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Sample records for stress disorder study

  1. Combat stress reactions, posttraumatic stress disorder, and social adjustment. A study of Israeli veterans.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Z; Mikulincer, M

    1987-05-01

    This study assessed social functioning among three groups of Israeli soldiers: a) front-line soldiers who had been treated for combat stress reaction during the 1982 Lebanon war (N = 382); b) matched control front-line soldiers who did not sustain combat stress reaction (N = 334); and c) combat-ready soldiers who did not participate in the 1982 war (N = 88). Subjects were screened 1 year after the war for posttraumatic stress disorder and social functioning. Results indicated that participation in combat per se did not have adverse effects on postwar social functioning. However, combat stress reactions and posttraumatic stress disorder were found to be associated with a decline in postwar social functioning. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings were discussed. PMID:3572379

  2. Biological studies of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Roger K; Rasmusson, Ann M; Koenen, Karestan C; Shin, Lisa M; Orr, Scott P; Gilbertson, Mark W; Milad, Mohammed R; Liberzon, Israel

    2012-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the only major mental disorder for which a cause is considered to be known: that is, an event that involves threat to the physical integrity of oneself or others and induces a response of intense fear, helplessness or horror. Although PTSD is still largely regarded as a psychological phenomenon, over the past three decades the growth of the biological PTSD literature has been explosive, and thousands of references now exist. Ultimately, the impact of an environmental event, such as a psychological trauma, must be understood at organic, cellular and molecular levels. This Review attempts to present the current state of this understanding on the basis of psychophysiological, structural and functional neuroimaging, and endocrinological, genetic and molecular biological studies in humans and in animal models. PMID:23047775

  3. Recent Advances in the Study of Sleep in the Anxiety Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Boland, Elaine M; Ross, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disturbance is frequently associated with generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. This article reviews recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of the sleep disturbances in these disorders and discusses the implications for developing improved treatments.

  4. Internalizing disorders and leukocyte telomere erosion: a prospective study of depression, generalized anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Shalev, I; Moffitt, T E; Braithwaite, A W; Danese, A; Fleming, N I; Goldman-Mellor, S; Harrington, H L; Houts, R M; Israel, S; Poulton, R; Robertson, S P; Sugden, K; Williams, B; Caspi, A

    2014-11-01

    There is evidence that persistent psychiatric disorders lead to age-related disease and premature mortality. Telomere length has emerged as a promising biomarker in studies that test the hypothesis that internalizing psychiatric disorders are associated with accumulating cellular damage. We tested the association between the persistence of internalizing disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder) and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in the prospective longitudinal Dunedin Study (n=1037). Analyses showed that the persistence of internalizing disorders across repeated assessments from ages 11 to 38 years predicted shorter LTL at age 38 years in a dose-response manner, specifically in men (β=-0.137, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.232, -0.042, P=0.005). This association was not accounted for by alternative explanatory factors, including childhood maltreatment, tobacco smoking, substance dependence, psychiatric medication use, poor physical health or low socioeconomic status. Additional analyses using DNA from blood collected at two time points (ages 26 and 38 years) showed that LTL erosion was accelerated among men who were diagnosed with internalizing disorder in the interim (β=-0.111, 95% CI: -0.184, -0.037, P=0.003). No significant associations were found among women in any analysis, highlighting potential sex differences in internalizing-related telomere biology. These findings point to a potential mechanism linking internalizing disorders to accelerated biological aging in the first half of the life course, particularly in men. Because internalizing disorders are treatable, the findings suggest the hypothesis that treating psychiatric disorders in the first half of the life course may reduce the population burden of age-related disease and extend health expectancy.

  5. Internalizing Disorders and Leukocyte Telomere Erosion: A Prospective Study of Depression, Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shalev, Idan; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Braithwaite, Antony W.; Danese, Andrea; Fleming, Nicholas I.; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate M.; Israel, Salomon; Poulton, Richie; Robertson, Stephen P.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that persistent psychiatric disorders lead to age-related disease and premature mortality. Telomere length has emerged as a promising biomarker in studies that test the hypothesis that internalizing psychiatric disorders are associated with accumulating cellular damage. We tested the association between the persistence of internalizing disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder) and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in the prospective-longitudinal Dunedin Study (N=1037). Analyses showed that the persistence of internalizing disorders across repeated assessments from ages 11 to 38 years predicted shorter LTL at age 38 years in a dose-response manner, specifically in men (β= −.137, 95% CI: −.232, −.042, p=.005). This association was not accounted for by alternative explanatory factors, including childhood maltreatment, tobacco smoking, substance dependence, psychiatric medication use, poor physical health, or low socioeconomic status. Additional analyses using DNA from blood collected at two time points (ages 26 and 38 years) showed that LTL erosion was accelerated among men who were diagnosed with internalizing disorder in the interim (β= −.111, 95% CI: −.184, −.037, p=.003). No significant associations were found among women in any analysis, highlighting potential sex differences in internalizing-related telomere biology. These findings point to a potential mechanism linking internalizing disorders to accelerated biological aging in the first half of the life course, particularly in men. Because internalizing disorders are treatable, the findings suggest the hypothesis that treating psychiatric disorders in the first half of the life course may reduce the population burden of age-related disease, and extend health expectancy. PMID:24419039

  6. Acute stress disorder as a predictor of posttraumatic stress: A longitudinal study of Chinese children exposed to the Lushan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiling; Zhang, Yuqing; Wei, Chuguang; Liu, Zhengkui; Hannak, Walter

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children who experienced the Lushan earthquake in Sichuan, China, and assessed the ability of ASD to predict PTSD. The Acute Stress Disorder Scale (ASDS) was used to assess acute stress reaction within weeks of the trauma. The University of California at Los Angeles Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (UCLA-PTSD) for children was administered at intervals of 2, 6, and 12 months after the earthquake to 197 students who experienced the Lushan earthquake at the Longxing Middle School. The results demonstrated that 28.4% of the children suffered from ASD, but only a small percentage of the population went on to develop PTSD. Among all of the students, 35.0% of those who met the criteria for ASD were diagnosed with PTSD at the 12-month interval. The severity of ASD symptoms correlated with later PTSD symptoms.

  7. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Treatment-Resistant Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    An adult woman with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder who was nonresponsive to 20 sessions of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is presented in this case study. Two months after her CBT trial, she was treated with 21 sessions of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for PTSD. Measurements of PTSD severity,…

  8. Association between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Inflammation: A Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Laura; Bremner, J. Douglas; Miller, Andrew A.; Jones, Dean P.; Veledar, Emir; Goldberg, Jack; Vaccarino, Viola

    2013-01-01

    The association of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with cardiovascular disease risk may be mediated by inflammation. Our objective was to examine the association between PTSD and measures of inflammation and to determine whether these associations are due to shared familial or genetic factors. We measured lifetime history of PTSD using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV in 238 male middle-aged military veteran twin pairs (476 individuals), selected from the Vietnam Era Twins Registry, who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. We assessed inflammation using levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), fibrinogen, white blood cells, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Geometric mean levels and percent differences by PTSD were obtained from mixed-model linear regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounders. Within-pair analysis was conducted to adjust for shared family environment and genetics (monozygotic pairs). Overall, 12.4% of participants had a lifetime history of PTSD. Adjusted mean levels of hsCRP and ICAM-1 were significantly higher among those with vs. without PTSD [hsCRP: 1.75 vs. 1.31 mg/l (33% difference); ICAM-1: 319 vs. 293 ng/ml (9% difference)]. Adjustment for depression rendered the association of PTSD with hsCRP non-statistically significant. For IL-6, no consistent association was seen. Within-pair analysis produced associations that were similar in direction for all three markers but lesser in magnitude for hsCRP and IL-6. There was no evidence of interaction by zygosity. Elevated hsCRP and ICAM-1 are associated with PTSD, and these associations may be confounded by shared non-genetic, antecedent familial and environmental factors. PMID:23379997

  9. Study of Level of Stress in the Parents of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethi, Sujata; Gandhi, Raghu; Anand, Vidhu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents who have children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience high level of stress related to caring for their children. But not much research has been conducted in this area in India. This study aimed to assess the stress of parenting children with ADHD. Methods: This is a clinic based comparative…

  10. Bridging the Gap between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and the Learning Process: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Charlotte A.

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects the learning process for adult learners, resulting in a higher dropout rate than for students who have not experienced similar stress (Kerka, 2002; Smyth, Hockemeyer, Heron, Wonderlich, & Pennebaker, 2008). The purpose of the current qualitative phenomenological study was to identify, explore, and…

  11. Physiologic Arousal to Social Stress in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Todd P.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Pescosolido, Matthew; Rodino, Alison; Elia, Gregory; Lester, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about arousal to socially stressful situations in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This preliminary study investigates physiologic arousal in children with high functioning autism (HFA, n = 19) compared to a comparison group (n = 11) before, during, and after the Trier Social Stress Test. The HFA group was more likely to…

  12. Detection and Quantification of Free Radicals in Peroxisomal Disorders: A Comparative Study with Oxidative Stress Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Elmaksoud, Sohair Abd-El Mawgood; El-Bassyouni, Hala; Afifi, Hanan; Thomas, Manal Micheal; Shalaby, Aliaa; Hamid, Tamer Ahmed Abdel; Hamid, Nehal Abdel; El-Ghobary, Hany

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Free radicals have been thought to participate in pathogenesis of peroxisomal disorders. Objective The aim of the work is to detect free oxide radicals in blood of patients with peroxisomal disorders and to study their relation with various oxidative stress parameters. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with peroxisomal disorders and 14 age and sex matched healthy subjects were included in the study. Patients with peroxisomal disorders were subdivided according to diagnosis into peroxisomal biogenesis disorders and single enzyme deficiency. Oxidative stress was evaluated in both patients and control subjects by assessment of free radicals, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide metabolites and superoxide dismutase. Results There was increase in free radicals, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide metabolites in patients compared with control subjects. However, there was decrease in superoxide dismutase levels in patients compared with control subjects. Conclusion We concluded that there is excess free radicals production accompanied with decrease in antioxidant defenses in patients with peroxisomal disorders. These results strongly support a role of free radicals in the pathophysiology of peroxisomal disorders and strengthen the importance of oxidative stress phenomenon in peroxisomal disorders pathogenesis. PMID:26674249

  13. A Prospective Study of Autobiographical Memory and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between autobiographical memory and the onset and maintenance of distressing memories following cancer. In Study 1, participants recently diagnosed with head, neck, or lung cancer were assessed for acute stress disorder (ASD). Participants with ASD reported fewer specific memories than did…

  14. Effects of a Stress-Management Program for Inpatients With Mental Disorders: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Ignacio, Jeanette; He, Hong-Gu; Lau, Ying; Ngooi, Bi Xia; Koh, Soo Quee David

    2016-03-01

    Stress-management interventions have been integrated into treatments for people with mental disorders. Nevertheless, most studies on these interventions have been conducted on patients with schizophrenia in Western countries, and limited studies have used objective measurements of stress. We developed a group-based, four-session stress-management (S-Manage) program for people with mental disorders, consisting of two major components: psychoeducation and relaxation practice. This single-group, pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental study was undertaken to test the initial effects and determine the effect sizes of the program. A convenience sample of 55 inpatients were recruited from a mental health ward at a tertiary hospital in Singapore. Self-report questionnaires and physiological measures of stress (skin temperature and salivary immunoglobulin A [SIgA]) were used for data collection. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and repeated-measures analysis of variance. Most participants were Singaporean, female, single, and employed. Diagnoses included schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, and mixed diagnoses. All received standard care provided by the hospital. Participants had significant reductions in objective stress, measured by skin temperature (effect size = 0.54) and SIgA (effect size = 0.16), and subjective stress (effect size = 0.16) as well as improved psychological health (effect size = 0.40) in response to the intervention. This study provides preliminary evidence to support the positive effects of the S-Manage program on people with mental disorders. Future studies should further test the efficacy of the program using more rigorous methods such as randomized controlled trial and multicenter study.

  15. Art Therapy for Adolescents with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyshak-Stelzer, Francie; Singer, Pamela; St. John, Patricia; Chemtob, Claude M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of an adjunctive trauma-focused art therapy intervention in reducing chronic child posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in an inpatient psychiatric facility for youth. We compared 2 treatment conditions, each delivered in one 1-hour group sessions over 16 weeks: (a) a trauma-focused expressive art therapy…

  16. [Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)].

