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Sample records for streptomyces spp producing

  1. Caryolan-1-ol, an antifungal volatile produced by Streptomyces spp., inhibits the endomembrane system of fungi

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Gyeongjun; Kim, Junheon; Park, Chung Gyoo; Nislow, Corey; Weller, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. have the ability to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites that interact with the environment. This study aimed to discover antifungal volatiles from the genus Streptomyces and to determine the mechanisms of inhibition. Volatiles identified from Streptomyces spp. included three major terpenes, geosmin, caryolan-1-ol and an unknown sesquiterpene. antiSMASH and KEGG predicted that the volatile terpene synthase gene clusters occur in the Streptomyces genome. Growth inhibition was observed when fungi were exposed to the volatiles. Biological activity of caryolan-1-ol has previously not been investigated. Fungal growth was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by a mixture of the main volatiles, caryolan-1-ol and the unknown sesquiterpene, from Streptomyces sp. S4–7. Furthermore, synthesized caryolan-1-ol showed similar antifungal activity. Results of chemical-genomics profiling assays showed that caryolan-1-ol affected the endomembrane system by disrupting sphingolipid synthesis and normal vesicle trafficking in the fungi. PMID:28724695

  2. Caryolan-1-ol, an antifungal volatile produced by Streptomyces spp., inhibits the endomembrane system of fungi.

    PubMed

    Cho, Gyeongjun; Kim, Junheon; Park, Chung Gyoo; Nislow, Corey; Weller, David M; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2017-07-01

    Streptomyces spp. have the ability to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites that interact with the environment. This study aimed to discover antifungal volatiles from the genus Streptomyces and to determine the mechanisms of inhibition. Volatiles identified from Streptomyces spp. included three major terpenes, geosmin, caryolan-1-ol and an unknown sesquiterpene. antiSMASH and KEGG predicted that the volatile terpene synthase gene clusters occur in the Streptomyces genome. Growth inhibition was observed when fungi were exposed to the volatiles. Biological activity of caryolan-1-ol has previously not been investigated. Fungal growth was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by a mixture of the main volatiles, caryolan-1-ol and the unknown sesquiterpene, from Streptomyces sp. S4-7. Furthermore, synthesized caryolan-1-ol showed similar antifungal activity. Results of chemical-genomics profiling assays showed that caryolan-1-ol affected the endomembrane system by disrupting sphingolipid synthesis and normal vesicle trafficking in the fungi. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Biocontrol of geosmin-producing Streptomyces spp. by two Bacillus strains from Chinese liquor.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Yan; Wu, Qun; Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2016-08-16

    Streptomyces spp. producing geosmin have been regarded as the most frequent and serious microbial contamination causing earthy off-flavor in Chinese liquor. It is therefore necessary to control the Streptomyces community during liquor fermentation. Biological control, using the native microbiota present in liquor making, appears to be a better solution than chemical methods. The objective of this study was to isolate native microbiota antagonistic toward Streptomyces spp. and then to evaluate the possible action mode of the antagonists. Fourteen Bacillus strains isolated from different Daqu (the fermentation starter) showed antagonistic activity against Streptomyces sampsonii, which is one of the dominant geosmin producers. Bacillus subtilis 2-16 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1-45 from Maotai Daqu significantly inhibited the growth of S. sampsonii by 57.8% and 84.3% respectively, and effectively prevented the geosmin production in the simulated fermentation experiments (inoculation ratio 1:1). To probe the biocontrol mode, the ability of strain 2-16 and 1-45 to produce antimicrobial metabolites and to reduce geosmin in the fermentation system was investigated. Antimicrobial substances were identified as lipopeptides by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/Q-TOF MS) and in vitro antibiotic assay. In addition, strains 2-16 and 1-45 were able to remove 45% and 15% of the geosmin respectively in the simulated solid-state fermentation. This study highlighted the potential of biocontrol, and how the use of native Bacillus species in Daqu could provide an eco-friendly method to prevent growth of Streptomyces spp. and geosmin contamination in Chinese liquor fermentation.

  4. The Prevalence and Distribution of Neurodegenerative Compound-Producing Soil Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Anna L.; Ray, Arpita; R. Roberts, Lindsay; Caldwell, Kim A.; Olson, Julie B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work from our labs demonstrated that a metabolite(s) from the soil bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae caused dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans and human neuroblastoma cells. To evaluate the capacity for metabolite production by naturally occurring streptomycetes in Alabama soils, Streptomyces were isolated from soils under different land uses (agriculture, undeveloped, and urban). More isolates were obtained from agricultural than undeveloped soils; there was no significant difference in the number of isolates from urban soils. The genomic diversity of the isolates was extremely high, with only 112 of the 1509 isolates considered clones. A subset was examined for dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the previously established C. elegans model; 28.3% of the tested Streptomyces spp. caused dopaminergic neurons to degenerate. Notably, the Streptomyces spp. isolates from agricultural soils showed more individual neuron damage than isolates from undeveloped or urban soils. These results suggest a common environmental toxicant(s) within the Streptomyces genus that causes dopaminergic neurodegeneration. It could also provide a possible explanation for diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), which is widely accepted to have both genetic and environmental factors. PMID:26936423

  5. The Prevalence and Distribution of Neurodegenerative Compound-Producing Soil Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Anna L; Ray, Arpita; R Roberts, Lindsay; Caldwell, Kim A; Olson, Julie B

    2016-03-03

    Recent work from our labs demonstrated that a metabolite(s) from the soil bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae caused dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans and human neuroblastoma cells. To evaluate the capacity for metabolite production by naturally occurring streptomycetes in Alabama soils, Streptomyces were isolated from soils under different land uses (agriculture, undeveloped, and urban). More isolates were obtained from agricultural than undeveloped soils; there was no significant difference in the number of isolates from urban soils. The genomic diversity of the isolates was extremely high, with only 112 of the 1509 isolates considered clones. A subset was examined for dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the previously established C. elegans model; 28.3% of the tested Streptomyces spp. caused dopaminergic neurons to degenerate. Notably, the Streptomyces spp. isolates from agricultural soils showed more individual neuron damage than isolates from undeveloped or urban soils. These results suggest a common environmental toxicant(s) within the Streptomyces genus that causes dopaminergic neurodegeneration. It could also provide a possible explanation for diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), which is widely accepted to have both genetic and environmental factors.

  6. Establishment of a real-time PCR method for quantification of geosmin-producing Streptomyces spp. in recirculating aquaculture systems.

    PubMed

    Auffret, Marc; Pilote, Alexandre; Proulx, Emilie; Proulx, Daniel; Vandenberg, Grant; Villemur, Richard

    2011-12-15

    Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) have been associated with off-flavour problems in fish and seafood products, generating a strong negative impact for aquaculture industries. Although most of the producers of geosmin and MIB have been identified as Streptomyces species or cyanobacteria, Streptomyces spp. are thought to be responsible for the synthesis of these compounds in indoor recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). The detection of genes involved in the synthesis of geosmin and MIB can be a relevant indicator of the beginning of off-flavour events in RAS. Here, we report a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) protocol targeting geoA sequences that encode a germacradienol synthase involved in geosmin synthesis. New geoA-related sequences were retrieved from eleven geosmin-producing Actinomycete strains, among them two Streptomyces strains isolated from two RAS. Combined with geoA-related sequences available in gene databases, we designed primers and standards suitable for qPCR assays targeting mainly Streptomyces geoA. Using our qPCR protocol, we succeeded in measuring the level of geoA copies in sand filter and biofilters in two RAS. This study is the first to apply qPCR assays to detect and quantify the geosmin synthesis gene (geoA) in RAS. Quantification of geoA in RAS could permit the monitoring of the level of geosmin producers prior to the occurrence of geosmin production. This information will be most valuable for fish producers to manage further development of off-flavour events.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of saquayamycins produced by Streptomyces spp. PAL114 isolated from a Saharan soil.

    PubMed

    Aouiche, A; Bijani, C; Zitouni, A; Mathieu, F; Sabaou, N

    2014-06-01

    A new strain of actinomycete designated PAL114, producing antimicrobial compounds, was isolated from a Saharan soil in Ghardaïa, Algeria. Morphological and chemical studies showed that this strain belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Two bioactive compounds, named P41A and P41B, were extracted by dichloromethane from the cell-free supernatant broth of strain PAL114 and were purified by HPLC. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the pure antibiotics were determined against yeasts, filamentous fungi and bacteria, most of which are pathogenic or toxigenic for human and multiresistant to antibiotics. The strongest activities were observed against Candida albicans M3 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. The chemical structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis of UV-visible and 1H and 13C NMR spectra and spectrometric analysis of mass spectrum. The compounds P41A and P41B were identified as saquayamycins A and C, respectively. These compounds belong to the aquayamycin-group antibiotics, which are known in the literature for their anticancer and antibacterial activities.

  8. Phytotoxins produced by plant pathogenic Streptomyces species.

    PubMed

    Bignell, D R D; Fyans, J K; Cheng, Z

    2014-02-01

    Streptomyces is a large genus consisting of soil-dwelling, filamentous bacteria that are best known for their capability of producing a vast array of medically and agriculturally useful secondary metabolites. In addition, a small number of Streptomyces spp. are capable of colonizing and infecting the underground portions of living plants and causing economically important crop diseases such as potato common scab (CS). Research into the mechanisms of Streptomyces plant pathogenicity has led to the identification and characterization of several phytotoxic secondary metabolites that are known or suspected of contributing to diseases in various plants. The best characterized are the thaxtomin phytotoxins, which play a critical role in the development of CS, acid scab and soil rot of sweet potato. In addition, the best-characterized CS-causing pathogen, Streptomyces scabies, produces a molecule that is predicted to resemble the Pseudomonas syringae coronatine phytotoxin and which contributes to seedling disease symptom development. Other Streptomyces phytotoxic secondary metabolites that have been identified include concanamycins, FD-891 and borrelidin. Furthermore, there is evidence that additional, unknown metabolites may participate in Streptomyces plant pathogenicity. Such revelations have implications for the rational development of better management procedures for controlling CS and other Streptomyces plant diseases. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Antifungal Streptomyces spp. Associated with the Infructescences of Protea spp. in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Human, Zander R.; Moon, Kyuho; Bae, Munhyung; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Cha, Sangwon; Wingfield, Michael J.; Slippers, Bernard; Oh, Dong-Chan; Venter, Stephanus N.

    2016-01-01

    Common saprophytic fungi are seldom present in Protea infructescences, which is strange given the abundance of mainly dead plant tissue in this moist protected environment. We hypothesized that the absence of common saprophytic fungi in Protea infructescences could be due to a special symbiosis where the presence of microbes producing antifungal compounds protect the infructescence. Using a culture based survey, employing selective media and in vitro antifungal assays, we isolated antibiotic producing actinomycetes from infructescences of Protea repens and P. neriifolia from two geographically separated areas. Isolates were grouped into three different morphological groups and appeared to be common in the Protea spp. examined in this study. The three groups were supported in 16S rRNA and multi-locus gene trees and were identified as potentially novel Streptomyces spp. All of the groups had antifungal activity in vitro. Streptomyces sp. Group 1 had inhibitory activity against all tested fungi and the active compound produced by this species was identified as fungichromin. Streptomyces spp. Groups 2 and 3 had lower inhibition against all tested fungi, while Group 3 showed limited inhibition against Candida albicans and Sporothrix isolates. The active compound for Group 2 was also identified as fungichromin even though its production level was much lower than Group 1. The antifungal activity of Group 3 was linked to actiphenol. The observed antifungal activity of the isolated actinomycetes could contribute to protection of the plant material against common saprophytic fungi, as fungichromin was also detected in extracts of the infructescence. The results of this study suggest that the antifungal Streptomyces spp. could play an important role in defining the microbial population associated with Protea infructescences. PMID:27853450

  10. Plant growth and resistance promoted by Streptomyces spp. in tomato.

    PubMed

    Dias, Maila P; Bastos, Matheus S; Xavier, Vanessa B; Cassel, Eduardo; Astarita, Leandro V; Santarém, Eliane R

    2017-09-01

    Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) represent an alternative to improve plant growth and yield as well as to act as agents of biocontrol. This study characterized isolates of Streptomyces spp. (Stm) as PGPR, determined the antagonism of these isolates against Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis (Pcb), evaluated the ability of Stm on promoting growth and modulating the defense-related metabolism of tomato plants, and the potential of Stm isolates on reducing soft rot disease in this species. The VOC profile of Stm was also verified. Promotion of plant growth was assessed indirectly through VOC emission and by direct interaction with Stm isolates in the roots. Evaluation of soft rot disease was performed in vitro on plants treated with Stm and challenged with Pcb. Enzymes related to plant defense were then analyzed in plants treated with three selected isolates of Stm, and PM1 was chosen for further Pcb-challenging experiment. Streptomyces spp. isolates displayed characteristics of PGPR. PM3 was the isolate with efficient antagonism against Pcb by dual-culture. Most of the isolates promoted growth of root and shoot of tomato plants by VOC, and PM5 was the isolate that most promoted growth by direct interaction with Stm. Soft rot disease and mortality of plants were significantly reduced when plants were treated with StmPM1. Modulation of secondary metabolism was observed with Stm treatment, and fast response of polyphenoloxidases was detected in plants pretreated with StmPM1 and challenged with Pcb. Peroxidase was significantly activated three days after infection with Pcb in plants pretreated with StmPM1. Results suggest that Streptomyces sp. PM1 and PM5 have the potential to act as PGPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Lignocellulose-Adapted Endo-Cellulase Producing Streptomyces Strains for Bioconversion of Cellulose-Based Materials

    PubMed Central

    Ventorino, Valeria; Ionata, Elena; Birolo, Leila; Montella, Salvatore; Marcolongo, Loredana; de Chiaro, Addolorata; Espresso, Francesco; Faraco, Vincenza; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-01

    preparations from Genencore (Accellerase BG and Accellerase XY). Cellulose and xylan conversion, when conducted using commercial (hemi)cellulases, gave glucose and xylose yields of 30.17 and 68.9%, respectively. The replacement of the cellulolytic preparation from Genencor (Accellerase 1500), with the endo-cellulase from S. argenteolus AE58P resulted in almost 76% of the glucose yield obtained in the presence of the commercial counterpart. Due to the promising results obtained by using the enzymatic crude extracts from S. argenteolus AE58P in the pretreated A. donax saccharification experiments, the proteins putatively responsible for endo-cellulase activity in this strain were identified by proteomics. Several proteins were confidently identified in different Streptomyces spp., eight of which belong to the class of Carbohydrate active enzymes. Overall results highlighted the biotechnological potential of S. argenteolus AE58P being an interesting candidate biocatalyst-producing bacterium for lignocellulose conversion and production of biochemicals and bioenergy. PMID:28066379

  12. Lignocellulose-Adapted Endo-Cellulase Producing Streptomyces Strains for Bioconversion of Cellulose-Based Materials.

    PubMed

    Ventorino, Valeria; Ionata, Elena; Birolo, Leila; Montella, Salvatore; Marcolongo, Loredana; de Chiaro, Addolorata; Espresso, Francesco; Faraco, Vincenza; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-01

    preparations from Genencore (Accellerase BG and Accellerase XY). Cellulose and xylan conversion, when conducted using commercial (hemi)cellulases, gave glucose and xylose yields of 30.17 and 68.9%, respectively. The replacement of the cellulolytic preparation from Genencor (Accellerase 1500), with the endo-cellulase from S. argenteolus AE58P resulted in almost 76% of the glucose yield obtained in the presence of the commercial counterpart. Due to the promising results obtained by using the enzymatic crude extracts from S. argenteolus AE58P in the pretreated A. donax saccharification experiments, the proteins putatively responsible for endo-cellulase activity in this strain were identified by proteomics. Several proteins were confidently identified in different Streptomyces spp., eight of which belong to the class of Carbohydrate active enzymes. Overall results highlighted the biotechnological potential of S. argenteolus AE58P being an interesting candidate biocatalyst-producing bacterium for lignocellulose conversion and production of biochemicals and bioenergy.

  13. Genetics of Streptomyces rimosus, the Oxytetracycline Producer

    PubMed Central

    Petković, Hrvoje; Cullum, John; Hranueli, Daslav; Hunter, Iain S.; Perić-Concha, Nataša; Pigac, Jasenka; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Vujaklija, Dušica; Long, Paul F.

    2006-01-01

    From a genetic standpoint, Streptomyces rimosus is arguably the best-characterized industrial streptomycete as the producer of oxytetracycline and other tetracycline antibiotics. Although resistance to these antibiotics has reduced their clinical use in recent years, tetracyclines have an increasing role in the treatment of emerging infections and noninfective diseases. Procedures for in vivo and in vitro genetic manipulations in S. rimosus have been developed since the 1950s and applied to study the genetic instability of S. rimosus strains and for the molecular cloning and characterization of genes involved in oxytetracycline biosynthesis. Recent advances in the methodology of genome sequencing bring the realistic prospect of obtaining the genome sequence of S. rimosus in the near term. PMID:16959966

  14. Evolutionary Relationships among Actinophages and a Putative Adaptation for Growth in Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed Central

    Hendrix, Roger W.; Dedrick, Rebekah; Mitchell, Kaitlin; Ko, Ching-Chung; Russell, Daniel; Bell, Emma; Gregory, Matthew; Bibb, Maureen J.; Pethick, Florence; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Herron, Paul; Buttner, Mark J.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2013-01-01

    The genome sequences of eight Streptomyces phages are presented, four of which were isolated for this study. Phages R4, TG1, ϕHau3, and SV1 were isolated previously and have been exploited as tools for understanding and genetically manipulating Streptomyces spp. We also extracted five apparently intact prophages from recent Streptomyces spp. genome projects and, together with six phage genomes in the database, we analyzed all 19 Streptomyces phage genomes with a view to understanding their relationships to each other and to other actinophages, particularly the mycobacteriophages. Fifteen of the Streptomyces phages group into four clusters of related genomes. Although the R4-like phages do not share nucleotide sequence similarity with other phages, they clearly have common ancestry with cluster A mycobacteriophages, sharing many protein homologues, common gene syntenies, and similar repressor-stoperator regulatory systems. The R4-like phage ϕHau3 and the prophage StrepC.1 (from Streptomyces sp. strain C) appear to have hijacked a unique adaptation of the streptomycetes, i.e., use of the rare UUA codon, to control translation of the essential phage protein, the terminase. The Streptomyces venezuelae generalized transducing phage SV1 was used to predict the presence of other generalized transducing phages for different Streptomyces species. PMID:23995638

  15. Evolutionary relationships among actinophages and a putative adaptation for growth in Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed

    Smith, Margaret C M; Hendrix, Roger W; Dedrick, Rebekah; Mitchell, Kaitlin; Ko, Ching-Chung; Russell, Daniel; Bell, Emma; Gregory, Matthew; Bibb, Maureen J; Pethick, Florence; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Herron, Paul; Buttner, Mark J; Hatfull, Graham F

    2013-11-01

    The genome sequences of eight Streptomyces phages are presented, four of which were isolated for this study. Phages R4, TG1, Hau3, and SV1 were isolated previously and have been exploited as tools for understanding and genetically manipulating Streptomyces spp. We also extracted five apparently intact prophages from recent Streptomyces spp. genome projects and, together with six phage genomes in the database, we analyzed all 19 Streptomyces phage genomes with a view to understanding their relationships to each other and to other actinophages, particularly the mycobacteriophages. Fifteen of the Streptomyces phages group into four clusters of related genomes. Although the R4-like phages do not share nucleotide sequence similarity with other phages, they clearly have common ancestry with cluster A mycobacteriophages, sharing many protein homologues, common gene syntenies, and similar repressor-stoperator regulatory systems. The R4-like phage Hau3 and the prophage StrepC.1 (from Streptomyces sp. strain C) appear to have hijacked a unique adaptation of the streptomycetes, i.e., use of the rare UUA codon, to control translation of the essential phage protein, the terminase. The Streptomyces venezuelae generalized transducing phage SV1 was used to predict the presence of other generalized transducing phages for different Streptomyces species.

  16. Influence of geosmin-producing Streptomyces on the growth and volatile metabolites of yeasts during chinese liquor fermentation.

    PubMed

    Du, Hai; Lu, Hu; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-14

    Diverse Streptomyces species act as geosmin producers in the Chinese liquor-making process, causing an earthy, off-odor containment. Through microbiological and metabolite analyses, this paper investigates the influence of several geosmin-producing Streptomyces on the microbial community of a brewing system. The antifungal activity against functional liquor-brewing microbes was assayed by an agar diffusion method. Several Streptomyces, most notably Streptomyces sampsonii QC-2, inhibited the growth of the brewing functional yeasts and molds in pure culture. In a simulated coculture, Streptomyces spp. reduced the flavor compounds (alcohols and esters) contributed by yeasts. Nine components in Streptomyces sampsonii QC-2 broth were detected by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with photo diode array (UPLC–PDA), with characteristic ultraviolet absorptions at 360, 380, and 400 nm. The main products of Streptomyces sampsonii QC-2 were identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF–MS/MS), and confirmed by standard mass spectrometry. The antifungal active components were revealed as a series of heptaene macrolide antibiotics.

  17. Influence of aromatic substitution patterns on azo dye degradability by Streptomyces spp. and Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed Central

    Pasti-Grigsby, M B; Paszczynski, A; Goszczynski, S; Crawford, D L; Crawford, R L

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two azo dyes were used to study the influence of substituents on azo dye biodegradability and to explore the possibility of enhancing the biodegradabilities of azo dyes without affecting their properties as dyes by changing their chemical structures. Streptomyces spp. and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were used in the study. None of the actinomycetes (Streptomyces rochei A10, Streptomyces chromofuscus A11, Streptomyces diastaticus A12, S. diastaticus A13, and S. rochei A14) degraded the commercially available Acid Yellow 9. Decolorization of monosulfonated mono azo dye derivatives of azobenzene by the Streptomyces spp. was observed with five azo dyes having the common structural pattern of a hydroxy group in the para position relative to the azo linkage and at least one methoxy and/or one alkyl group in an ortho position relative to the hydroxy group. The fungus P. chrysosporium attacked Acid Yellow 9 to some extent and extensively decolorized several azo dyes. A different pattern was seen for three mono azo dye derivatives of naphthol. Streptomyces spp. decolorized Orange I but not Acid Orange 12 or Orange II. P. chrysosporium, though able to transform these three azo dyes, decolorized Acid Orange 12 and Orange II more effectively than Orange I. A correlation was observed between the rate of decolorization of dyes by Streptomyces spp. and the rate of oxidative decolorization of dyes by a commercial preparation of horseradish peroxidase type II, extracellular peroxidase preparations of S. chromofuscus A11, or Mn(II) peroxidase from P. chrysosporium. Ligninase of P. chrysosporium showed a dye specificity different from that of the other oxidative enzymes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1482183

  18. Characterization and identification of chitinase producing Streptomyces venezuelae P10.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, G; Sen, S K

    2004-05-01

    In an attempt to isolate chitinase producers from soil, a streptomycete strain was found potent using natural chitin as the substrate. Chitinolytic activity was tested directly on agar plates, also with crude enzyme. Chitinase assay showed that the isolate could produce 0.8 U/ml of the enzyme. The morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characters of the isolate P10 were studied, and identified as Streptomyces venezuelae P10.

  19. Streptomyces strains producing mitochondriotoxic antimycin A found in cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Rasimus-Sahari, Stiina; Mikkola, Raimo; Andersson, Maria A; Jestoi, Marika; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2016-02-02

    Reasons for mammalian cell toxicity observed in barley and spring wheat grains were sought. Streptomyces sp. isolates from wheat and barley produced heat-stable methanol-soluble substances which inhibited the motility of exposed porcine spermatozoa used as a toxicity indicator. Several barley isolates produced antimycin A (2 to 5 ng/mg wet wt of biomass), a macrolide antibiotic known to block oxygen utilization in mitochondria. The antimycin-producing isolates were members of the Streptomyces albidoflavus group. In in vitro assays with porcine kidney tubular epithelial cells, the specific toxicity of antimycin A towards mitochondria was higher than that of the mycotoxin enniatin B but lower than that of the mitochondriotoxins cereulide and paenilide, produced by food-related Bacillus cereus and Paenibacillus tundrae, respectively. The toxic wheat isolates, related to Streptomyces sedi, did not produce antimycin A and or any other known toxin. Our results suggest that the presence of toxin-producing streptomycetes in stored cereal grains may pose a thus far unrecognized threat for food and feed safety.

  20. Managing scab diseases of potato and radish caused by Streptomyces spp. using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BAC03 and other biomaterials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Streptomyces spp. cause scab disease in plants like potato and radish. To seek effective control methods of this disease, biologically based materials were examined on their efficacies for disease control. In greenhouse or growth chamber tests, potting soil was infested with Streptomyces scabies (10...

  1. Regulation of secondary metabolism in Streptomyces spp. and overproduction of daunorubicin in Streptomyces peucetius.

    PubMed Central

    Stutzman-Engwall, K J; Otten, S L; Hutchinson, C R

    1992-01-01

    Two DNA segments, dnrR1 and dnrR2, from the Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 29050 genome were identified by their ability to stimulate secondary metabolite production and resistance. When introduced into the wild-type ATCC 29050 strain, the 2.0-kb dnrR1 segment caused a 10-fold overproduction of epsilon-rhodomycinone, a key intermediate of daunorubicin biosynthesis, whereas the 1.9-kb dnrR2 segment increased production of both epsilon-rhodomycinone and daunorubicin 10- and 2-fold, respectively. In addition, the dnrR2 segment restored high-level daunorubicin resistance to strain H6101, a daunorubicin-sensitive mutant of S. peucetius subsp. caesius ATCC 27952. Analysis of the sequence of the dnrR1 fragment revealed the presence of two closely situated open reading frames, dnrI and dnrJ, whose deduced products exhibit high similarity to the products of several other Streptomyces genes that have been implicated in the regulation of secondary metabolism. Insertional inactivation of dnrI in the ATCC 29050 strain with the Tn5 kanamycin resistance gene abolished epsilon-rhodomycinone and daunorubicin production and markedly decreased resistance to daunorubicin. Sequence comparison between the products of dnrIJ and the products of the Streptomyces coelicolor actII-orf4, afsR, and redD-orf1 genes and of the Streptomyces griseus strS, the Saccharopolyspora erythraea eryC1, and the Bacillus stearothermophilus degT genes reveals two families of putative regulatory genes. The members of the DegT, DnrJ, EryC1, and StrS family exhibit some of the features characteristic of the protein kinase (sensor) component of two-component regulatory systems from other bacteria (even though none of the sequences of these four proteins show a significant overall or regional similarity to such protein kinases) and have a consensus helix-turn-helix motif typical of DNA binding proteins. A helix-turn-helix motif is also present in two of the proteins of the other family, AfsR and RedD-Orf1. Both sets

  2. Laser Capture Microdissection of Feline Streptomyces spp Pyogranulomatous Dermatitis and Cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Traslavina, R P; Reilly, C M; Vasireddy, R; Samitz, E M; Stepnik, C T; Outerbridge, C; Affolter, V K; Byrne, B A; Lowenstine, L J; White, S D; Murphy, B

    2015-11-01

    Suspected Streptomyces spp infections were identified in 4 cats at UC Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital between 1982 and 2011. Three had ulcerated, dark red mycetomas involving the dermis, subcutis, and fascia with fistulous tracts and/or regional lymphadenopathy. One cat had pyogranulomatous mesenteric lymphadenitis. Granulomatous inflammation in all cats contained colonies of Gram-positive, non-acid-fast organisms. All 4 cats failed to respond to aggressive medical and surgical treatment and were euthanized. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to selectively harvest DNA from the affected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Cloned amplicons from LCM-derived tissue confirmed the presence of Streptomyces spp in the dermatitis cases. Amplicons from the remaining cat with peritoneal involvement aligned with the 16S ribosomal RNA gene for Actinomycetales. Usually considered a contaminant, Streptomyces spp can be associated with refractory pyogranulomatous dermatitis and cellulitis in cats with outdoor access. LCM is useful in the diagnosis of bacterial diseases where contamination may be an issue. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Evaluation of Streptomyces spp. for their plant-growth-promotion traits in rice.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Vadlamudi, Srinivas; Apparla, Shravya; Bandikinda, Prakash; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Bhimineni, Ratna Kumari; Rupela, Om

    2013-08-01

    Five strains of Streptomyces (CAI-17, CAI-68, CAI-78, KAI-26, and KAI-27) were previously reported to have potential for charcoal rot control and plant growth promotion (PGP) in sorghum. In this study, those 5 Streptomyces strains were characterized for their enzymatic activities and evaluated for their PGP capabilities on rice. All the Streptomyces strains were able to produce lipase and β-1,3-glucanase; grew in NaCl (up to 8%), at pH 5-13, and at temperatures 20-40 °C; and were resistant to ampicillin, sensitive to nalidixic acid, and highly sensitive to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline. They were highly tolerant to the fungicide bavistin but were highly sensitive to benlate, benomyl, and radonil. When evaluated on rice in the field, Streptomyces significantly enhanced tiller and panicle numbers, stover and grain yields, dry matter, root length, volume and dry weight, compared with the control. In the rhizosphere at harvest, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, dehydrogenase activity, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and % organic carbon were also found significantly higher in Streptomyces-treated plots than in the control plots. This study further confirms that the selected Streptomyces have PGP activities.

  4. Discovering potential Streptomyces hormone producers by using disruptants of essential biosynthetic genes as indicator strains.

    PubMed

    Thao, Nguyen B; Kitani, Shigeru; Nitta, Hiroko; Tomioka, Toshiya; Nihira, Takuya

    2017-10-01

    Autoregulators are low-molecular-weight signaling compounds that control the production of many secondary metabolites in actinomycetes and have been referred to as 'Streptomyces hormones'. Here, potential producers of Streptomyces hormones were investigated in 40 Streptomyces and 11 endophytic actinomycetes. Production of γ-butyrolactone-type (IM-2, VB) and butenolide-type (avenolide) Streptomyces hormones was screened using Streptomyces lavendulae FRI-5 (ΔfarX), Streptomyces virginiae (ΔbarX) and Streptomyces avermitilis (Δaco), respectively. In these strains, essential biosynthetic genes for Streptomyces hormones were disrupted, enabling them to respond solely to the externally added hormones. The results showed that 20% of each of the investigated strains produced IM-2 and VB, confirming that γ-butyrolactone-type Streptomyces hormones are the most common in actinomycetes. Unlike the γ-butyrolactone type, butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones have been discovered in recent years, but their distribution has been unclear. Our finding that 24% of actinomycetes (12 of 51 strains) showed avenolide activity revealed for the first time that the butenolide-type Streptomyces hormone is also common in actinomycetes.

  5. Streptomyces shaanxiensis sp. nov., a blue pigment-producing streptomycete from sewage irrigation soil.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan Bing; Wang, Xin Ye; Fang, Hui; Ma, Ya Nan; Tang, Jing; Tang, Ming; Wei, Ge Hong

    2012-08-01

    A novel isolate belonging to the genus Streptomyces, strain CCNWHQ 0031(T), was isolated from soil in a sewage irrigation area in Shaanxi province, China. The isolate produced light greyish-blue aerial mycelium and dark blue diffusible pigment on Gause's synthetic agar. Strain CCNWHQ 0031(T) formed Spirales-type chains with spiny spores. Chemotaxonomic data confirmed that strain CCNWHQ 0031(T) belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Analysis of the almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain CCNWHQ 0031(T) in the genus Streptomyces where it formed a distinct phyletic line with recognized Streptomyces species. Strain CCNWHQ 0031(T) exhibited highest sequence similarities to Streptomyces caeruleatus GIMN4.002(T) (99.3%), Streptomyces coeruleorubidus NBRC 12855(T) (98.9%), Streptomyces curacoi NBRC 12761(T) (98.8%) and Streptomyces lincolnensis NBRC 13054(T) (98.0%). DNA-DNA hybridization studies of strain CCNWHQ 0031(T) with these four closest relatives showed relatedness values of 56.6 ± 0.4, 50.3 ± 0.6, 49.8 ± 0.7 and 36.9 ± 0.9 %, respectively. On the basis of its molecular and physiological properties, it is evident that strain CCNWHQ 0031(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces shaanxiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CCNWHQ 0031(T) ( = CCNWTJ 0031(T) = JCM 16925(T) = ACCC 41873(T)).

  6. Novel bioactive oxazolomycin isomers produced by Streptomyces albus JA3453.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, H; Wada, K; Nitoda, T; Kawazu, K

    1998-03-01

    Two novel oxazolomycin isomers, oxazolomycins B (2) and C (3), were isolated from the fermentation broth of an oxazolomycin-producing strain, Streptomyces albus JA3453. Both compounds are geometrical isomers of oxazolomycin (1), the configurations of their triene moieties being (4'E, 6'E, 8'E) (2) and (4'Z, 6'E, 8'E) (3) while that of oxazolomycin (1) is (4'Z, 6'Z, 8'E). Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against crown gall formation with the same MIC (0.8 microgram/disk) as oxazolomycin. Compounds 2 and 3 showed no antibacterial activity against Agrobacterium tumefaciens, in contrast to oxazolomycin which has specific anti-A. tumefaciens activity.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of the Streptothricin-Producing Strain Streptomyces sp. fd2-tb

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Biao; Yu, Yucong; Cen, Xufeng; Zhu, Yongqiang; Dai, Ruixue; Wang, Xianwei

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. fd2-tb can produce streptothricin class antibiotics with broad antimicrobial spectra. To better understand the mechanism of streptothricin biosynthesis and to assess the capacity of this strain in secondary metabolism, we report the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain fd2-tb. PMID:26514767

  8. Genomics of Sponge-Associated Streptomyces spp. Closely Related to Streptomyces albus J1074: Insights into Marine Adaptation and Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis Potential

    PubMed Central

    Ian, Elena; Malko, Dmitry B.; Sekurova, Olga N.; Bredholt, Harald; Rückert, Christian; Borisova, Marina E.; Albersmeier, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Zotchev, Sergey B.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 74 actinomycete isolates were cultivated from two marine sponges, Geodia barretti and Phakellia ventilabrum collected at the same spot at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway). Phylogenetic analyses of sponge-associated actinomycetes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated the presence of species belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora. Most isolates required sea water for growth, suggesting them being adapted to the marine environment. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. revealed two isolates that originated from different sponges and had 99.7% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that they represent very closely related strains. Sequencing, annotation, and analyses of the genomes of these Streptomyces isolates demonstrated that they are sister organisms closely related to terrestrial Streptomyces albus J1074. Unlike S. albus J1074, the two sponge streptomycetes grew and differentiated faster on the medium containing sea water. Comparative genomics revealed several genes presumably responsible for partial marine adaptation of these isolates. Genome mining targeted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified several of those, which were not present in S. albus J1074, and likely to have been retained from a common ancestor, or acquired from other actinomycetes. Certain genes and gene clusters were shown to be differentially acquired or lost, supporting the hypothesis of divergent evolution of the two Streptomyces species in different sponge hosts. PMID:24819608

  9. Genomics of sponge-associated Streptomyces spp. closely related to Streptomyces albus J1074: insights into marine adaptation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis potential.

    PubMed

    Ian, Elena; Malko, Dmitry B; Sekurova, Olga N; Bredholt, Harald; Rückert, Christian; Borisova, Marina E; Albersmeier, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Zotchev, Sergey B

    2014-01-01

    A total of 74 actinomycete isolates were cultivated from two marine sponges, Geodia barretti and Phakellia ventilabrum collected at the same spot at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway). Phylogenetic analyses of sponge-associated actinomycetes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated the presence of species belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora. Most isolates required sea water for growth, suggesting them being adapted to the marine environment. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. revealed two isolates that originated from different sponges and had 99.7% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that they represent very closely related strains. Sequencing, annotation, and analyses of the genomes of these Streptomyces isolates demonstrated that they are sister organisms closely related to terrestrial Streptomyces albus J1074. Unlike S. albus J1074, the two sponge streptomycetes grew and differentiated faster on the medium containing sea water. Comparative genomics revealed several genes presumably responsible for partial marine adaptation of these isolates. Genome mining targeted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified several of those, which were not present in S. albus J1074, and likely to have been retained from a common ancestor, or acquired from other actinomycetes. Certain genes and gene clusters were shown to be differentially acquired or lost, supporting the hypothesis of divergent evolution of the two Streptomyces species in different sponge hosts.

  10. Whole-genome shotgun sequence of phenazine-producing endophytic Streptomyces kebangsaanensis SUK12.

    PubMed

    Remali, Juwairiah; Loke, Kok-Keong; Ng, Chyan Leong; Aizat, Wan Mohd; Tiong, John; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad

    2017-09-01

    Streptomyces sp. produces bioactive compounds with a broad spectrum of activities. Streptomyces kebangsaanesis SUK12 has been identified as a novel endophytic bacteria isolated from ethnomedicinal plant Portulaca olerace, and was found to produce the phenazine class of biologically active antimicrobial metabolites. The potential use of the phenazines has led to our research interest in determining the genome sequence of Streptomyces kebangsaanensis SUK12. This Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession number PRJNA269542. The raw sequence data are available [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/study/?acc=SRP105770].

  11. A new cyclododeca[d]oxazole derivative from Streptomyces spp. CIBYL1.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xiang; Li, Guangzhou; Yang, Tao; Li, Guoyou; Yi, Jinhai; Zhang, Guolin; Luo, Yinggang

    2013-04-01

    A novel secondary metabolite, N-trans-cinnamoyl 2-amino-3a,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,13a-dodecahydrocyclododeca[d]oxazole (1), was isolated from Streptomyces spp. CIBYL1, along with five known compounds, pimprinine (2), (3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-3,5,6-trimethyl-2H-pyran-2-one (3), indolyl-3-carboxylic acid (4), 2-phenylacetamide (5) and di(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methanone (6). The structures of these metabolites were elucidated on the basis of extensive analysis of spectroscopic data, including OR, IR, HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR data and chemical derivation.

  12. Functional Genome Mining for Metabolites Encoded by Large Gene Clusters through Heterologous Expression of a Whole-Genome Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library in Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Wang, Yemin; Zhao, Zhilong; Gao, Guixi; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Kang, Qianjin; He, Xinyi; Lin, Shuangjun; Pang, Xiuhua; Deng, Zixin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome sequencing projects in the last decade revealed numerous cryptic biosynthetic pathways for unknown secondary metabolites in microbes, revitalizing drug discovery from microbial metabolites by approaches called genome mining. In this work, we developed a heterologous expression and functional screening approach for genome mining from genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries in Streptomyces spp. We demonstrate mining from a strain of Streptomyces rochei, which is known to produce streptothricins and borrelidin, by expressing its BAC library in the surrogate host Streptomyces lividans SBT5, and screening for antimicrobial activity. In addition to the successful capture of the streptothricin and borrelidin biosynthetic gene clusters, we discovered two novel linear lipopeptides and their corresponding biosynthetic gene cluster, as well as a novel cryptic gene cluster for an unknown antibiotic from S. rochei. This high-throughput functional genome mining approach can be easily applied to other streptomycetes, and it is very suitable for the large-scale screening of genomic BAC libraries for bioactive natural products and the corresponding biosynthetic pathways. IMPORTANCE Microbial genomes encode numerous cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters for unknown small metabolites with potential biological activities. Several genome mining approaches have been developed to activate and bring these cryptic metabolites to biological tests for future drug discovery. Previous sequence-guided procedures relied on bioinformatic analysis to predict potentially interesting biosynthetic gene clusters. In this study, we describe an efficient approach based on heterologous expression and functional screening of a whole-genome library for the mining of bioactive metabolites from Streptomyces. The usefulness of this function-driven approach was demonstrated by the capture of four large biosynthetic gene clusters for metabolites of various chemical types, including

  13. 'Streptomyces caelicus', an antibiotic-producing species of the genus Streptomyces, and Streptomyces canchipurensis Li et al. 2015 are later heterotypic synonyms of Streptomyces muensis Ningthoujam et al. 2014.

    PubMed

    Wink, Joachim; Schumann, Peter; Atasayar, Ewelina; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zaburannyi, Nestor; Westermann, Martin; Martin, Karin; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Kämpfer, Peter

    2017-04-01

    'Streptomyces caelicus' DSM 40835 was first reported as the producer of the antibiotic griselimycin by some coworkers of Rhone Poulenc in 1971. The project on isolation of the antibiotic compound was stopped because of the bad solubility and selectivity of the compound towards Mycobacteria. At Sanofi-Aventis, Germany, the project was re-evaluated in 2007 and the gene cluster of griselimycin could be identified, characterized and was patented in 2013. At this time, 'S. caelicus' was an invalid name. During the strain characterization work, it was found that 'S. caelicus' belongs to the group of species of the genus Streptomyces which show an unusual heterogeneity of the 16S rRNA gene sequences. However, high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Streptomyces muensis JCM 17576T and Streptomyces canchipurensis JCM 17575T were obvious. Here, we present a comparative description of 'Streptomyces caelicus' DS 9461 (=DSM 40835=NCCB 100592) with S. muensis and S. canchipurensis by use of a polyphasic taxonomy approach and additional comparison of some housekeeping genes by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). An emended description of Streptomyces muensis is provided as a result of this work.

  14. Lincomycin at Subinhibitory Concentrations Potentiates Secondary Metabolite Production by Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Yu; Sato, Seizo; Tanaka, Yukinori; Ochi, Kozo

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics have either bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity. However, they also induce considerable gene expression in bacteria when used at subinhibitory concentrations (below the MIC). We found that lincomycin, which inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the ribosomes of Gram-positive bacteria, was effective for inducing the expression of genes involved in secondary metabolism in Streptomyces strains when added to medium at subinhibitory concentrations. In Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), lincomycin at 1/10 of its MIC markedly increased the expression of the pathway-specific regulatory gene actII-ORF4 in the blue-pigmented antibiotic actinorhodin (ACT) biosynthetic gene cluster, which resulted in ACT overproduction. Intriguingly, S. lividans 1326 grown in the presence of lincomycin at a subinhibitory concentration (1/12 or 1/3 of its MIC) produced abundant antibacterial compounds that were not detected in cells grown in lincomycin-free medium. Bioassay and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that some antibacterial compounds were novel congeners of calcium-dependent antibiotics. Our results indicate that lincomycin at subinhibitory concentrations potentiates the production of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces strains and suggest that activating these strains by utilizing the dose-response effects of lincomycin could be used to effectively induce the production of cryptic secondary metabolites. In addition to these findings, we also report that lincomycin used at concentrations for markedly increased ACT production resulted in alteration of the cytoplasmic protein (FoF1 ATP synthase α and β subunits, etc.) profile and increased intracellular ATP levels. A fundamental mechanism for these unique phenomena is also discussed. PMID:25819962

  15. Diversity and functions of volatile organic compounds produced by Streptomyces from a disease-suppressive soil

    PubMed Central

    Cordovez, Viviane; Carrion, Victor J.; Etalo, Desalegn W.; Mumm, Roland; Zhu, Hua; van Wezel, Gilles P.; Raaijmakers, Jos M.

    2015-01-01

    In disease-suppressive soils, plants are protected from infections by specific root pathogens due to the antagonistic activities of soil and rhizosphere microorganisms. For most disease-suppressive soils, however, the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are largely unknown. Our recent studies identified Actinobacteria as the most dynamic phylum in a soil suppressive to the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Here we isolated and characterized 300 isolates of rhizospheric Actinobacteria from the Rhizoctonia-suppressive soil. Streptomyces species were the most abundant, representing approximately 70% of the isolates. Streptomyces are renowned for the production of an exceptionally large number of secondary metabolites, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOC profiling of 12 representative Streptomyces isolates by SPME-GC-MS allowed a more refined phylogenetic delineation of the Streptomyces isolates than the sequencing of 16S rRNA and the house-keeping genes atpD and recA only. VOCs of several Streptomyces isolates inhibited hyphal growth of R. solani and significantly enhanced plant shoot and root biomass. Coupling of Streptomyces VOC profiles with their effects on fungal growth, pointed to VOCs potentially involved in antifungal activity. Subsequent assays with five synthetic analogs of the identified VOCs showed that methyl 2-methylpentanoate, 1,3,5-trichloro-2-methoxy benzene and the VOCs mixture have antifungal activity. In conclusion, our results point to a potential role of VOC-producing Streptomyces in disease suppressive soils and show that VOC profiling of rhizospheric Streptomyces can be used as a complementary identification tool to construct strain-specific metabolic signatures. PMID:26500626

  16. Draft Genome of Streptomyces tsukubaensis NRRL 18488, the Producer of the Clinically Important Immunosuppressant Tacrolimus (FK506)

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Carlos; Sola-Landa, Alberto; Solera, Elena; Martínez-Castro, Miriam; Pérez-Redondo, Rosario; García-Estrada, Carlos; Aparicio, Jesús F.; Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T.; Santos-Aberturas, Javier; Salehi-Najafabadi, Zahra; Rodríguez-García, Antonio; Tauch, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The macrocyclic polyketide tacrolimus (FK506) is a potent immunosuppressant that prevents T-cell proliferation produced solely by Streptomyces species. We report here the first draft genome sequence of a true FK506 producer, Streptomyces tsukubaensis NRRL 18488, the first tacrolimus-producing strain that was isolated and that contains the full tacrolimus biosynthesis gene cluster. PMID:22740677

  17. Plenty Is No Plague: Streptomyces Symbiosis with Crops.

    PubMed

    Rey, Thomas; Dumas, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. constitute a major clade of the phylum Actinobacteria. These Gram-positive, filamentous prokaryotes are ubiquitous in soils and marine sediments, and are commonly found in the rhizosphere or inside plant roots. Plant-interacting Streptomyces have received limited attention, in contrast to Streptomyces spp. extensively investigated for decades in medicine given their rich potential for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Recent genomic, metabolomic, and biotechnological advances have produced key insights into Streptomyces spp., paving the way to the use of their metabolites in agriculture. In this Opinion article we propose how Streptomyces spp. could dominate future aspects of crop nutrition and protection. Risks and benefits of the use of these microorganisms in agriculture are also discussed.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of an Anicemycin Producer, Streptomyces sp. TP-A0648

    PubMed Central

    Hosoyama, Akira; Kimura, Akane; Ichikawa, Natsuko; Igarashi, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. TP-A0648 isolated from a leaf of Aucuba japonica. This strain produces a new tumor cell growth inhibitor designated anicemycin. The genome harbors at least 12 biosynthetic gene clusters for polyketides and nonribosomal peptides, suggesting the potential to produce diverse secondary metabolites. PMID:28082502

  19. Cloning and starch degradation profile of maltotriose-producing amylases from Streptomyces species.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Norimasa; Miyake, Michiru; Hirose, Shuichi; Sota, Masahiro; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-11-01

    The end products from starch hydrolysis by amylases have important applications in various industries. Here, two amylases derived from two Streptomyces species that hydrolyze soluble starch from potato produced maltotriose as the primary maltooligosaccharide product. The genes, annotated as putative glycoside hydrolases, were cloned and expressed in Streptomyces lividans. These amylases displayed hydrolysis activity from pH 3 to 9.5 and were not affected by Ca(2+.) Optimal production of maltotriose was between 20 and 30 °C at pH 6.5. At the optimal temperature, both amylases produced maltotriose-rich end products rather than either maltose or maltotetraose.

  20. Streptomyces kronopolitis sp. nov., an actinomycete that produces phoslactomycins isolated from a millipede (Kronopolites svenhedind Verhoeff).

    PubMed

    Liu, Chongxi; Ye, Lan; Li, Yao; Jiang, Shanwen; Liu, Hui; Yan, Kai; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2016-12-01

    A phoslactomycin-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-ML8T, was isolated from a millipede (Kronopolites svenhedind Verhoeff) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NEAU-ML8T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with the highest sequence similarities to Streptomyces lydicus NBRC 13058T (99.39 %) and Streptomyces chattanoogensis DSM 40002T (99.25 %). The maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate formed a distinct phyletic line with NBRC 13058T and S. chattanoogensis DSM 40002T. This branching pattern was also supported by the tree rconstructed with the neighbour-joining method. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain NEAU-ML8T and its phylogenetically closely related strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that NEAU-ML8T could be distinguished from NBRC 13058T and S. chattanoogensis DSM 40002T. Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-ML8T can be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces kronopolitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-ML8T (=DSM 101986T=CGMCC 4.7323T).

  1. Streptomyces koyangensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete that produces 4-phenyl-3-butenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee Yeon; Lee, Jung Yeop; Jung, Ho Won; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2005-01-01

    A 4-phenyl-3-butenoic acid-producing actinomycete, designated strain VK-A60T, was isolated from a soil sample collected from Koyang, Korea. Morphological and chemical characteristics of the strain were consistent with those of the genus Streptomyces. The cell wall of the strain contains LL-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant fatty acids are anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) and C(16 : 0). The strain formed a distinct monophyletic line within the 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic tree. Analyses of its morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, together with random amplified polymorphic DNA and DNA-DNA relatedness data, confirmed that strain VK-A60T represents a novel Streptomyces taxon that is distinguishable from closely related reference strains. Strain VK-A60T (=KCCM 10555T=NBRC 100598T) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces koyangensis sp. nov. is proposed.

  2. Determination of ionophore antibiotics nactins produced by fecal Streptomyces from sheep.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Tan, Hongming; Lu, Yu; Cao, Lixiang

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the correlation between fecal actinobacteria and host animals, Streptomyces was isolated from fresh faeces of healthy sheep and secondary metabolites were analyzed. The most frequently isolated strain S161 with antibiotic activity against bacteria and fungi were analyzed. The S161 showed the highest 99 % similarity to Streptomyces canus DSB17 based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Metabolite analysis based on MS and NMR spectra showed that S161 produces nactins, cyclotetralactones derived from nonactic acid and homononactic acid as building units of ionophoretic character. Due to ionophores are antimicrobial compounds that are commonly fed to ruminant animals to improve feed efficiency, stable beneficial interactions between Streptomyces bacteria and vertebrates have been demonstrated.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces cattleya NRRL 8057, a Producer of Antibiotics and Fluorometabolites

    PubMed Central

    Barbe, Valérie; Bouzon, Madeleine; Mangenot, Sophie; Badet, Bernard; Poulain, Julie; Segurens, Béatrice; Vallenet, David; Marlière, Philippe; Weissenbach, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Streptomyces cattleya, a producer of the antibiotics thienamycin and cephamycin C, is one of the rare bacteria known to synthesize fluorinated metabolites. The genome consists of two linear replicons. The genes involved in fluorine metabolism and in the biosynthesis of the antibiotic thienamycin were mapped on both replicons. PMID:21868806

  4. Petroleum degradation by endophytic Streptomyces spp. isolated from plants grown in contaminated soil of southern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Baoune, Hafida; Ould El Hadj-Khelil, Aminata; Pucci, Graciela; Sineli, Pedro; Loucif, Lotfi; Polti, Marta Alejandra

    2017-09-15

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are well known by their high toxicity and recalcitrant properties. Their increasing utilization around worldwide led to environmental contamination. Phytoremediation using plant-associated microbe is an interesting approach for petroleum degradation and actinobacteria have a great potential for that. For this purpose, our study aimed to isolate, characterize, and assess the ability of endophytic actinobacteria to degrade crude petroleum, as well as to produce plant growth promoting traits. Seventeen endophytic actinobacteria were isolated from roots of plants grown naturally in sandy contaminated soil. Among them, six isolates were selected on the basis of their tolerance to petroleum on solid minimal medium and characterized by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. All petroleum-tolerant isolates belonged to the Streptomyces genus. Determination by crude oil degradation by gas chromatorgraph-flame ionization detector revealed that five strains could use petroleum as sole carbon and energy source and the petroleum removal achieved up to 98% after 7 days of incubation. These isolates displayed an important role in the degradation of the n-alkanes (C6-C30), aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. All strains showed a wide range of plant growth promoting features such as siderophores, phosphate solubilization, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, nitrogen fixation and indole-3-acetic acid production as well as biosurfactant production. This is the first study highlighting the petroleum degradation ability and plant growth promoting attributes of endophytic Streptomyces. The finding suggests that the endophytic actinobacteria isolated are promising candidates for improving phytoremediation efficiency of petroleum contaminated soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of Streptomyces MITKK-103, a newly isolated actinomycin X2-producer.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, K; Bui, V P; VanEssendelft, J L; Willis, L B; Lessard, P A; Ghiviriga, I; Sambandan, T G; Rha, C K; Sinskey, A J

    2006-08-01

    A new actinomycete strain designated MITKK-103 was isolated from the soil of a flowerpot using a humic acid agar medium. The newly isolated strain was able to produce a large amount of actinomycin X2 even under nonoptimized growing conditions and serves as a promising source of this antibiotic. Actinomycin X2 has higher cytotoxicity toward cultured human leukemia (HL-60) cells than does actinomycin D, and it induces cell death via apoptosis. A nearly complete 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence from the isolate was determined and found to have high identity (98.5-100%) with Streptomyces galbus, Streptomyces griseofuscus, and Streptomyces padanus, indicating that MITKK-103 belongs to the genus Streptomyces. The isolate clustered with species belonging to the S. padanus clade in a 16S-rDNA-based phylogenetic tree and showed 75% overall homology to S. padanus ATCC 25646 in DNA-DNA relatedness analysis. Although the growth of the isolate was somewhat different from the three species mentioned, the strain MITKK-103 most closely resembles S. padanus on the basis of the morphological and phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis, and genotypic data. As such, this is the first report of a strain of S. padanus capable of producing actinomycins.

  6. Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii sp. nov., the producer of chaxalactins and chaxamycins, forms a distinct branch in Streptomyces gene trees.

    PubMed

    Busarakam, Kanungnid; Bull, Alan T; Girard, Geneviève; Labeda, David P; van Wezel, Gilles P; Goodfellow, Michael

    2014-05-01

    A polyphasic study was carried out to establish the taxonomic status of an Atacama Desert isolate, Streptomyces strain C34(T), which synthesises novel antibiotics, the chaxalactins and chaxamycins. The organism was shown to have chemotaxonomic, cultural and morphological properties consistent with its classification in the genus Streptomyces. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain C34(T) formed a distinct phyletic line in the Streptomyces gene tree that was very loosely associated with the type strains of several Streptomyces species. Multilocus sequence analysis based on five house-keeping gene alleles underpinned the separation of strain C34(T) from all of its nearest phylogenetic neighbours, apart from Streptomyces chiangmaiensis TA-1(T) and Streptomyces hyderabadensis OU-40(T) which are not currently in the MLSA database. Strain C34(T) was distinguished readily from the S. chiangmaiensis and S. hyderabadensis strains by using a combination of cultural and phenotypic data. Consequently, strain C34(T) is considered to represent a new species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C34(T) (= DSM 42122(T) = NRRL B-24963(T)). Analysis of the whole-genome sequence of S. leeuwenhoekii, with 6,780 predicted open reading frames and a total genome size of around 7.86 Mb, revealed a high potential for natural product biosynthesis.

  7. Yersiniabactin and other siderophores produced by clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Mokracka, Joanna; Koczura, Ryszard; Kaznowski, Adam

    2004-01-15

    We analyzed the ability of extraintestinal strains of Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp. to employ different siderophore-mediated strategies of iron acquisition. All strains produced iron-chelating compounds. Cross-feeding assays indicated that most isolates of both Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp. excreted catecholate siderophore enterobactin, less produced aerobactin, and single strains excreted hydroxamates different from aerobactin. Besides, we analyzed if the strains had the ability to produce the siderophore yersiniabactin coded by the Yersinia high-pathogenicity island (HPI). The presence of HPI genes was observed in single isolates of three species: E. cloaceae, E. aerogenes and C. koseri. A detailed polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed differences in the genetic organization of the HPIs; however, in a cross-feeding test we proved that yersiniabactin was produced and the island was functional.

  8. Genome Sequence of the Streptomycin-Producing Microorganism Streptomyces griseus IFO 13350▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Yasuo; Ishikawa, Jun; Hara, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ikenoya, Miwa; Ikeda, Haruo; Yamashita, Atsushi; Hattori, Masahira; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2008-01-01

    We determined the complete genome sequence of Streptomyces griseus IFO 13350, a soil bacterium producing an antituberculosis agent, streptomycin, which is the first aminoglycoside antibiotic, discovered more than 60 years ago. The linear chromosome consists of 8,545,929 base pairs (bp), with an average G+C content of 72.2%, predicting 7,138 open reading frames, six rRNA operons (16S-23S-5S), and 66 tRNA genes. It contains extremely long terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) of 132,910 bp each. The telomere's nucleotide sequence and secondary structure, consisting of several palindromes with a loop sequence of 5′-GGA-3′, are different from those of typical telomeres conserved among other Streptomyces species. In accordance with the difference, the chromosome has pseudogenes for a conserved terminal protein (Tpg) and a telomere-associated protein (Tap), and a novel pair of Tpg and Tap proteins is instead encoded by the TIRs. Comparisons with the genomes of two related species, Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Streptomyces avermitilis, clarified not only the characteristics of the S. griseus genome but also the existence of 24 Streptomyces-specific proteins. The S. griseus genome contains 34 gene clusters or genes for the biosynthesis of known or unknown secondary metabolites. Transcriptome analysis using a DNA microarray showed that at least four of these clusters, in addition to the streptomycin biosynthesis gene cluster, were activated directly or indirectly by AdpA, which is a central transcriptional activator for secondary metabolism and morphogenesis in the A-factor (a γ-butyrolactone signaling molecule) regulatory cascade in S. griseus. PMID:18375553

  9. Metabolomics-Driven Discovery of a Prenylated Isatin Antibiotic Produced by Streptomyces Species MBT28.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changsheng; Du, Chao; Gubbens, Jacob; Choi, Young Hae; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2015-10-23

    Actinomycetes are a major source of antimicrobials, anticancer compounds, and other medically important products, and their genomes harbor extensive biosynthetic potential. Major challenges in the screening of these microorganisms are to activate the expression of cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters and the development of technologies for efficient dereplication of known molecules. Here we report the identification of a previously unidentified isatin-type antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sp. MBT28, following a strategy based on NMR-based metabolomics combined with the introduction of streptomycin resistance in the producer strain. NMR-guided isolation by tracking the target proton signal resulted in the characterization of 7-prenylisatin (1) with antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis. The metabolite-guided genome mining of Streptomyces sp. MBT28 combined with proteomics identified a gene cluster with an indole prenyltransferase that catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan into 7-prenylisatin. This study underlines the applicability of NMR-based metabolomics in facilitating the discovery of novel antibiotics.

  10. Antitumor and antioxidant activity of protocatechualdehyde produced from Streptomyces lincolnensis M-20.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ja; Kim, Mi-Ae; Jung, Jee-Hyung

    2008-12-01

    We characterized the biological functions of protocatechualdehyde (PA) isolated from the butanol extract of culture supernatant from Streptomyces lincolnensis M-20. Following butanol extraction, it was purified by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. PA was analyzed by Furier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Gas chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). PA had potent antioxidant activity, as measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Antitumor activity against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells was evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium-bromide (MTT) assay. PA treatment (0 approximately 150 muM) dose-dependently blocked apoptosis, as shown by improved cell viability and inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Our findings suggest that Streptomyces lincolnensis M-20, a lincomycin producer, also produces protocatechualdehyde.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Streptomyces cyaneogriseus ssp. noncyanogenus, the thermotolerant producer of commercial antibiotics nemadectin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan; Li, Chuang; Zhang, Bo; He, Hairong; Jin, Pinjiao; Wang, Jijia; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2015-06-20

    Streptomyces cyaneogriseus ssp. noncyanogenus is thermotolerant bacterium producing commercially important nemadectin, a kind of macrolide antibiotics, which has been widely used as a biopesticide. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of S. cyaneogriseus ssp. noncyanogenus, which consists of one chromosome (7,762,396bp) with no plasmid. Genome sequence information contributes to understanding the biosynthesis of nemadectin better and provides the basis for analysis of its thermotolerance and biosynthetical potential.

  12. Diversity of Streptomyces spp. in Eastern Himalayan region – computational RNomics approach to phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Kaushik; Banerjee, Subhro; Joshi, Santa Ram

    2012-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of actinomycetes from soil samples from altitudinal gradient of North-East India were investigated for computational RNomics based phylogeny. A total of 52 diverse isolates of Streptomyces from the soil samples were isolated on four different media and from these 6 isolates were selected on the basis of cultural characteristics, microscopic and biochemical studies. Sequencing of 16S rDNA of the selected isolates identified them to belong to six different species of Streptomyces. The molecular morphometric and physico-kinetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences were performed to predict the diversity of the genus. The computational RNomics study revealed the significance of the structural RNA based phylogenetic analysis in a relatively diverse group of Streptomyces. PMID:22829729

  13. An Efficient Method To Generate Gene Deletion Mutants of the Rapamycin-Producing Bacterium Streptomyces iranensis HM 35

    PubMed Central

    Netzker, Tina; Schroeckh, Volker; Gregory, Matthew A.; Flak, Michal; Krespach, Mario K. C.; Leadlay, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptomyces iranensis HM 35 is an alternative rapamycin producer to Streptomyces rapamycinicus. Targeted genetic modification of rapamycin-producing actinomycetes is a powerful tool for the directed production of rapamycin derivatives, and it has also revealed some key features of the molecular biology of rapamycin formation in S. rapamycinicus. The approach depends upon efficient conjugational plasmid transfer from Escherichia coli to Streptomyces, and the failure of this step has frustrated its application to Streptomyces iranensis HM 35. Here, by systematically optimizing the process of conjugational plasmid transfer, including screening of various media, and by defining optimal temperatures and concentrations of antibiotics and Ca2+ ions in the conjugation media, we have achieved exconjugant formation for each of a series of gene deletions in S. iranensis HM 35. Among them were rapK, which generates the starter unit for rapamycin biosynthesis, and hutF, encoding a histidine catabolizing enzyme. The protocol that we have developed may allow efficient generation of targeted gene knockout mutants of Streptomyces species that are genetically difficult to manipulate. IMPORTANCE The developed protocol of conjugational plasmid transfer from Escherichia coli to Streptomyces iranensis may allow efficient generation of targeted gene knockout mutants of other genetically difficult to manipulate, but valuable, Streptomyces species. PMID:27037115

  14. An Efficient Method To Generate Gene Deletion Mutants of the Rapamycin-Producing Bacterium Streptomyces iranensis HM 35.

    PubMed

    Netzker, Tina; Schroeckh, Volker; Gregory, Matthew A; Flak, Michal; Krespach, Mario K C; Leadlay, Peter F; Brakhage, Axel A

    2016-06-15

    Streptomyces iranensis HM 35 is an alternative rapamycin producer to Streptomyces rapamycinicus Targeted genetic modification of rapamycin-producing actinomycetes is a powerful tool for the directed production of rapamycin derivatives, and it has also revealed some key features of the molecular biology of rapamycin formation in S. rapamycinicus. The approach depends upon efficient conjugational plasmid transfer from Escherichia coli to Streptomyces, and the failure of this step has frustrated its application to Streptomyces iranensis HM 35. Here, by systematically optimizing the process of conjugational plasmid transfer, including screening of various media, and by defining optimal temperatures and concentrations of antibiotics and Ca(2+) ions in the conjugation media, we have achieved exconjugant formation for each of a series of gene deletions in S. iranensis HM 35. Among them were rapK, which generates the starter unit for rapamycin biosynthesis, and hutF, encoding a histidine catabolizing enzyme. The protocol that we have developed may allow efficient generation of targeted gene knockout mutants of Streptomyces species that are genetically difficult to manipulate. The developed protocol of conjugational plasmid transfer from Escherichia coli to Streptomyces iranensis may allow efficient generation of targeted gene knockout mutants of other genetically difficult to manipulate, but valuable, Streptomyces species. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Isolation, Characterization and Selection of Avermectin-Producing Streptomyces avermitilis Strains From Soil Samples

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Samia; Syed, Quratulain; Adnan, Ahmad; Qureshi, Fahim Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Background: Streptomyces avermitilis, belonging to Actinomycetes, is specialized for production of avermectin, used as an anthelmintic and insecticidal agent. It is mostly found in soil and its isolation is very crucial for medically important avermectin production. Objectives: In the present study, 10 bacterial isolates lacking antimicrobial activities were isolated from the soil samples collected from different areas of Lahore, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: Three distinctive localities of Lahore were opted for soil assortment to isolate S. avermitilis. About 50 isolates of Streptomyces species were attained through selective prescreening procedures. All of these isolates were studied for production of the secondary metabolite, avermectin. Different test like soluble pigment color and melanin formation were used for identification. Biochemical characterizations of those isolates closely resembling the control in morphological characteristics, soluble pigment color and melanin formation tests were performed. Results: The 10 selected isolates were identified as the avermectin-producing strain by fermentation and characterized on ISP2 medium for aerial and reverse side mycelia color, soluble pigment color and melanin formation, in comparison with S. avermitilis DSM 41445. The best avermectin-producing isolate S1-C (10.15 mg/L) showed similar result as S. avermitilis DSM 41445, when subjected for culture characteristics analysis in different media along with biochemical characterization. Conclusions: From the results, it was concluded that agricultural lands around Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) Campus Lahore were rich sources of industrially important Streptomyces, especially S. avermitilis. PMID:25371798

  16. Involvement of siderophores in the reduction of metal-induced inhibition of auxin synthesis in Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed

    Dimkpa, Christian O; Svatos, Ales; Dabrowska, Paulina; Schmidt, Andre; Boland, Wilhelm; Kothe, Erika

    2008-12-01

    Unlike synthetic metal chelators, microbe-assisted phytoremediation provides plants with natural metal-solubilizing chelators which do not constitute a potential source of environmental pollution. Concurrently with microbial chelators, plant growth promotion can be enhanced through bacterially-produced phytohormones. In this work, the simultaneous production of siderophores and auxins by Streptomyces was studied to gain insight for future application in plant growth and phytoremediation in a metal-contaminated soil. Standard auxin and siderophore detection assays indicated that all of the investigated Streptomyces strains can produce these metabolites simultaneously. However, Al(3+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+) and Ni(2+), or a combination of Fe(3+) and Cd(2+), and Fe(3+) and Ni(2+) affected auxin production negatively, as revealed by spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This effect was more dramatic in a siderophore-deficient mutant. In contrast, except for Fe, all the metals stimulated siderophore production. Mass spectrometry showed that siderophore and auxin-containing supernatants from a representative Streptomyces species contain three different hydroxamate siderophores, revealing the individual binding responses of these siderophores to Cd(2+) and Ni(2+), and thus, showing their auxin-stimulating effects. We conclude that siderophores promote auxin synthesis in the presence of Al(3+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) by chelating these metals. Chelation makes the metals less able to inhibit the synthesis of auxins, and potentially increases the plant growth-promoting effects of auxins, which in turn enhances the phytoremediation potential of plants.

  17. Multiplexed Integrating Plasmids for Engineering of the Erythromycin Gene Cluster for Expression in Streptomyces spp. and Combinatorial Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Fayed, Bahgat; Ashford, David A.; Hashem, Amal M.; Amin, Magdy A.; El Gazayerly, Omaima N.; Gregory, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria in the genus Streptomyces and its close relatives are prolific producers of secondary metabolites with antibiotic activity. Genome sequencing of these bacteria has revealed a rich source of potentially new antibiotic pathways, whose products have never been observed. Moreover, these new pathways can provide novel genes that could be used in combinatorial biosynthesis approaches to generate unnatural analogues of existing antibiotics. We explore here the use of multiple orthologous integrating plasmid systems, based on the int/attP loci from phages TG1, SV1, and ϕBT1, to express the polyketide synthase (PKS) for erythromycin in a heterologous Streptomyces host. Streptomyces strains containing the three polyketide synthase genes eryAI, eryAII, and eryAIII expressed from three different integrated plasmids produced the aglycone intermediate, 6-deoxyerythronolide B (6-dEB). A further pair of integrating plasmids, both derived from the ϕC31 int/attP locus, were constructed carrying a gene cassette for glycosylation of the aglycone intermediates, with or without the tailoring gene, eryF, required for the synthesis of erythronolide B (EB). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the metabolites indicated the production of angolosaminyl-6-dEB and angolosaminyl-EB. The advantages of using multiplexed integrating plasmids for engineering expression and for combinatorial biosynthesis were demonstrated. PMID:26431970

  18. Streptomyces lasiicapitis sp. nov., an actinomycete that produces kanchanamycin, isolated from the head of an ant (Lasius fuliginosus L.).

    PubMed

    Ye, Lan; Zhao, Shanshan; Li, Yao; Jiang, Shanwen; Zhao, Yue; Li, Jinmeng; Yan, Kai; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi

    2017-05-01

    During a screening for novel and biotechnologically useful actinobacteria in insects, a kanchanamycin-producing actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain 3H-HV17(2)T, was isolated from the head of an ant (Lasius fuliginosus L.) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 3H-HV17(2)T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with the highest sequence similarities to Streptomyces spectabilis NBRC 13424T (98.90 %, with which it phylogenetically clustered, Streptomyces alboflavus NRRL B-2373T (98.65 %) and Streptomyces flavofungini NBRC 13371T (98.36 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gyrB gene also supported the close relationship of these strains. The morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of the strain are also consistent with those members of the genus Streptomyces. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 3H-HV17(2)T and its phylogenetically closely related strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that strain 3H-HV17(2)T could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, strain 3H-HV17(2)T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces lasiicapitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3H-HV17(2)T (=CGMCC 4.7349T=DSM 103124T).

  19. Engineered biosynthesis of milbemycins in the avermectin high-producing strain Streptomyces avermitilis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoun-Su; Cho, Wan-Je; Song, Myoung Chong; Park, Seong-Whan; Kim, Kaeun; Kim, Eunji; Lee, Naryeong; Nam, Sang-Jip; Oh, Ki-Hoon; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2017-01-17

    Milbemycins, produced from Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. aureolacrimosus and Streptomyces bingchenggensis, are 16-membered macrolides that share structural similarity with avermectin produced from Streptomyces avermitilis. Milbemycins possess strong acaricidal, insecticidal, and anthelmintic activities but low toxicity. Due to the high commercial value of the milbemycins and increasing resistance to the avermectins and their derivatives, it is imperative to develop an efficient combinatorial biosynthesis system exploiting an overproduction host strain to produce the milbemycins and novel analogs in large quantities. The respective replacement of AveA1 and AveA3 (or module 7 in AveA3) of the avermectin polyketide synthase (PKS) in the avermectin high-producing strain S. avermitilis SA-01 with MilA1 and MilA3 (or module 7 in MilA3) of the milbemycin PKS resulted in the production of milbemycins A3, A4, and D in small amounts and their respective C5-O-methylated congener milbemycins B2, B3, and G as major products with total titers of approximately 292 mg/l. Subsequent inactivation of the C5-O-methyltransferase AveD led to a production of milbemycins A3/A4 (the main components of the commercial product milbemectin) in approximately 225 and 377 mg/l in the flask and 5 l fermenter culture, respectively, along with trace amounts of milbemycin D. We demonstrated that milbemycin biosynthesis can be engineered in the avermectin-producing S. avermitilis by combinatorial biosynthesis with only a slight decrease in its production level. Application of a similar strategy utilizing higher producing industrial strains will provide a more efficient combinatorial biosynthesis system based on S. avermitilis for further enhanced production of the milbemycins and their novel analogs with improved insecticidal potential.

