In contrast, serum PGE (2) was increased (p<0.05) in cachectic animals as compared with SC. In the liver, PGE (2) content was also increased (p<0.05) when compared with SC. Endurance training restored maximal CPT I and CPT II activity in the tumor-bearing animals (p<0.0001). Exercise training induced PGE (2) levels to return to control values in the liver of tumor-bearing training rats (p<0.05) and decreased the eicosanoid content in the tumor (p<0.01). In conclusion, endurance training was capable of reestablishing liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) system activity associated with decreased PGE (2) levels in cachectic tumor-bearing animals, preventing steatosis.

  4. Reducing effect of aerobic exercise on blood pressure of essential hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hongwei; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The comprehensive meta-analysis aimed to explore the reductive effect of aerobic exercise on blood pressure of hypertensive patients. Methods: The related researches were selected from PubMed and Embase databases up to June 2016. Based on specific inclusive criteria, the eligible studies were selected, and the heterogeneities in their results were estimated by χ2-based Q-test and I2 statistics. Quantitative meta-analysis was assessed by R 3.12 software, and results were presented by standardized mean difference (SMD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Outcome indicators were systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The publication biases were estimated by Egger test. Besides, the “leave one out” method was used for sensitivity evaluations. Results: As a result, a total of 13 papers with 802 samples were included. Based on the meta-analysis results, there were no significant differences in SBP and DBP between aerobic and control groups before exercise (SMD = 0.15, 95%CI: −0.16–0.46; SMD = 0.16, 95% CI: −0.23–0.55). However, significant reductions were obviously in aerobic group after aerobics, compared with control (SMD = −0.79, 95% CI: −1.29 to −0.28; SMD = −0.63, 95% CI: −1.14 to −0.12). A significant publication bias was detected in SBP (t = −2.2314, P = 0.04549) but not in DBP (t = −1.4962, P = 0.1604). Additionally, the DBP result would be altered after the exclusion of 2 individual papers. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise may be a potential nonpharmacological treatment for blood pressure improvement in essential hypertensive patients. PMID:28296729

  5. Both physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation reduce the facing-the-viewer bias in biological motion perception.

    PubMed

    Heenan, Adam; Troje, Nikolaus F

    2014-01-01

    Biological motion stimuli, such as orthographically projected stick figure walkers, are ambiguous about their orientation in depth. The projection of a stick figure walker oriented towards the viewer, therefore, is the same as its projection when oriented away. Even though such figures are depth-ambiguous, however, observers tend to interpret them as facing towards them more often than facing away. Some have speculated that this facing-the-viewer bias may exist for sociobiological reasons: Mistaking another human as retreating when they are actually approaching could have more severe consequences than the opposite error. Implied in this hypothesis is that the facing-towards percept of biological motion stimuli is potentially more threatening. Measures of anxiety and the facing-the-viewer bias should therefore be related, as researchers have consistently found that anxious individuals display an attentional bias towards more threatening stimuli. The goal of this study was to assess whether physical exercise (Experiment 1) or an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2) would significantly affect facing-the-viewer biases. We hypothesized that both physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation would decrease facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers, but not for bottom- or top-half-only human stimuli, as these carry less sociobiological relevance. On the other hand, we expected that the anxiety induction task (Experiment 2) would increase facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. In both experiments, participants completed anxiety questionnaires, exercised on a treadmill (Experiment 1) or performed an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2), and then immediately completed a perceptual task that allowed us to assess their facing-the-viewer bias. As hypothesized, we found that physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation reduced facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. Our results provide

  6. Effects of exercise training together with tamoxifen in reducing mammary tumor burden in mice: Possible underlying pathway of miR-21.

    PubMed

    Khori, Vahid; Amani Shalamzari, Sadegh; Isanejad, Amin; Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Alizadeh, Shaban; Khodayari, Saeed; Khodayari, Hamid; Shahbazi, Shirin; Zahedi, Ali; Sohanaki, Hamid; Khaniki, Mahmood; Mahdian, Reza; Saffari, Mojtaba; Fayad, Raja

    2015-10-15

    Exercise training has an anti-tumor effect and can reduce tumor growth; however, the exact underlying mechanisms of its protective effects are still obscure. MicroRNA (miR)-21 is a predictor in cancer survival, and has a potential use as an indicator of therapeutic outcome in breast malignancies. Forty-eight female BALB/c mice were equally divided into six groups to investigate the effects of interval exercise training with tamoxifen on miR-21 expression and its possible assumed mechanisms in an estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer model. ELISA, immunohistochemistry, western blot, qRT-PCR assays were performed at the end of the study. Tumor size was significantly declined in exercise training and tamoxifen groups compared to tumor group (P<0.05). Expression of miR-21 was significantly down-regulated in trained and tamoxifen treated mice in comparison with tumor group (P<0.05). Exercise training was as effective as tamoxifen treatment in decreasing serum estradiol and ER-α expression (P<0.05). Exercise training and tamoxifen reduced tumor IL-6 levels, NF-kB and STAT3 expressions, and up-regulated TPM1 and PDCD4 expressions (P<0.05). Both exercise and tamoxifen had synergistic effects in reducing miR-21 and Bcl-2, and up-regulating PDCD4 expression. Results showed that interval exercise training may reduce mammary tumor burden in mice through possible underlying pathway of miR-21.

  7. Can a Single Session of a Community-Based Group Exercise Program Combining Step Aerobics and Bodyweight Resistance Exercise Acutely Reduce Blood Pressure?

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Romeu; Sousa, Nelson; Garrido, Nuno; Cavaco, Braulio; Quaresma, Luís; Reis, Victor Machado

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise on blood pressure in healthy young adult women. Twenty-three healthy young adult women (aged 31.57 ± 7.87 years) participated in two experimental sessions (exercise and control) in a crossover study design. Blood pressure was monitored before, immediately after and at 10, 20 and 30 min of recovery. The exercise session consisted of four phases: 1) a warm-up (5 min of dance aerobics); 2) aerobic exercise training (30 min of step aerobics); 3) resistance exercise training (six sets of 12 repetitions of three bodyweight exercises in a circuit mode, 10 min); and 4) a cool-down (5 min of breathing and flexibility exercises); totaling 50 min of duration. Systolic blood pressure after exercise was significantly lower compared to control at the 10th min (−10.83 ± 2.13 vs. −2.6 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009), 20th min (−11.26 ± 2.13 vs. −3.04 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009) and 30th min of recovery (−10.87 ± 2.39 vs. −0.48 ± 2.39 mmHg; p = 0.004). A single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise was effective in inducing significant post-exercise hypotension in healthy young adult women. This type of low-cost exercise interventions may have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and in community health promotion. PMID:25713644

  8. Treatment of Dyslipidemia with Statins and Physical Exercises: Recent Findings of Skeletal Muscle Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bonfim, Mariana Rotta; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; do Amaral, Sandra Lia; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Statin treatment in association with physical exercise practice can substantially reduce cardiovascular mortality risk of dyslipidemic individuals, but this practice is associated with myopathic event exacerbation. This study aimed to present the most recent results of specific literature about the effects of statins and its association with physical exercise on skeletal musculature. Thus, a literature review was performed using PubMed and SciELO databases, through the combination of the keywords “statin” AND “exercise” AND “muscle”, restricting the selection to original studies published between January 1990 and November 2013. Sixteen studies evaluating the effects of statins in association with acute or chronic exercises on skeletal muscle were analyzed. Study results indicate that athletes using statins can experience deleterious effects on skeletal muscle, as the exacerbation of skeletal muscle injuries are more frequent with intense training or acute eccentric and strenuous exercises. Moderate physical training, in turn, when associated to statins does not increase creatine kinase levels or pain reports, but improves muscle and metabolic functions as a consequence of training. Therefore, it is suggested that dyslipidemic patients undergoing statin treatment should be exposed to moderate aerobic training in combination to resistance exercises three times a week, and the provision of physical training prior to drug administration is desirable, whenever possible. PMID:25993596

  9. Statins Attenuate the Increase in P-Selectin Produced by Prolonged Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Amanda; Capizzi, Jeffrey; Ballard, Kevin D.; Troyanos, Christopher; Baggish, Aaron; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Thompson, Paul D.; Parker, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Strenuous endurance exercise increases inflammatory markers and acutely increases cardiovascular risk; however, statins may mitigate this response. We measured serum levels of p-selectin in 37 runners treated with statins and in 43 nonstatin treated controls running the 2011 Boston Marathon. Venous blood samples were obtained the day before (PRE) as well as within 1 hour after (FINISH) and 24 hours after (POST) the race. The increase in p-selectin immediately after exercise was lower in statin users (PRE to FINISH: 20.5 ± 19.4 ng/mL) than controls (PRE to FINISH: 30.9 ± 27.1 ng/mL; P < 0.001). The increase in p-selectin 24 hours after exercise was also lower in statin users (PRE to POST: 21.5 ± 26.6 ng/mL) than controls (PRE to POST: 29.3 ± 31.9 ng/mL; P < 0.001). Furthermore, LDL-C was positively correlated with p-selectin at FINISH and POST (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, resp.), irrespective of drug treatment, suggesting that lower levels of LDL-C are associated with a reduced inflammatory response to exercise. We conclude that statins blunt the exercise-induced increase in p-selectin following a marathon and that the inflammatory response to a marathon varies directly with LDL-C levels. PMID:26464882

  10. Randomized Control Trials on Otago Exercise Program (OEP) to Reduce Falls Among Elderly Community Dwellers in Shahroud, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dadgari, Ali; Aizan Hamid, Tengku; Hakim, Mohammad Nazrul; Chaman, Reza; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Poh Hin, Lim; Dadvar, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background Fall is a worldwide health problem among elderly people and a known leading cause of disabilities. Fall prevention programs have been implemented in various forms. The Otago exercise program (OEP) is one of the most recent home-base exercise training program. Objectives This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of OEP to reduce falls among elderly people in Shahroud, IR Iran. Materials and Methods This randomised control trial was conducted among the elderly community dwellers in Shahroud city of the Semnan province, IR Iran, with experience of falls in the last 12 months. Subjects of the study (n = 317) were recruited from elderly senior citizens at public health centers. Block systematic random sampling was applied to categorize the subjects in experimental and control groups. The experimental group (n = 160) received OEP for six months and was compared with the control group (n = 157) who received general health training. This study was registered with the following ID, IRCT2014012016285N1. Results The findings of the study showed that OEP improved physical performance (Berg-Balance-Score with P > 0.025, and Timed-Up-Go-Test with P > 0.017) and functional capacity (Arm-Curl-Test with P > 0.00 and Chair-Stand-Test with P > 0.01). In addition, OEP significantly reduced the incidence of falls (P ≤ 0.00) among senior citizens in the experimental group. Discussion The OEP as a home-based exercise is effective for the reduction of the incidence of falls among senior citizens with a history of falls. The OEP can be recommended for elderly homebound people who do not have access to facilities. PMID:27478629

  11. Muscle physiology changes induced by every other day feeding and endurance exercise in mice: effects on physical performance.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bies, Elizabeth; Santa-Cruz Calvo, Sara; Fontán-Lozano, Angela; Peña Amaro, José; Berral de la Rosa, Francisco J; Carrión, Angel M; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2010-11-09

    Every other day feeding (EOD) and exercise induce changes in cell metabolism. The aim of the present work was to know if both EOD and exercise produce similar effects on physical capacity, studying their physiological, biochemical and metabolic effects on muscle. Male OF-1 mice were fed either ad libitum (AL) or under EOD. After 18 weeks under EOD, animals were also trained by using a treadmill for another 6 weeks and then analyzed for physical activity. Both, EOD and endurance exercise increased the resistance of animals to extenuating activity and improved motor coordination. Among the groups that showed the highest performance, AL and EOD trained animals, ALT and EODT respectively, only the EODT group was able to increase glucose and triglycerides levels in plasma after extenuating exercise. No high effects on mitochondrial respiratory chain activities or protein levels neither on coenzyme Q levels were found in gastrocnemius muscle. However, exercise and EOD did increase β-oxidation activity in this muscle accompanied by increased CD36 levels in animals fed under EOD and by changes in shape and localization of mitochondria in muscle fibers. Furthermore, EOD and training decreased muscle damage after strenuous exercise. EOD also reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation in muscle. Our results indicate that EOD improves muscle performance and resistance by increasing lipid catabolism in muscle mitochondria at the same time that prevents lipid peroxidation and muscle damage.

  12. Muscle Physiology Changes Induced by Every Other Day Feeding and Endurance Exercise in Mice: Effects on Physical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Bies, Elizabeth; Santa-Cruz Calvo, Sara; Fontán-Lozano, Ángela; Peña Amaro, José; Berral de la Rosa, Francisco J.; Carrión, Ángel M.; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Every other day feeding (EOD) and exercise induce changes in cell metabolism. The aim of the present work was to know if both EOD and exercise produce similar effects on physical capacity, studying their physiological, biochemical and metabolic effects on muscle. Male OF-1 mice were fed either ad libitum (AL) or under EOD. After 18 weeks under EOD, animals were also trained by using a treadmill for another 6 weeks and then analyzed for physical activity. Both, EOD and endurance exercise increased the resistance of animals to extenuating activity and improved motor coordination. Among the groups that showed the highest performance, AL and EOD trained animals, ALT and EODT respectively, only the EODT group was able to increase glucose and triglycerides levels in plasma after extenuating exercise. No high effects on mitochondrial respiratory chain activities or protein levels neither on coenzyme Q levels were found in gastrocnemius muscle. However, exercise and EOD did increase β-oxidation activity in this muscle accompanied by increased CD36 levels in animals fed under EOD and by changes in shape and localization of mitochondria in muscle fibers. Furthermore, EOD and training decreased muscle damage after strenuous exercise. EOD also reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation in muscle. Our results indicate that EOD improves muscle performance and resistance by increasing lipid catabolism in muscle mitochondria at the same time that prevents lipid peroxidation and muscle damage. PMID:21085477

  13. Voluntary Exercise Can Ameliorate Insulin Resistance by Reducing iNOS-Mediated S-Nitrosylation of Akt in the Liver in Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Hideko; Kaneki, Masao; Goto, Sataro; Shimokado, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Naito, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary exercise can ameliorate insulin resistance. The underlying mechanism, however, remains to be elucidated. We previously demonstrated that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the liver plays an important role in hepatic insulin resistance in the setting of obesity. In this study, we tried to verify our hypothesis that voluntary exercise improves insulin resistance by reducing the expression of iNOS and subsequent S-nitrosylation of key molecules of glucose metabolism in the liver. Twenty-one Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 18 non-diabetic control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were randomly assigned to a sedentary group or exercise group subjected to voluntary wheel running for 20 weeks. The voluntary exercise significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and HOMA-IR in the OLETF rats. In addition, the exercise decreased the amount of iNOS mRNA in the liver in the OLETF rats. Moreover, exercise reduced the levels of S-nitrosylated Akt in the liver, which were increased in the OLETF rats, to those observed in the LETO rats. These findings support our hypothesis that voluntary exercise improves insulin resistance, at least partly, by suppressing the iNOS expression and subsequent S-nitrosylation of Akt, a key molecule of the signal transduction pathways in glucose metabolism in the liver. PMID:26172834

  14. Effect of broccoli extract enriched diet on liver cholesterol oxidation in rats subjected to exhaustive exercise.

    PubMed

    Cardenia, Vladimiro; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Lorenzini, Antonello; Bandini, Erika; Angeloni, Cristina; Hrelia, Silvana; Malaguti, Marco

    2016-04-12

    The effect of broccoli extract (BE)-enriched diet was studied in order to evaluate its ability to counteract liver cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) induced by acute strenuous exercise in rats. Thirty-two female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control diet without exercise (C), BE-enriched diet without exercise (B), control diet with acute exhaustive exercise (S) and BE-enriched diet with acute exhaustive exercise (BS). The study lasted 45days and on the last day, rats of S and BS groups were forced to run until exhaustion on a treadmill. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) were determined in liver. Exhaustive exercise was clearly responsible for tissue damage, as evidenced by the increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) plasma activity in the S group. Moreover, the exercise protocol reduced CAT activity in liver, while it did not affect GST, GR and GPx. BE-enriched diet raised GST, GR and CAT activities in rats of BS group. The main COPs found were 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, cholestanetriol, 24-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol. The BE-enriched diet led to reduced cholesterol oxidation following exhaustive exercise; the highest level of COPs was found in the S group, whereas the BS rats showed the lowest amount. This study indicates that the BE-enriched diet increases antioxidant enzyme activities and exerts an antioxidant effect towards cholesterol oxidation in rat liver, suggesting the use of phytochemicals in the prevention of oxidative damage and in the modulation of the redox environment.

  15. Mitochondrial uncoupling reduces exercise capacity despite several skeletal muscle metabolic adaptations.

    PubMed

    Schlagowski, A I; Singh, F; Charles, A L; Gali Ramamoorthy, T; Favret, F; Piquard, F; Geny, B; Zoll, J

    2014-02-15

    The effects of mitochondrial uncoupling on skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptation and maximal exercise capacity are unknown. In this study, rats were divided into a control group (CTL, n = 8) and a group treated with 2,4-dinitrophenol, a mitochondrial uncoupler, for 28 days (DNP, 30 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) in drinking water, n = 8). The DNP group had a significantly lower body mass (P < 0.05) and a higher resting oxygen uptake (Vo2, P < 0.005). The incremental treadmill test showed that maximal running speed and running economy (P < 0.01) were impaired but that maximal Vo2 (Vo2max) was higher in the DNP-treated rats (P < 0.05). In skinned gastrocnemius fibers, basal respiration (V0) was higher (P < 0.01) in the DNP-treated animals, whereas the acceptor control ratio (ACR, Vmax/V0) was significantly lower (P < 0.05), indicating a reduction in OXPHOS efficiency. In skeletal muscle, DNP activated the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway, as indicated by changes in the mRNA expression of PGC1-α and -β, NRF-1 and -2, and TFAM, and increased the mRNA expression of cytochrome oxidase 1 (P < 0.01). The expression of two mitochondrial proteins (prohibitin and Ndufs 3) was higher after DNP treatment. Mitochondrial fission 1 protein (Fis-1) was increased in the DNP group (P < 0.01), but mitofusin-1 and -2 were unchanged. Histochemical staining for NADH dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle revealed an increase in the proportion of oxidative fibers after DNP treatment. Our study shows that mitochondrial uncoupling induces several skeletal muscle adaptations, highlighting the role of mitochondrial coupling as a critical factor for maximal exercise capacities. These results emphasize the importance of investigating the qualitative aspects of mitochondrial function in addition to the amount of mitochondria.

  16. High-intensity swimming exercise reduces neuropathic pain in an animal model of complex regional pain syndrome type I: evidence for a role of the adenosinergic system.

    PubMed

    Martins, D F; Mazzardo-Martins, L; Soldi, F; Stramosk, J; Piovezan, A P; Santos, A R S

    2013-03-27

    This study investigated the involvement of the adenosinergic system in antiallodynia induced by exercise in an animal model of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I). Furthermore, we analyzed the role of the opioid receptors on exercise-induced analgesia. Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) mice, nonexercised and exercised, received intraperitoneal injections of caffeine (10mg/kg, a non selective adenosine receptor antagonist), 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX) (0.1mg/kg, a selective adenosine A receptor antagonist), ZM241385 (3mg/kg, a selective adenosine A receptor antagonist), adenosine deaminase inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3nonyl) adenine [(EHNA), 5mg/kg, an adenosine deaminase inhibitor] or naloxone (1mg/kg, a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist). The results showed that high-intensity swimming exercise reduced mechanical allodynia in an animal model of CRPS-I in mice. The antiallodynic effect caused by exercise was reversed by pretreatment with caffeine, naloxone, DPCPX but it was not modified by ZM241385 treatment. In addition, treatment with EHNA, which suppresses the breakdown of adenosine to inosine, enhanced the pain-relieving effects of the high-intensity swimming exercise. This is the first report demonstrating that repeated sessions of high-intensity swimming exercise attenuate mechanical allodynia in an animal model of CRPS-I and that the mechanism involves endogenous adenosine and adenosine A receptors. This study supports the use of high-intensity exercise as an adjunct therapy for CRPS-I treatment.

  17. Diastolic function is associated with quality of life and exercise capacity in stable heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Bussoni, M.F.; Guirado, G.N.; Roscani, M.G.; Polegato, B.F.; Matsubara, L.S.; Bazan, S.G.Z.; Matsubara, B.B.

    2013-01-01

    Exercise capacity and quality of life (QOL) are important outcome predictors in patients with systolic heart failure (HF), independent of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF). LV diastolic function has been shown to be a better predictor of aerobic exercise capacity in patients with systolic dysfunction and a New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification ≥II. We hypothesized that the currently used index of diastolic function E/e' is associated with exercise capacity and QOL, even in optimally treated HF patients with reduced LVEF. This prospective study included 44 consecutive patients aged 55±11 years (27 men and 17 women), with LVEF<0.50 and NYHA functional class I-III, receiving optimal pharmacological treatment and in a stable clinical condition, as shown by the absence of dyspnea exacerbation for at least 3 months. All patients had conventional transthoracic echocardiography and answered the Minnesota Living with HF Questionnaire, followed by the 6-min walk test (6MWT). In a multivariable model with 6MWT as the dependent variable, age and E/e' explained 27% of the walked distance in 6MWT (P=0.002; multivariate regression analysis). No association was found between walk distance and LVEF or mitral annulus systolic velocity. Only normalized left atrium volume, a sensitive index of diastolic function, was associated with decreased QOL. Despite the small number of patients included, this study offers evidence that diastolic function is associated with physical capacity and QOL and should be considered along with ejection fraction in patients with compensated systolic HF. PMID:24036912

  18. Alcohol Use and Strenuous Physical Activity in College Students: A Longitudinal Test of 2 Explanatory Models of Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Heather A.; Riley, Elizabeth N.; Smith, Gregory T.; Milich, Richard; Burris, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To help clarify the effect of gender on the bidirectional relationship between alcohol use and strenuous physical activity in college students. Participants: Five hundred twenty-four (52% female) college students recruited in August 2008 and 2009 and followed up in April 2009 and April 2011, respectively. Methods: Participants reported…

  19. Molecular Aspects of Exercise-induced Cardiac Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Bianca C; McMullen, Julie R

    2016-11-01

    Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling is typically an adaptive response associated with cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and renewal, increased cardiac myocyte contractility, sarcomeric remodeling, cell survival, metabolic and mitochondrial adaptations, electrical remodeling, and angiogenesis. Initiating stimuli/triggers of cardiac remodeling include increased hemodynamic load, increased sympathetic activity, and the release of hormones and growth factors. Prolonged and strenuous exercise may lead to maladaptive exercise-induced cardiac remodeling including cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmia. In addition, this article describes novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of heart failure that target mechanisms responsible for adaptive exercise-induced cardiac remodeling, which are being developed and tested in preclinical models.

  20. Exercise Can Rescue Recognition Memory Impairment in a Model with Reduced Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lafenêtre, Pauline; Leske, Oliver; Ma-Högemeie, Zhanlu; Haghikia, Aiden; Bichler, Zoe; Wahle, Petra; Heumann, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Running is a potent stimulator of cell proliferation in the adult dentate gyrus and these newly generated hippocampal neurons seem to be implicated in memory functions. Here we have used a mouse model expressing activated Ras under the direction of the neuronal Synapsin I promoter (named synRas mice). These mice develop down-regulated proliferation of adult hippocampal precursor cells and show decreased short-term recognition memory performances. Voluntary physical activity reversed the genetically blocked generation of hippocampal proliferating cells and enhanced the dendritic arborisation of the resulting doublecortin newly generated neurons. Moreover, running improved novelty recognition in both wild type and synRas littermates, compensating their memory deficits. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed to be a potential mediator of physical exercise acting in the hippocampus on dentate neurons and their precursors. This was confirmed here by the identification of doublecortin-immunoreactive cells expressing tyrosine receptor kinase B BDNF receptor. While no difference in BDNF levels were detected in basal conditions between the synRas mice and their wild type littermates, running was associated with enhanced BDNF expression levels. Thus increased BDNF signalling is a candidate mechanism to explain the observed effects of running. Our studies demonstrate that voluntary physical activity has a robust beneficial effect even in mice with genetically restricted neurogenesis and cognition. PMID:20204139

  1. Mechanistic studies on reduced exercise performance and cardiac deconditioning with simulated zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, Charles M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research is to study the physiological mechanisms associated with the exercise performance of rats subjected to conditions of simulated weightlessness. A secondary purpose is to study related physiological changes associated with other systems. To facilitate these goals, a rodent suspension model was developed (Overton-Tipton) and a VO2 max testing procedure was perfected. Three methodological developments occurred during this past year deserving of mention. The first was the refinement of the tail suspension model so that (1) the heat dissipation functions of the caudal artery can be better utilized, and (2) the blood flow distribution to the tail would have less external constriction. The second was the development on a one-leg weight bearing model for use in simulated weightlessness studies concerned with change in muscle mass, muscle enzyme activity, and hind limb blood flow. The chemical body composition of 30 rats was determined and used to develop a prediction equation for percent fat using underwater weighing procedures to measure carcass specific gravity and to calculate body density, body fat, and fat free mass.

  2. Office Exercise Training to Reduce and Prevent the Occurrence of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Office Workers: A Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Shariat, Ardalan; Mohd Tamrin, Shamsul Bahri; Arumugam, Manohar; Danaee, Mahmoud; Ramasamy, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Pain in specific areas of the body (including the lower back, neck, and shoulders) due to extended periods of sitting and inactivity is the most widespread musculoskeletal disorder worldwide and has consequences that are both socio-economic and personal. This condition is particularly prevalent in industrialised countries, affecting roughly 70% to 80% of adults at some point in their lives; approximately 1% of the U.S. population is chronically disabled by this type of pain disorder. A practical way to reduce the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among office workers would have a significant positive impact. More work is required to develop a package of exercises designed to prevent and treat musculoskeletal pain in office workers. Such a package would be preferable to pharmacological treatments, which can have undesirable side effects. The main objective of this package would be to increase the flexibility and strength of trunk muscles in order to decrease the soreness, pain, and degree of discomfort. In this article, we introduce our proposed package of exercises, which are based on guidelines issued bythe American College of Sports Medicine. PMID:27660545

  3. Exercise reduces appetite and traffics excess nutrients away from energetically efficient pathways of lipid deposition during the early stages of weight regain.

    PubMed

    Steig, Amy J; Jackman, Matthew R; Giles, Erin D; Higgins, Janine A; Johnson, Ginger C; Mahan, Chad; Melanson, Edward L; Wyatt, Holly R; Eckel, Robert H; Hill, James O; MacLean, Paul S

    2011-09-01

    The impact of regular exercise on energy balance, fuel utilization, and nutrient availability, during weight regain was studied in obese rats, which had lost 17% of their weight by a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet. Weight reduced rats were maintained for 6 wk with and without regular treadmill exercise (1 h/day, 6 days/wk, 15 m/min). In vivo tracers and indirect calorimetry were then used in combination to examine nutrient metabolism during weight maintenance (in energy balance) and during the first day of relapse when allowed to eat ad libitum (relapse). An additional group of relapsing, sedentary rats were provided just enough calories to create the same positive energy imbalance as the relapsing, exercised rats. Exercise attenuated the energy imbalance by 50%, reducing appetite and increasing energy requirements. Expenditure increased beyond the energetic cost of the exercise bout, as exercised rats expended more energy to store the same nutrient excess in sedentary rats with the matched energy imbalance. Compared with sedentary rats with the same energy imbalance, exercised rats exhibited the trafficking of dietary fat toward oxidation and away from storage in adipose tissue, as well as a higher net retention of fuel via de novo lipogenesis in adipose tissue. These metabolic changes in relapse were preceded by an increase in the skeletal muscle expression of genes involved in lipid uptake, mobilization, and oxidation. Our observations reveal a favorable shift in fuel utilization with regular exercise that increases the energetic cost of storing excess nutrients during relapse and alterations in circulating nutrients that may affect appetite. The attenuation of the biological drive to regain weight, involving both central and peripheral aspects of energy homeostasis, may explain, in part, the utility of regular exercise in preventing weight regain after weight loss.

  4. Reduced exercise time in competitive simulations consequent to low level ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Schelegle, E.S.; Adams, W.C.

    1986-08-01

    Ten highly trained endurance athletes were studied to determine the effects of exposure to low ozone (O/sub 3/) concentrations on simulated competitive endurance performance and associated physiological and subjective symptom responses. Each subject was randomly exposed to filtered air (FA), and to 0.12, 0.18, and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ while performing a 1 h competitive simulation protocol on a bicycle ergometer. Endurance performance was evaluated by the number of subjects unable to complete rides (last 30 min at an intense work load of approximately 86% VO/sub 2/max). All subjects completed the FA exposure, whereas one, five, and seven subjects did not complete the 0.12, 0.18, and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ exposures, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in the inability of subjects to complete the competitive simulations with increasing O/sub 3/ concentration, including a significant difference between the 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ and FA exposure. Significant decreases (P less than 0.05) were also observed following the 0.18 and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ exposures, respectively, in forced vital capacity (-7.8 and -9.9%), and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (-5.8 and -10.5%). No significant O/sub 3/ effect was observed for exercise respiratory metabolism or ventilatory pattern responses. However, the number of reported subjective symptoms increased significantly following the 0.18 and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ protocols. These data demonstrate significant decrements in simulated competitive endurance performance and in pulmonary function, with accompanying enhanced subjective symptoms, following exposure to low O/sub 3/ levels commonly observed in numerous metropolitan environments during the summer months.

  5. Acu-TENS Reduces Breathlessness during Exercise in People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ngai, Shirley P. C.; Spencer, Lissa M.; Jones, Alice Y. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Exertional dyspnoea limits level of physical activity in people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). This randomized, double-blinded, crossover study evaluated the effect of Acu-TENS, application of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on acupoints, on breathlessness during exercise in people with COPD. Methods. Twenty-one participants, mean% predicted FEV1  50 ± 21%, attended assessment followed by two intervention days, one week apart. On each intervention day, participants performed two endurance shuttle walk tests (ESWT) (Walk 1 and Walk 2). Walk 1 was performed without intervention and Walk 2 was performed with either Acu-TENS or Sham-TENS, in random order, for 45 minutes before and during Walk 2. Duration of each ESWT and dyspnoea score at isotime of Walk 1 and Walk 2 on each intervention day were compared. Between-group differences in ESWT duration and isotime dyspnoea were also compared. Results. At isotime of Walk 1 and Walk 2, Acu-TENS showed significant reduction in dyspnoea of −0.8 point (95% CI −0.2 to −1.4) but not in Sham-TENS [0.1 point (95% CI −0.4 to 0.6)]. Compared to Sham-TENS, Acu-TENS showed significant reduction in dyspnoea of −0.9 point (95% CI −0.2 to −1.6) while no between-group significance was found in ESWT duration. Conclusion. Acu-TENS alleviated dyspnoea during walking in people with COPD but did not increase walking duration. PMID:28303156

  6. [Effect of 3-month exercise training on daily energy expenditure in formerly obese women with reduced and stable weight].

    PubMed

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A V

    1993-06-14

    Predisposition to obesity has been suggested to be related to a low energy expenditure (EE). This condition could be counteracted by physical exercise. In the present study we wanted to elucidate if aerob training could increase sedentary 24-hour energy expenditure in formerly obese subjects. Seven reduced-obese premenopausal women were studied in a respiration chamber before and after a three month period of aerobic training. No significant effects of training were seen on daytime, sleeping or total 24-hour EE. However, the change in daytime EE was positively correlated to the change in VO2max. Sleeping and 24-hour respiratory quotients were slightly increased after the training period. In order to reveal a possible role of the sympathetic nervous system in the observed effect of training, additional experiments were performed with beta blockade. However, no interactions between training and beta blockade were found.

  7. Construct Validity of the Stages of Change of Exercise Adoption for Different Intensities of Physical Activity in Four Samples of Differing Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, Anja; Nigg, Claudio R.; Rossi, Joseph S.; Jordan, Patricia J.; Norman, Gregory J.; Garber, Carol Ewing; Riebe, Deborah; Benisovich, Sonya V.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether stages of change of exercise adoption appropriately addressed strenuous, moderate, and mild intensities of physical activity. Secondary analysis of four data sets (adolescents, college students, adults, and seniors) investigated transtheoretical model constructs for exercise adoption. Results supported the construct validity of…

  8. The hybrid personal cooling system (PCS) could effectively reduce the heat strain while exercising in a hot and moderate humid environment.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenfang; Wang, Faming

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a hybrid personal cooling system (PCS) in mitigating body heat stain while exercising in a hot environment. Eight subjects underwent two trials: PCS and CON (i.e. no cooling). All trials were conducted at an air temperature of 36 ± 0.5 °C and RH = 59 ± 5%. The key findings demonstrated that the PCS could significantly reduce the core temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate and physiological strain index during both exercise and recovery periods (p < 0.05). Subjective perceptions were also significantly alleviated in PCS at the end of the exercise and during the recovery (p < 0.05). Besides, the PCS could also bring remarkable benefits in lowering local skin temperatures and in improving perceptual sensations in both upper and lower body during both exercise and recovery periods (p < 0.05). It was thus concluded that the hybrid PCS is effective in mitigating body heat strain while exercising in a hot environment. Practitioner Summary: In hot and humid environments, body heat dissipation through sweating is greatly restricted. Our newly developed hybrid PCS could effectively alleviate heat strain while exercising in hot environments. The findings contribute to the body of knowledge in improving the health and well-being of sportsmen while exercising in hot environments.

  9. Exercise as an Intervention to Reduce Study-Related Fatigue among University Students: A Two-Arm Parallel Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Juriena D.; van Hooff, Madelon L. M.; Geurts, Sabine A. E.; Kompier, Michiel A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many university students experience high levels of study-related fatigue. This high prevalence, and the negative impact of fatigue on health and academic performance, call for prevention and reduction of these symptoms. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate to what extent an exercise intervention is effective in reducing three indicators of study-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and need for recovery). Effects of exercise on secondary outcomes (sleep quality, self-efficacy, physical fitness, and cognitive functioning) were also investigated. Methods Participants were students with high levels of study-related fatigue, currently not exercising or receiving other psychological or pharmacological treatments, and with no medical cause of fatigue. They were randomly assigned to either a six-week exercise intervention (low-intensity running three times a week, n = 49) or wait list (no intervention, n = 48). All participants were measured before the intervention (T0), and immediately after the intervention (T1). Exercisers were also investigated 4 weeks (T2) and 12 weeks (T3) after the intervention. Results Participants in the exercise condition showed a larger decrease in two of the three indicators of study-related fatigue (i.e., overall fatigue and need for recovery) as compared to controls. Additionally, sleep quality and some indicators of cognitive functioning improved more among exercisers than among controls. No effects were found for self-efficacy, and physical fitness. The initial effects of the exercise intervention lasted at follow-up (T2 and T3). At 12-week follow up (T3), 80% of participants in the exercise condition still engaged in regular exercise, and further enhancements were seen for emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and sleep quality. Conclusions These results underline the value of low-intensity exercise for university students with high levels of study-related fatigue. The follow-up effects

  10. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Plus Glucose Supplement Reduces Exercise-Induced Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in College-Age Females

    PubMed Central

    Leahy, Danielle T.; Pintauro, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) has been used to stimulate muscle protein synthesis following exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if supplementation with BCAAs in combination with glucose would reduce exercise-induced delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Using a double-blind crossover design, 20 subjects (11 females, 9 males) were randomly assigned to either BCAA (n = 10) or placebo (n = 10) groups. Subjects performed a squatting exercise to elicit DOMS and rated their muscle soreness every 24 hours for four days following exercise while continuing to consume the BCAA or placebo. Following a three-week recovery period, subjects returned and received the alternate BCAA or placebo treatment, repeating the same exercise and DOMS rating protocol for the next four days. BCAA supplementation in female subjects resulted in a significant decrease in DOMS versus placebo at 24 hours following exercise (P = 0.018). No significant effect of BCAA supplementation versus placebo was noted in male subjects nor when male and female results were analyzed together. This gender difference may be related to dose per body weight differences between male and female subjects. PMID:24967261

  11. Effect of postexercise recovery procedures following strenuous stair-climb running.

    PubMed

    Robey, Elisa; Dawson, Brian; Goodman, Carmel; Beilby, John

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effects of hot/cold water immersion, static stretching, and no recovery (control) interventions on leg strength, rowing performance, and indicators of muscle soreness/damage in the 72 hours following strenuous stair-climb running. Club (n = 14) and elite (Sports Institute) (n = 6) rowers performed the training run on three separate occasions. After each run, participants completed a randomly assigned 15-minute recovery treatment, either hot/cold, static stretching, or control, which were repeated at 24 and 48 hours postrun. No significant strength or performance differences existed between the three recovery treatments for either group. Muscle soreness for both groups remained significantly elevated (p < 0.05) above baseline at 72 hours postrun. At 48-hours postrun serum creatine kinase levels had returned to baseline and at 72 hours postrun were below baseline in both groups. In conclusion, neither hot/cold nor static stretching accelerated recovery at 72 hours beyond that achieved by the control condition.