    PubMed

    Martényi, Ferenc

    2004-11-14

    The diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been introduced in 1980. The diagnosis, as construct raises several political, moral, legal, and compensation issues. PTSD is considered as a multisystemic dysregulation, involving the hypothalamic- pituitary - adrenal axis, adrenergic hypersensibility, and serotonergic dysfunction. The prevalence of PTSD is 1-9% in the general population, but substantially higher among victims of traumatic events: 19-70%. Placebo controlled studies provide a body of evidence concerning efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of PTSD both in the acute and maintenance treatments. Studies with balanced male-female ratio suggest no gender-related differences in the clinical response, furthermore both civilians and veterans improved significantly for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment. PMID:16106902

  17. Parent and Child Agreement for Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Psychopathology in a Prospective Study of Children and Adolescents Exposed to Single-Event Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; Glucksman, Edward; Yule, William; Dalgleish, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Examining parent-child agreement for Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents is essential for informing the assessment of trauma-exposed children, yet no studies have examined this relationship using appropriate statistical techniques. Parent-child agreement for these disorders was examined…

  18. Posterior Midline Activation during Symptom Provocation in Acute Stress Disorder: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Cwik, Jan C; Sartory, Gudrun; Schürholt, Benjamin; Knuppertz, Helge; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2014-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder showed wide-spread activation of midline cortical areas during symptom provocation, i.e., exposure to trauma-related cues. The present study aimed at investigating neural activation during exposure to trauma-related pictures in patients with acute stress disorder (ASD) shortly after the traumatic event. Nineteen ASD patients and 19 healthy control participants were presented with individualized pictures of the traumatic event and emotionally neutral control pictures during the acquisition of whole-brain data with a 3-T fMRI scanner. Compared to the control group and to control pictures, ASD patients showed significant activation in midline cortical areas in response to trauma-related pictures including precuneus, cuneus, postcentral gyrus, and pre-supplementary motor area. The results suggest that the trauma-related pictures evoke emotionally salient self-referential processing in ASD patients.

  19. Posterior Midline Activation during Symptom Provocation in Acute Stress Disorder: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Cwik, Jan C.; Sartory, Gudrun; Schürholt, Benjamin; Knuppertz, Helge; Seitz, Rüdiger J.

    2014-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder showed wide-spread activation of midline cortical areas during symptom provocation, i.e., exposure to trauma-related cues. The present study aimed at investigating neural activation during exposure to trauma-related pictures in patients with acute stress disorder (ASD) shortly after the traumatic event. Nineteen ASD patients and 19 healthy control participants were presented with individualized pictures of the traumatic event and emotionally neutral control pictures during the acquisition of whole-brain data with a 3-T fMRI scanner. Compared to the control group and to control pictures, ASD patients showed significant activation in midline cortical areas in response to trauma-related pictures including precuneus, cuneus, postcentral gyrus, and pre-supplementary motor area. The results suggest that the trauma-related pictures evoke emotionally salient self-referential processing in ASD patients. PMID:24847285

  20. Cognitive deficits and posttraumatic stress disorder in children: A diagnostic dilemma illustrated through a case study.

    PubMed

    Malarbi, Stephanie; Muscara, Frank; Stargatt, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating the neuropsychological functioning of children who experience trauma have predominantly focused on maltreated populations. This article presents a case study that details the longitudinal outcome of a girl who experienced a motor vehicle accident at 5 years of age. It highlights the clinical relevance of research investigating the neuropsychological impact of single-incident trauma on children. It illustrates difficulties clinicians face in discriminating between the effects of developmental delay, traumatic brain injury, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, trauma, and posttraumatic stress symptoms or posttraumatic stress disorder, especially in children with compensable injuries. The state of the current literature is discussed, and directions for future research are provided. PMID:26418173

  1. Posttraumatic stress disorder in African Americans: a two year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pérez Benítez, Carlos I; Sibrava, Nicholas J; Kohn-Wood, Laura; Bjornsson, Andri S; Zlotnick, Caron; Weisberg, Risa; Keller, Martin B

    2014-12-15

    The present study was a prospective, naturalistic, longitudinal investigation of the two year course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of African Americans with anxiety disorders. The study objectives were to examine the two year course of PTSD and to evaluate differences between African Americans with PTSD and anxiety disorders and African Americans with anxiety disorders but no PTSD with regard to comorbidity, psychosocial impairment, physical and emotional functioning, and treatment participation. The participants were 67 African Americans with PTSD and 98 African Americans without PTSD (mean age 41.5 years, 67.3% female). Individuals with PTSD were more likely to have higher comorbidity, lower functioning, and they were less likely to seek treatment than those with other anxiety disorders but no PTSD. The rate of recovery from PTSD over two years was 0.10 and recovery from comorbid Major Depressive Disorder was 0.55. PTSD appears to be persistent over time in this population. The rates of recovery were lower than what has been reported in previous longitudinal studies with predominantly non-Latino Whites. It is imperative to examine barriers to treatment and factors related to treatment engagement for this population.

  2. Posttraumatic stress disorder in African Americans: A two year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Benítez, Carlos I. Pérez; Sibrava, Nicholas J.; Wood, Laura Kohn; Bjornsson, Andri S.; Zlotnick, Caron; Weisberg, Risa; Keller, Martin B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was a prospective, naturalistic, longitudinal investigation of the two year course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of African Americans with anxiety disorders. The study objectives were to examine the two year course of PTSD and to evaluate differences between African Americans with PTSD and anxiety disorders and African Americans with anxiety disorders but no PTSD with regard to comorbidity, psychosocial impairment, physical and emotional functioning, and treatment participation. The participants were 67 African Americans with PTSD and 98 African Americans without PTSD (mean age 41.5 years, 67.3% female). Individuals with PTSD were more likely to have higher comorbidity, lower functioning, and they were less likely to seek treatment than those with other anxiety disorders but no PTSD. The rate of recovery from PTSD over two years was .10 and recovery from comorbid Major Depressive Disorder was .55. PTSD appears to be persistent over time in this populattion. The rates of recovery were lower than what has been reported in previous longitudinal studies with predominantly non-Latino Whites. It is imperative to examine barriers to treatment and factors related to treatment engagement for this population. PMID:25086766

  3. Posttraumatic stress disorder in African Americans: a two year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pérez Benítez, Carlos I; Sibrava, Nicholas J; Kohn-Wood, Laura; Bjornsson, Andri S; Zlotnick, Caron; Weisberg, Risa; Keller, Martin B

    2014-12-15

    The present study was a prospective, naturalistic, longitudinal investigation of the two year course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of African Americans with anxiety disorders. The study objectives were to examine the two year course of PTSD and to evaluate differences between African Americans with PTSD and anxiety disorders and African Americans with anxiety disorders but no PTSD with regard to comorbidity, psychosocial impairment, physical and emotional functioning, and treatment participation. The participants were 67 African Americans with PTSD and 98 African Americans without PTSD (mean age 41.5 years, 67.3% female). Individuals with PTSD were more likely to have higher comorbidity, lower functioning, and they were less likely to seek treatment than those with other anxiety disorders but no PTSD. The rate of recovery from PTSD over two years was 0.10 and recovery from comorbid Major Depressive Disorder was 0.55. PTSD appears to be persistent over time in this population. The rates of recovery were lower than what has been reported in previous longitudinal studies with predominantly non-Latino Whites. It is imperative to examine barriers to treatment and factors related to treatment engagement for this population. PMID:25086766

  4. Why clinicians do not implement integrated treatment for comorbid substance use disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Gielen, Nele; Krumeich, Anja; Havermans, Remco C.; Smeets, Feikje; Jansen, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare providers working in addiction facilities do not often implement integrated treatment of comorbid substance use disorder (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) while there is empirical evidence to do so. Objective This study aims to get insight into the views of clinicians with regard to the diagnosis and treatment of PTSD in SUD patients. Method A qualitative research method was chosen. Fourteen treatment staff members of different wards of an addiction care facility were interviewed by an independent interviewer. Results Despite acknowledging adverse consequences of trauma exposure on SUD, severe underdiagnosis of PTSD was mentioned and treatment of PTSD during SUD treatment was not supported. Obstacles related to the underestimation of PTSD among SUD patients and to the perceptions of SUD clinicians concerning the treatment of comorbid SUD/PTSD were reported. Conclusions It is concluded that SUD facilities should train their clinicians to enable them to provide for integrated treatment of SUD/PTSD. PMID:24511368

  5. Chronic Stress and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Laura M.; Baum, Andrew

    1986-01-01

    Examined the relationship between chronic stress and symptoms of posttraumatic stress syndrome in people living within five miles of the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power station. Results provided evidence of substantive links between chronic stress and development of mild symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. (Author/BL)

  6. Lipids under stress--a lipidomic approach for the study of mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Miranda, André Miguel; Oliveira, Tiago Gil

    2015-11-01

    The emerging field of lipidomics has identified lipids as key players in disease physiology. Their physicochemical diversity allows precise control of cell structure and signaling events through modulation of membrane properties and trafficking of proteins. As such, lipids are important regulators of brain function and have been implicated in neurodegenerative and mood disorders. Importantly, environmental chronic stress has been associated with anxiety and depression and its exposure in rodents has been extensively used as a model to study these diseases. With the accessibility to modern mass-spectrometry lipidomic platforms, it is now possible to snapshot the extensively interconnected lipid network. Here, we review the fundamentals of lipid biology and outline a framework for the interpretation of lipidomic studies as a new approach to study brain pathophysiology. Thus, lipid profiling provides an exciting avenue for the identification of disease signatures with important implications for diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders. PMID:26426989

  7. Consequences of acne on stress, fatigue, sleep disorders and sexual activity: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent; Wolkenstein, Pierre; Amici, Jean-Michel; Maghia, Rémi; Brenaut, Emilie; Cazeau, Christine; Voisard, Jean-Jacques; Taïeb, Charles

    2015-04-01

    Acne is a common disease among young people, which could have a serious impact on quality of life. Based on a survey using the quotas method on a large sample of the French population, we studied the impact of acne on feelings of stress, fatigue upon waking, sleep disorders and sexual activity. We did not establish any relationship to sleep disorders, but clearly ascertained that people with acne (n = 1,375) feel more stressed and have less sexual intercourse. Hence, 18% of people from acne group declared to be stressed every day (13.9% in control group) and 37.5% had no sexual intercourse (20.4% in control group; n = 891). To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that fatigue upon waking is strongly associated with the presence of acne (65.4% versus 58.4%). This study emphasises the fact that acne could have a deep resounding impact on the lives of people suffering from the disease.

  8. Posttraumatic stress disorder and physical illness: results from clinical and epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Boscarino, Joseph A

    2004-12-01

    Research indicates that exposure to traumatic stressors and psychological trauma is widespread. The association of such exposures with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health conditions is well known. However, epidemiologic research increasingly suggests that exposure to these events is related to increased health care utilization, adverse health outcomes, the onset of specific diseases, and premature death. To date, studies have linked traumatic stress exposures and PTSD to such conditions as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, gastrointestinal disease, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, musculoskeletal disorders, and other diseases. Evidence linking cardiovascular disease and exposure to psychological trauma is particularly strong and has been found consistently across different populations and stressor events. In addition, clinical studies have suggested the biological pathways through which stressor-induced diseases may be pathologically expressed. In particular, recent studies have implicated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) stress axes as key in this pathogenic process, although genetic and behavioral/psychological risk factors cannot be ruled out. Recent findings, indicating that victims of PTSD have higher circulating T-cell lymphocytes and lower cortisol levels, are intriguing and suggest that chronic sufferers of PTSD may be at risk for autoimmune diseases. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the association between chronic PTSD in a national sample of 2,490 Vietnam veterans and the prevalence of common autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, insulin-dependent diabetes, and thyroid disease. Our analyses suggest that chronic PTSD, particularly comorbid PTSD or complex PTSD, is associated with all of these conditions. In addition, veterans with comorbid PTSD were more likely to have clinically higher T-cell counts, hyperreactive immune responses on

  9. Maintaining the clinical relevance of animal models in translational studies of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Hagit; Matar, Michael A; Zohar, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is conditional on directly experiencing or witnessing a significantly threatening event and the presence of a certain minimal number of symptoms from each of four symptom clusters (re-experiencing, avoidance, negative cognition and mood, and hyperarousal) at least one month after the event (DSM 5) (American Psychiatric Association 2013). Only a proportion of the population exposed develops symptoms fulfilling the criteria. The individual heterogeneity in responses of stress-exposed animals suggested that adapting clearly defined and reliably reproducible "diagnostic", i.e. behavioral, criteria for animal responses would augment the clinical validity of the analysis of study data. We designed cut-off (inclusion/exclusion) behavioral criteria (CBC) which classify study subjects as being severely, minimally or partially affected by the stress paradigm, to be applied retrospectively in the analysis of behavioral data. Behavioral response classification enables the researcher to correlate (retrospectively) specific anatomic, bio-molecular and physiological parameters with the degree and pattern of the individual behavioral response, and also introduces "prevalence rates" as a valid study-parameter. The cumulative results of our studies indicate that, by classifying the data from individual subjects according to their response patterns, the animal study can more readily be translated into clinical "follow-up" studies and back again. This article will discuss the concept of the model and its background, and present a selection of studies employing and examining the model, alongside the underlying translational rationale of each.