  20. Streptomyces cameroonensis sp. nov., a Geldanamycin Producer That Promotes Theobroma cacao Growth

    PubMed Central

    Boudjeko, Thaddée; Tchinda, Romaric Armel Mouafo; Zitouni, Mina; Nana, Joëlle Aimée Vera Tchatchou; Lerat, Sylvain; Beaulieu, Carole

    2017-01-01

    The taxonomy of an actinobacterial strain, designated JJY4T, was established using a polyphasic approach. JJY4T was isolated from the rhizosphere of Chromolaena odorata in Yaoundé (Cameroon) during a project for the selection of biological control agents. Strain JJY4T exhibited antimicrobial activities against bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes. Strain JJY4T also exhibited the traits of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria such as the solubilization of inorganic phosphate, production of siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. In planta assays performed on cocoa plantlets confirmed that strain JJY4T exhibited strong abilities to promote plant growth and protect against Phytophthora megakarya, the main causal agent of cocoa pod rot. The formation of rugose-ornamented spores in spiral spore chains by strain JJY4T is a typical feature of members found in the Streptomyces violaceusniger clade and, similar to some members of the clade, strain JJY4T produces geldanamycin. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed this classification and suggests that strain JJY4T be added to the subclade constituted of the type strains Streptomyces malaysiensis DSM 41697T and Streptomyces samsunensis DSM 42010T. However, DNA–DNA relatedness and physiological characteristics allowed for the differentiation of strain JJY4T from its closest phylogenetic relatives. Based on these results, strain JJY4T (=NRRL B-65369, =NBRC 112705) appears to represent a novel species in the S. violaceusniger clade for which the proposed name is Streptomyces cameroonensis sp. nov. PMID:28260703

  1. Streptomyces cameroonensis sp. nov., a Geldanamycin Producer That Promotes Theobroma cacao Growth.

    PubMed

    Boudjeko, Thaddée; Tchinda, Romaric Armel Mouafo; Zitouni, Mina; Nana, Joëlle Aimée Vera Tchatchou; Lerat, Sylvain; Beaulieu, Carole

    2017-03-31

    The taxonomy of an actinobacterial strain, designated JJY4(T), was established using a polyphasic approach. JJY4(T) was isolated from the rhizosphere of Chromolaena odorata in Yaoundé (Cameroon) during a project for the selection of biological control agents. Strain JJY4(T) exhibited antimicrobial activities against bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes. Strain JJY4(T) also exhibited the traits of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria such as the solubilization of inorganic phosphate, production of siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. In planta assays performed on cocoa plantlets confirmed that strain JJY4(T) exhibited strong abilities to promote plant growth and protect against Phytophthora megakarya, the main causal agent of cocoa pod rot. The formation of rugose-ornamented spores in spiral spore chains by strain JJY4(T) is a typical feature of members found in the Streptomyces violaceusniger clade and, similar to some members of the clade, strain JJY4(T) produces geldanamycin. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed this classification and suggests that strain JJY4(T) be added to the subclade constituted of the type strains Streptomyces malaysiensis DSM 41697(T) and Streptomyces samsunensis DSM 42010(T). However, DNA-DNA relatedness and physiological characteristics allowed for the differentiation of strain JJY4(T) from its closest phylogenetic relatives. Based on these results, strain JJY4(T) (=NRRL B-65369, =NBRC 112705) appears to represent a novel species in the S. violaceusniger clade for which the proposed name is Streptomyces cameroonensis sp. nov.

  2. Cell-Biological Studies of Osmotic Shock Response in Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed

    Fuchino, Katsuya; Flärdh, Klas; Dyson, Paul; Ausmees, Nora

    2017-01-01

    Most bacteria are likely to face osmotic challenges, but there is yet much to learn about how such environmental changes affect the architecture of bacterial cells. Here, we report a cell-biological study in model organisms of the genus Streptomyces, which are actinobacteria that grow in a highly polarized fashion to form branching hyphae. The characteristic apical growth of Streptomyces hyphae is orchestrated by protein assemblies, called polarisomes, which contain coiled-coil proteins DivIVA and Scy, and recruit cell wall synthesis complexes and the stress-bearing cytoskeleton of FilP to the tip regions of the hyphae. We monitored cell growth and cell-architectural changes by time-lapse microscopy in osmotic upshift experiments. Hyperosmotic shock caused arrest of growth, loss of turgor, and hypercondensation of chromosomes. The recovery period was protracted, presumably due to the dehydrated state of the cytoplasm, before hyphae could restore their turgor and start to grow again. In most hyphae, this regrowth did not take place at the original hyphal tips. Instead, cell polarity was reprogrammed, and polarisomes were redistributed to new sites, leading to the emergence of multiple lateral branches from which growth occurred. Factors known to regulate the branching pattern of Streptomyces hyphae, such as the serine/threonine kinase AfsK and Scy, were not involved in reprogramming of cell polarity, indicating that different mechanisms may act under different environmental conditions to control hyphal branching. Our observations of hyphal morphology during the stress response indicate that turgor and sufficient hydration of cytoplasm are required for Streptomyces tip growth. Polar growth is an intricate manner of growth for accomplishing a complicated morphology, employed by a wide range of organisms across the kingdoms of life. The tip extension of Streptomyces hyphae is one of the most pronounced examples of polar growth among bacteria. The expansion of the cell

  3. Construction of 4"-isovalerylspiramycin-I-producing strain by in-frame partial deletion of 3-O-acyltransferase gene in Streptomyces spiramyceticus WSJ-1, the bitespiramycin producer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunyan; Zhou, Hongxia; Li, Jingyan; Dai, Jianlu; He, Weiqing; Wang, Hongyuan; Wu, Linzhuan; Wang, Yiguang

    2011-01-01

    Bitespiramycin (BT), a multi-component antibiotic consisted mainly of 4"-isovalerylspiramycin I, II and III, is produced by Streptomyces spiramyceticus WSJ-1, a recombinant spiramycin-production strain that harbored the 4"-O-acyltransferase gene (ist) from Streptomyces mycarofaciens 1748, which could isovalerylate the 4"-OH of spiramycin. To eliminate the production of components 4"-isovalerylspiramycin II and III, therefore reducing the component complexity of BT, inactivation of the sspA gene, which encodes the 3-O-acyltransferase responsible for the acylation of spiramycin I to spiramycin II and III, was performed in Streptomyces spiramyceticus WSJ-1, by in-frame partial deletion. The resulting strain, Streptomyces spiramyceticus WSJ-2, is a 4"-isovalerylspiramycin-I-producing strain as expected.

  4. Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii sp. nov., the producer of chaxalactins and chaxamycins, forms a distinct branch in Streptomyces gene trees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A polyphasic study was carried out to establish the taxonomic status of an Atacama Desert isolate, Streptomyces strain C34T, which synthesises novel antibiotics, the chaxalactins and chaxamycins. The organism was shown to have chemotaxonomic, cultural, and morphological properties consistent with it...

  5. A new angucycline and a new butenolide isolated from lichen-derived Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Keiichiro; Takagi, Motoki; Yamamura, Hideki; Hayakawa, Masayuki; Shin-ya, Kazuo

    2010-09-01

    A new 1,1-dichlorocyclopropane-containing angucycline, JBIR-88 (1), and a new butenolide, JBIR-89 (2), respectively, were isolated from the fermentation broths of two lichen-derived actinomycetes identified as a new species of Streptomyces (strains RI104-LiC106 and RI104-LiB101) using phylogenetic methods. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and MS analyses. Compound 1 showed cytotoxic activities against cancer cells and antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus luteus.

  6. Occurrence of Biosurfactant Producing Bacillus spp. in Diverse Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sanket J.; Suthar, Harish; Yadav, Amit Kumar; Hingurao, Krushi; Nerurkar, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Diversity among biosurfactant producing Bacillus spp. from diverse habitats was studied among 77 isolates. Cluster analysis based on phenotypic characteristics using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMAs) method was performed. Bacillus isolates possessing high surface tension activity and five reference strains were subjected to amplified 16S rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). A correlation between the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Bacillus spp. is explored. Most of the oil reservoir isolates showing high surface activity clustered with B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, the hot water spring isolates clustered in two ingroups, while the petroleum contaminated soil isolates were randomly distributed in all the three ingroups. Present work revealed that diversity exists in distribution of Bacillus spp. from thermal and hydrocarbon containing habitats where majority of organisms belonged to B. licheniformis and B. subtilis group. Isolate B. licheniformis TT42 produced biosurfactant which reduced the surface tension of water from 72 mNm−1 to 28 mNm−1, and 0.05 mNm−1 interfacial tension against crude oil at 80°C. This isolate clustered with B. subtilis and B. licheniformis group on the basis of ARDRA. These findings increase the possibility of exploiting the Bacillus spp. from different habitats and their possible use in oil recovery. PMID:25969778

  7. Isolation and characterization of a novel ε-poly-L-lysine producing strain: Streptomyces griseofuscus.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Tang, Lei; Chen, Xusheng; Liao, Lijuan; Li, Feng; Mao, Zhonggui

    2011-04-01

    ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) is a homo-poly-amino acid of L-lysine which is used as a safe food preservative. The productivity of ε-PL in currently reported wild type strains is low. This study was aimed at finding novel ε-PL producing strains with higher productivity and new fermentative characters. An improved detection method was employed using methylene blue as an ε-PL secretion indicator. 137 strains forming transparent circles were isolated. The best one was identified as Streptomyces griseofuscus according to the morphological characteristics and the comparison of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequences. The fermentative behavior of S. griseofuscus was investigated, and the ε-PL production was enhanced to 2.3 g/L in 5-L bioreactor by a pH control strategy. The yield of ε-PL reached 7.5 g/L in the fed-batch process. Compared with the reported wild type strains, S. griseofuscus produced relatively higher amounts of ε-PL, and might be a promising Streptomyces for ε-PL production.

  8. An extremely alkaline mannanase from Streptomyces sp. CS428 hydrolyzes galactomannan producing series of mannooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Pradeep G C; Cho, Seung Sik; Choi, Yun Hee; Choi, Yun Seok; Jee, Jun-Pil; Seong, Chi Nam; Yoo, Jin Cheol

    2016-05-01

    An alkaline-thermostable mannanase from Streptomyces sp. CS428 was produced, purified, and biochemically characterized. The extracellular mannanase (Mn428) was purified to homogeneity with 12.4 fold, specific activity of 2406.7 U/mg, and final recovery of 37.6 %. The purified β-mannanase was found to be a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of approximately 35 kDa as analyzed by SDS-PAGE and zymography. The first N-terminal amino acid sequences of mannanase enzyme were HIRNGNHQLPTG. The optimal temperature and pH for enzyme were 60 °C and 12.5, respectively. The mannanase activities were significantly affected by the presence of metal ions, modulators, and detergents. Km and Vmax values of Mn428 were 1.01 ± 3.4 mg/mL and 5029 ± 85 µmol/min mg, respectively when different concentrations (0.6-10 mg/mL) of locust bean gum galactomannan were used as substrate. The substrate specificity of enzyme showed its highest specificity towards galactomannan which was further hydrolyzed to produce mannose, mannobiose, mannotriose, and a series of mannooligosaccharides. Mannooligosaccharides can be further converted to ethanol production, thus the purified β-mannanase isolated from Streptomyces sp. CS428 was found to be attractive for biotechnological applications.

  9. Cytochrome p450 complement (CYPome) of the avermectin-producer Streptomyces avermitilis and comparison to that of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed

    Lamb, David C; Ikeda, Haruo; Nelson, David R; Ishikawa, Jun; Skaug, Tove; Jackson, Colin; Omura, Satoshi; Waterman, Michael R; Kelly, Steven L

    2003-08-01

    The genus Streptomyces produces about two-thirds of naturally occurring antibiotics and a wide array of other secondary metabolites, including antihelminthic agents, antitumor agents, antifungal agents, and herbicides. The newly completed genome sequence of the avermectin-producing bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis contains 33 cytochromes p450 (CYPs), many more than the 18 observed in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Some of the likely metabolic functions are reported together with their genomic location and bioinformatic analysis. Seven entirely new CYP families were found together with close homologues of some forms observed in S. coelicolor A3(2). The presence of unusual CYP forms associated with conservons is revealed and of these, CYP157 forms in both S. avermitilis and S. coelicolor A3(2) deviate from the previously accepted rule for an EXXR motif within the K-helix of CYPs. Amongst this range of CYPs are forms associated with avermectin, filipin, geosmin, and pentalenolactone biosynthesis as well as unknown pathways of secondary metabolism.

  10. Dispensable ribosomal resistance to spiramycin conferred by srmA in the spiramycin producer Streptomyces ambofaciens.

    PubMed

    Pernodet, J L; Gourmelen, A; Blondelet-Rouault, M H; Cundliffe, E

    1999-09-01

    Streptomyces ambofaciens produces the macrolide antibiotic spiramycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, and possesses multiple resistance mechanisms to the produced antibiotic. Several resistance determinants have been isolated from S. ambofaciens and studies with one of them, srmA, which hybridized with ermE (the erythromycin-resistance gene from Saccharopolyspora erythraea), are detailed here. The nucleotide sequence of srmA was determined and the mechanism by which its product confers resistance was characterized. The SrmA protein is a methyltransferase which introduces a single methyl group into A-2058 (Escherichia coli numbering scheme) in the large rRNA, thereby conferring an MLS (macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin type B) type I resistance phenotype. A mutant of S. ambofaciens in which srmA was inactivated was viable and still produced spiramycin, indicating that srmA is dispensable, at least in the presence of the other resistance determinants.

  11. Development of an Unnatural Amino Acid Incorporation System in the Actinobacterial Natural Product Producer Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439

    PubMed Central

    He, Jingxuan; Van Treeck, Briana; Nguyen, Han B.; Melançon, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Many Actinobacteria, most notably Streptomyces, produce structurally diverse bioactive natural products, including ribosomally synthesized peptides, by multistep enzymatic pathways. The use of site-specific genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids to investigate and manipulate the functions of natural product biosynthetic enzymes, enzyme complexes, and ribosomally-derived peptides in these organisms would have important implications for drug discovery and development efforts. Here, we have designed, constructed, and optimized unnatural amino acid systems capable of incorporating p-iodo-l-phenylalanine and p-azido-l-phenylalanine site-specifically into proteins in the model natural product producer Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439. We observed notable differences in the fidelity and efficiency of these systems between S. venezuelae and previously used hosts. Our findings serve as a foundation for using an expanded genetic code in Streptomyces to address questions related to natural product biosynthesis and mechanism of action that are relevant to drug discovery and development. PMID:26562751

  12. Development of an Unnatural Amino Acid Incorporation System in the Actinobacterial Natural Product Producer Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439.

    PubMed

    He, Jingxuan; Van Treeck, Briana; Nguyen, Han B; Melançon, Charles E

    2016-02-19

    Many Actinobacteria, most notably Streptomyces, produce structurally diverse bioactive natural products, including ribosomally synthesized peptides, by multistep enzymatic pathways. The use of site-specific genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids to investigate and manipulate the functions of natural product biosynthetic enzymes, enzyme complexes, and ribosomally derived peptides in these organisms would have important implications for drug discovery and development efforts. Here, we have designed, constructed, and optimized unnatural amino acid systems capable of incorporating p-iodo-l-phenylalanine and p-azido-l-phenylalanine site-specifically into proteins in the model natural product producer Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439. We observed notable differences in the fidelity and efficiency of these systems between S. venezuelae and previously used hosts. Our findings serve as a foundation for using an expanded genetic code in Streptomyces to address questions related to natural product biosynthesis and mechanism of action that are relevant to drug discovery and development.

  13. Characterization of a mitomycin-binding drug resistance mechanism from the producing organism, Streptomyces lavendulae.

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, P J; Johnson, D A; August, P R; Liu, H W; Sherman, D H

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to characterize the diversity of mechanisms involved in cellular self-protection against the antitumor antibiotic mitomycin C (MC), DNA fragments from the producing organism (Streptomyces lavendulae) were introduced into Streptomyces lividans and transformants were selected for resistance to the drug. Subcloning of a 4.0-kb BclI fragment revealed the presence of an MC resistance determinant, mrd. Nucleotide sequence analysis identified an open reading frame consisting of 130 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 14,364. Transcriptional analysis revealed that mrd is expressed constitutively, with increased transcription in the presence of MC. Expression of mrd in Escherichia coli resulted in the synthesis of a soluble protein with an Mr of 14,400 that conferred high-level cellular resistance to MC and a series of structurally related natural products. Purified MRD was shown to function as a drug-binding protein that provides protection against cross-linking of DNA by preventing reductive activation of MC. PMID:9045843

  14. Temperature effects on biomass, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol production and cellular activity by Nocardia spp. and Streptomyces spp. isolated from rainbow trout recirculating aquaculture systems.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Kevin K; Harries, Marcuslene D; Page, Phaedra N

    2015-05-01

    Isolates of Nocardia cummidelens, Nocard ia fluminea, Streptomyces albidoflavus, and Streptomyces luridiscabiei attributed as the cause of "earthy-musty" off-flavor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) raised in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) were evaluated for the effect of temperature (10-30 °C) on biomass, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) production and cellular activity. Cultures of these isolates were monitored over 7 days by measuring culture dry weight, geosmin, and MIB production using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), and ATP production via a luminometer. Compared to the other isolates, S. luridiscabiei had significantly (P < 0.05) higher biomass (8.17 ± 0.35 mg/mL) at 15 °C (water temperature in the RAS) after 7 days incubation. In addition, S. luridiscabiei produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher geosmin (69,976 ± 15,733 ng/L) at 15 °C. At 25 °C and 30 °C, S. albidoflavus produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher geosmin (182,074 ± 60,272 ng/L and 399,991 ± 102,262 ng/L, respectively). All isolates produced MIB at 15 °C, but S. luridiscabiei produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher MIB (97,143 ± 28,972 ng/L) and ATP after 7 days. Therefore, S. luridiscabiei appears to be a likely contributor of geosmin and MIB in the RAS.

  15. Catabolism of benzoate and monohydroxylated benzoates by Amycolatopsis and Streptomyces spp

    SciTech Connect

    Grund, E.; Knorr, C.; Eichenlaub, R. )

    1990-05-01

    Eight actinomycetes of the genera Amycolatopsis and Streptomyces were tested for the degradation of aromatic compounds by growth in a liquid medium containing benzoate, monohydroxylated benzoates, or quinate as the principal carbon source. Benzoate was converted to catechol. The key intermediate in the degradation of salicylate was either catechol or gentisate, while m-hydroxybenzoate was metabolized via gentisate or protocatechuate. p-Hydroxybenzoate and quinate were converted to protocatechuate. Catechol, gentisate, and protocatechuate were cleaved catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, and protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase, respectively. The requirement for glutathione in the gentisate pathway was dependent on the substrate and the particular strain. The conversion of p-hydroxybenzoate to protocatechuate by p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase was gratuitously induced by all substrates that were metabolized via protocatechuate as an intermediate, while protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase was gratuitously induced by benzoate and salicylate in two Amycolatopsis strains.

  16. Characterization of an Insertion Sequence Element Associated with Genetically Diverse Plant Pathogenic Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Frank G.; Bukhalid, Raghida A.; Loria, Rosemary

    1999-01-01

    Streptomycetes are common soil inhabitants, yet few described species are plant pathogens. While the pathogenicity mechanisms remain unclear, previous work identified a gene, nec1, which encodes a putative pathogenicity or virulence factor. nec1 and a neighboring transposase pseudogene, ORFtnp, are conserved among unrelated plant pathogens and absent from nonpathogens. The atypical GC content of nec1 suggests that it was acquired through horizontal transfer events. Our investigation of the genetic organization of regions adjacent to the 3′ end of nec1 in Streptomyces scabies 84.34 identified a new insertion sequence (IS) element, IS1629, with homology to other IS elements from prokaryotic animal pathogens. IS1629 is 1,462 bp with 26-bp terminal inverted repeats and encodes a putative 431-amino-acid (aa) transposase. Transposition of IS1629 generates a 10-bp target site duplication. A 77-nucleotide (nt) sequence encompassing the start codon and upstream region of the transposase was identified which could function in the posttranscritpional regulation of transposase synthesis. A functional copy of IS1629 from S. turgidiscabies 94.09 (Hi-C-13) was selected in the transposon trap pCZA126, through its insertion into the λ cI857 repressor. IS1629 is present in multiple copies in some S. scabies strains and is present in all S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies strains examined. A second copy of IS1629 was identified between ORFtnp and nec1 in S. acidiscabies strains. The diversity of IS1629 hybridization profiles was greatest within S. scabies. IS1629 was absent from the 27 nonpathogenic Streptomyces strains tested. The genetic organization and nucleotide sequence of the nec1-IS1629 region was conserved and identical among representatives of S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies. These findings support our current model for the unidirectional transfer of the ORFtnp-nec1-IS1629 locus from IS1629-containing S. scabies (type II) to S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies

  17. Streptomyces turgidiscabies possesses a functional cytokinin biosynthetic pathway and produces leafy galls.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Madhumita V; Loria, Rosemary

    2007-07-01

    Streptomyces turgidiscabies, a cause of potato scab, possesses a mobilizable pathogenicity island containing multiple virulence genes and a cytokinin biosynthetic pathway. These biosynthetic genes are homologous and collinear with the fas operon in Rhodococcus fascians. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of S. turgidiscabies demonstrated that all six genes were transcribed in oat bran broth with and without glucose, though transcription was partially repressed by glucose. The supernatant of S. turgidiscabies cultures had cytokinin activity in callus initiation and differentiation assays. Arabidopsis and tobacco plants inoculated with a thaxtomin-deficient mutant (deltanos) produced leafy galls, indistinguishable from those produced by R. fascians. Deletion of the ipt gene in the pathway eliminated gall phenotype. Other symptoms on tobacco included production of hairy roots and de novo meristems.

  18. Ionofore antibiotic polynactin produced by Streptomyces sp. 156A isolated from Lake Baikal.

    PubMed

    Shishlyannikova, Tatyana A; Kuzmin, Anton V; Fedorova, Galina A; Shishlyannikov, Sergey M; Lipko, Irina A; Sukhanova, Elena V; Belkova, Natalia L

    2017-03-01

    The potential antibacterial activity of secondary metabolites produced by Streptomyces sp. 156A isolated from Lake Baikal was investigated. The selective liquid-liquid extraction method was applied to obtain a mixture of nactins (polynactin) produced by the strain. The polynactin consisted of nonactin (3%), monactin (18%), dinactin (36%), trinactin (31%) and tetranactin (12%). The compounds were identified by MS/MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR methods. The loss of neutral 184 and 198 Da fragments from a sodiated molecular ion, [M + Na](+), of nactins was observed in the MS/MS spectrum. The polynactin was shown to possess the antibiotic activity against Gram-positive strains including opportunistic strains and strains isolated from various ecosystems of Lake Baikal.

  19. Resistance to spiramycin in Streptomyces ambofaciens, the producer organism, involves at least two different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pernodet, J L; Alegre, M T; Blondelet-Rouault, M H; Guérineau, M

    1993-05-01

    During its stationary phase, Streptomyces ambofaciens produces the macrolide antibiotic spiramycin, and has to protect itself against this antibiotic. Young mycelia, not yet producing spiramycin, are sensitive to it, but they become fully resistant when production begins. In a sensitive mycelium, resistance could be induced by exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of spiramycin, and these induced mycelia, like producing mycelia were resistant not only to spiramycin but also to several other macrolide antibiotics. Ribosomes extracted from these resistant mycelia were shown in vitro to be more resistant to spiramycin than ribosomes extracted from sensitive mycelium, indicating that S. ambofaciens possesses a spiramycin-inducible ribosomal resistance to spiramycin and to macrolide antibiotics. Studies with spiramycin non-producing mutants showed that, in these mutants, resistance to spiramycin also varies during cultivation, in that an old culture was much more resistant than a young one. But with these non-producing mutants, the spectrum of resistance was narrower, and in vitro data showed that resistance was not due to ribosomal modification. These results suggest that S. ambofaciens presents at least two distinct mechanisms for spiramycin resistance; a spiramycin-inducible ribosomal resistance, and a second resistance mechanism which might be temporally regulated and which could involve decreased permeability to, or export of, the antibiotic. The two mechanisms are probably at work simultaneously in the producing mycelium, the spiramycin-inducible resistance being induced by endogenous spiramycin. In non-producing mutants, in the absence of self-induction by spiramycin, only the second mechanism is observed.

  20. Characterization of Streptomyces padanus JAU4234, a Producer of Actinomycin X2, Fungichromin, and a New Polyene Macrolide Antibiotic

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Li, Jiang-Huai; Wei, Sai-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Strain JAU4234, identified as Streptomyces padanus, was isolated from soil collected in Jiangxi Province, China. It produced actinomycin X2, fungichromin, and a new polyene macrolide compound with antifungal activity, antifungalmycin 702. Antifungalmycin 702 had good general antifungal activity and may have potential future agricultural and/or clinical applications. PMID:22057866

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces vitaminophilus ATCC 31673, a Producer of Pyrrolomycin Antibiotics, Some of Which Contain a Nitro Group

    PubMed Central

    Klingeman, Dawn M.; Hettich, Robert L.; Parry, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces vitaminophilus produces pyrrolomycins, which are halogenated polyketide antibiotics. Some of the pyrrolomycins contain a rare nitro group located on the pyrrole ring. The 6.5-Mbp genome encodes 5,941 predicted protein-coding sequences in 39 contigs with a 71.9% G+C content. PMID:26798098

  2. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces vitaminophilus ATCC 31673, a producer of pyrrolomycin antibiotics, some of which contain a nitro group

    DOE PAGES

    Mahan, Kristina M.; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Robert L. Hettich; ...

    2016-01-21

    Streptomyces vitaminophilus produces pyrrolomycins, which are halogenated polyketide antibiotics. Some of the pyrrolomycins contain a rare nitro group located on the pyrrole ring. In addition, the 6.5-Mbp genome encodes 5,941 predicted protein-coding sequences in 39 contigs with a 71.9% G+C content.

  3. In vivo functions of the gamma-butyrolactone autoregulator receptor in Streptomyces ambofaciens producing spiramycin.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-Uk; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Ha, Heon-Su; Hwang, Yong-Il

    2008-05-01

    A gene encoding a gamma-butyrolactone autoregulator receptor was cloned in to E. coli from Streptomyces ambofaciens producing spiramycin, a macrolide antibiotic used in both veterinary medicine and human medicine. A 714-bp intact receptor gene (saaR) was obtained by PCR and genomic Southern hybridization with the 100-bp PCR product as a probe. To clarify the in vivo function of saaR, a saaR-disrupted strain was constructed by means of homologous recombination, and phenotypes were compared with those of the wild-type strain. The number of saaR-disruptant spores was 4-fold less than that of the wild-type strain. In addition, saaR deletion from the S. ambofaciens chromosome resulted in complete loss of spiramycin production suggesting that saaR is a rare positive regulator, controlling both spiramycin biosynthesis and sporulation.

  4. Complete genome sequence of Streptomyces globisporus C-1027, the producer of an enediyne antibiotic lidamycin.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingxing; Lei, Xuan; Zhang, Cong; Jiang, Zhibo; Shi, Yuanyuan; Wang, Songmei; Wang, Lifei; Hong, Bin

    2016-03-20

    Streptomyces globisporus C-1027 produces a nine-membered enediyne antitumor antibiotic lidamycin. Here we report the complete genome sequence of S. globisporus C-1027, which consists of a 7,608,611 bp linear chromosome, a 167,754 bp linear plasmid SGLP1 and a 7,234 bp circular plasmid pSGL1. The biosynthetic gene cluster for lidamycin was located in the linear plasmid SGLP1. Genome analysis also revealed a number of genes related to biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites. The genome sequence of C-1027 will enable us to disclose biosynthetic pathways of these secondary metabolites and discover new natural products with potential applications notably in human health.

  5. Iminimycin A, the new iminium metabolite produced by Streptomyces griseus OS-3601.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Takuji; Miyano, Rei; Iwatsuki, Masato; Shirahata, Tatsuya; Kimura, Toru; Asami, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Shiomi, Kazuro; Petersson, George A; Takahashi, Yōko; Ōmura, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    A new natural product, designated iminimycin A, was isolated from the cultured broth of a streptomycin-producing microbial strain, Streptomyces griseus OS-3601, via a physicochemical screening method using HP-20, silica gel and ODS column chromatographies and subsequent preparative HPLC. Iminimycin A is an indolizidine alkaloid, containing of an unusual iminium group and a cyclopropane ring with a triene side chain. The absolute configuration of iminimycin A was elucidated by NMR studies and electronic circular dichroism analysis. Iminimycin A shows anti-bacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Kocuria rhizophila and Xanthomonas campestris pv. orizae, and cytotoxic activity against HeLa S3 and Jurkat cells with IC50 values of 43 and 36 μM, respectively.

  6. Purification and biological evaluation of the metabolites produced by Streptomyces sp. TK-VL_333.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Alapati; Prabhakar, Peddikotla; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva; Venkateswarlu, Yenamandra

    2010-06-01

    An Actinobacterium strain isolated from laterite soils of the Guntur region was identified as Streptomyces sp. TK-VL_333 by 16S rRNA analysis. Cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics of the strain were recorded. The secondary metabolites produced by the strain cultured on galactose-tyrosine broth were extracted and concentrated followed by defatting of the crude extract with cyclohexane to afford polar and non-polar residues. Purification of the two residues by column chromatography led to isolation of five polar and one non-polar fraction. Bioactivity- guided fractions were rechromatographed on a silica gel column to obtain four compounds, namely 1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl) benzaldehyde, 4-(4-hydroxyphenoxy) butan-2-one and acetic acid-2-hydroxy-6-(3-oxo-butyl)-phenyl ester from three active polar fractions and 8-methyl decanoic acid from one non-polar fraction. The structure of the compounds was elucidated on the basis of FT-IR, mass and NMR spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity of the bioactive compounds produced by the strain was tested against the bacteria and fungi and expressed in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration. Antifungal activity of indole-3-carboxylic acid was further evaluated under in vitro and in vivo conditions. This is the first report of 2,3-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl) benzaldehyde, 4-(4-hydroxyphenoxy) butan-2-one, acetic acid-2-hydroxy-6-(3-oxo-butyl)-phenyl ester and 8-methyl decanoic acid from the genus Streptomyces. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel hydroxamic acid-containing antibiotic produced by a Saharan soil-living Streptomyces strain.

    PubMed

    Yekkour, A; Meklat, A; Bijani, C; Toumatia, O; Errakhi, R; Lebrihi, A; Mathieu, F; Zitouni, A; Sabaou, N

    2015-06-01

    During screening for potentially antimicrobial actinobacteria, a highly antagonistic strain, designated WAB9, was isolated from a Saharan soil of Algeria. A polyphasic approach characterized the strain taxonomically as a member of the genus Streptomyces. The strain WAB9 exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity toward various multidrug-resistant micro-organisms. A PCR-based assay of genomic potential for producing bioactive metabolites revealed the presence of PKS-II gene. After 6 days of strain fermentation, one bioactive compound was extracted from the remaining aqueous phase and then purified by HPLC. The chemical structure of the compound was determined by spectroscopic (UV-visible, and (1)H and (13)C NMR) and spectrometric analysis. The compound was identified to be 2-amino-N-(2-amino-3-phenylpropanoyl)-N-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanamide, a novel hydroxamic acid-containing molecule. The pure molecule showed appreciable minimum inhibitory concentration values against a selection of drug-resistant bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. Significance and impact of the study: This study presents the isolation of a Streptomyces strain, named WAB9, from a Saharan soil in Algeria. This strain was found to produce a new hydroxamic acid-containing molecule with interesting antimicrobial activities towards various multidrug-resistant micro-organisms. Although hydroxamic acid-containing molecules are known to exhibit low toxicities in general, only real evaluations of the toxicity levels could decide on the applications for which this new molecule is potentially most appropriate. Thus, this article provides a new framework of research.

  8. Temperature effects on biomass, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol production and cellular activity by Nocardia spp. and Streptomyces spp. isolated from rainbow trout recirculating aquaculture systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Isolates of Nocardia cummidelens, Nocardia fluminea, Streptomyces albidoflavus, and Streptomyces luridiscabiei attributing to geosmin-related off-flavor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) raised in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) were evaluated for the effect of temperature (10-30 degree...

  9. Biosorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions by aqueous solutions of novel alkalophillic Streptomyces VITSVK5 spp. biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurav, Kumar; Kannabiran, Krishnan

    2011-03-01

    Discharge of heavy metals from metal processing industries is known to have adverse effects on the environment. Biosorption of heavy metals by metabolically inactive biomass of microbial organisms is an innovative and alternative technology for removal of these pollutants from aqueous solution. The search of marine actinobacteria with potential heavy metal biosorption ability resulted in the identification of a novel alkalophilic Streptomyces VITSVK5 species. The biosorption property of Streptomyces VITSVK5 spp. was investigated by absorbing heavy metals Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb). Physiochemical characteristics and trace metal concentration analysis of the backwater showed the concentrations of different metals were lead 13±2.1 μg L-1, cadmium 3.1±0.3μg L-1, zinc 8.4±2.6μg L-1 and copper 0.3±0.1μg L-1, whereas mercury was well below the detection limit. The effect of pH and biomass dosage on removal efficiency of heavy metal ions was also investigated. The optimum pH for maximal biosorption was 4.0 for Cd (II) and 5.0 for Pb (II) with 41% and 84% biosorption respectively. The biosorbent dosage was optimized as 3 g L-1 for both the trace metals. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrum results indicated the chemical interactions of hydrogen atoms in carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-CHOH) and amine (-NH2) groups of biomass with the metal ions. This could be mainly involved in the biosorption of Cd (II) and Pb (II) onto Streptomyces VITSVK5 spp. The results of our study revealed Streptomyces metabolites could be used to develop a biosorbent for adsorbing metal ions from aqueous environments.

  10. Production and partial characterization of biosurfactant produced by Streptomyces sp. R1.

    PubMed

    Zambry, Nor Syafirah; Ayoib, Adilah; Md Noh, Nur Asshifa; Yahya, Ahmad Ramli Mohd

    2017-04-07

    The present study focused on developing a wild-type actinomycete isolate as a model for a non-pathogenic filamentous producer of biosurfactants. A total of 33 actinomycetes isolates were screened and their extracellular biosurfactants production was evaluated using olive oil as the main substrate. Out of 33 isolates, 32 showed positive results in the oil spreading technique (OST). All isolates showed good emulsification activity (E24) ranging from 84.1 to 95.8%. Based on OST and E24 values, isolate R1 was selected for further investigation in biosurfactant production in an agitated submerged fermentation. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses tentatively identified isolate R1 as a member of the Streptomyces genus. A submerged cultivation of Streptomyces sp. R1 was carried out in a 3-L stirred-tank bioreactor. The influence of impeller tip speed on volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k L a), growth, cell morphology and biosurfactant production was observed. It was found that the maximum biosurfactant production, indicated by the lowest surface tension measurement (40.5 ± 0.05 dynes/cm) was obtained at highest k L a value (50.94 h(-1)) regardless of agitation speed. The partially purified biosurfactant was obtained at a concentration of 7.19 g L(-1), characterized as a lipopeptide biosurfactant and was found to be stable over a wide range of temperature (20-121 °C), pH (2-12) and salinity [5-20% (w/v) of NaCl].

  11. X-14885A, a novel divalent cation ionophore produced by a Streptomyces culture: discovery, fermentation, biological as well as ionophore properties and taxonomy of the producing culture.

    PubMed

    Liu, C M; Chin, M; Prosser, B L; Palleroni, N J; Westley, J W; Miller, P A

    1983-09-01

    Antibiotic X-14885A is a novel divalent cation ionophore produced by a Streptomyces culture isolated from soil sample collected in Wyoming. Its cation binding sequence has been found to be: Mg2+ greater than Ca2+, Sr2+ greater than Ba2+ much greater than Li+, Na+, Rb+, K+, Cs+.

  12. Diversity of Two-Domain Laccase-Like Multicopper Oxidase Genes in Streptomyces spp.: Identification of Genes Potentially Involved in Extracellular Activities and Lignocellulose Degradation during Composting of Agricultural Waste

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lunhui; Zhang, Jiachao; Chen, Anwei; Chen, Ming; Jiang, Min; Yuan, Yujie; Wu, Haipeng; Lai, Mingyong; He, Yibin

    2014-01-01

    Traditional three-domain fungal and bacterial laccases have been extensively studied for their significance in various biotechnological applications. Growing molecular evidence points to a wide occurrence of more recently recognized two-domain laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) genes in Streptomyces spp. However, the current knowledge about their ecological role and distribution in natural or artificial ecosystems is insufficient. The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity and composition of Streptomyces two-domain LMCO genes in agricultural waste composting, which will contribute to the understanding of the ecological function of Streptomyces two-domain LMCOs with potential extracellular activity and ligninolytic capacity. A new specific PCR primer pair was designed to target the two conserved copper binding regions of Streptomyces two-domain LMCO genes. The obtained sequences mainly clustered with Streptomyces coelicolor, Streptomyces violaceusniger, and Streptomyces griseus. Gene libraries retrieved from six composting samples revealed high diversity and a rapid succession of Streptomyces two-domain LMCO genes during composting. The obtained sequence types cluster in 8 distinct clades, most of which are homologous with Streptomyces two-domain LMCO genes, but the sequences of clades III and VIII do not match with any reference sequence of known streptomycetes. Both lignocellulose degradation rates and phenol oxidase activity at pH 8.0 in the composting process were found to be positively associated with the abundance of Streptomyces two-domain LMCO genes. These observations provide important clues that Streptomyces two-domain LMCOs are potentially involved in bacterial extracellular phenol oxidase activities and lignocellulose breakdown during agricultural waste composting. PMID:24657870

  13. Isolation and characterization of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)-producing Streptomyces sp. S161 from sheep (Ovis aries) faeces.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Wang, J; Deng, Z; Wu, H; Deng, Q; Tan, H; Cao, L

    2013-09-01

    An actinomycete producing oil-like mixtures was isolated and characterized. The strain was isolated from sheep faeces and identified as Streptomyces sp. S161 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The strain showed cellulase and xylanase activities. The (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the mixtures showed that the mixtures were composed of fatty acid methyl esters (52·5), triglycerides (13·7) and monoglycerides (9·1) (mol.%). Based on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, the fatty acid methyl esters were mainly composed of C14-C16 long-chain fatty acids. The results indicated that Streptomyces sp. S161 could produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) directly from starch. To our knowledge, this is the first isolated strain that can produce biodiesel (FAME) directly from starch. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Complete genome sequence of Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC 23877, the spiramycin producer.

    PubMed

    Thibessard, Annabelle; Haas, Drago; Gerbaud, Claude; Aigle, Bertrand; Lautru, Sylvie; Pernodet, Jean-Luc; Leblond, Pierre

    2015-11-20

    Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877 is a soil bacterium industrially exploited for the production of the macrolide spiramycin which is used in human medicine as an antibacterial and anti-toxoplasmosis chemical. Its genome consists of a 8.3 Mbp linear chromosome and a 89 kb circular plasmid. The complete genome sequence reported here will enable us to investigate Streptomyces genome evolution and to discover new secondary metabolites with potential applications notably in human medicine.

  15. Streptomyces lacrimifluminis sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium that produces antibacterial compounds, isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Binglin; Tang, Shukun; Chen, Ximing; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Gaoseng; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Guangxiu; Chen, Tuo; Li, Shiweng; Dyson, Paul

    2016-12-01

    A novel actinobacterial strain, designated Z1027T, was isolated from a soil sample collected near the Tuotuo River, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (China). The strain exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The taxonomic position of strain Z1027T was determined using a polyphasic approach. The organism had chemotaxonomic and morphological properties consistent with its classification in the genus Streptomyces and formed a distinct phyletic line in the 16S rRNA gene tree, together with Streptomyces turgidiscabies ATCC 700248T (99.19 % similarity), Streptomyces graminilatus JL-6T (98.84 %) and Streptomyces reticuliscabiei CFBP 4531T (98.36 %). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain Z1027T was 74±1 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain Z1027T and Streptomyces turgidiscabies ATCC 700248T and Streptomyces reticuliscabiei CFBP 4531T were 38.5±0.4 and 26.2±1.2 %, respectively, both of them significantly lower than 70 %. Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strain Z1027T possessed MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8) as the major menaquinones, ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and galactose as a whole-cell sugar. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatydilinositol and seven other unknown polar lipids were detected; iso-C16 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0 were the major fatty acids. On the basis of these genotypic and phenotypic data, it is proposed that isolate Z1027T (=CGMCC 4.7272T=JCM 31054T) should be classified as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Streptomyces,Streptomyces lacrimifluminis sp. nov.

  16. The dynamic transcriptional and translational landscape of the model antibiotic producer Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yujin; Kim, Ji-Nu; Kim, Min Woo; Bucca, Giselda; Cho, Suhyung; Yoon, Yeo Joon; Kim, Byung-Gee; Roe, Jung-Hye; Kim, Sun Chang; Smith, Colin P.; Cho, Byung-Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Individual Streptomyces species have the genetic potential to produce a diverse array of natural products of commercial, medical and veterinary interest. However, these products are often not detectable under laboratory culture conditions. To harness their full biosynthetic potential, it is important to develop a detailed understanding of the regulatory networks that orchestrate their metabolism. Here we integrate nucleotide resolution genome-scale measurements of the transcriptome and translatome of Streptomyces coelicolor, the model antibiotic-producing actinomycete. Our systematic study determines 3,570 transcription start sites and identifies 230 small RNAs and a considerable proportion (∼21%) of leaderless mRNAs; this enables deduction of genome-wide promoter architecture. Ribosome profiling reveals that the translation efficiency of secondary metabolic genes is negatively correlated with transcription and that several key antibiotic regulatory genes are translationally induced at transition growth phase. These findings might facilitate the design of new approaches to antibiotic discovery and development. PMID:27251447

  17. Characterization of Geographically Distinct Bacterial Communities Associated with Coral Mucus Produced by Acropora spp. and Porites spp.

    PubMed Central

    McKew, B. A.; Dumbrell, A. J.; Daud, S. D.; Hepburn, L.; Thorpe, E.; Mogensen, L.

    2012-01-01

    Acropora and Porites corals are important reef builders in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean. Bacteria associated with mucus produced by Porites spp. and Acropora spp. from Caribbean (Punta Maroma, Mexico) and Indo-Pacific (Hoga and Sampela, Indonesia) reefs were determined. Analysis of pyrosequencing libraries showed that bacterial communities from Caribbean corals were significantly more diverse (H′, 3.18 to 4.25) than their Indonesian counterparts (H′, 2.54 to 3.25). Dominant taxa were Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Cyanobacteria, which varied in relative abundance between coral genera and region. Distinct coral host-specific communities were also found; for example, Clostridiales were dominant on Acropora spp. (at Hoga and the Mexican Caribbean) compared to Porites spp. and seawater. Within the Gammproteobacteria, Halomonas spp. dominated sequence libraries from Porites spp. (49%) and Acropora spp. (5.6%) from the Mexican Caribbean, compared to the corresponding Indonesian coral libraries (<2%). Interestingly, with the exception of Porites spp. from the Mexican Caribbean, there was also a ubiquity of Psychrobacter spp., which dominated Acropora and Porites libraries from Indonesia and Acropora libraries from the Caribbean. In conclusion, there was a dominance of Halomonas spp. (associated with Acropora and Porites [Mexican Caribbean]), Firmicutes (associated with Acropora [Mexican Caribbean] and with Acropora and Porites [Hoga]), and Cyanobacteria (associated with Acropora and Porites [Hoga] and Porites [Sampela]). This is also the first report describing geographically distinct Psychrobacter spp. associated with coral mucus. In addition, the predominance of Clostridiales associated with Acropora spp. provided additional evidence for coral host-specific microorganisms. PMID:22636010

  18. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed.

  19. Genome Mining of Streptomyces mobaraensis DSM40847 as a Bleomycin Producer Providing a Biotechnology Platform To Engineer Designer Bleomycin Analogues.

    PubMed

    Hindra; Yang, Dong; Teng, Qihui; Dong, Liao-Bin; Crnovčić, Ivana; Huang, Tingting; Ge, Huiming; Shen, Ben

    2017-03-17

    Streptomyces mobaraensis DSM40847 has been identified by genome mining and confirmed to be a new bleomycin (BLM) producer. Manipulation of BLM biosynthesis in S. mobaraensis has been demonstrated, as exemplified by the engineered production of 6'-deoxy-BLM A2, providing a biotechnology platform for BLM biosynthesis and engineering. Comparison of DNA cleavage efficiency and kinetics among 6'-deoxy-BLM A2 and selected analogues supports the wisdom of altering the disaccharide moiety to fine-tune BLM activity.

  20. Fermentation, Isolation, Structure, and antidiabetic activity of NFAT-133 produced by Streptomyces strain PM0324667

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Type-2 diabetes is mediated by defects in either insulin secretion or insulin action. In an effort to identify extracts that may stimulate glucose uptake, similar to insulin, a high throughput-screening assay for measuring glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells was established. During the screening studies to discover novel antidiabetic compounds from microbial resources a Streptomyces strain PM0324667 (MTCC 5543, the Strain accession number at Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India), an isolate from arid soil was identified which expressed a secondary metabolite that induced glucose uptake in L6 skeletal muscle cells. By employing bioactivity guided fractionation techniques, a tri-substituted simple aromatic compound with anti-diabetic potential was isolated. It was characterized based on MS and 2D NMR spectral data and identified as NFAT-133 which is a known immunosuppressive agent that inhibits NFAT-dependent transcription in vitro. Our investigations revealed the antidiabetic potential of NFAT-133. The compound induced glucose uptake in differentiated L6 myotubes with an EC50 of 6.3 ± 1.8 μM without activating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Further, NFAT-133 was also efficacious in vivo in diabetic animals and reduced systemic glucose levels. Thus it is a potential lead compound which can be considered for development as a therapeutic for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We have reported herewith the isolation of the producer microbe, fermentation, purification, in vitro, and in vivo antidiabetic activity of the compound. PMID:22104600

  1. Heterologous Production of Hyaluronic Acid in an ε-Poly-l-Lysine Producer, Streptomyces albulus

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Tomohiro; Shibata, Nobuyuki; Hamano, Yoshimitsu

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is used in a wide range of medical applications, where its performance and therapeutic efficacy are highly dependent on its molecular weight. In the microbial production of HA, it has been suggested that a high level of intracellular ATP enhances the productivity and molecular weight of HA. Here, we report on heterologous HA production in an ε-poly-l-lysine producer, Streptomyces albulus, which has the potential to generate ATP at high level. The hasA gene from Streptococcus zooepidemicus, which encodes HA synthase, was refactored and expressed under the control of a late-log growth phase-operating promoter. The expression of the refactored hasA gene, along with genes coding for UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase, and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, which are involved in HA precursor sugar biosynthesis, resulted in efficient production of HA in the 2.0 MDa range, which is greater than typical bacterial HA, demonstrating that a sufficient amount of ATP was provided to support the biosynthesis of the precursor sugars, which in turn promoted HA production. In addition, unlike in the case of streptococcal HA, S. albulus-derived HA was not cell associated. Based on these findings, our heterologous production system appears to have several advantages for practical HA production. We propose that the present system could be applicable to the heterologous production of a wide variety of molecules other than HA in the case their biosynthesis pathways require ATP in vivo. PMID:25795665

  2. Purification and characterisation of an acidic and antifungal chitinase produced by a Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Karthik, Narayanan; Binod, Parameswaran; Pandey, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    An extremely acidic extracellular chitinase produced by a Streptomyces sp. was purified 12.44-fold by ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography and gel-permeation chromatography and further characterised. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be about 40 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH and temperature of the purified enzyme were pH 2 and 6, and 50 °C respectively. The enzyme showed high stability in the acidic pH range of 2-6 and temperature stability of up to 50 °C. Additionally, the effect of some cations and other chemical compounds on the chitinase activity was studied. The activity of the enzyme was considerably retained under salinity conditions of up to 3%. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme were determined to be 6.74 mg mL(-1) and 61.3 U mg(-1) respectively using colloidal chitin. This enzyme exhibited antifungal activity against phytopathogens revealing a potential biocontrol application in agriculture.

  3. Mycolytic enzymes produced by Streptomyces violaceusniger and their role in antagonism towards wood-rotting fungi.

    PubMed

    Nagpure, Anand; Choudhary, Bharti; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2014-05-01

    Extracellular mycolytic enzymes produced under submerged fermentation by the fungal antagonist Streptomyces violaceusniger MTCC 3959 were characterized. This streptomycete produced higher amounts of extracellular chitinase and protease during late exponential phase, whereas β-1,3-glucanase production was at peak in mid-stationary phase. Cell-free culture filtrate (CCF) exhibited a broad range of antifungal activity against both white rot and brown rot fungi. The inhibitory activity was completely lost after treatment with proteinase K and heat, indicating that extracellular antifungal metabolites are heat labile and proteinaceous in nature. Optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were: 9.0 and 60 °C for chitinase; 6.0 and 60 °C for β-1,3-glucanase; and 9.0 and 70 °C for protease. Mycolytic enzymes were moderately thermostable, and had a wide pH stability range extending from pH 5.0 to 10.0. The zymogram analysis of CCF revealed five chitinase isoenzymes with an apparent molecular weight of 20.8, 33.3, 45.6, 67.4, and 114.8 kDa, one β-1,3-glucanase appeared as a single band of ∼131.8 kDa and four protease isoenzymes with approximate molecular weights of 22.8, 62.52, 74.64, and 120.5 kDa. S. violaceusniger MTCC 3959 produced mycolytic enzymes that can be effectively used for suppression of phytopathogenic basidiomycetes. It has the potential to be an effective biofungicide.

  4. A new antibiotic K-82 A and minor components, produced by Streptomyces lavendulae, strain No. K-82.

    PubMed

    Shibata, M; Uyeda, M; Kido, Y; Toya, N; Nakashima, R; Terazumi, R

    1980-11-01

    From the results of taxonomic studies, Streptomyces sp. strain No. K-82 isolated from a soil sample collected in Kumamoto city, was identified as a strain belonging to Streptomyces lavendulae WAKSMAN & HENRICI 1948. The strain produced an active new antibiotic called K-82 A and minor components named the B complex. Antibiotic K-82 A was isolated as dark reddish needles by silica gel column chromatography and found to have both antibacterial activity and high phage induction activity. The K-82 B complex was found to consist of at least five components, among which K-82 B2 and B3 were isolated as crystals. Substances K-82 B2 was identified as benzoic acid from its physicochemical properties. Substance B3 like B2 had only marginal antibiotic activity.

  5. Characterization and Optimization of Biosynthesis of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites Produced by Streptomyces sp. 8812.

    PubMed

    Rajnisz, Aleksandra; Guśpiel, Adam; Postek, Magdalena; Ziemska, Joanna; Laskowska, Anna; Rabczenko, Daniel; Solecka, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional requirements and environmental conditions for a submerged culture of Streptomyces sp. 8812 were determined. Batch and fed-batch Streptomyces sp. 8812 fermentations were conducted to obtain high activity of secondary metabolites. In the study several factors were examined for their influence on the biosynthesis of the active metabolites-7-hydroxy-6-oxo-2,3,4,6-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxy acid (C10H9NO4) and N-acetyl-3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (C11H13NO5): changes in medium composition, pH of production medium, various growth phases of seed culture, amino acid supplementation and addition of anion exchange resin to the submerged culture. Biological activities of secondary metabolites were examined with the use of DD-carboxypeptidase 64-575 and horseradish peroxidase. Streptomyces sp. 8812 mycelium was evaluated under fluorescent microscopy and respiratory activity of the strain was analyzed. Moreover, the enzymatic profiles of the strain with the use of Api ZYM test were analyzed and genetic analysis made. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces sp. 8812 revealed that its closest relative is Streptomyces capoamus JCM 4734 (98%), whereas sequence analysis for 16S rRNA gene using NCBI BLAST algorithm showed 100% homology between these two strains. Biosynthetic processes, mycelium growth and enzyme inhibitory activities of these two strains were also compared.

  6. The Mitochondrial Toxin Produced by Streptomyces griseus Strains Isolated from an Indoor Environment Is Valinomycin

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, M. A.; Mikkola, R.; Kroppenstedt, R. M.; Rainey, F. A.; Peltola, J.; Helin, J.; Sivonen, K.; Salkinoja-Salonen, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Actinomycete isolates from indoor air and dust in water-damaged schools and children’s day care centers were tested for toxicity by using boar spermatozoa as an indicator. Toxicity was detected in extracts of four strains which caused a loss of sperm motility, and the 50% effective concentrations (EC50) were 10 to 63 ng (dry weight) ml of extended boar semen−1. The four strains were identified as Streptomyces griseus strains by 16S ribosomal DNA and chemotaxonomic methods. The four S. griseus strains had similar effects on sperm cells, including loss of motility and swelling of mitochondria, but we observed no loss of plasma membrane integrity or depletion of cellular ATP. None of the effects was observed with sperm cells exposed to extracts of other indoor actinomycete isolates at concentrations of ≥5,000 to 72,000 ng ml−1. The toxin was purified from all four strains and was identified as a dodecadepsipeptide, and the fragmentation pattern obtained by tandem mass spectrometry was identical to that of valinomycin. Commercial valinomycin had effects in sperm cells that were identical to the effects of the four indoor isolates of S. griseus. The EC50 of purified toxin from the S. griseus strains were 1 to 3 ng ml of extended boar semen−1, and the EC50 of commercial valinomycin was 2 ng ml of extended boar semen−1. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of ionophoric toxin producers in an indoor environment and the first report of valinomycin-producing strains identified as S. griseus. PMID:9835560

  7. Plant growth promoting activity of an auxin and siderophore producing isolate of Streptomyces under saline soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Akram; Karimi, Ebrahim; Dahaji, Peyman Abaszadeh; Javid, Majid Ghorbani; Dalvand, Yadola; Askari, Hossein

    2012-04-01

    A biocontrol Streptomyces isolate (C) was tested for its plant growth promoting qualities under saline conditions. Exposure to elevated osmotic strengths up to 300 mM NaCl increased dry weight and cfu/ml significantly. The isolate C produced indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA) into the medium in the amount of 2.4 μg/ml. The amount of auxin increased after adding salt and reached to 4.7 μg/ml in 300 mM NaCl. Biosynthesis of siderophore was detectable and increased in presence of NaCl. Streptomyces isolate C showed good solubilization of tricalcium phosphate in culture medium with 92 mg/l. Solubilization decreased in presence of NaCl. Soil treatment with isolate C increased the growth and development of wheat plant in normal and saline conditions. In this treatment there were significant increases in germination rate, percentage and uniformity, shoot length and dry weight compared to the control. Applying the bacterial inocula increased the concentration of N, P, Fe and Mn in wheat shoots grown in normal and saline soil, but had non-significant effect on other micro and macronutrients concentrations. Results of this study show that Streptomyces isolate C has potential to be utilized as biofertilizer in saline soils.

  8. Determination of 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin produced by Streptomyces sp. and Anabaena PCC7120.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuqun; He, Jin; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu

    2007-08-22

    A new sample preparation and enrichment technique, headspace liquid-phase microextraction (HS-LPME) linked to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was developed for the determination of the off-flavor odorants, 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin, produced by Streptomyces sp. and Anabaena PCC7120. Some of the factors that influence the extraction efficiency of HS-LPME, such as the type of extraction solvent, ionic strength of sample solution, and sample agitation rate, were studied and optimized by a single factor test. Other factors, including extraction temperature, extraction time, microdrop volume, and headspace volume were optimized by orthogonal array design. Extraction of 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin was conducted by exposing 2.5 microL of 1-hexanol for 9 min at 50 degrees C in the headspace of a 20 mL vial with a 10 mL of sample solution saturated by NaCl and stirred at 800 rpm. The developed protocol demonstrated good repeatability (relative standard deviations (RSDs) < 5%), wide linear ranges (10-5000 ng/L, r2 > 0.999), and low limits of detection (LODs) for 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin (0.05 ng/L for both analytes). Subsequently, the method was successfully applied to extract the analytes in bacterial cultures with high recoveries (from 94% to 98%). Compared with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), HS-LPME demonstrates better linearity, precision, and recovery. Importantly, the sensitivity is about 1 order of magnitude higher than that of most HS-SPME. The results showed that HS-LPME coupled with GC-MS is a simple, convenient, rapid, sensitive, and effective method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin.

  9. The Streptomyces-produced antibiotic fosfomycin is a promiscuous substrate for Archaeal isopentenyl phosphate kinase

    PubMed Central

    Mabanglo, Mark F.; Serohijos, Adrian W. R.; Poulter, C. Dale

    2011-01-01

    Isopentenyl phosphate kinase (IPK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of isopentenyl phosphate to form the isoprenoid precursor isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) in the archaeal mevalonate pathway. This enzyme is highly homologous to fosfomycin kinase (FomA), an antibiotic resistance enzyme found in a few strains of Streptomyces and Pseudomonas whose mode of action is inactivation by phosphorylation. Superposition of Thermoplasma acidophilum (THA) IPK and FomA structures aligns their respective substrates and catalytic residues, including H50 and K14 in THA IPK, and H58 and K18 in S. wedmorensis FomA. These residues are conserved only in the IPK and FomA members of the phosphate subdivision of the amino acid kinase superfamily. We measured the fosfomycin kinase activity of THA IPK, Km = 15.1 ± 1.0 mM and kcat = (4.0 ± 0.1) × 10−2 s−1, resulting in a catalytic efficiency, kcat/Km = 2.6 M−1s−1, that is five orders of magnitude less than the native reaction. Fosfomycin is a competitive inhibitor of IPK, Ki = 3.6 ± 0.2 mM. Molecular dynamics simulation of the IPK•fosfomycin•MgATP complex identified two binding poses for fosfomycin in the IP binding site, one of which results in a complex analogous to the native IPK•IP•ATP complex that it engages H50 and the lysine triangle formed by K5, K14, and K205. The other binding pose leads to a dead-end complex that engages K204 near the IP binding site to bind fosfomycin. Our findings suggest a mechanism for acquisition of FomA-based antibiotic resistance in fosfomycin producing organisms. PMID:22148590

  10. Current importance of ochratoxin A-producing Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    Abarca, M L; Accensi, F; Bragulat, M R; Cabañes, F J

    2001-06-01

    Ochratoxin A (OA) is receiving attention worldwide because of the hazard it poses to human and animal health. OA contamination of commodities, such as cereals or pork and poultry meat, is well recognized. Nevertheless, there is an increasing number of articles reporting OA contamination in other food commodities, such as coffee, beer, wine, grape juice, and milk, in the last few years. This continuous and increasing exposure to OA that humans experience is reflected in the high incidence of OA in both human blood and milk in several countries. OA was believed to be produced only by Aspergillus ochraceus and closely related species of section Circumdati and by Penicillium verrucosum; however, in the genus Aspergillus, the production of OA has been recently reported by species outside the section Circumdati. Thus, it has been clearly established as a metabolite of different species of the section Nigri, such as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius. OA production ability by Aspergillus spp. is more widespread than previously thought; therefore, there is the possibility that unexpected species can be new sources of this mycotoxin in their natural substrates.

  11. Strain-Level Diversity of Secondary Metabolism in Streptomyces albus

    PubMed Central

    Seipke, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty. PMID:25635820

  12. Strain-level diversity of secondary metabolism in Streptomyces albus.

    PubMed

    Seipke, Ryan F

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty.

  13. Microwave Assisted Rapid and Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using a Pigment Produced by Streptomyces coelicolor klmp33

    PubMed Central

    Lingappa, K.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional synthesis of silver nanoparticles using chemical methods produces toxic substances. In contrast biological synthesis is regarded as a safe and nontoxic process but the major drawback of biological synthesis is, this process is slow. In the present investigation, we developed a rapid and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles employing a pigment produced by Streptomyces coelicolor klmp33 in just 90 s. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The biobased synthesis developed in this method is a safe, rapid, and appropriate way for bulky synthesis of silver nanoparticles. PMID:24068978

  14. A Novel Insecticidal Peptide SLP1 Produced by Streptomyces laindensis H008 against Lipaphis erysimi.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijian; Liang, Kangkang; Duan, Bensha; Yu, Mengdi; Meng, Wei; Wang, Qinggui; Yu, Qiong

    2016-08-22

    Aphids are major insect pests for crops, causing damage by direct feeding and transmission of plant diseases. This paper was completed to discover and characterize a novel insecticidal metabolite against aphids from soil actinobacteria. An insecticidal activity assay was used to screen 180 bacterial strains from soil samples against mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi. The bacterial strain H008 showed the strongest activity, and it was identified by the phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and physiological traits as a novel species of genus Streptomyces (named S. laindensis H008). With the bioassay-guided method, the insecticidal extract from S. laindensis H008 was subjected to chromatographic separations. Finally, a novel insecticidal peptide was purified from Streptomyces laindensis H008 against L. erysimi, and it was determined to be S-E-P-A-Q-I-V-I-V-D-G-V-D-Y-W by TOF-MS and amino acid analysis.

  15. Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Jung-Su; Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-10-17

    This study was conducted to develop a selective medium for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Campylobacter spp. (n=4), non-Campylobacter (showing positive results on Campylobacter selective agar) strains (n=49) isolated from fresh produce, indicator bacteria (n=13), and spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce (n=15) were plated on four Campylobacter selective media. Bolton agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) exhibited higher sensitivity for Campylobacter spp. than did Preston agar and Hunt agar, although certain non-Campylobacter strains isolated from fresh produce by using a selective agar isolation method, were still able to grow on Bolton agar and mCCDA. To inhibit the growth of non-Campylobacter strains, Bolton agar and mCCDA were supplemented with 5 antibiotics (rifampicin, polymyxin B, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyruvate, ferrous sulfate) and the growth of Campylobacter spp. (n=7) and non-Campylobacter strains (n=44) was evaluated. Although Bolton agar supplemented with rifampicin (BR agar) exhibited a higher selectivity for Campylobacter spp. than did mCCDA supplemented with antibiotics, certain non-Campylobacter strains were still able to grow on BR agar (18.8%). When BR agar with various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were tested with Campylobacter spp. (n=8) and non-Campylobacter (n=7), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was inhibitory against 3 of 7 non-Campylobacter strains. Finally, we validated the use of BR agar containing 50mg/L sulfamethoxazole (BRS agar) or 0.5mg/L ciprofloxacin (BRCS agar) and other selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and fresh produce. All chicken samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. when tested on mCCDA, BR agar, and BRS agar. In fresh produce samples, BRS agar exhibited the highest selectivity for Campylobacter spp., demonstrating its suitability for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Copyright

  16. Sannastatin, a novel toxic macrolactam polyketide glycoside produced by actinomycete Streptomyces sannanensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Gao, Jin-Ming; Zhang, An-Ling; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2011-07-01

    A new rare 20-membered macrocyclic lactam incorporating a diene conjugated olefin, designated sannastatin (1), together with the known structurally related vicenistatin (2), has been isolated from the cultures of Streptomyces sannanensis, a bacteria found in the feces of Ailuropoda melanoleuca. The structure of the new compound was established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D- and 2D-NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) experiments. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed significant growth inhibitory activity against the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae.

  17. Biosynthetic origin of butyrolactol A, an antifungal polyketide produced by a marine-derived Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Harunari, Enjuro; Komaki, Hisayuki

    2017-01-01

    Butyrolactol A is an antifungal polyketide of Streptomyces bearing an uncommon tert-butyl starter unit and a polyol system in which eight hydroxy/acyloxy carbons are contiguously connected. Except for its congener butyrolactol B, there exist no structurally related natural products to date. In this study, inspired by our previous genomic analysis, incorporation of 13C- and 2H-labeled precursors into butyrolactol A was investigated. Based on the labeling pattern and sequencing analytical data, we confirmed that the tert-butyl group is derived from valine and its C-methylation with methionine and the polyol carbons are derived from a glycolysis intermediate, possibly hydroxymalonyl-ACP. PMID:28382182

  18. Deciphering the streamlined genome of Streptomyces xiamenensis 318 as the producer of the anti-fibrotic drug candidate xiamenmycin

    PubMed Central

    XU, Min-Juan; WANG, Jia-Hua; BU, Xu-Liang; YU, He-Lin; LI, Peng; OU, Hong-Yu; HE, Ying; XU, Fang-Di; HU, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Xiao-Mei; AO, Ping; Xu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces xiamenensis 318, a moderate halophile isolated from a mangrove sediment, produces the anti-fibrotic compound xiamenmycin. The whole genome sequence of strain 318 was obtained through long-read single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing, high-throughput Illumina HiSeq and 454 pyrosequencing technologies. The assembled genome comprises a linear chromosome as a single contig of 5,961,401-bp, which is considerably smaller than other reported complete genomes of the genus Streptomyces. Based on the antiSMASH pipeline, a total of 21 gene clusters were predicted to be involved in secondary metabolism. The gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of xiamenmycin resides in a strain-specific 61,387-bp genomic island belonging to the left-arm region. A core metabolic network consisting of 104 reactions that supports xiamenmycin biosynthesis was constructed to illustrate the necessary precursors derived from the central metabolic pathway. In accordance with the finding of a putative ikarugamycin gene cluster in the genome, the targeted chemical profiling of polycyclic tetramate macrolactams (PTMs) resulted in the identification of ikarugamycin. A successful genome mining for bioactive molecules with different skeletons suggests that the naturally minimized genome of S. xiamenensis 318 could be used as a blueprint for constructing a chassis cell with versatile biosynthetic capabilities for the production of secondary metabolites. PMID:26744183

  19. Identification and activation of novel biosynthetic gene clusters by genome mining in the kirromycin producer Streptomyces collinus Tü 365.

    PubMed

    Iftime, Dumitrita; Kulik, Andreas; Härtner, Thomas; Rohrer, Sabrina; Niedermeyer, Timo Horst Johannes; Stegmann, Evi; Weber, Tilmann; Wohlleben, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Streptomycetes are prolific sources of novel biologically active secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical potential. S. collinus Tü 365 is a Streptomyces strain, isolated 1972 from Kouroussa (Guinea). It is best known as producer of the antibiotic kirromycin, an inhibitor of the protein biosynthesis interacting with elongation factor EF-Tu. Genome Mining revealed 32 gene clusters encoding the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites in the genome of Streptomyces collinus Tü 365, indicating an enormous biosynthetic potential of this strain. The structural diversity of secondary metabolisms predicted for S. collinus Tü 365 includes PKS, NRPS, PKS-NRPS hybrids, a lanthipeptide, terpenes and siderophores. While some of these gene clusters were found to contain genes related to known secondary metabolites, which also could be detected in HPLC-MS analyses, most of the uncharacterized gene clusters are not expressed under standard laboratory conditions. With this study we aimed to characterize the genome information of S. collinus Tü 365 to make use of gene clusters, which previously have not been described for this strain. We were able to connect the gene clusters of a lanthipeptide, a carotenoid, five terpenoid compounds, an ectoine, a siderophore and a spore pigment-associated gene cluster to their respective biosynthesis products.

  20. Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf-cutting ants to protect their fungus garden against the pathogenic fungus Escovopsis.

    PubMed

    Haeder, Susanne; Wirth, Rainer; Herz, Hubert; Spiteller, Dieter

    2009-03-24

    Leaf-cutting ants such as Acromyrmex octospinosus live in obligate symbiosis with fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus, which they grow with harvested leaf material. The symbiotic fungi, in turn, serve as a major food source for the ants. This mutualistic relation is disturbed by the specialized pathogenic fungus Escovopsis sp., which can overcome Leucoagaricus sp. and thus destroy the ant colony. Microbial symbionts of leaf-cutting ants have been suggested to protect the fungus garden against Escovopsis by producing antifungal compounds [Currie CR, Scott JA, Summerbell RC, Malloch D (1999) Fungus-growing ants use antibiotic-producing bacteria to control garden parasites. Nature 398:701-704.]. To date, however, the chemical nature of these compounds has remained elusive. We characterized 19 leaf-cutting ant-associated microorganisms (5 Pseudonocardia, 1 Dermacoccus, and 13 Streptomyces) from 3 Acromyrmex species, A. octospinosus, A. echinatior, and A. volcanus, using 16S-rDNA analysis. Because the strain Streptomyces sp. Ao10 proved highly active against the pathogen Escovopsis, we identified the molecular basis of its antifungal activity. Using bioassay-guided fractionation, high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), and UV spectroscopy, and comparing the results with an authentic standard, we were able identify candicidin macrolides. Candicidin macrolides are highly active against Escovopsis but do not significantly affect the growth of the symbiotic fungus. At least one of the microbial isolates from each of the 3 leaf-cutting ant species analyzed produced candicidin macrolides. This suggests that candicidins play an important role in protecting the fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants against pathogenic fungi.

  1. Importance of the producer on retail broiler meat product contamination with Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Kudirkienė, Eglė; Bunevičienė, Jurgita; Šernienė, Loreta; Ramonaitė, Sigita; Olsen, John E; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2013-07-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with poultry meat being considered the most important source of the infection. To obtain data on broiler meat contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania, the occurrence, counts and genotypes of these pathogens on raw broiler meat products from different producers were examined. Out of 312 broiler meat product samples examined, 46.8% were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni was identified in 51.4% and Campylobacter coli in 37.7% of positive samples. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequently found in the warm period (April-October) and C. coli in the cold period (November-March) of the year (P < 0.05). The overall mean count of Campylobacter spp. was 3.55 and 3.50 log10 colony-forming units (CFU) on wings and drumsticks respectively. The occurrence and counts of Campylobacter spp. varied significantly between producers examined (P < 0.05). Analysis of flaA-RFLP genotyping revealed C. jejuni genotypes common to all producers as well as producer-specific genotypes. Both the occurrence and counts of Campylobacter spp. on broiler meat products were producer-dependent, so this should be kept in mind when risk-based control measures at national level are applied. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439, Producer of the Methymycin/Pikromycin Family of Macrolide Antibiotics, Using PacBio Technology.

    PubMed

    He, Jingxuan; Sundararajan, Anitha; Devitt, Nicholas P; Schilkey, Faye D; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Melançon, Charles E

    2016-05-05

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439, a producer of the methymycin/pikromycin family of macrolide antibiotics and a model host for natural product studies, obtained exclusively using PacBio sequencing technology. The 9.03-Mbp genome harbors 8,775 genes and 11 polyketide and nonribosomal peptide natural product gene clusters.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439, Producer of the Methymycin/Pikromycin Family of Macrolide Antibiotics, Using PacBio Technology

    PubMed Central

    He, Jingxuan; Sundararajan, Anitha; Devitt, Nicholas P.; Schilkey, Faye D.; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439, a producer of the methymycin/pikromycin family of macrolide antibiotics and a model host for natural product studies, obtained exclusively using PacBio sequencing technology. The 9.03-Mbp genome harbors 8,775 genes and 11 polyketide and nonribosomal peptide natural product gene clusters. PMID:27151802

  4. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces vitaminophilus ATCC 31673, a producer of pyrrolomycin antibiotics, some of which contain a nitro group

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, Kristina M.; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Robert L. Hettich; Parry, Ronald J.; Graham, David E.

    2016-01-21

    Streptomyces vitaminophilus produces pyrrolomycins, which are halogenated polyketide antibiotics. Some of the pyrrolomycins contain a rare nitro group located on the pyrrole ring. In addition, the 6.5-Mbp genome encodes 5,941 predicted protein-coding sequences in 39 contigs with a 71.9% G+C content.

  5. High yield antibiotic producing mutants of Streptomyces erythreus induced by low energy ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chen; Zhixin, Lin; Zuyao, Zou; Feng, Zhang; Duo, Liu; Xianghuai, Liu; Jianzhong, Tang; Weimin, Zhu; Bo, Huang

    1998-05-01

    Conidia of Streptomyces erythreus, an industrial microbe, were implanted by nitrogen ions with energy of 40-60 keV and fluence from 1 × 10 11 to 5 × 10 14 ions/cm 2. The logarithm value of survival fraction had good linear relationship with the logarithm value of fluence. Some mutants with a high yield of erythromycin were induced by ion implantation. The yield increment was correlated with the implantation fluence. Compared with the mutation results induced by ultraviolet rays, mutation effects of ion implantation were obvious having higher increasing erythromycin potency and wider mutation spectrum. The spores of Bacillus subtilis were implanted by arsenic ions with energy of 100 keV. The distribution of implanted ions was measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and calculated in theory. The mechanism of mutation induced by ion implantation was discussed.

  6. Optimization and purification of L-asparaginase produced by Streptomyces tendae TK-VL_333.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Alapati; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva

    2010-01-01

    Cultural factors affecting the production of L-asparaginase by Streptomyces tendae isolated from laterite soil samples of Guntur region were investigated on glycerol-asparagine-salts (modified ISP-5) broth. Optimal yields of L-asparaginase were recorded in the culture medium with the initial pH 7.0 incubated at 30 degrees C for 72 h. The strain utilized sucrose (2%) and yeast (2%) extract as carbon and nitrogen sources for L-asparaginase production. The productivity of L-asparaginase was slightly enhanced when the strain was treated with cell-disrupting agents like EDTA. The crude enzyme was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex G-100 and CM-Sephadex G-50 gel filtration. By employing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the molecular weight of the enzyme was recorded as 97.4 kDa. This is the first report on production and purification of L-asparaginase from S. tendae.