  12. Effect of exercise on concentrations of free amino acids in pools of type I and type II fibres in human muscle with reduced glycogen stores.

    PubMed

    Essén-Gustavsson, B; Blomstrand, E

    2002-03-01

    A few animal studies have shown that some amino acid concentrations vary between different muscle fibre types. In the present study, amino acid concentrations were measured in separate pools of different fibre types in human skeletal muscle, with reduced glycogen stores, before and after sustained exercise. Five subjects exercised at a submaximal work rate for 60 min and then at a maximal rate for 20 min. Biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise; they were freeze-dried and individual fibres were dissected out. Fragments of these fibres were stained for myosin-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and identified as type I or type II fibres. The concentrations of free amino acids were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in perchloric acid (PCA) extracts containing pools of either type of fibre. After exercise, glycogen was decreased in type I fibres (53%) and in four subjects also in type II fibres. The concentrations of most amino acids were similar in the two fibre types before exercise, but the glutamate, aspartate and arginine levels were 10% higher in type II than in type I fibres. After exercise, the glutamate concentration was decreased by 45% in both fibre types and the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) were decreased in type II fibres (14%). Exercise caused an increase by 25-30% in tyrosine concentration in both type I and type II fibres. The results show that amino acids can be measured in pools of fibre fragments and suggest that amino acid metabolism play an important role in both type I and type II fibres during exercise.

  13. Aerobic exercise prevents age-dependent cognitive decline and reduces anxiety-related behaviors in middle-aged and old rats.

    PubMed

    Pietrelli, A; Lopez-Costa, J; Goñi, R; Brusco, A; Basso, N

    2012-01-27

    Recent research involving human and animals has shown that aerobic exercise of moderate intensity produces the greatest benefit on brain health and behavior. In this study we investigated the effects on cognitive function and anxiety-related behavior in rats at different ages of aerobic exercise, performed regularly throughout life. We designed an aerobic training program with the treadmill running following the basic principles of human training, and assuming that rats have the same physiological adaptations. The intensity was gradually adjusted to the fitness level and age, and maintained at 60-70% of maximum oxygen consumption (max.VO(2)). In middle age (8 months) and old age (18 months), we studied the cognitive response with the radial maze (RM), and anxiety-related behaviors with the open field (OF) and the elevated plus maze (EPM). Aerobically trained (AT) rats had a higher cognitive performance measured in the RM, showing that exercise had a cumulative and amplifier effect on memory and learning. The analysis of age and exercise revealed that the effects of aerobic exercise were modulated by age. Middle-aged AT rats were the most successful animals; however, the old AT rats met the criteria more often than the middle-aged sedentary controls (SC), indicating that exercise could reverse the negative effects of sedentary life, partially restore the cognitive function, and protect against the deleterious effects of aging. The results in the OF and EPM showed a significant decrease in key indicators of anxiety, revealing that age affected most of the analyzed variables, and that exercise had a prominent anxiolytic effect, particularly strong in old age. In conclusion, our results indicated that regular and chronic aerobic exercise has time and dose-dependent, neuroprotective and restorative effects on physiological brain aging, and reduces anxiety-related behaviors.

  14. The Respiratory Exchange Ratio is Associated with Fitness Indicators Both in Trained and Untrained Men: A Possible Application for People with Reduced Exercise Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P.; Torres-Durán, Patricia V.; Romero-Gonzalez, Jaime; Mascher, Dieter; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) indirectly shows the muscle’s oxidative capacity to get energy. Sedentarism, exercise and physically active lifestyles modify it. For that reason, this study evaluates the associations between RER during sub-maximum exercise and other well established fitness indicators (body fat, maximum heart rate, maximum O2 uptake, workload, and lactate threshold), in physically active trained and untrained men. Methods: The RER, O2 uptake and blood lactate were measured in eight endurance trained and eight untrained men (age, 22.9 ± 4.5 vs. 21.9 ± 2.8 years; body mass, 67.1 ± 5.4 vs. 72.2 ± 7.7 kg; body fat, 10.6 ± 2.4% vs. 16.6 ± 3.8% and maximum O2 uptake, 68.9 ± 6.3 vs. 51.6 ± 5.8 ml•kg−1•min−1), during maximum exercise test and during three different sub-maximum exercises at fixed workload: below, within or above the lactate threshold. Results: Endurance trained men presented higher O2 uptake, lower blood lactate concentrations and lower RER values than those in untrained men at the three similar relative workloads. Even though with these differences in RER, a strong association (p < 0.05) of RER during sub-maximum exercise with the other well established fitness indicators was observed, and both maximum O2 uptake and lactate threshold determined more than 57% of its variance (p < 0.05). Conclusions: These data demonstrate that RER measurement under sub-maximum exercise conditions was well correlated with other established physical fitness indicators, despite training condition. Furthermore, the results suggest that RER could help obtain an easy approach of fitness status under low exercise intensity and could be utilized in subjects with reduced exercise tolerance. PMID:21157516

  15. Acute Pontine Infarction due to Basilar Artery Dissection from Strenuous Physical Effort: One from Sexual Intercourse and Another from Defecation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Ho; Suh, Sang-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Ryu, Kee-Young; Kang, Dong-Gee

    2016-01-01

    A basilar artery dissection (BAD) is an extremely rare disease. It can lead to hemorrhage or infarction involving the brain stem, and is often associated with grave outcome. However, little is known about the pathophysiology of BAD, and its proper managements are yet in controversy. Herein, we report on two rare cases of basilar artery dissection from strenuous physical effort; one from sexual intercourse and another from defecation. The treatment modalities and the outcomes are also discussed. PMID:27790399

  16. Infant nerve injury induces delayed microglial polarization to the M1 phenotype, and exercise reduces delayed neuropathic pain by modulating microglial activity.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingrui; Chen, Yongmei; Fu, Bao; Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Mazhong

    2017-02-27

    Neuropathic pain is absent in infants and emergent years after injury. Adult spinal cord microglia play a key role in initiating neuropathic pain, and modulation of microglia is a potential target for treating neuropathic pain. In this study, we evaluated the role of microglia after infant peripheral nerve injury and the effect of exercise on the delayed-onset neuropathic pain. Rat pups received spared nerve injury, and behavior tests were performed to evaluate their pain threshold. qPCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot were used for M1 and M2 marker expression analysis. In contrast to the microglial polarization to the M1 phenotype observed in the adult spinal cord, in infant nerve injury, microglial polarization immediately shifted to the M2 phenotype. In adolescence, microglia polarized to the M1 phenotype, which was concomitant with the emergence of neuropathic pain. Exercise shifted spinal cord microglia polarization to the M2 phenotype and reduced neuropathic pain. In addition, IL-10 increased and TNF-α decreased after exercise, and intrathecal injection of the IL-10 antibody reduced the exercise-induced analgesia. Our study found that infant nerve injury induced delayed spinal cord microglia polarization to the M1 phenotype and that exercise was effective in the treatment of delayed adolescent neuropathic pain via the modulation of microglial polarization.

  17. Vitamin E and vitamin C do not reduce insulin sensitivity but inhibit mitochondrial protein expression in exercising obese rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While diet-induced obesity alters mitochondrial (MT) function and induces insulin resistance ...

  18. Exercise does not activate the β3 adrenergic receptor-eNOS pathway, but reduces inducible NOS expression to protect the heart of obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Kleindienst, Adrien; Battault, Sylvain; Belaidi, Elise; Tanguy, Stephane; Rosselin, Marie; Boulghobra, Doria; Meyer, Gregory; Gayrard, Sandrine; Walther, Guillaume; Geny, Bernard; Durand, Gregory; Cazorla, Olivier; Reboul, Cyril

    2016-07-01

    Obesity and diabetes are associated with higher cardiac vulnerability to ischemia-reperfusion (IR). The cardioprotective effect of regular exercise has been attributed to β3-adrenergic receptor (β3AR) stimulation and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation. Here, we evaluated the role of the β3AR-eNOS pathway and NOS isoforms in exercise-induced cardioprotection of C57Bl6 mice fed with high fat and sucrose diet (HFS) for 12 weeks and subjected or not to exercise training during the last 4 weeks (HFS-Ex). HFS animals were more sensitive to in vivo and ex vivo IR injuries than control (normal diet) and HFS-Ex mice. Cardioprotection in HFS-Ex mice was not associated with increased myocardial eNOS activation and NO metabolites storage, possibly due to the β3AR-eNOS pathway functional loss in their heart. Indeed, a selective β3AR agonist (BRL37344) increased eNOS activation and had a protective effect against IR in control, but not in HFS hearts. Moreover, iNOS expression, nitro-oxidative stress (protein s-nitrosylation and nitrotyrosination) and ROS production during early reperfusion were increased in HFS, but not in control mice. Exercise normalized iNOS level and reduced protein s-nitrosylation, nitrotyrosination and ROS production in HFS-Ex hearts during early reperfusion. The iNOS inhibitor 1400 W reduced in vivo infarct size in HFS mice to control levels, supporting the potential role of iNOS normalization in the cardioprotective effects of exercise training in HFS-Ex mice. Although the β3AR-eNOS pathway is defective in the heart of HFS mice, regular exercise can protect their heart against IR by reducing iNOS expression and nitro-oxidative stress.

  19. Voluntary exercise during extinction of auditory fear conditioning reduces the relapse of fear associated with potentiated activity of striatal direct pathway neurons.

    PubMed

    Mika, Agnieszka; Bouchet, Courtney A; Bunker, Preston; Hellwinkel, Justin E; Spence, Katie G; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge; Fleshner, Monika; Greenwood, Benjamin N

    2015-11-01

    Relapse of previously extinguished fear presents a significant, pervasive obstacle to the successful long-term treatment of anxiety and trauma-related disorders. Thus, identification of a novel means to enhance fear extinction to stand the passage of time and generalize across contexts is of the utmost importance. Acute bouts of exercise can be used as inexpensive, noninvasive treatment strategies to reduce anxiety, and have been shown to enhance memory for extinction when performed in close temporal proximity to the extinction session. However, it is unclear whether acute exercise can be used to prevent relapse of fear, and the neural mechanisms underlying this potential effect are unknown. The current study therefore examined whether acute exercise during extinction of auditory fear can protect against the later relapse of fear. Male F344 rats lacking an extended history of wheel running were conditioned to fear a tone CS and subsequently extinguished within either a freely mobile running wheel, a locked wheel, or a control context lacking a wheel. Rats exposed to fear extinction within a freely mobile wheel ran during fear extinction, and demonstrated reduced fear as well as attenuated corticosterone levels during re-exposure to the extinguished CS during the relapse test in a novel context 1week later. Examination of cfos mRNA patterns elicited by re-exposure to the extinguished CS during the relapse test revealed that acute exercise during extinction decreased activation of brain circuits classically involved in driving fear expression and interestingly, increased activity within neurons of the direct striatal pathway involved in reward signaling. These data suggest that exercise during extinction reduces relapse through a mechanism involving the direct pathway of the striatum. It is suggested that a positive affective state could become associated with the CS during exercise during extinction, thus resulting in a relapse-resistant extinction memory.

  20. Voluntary exercise during extinction of auditory fear conditioning reduces the relapse of fear associated with potentiated activity of striatal direct pathway neurons

    PubMed Central

    Mika, Agnieszka; Bouchet, Courtney A.; Bunker, Preston; Hellwinkel, Justin E.; Spence, Katie G.; Day, Heidi E.W.; Campeau, Serge; Fleshner, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Relapse of previously extinguished fear presents a significant, pervasive obstacle to the successful long-term treatment of anxiety and trauma-related disorders. Thus, identification of a novel means to enhance fear extinction to stand the passage of time and generalize across contexts is of the utmost importance. Acute bouts of exercise can be used as inexpensive, noninvasive treatment strategies to reduce anxiety, and have been shown to enhance memory for extinction when performed in close temporal proximity to the extinction session. However, it is unclear whether acute exercise can be used to prevent relapse of fear, and the neural mechanisms underlying this potential effect are unknown. The current study therefore examined whether acute exercise during extinction of auditory fear can protect against the later relapse of fear. Male, F344 rats lacking an extended history of wheel running were conditioned to fear a tone CS and subsequently extinguished within either a freely mobile running wheel, a locked wheel, or a control context lacking a wheel. Rats exposed to fear extinction within a freely mobile wheel ran during fear extinction, and demonstrated reduced fear as well as attenuated corticosterone levels during re-exposure to the extinguished CS during the relapse test in a novel context 1 week later. Examination of cfos mRNA patterns elicited by re-exposure to the extinguished CS during the relapse test revealed that acute exercise during extinction decreased activation of brain circuits classically involved in driving fear expression and interestingly, increased activity within neurons of the direct striatal pathway involved in reward signaling. These data suggest that exercise during extinction reduces relapse through a mechanism involving the direct pathway of the striatum. It is suggested that a positive affective state could become associated with the CS during exercise during extinction, thus resulting in a relapse-resistant extinction memory. PMID

  1. Reduced expression of CRHR2 and Sp-1 in myocardium of ovariectomized rats is improved by exercise training.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhiping; Wang, Yujun; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Ni, Xin; Cong, Binhai; Lu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training has been looked on as a non-pharmacologic approach to treating ovariectomy (OVX)-induced dysfunctions. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exercise impacts on expression of urocortins (UCNs) and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 2 (CRHR2) in myocardium of OVX rats. Bilateral OVX or sham-operation was performed under anesthesia. Both groups were then divided into two subgroups, with or without treadmill training for 8 weeks. It was found that OVX as well as exercise did not affect the mRNA levels of UCN, UCN2 and UCN3 in myocardium. OVX caused down-regulation of CRHR2 in myocardium. Exercise training reversed the OVX-induced reduction of CRHR2, but had no influence on CRHR2 level in sham rats. OVX resulted in a decrease in estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression in myocardium, which was restored by exercise. Moreover, exercise training also reversed OVX-induced down-regulation of specific protein-1 (Sp-1) expression in myocardium. CRHR2 expression level correlated with Sp-1 and ERα level in myocardium. These results indicate that exercise training can restore the CRHR2 level in myocardium of OVX rats, which is associated with ERα and Sp-1 expression.

  2. Aerobic exercise training-induced changes in serum adropin level are associated with reduced arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Fujie, Shumpei; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Sato, Koji; Fujita, Satoshi; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2015-11-15

    Aging-induced arterial stiffening is reduced by aerobic exercise training, and elevated production of nitric oxide (NO) participates in this effect. Adropin is a regulator of endothelial NO synthase and NO release, and circulating adropin level decreases with age. However, the effect of habitual aerobic exercise on circulating adropin levels in healthy middle-aged and older adults remains unclear. We sought to determine whether serum adropin level is associated with exercise training-induced changes in arterial stiffness. First, in a cross-sectional study, we investigated the association between serum adropin level and both arterial stiffness and cardiorespiratory fitness in 80 healthy middle-aged and older subjects (65.6 ± 0.9 yr). Second, in an intervention study, we examined the effects of 8-wk aerobic exercise training on serum adropin level and arterial stiffness in 40 healthy middle-aged and older subjects (67.3 ± 1.0 yr) divided into two groups: aerobic exercise training and sedentary controls. In the cross-sectional study, serum adropin level was negatively correlated with carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.437, P < 0.001) and positively correlated with plasma NOx level (r = 0.493, P < 0.001) and cardiorespiratory fitness (r = 0.457, P < 0.001). Serum adropin levels were elevated after the 8-wk aerobic exercise training intervention, and training-induced changes in serum adropin level were correlated with training-induced changes in carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.399, P < 0.05) and plasma NOx level (r = 0.623, P < 0.001). Thus the increase in adropin may participate in the exercise-induced reduction of arterial stiffness.

  3. Moderate swimming exercise and caffeine supplementation reduce the levels of inflammatory cytokines without causing oxidative stress in tissues of middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Cechella, José L; Leite, Marlon R; Dobrachinski, Fernando; da Rocha, Juliana T; Carvalho, Nelson R; Duarte, Marta M M F; Soares, Félix A A; Bresciani, Guilherme; Royes, Luiz F F; Zeni, Gilson

    2014-05-01

    The levels of circulatory inflammatory markers, including interleukin (IL) IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon (INF-γ), are known to increase associated to aging. Caffeine has been reported to produce many beneficial effects for health. Exercise is considered to be a safe medicine to attenuate inflammation and cellular senescence. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a moderate-intensity swimming exercise (3 % of body weight, 20 min per day, 4 weeks) and sub-chronic supplementation with caffeine (30 mg/kg, 4 weeks) on the serum cytokine levels in middle-aged (18 months) Wistar rats. The effects of swimming exercise and caffeine on oxidative stress in muscle and liver of middle-aged rats were also investigated. The two-way ANOVA of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels demonstrated a significant exercise x caffeine interaction for IL-1β (F (1, 16) = 9.5772; p = 0.0069), IL-6 (F (1, 16) = 8.0463; p = 0.0119) and INF-γ (F (1, 16) = 15.078; p = 0.0013). The two-way ANOVA of TNF-α levels revealed a significant exercise × caffeine interaction (F (1, 16) = 9.6881; p = 0.00670). Swimming exercise and caffeine supplementation increased the ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione in the rat liver and gastrocnemius muscle. Hepatic and renal markers of damage were not modified. In conclusion, a moderate-intensity swimming exercise protocol and caffeine supplementation induced positive adaptations in modulating cytokine levels without causing oxidative stress in muscle and liver of middle-aged rats.

  4. Vitamin E and vitamin C do not reduce insulin sensitivity but inhibit mitochondrial protein expression in exercising obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Picklo, Matthew J.; Thyfault, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E and vitamin C blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While diet-induced obesity alters mitochondrial function and induces insulin resistance (IR), no data exist as to whether supplementation with vitamin E and vitamin C modify responses to exercise in pre-existing obesity. We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with vitamin E (0.4 g α-tocopherol acetate/kg) and vitamin C (0.5 g/kg) blocks exercise-induced improvements on IR and mitochondrial content in obese rats maintained on a high-fat (45% fat energy (en)) diet. Diet-induced obese, sedentary rats had a 2-fold higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and larger insulin area under the curve following glucose tolerances test than rats fed a low-fat (10% fat en) diet. Exercising (12 weeks at 5 times per week in a motorized wheel) of obese rats normalized IR indices, an effect not modified by vitamin E and vitamin C. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation with exercise elevated mtDNA content in adipose and skeletal muscle to a greater extent (20%) than exercise alone in a depot-specific manner. On the other hand, vitamin C and vitamin E decreased exercise-induced increases in mitochondrial protein content for complex I (40%) and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (35%) in a muscle-dependent manner. These data indicate that vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation in obese rodents does not modify exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity but that changes in mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial protein expression may be modified by antioxidant supplementation. PMID:25761734

  5. Energy balance, metabolism, hydration, and performance during strenuous hill walking: the effect of age.

    PubMed

    Ainslie, P N; Campbell, I T; Frayn, K N; Humphreys, S M; MacLaren, D P M; Reilly, T; Westerterp, K R

    2002-08-01

    We aimed to examine the effect of age on energy balance, metabolism, hydration, and performance during 10 days of strenuous hill walking. Seventeen male subjects were divided into two groups according to their age. The nine subjects in group 1 constituted the younger group (age 24 +/- 3 yr), whereas eight older subjects were in group 2 (age 56 +/- 3 yr). Both groups completed 10 consecutive days of high-intensity hill walking. Mean (range) daily walking distances and ascent were 21 km (10-35 km) and 1,160 m (800-2,540 m), respectively. Energy intake was calculated from weighed food intake, and energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method. Blood and urine were sampled on alternative days to determine any changes in metabolism and hydration during the 10 days. Subjects also completed a battery of tests that included muscular strength (handgrip), jump performance, cognitive processing time, and flexibility. The younger group remained hydrated, whereas the older group became progressively dehydrated, indicated by a near twofold increase in urine osmolality concentration on day 11. This increased urine osmolality in the older group was highly correlated with impairment in vertical-jump performance (r = -0.86; P < 0.05) and decreased cognitive processing time (r = 0.79; P < 0.05). Despite energy expenditure of approximately 21 MJ/day, body mass was well maintained in both groups. Both groups displayed a marked increase in fat mobilization, reflected in significantly lowered prewalk insulin concentrations and elevated postwalk glycerol and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Despite the dehydration and impaired performance in the older group, blood glucose concentrations were well maintained in both groups, probably mediated via the increased mobilization of fat.

  6. Exercise and Beta-Glucan Consumption (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Improve the Metabolic Profile and Reduce the Atherogenic Index in Type 2 Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ)

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Eric Francelino; Lima, Andressa Ribeiro Veiga; Nunes, Ingrid Edwiges; Orlando, Débora Ribeiro; Gondim, Paula Novato; Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto; Alves, Fernando Henrique Ferrari; Pereira, Luciano José

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity and the ingestion of dietary fiber are non-drug alternatives commonly used as adjuvants to glycemic control in diabetic individuals. Among these fibers, we can highlight beta-glucans. However, few studies have compared isolated and synergic effects of physical exercise and beta-glucan ingestion, especially in type 2 diabetic rats. Therefore, we evaluated the effects beta-glucan (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) consumption, associated or not to exercise, on metabolic parameters of diabetic Wistar rats. The diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) associated with a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ—35 mg/kg). Trained groups were submitted to eight weeks of exercise in aquatic environment. In the last 28 days of experiment, animals received 30 mg/kg/day of beta-glucan by gavage. Isolated use of beta-glucan decreased glucose levels in fasting, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), the atherogenic index of plasma. Exercise alone also decreased blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and renal lesions. An additive effect for reducing the atherogenic index of plasma and renal lesions was observed when both treatments were combined. It was concluded that both beta-glucan and exercise improved metabolic parameters in type 2 (HFD/STZ) diabetic rats. PMID:27999319

  7. Reduced wheel running and blunted effects of voluntary exercise in LPA1-null mice: The importance of assessing the amount of running in transgenic mice studies

    PubMed Central

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rosell-Valle, Cristina; Blanco, Eduardo; Pedraza, Carmen; Chun, Jerold; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Santín, Luis J.

    2014-01-01

    This work was aimed to assess whether voluntary exercise rescued behavioral and hippocampal alterations in mice lacking the lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor (LPA1-null mice), studying the potential relationship between the amount of exercise performed and its effects. Normal and LPA1-null mice underwent 23 days of free wheel running and were tested for open-field behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis (cell proliferation, immature neurons, cell survival). Running decreased anxiety-like behavior in both genotypes but increased exploration only in the normal mice. While running affected all neurogenesis-related measures in normal mice (especially in the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus), only a moderate increase in cell survival was found in the mutants. Importantly, the LPA1-nulls showed notably reduced running. Analysis suggested that defective running in the LPA1-null mice could contribute to explain the scarce benefit of the voluntary exercise treatment. On the other hand, a literature review revealed that voluntary exercise is frequently used to modulate behavior and the hippocampus in transgenic mice, but half of the studies did not assess the quantity of running, overlooking any potential running impairments. This study adds evidence to the relevance of the quantity of exercise performed, emphasizing the importance of its assessment in transgenic mice research. PMID:24055600

  8. Myasthenia gravis and endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Bernd Volker; Valero-Burgos, Encarna; Costa, Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    This is the first report of a runner with myasthenia gravis who completed an ultra endurance event. Myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disease that usually results in skeletal muscle weakness, which worsens with exercise and strenuous aerobic exercise, is generally contraindicated. Our runner completed a 220-km, 5-day ultramarathon and presented with various symptoms including muscular skeletal weakness, cramps, generalized fatigue, unintelligible speech, involuntary eye and mouth movements, problems swallowing, food lodging in his throat, and problems breathing. Risk factors identified for exacerbations are running in extreme temperatures, prolonged runs (especially a distance of 30 km or more), running uphill, lack of sleep, and stress. The medical team was in the novel situation to look after a runner with myasthenia gravis and needed to be aware of the patient's condition, symptoms, and risk factors to safely care for him.

  9. Supraspinal fatigue after normoxic and hypoxic exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Goodall, Stuart; González-Alonso, José; Ali, Leena; Ross, Emma Z; Romer, Lee M

    2012-06-01

    Inadequate cerebral O₂ availability has been proposed to be an important contributing factor to the development of central fatigue during strenuous exercise. Here we tested the hypothesis that supraspinal processes of fatigue would be increased after locomotor exercise in acute hypoxia compared to normoxia, and that such change would be related to reductions in cerebral O₂ delivery and tissue oxygenation. Nine endurance-trained cyclists completed three constant-load cycling exercise trials at ∼80% of maximal work rate: (1) to the limit of tolerance in acute hypoxia; (2) for the same duration but in normoxia (control); and (3) to the limit of tolerance in normoxia. Throughout each trial, prefrontal cortex tissue oxygenation and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAV) were assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy and trans-cranial Doppler sonography, respectively. Cerebral O₂ delivery was calculated as the product of arterial O₂ content and MCAV. Before and immediately after each trial, twitch responses to supramaximal femoral nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation were obtained to assess neuromuscular and cortical function, respectively. Exercise time was reduced by 54%in hypoxia compared to normoxia (3.6 ± 1.3 vs. 8.1 ± 2.9 min; P<0.001). Cerebral O₂ delivery,cerebral oxygenation and maximum O₂ uptake were reduced whereas muscle electromyographic activity was increased in hypoxia compared to control (P <0.05).Maximum voluntary force and potentiated quadriceps twitch force were decreased below baseline after exercise in each trial;the decreases were greater in hypoxia compared to control (P<0.001), but were not different in the exhaustive trials (P>0.05). Cortical voluntary activation was also decreased after exercise in all trials, but the decline in hypoxia (Δ18%) was greater than in the normoxic trials (Δ5-9%)(P <0.05). The reductions in cortical voluntary activation were paralleled by reductions in cerebral O₂ delivery

  10. Spectroscopy and imaging of oxygen delivery to tissue under strenuous conditions (NIR in athletes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Britton; Nioka, Shoko; Long, Hong; Xie, Chunhua; Ma, XuHui; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Luo, Qingming

    2000-04-01

    It was demonstrated that the dynamics of muscle oxygen utilization can readily be measured using dual wavelength hemoglobin oximetry. This method can be used for muscle training exercise and also for evaluation of exercise performance where the anaerobic threshold must be avoided. It was shown that CW imaging technology gives images along the surface of the muscle while the time resolved spectroscopy gives images transverse to the muscle.

  11. Residual effects of prior exercise and recovery on subsequent exercise-induced metabolic responses.

    PubMed

    Ronsen, Ola; Haugen, Oystein; Hallén, Jostein; Bahr, Roald

    2004-08-01

    Data on the metabolic responses to repeated endurance exercise sessions are limited. Thus, the aims of this study were to examine (1) the impact of prior exercise on metabolic responses to a subsequent exercise session and (2) the effect of different recovery periods between two daily exercise sessions on metabolic responses to the second bout of exercise. Nine male elite athletes participated in four 25-h trials: one bout of exercise (ONE), two bouts of exercise separated by 3 h of rest and one meal (SHORT), two bouts of exercise separated by 6 h of rest and two meals (LONG), and a trial with no exercise (REST). All exercise bouts consisted of 10 min cycling at 50% followed by 65 min at 75% of maximal O2 uptake. Compared to no prior exercise (ONE), a previous bout of exercise (SHORT) was followed by higher mean O2 uptake, heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (TR), excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and lower respiratory exchange ratio (R) during and after a similar exercise session 3 h later. A longer rest interval between the two exercise bouts (6 h versus 3 h) and an additional meal resulted in a decrease in O2 uptake, HR, TR and an increase in R during the second bout of exercise, but no effects on post-exercise metabolism were found. Thus, augmented metabolic stress was observed when strenuous exercise was repeated after only 3 h of recovery, but this was attenuated when a longer recovery period including an additional meal was provided between the exercise sessions.

  12. Effect of vitamin A administration on free radicals and lactate levels in individuals exercised to exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Patlar, Suleyman; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed to explore the effect of vitamin A administration on Free Radicals production and antioxidant system activity and lactate levels in individuals exercised to exhaustion The study registered 10 healthy sedentary males their mean age was 22,85±0,26 years. The subjects were orally administrated with 300 mg vitamin A (retinol) for 4 weeks and engaged in strenuous exercise (using the Bruce protocol) once a week. Blood samples were collected from the subjects at four different times, before and after the supplementation and before and after exercise to analyze Malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric oxide (NO), Glutathione (GSH), Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels using colorimetric ELISA test kits and plasma lactate levels using an autoanalyzer. Exhaustion exercise leaded to an increase in both MDA, NO, and lactate, and GSH, GSH-Px, CAT and SOD levels compared to resting levels both before and after supplementation (p<0.05). Increased NO levels found in pre-supplementation exhaustion showed a significant decrease after the supplementation of vitamin A (p<0.05), but the other parameters were not changed after vitamin A administration. The results of our study demonstrate that the increase caused by 4-week strenuous exercise in the levels of the free radical NO was offset by vitamin A supplementation. It can be suggested that supplementation of vitamin A at physiological doses has a limited effect on lipid peroxidation caused by strenuous exercise.

  13. HIF1α is necessary for exercise-induced neuroprotection while HIF2α is needed for dopaminergic neuron survival in the substantia nigra pars compacta.

    PubMed

    Smeyne, M; Sladen, P; Jiao, Y; Dragatsis, I; Smeyne, R J

    2015-06-04

    Exercise reduces the risk of developing a number of neurological disorders and increases the efficiency of cellular energy production. However, overly strenuous exercise produces oxidative stress. Proper oxygenation is crucial for the health of all tissues, and tight regulation of cellular oxygen is critical to balance O2 levels and redox homeostasis in the brain. Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF)1α and HIF2α are transcription factors regulated by cellular oxygen concentration that initiate gene regulation of vascular development, redox homeostasis, and cell cycle control. HIF1α and HIF2α contribute to important adaptive mechanisms that occur when oxygen and ROS homeostasis become unbalanced. It has been shown that preconditioning by exposure to a stressor prior to a hypoxic event reduces damage that would otherwise occur. Previously we reported that 3 months of exercise protects SNpc dopaminergic (DA) neurons from toxicity caused by Complex I inhibition. Here, we identify the cells in the SNpc that express HIF1α and HIF2α and show that running exercise produces hypoxia in SNpc DA neurons, and alters the expression of HIF1α and HIF2α. In mice carrying a conditional knockout of Hif1α in postnatal neurons we observe that exercise alone produces SNpc TH+ DA neuron loss. Loss of HIF1α also abolishes exercise-induced neuroprotection. In mice lacking Hif2α in postnatal neurons, the number of TH+ DA neurons in the adult SNpc is diminished, but 3months of exercise rescues this loss. We conclude that HIF1α is necessary for exercise-induced neuroprotection and both HIF1α and HIF2α are necessary for the survival and function of adult SNpc DA neurons.

  14. Adaptive stress response of glutathione and uric acid metabolism in man following controlled exercise and diet.

    PubMed

    Svensson, M B; Ekblom, B; Cotgreave, I A; Norman, B; Sjöberg, B; Ekblom, O; Sjödin, B; Sjödin, A

    2002-09-01

    Ergometer cycling performance as well as acute exercise-induced changes in the metabolism of energy-intermediates and glutathione (GSH) were investigated in skeletal muscle (SM) of 15 healthy young male subjects (VO(2max) approximately 54.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1), age approximately 25 years), before and after 3 days of controlled 'ìoverload-training' in combination with either high (62% of energy intake) or low (26% of energy intake) dietary intake of carbohydrates. The intake of a carbohydrate-rich diet clearly reduced the depletion of SM glycogen following the short-term training period, paralleled with a positive effect on the endurance performance, but not on high-intensity work-performance. An 'delayed over-reaching effect', defined as impaired work-performance, was observed after 2.5 days of recovery from the short-term training period, irrespective of the carbohydrate content of the diet and basal glycogen level in SM. Taken together, the main and novel findings of present investigation are: (1) an acute decrease of reduced GSH content and altered thiol-redox homeostasis in SM induced by strenuous high-intensity exercise; (2) an adaptive elevation of basal GSH level following the short-term training period; (3) an adaptive decrease of basal GSH level following 2.5 days recovery from training; (4) evidence of a relationship between the SM fibre type, physical performance capacity and GSH turnover during acute bouts of exercise; and (5) no evident effect of the level of carbohydrate intake on metabolism of GSH or energy intermediates. Furthermore, the induction of acute oxidative stress in exercising human SM and the adaptive responses to training are suggested to provide a protective antioxidant phenotype to the exercising SM during periods with repeated intense intermittent training.

  15. Reduced hyperthermia-induced cutaneous vasodilation and enhanced exercise-induced plasma water loss at simulated high altitude (3,200 m) in humans.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Ken; Kamijo, Yoshi-Ichiro; Ikegawa, Shigeki; Goto, Masaki; Nose, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether less convective heat loss during exercise at high altitude than at sea level was partially caused by reduced cutaneous vasodilation due to enhanced plasma water loss into contracting muscles and whether it was caused by hypoxia rather than by hypobaria. Seven young men performed cycling exercise for 40 min at 50% peak aerobic power in normoxia at (710 mmHg) 610 m, determined before the experiments, in three trials: 1) normobaric normoxia at 610 m (CNT), 2) hypobaric hypoxia [low pressure and low oxygen (LPLO)] at 3,200 m (510 mmHg), 3) normobaric hypoxia [normal pressure and low oxygen (NPLO)] at 610 m, in an artificial climate chamber where atmospheric temperature and relative humidity were maintained at 30°C and 50%, respectively. Subjects in CNT and LPLO breathed room air, whereas those in NPLO breathed a mixed gas of 14% O₂ balanced N₂, equivalent to the gas composition in LPLO. We measured change in PV (ΔPV), oxygen consumption rate (Vo₂), mean arterial blood pressure (MBP), esophageal temperature (T(es)), mean skin temperature (T(sk)), forearm skin blood flow (FBF), and sweat rate (SR) during exercise. Although Vo₂, MBP, T(sk), and SR responses during exercise were similar between trials (P > 0.05), the sensitivity of forearm vascular conductance (FBF/MBP) in response to increased T(es) was lower in LPLO and NPLO than in CNT (P < 0.05), whereas that of SR was not, resulting in a greater increase in T(es) from minute 5 to 40 of exercise in LPLO and NPLO than in CNT (P = 0.026 and P = 0.011, respectively). ΔPV during exercise was twofold greater in LPLO and NPLO than in CNT. These variables were not significantly different between LPLO and NPLO. Thus reduced convective heat loss during exercise at 3,200 m was partially caused by reduced cutaneous vasodilation due to enhanced PV loss. Moreover, this may be caused by hypoxia rather than by hypobaria.

  16. Effect of short-term creatine supplementation on markers of skeletal muscle damage after strenuous contractile activity.

    PubMed

    Bassit, Reinaldo Abunasser; Pinheiro, Carlos Hermano da Justa; Vitzel, Kaio Fernando; Sproesser, Antônio José; Silveira, Leonardo R; Curi, Rui

    2010-03-01

    The protective effect of short-term creatine supplementation (CrS) upon markers of strenuous contractile activity-induced damage in human and rat skeletal muscles was investigated. Eight Ironman triathletes were randomized into the placebo (Pl; n = 4) and creatine-supplemented (CrS; n = 4) groups. Five days prior to the Ironman competition, the CrS group received creatine monohydrate (20 g day(-1)) plus maltodextrin (50 g) divided in two equal doses. The Pl group received maltodextrin (50 g day(-1)) only. The effect of CrS (5 g day(-1)/kg body weight for 5 days) was also evaluated in a protocol of strenuous contractile activity induced by electrical stimulation in rats. Blood samples were collected before and 36 and 60 h after the competition and were used to determine plasma activities of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aldolase (ALD), glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase (GPT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) level. In rats, plasma activities of CK and LDH, muscle vascular permeability (MVP) using Evans blue dye, muscle force and fatigue were evaluated. Activities of CK, ALD, LDH, GOT, GTP, and levels of CRP were increased in the Pl group after the competition as compared to basal values. CrS decreased plasma activities of CK, LDH, and ALD, and prevented the rise of GOT and GPT plasma activities. In rats, CrS delayed the fatigue, preserved the force, and prevented the rise of LDH and CK plasma activities and MVP in the gastrocnemius muscle. CrS presented a protective effect on muscle injury induced by strenuous contractile activities.