  10. The Contribution of Prenatal Stress to the Pathogenesis of Autism as a Neurobiological Developmental Disorder: A Dizygotic Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claassen, M.; Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.; Bosman, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the contribution of prenatal stress to the pathogenesis of autism as a neurobiological developmental disorder in a dizygotic study. The aim was to explore whether the neurobiological impact of stress prior to week 28 of gestation might be related to the pathogenesis of autism. The following data-generating strategies were…

  11. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in South Africa: analysis from the South African Stress and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background South Africa’s unique history, characterised by apartheid, a form of constitutional racial segregation and exploitation, and a long period of political violence and state-sponsored oppression ending only in 1994, suggests a high level of trauma exposure in the general population. The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the South African general population. Methods The South African Stress and Health Study is a nationally representative survey of South African adults using the WHO’s Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess exposure to trauma and presence of DSM-IV mental disorders. Results The most common traumatic events were the unexpected death of a loved one and witnessing trauma occurring to others. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of PTSD were 2.3% and 0.7% respectively, while the conditional prevalence of PTSD after trauma exposure was 3.5%. PTSD conditional risk after trauma exposure and probability of chronicity after PTSD onset were both highest for witnessing trauma. Socio-demographic factors such as sex, age and education were largely unrelated to PTSD risk. Conclusions The occurrence of trauma and PTSD in South Africa is not distributed according to the socio-demographic factors or trauma types observed in other countries. The dominant role of witnessing in contributing to PTSD may reflect the public settings of trauma exposure in South Africa and highlight the importance of political and social context in shaping the epidemiology of PTSD. PMID:23819543

  12. [Oxidative stress in bipolar affective disorder].

    PubMed

    Reininghaus, E Z; Zelzer, S; Reininghaus, B; Lackner, N; Birner, A; Bengesser, S A; Fellendorf, F T; Kapfhammer, H-P; Mangge, H

    2014-09-01

    The results of mortality studies have indicated that medical conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes are the most important causes of mortality among patients with bipolar disorder. The reasons for the increased incidence and mortality are not fully understood. Oxidative stress and an inadequate antioxidative system might be one missing link and could also help to further elucidate the pathophysiological basis of bipolar disorder. This article provides a comprehensive review of oxidative stress in general and about the existing data for bipolar disorder. In addition information is given about possible therapeutic strategies to reduce oxidative stress and the use in bipolar disorder. PMID:24441847

  13. A Qualitative Study of Clinicians’ Use of the Cultural Formulation Model in Assessing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna, Lisa R.; Porche, Michelle V.; Alegría, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The Cultural Formulation of Diagnosis (CFD) Model of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) provides a potential framework for improving the diagnostic assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in culturally diverse patients. We analyzed data from the Patient-Provider Encounter Study, a multisite study that examines the process of diagnosis and clinical decision-making during an initial clinical intake session, in order to examine use of CFD for PTSD diagnosis. We find that the use of the CFD in routine community settings is inconsistently or underutilized in practice, but when employed may assist the formulation and interpretation of traumatic experiences. We discuss the implications for improving the assessment of PTSD in the time-limited setting of the clinical intake encounter and across race/ethnicity. PMID:19837780

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and oxidative stress: A short term follow up study.

    PubMed

    Guney, Esra; Cetin, Fatih Hilmi; Alisik, Murat; Tunca, Huseyin; Tas Torun, Yasemin; Iseri, Elvan; Isik Taner, Yasemen; Cayci, Banu; Erel, Ozcan

    2015-09-30

    In this study, we aimed to investigate total antioxidative status (TAS) and total oxidative status (TOS) of plasma and antioxidant enzymes such as paraoxonase (PON), stimulated paraoxonase (SPON), arylesterase (ARES) and thiols in plasma of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In the second step. this study aimed to reveal the possible effects of ADHD treatment on these parameters. Fifty-six patients with ADHD and 52 healthy controls were involved in this study. Venous blood samples were collected and oxidative and antioxidative parameter's were studied. In the second phase of the study, blood samples were taken from patients using medication. Pre-treatment oxidative stress index (OSI) values and the plasma TOS levels of the patients with ADHD were statistically higher than those of the control group. The plasma thiol levels of the patients with ADHD were significantly lower than the control group. The post-treatment plasma antioxidative parameter's levels were significantly higher than the pre-treatment levels. The post-treatment oxidative stress index value was significantly lower than the pre-treatment value. Therefore, oxidative metabolism was found to be impaired in children and adolescents with ADHD. It was also determined that methylphenidate repairs the oxidative balance by increasing antioxidant defence mechanisms.

  15. Twin studies of posttraumatic stress disorder: differentiating vulnerability factors from sequelae.

    PubMed

    Kremen, William S; Koenen, Karestan C; Afari, Niloofar; Lyons, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is defined by one's response to an environmental event. However, genetic factors are important in determining people's response to that event, and even their likelihood of being exposed to particular traumatic events in the first place. Classical twin designs can decompose genetic and environmental sources of variance. Such studies are reviewed extensively elsewhere, and we cover them only briefly in this review. Instead, we focus primarily on the identical co-twin control design. This design makes it possible to resolve the "chicken-egg" dilemma inherent in standard case-control designs, namely, distinguishing risk from sequelae. Abnormalities that are present in both the twin with PTSD and the unaffected co-twin suggest pre-existing vulnerability indicators. These include smaller hippocampal volume, large cavum septum pellucidum, more neurological soft signs, lower general intellectual ability, and poorer performance in the specific cognitive abilities of executive function, attention, declarative memory, and processing of contextual cues. In contrast, abnormalities in a twin with PTSD that are not present in the identical co-twin suggest consequences of PTSD or trauma exposure. These include psychophysiological responding, higher resting anterior cingulate metabolism, event-related potential abnormalities associated with attentional processes, recall intrusions, and possibly some types of chronic pain. Most co-twin control studies of PTSD have been small and come from the same twin registry of middle-aged male veterans. Consequently, there is a great need for replication and extension of the findings, particularly in women and younger individuals. The creation of new twin registries would do much toward accomplishing this goal. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. PMID:21443892

  16. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide in stress-related disorders: data convergence from animal and human studies

    PubMed Central

    May, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The maladaptive expression and function of several stress-associated hormones have been implicated in pathological stress- and anxiety-related disorders. Among these, recent evidence has suggested that pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has critical roles in central neurocircuits mediating stress-related emotional behaviors. We describe the PACAPergic systems, the data implicating PACAP in stress biology and how altered PACAP expression and signaling may result in psychopathologies. We include our work implicating PACAP signaling within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in mediating the consequences of stressor exposure and relatedly, describe more recent studies suggesting that PACAP in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) may impact the emotional aspects of chronic pain states. In aggregate, these results are consistent with data suggesting that PACAP dysregulation is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. PMID:25636177

  17. Psoriasis, mental disorders and stress.

    PubMed

    Biljan, Darko; Laufer, Davor; Filaković, Pave; Situm, Mirna; Brataljenović, Tomo

    2009-09-01

    Etiology of psoriasis is still not known and comprises a range of assumptions and very complex etiological and pathogenetic mechanisms. Along with genetical predisposition, mental disorders and stresses might have a key role in the occurrence of this disease. Total number of 70 patients suffering from psoriasis were included in the investigation. Generally accepted structured clinical interview (SCID - The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV) was applied in diagnostics of mental disorders. Various mental disorders were found in as many as 90% of patients suffering from psoriasis. The most frequent mental disorders were depressive disorder (19.2%), the posttraumatic stress disorder (17.8%), alcoholism (16.4%), adaptation disorder (15.1%), anxiety - depressive disorders (13.7%) and generalized anxious disorder (9.6%). The authors have concluded that in patients with psoriasis both various mental disorders and various stress events are frequent. The results have implied that there is a link between psoriasis on the one hand and various mental disorders and various stressors on the other. The investigation implies that there is a need to improve multidisciplinary approach in diagnostics and treatment of psoriasis and multi disciplinary team should consist of dermatologist, psychiatrist and psychologist.

  18. Stress, anxiety, and depression among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder in Oman: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Farsi, Omar A; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies carried out in Euro-American populations have unequivocally indicated that psychological disorders of the CASD (caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder) are marked with high levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. This finding has been attributed to the reaction of having to care for a child with neurodevelopmental disorders. While there have been reports on autism spectrum disorder in Arab/Islamic countries such as Oman, there is no study from this region, to our knowledge, reporting the performance of indices of stress, anxiety, and depression among CASD. This study aimed to examine whether there is variation in the performance of indices of stress, depression, and anxiety explored via Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 among CASD, caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities, and caregivers of typically developing children. All indices of stress, depression, and anxiety were higher in CASD compared to other caregivers in the control group. This study corroborates with other studies carried out in other populations that caring for children impacts the mental health status of caregivers. Therefore, there are strong grounds to contemplate the mechanism to help such a vulnerable group of family caregivers. PMID:27536117

  19. Stress, anxiety, and depression among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder in Oman: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Al-Farsi, Omar A; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies carried out in Euro-American populations have unequivocally indicated that psychological disorders of the CASD (caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder) are marked with high levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. This finding has been attributed to the reaction of having to care for a child with neurodevelopmental disorders. While there have been reports on autism spectrum disorder in Arab/Islamic countries such as Oman, there is no study from this region, to our knowledge, reporting the performance of indices of stress, anxiety, and depression among CASD. This study aimed to examine whether there is variation in the performance of indices of stress, depression, and anxiety explored via Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 among CASD, caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities, and caregivers of typically developing children. All indices of stress, depression, and anxiety were higher in CASD compared to other caregivers in the control group. This study corroborates with other studies carried out in other populations that caring for children impacts the mental health status of caregivers. Therefore, there are strong grounds to contemplate the mechanism to help such a vulnerable group of family caregivers. PMID:27536117

  20. Prospective Study of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Parents of Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolt, Markus A.; Vollrath, Margarete; Laimbacher, Joseph; Gnehm, Hanspeter E.; Sennhauser, Felix H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, course, and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mothers and fathers of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. Method: Forty-nine mothers and 48 fathers of 52 children (response rate 65%) with newly diagnosed diabetes (age 6.5-15 years) were assessed at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12…

  1. Tic Frequency Decreases during Short-term Psychosocial Stress – An Experimental Study on Children with Tic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Buse, Judith; Enghardt, Stephanie; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Ehrlich, Stefan; Roessner, Veit

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that psychosocial stress influences situational fluctuations of tic frequency. However, evidence from experimental studies is lacking. The current study investigated the effects of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-C) on tic frequency in 31 children and adolescents with tic disorders. A relaxation and a concentration situation served as control conditions. Patients were asked either to suppress their tics or to “tic freely.” Physiological measures of stress were measured throughout the experiment. The TSST-C elicited a clear stress response with elevated levels of saliva cortisol, increased heart rate, and a larger number of skin conductance responses. During relaxation and concentration, the instruction to suppress tics reduced the number of tics, whereas during stress, the number of tics was low, regardless of the given instruction. Our study suggests that the stress might result in a situational decrease of tic frequency. PMID:27242554

  2. Tic Frequency Decreases during Short-term Psychosocial Stress - An Experimental Study on Children with Tic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Buse, Judith; Enghardt, Stephanie; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Ehrlich, Stefan; Roessner, Veit

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that psychosocial stress influences situational fluctuations of tic frequency. However, evidence from experimental studies is lacking. The current study investigated the effects of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-C) on tic frequency in 31 children and adolescents with tic disorders. A relaxation and a concentration situation served as control conditions. Patients were asked either to suppress their tics or to "tic freely." Physiological measures of stress were measured throughout the experiment. The TSST-C elicited a clear stress response with elevated levels of saliva cortisol, increased heart rate, and a larger number of skin conductance responses. During relaxation and concentration, the instruction to suppress tics reduced the number of tics, whereas during stress, the number of tics was low, regardless of the given instruction. Our study suggests that the stress might result in a situational decrease of tic frequency.