  7. Selection of Streptomyces ambofaciens mutants that produce large quantities of spiramycin and determination of optimal conditions for spiramycin production.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, L M; Eaton, T E; Godfrey, O W

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a strategy to isolate a morphologically stable mutant of Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC 15154 which produced high titers of spiramycin. The rationale was to grow a nitrosoguanidine-mutated population for many generations under nonselective conditions followed by two cycles of protoplast formation and regeneration. A total of 2,400 surviving colonies were then screened for spiramycin production and subsequently checked for stability. From this experiment, strain 6-37 was isolated that produced 181 mg of spiramycin per liter and only one morphological type. The parent strain (ATCC 15154) produced 107 mg of spiramycin per liter and four morphological types. Strain 6-37 was then mutated with nitrosoguanidine, and 14,000 colonies were screened for spiramycin production. From this experiment, five strains were isolated that produced titers ranging from 187 to 373 mg of spiramycin per liter. Subsequent media and time studies with these strains resulted in a fermentation that produced 1,728 mg of spiramycin per liter. PMID:2268160

  8. Secondary metabolites produced by marine streptomyces as antibiofilm and quorum-sensing inhibitor of uropathogen Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Younis, Khansa Mohammed; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2016-03-01

    Quorum-sensing regulates bacterial biofilm formation and virulence factors, thereby making it an interesting target for attenuating pathogens. In this study, we investigated anti-biofilm and anti-quorum-sensing compounds from secondary metabolites of halophiles marine streptomyces against urinary catheter biofilm forming Proteus mirabilis without effect on growth viability. A total of 40 actinomycetes were isolated from samples collected from different places in Iraq including marine sediments and soil samples. Fifteen isolates identified as streptomyces and their supernatant screened as anti-quorum-sensing by inhibiting quorum-sensing regulated prodigiosin biosynthesis of Serratia marcescens strain Smj-11 as a reporter strain. Isolate Sediment Lake Iraq (sdLi) showed potential anti-quorum-sensing activity. Out of 35 clinical isolates obtained from Urinary catheter used by patient at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, 22 isolates were characterized and identified as Proteus mirabilis. Isolate Urinary Catheter B4 (UCB4) showed the highest biofilm formation with highest resistance to used antibiotic and was chosen for further studies. Ethyl acetate secondary metabolites extract was produced from sdLi isolate. First, we determined the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of sdLi crude extract against UCB4 isolate, and all further experiments used concentrations below the MIC. Tests of subinhibitory concentrations of sdLi crude extract showed good inhibition against UCB4 isolate biofilm formation on urinary catheter and cover glass using Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy respectively. The influence of sub-MIC of sdLi crude extract was also found to attenuate the quorum sensing (QS)-dependent factors such as hemolysin activity, urease activity, pH value, and motility of UCB4 isolate. Evidence is presented that these nontoxic secondary metabolites may act as antagonists of bacterial quorum sensing by competing with quorum-sensing signals

  9. Two Streptomyces species producing antibiotic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory compounds are widespread among intertidal macroalgae and deep-sea coral reef invertebrates from the central Cantabrian Sea.

    PubMed

    Braña, Alfredo F; Braña, Afredo F; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Nava, Herminio; González, Verónica; Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; Molina, Axayacatl; Acuña, José L; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    Streptomycetes are widely distributed in the marine environment, although only a few studies on their associations to algae and coral ecosystems have been reported. Using a culture-dependent approach, we have isolated antibiotic-active Streptomyces species associated to diverse intertidal marine macroalgae (Phyllum Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Chlorophyta), from the central Cantabrian Sea. Two strains, with diverse antibiotic and cytotoxic activities, were found to inhabit these coastal environments, being widespread and persistent over a 3-year observation time frame. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the strains were identified as Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus M-27 and Streptomyces carnosus M-40. Similar isolates to these two strains were also associated to corals and other invertebrates from deep-sea coral reef ecosystem (Phyllum Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, Sipuncula, and Anelida) living up to 4.700-m depth in the submarine Avilés Canyon, thus revealing their barotolerant feature. These two strains were also found to colonize terrestrial lichens and have been repeatedly isolated from precipitations from tropospheric clouds. Compounds with antibiotic and cytotoxic activities produced by these strains were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and database comparison. Antitumor compounds with antibacterial activities and members of the anthracycline family (daunomycin, cosmomycin B, galtamycin B), antifungals (maltophilins), anti-inflamatory molecules also with antituberculosis properties (lobophorins) were identified in this work. Many other compounds produced by the studied strains still remain unidentified, suggesting that Streptomyces associated to algae and coral ecosystems might represent an underexplored promising source for pharmaceutical drug discovery.

  10. A Freshwater Streptomyces, Isolated from Tyume River, Produces a Predominantly Extracellular Glycoprotein Bioflocculant

    PubMed Central

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Agunbiade, Mayowa O.; Green, Ezekiel; Mabinya, Leonard V.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated bioflocculant production by a freshwater actinobacteria whose 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank as Streptomyces sp. Gansen (accession number HQ537129). Optimum culture conditions for bioflocculant production were an initial medium pH of 6.8, incubation temperature of 30 °C, agitation speed of 160 rpm and an inoculum size of 2% (v/v) of cell density 1.5 × 108 cfu/mL. The carbon, nitrogen and cation sources for optimum bioflocculant production were glucose (89% flocculating activity), ammonium sulfate (76% flocculating activity) and MgCl2. Bioflocculant pyrolysis showed three step decomposition indicative of three components while chemical analyses showed 78% carbohydrate and 22% protein (wt/wt). The mass ratio of neutral sugar, amino sugar and uronic acids was 4.6:2.4:3. FTIR spectrometry indicated the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups, typical for heteropolysaccharide. The bioflocculant showed a lattice structure as seen by SEM imaging. Its high flocculation activity suggests its suitability for industrial applicability. PMID:22942728

  11. Isolation and characterization of dcw cluster from Streptomyces collinus producing kirromycin.

    PubMed

    Mikulík, K; Zhulanova, E; Krátký, M; Kofronová, O; Benada, O

    2000-02-16

    A 4.5-kb BamHI fragment of chromosomal DNA of Streptomyces collinus containing gene ftsZ was cloned and sequenced. Upstream of ftsZ are localized genes ftsQ, murG, and ftsW, and downstream is yfiH. Gene ftsA is not adjacent to ftsZ or other genes of the cloned fragment. Protein FtsZ was isolated and characterized with respect to its binding to GTP and GTPase activity. The binding of GTP to FtsZ was Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) dependent with an optimum at 10 mM. The rate of GTP hydrolysis by FtsZ was stimulated by KCl. The presence of Ca(2+) (3-5 mM) resulted in a significant increase of GTPase activity. Higher concentrations of Ca(2+) than 5 mM had an inhibitory effect on GTPase activity. These results indicate that divalent ions (Ca(2+) or Mg(2+)) can be involved in regulation of GTP binding and hydrolysis of FtsZ. The maximum level of FtsZ was detected in aerial mycelium when spiral loops and sporulation septa were formed. FtsZ is degraded after finishing sporulation septa.

  12. A freshwater streptomyces, isolated from Tyume River, produces a predominantly extracellular glycoprotein bioflocculant.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Agunbiade, Mayowa O; Green, Ezekiel; Mabinya, Leonard V; Okoh, Anthony I

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated bioflocculant production by a freshwater actinobacteria whose 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank as Streptomyces sp. Gansen (accession number HQ537129). Optimum culture conditions for bioflocculant production were an initial medium pH of 6.8, incubation temperature of 30 °C, agitation speed of 160 rpm and an inoculum size of 2% (v/v) of cell density 1.5 × 10(8) cfu/mL. The carbon, nitrogen and cation sources for optimum bioflocculant production were glucose (89% flocculating activity), ammonium sulfate (76% flocculating activity) and MgCl(2). Bioflocculant pyrolysis showed three step decomposition indicative of three components while chemical analyses showed 78% carbohydrate and 22% protein (wt/wt). The mass ratio of neutral sugar, amino sugar and uronic acids was 4.6:2.4:3. FTIR spectrometry indicated the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups, typical for heteropolysaccharide. The bioflocculant showed a lattice structure as seen by SEM imaging. Its high flocculation activity suggests its suitability for industrial applicability.

  13. HAF, hepatoma aggregation factor produced by Streptomyces sp. strain No. A-6143.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Nakano, N; Nagatomi, Y; Tominaga, H; Nakazono, N; Itai, M; Uyeda, M; Shibata, M

    1990-08-01

    We searched for a new cell aggregation factor for hepatoma AH109A cells, and found one we called HAF in the culture filtrate of Streptomyces sp. strain No. A-6143 isolated from a soil sample. HAF was purified by salting-out with ammonium sulfate. DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100, and hydroxylapatite column chromatography, HAF was glycoprotein which had a molecular weight of about 73,000. HAF was stable from pH 6 to 8 at 37 degrees C and up to 40 degrees C at pH 8.0 and the aggregation activity of HAF was maximum around pH 8 at 30 degrees C. The activity was not influenced by some saccharides, but it was inhibited by EDTA and EGTA: moreover HAF activity was restored by the addition of calcium ions. HAF aggregated hepatoma AH136B and COS-7 cells as well as hepatoma AH109A cells, but it was inert to other cancer cells and human erythrocytes. These properties proved that HAF is completely different from other aggregation factors for cancer cells so far reported.

  14. Identification of a novel DFA I-producing inulin fructotransferase from Streptomyces davawensis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingying; Yu, Shuhuai; Huang, Danyang; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    2016-11-01

    In this work, a novel gene encoding DFA I-forming inulin fructotransferase (IFTase) from Streptomyces davawensis SK39.001 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified, identified, and characterized. The results showed that this IFTase (DFA I-forming) is a trimer (molecular weight of 125KDa) consisting of three identical subunits (the molecular weight as assayed by SDS-PAGE was approximately 40KDa). At pH 5.5 and 40°C, the maximum specific activity (approximately 100Umg(-1)) was achieved. Moreover, the enzyme was stable up to 70°C. Km and Vmax were 2.89±0.2mM and 1.94±0.9mMmin(-1), respectively. For exploring putative active sites and probable catalytic mechanisms, homology modelling and molecular docking methods after site-directed mutagenesis were applied to IFTase (DFA I-forming). The results revealed that D183 and E194 were potential catalytic residues of the purified enzyme.

  15. Cytotoxicity and Phytotoxicity of Trichothecene Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium spp.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trichothecenes, a major class of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys species, are toxic to plants, causing blights, wilts and other economically-important plant diseases, and to mammals, for example feed-refusal caused by deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin). Macrocyclic trichothec...

  16. Characterization of the leupeptin-inactivating enzyme from Streptomyces exfoliatus SMF13 which produces leupeptin.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, I S; Kim, Y B; Lee, K J

    1998-01-01

    Leupeptin-inactivating enzyme (LIE) was purified from Streptomyces exfoliatus SMF13 by ammonium sulphate fractionation of cell-free culture broth, ultrafiltration, anion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-75. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was measured as 34700 Da and the N-terminal amino acid sequence was APTPPDIPLANVPA. Acetyl-leucine, leucine and argininal were identified as the products of leupeptin inactivated by the LIE, indicating that leupeptin is inactivated by hydrolysis of peptide bond between leucine and leucine and between leucine and argininal of leupeptin (acetyl-leucine-leucine-argininal). Synthetic-peptide substrates specificity of LIE showed that LIE has absolute specificity for peptide bonds with leucine in the P1 position, suggesting that LIE is a leucine-specific protease. The optimum pH and temperature were pH 9.0 and 45 degrees C, respectively. LIE activity was inhibited by metalloprotease inhibitors such as EDTA, EGTA, o-phenanthroline and bestatin, but activated by Mg2+ and Ca2+, suggesting that the enzyme is a metalloprotease. Aerial-mycelium growth and aerial spore formation of S. exfoliatus SMF13 were inhibited by the addition of bestatin, an inhibitor of LIE. The inhibition of morphological differentiation was due to the inhibition of trypsin-like protease (TLP) activity, which is essential for aerial-mycelium formation and is inhibited specifically by remaining leupeptin that was not inactivated. These results show that LIEs play a role in controlling the amount of leupeptin during colony development. Therefore, it is suggested that the physiological function of LIE is to inactivate leupeptin when or where TLP activity is required for aerial-mycelium formation. PMID:9531495

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Plant-Pathogenic Streptomyces Species Associated with Common Scab-Infected Potato Tubers in Newfoundland.

    PubMed

    Fyans, Joanna K; Bown, Luke; Bignell, Dawn R D

    2016-02-01

    Potato common scab (CS) is an economically important crop disease that is caused by several members of the genus Streptomyces. In this study, we characterized the plant-pathogenic Streptomyces spp. associated with CS-infected potato tubers harvested in Newfoundland, Canada. A total of 17 pathogenic Streptomyces isolates were recovered from potato scab lesions, of which eight were determined to be most similar to the known CS pathogen S. europaeiscabiei. All eight S. europaeiscabiei isolates were found to produce the thaxtomin A phytotoxin and to harbor the nec1 virulence gene, and most also carry the putative virulence gene tomA. The remaining isolates appear to be novel pathogenic species that do not produce thaxtomin A, and only two of these isolates were determined to harbor the nec1 or tomA genes. Of the non-thaxtomin-producing isolates, strain 11-1-2 was shown to exhibit a severe pathogenic phenotype against different plant hosts and to produce a novel, secreted phytotoxic substance. This is the first report documenting the plant-pathogenic Streptomyces spp. associated with CS disease in Newfoundland. Furthermore, our findings provide further evidence that phytotoxins other than thaxtomin A may also contribute to the development of CS by Streptomyces spp.

  18. Antifungal properties of an actinomycin D-producing strain, Streptomyces sp. IA1, isolated from a Saharan soil.

    PubMed

    Toumatia, Omrane; Yekkour, Amine; Goudjal, Yacine; Riba, Amar; Coppel, Yannick; Mathieu, Florence; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Zitouni, Abdelghani

    2015-02-01

    An actinomycete strain named IA1, which produced an antimicrobial compound, was isolated from a Saharan soil in In Amenas, Algeria. The study of the 16S rDNA sequence of this strain permitted to relate it to Streptomyces mutabilis NBRC 12800(T) (99.93% of similarity). Strain IA1 exhibited strong activity against a wide range of plant pathogenic fungi. One bioactive compound produced in large amounts (46.7 mg L(-1)  day(-1) ), named YA, was isolated and purified by TLC and reverse phase HPLC. The structure elucidation of the pure substance, using combined data from UV visible, NMR spectra, and mass spectrometry, permitted to identify it as actinomycin D, and was thus found for the first time in S. mutabilis related species. The biocontrol abilities of the strain IA1 and compound YA were evaluated through two diseases, i.e., chocolate spot of field bean and Fusarium wilt of flax. The occurrence of the two fungal diseases was effectively reduced. The reduction of chocolate spot disease symptoms reached 80 and 91.7% with IA1 and YA seedlings pretreatments, respectively. Soil pretreatment with IA1 or YA also allowed to reduce Fusarium wilt disease impact by almost 60%. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Bioactive potential of Streptomyces against fish and shellfish pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumar, D; Arun, K; Suguna, S; Kumar, D; Dhevendaran, K

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives In the present study, isolation of Streptomyces associated with marine sponges and its bioactive potential against fish and shellfish pathogens were assessed. The Streptomyces sp. were isolated from the marine sponges namely Callyspongia diffusa, Mycale mytilorum, Tedania anhelans and Dysidea fragilis collected from Vizhinjam port, situated in the South-West coast of India. Materials and Methods The Streptomyces associated with marine sponges were isolated using specific ISP media. The isolates of Streptomyces were characterized for their colony characteristics, morphological properties, physiological and biochemical properties and were tentatively identified. The strains were cultivated on a lab scale level as shake-flask cultures and the crude extracts of the bioactive compounds obtained with ethyl acetate were screened biologically and chemically. By biological screening, the extracts were analyzed for their activity against fish and shellfish pathogens namely Aeromonas hydrophila, Serratia sp. and Vibrio spp, using the disk and agar-well diffusion bioassay method, while by chemical screening the crude culture extracts were analyzed by TLC and UV–Vis spectrophotometer. Results Ninety-four isolates were found to be associated with marine sponges, among them only seven strains showed antagonism against fish and shellfish pathogens. Analysis of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics suggested that these strains belonged to the genus Streptomyces. The initial screening of the isolates by spot inoculation method exhibited antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila. In-vitro screening of the submerge culture extracts showed positive inhibition against the fish and shellfish pathogens namely Aeromonas hydrophila, Serratia sp. and Vibrio spp. The screening of bioactive compounds confirmed the production of polyene substances by UV spectrum, which resulted in absorbance peaks ranging from 225 to 245 nm and TLC

  20. Inhibitory Effects of Macrotetrolides from Streptomyces spp. On Zoosporogenesis and Motility of Peronosporomycete Zoospores Are Likely Linked with Enhanced ATPase Activity in Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Tofazzal; Laatsch, Hartmut; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The release of zoospores from sporangia and motility of the released zoospores are critical in the disease cycle of the Peronosporomycetes that cause devastating diseases in plants, fishes, animals and humans. Disruption of any of these asexual life stages eliminates the possibility of pathogenesis. In the course of screening novel bioactive secondary metabolites, we found that extracts of some strains of marine Streptomyces spp. rapidly impaired motility and caused subsequent lysis of zoospores of the grapevine downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara viticola at 10 μg/ml. We tested a number of secondary metabolites previously isolated from these strains and found that macrotetrolide antibiotics such as nonactin, monactin, dinactin and trinactin, and nactic acids such as (+)-nonactic acid, (+)-homonactic acid, nonactic acid methyl ester, homonactic acid methyl ester, bonactin and feigrisolide C impaired motility and caused subsequent lysis of P. viticola zoospores in a dose- and time-dependent manners with dinactin being the most active compound (MIC 0.3 μg/ml). A cation channel-forming compound, gramicidin, and a carrier of monovalent cations, nigericin also showed similar biological activities. Among all 12 compounds tested, gramicidin most potently arrested the motility of zoospores at concentrations starting from 0.1 μg/ml. All macrotetrolide antibiotics also displayed similar motility impairing activities against P. viticola, Phytophthora capsici, and Aphanomyces cochlioides zoospores indicating non-specific biological effects of these compounds toward peronosporomyctes. Furthermore, macrotetrolide antibiotics and gramicidin also markedly suppressed the release of zoospores from sporangia of P. viticola in a dose-dependent manner. As macrotetrolide antibiotics and gramicidin are known as enhancers of mitochondrial ATPase activity, inhibition of zoosporogenesis and motility of zoospores by these compounds are likely linked with hydrolysis of ATP through enhanced

  1. Heterologous production and detection of recombinant directing 2-deoxystreptamine (DOS) in the non-aminoglycoside-producing host Streptomyces venezuelae YJ003.

    PubMed

    Kurumbang, Nagendra Prasad; Oh, Tae-Jin; Liou, Kwangkyoung; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2008-05-01

    2-Deoxystreptamine is a core aglycon that is vital to backbone formation in various aminoglycosides. This core structure can be modified to develop hybrid types of aminoglycoside antibiotics. We obtained three genes responsible for 2-deoxystreptamine production, neo7, neo6, and neo5, which encode 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase, L-glutamine: 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose aminotransferase, and dehydrogenase, respectively, from the neomycin gene cluster. These genes were cloned into pIBR25, a Streptomyces expression vector, resulting in pNDOS. The recombinant pNDOS was transformed into a non-aminoglycoside-producing host, Streptomyces venezuelae YJ003, for heterologous expression. Based on comparisons of the retention time on LC-ESI/MS and ESIMS data with those of the 2-deoxystreptamine standard, a compound produced by S. venezuelae YJ003/pNDOS was found to be 2-deoxystreptamine.

  2. Rate of germination and growth of in vitro produced Pasteuria spp. parasitizing Rotylenchulus reniformis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis) from pot culture were attached with in vitro produced Pasteuria spp. spores using a centrifuge attachment technique that resulted in 40-50% of the vermiform nematodes with spores adhering to their cuticles. Attached nematodes were placed into small plast...

  3. Irrigation differentially impacts populations of indigenous antibiotic-producing Pseudomonas spp. in the rhizosphere of wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This work determined the impact of irrigation on the seasonal dynamics of populations of Pseudomonas spp. producing the antibiotics phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (Phz+) and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl+) in the rhizosphere of wheat grown in the low precipitation zone (150 to 300 mm annually) of the...

  4. A non-polyenic antifungal produced by a Streptomyces yatensis strain isolated from Mellah Lake in El Kala, North-East of Algeria.

    PubMed

    Benouagueni, S; Ranque, S; Gacemi Kirane, D

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed at describing one actinomycete strain E65 that was isolated from the water of Mellah Lake in El Kala, North-East of Algeria that produces a non-polyenic antifungal. Actinomycetes were isolated from Mellah Lake water and screened for antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial assays were performed on ISP2 agar. The taxonomic position of the strain E65 was determined regarding phenotypic and 16S DNA sequences features. Time course of antifungal metabolites production was evaluated against Candida albicans on ISP2, ISP1 and GYEA broth. The active antifungal compound was extracted using dichloromethane and revealed by a thin layer of chromatography, chemical reagents, UV-visible and infrared spectroscopy. A total of 104 actinomycetes were isolated and screened for antimicrobial activity; 21 strains were active against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The strain E65 showed a high in vitro activity against S. aureus and C. albicans and a good antifungal activity against a clinical C. albicans strain resistant to 5-fluorocytosine. Its 16S rRNA sequence shared 99% similarity with the Streptomyces yatensis type strain within the Streptomyces violaceusniger subclade of the Streptomyces hygroscopicus clade. It produced a non-polyenic antifungal, the IR spectrum of the antifungal extract corresponded to none of the antimicrobials compounds known to be produced by actinomycete of the S. hygroscopicus clade. The wetlands of El Kala, Algeria are a potential source of bioactive actinomycete that deserves to be explored and exploited. The Streptomyces yatensis E65 strain isolated from Mellah Lake brackish water produces a remarkable antifungal compound which original non-polyenic structure warrants further characterization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of cultivation conditions on the activity of the beromycin producer Streptomyces glomeratus 3980 and its spontaneous variants.

    PubMed

    Blumauerová, M; Podojil, M; Gauze, G F; Maksimova, T S; Panos, J; Vanĕk, Z

    1980-01-01

    Optimal conditions for the submerged cultivation of Streptomyces glomeratus 3980, producer of the anthracycline antibiotics beromycins, and its variants were sought in media with glucose, soybean meal and salts differing in the content of ammonium sulphate. As compared with the original activity of the strain the antibiotic titre of some variants increased about 12 times on increasing the glucose concenration from 3 to 5%, or on omitting CaCO3 from the medium (i.e. under conditions leading to an increased production of propionic acid and suppression of production of the melanin-like pigment). In melanin-less variants accumulating propionate even under standard conditions the activity increased about 18-40 times in the medium with 3% glucose and 0.2% CaCO3 under conditions of more intensive aeration (i.e. under conditions when no propionic acid accumulated). Individual strains also differed in the requirement for (NH4)2SO4 in the medium, their response to changes of volume of the vegetative inoculum and semsitivity to MgSO4 x 7H2O. The biosynthetic activity of all strains was inhibited by the addition of ZnSO4 x 7H2O or CaCl2 and substitution of glucose with starch, lactose or sucrose.

  6. Candicidin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster Is Widely Distributed among Streptomyces spp. Isolated from the Sediments and the Neuston Layer of the Trondheim Fjord, Norway▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Hanne; Fjærvik, Espen; Hakvåg, Sigrid; Bruheim, Per; Bredholt, Harald; Klinkenberg, Geir; Ellingsen, Trond E.; Zotchev, Sergey B.

    2009-01-01

    A large number of Streptomyces bacteria with antifungal activity isolated from samples collected in the Trondheim fjord (Norway) were found to produce polyene compounds. Investigation of polyene-containing extracts revealed that most of the isolates produced the same compound, which had an atomic mass and UV spectrum corresponding to those of candicidin D. The morphological diversity of these isolates prompted us to speculate about the involvement of a mobile genetic element in dissemination of the candicidin biosynthesis gene cluster (can). Eight candicidin-producing isolates were analyzed by performing a 16S rRNA gene-based taxonomic analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR, and Southern blot hybridization with can-specific probes. These analyses revealed that most of the isolates were related, although they were morphologically diverse, and that all of them contained can genes. The majority of the isolates studied contained large plasmids, and two can-specific probes hybridized to a 250-kb plasmid in one isolate. Incubation of the latter isolate at a high temperature resulted in loss of the can genes and candicidin production, while mating of the “cured” strain with a plasmid-containing donor restored candicidin production. The latter result suggested that the 250-kb plasmid contains the complete can gene cluster and could be responsible for conjugative transfer of this cluster to other streptomycetes. PMID:19286787

  7. Multidrug resistance and ESBL-producing Salmonella spp. isolated from broiler processing plants.

    PubMed

    Ziech, Rosangela Estel; Lampugnani, Camila; Perin, Ana Paula; Sereno, Mallu Jagnow; Sfaciotte, Ricardo Antônio Pilegi; Viana, Cibeli; Soares, Vanessa Mendonça; Pinto, José Paes de Almeida Nogueira; Bersot, Luciano dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of multidrug-resistant, extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Salmonella spp. isolated from conveyor belts of broiler cutting rooms in Brazilian broiler processing plants. Ninety-eight strains of Salmonella spp. were analyzed. Multidrug resistance was determined by the disk diffusion test and the susceptibility of the isolated bacteria was evaluated against 18 antimicrobials from seven different classes. The double disk diffusion test was used to evaluate ESBL production. Of the 98 strains tested, 84 were multidrug resistant. The highest rates of resistance were against nalidixic acid (95%), tetracycline (91%), and the beta-lactams: ampicillin and cefachlor (45%), followed by streptomycin and gentamicin with 19% and 15% of strain resistance, respectively. By contrast, 97% of the strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. 45% of the strains were positive for the presence of ESBL activity. In this study, high rates of multidrug resistance and ESBL production were observed in Salmonella spp.

  8. Irrigation differentially impacts populations of indigenous antibiotic-producing pseudomonas spp. in the rhizosphere of wheat.

    PubMed

    Mavrodi, Olga V; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Parejko, James A; Thomashow, Linda S; Weller, David M

    2012-05-01

    This work determined the impact of irrigation on the seasonal dynamics of populations of Pseudomonas spp. producing the antibiotics phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (Phz(+)) and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl(+)) in the rhizosphere of wheat grown in the low-precipitation zone (150 to 300 mm annually) of the Columbia Plateau of the Inland Pacific Northwest. Population sizes and plant colonization frequencies of Phz(+) and Phl(+) Pseudomonas spp. were determined in winter and spring wheat collected during the growing seasons from 2008 to 2009 from selected commercial dryland and irrigated fields in central Washington State. Only Phz(+) bacteria were detected on dryland winter wheat, with populations ranging from 4.8 to 6.3 log CFU g(-1) of root and rhizosphere colonization frequencies of 67 to 100%. The ranges of population densities of Phl(+) and Phz(+) Pseudomonas spp. recovered from wheat grown under irrigation were similar, but 58 to 100% of root systems were colonized by Phl(+) bacteria whereas only 8 to 50% of plants harbored Phz(+) bacteria. In addition, Phz(+) Pseudomonas spp. were abundant in the rhizosphere of native plant species growing in nonirrigated areas adjacent to the sampled dryland wheat fields. This is the first report that documents the impact of irrigation on indigenous populations of two closely related groups of antibiotic-producing pseudomonads that coinhabit the rhizosphere of an economically important cereal crop. These results demonstrate how crop management practices can influence indigenous populations of antibiotic-producing pseudomonads with the capacity to suppress soilborne diseases of wheat.

  9. Irrigation Differentially Impacts Populations of Indigenous Antibiotic-Producing Pseudomonas spp. in the Rhizosphere of Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Mavrodi, Olga V.; Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Parejko, James A.; Thomashow, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    This work determined the impact of irrigation on the seasonal dynamics of populations of Pseudomonas spp. producing the antibiotics phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (Phz+) and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl+) in the rhizosphere of wheat grown in the low-precipitation zone (150 to 300 mm annually) of the Columbia Plateau of the Inland Pacific Northwest. Population sizes and plant colonization frequencies of Phz+ and Phl+ Pseudomonas spp. were determined in winter and spring wheat collected during the growing seasons from 2008 to 2009 from selected commercial dryland and irrigated fields in central Washington State. Only Phz+ bacteria were detected on dryland winter wheat, with populations ranging from 4.8 to 6.3 log CFU g−1 of root and rhizosphere colonization frequencies of 67 to 100%. The ranges of population densities of Phl+ and Phz+ Pseudomonas spp. recovered from wheat grown under irrigation were similar, but 58 to 100% of root systems were colonized by Phl+ bacteria whereas only 8 to 50% of plants harbored Phz+ bacteria. In addition, Phz+ Pseudomonas spp. were abundant in the rhizosphere of native plant species growing in nonirrigated areas adjacent to the sampled dryland wheat fields. This is the first report that documents the impact of irrigation on indigenous populations of two closely related groups of antibiotic-producing pseudomonads that coinhabit the rhizosphere of an economically important cereal crop. These results demonstrate how crop management practices can influence indigenous populations of antibiotic-producing pseudomonads with the capacity to suppress soilborne diseases of wheat. PMID:22389379

  10. Branched-chain fatty acids produced by mutants of Streptomyces fradiae, putative precursors of the lactone ring of tylosin.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, M L; Paschal, J W; Leeds, J P; Kirst, H A; Wind, J A; Miller, F D; Turner, J R

    1990-01-01

    Three branched-chain fatty acids (7-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylnona-2,4-dienoic acid [compound 1], its 7-epimer [compound 2], and 7-keto-4,6-dimethylnona-2,4-dienoic acid [compound 3]) and a ketone (9-hydroxy-6,8-dimethylundeca-4,6-dien-3-one [compound 4]) were isolated from the culture broth of mutants of Streptomyces fradiae which were blocked in the biosynthesis of the macrolide antibiotic tylosin. Two phenotypic classes of mutants of this organism which were blocked in the addition of mycaminose to tylactone (compound 6) accumulated these compounds. These compounds were not produced by mutants which were blocked in lactone synthesis, in steps beyond mycaminose addition, or by the wild-type strain. Synthesis of these compounds, like synthesis of tylosin, was inhibited by the addition of cerulenin. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 were partially interconvertible by these mutants; but they were not produced from the degradation of tylactone and they were not directly incorporated into tylosin by intact cells. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were equivalent to that of a predicted intermediate (S. Yue, J. S. Duncan, Y. Yamamoto, and C. R. Hutchinson, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109:1253-1255, 1987) in the biosynthesis of tylactone. The ketone (compound 4) reported previously (N. D. Jones, M. O. Chaney, H. A. Kirst, G. M. Wild, R. H. Baltz, R. L. Hamill, and J. W. Paschal, J. Antibiot. 35:420-425, 1982) appears to be the decarboxylation product of the intermediate following that represented by compound 1. This represents the first report of the isolation of putative precursors of tylactone from tylosin-producing organisms. PMID:2221862

  11. Beta-glucosylation as a part of self-resistance mechanism in methymycin/pikromycin producing strain Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lishan; Beyer, Noelle J; Borisova, Svetlana A; Liu, Hung-wen

    2003-12-23

    In our study of the biosynthesis of D-desosamine in Streptomyces venezuelae, we have cloned and sequenced the entire desosamine biosynthetic cluster. The deduced product of one of the genes, desR, in this cluster shows high sequence homology to beta-glucosidases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages, a function not required for the biosynthesis of desosamine. Disruption of the desR gene led to the accumulation of glucosylated methymycin/neomethymycin products, all of which are biologically inactive. It is thus conceivable that methymycin/neomethymycin may be produced as inert diglycosides, and the DesR protein is responsible for transforming these antibiotics from their dormant to their active forms. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that the translated desR gene has a leader sequence characteristic of secretory proteins, allowing it to be transported through the cell membrane and hydrolyze the modified antibiotics extracellularly to activate them. Expression of desR and biochemical characterization of the purified protein confirmed the catalytic function of this enzyme as a beta-glycosidase capable of catalyzing the hydrolysis of glucosylated methymycin/neomethymycin produced by S. venezuelae. These results provide strong evidence substantiating glycosylation/deglycosylation as a likely self-resistance mechanism of S. venezuelae. However, further experiments have suggested that such a glycosylation/deglycosylation is only a secondary self-defense mechanism in S. venezuelae, whereas modification of 23S rRNA, which is the target site for methymycin and its derivatives, by PikR1 and PikR2 is a primary self-resistance mechanism. Considering that postsynthetic glycosylation is an effective means to control the biological activity of macrolide antibiotics, the availability of macrolide glycosidases, which can be used for the activation of newly formed antibiotics that have been deliberately deactivated by engineered glycosyltransferases, may

  12. Enduracidin analogues with altered halogenation patterns produced by genetically engineered strains of Streptomyces fungicidicus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xihou; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yang; Zabriskie, T Mark

    2010-04-23

    Enduracidins (1, 2) and ramoplanin (3) are structurally and functionally closely related lipodepsipeptide antibiotics. They are active against multi-drug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens, including MRSA. Each peptide contains one chlorinated non-proteinogenic amino acid residue, Cl(2)-Hpg or Cl-Hpg. To investigate the timing of halogenation and the importance of chlorination on bioactivity and bioavailability of enduracidin, and to probe the substrate specificity and portability of the ramoplanin halogenase, we constructed the mutant strain SfDelta30 in which the enduracidin halogenase gene orf30 had been deleted and complemented it with the ramoplanin counterpart orf20. We also expressed orf20 in the enduracidin wild-type producer. Metabolite analysis revealed SfDelta30 produced the novel analogues dideschloroenduracidins A (4) and B (5), while the recombinant strains SfDelta30R20 and SfR20 produced monodeschloroenduracidins A (6) and B (7) and a trichlorinated enduracidin (8), respectively. In addition, orf30 self-complementation yielded the strain SfDelta30E30, which is capable of producing six peptides including 6 and 7. MS/MS analysis positioned the single chlorine atom in 6 at Hpg(13) and localized the third chlorine atom in 8 to Hpg(11). Biological evaluation of these enduracidin analogues indicated that all retained activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Our findings lay the foundation for further utilization of enduracidin and ramoplanin halogenases in combinatorial biosynthesis.

  13. Differentiation of lactate-fermenting, gas-producing Clostridium spp. isolated from milk.

    PubMed

    Ingham, S C; Hassler, J R; Tsai, Y W; Ingham, B H

    1998-09-08

    Endospores of Clostridium spp. capable of producing gas in a lactate-containing medium were enumerated from 14 pasteurized milk samples from Wisconsin cheese plants. Concentrations of endospores of lactate-fermenting, gas-producing Clostridium spp. were between 5.0 x 10(-2) and 1.7 x 10(0) MPN ml(-1). Concentrations of presumptive C. tyrobutyricum endospores (defined by subterminal endospore position and lactate dehydrogenase activity) were lower, not exceeding 2.0 x 10(-2) MPN ml(-1). Based on subterminal endospore position, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and a carbohydrate fermentation profile identical to C. tyrobutyricum strain ATCC 25755, five isolates (Ct) were initially characterized as C. tyrobutyricum, a known cause of late-blowing in high-pH cheeses. Twenty-eight other isolates (Cx) produced gas from lactate, but differed from ATCC 25755 in either endospore position, lactate dehydrogenase activity or carbohydrate fermentation profile. When inoculated at high concentrations in Gouda cheese, strain ATCC 25755, two Ct isolates and 18 Cx isolates tested produced gas during ripening. Among the five Ct isolates obtained and two reference strains confirmed as C. tyrobutyricum, there were four qualitatively different volatile organic acid byproduct profiles. Each of the two confirmed C. tyrobutyricum reference strains and five Ct isolates had distinct quantitative cell membrane fatty acid (CMFA) profiles. The Cx isolates represented 14 different volatile organic acid byproduct profiles and each isolate had a unique CMFA profile. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of DNA from the two confirmed reference C. tyrobutyricum strains, four Ct and three Cx isolates, showed a low degree of relatedness. The results of this study suggest that a heterogeneous group of lactate-fermenting, gas-producing Clostridium spp. may be found in milk. Gas chromatographic analysis of volatile organic acid byproducts or CMFA, and PFGE of DNA are highly discriminating methods for

  14. The Potential of Streptomyces as Biocontrol Agents against the Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae (Pyricularia oryzae)

    PubMed Central

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ser, Hooi-Leng; Khan, Tahir M.; Chuah, Lay-Hong; Pusparajah, Priyia; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a staple food source for more than three billion people worldwide. However, rice is vulnerable to diseases, the most destructive among them being rice blast, which is caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia oryzae). This fungus attacks rice plants at all stages of development, causing annual losses of approximately 10–30% in various rice producing regions. Synthetic fungicides are often able to effectively control plant diseases, but some fungicides result in serious environmental and health problems. Therefore, there is growing interest in discovering and developing new, improved fungicides based on natural products as well as introducing alternative measures such as biocontrol agents to manage plant diseases. Streptomyces bacteria appear to be promising biocontrol agents against a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi, which is not surprising given their ability to produce various bioactive compounds. This review provides insight into the biocontrol potential of Streptomyces against the rice blast fungus, M. oryzae. The ability of various Streptomyces spp. to act as biocontrol agents of rice blast disease has been studied by researchers under both laboratory and greenhouse/growth chamber conditions. Laboratory studies have shown that Streptomyces exhibit inhibitory activity against M. oryzae. In greenhouse studies, infected rice seedlings treated with Streptomyces resulted in up to 88.3% disease reduction of rice blast. Studies clearly show that Streptomyces spp. have the potential to be used as highly effective biocontrol agents against rice blast disease; however, the efficacy of any biocontrol agent may be affected by several factors including environmental conditions and methods of application. In order to fully exploit their potential, further studies on the isolation, formulation and application methods of Streptomyces along with field experiments are required to establish them as effective biocontrol agents. PMID:28144236

  15. The Potential of Streptomyces as Biocontrol Agents against the Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae (Pyricularia oryzae).

    PubMed

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ser, Hooi-Leng; Khan, Tahir M; Chuah, Lay-Hong; Pusparajah, Priyia; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a staple food source for more than three billion people worldwide. However, rice is vulnerable to diseases, the most destructive among them being rice blast, which is caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia oryzae). This fungus attacks rice plants at all stages of development, causing annual losses of approximately 10-30% in various rice producing regions. Synthetic fungicides are often able to effectively control plant diseases, but some fungicides result in serious environmental and health problems. Therefore, there is growing interest in discovering and developing new, improved fungicides based on natural products as well as introducing alternative measures such as biocontrol agents to manage plant diseases. Streptomyces bacteria appear to be promising biocontrol agents against a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi, which is not surprising given their ability to produce various bioactive compounds. This review provides insight into the biocontrol potential of Streptomyces against the rice blast fungus, M. oryzae. The ability of various Streptomyces spp. to act as biocontrol agents of rice blast disease has been studied by researchers under both laboratory and greenhouse/growth chamber conditions. Laboratory studies have shown that Streptomyces exhibit inhibitory activity against M. oryzae. In greenhouse studies, infected rice seedlings treated with Streptomyces resulted in up to 88.3% disease reduction of rice blast. Studies clearly show that Streptomyces spp. have the potential to be used as highly effective biocontrol agents against rice blast disease; however, the efficacy of any biocontrol agent may be affected by several factors including environmental conditions and methods of application. In order to fully exploit their potential, further studies on the isolation, formulation and application methods of Streptomyces along with field experiments are required to establish them as effective biocontrol agents.

  16. Identification and statistical optimization of fermentation conditions for a newly isolated extracellular cholesterol oxidase-producing Streptomyces cavourensis strain NEAE-42.

    PubMed

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; El-Shweihy, Nancy M; El-Ewasy, Sara M

    2016-09-20

    Due to broad range of clinical and industrial applications of cholesterol oxidase, isolation and screening of bacterial strains producing extracellular form of cholesterol oxidase is of great importance. One hundred and thirty actinomycete isolates were screened for their cholesterol oxidase activity. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-42 is displayed the highest extracellular cholesterol oxidase activity. It was selected and identified as Streptomyces cavourensis strain NEAE-42. The optimization of different process parameters for cholesterol oxidase production by Streptomyces cavourensis strain NEAE-42 using Plackett-Burman experimental design and response surface methodology was carried out. Fifteen variables were screened using Plackett-Burman experimental design. Cholesterol, initial pH and (NH4)2SO4 were the most significant positive independent variables affecting cholesterol oxidase production. Central composite design was chosen to elucidate the optimal concentrations of the selected process variables on cholesterol oxidase production. It was found that, cholesterol oxidase production by Streptomyces cavourensis strain NEAE-42 after optimization process was 20.521U/mL which is higher than result obtained from the basal medium before screening process using Plackett-Burman (3.31 U/mL) with a fold of increase 6.19. The cholesterol oxidase level production obtained in this study (20.521U/mL) by the statistical method is higher than many of the reported values.

  17. Mannopeptimycins, New Cyclic Glycopeptide Antibiotics Produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus LL-AC98: Antibacterial and Mechanistic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M. P.; Petersen, P. J.; Weiss, W. J.; Janso, J. E.; Luckman, S. W.; Lenoy, E. B.; Bradford, P. A.; Testa, R. T.; Greenstein, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mannopeptimycins α, β, γ, δ, and ɛ are new cyclic glycopeptide antibiotics produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus LL-AC98. Mannopeptimycins γ, δ, and ɛ, which have an isovaleryl substitution at various positions on the terminal mannose of the disaccharide moiety, demonstrated moderate to good antibacterial activities. Mannopeptimycin ɛ was the most active component against methicillin-resistant staphylococci and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (MICs, 2 to 4 μg/ml for staphylococci and streptococci and 4 to 32 μg/ml for enterococci), while mannopeptimycins γ and δ were two- to fourfold less active. Mannopeptimycins α and β, which lack the isovaleryl substitution and the disaccharide moiety, respectively, had poor antibacterial activities. The in vivo efficacies of the mannopeptimycins in Staphylococcus aureus mouse protection studies paralleled their in vitro activities. The median effective doses of mannopeptimycins γ, δ, and ɛ were 3.8, 2.6, and 0.59 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. The mannopeptimycins were inactive against cell wall-deficient S. aureus and caused spheroplasting of Escherichia coli imp similar to that observed with penicillin G in an osmotically protective medium. Mannopeptimycin δ rapidly inhibited [3H]N-acetylglucosamine incorporation into peptidoglycan in Bacillus subtilis and had no effect on DNA, RNA, or protein biosynthesis. On the basis of the observations presented above, an effect on cell wall biosynthesis was suggested as the primary mode of action for mannopeptimycin δ. The mannopeptimycins were inactive against Candida albicans, did not initiate hemolysis of human erythrocytes, and did not promote potassium ion leakage from E. coli imp, suggesting a lack of membrane damage to prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. PMID:12499170

  18. Occurrence of Aflatoxins and Aflatoxin-Producing Strains of Aspergillus spp. in Soybeans 1

    PubMed Central

    Bean, George A.; Schillinger, John A.; Klarman, William L.

    1972-01-01

    Above average rainfall in Maryland during August, September, and October 1971 resulted in heavy mold growth in soybeans while still in the field. Of 28 samples of soybean seed, aflatoxins were found in 14, 2 of which had been used in poultry feed. Aflatoxins were identified by thin-layer chromatography, spectrophotometry, and chicken embryo bioassay. Aspergillus spp. were isolated from 11 samples, and 5 of these isolates produced aflatoxins when grown in liquid culture. PMID:4673021

  19. Klebsiella spp as a 1, 3-propanediol producer: the metabolic engineering approach.

    PubMed

    Celińska, E

    2012-09-01

    Klebsiella spp are one of the best natural producers of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD). However, their usage in the biotechnological production of the diol is limited, since the species belong to the second hazard group. Nevertheless, multiple advantageous traits of Klebsiella spp justify the international effort devoted to develop a biotechnological process of 1,3-PD production with these microorganisms. Apart from the process engineering approach aiming at improvement of 1,3-PD production by Klebsiella spp, plethora of metabolic engineering approaches have been reported. Different strategies have been undertaken to genetically improve Klebsiella strains and provide them with the ability to synthesize 1,3-PD more efficiently. These include over-expression of both homologous and heterologous genes of the 1,3-PD synthesis pathway, protein and cofactor engineering, deletion of the genes involved in by-products formation. This review provides an overview of the initial and most recent reports on the metabolic engineering of Klebsiella spp with the aim of improvement of 1,3-PD biosynthesis.

  20. Prevalence of CTX-M-Producing Klebsiella spp. in Broiler, Kuroiler, and Indigenous Poultry in West Bengal State, India.

    PubMed

    Mahanti, Achintya; Ghosh, Pratik; Samanta, Indranil; Joardar, Siddhartha Narayan; Bandyopadhyay, Samiran; Bhattacharyya, Debaraj; Banerjee, Jaydeep; Batabyal, Subhasis; Sar, Tapas Kumar; Dutta, Tapan Kumar

    2017-08-22

    This study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of CTX-M-producing Klebsiella spp. in healthy broiler, indigenous, and kuroiler birds reared in West Bengal (India) during November 2014-February 2015. In addition to CTX-M gene, the study was also conducted to reveal the occurrence of other β-lactamase and class I integron genes in Klebsiella spp. isolates along with their clonal relationship. A total of 321 cloacal swabs from healthy broiler, indigenous, and kuroiler birds were collected from different places of West Bengal, India. Klebsiella spp. isolation rate varies among different types of poultry birds (43.8-72.3%). In total, 33 (10.7%) Klebsiella spp. isolates were detected phenotypically as CTX-M producers and all the isolates possessed blaCTX-M in polymerase chain reaction. Whereas 17 (51.5%) and 16 (48.5%) Klebsiella spp. isolates possessed blaSHV, and blaTEM with blaCTX-M, respectively. None of the CTX-M-producing Klebsiella spp. isolates in this study possessed class I integron gene. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-based phylogenetic tree revealed the presence of clonal relationship among the CTX-M-producing Klebsiella spp. isolates, recovered from broilers and indigenous birds. This study identified broilers and indigenous game birds as a potential reservoir of CTX-M-producing Klebsiella spp., which could be transmitted to the human food chain directly or indirectly.

  1. Tremorgenic mycotoxins produced by strains of Penicillium spp. isolated from toxic Poa huecu parodi.

    PubMed

    Scuteri, M; Sala de Miguel, M A; Blanco Viera, J; Planes de Banchero, E

    1992-12-01

    Seventeen strains of Penicillium spp. have been isolated from Poa huecu Parodi from the Zapala zone, exhibiting toxicity to sheet. The following strains have been identified: P. crustosum, cyclopium, notatum, palitans, puberulum, verrucosum, viridicatum and Penicillium spp. The toxigenic capacity of the strains was studied after growing them under suitable conditions. Toxins produced were analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Penitrem A (PA) and Penitrem B (PB) neurotoxins were identified and quantitated in twelve strains; verruculogen (VERR) and fumitremorgen B (FTB) being present in one of them. The effect of these mycotoxins was studied in mice. Neurological symptoms characteristic of the intoxication by tremorgenic toxins and similar to those observed in sheep suffering from 'huecu's disease' were observed. The possible role of these toxins as causative agents of 'huecu's disease' is discussed.

  2. Catabolic Fate of Streptomyces viridosporus T7A-Produced, Acid-Precipitable Polymeric Lignin upon Incubation with Ligninolytic Streptomyces Species and Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Pometto, A L; Crawford, D L

    1986-01-01

    Degradation of ground and hot-water-extracted corn stover (Zea mays) lignocellulose by Streptomyces viridosporus T7A generates a water-soluble lignin degradation intermediate termed acid-precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL). The further catabolism of T7A-APPL by S. viridosporus T7A, S. badius 252, and S. setonii 75Vi2 was followed for 3 weeks in aerated shake flask cultures at 37 degrees C in a yeast extract-glucose medium containing 0.05% (wt/vol) T7A-APPL. APPL catabolism by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was followed in stationary cultures in a low-nitrogen medium containing 1% (wt/vol) glucose and 0.05% (wt/vol) T7A-APPL. Metabolism of the APPL was followed by turbidometric assay (600 nm) and by direct measurement of APPL recoverable from the medium. Accumulation and disappearance of soluble low-molecular-weight products of APPL catabolism were followed by gas-liquid chromatography and by high-pressure liquid chromatography, utilizing a diode array detector. Identified and quantified compounds present in culture media included p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, and vanillin. The further catabolism of these APPL-derived aromatic compounds varied with the culture examined, and only S. setonii and P. chrysosporium completely degraded all of them. Some new intermediates of APPL metabolism also appeared in culture media, but the patterns were culture specific. Additional evidence from high-pressure liquid chromatography analyses indicated that one strain, S. badius, converted a water-soluble fraction evident by high-pressure liquid chromatography (7 to 10 min retention time range) into new products appearing at shorter retention times. Mineralization of a [C-lignin]APPL was also followed. The percent C recovered as CO(2), C-APPL, C-labeled water-soluble products, and cell mass-associated radioactivity, were determined for each microorganism after 1 and 3 weeks of incubation in bubbler tube

  3. Novel alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, CKD-711 and CKD-711a produced by Streptomyces sp. CK-4416. I. Taxonomy, fermentation and isolation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Gwan; Chang, Hung-Bae; Kwon, Young-In; Moon, Seung-Kee; Chun, Hyoung-Sik; Ahn, Soon Kil; Hong, Chung Il

    2002-05-01

    New alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, CKD-711 and CKD-711a were produced from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces sp. CK-4416 which was isolated from a forest soil of Jeju Island, South Korea. CKD-711 and CKD-711a were purified by Dowex 50W-2X and Sephadex G-10 column chromatography. In in vitro studies, CKD-711 showed a potent inhibitory activity against a-glucosidase from mammalian, but less inhibition against a-amylase from microorganism and mammalian. CKD-711a showed a lower inhibitory activity than CKD-711.

  4. Multidrug resistance and ESBL-producing Salmonella spp. isolated from broiler processing plants

    PubMed Central

    Ziech, Rosangela Estel; Lampugnani, Camila; Perin, Ana Paula; Sereno, Mallu Jagnow; Sfaciotte, Ricardo Antônio Pilegi; Viana, Cibeli; Soares, Vanessa Mendonça; de Almeida Nogueira Pinto, José Paes; dos Santos Bersot, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of multidrug-resistant, extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Salmonella spp. isolated from conveyor belts of broiler cutting rooms in Brazilian broiler processing plants. Ninety-eight strains of Salmonella spp. were analyzed. Multidrug resistance was determined by the disk diffusion test and the susceptibility of the isolated bacteria was evaluated against 18 antimicrobials from seven different classes. The double disk diffusion test was used to evaluate ESBL production. Of the 98 strains tested, 84 were multidrug resistant. The highest rates of resistance were against nalidixic acid (95%), tetracycline (91%), and the beta-lactams: ampicillin and cefachlor (45%), followed by streptomycin and gentamicin with 19% and 15% of strain resistance, respectively. By contrast, 97% of the strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. 45% of the strains were positive for the presence of ESBL activity. In this study, high rates of multidrug resistance and ESBL production were observed in Salmonella spp. PMID:26887244

  5. Streptomyces lividans Blasticidin S Deaminase and Its Application in Engineering a Blasticidin S-Producing Strain for Ease of Genetic Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Wu, Jun; Deng, Zixin; Zabriskie, T. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Blasticidin S is a peptidyl nucleoside antibiotic produced by Streptomyces griseochromogenes that exhibits strong fungicidal activity. To circumvent an effective DNA uptake barrier system in the native producer and investigate its biosynthesis in vivo, the blasticidin S biosynthetic gene cluster (bls) was engrafted to the chromosome of Streptomyces lividans. However, the resulting mutant, LL2, produced the inactive deaminohydroxyblasticidin S instead of blasticidin S. Subsequently, a blasticidin S deaminase (SLBSD, for S. lividans blasticidin S deaminase) was identified in S. lividans and shown to govern this in vivo conversion. Purified SLBSD was found to be capable of transforming blasticidin S to deaminohydroxyblasticidin S in vitro. It also catalyzed deamination of the cytosine moiety of cytosylglucuronic acid, an intermediate in blasticidin S biosynthesis. Disruption of the SLBSD gene in S. lividans LL2 led to successful production of active blasticidin S in the resultant mutant, S. lividans WJ2. To demonstrate the easy manipulation of the blasticidin S biosynthetic gene cluster, blsE, blsF, and blsL, encoding a predicted radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) protein, an unknown protein, and a guanidino methyltransferase, were individually inactivated to access their role in blasticidin S biosynthesis. PMID:23377931

  6. Occurrence of multi-antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas spp. in drinking water produced from karstic hydrosystems.

    PubMed

    Flores Ribeiro, Angela; Bodilis, Josselin; Alonso, Lise; Buquet, Sylvaine; Feuilloley, Marc; Dupont, Jean-Paul; Pawlak, Barbara

    2014-08-15

    Aquatic environments could play a role in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes by enabling antibiotic-resistant bacteria transferred through wastewater inputs to connect with autochthonous bacteria. Consequently, drinking water could be a potential pathway to humans and animals for antibiotic resistance genes. The aim of this study was to investigate occurrences of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spp. in drinking water produced from a karst, a vulnerable aquifer with frequent increases in water turbidity after rainfall events and run-offs. Water samples were collected throughout the system from the karstic springs to the drinking water tap during three non-turbid periods and two turbid events. E. coli densities in the springs were 10- to 1000-fold higher during the turbid events than during the non-turbid periods, indicating that, with increased turbidity, surface water had entered the karstic system and contaminated the spring water. However, no E. coli were isolated in the drinking water. In contrast, Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from the drinking water only during turbid events, while the densities in the springs were from 10- to 100-fold higher than in the non-turbid periods. All the 580 Pseudomonas spp. isolates obtained from the sampling periods were resistant (to between 1 and 10 antibiotics), with similar resistance patterns. Among all the Pseudomonas isolated throughout the drinking water production system, between 32% and 86% carried the major resistance pattern: ticarcillin, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, cefsulodin, and/or aztreonam, and/or sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim, and/or fosfomycin. Finally, 8 Pseudomonas spp. isolates, related to the Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens species, were isolated from the drinking water. Thus, Pseudomonas could be involved in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance via drinking water during critical periods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Endophytic Bacillus spp. produce antifungal lipopeptides and induce host defence gene expression in maize.

    PubMed

    Gond, Surendra K; Bergen, Marshall S; Torres, Mónica S; White, James F

    2015-03-01

    Endophytes are mutualistic symbionts within healthy plant tissues. In this study we isolated Bacillus spp. from seeds of several varieties of maize. Bacillus amyloliquifaciens or Bacillus subtilis were found to be present in all maize varieties examined in this study. To determine whether bacteria may produce antifungal compounds, generally lipopeptides in Bacillus spp., bacterial cultures were screened for production of lipopeptides. Lipopeptides were extracted by acid precipitation from liquid cultures of Bacillus spp. Lipopeptide extracts from Bacillus spp. isolated from Indian popcorn and yellow dent corn showed inhibitory activity against Fusarium moniliforme at 500μg per disk. Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry we detected the presence of antifungal iturin A, fengycin and bacillomycin in these isolates. PCR amplification also showed the presence of genes for iturin A and fengycin. B. subtilis (SG_JW.03) isolated from Indian popcorn showed strong inhibition of Arabidopsis seed mycoflora and enhanced seedling growth. We tested for the induction of defence gene expression in the host plant after treatment of plants with B. subtilis (SG_JW.03) and its lipopeptide extract using RT-qPCR. Roots of Indian popcorn seedlings treated with a suspension of B. subtilis (SG_JW.03) showed the induction of pathogenesis-related genes, including PR-1 and PR-4, which relate to plant defence against fungal pathogens. The lipopeptide extract alone did not increase the expression of these pathogenesis-related genes. Based on our study of maize endophytes, we hypothesize that, bacterial endophytes that naturally occur in many maize varieties may function to protect hosts by secreting antifungal lipopeptides that inhibit pathogens as well as inducing the up-regulation of pathogenesis-related genes of host plants (systemic acquired resistance).

  8. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the Streptomyces coelicolor klmp33 pigment: an antimicrobial agent against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Manikprabhu, Deene; Lingappa, K

    2014-12-01

    The increasing emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) occurred mainly due to continuous persistent exposure to antibiotics causing high morbidity and mortality so studies in controlling this infection are required. In the present investigation, we developed a synthesis for silver nanoparticles employing a pigment produced by Streptomyces coelicolor klmp33, and assessed the antimicrobial activity of these nanoparticles against ESBL producing E. coli. The ESBL producing E. coli were isolated from urine samples collected from the Gulbarga region in India. As can been seen from our studies, the silver nanoparticles having irregular shapes and size of 28-50 nm showed remarkable antimicrobial activity and moreover the synthesis time is just 20 min and thus the same can be used for formulating pharmaceutical remedies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cell immobilization of Streptomyces coelicolor : effect on differentiation and actinorhodin production.

    PubMed

    López-García, María Teresa; Rioseras, Beatriz; Yagüe, Paula; Álvarez, José Ramón; Manteca, Ángel

    2014-06-01

    Streptomycetes are mycelium-forming bacteria that produce two thirds of the clinically relevant secondary metabolites. Despite the fact that secondary metabolite production is activated at specific developmental stages of the Streptomyces spp. life cycle, different streptomycetes show different behaviors, and fermentation conditions need to be optimized for each specific strain and secondary metabolite. Cell-encapsulation constitutes an interesting alternative to classical fermentations, which was demonstrated to be useful in Streptomyces, but development under these conditions remained unexplored. In this work, the influence of cell-encapsulation in hyphae differentiation and actinorhodin production was explored in the model Streptomyces coelicolor strain. Encapsulation led to a delay in growth and to a reduction of mycelium density and cell death. The high proportion of viable hyphae duplicated extracellular actinorhodin production in the encapsulated cultures with respect to the non-encapsulated ones.

  10. Bioproduction, characterization, anticancer and antioxidant activities of extracellular melanin pigment produced by newly isolated microbial cell factories Streptomyces glaucescens NEAE-H

    PubMed Central

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; El-Ewasy, Sara M.

    2017-01-01

    In this present study, a newly isolated strain, Streptomyces sp. NEAE-H, capable of producing high amount of black extracellular melanin pigment on peptone-yeast extract iron agar and identified as Streptomyces glaucescens NEAE-H. Plackett–Burman statistical design was conducted for initial screening of 17 independent (assigned) variables for their significances on melanin pigment production by Streptomyces glaucescens NEAE-H. The most significant factors affecting melanin production are incubation period, protease-peptone and ferric ammonium citrate. The levels of these significant variables and their interaction effects were optimized by using face-centered central composite design. The maximum melanin production (31.650 μg/0.1 ml) and tyrosinase activity (6089.10 U/ml) were achieved in the central point runs under the conditions of incubation period (6 days), protease-peptone (5 g/L) and ferric ammonium citrate (0.5 g/L). Melanin pigment was recovered by acid-treatment. Higher absorption of the purified melanin pigment was observed in the UV region at 250 nm. It appeared to have defined small spheres by scanning electron microscopy imaging. The maximum melanin yield was 350 mg dry wt/L of production medium. In vitro anticancer activity of melanin pigment was assayed against skin cancer cell line using MTT assay. The IC50 value was 16.34 ± 1.31 μg/ml for melanin and 8.8 ± 0.5 μg/ml for standard 5-fluorouracil. PMID:28195138

  11. Anti-dormant mycobacterial activity and target analysis of nybomycin produced by a marine-derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Arai, Masayoshi; Kamiya, Kentaro; Pruksakorn, Patamaporn; Sumii, Yuji; Kotoku, Naoyuki; Joubert, Jean-Pierre; Moodley, Prashini; Han, Chisu; Shin, Dayoung; Kobayashi, Motomasa

    2015-07-01

    In the course of our search for anti-dormant Mycobacterial substances, nybomycin (1) was re-discovered from the culture broth of a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. on the bioassay-guided separation. Compound 1 showed anti-microbial activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG with the MIC of 1.0μg/mL under both actively growing aerobic conditions and dormancy inducing hypoxic conditions. Compound 1 is also effective to Mycobacterium tuberculosis including the clinically isolated strains. The mechanistic analysis indicated that 1 bound to DNA and induces a unique morphological change to mycobacterial bacilli leading the bacterial cell death.

  12. New Deferoxamine Glycoconjugates Produced upon Overexpression of Pathway-Specific Regulatory Gene in the Marine Sponge-Derived Streptomyces albus PVA94-07.

    PubMed

    Sekurova, Olga N; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Martín, Jesús; Degnes, Kristin F; Sletta, Håvard; Reyes, Fernando; Zotchev, Sergey B

    2016-08-27

    Activation of silent biosynthetic gene clusters in Streptomyces bacteria via overexpression of cluster-specific regulatory genes is a promising strategy for the discovery of novel bioactive secondary metabolites. This approach was used in an attempt to activate a cryptic gene cluster in a marine sponge-derived Streptomyces albus PVA94-07 presumably governing the biosynthesis of peptide-based secondary metabolites. While no new peptide-based metabolites were detected in the recombinant strain, it was shown to produce at least four new analogues of deferoxamine with additional acyl and sugar moieties, for which chemical structures were fully elucidated. Biological activity tests of two of the new deferoxamine analogues revealed weak activity against Escherichia coli. The gene knockout experiment in the gene cluster targeted for activation, as well as overexpression of certain genes from this cluster did not have an effect on the production of these compounds by the strain overexpressing the regulator. It seems plausible that the production of such compounds is a response to stress imposed by the production of an as-yet unidentified metabolite specified by the cryptic cluster.

  13. Enhanced production of phenazine-like metabolite produced by Streptomyces aurantiogriseus VSMGT1014 against rice pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Hariharan; Shanmugaiah, Vellasamy; Nithya, Karmegham; Balasubramanian, Natesan; Sharma, Mahaveer P; Gachomo, Emma W; Kotchoni, Simeon O

    2016-02-01

    The efficacy of a rhizobacterium Streptomyces aurantiogriseus VSMGT1014 for the production of bioactive metabolites with antifungal properties was evaluated under in vitro conditions. The production of bioactive metabolites by S. aurantiogriseus VSMGT1014 in International Streptomyces Project-2 (ISP-2) broth, supplemented with glucose and ammonium acetate was found to be the most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources for the maximum production of bioactive metabolites against rice pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani. The zone of inhibition range from 23.5 to 28.5 mm and 10.3 to 18.3 mm for glucose and ammonium acetate supplemented media, respectively. The culture filtrate of S. aurantiogriseus VSMGT1014 at pH 7.5, 37 °C at 120 rpm in 6 days of incubation showed the maximum production of bioactive metabolites with antagonistic potential. The crude metabolite was characterized by different spectral studies such as Ultraviolet spectrum, infrared-spectrum and based on the different analytical techniques, including thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with the retention time 29.4 and the bioactive metabolite was identified as phenazine, which was confirmed by pure phenazine compound as positive control.

  14. Light and electron microscopic examinations of methane-producing biofilms from anaerobic fixed-bed reactors. [Methanothrix spp. ; Methanosarcina spp

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.W.; Akin, D.E.; Nordstedt, R.A.; Thomas, M.V.; Aldrich, H.C.

    1984-07-01

    Ultrastructural examinations were performed on biofilms from eight anaerobic fixed-bed reactors filled with various packing materials and operated on fresh swine waste. By using light, UV, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy, the distribution of a diverse microbial population composed of bacteria and a few yeasts was determined. This is the first time that the ultrastructure of in situ anaerobic digestor biofilms has been reported. A large number of methanogenic bacteria were identified by their fluorescence under 420 nm of radiation. Of these, two morphologically distinct types were most prevalent in the films. Methanothrix spp. was present in high numbers at the film surface, whereas Methanosarcina spp. were commonly embedded in the lower regions of the of the film. Inhabitants of the film were surrounded by an exopolysaccharide matrix that was very dense toward the base. An extensive network of channels was observed throughout the matrix that may facilitate gas and nutrient exchange to the lower regions of the film.

  15. Active Shiga-Like Toxin Produced by Some Aeromonas spp., Isolated in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Palma-Martínez, Ingrid; Guerrero-Mandujano, Andrea; Ruiz-Ruiz, Manuel J.; Hernández-Cortez, Cecilia; Molina-López, José; Bocanegra-García, Virgilio; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela

    2016-01-01

    Shiga-like toxins (Stx) represent a group of bacterial toxins involved in human and animal diseases. Stx is produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae type 1, Citrobacter freundii, and Aeromonas spp.; Stx is an important cause of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The aim of this study was to identify the stx1/stx2 genes in clinical strains and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Aeromonas spp., 66 strains were isolated from children who live in Mexico City, and Stx effects were evaluated in Vero cell cultures. The capacity to express active Stx1 and Stx2 toxins was determined in Vero cell cultures and the concentration of Stx was evaluated by 50% lethal dose (LD50) assays, observing inhibition of damaged cells by specific monoclonal antibodies. The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis that the stx gene is another putative virulence factor of Aeromonas, and since this gene can be transferred horizontally through OMVs this genus should be included as a possible causal agents of gastroenteritis and it should be reported as part of standard health surveillance procedures. Furthermore, these results indicate that the Aeromonas genus might be a potential causative agent of HUS. PMID:27725813

  16. Active Shiga-Like Toxin Produced by Some Aeromonas spp., Isolated in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Palma-Martínez, Ingrid; Guerrero-Mandujano, Andrea; Ruiz-Ruiz, Manuel J; Hernández-Cortez, Cecilia; Molina-López, José; Bocanegra-García, Virgilio; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela

    2016-01-01

    Shiga-like toxins (Stx) represent a group of bacterial toxins involved in human and animal diseases. Stx is produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae type 1, Citrobacter freundii, and Aeromonas spp.; Stx is an important cause of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The aim of this study was to identify the stx1/stx2 genes in clinical strains and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Aeromonas spp., 66 strains were isolated from children who live in Mexico City, and Stx effects were evaluated in Vero cell cultures. The capacity to express active Stx1 and Stx2 toxins was determined in Vero cell cultures and the concentration of Stx was evaluated by 50% lethal dose (LD50) assays, observing inhibition of damaged cells by specific monoclonal antibodies. The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis that the stx gene is another putative virulence factor of Aeromonas, and since this gene can be transferred horizontally through OMVs this genus should be included as a possible causal agents of gastroenteritis and it should be reported as part of standard health surveillance procedures. Furthermore, these results indicate that the Aeromonas genus might be a potential causative agent of HUS.

  17. New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing Acinetobacter spp. infection: report of a survivor.

    PubMed

    Schuelter-Trevisol, Fabiana; Schmitt, Graciane Jacinta; Araújo, Jane Martins de; Souza, Liliane Braga de; Nazário, Juliana Gomes; Januário, Raquel Landuchi; Mello, Rogério Sobroza de; Trevisol, Daisson José

    2016-02-01

    New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) is a bacterial enzyme that renders the bacteria resistant to a variety of beta-lactam antibiotics. A 20-year-old man was hospitalized several times for surgical treatment and complications caused by a right-sided vestibular schwannoma. Although the patient acquired several multidrug-resistant infections, this study focuses on the NDM-1-producing Acinetobacter spp. infection. As it was resistant to all antimicrobials tested, the medical team developed a 20-day regimen of 750mg/day metronidazole, 2,000,000IU/day polymyxin B, and 100mg/day tigecycline. The treatment was effective, and the patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital.

  18. A80915, a new antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces aculeolatus. Discovery, taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, characterization, and antibacterial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, D S; Mynderse, J S; Baker, P J; Berry, D M; Boeck, L D; Yao, R C; Mertz, F P; Nakatsukasa, W M; Mabe, J; Ott, J

    1990-06-01

    New semi-naphthaquinone antibiotics A80915A, B, C, and D were isolated from the fermented broth of Streptomyces aculeolatus A80915 (NRRL 18422). Factors A and C, present in both the broth filtrate and mycelial methanol extract, and factors B and D, found predominantly in the broth filtrate, were recovered by extraction with ethyl acetate. Purification of the individual factors was accomplished by preparative reverse phase high performance liquid chromatograph on C18 bonded silica supports. Factors A through D show antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic organisms in vitro. Mechanism of action studies demonstrated nearly complete inhibition of macromolecular biosynthesis (protein, RNA, DNA, and cell wall) by A80915 factors A through D. A less highly cyclized semi-naphthaquinone, A80915 factor G, was isolated from the broth of the strain fermented in an alternate medium.

  19. Detection of a Cephalosporin C Acetyl Esterase in the Carbamate Cephalosporin Antibiotic-Producing Culture, Streptomyces clavuligerus

    PubMed Central

    Brannon, D. R.; Fukuda, D. S.; Mabe, J. A.; Huber, F. M.; Whitney, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    The possible role of a cephalosporin C acetyl esterase in the formation of the β-lactam antibiotic A16886A, 7-(5-amino-5-carboxyvaleramido)-3-carbamoyloxy-methyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid, by Streptomyces clavuligerus was studied. Addition of dl-valine-14C-1 to a fermentation of Cephalosporium acremonium gave cephalosporin C-14C-9 (I). The formation of deacetylcephalosporin C-14C-9 from I occurred at a greater rate in broths of S. clavuligerus than in the broths of C. acremonium, or in the autoclaved broths of S. clavuligerus. Diisopropylfluorophosphate partially inhibited the deacetylation of I in S. clavuligerus broth. An intracellular cephalosporin C esterase in S. clavuligerus could not be demonstrated. Although A16886A has been chemically synthesized from deacetylcephalosporin C, this reaction could not be demonstrated with S. clavuligerus. PMID:5045469

  20. Incorporation of Labeled Precursors into A16886B, a Novel β-Lactam Antibiotic Produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, J. G.; Brannon, D. R.; Mabe, J. A.; Wicker, K. J.

    1972-01-01

    The incorporation of C-14 from amino acids into A16886B, 7-(5-amino-5-carboxyvaleramido)-7-methoxy-3-carbamoyloxymethyl-3-cephem-4- carboxylic acid, by Streptomyces clavuligerus is reported. As with cephalosporin C biosynthesis by the mold Cephalosporium acremonium, labels from cysteine, valine, and α-amino-adipic acid were incorporated. Unlike cephalosporin C, in A16886B label from lysine was incorporated into the α-aminoadipic acid side chain. Label from methionine-14C-methyl was incorporated into the methoxyl group. The relative percentage of incorporation of 3H and 14C from doubly labeled cystine suggests the improbability of the C-7 methoxyl group arising from an intermediate containing a double bond between C-6 and C-7. PMID:5045471

  1. CP-78,545, a new monocarboxylic acid ionophore antibiotic related to zincophorin and produced by a Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Dirlam, J P; Belton, A M; Chang, S P; Cullen, W P; Huang, L H; Kojima, Y; Maeda, H; Nishiyama, S; Oscarson, J R; Sakakibara, T

    1989-08-01

    A new monocarboxylic acid ionophore antibiotic related to zincophorin, CP-78,545 (1), was found in the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. N731-45. CP-78,545 was extracted with organic solvents and purified by column chromatography. The metabolite, which is active in vitro against certain Gram-positive bacteria, as well as the anaerobe Treponema hyodysenteriae, and a coccidium Eimeria tenella, was isolated as a water insoluble magnesium salt (2) in 2:1 (ligand/metal) stoichiometry. The structure of CP-78,545 was elucidated by spectroscopic (NMR and MS) methods, and the relative stereochemistry was determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis of the cadmium salt (3). CP-78,545, i.e., 24-dehydrozincophorin, is unique since its molecular backbone contains a terminal double bond previously not found in other polyether ionophores.

  2. Complete genome of Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. limoneus KCTC 1717 (=KCCM 11405), a soil bacterium producing validamycin and diverse secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Heon; Choe, Hanna; Bae, Kyung Sook; Park, Doo-Sang; Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Kyung Mo

    2016-02-10

    Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. limoneus is a Gram-positive, aerobic, aerial mycelial, spore-forming bacterium that was first isolated from a soil sample in Akashi City, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. We here report the complete genome of S. hygroscopicus subsp. limoneus KCTC 1717 (=KCCM 11405=IFO 12704=ATCC 21432), which consists of 10,537,932 bp (G+C content of 71.96%) with two linear chromosomes, 8983 protein-coding genes, 67 tRNAs and 6 rRNA operons. Genes related to biosynthesis of validamycin, valienamine and diverse secondary metabolites were detected in this genome. Genomic data is thus expected to considerably improve our understanding of how industrially important aminocyclitols are biosynthesized by microbial cells.

  3. PM100117 and PM100118, new antitumor macrolides produced by a marine Streptomyces caniferus GUA-06-05-006A.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Marta; Schleissner, Carmen; Fernández, Rogelio; Rodríguez, Pilar; Reyes, Fernando; Zuñiga, Paz; de la Calle, Fernando; Cuevas, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    Two new bioactive polyhydroxyl macrolide lactones PM100117 (1) and PM100118 (2) were isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived Streptomyces caniferus GUA-06-05-006A. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic methods, mainly one-dimensional and 2D NMR and HRESI-MS. They consist of 36-membered macrolides with a side chain containing three deoxy sugars and a 1,4-naphthoquinone chromophore. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed potent cytotoxicity against three human tumor cell lines with GI50 values in the micromolar range, as well as slight antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATCC10231. In addition, both compounds alter the plasma membrane of tumor cells, inducing loss of membrane integrity and subsequent cell permeabilization leading to a fast and dramatic necrotic cell death.