  17. Individualized home-based exercise programs for older people to reduce falls and improve physical performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hill, Keith D; Hunter, Susan W; Batchelor, Frances A; Cavalheri, Vinicius; Burton, Elissa

    2015-09-01

    There is considerable diversity in the types of exercise programs investigated to reduce falls in older people. The purpose of this paper was to review the effectiveness of individualized (tailored) home-based exercise programs in reducing falls and improving physical performance among older people living in the community. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted of randomized or quasi-randomized trials that utilized an individualized home-based exercise program with at least one falls outcome measure reported. Single intervention exercise studies, and multifactorial interventions where results for an exercise intervention were reported independently were included. Two researchers independently rated the quality of each included study. Of 16,871 papers identified from six databases, 12 met all inclusion criteria (11 randomized trials and a pragmatic trial). Study quality overall was high. Sample sizes ranged from 40 to 981, participants had an average age 80.1 years, and although the majority of studies targeted the general older population, several studies included clinical groups as their target (Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and hip fracture). The meta-analysis results for the five studies reporting number of fallers found no significant effect of the intervention (RR [95% CI]=0.93 [0.72-1.21]), although when a sensitivity analysis was performed with one study of participants recently discharged from hospital removed, this result was significant (RR [95% CI] = 0.84 [0.72-0.99]). The meta-analysis also found that intervention led to significant improvements in physical activity, balance, mobility and muscle strength. There were no significant differences for measures of injurious falls or fractures.

  18. Early Postmenopausal Phase Is Associated With Reduced Prostacyclin-Induced Vasodilation That Is Reversed by Exercise Training: The Copenhagen Women Study.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Egelund, Jon; Mandrup, Camilla M; Nielsen, Mads B; Mogensen, Alexander S; Stallknecht, Bente; Bangsbo, Jens; Hellsten, Ylva

    2016-10-01

    The postmenopausal phase is associated with an accelerated rate of rise in the prevalence of vascular dysfunction and hypertension; however, the mechanisms underlying these adverse vascular changes and whether exercise training can reverse the decline in vascular function remains unclear. We examined the function of the vascular prostanoid system in matched pre- and postmenopausal women before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Twenty premenopausal and 16 early postmenopausal (3.1±0.5 [mean±SE] years after final menstrual period) women only separated by 4 (50±0 versus 54±1) years of age were included. Before the training period, the vasodilator response to intra-arterial infusion of either the prostacyclin analog epoprostenol or acetylcholine was lower (≈13%-41%; P<0.05) in the postmenopausal compared with the premenopausal women. Acetylcholine infusion induced a similar release of prostacyclin (6-keto prostaglandin F1a). To elucidate the role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids, acetylcholine infusion was combined with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ketorolac and here the vascular response to acetylcholine was reduced to a similar extent in pre- and postmenopausal women. Exercise training increased (P<0.05) the vasodilator response to epoprostenol (≈100%-150%) and acetylcholine (≈100%-120%) infusion in the postmenopausal group. These findings demonstrate that the early postmenopausal phase is associated with a marked reduction in vascular function. Despite of a reduced sensitivity to prostacyclin, the overall balance between vasodilator and vasoconstrictor prostanoids does not seem to be altered. Exercise training can reverse the decline in vascular sensitivity to epoprostenol and acetylcholine, suggesting that beneficial vascular adaptations with exercise training are preserved in recent postmenopausal women.

  19. A low-glycemic index diet and exercise intervention reduces TNF(alpha) in isolated mononuclear cells of older, obese adults.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Karen R; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas P J; Patrick-Melin, Aimee J; Cook, Marc; Rocco, Michael; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P

    2011-06-01

    Low-glycemic index diets and exercise independently improve glucose tolerance and reduce diabetes risk. However, the combined effect of a low-glycemic index diet and exercise on inflammation and glucose metabolism is not known. Therefore, we randomized 28 insulin-resistant adults (age: 66 ± 1 y; BMI: 34.2 ± 0.7 kg · m(-2)) to a 12-wk, low (LGI = 40) or high- (HGI = 80) glycemic index diet plus aerobic exercise (5 d · wk(-1), 60 min · d(-1), 80-85% heart rate(max)) intervention. All food and fluids were provided during the study. Inflammation was assessed from cytokine (TNFα and IL-6) secretion using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) stimulated overnight with LPS. Glycemic response was determined following ingestion of a 75-g glucose solution. Fasting blood samples were collected for additional cytokine [TNFα, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1)] analysis. Both interventions decreased BMI (P < 0.001), fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.01), and insulin (P = 0.02). The glycemic response was reduced only in the LGI group (P = 0.04). Plasma and MNC-derived TNFα secretion were reduced in the LGI group (P = 0.02) but increased in the HGI group (P = 0.02). Secretion of IL-6 from MNC and plasma IL-6 and MCP-1 concentrations were reduced in the LGI group. The change in MNC-derived TNFα (r = 0.43; P = 0.04) and plasma MCP-1 (r = 0.44; P = 0.04) correlated with decreases in the glycemic response. These data highlight the importance of diet composition in the treatment and prevention of inflammation and hyperglycemia. A low-glycemic index diet has antiinflammatory and antidiabetogenic effects when combined with exercise in older, obese prediabetics.

  20. Long-Term Exercise and Bone Mineral Density Changes in Postmenopausal Women--Are There Periods of Reduced Effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; von Stengel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that physical exercise can prevent fractures in postmenopausal women. However, even with careful adaptation of the exercise program to subjects' changing bone, health, and fitness status, effectivity may still decrease over the time. This could be specifically the case where the limitations of higher age collide with the specification of the exercise program. Thus, the aim of this study was to monitor bone mineral density (BMD) changes over a 16-year period of supervised exercise. Our hypothesis was that BMD differences at lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) between exercisers (EG) and nontraining controls (CG) increased throughout the intervention with significant differences for each of the four 4-year observation periods. Sixty-seven (EG, n = 39 versus CG, n = 28) initially early-postmenopausal osteopenic women of the Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention Study (EFOPS) with complete BMD data sets for baseline (1998) and 4-, 8-, 12-, and 16-year follow-up were included in the analysis. The exercise protocol initially focused on a high-intensity strategy that addressed bone but increasingly shifted to a more comprehensive intervention. LS-BMD differences between the EG and CG continuously increased (year 4: 2.4% (95%- Confidence Interval 1.0% to 3.8%), year 8: 3.1% (1.6% to 4.7%), year 12: 3.9% (1.9% to 5.8), year 16: 4.5% (2.5% to 6.6%). Correspondingly, rising differences for FN-BMD (0.9% (-0.2% to 2.1%) versus 1.9% (0.4% to 3.3%) versus 2.0% (0.5% to 3.8%) versus 3.0% (1.0% to 5.0%)) were observed. However, in contrast to our hypothesis, group differences within the four 4-year periods were not consistently significant (LS, p = 0.001 to 0.097; FN, p = 0.026 to 0.673); further, BMD kinetics among the groups varied between LS and FN. Of particular importance, significant differences (p ≤ 0.030) for both regions were still found in the final period. We conclude that exercise-even when adapted for subjects' decreasing bone

  1. Reduced energy intake and moderate exercise reduce mammary tumor incidence in virgin female BALB/c mice treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Teer, Patricia; Keith, Robert E.; White, Marguerite T.; Strahan, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The concurrent effects of diet (standard AIN-76A, restricted AIN-76A and high-fat diet) and moderate rotating-drum treadmill exercise on the incidence of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinomas in virgin female BALB/cMed mice free of murine mammary tumor virus are evaluated. Analyses show that, although energy intake was related to mammary tumor incidence, neither body weight nor dietary fat predicted tumor incidence.

  2. Exercise, nutrition and immune function.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Michael; Nieman, David C; Pedersen, Bente K

    2004-01-01

    Strenuous bouts of prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune cell function. Furthermore, inadequate or inappropriate nutrition can compound the negative influence of heavy exertion on immunocompetence. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction. An adequate intake of iron, zinc and vitamins A, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important for the maintenance of immune function, but excess intakes of some micronutrients can also impair immune function and have other adverse effects on health. Immune system depression has also been associated with an excess intake of fat. To maintain immune function, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy requirements. An athlete exercising in a carbohydrate-depleted state experiences larger increases in circulating stress hormones and a greater perturbation of several immune function indices. Conversely, consuming 30-60 g carbohydrate x h(-1) during sustained intensive exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones such as cortisol and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Convincing evidence that so-called 'immune-boosting' supplements, including high doses of antioxidant vitamins, glutamine, zinc, probiotics and Echinacea, prevent exercise-induced immune impairment is currently lacking.

  3. Metabolic Cost of Experimental Exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, James T.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Although the type and duration of activity during decompression was well documented, the metabolic cost of 1665 subject-exposures with 8 activity profiles from 17 altitude decompression sickness (DCS) protocols at Brooks City-Base, TX from 1983-2005 was not determined. Female and male human volunteers (30 planned, 4 completed) performed activity profiles matching those 8 activity profiles at ground level with continuous monitoring of metabolic cost. A Cosmed K4b2 Cardio Pulmonary Exercise Testing device was used to measure oxygen uptake (VO2) during the profiles. The results show levels of metabolic cost to the females for the profiles tested varied from 4.3 to 25.5 ml/kg/min and from 3.0 to 12.0 ml/kg/min to the males. The increase in VO2 from seated rest to the most strenuous of the 8 activity profiles was 3.6-fold for the females and 2.8-fold for the males. These preliminary data on 4 subjects indicate close agreement of oxygen uptake for activity performed during many subject-exposures as published earlier. The relatively low average oxygen uptake required to perform the most strenuous activity may imply the need for adjustment of modeling efforts using metabolic cost as a risk factor. Better definition of metabolic cost during exposure to altitude, a critical factor in DCS risk, may allow refinement of DCS prediction models.

  4. Skeletal muscle neuronal nitric oxide synthase micro protein is reduced in people with impaired glucose homeostasis and is not normalized by exercise training.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Scott J; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Canny, Benedict J; McConell, Glenn K

    2007-10-01

    Skeletal muscle inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) protein is greatly elevated in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas endothelial NOS is at normal levels. Diabetic rat studies suggest that skeletal muscle neuronal NOS (nNOS) micro protein expression may be reduced in human insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein expression is reduced in people with impaired glucose homeostasis and whether exercise training increases nNOSmicro protein expression in these individuals because exercise training increases skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein in rats. Seven people with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) and 7 matched (sex, age, fitness, body mass index, blood pressure, lipid profile) healthy controls aged 36 to 60 years participated in this study. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies for nNOSmicro protein determination were obtained, aerobic fitness was measured (peak pulmonary oxygen uptake [Vo(2) peak]), and glucose tolerance and insulin homeostasis were assessed before and after 1 and 4 weeks of cycling exercise training (60% Vo(2) peak, 50 minutes x 5 d wk(-1)). Skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein was significantly lower (by 32%) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes compared with that in controls before training (17.7 +/- 1.2 vs 26.2 +/- 3.4 arbitrary units, P < .05). The Vo(2) peak and indicators of insulin sensitivity improved with exercise training in both groups (P < .05), but there was no effect of exercise training on skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein in either group. In conclusion, individuals with impaired glucose homeostasis have reduced skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein content. However, because exercise training improves insulin sensitivity without influencing skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein expression, it seems that changes in skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein are not central to the control of insulin

  5. A 12-week aerobic exercise program reduces hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance in obese, Hispanic adolescents.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rise in obesity-related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Currently, only limited data are available on the effects of exercise programs on insulin resistance, and visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat accumulation. We hypothesized t...

  6. Active Intervention Program Using Dietary Education and Exercise Training for Reducing Obesity in Mexican American Male Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sukho; Misra, Ranjita; Kaster, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 10-week active intervention program (AIP), which incorporates dietary education with exercise training, among 30 healthy Mexican American male children, aged 8-12 years, in Laredo, Texas. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups: education (EDU), dietary education to participants and parents and…

  7. Short-term Regular Aerobic Exercise Reduces Oxidative Stress Produced by Acute High Intraluminal Pressure in the Adipose Microvasculature.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Austin T; Fancher, Ibra S; Sudhahar, Varadarajan; Bian, Jing Tan; Cook, Marc; Mahmoud, Abeer M; Ali, Mohamed; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Brown, Michael D; Fukai, Tohru; Phillips, Shane A

    2017-02-24

    High blood pressure has been shown to elicit impaired dilation in the vasculature. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the mechanisms through which high pressure may elicit vascular dysfunction, and determine the mechanisms through which regular aerobic exercise protects arteries against high pressure.

  8. Reduced central blood volume and cardiac output and increased vascular resistance during static handgrip exercise in postural tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Julian M; Taneja, Indu; Medow, Marvin S

    2007-09-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is characterized by exercise intolerance and sympathoactivation. To examine whether abnormal cardiac output and central blood volume changes occur during exercise in POTS, we studied 29 patients with POTS (17-29 yr) and 12 healthy subjects (18-27 yr) using impedance and venous occlusion plethysmography to assess regional blood volumes and flows during supine static handgrip to evoke the exercise pressor reflex. POTS was subgrouped into normal and low-flow groups based on calf blood flow. We examined autonomic effects with variability techniques. During handgrip, systolic blood pressure increased from 112 +/- 4 to 139 +/- 9 mmHg in control, from 119 +/- 6 to 143 +/- 9 in normal-flow POTS, but only from 117 +/- 4 to 128 +/- 6 in low-flow POTS. Heart rate increased from 63 +/- 6 to 82 +/- 4 beats/min in control, 76 +/- 3 to 92 +/- 6 beats/min in normal-flow POTS, and 88 +/- 4 to 100 +/- 6 beats/min in low-flow POTS. Heart rate variability and coherence markedly decreased in low-flow POTS, indicating uncoupling of baroreflex heart rate regulation. The increase in central blood volume with handgrip was absent in low-flow POTS and blunted in normal-flow POTS associated with abnormal splanchnic emptying. Cardiac output increased in control, was unchanged in low-flow POTS, and was attenuated in normal-flow POTS. Total peripheral resistance was increased compared with control in all POTS. The exercise pressor reflex was attenuated in low-flow POTS. While increased cardiac output and central blood volume characterizes controls, increased peripheral resistance with blunted or eliminated in central blood volume increments characterizes POTS and may contribute to exercise intolerance.

  9. Human muscle net K(+) release during exercise is unaffected by elevated anaerobic metabolism, but reduced after prolonged acclimatization to 4,100 m.

    PubMed

    Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Calbet, José A L; Sander, Mikael; van Hall, Gerrit; Juel, Carsten; Saltin, Bengt; Lundby, Carsten

    2010-07-01

    It was investigated whether skeletal muscle K(+) release is linked to the degree of anaerobic energy production. Six subjects performed an incremental bicycle exercise test in normoxic and hypoxic conditions prior to and after 2 and 8 wk of acclimatization to 4,100 m. The highest workload completed by all subjects in all trials was 260 W. With acute hypoxic exposure prior to acclimatization, venous plasma [K(+)] was lower (P < 0.05) in normoxia (4.9 +/- 0.1 mM) than hypoxia (5.2 +/- 0.2 mM) at 260 W, but similar at exhaustion, which occurred at 400 +/- 9 W and 307 +/- 7 W (P < 0.05), respectively. At the same absolute exercise intensity, leg net K(+) release was unaffected by hypoxic exposure independent of acclimatization. After 8 wk of acclimatization, no difference existed in venous plasma [K(+)] between the normoxic and hypoxic trial, either at submaximal intensities or at exhaustion (360 +/- 14 W vs. 313 +/- 8 W; P < 0.05). At the same absolute exercise intensity, leg net K(+) release was less (P < 0.001) than prior to acclimatization and reached negative values in both hypoxic and normoxic conditions after acclimatization. Moreover, the reduction in plasma volume during exercise relative to rest was less (P < 0.01) in normoxic than hypoxic conditions, irrespective of the degree of acclimatization (at 260 W prior to acclimatization: -4.9 +/- 0.8% in normoxia and -10.0 +/- 0.4% in hypoxia). It is concluded that leg net K(+) release is unrelated to anaerobic energy production and that acclimatization reduces leg net K(+) release during exercise.

  10. A controlled intervention to promote a healthy body image, reduce eating disorder risk and prevent excessive exercise among trainee health education and physical education teachers.

    PubMed

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE&PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an 'at-risk' population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year of the study, the control group cohort (n = 49 females, 20 males) received the regular didactic health education curriculum; in the second year of the study, the Intervention 1 cohort (n = 31 females, 21 males) received a self-esteem and media literacy health education program and in the third year of the study, the Intervention 2 cohort (n = 30 females, 19 males) received a combined self-esteem, media literacy and dissonance program using online and computer-based activities. Intervention 2 produced the best results, with males improving significantly in self-esteem, body image and drive for muscularity. Intervention 2 females improved significantly on Eating Disorders Inventory Drive for Thinness, Eating Disorder Examination and excessive exercise. The improvements were consistent at 6-month follow-up for females. It is feasible to promote body image, reduce body dissatisfaction and reduce excessive exercise among trainee HE&PE teachers via a health education curriculum.

  11. Exercise-Associated Changes in the Corticosterone Response to Acute Restraint Stress: Evidence for Increased Adrenal Sensitivity and Reduced Corticosterone Response Duration

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Brendan D; Beierle, Jacob A; Toufexis, Donna J; Hammack, Sayamwong E; Falls, William A

    2014-01-01

    Exercise promotes stress resistance and is associated with reduced anxiety and reduced depression in both humans and in animal models. Despite the fact that dysfunction within the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is strongly linked to both anxiety and depressive disorders, the evidence is mixed as to how exercise alters the function of the HPA axis. Here we demonstrate that 4 weeks of voluntary wheel running was anxiolytic in C57BL/6J mice and resulted in a shorter time to peak corticosterone (CORT) and a more rapid decay of CORT following restraint stress. Wheel running was also associated with increased adrenal size and elevated CORT following systemic administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Finally, the HPA-axis response to peripheral or intracerebroventricular administration of dexamethasone did not suggest that wheel running increases HPA-axis negative feedback through GR-mediated mechanisms. Together these findings suggest that exercise may promote stress resilience in part by insuring a more rapid and shortened HPA response to a stressor thus affecting overall exposure to the potentially negative effects of more sustained HPA-axis activation. PMID:24280995

  12. Effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia living in the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Elissa; Cavalheri, Vinicius; Adams, Richard; Oakley Browne, Colleen; Bovery-Spencer, Petra; Fenton, Audra M; Campbell, Bruce W; Hill, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia who are living in the community. Method Peer-reviewed articles (randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and quasi-experimental trials) published in English between January 2000 and February 2014, retrieved from six electronic databases – Medline (ProQuest), CINAHL, PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE and Scopus – according to predefined inclusion criteria were included. Where possible, results were pooled and meta-analysis was conducted. Results Four articles (three RCT and one single-group pre- and post-test pilot study) were included. The study quality of the three RCTs was high; however, measurement outcomes, interventions, and follow-up time periods differed across studies. On completion of the intervention period, the mean number of falls was lower in the exercise group compared to the control group (mean difference [MD] [95% confidence interval {CI}] =−1.06 [−1.67 to −0.46] falls). Importantly, the exercise intervention reduced the risk of being a faller by 32% (risk ratio [95% CI] =0.68 [0.55–0.85]). Only two other outcomes were reported in two or more of the studies (step test and physiological profile assessment). No between-group differences were observed in the results of the step test (number of steps) (MD [95% CI] =0.51 [−1.77 to 2.78]) or the physiological profile assessment (MD [95% CI] =−0.10 [−0.62 to 0.42]). Conclusion Findings from this review suggest that an exercise program may potentially assist in preventing falls of older people with dementia living in the community. However, further research is needed with studies using larger sample sizes, standardized measurement outcomes, and longer follow-up periods, to inform evidence-based recommendations. PMID:25709416

  13. The effect of dietary control and carbohydrate supplementation on the immune and hormonal responses to rowing exercise.

    PubMed

    Sellar, Christopher M; Syrotuik, Daniel G; Field, Catherine J; Bell, Gordon J

    2006-10-01

    To determine the effect of carbohydrate supplementation on the immune and stress hormone responses to 1 h of strenuous rowing exercise, 22 male subjects were randomly assigned to a placebo (PLA, n = 11) or carbohydrate (CHO, n = 11) group. Subjects completed 3 d of modified dietary intake, a standardized pre-exercise meal, and consumed either a carbohydrate beverage (1 g.kg body mass(-1)) or a non-caloric placebo drink before, during, and after a 1 h rowing trial. Increases were observed in adrenocorticotrophic hormone, cortisol, blood leukocytes, neutrophils, and natural killer cell concentrations and activity, whereas the ability of peripheral blood monouclear cells (PBMCs) to respond (interleukin-2 (IL-2) production) to stimulation was reduced 5 min after exercise in both groups (p < 0.05). Lymphocytes were also elevated, but in the PLA group only (p < 0.05). One hour after exercise, blood leukocytes remained elevated owing to increased neutrophil concentrations, whereas a number of lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD3+/4+, CD3+/8+, CD20+, CD25+, CD4+/25+, CD8+/25+) and the ability of PBMCs to respond to stimulation (IL-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production) were lower than resting values in both groups (p < 0.05). Carbohydrate supplementation to athletes in the post-prandial state undergoing a 1 h rowing trial resulted in attenuation of the post-exercise increase in peripheral blood lymphocyte concentration, but had little effect on the ability of PBMCs to produce cytokines following stimulation, natural killer cell activity, stress hormone concentrations, exercise performance, or self-reported incidence of illness during the 14 d period following the experimental trial.

  14. Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans.

    PubMed

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

    2014-07-15

    Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterial-venous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35°C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 ± 3 vs. 78.2 ± 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38.3 ± 0.1 vs. 36.8 ± 0.1°C), impaired exercise capacity (269 ± 11 vs. 336 ± 14 W), and lowered ICA and MCA Vmean by 12-23% without compromising CCA blood flow. During euhydrated incremental exercise on a separate day, however, exercise capacity and ICA, MCA Vmean and CCA dynamics were preserved. The fast decline in cerebral perfusion with dehydration was accompanied by increased O2 extraction (P < 0.05), resulting in a maintained cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). In all conditions, reductions in ICA and MCA Vmean were associated with declining cerebral vascular conductance, increasing jugular venous noradrenaline, and falling arterial carbon dioxide tension (P aCO 2) (R(2) ≥ 0.41, P ≤ 0.01) whereas CCA flow and conductance were related to elevated blood temperature. In conclusion, dehydration accelerated the decline in CBF by decreasing P aCO 2 and enhancing vasoconstrictor activity. However, the circulatory strain on the human brain during maximal exercise does not compromise CMRO2 because of compensatory increases in O2 extraction.

  15. Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans

    PubMed Central

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

    2014-01-01

    Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterial–venous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35°C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 ± 3 vs. 78.2 ± 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38.3 ± 0.1 vs. 36.8 ± 0.1°C), impaired exercise capacity (269 ± 11 vs. 336 ± 14 W), and lowered ICA and MCA Vmean by 12–23% without compromising CCA blood flow. During euhydrated incremental exercise on a separate day, however, exercise capacity and ICA, MCA Vmean and CCA dynamics were preserved. The fast decline in cerebral perfusion with dehydration was accompanied by increased O2 extraction (P < 0.05), resulting in a maintained cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). In all conditions, reductions in ICA and MCA Vmean were associated with declining cerebral vascular conductance, increasing jugular venous noradrenaline, and falling arterial carbon dioxide tension () (R2 ≥ 0.41, P ≤ 0.01) whereas CCA flow and conductance were related to elevated blood temperature. In conclusion, dehydration accelerated the decline in CBF by decreasing and enhancing vasoconstrictor activity. However, the circulatory strain on the human brain during maximal exercise does not compromise CMRO2 because of compensatory increases in O2 extraction. PMID:24835170

  16. Post-Exercise Phosphocreatine Recovery, an Index of Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation, is Reduced in Diabetic Patients With Lower Extremity Complications

    PubMed Central

    Tecilazich, Francesco; Dinh, Thanh; Lyons, Thomas E.; Guest, Julie; Villafuerte, Rose; Sampanis, Christos; Gnardellis, Charalambos; Zuo, Chun; Veves, Aristidis

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify differences in the post-exercise phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery, an index of mitochondrial function, in diabetic patients with and without lower extremity complications. Research Methods and Design We enrolled healthy control subjects and three groups of T2DM patients: patients without complications, with peripheral neuropathy and both peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease. We employed Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic (MRS) measurements to perform continuous measurements of phosphorous metabolites (PCr and Pi) during a 3-minute graded exercise at the level of the posterior calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus muscles). Micro- and macrovascular reactivity measurements were also performed. Results The resting Pi/PCr ratio and PCr at baseline and the maximum reached during exercise was similar in all groups. The post-exercise time required for recovery of Pi/PCr ratio and PCr levels to resting levels, an assessment of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, was significantly higher in the diabetic patients with neuropathy and those with both neuropathy and PAD (p <0.01 for both measurements). These two groups had also higher levels of TNFα, (p<0.01) and G-CSF (p <0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that only G-CSF, OPG and TNFα were significant contributing factors in the variation of the Pi/PCr ratio recovery time. No associations were observed between micro- and macrovascular reactivity measurements and Pi/Pcr ration or Pcr recovery time. Conclusions Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is impaired only in T2DM patients with neuropathy whether PAD is present or not and is associated with the increased proinflammatory state that was observed in these groups. PMID:23465172

  17. Putting the benefits and risks of aerobic exercise in perspective.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Barry A; Billecke, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Although considerable epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that structured exercise, increased lifestyle activity, or both are cardioprotective, the absolute and relative risk of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal complications appear to increase transiently during vigorous physical activity. The estimated relative risk of exercise-related cardiac events ranges from 2.1 to 56 and is highest among habitually sedentary individuals with underlying cardiovascular disease who were performing unaccustomed vigorous physical exertion. Moreover, an estimated 7 million Americans receive medical attention for sports and recreation-related injuries each year. These risks, and their modulators, should be considered when endorsing strenuous leisure time or exercise interventions. If the current mantra "exercise is medicine" is embraced, underdosing and overdosing are possible. Thus, exercise may have a typical dose-response curve with a plateau in benefit or even adverse effects, in some individuals, at more extreme levels.

  18. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases salivary IgA and decreases cold/flu symptomatic days after intense exercise.

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Brian K; Carpenter, Katie C; Davidson, Tiffany; McFarlin, Meredith A

    2013-09-01

    Strenuous exercise, such as running a marathon, is known to suppress mucosal immunity for up to 24 hr, which can increase the risk of developing an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and reduced performance capacity (Allgrove JE, Geneen L, Latif S, Gleeson M. Influence of a fed or fasted state on the s-IgA response to prolonged cycling in active men and women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(3):209-221; Barrett B, Locken K, Maberry R, Schwamman J, Brown R, Bobula J, Stauffacher EA. The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS): a new research instrument for assessing the common cold. J Fam Pract. 2002;51(3):265; Carpenter KC, Breslin WL, Davidson T, Adams A, McFarlin BK. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implications for infection risk? Br J Nutr. 2012;1-9). While many dietary interventions have been used to combat postexercise immune suppression, most have been ineffective. The key purpose of this study was to determine if baker's yeast β-glucan (BG) could positively affect the immune system of individuals undergoing intense exercise stress using two experiments. In the first (E1; N = 182 men and women), BG was compared to placebo supplementation for the incidence of URTI symptoms for 28 days postmarathon. In the second (E2; N = 60 men and women) changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) were evaluated after 50-min of strenuous cycling when participants had been supplemented for 10 days with either BG (250 mg/day) or placebo (rice flour). For E1, subjects reported URTI symptoms using a daily health log. For E2, saliva was collected prior to, immediately, and 2-hr postexercise using a salivette. Data for E1 and E2 were analyzed using separate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with repeated measures (p < .05). In E1, BG was associated with a 37% reduction in the number of cold/flu symptom days postmarathon compared to placebo (p = .026). In E2, BG was associated with a 32% increase in

  19. Plasma and adipose tissue level of angiopoietin-like 7 (ANGPTL7) are increased in obesity and reduced after physical exercise

    PubMed Central

    Cherian, Preethi; Al-Khairi, Irina; Madhu, Dhanya; Tiss, Ali; Warsam, Samia; Alhubail, Asma; Sriraman, Devarajan; Al-Refaei, Faisal; Abubaker, Jehad

    2017-01-01

    Objective ANGPTL7 is a member of the Angiopoietin-like (ANGPTL) protein family that is composed of eight proteins (1–8). Increasing evidence is associating ANGPTL proteins to obesity and insulin resistance. The biological role of ANGPTL7 is yet to be understood except for a recently proposed role in the pathophysiology of glaucoma. This study was designed to shed light on the function of ANGPTL7 in obesity and its modulation by physical exercise as well as its potential association with lipid profile. Methods A total of 144 subjects were enrolled in this study and finished three months of physical exercise. The participants were classified based on their BMI, 82 subjects were non-obese and 62 obese. ANGPTL7 levels in plasma and adipose tissue were measured by ELISA, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results In this study, we showed that ANGPTL7 level was increased in the plasma of obese subjects (1249.05± 130.39 pg/mL) as compared to non-obese (930.34 ± 87.27 pg/mL) (p-Value = 0.032). ANGPTL7 Gene and protein expression levels in adipose tissue also showed over two fold increase. Physical exercise reduced circulating level of ANGPTL7 in the obese subjects to 740.98± 127.18 pg/mL, (p-Value = 0.007). ANGPTL7 expression in adipose tissue was also reduced after exercise. Finally, ANGPTL7 circulating level showed significant association with TG level in the obese subjects (R2 = 0.183, p-Value = 0.03). Conclusion In conclusion, our data shows for the first time that obesity increases the level of ANGPTL7 in both plasma and adipose tissue. Increased expression of ANGPTL7 might play a minor role in the regulation of TG level in obese subjects either directly or through interaction with other ANGPTL protein members. Physical exercise reduced the level of ANGPTL7 highlighting the potential for targeting this protein as a therapeutic target for regulating dyslipidemia. PMID:28264047

  20. Capillary ultrastructure and mitochondrial volume density in skeletal muscle in relation to reduced exercise capacity of patients with intermittent claudication.

    PubMed

    Baum, Oliver; Torchetti, Eleonora; Malik, Corinna; Hoier, Birgitte; Walker, Meegan; Walker, Philip J; Odriozola, Adolfo; Graber, Franziska; Tschanz, Stefan A; Bangsbo, Jens; Hoppeler, Hans; Askew, Christopher D; Hellsten, Ylva

    2016-05-15

    Intermittent claudication (IC) is the most commonly reported symptom of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Impaired limb blood flow is a major casual factor of lower exercise tolerance in PAD but cannot entirely explain it. We hypothesized that IC is associated with structural changes of the capillary-mitochondria interface that could contribute to the reduction of exercise tolerance in IC patients. Capillary and mitochondrial morphometry were performed after light and transmission electron microscopy using vastus lateralis muscle biopsies of 14 IC patients and 10 age-matched controls, and peak power output (PPO) was determined for all participants using an incremental single-leg knee-extension protocol. Capillary density was lower (411 ± 90 mm(-2) vs. 506 ± 95 mm(-2); P ≤ 0.05) in the biopsies of the IC patients than in those of the controls. The basement membrane (BM) around capillaries was thicker (543 ± 82 nm vs. 423 ± 97 nm; P ≤ 0.01) and the volume density of mitochondria was lower (3.51 ± 0.56% vs. 4.60 ± 0.74%; P ≤ 0.01) in the IC patients than the controls. In the IC patients, a higher proportion of capillaries appeared with collapsed slit-like lumen and/or swollen endothelium. PPO was lower (18.5 ± 9.9 W vs. 33.5 ± 9.4 W; P ≤ 0.01) in the IC patients than the controls. We suggest that several structural alterations in skeletal muscle, either collectively or separately, contribute to the reduction of exercise tolerance in IC patients.

  1. Low resting metabolic rate in exercise-associated amenorrhea is not due to a reduced proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Southmayd, Emily A; Allaway, Heather C M; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2016-08-01

    Exercising women with menstrual disturbances frequently display a low resting metabolic rate (RMR) when RMR is expressed relative to body size or lean mass. However, normalizing RMR for body size or lean mass does not account for potential differences in the size of tissue compartments with varying metabolic activities. To explore whether the apparent RMR suppression in women with exercise-associated amenorrhea is a consequence of a lower proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments or the result of metabolic adaptations related to energy conservation at the tissue level, RMR and metabolic tissue compartments were compared among exercising women with amenorrhea (AMEN; n = 42) and exercising women with eumenorrheic, ovulatory menstrual cycles (OV; n = 37). RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry and predicted from the size of metabolic tissue compartments as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Measured RMR was lower than DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (1,215 ± 31 vs. 1,327 ± 18 kcal/day, P < 0.001) but not in OV (1,284 ± 24 vs. 1,252 ± 17, P = 0.16), resulting in a lower ratio of measured to DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (91 ± 2%) vs. OV (103 ± 2%, P < 0.001). AMEN displayed proportionally more residual mass (P < 0.001) and less adipose tissue (P = 0.003) compared with OV. A lower ratio of measured to DXA-predicted RMR was associated with lower serum total triiodothyronine (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001) and leptin (ρ = 0.32, P = 0.004). Our findings suggest that RMR suppression in this population is not the result of a reduced size of highly active metabolic tissue compartments but is due to metabolic and endocrine adaptations at the tissue level that are indicative of energy conservation.

  2. A hip abduction exercise prior to prolonged standing increased movement while reducing cocontraction and low back pain perception in those initially reporting low back pain.

    PubMed

    Viggiani, Daniel; Callaghan, Jack P

    2016-12-01

    Persons who develop low back pain from prolonged standing exhibit increased muscle cocontraction, decreased movement and increased spine extension. However, it is unclear how these factors relate to pain development. The purpose of this study was to use hip abductor fatigue to manipulate muscle activity patterns and determine its effects on standing behaviours and pain development. Forty participants stood for two hours twice, once following a hip abductor fatigue exercise (fatigue), and once without exercise beforehand (control). Trunk and gluteal muscle activity were measured to determine cocontraction. Lumbo-pelvic angles and force plates were used to assess posture and movement strategies. Visual analog scales differentiated pain (PDs) and non-pain developers (NPDs). PDs reported less low back pain during the fatigue session, with females having earlier reductions of similar scale than males. The fatigue session reduced gluteal and trunk cocontraction and increased centre of pressure movement; male and female PDs had opposing spine posture compensations. Muscle fatigue prior to standing reduced cocontraction, increased movement during standing and reduced the low back pain developed by PDs; the timing of pain reductions depended on spine postures adopted during standing.

  3. Acute Schmorl's Node during Strenuous Monofin Swimming: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Paterakis, Konstantinos N.; Brotis, Alexandros G.; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M.; Karachalios, Theofilos; Fountas, Kostas N.; Karantanas, Apostolos

    2012-01-01

    Study Design This case report describes an acute Schmorl's node (SN) in an elite monofin athlete during exercise. The patient presented with severe back pain and leg numbness and was managed successfully with conservative treatment. Objective The aim of our communication was to describe a rare presentation of a common pathological condition during an intense sport. Background Swimming is not generally considered to be a sport activity that leads to spinal injuries. SNs are usually asymptomatic lesions, incidentally found on imaging studies. There is no correlation between swimming and symptomatic SN formation. Case Report A 16-year-old monofin elite athlete suffered from an acute nonradiating back pain during extreme exercise. His back pain was associated with a fracture of the superior L5 end plate and an acute SN at the L5 vertebral body with perilesional bone marrow edema. The pain resolved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bed rest. The athlete had an excellent outcome and returned to his training activities 6 months after his incident. Conclusion SN should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe back pain, especially in sport-related injuries. SNs present with characteristic imaging findings. Due to the benign nature of these lesions, surveillance-only management may be the best course of action. PMID:24353963

  4. Airway cooling and mucosal injury during cold weather exercise.

    PubMed

    Davis, M S; Lockard, A J; Marlin, D J; Freed, A N

    2002-09-01

    In human subjects that exercise strenuously in cold weather, there is evidence that hyperventilation with cold air leads to peripheral airway cooling, desiccation and mucosal injury. Our hypothesis was that hyperventilation with cold air can result in penetration of unconditioned air (air that is not completely warmed and humidified) into the peripheral airways of exercising horses, resulting in peripheral airway mucosal injury. To test this hypothesis, a thermister-tipped catheter was inserted through the midcervical trachea and advanced into a sublobar bronchus in three horses that cantered on a treadmill at 6.6 m/s while breathing cold (5 degrees C) air. The mean (+/- s.e.) intra-airway temperature during cantering was 33.3 +/- 0.4 degrees C, a value comparable to the bronchial lumen temperatures measured in man during maximal exercise while breathing subfreezing dry air. In a second experiment, 6 fit Thoroughbred racehorses with satisfactory performance were used to determine whether strenuous exercise in cold conditions can produce airway injury. Horses were assigned to Exercise (E) or Control (C) groups in a random crossover design. Samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in the E treatment were recovered within 30 min of galloping exercise in 4 degrees C, 100% relative humidity (E), while in C BALF samples were obtained when the horses had not performed any exercise for at least 48 h prior. Ciliated epithelial cells in BALF were higher in E than in the C treatment. Similar results have been found in human athletes and laboratory animal models of cold weather exercise. These results support the hypothesis that, similar to man, horses that exercise in cold weather experience peripheral airway mucosal injury due to the penetration of unconditioned air. Furthermore, these results suggest that airway cooling and desiccation may be a factor in airway inflammation commonly found in equine athletes.