  3. Tic Frequency Decreases during Short-term Psychosocial Stress - An Experimental Study on Children with Tic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Buse, Judith; Enghardt, Stephanie; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Ehrlich, Stefan; Roessner, Veit

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that psychosocial stress influences situational fluctuations of tic frequency. However, evidence from experimental studies is lacking. The current study investigated the effects of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-C) on tic frequency in 31 children and adolescents with tic disorders. A relaxation and a concentration situation served as control conditions. Patients were asked either to suppress their tics or to "tic freely." Physiological measures of stress were measured throughout the experiment. The TSST-C elicited a clear stress response with elevated levels of saliva cortisol, increased heart rate, and a larger number of skin conductance responses. During relaxation and concentration, the instruction to suppress tics reduced the number of tics, whereas during stress, the number of tics was low, regardless of the given instruction. Our study suggests that the stress might result in a situational decrease of tic frequency. PMID:27242554

  4. Stress regulation and incision in borderline personality disorder--a pilot study modeling cutting behavior.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Sarah; Krause-Utz, Annegret; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther M; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2012-08-01

    Emotion dysregulation in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is characterized by high baseline negative intensity, high reactivity, and slow return to baseline. Patients with BPD often engage in self-injurious behavior because it leads to immediate relief of stress levels. We aimed to assess stress regulation as well as the influence of tissue damage on subjective (aversive tension) and objective (heart rate) stress correlates in BPD. In 14 unmedicated patients with BPD and 18 healthy controls, a stress induction was followed by an incision into the forearm conducted by an investigator. For aversive tension, we found elevated baseline levels as well as slower return to baseline in BPD. In controls, incision resulted in a short-term increase of aversive tension, whereas tension and heart rate decreased in the BPD group. Our preliminary results support the hypothesis that tissue damage may play a role in disturbed stress regulation in BPD.

  5. Incidental Retrieval of Emotional Contexts in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Depression: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, Matthew G.; Rugg, Michael D.; Smith, Adam P. R.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Brewin, Chris R.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we used fMRI to assess patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression, and trauma-exposed controls, during an episodic memory retrieval task that included non-trauma-related emotional information. In the study phase of the task neutral pictures were presented in emotional or neutral contexts.…

  6. Does Acute Stress Disorder Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Bank Robbery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studies following nonsexual assault. The present study…

  7. Treating Comorbid Panic Disorder in Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teng, Ellen J.; Bailey, Sara D.; Chaison, Angelic D.; Petersen, Nancy J.; Hamilton, Joseph D.; Dunn, Nancy Jo

    2008-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of panic control treatment (PCT) with that of a psychoeducational supportive treatment (PE-SUP) in treating panic disorder among a veteran sample with a primary diagnosis of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Thirty-five patients randomized to receive 10 individual sessions of either PCT or PE-SUP…

  8. Recent Trends in the Sociodemographic, Clinical Profile and Psychiatric Comorbidity Associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Study from Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Raheel; Jeelani, Snowber; Ahmad, Javid; Dar, Mohammad Maqbool; Shah, Tabindah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) among adults in field practise areas of Government Medical College, Srinagar, India. Methodology: The present study was cross-sectional in nature and was conducted in field practice areas of Government Medical College Srinagar. Three blocks of field practise areas of Government Medical College, Srinagar comprising of various villages were selected. Further 10 per cent of these villages were selected by the method of randomization sampling and then 10 per cent of household were taken again by systemic random sampling. In the selected household all adult population (18 years and above) were selected and screened by using General health questionnaires(GHQ). The patients who screened positive for PTSD (post-traumatic stress Disorders) were assessed and diagnosed. From the line listing the positive cases, the prevalence rates were calculated. Results: Of the total 3400 subjects (age≥18 years), the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorders among general population was found to be 3.76%. Prevalence was found to be more in females (Chi-square test=2.086, p>0.05 (Insignificant). Most of cases were found to be in the age group 0-40 years. Most of the cases were unmarried, illiterate and belong to lower socioeconomic class. Death of near one comprised the major traumatic event. Acute onset Posttraumatic stress disorder was the commonest type, previous history of psychiatric illness was found in 12 % of patients and drug abuse was present in 22.6%. Conclusion: Our findings clearly indicates that posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) is a prevalent disorder in the developing world, especially in disaster prone regions and in areas of political unrest. Resilience to various traumatic events in Kashmir has developed over the years and this might explains the lower prevalence of Post-traumatic disorder (PTSD) in our study. PMID:24959502

  9. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a real illness. You can get PTSD after living through or seeing a traumatic event, such as war, a hurricane, sexual assault, physical abuse, or a bad accident. PTSD makes you feel stressed and afraid after the danger is over. It affects your life and ...

  10. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies New Susceptibility Loci for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Pingxing; Kranzler, Henry R.; Yang, Can; Zhao, Hongyu; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Gelernter, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic factors influence the risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a potentially chronic and disabling psychiatric disorder that can arise after exposure to trauma. Candidate gene association studies have identified few genetic variants that contribute to PTSD risk. Methods We conducted genome-wide association analyses in 1578 European Americans (EAs), including 300 PTSD cases, and 2766 African Americans, including 444 PTSD cases, to find novel common risk alleles for PTSD. We used the Illumina Omni1-Quad microarray, which yielded approximately 870,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) suitable for analysis. Results In EAs, we observed that one SNP on chromosome 7p12, rs406001, exceeded genome-wide significance (p = 3.97×10−8). A SNP that maps to the first intron of the Tolloid-Like 1 gene (TLL1) showed the second strongest evidence of association, although no SNPs at this locus reached genome-wide significance. We then tested six SNPs in an independent sample of nearly 2000 EAs and successfully replicated the association findings for two SNPs in the first intron of TLL1, rs6812849 and rs7691872, with p values of 6.3×10−6 and 2.3×10−4, respectively. In the combined sample, rs6812849 had a p value of 3.1 ×10−9. No significant signals were observed in the African American part of the sample. Genome-wide association study analyses restricted to trauma-exposed individuals yielded very similar results. Conclusions This study identified TLL1 as a new susceptibility gene for PTSD. PMID:23726511

  11. [Post-traumatic stress disorder].

    PubMed

    Ponteva, Matti; Henriksson, Markus; Isoaho, Raimo; Laukkala, Tanja; Männikkö, Timo; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Psychosocial support and careful monitoring are recommended for acute stress reaction (ASR) and acute stress disorder (ASD). If symptoms require, short focused cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy can be used for ASD. Medication is rarely necessary, but sleeping pills can be used for a short period. Trauma-focused psychotherapeutic interventions are first-line treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. SSRI or SNRI antidepressant medication is also effective. There is less evidence on antipsychotic and antiepileptic medication. Psychotherapeutic interventions and medication can be, and often are, combined. Children, the elderly, and military and peacekeeping personnel need interventions that are tailored to their needs. PMID:19839195

  12. Integrating Art into Group Treatment for Adults with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Carol-Lynne J.

    2015-01-01

    Current research supports the use of exposure-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and integrated treatments show potential for enhanced symptom reduction. This pilot study developed a manualized group treatment integrating art interventions with exposure, grounding, and narrative therapy for five adults with PTSD who were…

  13. Elevated Brain Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Availability in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Positron Emission Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Neumeister, Alexander; Normandin, Marc D.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Piomelli, Daniele; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Gujarro-Anton, Ana; Potenza, Marc N.; Bailey, Christopher R.; Lin, Shu-fei; Najafzadeh, Soheila; Ropchan, Jim; Henry, Shannan; Corsi-Travali, Stefani; Carson, Richard E.; Huang, Yiyun

    2013-01-01

    Endocannabinoids and their attending cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) have been implicated in animal models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, their specific role has not been studied in people with PTSD. Herein, we present an in vivo imaging study using positron emission tomography (PET) and the CB1-selective radioligand [11C]OMAR in individuals with PTSD, and healthy controls with lifetime histories of trauma (trauma controls [TC]) and those without such histories (healthy controls [HC]). Untreated individuals with PTSD (N=25) with non-combat trauma histories, and TC (N=12) and HC (N=23) participated in a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging scan and a resting PET scan with the CB1 receptor antagonist radiotracer [11C]OMAR, which measures volume of distribution (VT) linearly related to CB1 receptor availability. Peripheral levels of anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and cortisol were also assessed. In the PTSD group, relative to the HC and TC groups, we found elevated brain-wide [11C]OMAR VT values (F(2,53)=7.96, p=.001; 19.5% and 14.5% higher, respectively) which were most pronounced in women (F(1,53)=5.52, p=.023). Anandamide concentrations were reduced in the PTSD relative to the TC (53.1% lower) and HC (58.2% lower) groups. Cortisol levels were lower in the PTSD and TC groups relative to the HC group. Three biomarkers examined collectively—OMAR VT, anandamide, and cortisol—correctly classified nearly 85% of PTSD cases. These results suggest that abnormal CB1 receptor-mediated anandamide signaling is implicated in the etiology of PTSD, and provide a promising neurobiological model to develop novel, evidence-based pharmacotherapies for this disorder. PMID:23670490

  14. The Relationship between Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following cancer diagnosis. Patients who were recently diagnosed with 1st onset head and neck or lung malignancy (N = 82) were assessed for ASD within the initial month following their diagnosis and reassessed (n =…

  15. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Urban Violence: An Anthropological Study

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva-Mannel, Juliana; Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter; Martin, Denise

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to understand how “distress” is experienced by patients with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the social-cultural context of São Paulo, Brazil, an urban environment marked by social inequality and high levels of violence. A qualitative study was conducted between 2008 and 2010 with PTSD patients (F43.1, ICD-10, 1997) who had been victims of robberies and kidnappings in São Paulo. Dense ethnographic observations were carried out, as well as in-depth semi-structured interviews with ten adult patients. The analysis method used was based on anthropology. The results show that it is particularly important to distinguish between perceptions of different forms of the experience of social suffering and perceptions of health and illness held by victims and biomedical experts. The cause of PTSD is more often associated with the personal problems of the victim than with the specific traumatic event. The distress described in terms of what is considered a “normal” reaction to violence and what is considered a symptom of PTSD. The findings indicate that the diagnostic of PTSD can be understood in relation to the different contexts within a culture. The ethnographic approach serves not only to illuminate individual suffering but also the social suffering experienced by the residents of São Paulo. PMID:24284352

  16. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... stressful events or learn about an unexpected or violent death or injury to a family member or ... should. Traumatic events that can cause PTSD include: violent assaults, including rape fire physical or sexual abuse ...

  17. Adolescent Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, William

    2003-01-01

    Based on over a decade of work in the area of PTSD, including a longitudinal study of PTSD among adolescents, Dr. Yule provides an introduction to post-traumatic stress disorder as it occurs in youth. This includes a look at the manifestations of stress reactions, the incidence and prevalence of PTSD, and the relationship between levels of…

  18. Loving-kindness meditation for posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kearney, David J; Malte, Carol A; McManus, Carolyn; Martinez, Michelle E; Felleman, Ben; Simpson, Tracy L

    2013-08-01

    Loving-kindness meditation is a practice designed to enhance feelings of kindness and compassion for self and others. Loving-kindness meditation involves repetition of phrases of positive intention for self and others. We undertook an open pilot trial of loving-kindness meditation for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Measures of PTSD, depression, self-compassion, and mindfulness were obtained at baseline, after a 12-week loving-kindness meditation course, and 3 months later. Effect sizes were calculated from baseline to each follow-up point, and self-compassion was assessed as a mediator. Attendance was high; 74% attended 9-12 classes. Self-compassion increased with large effect sizes and mindfulness increased with medium to large effect sizes. A large effect size was found for PTSD symptoms at 3-month follow-up (d = -0.89), and a medium effect size was found for depression at 3-month follow-up (d = -0.49). There was evidence of mediation of reductions in PTSD symptoms and depression by enhanced self-compassion. Overall, loving-kindness meditation appeared safe and acceptable and was associated with reduced symptoms of PTSD and depression. Additional study of loving-kindness meditation for PTSD is warranted to determine whether the changes seen are due to the loving-kindness meditation intervention versus other influences, including concurrent receipt of other treatments.