  4. Effect of electro-activated solutions of sodium acetate and sodium propionate on geosmin producing Streptomyces avermitilis strain.

    PubMed

    Liato, Viacheslav; Aïder, Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    Electro-activated solutions of salts of weak organic acids are defined as novel potent disinfecting agents that can be used in the agri-food industry. The aim of the present work is to study and understand the destruction mechanism of electro-activated solutions of sodium acetate (EAA) and sodium propionate (EAP) against Streptomyces avermitilis spores. The results of antibacterial activity showed high bacteriostatic effect for all the tested solutions, including sodium hypochlorite used as positive control. Under specific conditions, test on minimal inhibitory concentration demonstrated that the used electro-activated solutions have inhibition activity comparable or higher than the control solution, with the following inhibiting concentrations of 0.004, 0.002 and 0.073 mol/L, for EAA, EAP and NaOCl, respectively. The most active solutions resulted in destruction effect of more than 7 log CFU/mL. The physiological state of the S. avermitilis spores was assessed by transmission electron microscopy after treatments with the electro-activated organic solutions and NaOCl. The results displayed coreless and/or deformed cellular forms with ruptured membranes and released components of spores. The main practical importance of this study is that the targeted final objective is to develop safe and effective alternative to sodium hypochlorite to ensure microbial safety of fresh vegetables under storage conditions. In this context, we studied the potential of electro-activated solutions of sodium acetate and sodium propionate against spores of Streptomyces avermitilis and compared this activity with sodium hypochlorite, the mostly used disinfecting agent in the agri-food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Streptomyces sp. AT37 isolated from a Saharan soil produces a furanone derivative active against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Driche, El Hadj; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Bijani, Christian; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Pont, Frédéric; Mathieu, Florence; Badji, Boubekeur

    2017-06-01

    A novel actinobacterium strain, named AT37, showed a strong activity against some multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, other clinical isolates of MRSA and vancomycin resistant S. aureus VRSA S1. The strain AT37 was isolated from a Saharan soil by a dilution agar plating method using chitin-vitamin agar medium supplemented with rifampicin. The morphological and chemical studies indicated that this strain belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Its 16S rRNA gene sequence was determined and a database search indicated that it was closely associated with the type strain of Streptomyces novaecaesareae NBRC 13368(T) with 99.6% of similarity. However, the comparison of the morphological and the physiological characteristics of the strain with those of the nearest species showed significant differences. The strain AT37 secreted the antibiotic optimally during mid-stationary phase of growth. One active compound (AT37-1) was extracted from the culture broth with dichloromethane, separated on silica gel plates and purified by HPLC. Based on spectroscopic analysis of UV-Visible, infrared, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra and spectrometric analysis, the chemical structure of the compound AT37-1 was identified as 5-[(5E,7E,11E)-2,10-dihydroxy-9,11-dimethyl-5,7,11-tridecatrien-1-yl]-2-hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-3(2H)-furanone. Minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC50) of this compound showed significant activity against multidrug-resistant S. aureus with 15-30 and 10-15 μg/mL, respectively.

  6. Biosynthetic study on the polyether carboxylic antibiotic, nigericin production and biohydroxylation of grisorixin by nigericin-producing Streptomyces hygroscopicus NRRL B-1865.

    PubMed

    Mouslim, J; Cuer, A; David, L; Tabet, J C

    1995-09-01

    With addition of methyl oleate, the increased yield of antibiotic production by nigericin-producing Streptomyces hygroscopicus NRRL B-1865 also resulted in the isolation of three additional polyether antibiotics. Two of these are abierixin and epinigericin, as new antibiotics. The third antibiotic is grisorixin. The production of both abierixin (opened ring A and 30-CH2OH) and grisorixin (ring A and 30-CH3) poses the problem of the identity of the last pathway precursor of the major metabolite, nigericin (ring A and 30-CH2OH). Transformation experiments of abierixin by S. hygroscopicus gave negative results. Hydroxylation of grisorixin to nigericin by S. hygroscopicus represents the final step in nigericin biosynthesis.

  7. Fermentation, isolation, purification and biological activity of SJA-95, a heptaene polyene macrolide antibiotic produced by the Streptomyces sp. strain S24.

    PubMed

    Naik, Suresh R; Desai, Sandhya K; Nanda, Rabindra K; Narayanan, Mangalam S

    2007-01-01

    A new strain, Streptomyces sp. S24 was isolated from a soil sample collected from Japan. Preliminary morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical studies on this strain were carried out. Under submerged culture conditions the strain produced heptaene polyene macrolide (SJA-95), which elicits promising antifungal activity in vitro against yeasts, filamentous fungi including clinical isolates and plant pathogens. Its antifungal activity is comparable to that of hamycin and amphotericin B. SJA-95 was found to be toxic when given by the parenteral route in mice and not absorbed by the oral route like other polyene heptaene macrolides. The physicochemical data, spectral studies and elemental analysis suggest that SJA-95 is a polyene macrolide antibiotic. However, the chemical structure needs to be elucidated by further spectroscopic studies viz. 13C NMR, FEB-MS, EL MS and other tests.

  8. Activity of 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol produced by a strain of Streptomyces mutabilis isolated from a Saharan soil against Candida albicans and other pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Belghit, S; Driche, E H; Bijani, C; Zitouni, A; Sabaou, N; Badji, B; Mathieu, F

    2016-06-01

    In a search for new antifungal antibiotics active against Candida albicans and others pathogenic fungi, a strain of actinobacteria, designated G61, was isolated from a Saharan soil and tested for its activity against these microorganisms. The analysis of its 16S rDNA sequence showed a similarity level of 100% with Streptomyces mutabilis NBRC 12800(T). The highest anticandidal activities produced by the strain G61 were obtained on Bennett medium in the fourth day of incubation. The active product, extracted by n-butanol, contained one bioactive spot detected on thin layer chromatography plates. It was purified by HPLC and its chemical structure was determined by spectroscopic analyses as 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of this product against several strains of pathogenic microorganisms are interesting.

  9. Efficacy of detergents in removing Salmonella and Shigella spp. from the surface of fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Raiden, Renee M; Sumner, Susan S; Eifert, Joseph D; Pierson, Merle D

    2003-12-01

    Fresh produce has been implicated in several foodborne disease outbreaks. Produce surfaces can be primary sites of contamination during production and handling. One approach to reduce contamination is to treat fresh produce with rinsing agents. In this study, different detergent agents were used at 22 and 40 degrees C to determine their efficacy in removing Salmonella and Shigella spp. from the surfaces of strawberries, tomatoes, and green-leaf lettuce. Produce was inoculated at 22 degrees C with a cocktail of nalidixic acid-resistant organisms (6 to 6.5 log CFU/ml). After air drying for 1 h, samples were rinsed with either 0.1% Tween 80, 0.1% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), or water (control) at 22 or 40 degrees C. Rinse solutions were spiral plated onto tryptic soy agar supplemented with 50 mg of nalidixic acid per liter. In trials involving strawberries and lettuce, Salmonella and Shigella were removed at levels of 4 and 3 log CFU/ml, respectively, except from Salmonella-inoculated strawberries rinsed with SLS, for which minimal removal rates were 1.5 log CFU/ml at 22 degrees C and < 1 log CFU/ml at 40 degrees C. When whole strawberries were analyzed after rinsing with SLS, few organisms were recovered. This result suggests that SLS may have a lethal or sublethal effect on Salmonella, especially when a 40 degrees C solution is used. Salmonella and Shigella removal rates for tomatoes were 1 and 1.5 log CFU/ml lower, respectively, than those for strawberries or lettuce. Overall, detergents were no more effective in removing organisms from produce than water was. The detergents examined would not constitute effective overall produce rinse treatments.

  10. Cloning of ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) synthetase gene from a newly isolated ε-PL-producing Streptomyces albulus NK660 and its heterologous expression in Streptomyces lividans

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Weitao; Yang, Chao; Gu, Yanyan; Liu, Ruihua; Guo, Wenbin; Wang, Xiaomeng; Song, Cunjiang; Wang, Shufang

    2014-01-01

    ε-Poly-L-lysine (ε-PL), showing a wide range of antimicrobial activity, is now industrially produced as a food additive by a fermentation process. A new strain capable of producing ε-PL was isolated from a soil sample collected from Gutian, Fujian Province, China. Based on its morphological and biochemical features and phylogenetic similarity with 16S rRNA gene, the strain was identified as Streptomyces albulus and named NK660. The yield of ε-PL in 30 l fed-batch fermentation with pH control was 4.2 g l−1 when using glycerol as the carbon source. The structure of ε-PL was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Previous studies have shown that the antimicrobial activity of ε-PL is dependent on its molecular size. In this study, the polymerization degree of the ε-PL produced by strain NK660 ranged from 19 to 33 L-lysine monomers, with the main component consisting of 24–30 L-lysine monomers, which implied that the ε-PL might have higher antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, the ε-PL synthetase gene (pls) was cloned from strain NK660 by genome walking. The pls gene with its native promoter was heterologously expressed in Streptomyces lividans ZX7, and the recombinant strain was capable of synthesizing ε-PL. Here, we demonstrated for the first time heterologous expression of the pls gene in S. lividans. The heterologous expression of pls gene in S. lividans will open new avenues for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of ε-PL synthesis. PMID:24423427

  11. Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game animals intended for consumption: relationship with management practices and livestock influence.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Sánchez, S; Sánchez, S; Herrera-León, S; Porrero, C; Blanco, J; Dahbi, G; Blanco, J E; Mora, A; Mateo, R; Hanning, I; Vidal, D

    2013-05-03

    Although wild ruminants have been identified as reservoirs of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), little information is available concerning the role of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game species. We evaluated the presence of these pathogens in faeces (N=574) and carcasses (N=585) sampled from red deer (N=295), wild boar (N=333) and other ungulates (fallow deer, mouflon) (N=9). Animal sampling was done in situ from 33 hunting estates during two hunting seasons. Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. strains associated with human campylobacteriosis were infrequently detected indicating that both pathogens had a limited zoonotic risk in our study area. The overall STEC prevalence in animals was 21% (134/637), being significantly higher in faeces from red deer (90 out of 264). A total of 58 isolates were serotyped. Serotypes O146:H- and O27:H30 were the most frequent in red deer and the majority of isolates from red deer and wild boar were from serotypes previously found in STEC strains associated with human infection, including the serotype O157:H7. The STEC prevalence in red deer faeces was significantly higher with the presence of livestock (p<0, 01) where high densities of red deer (p<0.001) were present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and STEC in carcasses of large game animals. Furthermore, this study confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) that cross contamination of STEC during carcass dressing occurred, implying the likelihood of these pathogens entering into the food chain.

  12. Genome Integration and Excision by a New Streptomyces Bacteriophage, ϕJoe

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Joshua A.; Stark, W. Marshall

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteriophages are the source of many valuable tools for molecular biology and genetic manipulation. In Streptomyces, most DNA cloning vectors are based on serine integrase site-specific DNA recombination systems derived from phage. Because of their efficiency and simplicity, serine integrases are also used for diverse synthetic biology applications. Here, we present the genome of a new Streptomyces phage, ϕJoe, and investigate the conditions for integration and excision of the ϕJoe genome. ϕJoe belongs to the largest Streptomyces phage cluster (R4-like) and encodes a serine integrase. The attB site from Streptomyces venezuelae was used efficiently by an integrating plasmid, pCMF92, constructed using the ϕJoe int-attP locus. The attB site for ϕJoe integrase was occupied in several Streptomyces genomes, including that of S. coelicolor, by a mobile element that varies in gene content and size between host species. Serine integrases require a phage-encoded recombination directionality factor (RDF) to activate the excision reaction. The ϕJoe RDF was identified, and its function was confirmed in vivo. Both the integrase and RDF were active in in vitro recombination assays. The ϕJoe site-specific recombination system is likely to be an important addition to the synthetic biology and genome engineering toolbox. IMPORTANCE Streptomyces spp. are prolific producers of secondary metabolites, including many clinically useful antibiotics. Bacteriophage-derived integrases are important tools for genetic engineering, as they enable integration of heterologous DNA into the Streptomyces chromosome with ease and high efficiency. Recently, researchers have been applying phage integrases for a variety of applications in synthetic biology, including rapid assembly of novel combinations of genes, biosensors, and biocomputing. An important requirement for optimal experimental design and predictability when using integrases, however, is the need for multiple enzymes with

  13. Plasmids of Carotenoid-Producing Paracoccus spp. (Alphaproteobacteria) - Structure, Diversity and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maj, Anna; Dziewit, Lukasz; Czarnecki, Jakub; Wlodarczyk, Miroslawa; Baj, Jadwiga; Skrzypczyk, Grazyna; Giersz, Dorota; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Plasmids are components of many bacterial genomes. They enable the spread of a large pool of genetic information via lateral gene transfer. Many bacterial strains contain mega-sized replicons and these are particularly common in Alphaproteobacteria. Considerably less is known about smaller alphaproteobacterial plasmids. We analyzed the genomes of 14 such plasmids residing in 4 multireplicon carotenoid-producing strains of the genus Paracoccus (Alphaproteobacteria): P. aestuarii DSM 19484, P. haeundaensis LG P-21903, P. marcusii DSM 11574 and P. marcusii OS22. Comparative analyses revealed mosaic structures of the plasmids and recombinational shuffling of diverse genetic modules involved in (i) plasmid replication, (ii) stabilization (including toxin-antitoxin systems of the relBE/parDE, tad-ata, higBA, mazEF and toxBA families) and (iii) mobilization for conjugal transfer (encoding relaxases of the MobQ, MobP or MobV families). A common feature of the majority of the plasmids is the presence of AT-rich sequence islets (located downstream of exc1-like genes) containing genes, whose homologs are conserved in the chromosomes of many bacteria (encoding e.g. RelA/SpoT, SMC-like proteins and a retron-type reverse transcriptase). The results of this study have provided insight into the diversity and plasticity of plasmids of Paracoccus spp., and of the entire Alphaproteobacteria. Some of the identified plasmids contain replication systems not described previously in this class of bacteria. The composition of the plasmid genomes revealed frequent transfer of chromosomal genes into plasmids, which significantly enriches the pool of mobile DNA that can participate in lateral transfer. Many strains of Paracoccus spp. have great biotechnological potential, and the plasmid vectors constructed in this study will facilitate genetic studies of these bacteria. PMID:24260361

  14. Transfer of Acanthamoeba spp. to fresh produce from water and environmental surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, T-Y; Gibson, K E

    2015-08-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the primary cause of food-borne disease outbreaks in the United States. The most frequent commodities implicated in HuNoV outbreaks are leafy greens where contamination may occur during production and harvesting practices. With respect to the transmission of HuNoV to fresh produce, one hypothesis is that free-living amoebae that are ubiquitous in the environment (soil, sediments and water) can serve as vehicles of contamination through interaction with viruses. Here, we investigated the transfer of Acanthamoeba spp. both alone and associated with murine norovirus (MNV-1)-a surrogate for HuNoV-from water and food contact surfaces to fresh produce to understand the transfer of amoebae and the effect of virus association with amoeba on transferability, if any. In water containing a low concentration of amoebae (3 log10  cell ml(-1) ), 3·85 log10 amoebae transferred to 5 g of leafy greens, and for 5 cherry tomatoes, 3·4 to 3·5 log10 amoebae were transferred. Similarly, for high concentrations of amoeba (5 log10  cell ml(-1) ) in water, 6·14 and 5·81 log10 amoebae were transferred to 5 g leafy greens and five cherry tomatoes respectively. However, the transfer of amoebae from food contact surfaces to fresh produce was very limited. In addition, amoebae association with MNV-1 did not impact transferability. The results of this study provide a better understanding of physical parameters (e.g. surface area and texture of fresh produce, transfer medium-water vs surface) potentially associated with transfer of free-living amoeba to fresh produce as well as the role that contaminated water (irrigation or wash water) may play in the transmission of enteric viruses associated with amoeba. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Chromogenicity of Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Arai, T; Mikami, Y

    1972-02-01

    A simplified technique to detect polyphenol oxidase and melanin formation by Streptomyces culture filtrates was developed. The procedure involves the direct assay of pigment formation by the culture filtrate with 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine (L-dopa) as a substrate. Among cultures of the International Streptomyces Project, 34 failed to produce a diffusible dark brown pigment on peptone-yeast extract-iron-agar and synthetic tyrosine-agar and gave a negative reaction to the melanin formation test. Sixteen cultures produced a diffusible dark brown pigment on both peptone-yeast extract-iron-agar and synthetic tyrosine-agar and gave positive reactions to the test with either L-tyrosine or L-dopa as substrate. Twenty-one cultures produced a diffusible dark brown pigment on peptone-yeast extract-iron-agar, but failed to do so on synthetic tyrosine-agar. Most of these cultures gave a positive reaction to the test when L-dopa was used as the substrate. The correlation between chromogenicity on complex organic media and melanin formation was more clearly established with L-dopa as substrate than with synthetic tyrosine-agar in the present test. The melanin formation test by the present technique, instead of chromogenicity on complex organic media, is recommended as a key feature for the classification of Streptomyces.

  16. Streptomyces misionensis PESB-25 Produces a Thermoacidophilic Endoglucanase Using Sugarcane Bagasse and Corn Steep Liquor as the Sole Organic Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, Raquel de Carvalho; Gravina-Oliveira, Mônica Pires; Pereira, Pedro Henrique Freitas; do Nascimento, Rodrigo Pires; Bon, Elba Pinto da Silva; Macrae, Andrew; Coelho, Rosalie Reed Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Streptomyces misionensis strain PESB-25 was screened and selected for its ability to secrete cellulases. Cells were grown in a liquid medium containing sugarcane bagasse (SCB) as carbon source and corn steep liquor (CSL) as nitrogen source, whose concentrations were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A peak of endoglucanase accumulation (1.01 U·mL−1) was observed in a medium with SCB 1.0% (w/v) and CSL 1.2% (w/v) within three days of cultivation. S. misionensis PESB-25 endoglucanase activity was thermoacidophilic with optimum pH and temperature range of 3.0 to 3.6 and 62° to 70°C, respectively. In these conditions, values of 1.54 U mL−1 of endoglucanase activity were observed. Moreover, Mn2+ was demonstrated to have a hyperactivating effect on the enzyme. In the presence of MnSO4 (8 mM), the enzyme activity increased threefold, up to 4.34 U·mL−1. Mn2+ also improved endoglucanase stability as the catalyst retained almost full activity upon incubation at 50°C for 4 h, while in the absence of Mn2+, enzyme activity decreased by 50% in this same period. Three protein bands with endoglucanase activity and apparent molecular masses of 12, 48.5 and 119.5 kDa were detected by zymogram. PMID:23586048

  17. Taxonomy and distribution of phenazine-producing Pseudomonas spp. in the dryland agroecosystem of the Inland Pacific Northwest, United States.

    PubMed

    Parejko, James A; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Mavrodi, Olga V; Weller, David M; Thomashow, Linda S

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the taxonomic placement of phenazine-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. in the Inland Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Five distinct species were identified, two of which were provisionally considered to be new. Agroclimatic zone and soil silt content affected the species diversity across the region.

  18. Auxofuran, a novel metabolite that stimulates the growth of fly agaric, is produced by the mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces strain AcH 505.

    PubMed

    Riedlinger, Julia; Schrey, Silvia D; Tarkka, Mika T; Hampp, Rüdiger; Kapur, Manmohan; Fiedler, Hans-Peter

    2006-05-01

    The mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces strain AcH 505 improves mycelial growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi and formation of ectomycorrhizas between Amanita muscaria and spruce but suppresses the growth of plant-pathogenic fungi, suggesting that it produces both fungal growth-stimulating and -suppressing compounds. The dominant fungal-growth-promoting substance produced by strain AcH 505, auxofuran, was isolated, and its effect on the levels of gene expression of A. muscaria was investigated. Auxofuran and its synthetic analogue 7-dehydroxy-auxofuran were most effective at a concentration of 15 microM, and application of these compounds led to increased lipid metabolism-related gene expression. Cocultivation of strain AcH 505 and A. muscaria stimulated auxofuran production by the streptomycete. The antifungal substances produced by strain AcH 505 were identified as the antibiotics WS-5995 B and C. WS-5995 B completely blocked mycelial growth at a concentration of 60 microM and caused a cell stress-related gene expression response in A. muscaria. Characterization of these compounds provides the foundation for molecular analysis of the fungus-bacterium interaction in the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between fly agaric and spruce.

  19. Streptomyces metabolites in divergent microbial interactions.

    PubMed

    Takano, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Tatsuya; Amano, Sho-ichi; Beppu, Teruhiko; Kobayashi, Michihiko; Ueda, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    Streptomyces and related bacteria produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites. Of these, many compounds have industrial applications, but the question of why this group of microorganism produces such various kinds of biologically active substances has not yet been clearly answered. Here, we overview the results from our studies on the novel function and role of Streptomyces metabolites. The diverged action of negative and positive influences onto the physiology of various microorganisms infers the occurrence of complex microbial interactions due to the effect of small molecules produced by Streptomyces. The interactions may serve as a basis for the constitution of biological community.

  20. Ex Vivo Application of Secreted Metabolites Produced by Soil-Inhabiting Bacillus spp. Efficiently Controls Foliar Diseases Caused by Alternaria spp.

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Ashraf S. A.; Patel, Jaimin S.; Green, Kari B.; Ali, Mohammad; Brennan, Mary; Norman, David

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biological control agents (BCAs) are largely used as live products to control plant pathogens. However, due to variable environmental and ecological factors, live BCAs usually fail to produce desirable results against foliar pathogens. In this study, we investigated the potential of cell-free culture filtrates of 12 different bacterial BCAs isolated from flower beds for controlling foliar diseases caused by Alternaria spp. In vitro studies showed that culture filtrates from two isolates belonging to Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens displayed strong efficacy and potencies against Alternaria spp. The antimicrobial activity of the culture filtrate of these two biological control agents was effective over a wider range of pH (3.0 to 9.0) and was not affected by autoclaving or proteolysis. Comparative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses showed that a complex mixture of cyclic lipopeptides, primarily of the fengycin A and fengycin B families, was significantly higher in these two BCAs than inactive Bacillus spp. Interaction studies with mixtures of culture filtrates of these two species revealed additive activity, suggesting that they produce similar products, which was confirmed by LC-tandem MS analyses. In in planta pre- and postinoculation trials, foliar application of culture filtrates of B. subtilis reduced lesion sizes and lesion frequencies caused by Alternaria alternata by 68 to 81%. Taken together, our studies suggest that instead of live bacteria, culture filtrates of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens can be applied either individually or in combination for controlling foliar diseases caused by Alternaria species. PMID:26519395

  1. Stress-driven discovery of a cryptic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sp. WU20 from Kueishantao hydrothermal vent with an integrated metabolomics strategy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yutong; Pan, Chengqian; Auckloo, Bibi Nazia; Chen, Xuegang; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Wang, Kuiwu; Wu, Xiaodan; Ye, Ying; Wu, Bin

    2017-02-01

    Marine hydrothermal microorganisms respond rapidly to the changes in the concentrations and availability of metals within hydrothermal vent microbial habitats which are strongly influenced by elevated levels of heavy metals. Most hydrothermal vent actinomycetes possess a remarkable capability for the synthesis of a broad variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. Major challenges in the screening of these microorganisms are to activate the expression of cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters and the development of technologies for efficient dereplication of known compounds. Here, we report the identification of a novel antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sp. WU20 isolated from the metal-rich hydrothermal vents in Taiwan Kueishantao, following a strategy based on metal induction of silent genes combined with metabolomics analytical methods. HPLC-guided isolation by tracking the target peak resulted in the characterization of the novel compound 1 with antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis. The stress metabolite 1 induced by nickel is structurally totally different compared with the normally produced compounds. This study underlines the applicability of metal induction combined with metabolic analytical techniques in accelerating the exploration of novel antibiotics and other medically relevant natural products.

  2. Foliar Application of Extract from an Azalomycin-Producing Streptomyces malaysiensis Strain MJM1968 Suppresses Yam Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam Palaniyandi, Sasikumar; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Woh

    2016-06-28

    Yam anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C.g) is the most devastating disease of yam (Dioscorea sp.). In the present study, we evaluated the culture filtrate extract (CFE) of azalomycin-producing Streptomyces malaysiensis strain MJM1968 for the control of yam anthracnose. MJM1968 showed strong antagonistic activity against C.g in vitro. Furthermore, the MJM1968 CFE was tested for inhibition of spore germination in C.g, where it completely inhibited spore germination at a concentration of 50 μg/ml. To assess the in planta efficacy of the CFE and spores of MJM1968 against C.g, a detached leaf bioassay was conducted, which showed both the treatments suppressed anthracnose development on detached yam leaves. Furthermore, a greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the CFE from MJM1968 as a fungicide for the control of yam anthracnose. The CFE non-treated plants showed a disease severity of >92% after 90 days of artificial inoculation with C.g, whereas the disease severity of CFE-treated and benomyl-treated yam plants was reduced to 26% and 15%, respectively, after 90 days. Analysis of the yam tubers from the CFE-treated and non-treated groups showed that tubers from the CFE-treated plants were larger than that of non-treated plants, which produced abnormal smaller tubers typical of anthracnose. This study demonstrated the utility of the CFE from S. malaysiensis strain MJM1968 as a biofungicide for the control of yam anthracnose.

  3. Development of a mechanism of action-based screen for anthelmintic microbial metabolites with avermectinlike activity and isolation of milbemycin-producing Streptomyces strains.

    PubMed Central

    Haber, C L; Heckaman, C L; Li, G P; Thompson, D P; Whaley, H A; Wiley, V H

    1991-01-01

    A high-volume screen for anthelmintic microbial metabolites with an avermectinlike mode of action was developed. The primary screen used the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in a whole-organism assay. The specificity for avermectinlike compounds resides in the secondary screen, which takes advantage of the chloride channel-opening properties of the avermectins. By using standard microelectrode techniques, membrane conductance changes following exposure to extracts of microbial cultures were measured in the walking leg stretcher muscle fibers of the lined shore crab Pachygrapsus crassipes. The avermectins and related milbemycins give a characteristic response of rapid loss of membrane resistance coupled with a slight hyperpolarization of the membrane. This is partially (near 50%) reversible with the chloride channel blocker picrotoxinin. Four morphologically similar cultures that produced avermectinlike activities were identified by this screen. Isolation of the active components from one of these cultures (strain UC 8984) followed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy resulted in the identification of milbemycins alpha 1 and alpha 3. These metabolites are members of a large family of milbemycins produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. aureolacrimosus NRRL 5739. Systematic studies revealed that strain UC 8984 is also a S. hygroscopicus strain, but which is taxonomically distinct from NRRL 5739. Images PMID:1719935

  4. DepR1, a TetR Family Transcriptional Regulator, Positively Regulates Daptomycin Production in an Industrial Producer, Streptomyces roseosporus SW0702.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peng-Hui; Zhou, Ri-Cheng; Chen, Xuepeng; Luo, Shuai; Wang, Feng; Mao, Xu-Ming; Li, Yong-Quan

    2016-01-15

    Daptomycin is a potent cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic. It is widely used against various Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. Historically, a poor understanding of the transcriptional regulation of daptomycin biosynthesis has limited the options for targeted genetic engineering toward titer improvement. Here, we isolated a TetR family transcriptional regulator, DepR1, from the industrial producer Streptomyces roseosporus SW0702 using a biotinylated dptE promoter (dptEp) as a probe. The direct interaction between DepR1 and dptEp then was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting assays. The deletion of depR1 led to a reduction in dptEp activity and the cessation of daptomycin production. The ΔdepR1 mutant produced less red pigment and failed to sporulate on R5 medium. This suggests that DepR1 plays a positive role in the control of morphological differentiation. Moreover, DepR1 was positively autoregulated by directly binding to its own promoter. This might account for the positive feedback regulation of daptomycin production. Based on these positive effects, genetic engineering by overexpression of depR1 raised daptomycin production and shortened the fermentation period both in flask and in fermentor.

  5. Genome Integration and Excision by a New Streptomyces Bacteriophage, ϕJoe.

    PubMed

    Fogg, Paul C M; Haley, Joshua A; Stark, W Marshall; Smith, Margaret C M

    2017-03-01

    Bacteriophages are the source of many valuable tools for molecular biology and genetic manipulation. In Streptomyces, most DNA cloning vectors are based on serine integrase site-specific DNA recombination systems derived from phage. Because of their efficiency and simplicity, serine integrases are also used for diverse synthetic biology applications. Here, we present the genome of a new Streptomyces phage, ϕJoe, and investigate the conditions for integration and excision of the ϕJoe genome. ϕJoe belongs to the largest Streptomyces phage cluster (R4-like) and encodes a serine integrase. The attB site from Streptomyces venezuelae was used efficiently by an integrating plasmid, pCMF92, constructed using the ϕJoe int-attP locus. The attB site for ϕJoe integrase was occupied in several Streptomyces genomes, including that of S. coelicolor, by a mobile element that varies in gene content and size between host species. Serine integrases require a phage-encoded recombination directionality factor (RDF) to activate the excision reaction. The ϕJoe RDF was identified, and its function was confirmed in vivo Both the integrase and RDF were active in in vitro recombination assays. The ϕJoe site-specific recombination system is likely to be an important addition to the synthetic biology and genome engineering toolbox.IMPORTANCEStreptomyces spp. are prolific producers of secondary metabolites, including many clinically useful antibiotics. Bacteriophage-derived integrases are important tools for genetic engineering, as they enable integration of heterologous DNA into the Streptomyces chromosome with ease and high efficiency. Recently, researchers have been applying phage integrases for a variety of applications in synthetic biology, including rapid assembly of novel combinations of genes, biosensors, and biocomputing. An important requirement for optimal experimental design and predictability when using integrases, however, is the need for multiple enzymes with different

  6. Conventional curing practices reduce generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. on dry bulb onions produced with contaminated irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Emch, Alexander W; Waite-Cusic, Joy G

    2016-02-01

    Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) has emphasized microbial risks associated with irrigation water. Treasure Valley (eastern Oregon/western Idaho) has the highest yield of dry bulb onions in the country; however, their irrigation water is often non-compliant with current industry and proposed federal standards for fresh produce. Conventional curing practices may provide a mechanism to mitigate irrigation water quality to comply with FSMA regulations. Dry bulb onions were grown in Owyhee silt loam and Semiahmoo muck soils in greenhouses and irrigated with water containing a cocktail of rifampicin-resistant generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. (4.80 log CFU/ml). To mimic conventional practices, mature onions remained undisturbed in soil without irrigation for 12 days prior to being lifted and cured for 16 additional days. Surviving generic E. coli and Salmonella spp. were selectively enumerated on using standard plating (Hektoen Enteric Agar with rifampicin; HE + rif) or most probable number (lactose broth with rifampicin; HE + rif) methods. Generic E. coli and Salmonella spp. on onions decreased 0.19-0.26 log CFU/g·d during the initial 12 days of finishing. At lifting, generic E. coli and Salmonella spp. had been reduced to <1 CFU/g and persisted through the end of curing. This study demonstrates conventional curing practices as an effective mitigation strategy for dry bulb onions produced with water of poor microbiological quality.

  7. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Klebsiella spp. in chicken meat and humans: a comparison of typing methods.

    PubMed

    Overdevest, I T M A; Heck, M; van der Zwaluw, K; Huijsdens, X; van Santen, M; Rijnsburger, M; Eustace, A; Xu, L; Hawkey, P; Savelkoul, P; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C; Willemsen, I; van der Ven, J; Verhulst, C; Kluytmans, J A J W

    2014-03-01

    Recently, chicken meat was identified as a plausible source of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Escherichia coli in humans. We investigated the relatedness of ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. in chicken meat and humans. Furthermore, we tested the performance of SpectraCell RA(®) (River Diagnostics), a new typing method based on Raman spectroscopy, in comparison with multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Twenty-seven phenotypically and genotypically confirmed ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. isolates were typed with MLST and SpectraCell RA. The isolates derived from chicken meat, human rectal swabs and clinical blood cultures. In the 22 ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, CTX-M15 was the predominant genotype, found in five isolates of human origin and in one chicken meat isolate. With MLST, 16 different STs were found, including five new STs. Comparing the results of SpectraCell RA with MLST, we found a sensitivity of 70.0% and a specificity of 81.8% for the new SpectraCell RA typing method. Therefore, we conclude that SpectraCell RA is not a suitable typing method when evaluating relationships of ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. at the population level. Although no clustering was found with isolates of chicken meat and human origin containing the same ESBL genes, MLST showed no clustering into distinctive clones of isolates from chicken meat and human origin. More studies are needed to elucidate the role of chicken meat in the rise of ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. in humans.

  8. Selenoglucosinolates and their metabolites produced in Brassica spp. fertilised with sodium selenate.

    PubMed

    Matich, Adam J; McKenzie, Marian J; Lill, Ross E; Brummell, David A; McGhie, Tony K; Chen, Ronan K-Y; Rowan, Daryl D

    2012-03-01

    Glucosinolates are sulphur-containing glycosides found in many Brassica spp. that are important because their aglycone hydrolysis products protect the plant from herbivores and exhibit anti-cancer properties in humans. Recently, synthetically produced selenium analogues have been shown to be more effective at suppressing cancers than their sulphur counterparts. Although selenium is incorporated into a number of Brassica amino acids and peptides, firm evidence has yet to be presented for the presence of selenium in the glucosinolates and their aglycones in planta. In this study broccoli and cauliflower florets, and roots of forage rape, all obtained from plants treated with sodium selenate, were analysed for the presence of organoselenides. GC-MS analysis of pentane/ether extracts identified six organoselenium compounds including selenium analogues of known myrosinase-derived Brassica volatiles: 4-(methylseleno)butanenitrile, 5-(methylseleno)pentanenitrile, 3-(methylseleno)propylisothiocyanate, 4-(methylseleno)butylisothiocyanate, and 5-(methylseleno)pentylisothiocyanate. LC-MS analysis of ethanolic extracts identified three selenoglucosinolates: 3-(methylseleno)propylglucosinolate (glucoselenoiberverin), 4-(methylseleno)butylglucosinolate (glucoselenoerucin), and 5-(methylseleno)pentylglucosinolate (glucoselenoberteroin). LC-MS/MS analysis was used to locate the position of the selenium atom in the selenoglucosinolate and indicates preferential incorporation of selenium via selenomethionine into the methylselenyl moiety rather than into the sulphate or β-thioglucose groups. In forage rape, selenoglucosinolates and their aglycones (mainly isothiocyanates), occurred at concentrations up to 10% and 70%, respectively, of their sulphur analogues. In broccoli, concentrations of the selenoglucosinolates and their aglycones (mainly nitriles) were up to 60% and 1300%, respectively of their sulphur analogues. These findings indicate the potential for the incorporation of

  9. Extracellular mercury sequestration by exopolymeric substances produced by Yarrowia spp.: Thermodynamics, equilibria, and kinetics studies.

    PubMed

    Oyetibo, Ganiyu Oladunjoye; Miyauchi, Keisuke; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Satoru; Endo, Ginro

    2016-12-01

    Exopolymeric substances (EPS) produced by highly mercury-resistant strains of the yeast Yarrowia spp. (Idd1 and Idd2) were isolated and studied for their mercury binding potential. Excellent yield (approximately 0.3 g EPS per gram biomass) of soluble EPS in medium with 3% glucose was observed in the Yarrowia cultures 7 day post-inoculation. A gram dry weight of the EPS consists mainly of carbohydrates (0.4 g), protein (0.3-0.4 g), uronic acid (0.02 g), and nucleic acids (0.002 g). Mercury interactions with the biopolymer were measured as uptake kinetics from a simulated aquatic system and modelled with thermodynamics and calculated mass action equilibria. The EPS forms a complex with Hg(2+) in water with small activation energy (≤2 kJ mol(-1)), achieving about 30 mg Hg(2+) adsorption per gram dry weight of EPS. The adsorption models confirmed complexation of Hg(2+) by the EPS via heterogeneous multilayer adsorption that obey second-order kinetics at constant rate of 4.0 and 8.1 mg g(-1) min(-1). The EPS used chemisorption as rate-limiting step that controls the uptake of Hg(2+) from aquatic systems during micro-precipitation as bio-removal strategy. The EPS are promising biotechnological tools to design bioreactors for treatment of mercury-rich industrial wastewater. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Taxonomic status of Kitasatosporia, and proposed unification with Streptomyces on the basis of phenotypic and 16S rRNA analysis and emendation of Streptomyces Waksman and Henrici 1943, 339AL.

    PubMed

    Wellington, E M; Stackebrandt, E; Sanders, D; Wolstrup, J; Jorgensen, N O

    1992-01-01

    Species classified within the genus Kitasatosporia share many of the phenotypic characteristics typical of streptomycetes. By using a probabilistic identification scheme, they were identified with Streptomyces exfoliatus cluster 5, a species group within Streptomyces. The four species studied hybridized with a 16S rRNA genus probe for Streptomyces spp., indicating a close relationship between the two genera. The kitasatosporias were resistant to selected polyvalent streptomycete phages tested. Quantitative analysis showed that meso-diaminopimelic acid varied from 49 to 89% in Kitasatosporia species and from 1 to 16% in Streptomyces species depending on growth conditions. On the basis of 16S rRNA analysis, it is proposed to reduce Kitasatosporia to synonymy with Streptomyces. As a result, the new names proposed are Streptomyces mediocidicus comb. nov., Streptomyces phosalacineus comb. nov., Streptomyces setae comb. nov., and Streptomyces griseolosporeus comb. nov., nom. nov.

  11. Isolation and characterization of 2-nitroimidazole produced by Streptomyces species as an inhibitor of both carbonic anhydrase and shell formation in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Mari; Ozaki, Noriaki; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Furihata, Keiko; Hayakawa, Yoichi; Sakuda, Shohei; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2002-03-01

    Carbonic anhydrase is thought to be involved in the process of calcium carbonate deposition in calcified tissues of many organisms. Barnacles form hard calcified shells for protection against predation, and represent a class of marine-fouling animals. In order to inhibit barnacle growth by inhibiting shell formation, we searched for carbonic anhydrase inhibitors from microbial secondary metabolites. A simple assay for assessing carbonic-anhydrase-inhibiting activity was developed. Screening of many microorganisms isolated from soil with this assay resulted in a microbial strain that produced a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. This strain was identified as Streptomyces eurocidicus mf294. The inhibitor was isolated through 4 purification steps and identified as 2-nitroimidazole on the basis of spectroscopic data. 2-Nitroimidazole inhibited barnacle carbonic anhydrase dose-dependently and complete inhibition was reached at the concentration of 1 x 10(-5) M. 2-Nitroimidazole did not affect settlement or metamorphosis of barnacle larvae, but inhibited shell formation at concentrations higher than 1 x 10(-4) M. These findings strongly support the idea that carbonic anhydrase is involved in calcification.

  12. Antifungal activity of rimocidin and a new rimocidin derivative BU16 produced by Streptomyces mauvecolor BU16 and their effects on pepper anthracnose.

    PubMed

    Jeon, B J; Kim, J D; Han, J W; Kim, B S

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore antifungal metabolites targeting fungal cell envelope and to evaluate the control efficacy against anthracnose development in pepper plants. A natural product library comprising 3000 microbial culture extracts was screened via an adenylate kinase (AK)-based cell lysis assay to detect antifungal metabolites targeting the cell envelope of plant-pathogenic fungi. The culture extract of Streptomyces mauvecolor strain BU16 displayed potent AK-releasing activity. Rimocidin and a new rimocidin derivative, BU16, were identified from the extract as active constituents. BU16 is a tetraene macrolide containing a six-membered hemiketal ring with an ethyl group side chain instead of the propyl group in rimocidin. Rimocidin and BU16 showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity against various plant-pathogenic fungi and demonstrated potent control efficacy against anthracnose development in pepper plants. Antifungal metabolites produced by S. mauvecolor strain BU16 were identified to be rimocidin and BU16. The compounds displayed potent control efficacy against pepper anthracnose. Rimocidin and BU16 would be active ingredients of disease control agents disrupting cell envelope of plant-pathogenic fungi. The structure and antifungal activity of rimocidin derivative BU16 is first described in this study. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. TMG-chitotriomycin, an enzyme inhibitor specific for insect and fungal beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases, produced by actinomycete Streptomyces anulatus NBRC 13369.

    PubMed

    Usuki, Hirokazu; Nitoda, Teruhiko; Ichikawa, Misato; Yamaji, Nahoko; Iwashita, Takashi; Komura, Hajime; Kanzaki, Hiroshi

    2008-03-26

    A novel beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (GlcNAcase) inhibitor named TMG-chitotriomycin (1) was isolated from the culture filtrate of Streptomyces anulatus NBRC13369. The strain produced 1 only when colloidal chitin was used as the sole carbon source in the production medium. The structure of 1 was determined by spectral and constitutive sugar analyses of the corresponding alditol derivatives to be an equilibrated mixture of alpha-d-N,N,N-triMeGlcNH2-(1,4)-beta-d-GlcNAc-(1,4)-beta-d-GlcNAc-(1,4)-d-GlcNAc and its C-2 epimer of the reducing end residue. TMG-chitotriomycin (1) showed potent and selective inhibition of insect and fungal GlcNAcases with no inhibition of mammalian and plant GlcNAcases. In contrast, the known GlcNAcase inhibitor nagstatin potently inhibited all GlcNAcases. It should be emphasized that synthesized d-N,N,N-triMeGlcNH2, which is the component sugar of 1, showed no inhibition of the insect Spodoptera litura GlcNAcase. These results suggest that the (GlcNAc)3 unit positioned at the reducing end of 1 is essential for its enzyme inhibitory activity. The unique inhibitory spectrum of 1 will be useful to study chitinolytic systems and to develop selective fungicides or pesticides.

  14. Effects of some organic pollutants on the exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by some Pseudomonas spp. strains.

    PubMed

    Onbasli, Dilsad; Aslim, Belma

    2009-08-30

    [in MSM medium with 1% (v/v) BTX] contained neutral sugars (98.2%) and acetylated amino sugars (1.8%). Lastly, in NB medium by strain B15 was found to contain neutral sugars (99.9%) and acetylated amino sugars (0.1%) while in MSM medium in the presence of 1% (v/v) gasoline it was found to contain neutral sugars (83.6%), acetylated amino sugars (16.4%). Monomer composition of control EPSs changed to different structures in the presence of various organic pollutants. Diversities of organic compounds as carbon source affected the monomer composition of EPS produced by some Pseudomonas spp. cultures.

  15. Genome mining of Streptomyces ambofaciens.

    PubMed

    Aigle, Bertrand; Lautru, Sylvie; Spiteller, Dieter; Dickschat, Jeroen S; Challis, Gregory L; Leblond, Pierre; Pernodet, Jean-Luc

    2014-02-01

    Since the discovery of the streptomycin produced by Streptomyces griseus in the middle of the last century, members of this bacterial genus have been largely exploited for the production of secondary metabolites with wide uses in medicine and in agriculture. They have even been recognized as one of the most prolific producers of natural products among microorganisms. With the onset of the genomic era, it became evident that these microorganisms still represent a major source for the discovery of novel secondary metabolites. This was highlighted with the complete genome sequencing of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) which revealed an unexpected potential of this organism to synthesize natural products undetected until then by classical screening methods. Since then, analysis of sequenced genomes from numerous Streptomyces species has shown that a single species can carry more than 30 secondary metabolite gene clusters, reinforcing the idea that the biosynthetic potential of this bacterial genus is far from being fully exploited. This review highlights our knowledge on the potential of Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC 23877 to synthesize natural products. This industrial strain was known for decades to only produce the drug spiramycin and another antibacterial compound, congocidine. Mining of its genome allowed the identification of 23 clusters potentially involved in the production of other secondary metabolites. Studies of some of these clusters resulted in the characterization of novel compounds and of previously known compounds but never characterized in this Streptomyces species. In addition, genome mining revealed that secondary metabolite gene clusters of phylogenetically closely related Streptomyces are mainly species-specific.

  16. Plasmodium-Specific Molecular Assays Produce Uninterpretable Results and Non-Plasmodium spp. Sequences in Field-Collected Anopheles Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Genelle F.; Foley, Desmond H.; Rueda, Leopoldo M.; Melanson, Vanessa R.; Wilkerson, Richard C.; Long, Lewis S.; Richardson, Jason H.; Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, Won-Ja

    2013-01-01

    The Malaria Research and Reference Reagent Resource–recommended PLF/UNR/VIR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect Plasmodium vivax in Anopheles spp. mosquitoes collected in South Korea. Samples that were amplified were sequenced and compared with known Plasmodium spp. by using the PlasmoDB.org Basic Local Alignment Search Tool/n and the National Center for Biotechnology Information Basic Local Alignment Search Tool/n tools. Results show that the primers PLF/UNR/VIR used in this PCR can produce uninterpretable results and non-specific sequences in field-collected mosquitoes. Three additional PCRs (PLU/VIV, specific for 18S small subunit ribosomal DNA; Pvr47, specific for a nuclear repeat; and GDCW/PLAS, specific for the mitochondrial marker, cytB) were then used to find a more accurate and interpretable assay. Samples that were amplified were again sequenced. The PLU/VIV and Pvr47 assays showed cross-reactivity with non-Plasmodium spp. and an arthropod fungus (Zoophthora lanceolata). The GDCW/PLAS assay amplified only Plasmodium spp. but also amplified the non-human specific parasite P. berghei from an Anopheles belenrae mosquito. Detection of P. berghei in South Korea is a new finding. PMID:24189365

  17. Plasmodium-specific molecular assays produce uninterpretable results and non-Plasmodium spp. sequences in field-collected Anopheles vectors.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Genelle F; Foley, Desmond H; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Melanson, Vanessa R; Wilkerson, Richard C; Long, Lewis S; Richardson, Jason H; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, Won-Ja

    2013-12-01

    The Malaria Research and Reference Reagent Resource-recommended PLF/UNR/VIR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect Plasmodium vivax in Anopheles spp. mosquitoes collected in South Korea. Samples that were amplified were sequenced and compared with known Plasmodium spp. by using the PlasmoDB.org Basic Local Alignment Search Tool/n and the National Center for Biotechnology Information Basic Local Alignment Search Tool/n tools. Results show that the primers PLF/UNR/VIR used in this PCR can produce uninterpretable results and non-specific sequences in field-collected mosquitoes. Three additional PCRs (PLU/VIV, specific for 18S small subunit ribosomal DNA; Pvr47, specific for a nuclear repeat; and GDCW/PLAS, specific for the mitochondrial marker, cytB) were then used to find a more accurate and interpretable assay. Samples that were amplified were again sequenced. The PLU/VIV and Pvr47 assays showed cross-reactivity with non-Plasmodium spp. and an arthropod fungus (Zoophthora lanceolata). The GDCW/PLAS assay amplified only Plasmodium spp. but also amplified the non-human specific parasite P. berghei from an Anopheles belenrae mosquito. Detection of P. berghei in South Korea is a new finding.

  18. Characterization and manipulation of the pathway-specific late regulator AlpW reveals Streptomyces ambofaciens as a new producer of Kinamycins.

    PubMed

    Bunet, Robert; Song, Lijiang; Mendes, Marta Vaz; Corre, Christophe; Hotel, Laurence; Rouhier, Nicolas; Framboisier, Xavier; Leblond, Pierre; Challis, Gregory L; Aigle, Bertrand

    2011-03-01

    The genome sequence of Streptomyces ambofaciens, a species known to produce the congocidine and spiramycin antibiotics, has revealed the presence of numerous gene clusters predicted to be involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Among them, the type II polyketide synthase-encoding alp cluster was shown to be responsible for the biosynthesis of a compound with antibacterial activity. Here, by means of a deregulation approach, we gained access to workable amounts of the antibiotics for structure elucidation. These compounds, previously designated as alpomycin, were shown to be known members of kinamycin family of antibiotics. Indeed, a mutant lacking AlpW, a member of the TetR regulator family, was shown to constitutively produce kinamycins. Comparative transcriptional analyses showed that expression of alpV, the essential regulator gene required for activation of the biosynthetic genes, is strongly maintained during the stationary growth phase in the alpW mutant, a stage at which alpV transcripts and thereby transcripts of the biosynthetic genes normally drop off. Recombinant AlpW displayed DNA binding activity toward specific motifs in the promoter region of its own gene and that of alpV and alpZ. These recognition sequences are also targets for AlpZ, the γ-butyrolactone-like receptor involved in the regulation of the alp cluster. However, unlike that of AlpZ, the AlpW DNA-binding ability seemed to be insensitive to the signaling molecules controlling antibiotic biosynthesis. Together, the results presented in this study reveal S. ambofaciens to be a new producer of kinamycins and AlpW to be a key late repressor of the cellular control of kinamycin biosynthesis.

  19. Characterization and Manipulation of the Pathway-Specific Late Regulator AlpW Reveals Streptomyces ambofaciens as a New Producer of Kinamycins ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Bunet, Robert; Song, Lijiang; Mendes, Marta Vaz; Corre, Christophe; Hotel, Laurence; Rouhier, Nicolas; Framboisier, Xavier; Leblond, Pierre; Challis, Gregory L.; Aigle, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    The genome sequence of Streptomyces ambofaciens, a species known to produce the congocidine and spiramycin antibiotics, has revealed the presence of numerous gene clusters predicted to be involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Among them, the type II polyketide synthase-encoding alp cluster was shown to be responsible for the biosynthesis of a compound with antibacterial activity. Here, by means of a deregulation approach, we gained access to workable amounts of the antibiotics for structure elucidation. These compounds, previously designated as alpomycin, were shown to be known members of kinamycin family of antibiotics. Indeed, a mutant lacking AlpW, a member of the TetR regulator family, was shown to constitutively produce kinamycins. Comparative transcriptional analyses showed that expression of alpV, the essential regulator gene required for activation of the biosynthetic genes, is strongly maintained during the stationary growth phase in the alpW mutant, a stage at which alpV transcripts and thereby transcripts of the biosynthetic genes normally drop off. Recombinant AlpW displayed DNA binding activity toward specific motifs in the promoter region of its own gene and that of alpV and alpZ. These recognition sequences are also targets for AlpZ, the γ-butyrolactone-like receptor involved in the regulation of the alp cluster. However, unlike that of AlpZ, the AlpW DNA-binding ability seemed to be insensitive to the signaling molecules controlling antibiotic biosynthesis. Together, the results presented in this study reveal S. ambofaciens to be a new producer of kinamycins and AlpW to be a key late repressor of the cellular control of kinamycin biosynthesis. PMID:21193612

  20. Extraction and identification of bioactive compounds (eicosane and dibutyl phthalate) produced by Streptomyces strain KX852460 for the biological control of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 strain KX852461 to control target spot disease in tobacco leaf.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Taswar; Chen, Jianguang; Zhao, Xiuxiang; Irfan, Muhammad; Wu, Yuanhua

    2017-12-01

    Streptomyces strain KX852460 having antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 KX852461 that is the causal agent of target spot disease in tobacco leaf. The aim of the study was to determine the antifungal activity of Streptomyces strain KX852460 extract against R. solani AG-3 and to identify bioactive antifungal compounds produced by strain KX852460. Crude substance was produced by submerged fermentation process from Streptomyces strain KX852460. Various solvent was used to extract the culture filtrate. Among all, ethyl acetate extracted supernatant showed great potency against R. solani AG-3 KX852461. The active fractions were purified by silica gel column chromatography having 52 mm zone of inhibition against R. solani AG-3 KX852461. The purified fractions were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. Twenty-seven compounds were identified and most of the compounds were the derivatives of aromatic compounds. Eicosane (C20H42) and dibutyl phthalate (C16H22O4) were found antifungal compounds in this study. While morphinan, 7,8-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methyl-3,6-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-, (5.Alpha. 6.Alpha)-(C23H35NO3Si2), cyclononasiloxane, octadecamethyl-(C18H54O9Si9) and benzoic acid, 2,5-bis(trimethylsiloxy) (C16H30O4Si3) were the major compounds with highest peak number. These results suggested that Streptomyces strain KX852460 had good general antifungal activity and might have potential biocontrol antagonist against R. solani AG-3 KX852461 to cure the target spot in tobacco leaf.

  1. Salmonella spp. and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli prevalence in an ocellated lizard (Timon lepidus) research center in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Remigio; Sánchez, Sergio; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Herrera-León, Silvia; Rey, Joaquín; Echeita, Maria Aurora; Morán, Jose María; García-Sánchez, Alfredo

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the epidemiological status of Salmonella spp. and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in an ocellated lizard research center focusing on the risk and hygiene aspects. Fecal and environmental samples were collected and examined for Salmonella spp. and STEC. Isolates were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and characterized using serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Overall, 52% of samples were positive for Salmonella spp. using RT-PCR and seven isolates were obtained from samples from ocellated lizards and their environment, whereas no samples were positive for STEC. Salmonella isolates belonged to S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kibusi and S. enterica subsp. salamae serovars 41:z10:z6 and 18:z10:z6, some of which have previously been isolated from human sources. Indistinguishable and closely related PFGE types were found, which supported the existence of horizontal transmission between animals due to crowding of animals and the persistence of Salmonella in the environment. The results of the current study emphasize the need for improved prevention efforts and good hygiene practices in research centers, recuperation centers, and zoos with reptiles to minimize the exposure of personnel and visitors to this pathogen.

  2. Role of grapevine vegetative expression on Aspergillus spp. incidence and OTA accumulation in wines produced in a temperate humid climate.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Virginia; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Coniberti, Andrés; Disegna, Edgardo

    2017-02-01

    Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. are the main producers of ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin responsible for fatal human diseases. Some authorities have established a maximum of 2 μg/L of OTA in wine. Although the incidence and occurrence of OTA in grapes and wine is highly related to climate conditions, as has been extensively documented, there is no conclusive information on the effects of cultivation systems on the presence of OTA. This study focuses on determining the effect of the trellis system, planting density and cordon height on plant microclimate and thus on Aspergillus spp. contamination and OTA production in Tannat wines in Southern Uruguay. Two experiments were conducted during the 2010-2011 growing season: (1) a strip split plot design with five replicates and two cordon heights (CH) (0.5 m and 1.0 m above the soil) were compared in two planting densities (PD) (0.8 and 1.5 m between plants); (2) a randomised complete block design, vertical shoot positioning (VSP) versus Lyra trellis systems were evaluated. The results suggest that, even the macro- and micro-climate growing conditions play an important part in Aspergillus developing on grapes. Agronomical practices also have an undoubted impact on the risk and control of OTA accumulation in wine.

  3. [Regulators of differentiation in Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus].

    PubMed

    Anisova, L N; Blinova, I N; Efremenkova, O V; Smirnova, G M; Khokhlov, A S

    1984-01-01

    Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus PRL 1642 producing valinomycin was shown to synthesize bioregulators of differentiation similar to A factor. The regulators stimulate spore formation and streptomycin synthesis in a Streptomyces griseus 1439 mutant deficient in A factor. Some S. cyaneofuscatus mutants respond to A factor addition into the medium by an increase in valinomycin synthesis and a change in morphological properties. The regulators from S. cyaneofuscatus are more effective toward mutants of this species than toward S. griseus mutants.

  4. The changing epidemiology of Acinetobacter spp. producing OXA carbapenemases causing bloodstream infections in Brazil: a BrasNet report.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Barth, Afonso L; Zavascki, Alexandre P; Gales, Ana C; Levin, Anna S; Lucarevschi, Bianca R; Cabral, Blenda G; Brasiliense, Danielle M; Rossi, Flavia; Furtado, Guilherme H C; Carneiro, Irna Carla R S; da Silva, Juliana O; Ribeiro, Julival; Lima, Karla V B; Correa, Luci; Britto, Maria H; Silva, Mariama T; da Conceição, Marília L; Moreira, Marina; Martino, Marinês D V; de Freitas, Marise R; Oliveira, Maura S; Dalben, Mirian F; Guzman, Ricardo D; Cayô, Rodrigo; Morais, Rosângela; Santos, Sânia A; Martins, Willames M B S

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the epidemiology of Acinetobacter spp. recovered from patients diagnosed with bloodstream infections in 9 tertiary hospitals located in all Brazilian geographic regions between April and August 2014. Although OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter baumannii clones were disseminated in most hospitals, it was observed for the first time the spread of OXA-72 among clonally related A. baumannii isolated from distinct hospitals. Interestingly, Acinetobacter pittii was the most frequent species found in a Northern region hospital. Contrasting with the multisusceptible profile displayed by A. pittii isolates, the tetracyclines and polymyxins were the only antimicrobials active against all A. baumannii isolates.

  5. Induction of actinorhodin production by rpsL (encoding ribosomal protein S12) mutations that confer streptomycin resistance in Streptomyces lividans and Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed Central

    Shima, J; Hesketh, A; Okamoto, S; Kawamoto, S; Ochi, K

    1996-01-01

    A strain of Streptomyces lividans, TK24, was found to produce a pigmented antibiotic, actinorhodin, although S. lividans normally does not produce this antibiotic. Genetic analyses revealed that a streptomycin-resistant mutation str-6 in strain TK24 is responsible for induction of antibiotic synthesis. DNA sequencing showed that str-6 is a point mutation in the rpsL gene encoding ribosomal protein S12, changing Lys-88 to Glu. Gene replacement experiments with the Lys88-->Glu str allele demonstrated unambiguously that the str mutation is alone responsible for the activation of actinorhodin production observed. In contrast, the strA1 mutation, a genetic marker frequently used for crosses, did not restore actinorhodin production and was found to result in an amino acid alteration of Lys-43 to Asn. Induction of actinorhodin production was also detected in strain TK21, which does not harbor the str-6 mutation, when cells were incubated with sufficient streptomycin or tetracycline to reduce the cell's growth rate, and 40 and 3% of streptomycin- or tetracycline-resistant mutants, respectively, derived from strain TK21 produced actinorhodin. Streptomycin-resistant mutations also blocked the inhibitory effects of relA and brgA mutations on antibiotic production, aerial mycelium formation or both. These str mutations changed Lys-88 to Glu or Arg and Arg-86 to His in ribosomal protein S12. The decrease in streptomycin production in relC mutants in Streptomyces griseus could also be abolished completely by introducing streptomycin-resistant mutations, although the impairment in antibiotic production due to bldA (in Streptomyces coelicolor) or afs mutations (in S. griseus) was not eliminated. These results indicate that the onset and extent of secondary metabolism in Streptomyces spp. is significantly controlled by the translational machinery. PMID:8955413

  6. Streptomyces bacteremia in a patient with actinomycotic mycetoma.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Noyal Mariya; Harish, Belgode Narasimha; Sistla, Sujatha; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2010-05-01

    A 29-year-old woman presented with multiple painful swelling with discharging sinuses over the scalp. Histopathological examination of the biopsy tissue was suggestive of actinomycotic mycetoma. Streptomyces spp. was isolated from blood culture. The patient was successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and crystalline penicillin. This case is reported because of the rare occurrence of bacteremia by Streptomyces spp. secondary to subcutaneous actinomycotic mycetoma. Moreover, an interesting association between successive two pregnancies and occurrence of mycetoma of the scalp was observed in this case.

  7. Patulin and patulin producing Penicillium spp. occurrence in apples and apple-based products including baby food.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Walid; Al-Thani, Roda; Fiori, Stefano; Al-Meer, Saeed; Atia, Fathy Atia; Rabah, Duha; Migheli, Quirico; Jaoua, Samir

    2017-04-30

    Patulin has raised the international attention because of its health risk. In fact, it has mutagenic, neurotoxic, immunotoxic, genotoxic and gastrointestinal effects in animals. In the present work, patulin and patulin-producing Penicillium spp. in apple and apple-based products marketed in Qatar were analysed. Sampling was carried out using apple fruits and apple-based products. Fungi were isolated from undamaged apples, apple juice and baby apple food. DNA extraction was carried out with DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (QIAGEN, Valencia, USA). The molecular identification of fungal isolates was carried out using ITS1-ITS4 PCR. PCR products were sequenced and blasted. Patulin was extracted and analyzed by LC/MS/MS, then quantified using Agilent 1290UHPLC coupled to 6460 triple quadruple mass spectrometer. Forty-five samples of undamaged fresh apple fruits, apple juice and apple-based baby food products sold in different markets in Qatar were surveyed for both fungal and patulin contamination using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometery (LC/MS/MS). Twenty-five Penicillium spp. isolates were selected, including 23 P. expansum and one isolate each of P. brevicompactum and P. commune. All the tested Penicillium spp. isolates produced patulin in vitro (from 40 to 100 μg/g on Malt Yeast Extract agar medium). Patulin was detected in 100% of apple juice samples at levels ranging from 5.27 to 82.21 µg/kg. Only 5 samples contained patulin levels higher than European Union recommended limit (50 µg/kg). The average patulin contamination was 30.67 µg/kg and 10.92 µg/kg in baby apple juice and in baby apple compote, respectively.

  8. Antibiotic and Biosurfactant Properties of Cyclic Lipopeptides Produced by Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. from the Sugar Beet Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, T. H.; Sørensen, D.; Tobiasen, C.; Andersen, J. B.; Christophersen, C.; Givskov, M.; Sørensen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) with antibiotic and biosurfactant properties are produced by a number of soil bacteria, including fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. To provide new and efficient strains for the biological control of root-pathogenic fungi in agricultural crops, we isolated approximately 600 fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. from two different agricultural soils by using three different growth media. CLP production was observed in a large proportion of the strains (approximately 60%) inhabiting the sandy soil, compared to a low proportion (approximately 6%) in the loamy soil. Chemical structure analysis revealed that all CLPs could be clustered into two major groups, each consisting of four subgroups. The two major groups varied primarily in the number of amino acids in the cyclic peptide moiety, while each of the subgroups could be differentiated by substitutions of specific amino acids in the peptide moiety. Production of specific CLPs could be affiliated with Pseudomonas fluorescens strain groups belonging to biotype I, V, or VI. In vitro analysis using both purified CLPs and whole-cell P. fluorescens preparations demonstrated that all CLPs exhibited strong biosurfactant properties and that some also had antibiotic properties towards root-pathogenic microfungi. The CLP-producing P. fluorescens strains provide a useful resource for selection of biological control agents, whether a single strain or a consortium of strains was used to maximize the synergistic effect of multiple antagonistic traits in the inoculum. PMID:12089023

  9. Comprehensive Genome Analysis of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacter spp.: New Insights into Phylogeny, Population Structure, and Resistance Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chavda, Kalyan D; Chen, Liang; Fouts, Derrick E; Sutton, Granger; Brinkac, Lauren; Jenkins, Stephen G; Bonomo, Robert A; Adams, Mark D; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2016-12-13

    Knowledge regarding the genomic structure of Enterobacter spp., the second most prevalent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, remains limited. Here we sequenced 97 clinical Enterobacter species isolates that were both carbapenem susceptible and resistant from various geographic regions to decipher the molecular origins of carbapenem resistance and to understand the changing phylogeny of these emerging and drug-resistant pathogens. Of the carbapenem-resistant isolates, 30 possessed blaKPC-2, 40 had blaKPC-3, 2 had blaKPC-4, and 2 had blaNDM-1 Twenty-three isolates were carbapenem susceptible. Six genomes were sequenced to completion, and their sizes ranged from 4.6 to 5.1 Mbp. Phylogenomic analysis placed 96 of these genomes, 351 additional Enterobacter genomes downloaded from NCBI GenBank, and six newly sequenced type strains into 19 phylogenomic groups-18 groups (A to R) in the Enterobacter cloacae complex and Enterobacter aerogenes Diverse mechanisms underlying the molecular evolutionary trajectory of these drug-resistant Enterobacter spp. were revealed, including the acquisition of an antibiotic resistance plasmid, followed by clonal spread, horizontal transfer of blaKPC-harboring plasmids between different phylogenomic groups, and repeated transposition of the blaKPC gene among different plasmid backbones. Group A, which comprises multilocus sequence type 171 (ST171), was the most commonly identified (23% of isolates). Genomic analysis showed that ST171 isolates evolved from a common ancestor and formed two different major clusters; each acquiring unique blaKPC-harboring plasmids, followed by clonal expansion. The data presented here represent the first comprehensive study of phylogenomic interrogation and the relationship between antibiotic resistance and plasmid discrimination among carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter spp., demonstrating the genetic diversity and complexity of the molecular mechanisms driving antibiotic resistance in this genus

  10. Urban riverine environment is a source of multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing clinically important Acinetobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Maravić, Ana; Skočibušić, Mirjana; Fredotović, Željana; Šamanić, Ivica; Cvjetan, Svjetlana; Knezović, Mia; Puizina, Jasna

    2016-02-01

    Some Acinetobacter species have emerged as very important opportunistic pathogens in humans. We investigated Acinetobacter spp. from the polluted urban riverine environment in Croatia in regard to species affiliation, antibiotic resistance pattern, and resistance mechanisms. Considerable number of isolates produced acquired extended-spectrum β-lactamase(s) (ESBLs), CTX-M-15 solely or with TEM-116. By Southern blot hybridization, bla TEM-116 was identified on plasmids ca. 10, 3, and 1.2 kb in Acinetobacter junii, A. gandensis, and A. johnsonii. The bla TEM-116-carrying plasmid in A. gandensis was successfully transferred by conjugation to azide-resistant Escherichia coli J53. A. radioresistens isolate also carried an intrinsic carbapenemase gene bla OXA-133 with ISAba1 insertion sequence present upstream to promote its expression. Majority of ESBL-producing isolates harbored integrases intI1 and/or intI2 and the sulfamethoxazole resistance gene sul1. Almost all isolates had overexpressed resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) efflux system, indicating that this mechanism may have contributed to multidrug resistance phenotypes. This is the first report of environmental CTX-M-15-producing Acinetobacter spp. and the first identification of CTX-M-15 in A. johnsonii, A. junii, A. calcoaceticus, A. gandensis, A. haemolyticus, and A. radioresistens worldwide. We identified, also for the first time, the environmental Acinetobacter-producing TEM ESBLs, highlighting the potential risk for human health, and the role of these bacteria in maintenance and dissemination of clinically important antibiotic resistance genes in community through riverine environments.

  11. Development of novel agar media for isolating guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Chang, S S; Park, S H; Kang, D H

    2013-06-03

    The purpose of this study is to develop a selective and differential medium (SK2 agar) for isolating guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus. Forty-one selected dyes and vanillic acid were incorporated in SK agar for screening selective and differential agents. Two guaiacol producing (1016, 1101) and two non-guaiacol producing (19220, C-GD 1-1) Alicyclobacillus isolates were streaked onto media and color differentiation of the isolates was assessed. Among 41 tested dyes, Chrome Azurol S (CAS) allowed color differentiation of the two types of Alicyclobacillus. Colonies of guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus isolates appeared as dark purple to royal blue color with yellow background, whereas non-guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus isolates produced cream colored colonies with yellow background. Vanillic acid not only served as a precursor for guaiacol formation but also inhibited non-guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus. Non-guaiacol producing isolates did not grow on SK agar containing more than 70 ppm vanillic acid, whereas the recovery of guaiacol producing isolates was unaffected. When compared with other Alicyclobacillus isolation media, not only was SK2 agar capable of selectively recovering guaiacol-producing Alicyclobacillus, the degree of growth was also approximately equal if not better than orange serum agar, potato dextrose agar, and K agar. The development of SK2 agar provides the fruit juice industry with an inexpensive, simple to use alternative for the detection of guaiacol producing Alicyclobacillus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comprehensive Genome Analysis of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacter spp.: New Insights into Phylogeny, Population Structure, and Resistance Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chavda, Kalyan D.; Chen, Liang; Fouts, Derrick E.; Sutton, Granger; Brinkac, Lauren; Jenkins, Stephen G.; Bonomo, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Knowledge regarding the genomic structure of Enterobacter spp., the second most prevalent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, remains limited. Here we sequenced 97 clinical Enterobacter species isolates that were both carbapenem susceptible and resistant from various geographic regions to decipher the molecular origins of carbapenem resistance and to understand the changing phylogeny of these emerging and drug-resistant pathogens. Of the carbapenem-resistant isolates, 30 possessed blaKPC-2, 40 had blaKPC-3, 2 had blaKPC-4, and 2 had blaNDM-1. Twenty-three isolates were carbapenem susceptible. Six genomes were sequenced to completion, and their sizes ranged from 4.6 to 5.1 Mbp. Phylogenomic analysis placed 96 of these genomes, 351 additional Enterobacter genomes downloaded from NCBI GenBank, and six newly sequenced type strains into 19 phylogenomic groups—18 groups (A to R) in the Enterobacter cloacae complex and Enterobacter aerogenes. Diverse mechanisms underlying the molecular evolutionary trajectory of these drug-resistant Enterobacter spp. were revealed, including the acquisition of an antibiotic resistance plasmid, followed by clonal spread, horizontal transfer of blaKPC-harboring plasmids between different phylogenomic groups, and repeated transposition of the blaKPC gene among different plasmid backbones. Group A, which comprises multilocus sequence type 171 (ST171), was the most commonly identified (23% of isolates). Genomic analysis showed that ST171 isolates evolved from a common ancestor and formed two different major clusters; each acquiring unique blaKPC-harboring plasmids, followed by clonal expansion. The data presented here represent the first comprehensive study of phylogenomic interrogation and the relationship between antibiotic resistance and plasmid discrimination among carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter spp., demonstrating the genetic diversity and complexity of the molecular mechanisms driving antibiotic resistance in this

  13. Sensitivity of Rhizoctonia Isolates to Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid and Biological Control by Phenazine-Producing Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Jaaffar, Ahmad Kamil Mohd; Parejko, James A; Paulitz, Timothy C; Weller, David M; Thomashow, Linda S

    2017-04-04

    Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis groups (AG)-8 and AG-2-1 and R. oryzae are ubiquitous in cereal-based cropping systems of the Columbia Plateau of the Inland Pacific Northwest and commonly infect wheat. AG-8 and R. oryzae, causal agents of Rhizoctonia root rot and bare patch, are most commonly found in fields in the low-precipitation zone, whereas R. solani AG-2-1 is much less virulent on wheat and is distributed in fields throughout the low-, intermediate-, and high-precipitation zones. Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. that produce the antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) also are abundant in the rhizosphere of crops grown in the low-precipitation zone but their broader geographic distribution and effect on populations of Rhizoctonia is unknown. To address these questions, we surveyed the distribution of PCA producers (Phz(+)) in 59 fields in cereal-based cropping systems throughout the Columbia Plateau. Phz(+) Pseudomonas spp. were detected in 37 of 59 samples and comprised from 0 to 12.5% of the total culturable heterotrophic aerobic rhizosphere bacteria. The frequency with which individual plants were colonized by Phz(+) pseudomonads ranged from 0 to 100%. High and moderate colonization frequencies of Phz(+) pseudomonads were associated with roots from fields located in the driest areas whereas only moderate and low colonization frequencies were associated with crops where higher annual precipitation occurs. Thus, the geographic distribution of Phz(+) pseudomonads overlaps closely with the distribution of R. solani AG-8 but not with that of R. oryzae or R. solani AG-2-1. Moreover, linear regression analysis demonstrated a highly significant inverse relationship between annual precipitation and the frequency of rhizospheres colonized by Phz(+) pseudomonads. Phz(+) pseudomonads representative of the four major indigenous species (P. aridus, P. cerealis, P. orientalis, and P. synxantha) suppressed Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat when applied as seed treatments. In

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. F-3

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaomeng; Meng, Jing; Liu, Shijia; Zhang, Huaiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. F-3 is a kind of thermophilic Streptomyces strain that can produce cellulolytic enzymes and diverse secondary metabolites. Here, we report the complete genome of this organism, whose genome length is 5,303,958 bp, containing 6,041 protein-coding genes, 69 tRNA operons, and three rRNA operons. PMID:27492002

  15. Light microscopy and molecular identification of Sarcocystis spp. in meat producing animals in Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Latif, B; Kannan Kutty, M; Muslim, A; Hussaini, J; Omar, E; Heo, C C; Rossle, N F; Abdullah, S; Kamarudin, M A; Zulkarnain, M A

    2015-09-01

    One thousand and forty-five tissue samples of skeletal muscles, tongue, heart, diaphragm and esophagus were collected from 209 animals (43 sheep, 89 goats and 77 cattle) from an abattoir in Selangor between February and October, 2013. Each sample was divided into three pieces with each piece measuring 2-3 mm3. Each piece was then squeezed between two glass slides and examined microscopically at x 10 magnification for the presence of sarcocystosis. Three positive samples from each animal species were then fixed in 10% formalin for histological processing. Seven positive samples collected from each animal species were preserved at -80°C or 90% ethanol for gene expression studies. Microsarcocysts were detected in 114 (54.5%) animals by light microscopy (LM). The infection rates in sheep, goat and cattle were 86, 61.8 and 28.6% respectively. The highest rate of infection was in the skeletal muscles of sheep (64.9%) and goats (63.6%) and in the heart of cattle (63.6%). The cysts were spindle to oval in shape and two stages were recognized, the peripheral metrocytes and centrally located banana-shaped bradyzoites. 18S rRNA gene expression studies confirmed the isolates from the sheep as S. ovicanis, goats as S. capracanis and cattle as S. bovicanis. This, to the best of our knowledge, is the first molecular identification of an isolate of S. ovicanis and S. capracanis in Malaysia. Further studies with electron microscopy (EM) are required in the future to compare the features of different types of Sarcocysts spp.