  5. Reduced reward-driven eating accounts for the impact of a mindfulness-based diet and exercise intervention on weight loss: Data from the SHINE randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mason, Ashley E; Epel, Elissa S; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Lustig, Robert H; Acree, Michael; Kristeller, Jean; Cohn, Michael; Dallman, Mary; Moran, Patricia J; Bacchetti, Peter; Laraia, Barbara; Hecht, Frederick M; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Many individuals with obesity report over eating despite intentions to maintain or lose weight. Two barriers to long-term weight loss are reward-driven eating, which is characterized by a lack of control over eating, a preoccupation with food, and a lack of satiety; and psychological stress. Mindfulness training may address these barriers by promoting awareness of hunger and satiety cues, self-regulatory control, and stress reduction. We examined these two barriers as potential mediators of weight loss in the Supporting Health by Integrating Nutrition and Exercise (SHINE) randomized controlled trial, which compared the effects of a 5.5-month diet and exercise intervention with or without mindfulness training on weight loss among adults with obesity. Intention-to-treat multiple mediation models tested whether post-intervention reward-driven eating and psychological stress mediated the impact of intervention arm on weight loss at 12- and 18-months post-baseline among 194 adults with obesity (BMI: 30-45). Mindfulness (relative to control) participants had significant reductions in reward-driven eating at 6 months (post-intervention), which, in turn, predicted weight loss at 12 months. Post-intervention reward-driven eating mediated 47.1% of the total intervention arm effect on weight loss at 12 months [β = -0.06, SE(β) = 0.03, p = .030, 95% CI (-0.12, -0.01)]. This mediated effect was reduced when predicting weight loss at 18 months (p = .396), accounting for 23.0% of the total intervention effect, despite similar weight loss at 12 months. Psychological stress did not mediate the effect of intervention arm on weight loss at 12 or 18 months. In conclusion, reducing reward-driven eating, which can be achieved using a diet and exercise intervention that includes mindfulness training, may promote weight loss (clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT00960414).

  6. Neonatal alcohol exposure reduces number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex and impairs passive avoidance acquisition in mice deficits not rescued from exercise.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, G F; Hernandez, I J; Krebs, C P; Bucko, P J; Rhodes, J S

    2017-04-06

    Developmental alcohol exposure causes a host of cognitive and neuroanatomical abnormalities, one of which is impaired executive functioning resulting from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) damage. This study determined whether third-trimester equivalent alcohol exposure reduced the number of mPFC GABAergic parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons, hypothesized to play an important role in local inhibition of the mPFC. The impact on passive avoidance learning and the therapeutic role of aerobic exercise in adulthood was also explored. Male C57BL/6J mice received either saline or 5g/kg ethanol (two doses, two hours apart) on PD5, 7, and 9. On PD35, animals received a running wheel or remained sedentary for 48days before behavioral testing and perfusion on PD83. The number of PV+ interneurons was stereologically measured in three separate mPFC subregions: infralimbic, prelimbic and anterior cingulate cortices (ACC). Neonatal alcohol exposure decreased number of PV+ interneurons and volume of the ACC, but the other regions of the mPFC were spared. Alcohol impaired acquisition, but not retrieval of passive avoidance, and had no effect on motor performance on the rotarod. Exercise had no impact on PV+ cell number, mPFC volume, or acquisition of passive avoidance, but enhanced retrieval in both control and alcohol-exposed groups, and enhanced rotarod performance in the control mice. Results support the hypothesis that part of the behavioral deficits associated with developmental alcohol exposure are due to reduced PV+ interneurons in the ACC, but unfortunately exercise does not appear to be able to reverse any of these deficits.

  7. Intra-Articular Corticosteroids in Addition to Exercise for Reducing Pain Sensitivity in Knee Osteoarthritis: Exploratory Outcome from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Klokker, Louise; Bartholdy, Cecilie; Bandak, Elisabeth; Ellegaard, Karen; Bliddal, Henning; Henriksen, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of one intra-articular corticosteroid injection two weeks prior to an exercise-based intervention program for reducing pain sensitivity in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design Randomized, masked, parallel, placebo-controlled trial involving 100 participants with clinical and radiographic knee OA that were randomized to one intra-articular injection on the knee with either 1 ml of 40 mg/ml methylprednisolone (corticosteroid) dissolved in 4 ml lidocaine (10 mg/ml) or 1 ml isotonic saline (placebo) mixed with 4 ml lidocaine (10 mg/ml). Two weeks after the injections all participants undertook a 12-week supervised exercise program. Main outcomes were changes from baseline in pressure-pain sensitivity (pressure-pain threshold [PPT] and temporal summation [TS]) assessed using cuff pressure algometry on the calf. These were exploratory outcomes from a randomized controlled trial. Results A total of 100 patients were randomized to receive either corticosteroid (n = 50) or placebo (n = 50); 45 and 44, respectively, completed the trial. Four participants had missing values for PPT and one for TS at baseline; thus modified intention-to-treat populations were analyzed. The mean group difference in changes from baseline at week 14 was 0.6 kPa (95% CI: -1.7 to 2.8; P = 0.626) for PPT and 384 mm×sec (95% CI: -2980 to 3750; P = 0.821) for TS. Conclusions These results suggest that adding intra-articular corticosteroid injection 2 weeks prior to an exercise program does not provide additional benefits compared to placebo in reducing pain sensitivity in patients with knee OA. Trial Registration EU clinical trials (EudraCT): 2012-002607-18 PMID:26871954

  8. Impact of Exercise on Clinical Symptom Report and Neurocognition after Concussion in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Manikas, Vicky; Babl, Franz E; Hearps, Stephen; Dooley, Julian; Anderson, Vicki

    2017-03-21

    Recovery from concussion in childhood is poorly understood, despite its importance in decisions regarding return to normal activity. Resolution of post-concussive symptoms (PCS) is widely employed as a marker of recovery in clinical practice; however, it is unclear whether subtle impairments persist only to re-emerge in the context of increased physical or cognitive demands. This study aimed to examine the effect of strenuous exercise on clinical symptom report and neurocognition in children and adolescents after PCS resolution after concussion. We recruited children and adolescents with concussion (n = 30) on presentation to an Emergency Department (ED). At Day 2 and Day 10 post-self-reported symptom resolution, participants completed a strenuous exercise protocol, and pre- and post-exercise assessment of PCS and neurocognition. Results demonstrated an overall reduction in PCS from Day 2 to Day 10 post-symptom resolution, with no evidence of symptom increase after strenuous exercise at either time point. Neurocognitive performance was linked to task complexity: on less cognitively demanding tasks, processing speed was slower post-exercise and, unexpectedly, slower on Day 10 than Day 2, while for more demanding tasks (new learning), Day 2 exercise resulted in faster responses, but Day 10 processing speed post-exercise was slower. In summary, we found the expected recovery pattern for PCS, regardless of exercise, while for neurocognition, recovery was dependent on the degree of cognitive demand, and there was an unexpected reduction in performance from Day 2 to Day 10. Findings provide some suggestion that premature return to normal activities (e.g., school) may slow neurocognitive recovery.

  9. Exploring effects of a natural combination medicine on exercise-induced inflammatory immune response: A double-blind RCT.

    PubMed

    Pilat, C; Frech, T; Wagner, A; Krüger, K; Hillebrecht, A; Pons-Kühnemann, J; Scheibelhut, C; Bödeker, R-H; Mooren, F-C

    2015-08-01

    Traumeel (Tr14) is a natural, combination drug, which has been shown to modulate inflammation at the cytokine level. This study aimed to investigate potential effects of Tr14 on the exercise-induced immune response. In a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, healthy, untrained male subjects received either Tr14 (n = 40) or placebo (n = 40) for 24 h after a strenuous experimental exercise trial on a bicycle (60 min at 80%VO2 max). A range of antigen-stimulated cytokines (in vitro), white blood cell count, lymphocyte activation and apoptosis markers, and indicators of muscle damage were assessed up to 24 h following exercise. The area under the curve with respect to the increase (AUCI ) was compared between both groups. The Tr14 group showed a reduced exercise-induced leukocytosis and neutrocytosis (P < 0.01 for both), a higher AUCI score of antigen-stimulated IL-1β and IL-1α (absolute and per monocyte, all P < 0.05), a lower AUCI score of antigen-stimulated GM-CSF (P < 0.05) and by trend a lower AUCI score of antigen-stimulated IL-2 and IL-4 as well as a higher AUCI score of antigen-stimulated IL-6 (all P < 0.1). Tr14 might promote differentiated effects on the exercise-induced immune response by (a) decreasing the inflammatory response of the innate immune system; and (b) augmenting the pro-inflammatory cytokine response.

  10. Enjoyment for High-Intensity Interval Exercise Increases during the First Six Weeks of Training: Implications for Promoting Exercise Adherence in Sedentary Adults.

    PubMed

    Heisz, Jennifer J; Tejada, Mary Grace M; Paolucci, Emily M; Muir, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to show that enjoyment for high-intensity interval exercise increases with chronic training. Prior acute studies typically report high-intensity interval training (HIT) as being more enjoyable than moderate continuous training (MCT) unless the high-intensity intervals are too strenuous or difficult to complete. It follows that exercise competency may be a critical factor contributing to the enjoyment of HIT, and therefore building competency through chronic training may be one way to increase its enjoyment. To test this, we randomly assigned sedentary young adults to six weeks of HIT or MCT, and tracked changes in their enjoyment for the exercise. Enjoyment for HIT increased with training whereas enjoyment for MCT remained constant and lower. Changes in exercise enjoyment were predicted by increases in workload, suggesting that strength adaptions may be important for promoting exercise enjoyment. The results point to HIT as a promising protocol for promoting exercise enjoyment and adherence in sedentary young adults.

  11. Adolescent intermittent ethanol reduces serotonin expression in the adult raphe nucleus and upregulates innate immune expression that is prevented by exercise.

    PubMed

    Vetreno, Ryan P; Patel, Yesha; Patel, Urvi; Walter, T Jordan; Crews, Fulton T

    2017-02-01

    Serotonergic neurons of the raphe nucleus regulate sleep, mood, endocrine function, and other processes that mature during adolescence. Alcohol abuse and binge drinking are common during human adolescence. We tested the novel hypothesis that adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure would alter the serotonergic system that would persist into adulthood. Using a Wistar rat model of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0g/kg, i.g., 2-day on/2-day off from postnatal day [P]25 to P55), we found a loss of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) serotonin (5-HT)-immunoreactive (+IR) neurons that persisted from late adolescence (P56) into adulthood (P220). Hypothalamic and amygdalar DRN serotonergic projections were reduced following AIE. Tryptophan hydroxylase 2, the rate-limiting 5-HT synthesizing enzyme, and vesicular monoamine transporter 2, which packages 5-HT into synaptic vesicles, were also reduced in the young adult midbrain following AIE treatment. Adolescent intermittent ethanol treatment increased expression of phosphorylated (activated) NF-κB p65 as well as markers of microglial activation (i.e., Iba-1 and CD11b) in the adult DRN. Administration of lipopolysaccharide to mimic AIE-induced innate immune activation reduced 5-HT+IR and increased phosphorylated NF-κB p65+IR similar to AIE treatment. Voluntary exercise during adolescence through young adulthood blunted microglial marker and phosphorylated NF-κB p65+IR, and prevented the AIE-induced loss of 5-HT+IR neurons in the DRN. Together, these novel data reveal that AIE reduces 5-HT+IR neurons in the adult DRN, possibly through an innate immune mechanism, which might impact adult cognition, arousal, or reward sensitivity. Further, exercise prevents the deleterious effects of AIE on the serotonergic system.

  12. Physiological, biochemical and psychological markers of strenuous training-induced fatigue.

    PubMed

    Rietjens, G J W M; Kuipers, H; Adam, J J; Saris, W H M; van Breda, E; van Hamont, D; Keizer, H A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether severe fatigue, possibly leading to overreaching, could be diagnosed at an early stage by a combination of parameters. Seven well-trained male subjects (age [mean +/- SD]: 25.3 +/- 4.7 yr; body mass: 76 +/- 6.6 kg; VO2max: 61.1 +/- 7 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) increased their training load by doubling their training volume and increasing the intensity by 15 % over a period of two weeks. Before and after this intensified training period subjects underwent a series of tests including a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test (Wmax) with continuous ventilatory measurements and blood lactate values, time trial, basal blood parameter tests (red and white blood profile), hormones [growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1), adreno-corticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol], neuro-endocrine stress test [short insulin tolerance test (SITT), combined anterior pituitary test (CAPT) and exercise], a shortened Profile of Mood State (POMS), the estimated rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and a cognitive reaction time test. The intensified training period resulted in a significant increase of the training load (p <0.01), training monotony (p <0.01) and training strain (p <0.01). The RPE during training increased significantly (p <0.01) during the intensified training period. Total mood score obtained from the POMS tended to increase (p=0.06), reflecting an increase in worse mood state. A novel finding was that reaction times increased significantly, indicating that overreaching might adversely affect speed of information processing by the brain, especially for the most difficult conditions. After the intensified training period, neither changes in exercise-induced plasma hormone values, nor SITT values were observed. During the CAPT only cortisol showed a significant decrease after the intensified training period. Hemoglobin showed a significant decrease after the intensified training period whereas hematocrit, red blood

  13. Daily Oxygen/O₃ Treatment Reduces Muscular Fatigue and Improves Cardiac Performance in Rats Subjected to Prolonged High Intensity Physical Exercise.

    PubMed

    Di Filippo, C; Trotta, M C; Maisto, R; Siniscalco, D; Luongo, M; Mascolo, L; Alfano, R; Accardo, M; Rossi, C; Ferraraccio, F; D'Amico, M

    2015-01-01

    Rats receiving daily intraperitoneal administration of O2 and running on a treadmill covered an average distance of 482.8 ± 21.8 m/week as calculated during 5-week observation. This distance was increased in rats receiving daily intraperitoneal administration of an oxygen/O3 mixture at a dose of 100; 150; and 300 μg/kg with the maximum increase being +34.5% at 300 μg/kg and still present after stopping the administration of oxygen/O3. Oxygen/O3 decreased the mean arterial blood pressure (-13%), the heart rate (-6%), the gastrocnemius and cardiac hypertrophy, and fibrosis and reduced by 49% the left ventricular mass and relative wall thickness measurements. Systolic and diastolic functions were improved in exercised oxygen/O3 rats compared to O2 rats. Oxygen/O3 treatment led to higher MPI index starting from the dose of 150 μg/kg (p < 0.05) and more effective (+14%) at a dose of 300 μg/kg oxygen/O3. Oxygen/O3 dose-dependently increased the expression of the antioxidant enzymes Mn-SOD and GPx1 and of eNOS compared to the exercised O2 rats. The same doses resulted in decrease of LDH levels, CPK, TnI, and nitrotyrosine concentration in the heart and gastrocnemius tissues, arguing a beneficial effect of the ozone molecule against the fatigue induced by a prolonged high intensity exercise.

  14. Effect of exercise intensity, duration and mode on post-exercise oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Børsheim, Elisabet; Bahr, Roald

    2003-01-01

    In the recovery period after exercise there is an increase in oxygen uptake termed the 'excess post-exercise oxygen consumption' (EPOC), consisting of a rapid and a prolonged component. While some studies have shown that EPOC may last for several hours after exercise, others have concluded that EPOC is transient and minimal. The conflicting results may be resolved if differences in exercise intensity and duration are considered, since this may affect the metabolic processes underlying EPOC. Accordingly, the absence of a sustained EPOC after exercise seems to be a consistent finding in studies with low exercise intensity and/or duration. The magnitude of EPOC after aerobic exercise clearly depends on both the duration and intensity of exercise. A curvilinear relationship between the magnitude of EPOC and the intensity of the exercise bout has been found, whereas the relationship between exercise duration and EPOC magnitude appears to be more linear, especially at higher intensities. Differences in exercise mode may potentially contribute to the discrepant findings of EPOC magnitude and duration. Studies with sufficient exercise challenges are needed to determine whether various aerobic exercise modes affect EPOC differently. The relationships between the intensity and duration of resistance exercise and the magnitude and duration of EPOC have not been determined, but a more prolonged and substantial EPOC has been found after hard- versus moderate-resistance exercise. Thus, the intensity of resistance exercise seems to be of importance for EPOC. Lastly, training status and sex may also potentially influence EPOC magnitude, but this may be problematic to determine. Still, it appears that trained individuals have a more rapid return of post-exercise metabolism to resting levels after exercising at either the same relative or absolute work rate; however, studies after more strenuous exercise bouts are needed. It is not determined if there is a sex effect on EPOC

  15. Acute effects of massage or active exercise in relieving muscle soreness: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars L; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Christoffer H; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Topp, Robert; Behm, David G

    2013-12-01

    Massage is commonly believed to be the best modality for relieving muscle soreness. However, actively warming up the muscles with exercise may be an effective alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of massage with active exercise for relieving muscle soreness. Twenty healthy female volunteers (mean age 32 years) participated in this examiner-blind randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01478451). The participants performed eccentric contractions for the upper trapezius muscle on a Biodex dynamometer. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) presented 48 hours later, at which the participants (a) received 10 minutes of massage of the trapezius muscle or (b) performed 10 minutes of active exercise (shoulder shrugs 10 × 10 reps) with increasing elastic resistance (Thera-Band). First, 1 treatment was randomly applied to 1 shoulder while the contralateral shoulder served as a passive control. Two hours later, the contralateral resting shoulder received the other treatment. The participants rated the intensity of soreness (scale 0-10), and a blinded examiner took measures of pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the upper trapezius immediately before treatment and 0, 10, 20, and 60 minutes after treatment 48 hours posteccentric exercise. Immediately before treatment, the intensity of soreness was 5.0 (SD 2.2) and PPT was 138 (SD 78) kPa. In response to treatment, a significant treatment by time interaction was found for the intensity of soreness (p < 0.001) and PPT (p < 0.05). Compared with control, both active exercise and massage significantly reduced the intensity of soreness and increased PPT (i.e., reduced pain sensitivity). For both types of treatment, the greatest effect on perceived soreness occurred immediately after treatment, whereas the effect on PPT peaked 20 minutes after treatment. In conclusion, active exercise using elastic resistance provides similar acute relief of muscle soreness as compared with that using massage

  16. Task-Oriented Exercise to Reduce Activities of Daily Living Disability in Vulnerable Older Adults: A Feasibility Study of the 3-Step Workout for Life.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Jones, Leah Y; Formyduval A, R M; Clark, Daniel O

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this feasibility study was to evaluate the 3-Step Workout for Life program, a 10-week exercise program that included moderate-intensity muscle strength training followed by task-oriented training. Fourteen participants completed the program (mean age = 73 years; SD = 6.83). The Box and Block test (Z = -2.24, p = .03) and the 30-s chair stand test (Z = -2.21, p = .03) indicate improved physical functioning of the upper and lower extremities. More importantly, results of the function component from the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (Z = -2.04, p = .04) and motor skills scale from the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (Z = -2.97, p = .003) indicate subjective and objective improvements on performing activities of daily living. Supplementing moderate-intensity muscle strength exercise with task-oriented training components is feasible. Preliminary data support the effectiveness of 3-Step Workout for Life in reducing late-life disability.

  17. Exertional dyspnea associated with chest wall strapping is reduced when external dead space substitutes for part of the exercise stimulus to ventilation.

    PubMed

    Garske, Luke Albert; Lal, Ravin; Stewart, Ian Braidwood; Morris, Norman R; Cross, Troy James; Adams, Lewis

    2017-02-02

    Chest wall strapping has been used to assess mechanisms of dyspnea with restrictive lung disease. This study examined the hypothesis that dyspnea with restriction depends principally on the degree of reflex ventilatory stimulation. We compared dyspnea at the same (iso-)ventilation when added dead space provided a component of the ventilatory stimulus during constant work exercise. Eleven healthy males undertook a randomized controlled cross-over trial which compared four constant work exercise conditions (i) CTRL: unrestricted breathing at 90% Gas Exchange Threshold (GET), (ii) CTRL+DS: unrestricted breathing with 0.6 L dead space, at iso-ventilation to CTRL, (iii) CWS: chest strapping at 90% GET, (iv) CWS+DS: chest strapping with 0.6 L dead space, at iso-ventilation to CWS. Dead space was associated with reduced exercise intensity, and chest strapping reduced FVC by 30.4±2.2% (mean ± SE). Dyspnea at iso-ventilation was unchanged with CTRL+DS compared to CTRL (1.93±0.49 and 2.17±0.43, 0-10 numeric rating scale, respectively, P=0.244). Dyspnea was lower with CWS+DS compared to CWS (3.40±0.52 and 4.51±0.53 respectively, P=0.003). Perceived leg fatigue was reduced with CTRL+DS compared to CTRL (2.36±0.48 and 2.86±0.59 respectively, P=0.049) and lower with CWS+DS compared to CWS (1.86±0.30 and 4.00±0.79 respectively, P=0.006). With unrestricted breathing, dead space did not change dyspnea at iso-ventilation, inferring that dyspnea does not depend on the mode of reflex ventilatory stimulation in healthy individuals. With chest strapping, dead space presented a less potent stimulus to dyspnea. This suggests that dyspnea associated with chest strapping depends on the contribution of leg muscle work to ventilatory stimulation.

  18. Feasibility and Impact of a Combined Supervised Exercise and Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention following Bariatric Surgery: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jassil, Friedrich C.; Manning, Sean; Lewis, Neville; Steinmo, Siri; Kingett, Helen; Lough, Fiona; Pucci, Andrea B. F.; Cheung, W. H.; Finer, Nicholas; Walker, Judith; Doyle, Jaqueline; Batterham, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lifestyle intervention programs after bariatric surgery have been suggested to maximise health outcomes. This pilot study aimed to investigate the feasibility and impact of an 8-week combined supervised exercise with nutritional-behavioral intervention following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Methods. Eight female patients (44 ± 8 years old, BMI = 38.5 ± 7.2 kgm−2) completed the program. Before and after intervention, anthropometric measures, six-minute walk test (6MWT), physical activity level, eating behavior, and quality of life (QoL) were assessed. Percentage weight loss (%WL) outcomes were compared with a historical matched control group. Results. The program significantly improved functional capacity (mean increment in 6MWT was 127 ± 107 meters, p = 0.043), increased strenuous intensity exercise (44 ± 49 min/week, p = 0.043), increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (p = 0.034), reduced consumption of ready meals (p = 0.034), and improved “Change in Health” in QoL domain (p = 0.039). The intervention group exhibited greater %WL in the 3–12-month postsurgery period compared to historical controls, 12.2 ± 7.5% versus 5.1 ± 5.4%, respectively (p = 0.027). Conclusions. Lifestyle intervention program following bariatric surgery is feasible and resulted in several beneficial outcomes. A large randomised control trial is now warranted. PMID:26199740

  19. Depression and Anxiety: Exercise Eases Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... and exercise shows that the psychological and physical benefits of exercise can also help reduce anxiety and improve mood. ... such as running or bicycling. The mental health benefits of exercise and physical activity may last only if you ...

  20. The beneficial effects of exercise on cartilage are lost in mice with reduced levels of ECSOD in tissues.

    PubMed

    Pate, Kathryn M; Sherk, Vanessa D; Carpenter, R Dana; Weaver, Michael; Crapo, Silvia; Gally, Fabienne; Chatham, Lillian S; Goldstrohm, David A; Crapo, James D; Kohrt, Wendy M; Bowler, Russell P; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E; Regan, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-15

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with increased mechanical damage to joint cartilage. We have previously found that extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD) is decreased in OA joint fluid and cartilage, suggesting oxidant damage may play a role in OA. We explored the effect of forced running as a surrogate for mechanical damage in a transgenic mouse with reduced ECSOD tissue binding. Transgenic mice heterozygous (Het) for the human ECSOD R213G polymorphism and 129-SvEv (wild-type, WT) mice were exposed to forced running on a treadmill for 45 min/day, 5 days/wk, over 8 wk. At the end of the running protocol, knee joint tissue was obtained for histology, immunohistochemistry, and protein analysis. Sedentary Het and WT mice were maintained for comparison. Whole tibias were studied for bone morphometry, finite element analysis, and mechanical testing. Forced running improved joint histology in WT mice. However, when ECSOD levels were reduced, this beneficial effect with running was lost. Het ECSOD runner mice had significantly worse histology scores compared with WT runner mice. Runner mice for both strains had increased bone strength in response to the running protocol, while Het mice showed evidence of a less robust bone structure in both runners and untrained mice. Reduced levels of ECSOD in cartilage produced joint damage when joints were stressed by forced running. The bone tissues responded to increased loading with hypertrophy, regardless of mouse strain. We conclude that ECSOD plays an important role in protecting cartilage from damage caused by mechanical loading.

  1. Task Failure during Exercise to Exhaustion in Normoxia and Hypoxia Is Due to Reduced Muscle Activation Caused by Central Mechanisms While Muscle Metaboreflex Does Not Limit Performance

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Morales-Alamo, David; González-Izal, Miriam; Losa-Reyna, José; Pérez-Suárez, Ismael; Izquierdo, Mikel; Calbet, José A. L.

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether task failure during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE) is principally due to reduced neural drive and increased metaboreflex activation eleven men (22 ± 2 years) performed a 10 s control isokinetic sprint (IS; 80 rpm) after a short warm-up. This was immediately followed by an IE in normoxia (Nx, PIO2:143 mmHg) and hypoxia (Hyp, PIO2:73 mmHg) in random order, separated by a 120 min resting period. At exhaustion, the circulation of both legs was occluded instantaneously (300 mmHg) during 10 or 60 s to impede recovery and increase metaboreflex activation. This was immediately followed by an IS with open circulation. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis. Muscle biopsies and blood gases were obtained in separate experiments. During the last 10 s of the IE, pulmonary ventilation, VO2, power output and muscle activation were lower in hypoxia than in normoxia, while pedaling rate was similar. Compared to the control sprint, performance (IS-Wpeak) was reduced to a greater extent after the IE-Nx (11% lower P < 0.05) than IE-Hyp. The root mean square (EMGRMS) was reduced by 38 and 27% during IS performed after IE-Nx and IE-Hyp, respectively (Nx vs. Hyp: P < 0.05). Post-ischemia IS-EMGRMS values were higher than during the last 10 s of IE. Sprint exercise mean (IS-MPF) and median (IS-MdPF) power frequencies, and burst duration, were more reduced after IE-Nx than IE-Hyp (P < 0.05). Despite increased muscle lactate accumulation, acidification, and metaboreflex activation from 10 to 60 s of ischemia, IS-Wmean (+23%) and burst duration (+10%) increased, while IS-EMGRMS decreased (−24%, P < 0.05), with IS-MPF and IS-MdPF remaining unchanged. In conclusion, close to task failure, muscle activation is lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. Task failure is predominantly caused by central mechanisms, which recover to great extent within 1 min even when the legs remain ischemic. There is dissociation between the

  2. HIGHER MODIFIED BECK DEPRESSION INVENTORY SCORES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH BODY, EATING, AND EXERCISE COMPARISONS BUT DECREASED EXERCISE AMOUNTS.

    PubMed

    Knepp, Michael M; Yoza, Jeffrey J; Quandt, Emily A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has indicated that exercise can lead to decreased depression symptoms. The relationship of depression with right frontal lobe activity and self-image (body, eating, and exercise) were investigated as reasons why depressive symptoms might lead to decreased exercise. 120 college students (79 women) completed design fluency tasks followed by a set of questionnaires on depression and exercise. High (M = 23.03, SD = 5.92) and low quartiles (M = 3.11, SD = 1.59) were created using the Modified Beck Depression Inventory (mBDI) for primary analyses. The group with higher mBDI scores produced fewer unique designs (suggesting lower right frontal activity) and was more likely to make comparisons based on body shape, eating, and exercise. The group with higher mBDI scores reported significantly less strenuous and moderate exercise. These findings indicate that the relationship between exercise and depression could work in both directions. While exercise can be used as a potential treatment to decrease depression, increased depressive symptoms could be a hindrance to exercise.

  3. Individualizing Exercise: Some Biomechanical and Physiological Reminders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Kathy D.; Darby, Lynn A.

    1998-01-01

    It is important to individualize exercise programs to safely achieve exercise goals. The article reviews several key points to help exercise leaders individualize new exercise programs or rejuvenate routine workouts, focusing on cardiorespiratory and muscular training. The article emphasizes that individualizing exercise programs reduces injury,…

  4. The effectiveness of hand cooling at reducing exercise-induced hyperthermia and improving distance-race performance in wheelchair and able-bodied athletes.

    PubMed

    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria; Swainson, Michelle; Boyd, Craig; Atkinson, Greg; Tolfrey, Keith

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of reducing core temperature in postexercise hyperthermic subjects and to assess if hand cooling (HC) improves subsequent timed distance performance. Following a detailed measurement check on the use of insulated auditory canal temperature (T(ac)), eight wheelchair (WA) athletes and seven male able-bodied (AB) athletes performed two testing sessions, comprising a 60-min exercise protocol and 10-min recovery period, followed by a performance trial (1 km and 3 km for WA and AB, respectively) at 30.8 degrees C (SD 0.2) and 60.6% (SD 0.2) relative humidity. In a counterbalanced order, HC and a no-cooling condition was administered during the 10-min recovery period before the performance trial. Nonsignificant condition x time interactions for both WA (F(15,75) = 1.5, P = 0.14) and AB (F(15,90) = 1.2, P = 0.32) confirmed that the exercise-induced changes (Delta) in T(ac) were similar before each intervention. However, the exercise-induced increase was evidently greater in AB compared with WA (2.0 vs. 1.3 degrees C change, respectively). HC produced DeltaT(ac) of -0.4 degrees C (SD 0.4) and -1.2 degrees C (SD 0.2) in comparison (WA and AB, respectively), and simple-effects analyses suggested that the reductions in T(ac) were noteworthy after 4 min of HC. HC had an impact on improving AB performances by -4.0 s (SD 11.5) (P < 0.05) and WA by -20.5 s (SD 24.2) (P > 0.05). In conclusion, extraction of heat through the hands was effective in lowering T(ac) in both groups and improving 3-km performance in the AB athletes and trends toward positive gains for the 1-km performance times of the WA group.

  5. Four weeks of speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during exercise and maintains muscle oxidative capacity despite a reduction in training volume.

    PubMed

    Iaia, F Marcello; Hellsten, Ylva; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Fernström, Maria; Sahlin, Kent; Bangsbo, Jens

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of an alteration from regular endurance to speed endurance training on muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, as well as energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and its relationship to mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in humans. Seventeen endurance-trained runners were assigned to either a speed endurance training (SET; n = 9) or a control (Con; n = 8) group. For a 4-wk intervention (IT) period, SET replaced the ordinary training ( approximately 45 km/wk) with frequent high-intensity sessions each consisting of 8-12 30-s sprint runs separated by 3 min of rest (5.7 +/- 0.1 km/wk) with additional 9.9 +/- 0.3 km/wk at low running speed, whereas Con continued the endurance training. After the IT period, oxygen uptake was 6.6, 7.6, 5.7, and 6.4% lower (P < 0.05) at running speeds of 11, 13, 14.5, and 16 km/h, respectively, in SET, whereas remained the same in Con. No changes in blood lactate during submaximal running were observed. After the IT period, the protein expression of skeletal muscle UCP3 tended to be higher in SET (34 +/- 6 vs. 47 +/- 7 arbitrary units; P = 0.06). Activity of muscle citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, as well as maximal oxygen uptake and 10-km performance time, remained unaltered in both groups. In SET, the capillary-to-fiber ratio was the same before and after the IT period. The present study showed that speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during submaximal exercise, which is not mediated by lowered mitochondrial UCP3 expression. Furthermore, speed endurance training can maintain muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, and endurance performance in already trained individuals despite significant reduction in the amount of training.

  6. Reduced skeletal muscle inhibitor of kappaB beta content is associated with insulin resistance in subjects with type 2 diabetes: reversal by exercise training.

    PubMed

    Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Christ-Roberts, Christine; Berria, Rachele; Eagan, Phyllis; Pratipanawatr, Thongchai; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Musi, Nicolas

    2006-03-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. It recently has been hypothesized that excessive activity of the inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB)/nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) inflammatory pathway is a mechanism underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance. However, it is not known whether IkappaB/NFkappaB signaling in muscle from subjects with type 2 diabetes is abnormal. We studied IkappaB/NFkappaB signaling in vastus lateralis muscle from six subjects with type 2 diabetes and eight matched control subjects. Muscle from type 2 diabetic subjects was characterized by a 60% decrease in IkappaB beta protein abundance, an indicator of increased activation of the IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway. IkappaB beta abundance directly correlated with insulin-mediated glucose disposal (Rd) during a hyperinsulinemic (40 mU x m(-2) x min(-1))-euglycemic clamp (r = 0.63, P = 0.01), indicating that increased IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway activity is associated with muscle insulin resistance. We also investigated whether reversal of this abnormality could be a mechanism by which training improves insulin sensitivity. In control subjects, 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training caused a 50% increase in both IkappaB alpha and IkappaB beta protein. In subjects with type 2 diabetes, training increased IkappaB alpha and IkappaB beta protein to levels comparable with that of control subjects, and these increments were accompanied by a 40% decrease in tumor necrosis factor alpha muscle content and a 37% increase in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In summary, subjects with type 2 diabetes have reduced IkappaB protein abundance in muscle, suggesting excessive activity of the IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway. Moreover, this abnormality is reversed by exercise training.

  7. Cardiopulmonary Effects of Acute Stressful Exercise at Altitude (2300m) of Individuals with Sickle Cell Trait (SCT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    Central and peripheral circulatory changes after training of arms or legs. J. Appl. Physiol. 225:675-682, 1973. 56 6WM. 7. Clausen,J.P. Muscle blood...altitude of 2,300m. During Phase III the following studies were carried out: 1. PHYSIOLOGIC RESPONSE TO ACUTE STRENUOUS EXERCISE DURING INSPIRATORY ...and cause a deterioration in gas exchange and overall 02 delivery. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of inspiratory hypoxia

  8. Exercise therapy for fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Brachaniec, Mary; Bidonde, Julia; Bello-Haas, Vanina Dal; Danyliw, Adrienne D; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Sawant, Anuradha; Schachter, Candice L

    2011-10-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome, a chronic condition typically characterized by widespread pain, nonrestorative sleep, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, and other somatic symptoms, negatively impacts physical and emotional function and reduces quality of life. Exercise is commonly recommended in the management of people with fibromyalgia, and interest in examining exercise benefits for those with the syndrome has grown substantially over the past 25 years. Research supports aerobic and strength training to improve physical fitness and function, reduce fibromyalgia symptoms, and improve quality of life. However, other forms of exercise (e.g., tai chi, yoga, Nordic walking, vibration techniques) and lifestyle physical activity also have been investigated to determine their effects. This paper highlights findings from recent randomized controlled trials and reviews of exercise for people with fibromyalgia, and includes information regarding factors that influence response and adherence to exercise to assist clinicians with exercise and physical activity prescription decision-making to optimize health and well-being.