  19. Cortisol level and perinatal outcome in pregnant women with posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Seng, Julia S; Low, Lisa Kane; Ben-Ami, Dorit; Liberzon, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects 12% of women in the United States and could affect childbearing via behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms. This pilot study collected preliminary data about the extent to which the low cortisol profile found in patients with PTSD also occurs in the hormonal context of pregnancy, as well as the association between PTSD and less optimal processes and outcomes of pregnancy. Standardized psychiatric diagnostic telephone interviews, salivary cortisol assays, and medical records review were evaluated in a community sample of 25 women pregnant with their first child. Higher PTSD symptom counts correlated with worse overall perinatal outcomes summarized by an Optimality Index Score (n = 22; r = -.725; P < .001). The women whose symptoms met diagnostic criteria for PTSD or partial PTSD had lower peak basal salivary cortisol concentrations (n = 14; mean = .4584 versus .8123; P = .010). Further research on the effects of PTSD on pregnancy processes and outcomes is warranted. Differences in cortisol levels were consistent with the pattern seen in nonpregnant women with PTSD. This finding suggests that salivary cortisol would be a useful biological measure to include in perinatal research on PTSD and childbearing.

  20. Altered resting-state functional connectivity in post-traumatic stress disorder: a perfusion MRI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baojuan; Liu, Jian; Liu, Yang; Lu, Hong-Bing; Yin, Hong

    2013-03-01

    The majority of studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) so far have focused on delineating patterns of activations during cognitive processes. Recently, more and more researches have started to investigate functional connectivity in PTSD subjects using BOLD-fMRI. Functional connectivity analysis has been demonstrated as a powerful approach to identify biomarkers of different brain diseases. This study aimed to detect resting-state functional connectivity abnormities in patients with PTSD using arterial spin labeling (ASL) fMRI. As a completely non-invasive technique, ASL allows quantitative estimates of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Compared with BOLD-fMRI, ASL fMRI has many advantages, including less low-frequency signal drifts, superior functional localization, etc. In the current study, ASL images were collected from 10 survivors in mining disaster with recent onset PTSD and 10 survivors without PTSD. Decreased regional CBF in the right middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and postcentral gyrus was detected in the PTSD patients. Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis was performed using an area in the right middle temporal gyrus as region of interest. Compared with the non-PTSD group, the PTSD subjects demonstrated increased functional connectivity between the right middle temporal gyrus and the right superior temporal gyrus, the left middle temporal gyrus. Meanwhile, decreased functional connectivity between the right middle temporal gyrus and the right postcentral gyrus, the right superior parietal lobule was also found in the PTSD patients. This is the first study which investigated resting-state functional connectivity in PTSD using ASL images. The results may provide new insight into the neural substrates of PTSD.

  1. An Open Label Pilot Study of Adjunctive Asenapine for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pilkinton, Patricia; Berry, Carlos; Norrholm, Seth; Bartolucci, Al; Birur, Badari; Davis, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) remain the first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, adjunctive atypical antipsychotics are often used to target residual or refractory symptoms. Asenapine is a novel atypical antipsychotic that possesses a high serotonin (5-HT2A) to dopamine (D2) affinity ratio and alpha-adrenergic antagonism, which may be advantageous in treating PTSD. This pilot study aimed to identify the therapeutic potential of asenapine as an adjunctive treatment for PTSD. Method Eighteen subjects initiated treatment in this single-site prospective, open-label, 12-week trial of flexibly-dosed asenapine in Veterans with PTSD who had not responded to an adequate course of treatment with an SSRI, venlafaxine, or mirtazapine. Subjects remained on their antidepressant medication and were started on adjunctive asenapine 5 mg sublingual at bedtime, which was gradually titrated to a maximum of 10 mg twice per day, as tolerated. The primary outcome measure was the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) for DSM-IV. Results Fifteen subjects finished at least 4 weeks and eleven completed the 12 week study. There was a significant and clinically meaningful decrease in CAPS from baseline (77.56 ± 14.48) to week 4 (48.7 ± 30.6), and to week 12 (35.3 ± 19.7). Six participants experienced adverse events possibly related to asenapine; however, only three participants discontinued early due to related adverse events. Conclusion This pilot study demonstrated that adjunctive treatment with asenapine may provide additional benefit to some patients experiencing residual PTSD symptoms in spite of optimal antidepressant therapy. A larger efficacy study may be warranted. PMID:27738377

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Stress Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shalev, Arieh Y.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent anxiety disorder. PTSD typically follows a psychologically traumatic event, and thus has a recognizable point of onset. PTSD symptoms are present shortly after an exposure to a traumatic event, abate with time in the majority of those who initially express them, and leave a significant minority with chronic PTSD. PTSD may be treated with pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy. The treatment of the early expressions of disorder constitutes a separate domain of theory and research. The treatment of chronic PTSD often stabilizes the condition, but rarely produces stable remission. This chapter reviews the empirical evidence on the treatment of acute and chronic PTSD, outlines similarities and differences between PTSD and other Axis I disorders, evaluates new therapeutic approaches, and discusses the implications of current knowledge for the forthcoming DSM V. PMID:19716997

  3. Potential neurobiological benefits of exercise in chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder: Pilot study.

    PubMed

    Scioli-Salter, Erica; Forman, Daniel E; Otis, John D; Tun, Carlos; Allsup, Kelly; Marx, Christine E; Hauger, Richard L; Shipherd, Jillian C; Higgins, Diana; Tyzik, Anna; Rasmusson, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the effects of cardiopulmonary exercise testing and cardiorespiratory fitness on plasma neuropeptide Y (NPY), allopregnanolone and pregnanolone (ALLO), cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and their association with pain sensitivity. Medication-free trauma-exposed participants were either healthy (n = 7) or experiencing comorbid chronic pain/posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (n = 5). Peak oxygen consumption (VO2) during exercise testing was used to characterize cardiorespiratory fitness. Peak VO2 correlated with baseline and peak NPY levels (r = 0.66, p < 0.05 and r = 0.69, p < 0.05, respectively), as well as exercise-induced changes in ALLO (r = 0.89, p < 0.001) and peak ALLO levels (r = 0.71, p < 0.01). NPY levels at the peak of exercise correlated with pain threshold 30 min after exercise (r = 0.65, p < 0.05), while exercise-induced increases in ALLO correlated with pain tolerance 30 min after exercise (r = 0.64, p < 0.05). In contrast, exercise-induced changes in cortisol and DHEA levels were inversely correlated with pain tolerance after exercise (r = -0.69, p < 0.05 and r = -0.58, p < 0.05, respectively). These data suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with higher plasma NPY levels and increased ALLO responses to exercise, which in turn relate to pain sensitivity. Future work will examine whether progressive exercise training increases cardiorespiratory fitness in association with increases in NPY and ALLO and reductions in pain sensitivity in chronic pain patients with PTSD. PMID:27006290

  4. SLEEP AND TREATMENT OUTCOME IN POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: RESULTS FROM AN EFFECTIVENESS STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Nick; Clark, David M.; Wild, Jennifer; Stott, Richard; Ehlers, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Background Most patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suffer from sleep problems. Concerns have been raised about possible detrimental effects of sleep problems on the efficacy of psychological treatments for PTSD. In this study, we investigated the relation of session‐to‐session changes in PTSD symptoms and sleep, and tested whether sleep problems predicted poorer short‐ and long‐term treatment outcome. Methods Self‐reported sleep quality, sleep duration, and PTSD symptoms were assessed weekly in a consecutive sample of 246 patients who received cognitive therapy for PTSD (CT‐PTSD; Ehlers & Clark, 2000), and at follow‐up (mean = 247 days posttreatment). Additionally, moderating effects of medication use and comorbid depression were assessed. Results Sleep and PTSD symptoms improved in parallel. The relation was moderated by depression: Sleep problems at the start of therapy did not predict improvement in PTSD symptoms during treatment for patients without comorbid depression. Patients with comorbid depression, however, showed less rapid decreases in PTSD symptoms, but comparable overall outcome, if their sleep quality was poor. Residual sleep problems at the end of treatment did not predict PTSD symptoms at follow‐up once residual PTSD symptoms were taken into account. Conclusions CT‐PTSD leads to simultaneous improvement in sleep and PTSD symptoms. Sleep problems may reduce the speed of recovery in PTSD patients with comorbid depression. For these patients, additional treatment sessions are indicated to achieve comparable outcomes, and additional interventions targeting sleep may be beneficial. For those without comorbid depression, self‐reported sleep problems did not interfere with response to trauma‐focused psychological treatment. PMID:26393429

  5. Elevated systemic expression of ER stress related genes is associated with stress-related mental disorders in the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Nevell, Lisa; Zhang, Kezhong; Aiello, Allison; Koenen, Karestan; Galea, Sandro; Soliven, Richelo; Zhang, Chao; Wildman, Derek E.; Uddin, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress response in mental illness is not well understood. Human studies and animal models of depression show elevated brain ER stress response. In addition, some ER stress associated disorders (e.g. cardiovascular disease) show higher rates of depression compared to the general population, raising the possibility that ER stress response contributes to depression risk. It remains unknown, however, if ER stress response is present among individuals suffering from other stress-related mental illness, and whether such a response would be evident in a non-clinical sample. This study tests for systemic changes in ER stress response associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among community-dwelling individuals. Methods We analyzed expression of BiP, EDEM1, CHOP, and XBP1, the major indicators of ER stress response, with Real-Time PCR in leukocyte-derived RNA samples from 86 participants of the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study. Participants were selected based on the presence of either past year MDD or past year PTSD; controls were age and sex matched. Results Relative to controls, MDD is associated with a 1.34-fold increase in BiP (P=0.004), 1.35-fold increase in EDEM1 (P=0.001), 1.68-fold increase in CHOP (P=0.002), and 1.60-fold increase in XBP1 (P=0.004). These results remained significant after correction for multiple testing. In contrast, PTSD is associated with a 1.27 fold increase in EDEM1 expression only (P=0.027), a result that is attenuated to non-significance following adjustment for multiple testing; however, a subsample of participants with past month PTSD showed elevated expression of BiP and EDEM1 (uncorrected p value 0.049 and 0.017, respectively). Conclusions These data indicate systemic and persistent activation of the ER stress response pathway in MDD among community-dwelling individuals. Systemic activation of the ER stress response may also occur in PTSD

  6. The posttraumatic stress disorder project in Brazil: neuropsychological, structural and molecular neuroimaging studies in victims of urban violence

    PubMed Central

    Bressan, Rodrigo A; Quarantini, Lucas C; Andreoli, Sérgio B; Araújo, Celia; Breen, Gerome; Guindalini, Camila; Hoexter, Marcelo; Jackowski, Andrea P; Jorge, Miguel R; Lacerda, Acioly LT; Lara, Diogo R; Malta, Stella; Moriyama, Tais S; Quintana, Maria I; Ribeiro, Wagner S; Ruiz, Juliana; Schoedl, Aline F; Shih, Ming C; Figueira, Ivan; Koenen, Karestan C; Mello, Marcelo F; Mari, Jair J

    2009-01-01

    Background Life trauma is highly prevalent in the general population and posttraumatic stress disorder is among the most prevalent psychiatric consequences of trauma exposure. Brazil has a unique environment to conduct translational research about psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder, since urban violence became a Brazilian phenomenon, being particularly related to the rapid population growth of its cities. This research involves three case-control studies: a neuropsychological, a structural neuroimaging and a molecular neuroimaging study, each focusing on different objectives but providing complementary information. First, it aims to examine cognitive functioning of PTSD subjects and its relationships with symptomatology. The second objective is to evaluate neurostructural integrity of orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus in PTSD subjects. The third aim is to evaluate if patients with PTSD have decreased dopamine transporter density in the basal ganglia as compared to resilient controls subjects. This paper shows the research rationale and design for these three case-control studies. Methods and design Cases and controls will be identified through an epidemiologic survey conducted in the city of São Paulo. Subjects exposed to traumatic life experiences resulting in posttraumatic stress disorder (cases) will be compared to resilient victims of traumatic life experiences without PTSD (controls) aiming to identify biological variables that might protect or predispose to PTSD. In the neuropsychological case-control study, 100 patients with PTSD, will be compared with 100 victims of trauma without posttraumatic stress disorder, age- and sex-matched controls. Similarly, 50 cases and 50 controls will be enrolled for the structural study and 25 cases and 25 controls in the functional neuroimaging study. All individuals from the three studies will complete psychometrics and a structured clinical interview (the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and

  7. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in victims of Tokyo subway attack: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Toshiyuki; Iwanami, Akira; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kato, Nobumasa

    2004-12-01

    Sarin gas was dispersed in a Tokyo subway in 1995. This study investigates the mental and somatic symptoms of the 34 victims 5 years after the attack. Structured interviews (Clinician-Administered Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder [CAPS] and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview) and self-rating questionnaires were used to assess the symptoms. Not only post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but also non-specific mental symptoms persisted in the victims at a high rate. A total of 11 victims were diagnosed with current or lifetime PTSD according to CAPS. Victims with PTSD showed higher anxiety levels and more visual memory impairment. A significant correlation between the total score of Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and CAPS was found, indicating that IES-R is a useful tool for evaluating PTSD.