  16. Recent advances in understanding Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Chater, Keith F.

    2016-01-01

    About 2,500 papers dated 2014–2016 were recovered by searching the PubMed database for Streptomyces, which are the richest known source of antibiotics. This review integrates around 100 of these papers in sections dealing with evolution, ecology, pathogenicity, growth and development, stress responses and secondary metabolism, gene expression, and technical advances. Genomic approaches have greatly accelerated progress. For example, it has been definitively shown that interspecies recombination of conserved genes has occurred during evolution, in addition to exchanges of some of the tens of thousands of non-conserved accessory genes. The closeness of the association of Streptomyces with plants, fungi, and insects has become clear and is reflected in the importance of regulators of cellulose and chitin utilisation in overall Streptomyces biology. Interestingly, endogenous cellulose-like glycans are also proving important in hyphal growth and in the clumping that affects industrial fermentations. Nucleotide secondary messengers, including cyclic di-GMP, have been shown to provide key input into developmental processes such as germination and reproductive growth, while late morphological changes during sporulation involve control by phosphorylation. The discovery that nitric oxide is produced endogenously puts a new face on speculative models in which regulatory Wbl proteins (peculiar to actinobacteria) respond to nitric oxide produced in stressful physiological transitions. Some dramatic insights have come from a new model system for Streptomyces developmental biology, Streptomyces venezuelae, including molecular evidence of very close interplay in each of two pairs of regulatory proteins. An extra dimension has been added to the many complexities of the regulation of secondary metabolism by findings of regulatory crosstalk within and between pathways, and even between species, mediated by end products. Among many outcomes from the application of chromosome

  17. Recent advances in understanding Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Chater, Keith F

    2016-01-01

    About 2,500 papers dated 2014-2016 were recovered by searching the PubMed database for Streptomyces, which are the richest known source of antibiotics. This review integrates around 100 of these papers in sections dealing with evolution, ecology, pathogenicity, growth and development, stress responses and secondary metabolism, gene expression, and technical advances. Genomic approaches have greatly accelerated progress. For example, it has been definitively shown that interspecies recombination of conserved genes has occurred during evolution, in addition to exchanges of some of the tens of thousands of non-conserved accessory genes. The closeness of the association of Streptomyces with plants, fungi, and insects has become clear and is reflected in the importance of regulators of cellulose and chitin utilisation in overall Streptomyces biology. Interestingly, endogenous cellulose-like glycans are also proving important in hyphal growth and in the clumping that affects industrial fermentations. Nucleotide secondary messengers, including cyclic di-GMP, have been shown to provide key input into developmental processes such as germination and reproductive growth, while late morphological changes during sporulation involve control by phosphorylation. The discovery that nitric oxide is produced endogenously puts a new face on speculative models in which regulatory Wbl proteins (peculiar to actinobacteria) respond to nitric oxide produced in stressful physiological transitions. Some dramatic insights have come from a new model system for Streptomyces developmental biology, Streptomyces venezuelae, including molecular evidence of very close interplay in each of two pairs of regulatory proteins. An extra dimension has been added to the many complexities of the regulation of secondary metabolism by findings of regulatory crosstalk within and between pathways, and even between species, mediated by end products. Among many outcomes from the application of chromosome

  18. Predominance and metabolic potential of Halanaerobium spp. in produced water from hydraulically fractured Marcellus Shale wells

    DOE PAGES

    Lipus, Daniel; Vikram, Amit; Ross, Daniel; ...

    2017-02-03

    Here, microbial activity in the produced water from hydraulically fractured oil and gas wells may potentially interfere with hydrocarbon production and cause damage to the well and surface infrastructure via corrosion, sulfide release, and fouling. In this study, we surveyed the microbial abundance and community structure of produced water sampled from 42 Marcellus Shale wells in southwestern Pennsylvania (well age ranged from 150 to 1,846 days) to better understand the microbial diversity of produced water. We sequenced the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to assess taxonomy and utilized quantitative PCR (qPCR) to evaluate the microbial abundance across allmore » 42 produced water samples. Bacteria of the order Halanaerobiales were found to be the most abundant organisms in the majority of the produced water samples, emphasizing their previously suggested role in hydraulic fracturing-related microbial activity. Statistical analyses identified correlations between well age and biocide formulation and the microbial community, in particular, the relative abundance of Halanaerobiales. We further investigated the role of members of the order Halanaerobiales in produced water by reconstructing and annotating a Halanaerobium draft genome (named MDAL1), using shotgun metagenomic sequencing and metagenomic binning. The recovered draft genome was found to be closely related to the species H. congolense, an oil field isolate, and Halanaerobium sp. strain T82-1, also recovered from hydraulic fracturing produced water. Reconstruction of metabolic pathways revealed Halanaerobium sp. strain MDAL1 to have the potential for acid production, thiosulfate reduction, and biofilm formation, suggesting it to have the ability to contribute to corrosion, souring, and biofouling events in the hydraulic fracturing infrastructure.« less

  19. Antimicrobial activity and partial characterization of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances produced by Lactobacillus spp. isolated from artisanal Mexican cheese.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Acedo-Félix, Evelia; González-Córdova, Aarón F; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacillus spp. from Mexican Cocido cheese were shown to produce bacteriocin-like substances (BLS) active against Staphylococcus aureus,Listeria innocua,Escherichia coli, andSalmonella typhimurium by using the disk diffusion method. Crude extracts of Lactobacillus fermentum showed strong inhibitory activity against Staph. aureus, L. innocua, E. coli, and Salmonella cholerae. Complete inactivation of antimicrobial activity was observed after treatment of crude extracts with proteinase K, pronase, papain, trypsin, and lysozyme, confirming their proteinaceous nature. However, antimicrobial activity was partly lost for some of the crude extracts when treated with α-amylase, indicating that carbohydrate moieties were involved. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was stable at 65°C for 30min over a wide pH range (2-8), and addition of potassium chloride, sodium citrate, ethanol, and butanol did not affect antibacterial activity. However, antimicrobial activity was lost after heating at 121°C for 15min, addition of methanol or Tween 80. Fourteen out of 18 Lactobacillus spp. showed antimicrobial activity against different test microorganisms, and 12 presented bacteriocin-like substances. Generation time and growth rate parameters indicated that the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from 3 different strains was effective against the 4 indicator microorganisms. One of the crude extracts showed inhibition not only against gram-positive but also against gram-negative bacteria. Bacteriocin-like substances produced by this specific Lactobacillus strain showed potential for application as a food biopreservative. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Crucial factor for increasing the conjugation frequency in Streptomyces netropsis SD-07 and other strains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Kun; Jin, Jian-Ling

    2014-08-01

    Streptomyces netropsis SD-07, the producer of novel polyene macrolide antifungal antibiotics, was isolated from soil. For the investigation of the functions of its biosynthesis genes and regulation mechanisms, a genetic operating system is necessary. In this study, we successfully transferred the plasmid DNA of pSET152 from the methylation deficient donor, Escherichia coli ET12567/pSET152/pUZ8002, to S. netropsis SD-07 by conjugation and evaluated the crucial factors influencing the conjugation frequency. Ca(2+) ions in presence the conjugation media may increase the conjugation frequency by 1000-10 000 times than Ca(2+) ions absence in the same conjugation media, and 10-100 time higher than Mg(2+) ions. Similar results (increasing the conjugation frequency by 10-100 times when media containing 60 mM CaCl2 ) were also obtained from the conjugation between E. coli ET12567 and Streptomyces coelicolor, S. lavendulae, S. venezuelae, despite their conjugation media were different (MS, CM, GS). So, CaCl2 concentration is a crucial factor for increasing the conjugation frequency, and the suitable concentration may probably be 60 mM. In addition, synthetic medium containing a small amount of organic nitrogen source may benefit increasing the conjugation frequency. These findings could be valuable for the development of a practical method for achieving conjugation in other Streptomyces spp.

  1. Predominance and Metabolic Potential of Halanaerobium spp. in Produced Water from Hydraulically Fractured Marcellus Shale Wells.

    PubMed

    Lipus, Daniel; Vikram, Amit; Ross, Daniel; Bain, Daniel; Gulliver, Djuna; Hammack, Richard; Bibby, Kyle

    2017-04-15

    Microbial activity in the produced water from hydraulically fractured oil and gas wells may potentially interfere with hydrocarbon production and cause damage to the well and surface infrastructure via corrosion, sulfide release, and fouling. In this study, we surveyed the microbial abundance and community structure of produced water sampled from 42 Marcellus Shale wells in southwestern Pennsylvania (well age ranged from 150 to 1,846 days) to better understand the microbial diversity of produced water. We sequenced the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to assess taxonomy and utilized quantitative PCR (qPCR) to evaluate the microbial abundance across all 42 produced water samples. Bacteria of the order Halanaerobiales were found to be the most abundant organisms in the majority of the produced water samples, emphasizing their previously suggested role in hydraulic fracturing-related microbial activity. Statistical analyses identified correlations between well age and biocide formulation and the microbial community, in particular, the relative abundance of Halanaerobiales We further investigated the role of members of the order Halanaerobiales in produced water by reconstructing and annotating a Halanaerobium draft genome (named MDAL1), using shotgun metagenomic sequencing and metagenomic binning. The recovered draft genome was found to be closely related to the species H. congolense, an oil field isolate, and Halanaerobium sp. strain T82-1, also recovered from hydraulic fracturing produced water. Reconstruction of metabolic pathways revealed Halanaerobium sp. strain MDAL1 to have the potential for acid production, thiosulfate reduction, and biofilm formation, suggesting it to have the ability to contribute to corrosion, souring, and biofouling events in the hydraulic fracturing infrastructure.IMPORTANCE There are an estimated 15,000 unconventional gas wells in the Marcellus Shale region, each generating up to 8,000 liters of hypersaline produced water per day

  2. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp. in a neonatal intensive care unit: risk factors for the infection and the dynamics of the molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Kristóf, K; Szabó, D; Marsh, J W; Cser, V; Janik, L; Rozgonyi, F; Nobilis, A; Nagy, K; Paterson, D L

    2007-08-01

    The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella spp. cause worldwide problems in intensive care units. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. oxytoca strains in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Budapest, Hungary and to determine the risk factors of the infections and the epidemiological features. Infections with Klebsiella spp. were analyzed retrospectively by reviewing the medical records between January 2001 and December 2005. Antibiotic susceptibility tests, isoelectric focusing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, plasmid analysis, PCR for bla(TEM) and bla(SHV) and DNA sequencing analysis were performed on ESBL-producing Klebsiella isolates. A total of 45 babies were found to be infected with non-ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. and 39 with ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. Of the parameters analyzed, including sex, gestational age, twin pregnancy, birth weight, presence of central vascular catheter, mechanical ventilator use, parenteral nutrition, polymicrobial infection, caesarean section, transfusion and mortality, we found no statistically significant difference between the ESBL and the non-ESBL groups, or between the K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca species. Further characterization of the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca strains isolated between February 2001 and January 2003 revealed three distinct PFGE patterns of SHV-5-producing K. pneumoniae (A, B, E) and two distinct patterns of SHV-12-producing K. oxytoca (C,D) isolates; these had different plasmid profiles. From July to November 2005, a new SHV-5 producing K. oxytoca (F) was isolated. The molecular epidemiology of ESBL-producing organisms in a NICU over time shows substantial shifts in predominant strains. The ESBL production of the infected organisms has an impact on the survival of newborn babies with infections caused by Klebsiella spp.

  3. Novel vitamin B12-producing Enterococcus spp. and preliminary in vitro evaluation of probiotic potentials.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Gu, Qing; Wang, Yuejiao; Yu, Yue; Yang, Lanlan; Chen, Jieyan V

    2017-08-01

    Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient required for crucial metabolic processes in humans. Vitamin B12-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been attracting increased attentions currently because of the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. Most of recent studies focused on Lactobacillus, and little is known about B12-producing Enterococcus. In the present study, five Enterococcus strains isolated from infant feces were identified as vitamin B12 producers. Among them, Enterococcus faecium LZ86 had the highest B12 production (499.8 ± 83.7 μg/L), and the B12 compound from LZ86 was identified as the biological active adenosylcobalamin, using reversed phase high-performance liquid (RP-HPLC) chromatogram. We examined basic probiotic and safety properties of E. faecium LZ86 and found that it was able to survive harsh environmental conditions (hot temperature, cold temperature, ethanol and osmotic stresses), tolerate gastric acid (pH 2.0, 3 h) and bile salts (0.3%), and adhere to Caco-2 cells. We also showed that E. faecium LZ86 is devoid of transferable antibiotic resistance and potential virulence factors. Together, here we report a B12-producing E. faecium strain LZ86 firstly, which has desirable probiotic properties and may serve as a good candidate for vitamin B12 fortification in food industry.

  4. Phenazine-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.: Diversity and biogeography in central Washington state

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Strains of the rhizosphere bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens produce redox-active phenazine antibiotics that suppress a wide variety of soilborne plant pathogens. Our laboratory recently detected these bacteria a population levels up to 106 colony-forming units (cfu) per gram of root (fresh weight)...

  5. 5-Alkyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines, new membrane-interacting lipophilic metabolites produced by combined culture of Streptomyces nigrescens and Tsukamurella pulmonis.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Shinichi; Ozaki, Taro; Asamizu, Shumpei; Onaka, Hiroyasu; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2015-04-17

    Eight novel 5-alkyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines (5aTHQs) bearing different side chains have been isolated from a combined culture of Streptomyces nigrescens HEK616 and Tsukamurella pulmonis TP-B0596. The chemical structures including the absolute configuration were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and total synthesis. 5aTHQs inhibited the growth of wild-type fission yeast while only weakly inhibiting the growth of several mutant strains synthesizing premature ergosterol. These results demonstrate that 5aTHQs are novel antifungals that may target cell membranes.

  6. The Tunisian oasis ecosystem is a source of antagonistic Bacillus spp. producing diverse antifungal lipopeptides.

    PubMed

    El Arbi, Amel; Rochex, Alice; Chataigné, Gabrielle; Béchet, Max; Lecouturier, Didier; Arnauld, Ségolène; Gharsallah, Néji; Jacques, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The use of microbial products has become a promising alternative approach to controlling plant diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Bacteria isolated from the date palm tree rhizosphere of the Tunisian oasis ecosystem could provide new biocontrol microorganisms adapted to extreme conditions, such as drought, salinity and high temperature. The aim of this study was to screen bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of the date palm tree for their ability to inhibit phytopathogenic fungi, and to identify molecules responsible for their antifungal activity. Screening for antifungal activity was performed on twenty-eight isolates. Five antagonistic isolates were selected and identified as different species of Bacillus using phenotypical methods and a molecular approach. The five antagonistic Bacillus isolated showed tolerance to abiotic stresses (high temperature, salinity, drought). Their ability to produce lipopeptides was investigated using a combination of two techniques: PCR amplification and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. Analyses revealed that the antagonistic isolates produced a high diversity of lipopeptides that belonged to surfactin, fengycin, iturin and kurstakin families. Their antagonistic activity, related to their capacity for producing diverse antifungal lipopeptides and their tolerance to abiotic stresses, highlighted Bacillus strains isolated from the rhizosphere of the date palm tree as potential biocontrol agents for combatting plant diseases in extreme environments. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacter spp. in patients with bacteremia in a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Paganini, Maria Cristina; Conte, Andréia; Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Taborda de Messias Reason, Iara; da Silva, Márcio José; Dalla-Costa, Libera Maria

    2014-02-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are increasingly prevalent in Enterobacter spp., posing a challenge to the treatment of infections caused by this microorganism. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of inpatients with bacteremia caused by ESBL and non ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp. in a tertiary hospital over the period 2004-2008. The presence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaPER genes was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleotide sequence analysis. Genetic similarity between strains was defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Enterobacter spp. was identified in 205 of 4907 of the patients who had positive blood cultures during hospitalization. Of those cases, 41 (20%) were ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp. Nosocomial pneumonia was the main source of bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp. The presence of this microorganism was associated with longer hospital stays. The ESBL genes detected were: CTX-M-2 (23), CTX-M-59 (10), CTX-M-15 (1), SHV-12 (5), and PER-2 (2). While Enterobacter aerogenes strains showed mainly a clonal profile, Enterobacter cloacae strains were polyclonal. Although no difference in clinical outcomes was observed between patients with infections by ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing strains, the detection of ESBL in Enterobacter spp. resulted in the change of antimicrobials in 75% of cases, having important implications in the decision-making regarding adequate antimicrobial therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. A bacterial analog of the mdr gene of mammalian tumor cells is present in Streptomyces peucetius, the producer of daunorubicin and doxorubicin.

    PubMed Central

    Guilfoile, P G; Hutchinson, C R

    1991-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the drrAB locus from Streptomyces peucetius (American Type Culture Collection 29050) reveals the presence of two genes, drrA and drrB, both of which are required for daunorubicin and doxorubicin (Adriamycin) resistance in the heterologous host Streptomyces lividans. The DrrA protein is similar to a large family of ATP-binding transport proteins, including the proteins encoded by the mdr genes from mammalian tumor cells, which confer resistance to daunorubicin, doxorubicin, and some other structurally unrelated chemotherapeutic agents. The DrrB protein shows no significant similarity to other known proteins but is probably very hydrophobic, suggesting that it is located in the bacterial membrane. These two proteins may act jointly to confer daunorubicin and doxorubicin resistance by an analog of the antiport mechanism established for mammalian tumor cells that contain amplified or overexpressed mdr genes. Transcriptional analysis of the drrAB region supports the presence of one transcript containing drrA and drrB and indicates that these genes are expressed only during antibiotic production. Images PMID:1924314

  9. Activity of daptomycin on biofilms produced on a plastic support by Staphylococcus spp.

    PubMed

    Roveta, S; Marchese, A; Schito, G C

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the novel lipopeptide daptomycin might be capable of disrupting or inhibiting the synthesis of biofilms produced by staphylococci. Fourteen recently isolated slime-producing methicillin-susceptible (MET-S) and methicillin-resistant (MET-R) strains (three MET-S Staphylococcus aureus, three MET-R S. aureus, three MET-S Staphylococcus epidermidis, three MET-R S. epidermidis and two vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA)) were tested. Slime formation on polystyrene plates was quantified spectrophotometrically. Daptomycin (2-64 mg/L) inhibited slime synthesis by > or =80% in MET-S strains, by 60-80% in MET-R S. aureus and by 70-95% in MET-R S. epidermidis. At 64 mg/L, biofilm synthesis decreased by 80% in the VISA isolates. Daptomycin also disrupted pre-formed biofilm: >50% breakdown of initial biofilm (5h) was observed in all strains. Disruption of mature biofilms (48 h), in terms of percentage, was more variable depending on the strain, ranging from ca. 20% in a MET-R S. epidermidis strain to almost 70% in two MET-S strains (one S. aureus and one S. epidermidis). Daptomycin at concentrations achievable during therapy promoted a statistically significant inhibition of slime synthesis (preventing biofilm building) and induced slime disruption (disaggregating its structure) both in initial and mature biofilms on a plastic support in all staphylococcal strains studied.

  10. Qualitative exposure assessment for Salmonella spp. in shell eggs produced on the island of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Murchie, Laura; Xia, Bin; Madden, Robert H; Whyte, Paul; Kelly, Louise

    2008-07-31

    A qualitative exposure assessment for Salmonella in eggs produced on the island of Ireland was developed. The assessment was divided into three main modules (production and packing, distribution and storage, and preparation and consumption), and each of these stages into defined steps in the exposure pathway. In the production and packing stage the initial prevalences of Salmonella in the contents and on the shell of eggs were estimated to be negligible and low respectively. Numbers of Salmonella both in and on eggs were estimated to be low. At each subsequent step in the pathway, qualitative assessments were made of the impact of events on the probability and level of Salmonella contamination on the shells and in the contents of eggs. At the end of each module assessments were combined to give an overall probability and level of Salmonella contamination. In the first two modules the assessment focused on the effect of the duration and temperature of storage on yolk membrane integrity and the likelihood of shell penetration. During the final stage the influence of factors such as safe-handling procedures, pooling practices, consumption patterns and the effectiveness of cooking, on the prevalence and level of Salmonella contamination in a food item at time of consumption was assessed. The outcome of this assessment was an estimate of a low probability and level of Salmonella contamination of egg-containing foods, prepared with eggs produced on the island of Ireland.

  11. Characterization of biosurfactants produced by Lactobacillus spp. and their activity against oral streptococci biofilm.

    PubMed

    Ciandrini, Eleonora; Campana, Raffaella; Casettari, Luca; Perinelli, Diego R; Fagioli, Laura; Manti, Anita; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo; Papa, Stefano; Baffone, Wally

    2016-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can interfere with pathogens through different mechanisms; one is the production of biosurfactants, a group of surface-active molecules, which inhibit the growth of potential pathogens. In the present study, biosurfactants produced by Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938, Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, and Lactobacillus paracasei B21060 were dialyzed (1 and 6 kDa) and characterized in term of reduction of surface tension and emulsifying activity. Then, aliquots of the different dialyzed biosurfactants were added to Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus oralis ATCC 9811 in the culture medium during the formation of biofilm on titanium surface and the efficacy was determined by agar plate count, biomass analyses, and flow cytometry. Dialyzed biosurfactants showed abilities to reduce surface tension and to emulsifying paraffin oil. Moreover, they significantly inhibited the adhesion and biofilm formation on titanium surface of S. mutans and S. oralis in a dose-dependent way, as demonstrated by the remarkable decrease of cfu/ml values and biomass production. The antimicrobial properties observed for dialyzed biosurfactants produced by the tested lactobacilli opens future prospects for their use against microorganisms responsible of oral diseases.

  12. Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants.

    PubMed

    Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Price, Neil P J; Leathers, Timothy D

    2013-05-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Four bacterial strains, designated as ALT3A, ALT3B, ALT17, and MR1, produced inhibitory effects on growth of LAB. Sequencing of rRNA identified these strains as species of Bacillus subtilis (ALT3A and ALT3B) and B. cereus (ALT17 and MR1). Cell mass from colonies and agar samples from inhibition zones were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The spectra of ALT3A and ALT3B showed a strong signal at m/z 1,060, similar in mass to the surfactin family of antimicrobial lipopeptides. ALT3A and ALT3B were analyzed by zymogram analysis using SDS-PAGE gels placed on agar plates inoculated with LAB. Cell lysates possessed an inhibitory protein of less than 10 kDa, consistent with the production of an antibacterial lipopeptide. Mass spectra of ALT17 and MR1 had notable signals at m/z 908 and 930 in the whole cell extracts and at m/z 687 in agar, but these masses do not correlate with those of previously reported antibacterial lipopeptides, and no antibacterial activity was detected by zymogram. The antibacterial activities produced by these strains may have application in the fuel ethanol industry as an alternative to antibiotics for prevention and control of bacterial contamination.

  13. Studies on in vitro degradability of mixed crude enzyme extracts produced from Pleurotus spp.

    PubMed

    Naraian, Ram; Singh, Dharam; Verma, Anju; Garg, S K

    2010-11-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted to assess lignocellulolytic efficiency of crude extracts from three white-rot fungi, Pleurotus florida PF05 (PF), Pleurotus sajor-caju PS07 (PS) and Pleurotus eryngii PE08 (PE). The activities of CMC-ase, xylanase, beta-glucosidase, beta-xylosidase, laccase and Mn peroxidase in extracts were evaluated. PF produced its highest CMC-ase (317 UL(-1)'), beta-glucosidase (62 UL(-1)), beta-xylosidase (37 UL(-1)) and laccase (347 UL(-1)) activities while, PS produced highest xylanase (269 UL-(1)) and Mn peroxidase (69 UL(-1)) activities. In addition, crude extracts extracted were employed for their in vitro degradability assessment; and were evaluated with mono and mixed extracts separately to corn cob substrate. The losses in cell wall components and dry matter during 5 and 10 days incubations were analyzed after treatments of extracts. Maximum 8.2, 4.4 and 2.8% loss were found respectivelyin hemicellulose (HC), cellulose (C) and lignin (L) with mono extract of PF within 10 days. The influence of mono extract of each strain (PF PS and PE) and their mixed extracts (PF+PS, PF+PE, PS+PE and PF+PS+PE) on degradation of cell wall constituents were remarkably differed. The mixed extract treatment proved maximum 13.6% HC loss by PF+PS+PE extract, 9.2% loss in C by PF+PS extract and 5.2% loss of L by the PF+PS+PE extract treatment. The highest dry matter loss (8.2%) was recorded with PF+PS+PE mixed extract combination.

  14. Phenotypic characterisation of Saccharomyces spp. yeast for tolerance to stresses encountered during fermentation of lignocellulosic residues to produce bioethanol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During industrial fermentation of lignocellulose residues to produce bioethanol, microorganisms are exposed to a number of factors that influence productivity. These include inhibitory compounds produced by the pre-treatment processes required to release constituent carbohydrates from biomass feed-stocks and during fermentation, exposure of the organisms to stressful conditions. In addition, for lignocellulosic bioethanol production, conversion of both pentose and hexose sugars is a pre-requisite for fermentative organisms for efficient and complete conversion. All these factors are important to maximise industrial efficiency, productivity and profit margins in order to make second-generation bioethanol an economically viable alternative to fossil fuels for future transport needs. Results The aim of the current study was to assess Saccharomyces yeasts for their capacity to tolerate osmotic, temperature and ethanol stresses and inhibitors that might typically be released during steam explosion of wheat straw. Phenotypic microarray analysis was used to measure tolerance as a function of growth and metabolic activity. Saccharomyces strains analysed in this study displayed natural variation to each stress condition common in bioethanol fermentations. In addition, many strains displayed tolerance to more than one stress, such as inhibitor tolerance combined with fermentation stresses. Conclusions Our results suggest that this study could identify a potential candidate strain or strains for efficient second generation bioethanol production. Knowledge of the Saccharomyces spp. strains grown in these conditions will aid the development of breeding programmes in order to generate more efficient strains for industrial fermentations. PMID:24670111

  15. Rapid identification of clinically significant species and taxa of aerobic actinomycetes, including Actinomadura, Gordona, Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Streptomyces, and Tsukamurella isolates, by DNA amplification and restriction endonuclease analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Steingrube, V A; Wilson, R W; Brown, B A; Jost, K C; Blacklock, Z; Gibson, J L; Wallace, R J

    1997-01-01

    A previously described PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) identification schema for Nocardia that used an amplified 439-bp segment (amplicon) of the 65-kDa heat shock protein gene was evaluated for potential use with isolates of all clinically significant aerobic actinomycetes. The study included 28 reference (American Type Culture Collection) strains and 198 clinical isolates belonging to 20 taxonomic groups. Of these 198 isolates, 188 could be differentiated by this PCR-RFLP method. Amplicons from all aerobic actinomycete isolates lacked BstEII recognition sites, thereby distinguishing them from those of mycobacteria that contain one or more such sites. Of 29 restriction endonucleases, MspI plus HinfI produced RFLP patterns that differentiated 16 of the 20 taxa. A single RFLP pattern was observed for 15 of 20 taxa that included 65% of phenotypically clustered isolates. Multiple patterns were seen with Gordona bronchialis, Nocardia asteroides complex type VI, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, Nocardia transvalensis, and Streptomyces spp. Streptomyces RFLP patterns were the most heterogeneous (five patterns among 19 isolates), but exhibited a unique HinfI fragment of > 320 bp. RFLP patterns that matched those from type strains of Streptomyces albus, Streptomyces griseus, or Streptomyces somaliensis were obtained from 14 of 19 Streptomyces isolates. Only 10 of 28 isolates of N. otitidiscaviarum failed to yield satisfactory amplicons, while only 6 of 188 (3.2%) clinical isolates exhibited patterns that failed to match one of the 21 defined RFLP patterns. These studies extended the feasibility of using PCR-RFLP analysis as a rapid method for the identification of all clinically significant species and taxa of aerobic actinomycetes. PMID:9157134

  16. Rapid identification of clinically significant species and taxa of aerobic actinomycetes, including Actinomadura, Gordona, Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Streptomyces, and Tsukamurella isolates, by DNA amplification and restriction endonuclease analysis.

    PubMed

    Steingrube, V A; Wilson, R W; Brown, B A; Jost, K C; Blacklock, Z; Gibson, J L; Wallace, R J

    1997-04-01

    A previously described PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) identification schema for Nocardia that used an amplified 439-bp segment (amplicon) of the 65-kDa heat shock protein gene was evaluated for potential use with isolates of all clinically significant aerobic actinomycetes. The study included 28 reference (American Type Culture Collection) strains and 198 clinical isolates belonging to 20 taxonomic groups. Of these 198 isolates, 188 could be differentiated by this PCR-RFLP method. Amplicons from all aerobic actinomycete isolates lacked BstEII recognition sites, thereby distinguishing them from those of mycobacteria that contain one or more such sites. Of 29 restriction endonucleases, MspI plus HinfI produced RFLP patterns that differentiated 16 of the 20 taxa. A single RFLP pattern was observed for 15 of 20 taxa that included 65% of phenotypically clustered isolates. Multiple patterns were seen with Gordona bronchialis, Nocardia asteroides complex type VI, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, Nocardia transvalensis, and Streptomyces spp. Streptomyces RFLP patterns were the most heterogeneous (five patterns among 19 isolates), but exhibited a unique HinfI fragment of > 320 bp. RFLP patterns that matched those from type strains of Streptomyces albus, Streptomyces griseus, or Streptomyces somaliensis were obtained from 14 of 19 Streptomyces isolates. Only 10 of 28 isolates of N. otitidiscaviarum failed to yield satisfactory amplicons, while only 6 of 188 (3.2%) clinical isolates exhibited patterns that failed to match one of the 21 defined RFLP patterns. These studies extended the feasibility of using PCR-RFLP analysis as a rapid method for the identification of all clinically significant species and taxa of aerobic actinomycetes.

  17. Thermostable Bacterial Bioflocculant Produced by Cobetia Spp. Isolated from Algoa Bay (South Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Ugbenyen, Anthony; Cosa, Sekelwa; Mabinya, Leonard; Babalola, Olubukola O.; Aghdasi, Farhad; Okoh, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A novel bioflocculant-producing bacteria was isolated from sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and the effect of culture conditions on the bioflocculant production was investigated. Analysis of the partial nucleotide sequence of the 16S rDNA of the bacteria revealed 99% similarity to Cobetia sp. L222 and the sequence was deposited in GenBank as Cobetia sp. OAUIFE (accession number JF799092). Cultivation condition studies revealed that bioflocculant production was optimal with an inoculum size of 2% (v/v), initial pH of 6.0, Mn2+ as the metal ion, and glucose as the carbon source. Metal ions, including Na+, K+, Li+, Ca2+and Mg2+ stimulated bioflocculant production, resulting in flocculating activity of above 90%. This crude bioflocculant is thermally stable, with about 78% of its flocculating activity remaining after heating at 100 °C for 25 min. Analysis of the purified bioflocculant revealed it to be an acidic extracellular polysaccharide. PMID:22829793

  18. Thermostable bacterial bioflocculant produced by Cobetia spp. isolated from Algoa Bay (South Africa).

    PubMed

    Ugbenyen, Anthony; Cosa, Sekelwa; Mabinya, Leonard; Babalola, Olubukola O; Aghdasi, Farhad; Okoh, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    A novel bioflocculant-producing bacteria was isolated from sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and the effect of culture conditions on the bioflocculant production was investigated. Analysis of the partial nucleotide sequence of the 16S rDNA of the bacteria revealed 99% similarity to Cobetia sp. L222 and the sequence was deposited in GenBank as Cobetia sp. OAUIFE (accession number JF799092). Cultivation condition studies revealed that bioflocculant production was optimal with an inoculum size of 2% (v/v), initial pH of 6.0, Mn(2+) as the metal ion, and glucose as the carbon source. Metal ions, including Na(+), K(+), Li(+), Ca(2+)and Mg(2+) stimulated bioflocculant production, resulting in flocculating activity of above 90%. This crude bioflocculant is thermally stable, with about 78% of its flocculating activity remaining after heating at 100 °C for 25 min. Analysis of the purified bioflocculant revealed it to be an acidic extracellular polysaccharide.

  19. Molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Kao, Cheng-Yen; Udval, Uuganbayar; Huang, Yi-Ting; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Huang, Ay-Huey; Bolormaa, Enkhbaatar; Yan, Jing-Jou; Urangoo, Zorig; Batbaatar, Gunchin; Khosbayar, Tulgaa; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the molecular characteristics of β-lactamase genes in extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Mongolia. Fifty-six ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected, of which 46 were Escherichia coli, seven were Klebsiella pneumoniae, and three were K. oxytoca. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for selected antibiotics were tested using the agar dilution method, and the β-lactamase genes were determined using polymerase chain reaction combined with sequencing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used for genotyping all isolates, and phylogenetic grouping was performed on ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. Conjugation tests combined with plasmid digestion assays were used to determine whether there was a horizontal spread in Mongolia. Among the 56 ESBL-producing isolates, 43 isolates (76.8%) were resistant to fluoroquinolones, but all isolates were susceptible to carbapenems and amikacin. The polymerase chain reaction sequencing results showed that the dominant CTX-M genotype was CTX-M-15 (19/46, 41.3%) in the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. By contrast, CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-3 were the major genotypes found in Klebsiella spp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 21 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates belonged to group D (21/46, 45.6%), followed by group A (13/46, 28.3%), group B2 (11/46, 23.9%), and group B1 (1/46, 2.2%). Only four E. coli isolates (4/46, 8.7%) belonged to the ST131 clone. PFGE showed that the ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were genetically unrelated. The conjugation assay showed that two plasmids harboring CTX-M-15 in E. coli isolates were genetic unrelated, whereas seven plasmids harboring CTX-M-14 (5/7 and 2/7) and four plasmids harboring CTX-M-55 (4/4) showed genetic relatedness, indicating the dissemination of resistance plasmids in this area. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Emergence of NDM-producing non-baumannii Acinetobacter spp. isolated from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Hu, Y-Y; Yang, X-F; Gu, D-X; Zhou, H-W; Hu, Q-F; Zhao, K; Yu, S-F; Chen, G-X

    2014-05-01

    One hundred and thirty-six bla OXA-51-negative strains were identified from 1,067 Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex (ACB complex) isolates, which were collected during October 2010 to March 2013 from 15 general hospitals in 10 cities throughout Zhejiang Province, China. Seven of the 136 bla OXA-51-negative ACB complex isolates were New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1)-positive, among which three were identified as A. nosocomialis and four were identified as A. pittii strains using 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer (ITS) sequencing and partial RNA polymerase β-subunit (rpoB) sequencing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis showed that the seven NDM-positive isolates belonged to three clonal strains with three novel sequence types (STs). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and DNA sequence analysis of the carbapenemase and other β-lactamase genes indicated that all the isolates harbored the bla NDM-1 gene, and that only one strain of A. nosocomialis isolates harbored both bla NDM-1 and bla OXA-23. All of them were positive for bla ADC, from which three novel bla ADC genes (designated as bla ADC-69, bla ADC-70, and bla ADC-71) were detected for the first time. The presence of ISAba125 upstream of bla NDM-1 was identified through genetic environment analysis. Carbapenem resistance can be transferred from A. nosocomialis and A. pittii to Escherichia coli EC600 by the conjugation experiment. Plasmid analysis, DNA hybridization, and extraction experiments indicated that bla NDM-1 was located on a plasmid of approximately 50 kb. In conclusion, we characterized the dissemination of NDM-1-positive A. pittii strains in Zhejiang Province, China, and reported the NDM-producing A. nosocomialis for the first time.

  1. Typing and selection of wild strains of Trichoderma spp. producers of extracellular laccase.

    PubMed

    Cázares-García, Saila Viridiana; Arredondo-Santoyo, Marina; Vázquez-Marrufo, Gerardo; Soledad Vázquez-Garcidueñas, Ma; Robinson-Fuentes, Virginia A; Gómez-Reyes, Víctor Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Using the ITS region and the gene tef1, 23 strains of the genus Trichoderma were identified as belonging to the species T. harzianum (n = 14), T. olivascens (n = 1), T. trixiae (n = 1), T. viridialbum (n = 1), T. tomentosum (n = 2), T. koningii (n = 1), T. atroviride (n = 1), T. viride (n = 1), and T. gamsii (n = 1). Strains expressing extracellular laccase activity were selected by decolorization/oxidation assays in solid media, using azo, anthraquinone, indigoid, and triphenylmethane dyes, and the phenolic substances tannic acid and guaiacol. No strain decolorized Direct Blue 71 or Chicago Blue 6B, but all of them weakly oxidized guaiacol, decolorized Methyl Orange, and efficiently oxidized tannic acid. Based in decolorization/oxidation assays, strains CMU-1 (T. harzianum), CMU-8 (T. atroviride), CMU-218 (T. viride), and CMU-221 (T. tomentosum) were selected for evaluating their extracellular laccase activity in liquid media. Strain CMU-8 showed no basal laccase activity, while strains CMU-1, CMU-218, and CMU-221 had a basal laccase activity of 1,313.88 mU/mL, 763.88 mU/mL, and 799.53 mU/mL, respectively. Addition of sorghum straw inhibited laccase activity in strain CMU-1 by 34%, relative to the basal culture, while strains CMU-8, CMU-21, and CMU-221 increased their laccase activity by 1,321.5%, 64%, and 47%, respectively. These results show that assayed phenolic substrates are good tools for selecting laccase producer strains in Trichoderma. These same assays indicate the potential use of studied strains for bioremediation processes. Straw laccase induction suggests that analyzed strains have potential for straw delignification in biopulping and other biotechnological applications. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:787-798, 2016.

  2. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella spp.: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Hendrik, Tirza C; Voor In 't Holt, Anne F; Vos, Margreet C

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare-related infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella spp. are of major concern. To control transmission, deep understanding of the transmission mechanisms is needed. This systematic review aimed to identify risk factors and sources, clonal relatedness using molecular techniques, and the most effective control strategies for ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Outbreak Database was performed. We identified 2771 articles from November 25th, 1960 until April 7th, 2014 of which 148 were included in the systematic review and 23 in a random-effects meta-analysis study. The random-effects meta-analyses showed that underlying disease or condition (odds ratio [OR] = 6.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.85 to 13.66) generated the highest pooled estimate. ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. were spread through person-to-person contact and via sources in the environment; we identified both monoclonal and polyclonal presence. Multi-faceted interventions are needed to prevent transmission of ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp.

  3. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella spp.: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hendrik, Tirza C.; Voor in ‘t holt, Anne F.; Vos, Margreet C.

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare-related infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella spp. are of major concern. To control transmission, deep understanding of the transmission mechanisms is needed. This systematic review aimed to identify risk factors and sources, clonal relatedness using molecular techniques, and the most effective control strategies for ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Outbreak Database was performed. We identified 2771 articles from November 25th, 1960 until April 7th, 2014 of which 148 were included in the systematic review and 23 in a random-effects meta-analysis study. The random-effects meta-analyses showed that underlying disease or condition (odds ratio [OR] = 6.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.85 to 13.66) generated the highest pooled estimate. ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. were spread through person-to-person contact and via sources in the environment; we identified both monoclonal and polyclonal presence. Multi-faceted interventions are needed to prevent transmission of ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. PMID:26485570

  4. Novel alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, CKD-711 and CKD-711a produced by Streptomyces sp. CK-4416. III. Physico-chemical properties and structure elucidation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hung-Bae; Kim, Sun-Ho; Kwon, Young-In; Choung, Dong-Ho; Choi, Won-Kyu; Kang, Tae Won; Lee, Sungsook; Kim, Jong-Gwan; Chun, Hyoung-Sik; Ahn, Soon Kil; Hong, Chung Il; Han, Kyou-Hoon

    2002-05-01

    We have isolated two novel a-glucosidase inhibitors, O-[4-deoxy-4-(2,3-epoxy-3-hydroxymethyl-4,5,6-trihydroxycyclohexane-1-yl-amino)-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl]-(1-->4)-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-D-glucopyranose (named CKD-711) and its hexameric analog CKD-711a, from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces sp. CK-4416. HRFAB-MS and NMR analyses reveal that molecular formulae of CKD-711 and CKD-711a are C25H43NO20 and C37H63NO30, respectively with the latter containing two more glucose moieties than the former. Detailed chemical structures of both compounds have been characterized by high-resolution two-dimensional NMR methods.

  5. Lobophorin K, a New Natural Product with Cytotoxic Activity Produced by Streptomyces sp. M-207 Associated with the Deep-Sea Coral Lophelia pertusa

    PubMed Central

    Braña, Alfredo F.; Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; Osset, Miguel; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Martín, Jesús; de Pedro, Nuria; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Díaz, Caridad; Vicente, Francisca; Reyes, Fernando; García, Luis A.; Blanco, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    The present article describes the isolation of a new natural product of the lobophorin family, designated as lobophorin K (1), from cultures of the marine actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. M-207, previously isolated from the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa collected at 1800 m depth during an expedition to the submarine Avilés Canyon. Its structure was determined using a combination of spectroscopic techniques, mainly ESI-TOF MS and 1D and 2D NMR. This new natural product displayed cytotoxic activity against two human tumor cell lines, such as pancreatic carcinoma (MiaPaca-2) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7). Lobophorin K also displayed moderate and selective antibiotic activity against pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:28534807

  6. New alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase produced by Streptomyces lividans: cloning and DNA sequence of the abfB gene and characterization of the enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, P; Shareck, F; Dupont, C; Morosoli, R; Kluepfel, D

    1997-01-01

    A fully secreted alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase was cloned from the homologous expression system of Streptomyces lividans. The gene, located upstream adjacent to the previously described xylanase A gene, was sequenced. It is divergently transcribed from the xlnA gene and the two genes are separated by an intercistronic region of 391nt which contains a palindromic AT-rich sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence of the protein shows that the enzyme contains a distinct catalytic domain which is linked to a specific xylan-binding domain by a linker region. The purified enzyme has a specific arabinofuranose-debranching activity on xylan from Gramineae, acts synergistically with the S. lividans xylanases and binds specifically to xylan. From small arabinoxylo-oligosides, it liberates arabinose and, after prolonged incubation, the purified enzyme exhibits some xylanolytic activity as well. PMID:9148759

  7. Lobophorin K, a New Natural Product with Cytotoxic Activity Produced by Streptomyces sp. M-207 Associated with the Deep-Sea Coral Lophelia pertusa.

    PubMed

    Braña, Alfredo F; Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; Osset, Miguel; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Martín, Jesús; de Pedro, Nuria; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Díaz, Caridad; Vicente, Francisca; Reyes, Fernando; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2017-05-19

    The present article describes the isolation of a new natural product of the lobophorin family, designated as lobophorin K (1), from cultures of the marine actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. M-207, previously isolated from the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa collected at 1800 m depth during an expedition to the submarine Avilés Canyon. Its structure was determined using a combination of spectroscopic techniques, mainly ESI-TOF MS and 1D and 2D NMR. This new natural product displayed cytotoxic activity against two human tumor cell lines, such as pancreatic carcinoma (MiaPaca-2) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7). Lobophorin K also displayed moderate and selective antibiotic activity against pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus.

  8. Identification and Biochemical Characterization of Sco3487 from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), an Exo- and Endo-Type β-Agarase-Producing Neoagarobiose

    PubMed Central

    Temuujin, Uyangaa; Chi, Won-Jae; Chang, Yong-Keun

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor can degrade agar, the main cell wall component of red macroalgae, for growth. To constitute a crucial carbon source for bacterial growth, the alternating α-(1,3) and β-(1,4) linkages between the 3,6-anhydro-l-galactoses and d-galactoses of agar must be hydrolyzed by α/β-agarases. In S. coelicolor, DagA was confirmed to be an endo-type β-agarase that degrades agar into neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose. Genomic sequencing data of S. coelicolor revealed that Sco3487, annotated as a putative hydrolase, has high similarity to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) GH50 β-agarases. Sco3487 encodes a primary translation product (88.5 kDa) of 798 amino acids, including a 45-amino-acid signal peptide. The sco3487 gene was cloned and expressed under the control of the ermE promoter in Streptomyces lividans TK24. β-Agarase activity was detected in transformant culture broth using the artificial chromogenic substrate p-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside. Mature Sco3487 (83.9 kDa) was purified 52-fold with a yield of 66% from the culture broth. The optimum pH and temperature for Sco3487 activity were 7.0 and 40°C, respectively. The Km and Vmax for agarose were 4.87 mg/ml (4 × 10−5 M) and 10.75 U/mg, respectively. Sco3487 did not require metal ions for its activity, but severe inhibition by Mn2+ and Cu2+ was observed. Thin-layer chromatography analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry of the Sco3487 hydrolysis products revealed that Sco3487 is both an exo- and endo-type β-agarase that degrades agarose, neoagarotetraose, and neoagarohexaose into neoagarobiose. PMID:22020647

  9. An ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter and Two rRNA Methyltransferases Are Involved in Resistance to Avilamycin in the Producer Organism Streptomyces viridochromogenes Tü57

    PubMed Central

    Weitnauer, Gabriele; Gaisser, Sibylle; Trefzer, Axel; Stockert, Sigrid; Westrich, Lucy; Quiros, Luis M.; Mendez, Carmen; Salas, Jose A.; Bechthold, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    Three different resistance factors from the avilamycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces viridochromogenes Tü57, which confer avilamycin resistance when expressed in Streptomyces lividans TK66, were isolated. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that AviABC1 is similar to a large family of ATP-binding transporter proteins and that AviABC2 resembles hydrophobic transmembrane proteins known to act jointly with the ATP-binding proteins. The deduced amino acid sequence of aviRb showed similarity to those of other rRNA methyltransferases, and AviRa did not resemble any protein in the databases. Independent expression in S. lividans TK66 of aviABC1 plus aviABC2, aviRa, or aviRb conferred different levels of resistance to avilamycin: 5, 10, or 250 μg/ml, respectively. When either aviRa plus aviRb or aviRa plus aviRb plus aviABC1 plus aviABC2 was coexpressed in S. lividans TK66, avilamycin resistance levels reached more than 250 μg/ml. Avilamycin A inhibited poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis in an in vitro system using ribosomes of S. lividans TK66(pUWL201) (GWO), S. lividans TK66(pUWL201-Ra) (GWRa), or S. lividans TK66(pUWL201-Rb) (GWRb), whereas ribosomes of S. lividans TK66 containing pUWL201-Ra+Rb (GWRaRb) were highly resistant. aviRa and aviRb were expressed in Escherichia coli, and both enzymes were purified as fusion proteins to near homogeneity. Both enzymes showed rRNA methyltransferase activity using a mixture of 16S and 23S rRNAs from E. coli as the substrate. Coincubation experiments revealed that the enzymes methylate different positions of rRNA. PMID:11181344

  10. Streptomyces Bacteria as Potential Probiotics in Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations.

  11. Streptomyces Bacteria as Potential Probiotics in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations. PMID:26903962

  12. Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Pseudomonas spp. in Korea: High Prevalence of Isolates with VIM-2 Type and Emergence of Isolates with IMP-1 Type

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyungwon; Park, Ae Ja; Kim, Moon Yeun; Lee, Hee Joo; Cho, Ji-Hyun; Kang, Jung Oak; Yong, Dongeun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Two Korean nationwide studies showed that metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs)-producing-Pseudomonas spp. are not rare. The aim of this study was to assess the trends of MBL-producing isolates among imipenem-resistant isolates of Pseudomonas spp. Materials and Methods Imipenem-resistant clinical isolates were collected from 23 hospitals and one commercial laboratory participating in the KONSAR program in 2005. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect MBL genes. Results Alleles of MBL genes were detected in 10.8% of 415 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 66.7% of 12 P. putida isolates from 18 of 24 hospitals/laboratory. Among the 14 IMP-1-like and 39 VIM-2-like MBLs, emergence of IMP-6 was detected for the first time. Conclusion Prevalence of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa has not significantly increased, but IMP-6 emerged in P. aeruginosa. PMID:19568593

  13. Naphthacemycins, novel circumventors of β-lactam resistance in MRSA, produced by Streptomyces sp. KB-3346-5. I. The taxonomy of the producing strain, and the fermentation, isolation and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Atsushi; Kim, Yong-Pil; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Takahashi, Yoko; Suzuki, Makoto; Onodera, Hideyuki; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Matsui, Hidehito; Hanaki, Hideaki; Iwatsuki, Masato; Ōmura, Satoshi; Shiomi, Kazuro

    2017-05-01

    Screening for circumventors of β-lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) led us to find 17 novel antibiotics, naphthacemycins A1-A11, B1-B4 and C1-C2. The naphthacemycins were isolated from a cultured broth of Streptomyces sp. KB-3346-5 by repeated silica gel column chromatography and HPLC. Naphthacemycins enhanced imipenem activity 100-500 times against MRSA at 0.5 μg ml(-1), and naphthacemycins A4-A11 themselves showed MIC50 values of 1-4 μg ml(-1) against 22 MRSA strains.

  14. Multigene families for anthracycline antibiotic production in Streptomyces peucetius.

    PubMed Central

    Stutzman-Engwall, K J; Hutchinson, C R

    1989-01-01

    Hybridization of polyketide synthase genes from heterologous Streptomyces sp. led to the identification of four unlinked regions of DNA from Streptomyces peucetius that contain genes that encode the production of the same or closely related metabolites, some of which are intermediates of the daunorubicin pathway. DNA fragments from each region that hybridized with the heterologous polyketide synthase genes were hybridized with each other, but very little sequence similarity was observed even though at least two of the regions have similar (if not identical) functions in metabolite production. Some regions, however, do have sequence similarity with other anthracycline-producing Streptomyces sp. Images PMID:2717612

  15. Streptomyces hypolithicus sp. nov., isolated from an Antarctic hypolith community.

    PubMed

    Le Roes-Hill, Marilize; Rohland, Jeffrey; Meyers, Paul R; Cowan, Don A; Burton, Stephanie G

    2009-08-01

    As part of an enzyme-screening programme, an actinobacterium, strain HSM#10T, was isolated from a sample collected from the base of a translucent quartz rock in Miers Valley, eastern Antarctica. The isolate produced branching vegetative mycelium that was characteristic of filamentous actinobacteria. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of the strain suggested that HSM#10T should be classified as a member of the genus Streptomyces. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain was closely related to members of the genus Streptomyces, which supports the classification of this strain within the family Streptomycetaceae. Phenotypic and phylogenetic results allowed strain HSM#10T to be differentiated from known streptomycetes. DNA-DNA hybridization data also showed that strain HSM#10T could be differentiated from its nearest phylogenetic neighbours Streptomyces chryseus DSM 40420T (53.55+/-3.15% DNA relatedness), Streptomyces helvaticus DSM 40431T (38.75+/-2.75%), Streptomyces flavidovirens DSM 40150T (30.7+/-2.90%) and Streptomyces albidochromogenes DSM 41800T (33.9+/-0.10%). Therefore, the name Streptomyces hypolithicus sp. nov. is proposed, with HSM#10T (=DSM 41950T=NRRL B-24669T) as the type strain.

  16. Polymorphisms within the prnD and pltC genes from pyrrolnitrin and pyoluteorin-producing Pseudomonas and Burkholderia spp.

    PubMed

    Souza, Jorge T; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2003-02-01

    Abstract Pyrrolnitrin (PRN) and pyoluteorin (PLT) are broad-spectrum antibiotics produced by several strains of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia species. Both antibiotics play an important role in the suppression of multiple plant pathogenic fungi. Primers were developed from conserved sequences and amplified prnD and pltC fragments from 18 Pseudomonas and four Burkholderia spp. of worldwide origin that produce either PRN or PLT or both. Subsequent RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphisms) analysis of the 438-bp pltC fragment showed no polymorphisms among PLT-producing Pseudomonas strains. Polymorphisms within the 786-bp prnD fragment, however, allowed the assessment of the diversity among PRN-producing Pseudomonas and Burkholderia spp. to a level similar to that obtained by three 10-mer primers in random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences of strains representative of PRN-producing Pseudomonas and Burkholderia species correlated well with their taxonomic status. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from each of the four prn genes and from the complete sequence of the prn biosynthetic locus were similar to 16S rDNA-based phylogeny for most strains, except for Burkholderia pyrrocinia DSM 10685. Both RFLP analysis and comparison of the prn gene sequences showed that B. pyrrocinia DSM 10685 was more closely related to PRN-producing Pseudomonas strains, suggesting that lateral gene transfer may have occurred. Colony hybridization and PCR with PRN- and PLT-specific probes and primers showed that Pseudomonas and Burkholderia spp. harboring the prnD and pltC gene were not present at detectable levels on roots of wheat grown in five agricultural soils collected in The Netherlands, two of them being naturally suppressive to Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. These results suggest that PRN- and PLT-producing Pseudomonas and Burkholderia sp. do not contribute to the natural suppressiveness found in these Dutch take-all decline

  17. Streptomyces rhizobacteria modulate the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants.

    PubMed

    Salla, Tamiris Daros; da Silva, Ramos; Astarita, Leandro Vieira; Santarém, Eliane Romanato

    2014-12-01

    The genus Eucalyptus comprises economically important species, such as Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus, used especially as a raw material in many industrial sectors. Species of Eucalyptus are very susceptible to pathogens, mainly fungi, which leads to mortality of plant cuttings in rooting phase. One alternative to promote plant health and development is the potential use of microorganisms that act as agents for biological control, such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Rhizobacteria Streptomyces spp have been considered as PGPR. This study aimed at selecting strains of Streptomyces with ability to promote plant growth and modulate secondary metabolism of E. grandis and E. globulus in vitro plants. The experiments assessed the development of plants (root number and length), changes in key enzymes in plant defense (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and induction of secondary compounds(total phenolic and quercetinic flavonoid fraction). The isolate Streptomyces PM9 showed highest production of indol-3-acetic acid and the best potential for root induction. Treatment of Eucalyptus roots with Streptomyces PM9 caused alterations in enzymes activities during the period of co-cultivation (1-15 days), as well as in the levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Shoots also showed alteration in the secondary metabolism, suggesting induced systemic response. The ability of Streptomyces sp. PM9 on promoting root growth, through production of IAA, and possible role on modulation of secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants characterizes this isolate as PGPR and indicates its potential use as a biological control in forestry.

  18. Alkaline tolerant dextranase from streptomyces anulatus

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Stephen R.; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A process for production of an alkaline tolerant dextranase enzyme comprises culturing a dextran-producing microorganism Streptomyces anulatus having accession no. ATCC PTA-3866 to produce an alkaline tolerant dextranase, Dex 1 wherein the protein in said enzyme is characterized by a MW of 63.3 kDa and Dex 2 wherein its protein is characterized by a MW of 81.8 kDa.

  19. Pre-sporulation stages of Streptomyces differentiation: state-of-the-art and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Yagüe, Paula; López-García, Maria T.; Rioseras, Beatriz; Sánchez, Jesús; Manteca, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Streptomycetes comprise very important industrial bacteria, producing two-thirds of all clinically relevant secondary metabolites. They are mycelial microorganisms with complex developmental cycles that include programmed cell death (PCD) and sporulation. Industrial fermentations are usually performed in liquid cultures (large bioreactors), conditions in which Streptomyces strains generally do not sporulate, and it was traditionally assumed that there was no differentiation. In this work, we review the current knowledge on Streptomyces pre-sporulation stages of Streptomyces differentiation. PMID:23496097

  20. Comparison of Local Features from Two Spanish Hospitals Reveals Common and Specific Traits at Multiple Levels of the Molecular Epidemiology of Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed Central

    Viedma, Esther; Estepa, Vanesa; Castillo-Vera, Jane; Rojo-Bezares, Beatriz; Seral, Cristina; Castillo, Francisco Javier; Sáenz, Yolanda; Torres, Carmen; Chaves, Fernando; Oliver, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-seven well-characterized metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Pseudomonas strains from two distantly located hospitals were analyzed. The results revealed specific features defining the multilevel epidemiology of strains from each hospital in terms of species, clonality, predominance of high-risk clones, composition/diversity of integrons, and linkages of Tn402-related structures. Therefore, despite the global trends driving the epidemiology of MBL-producing Pseudomonas spp., the presence of local features has to be considered in order to understand this threat and implement proper control strategies. PMID:24492368

  1. Antimicrobial potential and taxonomic investigation of piezotolerant Streptomyces sp. NIOT-Ch-40 isolated from deep-sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Padmanaban, Vishnu Priya; Verma, Pankaj; Venkatabaskaran, Srividhyalakshmi; Keppayan, Thirupathi; Gopal, Dharani; Sekar, Ashok Kumar; Ramalingam, Kirubagaran

    2017-02-01

    Microbial-derived natural products from extreme niches such as deepsea are known to possess structural and functional novelty. With this background, the present study was designed to investigate the bioprospecting potential and systematics of a deep-sea derived piezotolerant bacterial strain NIOT-Ch-40, showing affiliation to the genus Streptomyces based on 16S RNA gene similarity. Preliminary screening for the presence of biosynthetic genes like polyketide synthase I, polyketide synthase II, non ribosomal peptide synthase, 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid synthase and spiroindimicin followed by antibacterial activity testing confirmed the presence of potent bioactivity. The secondary metabolites produced during fermentation in Streptomyces broth at 28 °C for 7 days were extracted with ethyl acetate. The extract exhibited a specific inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria and was significantly effective (p < 0.0001) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration against MRSA was 1.5 µg/mL, which was statistically significant in comparison with erythromycin. A multifaceted analysis of the Streptomyces spp. was carried out to delineate the strain NIOT-Ch-40 at a higher resolution which includes morphological, biochemical and molecular studies. Piezotolerance studies and comparison of fatty acid profiles at high pressures revealed that it could be considered as one of the taxonomic markers, especially for the strains isolated from the deep sea environments. In conclusion, the observation of comparative studies with reference strains indicated towards the strain NIOT-Ch-40 as an indigenous marine piezotolerant Streptomyces sp. with a higher probability of obtaining novel bioactive metabolites.

  2. Effects of bioreactor hydrodynamics on the physiology of Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Olmos, E; Mehmood, N; Haj Husein, L; Goergen, J-L; Fick, M; Delaunay, S

    2013-03-01

    Streptomyces are filamentous bacteria which are widely used industrially for the production of therapeutic biomolecules, especially antibiotics. Bioreactor operating conditions may impact the physiological response of Streptomyces especially agitation and aeration as they influence hydromechanical stress, oxygen and nutrient transfer. The understanding of the coupling between physiological response and bioreactor hydrodynamics lies on a simultaneous description of the flow and transfers encountered by the bacteria and of the microbial response in terms of growth, consumption, morphology, production or intracellular signals. This article reviews the experimental and numerical works dedicated to the study of the coupling between bioreactor hydrodynamics and antibiotics producing Streptomyces. In a first part, the description of hydrodynamics used in these works is presented and then the main relations used. In a second part, the assumptions made in these works are discussed and put into emphasize. Lastly, the various Streptomyces physiological responses observed are detailed and compared.

  3. Streptomyces Exploration: Competition, Volatile Communication and New Bacterial Behaviours.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephanie E; Elliot, Marie A

    2017-02-27

    Streptomyces bacteria are prolific producers of specialized metabolites, and have a well studied, complex life cycle. Recent work has revealed a new type of Streptomyces growth termed 'exploration' - so named for the ability of explorer cells to rapidly traverse solid surfaces. Streptomyces exploration is stimulated by fungal interactions, and is associated with the production of an alkaline volatile organic compound (VOC) capable of inducing exploration by other streptomycetes. Here, we examine Streptomyces exploration from the perspectives of interkingdom interactions, pH-induced morphological switches, and VOC-mediated communication. The phenotypic diversity that can be revealed through microbial interactions and VOC exposure is providing us with insight into novel modes of microbial development, and an opportunity to exploit VOCs to stimulate desired microbial behaviours.

  4. New and bioactive compounds from Streptomyces strains residing in the wood of Celastraceae.

    PubMed

    Pullen, Christian; Schmitz, Petra; Meurer, Kristina; Bamberg, Daniel D v; Lohmann, Stephanie; De Castro França, Suzelei; Groth, Ingrid; Schlegel, Brigitte; Möllmann, Ute; Gollmick, Friedrich; Gräfe, Udo; Leistner, Eckhard

    2002-11-01

    Wood from three different plants of the Celastraceae growing in their natural habitats in Brazil (Maytenus aquifolia Mart.) and South Africa [Putterlickia retrospinosa van Wyk and Mostert, P. verrucosa (E. Meyer ex Sonder) Szyszyl.] was established as a source of endophytic bacteria using a medium selective for actinomycetes. Two isolates were identified as Streptomyces setonii and S. sampsonii whereas two others were not assignable to any of the known Streptomyces species. They were preliminarily named Streptomyces Q21 and Streptomyces MaB-QuH-8. The latter strain produces a new chloropyrrol and chlorinated anthracyclinone. The chloropyrrol showed high activity against a series of multiresistent bacteria and mycobacteria.

  5. Variation in Sensitivity of Gaeumannomyces graminis to Antibiotics Produced by Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. and Effect on Biological Control of Take-All of Wheat.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, M; Fujimoto, D K; Thomashow, L S; Cook, R J

    1995-07-01

    Isolates of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, the causal agent of take-all of wheat, varied in sensitivity in vitro to the antibiotics phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) produced by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. shown previously to have potential for biological control of this pathogen. None of the four isolates of G. graminis var. avenae examined were sensitive to either of the antibiotics in vitro at the concentrations tested. The single isolate of G. graminis var. graminis tested was insensitive to PCA at 1.0 (mu)g/ml. Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79 and Pseudomonas chlororaphis 30-84, both of which produce PCA, effectively suppressed take-all caused by each of two PCA-sensitive isolates of G. graminis var. tritici. PCA-producing strains exhibited a reduced ability or complete inability to suppress take-all caused by two of three isolates of G. graminis var. tritici that were insensitive to PCA at 1.0 (mu)g/ml. P. fluorescens Q2-87, which produces Phl, suppressed take-all caused by three Phl-sensitive isolates but failed to provide significant suppression of take-all caused by two isolates of G. graminis var. tritici that were insensitive to Phl at 3.0 (mu)g/ml. These findings affirm the role of the antibiotics PCA and Phl in the biocontrol activity of these fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. and support earlier evidence that mechanisms in addition to PCA are responsible for suppression of take-all by strain 2-79. The results show further that isolates of G. graminis var. tritici insensitive to PCA and Phl are present in the pathogen population and provide additional justification for the use of mixtures of Pseudomonas spp. that employ different mechanisms of pathogen suppression to manage this disease.

  6. Feeding of [5,5-2H(2)]-1-desoxy-D-xylulose and [4,4,6,6,6-2H(5)]-mevalolactone to a geosmin-producing Streptomyces sp. and Fossombronia pusilla.

    PubMed

    Spiteller, Dieter; Jux, Andreas; Piel, Jörn; Boland, Wilhelm

    2002-12-01

    The biosynthesis of the trisnor sesquiterpenoid geosmin (4,8a-dimethyl-octahydro-naphthalen-4a-ol) (1) was investigated by feeding labeled [5,5-2H(2)]-1-desoxy-D-xylulose (11), [4,4,6,6,6-(2)H(5)]-mevalolactone (7) and [2,2-2H(2)]-mevalolactone (9) to Streptomyces sp. JP95 and the liverwort Fossombronia pusilla. The micro-organism produced geosmin via the 1-desoxy-D-xylulose pathway, whereas the liverwort exclusively utilized mevalolactone for terpenoid biosynthesis. Analysis of the labeling pattern in the resulting isotopomers of geosmin (1) by mass spectroscopy (EI/MS) revealed that geosmin is synthesized in both organisms by cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate to a germacradiene-type intermediate 4. Further transformations en route to geosmin (1) involve an oxidative dealkylation of an i-propyl substituent, 1,2-reduction of a resulting conjugated diene, and bicyclization of a germacatriene intermediate 13. The transformations largely resemble the biosynthesis of dehydrogeosmin (2) in cactus flowers but differ with respect to the regioselectivity of the side chain dealkylation and 1,2-reduction

  7. Mass Spectrometry-Based Strategy for Direct Detection and Quantification of Some Mycotoxins Produced by Stachybotrys and Aspergillus spp. in Indoor Environments▿

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Erica; Bal, Karol; Nyman, Eva; Must, Aime; Larsson, Lennart

    2007-01-01

    Dampness in buildings has been linked to adverse health effects, but the specific causative agents are unknown. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by molds and toxic to higher vertebrates. In this study, mass spectrometry was used to demonstrate the presence of mycotoxins predominantly produced by Aspergillus spp. and Stachybotrys spp. in buildings with either ongoing dampness or a history of water damage. Verrucarol and trichodermol, hydrolysis products of macrocyclic trichothecenes (including satratoxins), and trichodermin, predominately produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, were analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, whereas sterigmatocystin (mainly produced by Aspergillus versicolor), satratoxin G, and satratoxin H were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. These mycotoxin analytes were demonstrated in 45 of 62 building material samples studied, in three of eight settled dust samples, and in five of eight cultures of airborne dust samples. This is the first report on the use of tandem mass spectrometry for demonstrating mycotoxins in dust settled on surfaces above floor level in damp buildings. The direct detection of the highly toxic sterigmatocystin and macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins in indoor environments is important due to their potential health impacts. PMID:17483261

  8. Mass spectrometry-based strategy for direct detection and quantification of some mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys and Aspergillus spp. in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Erica; Bal, Karol; Nyman, Eva; Must, Aime; Larsson, Lennart

    2007-07-01

    Dampness in buildings has been linked to adverse health effects, but the specific causative agents are unknown. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by molds and toxic to higher vertebrates. In this study, mass spectrometry was used to demonstrate the presence of mycotoxins predominantly produced by Aspergillus spp. and Stachybotrys spp. in buildings with either ongoing dampness or a history of water damage. Verrucarol and trichodermol, hydrolysis products of macrocyclic trichothecenes (including satratoxins), and trichodermin, predominately produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, were analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, whereas sterigmatocystin (mainly produced by Aspergillus versicolor), satratoxin G, and satratoxin H were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. These mycotoxin analytes were demonstrated in 45 of 62 building material samples studied, in three of eight settled dust samples, and in five of eight cultures of airborne dust samples. This is the first report on the use of tandem mass spectrometry for demonstrating mycotoxins in dust settled on surfaces above floor level in damp buildings. The direct detection of the highly toxic sterigmatocystin and macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins in indoor environments is important due to their potential health impacts.

  9. Engineering validamycin production by tandem deletion of γ-butyrolactone receptor genes in Streptomyces hygroscopicus 5008.

    PubMed

    Tan, Gao-Yi; Peng, Yao; Lu, Chenyang; Bai, Linquan; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Paired homologs of γ-butyrolactone (GBL) biosynthesis gene afsA and GBL receptor gene arpA are located at different positions in genome of Streptomyces hygroscopicus 5008. Inactivation of afsA homologs dramatically decreased biosynthesis of validamycin, an important anti-fungal antibiotic and a critical substrate for antidiabetic drug synthesis, and the deletion of arpA homologs increased validamycin production by 26% (ΔshbR1) and 20% (ΔshbR3). By double deletion, the ΔshbR1/R3 mutant showed higher transcriptional levels of adpA-H (the S. hygroscopicus ortholog of the global regulatory gene adpA) and validamycin biosynthetic genes, and validamycin production increased by 55%. Furthermore, by engineering a high-producing industrial strain via tandem deletion of GBL receptor genes, validamycin production and productivity were enhanced from 19 to 24 g/L (by 26%) and from 6.7 to 9.7 g/L(-1) d(-1) (by 45%), respectively, which was the highest ever reported. The strategy demonstrated here may be useful to engineering other Streptomyces spp. with multiple pairs of afsA-arpA homologs.

  10. Resource amendments influence density and competitive phenotypes of Streptomyces in soil.

    PubMed

    Schlatter, Daniel; Fubuh, Alfred; Xiao, Kun; Hernandez, Dan; Hobbie, Sarah; Kinkel, Linda

    2009-04-01

    Carbon from plant rhizospheres is a source of energy for soil microbial communities in native habitats. Soil amendments have been used as a means for deliberately altering soil community composition in agricultural soils to enhance plant health. However, little information is available in agricultural or natural soils on how specific carbon compounds or quantities influence soil microbial communities. Streptomyces are important soil saprophytes noted for their ability to produce antibiotics and influence plant health. To explore how specific types and amounts of carbon compounds influence Streptomyces in soil, glucose, cellulose, and lignin were added alone and in combination with six other carbon substrates of varying complexity to mesocosms of native prairie soil for 9 months at amounts equivalent to natural inputs from plants. Estimated culturable population densities, antibiotic inhibitory phenotypes, and resource utilization profiles were examined for Streptomyces communities from each treatment. The type and quantity of carbon compounds influenced densities, proportions, antibiotic phenotypes, and substrate utilization profiles of Streptomyces. Cellulose and lignin inputs produced the largest Streptomyces densities. Also, Streptomyces communities receiving high-resource inputs were more inhibitory whereas those receiving low-resource inputs used substrates more efficiently. Knowledge of how the availability and quantity of particular carbon compounds influences Streptomyces communities and their function, specifically resource use and inhibitory phenotypes, may be helpful in understanding the roles of resource availability in Streptomyces community dynamics and the potential of Streptomyces to suppress pathogens and enhance plant fitness in native and agricultural soils.

  11. Additive approach for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella spp. on contaminated fresh fruits and vegetables using bacteriophage cocktail and produce wash.

    PubMed

    Magnone, Joshua P; Marek, Patrick J; Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Senecal, Andre G

    2013-08-01

    The incidence of foodborne outbreaks involving fresh produce is of worldwide concern. Lytic bacteriophage cocktails and a levulinic acid produce wash were investigated for their effectiveness against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella spp., and Salmonella on broccoli, cantaloupe, and strawberries. Inoculated samples were treated with bacteriophage cocktails (BC) before storage at 10°C for 24 h, a levulinic acid produce wash (PW) after storage at 10°C for 24 h, or a combination of the washes (BCPW) before and after storage. All three treatments were compared against a 200-ppm free available chlorine wash. Wash solutions were prepared using potable water and water with an increased organic content of 2.5 g/liter total dissolved solids and total organic carbon. BCPW was the most effective treatment, producing the highest log reductions in the pathogens. Produce treated with BCPW in potable water with a PW exposure time of 5 min resulted in the highest reduction of each pathogen for all samples tested. The type of produce and wash solution had significant effects on the efficacy of the individual treatments. The chlorine wash in water with higher organic content was the least effective treatment tested. An additive effect of BCPW was seen in water with higher organic content, resulting in greater than 4.0-log reductions in pathogens. Our findings indicate that the combination of antimicrobial BC with a commercial produce wash is a very effective method for treating produce contaminated with E. coli O157:H7, Shigella spp., and Salmonella even in the presence of high loads of organic matter.

  12. Taxonomic evaluation of species in the Streptomyces hirsutus clade using multi-locus sequence analysis and proposals to reclassify several species in this clade.

    PubMed

    Labeda, David P; Rong, Xiaoying; Huang, Ying; Doroghazi, James R; Ju, Kou-San; Metcalf, William W

    2016-06-01

    Previous phylogenetic analysis of species of the genus Streptomyces based on 16S rRNA gene sequences resulted in a statistically well-supported clade (100 % bootstrap value) containing eight species that exhibited very similar gross morphology in producing open looped (Retinaculum-Apertum) to spiral (Spira) chains of spiny- to hairysurfaced, dark green spores on their aerial mycelium. The type strains of the species in this clade, specifically Streptomyces bambergiensis, Streptomyces cyanoalbus, Streptomyces emeiensis, Streptomyces hirsutus, Streptomyces prasinopilosus and Streptomyces prasinus, were subjected to multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) utilizing partial sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB to clarify their taxonomic status. The type strains of several recently described species with similar gross morphology, including Streptomyces chlorus, Streptomyces herbaceus, Streptomyces incanus, Streptomyces pratens and Streptomyces viridis, were also studied along with six unidentified green-spored Streptomyces strains from the ARS Culture Collection. The MLSAs suggest that three of the species under study (S. bambergiensis, S. cyanoalbus and S. emeiensis) represent synonyms of other previously described species (S. prasinus, S. hirsutus and S. prasinopilosus, respectively). These relationships were confirmed through determination of in silico DNA-DNA hybridization estimates based on draft genome sequences. The five recently described species appear to be phylogenetically distinct but the unidentified strains from the ARS Culture Collection could be identified as representatives of S. hirsutus, S. prasinopilosus or S. prasinus.