  9. Lung Volume Reduction Surgery and Pulmonary Rehabilitation Improve Exercise Capacity and Reduce Dyspnea During Functional Activities in People with Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and pulmonary rehabilitation on levels of dyspnea during functional activities in patients with diffuse emphysema. Methods: Fifteen subjects who had undergone LVRS participated in this study. A visual analog scale (VAS) Activity Dyspnea Scales (VADS) measurement tool developed for this study was determined reliable in 10 subjects. The VADS was used to assess changes in dyspnea with functional activity in 10 subjects prior to and following the interventions of LVRS and pulmonary rehabilitation. Results: Results of this study indicate that LVRS followed by pulmonary rehabilitation significantly reduces levels of dyspnea during functional activities. Conclusion: The VADS developed for this study is a valid and reliable method of assessing changes in levels of dyspnea during functional activities in the LVRS population. PMID:20467532

  10. Alcohol Ingestion Impairs Maximal Post-Exercise Rates of Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis following a Single Bout of Concurrent Training

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Evelyn B.; Camera, Donny M.; Areta, José L.; Burke, Louise M.; Phillips, Stuart M.; Hawley, John A.; Coffey, Vernon G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The culture in many team sports involves consumption of large amounts of alcohol after training/competition. The effect of such a practice on recovery processes underlying protein turnover in human skeletal muscle are unknown. We determined the effect of alcohol intake on rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) following strenuous exercise with carbohydrate (CHO) or protein ingestion. Methods In a randomized cross-over design, 8 physically active males completed three experimental trials comprising resistance exercise (8×5 reps leg extension, 80% 1 repetition maximum) followed by continuous (30 min, 63% peak power output (PPO)) and high intensity interval (10×30 s, 110% PPO) cycling. Immediately, and 4 h post-exercise, subjects consumed either 500 mL of whey protein (25 g; PRO), alcohol (1.5 g·kg body mass−1, 12±2 standard drinks) co-ingested with protein (ALC-PRO), or an energy-matched quantity of carbohydrate also with alcohol (25 g maltodextrin; ALC-CHO). Subjects also consumed a CHO meal (1.5 g CHO·kg body mass−1) 2 h post-exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, 2 and 8 h post-exercise. Results Blood alcohol concentration was elevated above baseline with ALC-CHO and ALC-PRO throughout recovery (P<0.05). Phosphorylation of mTORSer2448 2 h after exercise was higher with PRO compared to ALC-PRO and ALC-CHO (P<0.05), while p70S6K phosphorylation was higher 2 h post-exercise with ALC-PRO and PRO compared to ALC-CHO (P<0.05). Rates of MPS increased above rest for all conditions (∼29–109%, P<0.05). However, compared to PRO, there was a hierarchical reduction in MPS with ALC-PRO (24%, P<0.05) and with ALC-CHO (37%, P<0.05). Conclusion We provide novel data demonstrating that alcohol consumption reduces rates of MPS following a bout of concurrent exercise, even when co-ingested with protein. We conclude that alcohol ingestion suppresses the anabolic response in skeletal muscle and may therefore impair recovery and adaptation to

  11. Exercise-induced stimulation of murine macrophage chemotaxis: role of corticosterone and prolactin as mediators.

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, E; Forner, M A; Barriga, C

    1997-01-01

    1. Exercise provokes changes in the immune system, including macrophage activity. Chemotaxis is a necessary function of macrophages if they are to reach the focus of infection and strenuous acute exercise may modulate chemotaxis. However, the precise mechanisms remain unknown. 2. Three experiments were performed in the present study. (1) The effect of strenuous acute exercise (swimming until exhaustion) on the chemotactic capacity of macrophages was evaluated. (2) Peritoneal macrophages from control mice were incubated with plasma from exercised mice or control (no exercise) mice. The differences in the resulting chemotactic capacity were measured. (3) Changes in the concentration of plasma corticosterone and prolactin after exercise were also measured, and the effect of incubation with the post-exercise levels of plasma corticosterone and prolactin on the chemotactic capacity of the peritoneal macrophages was then studied in vitro. 3. Exercise induced an increase in the macrophage chemotaxis index (103 +/- 8 vs. 47 +/- 11 in controls). Incubation with plasma from exercised mice led to an increased level of chemotaxis (68 +/- 18 vs. 40 +/- 6 with plasma from controls). Incubation with concentrations of corticosterone and prolactin similar to those observed in plasma immediately after exercise (corticosterone, 0.72 mumol l-1; prolactin, 88 pmol l-1) raised the chemotactic capacity with respect to that following incubation with the basal concentrations of the hormones in control animals (90 +/- 9 vs. 37 +/- 4 for corticosterone; 72 +/- 9 vs. 41 +/- 4 for prolactin). 4. It is concluded that corticosterone and prolactin may mediate the increased chemotaxis of peritoneal macrophages induced by exercise. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9051584

  12. The Effects of Nutrition, Exercise, and a Praying Program on Reducing Iron Overload in Patients With Beta-Thalassemia Major: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Molazem, Zahra; Noormohammadi, Roghaye; Dokouhaki, Roya; Zakerinia, Maryam; Bagheri, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Excessive iron accumulation in the visceral organs creates problems for patients with beta-thalassemia major. Despite chelation therapy, mortality rate from the complications of this disease is still quite high. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of nutrition, exercise, and a praying program at reducing iron overload in patients with beta-thalassemia major. Patients and Methods This randomized clinical trial assessed the effect of the designed care program on iron overload. The study was conducted in 38 patients with beta-thalassemia major who ranged in age from 15 - 35 years and had been referred to the largest center for thalassemic patients in Shiraz. The patients were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 18) and a control (n = 20) group. Blood samples were collected from the participants before and two months after the intervention. Then, the data were statistically analyzed using chi-square, Fisher’s exact test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon, independent samples t-test, and paired samples t-test. Results The results showed that the mean level of serum ferritin significantly decreased in the intervention group two months after beginning the intervention. Also, the mean level of serum iron decreased in the intervention group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions The planned educational program could be used to reduce iron overload and ultimately improve the patients’ health status. PMID:28203323

  13. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  14. Bi-Directional Relationship Between Self-Regulation and Improved Eating: Temporal Associations With Exercise, Reduced Fatigue, and Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H; Porter, Kandice J

    2015-01-01

    Severely obese men and women (body mass index ≥ 35 ≤ 55 kg/m(2); M(age) = 44.8 years, SD = 9.3) were randomly assigned to a 6-month physical activity support treatment paired with either nutrition education (n = 83) or cognitive-behavioral nutrition (n = 82) methods for weight loss. Both groups had significant improvements in physical activity, fatigue, self-regulation for eating, and fruit and vegetable intake. Compared to those in the nutrition education group, participants in the behavioral group demonstrated greater overall increases in fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity. These group differences were associated with changes that occurred after Month 3. Increased physical activity predicted reduced fatigue, β = -.19, p =.01. A reciprocal relationship between the mediators of that relationship, which were changes in self-regulation and fruit and vegetable intake, was identified. There was significantly greater weight loss over six months in the behavioral nutrition group when contrasted with the nutrition education group. Self-regulation for eating and fruit and vegetable intake were significant predictors of weight loss over both three and six months. Findings enabled a better understanding of psychosocial effects on temporal aspects of weight loss and may lead to more effective behavioral treatments for weight loss.

  15. PGC-1α mediates a rapid, exercise-induced downregulation of glycogenolysis in rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Hyun; Koh, Jin Ho; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Jung, Su Ryun; Holloszy, John O; Han, Dong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Endurance exercise training can increase the ability to perform prolonged strenuous exercise. The major adaptation responsible for this increase in endurance is an increase in muscle mitochondria. This adaptation occurs too slowly to provide a survival advantage when there is a sudden change in environment that necessitates prolonged exercise. In the present study, we discovered another, more rapid adaptation, a downregulation of expression of the glycogenolytic and glycolytic enzymes in muscle that mediates a slowing of muscle glycogen depletion and lactic acid accumulation. This adaptation, which appears to be mediated by PGC-1α, occurs in response to a single exercise bout and is further enhanced by two additional daily exercise bouts. It is biologically significant, because glycogen depletion and lactic acid accumulation are two of the major causes of muscle fatigue and exhaustion. PMID:25416622

  16. Exercising after Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... before beginning a new exercise program. Benefits of Exercise for Post-Menopausal Women Helps prevent osteoporosis by keeping bone and cartilage tissue strong and healthy. Reduces the risk of heart attack and other cardiovascular diseases by increasing heart and respiratory rates. Keeps your ...

  17. Serial assessment of local peripheral vascular function after eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Mitchel R; Bladon, Kallie J; Lawrence, Jennifer L; McGlinchy, Sarah A; Scheuermann, Barry W

    2013-12-01

    Muscle damage is a common response to unaccustomed eccentric exercise; however, the effects of skeletal muscle damage on local vascular function and blood flow are poorly understood. This study examined serial local vascular responses to flow-mediated (endothelial-dependent) and nitroglycerin-mediated (endothelial-independent) dilation in the brachial artery after strenuous eccentric exercise and serially assessed resting blood flow. Ten healthy males performed 50 maximal eccentric unilateral arm contractions to induce muscle damage to the biceps brachii. Changes in maximal isometric strength and vascular responses were assessed 1, 24, 48, and 96 h after exercise. Mean blood velocities and arterial diameters, measured with Doppler ultrasound, were used to calculate blood flow and shear stress (expressed as area under the curve). Eccentric exercise resulted in impaired maximal isometric strength for up to 96 h (p < 0.001). Reductions in flow-mediated dilation (before exercise, 9.4% ± 2.6%; 1 h after exercise, 5.1% ± 2.2%) and nitroglycerin responses (before exercise, 26.3% ± 6.5%; 1 h after exercise, 20.7% ± 4.7%) were observed in the 1 h after exercise and remained lower for 96 h (p < 0.05). The shear stress response was attenuated immediately after exercise and remained impaired for 48 h (p < 0.05). Resting blood pressure and muscle blood flow remained similar throughout the study. Results suggest that muscle damage from eccentric exercise leads to impaired local endothelial and vascular smooth muscle function. Lower shear stress after exercise might contribute to the observed reduction in flow-mediated dilation responses, but the mechanism responsible for the attenuated endothelial-independent vasodilation remains unclear.

  18. Exercise Prescription.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribisl, Paul M.

    If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…

  19. Does Exercise Reduce Aggressive Feelings? An Experiment Examining the Influence of Movement Type and Social Task Conditions on Testiness and Anger Reduction.

    PubMed

    Pels, Fabian; Kleinert, Jens

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, it was assumed that a decrease in aggressive feelings is stronger with movements that are unlike aggressive actions compared with those that are similar to aggressive actions. Furthermore, cooperative exercise tasks were expected to lead to lower aggressive feelings compared with competitive tasks. After undergoing an induction of aggressive feelings, 60 participants were randomly assigned to one of six experimental treatment groups, each differing in "movement type" (rowing and combat exercise) and "social task condition" (cooperation, competition, and individualization). A significant reduction of aggressive feelings was only found for participants exercising individually in the rowing condition compared with the individual combat exercise condition. There were no sole effects of "movement type" and "social task condition."

  20. Lipid Emulsion Added to a Liquid High-Carbohydrate Diet and Voluntary Running Exercise Reduce Lipogenesis and Ameliorate Early-Stage Hepatic Steatosis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuan-Hsun; Hao, Lei; Smith, Philip B; Rogers, Connie J; Patterson, Andrew D; Ross, A Catharine

    2017-03-15

    Background: The use of parenteral nutrition formulas is often associated with the development of hepatic steatosis. We have shown previously that the addition of a lipid emulsion (LE) rich in n-6 (ω-6) fatty acids (FAs) ameliorated triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the livers of nonobese mice fed a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) for 5 wk. However, it remains unclear how rapidly this condition develops and whether it can be prevented by LE with or without a running wheel for voluntary exercise (Exe).Objective: We investigated in an 8-d study whether mice develop steatosis and whether the administration of LE with or without Exe reduces the concentration of total FAs and prevents an increase in the expression of genes in the liver associated with lipogenesis.Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice aged 5 wk were randomized into 5 groups: standard feed pellet (SFP); a liquid HCD (77% of total energy from carbohydrates and 0.5% from fat); HCD + Exe; HCD + 13.5% LE (67% carbohydrates and 13.5% fat); or HCD + 13.5% LE + Exe. Hepatic TG concentration, lipogenic genes, and total FAs were measured on day 8.Results: Oil Red O staining and TG quantification showed hepatic TG accumulation on day 8; the addition of 13.5% LE either with or without Exe suppressed the TG accumulation compared with HCD (P < 0.005). With the use of quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, the expression concentrations of lipogenic genes [ATP-citrate lyase, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase 1, FA synthase (Fasn), and stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1)] in the HCD + 13.5% LE group were 26-60% of HCD (P < 0.01) and 11-38% of HCD in the HCD + 13.5% LE + Exe group (P < 0.001), with interactions for Fasn and Scd1 (P < 0.05). With the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, the HCD + 13.5% LE group had lower monounsaturated fatty acids (38.7% of HCD) but higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (164% of HCD) (P < 0.001).Conclusions: In short-term studies designed to resemble the

  1. Recovery facilitation with Montmorency cherries following high-intensity, metabolically challenging exercise.

    PubMed

    Bell, Phillip G; Walshe, Ian H; Davison, Gareth W; Stevenson, Emma J; Howatson, Glyn

    2015-04-01

    The impact of Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) concentrate (MC) on physiological indices and functional performance was examined following a bout of high-intensity stochastic cycling. Trained cyclists (n = 16) were equally divided into 2 groups (MC or isoenergetic placebo (PLA)) and consumed 30 mL of supplement, twice per day for 8 consecutive days. On the fifth day of supplementation, participants completed a 109-min cycling trial designed to replicate road race demands. Functional performance (maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), cycling efficiency, 6-s peak cycling power) and delayed onset muscle soreness were assessed at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 h post-trial. Blood samples collected at baseline, immediately pre- and post-trial, and at 1, 3, 5, 24, 48, and 72 h post-trial were analysed for indices of inflammation (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)), oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxides), and muscle damage (creatine kinase). MVIC (P < 0.05) did not decline in the MC group (vs. PLA) across the 72-h post-trial period and economy (P < 0.05) was improved in the MC group at 24 h. IL-6 (P < 0.001) and hsCRP (P < 0.05) responses to the trial were attenuated with MC (vs. PLA). No other blood markers were significantly different between MC and PLA groups. The results of the study suggest that Montmorency cherry concentrate can be an efficacious functional food for accelerating recovery and reducing exercise-induced inflammation following strenuous cycling exercise.

  2. Exercise: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Dangardt, Frida J; McKenna, William J; Lüscher, Thomas F; Deanfield, John E

    2013-09-01

    Physical activity and exercise have been associated with reduced cardiovascular risk, morbidity, and mortality, as well as all-cause mortality, both in the general population and in patients with various forms of cardiovascular disease. Increasing amounts of exercise are associated with incremental reductions in mortality, but considerable benefits have been found even with a low level of exercise. Exercise is beneficial for most individuals, but risks exist. Exercise is associated with reduced long-term morbidity and mortality, but acute exercise can transiently increase the risk of fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular events. Although tragic, these events are very rare, and even to some extent preventable with screening programmes. Low-intensity physical activity is important and beneficial to all individuals, including those with a high risk of adverse cardiovascular events. In individuals who are physically fit and who do not have genetic predisposition to, or signs of, cardiovascular disease, the greater the intensity and amount of exercise, the greater the health benefits. Nevertheless, effective strategies to encourage exercise in the population are lacking. A sustained increase in physical activity is likely to require more than individual advice, and needs to include urban planning and possibly even legislation.

  3. The Effects of an Acute Bout of Strenuous Aerobic Exercise on Plasma, Erythrocyte, Urinary and Dietary Values for Selected Trace Minerals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-21

    of total erythrocyte-Zn is a component of carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes (CA-I), while the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) accounts for approximately...from food sources under normal dietary conditions (128). High calcium intakes reportedly inhibit intestinal absorption of Zn (21,38). Certain amino acids...and/or provide the dietary constituents that interfere with Zn absorption (25,27,121,126). High CHO foods, such as fruit , pasta, pastry and ice cream

  4. Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina; Bak, Lars; Petersen, Ellen; Lindholm, Maria; Jacobsen, Stine

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether acute strenuous exercise (1600- to 2500-m race) would elicit an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters. Blood levels of several inflammatory markers [serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, fibrinogen, white blood cell count (WBC), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron levels decreased 12 to 14 h after racing and haptoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts, and iron levels were decreased 2 and/or 7 d after racing. Concentrations of CK, AST, SAA, and fibrinogen were unaltered in response to racing. Acute strenuous exercise did not elicit an acute phase reaction. The observed acute increase in hemoglobin levels and decreases in haptoglobin and iron levels may have been caused by exercise-induced hemolysis, which indicates that horses might experience a condition similar to athlete's anemia in humans. The pathogenesis and clinical implications of the hematological and blood-biochemical changes elicited by acute exercise in Standardbred trotters in the present study warrant further investigation.

  5. Reduced susceptibility to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in resistance-trained men is not linked to resistance training-related neural adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Beck, TW; Wages, NP

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of maximal concentric vs. eccentric exercise on the isometric strength of the elbow flexor, as well as the biceps brachii muscle electromyographic (EMG) responses in resistance-trained (RT) vs. untrained (UT) men. Thirteen RT men (age: 24 ± 4 years; height: 180.2 ± 7.7 cm; body weight: 92.2 ± 16.9 kg) and twelve UT men (age: 23 ± 4 years; height: 179.2 ± 5.0 cm; body weight: 81.5 ± 8.6 kg) performed six sets of ten maximal concentric isokinetic (CON) or eccentric isokinetic (ECC) elbow flexion exercise in two separate visits. Before and after the exercise interventions, maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) were performed for testing isometric strength. In addition, bipolar surface EMG signals were detected from the biceps brachii muscle during the strength testing. Both CON and ECC caused isometric strength to decrease, regardless of the training status. However, ECC caused greater isometric strength decline than CON did for the UT group (p = 0.006), but not for the RT group. Both EMG amplitude and mean frequency significantly decreased and increased, respectively, regardless of the training status and exercise intervention. Resistance-trained men are less susceptible to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage, but this advantage is not likely linked to the chronic resistance training-induced neural adaptations. PMID:26424922

  6. Exercise, the Brain, and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Peri-Okonny, Poghni; Fu, Qi; Zhang, Rong; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen

    2015-10-01

    Exercise training is the cornerstone in the prevention and management of hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is exaggerated in hypertension often to the range that raises the safety concern, which may prohibit patients from regular exercise. This augmented pressor response is shown to be related to excessive sympathetic stimulation caused by overactive muscle reflex. Exaggerated sympathetic-mediated vasoconstriction further contributes to the rise in BP during exercise in hypertension. Exercise training has been shown to reduce both exercise pressor reflex and attenuate the abnormal vasoconstriction. Hypertension also contributes to cognitive impairment, and exercise training has been shown to improve cognitive function through both BP-dependent and BP-independent pathways. Additional studies are still needed to determine if newer modes of exercise training such as high-intensity interval training may offer advantages over traditional continuous moderate training in improving BP and brain health in hypertensive patients.

  7. ED 07-2 TO LIFT, WALK OR RUN: WHAT IS THE OPTIMAL MODE OF EXERCISE TO REDUCE HYPERTENSION AND PREVENT CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE?

    PubMed

    Kokkinos, Peter

    2016-09-01

    A plethora of evidence exists supporting that structured aerobic exercise or activities that increase cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) lower resting blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension (HTN). Relatively few studies have assessed the effects of anaerobic or resistance exercise on BP. Thus, its role in managing HTN is not defined. Also, possible risks related with exercise in hypertensive patients have not been adequately addressed.In addition to lowering BP, CRF attenuates the incidence of HTN. A substantial part of the age-related progression to HTN is not an inevitable outcome of aging as once thought, but a consequence of lifestyle characterized by high-fat/salt diets and physical inactivity. In our studies, the CRF-HTN association was inverse and graded. The relative risk for developing HTN was 72% higher for low-fit compared to fit individuals. We also found an independent, inverse and graded association between CRF and the risk for developing congestive heart failure (CHF). For every 1-MET increase in exercise capacity the risk for CHF was 16% lower (HR = 0.84; CI: 0.83-0.86) in 8,725 US veterans. Compared to the Least-Fit category, the risk was progressively lower, ranging from 32% for moderate fit to 70% for those in the highest fitness category. CRF and mortality risk association was also inverse and graded in hypertensive patients, independent of age, body weight, medications and additional risk factors.Available evidence supports that dynamic resistance exercise is less effective in lowering BP than aerobic exercise. Due to a considerable degree of inconsistency in the findings of such studies, and the risk for an exaggerated BP response, resistance training exercise prescription for hypertensive patients is premature. Hypertensive patients interested in resistance training should be advised to avoid high-resistance training and prefer low-resistance, high repetitions (15-20) exercises. To avoid an exaggerated BP response, patients should

  8. Psychosocial stress but not exercise increases cortisol and reduces state anxiety levels in school classes - results from a stressor applicable in large group settings.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Mirko; Müller-Alcazar, Anett; Jäger, Anika; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Both, psychosocial stress and exercise in the past have been used as stressors to elevate saliva cortisol and change state anxiety levels. In the present study, high-school students at the age of 14 were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: (1) an exercise group (n = 18), that was running 15 minutes at a medium intensity level of 65-75% HRmax, (2) a psychosocial stress group (n = 19), and (3) a control group (n = 18). The psychosocial stress was induced to the students by completing a standardized intelligence test under the assumption that their IQ scores would be made public in class. Results display that only psychosocial stress but not exercise was able to significantly increase cortisol levels but decreased cognitive state anxiety in adolescents. The psychosocial stress protocol applied here is proposed for use in future stress studies with children or adolescents in group settings, e.g., in school.

  9. Exercise & Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... helps kids. Photo: iStock 6 "Bests" About Kids' Exercise At least one hour of physical activity a ...

  10. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... overdoing it for almost anyone. Much like with eating disorders, many people who engage in compulsive exercise do ... compulsive exercising doesn't have to accompany an eating disorder, the two often go hand in hand. In ...

  11. Kegel Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... To do Kegel exercises, you just squeeze your pelvic floor muscles. The part of your body including your ... bone. Kegel exercises are designed to make your pelvic floor muscles stronger. These are the muscles that hold ...

  12. Exercise Headaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... also can help prevent exercise headaches. References Cutrer FM, et al. Cough, exercise, and sex headaches. Neurology ... aspx?bookid=690. Accessed Jan. 19, 2015. Cutrer FM. Exertional headaches. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed ...

  13. Morning Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Natalie Crohn

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Natalie Schmitt recalls her teaching experiences with morning exercise programs, beginning with her first teaching job as assistant Morning Exercise teacher at the Francis W. Parker School in Chicago. In the Morning Exercises, students were encouraged to employ all means of expression: speaking, drawing, dancing, singing, acting.…

  14. A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…

  15. Reducing depressive symptoms after the Great East Japan Earthquake in older survivors through group exercise participation and regular walking: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Taishi; Sasaki, Yuri; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Sato, Yukihiro; Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake have an increased risk of depressive symptoms. We sought to examine whether participation in group exercise and regular walking could mitigate the worsening of depressive symptoms among older survivors. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Our baseline survey was conducted in August 2010, ∼7 months prior to the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami, among people aged 65 or older residing in Iwanuma City, Japan, which suffered significant damage in the disaster. A 3-year follow-up survey was conducted in 2013. Participants 3567 older survivors responded to the questionnaires predisaster and postdisaster. Primary outcome measures Change in depressive symptoms was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Results From predisaster to postdisaster, the mean change in GDS score increased by 0.1 point (95% CI −0.003 to 0.207). During the same interval, the frequency of group exercise participation and daily walking time also increased by 1.9 days/year and 1.3 min/day, respectively. After adjusting for all covariates, including personal experiences of disaster, we found that increases in the frequency of group exercise participation (B=−0.139, β=−0.049, p=0.003) and daily walking time (B=−0.087, β=−0.034, p=0.054) were associated with lower GDS scores. Interactions between housing damage and changes in group exercise participation (B=0.103, β=0.034, p=0.063) and changes in walking habit (B=0.095, β=0.033, p=0.070) were marginally significant, meaning that the protective effects tended to be attenuated among survivors reporting more extensive housing damage. Conclusions Participation in group exercises or regular walking may mitigate the worsening of depressive symptoms among older survivors who have experienced natural disaster. PMID:28258173

  16. Effects of liquid cooling garments on recovery and performance time in individuals performing strenuous work wearing a firefighter ensemble.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Coca, Aitor; Williams, W Jon; Roberge, Raymond J

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of body cooling using liquid cooling garments (LCG) on performance time (PT) and recovery in individuals wearing a fully equipped prototype firefighter ensemble (PFE) incorporating a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Six healthy male participants (three firefighters and three non-firefighters) completed six experimental sessions in an environmental chamber (35°C, 50% relative humidity), consisting of three stages of 15 min exercise at 75% VO2max, and 10 min rest following each exercise stage. During each session, one of the following six conditions was administered in a randomized order: control (no cooling, CON); air ventilation of exhaust SCBA gases rerouted into the PFE (AV); top cooling garment (TCG); TCG combined with AV (TCG+AV); a shortened whole body cooling garment (SCG), and SCG combined with AV (SCG+AV). Results showed that total PT completed was longer under SCG and SCG+AV compared with CON, AV, TCG, and TCG+AV (p<0.01). Magnitude of core temperature (Tc) elevation was significantly decreased when SCG was utilized (p<0.01), and heart rate recovery rate (10 min) was enhanced under SCG, SCG+AV, TCG, and TCG+AV compared with CON (p<0.05). Estimated Esw rate (kg·h(-1)) was the greatest in CON, 1.62 (0.37), and the least in SCG+AV 0.98 (0.44): (descending order: CON>AV>TCG=TCG+AV>SCG>SCG+AV) without a statistical difference between the conditions (p<0.05). Results of the present study suggest that the application of LCG underneath the PFE significantly improves the recovery during a short period of rest and prolongs performance time in subsequent bouts of exercise. LCG also appears to be an effective method for body cooling that promotes heat dissipation during uncompensable heat stress.

  17. The endocrinology of exercise.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Donald

    2013-04-01

    Some obese individuals do not get cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or certain cancers associated with obesity. These healthy obese individuals exercise regularly and reduce circulating levels of inflammatory mediators which are associated with the complications of obesity. Bloated white adipocytes located in ectopic locations such as the liver, produce these inflammatory mediators. Exercise, by reducing the excess storage of fat in these bloated fat cells, reduces the levels of circulating inflammatory mediators. The processes of gathering and creating new energy-rich substances, storing energy, and consuming energy-rich substances, and the specific contribution of several hormones to this process, are reviewed.

  18. Systemic lupus erythematosus and exercise.

    PubMed

    Ayán, C; Martín, V

    2007-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rheumatic disease characterized by a variety of symptoms, especially fatigue, pain and reduced quality of life. Physical exercise is a useful tool for improving cardiovascular fitness, reducing metabolic abnormalities and fatigue and improving quality of life. However, very few studies have focused on the relationship between SLE and physical exercise. This paper reviews the main SLE symptoms that can be alleviated by exercising, as well as the results of studies seeking to analyse the exercise capacity and physical training possibilities of SLE patients. Considerations for future research are also discussed.

  19. Exercise and age

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you ... to tie your shoes Alternative Names Age and exercise Images Benefit of regular exercise Flexibility exercise Exercise and age ...

  20. Exercise and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss recent clinical trials related to the benefits of exercise. We also discuss the roles of boosting antioxidant levels, consequences of epicardial fat reduction, increases in expression of heat shock proteins and endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins, mitochondrial adaptation, and the role of sarcolemmal and mitochondrial potassium channels in the contributing to the cardioprotection offered by exercise. In terms of vascular benefits, the main effects discussed are changes in exercise-induced vascular remodeling and endothelial function. Exercise-induced fibrinolytic and rheological changes also underlie the hematological benefits of exercise.

  1. Exercise may reduce depression but not anxiety in self-referred cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Post-hoc analysis of data from the 'Body & Cancer' trial.

    PubMed

    Midtgaard, Julie; Stage, Maria; Møller, Tom; Andersen, Christina; Quist, Morten; Rørth, Mikael; Herrstedt, Jørn; Vistisen, Kirsten; Christiansen, Birgitte; Adamsen, Lis

    2011-06-01

    Abstract Background. The diagnosis and treatment of cancer may cause clinically significant and persistent psychological morbidity. The objective of this study was to determine the short-term effect of a six week exercise intervention on anxiety and depression in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy (The 'Body & Cancer' trial). Methods. Two hundred and nine self-referred patients (52 males, 157 females, mean age 47 years) were randomised into an intervention group and a waiting-list control group. Anxiety and depression was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results. At baseline, 23.5% and 11.5% of the population scored >8 on the HADS and were classified as suspicious or definite cases of anxiety and depression, respectively. Adjusted for baseline score, disease and demographic covariates the estimated intervention effect showed improvement at six weeks for depression of -0.7 points (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.27 to -0.14, p = 0.0153). No significant effect was seen on anxiety. Further subanalysis, including only suspicious or definite cases of depression, resulted in an estimated intervention effect of -2.53 points (95% CI, -0.64 to -0.42, p = 0.021). Conclusion. Anti-depressant effects could be caused by exercise in self-referred cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Dedicated trials and follow-up studies are needed to clarify the optimal duration and content of exercise interventions to meet the needs of clinically depressive or anxious patients.

  2. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA.

  3. Exercise Helps Counter Cancer-Linked Fatigue

    MedlinePlus

    ... and physical activity for the ACS. She said exercise has many benefits, not just helping to ease fatigue. "But because ... fatigue and gain some of the many other benefits of exercise [both during and after treatment]: reduced stress, less ...

  4. Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Video Back About Video Struggling with Low Back Pain? Many people are surprised to learn that carefully selected exercise can actually reduce back pain. Some exercises can even provide quick and significant ...

  5. Some Exercises Reflecting Green Chemistry Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yu-Min; Wang, Yong-Cheng; Geng, Zhi-Yuan

    2004-01-01

    Some exercises to introduce students to the concept of green chemistry are given. By doing these exercises, students develop an appreciation for the role of green chemistry on feedstock substitution, milder reaction conditions, reduced environmental exposure, and resource conservation.

  6. Timed-daily ingestion of whey protein and exercise training reduces visceral adipose tissue mass and improves insulin resistance: the PRISE study.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Baur, Daniel; Connelly, Scott; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of timed ingestion of supplemental protein (20-g servings of whey protein, 3×/day), added to the habitual diet of free-living overweight/obese adults and subsequently randomized to either whey protein only (P; n = 24), whey protein and resistance exercise (P + RT; n = 27), or a whey protein and multimode exercise training program [protein and resistance exercise, intervals, stretching/yoga/Pilates, endurance exercise (PRISE); n = 28]. Total and regional body composition and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity [homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], plasma lipids and adipokines, and feelings of hunger and satiety (visual analog scales) were measured before and after the 16-wk intervention. All groups lost body weight, fat mass (FM), and abdominal fat; however, PRISE lost significantly (P < 0.01) more body weight (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 1.1 ± 0.7 kg, P + RT) and FM (2.8 ± 0.7 vs. 0.9 ± 0.5 kg, P + RT) and gained (P < 0.05) a greater percentage of lean body mass (2 ± 0.5 vs. 0.9 ± 0.3 and 0.6 ± 0.4%, P + RT and P, respectively). Only P + RT (0.1 ± 0.04 kg) and PRISE (0.21 ± 0.07 kg) lost VAT mass (P < 0.05). Fasting glucose decreased only in P + RT (5.1 ± 2.5 mg/dl) and PRISE (15.3 ± 2.1 mg/dl), with the greatest decline occurring in PRISE (P < 0.05). Similarly, HOMA-IR improved (0.6 ± 0.3, 0.6 ± 0.4 units), and leptin decreased (4.7 ± 2.2, 4.7 ± 3.1 ng/dl), and adiponectin increased (3.8 ± 1.1, 2.4 ± 1.1 μg/ml) only in P + RT and PRISE, respectively, with no change in P. In conclusion, we find evidence to support exercise training and timed ingestion of whey protein added to the habitual diet of free-living overweight/obese adults, independent of caloric restriction on total and regional body fat distribution, insulin resistance, and adipokines.

  7. [Physical exercise and intraocular pressure].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuan-bo; Wu, Yue; Li, Si-zhen; Sun, Lan-ping; Wang, Ning-li

    2011-09-01

    In the 1960s, it had been observed that physical exercises could reduce the intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with glaucoma. However, the effect of IOP reduction varied with exercise type and intensity, as well as the duration after exercise. Difference of lowering the IOP in glaucoma patients and healthy people were also observed. The mechanisms of reducing the IOP by exercise were very complicated and believed to be associated with the lower concentration of norepinephrine, the rising of colloid osmotic pressure, the co-action of nitric oxide and endothelin after exercise, and also related to the gene polymorphism of β2-adrenergic receptor. Physical exercise, such as jogging, walking and bicycle riding, could be suggested as a complimentary therapy in addition to the pharmaceutical and surgical therapies available for glaucoma patients, even though the mechanism for lowering IOP is not clear enough.

  8. Can exercise prevent cognitive decline?

    PubMed

    Behrman, Sophie; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2014-01-01

    As the tolerability of pharmacological agents decreases with age, exercise may be particularly helpful as a possible treatment or stabiliser of mood and cognitive function in older age. Exercise has been most commonly evaluated for the treatment of depression. Exercise interventions designed primarily for treatment of physical conditions in the elderly do appear to confer psychological benefits as well, with reduction in depressive symptoms over the course of treatment. The effects of exercise on reducing depressive symptoms are not dissimilar to the effects of antidepressant drugs and cognitive behaviour therapy. Exercise may be a useful low-tech intervention for people with mild to moderate depression. In particular, exercise may be helpful in the elderly and in patients who have had insufficient response to, or are intolerant of, pharmacotherapy. Mastery of a new skill and positive feedback from others may increase feelings of self-esteem and improve mood. Exercise may distract participants from persistent negative thoughts. Exercise has been shown to improve executive function acutely in adults of all ages. It is possible that dance routines or other exercise regimens requiring some cognitive input may confer additional benefit to cognitive function. Exercise has a moderate effect on the ability of people with dementia to perform activities of daily living and may improve cognitive function. Midlife exercise may also have an impact on later cognitive function.

  9. Application of bioreactance for cardiac output assessment during exercise in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Adrian; Hull, James H; Nunan, David; Jakovljevic, Djordje G; Brodie, David; Ansley, Lesley

    2010-07-01

    In patients with cardiac failure, bioreactance-based cardiac output (CO) monitoring provides a valid non-invasive method for assessing cardiac performance during exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of this technique during strenuous exercise in healthy, trained individuals. Fourteen recreational cyclists, mean (SD) age of 34 (8) years and relative peak oxygen uptake of (VO(2)) 56 (6) ml kg(-1) min(-1), underwent incremental maximal exercise testing, whilst CO was recorded continuously using a novel bioreactance-based device (CO(bio)). The CO(bio) was evaluated against relationship with VO(2), theoretical calculation of arterial-venous oxygen difference (C(a - v) O(2)) and level of agreement with an inert gas rebreathing method (CO(rb)) using a Bland-Altman plot. Bioreactance-based CO measurement was practical and straightforward in application, although there was intermittent loss of electrocardiograph signal at high-intensity exercise. At rest and during exercise, CO(bio) was strongly correlated with VO(2) (r = 0.84; P < 0.001), however, there was evidence of systematic bias with CO(bio) providing lower values than CO(rb); mean bias (limits of agreement) -19% (14.6 to -53%). Likewise, calculated (C(a - v) O(2)) was greater when determined using CO(bio) than CO(rb) (P < 0.001), although both devices provided values in excess of those reported in invasive studies. Bioreactance-based determination of CO provides a pragmatic approach to the continuous assessment of cardiac performance during strenuous exercise in trained individuals. Our findings, however, suggest that further work is needed to refine the key measurement determinants of CO using this device to improve measurement accuracy in this setting.

  10. Exercise Physiologists

    MedlinePlus

    ... CAAHEP). High school students interested in postsecondary exercise physiology programs should take courses in anatomy, physiology, and physics. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations Louisiana is ...

  11. Inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandins, but not endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors, reduces blood flow and aerobic energy turnover in the exercising human leg.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Stefan P; González-Alonso, José; Damsgaard, Rasmus; Saltin, Bengt; Hellsten, Ylva

    2007-06-01

    Prostaglandins, nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) are substances that have been proposed to be involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow during physical activity. We measured haemodynamics, plasma ATP at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise (19 +/- 1 W) in nine healthy subjects with and without intra-arterial infusion of indomethacin (Indo; 621 +/- 17 microg min(-1)), Indo + N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; 12.4 +/- 0.3 mg min(-1)) (double blockade) and Indo + L-NMMA + tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 12.4 +/- 0.3 mg min(-1)) (triple blockade). Double and triple blockade lowered leg blood flow (LBF) at rest (P<0.05), while it remained unchanged with Indo. During exercise, LBF and vascular conductance were 2.54 +/- 0.10 l min(-1) and 25 +/- 1 mmHg, respectively, in control and they were lower with double (33 +/- 3 and 36 +/- 4%, respectively) and triple (26 +/- 4 and 28 +/- 3%, respectively) blockade (P<0.05), while there was no difference with Indo. The lower LBF and vascular conductance with double and triple blockade occurred in parallel with a lower O(2) delivery, cardiac output, heart rate and plasma [noradrenaline] (P<0.05), while blood pressure remained unchanged and O(2) extraction and femoral venous plasma [ATP] increased. Despite the increased O(2) extraction, leg was 13 and 17% (triple and double blockade, respectively) lower than control in parallel to a lower femoral venous temperature and lactate release (P<0.05). These results suggest that NO and prostaglandins play important roles in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation during moderate intensity exercise and that EDHFs do not compensate for the impaired formation of NO and prostaglandins. Moreover, inhibition of NO and prostaglandin formation is associated with a lower aerobic energy turnover and increased concentration of vasoactive ATP in plasma.