  8. An event-related potentials study on the attention function of posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hong; Liu, Xiaohui; Chen, Guoliang; Shan, Moshui; Jia, Yanyan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In order to examine the functional defects and attentional bias in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, event-related potentials (ERP) of attention was investigated. Methods: Three groups of emotion pictures, positive, negative (or violent) and neutral, were viewed by 19 PTSD patients and 15 normal controls. Each picture had a frame, and participants reacted to the color of the frame by clicking buttons. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and behavior data were recorded. Peak latencies and amplitudes of P2 were measured. Results: For the three groups of pictures, PTSD patients had longer reaction time than the controls. Significant difference was found between PTSD patients and controls in response to violent, positive and neutral pictures. PMID:26379882

  9. The Sydney Holocaust study: posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychosocial morbidity in an aged community sample.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Charmaine; Brodaty, Henry; Luscombe, Georgina; Ehrlich, Frederick

    2003-02-01

    We investigated the psychological status and social functioning of Holocaust survivors. From 814 responses to a community survey of Jewish elders (aged 60 years or older), survivors (n = 100), refugees who had not experienced the Holocaust (n = 50), and Australian/English-born persons (n = 50), were randomly selected for semistructured interview, which included Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) assessment, ratings on the General Health Questionnaire, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Impact of Event Scale, Mini-Mental Status Examination, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and Social Functioning. On all psychological measures, survivors were functioning worse than refugees and Australian/English-born persons. The 3 groups were similar in social and instrumental functioning. The more severe the trauma the greater the level of psychological morbidity. Despite normal social and daily functioning, psychological morbidity following massive trauma endures.

  10. Posttraumatic stress disorder in murderers.

    PubMed

    Harry, B; Resnick, P J

    1986-04-01

    Three case histories of men who suffered posttraumatic stress disorders after committing homicides are presented. These men were relatively young and had chaotic childhoods and minimal criminal histories. Each had killed a woman with whom he had a significant but intensely turbulent emotional relationship. The killings all occurred during altered mental states that were unrelated to the use of drugs or alcohol. The clinical significance and some of the medicolegal implications of this phenomenon are discussed.

  11. Unpacking Constructs: A Network Approach for Studying War Exposure, Daily Stressors and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    De Schryver, Maarten; Vindevogel, Sofie; Rasmussen, Andrew E.; Cramer, Angélique O. J.

    2015-01-01

    Conflict-affected populations are exposed to stressful events during and after war, and it is well established that both take a substantial toll on individuals’ mental health. Exactly how exposure to events during and after war affect mental health is a topic of considerable debate. Various hypotheses have been put forward on the relation between stressful war exposure (SWE), daily stressors (DS) and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This paper seeks to contribute to this debate by critically reflecting upon conventional modeling approaches and by advancing an alternative model to studying interrelationships between SWE, DS, and PTSD variables. The network model is proposed as an innovative and comprehensive modeling approach in the field of mental health in the context of war. It involves a conceptualization and representation of variables and relationships that better approach reality, hence improving methodological rigor. It also promises utility in programming and delivering mental health support for war-affected populations. PMID:26733901

  12. Evaluation of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Treatment Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, Jennifer J.; DeGel, Jessica; Fish, Larry

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this evaluation study is the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Residential Treatment Curriculum [PTSD RTC]) to treat PTSD in female juvenile offenders. The overall purpose of the evaluation was to assess the implementation of the PTSD RTC at treatment facilities with female juvenile offenders and to evaluate the effect of the intervention…

  13. Reality graded exposure therapy with physiological monitoring for the treatment of combat related post traumatic stress disorder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wood, Dennis Patrick; Webb-Murphy, Jennifer; McLay, Robert N; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Spira, James L; Johnston, Scott; Koffman, Robert L; Wiederhold, Mark D; Pyne, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    A high percentage of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) combat veterans have been diagnosed with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) during and following their respective combat tours. Virtual Reality (VR) treatment has been documented as an exceptional treatment for anxiety disorders and specifically for PTSD. An Office of Naval Research (ONR) funded pilot study, completed by the Virtual Reality Medical Center and Naval Medical Center San Diego (NMCSD), investigated the use of Virtual Reality Graded Exposure Therapy (VR-GET) study with participants who had been diagnosed with PTSD following their combat deployments. A significant reduction in PTSD symptoms severity was noted. Implications for treatment with VR-GET and future research areas of investigation, including the use of VR-GET with smart phones and the internet, are suggested.

  14. Efficacy of the virtual reality-based stress management program on stress-related variables in people with mood disorders: the feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Lubna Bte Iskhandar; Torres, Samantha; Kannusamy, Premarani; Chng, Cecilia Mui Lee; He, Hong-Gu; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a VR-based stress management program on people with mood disorders. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Singapore, and a convenience sample of 22 was recruited. The program comprised three daily 1-hour sessions incorporating psychoeducation and VR-based relaxation practice. Participants who completed the program had significantly lowered subjective stress (t=6.91, p<0.001), depression (t=5.62, p<0.001), and anxiety (t=5.54, p<0.001); and increased skin temperature (F=17.71, p<0.001), perceived relaxation (F=26.20, p<0.001) and knowledge (F=13.77, p<0.001). Participants' feedback on the program was positive. Findings from this study contribute to improving clinical practice and serve as preliminary data to conduct more rigorous research in the future.

  15. [Psychobiological aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder].

    PubMed

    Ehlert, U; Wagner, D; Heinrichs, M; Heim, C

    1999-09-01

    The exposure to a traumatic event may result in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is characterized by a complex symptomatology, clustered into three groups of symptoms, i.e. intrusive memories, avoidance behavior, and hyperarousal. Since PTSD is a stress reaction, alterations of stress-responses of neurobiological systems have been examined in patients suffering from PTSD. The investigation of biological parameters refers to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), studies of the noradrenergic and the endogenous opiate system as well as psychophysiological and neuroimaging studies. Besides others, the observed biological dysregulations refer to hypocortisolism with an enhanced negative feedback of the HPA axis, enhanced noradrenergic activity, and neuroanatomical changes. To elucidate the specificity of this findings for PTSD, the dysregulations will be discussed with reference to findings in major depression and somatoform disorders. PMID:10522244

  16. An experimental study to evaluate musculoskeletal disorders and postural stress of female craftworkers adopting different sitting postures.

    PubMed

    Maity, Payel; De, Sujaya; Pal, Amitava; Dhara, Prakash C

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and postural stress among female craftworkers. The study was carried out on 75 adult female craftworkers in different districts of West Bengal. The prevalence of MSDs, body part discomfort (BPD) rating and body joint angles of the workers were evaluated with standard methods. Electromyography (EMG) of the shoulder and back muscles was recorded with the BIOPAC system. The prevalence of MSDs, BPD rating and deviation of joint angle were comparatively lower in the case of sitting on the floor with folded legs than squatting and sitting on the floor with stretched legs postures. The EMG and rms values of the shoulder and back muscles were comparatively lower in this posture. Therefore, it was concluded that sitting on the floor with folded legs was less hazardous and it imposed less postural stress in comparison to other sitting postures. PMID:27055480

  17. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Disorders of Extreme Stress (DESNOS) symptoms following prostitution and childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyunjung; Klein, Carolin; Shin, Min-Sup; Lee, Hoon-Jin

    2009-08-01

    With the participation of 46 prostituted women in Korea, this study investigates the relationship between prostitution experiences, a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and disorders of extreme stress not otherwise specified (DESNOS). Prostituted women showed higher levels of PTSD and DESNOS symptoms compared to a control group. Women who had experienced both CSA by a significant other and prostitution showed the highest levels of traumatic stress. However, posttraumatic reexperiencing and avoidance and identity, relational, and affect regulation problems were significant for prostitution experiences even when the effects of CSA were controlled.

  18. Pharmacotherapy of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Koller, Anthony; Stein, Dan J

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the basic neuroscience of fear conditioning and extinction, as well as in the clinical neuroscience of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), have laid the foundations for research on the pharmacotherapy of PTSD. Clinical trials have ranged from early work on tricyclic antidepressants and benzodiazepines through to more recently introduced antidepressants, and on to a range of other psychotropic agents. Despite the growing database of trials, the area remains a controversial one insofar as key systematic reviews in the field have emphasized the methodological limitations of existing work. Here, we briefly review the existing literature on the pharmacotherapy of PTSD, attempting to highlight key clinical lessons, and important areas for future research.

  19. Animal models of anxiety disorders and stress.

    PubMed

    Campos, Alline C; Fogaça, Manoela V; Aguiar, Daniele C; Guimarães, Francisco S

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety and stress-related disorders are severe psychiatric conditions that affect performance in daily tasks and represent a high cost to public health. The initial observation of Charles Darwin that animals and human beings share similar characteristics in the expression of emotion raise the possibility of studying the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders in other mammals (mainly rodents). The development of animal models of anxiety and stress has helped to identify the pharmacological mechanisms and potential clinical effects of several drugs. Animal models of anxiety are based on conflict situations that can generate opposite motivational states induced by approach-avoidance situations. The present review revisited the main rodent models of anxiety and stress responses used worldwide. Here we defined as "ethological" the tests that assess unlearned/unpunished responses (such as the elevated plus maze, light-dark box, and open field), whereas models that involve learned/punished responses are referred to as "conditioned operant conflict tests" (such as the Vogel conflict test). We also discussed models that involve mainly classical conditioning tests (fear conditioning). Finally, we addressed the main protocols used to induce stress responses in rodents, including psychosocial (social defeat and neonatal isolation stress), physical (restraint stress), and chronic unpredictable stress.

  20. [Post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth].

    PubMed

    Korábová, I; Masopustová, Z

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the issue of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth to health care professionals. The text focuses on the diagnostic definition of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth, symptoms, physiological background, prevalence, course, risk factors and consequences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth for a woman, her child and her partner. Options for interventions and therapy are outlined as well. PMID:26982058

  1. [Post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth].

    PubMed

    Korábová, I; Masopustová, Z

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the issue of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth to health care professionals. The text focuses on the diagnostic definition of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth, symptoms, physiological background, prevalence, course, risk factors and consequences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth for a woman, her child and her partner. Options for interventions and therapy are outlined as well.