  13. Effect of reuterin produced by Lactobacillus reuteri on the surface of sausages to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.

    PubMed

    Kuleaşan, Hakan; Cakmakçi, M Lütfü

    2002-12-01

    Reuterin is a bacteriocin produced by some strains of Lactobacillus reuteri. The strain used in this study was isolated from raw milk from a dairy farm nearby Ankara. Beef sausage is a long years produced bratwurst style meat product in Turkey, as well as in some other countries in the Mediterranean region. Sausages are produced by raw meat; sometimes lactic starter cultures are added or spontaneous fermentation is employed. The production and storage conditions of the product promotes the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. Although nitrate is added as an antimicrobial substance against many pathogens, sometimes however nitrate application is not preventive enough on the surface because of the natural film around the sausages. Since most of the contaminations take place at post production steps, pathogenic growth is more effective on the surface of the sausages in refrigerated conditions. In this study, reuterin was applied to the surface of the sausages in order to prevent the growth of these two pathogens along with nitrate used as an additive in the product. Reuterin has inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes considerably but not of Salmonella spp. on the surface of the sausages.

  14. Prevalence, microbiology, and clinical characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacter spp., Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter freundii, and Morganella morganii in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, S-H; Lee, J E; Park, S J; Kim, M-N; Choo, E J; Kwak, Y G; Jeong, J-Y; Woo, J H; Kim, N J; Kim, Y S

    2007-08-01

    We examined the prevalence and characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing clinical isolates among Enterobacter spp., Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter freundii, and Morganella morganii, and evaluated screening criteria, clinical characteristics and outcomes of infections caused by ESBL-producing organisms. Between January and June 2005, a total of 493 nonduplicate consecutive isolates were collected at Asan Medical Center, a 2,300-bed tertiary hospital in Seoul, Republic of Korea. Fifty isolates (10.1%) were positive for phenotypical ESBL-test. The positive rate of phenotypical ESBL-test in Enterobacter spp., S. marcescens, C. freundii, and M. morganii was 12.8%, 12.4%, 4.9%, and 0% respectively. SHV-12 (18 isolates), CTX-M-9 (17 isolates), and TEM-52 (five isolates) were the most prevalent ESBL types. The ESBL in 17 strains could not be identified. As an ESBL screening criterion, the cefepime MIC >or=1 microg/ml had the highest sensitivity (0.84) and specificity (0.87). Half of the ESBL-producing isolates (25/50) were judged as pathogens. Cholangitis (ten cases), and pneumonia (six cases) were the most common infections. The overall mortality was 12.0%.

  15. Mammalian cell entry genes in Streptomyces may provide clues to the evolution of bacterial virulence.

    PubMed

    Clark, Laura C; Seipke, Ryan F; Prieto, Pilar; Willemse, Joost; van Wezel, Gilles P; Hutchings, Matthew I; Hoskisson, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of virulence is key to appreciating the role specific loci play in pathogenicity. Streptomyces species are generally non-pathogenic soil saprophytes, yet within their genome we can find homologues of virulence loci. One example of this is the mammalian cell entry (mce) locus, which has been characterised in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To investigate the role in Streptomyces we deleted the mce locus and studied its impact on cell survival, morphology and interaction with other soil organisms. Disruption of the mce cluster resulted in virulence towards amoebae (Acanthamoeba polyphaga) and reduced colonization of plant (Arabidopsis) models, indicating these genes may play an important role in Streptomyces survival in the environment. Our data suggest that loss of mce in Streptomyces spp. may have profound effects on survival in a competitive soil environment, and provides insight in to the evolution and selection of these genes as virulence factors in related pathogenic organisms.

  16. Mammalian cell entry genes in Streptomyces may provide clues to the evolution of bacterial virulence

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Laura C.; Seipke, Ryan F.; Prieto, Pilar; Willemse, Joost; van Wezel, Gilles P.; Hutchings, Matthew I.; Hoskisson, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of virulence is key to appreciating the role specific loci play in pathogenicity. Streptomyces species are generally non-pathogenic soil saprophytes, yet within their genome we can find homologues of virulence loci. One example of this is the mammalian cell entry (mce) locus, which has been characterised in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To investigate the role in Streptomyces we deleted the mce locus and studied its impact on cell survival, morphology and interaction with other soil organisms. Disruption of the mce cluster resulted in virulence towards amoebae (Acanthamoeba polyphaga) and reduced colonization of plant (Arabidopsis) models, indicating these genes may play an important role in Streptomyces survival in the environment. Our data suggest that loss of mce in Streptomyces spp. may have profound effects on survival in a competitive soil environment, and provides insight in to the evolution and selection of these genes as virulence factors in related pathogenic organisms. PMID:23346366

  17. Using the TxtAB Operon to Quantify Pathogenic Streptomyces in Potato Tubers and Soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The phytotoxin thaxtomin, produced by plant pathogenic Streptomyces species, is a pathogenicity determinant for common scab. In this study a SYBR Green quantitative real-time PCR assay using primers targeted on the txtAB operon of Streptomyces was developed to quantify pathogenic bacterial populati...

  18. Thaxtomin biosynthesis: The path to plant pathogenicity in the genus Streptomyces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Streptomyces species are best known for their ability to produce a wide array of medically- and agriculturally-important secondary metabolites. However, there is a growing number of species which, like Streptomyces scabies, can function as plant pathogens and cause scab disease on economically-impor...

  19. Dietary inclusion of protease producing novel Pontibacter spp. and Bacillus megaterium as a probiotic enhances immune responses in Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, C; Dillibabu, V; Madhuri, Dash-Koney; Priya, D Mohana; Nagalakshmi, C; Sekaran, G

    2014-04-01

    Abstract: This study stresses the key role which can be played by Tannery Fleshing (TF) hydrolyzing probiotic Pontibacter spp. in aqua feed formulation and identifies the probiotic strains in the fish gut capable of enhancing the overall growth and immune responses. Probiotics included are Pontibacter species (Pb) and Bacillus megaterium (BM) wherein Lactobacillus (LB) served as control. Experimental diets includes tannery fleshing (TF1), TF+LB strain (TF2), TF+BM strain (TF3), TF+Pb strain (TF4), Fishmeal+BM(TF5), Fishmeal+Pb and Control fish meal based diet (TF6). Compared with control, total weight gain (TWG), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) in fish fed with diets supplemented with probiotics were significantly increased (p < 0.05). NBT, lysozyme activity, total protein and globulin content were highest in TF4 diet. After challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila, TF4 recorded highest survival and TF1 lowest survival in comparison with the control. Growth and related parameters reveals the effective utilization potential of tannery fleshing probiotic as a feed source. Comparative studies with standard fish meal diets reveals that the fish fed with Pontibacter spp. and Bacillus megaterium included feeds enhanced both assimilating capacity and immunological responses in Labeo rohita.

  20. Properties of S-adenosyl-L-methionine:macrocin O-methyltransferase in extracts of Streptomyces fradiae strains which produce normal or elevated levels of tylosin and in mutants blocked in specific O-methylations.

    PubMed Central

    Seno, E T; Baltz, R H

    1981-01-01

    An efficient assay for S-adenosyl-L-methionine:macrocin O-methyltransferase, the enzyme which carries out the terminal step in tylosin biosynthesis, is described. Macrocin O-methyltransferase requires Mg2+ and S-adenosyl-L-methionine for activity, has a temperature optimum of about 31 degrees C, and has a pH optimum of 7.5 to 8.2. Macrocin O-methyltransferase specifically converts macrocin to tylosin by O-methylation of the 3" ' position of macrocin. In vitro methylation studies with extracts from a tylosin-producing Streptomyces fradiae strain and from mutant strains blocked in 2" '- or 3" '-O-methylations indicated that: (i) the 2" '- and 3" '-O-methylations occur after 6-deoxy-D-allose is attached to the macrolide ring; (ii) the 2" '- and 3" '-O-methylations are carried out by separate enzymes; and (iii) the 2" '-O-methylation precedes the 3" '-O-methylation. Macrocin O-methyltransferase was inhibited by high levels of its substrate, macrocin, by its product, tylosin, and by other tylosin analogs which contained mycinose or demethyl analogs of mycinose. Macrocin O-methyltransferase was produced early in the tylosin fermentation cycle by S. fradiae and preceded the onset of rapid tylosin biosynthesis by about 24 h. The enzyme specific activity reached maximum at about 72 h and then slowly declined. A mutant strain of S. fradiae selected for increased tylosin production synthesized macrocin O-methyltransferase more rapidly and accumulated a higher enzyme specific activity than a wild-type strain. PMID:7305323

  1. Mycolic Acid-Containing Bacteria Induce Natural-Product Biosynthesis in Streptomyces Species▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Onaka, Hiroyasu; Mori, Yukiko; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Furumai, Tamotsu

    2011-01-01

    Natural products produced by microorganisms are important starting compounds for drug discovery. Secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, have been isolated from different Streptomyces species. The production of these metabolites depends on the culture conditions. Therefore, the development of a new culture method can facilitate the discovery of new natural products. Here, we show that mycolic acid-containing bacteria can influence the biosynthesis of cryptic natural products in Streptomyces species. The production of red pigment by Streptomyces lividans TK23 was induced by coculture with Tsukamurella pulmonis TP-B0596, which is a mycolic acid-containing bacterium. Only living cells induced this pigment production, which was not mediated by any substances. T. pulmonis could induce natural-product synthesis in other Streptomyces strains too: it altered natural-product biosynthesis in 88.4% of the Streptomyces strains isolated from soil. The other mycolic acid-containing bacteria, Rhodococcus erythropolis and Corynebacterium glutamicum, altered biosynthesis in 87.5 and 90.2% of the Streptomyces strains, respectively. The coculture broth of T. pulmonis and Streptomyces endus S-522 contained a novel antibiotic, which we named alchivemycin A. We concluded that the mycolic acid localized in the outer cell layer of the inducer bacterium influences secondary metabolism in Streptomyces, and this activity is a result of the direct interaction between the mycolic acid-containing bacteria and Streptomyces. We used these results to develop a new coculture method, called the combined-culture method, which facilitates the screening of natural products. PMID:21097597

  2. Mycolic acid-containing bacteria induce natural-product biosynthesis in Streptomyces species.

    PubMed

    Onaka, Hiroyasu; Mori, Yukiko; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Furumai, Tamotsu

    2011-01-01

    Natural products produced by microorganisms are important starting compounds for drug discovery. Secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, have been isolated from different Streptomyces species. The production of these metabolites depends on the culture conditions. Therefore, the development of a new culture method can facilitate the discovery of new natural products. Here, we show that mycolic acid-containing bacteria can influence the biosynthesis of cryptic natural products in Streptomyces species. The production of red pigment by Streptomyces lividans TK23 was induced by coculture with Tsukamurella pulmonis TP-B0596, which is a mycolic acid-containing bacterium. Only living cells induced this pigment production, which was not mediated by any substances. T. pulmonis could induce natural-product synthesis in other Streptomyces strains too: it altered natural-product biosynthesis in 88.4% of the Streptomyces strains isolated from soil. The other mycolic acid-containing bacteria, Rhodococcus erythropolis and Corynebacterium glutamicum, altered biosynthesis in 87.5 and 90.2% of the Streptomyces strains, respectively. The coculture broth of T. pulmonis and Streptomyces endus S-522 contained a novel antibiotic, which we named alchivemycin A. We concluded that the mycolic acid localized in the outer cell layer of the inducer bacterium influences secondary metabolism in Streptomyces, and this activity is a result of the direct interaction between the mycolic acid-containing bacteria and Streptomyces. We used these results to develop a new coculture method, called the combined-culture method, which facilitates the screening of natural products.

  3. An efficient blue-white screening based gene inactivation system for Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengwei; Li, Jine; Guo, Zhengyan; Tang, Wei; Han, Jianshan; Meng, Xiangxi; Hao, Tingting; Zhu, Yaxin; Zhang, Lixin; Chen, Yihua

    2015-02-01

    Streptomyces is studied intensively for its outstanding ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites and for its complicated morphological differentiation process. A classical genetic manipulation system for Streptomyces has been developed and widely used in the community for a long time, using antibiotic resistance markers to select for double-crossover mutants. The screening process is always laborious and time-consuming. However, the lack of a suitable chromogenic reporter for Streptomyces has limited the use of color-based screening system to simplify the selection process for double-crossover mutants. In this study, a blue reporter system for Streptomyces has been established by mining an indigoidine synthetase gene (idgS) from Streptomyces lavendulae CGMCC 4.1386, leading to the development of a time-saving gene inactivation system for Streptomyces by simple blue-white screening. A series of Streptomyces suicide and temperature-sensitive plasmids containing the idgS reporter cassette were constructed and used successfully to inactivate genes in Streptomyces, allowing a simple and efficient screening method to differentiate the colonies for double-crossover (white) and single-crossover (blue) mutants. Inactivation of the putative γ-butyrolactone synthase gene afsA-y via the idgS-based blue-white screening method revealed that the paulomycin production is negatively controlled by afsA-y in Streptomyces sp. YN86.

  4. The Absence of Pupylation (Prokaryotic Ubiquitin-Like Protein Modification) Affects Morphological and Physiological Differentiation in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Seghezzi, Nicolas; Duchateau, Magalie; Gominet, Myriam; Kofroňová, Olga; Benada, Oldřich; Mazodier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein turnover is essential in all living organisms for the maintenance of normal cell physiology. In eukaryotes, most cellular protein turnover involves the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, in which proteins tagged with ubiquitin are targeted to the proteasome for degradation. In contrast, most bacteria lack a proteasome but harbor proteases for protein turnover. However, some actinobacteria, such as mycobacteria, possess a proteasome in addition to these proteases. A prokaryotic ubiquitination-like tagging process in mycobacteria was described and was named pupylation: proteins are tagged with Pup (prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein) and directed to the proteasome for degradation. We report pupylation in another actinobacterium, Streptomyces coelicolor. Both the morphology and life cycle of Streptomyces species are complex (formation of a substrate and aerial mycelium followed by sporulation), and these bacteria are prolific producers of secondary metabolites with important medicinal and agricultural applications. The genes encoding the pupylation system in S. coelicolor are expressed at various stages of development. We demonstrated that pupylation targets numerous proteins and identified 20 of them. Furthermore, we established that abolition of pupylation has substantial effects on morphological and metabolic differentiation and on resistance to oxidative stress. In contrast, in most cases, a proteasome-deficient mutant showed only modest perturbations under the same conditions. Thus, the phenotype of the pup mutant does not appear to be due solely to defective proteasomal degradation. Presumably, pupylation has roles in addition to directing proteins to the proteasome. IMPORTANCE Streptomyces spp. are filamentous and sporulating actinobacteria, remarkable for their morphological and metabolic differentiation. They produce numerous bioactive compounds, including antifungal, antibiotic, and antitumor compounds. There is therefore considerable interest in

  5. Genome sequences of three tunicamycin-producing Streptomyces strains; S. chartreusis NRRL 12338, S. chartreusis NRRL 3882, and S. lysosuperificus ATCC 31396

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    S. chartreusis strains NRRL 12338 and NRRL 3882, S. clavuligerus NRRL 3585, and S. lysosuperificus ATCC 31396, are known producers of tunicamycins, and also of charteusins, clavulinate, cephalosporins, holomycins, and calcimycin. Here we announce the sequencing of the S. lysosuperificus and the two...

  6. Streptomyces chlorus sp. nov. and Streptomyces viridis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Yong; Rong, Xiaoying; Zucchi, Tiago D; Huang, Ying; Goodfellow, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Two actinomycete strains, BK125(T) and BK199(T), isolated from a hay meadow soil sample were investigated to determine their taxonomic position using a polyphasic approach. The isolates produced greenish-yellow and light green aerial mycelium on oatmeal agar, respectively. They contained anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids, and MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8) as the predominant isoprenoid quinones. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates formed distinct phyletic lines towards the periphery of the Streptomyces prasinus subclade. Analysis of DNA-DNA relatedness between the two isolates showed that they belonged to different genomic species. The organisms were also distinguished from one another and from type strains of species classified in the S. prasinus subclade using a combination of genotypic and phenotypic properties. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that the isolates be assigned to the genus Streptomyces as Streptomyces chlorus sp. nov. and Streptomyces viridis sp. nov. with isolates BK125(T) ( = KACC 20902(T) = CGMCC 4.5798(T)) and BK199(T) ( = KACC 21003(T) = CGMCC 4.6824(T)) as the respective type strains.

  7. Biotransformation of trinitrotoluene (TNT) by Streptomyces species

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, S.B.; Pasti-Grigsby, M.B.; Felicione, E.C.; Crawford, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Composting has been proposed as one process for use in the bioremediation of 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soils. However, the biotransformations of TNT that occur during composting, and the specific compost microorganisms involved in TNT metabolism, are not well understood. Both mesophilic and thermophilic actinomycetes are important participants in the biodegradation of organic matter, and possibly TNT, in composts. Here the authors report on the biotransformation of TNT by Streptomyces species growing aerobically in a liquid medium supplemented with 10 to 100 mg/L of TNT. Streptomyces spp. are able to completely remove TNT from the culture medium within 24 hours. As has been observed with other bacteria, these streptomycetes transform TNT first by reducing the 4-nitro and 2-nitro groups to the corresponding amino group; reducing TNT first to 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene and then 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene. These intermediates are transitory and are themselves removed from the medium within 7 days.

  8. The VanRS Homologous Two-Component System VnlRSAb of the Glycopeptide Producer Amycolatopsis balhimycina Activates Transcription of the vanHAXSc Genes in Streptomyces coelicolor, but not in A. balhimycina

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Regina; Frasch, Hans-Joerg; Kulik, Andreas; Wohlleben, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    In enterococci and in Streptomyces coelicolor, a glycopeptide nonproducer, the glycopeptide resistance genes vanHAX are colocalized with vanRS. The two-component system (TCS) VanRS activates vanHAX transcription upon sensing the presence of glycopeptides. Amycolatopsis balhimycina, the producer of the vancomycin-like glycopeptide balhimycin, also possesses vanHAXAb genes. The genes for the VanRS-like TCS VnlRSAb, together with the carboxypeptidase gene vanYAb, are part of the balhimycin biosynthetic gene cluster, which is located 2 Mb separate from the vanHAXAb. The deletion of vnlRSAb did not affect glycopeptide resistance or balhimycin production. In the A. balhimycina vnlRAb deletion mutant, the vanHAXAb genes were expressed at the same level as in the wild type, and peptidoglycan (PG) analyses proved the synthesis of resistant PG precursors. Whereas vanHAXAb expression in A. balhimycina does not depend on VnlRAb, a VnlRAb-depending regulation of vanYAb was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RNA-seq analyses. Although VnlRAb does not regulate the vanHAXAb genes in A. balhimycina, its heterologous expression in the glycopeptide-sensitive S. coelicolor ΔvanRSSc deletion mutant restored glycopeptide resistance. VnlRAb activates the vanHAXSc genes even in the absence of VanS. In addition, expression of vnlRAb increases actinorhodin production and influences morphological differentiation in S. coelicolor. PMID:27420548

  9. A promising strain of Streptomyces sp. with agricultural traits for growth promotion and disease management.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mansoor; Dharni, Seema; Abdul-Khaliq; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar; Samad, Abdul; Gupta, Mahesh Kumar

    2012-08-01

    A bacterial strain, Streptomyces sp. CIMAP- A1 was isolated from Geranium rhizosphere and identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular characters (16S rDNA gene sequence). Phylogenetically, it was found most closely related to S. vinacendrappus, strain NRRL-2363 with 99% sequence similarity. The strain had potential antagonistic activity (in vitro) against wide range of phytopathogenic fungi like Stemphylium sp., Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Colletotrichum spp., Curvularia spp., Corynespora cassicola and Thielavia basicola. The extracellular secondary metabolites produced by the strain in the culture filtrates significantly inhibited the spore germination, growth of germ tube of the germinated spores and radial growth of Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum acutatum, Curvularia andropogonis and Fusarium moniliforme. The extraction of culture filtrate with solvents and purification by following VLC and PTLC methods always yielded a 10th fraction antifungal compound showing activity against wide range of phytopathogenic fungi. The strain was able to produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid. The strain was found to enhance the growth and biomass production of Geranium. It increased 11.3% fresh shoot biomass of Geranium and 21.7% essential oil yield.

  10. Fumonisin detection and analysis of potential fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) in Zhejiang Province of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiansheng; Wang, Xiaoping; Zhou, Ying; Du, Liangcheng; Wang, Qiaomei

    2010-04-15

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by a number of Fusarium species, including several pathogens of asparagus plants. China is one of the largest asparagus producers in the world. In this study, we analysed the contamination of fumonisins and fumonisin-producing fungi in asparagus spear samples from Zhejiang Province, the major asparagus production province in China. The asparagus did not contain a detectable level of fumonisins. However, the recovery of Fusarium in asparagus was 72.7%, including F. proliferatum (40.9%), F. oxysporum (22.7%), F. acuminatum (4.55%) and F. equesti (4.55%). A multiplex PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer sequence (ITS), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF), and key biosynthetic genes FUM1 and FUM8, was used to simultaneously determine the identity and the biosynthetic ability of the fungal isolates. Fungal isolates containing the FUM genes also produced fumonisins in cultures, ranging from 28 to 4204 microg g(-1). F. proliferatum was the only fumonisin-producing Fusarium species in asparagus. Although no fumonisin contamination was detected in asparagus in the current survey, we found that the majority of samples contained Fusarium spp. Because F. proliferatum is a high fumonisin-producing species, potential health risks for human consumption of asparagus exist, if the appropriate environmental conditions are present for this fungus. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Detection of sorbitol-negative and sorbitol-positive Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, and Salmonella spp. in dairy farm environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Murinda, S E; Nguyen, L T; Nam, H M; Almeida, R A; Headrick, S J; Oliver, S P

    2004-01-01

    Six visits were conducted to four dairy farms to collect swab, liquid, and solid dairy farm environmental samples (165 to 180/farm; 15 sample types). The objective of the study was to determine on-farm sources of Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), which might serve as reservoirs for transmission of pathogens. Samples were analyzed using mostly U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual protocols; however, Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes and STEC were co-enriched in universal pre-enrichment broth. Campylobacter jejuni were enriched in Bolton broth containing Bolton broth supplement. Pathogens were isolated on agar media, typed biochemically, and confirmed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction protocols. Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, Sorbitol-negative (SN)-STEC O157:H7, and sorbitol-positive (SP)-STEC, respectively, were isolated from 5.06%, 3.76%, 6.51%, 0.72%, and 17.3% of samples evaluated. Whereas other pathogens were isolated from all four farms, SN-STEC O157:H7 were isolated from only two farms. Diverse serotypes of SP-STEC including O157:H7, O26:H11, O111, and O103 were isolated. None of the five pathogen groups studied were isolated from bulk tank milk (BTM). Most pathogens (44.2%) were isolated directly from fecal samples. Bovine fecal samples, lagoon water, bedding, bird droppings, and rat intestinal contents constituted areas of major concern on dairy farms. Although in-line milk filters from two farms tested positive for Salmonella or L. monocytogenes, none of the pathogens were detected in the corresponding BTM samples. Good manure management practices, including control of feral animals, are critical in assuring dairy farm hygiene. Identification of on-farm pathogen reservoirs could aid with implementation of farm-specific pathogen reduction programs.

  12. Self-resistance in Streptomyces, with Special Reference to β-Lactam Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, Hiroshi

    2016-05-10

    Antibiotic resistance is one of the most serious public health problems. Among bacterial resistance, β-lactam antibiotic resistance is the most prevailing and threatening area. Antibiotic resistance is thought to originate in antibiotic-producing bacteria such as Streptomyces. In this review, β-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) in Streptomyces are explored mainly by phylogenetic analyses from the viewpoint of self-resistance. Although PBPs are more important than β-lactamases in self-resistance, phylogenetically diverse β-lactamases exist in Streptomyces. While class A β-lactamases are mostly detected in their enzyme activity, over two to five times more classes B and C β-lactamase genes are identified at the whole genomic level. These genes can subsequently be transferred to pathogenic bacteria. As for PBPs, two pairs of low affinity PBPs protect Streptomyces from the attack of self-producing and other environmental β-lactam antibiotics. PBPs with PASTA domains are detectable only in class A PBPs in Actinobacteria with the exception of Streptomyces. None of the Streptomyces has PBPs with PASTA domains. However, one of class B PBPs without PASTA domain and a serine/threonine protein kinase with four PASTA domains are located in adjacent positions in most Streptomyces. These class B type PBPs are involved in the spore wall synthesizing complex and probably in self-resistance. Lastly, this paper emphasizes that the resistance mechanisms in Streptomyces are very hard to deal with, despite great efforts in finding new antibiotics.

  13. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes at small-scale spanish factories producing traditional fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Martin, Belen; Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa

    2011-05-01

    The manufacturing of fermented sausages is subject to natural contamination processes that can potentially carry foodborne pathogens along the process chain and result in contamination of the final product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes at different sampling points during the manufacturing process of fuet, a type of traditional fermented sausage, at 10 small-scale Spanish factories. The presence of both pathogens was studied in the raw materials (19 casings and 19 meat batters), the final products (19 fermented sausages), and the factory equipment (12 mincing, 12 mixing, and 19 stuffing machines, 19 cutting tables, 11 knives, and 12 cold rooms) by using classical microbiological techniques and real-time PCR. Salmonella was not detected in the equipment analyzed or in the final products, but it was detected in the raw materials (23.7% of samples). L. monocytogenes showed higher incidence than Salmonella and was detected in the equipment (11.8% of samples), the raw materials (28.9%), and the final products (15.8%), confirming its ubiquity throughout the manufacturing process of fermented sausages. Five factories were further investigated to study the changes in the distribution of pathogens in the fuet production process over a period of either 2 or 3 years. There was considerable variation in the incidence of both pathogens at different sampling periods, and there was no relation between seasonal variations or geographic location of the factories.

  14. Speciation of Bacillus spp. in honey produced in Northern Ireland by employment of 16S rDNA PCR and automated DNA sequencing techniques.

    PubMed

    Tolba, Ola; Earle, J A Philip; Millar, B Cherie; Rooney, Paul J; Moore, John E

    2007-12-01

    Phenotypic speciation of foodborne Bacillus spp. remains problematic in terms of obtaining a reliable identification. In this study, we wished to identify several bacterial isolates from honey produced in Northern Ireland, and which belonged to the genus Bacillus, through employment of a molecular identification scheme based on PCR amplification of universal regions of the 16S rRNA operon in combination with direct automated sequencing of the resulting amplicons. Seven samples of honey and related materials (propolis) were examined microbiologically and were demonstrated to have total viable counts (TVC) ranging from <100 to 1700 colony-forming units/g. No yeasts or filamentous fungi were isolated from the honey materials. Several bacterial isolates were identified using this method, yielding two different genera (Paenibacillus and Bacillus), as well as four Bacillus species, namely Bacillus pumilus, B. licheniformis, B. subtilis and B. fusiformis, with B. pumilus the most frequently identified species present. When the use of molecular identification methods is justified, employment of partial 16S rDNA PCR and sequencing provides a valuable and reliable method of identification of Bacillus spp. from foodstuffs and negates associated problems of conventional laboratory and phenotypic identification.

  15. Removal of zinc by live, dead, and dried biomass of Fusarium spp. isolated from the abandoned-metal mine in South Korea and its perspective of producing nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Shim, Jaehong; You, Youngnam; Choi, Songho; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Lee, Kui-Jae; Kim, Hee Joung; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2010-10-15

    Bioremediation is an innovative and alternative technology to remove heavy metal pollutants from aqueous solution using biomass from various microorganisms like algae, fungi and bacteria. In this study biosorption of zinc onto live, dead and dried biomass of Fusarium spp. was investigated as a function of initial zinc(II) concentration, pH, temperature, agitation and inoculum volume. It was observed that dried, dead and live biomass efficiently removed zinc at 60 min at an initial pH of 6.0+/-0.3. Temperature of 40 degrees C was optimum at agitation speed of 150 or 200 rpm. The initial metal concentration (10-320 mg L(-1)) significantly influenced the biosorption of the fungi. Overall, biosorption was high with 30-60% by dried, live and dead biomass. In addition to this, the potential of Fusarium spp. to produce zinc nanocrystals was determined by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which showed that dead biomass was not significantly involved in production of zinc nanocrystals. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Streptomyces as symbionts: an emerging and widespread theme?

    PubMed

    Seipke, Ryan F; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Hutchings, Matthew I

    2012-07-01

    Streptomyces bacteria are ubiquitous in soil, conferring the characteristic earthy smell, and they have an important ecological role in the turnover of organic material. More recently, a new picture has begun to emerge in which streptomycetes are not in all cases simply free-living soil bacteria but have also evolved to live in symbiosis with plants, fungi and animals. Furthermore, much of the chemical diversity of secondary metabolites produced by Streptomyces species has most likely evolved as a direct result of their interactions with other organisms. Here we review what is currently known about the role of streptomycetes as symbionts with fungi, plants and animals. These interactions can be parasitic, as is the case for scab-causing streptomycetes, which infect plants, and the Streptomyces species Streptomyces somaliensis and Streptomyces sudanensis that infect humans. However, in most cases they are beneficial and growth promoting, as is the case with many insects, plants and marine animals that use streptomycete-produced antibiotics to protect themselves against infection. This is an exciting and newly emerging field of research that will become increasingly important as the search for new antibiotics switches to unusual and under-explored environments. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Laboratory course on Streptomyces genetics and secondary metabolism.

    PubMed

    Siitonen, Vilja; Räty, Kaj; Metsä-Ketelä, Mikko

    2016-09-10

    The "Streptomyces genetics and secondary metabolism" laboratory course gives an introduction to the versatile soil dwelling Gram-positive bacteria Streptomyces and their secondary metabolism. The course combines genetic modification of Streptomyces; growing of the strain and protoplast preparation, plasmid isolation by alkaline lysis and phenol precipitation, digestions, and ligations prior to protoplast transformation, as well as investigating the secondary metabolites produced by the strains. Thus, the course is a combination of microbiology, molecular biology, and chemistry. After the course the students should understand the relationship between genes, proteins, and the produced metabolites. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):492-499, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. Increased diazinon hydrolysis to 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol in liquid medium by a specific Streptomyces mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Briceño, G; Schalchli, H; Rubilar, O; Tortella, G R; Mutis, A; Benimeli, C S; Palma, G; Diez, M C

    2016-08-01

    Actinobacteria identified as Streptomyces spp. were evaluated for their ability to remove diazinon as the only carbon source from a liquid medium. Single cultures of Streptomyces strains were exposed to diazinon at a concentration of 50 mg L(-1). After 96 h incubation, six of the eight cultures grew and five strains showed an increase in their total protein concentrations and changes in their protein profile. Up to 32% of the diazinon was removed by the single Streptomyces cultures. A compatibility assay showed that the different Streptomyces species were not antagonistic. Twenty-six mixed cultures were then prepared. Diazinon removal was increased when mixed cultures were used, and maximum diazinon removal of 62% was observed when the Streptomyces spp. strains AC5, AC9, GA11 and ISP13 were mixed; this was defined as the selected mixed culture (SMC). Diazinon removal was positively influenced by the addition of glucose into the liquid medium. Our study showed a diazinon degradation rate of 0.025 h(-1), half-life of 28 h(-1) and 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol (IMHP) production of 0.143 mg L h(-1). Rapid diazinon hydrolysis to IMHP was associated with a decrease in the pH of the medium as a consequence of microbial glucose metabolism and organic acid exudation. Moreover, the SMC of Streptomyces was able to remove IMHP. This work constitutes a new, if not the only, report on diazinon degradation by mixed cultures of Streptomyces spp. Given the high levels of diazinon removal, the SMC formed by four Streptomyces strains has the potential to be used to treat the diazinon present in environmental matrices.

  19. Streptomyces verrucosisporus sp. nov., isolated from marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Kudo, Takuji; Ohkuma, Moriya; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2016-09-01

    Five actinomycete isolates, CPB1-1T, CPB2-10, BM1-4, CPB3-1 and CPB1-18, belonging to the genus Streptomyces were isolated from marine sediments collected from Chumphon Province, Thailand. They produced open loops of warty spore chains on aerial mycelia. ll-Diaminopimelic acid, glucose and ribose were found in their whole-cell hydrolysates. Polar lipids found were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. Menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8), MK-10(H6) and MK-10(H8). Major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The taxonomic position of the strains was described using a polyphasic approach. blastn analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that these five strains exhibited the highest similarities with 'Streptomyces mangrovicola' GY1 (99.0 %), Streptomyces fenghuangensisGIMN4.003T (98.6 %), Streptomyces barkulensisRC 1831T (98.5 %) and Streptomyces radiopugnans R97T (98.3 %). However, their phenotypic characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequences as well as DNA-DNA relatedness differentiated these five strains from the other species of the genus Streptomyces. Here, we propose the novel actinomycetes all being representatives of the same novel species, Streptomyces verrucosisporus, with type strain CPB1-1T (=JCM 18519T=PCU 343T=TISTR 2344T).

  20. Cation Dependence, pH Tolerance, and Dosage Requirement of a Bioflocculant Produced by Bacillus spp. UPMB13: Flocculation Performance Optimization through Kaolin Assays

    PubMed Central

    Zulkeflee, Zufarzaana; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Shamsuddin, Zulkifli H.; Yusoff, Mohd Kamil

    2012-01-01

    A bioflocculant-producing bacterial strain with highly mucoid and ropy colony morphological characteristics identified as Bacillus spp. UPMB13 was found to be a potential bioflocculant-producing bacterium. The effect of cation dependency, pH tolerance and dosage requirement on flocculating ability of the strain was determined by flocculation assay with kaolin as the suspended particle. The flocculating activity was measured as optical density and by flocs formation. A synergistic effect was observed with the addition of monovalent and divalent cations, namely, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+, while Fe2+ and Al3+ produced inhibiting effects on flocculating activity. Divalent cations were conclusively demonstrated as the best cation source to enhance flocculation. The bioflocculant works in a wide pH range, from 4.0 to 8.0 with significantly different performances (P < 0.05), respectively. It best performs at pH 5.0 and pH 6.0 with flocculating performance of above 90%. A much lower or higher pH would inhibit flocculation. Low dosage requirements were needed for both the cation and bioflocculant, with only an input of 50 mL/L for 0.1% (w/v) CaCl2 and 5 mL/L for culture broth, respectively. These results are comparable to other bioflocculants produced by various microorganisms with higher dosage requirements. PMID:22997497

  1. Cation dependence, pH tolerance, and dosage requirement of a bioflocculant produced by Bacillus spp. UPMB13: flocculation performance optimization through kaolin assays.

    PubMed

    Zulkeflee, Zufarzaana; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Shamsuddin, Zulkifli H; Yusoff, Mohd Kamil

    2012-01-01

    A bioflocculant-producing bacterial strain with highly mucoid and ropy colony morphological characteristics identified as Bacillus spp. UPMB13 was found to be a potential bioflocculant-producing bacterium. The effect of cation dependency, pH tolerance and dosage requirement on flocculating ability of the strain was determined by flocculation assay with kaolin as the suspended particle. The flocculating activity was measured as optical density and by flocs formation. A synergistic effect was observed with the addition of monovalent and divalent cations, namely, Na⁺, Ca²⁺, and Mg²⁺, while Fe²⁺ and Al³⁺ produced inhibiting effects on flocculating activity. Divalent cations were conclusively demonstrated as the best cation source to enhance flocculation. The bioflocculant works in a wide pH range, from 4.0 to 8.0 with significantly different performances (P < 0.05), respectively. It best performs at pH 5.0 and pH 6.0 with flocculating performance of above 90%. A much lower or higher pH would inhibit flocculation. Low dosage requirements were needed for both the cation and bioflocculant, with only an input of 50 mL/L for 0.1% (w/v) CaCl₂ and 5 mL/L for culture broth, respectively. These results are comparable to other bioflocculants produced by various microorganisms with higher dosage requirements.

  2. Purification and Characterization of Plantaricin JLA-9: A Novel Bacteriocin against Bacillus spp. Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum JLA-9 from Suan-Tsai, a Traditional Chinese Fermented Cabbage.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shengming; Han, Jinzhi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lu, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Chong; Lv, Fengxia

    2016-04-06

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides with antimicrobial activity produced by numerous bacteria. A novel bacteriocin-producing strain, Lactobacillus plantarum JLA-9, isolated from Suan-Tsai, a traditional Chinese fermented cabbage, was screened and identified by its physiobiochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. A new bacteriocin, designated plantaricin JLA-9, was purified using butanol extraction, gel filtration, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular mass of plantaricin JLA-9 was shown to be 1044 Da by MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. The amino acid sequence of plantaricin JLA-9 was predicted to be FWQKMSFA by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, which was confirmed by Edman degradation. This bacteriocin exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, especially Bacillus spp., high thermal stability (20 min, 121 °C), and narrow pH stability (pH 2.0-7.0). It was sensitive to α-chymotrypsin, pepsin, alkaline protease, and papain. The mode of action of this bacteriocin responsible for outgrowth inhibition of Bacillus cereus spores was studied. Plantaricin JLA-9 had no detectable effects on germination initiation over 1 h on monitoring the hydration, heat resistance, and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA) release of spores. Rather, germination initiation is a prerequisite for the action of plantaricin JLA-9. Plantaricin JLA-9 inhibited growth by preventing the establishment of oxidative metabolism and disrupting membrane integrity in germinating spores within 2 h. The results suggest that plantaricin JLA-9 has potential applications in the control of Bacillus spp. in the food industry.

  3. A Latitudinal Diversity Gradient in Terrestrial Bacteria of the Genus Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Andam, Cheryl P.; Doroghazi, James R.; Campbell, Ashley N.; Kelly, Peter J.; Choudoir, Mallory J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We show that Streptomyces biogeography in soils across North America is influenced by the regional diversification of microorganisms due to dispersal limitation and genetic drift. Streptomyces spp. form desiccation-resistant spores, which can be dispersed on the wind, allowing for a strong test of whether dispersal limitation governs patterns of terrestrial microbial diversity. We employed an approach that has high sensitivity for determining the effects of genetic drift. Specifically, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogeography of physiologically similar Streptomyces strains isolated from geographically distributed yet ecologically similar habitats. We found that Streptomyces beta diversity scales with geographic distance and both beta diversity and phylogenetic diversity manifest in a latitudinal diversity gradient. This pattern of Streptomyces biogeography resembles patterns seen for diverse species of plants and animals, and we therefore evaluated these data in the context of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses proposed to explain latitudinal diversity gradients. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that niche conservatism limits dispersal, and historical patterns of glaciation have limited the time for speciation in higher-latitude sites. Most notably, higher-latitude sites have lower phylogenetic diversity, higher phylogenetic clustering, and evidence of range expansion from lower latitudes. In addition, patterns of beta diversity partition with respect to the glacial history of sites. Hence, the data support the hypothesis that extant patterns of Streptomyces biogeography have been driven by historical patterns of glaciation and are the result of demographic range expansion, dispersal limitation, and regional diversification due to drift. PMID:27073097

  4. A latitudinal diversity gradient in terrestrial bacteria of the genus Streptomyces

    DOE PAGES

    Andam, Cheryl P.; Doroghazi, James R.; Campbell, Ashley N.; ...

    2016-04-12

    We show that Streptomyces biogeography in soils across North America is influenced by the regional diversification of microorganisms due to dispersal limitation and genetic drift. Streptomyces spp. form desiccation-resistant spores, which can be dispersed on the wind, allowing for a strong test of whether dispersal limitation governs patterns of terrestrial microbial diversity. We employed an approach that has high sensitivity for determining the effects of genetic drift. Specifically, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogeography of physiologically similar Streptomyces strains isolated from geographically distributed yet ecologically similar habitats. We found that Streptomyces beta diversity scales with geographic distance and bothmore » beta diversity and phylogenetic diversity manifest in a latitudinal diversity gradient. This pattern of Streptomyces biogeography resembles patterns seen for diverse species of plants and animals, and we therefore evaluated these data in the context of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses proposed to explain latitudinal diversity gradients. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that niche conservatism limits dispersal, and historical patterns of glaciation have limited the time for speciation in higher-latitude sites. Most notably, higher-latitude sites have lower phylogenetic diversity, higher phylogenetic clustering, and evidence of range expansion from lower latitudes. In addition, patterns of beta diversity partition with respect to the glacial history of sites. Furthermore, the data support the hypothesis that extant patterns of Streptomyces biogeography have been driven by historical patterns of glaciation and are the result of demographic range expansion, dispersal limitation, and regional diversification due to drift.« less

  5. A whole genome analysis reveals the presence of a plant PR1 sequence in the potato pathogen Streptomyces scabies and other Streptomyces species.

    PubMed

    Armijos-Jaramillo, Vinicio; Santander-Gordón, Daniela; Soria, Rosa; Pazmiño-Betancourth, Mauro; Echeverría, María Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Streptomyces scabies is a common soil bacterium that causes scab symptoms in potatoes. Strong evidence indicates horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among bacteria has influenced the evolution of this plant pathogen and other Streptomyces spp. To extend the study of the HGT to the Streptomyces genus, we explored the effects of the inter-domain HGT in the S. scabies genome. We employed a semi-automatic pipeline based on BLASTp searches and phylogenetic reconstruction. The data show low impact of inter-domain HGT in the S. scabies genome; however, we found a putative plant pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) sequence in the genome of S. scabies and other species of the genus. It is possible that this gene could be used by S. scabies to out-compete other soil organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evolution of the phenazine biosynthesis pathway and diversity of phenazine-producing Pseudomonas spp. in dryland wheat-producing areas of Washington state

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phenazines are versatile secondary metabolites of bacterial origin that function as signaling compounds and contribute to the ecological fitness and pathogenicity of the producing strains. A 2007-2008 survey of commercial dryland fields in central Washington State (annual precipitation <15 in) revea...

  7. Activation and silencing of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces albus and Streptomyces lividans after transformation with cosmids containing the thienamycin gene cluster from Streptomyces cattleya.

    PubMed

    Braña, Alfredo F; Rodríguez, Miriam; Pahari, Pallab; Rohr, Jurgen; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2014-05-01

    Activation and silencing of antibiotic production was achieved in Streptomyces albus J1074 and Streptomyces lividans TK21 after introduction of genes within the thienamycin cluster from S. cattleya. Dramatic phenotypic and metabolic changes, involving activation of multiple silent secondary metabolites and silencing of others normally produced, were found in recombinant strains harbouring the thienamycin cluster in comparison to the parental strains. In S. albus, ultra-performance liquid chromatography purification and NMR structural elucidation revealed the identity of four structurally related activated compounds: the antibiotics paulomycins A, B and the paulomenols A and B. Four volatile compounds whose biosynthesis was switched off were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses and databases comparison as pyrazines; including tetramethylpyrazine, a compound with important clinical applications to our knowledge never reported to be produced by Streptomyces. In addition, this work revealed the potential of S. albus to produce many others secondary metabolites normally obtained from plants, including compounds of medical relevance as dihydro-β-agarofuran and of interest in perfume industry as β-patchoulene, suggesting that it might be an alternative model for their industrial production. In S. lividans, actinorhodins production was strongly activated in the recombinant strains whereas undecylprodigiosins were significantly reduced. Activation of cryptic metabolites in Streptomyces species might represent an alternative approach for pharmaceutical drug discovery.

  8. [Progress in developing and applying Streptomyces chassis - A review].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Liping; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2016-03-04

    Natural products and their derivatives play an important role in modern healthcare. Their diversity in bioactivity and chemical structure inspires scientists to discover new drug entities for clinical use. However, chemical synthesis of natural compounds has insurmountable difficulties in technology and cost. Also, many original-producing bacteria have disadvantages of needing harsh cultivation conditions, having low productivity and other shortcomings. In addition, some gene clusters responsible for secondary metabolite biosynthesis are silence in the original strains. Therefore, it is of great significance to exploit strategy for the heterologous expression of natural products guided by synthetic biology. Recently, researchers pay more attention on using actinomycetes that are the main source of many secondary metabolites, such as antibiotics, anticancer agents, and immunosuppressive drugs. Especially, with huge development of genome sequencing, abundant resources of natural product biosynthesis in Streptomyces have been discovered, which highlight the special advantages on developing Streptomyces as the heterologous expression chassis cells. This review begins with the significance of the development of Streptomyces chassis, focusing on the strategies and the status in developing Streptomyces chassis cells, followed by examples to illustrate the practical applications of a variety of Streptomyces chassis.

  9. Construction and development of a novel expression system of Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Guan, Chengran; Cui, Wenjing; He, Xiaotian; Hu, Xu; Xu, Jun; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Zhou, Zhemin

    2015-09-01

    Streptomyces is well known to be an attractive host for producing large amounts of proteins with potent biological activities into the culture supernatant. To expand its expression system, we constructed a novel expression plasmid for gene expression in Streptomyces by inserting the promoter (P(tg)) and the signal peptide (SP(tg)) of transglutaminase (TGase) from Streptomyces hygroscopicus WSH03-13 into vector pIJ86, followed by multiple cloning sites and a transcriptional terminator fd (fd-ter). The secretion capacity of the vector was further enhanced by optimizing the signal peptidase cleavage site and a rare codon of SP(tg), yielding expression vector pSG02. Using this vector, TGase was actively and greatly expressed in the supernatant in several Streptomyces strains. In addition, the heterologous proteins aminopeptidase from Bacillus subtilis Zj016 (BSAP) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from Rhodotorula glutinis (PAL) were also expressed in various Streptomyces strains by this vector. This expression system should be useful for the expression of other proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Occurrence of Cellulose-Producing Gluconacetobacter spp. in Fruit Samples and Kombucha Tea, and Production of the Biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Neera; Ramana, Karna Venkata; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2015-06-01

    Cellulose producing bacteria were isolated from fruit samples and kombucha tea (a fermented beverage) using CuSO4 solution in modified Watanabe and Yamanaka medium to inhibit yeasts and molds. Six bacterial strains showing cellulose production were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain DFBT, Ga. xylinus strain dfr-1, Gluconobacter oxydans strain dfr-2, G. oxydans strain dfr-3, Acetobacter orientalis strain dfr-4, and Gluconacetobacter intermedius strain dfr-5. All the cellulose-producing bacteria were checked for the cellulose yield. A potent cellulose-producing bacterium, i.e., Ga. xylinus strain DFBT based on yield (cellulose yield 5.6 g/L) was selected for further studies. Cellulose was also produced in non- conventional media such as pineapple juice medium and hydrolysed corn starch medium. A very high yield of 9.1 g/L cellulose was obtained in pineapple juice medium. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) analysis of the bacterial cellulose showed the characteristic peaks. Soft cellulose with a very high water holding capacity was produced using limited aeration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the surface characteristics of normal bacterial cellulose and soft cellulose. The structural analysis of the polymer was performed using (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). More interfibrillar space was observed in the case of soft cellulose as compared to normal cellulose. This soft cellulose can find potential applications in the food industry as it can be swallowed easily without chewing.

  11. Molecular characterization of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Shigella spp. in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Li, B; Ni, Y; Sun, J

    2015-03-01

    Shigellosis is a public health concern in China. We tested 216 Shigella isolates collected in Shanghai in 2007 for the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). ESBL-producing isolates were characterized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping, conjugation, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and DNA sequence analysis of regions adjacent to bla genes. Plasmids containing genes encoding ESBLs were analyzed using plasmid replicon typing. ESBLs were produced by 18.1 % (39/216) of Shigella isolates, and all 39 ESBL-producing strains harbored bla CTX-M genes. CTX-M-14 was the most frequent variant (69.2 %, 27/39), followed by CTX-M-15 (15.4 %, 6/39). All bla CTX-M genes were transferable by conjugation, and the insertion sequence ISEcp1 was detected upstream of all bla CTX-M genes. The CTX-M-producing Shigella isolates showed high clonal diversity. IncI1, IncFII, IncN, and IncB/O replicons were respectively detected in 23 (58.9 %), 9 (23.1 %), 1 (2.6 %), and 1 (2.6 %) of the 39 transconjugants carrying bla CTX-M. The bla CTX-M-14 genes were most frequently carried by IncI1 (n = 13, 48.1 %) or IncFII (n = 9, 33.3 %) plasmids, and the bla CTX-M-15 genes were closely associated with IncI1 (n = 5, 83.3 %). Our findings demonstrate the high prevalence of ESBL-producing Shigella in Shanghai, the importance of plasmids and ISEcp1 as carriers of bla CTX-M genes, and the close association between certain bla CTX-M genes with a specific plasmid.

  12. Cloning of spiramycin biosynthetic genes and their use in constructing Streptomyces ambofaciens mutants defective in spiramycin biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, M A; Kuhstoss, S; Huber, M L; Ford, L; Godfrey, O; Turner, J R; Rao, R N

    1990-01-01

    Several cosmid clones from Streptomyces ambofaciens containing the spiramycin resistance gene srmB were introduced into S. fradiae PM73, a mutant defective in tylosin synthesis, resulting in tylosin synthesis. The DNA responsible for this complementation was localized to a 10.5-kilobase EcoRI fragment. A 32-kilobase DNA segment which included the srmB spiramycin resistance gene and DNA which complemented the defect in strain PM73 were mutagenized in vivo with Tn10 carrying the gene for Nmr (which is expressed in Streptomyces spp.) or in vitro by insertional mutagenesis with a drug resistance gene (Nmr) cassette. When these mutagenized DNA segments were crossed into the S. ambofaciens chromosome, three mutant classes blocked in spiramycin synthesis were obtained. One mutant accumulated two precursors of spiramycin, platenolide I and platenolide II. Two mutants, when cofermented with the platenolide-accumulating mutant, produced spiramycin. Tylactone supplementation of these two mutants resulted in the synthesis of a group of compounds exhibiting antibiotic activity. Two other mutants failed to coferment with any of the other mutants or to respond to tylactone supplementation. Images PMID:2193916

  13. Protozoan growth rates on secondary-metabolite-producing Pseudomonas spp. correlate with high-level protozoan taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Annette L; Winding, Anne; Altenburger, Andreas; Ekelund, Flemming

    2011-03-01

    Different features can protect bacteria against protozoan grazing, for example large size, rapid movement, and production of secondary metabolites. Most papers dealing with these matters focus on bacteria. Here, we describe protozoan features that affect their ability to grow on secondary-metabolite-producing bacteria, and examine whether different bacterial secondary metabolites affect protozoa similarly. We investigated the growth of nine different soil protozoa on six different Pseudomonas strains, including the four secondary-metabolite-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54 and CHA0, Pseudomonas chlororaphis MA342 and Pseudomonas sp. DSS73, as well as the two nonproducers P. fluorescens DSM50090(T) and P. chlororaphis ATCC43928. Secondary metabolite producers affected protozoan growth differently. In particular, bacteria with extracellular secondary metabolites seemed more inhibiting than bacteria with membrane-bound metabolites. Interestingly, protozoan response seemed to correlate with high-level protozoan taxonomy, and amoeboid taxa tolerated a broader range of Pseudomonas strains than did the non-amoeboid taxa. This stresses the importance of studying both protozoan and bacterial characteristics in order to understand bacterial defence mechanisms and potentially improve survival of bacteria introduced into the environment, for example for biocontrol purposes. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microbiological analysis of pre-packed sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) leaves for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli.

    PubMed

    Delbeke, Stefanie; Ceuppens, Siele; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-09-02

    Enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and pathogenic Escherichia coli, have been detected and associated with food borne outbreaks from (imported) fresh leafy herbs. Screening on imported herbs from South East Asian countries has been described. However, limited information on prevalence of these pathogens is available from other sourcing regions. Therefore, fresh pre-packed basil and coriander leaves from a Belgian trading company were investigated for the presence of Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), generic E. coli and coliforms. In total 592 samples were collected originating from Belgium, Israel and Cyprus during 2013-2014. Multiplex PCR followed by further culture confirmation was used for the detection of Salmonella spp. and STEC, whereas the Petrifilm Select E. coli and VRBL-agar were used, respectively, for the enumeration of E. coli and coliforms. Salmonella was detected in 10 out of 592 samples (25g) (1.7%; 5 from basil and 5 from coriander), of which two samples were sourced from Israel and eight from Cyprus. The presence of STEC was suspected in 11 out of 592 samples (25g) (1.9%; 3 basil and 8 coriander), due to the detection of stx and eae genes, of which one sample originated from Belgium, four from Israel and six from Cyprus. No STEC was isolated by culture techniques, but in three samples a serotype (O26, O103 or O111) with its most likely associated eae-variant (β or θ) was detected by PCR. Generic E. coli was enumerated in 108 out of 592 samples, whereby 55, 32 and 13 samples respectively between 10-100, 100-1000 and 1000-10,000cfu/g and 8 samples exceeding 10,000cfu/g. Coliforms were enumerated in all herb samples at variable levels ranging from 1.6 to 7.5logcfu/g. Further statistics indicate that the E. coli class (categorized by level) was significantly correlated with the presence of Salmonella (p<0.001) or STEC (p=0.019), while coliform counts were significant correlated with Salmonella (p<0.001), but not with

  15. Iron-Binding Compounds from Agrobacterium spp.: Biological Control Strain Agrobacterium rhizogenes K84 Produces a Hydroxamate Siderophore

    PubMed Central

    Penyalver, Ramón; Oger, Philippe; López, María M.; Farrand, Stephen K.

    2001-01-01

    Iron-binding compounds were produced in various amounts in response to iron starvation by a collection of Agrobacterium strains belonging to the species A. tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes, and A. vitis. The crown gall biocontrol agent A. rhizogenes strain K84 produced a hydroxamate iron chelator in large amounts. Production of this compound, and also of a previously described antibiotic-like substance called ALS84, occurred only in cultures of strain K84 grown in iron-deficient medium. Similarly, sensitivity to ALS84 was expressed only when susceptible cells were tested in low-iron media. Five independent Tn5-induced mutants of strain K84 affected in the production of the hydroxamate iron chelator showed a similar reduction in the production of ALS84. One of these mutants, M8-10, was completely deficient in the production of both agents and grew poorly compared to the wild type under iron-limiting conditions. Thus, the hydroxamate compound has siderophore activity. A 9.1-kb fragment of chromosomal DNA containing the Tn5 insertion from this mutant was cloned and marker exchanged into wild-type strain K84. The homogenote lost the ability to produce the hydroxamate siderophore and also ALS84. A cosmid clone was isolated from a genomic library of strain K84 that restored to strain M8-10 the ability to produce of the siderophore and ALS84, as well as growth in iron-deficient medium. This cosmid clone contained the region in which Tn5 was located in the mutant. Sequence analysis showed that the Tn5 insert in this mutant was located in an open reading frame coding for a protein that has similarity to those of the gramicidin S synthetase repeat superfamily. Some such proteins are required for synthesis of hydroxamate siderophores by other bacteria. Southern analysis revealed that the biosynthetic gene from strain K84 is present only in isolates of A. rhizogenes that produce hydroxamate-type compounds under low-iron conditions. Based on physiological and genetic analyses showing

  16. Colonization of wild potato plants by Streptomyces scabies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing their marketability and profitability. M6 and 524-8 are two closely related inbred diploid lines of the wild potato species Solanum chacoense. After testing in both field and greenhouse assays, it was found that ...

  17. Detection and Characterization of Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Yersinia Strains from Human, Animal, and Food Samples in San Luis, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Favier, Gabriela Isabel; Lucero Estrada, Cecilia; Cortiñas, Teresa Inés; Escudero, María Esther

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Salmonella spp., and Yersinia species was investigated in humans, animals, and foods in San Luis, Argentina. A total of 453 samples were analyzed by culture and PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibility of all the strains was studied, the genomic relationships among isolates of the same species were determined by PFGE, and the potencial virulence of Y. enterocolitica strains was analyzed. Yersinia species showed higher prevalence (9/453, 2.0%, 95% CI, 0.7–3.3%) than STEC (4/453, 0.9%, 95% CI, 0–1.8%) and Salmonella spp. (3/453, 0.7%, 95% CI, 0–1.5%). Y. enterocolitica and Y. intermedia were isolated from chicken carcasses (6/80, 7.5%, 95% CI, 1.5–13.5%) and porcine skin and bones (3/10, 30%, 95% CI, 0–65%). One STEC strain was recovered from human feces (1/70, 1.4%, 95% CI, 0–4.2%) and STEC stx1/stx2 genes were detected in bovine stools (3/129, 2.3%, 95% CI, 0–5.0%). S. Typhimurium was isolated from human feces (1/70, 1.4%, 95% CI, 0–4.2%) while one S. Newport and two S. Gaminara strains were recovered from one wild boar (1/3, 33%, 95% CI, 0–99%). The knowledge of prevalence and characteristics of these enteropathogens in our region would allow public health services to take adequate preventive measures. PMID:25177351

  18. Cloning, phenotypic expression, and DNA sequence of the gene for lactacin F, an antimicrobial peptide produced by Lactobacillus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Muriana, P M; Klaenhammer, T R

    1991-01-01

    Lactacin F is a heat-stable bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus 11088. A 63-mer oligonucleotide probe deduced from the N-terminal lactacin F amino acid sequence was used to clone the putative laf structural gene from plasmid DNA of a lactacin F-producing transconjugant, L. acidophilus T143. One clone, NCK360, harbored a recombinant plasmid, pTRK160, which contained a 2.2-kb EcoRI fragment of the size expected from hybridization experiments. An Escherichia coli-L. acidophilus shuttle vector was constructed, and a subclone (pTRK162) containing the 2.2-kb EcoRI fragment was introduced by electroporation into two lactacin F-negative strains, L. acidophilus 89 and 88-C. Lactobacillus transformants containing pTRK162 expressed lactacin F activity and immunity. Bacteriocin produced by the transformants exhibited an inhibitory spectrum and heat stability identical to those of the wild-type bacteriocin. An 873-bp region of the 2.2-kb fragment was sequenced by using a 20-mer degenerate lactacin F-specific primer to initiate sequencing from within the lactacin F structural gene. Analysis of the resulting sequence identified an open reading frame which could encode a protein of 75 amino acids. The 25 N-terminal amino acids for lactacin F were identified within the open reading frame along with an N-terminal extension, possibly a signal sequence. The lactacin F N-terminal sequence, through the remainder of the open reading frame (57 amino acids; 6.3 kDa), correlated extremely well with composition analyses of purified lactacin F which also predicted a size of 51 to 56 amino acid residues. Molecular characterization of lactacin F identified a small hydrophobic peptide that may be representative of a common bacteriocin class in lactic acid bacteria. Images PMID:1900281

  19. Anti-adhesion activity of two biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. prevents biofilm formation of human bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rivardo, F; Turner, R J; Allegrone, G; Ceri, H; Martinotti, M G

    2009-06-01

    In this work, two biosurfactant-producing strains, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis, have been characterized. Both strains were able to grow at high salinity conditions and produce biosurfactants up to 10% NaCl. Both extracted-enriched biosurfactants showed good surface tension reduction of water, from 72 to 26-30 mN/m, low critical micelle concentration, and high resistance to pH and salinity. The potential of the two lipopeptide biosurfactants at inhibiting biofilm adhesion of pathogenic bacteria was demonstrated by using the MBEC device. The two biosurfactants showed interesting specific anti-adhesion activity being able to inhibit selectively biofilm formation of two pathogenic strains. In particular, Escherichia coli CFT073 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 biofilm formation was decreased of 97% and 90%, respectively. The V9T14 biosurfactant active on the Gram-negative strain was ineffective against the Gram-positive and the opposite for the V19T21. This activity was observed either by coating the polystyrene surface or by adding the biosurfactant to the inoculum. Two fractions from each purified biosurfactant, obtained by flash chromatography, fractions (I) and (II), showed that fraction (II), belonging to fengycin-like family, was responsible for the anti-adhesion activity against biofilm of both strains.

  20. Effect of pH and Temperature on Enzyme Activity of Chitosanase Produced Under Solid Stated Fermentation by Trichoderma spp.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luis C A; Honorato, Talita L; Cavalcante, Rosane S; Franco, Telma T; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2012-03-01

    Trichoderma strains were extensively studied as biocontrol agents due to their ability of producing hydrolytic enzymes, which are considered key enzymes because they attack the insect exoskeleton allowing the fungi infection. The present work aimed to evaluate the ability of chitosanase production by four Trichoderma strains (T. harzianum, T. koningii, T. viride and T. polysporum) under solid stated fermentation and to evaluate the effect of pH and temperature on enzyme activity. pH strongly affected the enzyme activity from all tested strains. Chitosanase from T. harzianum and T. viride presented optimum activity at pH 5.0 and chitosanase from T. koningii and T. polysporum presented optimum activity at pH 5.5. Temperature in the range of 40-50°C did not affect enzyme activity. T. polysporum was found as the most promising strain to produce chitosanase with maximal enzyme activity of about 1.4 IU/gds, followed by T. viride (~1.2 IU/gds) and T. harzianum (1.06 IU/gds).

  1. Mass spectrometry identification of alkyl-substituted pyrazines produced by Pseudomonas spp. isolates obtained from wine corks.

    PubMed

    Bañeras, Lluís; Trias, Rosalia; Godayol, Anna; Cerdán, Laura; Nawrath, Thorben; Schulz, Stefan; Anticó, Enriqueta

    2013-06-15

    We investigated the pyrazine production of 23 Pseudomonas isolates obtained from cork in order to assess their implications in off-flavour development. Off-flavour development in cork stoppers is a crucial process in maintaining the high quality of some wines. Pyrazine production was analyzed by headspace solid-phase-microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Five out of the 23 isolates, i.e. Pseudomonas koreensis TCA20, Pseudomonas palleroniana TCA16, Pseudomonas putida TCA23 and N7, and Pseudomonas stutzeri TRA27a were able to produce branched alkyl-substituted pyrazines. For isolates N7 and TCA16, 14 compounds could be identified as pyrazines. The use of mineral media supplemented with different carbon and nitrogen sources resulted in changes in the pyrazine production capacity. In the two strains the amount of pyrazines produced was higher with glucose and decreased significantly with lactate. In all cases, 2,5-di(1-methylethyl)pyrazine was found to be dominant and independent of amino acid addition, suggesting a completely de novo synthesis. Aroma descriptions of most alkyl substituted pyrazines include mild vegetal aromas, not necessarily undesirable for the cork manufacturing industry. Methoxypyrazines, exhibiting earthy and musty aromas, could not be detected in any of the strains analysed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Streptomyces palmae sp. nov., isolated from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Sujarit, Kanaporn; Kudo, Takuji; Ohkuma, Moriya; Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2016-10-01

    Actinomycete strain CMU-AB204T was isolated from oil palm rhizosphere soil collected in Chiang Mai University (Chiang Mai, Thailand). Based on morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, the organism was considered to belong to the genus Streptomyces. Whole cell-wall hydrolysates consisted of ll-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, ribose and galactose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6), MK-9(H2) and MK-8(H4). The fatty acid profile contained iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 as major components. The principal phospholipids detected were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of strain CMU-AB204T was 70.9 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain CMU-AB204T was closely related to Streptomyces orinoci JCM 4546T (98.7 %), Streptomyces lilacinus NBRC 12884T (98.5 %), Streptomyces abikoensis CGMCC 4.1662T (98.5 %), Streptomyces griseocarneus JCM 4905T (98.4 %) and Streptomyces xinghaiensis JCM 16958T (98.3 %). Phylogenetic trees revealed that the new strain had a distinct taxonomic position from closely related type strains of the genus Streptomyces. Spiny to hairy spores clearly differentiated strain CMU-AB204T from the five most closely related Streptomyces species, which produced smooth spores. On the basis of evidence from this polyphasic study, it is proposed that strain CMU-AB204T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, namely Streptomyces palmae sp. nov. The type strain is CMU-AB204T (=JCM 31289T=TBRC 1999T).

  3. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. H-KF8, a Marine Actinobacterium Isolated from a Northern Chilean Patagonian Fjord

    PubMed Central

    Undabarrena, Agustina; Ugalde, Juan Antonio; Castro-Nallar, Eduardo; Seeger, Michael

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 is a fjord-derived marine actinobacterium capable of producing antimicrobial activity. Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 was isolated from sediments of the Comau fjord, located in the northern Chilean Patagonia. Here, we report the 7.7-Mb genome assembly, which represents the first genome of a Chilean marine actinobacterium. PMID:28183776

  4. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. H-KF8, a Marine Actinobacterium Isolated from a Northern Chilean Patagonian Fjord.

    PubMed

    Undabarrena, Agustina; Ugalde, Juan Antonio; Castro-Nallar, Eduardo; Seeger, Michael; Cámara, Beatriz

    2017-02-09

    Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 is a fjord-derived marine actinobacterium capable of producing antimicrobial activity. Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 was isolated from sediments of the Comau fjord, located in the northern Chilean Patagonia. Here, we report the 7.7-Mb genome assembly, which represents the first genome of a Chilean marine actinobacterium. Copyright © 2017 Undabarrena et al.

  5. [Occurrence of Salmonella spp. and shigatoxin-producing escherichia coli (STEC) in horse faeces and horse meat products].

    PubMed

    Pichner, Rohtraud; Sander, Andrea; Steinrück, Hartmut; Gareis, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    In order to assess the relevance of horses as a possible reservoir of Salmonella and Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), 400 samples of horse faeces and 100 samples of horse meat products were examined by PCR-screening methods. Salmonella enterica was not found in any of the samples. One faeces-sample and one horse meat product were proved to be STEC positive. The STEC-strain from faecal origin belonged to the serotype 0113:H21 and had the stx 2c gene and the enterohemolysin gene. The STEC-strain isolated from a horse meat product had the serotype O87:H16 and the stx 2d gene. The results indicate a very low risk for human to get a Salmonella- or EHEC- infection from horses in Germany.

  6. Rope-producing strains of Bacillus spp. from wheat bread and strategy for their control by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Olimpia; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Greco, Teresa; Villani, Francesco

    2003-04-01

    Two types of white wheat bread (high- and low-type loaves) were investigated for rope spoilage. Thirty of the 56 breads tested developed rope spoilage within 5 days; the high-type loaves were affected by rope spoilage more than the low-type loaves. Sixty-one Bacillus strains were isolated from ropy breads and were characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and genotypic traits. All of the isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis by biochemical tests, but molecular assays (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR assay, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, and sequencing of the V3 region of 16S ribosomal DNA) revealed greater Bacillus species variety in ropy breads. In fact, besides strains of B. subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus, and isolates of Bacillus clausii and Bacillus firmus were also identified. All of the ropy Bacillus isolates exhibited amylase activity, whereas only 32.4% of these isolates were able to produce ropiness in bread slices after treatment at 96 degrees C for 10 min. Strains of lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from sourdough were first selected for antirope activity on bread slices and then used as starters for bread-making experiments. Prevention of growth of approximately 10(4) rope-producing B. subtilis G1 spores per cm(2) on bread slices for more than 15 days was observed when heat-treated cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum E5 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides A27 were added. Growth of B. subtilis G1 occurred after 7 days in breads started with Saccharomyces cerevisiae T22, L. plantarum E5, and L. mesenteroides A27.

  7. Cellular and molecular insight into the inhibition of primary root growth of Arabidopsis induced by peptaibols, a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma spp.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei-Ling; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Wang, Li-Xia; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Shuyu; Li, Chun-Long; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Mei; Li, Chuanyou; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Trichoderma spp. are well known biocontrol agents that produce a variety of antibiotics. Peptaibols are a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma Alamethicin, the most studied peptaibol, is reported as toxic to plants at certain concentrations, while the mechanisms involved are unclear. We illustrated the toxic mechanisms of peptaibols by studying the growth-inhibitory effect of Trichokonin VI (TK VI), a peptaibol from Trichoderma longibrachiatum SMF2, on Arabidopsis primary roots. TK VI inhibited root growth by suppressing cell division and cell elongation, and disrupting root stem cell niche maintenance. TK VI increased auxin content and disrupted auxin response gradients in root tips. Further, we screened the Arabidopsis TK VI-resistant mutant tkr1. tkr1 harbors a point mutation in GORK, which encodes gated outwardly rectifying K(+)channel proteins. This mutation alleviated TK VI-induced suppression of K(+)efflux in roots, thereby stabilizing the auxin gradient. The tkr1 mutant also resisted the phytotoxicity of alamethicin. Our results indicate that GORK channels play a key role in peptaibol-plant interaction and that there is an inter-relationship between GORK channels and maintenance of auxin homeostasis. The cellular and molecular insight into the peptaibol-induced inhibition of plant root growth advances our understanding of Trichoderma-plant interactions.

  8. Cellular and molecular insight into the inhibition of primary root growth of Arabidopsis induced by peptaibols, a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma spp.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei-Ling; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Wang, Li-Xia; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Shuyu; Li, Chun-Long; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Mei; Li, Chuanyou; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are well known biocontrol agents that produce a variety of antibiotics. Peptaibols are a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma. Alamethicin, the most studied peptaibol, is reported as toxic to plants at certain concentrations, while the mechanisms involved are unclear. We illustrated the toxic mechanisms of peptaibols by studying the growth-inhibitory effect of Trichokonin VI (TK VI), a peptaibol from Trichoderma longibrachiatum SMF2, on Arabidopsis primary roots. TK VI inhibited root growth by suppressing cell division and cell elongation, and disrupting root stem cell niche maintenance. TK VI increased auxin content and disrupted auxin response gradients in root tips. Further, we screened the Arabidopsis TK VI-resistant mutant tkr1. tkr1 harbors a point mutation in GORK, which encodes gated outwardly rectifying K+ channel proteins. This mutation alleviated TK VI-induced suppression of K+ efflux in roots, thereby stabilizing the auxin gradient. The tkr1 mutant also resisted the phytotoxicity of alamethicin. Our results indicate that GORK channels play a key role in peptaibol–plant interaction and that there is an inter-relationship between GORK channels and maintenance of auxin homeostasis. The cellular and molecular insight into the peptaibol-induced inhibition of plant root growth advances our understanding of Trichoderma–plant interactions. PMID:26850879

  9. Impact of empirical treatment in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. bacteremia. A multicentric cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to analyze the factors that are associated with the adequacy of empirical antibiotic therapy and its impact in mortality in a large cohort of patients with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) - producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. bacteremia. Methods Cases of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) bacteremia collected from 2003 through 2008 in 19 hospitals in Spain. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate logistic regression. Results We analyzed 387 cases ESBL-E bloodstream infections. The main sources of bacteremia were urinary tract (55.3%), biliary tract (12.7%), intra-abdominal (8.8%) and unknown origin (9.6%). Among all the 387 episodes, E. coli was isolated from blood cultures in 343 and in 45.71% the ESBL-E was multidrug resistant. Empirical antibiotic treatment was adequate in 48.8% of the cases and the in hospital mortality was 20.9%. In a multivariate analysis adequacy was a risk factor for death [adjusted OR (95% CI): 0.39 (0.31-0.97); P = 0.04], but not in patients without severe sepsis or shock. The class of antibiotic used empirically was not associated with prognosis in adequately treated patients. Conclusion ESBL-E bacteremia has a relatively high mortality that is partly related with a low adequacy of empirical antibiotic treatment. In selected subgroups the relevance of the adequacy of empirical therapy is limited. PMID:23038999

  10. Morphological and molecular characterization of an uninucleated cyst-producing Entamoeba spp. in captured Rangeland goats in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Al-Habsi, Khalid; Yang, Rongchang; Ryan, Una; Jacobson, Caroline; Miller, David W

    2017-02-15

    Uninucleated Entamoeba cysts measuring 7.3×7.7μm were detected in faecal samples collected from wild Rangeland goats (Capra hircus) after arrival at a commercial goat depot near Geraldton, Western Australia at a prevalence of 6.4% (8/125). Sequences were obtained at the 18S rRNA (n=8) and actin (n=5) loci following PCR amplification. At the 18S locus, phylogenetic analysis grouped the isolates closest with an E. bovis isolate (FN666250) from a sheep from Sweden with 99% similarity. At the actin locus, no E. bovis sequences were available, and the isolates shared 94.0% genetic similarity with E. suis from a pig in Western Japan. This is the first report to describe the morphology and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba from Rangeland goats in Western Australia and the first study to produce actin sequences from E. bovis-like Entamoeba sp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of a novel antimicrobial solution and its potential for control E. coli O157:H7, non-O157:H7 shiga toxin-producing E. coli, Salmononella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes on beef

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel antimicrobial solution made with chitosan, lauric arginate ester, and organic acids on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli cocktails and to test its potential to b...