  12. Circulating cell-free DNA: an up-coming molecular marker in exercise physiology.

    PubMed

    Breitbach, Sarah; Tug, Suzan; Simon, Perikles

    2012-07-01

    The phenomenon of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations is of importance for many biomedical disciplines including the field of exercise physiology. Increases of cfDNA due to exercise are described to be a potential hallmark for the overtraining syndrome and might be related to, or trigger adaptations of, immune function induced by strenuous exercise. At the same time, exercise provides a practicable model for studying the phenomenon of cfDNA that is described to be of pathophysiological relevance for different topics in clinical medicine like autoimmune diseases and cancer. In this review, we are summarizing the current knowledge of exercise-based acute and chronic alterations in cfDNA levels and their physiological significance. The effects of acute exercise on cfDNA concentrations have been investigated in resistance exercises and in continuous, stepwise and interval endurance exercises of different durations. cfDNA concentrations peaked immediately after acute exercise and showed a rapid return to baseline levels. Typical markers of skeletal muscle damage (creatine kinase, uric acid, C-reactive protein) show delayed kinetics compared with the cfDNA peak response. Exercise parameters such as intensity, duration or average energy expenditure do not explain the extent of increasing cfDNA concentrations after strenuous exercise. This could be due to complex processes inside the human organism during and after physical activity. Therefore, we hypothesize composite effects of different physiological stress parameters that come along with exercise to be responsible for increasing cfDNA concentrations. We suggest that due to acute stress, cfDNA levels increase rapidly by a spontaneous active or passive release mechanism that is not yet known. As a result of the rapid and parallel increase of cfDNA and lactate in an incremental treadmill test leading to exhaustion within 15-20 minutes, it is unlikely that cfDNA is released into the plasma by typical necrosis

  13. Experimental basis of standardized specimen collection: the effect of short moderate exercise on serum K, Na, ASAT, ALAT, CK and LD.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, E A

    1989-05-01

    Strenuous exercise is known to produce marked changes in many serum components. Present recommendations concerning drawing of blood for laboratory tests, therefore, allow little exercise before specimen collection. However, the effects of moderate exercise are unknown. Moderate exercise administered by bicycle ergometer (120-160 W for 15 min) to healthy persons and ambulant patients (average 107 W) induced a rapid and statistically significant effect on serum potassium, sodium, ASAT, CK and LD concentrations. However, the observed changes were largely abolished by having the patient to sit for 15 min before venipuncture. It appears to be possible to allow moderate exercise before venipuncture as long as the specimen collection procedure itself is sufficiently standardized, i.e. by specifying sitting for 15 min and no use of tourniquet.

  14. Blood flow in the brachial artery increases after intense cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Medbø, Jon Ingulf; Hisdal, Jonny; Stranden, Einar

    2009-01-01

    During cycling blood flow is redistributed from physically inactive tissues to working leg muscles. It is unknown how long this situation persists after very intense exercise or whether it differs between intense exhausting and non-exhausting exercise. It is also not known to what extent the redistribution differs between different types of non-active tissues. Therefore nine healthy young men cycled first for 2 min at 328 W (non-exhausting exercise, mean). Blood velocity in thigh and arm (ultrasound-doppler), perfusion of forearm skin (non-acral skin) and finger tip (acral skin, with arterio-venous anastomoses) were measured for 30 min after exercise (laser-doppler). To be able to study vascular resistance and central circulation, blood pressure (Finometer), heart rate (ECG), and stroke volume (ultrasound-doppler) were measured. Thereafter the subjects cycled at the same power to exhaustion (4 min), and the measurements were repeated. After both exercises mean blood pressure was unchanged (< or = 80 mm Hg) despite increased cardiac output (> or = + 30% vs. pre-exercise). Blood velocity in the brachial artery was higher during the whole recovery period than at rest (p< or =0.02; no differences between exercises). Blood perfusion of non-acral skin was unchanged from pre-exercise level after 2 min of non-exhausting exercise, but it was twice as high after 4 min cycling to exhaustion as at rest (p=0.02). Blood perfusion of acral skin rose after both exercises and did not differ between exhausting and non-exhausting exercise. In conclusion, arm blood flow increases above the pre-exercise level in the recovery period after short-lasting, strenuous exercise.

  15. Comparison of reducing epicardial fat by exercise, diet or bariatric surgery weight loss strategies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rabkin, S W; Campbell, H

    2015-05-01

    The objectives were to determine whether epicardial fat (EAT) is subject to modification, and whether various strategies accomplish this end point and the relationship between weight loss and EAT. A systematic review of the literature following meta-analysis guidelines was conducted using the search strategy 'epicardial fat' OR 'epicardial adipose tissue' AND 'diet' OR 'exercise' OR 'bariatric surgery (BS)' OR 'change in body weight' limited to humans. Eleven articles were identified with 12 intervention approaches of which eight studies showed a statistically significant reduction in EAT. A random-effects meta-analysis suggests an overall significant reduction of 1.12 standardized units (95% CI = [-1.71, -0.54], P value < 0.01). While there is a large amount of heterogeneity across study groups, a substantial amount of this variability can be accounted for by considering intervention type and change in body mass index (BMI). These variables were incorporated into a random-effects meta-regression model. Using this analysis, significant EAT reduction occurred with diet and BS but not with exercise. BMI reductions correlated significantly with EAT reductions for diet-based interventions, i.e. for some but not all interventions. In conclusion, EAT, a factor that is significantly associated with coronary artery disease, can be modified. The type of intervention, in addition to the amount of weight loss achieved, is predictive of the amount of EAT reduction.

  16. Community-based exercise program reduces risk factors for falls in 65- to 75-year-old women with osteoporosis: randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Nick D.; Khan, Karim M.; McKay, Heather A.; Petit, Moira A.; Waterman, Constance; Heinonen, Ari; Janssen, Patti A.; Donaldson, Meghan G.; Mallinson, Arthur; Riddell, Lenore; Kruse, Karen; Prior, Jerilynn C.; Flicker, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Background Exercise programs improve balance, strength and agility in elderly people and thus may prevent falls. However, specific exercise programs that might be widely used in the community and that might be “prescribed” by physicians, especially for patients with osteoporosis, have not been evaluated. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of such a program designed specifically for women with osteoporosis. Methods We identified women 65 to 75 years of age in whom osteoporosis had been diagnosed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in our hospital between 1996 and 2000 and who were not engaged in regular weekly programs of moderate or hard exercise. Women who agreed to participate were randomly assigned to participate in a twice-weekly exercise class or to not participate in the class. We measured baseline data and, 20 weeks later, changes in static balance (by dynamic posturography), dynamic balance (by a timed figure-eight run) and knee extension strength (by dynamometry). Results Of 93 women who began the trial, 80 completed it. Before adjustment for covariates, the intervention group tended to have greater, although nonsignificant, improvements in static balance (mean difference 4.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] –1.3% to 11.0%), dynamic balance (mean difference 3.3%, 95% CI –1.7% to 8.4%) and knee extension strength (mean difference 7.8%, 95% CI –5.4% to 21.0%). Mean crude changes in the static balance score were –0.85 (95% CI –2.91 to 1.21) for the control group and 1.40 (95% CI –0.66 to 3.46) for the intervention group. Mean crude changes in figure-eight velocity (dynamic balance) were 0.08 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.14) m/s for the control group and 0.14 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.20) m/s for the intervention group. For knee extension strength, mean changes were –0.58 (95% CI –3.02 to 1.81) kg/m for the control group and 1.03 (95% CI –1.31 to 3.34) kg/m for the intervention group. After adjustment for age, physical activity and years of estrogen

  17. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a Good Thing? We all know the benefits of exercise, and it seems that everywhere we turn, we ... stress. So how can something with so many benefits have the potential to cause ... out because it's fun or it makes them feel good, but exercise can become a compulsive habit when it is ...

  18. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... eating . Compulsive exercise behavior can grow out of student athletes' demanding practice schedules and their quest to ... negative image of themselves and feel worthless. Their social and academic lives may suffer as they ... and abandons responsibilities to make more time for exercise seems to ...

  19. Moderate acute exercise (70% VO2 peak) induces TGF-β, α-amylase and IgA in saliva during recovery.

    PubMed

    Rosa, L; Teixeira, Aas; Lira, Fs; Tufik, S; Mello, Mt; Santos, Rvt

    2014-03-01

    Strenuous exercise promotes changes in salivary IgA and can be associated with a high incidence of upper respiratory tract Infections. However, moderate exercise enhances immune function. The effect of exercise on salivary IgA has been well studied, but its effect on other immunological parameters is poorly studied. Thus, this study determined the effect of moderate acute exercise on immunological salivary parameters, such as the levels of cytokines (TGF-β and IL-5), IgA, α-amylase and total protein, over 24 h. Ten male adult subjects exercised for 60 min at an intensity of 70% VO2 peak. Saliva samples were collected before ('basal') and 0, 12 and 24 h after an exercise session. The total salivary protein was lower after 12 and 24 h than immediately after exercise, whereas α-amylase increased at 12 and 24 h after exercise compared with basal levels. The IgA concentration was increased at 24 h after exercise relative to immediately after exercise, and there was no difference in the IL-5 while TGF-β concentration increased in recovery. In conclusion, 70% VO2 peak exercise does not induce changes immediately after exercise, but after 24 h, it produces an increase in salivary TGF-β without changing IL-5.

  20. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Koyamatsu, Jun; Nobuyoshi, Masaharu; Murase, Kunihiko; Maeda, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE) or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE). Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise. PMID:26229538

  1. Light and exercise and melatonin production in women.

    PubMed

    Knight, Julia A; Thompson, Suzanne; Raboud, Janet M; Hoffman, Barry R

    2005-12-01

    Melatonin may protect against breast cancer. Light and other factors influence melatonin, but the evidence is limited. The authors conducted a study to determine factors related to melatonin. Women volunteers recruited in Toronto, Canada, from 2002 to 2004 collected urine for three nights (winter and summer), took periodic light measurements, and recorded exposures in a diary. The relation of each variable to log-transformed creatinine-corrected 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in overnight urine was determined by use of generalized estimating equation linear regression. The final model was based on 1,054 measurement days from 213 participating women. None of the light variables was related to the log of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. A significant interaction between season and day length was included in the final model. The most significant factor was duration of exercise (beta = 0.072; p = 0.004, two-tailed), which increased the amount of melatonin produced. Exercise duration later in the day was more significant (beta = 0.108; p = 0.0009, two-tailed). There was no difference between moderate or strenuous exercise. The failure to find a relation between light brightness and melatonin may be due to the difficulty of measuring this, as well as the importance of the light spectrum, which could not be measured. It is possible that the protective effect of exercise with respect to breast cancer may operate in part through an effect on melatonin.

  2. [Exercise training in heart failure].

    PubMed

    Edelmann, F; Grabs, V; Halle, M

    2014-06-01

    Exercise training in patients with chronic stable heart failure (HF) is a recommended and broadly accepted treatment strategy that is an integral part of an evidence-based management involving pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies. There is ample scientific evidence that exercise training in HF with reduced (HFrEF) and with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) improves exercise capacity, HF symptoms and quality of life. This is due to an improvement of central hemodynamics, endothelial function, neurohumoral activation, skeletal muscle structure and function as well as a decrease in inflammatory markers. The largest randomized, controlled HF-ACTION study (Heart Failure-A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of exercise TraiNing) demonstrated that exercise training results in a modest improvement of all-cause mortality and hospitalizations in HFrEF, depending on adequate compliance. Outcome data in HFpEF are lacking. Besides compliance, efficacy of exercise training is dependent on the intensity and type of exercise. Resistance and high intensity endurance training in addition to a standard aerobic exercise seem to be superior in improving the clinical status of HF patients. In the future, individualized exercise programs will help to improve long-term adherence to exercise training.

  3. Writing Exercises from "Exercise Exchange."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Littleton, Ed.

    This collection focuses on writing exercises, both expository and creative, as well as areas of adjacent concern. The book is divided into nine major sections: prewriting; diction; theme, thesis, and paragraph; style; ideas for whole papers and special topics; description; research; the short story; and rewriting. The exercises deal with such…

  4. Long-duration freewheel running and submandibular lymphocyte response to forced exercise in older mice.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, J; Hoffman-Goetz, L

    2006-05-01

    Submandibular lymph nodes (SLN) are crucial for immune surveillance of the anterior ocular chamber and upper respiratory tract; little is known about how training and exercise affect SLN lymphocytes. The intent of this study was to describe the impact of long term freewheel running followed by acute strenuous exercise on SLN lymphocytes in mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were assigned to running wheels or remained sedentary for 8 months, and further randomized to treadmill exercise and sacrifice immediately, treadmill exercise and sacrifice 24 h after exercise cessation, or no treadmill exposure. SLN lymphocytes were isolated and analyzed for CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD19 cell surface markers, phosphatidylserine externalization as a marker of apoptosis, and intracellular glutathione as a marker of oxidative stress. Compared with running wheel mice, older sedentary mice had a lower percent of T cells and higher percent of B cells (p < 0.05). Although intracellular glutathione did not differ between groups, running mice had a lower percent of Annexin V(+) SLN lymphocytes 24 h after treadmill exercise. Further research will be needed to determine if voluntary exercise translates into improved anterior ocular and upper respiratory tract health.

  5. Treatment of Dyslipidemia with Statins and Physical Exercises: Recent Findings of Skeletal Muscle Responses.

    PubMed

    Bonfim, Mariana Rotta; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Amaral, Sandra Lia do; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2015-02-13

    Statin treatment in association with physical exercise practice can substantially reduce cardiovascular mortality risk of dyslipidemic individuals, but this practice is associated with myopathic event exacerbation. This study aimed to present the most recent results of specific literature about the effects of statins and its association with physical exercise on skeletal musculature. Thus, a literature review was performed using PubMed and SciELO databases, through the combination of the keywords "statin" AND "exercise" AND "muscle", restricting the selection to original studies published between January 1990 and November 2013. Sixteen studies evaluating the effects of statins in association with acute or chronic exercises on skeletal muscle were analyzed. Study results indicate that athletes using statins can experience deleterious effects on skeletal muscle, as the exacerbation of skeletal muscle injuries are more frequent with intense training or acute eccentric and strenuous exercises. Moderate physical training, in turn, when associated to statins does not increase creatine kinase levels or pain reports, but improves muscle and metabolic functions as a consequence of training. Therefore, it is suggested that dyslipidemic patients undergoing statin treatment should be exposed to moderate aerobic training in combination to resistance exercises three times a week, and the provision of physical training prior to drug administration is desirable, whenever possible.A associação do tratamento medicamentoso por estatinas com a prática de exercícios físicos pode reduzir substancialmente o risco de mortalidade cardiovascular de indivíduos dislipidêmicos, porém sua realização vem sendo associada à exacerbação de quadros miopáticos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo apresentar os resultados mais recentes da literatura específica sobre os efeitos da associação de estatinas ao exercício físico na musculatura esquelética. Para tanto, realizou

  6. Metabolic effects induced by L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine in human hypoxic muscle tissue during exercise.

    PubMed

    Corbucci, G G; Montanari, G; Mancinelli, G; D'Iddio, S

    1990-01-01

    An experimental model was developed to investigate some metabolic effects of strenuous exercise in hypoxic muscle tissue of human volunteers. The incidence of carnitine supplementation was studied, assuming as marker the thiobarbituric acid reaction products analysed in plasma samples collected during the course of the protocol programme. Propionyl-L-carnitine appears to antagonize in a significant degree the damaging effects of muscle fatigue combined with hypoxic status. Under these conditions the detoxifying role played by propionyl-L-carnitine, previously reported in various tissues and in other pathological conditions, appears to be relevant, although further studies are needed to elucidate the pharmacodynamics of this molecule.

  7. Enjoyment for High-Intensity Interval Exercise Increases during the First Six Weeks of Training: Implications for Promoting Exercise Adherence in Sedentary Adults

    PubMed Central

    Heisz, Jennifer J.; Tejada, Mary Grace M.; Paolucci, Emily M.; Muir, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to show that enjoyment for high-intensity interval exercise increases with chronic training. Prior acute studies typically report high-intensity interval training (HIT) as being more enjoyable than moderate continuous training (MCT) unless the high-intensity intervals are too strenuous or difficult to complete. It follows that exercise competency may be a critical factor contributing to the enjoyment of HIT, and therefore building competency through chronic training may be one way to increase its enjoyment. To test this, we randomly assigned sedentary young adults to six weeks of HIT or MCT, and tracked changes in their enjoyment for the exercise. Enjoyment for HIT increased with training whereas enjoyment for MCT remained constant and lower. Changes in exercise enjoyment were predicted by increases in workload, suggesting that strength adaptions may be important for promoting exercise enjoyment. The results point to HIT as a promising protocol for promoting exercise enjoyment and adherence in sedentary young adults. PMID:27973594

  8. Our World: Exercise in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Find out why exercise is so important to the astronauts who travel into space. Learn how gravity affects our bodies and what astronauts must do in reduced gravity environments to keep their bodies ...

  9. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... diets, and for some, this may develop into eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia. And some people ... exercise, especially when it is combined with an eating disorder, can cause serious and permanent health problems, and ...

  10. A strenuous experimental journey searching for spectroscopic evidence of a bridging nickel–iron–hydride in [NiFe] hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongxin; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Hideaki; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Direct spectroscopic evidence for a hydride bridge in the Ni–R form of [NiFe] hydrogenase has been obtained using iron-specific nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS). The Ni–H–Fe wag mode at 675 cm−1 is the first spectroscopic evidence for a bridging hydride in Ni–R as well as the first iron-hydride-related NRVS feature observed for a biological system. Although density function theory (DFT) calculation assisted the determination of the Ni–R structure, it did not predict the Ni–H–Fe wag mode at ∼675 cm−1 before NRVS. Instead, the observed Ni–H–Fe mode provided a critical reference for the DFT calculations. While the overall science about Ni–R is presented and discussed elsewhere, this article focuses on the long and strenuous experimental journey to search for and experimentally identify the Ni–H–Fe wag mode in a Ni–R sample. As a methodology, the results presented here will go beyond Ni–R and hydrogenase research and will also be of interest to other scientists who use synchrotron radiation for measuring dilute samples or weak spectroscopic features. PMID:26524296

  11. Combined exercise training reduces fatigue and modulates the cytokine profile of T-cells from multiple sclerosis patients in response to neuromediators.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga-Filho, Helcio; Sacramento, Priscila M; Ferreira, Thais B; Hygino, Joana; Abreu, Jorge Eduardo Canto; Carvalho, Sonia Regina; Wing, Ana Cristina; Alvarenga, Regina Maria Papais; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2016-04-15

    Fatigue is a common and disabling symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), a classical Th1- and Th17-mediated autoimmune disease. There is no effective pharmacological treatment for fatigue, but some reports point towards beneficial effects of physical activity on management of the fatigue in MS patients. As both MS and fatigue have been associated with dysregulated cytokine network production, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a physical activity program consisting of a 12-week series of combining Pilates and aerobic exercises on fatigue severity, determined by FSS, and cytokine production, quantified by ELISA, by T cells from MS patients (n=08) with low disability (EDSS≤2). The results showed decrease in FSSs in all patients at the end of physical activity intervention. Regarding the cytokines, a significant reduction of IL-22 release was observed in polyclonally-activated T cells form MS patients post-training follow-up. Interestingly, while the physical activity attenuated the ability of dopamine in up-regulating Th17-related cytokines, it enhanced the anti-inflammatory effects of serotonin, evidenced by high IL-10 production. In summary, all results suggest that programmed physical activity has beneficial effects on management of fatigue in MS patients, and it could be related, at least in part, to its ability in regulating neuroimmune parameters into T cell compartment.

  12. Visual system effects of exercise on Mauna Kea at 2,200 and 4,200 meters altitude.

    PubMed

    Schmeisser, E T; Gagliano, D L; Santiago-Marini, J

    1997-03-01

    Field exercise studies were performed at two altitudes (2,200 and 4,200 m) in 2 successive years using different sets of young male volunteers. Visual function indices were measured both at sea level and during a strenuous exercise regime at altitude. Volunteers were grouped in the first study by initial rest period (2 days vs. no rest) and in the second by diet (supplemental carbohydrates vs. Meals Ready to Eat rations only). Overall results showed no effect according to grouping, a decrease in average visual acuity at the higher altitude overall, and a decrease in electroretinographic (ERG) photopic flicker responses at moderate altitude. It is concluded that heavy exercise at these altitudes may not have operationally significant effects on ground troops in night vision or target recognition, although the change in ERG parameters does indicate a shift in retinal cone physiology that may have subtler effects.

  13. Locomotor exercise in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W.; Whitmore, H.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements for exercise in space by means of locomotion are established and addressed with prototype treadmills for use during long-duration spaceflight. The adaptation of the human body to microgravity is described in terms of 1-G locomotor biomechanics, the effects of reduced activity, and effective activity-replacement techniques. The treadmill is introduced as a complement to other techniques of force replacement with reference given to the angle required for exercise. A motor-driven unit is proposed that can operate at a variety of controlled speeds and equivalent grades. The treadmills permit locomotor exercise as required for long-duration space travel to sustain locomotor and cardiorespiratory capacity at a level consistent with postflight needs.

  14. Exercise-induced up-regulation of MMP-1 and IL-8 genes in endurance horses

    PubMed Central

    Cappelli, Katia; Felicetti, Michela; Capomaccio, Stefano; Pieramati, Camillo; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Background The stress response is a critical factor in the training of equine athletes; it is important for performance and for protection of the animal against physio-pathological disorders. In this study, the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to acute and strenuous exercise were investigated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Results Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect modifications in transcription levels of the genes for matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and interleukin 8 (IL-8), which were derived from previous genome-wide expression analysis. Significant up-regulation of these two genes was found in 10 horses that had completed a race of 90–120 km in a time-course experimental design. Conclusion These results suggest that MMP-1 and IL-8 are both involved in the exercise-induced stress response, and this represents a starting point from which to understand the adaptive responses to this phenomenon. PMID:19552796

  15. Morning warming-up exercise--effects on musculoskeletal fitness in construction workers.

    PubMed

    Holmström, Eva; Ahlborg, Björn

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects on muscle stretchability, joint flexibility, muscle strength and endurance in construction workers of a 3-month period of a 10-min morning warming-up exercise (MWU), performed at the building site every working day. Thirty construction workers participated in the program. Seventeen construction workers at other building sites served as controls. Muscle stretchability, joint flexibility, muscle strength and endurance were measured before and after the program. Significant increase of thoracic and lower back mobility, increase of hamstring and thigh muscle stretchability were seen in the MWU group. A significant difference in back muscle endurance was found due to decreased endurance in the controls. Muscular strength was not influenced by the MWU. The results indicate that a short dose of morning warming-up exercise could be beneficial for increasing or maintaining joint and muscle flexibility and muscle endurance for workers exposed to manual material handling and strenuous working positions.

  16. Diabetes and exercise

    PubMed Central

    Peirce, N. S.

    1999-01-01

    Exercise is frequently recommended in the management of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and can improve glucose uptake by increasing insulin sensitivity and lowering body adiposity. Both alone and when combined with diet and drug therapy, physical activity can result in improvements in glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. In addition, exercise can also help to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes, in particular in those at higher risk, and has an important role in reducing the significant worldwide burden of this type of diabetes. Recent studies have improved our understanding of the acute and long term physiological benefits of physical activity, although the precise duration, intensity, and type of exercise have yet to be fully elucidated. However, in type 1 diabetes, the expected improvements in glycaemic control with exercise have not been clearly established. Instead significant physical and psychological benefits of exercise can be achieved while careful education, screening, and planning allow the metabolic, microvascular, and macrovascular risks to be predicted and diminished. 


 PMID:10378067

  17. Reducing breast cancer recurrence with weight loss, a vanguard trial: the Exercise and Nutrition to Enhance Recovery and Good Health for You (ENERGY) Trial.

    PubMed

    Rock, Cheryl L; Byers, Tim E; Colditz, Graham A; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Ganz, Patricia A; Wolin, Kathleen Y; Elias, Anthony; Krontiras, Helen; Liu, Jingxia; Naughton, Michael; Pakiz, Bilgé; Parker, Barbara A; Sedjo, Rebecca L; Wyatt, Holly

    2013-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer among women in developed countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and mortality in both pre- and postmenopausal women. Co-morbid medical conditions are common among breast cancer survivors. The Exercise and Nutrition to Enhance Recovery and Good Health for You (ENERGY) study is a 4-year randomized clinical trial of 693 overweight/obese women aged ≥21years diagnosed with any early stage breast cancer (stages I[≥1cm]-III) within the previous five years, designed to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving sustained weight loss and to examine the impact of weight loss on quality of life and co-morbidities, and to enable future exploration of biochemical mechanisms linking obesity to lower likelihood of disease-free survival. This trial is strategically designed as a vanguard for a fully-powered trial of women who will be evaluated for breast cancer recurrence and disease-free survival. Participants were recruited between 2010 and 2012 at four sites, had completed initial therapies, and had a body mass index between 25 and 45kg/m(2). The intervention featured a group-based cognitive-behavioral weight loss program with telephone counseling and tailored newsletters to support initial weight loss and subsequent maintenance, with the goal of 7% weight loss at two years. This study has high potential to have a major impact on clinical management and outcomes after a breast cancer diagnosis. This trial initiates the effort to establish weight loss support for overweight or obese breast cancer survivors as a new standard of clinical care.

  18. Reducing Breast Cancer Recurrence with Weight Loss, a Vanguard Trial: The Exercise and Nutrition to Enhance Recovery and Good Health for You (ENERGY) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Cheryl L.; Byers, Tim E.; Colditz, Graham A.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Ganz, Patricia A.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Elias, Anthony; Krontiras, Helen; Liu, Jingxia; Naughton, Michael; Pakiz, Bilgé; Parker, Barbara A.; Sedjo, Rebecca L.; Wyatt, Holly

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer among women in developed countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and mortality in both pre-and postmenopausal women. Co-morbid medical conditions are common among breast cancer survivors. The Exercise and Nutrition to Enhance Recovery and Good Health for You (ENERGY) study is a 4-year randomized clinical trial of 693 overweight/obese women aged ≥21 years diagnosed with any early stage breast cancer (stages I[≥1 cm]-III) within the previous five years, designed to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving sustained weight loss and to examine the impact of weight loss on quality of life and co-morbidities, and to enable future exploration of biochemical mechanisms linking obesity to lower likelihood of disease-free survival. This trial is strategically designed as a vanguard for a fully-powered trial of women who will be evaluated for breast cancer recurrence and disease-free survival. Participants were recruited between 2010 and 2012 at four sites, had completed initial therapies, and had a body mass index between 25 and 45 kg/m2. The intervention featured a group-based cognitive-behavioral weight loss program with telephone counseling and tailored newsletters to support initial weight loss and subsequent maintenance, with the goal of 7% weight loss at two years. This study has high potential to have a major impact on clinical management and outcomes after a breast cancer diagnosis. This trial initiates the effort to establish weight loss support for overweight or obese breast cancer survivors as a new standard of clinical care. PMID:23266440

  19. High physical fitness is associated with reduction in basal- and exercise-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kleiven, Ø; Bjørkavoll-Bergseth, M; Melberg, T; Skadberg, Ø; Bergseth, R; Selvåg, J; Auestad, B; Aukrust, P; Aarsland, T; Ørn, S

    2017-03-17

    C-reactive protein (CRP) increases after strenuous exercise. It has been a concern that prolonged strenuous exercise may be harmful and induce a deleterious inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to (a) assess and quantify the magnitude of CRP response following an endurance cycling competition in healthy middle-aged recreational cyclists. (b) Identify important determinants of this response. (c) Identify the relationship between CRP, myocardial damage (cardiac Troponin I (cTnI)), and myocardial strain (B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP]). (d) Identify the relationship between CRP and clinical events, defined as utilization of healthcare services or self-reported unusual discomfort. Race time was used as a measure of physical fitness. A total of 97 individuals (43±10 years of age, 74 [76%] males) were assessed prior to and 0, 3, and 24 hours following the 91-km mountain bike race "Nordsjørittet" (Sandnes, Norway, June 2013). There was a highly significant increase in CRP from baseline to 24 hours (0.9 (0.5-1.8) mg/L vs. 11.6 (6.0-17.5) mg/L (median[IQR]), P<.001), with no correlation of CRP to cTnI and BNP at any time-point. CRP was strongly correlated to race time at baseline (r=.38, P<.001) and at 24 hours following the race (r=.43, P<.001), In multivariate models, race time was an independent predictor of CRP both at baseline and at 24 hours (P<.01). There was no relationship between CRP levels and clinical events. In conclusion, high physical fitness was associated with reduction in both basal- and exercise-induced CRP. No adverse relationship was found between high intensity physical exercise, CRP levels, and outcomes.

  20. Achilles tendon biomechanics in response to acute intense exercise.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Michael F; Lillie, Kurtis R; Bergeron, Daniel J; Cota, Kevin C; Yoon, Joseph S; Kraemer, William J; Denegar, Craig R

    2014-05-01

    Achilles tendinopathy is a common disorder and is more prevalent in men. Although differences in tendon mechanics between men and women have been reported, understanding of tendon mechanics in young active people is limited. Moreover, there is limited understanding of changes in tendon mechanics in response to acute exercise. Our purpose was to compare Achilles tendon mechanics in active young adult men and women at rest and after light and strenuous activity in the form of repeated jumping with an added load. Participants consisted of 17 men and 14 women (18-30 years) who were classified as being at least moderately physically active as defined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Tendon force/elongation measures were obtained during an isometric plantarflexion contraction on an isokinetic dynamometer with simultaneous ultrasound imaging of the Achilles tendon approximate to the soleus myotendinous junction. Data were collected at rest, after a 10-minute treadmill walk, and after a fatigue protocol of 100 toe jumps performed in a Smith machine, with a load equaling 20% of body mass. We found greater tendon elongation, decreased stiffness, and lower Young's modulus only in women after the jumping exercise. Force and stress were not different between groups but decreased subsequent to the jumping exercise bout. In general, women had greater elongation and strain, less stiffness, and a lower Young's modulus during plantarflexor contraction. These data demonstrate differences in tendon mechanics between men and women and suggest a potential protective mechanism explaining the lower incidence of Achilles tendinopathy in women.

  1. Exercise with prebreathe appears to increase protection from decompression sickness: Preliminary findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, James T.; Fischer, Michele D.; Heaps, Cristine L.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

    1994-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) from the Space Shuttle involves one hour of prebreath with 100% oxygen, decompression of the entire Shuttle to 10.2 psia for at least 12 hours, and another prebreath for 40 minutes before decompression to the 4.3 psia suit pressure. We are investigating the use of a one-hour prebreathe with 100% oxygen beginning with a ten-minute strenuous exercise period as an alternative for the staged decompression schedule described above. The 10-minute exercise consists of dual-cycle ergometry performed at 75% of the subject's peak oxygen uptake to increase denitrogenation efficiency by increasing ventilation and perfusion. The control exposures were preceded by a one-hour prebreathe with 100% oxygen while resting in a supine position. The twenty-two male subjects were exposed to 4.3 psia for 4 hours while performing light to moderate exercise. Preliminary results from 22 of the planned 26 subjects indicate 76% DCS following supine, resting prebreathe and 38% following prebreathe with exercise. The staged decompression schedule has been shown to result in 23% DCS which is not significantly different from the exercise-enhanced prebreathe results. Prebreathe including exercise appears to be comparable to the protection afforded by the more lengthy staged decompression schedule. Completion of the study later this year will enable planned statistical analysis of the results.

  2. Exercise Tolerance and the Post Exercise Diastolic Filling Pattern in Patients With the Resting Impaired Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Lavine, Steven J.; Walsh, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background In patients with normal LV systolic function, cardiac output increases with exercise mediated by increased stroke volume early in exercise and an increase in heart rate later in exercise. Despite normal LV systolic function, patients who display an impaired relaxation pattern may have a reduced exercise tolerance. We hypothesized that the resting impaired relaxation pattern that persists during exercise results in reduced LV filling volume and reduced exercise tolerance. Methods We evaluated consecutive exercise echocardiograms performed at Harper Hospital from 1998-2000 for patients with sinus rhythm, normal resting wall motion and ejection fraction (> 55%), evidence of resting impaired relaxation, and a negative exercise echocardiogram. There were 49 patients fitting the above criteria who were compared with a group of age and sex matched patients (43 patients) with a normal rest and exercise echocardiogram with normal resting transmitral Doppler. Rest and post exercise echocardiography and Doppler parameters were obtained. Results Patients in the impaired relaxation group demonstrated shorter exercise times as compared to the normal control group (8.8 ± 1.6 versus 9.7 ± 2.0 minutes, P < 0.001). In patients with normal resting transmitral diastolic filling, there was an increased the extent of atrial contribution to LV filling volume post exercise associated with shortening of isovolumic relaxation. Two patterns were seen in the impaired relaxation group post exercise. In 1 subgroup in which E/A ratio decreased post exercise, exercise duration was reduced (7.4 ± 1.3 minutes, P < 0.001) as compared to the subgroup with E/A increase (9.6 ± 1.2 minutes) post exercise which was similar to normal controls. Forward stepwise regression indicated that exercise time was primarily related to E/A change post exercise for all patient groups (r = 0.625, P = 0.0008). Specifically, this was true for patients with E/A reversal at rest (r = 0.584, P = 0

  3. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...

  4. Why Exercise Is Wise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Why Exercise Is Wise KidsHealth > For Teens > Why Exercise Is ... exercise, strength training, and flexibility training. continue Aerobic Exercise Like other muscles, the heart enjoys a good ...

  5. Kids and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Kids and Exercise KidsHealth > For Parents > Kids and Exercise A A ... or when playing tag. The Many Benefits of Exercise Everyone can benefit from regular exercise. Kids who ...

  6. Exercise-Induced Urticaria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ...

  7. Rotator Cuff Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ...

  8. Exercise at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Training Home Health Insights Exercise Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Ask a Question Find a Doctor ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

  9. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  10. Diabetes and exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000083.htm Diabetes and exercise To use the sharing features on this page, ... not exercising at all. Your Blood Sugar and Exercise Check your blood sugar before you exercise. Also, ...

  11. Exercise-induced asthma

    MedlinePlus

    Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise ... Having asthma symptoms when you exercise does not mean you cannot or should not exercise. But be aware of your EIA triggers. Cold or dry air may ...

  12. Aquatic exercise for children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michelle; Darrah, Johanna

    2005-12-01

    Exercise for children with cerebral palsy (CP) is gaining popularity among pediatric physical therapists as an intervention choice. Exercise in water appeals to children with CP because of the unique quality of buoyancy of water that reduces joint loading and impact, and decreases the negative influences of poor balance and poor postural control. In this paper, research of land-based exercise and aquatic exercise for children with CP is reviewed. Clinically relevant considerations for aquatic exercise programming for children with CP are discussed.

  13. Perceived exercise benefits and barriers among power wheelchair soccer players.

    PubMed

    Barfield, J P; Malone, Laurie A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of exercise is a major risk factor for secondary conditions among persons dependent upon motorized wheelchairs. Power wheelchair soccer is a unique exercise opportunity for this population, and understanding factors that influence exercise decision-making is necessary for clinicians to help those in motorized chairs reduce their secondary risk. Therefore, this study examined differences in perceived benefits and barriers to exercise among power wheelchair soccer players using a mixed-methods analysis. The most common perceived benefit to exercise was "Exercising lets me have contact with friends and persons I enjoy." Post hoc comparisons of quantitative data indicated that persons with muscular dystrophy perceived exercise to be significantly less important than did other disability groups (p < 0.05). "Exercise is hard work for me," "Exercise tires me," and "There are too few places for me to exercise" were the most common perceived barriers. These findings can assist with development of exercise opportunities for power wheelchair users.