  2. Sex Differences in Stress-Related Psychiatric Disorders: Neurobiological Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bangasser, Debra A.; Valentino, Rita J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease prevalence. This review describes clinical studies that identify sex differences within the activity of these circuits, as well as preclinical studies that demonstrate cellular and molecular sex differences in stress responses systems. These studies reveal sex differences from the molecular to the systems level that increase endocrine, emotional, and arousal responses to stress in females. Exploring these sex differences is critical because this research can reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders and guide the development of novel pharmacotherapies. PMID:24726661

  3. Spiritual experiences of war veterans who suffer from combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sirati Nir, Masoud; Ebadi, Abbas; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Tavallae, Abbas

    2013-09-01

    Recognition of the spiritual experiences of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder may be helpful in their rehabilitation. Accordingly, the present study has been carried out to determine the spiritual experiences of Iranian Muslim warriors who suffer from the previously mentioned disorder. In this qualitative study, 22 patients were selected using an objective-based sampling method and underwent an individual, semi-structured thorough interview. The data were analyzed using content analysis. The spiritual experiences of the participants were divided into two main categories as follows: (1) religious attitude consisting of three sub-categories known as "religious beliefs," "religious sentiments," and "religious behaviors" and (2) a national sensibility that includes the two sub-categories of "patriotism" and "proud" of being injured for my homeland. The analysis of the participants' spiritual experiences showed that their specific religious orientation and feelings of nationalism assisted with their improved ability to cope with the consequences of their disorder. Therefore, it is recommended that caregivers use patients' spiritual values to help them cope more efficiently. PMID:22739811

  4. Post-traumatic stress disorder among survivors two years after the 2010 Mount Merapi volcano eruption: A survey study.

    PubMed

    Warsini, Sri; Buettner, Petra; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Usher, Kim

    2015-06-01

    The Mount Merapi volcanic eruption in October 2010 was one of Indonesia's largest and most recent natural disasters. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to measure the psychosocial impact of the eruption on survivors in two locations in Yogyakarta, Java, Indonesia. The Impact of Event Scale Revised was used to assess participants' symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder responses and demographic characteristics were compared in both locations by conducting bivariate analysis using Mann-Whitney and t tests. The relative contributions of demographic variables and psychosocial impact were examined using multiple linear regression analyses. Two years after the eruption, survivors from the area closest to the eruption had significantly higher Impact of Event Scale Revised scores than those in the comparison area. In particular, females, adults between the ages of 18 and 59, and people who owned their own home experienced the highest levels of psychosocial impact. Nurses and other health professionals need to be aware of the impact of natural disasters on survivors and develop interventions to help people adjust to the psychosocial impact of these events.

  5. Post-traumatic stress disorder among survivors two years after the 2010 Mount Merapi volcano eruption: A survey study.

    PubMed

    Warsini, Sri; Buettner, Petra; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Usher, Kim

    2015-06-01

    The Mount Merapi volcanic eruption in October 2010 was one of Indonesia's largest and most recent natural disasters. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to measure the psychosocial impact of the eruption on survivors in two locations in Yogyakarta, Java, Indonesia. The Impact of Event Scale Revised was used to assess participants' symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder responses and demographic characteristics were compared in both locations by conducting bivariate analysis using Mann-Whitney and t tests. The relative contributions of demographic variables and psychosocial impact were examined using multiple linear regression analyses. Two years after the eruption, survivors from the area closest to the eruption had significantly higher Impact of Event Scale Revised scores than those in the comparison area. In particular, females, adults between the ages of 18 and 59, and people who owned their own home experienced the highest levels of psychosocial impact. Nurses and other health professionals need to be aware of the impact of natural disasters on survivors and develop interventions to help people adjust to the psychosocial impact of these events. PMID:24845603

  6. Tachikawa project for prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with polyunsaturated fatty acid (TPOP): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids after trauma might reduce subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To date, we have shown in an open trial that PTSD symptoms in critically injured patients can be reduced by taking omega-3 fatty acids, hypothesized to stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. The primary aim of the present randomized controlled trial is to examine the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the secondary prevention of PTSD following accidental injury, as compared with placebo. This paper describes the rationale and protocol of this trial. Methods/design The Tachikawa Project for Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (TPOP) is a double-blinded, parallel group, randomized controlled trial to assess whether omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can prevent PTSD symptoms among accident-injured patients consecutively admitted to an intensive care unit. We plan to recruit accident-injured patients and follow them prospectively for 12 weeks. Enrolled patients will be randomized to either the omega-3 fatty acid supplement group (1,470 mg docosahexaenoic acid and 147 mg eicosapentaenoic acid daily) or placebo group. Primary outcome is score on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). We will need to randomize 140 injured patients to have 90% power to detect a 10-point difference in mean CAPS scores with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation compared with placebo. Secondary measures are diagnosis of PTSD and major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, physiologic response in the experiment using script-driven imagery and acoustic stimulation, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, health-related quality of life, resilience, and aggression. Analyses will be by intent to treat. The trial was initiated on December 13 2008, with 104 subjects randomized by November 30 2012. Discussion This study promises to be the first trial to provide a novel

  7. Neuropeptide Y and posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sah, R; Geracioti, TD

    2016-01-01

    Resiliency to the adverse effects of extraordinary emotional trauma on the brain varies within the human population. Accordingly, some people cope better than others with traumatic stress. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino-acid peptide transmitter abundantly expressed in forebrain limbic and brain stem areas that regulate stress and emotional behaviors. Studies largely in rodents demonstrate a role for NPY in promoting coping with stress. Moreover, accruing data from the genetic to the physiological implicate NPY as a potential ‘resilience-to-stress’ factor in humans. Here, we consolidate findings from preclinical and clinical studies of NPY that are of relevance to stress-associated syndromes, most prototypically posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Collectively, these data suggest that reduced central nervous system (CNS) NPY concentrations or function may be associated with PTSD. We also link specific symptoms of human PTSD with extant findings in the NPY field to reveal potential physiological contributions of the neuropeptide to the disorder. In pursuit of understanding the physiological basis and treatment of PTSD, the NPY system is an attractive target. PMID:22801411

  8. CAM and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Hankey, Alex

    2007-03-01

    In the form of the Transcendental Meditation program CAM offers a method of eliminating deep-rooted stress, the efficacy of which has been demonstrated in several related studies. Any discussion of CAM and post-traumatic stress disorder should include a study of its application to Vietnam War Veterans in which improvements were observed on all variables, and several participants were able to return to work after several years of being unable to hold a job. The intervention has been studied for its impact on brain and autonomic nervous system function. It has been found to be highly effective against other stress-related conditions such as hypertension, and to improve brain coherence-a measure of effective brain function. It should be considered a possible 'new and improved mode of treatment' for PTSD, and further studies of its application made.

  9. In vivo (1)H MRS study of potential associations between glutathione, oxidative stress and anhedonia in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Lapidus, Kyle A B; Gabbay, Vilma; Mao, Xiangling; Johnson, Amy; Murrough, James W; Mathew, Sanjay J; Shungu, Dikoma C

    2014-05-21

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are important mechanisms that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant antioxidant in human tissue, and a key index of antioxidant capacity and, hence, of oxidative stress. The aims of this investigation were to examine possible relationships between occipital GSH and dimensional measures of depressive symptom severity, including anhedonia - the reduced capacity to experience pleasure - and fatigue. We hypothesized that the magnitude of anhedonia and fatigue will be negatively correlated with occipital GSH levels in subjects with MDD and healthy controls (HC). Data for eleven adults with MDD and ten age- and sex-matched HC subjects were included in this secondary analysis of data from a previously published study. In vivo levels of GSH in a 3cm×3cm×2cm voxel of occipital cortex were obtained by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) on a 3T MR system, using the standard J-edited spin-echo difference technique. Anhedonia was assessed by combining interest items from depression and fatigue rating scales, and fatigue by use of the multidimensional fatigue inventory. Across the full sample of participants, anhedonia severity and occipital GSH levels were negatively correlated (r=-0.55, p=0.01). No associations were found between fatigue severity and GSH in this sample. These preliminary findings are potentially consistent with a pathophysiological role for GSH and oxidative stress in anhedonia and MDD. Larger studies in anhedonic depressed patients are indicated.

  10. Altered functional connectivity in posttraumatic stress disorder with versus without comorbid major depressive disorder: a resting state fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kennis, Mitzy; Rademaker, Arthur R; van Rooij, Sanne J H; Kahn, René S; Geuze, Elbert

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that is often diagnosed with comorbid depressive disorder. Therefore, neuroimaging studies investigating PTSD typically include both patients with and without comorbid depression. Differences in activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula have been shown to differentiate PTSD patients with and without major depressive disorder (MDD). Whether or not comorbid MDD affects resting state functional connectivity of PTSD patients has not been investigated to our knowledge. Here, resting state functional connectivity of PTSD patients with (PTSD+MDD; n=27) and without (PTSD-MDD; n=23) comorbid MDD was investigated. The subgenual ACC and insula were investigated as seed regions. Connectivity between the subgenual ACC and perigenual parts of the ACC was increased in PTSD+MDD versus PTSD-MDD, which may reflect the presence of depressive specific symptoms such as rumination. Functional connectivity of the subgenual ACC with the thalamus was reduced, potentially related to more severe deficits in executive functioning in the PTSD+MDD group versus the PTSD-MDD group. In addition, the PTSD+MDD group showed reduced functional connectivity of the insula with the hippocampus compared to the PTSD-MDD group. However, this cluster was no longer significantly different when PTSD patients that were using medication were excluded from analyses. Thus, resting state functional connectivity of the subgenual ACC can distinguish PTSD+MDD from PTSD-MDD, and this may therefore be used as a neurobiological marker for comorbid MDD in the presence of PTSD. As PTSD+MDD are more treatment resistant, these findings can also guide treatment development, for example by targeting the subgenual ACC network with treatment.

  11. Bilateral hippocampal volume reduction in adults with post-traumatic stress disorder: a meta-analysis of structural MRI studies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael E

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade a significant number of studies have reported smaller hippocampal volume in individuals with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relative to control groups, and in some cases hemispheric asymmetries in this effect have been noted. However these reported asymmetries have not been in a consistent direction, and other well-controlled studies have failed to observe any hippocampal volume difference. This paper reports a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in which hippocampal volume was estimated from magnetic resonance images in adult patients with PTSD. After applying a variety of selection criteria intended to minimize potential confounds in pooled effect-size estimates, the meta-analysis included 13 studies of adult patients with PTSD that compared the patients to well-matched control groups, for a total of 215 patients and 325 control subjects. The studies varied with respect to participant age, gender distribution, source of trauma, severity of symptoms, duration of disorder, the nature of the control groups, and the methods employed for volumetric quantification. Despite these differences, pooled effect size calculations across the studies indicated significant volume differences in both hemispheres. On average PTSD patients had a 6.9% smaller left hippocampal volume and a 6.6% smaller right hippocampal volume compared with control subjects. These volume differences were smaller when comparing PTSD patients with control subjects exposed to similar levels of trauma, and larger when comparing PTSD patients to control subjects without significant trauma exposure. Such differences are consistent with the notion that exposure to stressful experiences can lead to hippocampal atrophy, although prospective studies would be necessary to unambiguously establish such a relationship. PMID:15988763

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsari, Brian; Read, Jennifer P.; Campbell, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that many college students report posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or substance use disorder (SUD), yet there has been scant attention paid to the co-occurrence of these disorders in college students. This review examines the co-occurrence of PTSD and SUD in college students. Recommendations for counseling centers are…

  13. Impact of alprazolam in allostatic load and neurocognition of patients with anxiety disorders and chronic stress (GEMA): observational study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Soria, Carlos A; Remedi, Carolina; Núñez, Daniel A; D'Alessio, Luciana; Roldán, Emilio J A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The allostatic load model explains the additive effects of multiple biological processes that accelerate pathophysiology related to stress, particularly in the central nervous system. Stress-related mental conditions such as anxiety disorders and neuroticism (a well-known stress vulnerability factor), have been linked to disturbances of hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal with cognitive implications. Nevertheless, there are controversial results in the literature and there is a need to determine the impact of the psychopharmacological treatment on allostatic load parameters and in cognitive functions. Gador study of Estres Modulation by Alprazolam, aims to determine the impact of medication on neurobiochemical variables related to chronic stress, metabolic syndrome, neurocognition and quality of life in patients with anxiety, allostatic load and neuroticism. Methods/analysis In this observational prospective phase IV study, highly sympthomatic patients with anxiety disorders (six or more points in the Hamilton-A scale), neuroticism (more than 18 points in the Neo five personality factor inventory (NEO-FFI) scale), an allostatic load (three positive clinical or biochemical items at Crimmins and Seeman criteria) will be included. Clinical variables of anxiety, neuroticism, allostatic load, neurobiochemical studies, neurocognition and quality of life will be determined prior and periodically (1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks) after treatment (on demand of alprazolam from 0.75 mg/day to 3.0 mg/day). A sample of n=55/182 patients will be considered enough to detect variables higher than 25% (pretreatment vs post-treatment or significant correlations) with a 1-ß power of 0–80. t Test and/or non-parametric test, and Pearson's test for correlation analysis will be determined. Ethics and dissemination This study protocol was approved by an Independent Ethics Committee of FEFyM (Foundation for Pharmacological Studies and Drugs, Buenos Aires) and by regulatory

  14. Neural correlates of the modified Stroop effect in post-traumatic stress disorder: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyi; Wei, Dongtao; Dupuis-Roy, Nicolas; Du, Xue; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2012-12-19

    Previous studies have provided electrophysiological evidence for attentional abnormalities in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study examined the electrophysiological activity of trauma-exposed patients with or without a PTSD during a modified Stroop task. The PTSD group showed a reduced P2 and P3 amplitude relative to the non-PTSD group under both the earthquake-related and earthquake-unrelated words conditions. Importantly, the earthquake-related words elicited a greater P3 amplitude (350-450 ms after stimulus) than did unrelated words in the non-PTSD group, whereas no significant difference was found in the PTSD group. This indicates that PTSD patients had some attention deficits compared with non-PTSD individuals, and that these attention deficits were not just limited to earthquake-related words.