  12. Growth reduction of Listeria spp. caused by undefined industrial red smear cheese cultures and bacteriocin-producing Brevibacterium lines as evaluated in situ on soft cheese.

    PubMed

    Eppert, I; Valdés-Stauber, N; Götz, H; Busse, M; Scherer, S

    1997-12-01

    The undefined microbial floras derived from the surface of ripe cheese which are used for the ripening of commercial red smear cheeses have a strong impact on the growth of Listeria spp. In some cases, these microbial consortia inhibit Listeria almost completely. From such undefined industrial cheese-ripening floras, linocin M18-producing (lin+) (N. Valdés-Stauber and S. Scherer, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:3809-3814, 1994) and -nonproducing Brevibacterium linens strains were isolated and used as single-strain starter cultures on model red smear cheeses to evaluate their potential inhibitory effects on Listeria strains in situ. On cheeses ripened with lin+ strains, a growth reduction of L. ivanovii and L. monocytogenes of 1 to 2 log units was observed compared to cheeses ripened with lin strains. Linocin M18 activity was detected in cheeses ripened with lin+ strains but was not found in those ripened with lin strains. We suggest that production of linocin M18 contributes to the growth reduction of Listeria observed on model red smear cheeses but is unsufficient to explain the almost complete inhibition of Listeria caused by some undefined microbial floras derived from the surface of ripe cheeses.

  13. Molecular Regulation of Antibiotic Biosynthesis in Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Chandra, Govind; Niu, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Streptomycetes are the most abundant source of antibiotics. Typically, each species produces several antibiotics, with the profile being species specific. Streptomyces coelicolor, the model species, produces at least five different antibiotics. We review the regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in S. coelicolor and other, nonmodel streptomycetes in the light of recent studies. The biosynthesis of each antibiotic is specified by a large gene cluster, usually including regulatory genes (cluster-situated regulators [CSRs]). These are the main point of connection with a plethora of generally conserved regulatory systems that monitor the organism's physiology, developmental state, population density, and environment to determine the onset and level of production of each antibiotic. Some CSRs may also be sensitive to the levels of different kinds of ligands, including products of the pathway itself, products of other antibiotic pathways in the same organism, and specialized regulatory small molecules such as gamma-butyrolactones. These interactions can result in self-reinforcing feed-forward circuitry and complex cross talk between pathways. The physiological signals and regulatory mechanisms may be of practical importance for the activation of the many cryptic secondary metabolic gene cluster pathways revealed by recent sequencing of numerous Streptomyces genomes. PMID:23471619

  14. Molecular regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Chater, Keith F; Chandra, Govind; Niu, Guoqing; Tan, Huarong

    2013-03-01

    Streptomycetes are the most abundant source of antibiotics. Typically, each species produces several antibiotics, with the profile being species specific. Streptomyces coelicolor, the model species, produces at least five different antibiotics. We review the regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in S. coelicolor and other, nonmodel streptomycetes in the light of recent studies. The biosynthesis of each antibiotic is specified by a large gene cluster, usually including regulatory genes (cluster-situated regulators [CSRs]). These are the main point of connection with a plethora of generally conserved regulatory systems that monitor the organism's physiology, developmental state, population density, and environment to determine the onset and level of production of each antibiotic. Some CSRs may also be sensitive to the levels of different kinds of ligands, including products of the pathway itself, products of other antibiotic pathways in the same organism, and specialized regulatory small molecules such as gamma-butyrolactones. These interactions can result in self-reinforcing feed-forward circuitry and complex cross talk between pathways. The physiological signals and regulatory mechanisms may be of practical importance for the activation of the many cryptic secondary metabolic gene cluster pathways revealed by recent sequencing of numerous Streptomyces genomes.

  15. Community of environmental streptomyces related to geosmin development in Chinese liquors.

    PubMed

    Du, Hai; Lu, Hu; Xu, Yan; Du, Xiaowei

    2013-02-13

    Diverse Streptomyces species act as geosmin producers in the Chinese liquor-making process. In this paper, the ecology of these Streptomyces species was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified Actinobacteria -specified rDNA. The result showed that Streptomyces were widely distributed during Daqu incubation, and multiple processing, geographic, and climate factors can affect their distribution and diversity. The genes associated with geosmin production were characterized in four geosmin-producing Streptomyces strains, all of which were isolated from geosmin-contaminated Daqu. On the basis of this information, a real-time PCR method was developed, enabling the detection of traces of Streptomyces in complex solid-state matrices. The primer was targeted at the gene coding for geosmin synthase (geoA). The real-time PCR method was found to be specific for geosmin-producing Streptomyces and did not show any cross-reactivity with geosmin-negative isolates, which are frequently present in the Chinese liquor-brewing process. Quantification of geoA in the Chinese liquor-making process could permit the monitoring of the level of geosmin producers prior to the occurrence of geosmin production. Comparison of the qPCR results based on the gene encoding geosmin synthase and Actinobacteria-specified rDNA showed that about 1-10% of the Actinobacteria carry the geosmin synthesis gene.

  16. Genome plasticity and systems evolution in Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptomycetes are filamentous soil-dwelling bacteria. They are best known as the producers of a great variety of natural products such as antibiotics, antifungals, antiparasitics, and anticancer agents and the decomposers of organic substances for carbon recycling. They are also model organisms for the studies of gene regulatory networks, morphological differentiation, and stress response. The availability of sets of genomes from closely related Streptomyces strains makes it possible to assess the mechanisms underlying genome plasticity and systems adaptation. Results We present the results of a comprehensive analysis of the genomes of five Streptomyces species with distinct phenotypes. These streptomycetes have a pan-genome comprised of 17,362 orthologous families which includes 3,096 components in the core genome, 5,066 components in the dispensable genome, and 9,200 components that are uniquely present in only one species. The core genome makes up about 33%-45% of each genome repertoire. It contains important genes for Streptomyces biology including those involved in gene regulation, secretion, secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation. Abundant duplicate genes have been identified, with 4%-11% of the whole genomes composed of lineage-specific expansions (LSEs), suggesting that frequent gene duplication or lateral gene transfer events play a role in shaping the genome diversification within this genus. Two patterns of expansion, single gene expansion and chromosome block expansion are observed, representing different scales of duplication. Conclusions Our results provide a catalog of genome components and their potential functional roles in gene regulatory networks and metabolic networks. The core genome components reveal the minimum requirement for streptomycetes to sustain a successful lifecycle in the soil environment, reflecting the effects of both genome evolution and environmental stress acting upon the expressed phenotypes. A

  17. Organophosphorus pesticide mixture removal from environmental matrices by a soil Streptomyces mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Briceño, Gabriela; Vergara, Karen; Schalchli, Heidi; Palma, Graciela; Tortella, Gonzalo; Fuentes, María Soledad; Diez, María Cristina

    2017-07-26

    The current study aimed to evaluate the removal of a pesticide mixture composed of the insecticides chlorpyrifos (CP) and diazinon (DZ) from liquid medium, soil and a biobed biomixture by a Streptomyces mixed culture. Liquid medium contaminated with 100 mg L(-1) CP plus DZ was inoculated with the Streptomyces mixed culture. Results indicated that microorganisms increased their biomass and that the inoculum was viable. The inoculum was able to remove the pesticide mixture with a removal rate of 0.036 and 0.015 h(-1) and a half-life of 19 and 46 h(-1) for CP and DZ, respectively. The sterilized soil and biobed biomixture inoculated with the mixed culture showed that Streptomyces was able to colonize the substrates, exhibiting an increase in population determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR), enzymatic activity dehydrogenase (DHA) and acid phosphatase (APP). In both the soil and biomixture, limited CP removal was observed (6-14%), while DZ exhibited a removal rate of 0.024 and 0.060 day(-1) and a half-life of 29 and 11 days, respectively. Removal of the organophosphorus pesticide (OP) mixture composed of CP and DZ from different environmental matrices by Streptomyces spp. is reported here for the first time. The decontamination strategy using a Streptomyces mixed culture could represent a promising alternative to eliminate CP and DZ residues from liquids as well as to eliminate DZ from soil and biobed biomixtures.

  18. Occurrence of generic Escherichia coli, E. coli O157 and Salmonella spp. in water and sediment from leafy green produce farms and streams on the Central California coast.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Lisa; Atwill, Edward R; Jay-Russell, Michele; Cooley, Michael; Carychao, Diana; Gorski, Lisa; Mandrell, Robert E

    2013-07-01

    Irrigation with water of poor microbiological quality can elevate levels of bacteria on produce. This study aimed to identify climate and management variables associated with generic Escherichia coli in irrigation water on leafy green produce farms and to measure the prevalence of E. coli O157 and Salmonella spp. in irrigation and non-irrigation water sources on these farms. Water and sediment samples collected from various points along irrigation systems, as well as from streams and ponds on farms on the Central California coast between May 27th, 2008 and October 26th, 2010 were cultured for generic E. coli (MPN/100 mL or cfu 100 g) (n=436), E. coli O157 (n=437), and (n=163) Salmonella. Variables were based on grower's management practices, landscape features in proximity to samples (e.g., distance to roads and ranches/livestock), and climate data accessed from an online database. Negative binomial regression models were constructed to test associations between generic E. coli (MPN/100 mL) in water from farms and variables. Arithmetic mean concentration of E. coli for water, not including those from Moore swabs, and sediment samples, was 7.1×10(2) MPN/100 mL and 1.0×10(4) cfu/100 g, respectively. Matched by collection day, E. coli concentration in sediment (cfu/100 g) was typically 10- to 1000-fold higher than the overlying water (MPN/100 mL) for these irrigation systems. Generic E. coli concentration (MPN/100 mL) increased by 60.1% for each 1m/s increase in wind speed and decreased by 3% for each 10 m increase in the distance between the sample location and rangeland. Moore swabs detected a higher proportion of E. coli O157 (13.8%) positive water samples compared to grab samples (1.8%); 1.7% of sediment samples had detectable levels of this pathogen. Interestingly, season was not significantly associated with E. coli O157 presence in water or sediments from produce farms or water sources with public access. Salmonella was detected in 6% (6/96) water and 4.3% (3

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Seven Thermophilic Spore-Forming Bacteria Isolated from Foods That Produce Highly Heat-Resistant Spores, Comprising Geobacillus spp., Caldibacillus debilis, and Anoxybacillus flavithermus

    PubMed Central

    Berendsen, Erwin M.; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H. J.; Krawczyk, Antonina O.; de Jong, Anne; van Heel, Auke; Holsappel, Siger; Eijlander, Robyn T.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genomes of five strains of Geobacillus spp., one Caldibacillus debilis strain, and one draft genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus, all thermophilic spore-forming Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:27151781

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Seven Thermophilic Spore-Forming Bacteria Isolated from Foods That Produce Highly Heat-Resistant Spores, Comprising Geobacillus spp., Caldibacillus debilis, and Anoxybacillus flavithermus.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J; Krawczyk, Antonina O; de Jong, Anne; van Heel, Auke; Holsappel, Siger; Eijlander, Robyn T; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2016-05-05

    Here, we report the draft genomes of five strains of Geobacillus spp., one Caldibacillus debilis strain, and one draft genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus, all thermophilic spore-forming Gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Berendsen et al.

  1. Streptomyces alfalfae sp. nov. and comparisons with its closest taxa Streptomyces silaceus, Streptomyces flavofungini and Streptomyces intermedius.

    PubMed

    She, Wenqing; Sun, Zhongfeng; Yi, Lei; Zhao, Shumiao; Liang, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    A novel streptomycete strain, designated XY25T, was isolated from the rhizosphere soil in an alfalfa field in Jingyang, Shanxi, China. The isolate showed optimal growth at 37 °C, and was capable of growing at pH 6-10 and in the presence of 0-6 % (w/v) NaCl. Mycelia of strain XY25T appeared spiral and developed into white spore chains with long-rod spores and a smooth surface. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of XY25T was determined and was found to be highly similar to those of species of the genus Streptomyces including Streptomyces silaceus DSM 41861T (99.11 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Streptomyces flavofungini DSM 40366T (98.49 %) and Streptomyces intermedius DSM 40372T (98.43 %), all of which were used for further characterization. Each of the four streptomycetes showed distinctive patterns of carbon usage and fatty acids composition. Analysis of cellular components of strain XY25T revealed ll-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diamino acid and xylose as the major sugar, whereas polar lipids were determined as phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, an unknown phospholipid, two unknown phosphatidylinositol mannosides and several unknown lipids. Menaquinones were dominated by MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8), and the main fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. DNA-DNA hybridization studies indicated that strain XY25T showed relatedness values of 35.2-40.42 % with the closest related species. Based on these results, strain XY25T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces alfalfae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XY25T ( = KCTC 39571T = CCTCC AA2015019T).

  2. Methylation of 23S rRNA caused by tlrA (ermSF), a tylosin resistance determinant from Streptomyces fradiae.

    PubMed Central

    Zalacain, M; Cundliffe, E

    1989-01-01

    Ribosomes from Streptomyces griseofuscus expressing tlrA, a resistance gene isolated from the tylosin producer Streptomyces fradiae, are resistant to macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in vitro. The tlrA product was found to be a methylase that introduces two methyl groups into a single base within 23S rRNA, generating N6,N6-dimethyladenine at position 2058. This activity is therefore similar to the ermE resistance mechanism in Saccharopolyspora erythraea (formerly Streptomyces erythraeus). Images PMID:2753855

  3. RNase III Is Required for Actinomycin Production in Streptomyces antibioticus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Hoon; Gatewood, Marcha L.

    2013-01-01

    Using insertional mutagenesis, we have disrupted the RNase III gene, rnc, of the actinomycin-producing streptomycete, Streptomyces antibioticus. Disruption was verified by Southern blotting. The resulting strain grows more vigorously than its parent on actinomycin production medium but produces significantly lower levels of actinomycin. Complementation of the rnc disruption with the wild-type rnc gene from S. antibioticus restored actinomycin production to nearly wild-type levels. Western blotting experiments demonstrated that the disruptant did not produce full-length or truncated forms of RNase III. Thus, as is the case in Streptomyces coelicolor, RNase III is required for antibiotic production in S. antibioticus. No differences in the chemical half-lives of bulk mRNA were observed in a comparison of the S. antibioticus rnc mutant and its parental strain. PMID:23956389

  4. Assessing the molecular basis of transferable quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. from food-producing animals and food products.

    PubMed

    Jones-Dias, D; Manageiro, V; Francisco, A P; Martins, A P; Domingues, G; Louro, D; Ferreira, E; Caniça, M

    2013-12-27

    Enterobacteriaceae resistant to quinolones frequently arise in animals, being easily disseminated through the food-chain. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants in Salmonella spp. (n=183) and Escherichia coli (n=180) isolates, collected from food-producing animals and food products among swine, poultry, rabbits and cattle. All isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and molecular screening of PMQR determinants. β-Lactamase-encoding genes, and the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE genes were also investigated in PMQR-positive isolates. Plasmid characterization was performed by conjugation, followed by replicon-typing. Genetic relatedness of PMQR-positive E. coli was examined by Multilocus Sequence Typing, while Salmonella was previously serotyped. The association of mobile genetic elements and PMQR was investigated through PCR mapping assays. Overall, 4.1% (15/363) isolates harbored qnrB2 (n=3), qnrB19 (n=3), and qnrS1 (n=9) genes. All but one isolate presented one to four mutations in QRDR of gyrA or parC genes, which is consistent with the range of MIC values detected (0.19-64 mg/L) for ciprofloxacin; 60% (9/15) of qnr-harboring isolates were non-susceptible to β-lactam antibiotics which was justified by the presence of β-lactamases from TEM (TEM-1, n=8; TEM-135, n=1) and SHV (SHV-108, n=1) families. Analysis of mobile genetic elements revealed that qnr genes were detected nearby relevant genetic elements like intI1, ISEcl2, IS26 and ISCR1 and enclosed in diverse Inc. type plasmids. This study illustrated the existence of Qnr-producing E. coli and Salmonella from food-producing animals, associated to specific mobile elements that might mediate their transference between species and among distinct settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening of wild type Streptomyces isolates able to overproduce clavulanic acid

    PubMed Central

    Viana Marques, Daniela A.; Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria de Carvalho; de Oliveira, Patrícia Maria Sobral; Lima, Gláucia Manoella de Souza; Araújo, Janete M.; Lima-Filho, José L.; Converti, Attilio; Pessoa-Júnior, Adalberto; Porto, Ana L.F.

    2014-01-01

    The selection of new microorganisms able to produce antimicrobial compounds is hoped for to reduce their production costs and the side effects caused by synthetic drugs. Clavulanic acid is a β-lactam antibiotic produced by submerged culture, which is widely used in medicine as a powerful inhibitor of β-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistant to antibiotics such penicillin and cephalosporin. The purpose of this work was to select the best clavulanic acid producer among strains of Streptomyces belonging to the Microorganism Collection of the Department of Antibiotics of the Federal University of Pernambuco (DAUFPE). Initially, the strains were studied for their capacity to inhibit the action of β-lactamases produced by Klebsiella aerogenes ATCC 15380. From these results, five strains were selected to investigate the batch kinetics of growth and clavulanic acid production in submerged culture carried out in flasks. The results were compared with the ones obtained by Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 selected as a control strain. The best clavulanic acid producer was Streptomyces DAUFPE 3060, molecularly identified as Streptomyces variabilis, which increased the clavulanic acid production by 28% compared to the control strain. This work contributes to the enlargement of knowledge on new Streptomyces wild strains able to produce clavulanic acid by submerged culture. PMID:25477926

  6. Screening of wild type Streptomyces isolates able to overproduce clavulanic acid.

    PubMed

    Viana Marques, Daniela A; Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria de Carvalho; de Oliveira, Patrícia Maria Sobral; Lima, Gláucia Manoella de Souza; Araújo, Janete M; Lima-Filho, José L; Converti, Attilio; Pessoa-Júnior, Adalberto; Porto, Ana L F

    2014-01-01

    The selection of new microorganisms able to produce antimicrobial compounds is hoped for to reduce their production costs and the side effects caused by synthetic drugs. Clavulanic acid is a β-lactam antibiotic produced by submerged culture, which is widely used in medicine as a powerful inhibitor of β-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistant to antibiotics such penicillin and cephalosporin. The purpose of this work was to select the best clavulanic acid producer among strains of Streptomyces belonging to the Microorganism Collection of the Department of Antibiotics of the Federal University of Pernambuco (DAUFPE). Initially, the strains were studied for their capacity to inhibit the action of β-lactamases produced by Klebsiella aerogenes ATCC 15380. From these results, five strains were selected to investigate the batch kinetics of growth and clavulanic acid production in submerged culture carried out in flasks. The results were compared with the ones obtained by Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 selected as a control strain. The best clavulanic acid producer was Streptomyces DAUFPE 3060, molecularly identified as Streptomyces variabilis, which increased the clavulanic acid production by 28% compared to the control strain. This work contributes to the enlargement of knowledge on new Streptomyces wild strains able to produce clavulanic acid by submerged culture.

  7. Laboratory Course on "Streptomyces" Genetics and Secondary Metabolism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siitonen, Vilja; Räty, Kaj; Metsä-Ketelä, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    The "'Streptomyces' genetics and secondary metabolism" laboratory course gives an introduction to the versatile soil dwelling Gram-positive bacteria "Streptomyces" and their secondary metabolism. The course combines genetic modification of "Streptomyces"; growing of the strain and protoplast preparation, plasmid…

  8. Laboratory Course on "Streptomyces" Genetics and Secondary Metabolism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siitonen, Vilja; Räty, Kaj; Metsä-Ketelä, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    The "'Streptomyces' genetics and secondary metabolism" laboratory course gives an introduction to the versatile soil dwelling Gram-positive bacteria "Streptomyces" and their secondary metabolism. The course combines genetic modification of "Streptomyces"; growing of the strain and protoplast preparation, plasmid…

  9. Characterization of AvaR1, a butenolide-autoregulator receptor for biosynthesis of a Streptomyces hormone in Streptomyces avermitilis.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Suandi Pratama; Kitani, Shigeru; Miyamoto, Kiyoko T; Iguchi, Hiroyuki; Atago, Tokitaka; Ikeda, Haruo; Nihira, Takuya

    2016-11-01

    Streptomyces hormones, sometimes called as autoregulators, are important signaling molecules to trigger secondary metabolism across many Streptomyces species. We recently identified a butenolide-type autoregulator (termed avenolide) as a new class of Streptomyces hormone from Streptomyces avermitilis that produces important anthelmintic agent avermectin. Avenolide triggers the production of avermectin with minimum effective concentration of nanomolar. Here, we describe the characterization of avaR1 encoding an avenolide receptor in the regulation of avermectin production and avenolide biosynthesis. The disruption of avaR1 resulted in transcriptional derepression of avenolide biosynthetic gene with an increase in avenolide production, with no change in the avermectin production profile. Moreover, the avaR1 mutant showed increased transcription of avaR1. Together with clear DNA-binding capacity of AvaR1 toward avaR1 upstream region, it suggests that AvaR1 negatively controls the expression of avaR1 through the direct binding to the promoter region of avaR1. These findings revealed that the avenolide receptor AvaR1 functions as a transcriptional repressor for avenolide biosynthesis and its own synthesis.

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  11. Recombinant production of Streptococcus equisimilis streptokinase by Streptomyces lividans

    PubMed Central

    Pimienta, Elsa; Ayala, Julio C; Rodríguez, Caridad; Ramos, Astrid; Van Mellaert, Lieve; Vallín, Carlos; Anné, Jozef

    2007-01-01

    Background Streptokinase (SK) is a potent plasminogen activator with widespread clinical use as a thrombolytic agent. It is naturally secreted by several strains of beta-haemolytic streptococci. The low yields obtained in SK production, lack of developed gene transfer methodology and the pathogenesis of its natural host have been the principal reasons to search for a recombinant source for this important therapeutic protein. We report here the expression and secretion of SK by the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces lividans. The structural gene encoding SK was fused to the Streptomyces venezuelae CBS762.70 subtilisin inhibitor (vsi) signal sequence or to the Streptomyces lividans xylanase C (xlnC) signal sequence. The native Vsi protein is translocated via the Sec pathway while the native XlnC protein uses the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway. Results SK yield in the spent culture medium of S. lividans was higher when the Sec-dependent signal peptide mediates the SK translocation. Using a 1.5 L fermentor, the secretory production of the Vsi-SK fusion protein reached up to 15 mg SK/l. SK was partially purified from the culture supernatant by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. A 44-kDa degradation product co-eluted with the 47-kDa mature SK. The first amino acid residues of the S. lividans-produced SK were identical with those of the expected N-terminal sequence. The Vsi signal peptide was thus correctly cleaved off and the N-terminus of mature Vsi-SK fusion protein released by S. lividans remained intact. This result also implicates that the processing of the recombinant SK secreted by Streptomyces probably occurred at its C-terminal end, as in its native host Streptococcus equisimilis. The specific activity of the partially purified Streptomyces-derived SK was determined at 2661 IU/mg protein. Conclusion Heterologous expression of Streptococcus equisimilis ATCC9542 skc-2 in Streptomyces lividans was successfully achieved. SK can be translocated via both the

  12. A Latitudinal Diversity Gradient in Terrestrial Bacteria of the Genus Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Andam, Cheryl P; Doroghazi, James R; Campbell, Ashley N; Kelly, Peter J; Choudoir, Mallory J; Buckley, Daniel H

    2016-04-12

    We show that Streptomyces biogeography in soils across North America is influenced by the regional diversification of microorganisms due to dispersal limitation and genetic drift.Streptomyces spp. form desiccation-resistant spores, which can be dispersed on the wind, allowing for a strong test of whether dispersal limitation governs patterns of terrestrial microbial diversity. We employed an approach that has high sensitivity for determining the effects of genetic drift. Specifically, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogeography of physiologically similar Streptomyces strains isolated from geographically distributed yet ecologically similar habitats. We found that Streptomyces beta diversity scales with geographic distance and both beta diversity and phylogenetic diversity manifest in a latitudinal diversity gradient. This pattern of Streptomyces biogeography resembles patterns seen for diverse species of plants and animals, and we therefore evaluated these data in the context of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses proposed to explain latitudinal diversity gradients. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that niche conservatism limits dispersal, and historical patterns of glaciation have limited the time for speciation in higher-latitude sites. Most notably, higher-latitude sites have lower phylogenetic diversity, higher phylogenetic clustering, and evidence of range expansion from lower latitudes. In addition, patterns of beta diversity partition with respect to the glacial history of sites. Hence, the data support the hypothesis that extant patterns of Streptomyces biogeography have been driven by historical patterns of glaciation and are the result of demographic range expansion, dispersal limitation, and regional diversification due to drift. Biogeographic patterns provide insight into the evolutionary and ecological processes that govern biodiversity. However, the evolutionary and ecological processes that govern terrestrial microbial

  13. Identified members of the Streptomyces lividans AdpA regulon involved in differentiation and secondary metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background AdpA is a key transcriptional regulator involved in the complex growth cycle of Streptomyces. Streptomyces are Gram-positive bacteria well-known for their production of secondary metabolites and antibiotics. Most work on AdpA has been in S. griseus, and little is known about the pathways it controls in other Streptomyces spp. We recently discovered interplay between ClpP peptidases and AdpA in S. lividans. Here, we report the identification of genes directly regulated by AdpA in S. lividans. Results Microarray experiments revealed that the expression of hundreds of genes was affected in a S. lividans adpA mutant during early stationary phase cultures in YEME liquid medium. We studied the expression of the S. lividans AdpA-regulated genes by quantitative real-time PCR analysis after various times of growth. In silico analysis revealed the presence of potential AdpA-binding sites upstream from these genes; electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that AdpA binds directly to their promoter regions. This work identifies new pathways directly controlled by AdpA and that are involved in S. lividans development (ramR, SLI7885 also known as hyaS and SLI6586), and primary (SLI0755-SLI0754 encoding CYP105D5 and Fdx4) or secondary (cchA, cchB, and hyaS) metabolism. Conclusions We characterised six S. lividans AdpA-dependent genes whose expression is directly activated by this pleiotropic regulator. Several of these genes are orthologous to bldA-dependent genes in S. coelicolor. Furthermore, in silico analysis suggests that over hundred genes may be directly activated or repressed by S. lividans AdpA, although few have been described as being part of any Streptomyces AdpA regulons. This study increases the number of known AdpA-regulated pathways in Streptomyces spp. PMID:24694298

  14. [Advances of genome and secondary metabolism in Streptomyces].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Chang; Miao, Ke-Pai; Qian, Kai-Xian

    2005-11-01

    Streptomycetes are Gram-positive, soil-inhabiting bacteria of Actinomycetales. These organisms exhibit complex life cycle and secondary metabolic pathways, and produce many economically important secondary metabolites. This review presented recent progress in Streptomycetes chromosome structure,genomics and the research of secondary metabolic pathway in Streptomyces. As more genomic sequences become available, it wiil be greatly facilitated to elucidate metabolic and regulatory networks and gain the over-production of desired metabolites or create the novel production of commercially important compounds.

  15. Secondary Peritonitis Caused by Streptomyces viridis

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Shilpa; Jain, Ruby; Chander, Jagdish; van de Sande, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces organisms are soil inhabitants rarely causing nonmycetomic infections. We describe a case of secondary peritonitis caused by Streptomyces viridis in a chronic alcoholic patient who presented with fever, abdominal distension, and pain in the abdomen. The most likely source of infection was by inoculation through multiple paracenteses, done for treatment of ascites, before the patient came to our health care center. This is the second case report of Streptomyces peritonitis and the first case caused by Streptomyces viridis, which is usually found in the soil in our geographic region. PMID:22337982

  16. A latitudinal diversity gradient in terrestrial bacteria of the genus Streptomyces

    SciTech Connect

    Andam, Cheryl P.; Doroghazi, James R.; Campbell, Ashley N.; Kelly, Peter J.; Choudoir, Mallory J.; Buckley, Daniel H.

    2016-04-12

    We show that Streptomyces biogeography in soils across North America is influenced by the regional diversification of microorganisms due to dispersal limitation and genetic drift. Streptomyces spp. form desiccation-resistant spores, which can be dispersed on the wind, allowing for a strong test of whether dispersal limitation governs patterns of terrestrial microbial diversity. We employed an approach that has high sensitivity for determining the effects of genetic drift. Specifically, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogeography of physiologically similar Streptomyces strains isolated from geographically distributed yet ecologically similar habitats. We found that Streptomyces beta diversity scales with geographic distance and both beta diversity and phylogenetic diversity manifest in a latitudinal diversity gradient. This pattern of Streptomyces biogeography resembles patterns seen for diverse species of plants and animals, and we therefore evaluated these data in the context of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses proposed to explain latitudinal diversity gradients. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that niche conservatism limits dispersal, and historical patterns of glaciation have limited the time for speciation in higher-latitude sites. Most notably, higher-latitude sites have lower phylogenetic diversity, higher phylogenetic clustering, and evidence of range expansion from lower latitudes. In addition, patterns of beta diversity partition with respect to the glacial history of sites. Furthermore, the data support the hypothesis that extant patterns of Streptomyces biogeography have been driven by historical patterns of glaciation and are the result of demographic range expansion, dispersal limitation, and regional diversification due to drift.

  17. Using the TxtAB operon to quantify pathogenic Streptomyces in potato tubers and soil.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xinshun; Wanner, Leslie A; Christ, Barbara J

    2008-04-01

    The phytotoxin thaxtomin, produced by plant pathogenic Streptomyces species, is the only known pathogenicity determinant for common scab diseases of potato and other root and tuber crops. Genes encoding thaxtomin synthetase (txtAB) are found on a pathogenicity island characteristic of genetically diverse plant pathogenic Streptomyces species. In this study, an SYBR Green quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using primers designed to anneal to the txtAB operon of Streptomyces was developed to quantify pathogenic bacterial populations in potatoes and soil. The real-time PCR assay was specific for pathogenic Streptomyces strains. The detection limit of the assay was 10 fg of the target DNA, or one genome equivalent. Cycle threshold (Ct) values were linearly correlated with the concentration of the target DNA (correlation coefficient R(2) = 0.99) and were not affected by the presence of plant DNA extracts, indicating the usefulness of the assay for quantitative analyses of the pathogenic bacteria in plant tissues. The amount of pathogenic Streptomyces DNA in total DNA extracts from 1 g asymptomatic and symptomatic tubers was quantified using the assay and ranged from 10(1) to 10(6) pg. A standard curve was established to quantify pathogenic Streptomyces in soil. Using the standard curve, numbers of pathogenic Streptomyces colony forming units were extrapolated to range from 10(3) to 10(6) per gram of soil from potato fields where common scab was found. This real-time PCR assay using primers designed from the txtAB operon allows rapid, accurate, and cost effective quantification of pathogenic Streptomyces strains in potato tubers and in soil.

  18. [Cloning and analysis of a halogenase gene of Streptomyces sp. 604F from the Arctic Ocean].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruiqin; Liao, Li; Zhang, Xiaohua; Chen, Bo

    2014-06-04

    To clone a halogenase gene from halometabolite-producing Streptomyces sp. 604F to facilitate identification of potential halometabolites and its biosynthetic gene cluster. We used agar block method to detect the antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces sp. 604F. We further amplified the conserved regions of type I polyketide synthase (PKS I), type II polyketide synthase (PKS II) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) encoding genes by degenerative PCR. We detected halometabolites in fermentation extracts of Streptomyces sp. 604F analyzed by liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Tof MS). Next, we amplified halogenase gene fragment from Streptomyces sp. 604F by using degenerative primers targeting reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2) -dependent halogenase genes. Finally, we cloned the full halogenase gene and its flanking sequences through high-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (hiTAIL-PCR). Streptomyces sp. 604F showed promising antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and its genome contained genes encoding PKS I, PKS II, NRPS and a halogenase with 1443 bp. The halogenase is a new non-tryptophan halogenase, and most closely related to halogenases catalyzing the chlorination of glycopeptides. Streptomyces sp. 604F possessed a new non-tryptophan halogenase, which may be involved in halogenation of glycopeptide-like metabolites. The cloning and analysis of this halogenase have provided guidance for searching target halometabolites, and laid the foundation for obtaining the biosynthetic gene cluster.

  19. Streptomyces phospholipase D cloning and production.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Yozo

    2012-01-01

    The transphosphatidylation catalytic ability of phospholipase D (PLD, EC 3.1.4.4) is a powerful biochemical tool for the acquisition of rare phospholipids (PLs), e.g., phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylserine (PS), and artificial phospholipids, which do not occur in nature. Specifically, actinomycete PLD recognizes not only the alcohols (i.e., glycerol or serine) corresponding to the polar head groups of natural PLs, but also secondary alcohols, aromatic alcohols, saccharides, N-heterocyclic alcohols, and vitamins as acceptors. Therefore, actinomycete PLD is a valuable enzyme in food, cosmetics, fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Here, we describe a protocol for the screening for PLD-producing microorganisms, several PLD assays and methods of PLD production-purification and the strategy of cloning of the Streptomyces PLD gene.

  20. Identification and Biotechnological Application of Novel Regulatory Genes Involved in Streptomyces Polyketide Overproduction through Reverse Engineering Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Nah, Ji-Hye; Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Han-Na; Lee, Mi-Jin; Choi, Si-Sun; Kim, Eung-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Polyketide belongs to a family of abundant natural products typically produced by the filamentous soil bacteria Streptomyces. Similar to the biosynthesis of most secondary metabolites produced in the Streptomyces species, polyketide compounds are synthesized through tight regulatory networks in the cell, and thus extremely low levels of polyketides are typically observed in wild-type strains. Although many Streptomyces polyketides and their derivatives have potential to be used as clinically important pharmaceutical drugs, traditional strain improvement strategies such as random recursive mutagenesis have long been practiced with little understanding of the molecular basis underlying enhanced polyketide production. Recently, identifying, understanding, and applying a novel polyketide regulatory system identified from various Omics approaches, has become an important tool for rational Streptomyces strain improvement. In this paper, DNA microarray-driven reverse engineering efforts for improving titers of polyketides are briefly summarized, primarily focusing on our recent results of identification and application of novel global regulatory genes such as wblA, SCO1712, and SCO5426 in Streptomyces species. Sequential targeted gene manipulation involved in polyketide biosynthetic reguation synergistically provided an efficient and rational strategy for Streptomyces strain improvement. Moreover, the engineered regulation-optimized Streptomyces mutant strain was further used as a surrogate host for heterologous expression of polyketide pathway. PMID:23555090

  1. Identification of Two Novel Anti-Fibrotic Benzopyran Compounds Produced by Engineered Strains Derived from Streptomyces xiamenensis M1-94P that Originated from Deep-Sea Sediments

    PubMed Central

    You, Zhong-Yuan; Wang, Ya-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Min-Juan; Xie, Shu-Jie; Han, Tie-Sheng; Feng, Lei; Li, Xue-Gong; Xu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The benzopyran compound obtained by cultivating a mangrove-derived strain, Streptomyces xiamenensis strain 318, shows multiple biological effects, including anti-fibrotic and anti-hypertrophic scar properties. To increase the diversity in the structures of the available benzopyrans, by means of biosynthesis, the strain was screened for spontaneous rifampicin resistance (Rif), and a mutated rpsL gene to confer streptomycin resistance (Str), was introduced into the S. xiamenensis strain M1-94P that originated from deep-sea sediments. Two new benzopyran derivatives, named xiamenmycin C (1) and D (2), were isolated from the crude extracts of a selected Str-Rif double mutant (M6) of M1-94P. The structures of 1 and 2 were identified by analyzing extensive spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibit the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (WI26), and 1 exhibits better anti-fibrotic activity than xiamenmycin. Our study presents the novel bioactive compounds isolated from S. xiamenensis mutant strain M6 constructed by ribosome engineering, which could be a useful approach in the discovery of new anti-fibrotic compounds. PMID:24152563

  2. Efficacies of quorum sensing inhibitors, piericidin A and glucopiericidin A, produced by Streptomyces xanthocidicus KPP01532 for the control of potato soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ji Eun; Han, Jae Woo; Jeon, Byeong Jun; Kim, Beom Seok

    2016-03-01

    To discover potential inhibitors of the quorum sensing (QS) system, a library of microbial culture extracts was screened with Chromobacterium violaceumCV026 strain. The culture extract of Streptomyces xanthocidicus KPP01532 contained quorum-sensing inhibitors (QSIs) of the CV026 strain. The active constituents of the culture extract of strain KPP01532 were purified using a series of chromatographic procedures, and based on data from NMR and mass spectroscopy, piericidin A and glucopiericidin A were identified. Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca) is a plant pathogen that causes blackleg and soft rot diseases on potato stems and tubers. The virulence factors of Eca are regulated by QS. The expression of virulence genes (pelC, pehA, celV and nip) under the control of QS was monitored using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The transcription levels of the four genes were significantly lower when Eca was exposed to piericidin A or glucopiericidin A. These two compounds displayed similar control efficacies against soft rot caused by Eca in potato slices as furanone C-30. Therefore, piericidin A and glucopiericidin A are potential QSIs that suppress the expression of the virulence genes of Eca, suggesting that they could have potential use as control agents of soft rot disease on potato tubers.

  3. Mithramycin SK, A Novel Antitumor Drug with Improved Therapeutic Index, Mithramycin SA, and Demycarosyl-mithramycin SK: Three New Products Generated in the Mithramycin Producer Streptomyces argillaceus through Combinatorial Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Remsing, Lily L.; González, Ana M.; Nur-e-Alam, Mohammad; Fernández-Lozano, M. José; Braña, Alfredo F.; Rix, Uwe; Oliveira, Marcos A.; Méndez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    To gain initial structure–activity relationships regarding the highly functionalized pentyl side chain attached at C-3 of mithramycin (MTM), we focused on a post-polyketide synthase (post-PKS) tailoring step of the MTM biosynthesis by Streptomyces argillaceus ATCC 12956, which was proposed to be catalyzed by ketoreductase (KR) MtmW. In this last step of the MTM biosynthesis, a keto group of the pentyl side chain is reduced to a secondary alcohol, and we anticipated the generation of an MTM derivative with an additional keto group in the 3-side chain. Insertional inactivation of mtmW, a gene located ca. 8 kb downstream of the mithramycin-PKS genes, yielded an S. argillaceus mutant, which accumulated three new mithramycin analogues, namely mithramycin SA, demycarosyl-mithramycin SK, and mithramycin SK (MTM-SK). The structures of these three compounds confirmed indirectly the proposed role of MtmW in MTM biosynthesis. However, the new mithramycin derivatives bear unexpectedly shorter 3-side chains (ethyl or butyl) than MTM, presumably caused by nonenzymatic rearrangement or cleavage reactions of the initially formed pentyl side chain with a reactive β-dicarbonyl functional group. The major product, MTM-SK, was tested in vitro against a variety of human cancer cell lines, as well as in an in vitro toxicity assay, and showed an improved therapeutic index, in comparison to the parent drug, MTM. PMID:12733914

  4. A comparison of key aspects of gene regulation in Streptomyces coelicolor and Escherichia coli using nucleotide-resolution transcription maps produced in parallel by global and differential RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Romero, David A; Hasan, Ayad H; Lin, Yu-fei; Kime, Louise; Ruiz-Larrabeiti, Olatz; Urem, Mia; Bucca, Giselda; Mamanova, Lira; Laing, Emma E; van Wezel, Gilles P; Smith, Colin P; Kaberdin, Vladimir R; McDowall, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor is a model for studying bacteria renowned as the foremost source of natural products used clinically. Post-genomic studies have revealed complex patterns of gene expression and links to growth, morphological development and individual genes. However, the underlying regulation remains largely obscure, but undoubtedly involves steps after transcription initiation. Here we identify sites involved in RNA processing and degradation as well as transcription within a nucleotide-resolution map of the transcriptional landscape. This was achieved by combining RNA-sequencing approaches suited to the analysis of GC-rich organisms. Escherichia coli was analysed in parallel to validate the methodology and allow comparison. Previously, sites of RNA processing and degradation had not been mapped on a transcriptome-wide scale for E. coli. Through examples, we show the value of our approach and data sets. This includes the identification of new layers of transcriptional complexity associated with several key regulators of secondary metabolism and morphological development in S. coelicolor and the identification of host-encoded leaderless mRNA and rRNA processing associated with the generation of specialized ribosomes in E. coli. New regulatory small RNAs were identified for both organisms. Overall the results illustrate the diversity in mechanisms used by different bacterial groups to facilitate and regulate gene expression. PMID:25266672

  5. Streptomyces rhizosphaerihabitans sp. nov. and Streptomyces adustus sp. nov., isolated from bamboo forest soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2016-09-01

    Three novel isolates belonging to the genus Streptomyces, designated JR-35T, JR-46 and WH-9T, were isolated from bamboo forest soil in Damyang, Korea. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains JR-35T and JR-46 showed highest similarities with Streptomyces olivochromogenes NBRC 3178T (99.1 %), Streptomyces siamensis KC-038T (98.9 %), Streptomyces chartreusis NBRC 12753T (98.9 %), Streptomyces resistomycificus NRRL ISP-5133T (98.9 %) and Streptomyces bobili JCM 4627T (98.8 %), and strain WH-9Tshowed highest sequence similarities with Streptomyces. bobili JCM 4627T (99.2 %), Streptomyces phaeoluteigriseus NRRL ISP-5182T (99.2 %), Streptomyces alboniger NBRC 12738T (99.2 %), Streptomyces galilaeus JCM 4757T (99.1 %) and Streptomyces pseudovenezuelae NBRC 12904T (99.1 %). The predominant menaquinones were MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8). The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C14 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0 for strains JR-35T and JR-46 and anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 for strain WH-9T. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strains JR-35T, JR-46 and WH-9T were 69.4, 74.4 and 74.1 mol%, respectively. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic data, the three strains are assigned to two novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the names Streptomyces rhizosphaerihabitans sp. nov. (type stain JR-35T=KACC 17181T=NBRC 109807T) and Streptomyces adustus sp. nov. (type strain WH-9T=KACC 17197T=NBRC 109810T) are proposed.

  6. Streptomyces as host for recombinant production of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins.

    PubMed

    Vallin, Carlos; Ramos, Astrid; Pimienta, Elsa; Rodríguez, Caridad; Hernández, Tairí; Hernández, Ivones; Del Sol, Ricardo; Rosabal, Grisel; Van Mellaert, Lieve; Anné, Jozef

    2006-01-01

    The 45/47 kDa APA protein (Rv1860) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was produced by Streptomyces lividans. The recombinant protein could be recovered from the culture medium of an S. lividans clone containing the apa gene under control of the promoter and signal sequence of the Streptomyces coelicolor agarase gene. The recombinant protein production was further scaled-up using fermentation conditions. The APA protein was subsequently purified from the culture supernatant by means of immunochromatography. About 80 mg of recombinant protein were obtained per liter of culture media. In vivo tests with the APA protein purified from S. lividans TK24/pRGAPA1 revealed that the recombinant protein was antigenic and could induce high titers of specific antibodies in the mouse biological model. Results obtained concerning heterologous production of APA, its immunogenic and antigenic capacity, demonstrated the potential of S. lividans as a valuable host for the production of recombinant proteins from M. tuberculosis.

  7. [A study on space mutation of Streptomyces fradiae].

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiao-mei; Zhao, Zhi-jia; Gu, Hai-ke

    2005-04-01

    To study the rule of mutation of Streptomyces fradiae during spaceflight, and to select efficient tylosin producing strains for industrial production. Streptomyces fradiae 9940S(+)-86 were carried on-board spaceship "Shenzhou" I, "Shenzhou" III and "Shenzhou" IV sequentially to achieve spaceflight mutation breeding experiment. After space experiments and the screening tests in the lab, 48 strains were obtained which promoted production by +20% or more at shaker level. And the highest production of a strain was 14950 micrograms/ml, which means an increase of 91.5%. Comparing the results of three tests, it is found that the outer space environment can lead to a cumulative mutation. After the medium scale tests and production experiments, strain T1-156-84-23 was finally selected to be used for sample production. And its output was increased by 18%.

  8. Bioactive-guided fractionation of diols from Streptomyces sp. MSL.

    PubMed

    Madasu, Raja Hima Bindhu; Muvva, Vijayalakshmi; Munaganti, Rajesh Kumar; Dorigondla, Kumar Reddy; Yenamandra, Venkateswarlu

    2017-05-01

    An actinomycete strain with a great potential to produce bioactive compounds isolated from a laterite soil was identified as Streptomyces sp. MSL based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Secondary metabolites produced by the strain in optimized nutrient broth were extracted and analyzed by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Among the different fractions, four diols, viz., (1) (2R,3R)-2,3-Butanediol, (2) (2R,3S)-2,3-Butanediol, (3) 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-butanediol (Pinacol), and (4) (3R)-1,3-Butanediol exhibited good antimicrobial activity. These compounds inhibited growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration of these compounds was also determined against test micro-organisms in vitro. This is the first report on the occurrence of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-butanediol (Pinacol) in the genus Streptomyces. This paper also reports the extraction, purification, and antimicrobial spectrum of diols fractionated from the culture filtrate of Streptomyces sp. MSL.

  9. Langkocyclines: novel angucycline antibiotics from Streptomyces sp. Acta 3034(*).

    PubMed

    Kalyon, Bahar; Tan, Geok-Yuan A; Pinto, John M; Foo, Cheau-Yee; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Fiedler, Hans-Peter

    2013-10-01

    Langkocyclines A1-A3 and B1 and B2, five new angucycline antibiotics produced by Streptomyces sp. Acta 3034, were detected in the course of our HPLC-diode array screening. The producing strain was isolated from the rhizospheric soil of a Clitorea sp. collected from Burau Bay, Langkawi, Malaysia, and was characterized by morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic features in addition to 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence information. Strain Acta 3034 is closely related to Streptomyces psammoticus NBRC 13971(T) and Streptomyces lanatus NBRC 12787(T). Langkocyclines consist of an angular tetracyclic benz[a]anthracene skeleton and hydrolyzable O-glycosidic sugar moieties. The yellow-colored A-type langkocyclines differ in their aglycon from the blue-lilac-colored B-type langkocyclines. The A-type langkocycline aglycon is identical to that of aquayamycin and urdamycin A. The chemical structures of the langkocyclines were elucidated by HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments. They are biologically active against Gram-positive bacteria and exhibit a moderate antiproliferative activity against various human tumor cell lines.

  10. A Single Streptomyces Symbiont Makes Multiple Antifungals to Support the Fungus Farming Ant Acromyrmex octospinosus

    PubMed Central

    Seipke, Ryan F.; Barke, Jörg; Brearley, Charles; Hill, Lionel; Yu, Douglas W.; Goss, Rebecca J. M.; Hutchings, Matthew I.

    2011-01-01

    Attine ants are dependent on a cultivated fungus for food and use antibiotics produced by symbiotic Actinobacteria as weedkillers in their fungus gardens. Actinobacterial species belonging to the genera Pseudonocardia, Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis have been isolated from attine ant nests and shown to confer protection against a range of microfungal weeds. In previous work on the higher attine Acromyrmex octospinosus we isolated a Streptomyces strain that produces candicidin, consistent with another report that attine ants use Streptomyces-produced candicidin in their fungiculture. Here we report the genome analysis of this Streptomyces strain and identify multiple antibiotic biosynthetic pathways. We demonstrate, using gene disruptions and mass spectrometry, that this single strain has the capacity to make candicidin and multiple antimycin compounds. Although antimycins have been known for >60 years we report the sequence of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the first time. Crucially, disrupting the candicidin and antimycin gene clusters in the same strain had no effect on bioactivity against a co-evolved nest pathogen called Escovopsis that has been identified in ∼30% of attine ant nests. Since the Streptomyces strain has strong bioactivity against Escovopsis we conclude that it must make additional antifungal(s) to inhibit Escovopsis. However, candicidin and antimycins likely offer protection against other microfungal weeds that infect the attine fungal gardens. Thus, we propose that the selection of this biosynthetically prolific strain from the natural environment provides A. octospinosus with broad spectrum activity against Escovopsis and other microfungal weeds. PMID:21857911

  11. Colonization of lettuce rhizosphere and roots by tagged Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Bonaldi, Maria; Chen, Xiaoyulong; Kunova, Andrea; Pizzatti, Cristina; Saracchi, Marco; Cortesi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microorganisms are increasingly used in agriculture, but their efficacy often fails due to limited knowledge of their interactions with plants and other microorganisms present in rhizosphere. We studied spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere by genetically modified Streptomyces spp. Five Streptomyces strains, strongly inhibiting in vitro the major soil-borne pathogen of horticultural crops, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were transformed with pIJ8641 plasmid harboring an enhanced green fluorescent protein marker and resistance to apramycin. The fitness of transformants was compared to the wild-type strains and all of them grew and sporulated at similar rates and retained the production of enzymes and selected secondary metabolites as well as in vitro inhibition of S. sclerotiorum. The tagged ZEA17I strain was selected to study the dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere colonization in non-sterile growth substrate. The transformed strain was able to colonize soil, developing roots, and rhizosphere. When the strain was inoculated directly on the growth substrate, significantly more t-ZEA17I was re-isolated both from the rhizosphere and the roots when compared to the amount obtained after seed coating. The re-isolation from the rhizosphere and the inner tissues of surface-sterilized lettuce roots demonstrated that t-ZEA17I is both rhizospheric and endophytic.

  12. Colonization of lettuce rhizosphere and roots by tagged Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Bonaldi, Maria; Chen, Xiaoyulong; Kunova, Andrea; Pizzatti, Cristina; Saracchi, Marco; Cortesi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microorganisms are increasingly used in agriculture, but their efficacy often fails due to limited knowledge of their interactions with plants and other microorganisms present in rhizosphere. We studied spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere by genetically modified Streptomyces spp. Five Streptomyces strains, strongly inhibiting in vitro the major soil-borne pathogen of horticultural crops, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were transformed with pIJ8641 plasmid harboring an enhanced green fluorescent protein marker and resistance to apramycin. The fitness of transformants was compared to the wild-type strains and all of them grew and sporulated at similar rates and retained the production of enzymes and selected secondary metabolites as well as in vitro inhibition of S. sclerotiorum. The tagged ZEA17I strain was selected to study the dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere colonization in non-sterile growth substrate. The transformed strain was able to colonize soil, developing roots, and rhizosphere. When the strain was inoculated directly on the growth substrate, significantly more t-ZEA17I was re-isolated both from the rhizosphere and the roots when compared to the amount obtained after seed coating. The re-isolation from the rhizosphere and the inner tissues of surface-sterilized lettuce roots demonstrated that t-ZEA17I is both rhizospheric and endophytic. PMID:25705206

  13. Kinetics of alkaline protease production by Streptomyces griseoflavus PTCC1130

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Vesal; Saffari, Zahra; Farhanghi, Ali; Atyabi, Seyed Mohammad; Norouzian, Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Proteases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the degradation of proteins resulting in the production of their amino acid constituents. They are the most important group of industrial enzymes which account for about 60% of total enzymes in the market and produced mainly by microorganisms. The attempts were made to study the kinetic parameters of protease produced by Streptomyces griseoflavus PTCC1130. Materials and Methods: Streptomyces griseoflavus PTCC1130 was grown on casein agar. Different media such as BM1, BM2, BM3 and BM4 were prepared. Data obtained from growth and protease production were subjected to kinetics evaluation. Casein was used as substrate for protease activity and the released soluble peptide bearing aromatic amino acid were quantified by Folin Cioclateaue reagent. Protein content of the enzyme and the sugar utilized by the organism were estimated by Bradford and Miller’s methods respectively. Results: Basal Medium named as BM1, BM2, BM3 and BM4(50 mL in 250 mL Erlen Meyer flasks) were screened out to evaluate protease production by Streptomyces griseoflavus PTCC1130. They were inoculated with known amount of seed culture and kept on rotary shaker. To obtain the specific growth rate, wet weight of biomass was plotted against the time. The clarified supernatant was used for the analysis of protease by measuring the soluble peptide containing aromatic amino acid residues employing Folin Cioclateaue reagent. Our results showed that maximum level of enzyme production (14035 U/L) was occurred at late exponential phase using Basal Medium supplemented with zinc sulfate (0.5g/L), casein (10g/L) at pH 6.5. Conclusions: A kinetic study of protease production by Streptomyces griseoflavus PTCC1130 provided highly quantitative information regarding the behavior of a system, which is essential to study the fermentation process. Exploitation of such kinetics analysis would be useful in commercialization of microbial enzyme

  14. Crp is a global regulator of antibiotic production in streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chan; Hindra; Mulder, David; Yin, Charles; Elliot, Marie A

    2012-12-11

    Cyclic AMP receptor protein (Crp) is a transcription regulator controlling diverse cellular processes in many bacteria. In Streptomyces coelicolor, it is well established that Crp plays a critical role in spore germination and colony development. Here, we demonstrate that Crp is a key regulator of secondary metabolism and antibiotic production in S. coelicolor and show that it may additionally coordinate precursor flux from primary to secondary metabolism. We found that crp deletion adversely affected the synthesis of three well-characterized antibiotics in S. coelicolor: actinorhodin (Act), undecylprodigiosin (Red), and calcium-dependent antibiotic (CDA). Using chromatin immunoprecipitation-microarray (ChIP-chip) assays, we determined that eight (out of 22) secondary metabolic clusters encoded by S. coelicolor contained Crp-associated sites. We followed the effect of Crp induction using transcription profiling analyses and found secondary metabolic genes to be significantly affected: included in this Crp-dependent group were genes from six of the clusters identified in the ChIP-chip experiments. Overexpressing Crp in a panel of Streptomyces species led to enhanced antibiotic synthesis and new metabolite production, suggesting that Crp control over secondary metabolism is broadly conserved in the streptomycetes and that Crp overexpression could serve as a powerful tool for unlocking the chemical potential of these organisms. IMPORTANCE Streptomyces produces a remarkably diverse array of secondary metabolites, including many antibiotics. In recent years, genome sequencing has revealed that these products represent only a small proportion of the total secondary metabolite potential of Streptomyces. There is, therefore, considerable interest in discovering ways to stimulate the production of new metabolites. Here, we show that Crp (the classical regulator of carbon catabolite repression in Escherichia coli) is a master regulator of secondary metabolism in Streptomyces

  15. An overview on transcriptional regulators in Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Romero-Rodríguez, Alba; Robledo-Casados, Ivonne; Sánchez, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    Streptomyces are Gram-positive microorganisms able to adapt and respond to different environmental conditions. It is the largest genus of Actinobacteria comprising over 900 species. During their lifetime, these microorganisms are able to differentiate, produce aerial mycelia and secondary metabolites. All of these processes are controlled by subtle and precise regulatory systems. Regulation at the transcriptional initiation level is probably the most common for metabolic adaptation in bacteria. In this mechanism, the major players are proteins named transcription factors (TFs), capable of binding DNA in order to repress or activate the transcription of specific genes. Some of the TFs exert their action just like activators or repressors, whereas others can function in both manners, depending on the target promoter. Generally, TFs achieve their effects by using one- or two-component systems, linking a specific type of environmental stimulus to a transcriptional response. After DNA sequencing, many streptomycetes have been found to have chromosomes ranging between 6 and 12Mb in size, with high GC content (around 70%). They encode for approximately 7000 to 10,000 genes, 50 to 100 pseudogenes and a large set (around 12% of the total chromosome) of regulatory genes, organized in networks, controlling gene expression in these bacteria. Among the sequenced streptomycetes reported up to now, the number of transcription factors ranges from 471 to 1101. Among these, 315 to 691 correspond to transcriptional regulators and 31 to 76 are sigma factors. The aim of this work is to give a state of the art overview on transcription factors in the genus Streptomyces.

  16. [Acinetobacter spp].

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Naohisa

    2012-02-01

    Acinetobacter species are aerobic, glucose non-fermenting gram-negative rods, and ubiquitous in the environment. Acinetobacter spp. can survive for months on dry surfaces. Acinetobacter spp. have been grown from skin, pharynx, sputum, urine and feces. The most common Acinetobacter infection is pneumonia. According to Japan Nosocomial Infection Surveillance, 0.34% of the Acinetobacter spp. was multidrug-resistant in 2010. In Japan, Acinetobacter spp. whose imipenem MICs were > or = 16 microg/mL, amikacin > or = 32 microg/mL, and ciprofloxacin > or = 4 microg/mL were defined as multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter species (MDRA) in 2011 in the amended Infectious Diseases Control Law. Break-point Checkerboard Plate can help to infer an effective combination antimicrobial therapy. A selective medium for the isolation of MDRA is a great tool for active surveillance cultures. Treatment options for MDRA infections in Japan are very limited, because colistin, polymyxin B, or tigecycline is not approved. Keys to control MDRA are high levels of compliance with standard and contact precautions, appropriate cleaning and disinfection of the environment, and judicious antimicrobial use.

  17. Enhanced Removal of a Pesticides Mixture by Single Cultures and Consortia of Free and Immobilized Streptomyces Strains

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, María S.; Briceño, Gabriela E.; Saez, Juliana M.; Benimeli, Claudia S.; Diez, María C.; Amoroso, María J.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides are normally used to control specific pests and to increase the productivity in crops; as a result, soils are contaminated with mixtures of pesticides. In this work, the ability of Streptomyces strains (either as pure or mixed cultures) to remove pentachlorophenol and chlorpyrifos was studied. The antagonism among the strains and their tolerance to the toxic mixture was evaluated. Results revealed that the strains did not have any antagonistic effects and showed tolerance against the pesticides mixture. In fact, the growth of mixed cultures was significantly higher than in pure cultures. Moreover, a pure culture (Streptomyces sp. A5) and a quadruple culture had the highest pentachlorophenol removal percentages (10.6% and 10.1%, resp.), while Streptomyces sp. M7 presented the best chlorpyrifos removal (99.2%). Mixed culture of all Streptomyces spp. when assayed either as free or immobilized cells showed chlorpyrifos removal percentages of 40.17% and 71.05%, respectively, and for pentachlorophenol 5.24% and 14.72%, respectively, suggesting better removal of both pesticides by using immobilized cells. These results reveal that environments contaminated with mixtures of xenobiotics could be successfully cleaned up by using either free or immobilized cultures of Streptomyces, through in situ or ex situ remediation techniques. PMID:23865051

  18. Enhanced removal of a pesticides mixture by single cultures and consortia of free and immobilized Streptomyces strains.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, María S; Briceño, Gabriela E; Saez, Juliana M; Benimeli, Claudia S; Diez, María C; Amoroso, María J

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides are normally used to control specific pests and to increase the productivity in crops; as a result, soils are contaminated with mixtures of pesticides. In this work, the ability of Streptomyces strains (either as pure or mixed cultures) to remove pentachlorophenol and chlorpyrifos was studied. The antagonism among the strains and their tolerance to the toxic mixture was evaluated. Results revealed that the strains did not have any antagonistic effects and showed tolerance against the pesticides mixture. In fact, the growth of mixed cultures was significantly higher than in pure cultures. Moreover, a pure culture (Streptomyces sp. A5) and a quadruple culture had the highest pentachlorophenol removal percentages (10.6% and 10.1%, resp.), while Streptomyces sp. M7 presented the best chlorpyrifos removal (99.2%). Mixed culture of all Streptomyces spp. when assayed either as free or immobilized cells showed chlorpyrifos removal percentages of 40.17% and 71.05%, respectively, and for pentachlorophenol 5.24% and 14.72%, respectively, suggesting better removal of both pesticides by using immobilized cells. These results reveal that environments contaminated with mixtures of xenobiotics could be successfully cleaned up by using either free or immobilized cultures of Streptomyces, through in situ or ex situ remediation techniques.

  19. Genome Content and Phylogenomics Reveal both Ancestral and Lateral Evolutionary Pathways in Plant-Pathogenic Streptomyces Species.

    PubMed

    Huguet-Tapia, Jose C; Lefebure, Tristan; Badger, Jonathan H; Guan, Dongli; Pettis, Gregg S; Stanhope, Michael J; Loria, Rosemary

    2016-01-29

    Streptomyces spp. are highly differentiated actinomycetes with large, linear chromosomes that encode an arsenal of biologically active molecules and catabolic enzymes. Members of this genus are well equipped for life in nutrient-limited environments and are common soil saprophytes. Out of the hundreds of species in the genus Streptomyces, a small group has evolved the ability to infect plants. The recent availability of Streptomyces genome sequences, including four genomes of pathogenic species, provided an opportunity to characterize the gene content specific to these pathogens and to study phylogenetic relationships among them. Genome sequencing, comparative genomics, and phylogenetic analysis enabled us to discriminate pathogenic from saprophytic Streptomyces strains; moreover, we calculated that the pathogen-specific genome contains 4,662 orthologs. Phylogenetic reconstruction suggested that Streptomyces scabies and S. ipomoeae share an ancestor but that their biosynthetic clusters encoding the required virulence factor thaxtomin have diverged. In contrast, S. turgidiscabies and S. acidiscabies, two relatively unrelated pathogens, possess highly similar thaxtomin biosynthesis clusters, which suggests that the acquisition of these genes was through lateral gene transfer.

  20. Genome Content and Phylogenomics Reveal both Ancestral and Lateral Evolutionary Pathways in Plant-Pathogenic Streptomyces Species

    PubMed Central

    Huguet-Tapia, Jose C.; Lefebure, Tristan; Badger, Jonathan H.; Guan, Dongli; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. are highly differentiated actinomycetes with large, linear chromosomes that encode an arsenal of biologically active molecules and catabolic enzymes. Members of this genus are well equipped for life in nutrient-limited environments and are common soil saprophytes. Out of the hundreds of species in the genus Streptomyces, a small group has evolved the ability to infect plants. The recent availability of Streptomyces genome sequences, including four genomes of pathogenic species, provided an opportunity to characterize the gene content specific to these pathogens and to study phylogenetic relationships among them. Genome sequencing, comparative genomics, and phylogenetic analysis enabled us to discriminate pathogenic from saprophytic Streptomyces strains; moreover, we calculated that the pathogen-specific genome contains 4,662 orthologs. Phylogenetic reconstruction suggested that Streptomyces scabies and S. ipomoeae share an ancestor but that their biosynthetic clusters encoding the required virulence factor thaxtomin have diverged. In contrast, S. turgidiscabies and S. acidiscabies, two relatively unrelated pathogens, possess highly similar thaxtomin biosynthesis clusters, which suggests that the acquisition of these genes was through lateral gene transfer. PMID:26826232

  1. Screening of mutant strain Streptomyces mediolani sp. AC37 for (-)-8-O-methyltetrangomycin production enhancement.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Jakeline Trejos; Sturdíková, Maria; Brezová, Vlasta; Svajdlenka, Emil; Novotová, Marta

    2012-12-01

    Streptomyces mediolani sp. AC37 was isolated from the root system of higher plant Taxus baccata and produced metabolite identified as (-)-8-O-methyltetrangomycin according to LC/MS/MS analysis. In our screening program for improvements of bioactive secondary metabolites from plant associate streptomycetes, mutation was used as a tool for the induction of genetic variations for selection of higher (-)-8-O-methyltetrangomycin producers of isolates. S. mediolani sp. AC37 was treated with UV irradiation and chemical mutagenic treatment (N-nitroso-N-methyl-urea). The radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of (-)-8-O-methyltetrangomycin and extracts isolated from mutants were tested using EPR spin trapping technique and ABTS(·+) assay. Comparison of electron microscopic images of Streptomyces sp. AC37 and mutant strains of Streptomyces sp. AC37 revealed substantial differences in morphology and ultrastructure.

  2. New insights on the development of Streptomyces and their relationships with secondary metabolite production.

    PubMed

    Yagüe, P; Lopez-Garcia, M T; Rioseras, B; Sanchez, J; Manteca, A

    2012-01-01

    Streptomycetes are very important industrial bacteria, which produce two thirds of all clinically relevant secondary metabolites. Furthermore, they produce large numbers of eukaryotic cell differentiation and apoptosis inducers. Streptomyces is a mycelial soil bacterium characterized by a complex developmental cycle that includes programmed cell death (PCD) phenomena and sporulation in solid cultures. Industrial fermentations are usually performed in liquid cultures, conditions in which Streptomyces strains generally do not sporulate, and it was traditionally assumed that there was no differentiation. Recently, novel aspects concerning differentiation during the presporulation phases were described in solid and liquid cultures, as well as in natural soils. In this review, we analyze the status of knowledge regarding the above-named aspects of Streptomyces differentiation and their relationships with secondary metabolite production.

  3. Comparison of real-time PCR, reverse transcriptase real-time PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, and the FDA conventional microbiological method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in produce.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guodong; Brown, Eric W; González-Escalona, Narjol

    2011-09-01

    Contamination of foods, especially produce, with Salmonella spp. is a major concern for public health. Several methods are available for the detection of Salmonella in produce, but their relative efficiency for detecting Salmonella in commonly consumed vegetables, often associated with outbreaks of food poisoning, needs to be confirmed. In this study, the effectiveness of three molecular methods for detection of Salmonella in six produce matrices was evaluated and compared to the FDA microbiological detection method. Samples of cilantro (coriander leaves), lettuce, parsley, spinach, tomato, and jalapeno pepper were inoculated with Salmonella serovars at two different levels (10(5) and <10(1) CFU/25 g of produce). The inoculated produce was assayed by the FDA Salmonella culture method (Bacteriological Analytical Manual) and by three molecular methods: quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Comparable results were obtained by these four methods, which all detected as little as 2 CFU of Salmonella cells/25 g of produce. All control samples (not inoculated) were negative by the four methods. RT-qPCR detects only live Salmonella cells, obviating the danger of false-positive results from nonviable cells. False negatives (inhibition of either qPCR or RT-qPCR) were avoided by the use of either a DNA or an RNA amplification internal control (IAC). Compared to the conventional culture method, the qPCR, RT-qPCR, and LAMP assays allowed faster and equally accurate detection of Salmonella spp. in six high-risk produce commodities.

  4. Comparison of Real-Time PCR, Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time PCR, Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification, and the FDA Conventional Microbiological Method for the Detection of Salmonella spp. in Produce ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guodong; Brown, Eric W.; González-Escalona, Narjol

    2011-01-01

    Contamination of foods, especially produce, with Salmonella spp. is a major concern for public health. Several methods are available for the detection of Salmonella in produce, but their relative efficiency for detecting Salmonella in commonly consumed vegetables, often associated with outbreaks of food poisoning, needs to be confirmed. In this study, the effectiveness of three molecular methods for detection of Salmonella in six produce matrices was evaluated and compared to the FDA microbiological detection method. Samples of cilantro (coriander leaves), lettuce, parsley, spinach, tomato, and jalapeno pepper were inoculated with Salmonella serovars at two different levels (105 and <101 CFU/25 g of produce). The inoculated produce was assayed by the FDA Salmonella culture method (Bacteriological Analytical Manual) and by three molecular methods: quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Comparable results were obtained by these four methods, which all detected as little as 2 CFU of Salmonella cells/25 g of produce. All control samples (not inoculated) were negative by the four methods. RT-qPCR detects only live Salmonella cells, obviating the danger of false-positive results from nonviable cells. False negatives (inhibition of either qPCR or RT-qPCR) were avoided by the use of either a DNA or an RNA amplification internal control (IAC). Compared to the conventional culture method, the qPCR, RT-qPCR, and LAMP assays allowed faster and equally accurate detection of Salmonella spp. in six high-risk produce commodities. PMID:21803916

  5. Valinomycin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces: conservation, ecology and evolution.

    PubMed

    Matter, Andrea M; Hoot, Sara B; Anderson, Patrick D; Neves, Susana S; Cheng, Yi-Qiang

    2009-09-29

    Many Streptomyces strains are known to produce valinomycin (VLM) antibiotic and the VLM biosynthetic gene cluster (vlm) has been characterized in two independent isolates. Here we report the phylogenetic relationships of these strains using both parsimony and likelihood methods, and discuss whether the vlm gene cluster shows evidence of horizontal transmission common in natural product biosynthetic genes. Eight Streptomyces strains from around the world were obtained and sequenced for three regions of the two large nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes (vlm1 and vlm2) involved in VLM biosynthesis. The DNA sequences representing the vlm gene cluster are highly conserved among all eight environmental strains. The geographic distribution pattern of these strains and the strict congruence between the trees of the two vlm genes and the housekeeping genes, 16S rDNA and trpB, suggest vertical transmission of the vlm gene cluster in Streptomyces with no evidence of horizontal gene transfer. We also explored the relationship of the sequence of vlm genes to that of the cereulide biosynthetic genes (ces) found in Bacillus cereus and found them highly divergent from each other at DNA level (genetic distance values >or= 95.6%). It is possible that the vlm gene cluster and the ces gene cluster may share a relatively distant common ancestor but these two gene clusters have since evolved independently.

  6. Genetics and chemistry of lignin degradation by Streptomyces

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Our research goal was to define the involvement of lignin peroxidases and other extracellular enzymes in lignin degradation by Streptomyces. We examined the biochemistry and genetics of lignin degrading enzyme production by several strains of Streptomyces. The lignin peroxidase ALiP-P3 of S. viridosporus was characterized kinetically and its activity optimized for oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol and vanillyl-acetone. Sensitive spectrophotometric assays were developed for monitoring oxidation of these substrates. ALiP-P3 reaction chemistry was examined using both spectrophotometric assays and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Results showed that the enzyme oxidizes phenolic lignin substructure models in strong preference to nonphenolic ones. The peroxidase was also shown to depolymerize native lignin. We also cloned the ALip-P3 gene S. lividans in plasmid vector pIJ702. The cloned gene was partially sequenced, We also immunologically characterized the lignin peroxidase of S. viridosporus T7A and showed it to be structurally related to peroxidases produced by other lignin-solubilizing Streptomyces, but not the the H8 lignin peroxidase of P. chrysosporium. Studies with peroxidase deficient mutants of strain T7A showed that lignin peroxidases of S. viridosporus are directly involved in the solubilization of lignin. Additional research showed that other enzymes are also probably involved in lignin solubilization, possibly including extracellular esterases.

  7. 5-ketoreductase from Streptomyces bingchengensis: overexpression and preliminary characterization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang-Jing; Wang, Cheng-Qin; Sun, Xiao-Lin; Xiang, Wen-Sheng

    2010-10-01

    To elucidate the biotransformation from 5-oxomilbemycins A(3) and A(4) to milbemycins A(3) and A(4) in Streptomyces bingchengensis, the C5-ketoreductase gene (milF) was cloned using PCR with the specific primer designed from homologous nucleotide sequences. The C5-ketoreductase (MilF) was heterologously expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) as a His-tagged fusion protein. The characterization and biotransformation function of purified MilF was verified by in vitro enzyme assay. MilF is an NADPH-dependent reductase. The biotransformation products, analyzed by LC-APCI/MS, were identified as milbemycin A(3) and milbemycin A(4). MilF is thus present in Streptomyces bingchengensis and can transform 5-oxomilbemycins A(3) and A(4) to milbemycins A(3) and A(4). These findings are significant for understanding the biosynthetic pathway of milbemycins in Streptomyces bingchengensis and pave the way to obtain a producer strain of 5-oxomilbemycins directly by targeted milF disruption.

  8. Engineering of plant-specific phenylpropanoids biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Ryeol; Yoon, Jin A; Paik, Ji Hye; Park, Je Won; Jung, Won Seok; Ban, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Eun Ji; Yoo, Young Ji; Han, Ah Reum; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2009-05-20

    Phenylpropanoids, including flavonoids and stilbenes, are plant secondary metabolites with potential pharmacological and nutraceutical properties. To expand the applicability of Streptomyces venezuelae as a heterologous host to plant polyketide production, flavonoid and stilbene biosynthetic genes were expressed in an engineered strain of S. venezuelae DHS2001 bearing a deletion of native pikromycin polyketide synthase gene. A plasmid expressing the 4-coumarate/cinnamate:coenzyme A ligase from Streptomyces coelicolor (ScCCL) and the chalcone synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana (atCHS) under the control of a single ermE* promoter was constructed and introduced into S. venezuelae DHS2001. The resulting strain produced racemic naringenin and pinocembrin from 4-coumaric acid and cinnamic acid, respectively. Placement of an additional ermE* promoter upstream of the codon-optimized atCHS (atCHS(op)) gene significantly increased the yield of both flavanones. Expression of codon-optimized chalcone isomerase gene from Medicago sativa, together with ScCCL and atCHS(op) genes led to production of (2S)-flavanones, but the yield was reduced. On the other hand, a recombinant strain harboring the ScCCL and codon-optimized stilbene synthase gene from Arachis hypogaea generated stilbenes such as resveratrol and pinosylvin. This is the first report on the heterologous expression of plant phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathways in Streptomyces genus.