  14. Exercise apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

  15. Exercise Experiences and Changes in Affective Attitude: Direct and Indirect Effects of In Situ Measurements of Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Sudeck, Gorden; Schmid, Julia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exercise experiences (perceptions of competence, perceived exertion, acute affective responses to exercise) and affective attitudes toward exercise. This relationship was analyzed in a non-laboratory setting during a 13-weeks exercise program. Materials and Methods: 56 women and 49 men (aged 35–65 years; Mage = 50.0 years; SD = 8.2 years) took part in the longitudinal study. Affective responses to exercise (affective valence, positive activation, calmness) as well as perceptions of competence and perceived exertion were measured at the beginning, during, and end of three exercise sessions within the 13-weeks exercise program. Affective attitude toward exercise were measured before and at the end of the exercise program. A two-level path analysis was conducted. The direct and indirect effects of exercise experiences on changes in affective attitude were analyzed on the between-person level: firstly, it was tested whether perceptions of competence and perceived exertion directly relate to changes in affective attitude. Secondly, it was assessed whether perceptions of competence and perceived exertion indirectly relate to changes in affective attitudes—imparted via the affective response during exercise. Results and Conclusion: At the between-person level, a direct effect on changes in affective attitude was found for perceptions of competence (β = 0.24, p < 0.05). The model revealed one significant indirect pathway between perceived exertion and changes in affective attitude via positive activation: on average, the less strenuous people perceive physical exercise to be, the more awake they will feel during exercise (β = -0.57, p < 0.05). Those people with higher average levels of positive activation during exercise exhibit more improvements in affective attitudes toward exercise from the beginning to the end of the 13-weeks exercise program (β = 0.24, p < 0.05). Main study results

  16. Exercise-induced oxidative stress and hypoxic exercise recovery.

    PubMed

    Ballmann, Christopher; McGinnis, Graham; Peters, Bridget; Slivka, Dustin; Cuddy, John; Hailes, Walter; Dumke, Charles; Ruby, Brent; Quindry, John

    2014-04-01

    Hypoxia due to altitude diminishes performance and alters exercise oxidative stress responses. While oxidative stress and exercise are well studied, the independent impact of hypoxia on exercise recovery remains unknown. Accordingly, we investigated hypoxic recovery effects on post-exercise oxidative stress. Physically active males (n = 12) performed normoxic cycle ergometer exercise consisting of ten high:low intensity intervals, 20 min at moderate intensity, and 6 h recovery at 975 m (normoxic) or simulated 5,000 m (hypoxic chamber) in a randomized counter-balanced cross-over design. Oxygen saturation was monitored via finger pulse oximetry. Blood plasma obtained pre- (Pre), post- (Post), 2 h post- (2Hr), 4 h post- (4Hr), and 6 h (6Hr) post-exercise was assayed for Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), Lipid Hydroperoxides (LOOH), and Protein Carbonyls (PC). Biopsies from the vastus lateralis obtained Pre and 6Hr were analyzed by real-time PCR quantify expression of Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2), and Nuclear factor (euthyroid-derived2)-like factor (NFE2L2). PCs were not altered between trials, but a time effect (13 % Post-2Hr increase, p = 0.044) indicated exercise-induced blood oxidative stress. Plasma LOOH revealed only a time effect (p = 0.041), including a 120 % Post-4Hr increase. TEAC values were elevated in normoxic recovery versus hypoxic recovery. FRAP values were higher 6Hr (p = 0.045) in normoxic versus hypoxic recovery. Exercise elevated gene expression of NFE2L2 (20 % increase, p = 0.001) and SOD2 (42 % increase, p = 0.003), but hypoxic recovery abolished this response. Data indicate that recovery in a hypoxic environment, independent of exercise, may alter exercise adaptations to oxidative stress and metabolism.

  17. Carnitine and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, O J

    1996-08-01

    Carnitine plays a central role in fatty acid (FA) metabolism. It transports long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for beta-oxidation. Carnitine also modulates the metabolism of coenzyme-A (CoA). It is not surprising that the use of supplementary carnitine to improve physical performance has become widespread in recent years, although there is no unequivocal support to this practice. However, critical reflections and current scientific-based knowledge are important because the implications of reduced or increased carnitine concentrations in vivo are not thoroughly understood. Several rationales have been forwarded in support of the potential ergogenic effects of oral carnitine supplementation. However, the following arguments derived from established scientific observations may be forwarded: (i) carnitine supplementation neither enhances FA oxidation in vivo or spares glycogen or postpones fatigue during exercise. Carnitine supplementation does not unequivocally improve performance of athletes; (ii) carnitine supplementation does not reduce body fat or help to lose weight; (iii) in vivo pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is fully active already after a few seconds of intense exercise. Carnitine supplementation induces no further activation of PDC in vivo; (iv) despite an increased acetyl-CoA/free CoA ratio, PDC is not depressed during exercise in vivo and therefore supplementary carnitine has no effect on lactate accumulation; (v) carnitine supplementation per se does not affect the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); (vi) during exercise there is a redistribution of free carnitine and acylcarnitines in the muscle but there is no loss of total carnitine. Athletes are not at risk for carnitine deficiency and do not have an increased need for carnitine. Although there are some theoretical points favouring potential ergogenic effects of carnitine supplementation, there is currently no scientific basis for healthy individuals or athletes to use carnitine

  18. Baker's yeast β-glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implications for infection risk?

    PubMed

    Carpenter, K C; Breslin, W L; Davidson, T; Adams, A; McFarlin, B K

    2013-02-14

    Strenuous aerobic exercise is known to weaken the immune system, and while many nutritional supplements have been proposed to boost post-exercise immunity, few are known to be effective. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether 10 d of supplementation with a defined source of baker's yeast β-glucan (BG, Wellmune WGP®) could minimise post-exercise immunosuppression. Recreationally active men and women (n 60) completed two 10 d trial conditions using a cross-over design with a 7 d washout period: placebo (rice flour) and baker's yeast BG (250 mg/d of β-1,3/1,6-glucans derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae) before a bout of cycling (49 ± 6 min) in a hot (38 ± 2°C), humid (45 ± 2 % relative humidity) environment. Blood was collected at baseline (before supplement), pre- (PRE), post- (POST) and 2 h (2H) post-exercise. Total and subset monocyte concentration was measured by four-colour flow cytometry. Plasma cytokine levels and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cytokine production were measured using separate multiplex assays. Total (CD14⁺) and pro-inflammatory monocyte concentrations (CD14⁺/CD16⁺) were significantly greater at POST and 2H (P<0·05) with BG supplementation. BG supplementation boosted LPS-stimulated production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) at PRE and POST (P<0·05). Plasma IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-γ concentrations were greater at 2H following BG supplementation. It appears that 10 d of supplementation with BG increased the potential of blood leucocytes for the production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-γ. The key findings of the present study demonstrate that BG may have potential to alter immunity following a strenuous exercise session.

  19. Acute Exercise-Induced Mitochondrial Stress Triggers an Inflammatory Response in the Myocardium via NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation with Mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiying; Miao, Weiguo; Ma, Jingfen; Xv, Zhen; Bo, Hai; Li, Jianyu; Zhang, Yong; Ji, Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has indicated that acute strenuous exercise can induce a range of adverse reactions including oxidative stress and tissue inflammation. However, little is currently known regarding the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of the inflammatory response in the myocardium during acute heavy exercise. This study evaluated the mitochondrial function, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and mitochondrial autophagy-related proteins to investigate the regulation and mechanism of mitochondrial stress regarding the inflammatory response of the rat myocardium during acute heavy exercise. The results indicated that the mitochondrial function of the myocardium was adaptively regulated to meet the challenge of stress during acute exercise. The exercise-induced mitochondrial stress also enhanced ROS generation and triggered an inflammatory reaction via the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, the mitochondrial autophagy-related proteins including Beclin1, LC3, and Bnip3 were all significantly upregulated during acute exercise, which suggests that mitophagy was stimulated in response to the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the myocardium. Taken together, our data suggest that, during acute exercise, mitochondrial stress triggers the rat myocardial inflammatory response via NLRP3 inflammasome activation and activates mitophagy to minimize myocardial injury.

  20. Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Transgenic Wheat (Triticum aestivum) with Reduced Levels of ω5-Gliadins, the Major Sensitizing Allergen in Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Altenbach, Susan B; Tanaka, Charlene K; Pineau, Florence; Lupi, Roberta; Drouet, Martine; Beaudouin, Etienne; Morisset, Martine; Denery-Papini, Sandra

    2015-10-28

    The ω5-gliadins are the major sensitizing allergens in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). In this study, two-dimensional immunoblot analysis was used to assess the allergenic potential of two transgenic wheat lines in which ω5-gliadin genes were silenced by RNA interference. Sera from 7 of 11 WDEIA patients showed greatly reduced levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity to ω5-gliadins in both transgenic lines. However, these sera also showed low levels of reactivity to other gluten proteins. Sera from three patients showed the greatest reactivity to proteins other than ω5-gliadins, either high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), α-gliadins, or non-gluten proteins. The complexity of immunological responses among these patients suggests that flour from the transgenic lines would not be suitable for individuals already diagnosed with WDEIA. However, the introduction of wheat lacking ω5-gliadins could reduce the number of people sensitized to these proteins and thereby decrease the overall incidence of this serious food allergy.

  1. Appearance-based exercise motivation moderates the relationship between exercise frequency and positive body image.

    PubMed

    Homan, Kristin J; Tylka, Tracy L

    2014-03-01

    Individuals with a positive body image appreciate their bodies, hold an internal perspective of their bodies, and are satisfied with the functionality of their bodies. Research shows that positive body image is more complex than the absence of body dissatisfaction. Although exercise reduces women's body dissatisfaction, very little research has explored how, or even whether, exercise is associated with positive body image. Therefore, we examined whether exercise frequency was positively related to three aspects of positive body image (body appreciation, internal body orientation, and functional body satisfaction) among 321 college women. Appearance-based exercise motivation (the extent exercise is pursued to influence weight or shape) was hypothesized to moderate these associations. Hierarchical moderated regression analyses showed that exercise frequency was related to higher positive body image, but high levels of appearance-based exercise motivation weakened these relationships. Thus, messages promoting exercise need to de-emphasize weight loss and appearance for positive body image.

  2. Diabetes and Exercise: When to Monitor Your Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... plan. To avoid potential problems, check your blood sugar before, during and after exercise. By Mayo Clinic ... diabetes. Exercise can help you improve your blood sugar control, boost your overall fitness, and reduce your ...

  3. Nutritional benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1989-03-01

    Specific nutritional benefits of regular exercise include the control of obesity and its complications, the improvement of blood lipid profile, the optimization of micro-nutrient intake and the assurance of a maximum quality-adjusted life-expectancy. While epidemiologists interpret various weight for height ratios in terms of obesity, such data can be misleading, particularly in older people (where an accumulation of fat is masked by lean tissue loss). Skinfold calipers provide a more unequivocal index of the amount and distribution of subcutaneous fat. Arguments against the treatment of obesity by exercise include the large energy yield of fat, the potential for compensating changes of resting metabolism, and an inherently high "set-point" of fat stores in the obese. Exercise cannot achieve rapid fat loss, but it has several advantages over other types of treatment, including the positive nature of the prescription, the associated elevation of mood and suppression of appetite, the conservation of lean tissue, and the establishment of an improved lifestyle. Moreover, blood pressure is reduced, insulin needs are decreased in the diabetic, and favourable changes of lipid profile are observed. Total cholesterol levels are not affected by exercise if body mass is held constant, but (provided a weekly threshold of exercise is exceeded) there is an increase of HDL cholesterol, particularly HDL-2 cholesterol. The intake of vitamins and most other micronutrients is increased by a high daily energy expenditure. Frank anaemia is not common in athletes, but a low iron saturation may be an indication for dietary supplements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Benefits of Exercise in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Jennifer K.; Law, Rebecca-Jane; Matschke, Verena; Lemmey, Andrew B.; Moore, Jonathan P.; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Jones, Jeremy G.; Maddison, Peter; Thom, Jeanette M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the importance of exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to demonstrate the multitude of beneficial effects that properly designed exercise training has in this population. RA is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune disease characterised by decrements to joint health including joint pain and inflammation, fatigue, increased incidence and progression of cardiovascular disease, and accelerated loss of muscle mass, that is, “rheumatoid cachexia”. These factors contribute to functional limitation, disability, comorbidities, and reduced quality of life. Exercise training for RA patients has been shown to be efficacious in reversing cachexia and substantially improving function without exacerbating disease activity and is likely to reduce cardiovascular risk. Thus, all RA patients should be encouraged to include aerobic and resistance exercise training as part of routine care. Understanding the perceptions of RA patients and health professionals to exercise is key to patients initiating and adhering to effective exercise training. PMID:21403833

  5. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  6. Leptin treatment reduces body fat but does not affect lean body mass or the myostatin-follistatin-activin axis in lean hypoleptinemic women.

    PubMed

    Brinkoetter, Mary; Magkos, Faidon; Vamvini, Maria; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-07-01

    Animal studies in vivo indicate that leptin treatment in extremely leptin-sensitive ob/ob mice reduces body weight exclusively by reducing fat mass and that it increases muscle mass by downregulating myostatin expression. Data from human trials are limited. Therefore, we aimed at characterizing the effects of leptin administration on fat mass, lean body mass, and circulating regulators of muscle growth in hypoleptinemic and presumably leptin-sensitive human subjects. In an open-label, single-arm trial, seven lean, strenuously exercising, amenorrheic women with low leptin concentrations (≤5 ng/ml) were given recombinant methionyl human leptin (metreleptin; 0.08 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 10 wk. In a separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, seven women were given metreleptin (initial dose: 0.08 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 3 mo, increased thereafter to 0.12 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) if menstruation did not occur), and six were given placebo for 9 mo. Metreleptin significantly reduced total body fat by an average of 18.6% after 10 wk (P < 0.001) in the single-arm trial and by 19.5% after 9 mo (placebo subtracted; P for interaction = 0.025, P for metreleptin = 0.004) in the placebo-controlled trial. There were no significant changes in lean body mass (P ≥ 0.33) or in serum concentrations of myostatin (P ≥ 0.35), follistatin (P ≥ 0.30), and activin A (P ≥ 0.20) whether in the 10-wk trial or the 9-mo trial. We conclude that metreleptin administration in lean hypoleptinemic women reduces fat mass exclusively and does not affect lean body mass or the myostatin-follistatin-activin axis.

  7. Orthostasis: exercise and exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geelen, G.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    There are two major problems here that are not independent. One is the more practically oriented problem of determining the effect of various modes of exercise training on gravitational tolerances, i.e., the point of syncope (unconsciousness) usually estimated from the time of appearance of presyncopal signs and symptoms. The other is more theoretical and concerns the mechanism of blood pressure failure that results in syncope. In many experimental designs these two problems or purposes have been intermingled, with equivocal results.

  8. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term…

  9. Caffeine and exercise.

    PubMed

    Paluska, Scott A

    2003-08-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly consumed drug in the world, and athletes frequently use it as an ergogenic aid. It improves performance and endurance during prolonged, exhaustive exercise. To a lesser degree it also enhances short-term, high-intensity athletic performance. Caffeine improves concentration, reduces fatigue, and enhances alertness. Habitual intake does not diminish caffeine's ergogenic properties. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the physiologic effects of caffeine, but adenosine receptor antagonism most likely accounts for the primary mode of action. It is relatively safe and has no known negative performance effects, nor does it cause significant dehydration or electrolyte imbalance during exercise. Routine caffeine consumption may cause tolerance or dependence, and abrupt discontinuation produces irritability, mood shifts, headache, drowsiness, or fatigue. Major sport governing bodies ban excessive use of caffeine, but current monitoring techniques are inadequate, and ethical dilemmas persist regarding caffeine intake by athletes.

  10. Food-dependent, exercise-induced gastrointestinal distress

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Among athletes strenuous exercise, dehydration and gastric emptying (GE) delay are the main causes of gastrointestinal (GI) complaints, whereas gut ischemia is the main cause of their nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and (blood) diarrhea. Additionally any factor that limits sweat evaporation, such as a hot and humid environment and/or body dehydration, has profound effects on muscle glycogen depletion and risk for heat illness. A serious underperfusion of the gut often leads to mucosal damage and enhanced permeability so as to hide blood loss, microbiota invasion (or endotoxemia) and food-born allergen absorption (with anaphylaxis). The goal of exercise rehydration is to intake more fluid orally than what is being lost in sweat. Sports drinks provide the addition of sodium and carbohydrates to assist with intestinal absorption of water and muscle-glycogen replenishment, respectively. However GE is proportionally slowed by carbohydrate-rich (hyperosmolar) solutions. On the other hand, in order to prevent hyponatremia, avoiding overhydration is recommended. Caregiver's responsibility would be to inform athletes about potential dangers of drinking too much water and also advise them to refrain from using hypertonic fluid replacements. PMID:21955383

  11. RNA sequencing of the exercise transcriptome in equine athletes.

    PubMed

    Capomaccio, Stefano; Vitulo, Nicola; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Barcaccia, Gianni; Albiero, Alessandro; D'Angelo, Michela; Campagna, Davide; Valle, Giorgio; Felicetti, Michela; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Cappelli, Katia

    2013-01-01

    The horse is an optimal model organism for studying the genomic response to exercise-induced stress, due to its natural aptitude for athletic performance and the relative homogeneity of its genetic and environmental backgrounds. Here, we applied RNA-sequencing analysis through the use of SOLiD technology in an experimental framework centered on exercise-induced stress during endurance races in equine athletes. We monitored the transcriptional landscape by comparing gene expression levels between animals at rest and after competition. Overall, we observed a shift from coding to non-coding regions, suggesting that the stress response involves the differential expression of not annotated regions. Notably, we observed significant post-race increases of reads that correspond to repeats, especially the intergenic and intronic L1 and L2 transposable elements. We also observed increased expression of the antisense strands compared to the sense strands in intronic and regulatory regions (1 kb up- and downstream) of the genes, suggesting that antisense transcription could be one of the main mechanisms for transposon regulation in the horse under stress conditions. We identified a large number of transcripts corresponding to intergenic and intronic regions putatively associated with new transcriptional elements. Gene expression and pathway analysis allowed us to identify several biological processes and molecular functions that may be involved with exercise-induced stress. Ontology clustering reflected mechanisms that are already known to be stress activated (e.g., chemokine-type cytokines, Toll-like receptors, and kinases), as well as "nucleic acid binding" and "signal transduction activity" functions. There was also a general and transient decrease in the global rates of protein synthesis, which would be expected after strenuous global stress. In sum, our network analysis points toward the involvement of specific gene clusters in equine exercise-induced stress, including

  12. High altitude, prolonged exercise, and the athlete biological passport.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Yorck O; Garvican, Laura A; Christian, Ryan; Lobigs, Louisa M; Qi, Jiliang; Fan, Rongyun; He, Yingying; Wang, Hailing; Gore, Christopher J; Ma, Fuhai

    2015-01-01

    The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) detects blood doping in athletes through longitudinal monitoring of erythropoietic markers. Mathematical algorithms are used to define individual reference ranges for these markers for each athlete. It is unclear if altitude and exercise can affect the variables included in these calculations in a way that the changes might be mistaken for blood manipulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the simultaneous strenuous exercise and low to high altitude exposure on the calculation algorithms of the ABP. 14 sea level (SL) and 11 altitude native (ALT) highly trained athletes participated in a 14-day cycling stage race taking place at an average altitude of 2496 m above sea level (min. 1014 m, max. 4120 m), race distances ranged between 96 and 227 km per day. ABP blood measures were taken on days -1,3,6,10,14 (SL) and -1,9,15 (ALT) of the race. Four results from three samples of two different SL athletes exceeded the individual limits at the 99% specificity threshold and one value at 99.9%. In ALT, three results from three samples of three different athletes were beyond the individual limits at 99%, one at 99.9%. The variations could be explained by the expected physiological reaction to exercise and altitude. In summary, the abnormalities observed in the haematological ABP´s of well-trained athletes during extensive exercise at altitude are limited and in line with expected physiological changes.

  13. Exercise-Induced Fatigue and Caffeine Supplementation Affect Psychomotor Performance but Not Covert Visuo-Spatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Charlotte J. W.; Thompson, Benjamin; Kuhn, Gustav; Gant, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue resulting from strenuous exercise can impair cognition and oculomotor control. These impairments can be prevented by administering psychostimulants such as caffeine. This study used two experiments to explore the influence of caffeine administered at rest and during fatiguing physical exercise on spatial attention—a cognitive function that is crucial for task-based visually guided behavior. In independent placebo-controlled studies, cohorts of 12 healthy participants consumed caffeine and rested or completed 180 min of stationary cycling. Covert attentional orienting was measured in both experiments using a spatial cueing paradigm. We observed no alterations in attentional facilitation toward spatial cues suggesting that covert attentional orienting is not influenced by exercise fatigue or caffeine supplementation. Response times were increased (impaired) after exercise and this deterioration was prevented by caffeine supplementation. In the resting experiment, response times across all conditions and cues were decreased (improved) with caffeine. Covert spatial attention was not influenced by caffeine. Together, the results of these experiments suggest that covert attentional orienting is robust to the effects of fatiguing exercise and not influenced by caffeine. However, exercise fatigue impairs response times, which can be prevented by caffeine, suggesting that pre-motor planning and execution of the motor responses required for performance of the cueing task are sensitive to central nervous system fatigue. Caffeine improves response time in both fatigued and fresh conditions, most likely through action on networks controlling motor function. PMID:27768747

  14. Exercise-Induced Fatigue and Caffeine Supplementation Affect Psychomotor Performance but Not Covert Visuo-Spatial Attention.

    PubMed

    Connell, Charlotte J W; Thompson, Benjamin; Kuhn, Gustav; Gant, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue resulting from strenuous exercise can impair cognition and oculomotor control. These impairments can be prevented by administering psychostimulants such as caffeine. This study used two experiments to explore the influence of caffeine administered at rest and during fatiguing physical exercise on spatial attention-a cognitive function that is crucial for task-based visually guided behavior. In independent placebo-controlled studies, cohorts of 12 healthy participants consumed caffeine and rested or completed 180 min of stationary cycling. Covert attentional orienting was measured in both experiments using a spatial cueing paradigm. We observed no alterations in attentional facilitation toward spatial cues suggesting that covert attentional orienting is not influenced by exercise fatigue or caffeine supplementation. Response times were increased (impaired) after exercise and this deterioration was prevented by caffeine supplementation. In the resting experiment, response times across all conditions and cues were decreased (improved) with caffeine. Covert spatial attention was not influenced by caffeine. Together, the results of these experiments suggest that covert attentional orienting is robust to the effects of fatiguing exercise and not influenced by caffeine. However, exercise fatigue impairs response times, which can be prevented by caffeine, suggesting that pre-motor planning and execution of the motor responses required for performance of the cueing task are sensitive to central nervous system fatigue. Caffeine improves response time in both fatigued and fresh conditions, most likely through action on networks controlling motor function.

  15. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma ... they choose. previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with ...

  16. Why Exercise Is Cool

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Why Exercise Is Cool KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Exercise Is ... day and your body will thank you later! Exercise Makes Your Heart Happy You may know that ...

  17. Learn to love exercise

    MedlinePlus

    Prevention - learn to love exercise; Wellness - learn to love exercise ... With so many options for exercise, there is no need to suffer through a workout you do not like. Be true to yourself. Look for activities that ...

  18. Exercise and immunity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007165.htm Exercise and immunity To use the sharing features on ... take a daily walk or follow a simple exercise routine a few times a week. Exercise helps ...

  19. Work, exercise, and space flight. 3: Exercise devices and protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William

    1989-01-01

    Preservation of locomotor capacity by earth equivalent, exercise in space is the crucial component of inflight exercise. At this time the treadmill appears to be the only way possible to do this. Work is underway on appropriate hardware but this and a proposed protocol to reduce exercise time must be tested. Such exercise will preserve muscle, bone Ca(++) and cardiovascular-respiratory capacity. In addition, reasonable upper body exercise can be supplied by a new force generator/measurement system-optional exercise might include a rowing machine and bicycle ergometer. A subject centered monitoring-evaluation program will allow real time adjustments as required. Absolute protection for any astronaut will not be possible and those with hypertrophied capacities such as marathoners or weight lifters will suffer significant loss. However, the program described should return the crew to earth with adequate capacity of typical activity on earth including immediate ambulation and minimal recovery time and without permanent change. An understanding of the practical mechanics and biomechanics involved is essential to a solution of the problem.

  20. Astragalus membranaceus improves exercise performance and ameliorates exercise-induced fatigue in trained mice.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Tzu-Shao; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2014-03-03

    Astragalus membranaceus (AM) is a popular "Qi-tonifying" herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group) for treatment: (1) sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control); (2) exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control); and (3) exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1) or (4) 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5). Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training.

  1. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  2. Exercise at menopause: a critical difference.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, M

    1999-01-01

    Even at menopause, fitness can reduce the risk of heart disease, osteoporosis, and diabetes, yet only 38% of women over age 19 exercise regularly. A sports medicine expert recommends that exercise be encouraged and prescribed, even for women with a variety of comorbidities.

  3. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 1, Number 5, August 1995

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-01

    Preventing heat illness depends on moderating Heat Injury Prevention Continued on page 8 CRITERIA CONTROLS Heat Physical Activity for Soldiers Condition...strenuous exercise during first three weeks of training. Training activities may be continued on a reduced scale after the second week of training. Avoid... activity in direct sun. 4 88 - 89.9 At least 1 1/2 30/30 minutes Curtail strenuous exercise for all personnel with less than 12 weeks of hot weather

  4. Exercise and obesity.

    PubMed

    McInnis, K J

    2000-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically during the past decade in the USA. This is despite an estimated 50 million Americans who try to lose weight each year. The increasing prevalence of obesity is particularly alarming due to the numerous health implications associated with this condition, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cancer, and various musculoskeletal conditions. The economic impact of treating illnesses associated with obesity has been estimated to be US$40 billion in the USA. Dieting is largely ineffective in maintaining initial weight loss as numerous studies suggest the majority of dieters regain all lost weight with 3-5 years. On, the other hand, regular exercise has been shown to be one of the best predictors of successful weight maintenance. Moreover, studies indicate that improved fitness through regular physical activity reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality for overweight individuals even if they remain overweight. Providing advice about exercise to overweight or obese individuals requires explicit information about the frequency, intensity, duration, and type of physical activity that should be performed. The ultimate goal for the exercising obese patient is to make a life-long commitment to achieving reasonable energy expenditure through routine physical activity.

  5. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  6. Scaling laws for capillary vessels of mammals at rest and in exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Thomas H

    2003-01-01

    A general derivation is presented for the scaling laws governing the size and number of capillary blood vessels in mammals. The derivation is based on the assumption of three idealized similarity principles known to apply, at least approximately, to resting mammals: (i) size-invariant blood pressure; (ii) size-invariant fraction of blood in the capillaries; and (iii) size-invariant oxygen consumption and uptake, per unit of body mass, during each heart cycle. Results indicate that the radius and length of capillaries, and the number that are open and active in the resting state, should scale with mammal mass to the powers 1/12, 5/24 and 5/8, respectively, consistent with earlier work by the author. Measurements are presented supporting the results. Physiological changes accompanying strenuous exercise are accounted for by a change in the scaling law for capillary number, from scaling exponent 5/8 to 3/4. PMID:12713751

  7. Epigenetic adaptation to regular exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Ling, Charlotte; Rönn, Tina

    2014-07-01

    Regular exercise has numerous health benefits, for example, it reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. It has also been shown that the risk of type 2 diabetes can be halved in high-risk groups through nonpharmacological lifestyle interventions involving exercise and diet. Nevertheless, the number of people living a sedentary life is dramatically increasing worldwide. Researchers have searched for molecular mechanisms explaining the health benefits of regular exercise for decades and it is well established that exercise alters the gene expression pattern in multiple tissues. However, until recently it was unknown that regular exercise can modify the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in humans. This review will focus on recent progress in the field of regular exercise and epigenetics.

  8. Exercise therapy across the lung cancer continuum.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lee W; Eves, Neil D; Waner, Emily; Joy, Anil A

    2009-07-01

    A lung cancer diagnosis and associated therapeutic management are associated with unique and varying degrees of adverse physical/functional impairments that dramatically reduce patients' ability to tolerate exercise. Poor exercise capacity predisposes to increased susceptibility to other common age-related diseases, poor quality of life, and likely premature death. This article reviews the literature investigating the role of exercise as an adjunct therapy across the lung cancer continuum (ie, prevention to palliation). The current evidence suggests that exercise training is a safe and feasible adjunct therapy for patients with operable lung cancer both before and after pulmonary resection. Among patients with inoperable disease, feasibility and safety studies of carefully prescribed exercise training are warranted. Preliminary evidence in this area suggests that exercise therapy may be an important consideration in multidisciplinary management of patients diagnosed with lung cancer.

  9. Exercise in the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-03-01

    Patients with the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) have orthostatic intolerance, as well as exercise intolerance. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) is generally lower in these patients compared with healthy sedentary individuals, suggesting a lower physical fitness level. During acute exercise, POTS patients have an excessive increase in heart rate and reduced stroke volume for each level of absolute workload; however, when expressed at relative workload (%VO2peak), there is no difference in the heart rate response between patients and healthy individuals. The relationship between cardiac output and VO2 is similar between POTS patients and healthy individuals. Short-term (i.e., 3 months) exercise training increases cardiac size and mass, blood volume, and VO2peak in POTS patients. Exercise performance is improved after training. Specifically, stroke volume is greater and heart rate is lower at any given VO2 during exercise after training versus before training. Peak heart rate is the same but peak stroke volume and cardiac output are greater after training. Heart rate recovery from peak exercise is significantly faster after training, indicating an improvement in autonomic circulatory control. These results suggest that patients with POTS have no intrinsic abnormality of heart rate regulation during exercise. The tachycardia in POTS is due to a reduced stroke volume. Cardiac remodeling and blood volume expansion associated with exercise training increase physical fitness and improve exercise performance in these patients.

  10. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Vandoni, Matteo; Codrons, Erwan; Marin, Luca; Correale, Luca; Bigliassi, Marcelo; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim

    2016-01-01

    Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (p<0.05). Consequently, the affective responses to vigorous session were less pleasant than those during moderate session (p<0.05). These results suggest that the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior. PMID:27490493

  11. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  12. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    MedlinePlus

    Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise ... To build up bone density, the exercise must make your muscles pull on your bones. These are called weight-bearing exercises. Some of them are: ...

  13. Exercise for Asthma Patients. Little Risk, Big Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disabella, Vincent; Sherman, Carl

    1998-01-01

    Asthma patients can benefit from 20 to 30 minutes of exercise at 60 to 85% of maximum heart rate several times a week. Improved fitness can reduce airway reactivity and medication use. The capacity to exercise requires good general control of asthma. Patients must learn to prevent exercise-induced bronchoconstriction by using inhaled medications…

  14. Exercise Versus +Gz Acceleration Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, S. R.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, J. M.; Knapp, C. F.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Decreased working capacity and "orthostatic" intolerance are two major problems for astronauts during and after landing from spaceflight in a return vehicle. The purpose was to test the hypotheses that (1) supine-passive-acceleration training, supine-interval-exercise plus acceleration training, and supine exercise plus acceleration training will improve orthostatic tolerance (OT) in ambulatory men; and that (2) addition of aerobic exercise conditioning will not influence this enhanced OT from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven untrained men (24-38 yr) underwent 3 training regimens (30 min/d x 5d/wk x 3wk on the human-powered centrifuge - HPC): (a) Passive acceleration (alternating +1.0 Gz to 50% Gzmax); (b) Exercise acceleration (alternating 40% - 90% V02max leg cycle exercise plus 50% of HPCmax acceleration); and (c) Combined intermittent exercise-acceleration at 40% to 90% HPCmax. Maximal supine exercise workloads increased (P < 0.05) by 8.3% with Passive, by 12.6% with Exercise, and by 15.4% with Combined; but maximal V02 and HR were unchanged in all groups. Maximal endurance (time to cessation) was unchanged with Passive, but increased (P < 0.05) with Exercise and Combined. Resting pre-tilt HR was elevated by 12.9% (P < 0.05) only after Passive training, suggesting that exercise training attenuated this HR response. All resting pre-tilt blood pressures (SBP, DBP, MAP) were not different pre- vs. post-training. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and HR were increased (P < 0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus, addition of exercise training attenuated the increased Passive tilt tolerance. Resting (pre-tilt) and post-tilt cardiac R-R interval, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume, and cardiac output were all uniformly reduced (P < 0.05) while peripheral resistance was uniformly increased (P < 0.05) pre-and post-training for the three regimens indicating no effect of any training regimen on those cardiovascular

  15. The effect of exercise and training status on platelet activation: do cocoa polyphenols play a role?

    PubMed

    Singh, I; Quinn, H; Mok, M; Southgate, R J; Turner, A H; Li, D; Sinclair, A J; Hawley, J A

    2006-09-01

    Sedentary and trained men respond differently to the same intensity of exercise, this is probably related to their platelet reactivity and antioxidant capacity. There is growing interest in the utilization of antioxidant-rich plant extracts as dietary food supplements. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an acute bout of sub maximal exercise on platelet count and differential response of platelet activation in trained and sedentary subjects and to observe if cocoa polyphenols reverse the effect of exercise on platelet function. The practical significance of this study was that many sedentary people engage in occasional strenuous exercise that may predispose them to risk of heart disease. Fasting blood samples were collected from 16 male subjects, pre and post 1-h cycling exercise at 70% of maximal aerobic power (VO2max) before and after consumption of cocoa or placebo. Agonist stimulated citrated whole blood was utilized for measuring platelet aggregation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and platelet activation. Baseline platelet count (221 +/- 33 x 10(9)/L) and ATP release (1.4 +/- 0.6 nmol) increased significantly (P < 0.05) after exercise in all subjects. Baseline platelet numbers in the trained were higher (P < 0.05) than in the sedentary (235 +/- 37 vs. 208 +/- 34 x 10(9)/L), where as platelet activation in trained was lower (P < 0.05) than sedentary (51 +/- 6 vs. 59 +/- 5%). Seven days of cocoa polyphenol supplementation had little effect on any of the parameters measured. We conclude that trained subjects show decreased activation of stimulated platelets when compared to the sedentary subjects and short-term cocoa polyphenol supplementation did not decrease platelet activity in response to exercise independent of prior training status.

  16. Left ventricular mechanics and arterial-ventricular coupling following high-intensity interval exercise.

    PubMed

    Cote, Anita T; Bredin, Shannon S D; Phillips, Aaron A; Koehle, Michael S; Glier, Melissa B; Devlin, Angela M; Warburton, Darren E R

    2013-12-01

    High-intensity exercise induces marked physiological stress affecting the secretion of catecholamines. Sustained elevations in catecholamines are thought to desensitize cardiac beta receptors and may be a possible mechanism in impaired cardiac function following strenuous exercise. In addition, attenuated arterial-ventricular coupling may identify vascular mechanisms in connection with postexercise attenuations in ventricular function. Thirty-nine normally active (NA) and endurance-trained (ET) men and women completed an echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular function before and after an acute bout of high-intensity interval exercise (15 bouts of 1:2 min work:recovery cycling: 100% peak power output and 50 W, respectively). Following exercise, time to peak twist and peak untwisting velocity were delayed (P < 0.01) but did not differ by sex or training status. Interactions for sex and condition (rest vs. exercise) were found for longitudinal diastolic strain rate (men, 1.46 ± 0.19 to 1.28 ± 0.23 s(-1) vs. women, 1.62 ± 0.25 to 1.63 ± 0.26 s(-1); P = 0.01) and arterial elastance (men 2.20 ± 0.65 to 3.24 ± 1.02 mmHg · ml(-1) · m(-2) vs. women 2.51 ± 0.61 to 2.93 ± 0.68 mmHg · ml(-1) · m(-2); P = 0.04). No cardiac variables were found associated with catecholamine levels. The change in twist mechanics was associated with baseline aortic pulse-wave velocity (r(2) = 0.27, P = 0.001). We conclude that males display greater reductions in contractility in response to high-intensity interval exercise, independent of catecholamine concentrations. Furthermore, a novel association of arterial stiffness and twist mechanics following high-intensity acute exercise illustrates the influence of vascular integrity on cardiac mechanics.

  17. The acute effect of maximal exercise on plasma beta-endorphin levels in fibromyalgia patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghavidel-Parsa, Banafsheh; Rajabi, Sahar; Sanaei, Omid; Toutounchi, Mehrangiz

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the effect of strenuous exercise on β-endorphine (β-END) level in fibromyalgia (FM) patients compared to healthy subjects. Methods We enrolled 30 FM patients and 15 healthy individuals. All study participants underwent a treadmill exercise test using modified Bruce protocol (M.Bruce). The goal of the test was achieving at least 70% of the predicted maximal heart rate (HRMax). The serum levels of β-END were measured before and after the exercise program. Measurements were done while heart rate was at least 70% of its predicted maximum. Results The mean ± the standard deviation (SD) of exercise duration in the FM and control groups were 24.26 ± 5.29 and 29.06 ± 3.26 minutes, respectively, indicating a shorter time to achieve the goal heart rate in FM patients (P < 0.003). Most FM patients attained 70% HRMax at lower stages (stage 2 and 3) of M.Bruce compared to the control group (70% versus 6.6%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Compared to healthy subjects, FM patients had lower serum β-END levels both in baseline and post-exercise status (Mean ± SD: 122.07 ± 28.56 µg/ml and 246.55 ± 29.57 µg/ml in the control group versus 90.12 ± 20.91 µg/ml and 179.80 ± 28.57 µg/ml in FM patients, respectively; P < 0.001). Conclusions We found that FM patients had lower levels of β-END in both basal and post-exercise status. Exercise increased serum the β-END level in both groups but the average increase in β-END in FM patients was significantly lower than in the control group. PMID:27738503

  18. Classroom Exercises Utilizing Precipitation Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Fred

    Precipitation data for Macomb (Illinois) for the period 1912-1981 were the bases for developing classroom exercises that offered college students experience in collecting such data. After students collected the data, they reduced them to manageable proportions, and then examined average long-term relations which may have emerged among yearly,…

  19. An Ultra-High Field Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of Post Exercise Lactate, Glutamate and Glutamine Change in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Andrea; Thomas, Adam G.; Rawlings, Nancy B.; Near, Jamie; Nichols, Thomas E.; Clare, Stuart; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Stagg, Charlotte J.