  9. Streptomyces luteus sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao-Xia; Kai, Liang; Wang, Yang; Wan, Chuan-Xing; Zhang, Li-Li

    2017-04-01

    A Streptomyces-like strain, designated TRM 45540T, was isolated from soil of the Loulan area (89° 22' 22″ E 40° 29' 55″ N), Xinjiang Province, north-west China, and was characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic study. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain TRM 45540T shared 99.87 % similarity with Streptomyces mutabilis NBRC 12800T (GenBank accession number AB184156). The strain was aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, with an optimum NaCl concentration for growth of 5 % (w/v). The isolate formed white aerial mycelium that was long filamentous with few branches; the substrate mycelium possessed long, smooth-surfaced spore chains bearing smooth spores and produced a yellow diffusible pigment. The strain contained iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and C16 : 0 as major cellular fatty acids. The predominant menaquinones of the strain were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H10). The whole-cell sugar pattern contained glucose and ribose. The polar lipid pattern of the strain consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphotidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositolmannosides. Genotypic and phenotypic data confirmed that strain TRM 45540T represents a novel species, clearly different from related species of the genus Streptomyces, and for which the name Streptomyces luteus (type strain TRM 45540T=CCTCC AA 2014003T=NRRL B-59117T) is proposed.

  10. Heterologous coexpression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin and Bacillus megaterium glucanase in Streptomyces lydicus A02 enhanced its production of antifungal metabolites.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huiling; Li, Jinjin; Dong, Dan; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Taotao; Zhang, Dianpeng; Liu, Weicheng

    2015-12-01

    Streptomyces lydicus A02 is a novel producer of commercially important polyene macrocyclic antibiotic natamycin and a potential biocontrol agent to several plant fungal diseases, including wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. spp. To improve the natamycin production and the antifungal activity of S. lydicus A02, we coexpressed gene vgb encoding Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) and bglC encoding Bacillus megaterium L103 glucanase, both under the control of the strong constitutive ermE* promoter, in S. lydicus A02. Our results showed that coexpressing VHb and glucanase improved cell growth, and the engineered strain produced 26.90% more biomass than the wild-type strain after 72h fermentation in YSG medium. In addition, coexpressing genes encoding VHb and glucanase led to increased natamycin production, higher endogenous chitinase activity and exogenous glucanase activity, as well as enhanced antifungal activity in the engineered S. lydicus AVG02 and AGV02, regardless of the position of the two genes on the plasmids. Compared with model strains, few reports have successfully coexpressed VHb and other foreign proteins in industrial strains. Our results illustrated an effective approach for improving antifungal activity in an industrial strain by the rational engineering of combined favorable factors.

  11. Overproduction of lactimidomycin by cross-overexpression of genes encoding Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Yang, Dong; Yan, Yijun; Pan, Guohui; Xiang, Wensheng; Shen, Ben

    2016-03-01

    The glutarimide-containing polyketides represent a fascinating class of natural products that exhibit a multitude of biological activities. We have recently cloned and sequenced the biosynthetic gene clusters for three members of the glutarimide-containing polyketides-iso-migrastatin (iso-MGS) from Streptomyces platensis NRRL 18993, lactimidomycin (LTM) from Streptomyces amphibiosporus ATCC 53964, and cycloheximide (CHX) from Streptomyces sp. YIM56141. Comparative analysis of the three clusters identified mgsA and chxA, from the mgs and chx gene clusters, respectively, that were predicted to encode the PimR-like Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory proteins (SARPs) but failed to reveal any regulatory gene from the ltm gene cluster. Overexpression of mgsA or chxA in S. platensis NRRL 18993, Streptomyces sp. YIM56141 or SB11024, and a recombinant strain of Streptomyces coelicolor M145 carrying the intact mgs gene cluster has no significant effect on iso-MGS or CHX production, suggesting that MgsA or ChxA regulation may not be rate-limiting for iso-MGS and CHX production in these producers. In contrast, overexpression of mgsA or chxA in S. amphibiosporus ATCC 53964 resulted in a significant increase in LTM production, with LTM titer reaching 106 mg/L, which is five-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. These results support MgsA and ChxA as members of the SARP family of positive regulators for the iso-MGS and CHX biosynthetic machinery and demonstrate the feasibility to improve glutarimide-containing polyketide production in Streptomyces strains by exploiting common regulators.

  12. Streptomyces euryhalinus sp. nov., a new actinomycete isolated from a mangrove forest.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Kaushik; Choudhury, Jayanta D; Mahansaria, Riddhi; Saha, Malay; Mukherjee, Joydeep

    2017-06-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile actinomycete (strain MS 3/20(T)) was isolated from the sediment of the Sundarbans mangrove forest in India. On International Streptomyces Project (ISP) medium 2, the isolate produced yellowish brown to red aerial hyphae that carried spiny-surfaced spores in a retinaculum-apertum arrangement. Whole-cell hydrolysate of the strain contained LL-diaminopimelic acid and galactose. Predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). Diagnostic polar lipids were glycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, unidentified phospholipid and unidentified amino lipid. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 (17.53%), iso-C16:0 (23.89%) and anteiso-C17:0 (10.29%). The strain showed 100% 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence similarity with Streptomyces variabilis NBRC 12825(T), Streptomyces erythrogriseus LMG 19406(T), Streptomyces griseoincarnatus LMG 19316(T) and Streptomyces labedae NBRC 15864(T). However, strain MS 3/20(T) could be distinguished from these and seven other closely related species based on low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness (27.2-53.8%), supported by the unique banding pattern obtained from random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR amplification and the distinctive matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) profile of whole-cell proteins acquired for strain MS 3/20(T) in comparison with its phylogenetic relatives. Disparate morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic features, principally growth in NaCl, further corroborated the distinction of strain MS 3/20(T) from other phylogenetic relatives. Strain MS 3/20(T) is therefore suggested to be a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces euryhalinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MS 3/20(T) (=CICC 11032(T)=DSM 103378(T)).

  13. Enhanced production of penicillin V acylase from Streptomyces lavendulae.

    PubMed

    Torres, R; Ramón, F; de la Mata, I; Acebal, C; Castillón, M P

    1999-12-01

    A 28 degrees C, Streptomyces lavendulae produced high levels of penicillin V acylase (178 IU/l of culture) when grown on skim milk as the sole nutrient source for 275 h. The enzyme showed catabolite repression by glucose and was produced in the stationary phase of growth. Penicillin V was a good inducer of penicillin V acylase formation, while phenoxyacetic acid, the side-chain moiety of penicillin V, did not alter enzyme production significantly. The enzyme was stable between pH 6 and 11 and at temperatures from 20 degrees C to 55 degrees C. This extracellular enzyme was able to hydrolyse natural penicillins and unable to hydrolyse penicillin G.

  14. Cloning and analysis of a gene cluster from Streptomyces coelicolor that causes accelerated aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, H; Kendall, K

    1994-01-01

    We describe the cloning and analysis of two overlapping DNA fragments from Streptomyces coelicolor that cause aerial mycelium to appear more rapidly than usual when introduced into Streptomyces lividans on a low-copy-number plasmid vector. Colonies of S. lividans TK64 harboring either clone produce visible aerial mycelia after only 48 h of growth, rather than the usual 72 to 96 h. From deletion and sequence analysis, this rapid aerial mycelium (Ram) phenotype appears to be due to a cluster of three genes that we have designated ramA, ramB, and ramR. Both ramA and ramB potentially encode 65-kDa proteins with homology to ATP-dependent membrane-translocating proteins. A chromosomal ramB disruption mutant of S. lividans was found to be severely defective in aerial mycelium formation. ramR could encode a 21-kDa protein with significant homology to the UhpA subset of bacterial two-component response regulator proteins. The overall organization and potential proteins encoded by the cloned DNA suggest that this is the S. coelicolor homolog of the amf gene cluster that has been shown to be important for aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus. However, despite the fact that the two regions probably have identical functions, there is relatively poor homology between the two gene clusters at the DNA sequence level. Images PMID:8206859

  15. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies of carbon metabolism in the actinomycin D producer Streptomyces parvulus by use of 13C-labeled precursors.

    PubMed

    Inbar, L; Lapidot, A

    1991-12-01

    Fructose and glutamate metabolism was monitored in cell suspensions of streptomyces parvulus by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. The experiments were performed for cells grown with various 13C sources in a growth medium containing D-[U-13C]fructose, L-[13C]glutamate, or L-[U-13C]aspartate and with nonlabeled precursors to compare intracellular pools in S. parvulus cells at different periods of the cell life cycle. The transport of fructose into the cells was biphasic in nature; during rapid transport, mannitol, fructose, and glucose 6-phosphate were accumulated intracellularly, whereas during the passive diffusion of fructose, the intracellular carbohydrate pool comprised mainly trehalose (1,1'-alpha-alpha-D-glucose). The regulation of fructokinase activity by the intracellular intermediates may play an important role in fructose catabolism in S. parvulus. Transaldolase activity in S. parvulus was determined from the 13C nuclear magnetic resonance labeling pattern of trehalose carbons obtained from cells grown in medium containing either L-[U-13C]aspartate or L-[U-13C]glutamate. Only carbons 4, 5, and 6 of the disaccharide were labeled. Isotopomer analysis of the trehalose carbons led us to conclude that the flux through the reverse glycolytic pathway, condensation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate with dihydroxyacetone phosphate, makes at best a minor contribution to the 13C-labeled glucose units observed in trehalose. The pentose pathway and transaldolase activity can explain the labeling pattern of 4,5,6-13C3 of trehalose. Moreover, the transfer of the 13C label of L-[U-13C]aspartate into the different isotopomers of trehalose C4, C5, and C6 by the transaldolase activity allowed us to calculate the relative fluxes from oxaloacetate via gluconeogenesis and through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The ratio of the two fluxes is approximately 1. However, the main carbon source for trehalose synthesis in S. parvulus is fructose and not glutamate or aspartate. The 13C

  16. Interspecific Transfer of Streptomyces Giant Linear Plasmids in Sterile Amended Soil Microcosms†

    PubMed Central

    Ravel, Jacques; Wellington, Elizabeth M. H.; Hill, Russell T.

    2000-01-01

    The interspecific transfer of two giant linear plasmids was investigated in sterile soil microcosms. Plasmids pRJ3L (322 kb) and pRJ28 (330 kb), both encoding mercury resistance, were successfully transferred in amended soil microcosms from their streptomycete hosts, the isolates CHR3 and CHR28, respectively, to a plasmidless and mercury-sensitive strain, Streptomyces lividans TK24. Transconjugants of S. lividans TK24 were first observed after 2 to 3 days of incubation at 30°C, which corresponded to the time taken for the formation of mycelia in soil. Transfer frequencies were 4.8 × 10−4 and 3.6 × 10−5 CFU/donor genome for pRJ3L and pRJ28, respectively. Transconjugants were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for the presence of plasmids, and plasmid identity was confirmed by restriction digests. Total genomic DNA digests confirmed that transconjugants were S. lividans TK24. The mercury resistance genes were shown to be on the plasmid in the transconjugants by hybridization analysis and were still functional. This is the first demonstration of transfer of giant linear plasmids in sterile soil microcosms. Giant linear plasmids were detected in many Streptomyces spp. isolated from mercury-contaminated sediments from Boston Harbor (United States), Townsville Harbor (Australia), and the Sali River (Tucuman, Argentina). Mercury resistance genes were shown to be present on some of these plasmids. Our findings that giant linear plasmids can be transferred between Streptomyces spp. and are common in environmental Streptomyces isolates suggest that these plasmids are important in gene transfer between streptomycetes in the environment. PMID:10653714

  17. Development and application of a T7 RNA polymerase-dependent expression system for antibiotic production improvement in Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Wei, Junhong; Tian, Jinjin; Pan, Guoqing; Xie, Jie; Bao, Jialing; Zhou, Zeyang

    2017-06-01

    To develop a reliable and easy to use expression system for antibiotic production improvement of Streptomyces. A two-compound T7 RNA polymerase-dependent gene expression system was developed to fulfill this demand. In this system, the T7 RNA polymerase coding sequence was optimized based on the codon usage of Streptomyces coelicolor. To evaluate the functionality of this system, we constructed an activator gene overexpression strain for enhancement of actinorhodin production. By overexpression of the positive regulator actII-ORF4 with this system, the maximum actinorhodin yield of engineered strain was 15-fold higher and the fermentation time was decreased by 48 h. The modified two-compound T7 expression system improves both antibiotic production and accelerates the fermentation process in Streptomyces. This provides a general and useful strategy for strain improvement of important antibiotic producing Streptomyces strains.

  18. -Genomic data mining of the marine actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 unveils insights into multi-stress related genes and metabolic pathways involved in antimicrobial synthesis.

    PubMed

    Undabarrena, Agustina; Ugalde, Juan A; Seeger, Michael; Cámara, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 is an actinobacterial strain isolated from marine sediments of a Chilean Patagonian fjord. Morphological characterization together with antibacterial activity was assessed in various culture media, revealing a carbon-source dependent activity mainly against Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and L. monocytogenes). Genome mining of this antibacterial-producing bacterium revealed the presence of 26 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) for secondary metabolites, where among them, 81% have low similarities with known BGCs. In addition, a genomic search in Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 unveiled the presence of a wide variety of genetic determinants related to heavy metal resistance (49 genes), oxidative stress (69 genes) and antibiotic resistance (97 genes). This study revealed that the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 bacterium has the capability to tolerate a diverse set of heavy metals such as copper, cobalt, mercury, chromate and nickel; as well as the highly toxic tellurite, a feature first time described for Streptomyces. In addition, Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 possesses a major resistance towards oxidative stress, in comparison to the soil reference strain Streptomyces violaceoruber A3(2). Moreover, Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 showed resistance to 88% of the antibiotics tested, indicating overall, a strong response to several abiotic stressors. The combination of these biological traits confirms the metabolic versatility of Streptomyces sp. H-KF8, a genetically well-prepared microorganism with the ability to confront the dynamics of the fjord-unique marine environment.

  19. PURIFICATION OF STREPTOMYCES VENEZUELAE PHAGE

    PubMed Central

    Kolstad, R. A.; Bradley, S. G.

    1964-01-01

    Kolstad, R. A. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis), and S. G. Bradley. Purification of Streptomyces venezuelae phage. J. Bacteriol. 87:1157–1161. 1964.—Streptomyces venezuelae phage MSP8 was concentrated and purified by a combination of methods including dialysis against polyethylene glycol, partitioning between the two phases of aqueous polymer systems, gel filtration, chromatography on ECTEOLA-cellulose, and differential centrifugation. S. venezuelae phage MSP8 is 57% deoxyribonucleic acid and 43% protein. Its head is 55 by 70 mμ, and its tail is 10 by 150 mμ. Its dry weight is 250 mg per 1015 plaqueforming units, and its density is 1.4. Phage MSP8 contains 15 μg of phosphorus and 40 μg of nitrogen per 1012 particles. The ratio of light absorbancy at 260 to 280 mμ is 1.5. A mixture of two actinophages, MNP3 and MVP7, was separated by use of ECTEOLA-cellulose. In one fraction, 99% of the phage was MNP3; in another fraction, 99% of the phage was MVP7. Images PMID:5874537

  20. Extraction and Identification of Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites from Marine Streptomyces sp. VITBRK2

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Benita Mercy; Kannabiran, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycetes were isolated from marine sediment samples collected from the east coast of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Well diffusion and agar plug methods were used for the evaluation of antibiotic production by these isolates against drug resistant Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE). The potential isolate VITBRK2 was mass cultured for morphological and physiological characterization. The culturing conditions of the isolate were optimized and the recommendations of International Streptomyces Project were followed for the assimilation of carbon and nitrogen sources. The isolate was identified by comparing the properties with representative species in the key of Nonomura and Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Ethyl acetate extract prepared from the cell free culture broth of the isolate was analyzed using HPLC- diode array technique to characterize the metabolites and identify the antibiotics. VITBRK2 was found to be Gram-positive rod grey color aerial mycelium production. It was also non motile in nature with spiral spore chain morphology. VITBRK2 was identified as Streptomyces and designated as Streptomyces sp. VITBRK2. HPLC-DAD analysis showed the presence of indolo compounds (3- methyl-indole and 2-methyl- indole) along with amicoumacin antibiotic. The observed activity of Streptomyces sp. VITBRK2 against MRSA and VRE strains may be due to the presence of indolo compounds in the isolate. The results of this study suggested that secondary metabolites produced by Streptomyces sp. VITBRK2 could be used as a lead to control drug resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:25317399

  1. Streptomyces marokkonensis sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere soil of Argania spinosa L.

    PubMed

    Bouizgarne, B; Lanoot, B; Loqman, S; Spröer, C; Klenk, H-P; Swings, J; Ouhdouch, Y

    2009-11-01

    The novel actinomycete strain Ap1(T) was isolated from rhizosphere soil of the argan tree (Argania spinosa L.) in the south of Morocco. Strain Ap1(T) has been reported as a novel producer of the pentaene polyene macrolide isochainin, which strongly inhibits the growth of pathogenic yeasts and phytopathogenic fungi. Strain Ap1(T) shows a greyish-white aerial mycelium with chains of smooth-surfaced spores of the Spiralis type and a cell wall containing ll-diaminopimelic acid. Based on chemotaxonomy and morphological features, strain Ap1(T) was identified as a member of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities based on almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain Ap1(T) is closely associated with members of the Streptomyces violaceoruber species group (S. violaceoruber, S. coelescens, S. violaceorubidus, 'S. caesius', 'S. lividans', S. violaceolatus and S. humiferus) and others (Streptomyces aurantiogriseus, S. lienomycini, S. chattanoogensis, S. rubrogriseus and S. tendae). However, protein profiling, DNA-DNA hybridization and BOX-PCR fingerprinting proved a relationship above the species level. In addition, the phenotype also allowed for the differentiation of strain Ap1(T) from its closest neighbours. As a result of this polyphasic approach, we conclude that strain Ap1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces marokkonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Ap1(T) (=R-22003(T) =LMG 23016(T) =DSM 41918(T)).

  2. Genomic data mining reveals a rich repertoire of transport proteins in Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhan; Sun, Ning; Wu, Shanshan; Li, Yong-Quan; Wang, Yufeng

    2016-08-22

    Streptomycetes are soil-dwelling Gram-positive bacteria that are best known as the major producers of antibiotics used in the pharmaceutical industry. The evolution of exceptionally powerful transporter systems in streptomycetes has enabled their adaptation to the complex soil environment. Our comparative genomic analyses revealed that each of the eleven Streptomyces species examined possesses a rich repertoire of from 761-1258 transport proteins, accounting for 10.2 to 13.7 % of each respective proteome. These transporters can be divided into seven functional classes and 171 transporter families. Among them, the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily and the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) represent more than 40 % of all the transport proteins in Streptomyces. They play important roles in both nutrient uptake and substrate secretion, especially in the efflux of drugs and toxicants. The evolutionary flexibility across eleven Streptomyces species is seen in the lineage-specific distribution of transport proteins in two major protein translocation pathways: the general secretory (Sec) pathway and the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway. Our results present a catalog of transport systems in eleven Streptomyces species. These expansive transport systems are important mediators of the complex processes including nutrient uptake, concentration balance of elements, efflux of drugs and toxins, and the timely and orderly secretion of proteins. A better understanding of transport systems will allow enhanced optimization of production processes for both pharmaceutical and industrial applications of Streptomyces, which are widely used in antibiotic production and heterologous expression of recombinant proteins.

  3. In vivo antimalarial activity of the endophytic actinobacteria, Streptomyces SUK 10.

    PubMed

    Baba, Mohd Shukri; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad; Hassan, Zainal Abidin Abu; Latip, Jalifah; Pethick, Florence; Hunter, Iain S; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Herron, Paul R

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic bacteria, such as Streptomyces, have the potential to act as a source for novel bioactive molecules with medicinal properties. The present study was aimed at assessing the antimalarial activity of crude extract isolated from various strains of actinobacteria living endophytically in some Malaysian medicinal plants. Using the four day suppression test method on male ICR strain mice, compounds produced from three strains of Streptomyces (SUK8, SUK10, and SUK27) were tested in vivo against Plasmodium berghei PZZ1/100 in an antimalarial screen using crude extracts at four different concentrations. One of these extracts, isolated from Streptomyces SUK10 obtained from the bark of Shorea ovalis tree, showed inhibition of the test organism and was further tested against P. berghei-infected mice for antimalarial activity at different concentrations. There was a positive relationship between the survival of the infected mouse group treated with 50 µg/kg body weight (bw) of ethyl acetate-SUK10 crude extract and the ability to inhibit the parasites growth. The parasite inhibition percentage for this group showed that 50% of the mice survived for more than 90 days after infection with the parasite. The nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic tree suggested that Streptomyces SUK10 may constitute a new species within the Streptomyces genus. As part of the drug discovery process, these promising finding may contribute to the medicinal and pharmaceutical field for malarial treatment.

  4. Quantitative risk assessment of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and cross-contamination during handling of raw broiler chickens evaluating strategies at the producer level to reduce human campylobacteriosis in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Roland; Lindblad, Mats

    2008-01-15

    Campylobacter is a major bacterial cause of infectious diarrheal illness in Sweden and in many other countries. Handling and consumption of chicken has been identified as important risk factors. The purpose of the present study was to use data from a national baseline study of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in raw Swedish broiler chickens in order to evaluate some risk management strategies and the frequency of consumer mishandling, i.e., handling leading to possible cross-contamination. A probabilistic model describing variability but not uncertainty was developed in Excel and @Risk. The output of the model was the probability of illness per handling if the chicken was mishandled. Uncertainty was evaluated by performing repeated simulations and substituting model parameters, distributions and software (Analytica). The effect of uncertainty was within a factor of 3.2 compared to the baseline scenario. For Campylobacter spp. prevalence but not concentration, there was a one-to-one relation with risk. The effect of a 100-fold reduction in the levels of Campylobacter spp. on raw chicken reduced the risk by a factor of 12 (fresh chicken) to 30 (frozen chicken). Highly-contaminated carcasses contributed most to risk and it was estimated that by limiting the contamination to less than 4 log CFU per carcass, the risk would be reduced to less than 17% of the baseline scenario. Diverting all positive flocks to freezing was estimated to result in 43% as many cases as the baseline. The second best diversion option (54% of baseline cases) was to direct all chickens from the two worst groups of producers, in terms of percentages of positive flocks delivered, to freezing. The improvement of using diverting was estimated to correspond to between 5 to 767 fewer reported cases for the different strategies depending on the assumptions of the proportion of reported cases (1 to 50%) caused by Campylobacter spp. from Swedish chicken. The estimated proportion of consumer mishandlings

  5. Transcriptional analysis of the Streptomyces glaucescens tetracenomycin C biosynthesis gene cluster.

    PubMed Central

    Decker, H; Hutchinson, C R

    1993-01-01

    A 12.6-kb DNA fragment from Streptomyces glaucescens GLA.0 containing the 12 genes for tetracenomycin (TCM) C biosynthesis and resistance enabled Streptomyces lividans to produce TCM C. Transcriptional analysis of the tcmPG intergenic region in this cluster established the presence of two divergent promoters. The tcmIc mutation, a T-to-G transversion in the -10 region of the tcmG promoter, decreased promoter activity drastically at the stationary growth stage and time of maximum TCM C accumulation. This promoter may direct the transcription of a tcmGHIJKLMNO operon, while the other promoter is for tcmP. Images PMID:8509340

  6. A possible role of poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid in antibiotic production in Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shivani; Bhatia, Yukti; Valappil, Sabeel Padinhara; Roy, Ipsita

    2002-12-01

    The occurrence of poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) in 12 different strains of the genus Streptomyces was investigated. Gas chromatographic estimation indicated that all the strains produced PHB and the range of maximum PHB accumulation was between 1.5 and 11.8% dry cell weight. PHB was isolated from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) M145 and characterized using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The correlation between PHB utilization and antibiotic production in S. coelicolor A3(2) M145, was studied; results indicated a possible role of PHB as a carbon reserve material used for antibiotic production.

  7. Complete genome sequence of Streptomyces reticuli, an efficient degrader of crystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Wibberg, Daniel; Al-Dilaimi, Arwa; Busche, Tobias; Wedderhoff, Ina; Schrempf, Hildgund; Kalinowski, Jörn; Ortiz de Orué Lucana, Darío

    2016-03-20

    We report the complete, GC-rich genome sequence of the melanin producer Streptomyces reticuli Tü 45 (S. reticuli) that targets and degrades highly crystalline cellulose by the concerted action of a range of biochemically characterized proteins. It consists of a linear 8.3 Mb chromosome, a linear 0.8 Mb megaplasmid, a linear 94 kb plasmid and a circular 76 kb plasmid. Noteworthy, the megaplasmid is the second largest known Streptomyces plasmid. Preliminary analysis reveals, among others, 43 predicted gene clusters for the synthesis of secondary metabolites and 456 predicted genes for binding and degradation of cellulose, other polysaccharides and carbohydrate-containing compounds.

  8. Evolution of the PPM-family protein phosphatases in Streptomyces: duplication of catalytic domain and lateral recruitment of additional sensory domains

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Weiwen; Shi, Liang

    2004-12-01

    Originally identified from eukaryotes, the Mg{sup 2+}- or Mn{sup 2+}-dependent protein phosphatases (PPMs) are a diverse group of enzymes whose members include eukaryotic PP2C and some prokaryotic serine/threonine phosphatases. In our previous study, an unexpectedly large number of PPMs were identified in two Streptomyces genomes. In this work, a phylogenetic analysis was performed with all the PPMs available from a wide variety of microbial sources to determine the evolutionary origin of the Streptomyces PPM proteins. Consistent with earlier hypotheses, the results suggested that the microbial PPMs were relatively recent additions from eukaryotic sources. Results also indicated that the Streptomyces PPMs were divided into two major subfamilies at an early stage of their emergence in Streptomyces genomes. The first subfamily, which contains only six Streptomyces PPMs, possesses a catalytic domain whose sequence and architecture are similar to that of eukaryotic PPMs; the second subfamily contains 89 Streptomyces PPMs that lack the 5a and 5b catalytic domain motifs, similar to the PPMs SpoIIE and RsbU of Bacillus subtilis. Significant gene duplication was observed for the PPMs in the second subfamily. In addition, more than half (54 %) of the Streptomyces PPMs from the second subfamily were found to have at least one additional sensory domain, most commonly the PAS or the GAF domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these domains tended to be clustered according to the putative physiological functions rather than taxonomic relationship, implying that they might have arisen as a result of domain recruitment in a late evolutionary stage. This study provides an insight into how Streptomyces spp. may have expanded their PPM-based signal transduction networks to enable them to respond to a greater range of environmental changes.

  9. Fluoroacetate biosynthesis from the marine-derived bacterium Streptomyces xinghaiensis NRRL B-24674.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng; Ma, Long; Tong, Ming Him; Yu, Yi; O'Hagan, David; Deng, Hai

    2014-07-21

    Genome sequencing identified a fluorinase gene in the marine bacterium Streptomyces xinghaiensis NRRL B-24674. Fermentation of the organism with inorganic fluoride (2 mM) demonstrated that the organism could biosynthesise fluoroacetate and that fluoroacetate production is sea-salt dependent. This is the first fluorometabolite producing microorganism identified from the marine environment.

  10. Identification of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soils with inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum spp., the causative agent of anthracnose disease.

    PubMed

    Intra, Bungonsiri; Mungsuntisuk, Isada; Nihira, Takuya; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2011-04-01

    Colletotrichum is one of the most widespread and important genus of plant pathogenic fungi worldwide. Various species of Colletotrichum are the causative agents of anthracnose disease in plants, which is a severe problem to agricultural crops particularly in Thailand. These phytopathogens are usually controlled using chemicals; however, the use of these agents can lead to environmental pollution. Potential non-chemical control strategies for anthracnose disease include the use of bacteria capable of producing anti-fungal compounds such as actinomycetes spp., that comprise a large group of filamentous, Gram positive bacteria from soil. The aim of this study was to isolate actinomycetes capable of inhibiting the growth of Colletotrichum spp, and to analyze the diversity of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soil. A total of 304 actinomycetes were isolated and tested for their inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides strains DoA d0762 and DoA c1060 and Colletotrichum capsici strain DoA c1511 which cause anthracnose disease as well as the non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain IFO 10217. Most isolates (222 out of 304, 73.0%) were active against at least one indicator fungus or yeast. Fifty four (17.8%) were active against three anthracnose fungi and 17 (5.6%) could inhibit the growth of all three fungi and S. cerevisiae used in the test. Detailed analysis on 30 selected isolates from an orchard at Chanthaburi using the comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that most of the isolates (87%) belong to the genus Streptomyces sp., while one each belongs to Saccharopolyspora (strain SB-2) and Nocardiopsis (strain CM-2) and two to Nocardia (strains BP-3 and LK-1). Strains LC-1, LC-4, JF-1, SC-1 and MG-1 exerted high inhibitory activity against all three anthracnose fungi and yeast. In addition, the organic solvent extracts prepared from these five strains inhibited conidial growth of the three indicator fungi. Preliminary analysis of crude

  11. Genetic analysis of a PER-2 producing Shewanella spp. strain harboring a variety of mobile genetic elements and antibiotic resistant determinants.

    PubMed

    Almuzara, Marisa; Montaña, Sabrina; Lazzaro, Terese; Uong, Sylvia; Parmeciano Di Noto, Gisela; Traglia, German; Bakai, Romina; Centrón, Daniela; Iriarte, Andrés; Quiroga, Cecilia; Ramirez, Maria Soledad

    2017-07-28

    The goal of this work is to investigate the molecular mechanisms that explain the multidrug resistant phenotype found in a novel clinical Shewanella spp. strain (Shew256) recovered from a diabetic patient. The whole-genome shotgun sequencing was obtained with Illumina MiSeq-I and Nextera XT DNA library. De novo assembly was performed with SPADES. RAST was used to predict the open reading frames and the predictions were confirmed using BLAST. Further genomic analysis was carried out using average nucleotide identity (ANI), ACT (Artemis), OrthoMCL, ARG-ANNOT, ISFinder, PHAST, tRNAscan-SE, plasmidSPAdes, PlasmidFinder and MAUVE. PCR reactions and plasmid extraction were also performed. The genomic analysis revealed a total of 456 predicted genes, which are unique to Shew256 when compared with the other Shewanella genomes. Moreover, the presence of different resistance genes, including the presence of a blaPER-2, were found. A complex class 1 integron containing the ISCR1 gene, disrupted by two putative transposase genes were identified. Furthermore, other resistance genes, a transposon containing aph(3'), insertion sequences, phages, and non-coding RNAs were also found. Evidences of acquisition of resistance genes and mobile elements that could explain the multidrug resistance phenotype were observed. This Shewanella species represents a prime example of how antibiotic resistance determinants can be acquired by uncommon pathogens. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ethylene emission and PR protein synthesis in ACC deaminase producing Methylobacterium spp. inoculated tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) challenged with Ralstonia solanacearum under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Yim, Woojong; Seshadri, Sundaram; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Gillseung; Sa, Tongmin

    2013-06-01

    Bacteria of genus Methylobacterium have been found to promote plant growth and regulate the level of ethylene in crop plants. This work is aimed to test the induction of defense responses in tomato against bacterial wilt by stress ethylene level reduction mediated by the ACC deaminase activity of Methylobacterium strains. Under greenhouse conditions, the disease index value in Methylobacterium sp. inoculated tomato plants was lower than control plants. Plants treated with Methylobacterium sp. challenge inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum (RS) showed significantly reduced disease symptoms and lowered ethylene emission under greenhouse condition. The ACC and ACO (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase) accumulation in tomato leaves were significantly reduced with Methylobacterium strains inoculation. While ACC oxidase gene expression was found higher in plants treated with R. solanacearum than Methylobacterium sp. treatment, PR proteins related to induced systemic resistance like β-1,3-glucanase, PAL, PO and PPO were increased in Methylobacterium sp. inoculated plants. A significant increase in β-1,3-glucanase and PAL gene expression was found in all the Methylobacterium spp. treatments compared to the R. solanacearum treatment. This study confirms the activity of Methylobacterium sp. in increasing the defense enzymes by modulating the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and suggests the use of methylotrophic bacteria as potential biocontrol agents in tomato cultivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. N-demethylation of lergotrile by Streptomyces platensis.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, P J; Glade, J C; Clark, A M; Smith, R V

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-eight microorganisms were screened for their ability to produce metabolites of the semisynthetic alkaloid, lergotrile. A total of five microorganisms were found to biotransform lergotrile, and N-desmethyl lergotrile was detected as the principal metabolite with most organisms. Streptomyces platensis (NRRL 2364) appeared to form the metabolite in highest yield, and a preparative-scale conversion was accomplished with a recovered yield of 50%. Structure proof was accomplished with comparative thin-layer chromatography, mixed melting point, mass spectrometry, and remethylation to lergotrile. PMID:44446

  14. Secretion of Streptomyces mobaraensis pro-transglutaminase by coryneform bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Itaya, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported on the secretion of Streptomyces mobaraensis transglutaminase by Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13869 (formerly classified as Brevibacterium lactofermentum). In the present work, we investigated whether any other coryneform bacteria showed higher productivity than C. glutamicum ATCC13869. We found that most coryneform species secreted pro-transglutaminase efficiently. Moreover, we confirmed that Corynebacterium ammoniagenes ATCC6872 produced about 2.5 g/l pro-transglutaminase over a 71-h period in a jar fermentor. Our findings suggest that some other coryneform bacteria, especially C. ammoniagenes ATCC6872, are potential hosts for industrial scale protein production. PMID:18219481

  15. [Efficient production of polyketide products in Streptomyces hosts - A review].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yongpeng; Wang, Weishan; Yang, Keqian

    2016-03-04

    Polyketides represent an important class of structurally and functionally diverse secondary metabolites with high economic value. Among bacteria, Streptomycetes are the main producers of polyketides. To enhance polyketide production in Streptomyces hosts, rational metabolic engineering approaches have been applied, such as overexpressing rate-limiting enzymes, or transcriptional activator, increasing the supply of precursor, removing feedback inhibition by end products and heterologous expression of polyketide biosynthetic gene clusters. In this review, we discuss examples of successful metabolic engineering strategies used to improve polyketide production in Streptomycetes. Meanwhile, we also address future prospective, emerging synthetic biology strategies to dynamically adjust the metabolic fluxes of pathways related to polyketide synthesis.

  16. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Klebsiella spp. Isolates from Companion Animals in Japan: Clonal Dissemination of Multidrug-Resistant Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Sato, Tomomi; Usui, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka; Kimura, Yui; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Ohki, Asami; Kataoka, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella spp., including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) and fluoroquinolones, is of great concern in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in a total of 103 Klebsiella spp. isolates, consisting of Klebsiella pneumoniae complex (KP, n = 89) and K. oxytoca (KO, n = 14) from clinical specimens of dogs and cats in Japan. Furthermore, we characterized the resistance mechanisms, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (PABL), and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR); and assessed genetic relatedness of ESC-resistant Klebsiella spp. strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated that resistance rates to ampicillin, cephalothin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, cefotaxime, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and cefmetazole were 98.1, 37.9, 37.9, 35.9, 35.0, 34.0, 31.1, 30.1, 28.2, 14.6, and 6.8%, respectively. Phenotypic testing detected ESBLs and/or AmpC β-lactamases in 31 of 89 (34.8%) KP isolates, but not in KO isolates. Resistances to 5 of the 12 antimicrobials tested, as well as the three PMQRs [qnrB, qnrS, and aac(6')-Ib-cr], were detected significantly more frequently in ESBL-producing KP, than in non-ESBL-producing KP and KO. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (n = 13), followed by CTX-M-14 (n = 7), CTX-M-55 (n = 6), SHV-2 (n = 5), CTX-M-2 (n = 2), and CTX-M-3 (n = 2). Based on the rpoB phylogeny, all ESBL-producing strains were identified as K. pneumoniae, except for one CTX-M-14-producing strain, which was identified as K. quasipneumoniae. All of AmpC β-lactamase positive isolates (n = 6) harbored DHA-1, one of the PABLs. Based on MLST and PFGE analysis, ST15 KP clones producing CTX-M-2, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-55, and

  17. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Klebsiella spp. Isolates from Companion Animals in Japan: Clonal Dissemination of Multidrug-Resistant Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Sato, Tomomi; Usui, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka; Kimura, Yui; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Ohki, Asami; Kataoka, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella spp., including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) and fluoroquinolones, is of great concern in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in a total of 103 Klebsiella spp. isolates, consisting of Klebsiella pneumoniae complex (KP, n = 89) and K. oxytoca (KO, n = 14) from clinical specimens of dogs and cats in Japan. Furthermore, we characterized the resistance mechanisms, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (PABL), and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR); and assessed genetic relatedness of ESC-resistant Klebsiella spp. strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated that resistance rates to ampicillin, cephalothin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, cefotaxime, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and cefmetazole were 98.1, 37.9, 37.9, 35.9, 35.0, 34.0, 31.1, 30.1, 28.2, 14.6, and 6.8%, respectively. Phenotypic testing detected ESBLs and/or AmpC β-lactamases in 31 of 89 (34.8%) KP isolates, but not in KO isolates. Resistances to 5 of the 12 antimicrobials tested, as well as the three PMQRs [qnrB, qnrS, and aac(6′)-Ib-cr], were detected significantly more frequently in ESBL-producing KP, than in non-ESBL-producing KP and KO. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (n = 13), followed by CTX-M-14 (n = 7), CTX-M-55 (n = 6), SHV-2 (n = 5), CTX-M-2 (n = 2), and CTX-M-3 (n = 2). Based on the rpoB phylogeny, all ESBL-producing strains were identified as K. pneumoniae, except for one CTX-M-14-producing strain, which was identified as K. quasipneumoniae. All of AmpC β-lactamase positive isolates (n = 6) harbored DHA-1, one of the PABLs. Based on MLST and PFGE analysis, ST15 KP clones producing CTX-M-2, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-55, and

  18. [Spreading and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms, producing beta-lactamases. Molecular mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactams of Klebsiella spp. strains, isolated in cases of nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, D V; Egorov, A M

    2008-01-01

    Antibiotic sensivity of nosocomial Klebsiella spp. strains (n = 212), isolated from patients treated in 30 medical centers of 15 various regions of Russia was investigated. The Klebsiella genus was represented by the following species: Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. pneumoniae--182 (85.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. ozaenae--1 (0.5%), Klebsiella oxytoca--29 (13.7%) isolates. The most active antibacterial agents against the investigated strains were carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem). Among 3rd generation cephalosporine the lowest MICs were observed for ceftazidime/clavulanic acid (MIC50--0.25 microg/ml, MIC90--64 microg/ml) and cefoperazone/sulbactam (MIC50--16 microg/ml, MIC90--64 microg/ml). Beta-lactamase genes (TEM, SHV, CTX) were detected in 42 Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. pneumoniae strains by PCR. Alone or in various combinations TEM type beta-lactamases have been found in 16 (38.1%) isolates, SHV--in 29 (69%), and CTX--in 27 (64.3%). Combinations of 2 different determinants were detected in 23.8% of the isolates, 3--in 26.2%. There were not isolates producing MBL class B among resistant to carbapenems nosocomial Klebsiella spp. strains.

  19. Population structure and diversity of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid producing fluorescent pseudomonas spp. from dryland cereal fields of central Washington State (U.S.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Certain strains of the rhizosphere bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens contain the phenazine biosynthesis operon (phzABCEDF) and produce redox-active phenazine antibiotics that suppress a wide variety of soilborne plant pathogens. In 2007 and 2008 we isolated 412 phenazine-producing (Phz+) fluorescent...

  20. tmRNA of Streptomyces collinus and Streptomyces griseus during the growth and in the presence of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Palecková, Petra; Bobek, Jan; Mikulík, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Streptomycetes are soil microorganisms with the potential to produce a broad spectrum of secondary metabolities. The production of antibiotics is accompanied by a decrease in protein synthesis, which raises the question of how these bacteria survived the transition from the primary to the secondary metabolism. Translating ribosomes incapable to properly elongate or terminate polypeptide chain activate bacterial trans-translation system. Abundance and stability of the tmRNA during growth of Streptomyces collinus and Streptomyces griseus producing kirromycin and streptomycin, respectively, was analysed. The level of tmRNA is mostly proportional to the activity of the translational system. We demonstrate that the addition of sub-inhibitory concentrations of produced antibiotics to the cultures from the beginning of the exponential phase of growth leads to an increase in tmRNA levels and to an incorporation of amino acids into the tag-peptides at trans-translation of stalled ribosomes. These findings suggest that produced antibiotics induce tmRNA that facilitate reactivation of stalled complex of ribosomes and maintain viability. The effect of antibiotics that inhibit the cell-wall turnover, DNA, RNA or protein synthesis on the level of tmRNA was examined. Antibiotics interfering with ribosomal target sites are more effective at stimulation of the tmRNA level in streptomycetes examined than those affecting the synthesis of DNA, RNA or the cell wall.

  1. Improvement of FK506 Production in the High-Yielding Strain Streptomyces sp. RM7011 by Engineering the Supply of Allylmalonyl-CoA Through a Combination of Genetic and Chemical Approach.

    PubMed

    Mo, SangJoon; Lee, Sung-Kwon; Jin, Ying-Yu; Suh, Joo-Won

    2016-02-01

    FK506, a widely used immunosuppressant, is a 23-membered polyketide macrolide that is produced by several Streptomyces species. FK506 high-yielding strain Streptomyces sp. RM7011 was developed from the discovered Streptomyces sp. KCCM 11116P by random mutagenesis in our previous study. The results of transcript expression analysis showed that the transcription levels of tcsA, B, C, and D were increased in Streptomyces sp. RM7011 by 2.1-, 3.1-, 3.3-, and 4.1- fold, respectively, compared with Streptomyces sp. KCCM 11116P. The overexpression of tcsABCD genes in Streptomyces sp. RM7011 gave rise to approximately 2.5-fold (238.1 μg/ml) increase in the level of FK506 production compared with that of Streptomyces sp. RM7011. When vinyl pentanoate was added into the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. RM7011, the level of FK506 production was approximately 2.2-fold (207.7 μg/ml) higher than that of the unsupplemented fermentation. Furthermore, supplementing the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. RM7011 expressing tcsABCD genes with vinyl pentanoate resulted in an additional 1.7-fold improvement in the FK506 titer (498.1 μg/ml) compared with that observed under nonsupplemented condition. Overall, the level of FK506 production was increased approximately 5.2-fold by engineering the supply of allylmalonyl-CoA in the high-yielding strain Streptomyces sp. RM7011, using a combination of overexpressing tcsABCD genes and adding vinyl pentanoate, as compared with Streptomyces sp. RM7011 (95.3 μg/ml). Moreover, among the three precursors analyzed, pentanoate was the most effective precursor, supporting the highest titer of FK506 in the FK506 high-yielding strain Streptomyces sp. RM7011.

  2. Streptomyces camponoticapitis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr).

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Ye, Lan; Wang, Xiangjing; Zhao, Junwei; Ma, Zhaoxu; Yan, Kai; Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi

    2016-10-01

    A novel single-spore-producing actinomycete, designated strain 2H-TWYE14T, was isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 2H-TWYE14T belongs to the genus Streptomyces, with highest sequence similarity to Streptomyces niveus NRRL 2466T (98.84 %). Analysis based on the gyrB gene also indicated that strain 2H-TWYE14T should be assigned to the genus Streptomyces. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain 2H-TWYE14T were consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces. The cell wall contained ll-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). The phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 2H-TWYE14T and its phylogenetically closely related strain S. niveus JCM 4251T, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that 2H-TWYE14T could be distinguished from S. niveus. Therefore, it is concluded that strain 2H-TWYE14T can be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces camponoticapitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2H-TWYE14T (=DSM 100523T=CGMCC 4.7275T).

  3. CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOCONTROL POTENT OF STREPTOMYCES SP. ISOLATED FROM THE RHIZOSPHERE OF ONONIS ANGUSTISSIMA LAM.

    PubMed

    Ghadbane, M; Belhadj, H; Medjekal, S; Harzallah, D

    2015-01-01

    A total of 40 actinomycetes isolated from rhizosphere soils of Ononis angustissima Lam. were in vitro tested for their antagonism against deferent pathogenic microorganisms by streak assay. Among the isolates, four (21, 2A26, 1B10 and 2C34) present a potent antagonism against both pathogenic bacteria and fungi, they were selected, identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phenotypic properties, and tested for their antimicrobial activity as well as their biocontrol potential against Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) pathogenic fungus (Fusarium oxysporum). Cultural characteristic studies strongly suggested that these strains belong to the genus Streptomyces. The four Streptomyces sp., solubilize phosphate and produce extracellular fungal cell-wall degrading enzymes chitinase and protease, as well as a marked production of acid-β-indole acetic (AIA). The nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of Streptomyces sp. strains 21, 2A26, 1B10 and 2C34 exhibited close similarity (62-75%) with Streptomyces parvulus MARS 16S rRNA genes. The inhibition was higher against fungi and Gram+ bacteria, while Gram- bacteria were less inhibited. The growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum was considerably inhibited in the presence of the strains 21, 2A26, 1B10 and 2C34 culture supernatant. These studies revealed that the presence of the Streptomyces strains in the soil significantly promoted the growth of the Chickpea plants. These results indicate that the Streptomyces strains isolated for rhizosphere from Ononis angustissima Lam. growing in arid conditions in southern Algeria (Sahara) could be an interesting source for antimicrobial bioactive substances and as biocontrol agents.

  4. Western bats as a reservoir of novel Streptomyces species with antifungal activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamm, Paris S.; Caimi, Nicole A.; Northup, Diana E.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Buecher, Debbie C.; Dunlap, Christopher A.; Labeda, David P.; Lueschow, Shiloh; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    At least two-thirds of commercial antibiotics today are derived from Actinobacteria, more specifically from the genus Streptomyces. Antibiotic resistance and new emerging diseases pose great challenges in the field of microbiology. Cave systems, in which actinobacteria are ubiquitous and abundant, represent new opportunities for the discovery of novel bacterial species and the study of their interactions with emergent pathogens. White-nose syndrome is an invasive bat disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which has killed more than six million bats in the last 7 years. In this study, we isolated naturally occurring actinobacteria from white-nose syndrome (WNS)-free bats from five cave systems and surface locations in the vicinity in New Mexico and Arizona, USA. We sequenced the 16S rRNA region and tested 632 isolates from 12 different bat species using a bilayer plate method to evaluate antifungal activity. Thirty-six actinobacteria inhibited or stopped the growth of P. destructans, with 32 (88.9%) actinobacteria belonging to the genus Streptomyces. Isolates in the genera Rhodococcus, Streptosporangium, Luteipulveratus, and Nocardiopsis also showed inhibition. Twenty-five of the isolates with antifungal activity against P. destructans represent 15 novel Streptomyces spp. based on multilocus sequence analysis. Our results suggest that bats in western North America caves possess novel bacterial microbiota with the potential to inhibit P. destructans.

  5. Thatch biodegradation and antifungal activities of two lignocellulolytic Streptomyces strains in laboratory cultures and in golf green turfgrass.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, K; Crawford, D L

    2000-06-01

    The use of lignocellulolytic Streptomyces spp. as biological agents, to enhance thatch degradation in turf and to slow its rate of accumulation while controlling fungal growth in the thatch layer, was studied. In flask scale studies, two lignocellulolytic Streptomyces violaceusniger (= hygroscopicus) strains (YCED9 and WYE53) decomposed thatch (> 30% dry weight) over a 12-week incubation period. Biodegradation was accompanied by production of extracellular cellulases, xylanases, and peroxidases. The accumulation of the polymeric, water-soluble lignin degradation intermediate acid, precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL), was also observed. Residual thatch from 12-week-old cultures had an increased lignin-to-carbohydrate ratio, an indication that although lignin was metabolized, carbohydrates were preferential carbon sources for these actinomycetes. A spore-containing soluble dry powder formulation was used as an inoculum in an in situ field experiment. This formulation was maintained in storage at 4 degrees C for over two years without viability loss. Results from the golf green experiment showed that although treated thatch layers in established greens were not appreciably reduced over the course of one summer, the Streptomyces were active and maintained their populations within the thatch, while fungal growth was suppressed as compared to controls. The results show that treatment of turfgrass with these Streptomyces may be useful for the long-term control of fungal populations within the thatch. Longer field studies are required to assess the long-term potential for also controlling thatch build-up and fungal pathogens.

  6. Deletion of an architectural unit, leucyl aminopeptidase (SCO2179), in Streptomyces coelicolor increases actinorhodin production and sporulation.

    PubMed

    Song, Eunjung; Rajesh, Thangamani; Lee, Bo-Rahm; Kim, Eun-jung; Jeon, Jong-Min; Park, Sung-Hee; Park, Hyung-Yeon; Choi, Kwon-Young; Kim, Yun-Gon; Yang, Yung-Hun; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2013-08-01

    Several reports state that three architectural units, including integration host factor, leucyl aminopeptidase (PepA), and purine regulator, are involved in transcriptional process with RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli. Similarly, Streptomyces species possess the same structural units. We previously identified a protein, Streptomyces integration host factor (sIHF), involved in antibiotic production and sporulation. Subsequently, the function of PepA (SCO2179) was examined in detail. PepA is highly conserved among various Streptomyces spp., but it has not yet been characterized in Streptomyces coelicolor. While it is annotated as a putative leucyl aminopeptidase because it contains a peptidase M17 superfamily domain, this protein did not exhibit leucyl aminopeptidase activity. SCO2179 deletion mutant showed increased actinorhodin production and sporulation, as well as more distinct physiological differences, particularly when cultured on N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) minimal media. The results of two-dimensional gel analysis and reverse transcription PCR showed that the SCO2179 deletion increased protein and mRNA levels of ftsZ, ssgA, and actinorhodin (ACT)-related genes such as actII-ORF4, resulting in increased actinorhodin production and spore formation in minimal media containing GlcNAc.

  7. A rapid and simple DNA extraction procedure to detect Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes from fresh produce using real-time PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    DNA isolation procedures significantly influence the outcome of PCR-based detection of human pathogens. Unlike clinical samples, DNA isolation from food samples such as fresh and fresh-cut produce has remained a formidable task and has hampered the sensitivity and accuracy of molecular methods. We...

  8. High incidence of enterotoxin D producing Staphylococcus spp. in Brazilian cow's raw milk and its relation with coagulase and thermonuclease enzymes.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Maria; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Miya, Norma Teruko Nagô; Sant'ana, Anderson S; Pereira, José Luiz

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the enterotoxigenic potential of Staphylococcus strains (n = 574) isolated from raw milk samples (n = 140) was determined for their capacity to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins. In addition, the relationship between the presence of enterotoxins, coagulase, and thermonuclease (Tnase) was assessed. The results showed that 19% of Staphylococcus was enterotoxigenic, being able to produce at least one of the staphylococcal enterotoxins (A, B, C, and D). Most of the strains were able to produce enterotoxin D (68.8%), whereas 12.8% of the Staphylococcus strains were able to produce staphylococcal enterotoxin A. Besides, the production of more than one type of enterotoxins by the same strain was observed. Tnase was considered the best marker for enterotoxigenic potential of isolates, although some of them were negative for coagulase and Tnase but positive for enterotoxin production. Therefore, either the use of Tnase to assess Staphylococcus enterotoxigenic potential or the use of simple and easy screening tests for enterotoxin production should receive more attention when evaluating the pathogenic potential of foodborne Staphylococcus strains. Due to the association of both coagulase positive Staphylococcus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus with foodborne disease outbreaks, regulators and industries should pay more attention to enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus rather than focusing only on S. aureus or coagulase positive Staphylococcus. Finally, data found here suggest a high risk of staphylococcal intoxication with the consumption of raw milk or dairy products made from raw milk.

  9. Taxonomy and distribution of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid-producing Pseudomonas spp. in the dryland agroecosystem of the Inland Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five distinct phenazine-producing Pseudomonas species were found, two of which were provisionally ascribed as new species. Agroclimatic zone and the soil silt content were found to affect the distribution of the different species. This study clarifies the classification of these important plant bene...

  10. Colonizing ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens 2112, among collections of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens spp. in pea rhizosphere.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas fluorescens 2112, isolated in Korea as an indigenous antagonistic bacteria, can produce 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) and the siderophore pyoveridin2112 for the control of Phytophthora blight of red-pepper. P. fluorescens 2112 was classified into a new genotype C among the 17 gen...

  11. STREPTOMYCIN FORMATION BY INTACT MYCELIUM OF STREPTOMYCES GRISEUS

    PubMed Central

    Nomi, Ryosaku

    1963-01-01

    Nomi, Ryosaku (Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, N.J.). Streptomycin formation by intact mycelium of Streptomyces griseus. J. Bacteriol. 86:1220–1230. 1963.—A study was made of streptomycin formation by intact mycelium of Streptomyces griseus 107 grown in glucose-yeast extract medium. When mycelium harvested after 24, 48, and 72 hr was compared, the earliest growth showed the highest activity in producing streptomycin from glucose. The concentration of streptomycin in the mycelium was higher in the older growth. Calcium chloride had a remarkable effect in increasing streptomycin production from the precursors in the mycelium, especially when the mycelium was grown for 48 hr or longer. The effect of calcium chloride cannot be attributed to the precipitation of an excess of inorganic phosphate in the medium. Glucose, fructose, glycerol, lactic acid, glucosamine, streptidine, and inositol stimulated streptomycin formation, whereas gluconic acid, glucuronic acid, streptamine, and strepturea did not. When 24-hr-old mycelium was suspended and shaken in 0.5% glucose solution, the antibiotic precursors necessary to produce streptomycin were found mainly in the supernatant of the culture rather than in the mycelium. The supernatant included some substance which had a weak antibiotic activity. This substance was less basic than streptomycin and was transformed to streptomycin with a remarkable increase in antibiotic activity. PMID:14086093

  12. Western Bats as a Reservoir of Novel Streptomyces Species with Antifungal Activity.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Paris S; Caimi, Nicole A; Northup, Diana E; Valdez, Ernest W; Buecher, Debbie C; Dunlap, Christopher A; Labeda, David P; Lueschow, Shiloh; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    At least two-thirds of commercial antibiotics today are derived from Actinobacteria, more specifically from the genus Streptomyces Antibiotic resistance and new emerging diseases pose great challenges in the field of microbiology. Cave systems, in which actinobacteria are ubiquitous and abundant, represent new opportunities for the discovery of novel bacterial species and the study of their interactions with emergent pathogens. White-nose syndrome is an invasive bat disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which has killed more than six million bats in the last 7 years. In this study, we isolated naturally occurring actinobacteria from white-nose syndrome (WNS)-free bats from five cave systems and surface locations in the vicinity in New Mexico and Arizona, USA. We sequenced the 16S rRNA region and tested 632 isolates from 12 different bat species using a bilayer plate method to evaluate antifungal activity. Thirty-six actinobacteria inhibited or stopped the growth of P. destructans, with 32 (88.9%) actinobacteria belonging to the genus Streptomyces Isolates in the genera Rhodococcus, Streptosporangium, Luteipulveratus, and Nocardiopsis also showed inhibition. Twenty-five of the isolates with antifungal activity against P. destructans represent 15 novel Streptomyces spp. based on multilocus sequence analysis. Our results suggest that bats in western North America caves possess novel bacterial microbiota with the potential to inhibit P. destructansIMPORTANCE This study reports the largest collection of actinobacteria from bats with activity against Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungal causative agent of white-nose syndrome. Using multigene analysis, we discovered 15 potential novel species. This research demonstrates that bats and caves may serve as a rich reservoir for novel Streptomyces species with antimicrobial bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Evaluation of rapid screening techniques for detection of Salmonella spp. from produce samples after pre-enrichment according to FDA BAM and a short secondary enrichment.

    PubMed

    Yoshitomi, K J; Jinneman, K C; Orlandi, P A; Weagant, S D; Zapata, R; Fedio, W M

    2015-07-01

    Conventional detection of Salmonella from foods involves enrichment and isolation on selective media which can significantly lengthen time to result. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of an accelerated plating procedure and the use of rapid screening devices for Salmonella detection. Fresh produce was inoculated with Salmonella at ~2·5, ~7·5 and ~25 CFU sample(-1) . After 24 h pre-enrichment, subcultures were made into TT and RV broths and further incubated at 42°C for an additional 7 and 24 h. Enrichments were streaked for isolation of Salmonella as well as tested by rapid screening methods. The 7-h accelerated plating procedure worked well from 4/6 to 6/6 in all produce samples inoculated at the lowest level. Both the RapidChek and Neogen Reveal tests worked as well as the VIDAS-SLM after 24 h secondary enrichment, but failed to detect the pathogen after 7 h selective enrichment in romaine lettuce and tomatoes, while fractional detection was observed in cilantro and jalapenos. Both devices detected Salmonella on cantaloupe at the lowest level of inoculation. An abbreviated selective enrichment procedure worked well to accelerate the isolation of colonies of Salmonella from contaminated samples providing isolates for further characterization 1 day earlier than standard analysis. In the event of a foodborne disease outbreak, rapid identification and characterization of the pathogen is essential to prevent the spread of disease and reduce the number of illnesses. This study reports the utility of an abbreviated secondary enrichment for the isolation of Salmonella in artificially contaminated fresh produce at very low levels. In addition, incorporation of rapid, easy-to-use lateral flow devices to screen enrichments can provide a low cost (equipment and highly trained personnel), high return (rapid identification of contaminated food) investment in the timely pathogen screening of fresh produce. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Calcification and Crystallography Responses of a Tropical Macroalgal Reef Sediment Producer, Halimeda spp., to Year 2100 pCO2 Levels Under High and Low Irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, K.; Koch, M.; Blackwelder, P.; Manfrino, C.

    2016-02-01

    Even though calcifying reef macroalgae of the Halimeda genus occur across a wide range of irradiances, the interactive effects of elevated pCO2 and irradiance remain largely uncertain. To investigate how elevated pCO2 may affect future shallow and deep Halimeda populations, aquaria experiments were conducted to examine calcification responses of seven species to elevated pCO2 levels predicted for year 2100 ( 1000 μatm) under low, sub-saturating ( 75 μmol photons m-2 s-1) and high, saturating ( 300 μmol photons m-2 s-1) irradiance. Crystallography of aragonite produced within new segments on adult thalli was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also examined non-living segment crystallography and changes in inorganic content to assess elevated pCO2 effects on carbonate sediments generated from four Halimeda species. Net calcification rates varied highly among the species, but were unaffected by exposure to elevated pCO2 for up to 42 d, regardless of irradiance intensity. Aragonite crystals produced within new segments exposed to elevated pCO2 and contrasting irradiance treatments were indistinguishable based on crystal measurements and SEM imagery. There were also no observable differences in crystallography from non-living, heavily cemented segments after 21 d exposure to elevated pCO2 compared to controls. By contrast, less-cemented segments contained more narrow crystals after 27 d exposure to elevated pCO2 relative to controls. However, these differences were small (0.03 µm) and did not contribute significantly to changes in inorganic content. Based on these results, Halimeda is likely to produce new calcified segments with intact aragonite crystals under year 2100 pCO2 levels at high and low irradiance. Halimeda carbonate sediment production under elevated pCO2 may show a modest decline in species retaining fine aragonite crystals post-mortality, in contrast to those producing highly cemented segments more resistant to dissolution.

  15. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacter spp., Pantoea agglomerans, and Serratia marcescens isolates from a Bulgarian hospital.

    PubMed

    Markovska, Rumyana Donkova; Stoeva, Temenuga Jekova; Bojkova, Kalina Dineva; Mitov, Ivan Gergov

    2014-04-01

    Forty-two extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea agglomerans, and Serratia marcescens, collected consecutively during the period January-November 2011 from the University Hospital in Varna, Bulgaria, were studied to characterize their ESBLs by isoelectric focusing, group-specific PCR, and sequencing. The epidemiological relationship was evaluated by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD). Transferability of ESBL genes was determined by conjugation experiments. Plasmid analysis was done by replicon typing and PstI fingerprinting. The overall rate of ESBL production was 20%. The most widespread enzyme was CTX-M-3, found in 64%. It was dominant in E. aerogenes (100%) and S. marcescens (83%). SHV-12, CTX-M-3, and CTX-M-15 were found among E. cloacae isolates in 50%, 35%, and 45%, respectively. Three main CTX-M-3-producing epidemic clones of E. aerogenes and S. marcescens have been detected. Among E. cloacae isolates, six different RAPD profiles were discerned. The plasmids harboring blaCTX-M-3 belonged to IncL/M type and demonstrated similar PstI fingerprinting profiles. IncFII plasmids were detected in two CTX-M-15-producing E. cloacae isolates. Our results demonstrate wide intrahospital dissemination of clonal E. aerogenes and S. marcescens isolates, carrying IncL/M conjugative plasmids.

  16. Streptomyces pini sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from phylloplane of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needle-like leaves.

    PubMed

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Saravanan, Venkatakrishnan Sivaraj; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Pragatheswari, Dhandapani; Santhanakrishnan, Palani; Kim, Soo-Jin; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2016-10-01

    A novel siderophore-producing actinomycete, designated PL19T, was isolated from the Scots-pine needle-like leaves collected from TNAU campus, Coimbatore, India. The isolate was chemoorganotrophic in nutrition and able to grow at 30 °C, and the optimum pH and NaCl facilitated the growth pH 6-11 and 0-8 % (w/v), respectively. The cells are filamentous and the mycelia formed are basically of wide and intricately branched substrate mycelium from which aerial mycelia arises, later gets differentiated into spores that are warty and arranged spirally. The 16S rRNA gene of strain PL19T was sequenced and was highly similar to the type strains of species of the genus Streptomyces, including Streptomyces barkulensis RC1831T (98.8 % pairwise similarity), Streptomyces fenghuangensis GIMN4.003T (98.2 %), Streptomyces nanhaiensis SCSIO 01248T (98.0 %), Streptomyces radiopugnans R97T (97.9 %), Streptomyces atacamensis C60T (97.8 %) and Streptomyces macrosporus NBRC 14749T (97.2 %), all of which were subjected to taxonomical characterization using a polyphasic approach. The strains showed unique carbon utilization patterns, and it possesses iso-C16 : 0 anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as a major cellular fatty acids. The cell-wall was dominated with ll-type diaminopimelic acid, and the menaquinone type was MK-9(H6, H8). These chemotaxonomic evidences placed strain PL19T within the genus Streptomyces. The determination of G+C ratio (69.5 mol%) and DNA-DNA hybridization values (13.4-31.8 % with the phylogenetically related species) helped in further hierarchical classification of strain PL19T. Based on morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic data as well as DNA-DNA hybridization values, strain PL19T could be distinguished from the evolutionarily closest species currently available. All these collective data show that strain PL19T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces pini sp. nov. is proposed

  17. Systemic immunoresponses in mice after repeated exposure of lungs to spores of Streptomyces californicus.

    PubMed

    Jussila, J; Pelkonen, J; Kosma, V-M; Mäki-Paakkanen, J; Komulainen, H; Hirvonen, M-R

    2003-01-01

    Microbial growth in moisture-damaged buildings is associated with respiratory and other symptoms in the occupants. Streptomyces spp. are frequently isolated from such buildings. In the present study, we evaluated the responses of mice after repeated exposure to spores of Streptomyces californicus. Mice were exposed via intratracheal instillation to six doses (at 7-day intervals) of the spores of S. californicus, originally isolated from the indoor air of a moisture-damaged building, at three dose levels (2 x 10(3), 2 x 10(5), and 2 x 10(7) spores). Inflammation and toxicity, including changes in cell populations in the lungs, lymph nodes, and spleen, were evaluated 24 h after the last dosage. The exposure provoked a dose-dependent inflammatory cell response, as detected by the intense recruitment of neutrophils, but the numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes in the airways also increased. The cellular responses corresponded to the dose-dependent increases in inflammation- and cytotoxicity-associated biochemical markers (i.e., levels of albumin, total protein, and lactate dehydrogenase) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The spore exposure increased the number of both activated and nonactivated T lymphocytes. Also, the amounts of CD3(-) CD4(-) and unconventional CD3(-) CD4(+) lymphocytes in the lung tissue were augmented. Interestingly, the spore exposure decreased cells in the spleen. This effect was strongest at the dose of 2 x 10(5) spores. These results indicate that the spores of S. californicus are capable of provoking both immunostimulation in lungs (inflammation) and systemic immunotoxicity, especially in the spleen. The immunotoxic effect resembled that caused by chemotherapeutic agents, originally isolated from Streptomyces spp. Thus, S. californicus must be considered a microbial species with potential to cause systemic adverse health effects in occupants of moisture-damaged buildings.

  18. Streptomyces exploration is triggered by fungal interactions and volatile signals.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephanie E; Ho, Louis; Rees, Christiaan A; Hill, Jane E; Nodwell, Justin R; Elliot, Marie A

    2017-01-03

    It has long been thought that the life cycle of Streptomyces bacteria encompasses three developmental stages: vegetative hyphae, aerial hyphae and spores. Here, we show interactions between Streptomyces and fungi trigger a previously unobserved mode of Streptomyces development. We term these Streptomyces cells 'explorers', for their ability to adopt a non-branching vegetative hyphal conformation and rapidly transverse solid surfaces. Fungi trigger Streptomyces exploratory growth in part by altering the composition of the growth medium, and Streptomyces explorer cells can communicate this exploratory behaviour to other physically separated streptomycetes using an airborne volatile organic compound (VOC). These results reveal that interkingdom interactions can trigger novel developmental behaviours in bacteria, here, causing Streptomyces to deviate from its classically-defined life cycle. Furthermore, this work provides evidence that VOCs can act as long-range communication signals capable of propagating microbial morphological switches.

  19. Streptomyces exploration is triggered by fungal interactions and volatile signals

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Stephanie E; Ho, Louis; Rees, Christiaan A; Hill, Jane E; Nodwell, Justin R; Elliot, Marie A

    2017-01-01

    It has long been thought that the life cycle of Streptomyces bacteria encompasses three developmental stages: vegetative hyphae, aerial hyphae and spores. Here, we show interactions between Streptomyces and fungi trigger a previously unobserved mode of Streptomyces development. We term these Streptomyces cells ‘explorers’, for their ability to adopt a non-branching vegetative hyphal conformation and rapidly transverse solid surfaces. Fungi trigger Streptomyces exploratory growth in part by altering the composition of the growth medium, and Streptomyces explorer cells can communicate this exploratory behaviour to other physically separated streptomycetes using an airborne volatile organic compound (VOC). These results reveal that interkingdom interactions can trigger novel developmental behaviours in bacteria, here, causing Streptomyces to deviate from its classically-defined life cycle. Furthermore, this work provides evidence that VOCs can act as long-range communication signals capable of propagating microbial morphological switches. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21738.001 PMID:28044982

  20. Production of actinomycin-D by the mutant of a new isolate of Streptomyces sindenensis

    PubMed Central

    Praveen, Vandana; Tripathi, C.K.M.; Bihari, Vinod; Srivastava, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    An actinomycin-D producing strain was isolated from soil and characterized as Streptomyces sindenensis. The culture was subjected to UV irradiation and a mutant with 400% higher actinomycin-D production was isolated (400 mg/l-1 as compared to 80 mg/l-1 produced by the parent). Production medium was optimized and antibiotic yield with the mutant was enhanced to 850 mg/l-1 which is 963% higher as compared with the parent. PMID:24031290

  1. Insights into the Genome Sequences of an N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Molecule Producing Two Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from the Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Dharmaprakash, Akhilandeswarre; Reghunathan, Dinesh; Sivakumar, Krishnakutty C.; Prasannakumar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    We report for the first time the draft genome sequence of two psychrotrophic Pseudomonas species, Pseudomonas simiae RGCB 73 and Pseudomonas brenneri RGCB 108, from the Arctic that produce more than one acyl homoserine lactone molecule of varied N-acyl length. The study confirms the presence of a LuxR-LuxI (type) mediated quorum-sensing system in both the Pseudomonas species and enables us to understand the role of quorum sensing in their survival in extremely cold environments. PMID:27491995

  2. Streptomyces andamanensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Sripreechasak, Paranee; Tamura, Tomohiko; Shibata, Chiyo; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2016-05-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain KC-112T, was isolated from soil collected from Similan Islands, Phang-Nga Province, Thailand. The strain exhibited morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces. The formation of smooth spiral spore chains was observed on aerial mycelia. ll-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in whole-cell hydrolysates, but no diagnostic sugars were detected and the strain lacked mycolic acids. The N-acyl type of muramic acid was acetyl. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H2). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and C16 : 0. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, an unknown phospholipid, an unknown aminolipid, unknown lipids and an unknown glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was 73 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain KC-112T was closely related to Streptomyces fumanus NBRC 13042T (98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Streptomyces anandii NBRC 13438T (98.8 %) and Streptomyces capillispiralis NBRC 14222T (98.8 %). DNA-DNA relatedness values among strain KC-112T and type strains of closely related species were lower than 70 %. On the basis of evidence from this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, strain KC-112T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, namely Streptomyces andamanensis sp. nov. The type strain is KC-112T ( = KCTC 29502T = NBRC 110085T = PCU 347T = TISTR 2401T).

  3. Streptomyces krungchingensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Sripreechasak, Paranee; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Tamura, Tomohiko; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2017-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain KC-035T, was isolated from soil collected from Krung Ching Waterfall National Park, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand. Its taxonomic position was determined using a polyphasic approach. The strain had morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of members of the genus Streptomyces: flexuous spore chain; ll-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan; MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H4) as menaquinones; diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside as phospholipids; anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0 as major cellular fatty acids; and DNA G+C content of 72 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain KC-035T showed high similarity to Streptomyces albiflavescens n20T (99.16 %) and Streptomyces siamensis KC-038T (98.43 %) as well as formed a monophyletic clade with them in the phylogenetic tree. On the basis of comparison of phenotypic properties and the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness, strain KC-035T could be distinguished from its closely related Streptomyces species and is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces krungchingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KC-035T (=NBRC 110087T=KCTC 29503T=TISTR 2402T).

  4. Intragenomic diversity of the V1 regions of 16S rRNA genes in high-alkaline protease-producing Bacillus clausii spp.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Yasushi; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Shimamura, Shigeru; Nishi, Shinro; Nogi, Yuichi; Uchimura, Kohsuke; Kobayashi, Tohru; Hitomi, Jun; Ozaki, Katsuya; Kawai, Shuji; Ito, Susumu; Horikoshi, Koki

    2007-07-01

    Alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain KSM-K16, which produces high-alkaline M-protease, was characterized phenotypically, biochemically and genetically. This strain was identified as Bacillus clausii based on the results of taxonomic studies, including sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and DNA-DNA hybridization. Seven rRNA operons in the genome were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA genes revealed two distinct types of variable region V1. Moreover, some cloned 16S rRNA genes in some of the reference strains of B. clausii had a V1 region of yet another type. The B. clausii strains could clearly be divided into at least two subgroups based on the frequencies of the types of cloned V1 sequence. Bacillus sp. strain KSM-K16 was found to be in a different phylogenetic position from other high-alkaline protease-producing strains of B. clausii.

  5. Cell wall glycopolymers of Streptomyces albus, Streptomyces albidoflavus and Streptomyces pathocidini.

    PubMed

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Streshinskaya, Galina M; Tul'skaya, Elena M; Senchenkova, Sophia N; Baryshnikova, Lidia M; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Ostash, Bohdan E; Fedorenko, Victor A

    2016-07-01

    The cell wall glycopolymers of three strains of Streptomyces albus and the type strain of Streptomyces pathocidini were investigated. The structures of the glycopolymers were established using a combination of chemical and NMR spectroscopic methods. The cell wall of S. albus subsp. albus VKM Ac-35(T) was found to be comprised of three glycopolymers, viz. unsubstituted 1,5-poly(ribitol phosphate), 1,3-poly(glycerol phosphate) substituted with β-D-glucopyranose, and the major polymer, a 3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonic acid (Kdn)-teichulosonic acid: β-D-Glcp-(1 → 8)-α-Kdnp-(2[(→6)-β-D-Glcp-(1 → 8)-α-Kdnp-(2 →] n 6)-β-D-Glcp-(1 → 8)-β-Kdnp-(2-OH, where n ≥ 3. The cell walls of 'S. albus' J1074 and 'S. albus' R1-100 were found to contain three glycopolymers of identical structures, viz. unsubstituted 1,3- and 2,3-poly(glycerol phosphates), and the major polymer, a Kdn-teichulosonic acid with an unusual structure that has not been previously described: β-D-Galp-(1 → 9)-α-Kdnp-(2[(→3)-β-D-Galp-(1 → 9)-α-Kdnp-(2 →] n 3)-β-D-Galp-(1 → 9)-β-Kdnp-(2-OH, where n ~ 7-8. The cell wall of S. pathocidini (formerly S. albus subsp. pathocidicus) VKM Ac-598(T) was found to contain two glycopolymers, viz. 1,3-poly(glycerol phosphate)