    2015-01-01

    During strenuous exercise there is a progressive increase in lactate uptake and metabolism into the brain as workload and plasma lactate levels increase. Although it is now widely accepted that the brain can metabolize lactate, few studies have directly measured brain lactate following vigorous exercise. Here, we used ultra-high field magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to obtain static measures of brain lactate, as well as brain glutamate and glutamine after vigorous exercise. The aims of our experiment were to (a) track the changes in brain lactate following recovery from exercise, and (b) to simultaneously measure the signals from brain glutamate and glutamine. The results of our experiment showed that vigorous exercise resulted in a significant increase in brain lactate. Furthermore, both glutamate and glutamine were successfully resolved, and as expected, although contrary to some previous reports, we did not observe any significant change in either amino acid after exercise. We did however observe a negative correlation between glutamate and a measure of fitness. These results support the hypothesis that peripherally derived lactate is taken up by the brain when available. Our data additionally highlight the potential of ultra-high field MRS as a non-invasive way of measuring multiple brain metabolite changes with exercise. PMID:26732236

  20. Easy Exercises for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Easy Exercises for Teens KidsHealth > For Teens > Easy Exercises for Teens A A A en español Ejercicios ... all the running around we do counts as exercise. (It does. But if it's the only exercise ...

  1. Exercise After Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... moderate-intensity exercise. Remember, even 10 minutes of exercise benefits your body. If you exercised vigorously before pregnancy ... want to join a gym but want the benefits of having someone to exercise with, ask a friend to be your workout ...

  2. Antioxidant status and oxidative stress at rest and in response to acute exercise in judokas and sedentary men.

    PubMed

    El Abed, Kaïs; Rebai, Haitham; Bloomer, Richard J; Trabelsi, Khaled; Masmoudi, Liwa; Zbidi, Abdelkarim; Sahnoun, Zouhaier; Hakim, Ahmed; Tabka, Zouhaier

    2011-09-01

    It is well recognized that acute strenuous exercise is accompanied by an increase in free-radical production and subsequent oxidative stress, in addition to changes in blood antioxidant status. Chronic exercise provides protection against exercise-induced oxidative stress by upregulating endogenous antioxidant defense systems. Little is known regarding the protective effect afforded by judo exercise. Therefore, we determined antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers at rest and in response to acute exercise in 10 competitive judokas and 10 sedentary subjects after mixed exercise (anaerobic followed by aerobic). The subjects performed a Wingate test, followed by 30 minutes of aerobic exercise performed at 60% of maximal aerobic power. Blood samples were taken, by an intravenous catheter, at rest (R), immediately after the physical exercise (P0), and at 5 (P5), 10 (P10), and 20 (P20) minutes postexercise. The measured parameters included the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, in addition to α-tocopherol, and total antioxidant status. Malondialdehyde was measured as a representation of lipid peroxidation. At rest, the judokas had higher values for all antioxidant and oxidative stress markers as compared to the sedentary subjects (p < 0.05). Plasma concentrations of all parameters except for α-tocopherol increased significantly above resting values for both the judokas and sedentary subjects (p < 0.05) and remained elevated at 20 minutes postexercise. A significant postexercise decrease was observed for α-tocopherol (p < 0.05) at P20 for judokas and at P5 for sedentary subjects. These data indicate that competitive judo athletes have higher endogenous antioxidant protection compared to sedentary subjects. However, both groups of subjects experience an increase in exercise-induced oxidative stress that is not different.

  3. Diet, physical exercise and cognitive behavioral training as a combined workplace based intervention to reduce body weight and increase physical capacity in health care workers - a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health care workers comprise a high-risk workgroup with respect to deterioration and early retirement. There is high prevalence of obesity and many of the workers are overweight. Together, these factors play a significant role in the health-related problems within this sector. The present study evaluates the effects of the first 3-months of a cluster randomized controlled lifestyle intervention among health care workers. The intervention addresses body weight, general health variables, physical capacity and musculoskeletal pain. Methods 98 female, overweight health care workers were cluster-randomized to an intervention group or a reference group. The intervention consisted of an individually dietary plan with an energy deficit of 1200 kcal/day (15 min/hour), strengthening exercises (15 min/hour) and cognitive behavioral training (30 min/hour) during working hours 1 hour/week. Leisure time aerobic fitness was planned for 2 hour/week. The reference group was offered monthly oral presentations. Body weight, BMI, body fat percentage (bioimpedance), waist circumference, blood pressure, musculoskeletal pain, maximal oxygen uptake (maximal bicycle test), and isometric maximal muscle strength of 3 body regions were measured before and after the intervention period. Results In an intention-to-treat analysis from pre to post tests, the intervention group significantly reduced body weight with 3.6 kg (p < 0.001), BMI from 30.5 to 29.2 (p < 0.001), body fat percentage from 40.9 to 39.3 (p < 0.001), waist circumference from 99.7 to 95.5 cm (p < 0.001) and blood pressure from 134/85 to 127/80 mmHg (p < 0.001), with significant difference between the intervention and control group (p < 0.001) on all measures. No effect of intervention was found in musculoskeletal pain, maximal oxygen uptake and muscle strength, but on aerobic fitness. Conclusion The significantly reduced body weight, body fat, waist circumference and blood pressure as well as increased aerobic fitness

  4. Effects of exercise on ocular physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Gale, Jesse; Wells, Anthony P; Wilson, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Regular exercise is a healthy lifestyle choice with numerous benefits to general health. Ophthalmologists may face questions of the benefits or risks of exercise to eyes. Here the effects of acute exertion and regular physical activity on ocular physiology and disease are reviewed. Intraocular pressure is transiently reduced by dynamic exercise. For the great majority of patients exercise is beneficial to the eyes by reducing risk of central retinal vein occlusion and neovascular age-related macular degeneration, and by improving control of systemic hypertension and diabetes. Ophthalmologists should be advocates of regular exercise with appropriate eye protection.

  5. New perspectives concerning feedback influences on cardiorespiratory control during rhythmic exercise and on exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Jerome A

    2012-09-01

    The cardioaccelerator and ventilatory responses to rhythmic exercise in the human are commonly viewed as being mediated predominantly via feedforward 'central command' mechanisms, with contributions from locomotor muscle afferents to the sympathetically mediated pressor response. We have assessed the relative contributions of three types of feedback afferents on the cardiorespiratory response to voluntary, rhythmic exercise by inhibiting their normal 'tonic' activity in healthy animals and humans and in chronic heart failure. Transient inhibition of the carotid chemoreceptors during moderate intensity exercise reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow; and reducing the normal level of respiratory muscle work during heavier intensity exercise increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow. These cardiorespiratory effects were prevented via ganglionic blockade and were enhanced in chronic heart failure and in hypoxia. Blockade of μ opioid sensitive locomotor muscle afferents, with preservation of central motor output via intrathecal fentanyl: (a) reduced the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate and ventilatory responses to all steady state exercise intensities; and (b) during sustained high intensity exercise, reduced O(2) transport, increased central motor output and end-exercise muscle fatigue and reduced endurance performance. We propose that these three afferent reflexes - probably acting in concert with feedforward central command - contribute significantly to preserving O(2) transport to locomotor and to respiratory muscles during exercise. Locomotor muscle afferents also appear to provide feedback concerning the metabolic state of the muscle to influence central motor output, thereby limiting peripheral fatigue development.

  6. [Performance enhancement by carbohydrate intake during sport: effects of carbohydrates during and after high-intensity exercise].

    PubMed

    Beelen, Milou; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrate availability does not provide sufficient energy for prolonged moderate to high-intensity exercise. Carbohydrate ingestion during high-intensity exercise can therefore enhance performance.- For exercise lasting 1 to 2.5 hours, athletes are advised to ingest 30-60 g of carbohydrates per hour.- Well-trained endurance athletes competing for longer than 2.5 hours at high intensity can metabolise up to 90 g of carbohydrates per hour, provided that a mixture of glucose and fructose is ingested.- Athletes participating in intermittent or team sports are advised to follow the same strategies but the timing of carbohydrate intake depends on the type of sport.- If top performance is required again within 24 hours after strenuous exercise, the advice is to supplement endogenous carbohydrate supplies quickly within the first few hours post-exercise by ingesting large amounts of carbohydrate (1.2 g/kg/h) or a lower amount of carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg/h) with a small amount of protein (0.2-0.4 g/kg/h).

  7. Astronauts Exercising in Space Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    To minimize the effects of weightlessness and partial gravity, astronauts use several counter measures to maintain health and fitness. One counter measure is exercise to help reduce or eliminate muscle atrophy and bone loss, and to improve altered cardiovascular function. This video shows astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) using the stationary Cycle/ Ergometer Vibration Isolation System (CVIS), the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS), and the resistance exercise device. These technologies and activities will be crucial to keeping astronauts healthy and productive during the long missions to the Moon. Mars, and beyond.

  8. The Effects of Acute Exercise and Exercise Training on Plasma Homocysteine: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Deminice, Rafael; Ribeiro, Diogo Farias; Frajacomo, Fernando Tadeu Trevisan

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies have demonstrated that physical exercise alters homocysteine levels in the blood, meta-analyses of the effects of acute exercise and exercise training on homocysteine blood concentration have not been performed, especially regarding the duration and intensity of exercise, which could affect homocysteine levels differently. Objective The aim of this meta-analysis was to ascertain the effects of acute exercise and exercise training on homocysteine levels in the blood. Method A review was conducted according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses using the online databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and SciELO to identify relevant studies published through June 2015. Review Manager was used to calculate the effect size of acute exercise and exercise training using the change in Hcy plasmaserum concentration from baseline to post-acute exercise and trained vs. sedentary control groups, respectively. Weighted mean differences were calculated using random effect models. Results Given the abundance of studies, acute exercise trials were divided into two subgroups according to exercise volume and intensity, whereas the effects of exercise training were analyzed together. Overall, 22 studies with a total of 520 participants indicated increased plasma homocysteine concentration after acute exercise (1.18 μmol/L, 95% CI: 0.71 to 1.65, p < .01). Results of a subgroup analysis indicated that either long-term exercise of low-to-moderate intensity (1.39 μmol/L, 95% CI: 0.9 to 1.89, p < .01) or short-term exercise of high intensity (0.83 μmol/L, 95% CI: 0.19 to 1.40, p < .01) elevated homocysteine levels in the blood. Increased homocysteine induced by exercise was significantly associated with volume of exercise, but not intensity. By contrast, resistance training reduced plasma homocysteine concentration (-1.53 μmol/L, 95% CI: -2.77 to -0.28, p = .02), though aerobic training did not. The cumulative

  9. Swimming exercise: impact of aquatic exercise on cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2009-01-01

    Swimming is an exercise modality that is highly suitable for health promotion and disease prevention, and is one of the most popular, most practiced and most recommended forms of physical activity. Yet little information is available concerning the influence of regular swimming on coronary heart disease (CHD). Exercise recommendations involving swimming have been generated primarily from unjustified extrapolation of the data from other modes of exercise (e.g. walking and cycling). Available evidence indicates that, similarly to other physically active adults, the CHD risk profile is more favourable in swimmers than in sedentary counterparts and that swim training results in the lowering of some CHD risk factors. However, the beneficial impact of regular swimming may be smaller than land-based exercises. In some cases, regular swimming does not appear to confer beneficial effects on some CHD risk factors. Moreover, swimming has not been associated with the reduced risks of developing CHD. Thus, extrapolation of research findings using land-based exercises into swimming cannot be justified, based on the available research. Clearly, more research is required to properly assess the effects of regular swimming on CHD risks in humans.

  10. Exercise effects on methylation of ASC gene.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, K; Takeoka, M; Mori, M; Hashimoto, S; Sakurai, A; Nose, H; Higuchi, K; Itano, N; Shiohara, M; Oh, T; Taniguchi, S

    2010-09-01

    Chronic moderate exercise has been reported to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines. To analyze the molecular mechanisms by which training exerts these effects, the epigenetic influences of age and exercise on the ASC gene, which is responsible for IL-1beta and IL-18 secretion, were investigated by ASC gene methylation. Further, the relationship between carcinogenesis and exercise, and methylation of the P15 tumor suppressive gene was also analyzed. High-intensity interval walking exercise, consisting of 3 min low-intensity walking at 40% of peak aerobic capacity followed by a 3 min high-intensity walking period above 70% of peak aerobic capacity, was continued for 6 months. Peripheral blood DNA extracts from young control (n=34), older control (n=153), and older exercise (n=230) groups were then analyzed by pyrosequencing for DNA methylation. Methylation of ASC decreased significantly with age (young control vs. older control, p<0.01), which is indicative of an age-dependent increase in ASC expression. Compared to the older control group, the degree of ASC methylation was higher in the older exercise group (older control vs. older exercise: p<0.01), and presumably lower ASC expression. Neither exercise nor age affected the methylation of the P15. In summary, chronic moderate exercise appears to attenuate the age-dependent decrease in ASC methylation, implying suppression of excess pro-inflammatory cytokines through reduction of ASC expression.

  11. Self-regulation strategies may enhance the acute effect of exercise on smoking delay.

    PubMed

    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Pappa, Vassiliki; Tsiami, Anastasia; Tzatzaki, Theodora; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zourbanos, Nikos; Goudas, Marios; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined the acute effect of a moderate intensity aerobic exercise session combined with self-regulation on smoking delay in physically inactive smokers. Participants were 11 adults (5 males and 6 females) that completed three experimental conditions: control, exercise, and exercise using self-regulation strategies (SR). Following the experimental treatment smoking for the two exercise conditions delayed significantly more than for the control condition; in addition exercise SR delayed smoking marginally more that the plain exercise condition. Findings supported previous research that acute exercise reduces cravings to smoke, and suggests that the use of self-regulation strategies may strengthen exercise for smoking cessation interventions.

  12. Changes in intraocular pressure after exercise test

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Morteza Abdar; Gharipour, Mojgan; Fesharakinia, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Background: The decrease in intraocular pressure (IOP) within exercise has been recently suggested; however, this change remained ambiguous following exercise test. The present study aimed to assess changes in IOP induced by exercise test in patients who suspected to coronary artery disease (CAD) and indicated for exercise test evaluation. Methods: In a cross-sectional study at the cardiovascular research center of Amin Heart Hospital in Isfahan, 101 eyes from 51 consecutive patients suspected to CAD aged 30–70 years referred for exercise testing were evaluated. IOP was measured at the three time points of before exercise test as well as 5 and 20 min after completing exercise test using Schiotz tonometer. All exercise tests were programmed by the treadmill. Results: The mean IOP in all assessed eyes was 16.12 ± 2.61 mmHg initially that was gradually decreased to 13.79 ± 2.40 mmHg 5 min after the exercise test, but elevated to 15.67 ± 2.26 mmHg 20 min after the test. Assessing IOP following exercise testing showed a significant decrease in IOP in 75 eyes (74.3%), remained unchanged in 19.8% of eyes, and even elevated in 5.9% of eyes. There was a significant direct association between patients' age and IOP changes assessed by the Pearson's correlation test (r = 0.350,P = 0.009). No significant difference was revealed in the trend of the changes in IOP after exercise test between men and women, between left-sided and right-sided eyes as well as between different body mass index subgroups. Conclusion: IOP temporarily reduced after exercise test, but return to baseline value shortly after test. This lowering is more evident in advanced aging. PMID:28298859

  13. Physical Exercise as Therapy for Frailty.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Lina E; Villareal, Dennis T

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies demonstrate that regular physical exercise extends longevity and reduces the risk of physical disability. Decline in physical activity with aging is associated with a decrease in exercise capacity that predisposes to frailty. The frailty syndrome includes a lowered activity level, poor exercise tolerance, and loss of lean body and muscle mass. Poor exercise tolerance is related to aerobic endurance. Aerobic endurance training can significantly improve peak oxygen consumption by ∼10-15%. Resistance training is the best way to increase muscle strength and mass. Although the increase in muscle mass in response to resistance training may be attenuated in frail older adults, resistance training can significantly improve muscle strength, particularly in institutionalized patients, by ∼110%. Because both aerobic and resistance training target specific components of frailty, studies combining aerobic and resistance training provide the most promising evidence with respect to successfully treating frailty. At the molecular level, exercise reduces frailty by decreasing muscle inflammation, increasing anabolism, and increasing muscle protein synthesis. More studies are needed to determine which exercises are best suited, most effective, and safe for this population. Based on the available studies, an individualized multicomponent exercise program that includes aerobic activity, strength exercises, and flexibility is recommended to treat frailty.

  14. Exercise behaviors and barriers to exercise in adult burn survivors: A questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Jennifer; Li, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Exercise is a key component of burn rehabilitation across all phases of care. Supervised outpatient exercise programs have been shown to improve outcomes following burn injury. However, little is known about the exercise behaviors of burn survivors who do not undertake such programs. This study aimed to investigate self-reported exercise behaviors and barriers to exercise in adult burn survivors. A short questionnaire survey was conducted on adult burn survivors attending the ambulatory burns clinic of a tertiary hospital over a 6-week period. The collected data were subjected to paired t-tests and Pearson's correlation test. A total of 63 adult burn survivors (mean age 36.5 years) completed the questionnaire. Participants reported exercising less frequently and engaged in fewer different types of exercise compared with pre-burn (P < 0.05). Poor physical conditions and low motivation and enthusiasm were the major barriers to exercise. Participation in supervised exercise programs can be limited by a range of factors including the availability of resources and access to facilities. This preliminary study suggests that there is a need to improve compliance with outpatient exercise programs. Burn survivors appear to exercise less frequently after burn injury. Barriers to exercise following burn injury include poor physical condition and reduced motivation. Further investigation into overall physical activity following burn injury and potential physical and psychological limitations is warranted. Burn clinicians should highly encourage injury survivors to participate in supervised exercise programs when available or to do exercises at home to maximize post-burn injury recovery.

  15. Low-Volume Intense Exercise Elicits Post-exercise Hypotension and Subsequent Hypervolemia, Irrespective of Which Limbs Are Exercised

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Matthew J.; Lucas, Samuel J. E.; Francois, Monique E.; Stavrianeas, Stasinos; Parr, Evelyn B.; Thomas, Kate N.; Cotter, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Exercise reduces arterial and central venous blood pressures during recovery, which contributes to its valuable anti-hypertensive effects and to facilitating hypervolemia. Repeated sprint exercise potently improves metabolic function, but its cardiovascular effects (esp. hematological) are less well-characterized, as are effects of exercising upper versus lower limbs. The purposes of this study were to identify the acute (<24 h) profiles of arterial blood pressure and blood volume for (i) sprint intervals versus endurance exercise, and (ii) sprint intervals using arms versus legs. Methods: Twelve untrained males completed three cycling exercise trials; 50-min endurance (legs), and 5*30-s intervals using legs or arms, in randomized and counterbalanced sequence, at a standardized time of day with at least 8 days between trials. Arterial pressure, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit were measured before, during and across 22 h after exercise, the first 3 h of which were seated rest. Results: The post-exercise hypotensive response was larger after leg intervals than endurance (AUC: 7540 ± 3853 vs. 3897 ± 2757 mm Hg·min, p = 0.049, 95% CI: 20 to 6764), whereas exercising different limbs elicited similar hypotension (arms: 6420 ± 3947 mm Hg·min, p = 0.48, CI: −1261 to 3896). In contrast, arterial pressure at 22 h was reduced after endurance but not after leg intervals (−8 ± 8 vs. 0 ± 7 mm Hg, p = 0.04, CI: 7 ± 7) or reliably after arm intervals (−4 ± 8 mm Hg, p = 0.18 vs. leg intervals). Regardless, plasma volume expansion at 22 h was similar between leg intervals and endurance (both +5 ± 5%; CI: −5 to 5%) and between leg and arm intervals (arms: +5 ± 7%, CI: −8 to 5%). Conclusions: These results emphasize the relative importance of central and/or systemic factors in post-exercise hypotension, and indicate that markedly diverse exercise profiles can induce substantive hypotension and subsequent hypervolemia. At least for endurance

  16. Clothing and thermoregulation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Timothy P

    2003-01-01

    Exercise increases heat production. During exercise in both warm and cold conditions, the major dilemma is the dissipation of the heat produced from muscular activity. The use of clothing generally represents a layer of insulation and as such imposes a barrier to heat transfer and evaporation from the skin surface. In warm environments, additional clothing increases thermal insulation causing more rapid increases in temperature during exercise and imposes a barrier to sweat evaporation. However, clothing can serve a protective function by reducing radiant heat gain and thermal stress. Recent research suggests that neither the inclusion of modest amounts of clothing nor the clothing fabric alter thermoregulation or thermal comfort during exercise in warm conditions. In the cold, most reports do not support an effect of clothing fabric on thermoregulation; however, there are reports demonstrating an effect. Clothing construction does alter thermoregulation during and following exercise in the cold, where fishnet construction offers greater heat dissipation. Future research should include conditions that more closely mimic outdoor conditions, where high work rates, large airflow and high relative humidity can significantly impact thermoregulation.

  17. Plasma nesfatin-1 and glucoregulatory hormone responses to two different anaerobic exercise sessions.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari-Niaki, Abbass; Kraemer, Robert R; Soltani, Raheleh

    2010-11-01

    Nesfatin-1 is a recently discovered anorectic protein derived from posttranslational processing of the nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2) gene. It is expressed in adipose tissue and is also found in plasma. Nesfatin-1 expression is significantly affected by nutritional status and its actions may be involved in the inhibition of the orexigenic effect of ghrelin. Although the effects of physical exercise on several anorectic and orexigenic hormones have been reported, no studies have investigated its effects upon circulating concentrations of nesfatin-1. We investigated the effects of acute strenuous interval exercise and circuit exercise on nesfatin and other hormones affected by metabolic stress. Fourteen provincial and national level young male-kickboxing volunteers participated [age 20.71 ± 2.6 years, height 176.6 ± 2.8 cm, body weight 67.2 ± 3.3 kg, and body mass index (BMI) 21.56 ± 1.42 kg/m(2)]. After an overnight fast, responses to a running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST; 7 sets of 6 × 35 m every 10 s with 1 min rest in between sets) and a non-combat kickboxing session (NCKB; 7 sets of 6 techniques, 20 s per technique with 1 min rest in between sets) were determined. Venous blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and 45 as well as 95 min following the exercises. Plasma GH, insulin, glucose and lactate concentrations significantly increased immediately following the RAST and NCKB protocols, however, plasma nesfatin-1 concentrations were not significantly altered. Higher plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations occurred in response to the RAST compared with the NCKB protocols. Although the exercise protocols elicited metabolic stress that significantly altered circulating glucoregulatory hormones, plasma glucose and lactate, there was no significant change in plasma nesfatin-1. A lack of nesfatin-1 response to the exercise protocols may be partially due to the fasting condition.

  18. Exercise intensity does not influence the efficacy of eccentric exercise as a behavioural adjuvant to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Kate M; Campbell, John P; Ring, Christopher; Drayson, Mark T; Bosch, Jos A; Downes, Charlotte; Long, Joanna E; Lumb, Josephine A; Merry, Alex; Paine, Nicola J; Burns, Victoria E

    2010-05-01

    Acute exercise prior to vaccination can improve the antibody response to influenza vaccination. However, both the optimal exercise protocol and the mechanisms underpinning this adjuvant effect remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine whether exercise intensity influenced the efficacy of the intervention. One hundred and sixty healthy young adults were randomly assigned to a resting control group or one of three intervention groups, who exercised at an intensity of 60%, 85%, or 110% of their pre-determined concentric one repetition maxima. The exercise groups performed 50 repetitions of the eccentric portion of both bicep curl and lateral raise movements. All participants then immediately received a reduced dose (50% recommended dose) influenza vaccine. Antibody titres to the three viral strains contained in the vaccine were measured at baseline and at 28 days post-vaccination. Compared to the control group, exercise enhanced the antibody response to the least immunogenic of the three strains (B/Florida). In addition, the exercise groups showed an augmented response to the A/Uruguay strain compared to control; however, this effect was observed only in men. The intervention had no effect on the antibody responses to the most immunogenic strain, A/Brisbane. Finally, antibody responses were unrelated to the intensity of the exercise bout. In conclusion, our findings provide further evidence of exercise as an adjuvant to enhance vaccination responses. The results further show that responses to the low-immunogenic antigens are particularly responsive to augmentation by acute eccentric exercise.

  19. Exercise for falls prevention in older people: assessing the knowledge of exercise science students.

    PubMed

    Sturnieks, Daina L; Finch, Caroline F; Close, Jacqueline C T; Tiedemann, Anne; Lord, Stephen R; Pascoe, Deborah A

    2010-01-01

    Participation in appropriate exercise can help reduce the risk of falls and falls injury in older people. Delivery of population-level exercise interventions requires an expert workforce with skills in development and delivery of group exercise programs and prescription of individually targeted exercise. This study assessed the current knowledge of university exercise science students (as future exercise professionals) across different levels of study. A structured survey designed to assess knowledge in relation to falls in older people and exercise prescription for falls prevention was administered during second, third and fourth year lectures in seven Australian universities. Students' knowledge was assessed as the percent of correct responses. Overall, 566 students completed the survey and knowledge levels increased significantly with study year. Mean knowledge levels were significantly <70%, indicating limited knowledge. They were lowest for falls risk factor questions and highest for issue/cost related questions in second and third year students. Fourth year students had best knowledge about falls interventions and this was the only group and topic with a mean score >70%. In conclusion, knowledge about falls and exercise prescription for falls prevention in current students does not meet a desired competency level of 70% and is therefore insufficient to ensure an adequately equipped future workforce in this area. There is a clear need for the development and widespread delivery of an evidence-based "exercise for falls prevention" curriculum module for exercise professionals.

  20. Assessment of the allergenic potential of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum) with reduced levels of omega-5 gliadins, the major sensitizing allergen in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The omega-5 gliadins are the major sensitizing allergens in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). In this study, two-dimensional immunoblot analysis was used to assess the allergenic potential of two transgenic wheat lines in which omega-5 gliadin genes were silenced by RNA interfe...

  1. The Effects of Montmorency Tart Cherry Concentrate Supplementation on Recovery Following Prolonged, Intermittent Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Phillip G.; Stevenson, Emma; Davison, Gareth W.; Howatson, Glyn

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC) supplementation on markers of recovery following prolonged, intermittent sprint activity. Sixteen semi-professional, male soccer players, who had dietary restrictions imposed for the duration of the study, were divided into two equal groups and consumed either MC or placebo (PLA) supplementation for eight consecutive days (30 mL twice per day). On day 5, participants completed an adapted version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LISTADAPT). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), 20 m Sprint, counter movement jump (CMJ), agility and muscle soreness (DOMS) were assessed at baseline, and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Measures of inflammation (IL-1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, hsCRP), muscle damage (CK) and oxidative stress (LOOH) were analysed at baseline and 1, 3, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Performance indices (MVIC, CMJ and agility) recovered faster and muscle soreness (DOMS) ratings were lower in the MC group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the acute inflammatory response (IL-6) was attenuated in the MC group. There were no effects for LOOH and CK. These findings suggest MC is efficacious in accelerating recovery following prolonged, repeat sprint activity, such as soccer and rugby, and lends further evidence that polyphenol-rich foods like MC are effective in accelerating recovery following various types of strenuous exercise. PMID:27455316

  2. The Effects of Montmorency Tart Cherry Concentrate Supplementation on Recovery Following Prolonged, Intermittent Exercise.

    PubMed

    Bell, Phillip G; Stevenson, Emma; Davison, Gareth W; Howatson, Glyn

    2016-07-22

    This study investigated Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC) supplementation on markers of recovery following prolonged, intermittent sprint activity. Sixteen semi-professional, male soccer players, who had dietary restrictions imposed for the duration of the study, were divided into two equal groups and consumed either MC or placebo (PLA) supplementation for eight consecutive days (30 mL twice per day). On day 5, participants completed an adapted version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LISTADAPT). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), 20 m Sprint, counter movement jump (CMJ), agility and muscle soreness (DOMS) were assessed at baseline, and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Measures of inflammation (IL-1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, hsCRP), muscle damage (CK) and oxidative stress (LOOH) were analysed at baseline and 1, 3, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Performance indices (MVIC, CMJ and agility) recovered faster and muscle soreness (DOMS) ratings were lower in the MC group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the acute inflammatory response (IL-6) was attenuated in the MC group. There were no effects for LOOH and CK. These findings suggest MC is efficacious in accelerating recovery following prolonged, repeat sprint activity, such as soccer and rugby, and lends further evidence that polyphenol-rich foods like MC are effective in accelerating recovery following various types of strenuous exercise.

  3. Exercise detraining: Applicability to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, Edward F.

    1994-01-01

    Physical training exposes the various systems of the body to potent physiologic stimuli. These stimuli induce specific adaptations that enhance an individual's tolerance for the type of exercise encountered in training. The level of adaptation and the magnitude of improvement in exercise tolerance is proportional to the potency of the physical training stimuli. Likewise, our bodies are stimulated by gravity, which promotes adaptations of both the cardiovascular and skeletal muscles. Exposure to microgravity removes normal stimuli to these systems, and the body adapts to these reduced demands. In many respects the cessation of physical training in athletes and the transition from normal gravity to microgravity represent similar paradigms. Inherent to these situations is the concept of the reversibility of the adaptations induced by training or by exposure to normal gravity. The reversibility concept holds that when physical training is stopped (i.e., detraining) or reduced, or a person goes from normal gravity to microgravity, the bodily systems readjust in accordance with the diminished physiologic stimuli. The focus of this chapter is on the time course of loss of the adaptations to endurance training as well as on the possibility that certain adaptations persist, to some extent, when training is stopped. Because endurance exercise training generally improves cardiovascular function and promotes metabolic adaptations within the exercising skeletal musculature, the reversibility of these specific adaptations is considered. These observations have some applicability to the transition from normal to microgravity.

  4. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-03-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10/sup 0/ incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 ..mu..Ci 1-/sup 14/C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect.

  5. Physical activity, exercise, depression and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    There is a general belief that physical activity and exercise have positive effects on mood and anxiety and a great number of studies describe an association of physical activity and general well-being, mood and anxiety. In line, intervention studies describe an anxiolytic and antidepressive activity of exercise in healthy subjects and patients. However, the majority of published studies have substantial methodological shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to critically review the currently available literature with respect to (1) the association of physical activity, exercise and the prevalence and incidence of depression and anxiety disorders and (2) the potential therapeutic activity of exercise training in patients with depression or anxiety disorders. Although the association of physical activity and the prevalence of mental disorders, including depression and anxiety disorders have been repeatedly described, only few studies examined the association of physical activity and mental disorders prospectively. Reduced incidence rates of depression and (some) anxiety disorders in exercising subjects raise the question whether exercise may be used in the prevention of some mental disorders. Besides case series and small uncontrolled studies, recent well controlled studies suggest that exercise training may be clinically effective, at least in major depression and panic disorder. Although, the evidence for positive effects of exercise and exercise training on depression and anxiety is growing, the clinical use, at least as an adjunct to established treatment approaches like psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy, is still at the beginning. Further studies on the clinical effects of exercise, interaction with standard treatment approaches and details on the optimal type, intensity, frequency and duration may further support the clinical administration in patients. Furthermore, there is a lack of knowledge on how to best deal with depression and anxiety related symptoms

  6. Exercise and the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular response to acute (dynamic) exercise in animals and humans. During exercise, oxygen uptake is a function of the triple-product of heart rate and stroke volume (i.e., cardiac output) and arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference (the Fick principle). The degree to which each of the variables can increase determines maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max). Both "central command" and "the exercise pressor reflex" are important in determining the cardiovascular response and the resetting of the arterial baroreflex during exercise to precisely match systemic oxygen delivery with metabolic demand. In general, patients with autonomic disorders have low levels of V˙O2max, indicating reduced physical fitness and exercise capacity. Moreover, the vast majority of the patients have blunted or abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise, especially during maximal exercise. There is now convincing evidence that some of the protective and therapeutic effects of chronic exercise training are related to the impact on the autonomic nervous system. Additionally, training induced improvement in vascular function, blood volume expansion, cardiac remodeling, insulin resistance and renal-adrenal function may also contribute to the protection and treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic disorders. Exercise training also improves mental health, helps to prevent depression, and promotes or maintains positive self-esteem. Moderate-intensity exercise at least 30 minutes per day and at least 5 days per week is recommended for the vast majority of people. Supervised exercise training is preferable to maximize function capacity, and may be particularly important for patients with autonomic disorders.

  7. Airflow obstruction and exercise.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Christopher B

    2009-03-01

    The primary abnormality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is chronic airway inflammation which results in airflow limitation. Disease progression is usually depicted as an accelerated decline in FEV(1) over time. However, COPD patients also manifest progressive static hyperinflation due to the combined effects of reduced lung elastic recoil and increased airway resistance. Superimposed on static hyperinflation are further increases in operational lung volumes (dynamic hyperinflation) brought on during exercise, exacerbations or tachypnea. An important consequence of exertional dyspnea is activity limitation. COPD patients have been shown to spend only a third of the day walking or standing compared with age-matched healthy individuals who spend more than half of their time in these activities. Furthermore, the degree of activity limitation measured by an accelerometer worsens with disease progression. COPD patients have been shown to have an accelerated loss of aerobic capacity (VO(2)max) and this correlates with mortality just as is seen with hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Thus physical inactivity is an important therapeutic target in COPD. Summarizing; airflow obstruction leads to progressive hyperinflation, activity limitation, physical deconditioning and other comorbidities that characterize the COPD phenotype. Targeting the airflow obstruction with long-acting bronchodilator therapy in conjunction with a supervised exercise prescription is currently the most effective therapeutic intervention in earlier COPD. Other important manifestations of skeletal muscle dysfunction include muscle atrophy and weakness. These specific problems are best addressed with resistance training with consideration of anabolic supplementation.

  8. Isometric exercise (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because ...

  9. Easy Exercises for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... third component of well-rounded exercise. Check out yoga as one way to stay flexible. You can ... Sports and Exercise Safety Stretching Dynamic Stretching (Video) Yoga Welcome Home Yoga (Video) Study Break Yoga (Video) ...

  10. Clinical Applications for Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, David

    1989-01-01

    Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)

  11. Diet and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Diet And Exercise Transplant recipients need to be aware of the ... help arrange for counseling and other support services. Exercise After a Transplant Most people are weak after ...

  12. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... underlying chronic asthma as the cause of symptoms. Exercise challenge tests An additional test that enables your ... to take daily for long-term control. Pre-exercise medications Your doctor may prescribe a drug that ...

  13. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  14. Strength and Balance Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Strength and Balance Exercises Updated:Sep 8,2016 If you have medical ... if you have been inactive and want to exercise vigorously, check with your doctor before beginning a ...

  15. Why Exercise Is Wise

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... the reasons: Exercise benefits every part of the body, including the mind. Exercising causes the body to produce endorphins, chemicals ...

  16. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm

    MedlinePlus

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  17. Assessing Exercise Limitation Using Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    PubMed Central

    Stickland, Michael K.; Butcher, Scott J.; Marciniuk, Darcy D.; Bhutani, Mohit

    2012-01-01

    The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is an important physiological investigation that can aid clinicians in their evaluation of exercise intolerance and dyspnea. Maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) is the gold-standard measure of aerobic fitness and is determined by the variables that define oxygen delivery in the Fick equation (V˙O2 = cardiac output × arterial-venous O2 content difference). In healthy subjects, of the variables involved in oxygen delivery, it is the limitations of the cardiovascular system that are most responsible for limiting exercise, as ventilation and gas exchange are sufficient to maintain arterial O2 content up to peak exercise. Patients with lung disease can develop a pulmonary limitation to exercise which can contribute to exercise intolerance and dyspnea. In these patients, ventilation may be insufficient for metabolic demand, as demonstrated by an inadequate breathing reserve, expiratory flow limitation, dynamic hyperinflation, and/or retention of arterial CO2. Lung disease patients can also develop gas exchange impairments with exercise as demonstrated by an increased alveolar-to-arterial O2 pressure difference. CPET testing data, when combined with other clinical/investigation studies, can provide the clinician with an objective method to evaluate cardiopulmonary physiology and determination of exercise intolerance. PMID:23213518

  18. Writing Exercises from "Exercise Exchange." Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Charles R., Ed.

    Reflecting current practices in the teaching of writing, the exercises in this compilation were drawn from the journal "Exercise Exchange." The articles are arranged into six sections: sources for writing; prewriting; modes for writing; writing and reading; lang