  15. Posttyphoon prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder in a Vietnamese sample.

    PubMed

    Amstadter, Ananda B; Acierno, Ron; Richardson, Lisa K; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Gros, Daniel F; Gaboury, Mario T; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Galea, Sandro

    2009-06-01

    In 2006, typhoon Xangsane disrupted a multiagency health needs study of 4,982 individuals in Vietnam. Following this disaster, 798 of the original participants were reinterviewed to determine prevalence and risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), panic disorder (PD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Posttyphoon prevalences were PTSD 2.6%, MDD 5.9%, PD 9.3%, and GAD 2.2%. Of those meeting criteria for a disorder, 70% reported only one disorder, 15% had two, 14% had three, and 1% met criteria for all four disorders. Risk factors for posttyphoon psychopathology differed among disorders, but generally were related to high typhoon exposure, prior trauma exposure, and in contrast to Western populations, higher age, but not gender.

  16. Frequency of intrusions and flashbacks in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood sexual abuse: an electronic diary study.

    PubMed

    Priebe, Kathlen; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Zimmer, Josepha; Koudela, Susanne; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Bohus, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Intrusions and flashbacks are core features of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The frequency of these symptoms is usually assessed through retrospective questionnaires, which may be subject to recall bias of unknown magnitude. Electronic diaries that enable real-time assessment have been used to address recall biases in several psychiatric disorders. However, to our knowledge, this is the first study to apply this method to assess intrusions and flashbacks in PTSD related to childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Female patients with PTSD related to CSA (n = 28) were provided with electronic diaries for repeated real-time assessment of intrusions and flashbacks over the period of 1 week. At the end of this period, they were asked to retrospectively report how many such symptoms they recalled having experienced over the past week. The total number of symptoms reported in the electronic diaries (74.5 ± 62.0 intrusions and 24.4 ± 36.0 flashbacks for the week) was substantially higher than those reported in previous studies. Furthermore, electronic diaries revealed the occurrence of about 50% more intrusions and flashbacks than did the retrospective assessment (74.5 vs. 49.5 for intrusions, and 24.4 vs. 13.4 for flashbacks). Such high frequencies are not captured with existing assessment instruments and suggest a possible ceiling effect. Future research needs to clarify whether these high numbers are specific to highly symptomatic PTSD patients or might generalize to other populations of PTSD patients. PMID:23876157

  17. Regulatory Behaviors and Stress Reactivity among Infants at High Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Chen, Maida; Nash, Jennifer; Gendler, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This article examines regulatory behaviors and physiological stress reactivity among 6-15 month-old infants with moderate to heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), a group at very high risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and self-regulation impairments, compared to low risk infants with no/low exposure. Participants: Eighteen…

  18. A Pilot Study of Seeking Safety in a Sample of German Women Outpatients with Substance Dependence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Dorina; Grundmann, Johanna; Schulze, Claudia; Stubenvoll, Martina; Kosar, Marita; Junker, Marita; Najavits, Lisa M; Schäfer, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Seeking Safety is an integrated coping skills therapy for substance use disorder (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Our aim was to examine the effects of Seeking Safety in a sample of female German outpatients with current SUD and PTSD. A total of 53 women were offered 12 weekly sessions of Seeking Safety, conducted in group modality. Women (N=33) who attended at least six sessions were considered minimum-dose completers and were in the analysis. We measured PTSD and substance use symptoms using the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI-Lite) at end-of-treatment and three-month follow-up. Additional measures were the Brief Symptom Checklist (BSI) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-25). Our sample reported chronic SUD, multiple prior detoxifications, and serious childhood trauma. We found medium to large effect sizes for improvements in PTSD symptoms, general psychopathology, and interpersonal problems at end-of-treatment, all of which were sustained at follow-up. Alcohol use improved significantly only at follow-up. This study suggests that the model was associated with positive effects, at least in a subgroup of women attending a minimum of sessions. Limitations include the lack of a control condition as well as an intention-to-treat analysis. PMID:26514284

  19. The Impact of Parenting Stress: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Comparing the Experience of Parenting Stress in Parents of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Stephanie A.; Watson, Shelley L.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers commonly report that families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience more parenting stress than families of typically developing (TD) children or those diagnosed with other disabilities [e.g., Down syndrome (DS), cerebral palsy, intellectual disability]. The authors reexamined the research using comparison groups to…

  20. Stressful neighborhoods and depression: a prospective study of the impact of neighborhood disorder.

    PubMed

    Latkin, Carl A; Curry, Aaron D

    2003-03-01

    Quantitative and qualitative research suggests that urban disadvantaged environments may be highly stressful to their inhabitants. Social disorganization may be deleterious to both physical and mental health. The relationships among perceptions of one's neighborhood, measures of social support and social integration, and level of subsequent depressive symptoms was examined with a community sample of 818 individuals screened for an HIV prevention intervention, most of whom were current or former drug users. After adjusting for baseline levels of depressive symptoms, perceptions of neighborhood characteristics (vandalism, litter or trash, vacant housing, teenagers hanging out, burglary, drug selling, and robbery) predicted depressive symptoms at a 9-month follow-up interview. Measures of social support and social integration, entered as interactions with neighborhood perceptions, did not buffer the effect of neighborhood perceptions. However, CES-D scores at follow-up for frequent church attendees were lower. The data support theories of social disorganization and social stress and suggest the need for structural intervention.

  1. Acquiring a Pet Dog Significantly Reduces Stress of Primary Carers for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Prospective Case Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, H. F.; Hall, S.; Hames, A.; Hardiman, J.; Mills, R.; Mills, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the impact of pet dogs on stress of primary carers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Stress levels of 38 primary carers acquiring a dog and 24 controls not acquiring a dog were sampled at: Pre-intervention (17 weeks before acquiring a dog), post-intervention (3-10 weeks after acquisition) and follow-up…

  2. Integrating Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Julian D.; Russo, Eileen M.; Mallon, Sharon D.

    2007-01-01

    Historically, administrators and clinicians have been hesitant to address posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs). However, research shows that SUD treatment recruitment and outcomes may be adversely affected if co-occurring PTSD is left untreated. The authors provide guidelines for screening and…

  3. Parenting stress among parents of children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Craig, Francesco; Operto, Francesca Felicia; De Giacomo, Andrea; Margari, Lucia; Frolli, Alessandro; Conson, Massimiliano; Ivagnes, Sara; Monaco, Marianna; Margari, Francesco

    2016-08-30

    In recent years, studies have shown that parents of children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDDs) experience more parenting stress than parents of typically developing children, but the relation between the type of disorders and parenting stress is far from clear. The purpose of this study was to compare the parenting stress experienced by parents of 239 children with Specific Learning Disorders (SpLD), Language Disorders (LD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and typical development (TD). Parents of children with NDDs experience more parenting stress than those of children who have TD. Although, parents of children with ASD or ADHD report the most high scores of parenting stress, also the parents of children with SpLD or LD report higher parental stress compared with parent of children without NDDs. Another interesting finding was that IQ level or emotional and behavioral problems are associated with the higher levels of parenting stress. This study suggest that parent, both mothers and fathers, of children with different type of NDDs should be provided with interventions and resources to empower them with the knowledge and skills to reduce their stress and to enhance their quality of life. PMID:27280521

  4. Postmodern Stress Disorder (PMSD): A Possible New Disorder.

    PubMed

    Eiser, Arnold R

    2015-11-01

    The murder of cardiovascular surgeon, Michael Davidson, MD, suggests the existence of a new disorder, postmodern stress disorder. This disorder is characterized by repetitive exposure to digital images of violence in a variety of electronic media, including films, television, video games, music videos, and other online sources. This disorder appears to be a variant of posttraumatic stress disorder, and shares with it excessive stimulation of the amygdala and loss of the normal inhibitory inputs from the orbitofrontal cingulate cortical gyrus. In postmodern stress disorder, repetitive digital microtraumas appear to have an effect similar to that of macrotraumas of warfare or civilian assaults. Other elements of the disorder include the development of fixed ideas of bullying or public shaming, access to weapons, and loss of impulse control. This syndrome could explain a number of previously inexplicable murders/suicides. Violence against health care professionals is a profound concern for the medical profession, as are assaults on nonclinicians. The recommendation is made to change forensic procedures to include obtaining historic information concerning the use of digital media during investigations of violent crimes and murders so that the disorder may be further characterized. Gaining an understanding of this disorder will require a multidisciplinary approach to this life-threatening public health problem. Research should also focus on the development and evaluation of possible antidotes to postmodern toxicities. PMID:26031889

  5. Postmodern Stress Disorder (PMSD): A Possible New Disorder.

    PubMed

    Eiser, Arnold R

    2015-11-01

    The murder of cardiovascular surgeon, Michael Davidson, MD, suggests the existence of a new disorder, postmodern stress disorder. This disorder is characterized by repetitive exposure to digital images of violence in a variety of electronic media, including films, television, video games, music videos, and other online sources. This disorder appears to be a variant of posttraumatic stress disorder, and shares with it excessive stimulation of the amygdala and loss of the normal inhibitory inputs from the orbitofrontal cingulate cortical gyrus. In postmodern stress disorder, repetitive digital microtraumas appear to have an effect similar to that of macrotraumas of warfare or civilian assaults. Other elements of the disorder include the development of fixed ideas of bullying or public shaming, access to weapons, and loss of impulse control. This syndrome could explain a number of previously inexplicable murders/suicides. Violence against health care professionals is a profound concern for the medical profession, as are assaults on nonclinicians. The recommendation is made to change forensic procedures to include obtaining historic information concerning the use of digital media during investigations of violent crimes and murders so that the disorder may be further characterized. Gaining an understanding of this disorder will require a multidisciplinary approach to this life-threatening public health problem. Research should also focus on the development and evaluation of possible antidotes to postmodern toxicities.

  6. Association between traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder: results from the ESEMeD-Spain study

    PubMed Central

    Olaya, B.; Alonso, J.; Atwoli, L.; Kessler, R. C.; Vilagut, G.; Haro, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The relative importance of traumatic events (TEs) in accounting for the social burden of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) could vary according to cross-cultural factors. In that sense, no such studies have yet been conducted in the Spanish general population. The present study aims to determine the epidemiology of trauma and PTSD in a Spanish community sample using the randomly selected TEs method. Methods The European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD)-Spain is a cross-sectional household survey of a representative sample of adult population. Lifetime prevalence of self-reported TEs and lifetime and 12-month prevalence of PTSD were evaluated using the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Reports of PTSD associated with randomly selected TEs were weighted by the individual-level probabilities of TE selection to generate estimates of population-level PTSD risk associated with each TE. Results Road accident was the most commonly self-reported TE (14.1%). Sexual assault had the highest conditional risk of PTSD (16.5%). The TEs that contributed most to societal PTSD burden were unexpected death of a loved one (36.4% of all cases) and sexual assault (17.2%). Being female and having a low educational level were associated with low risk of overall TE exposure and being previously married was related to higher risk. Being female was related to high risk of PTSD after experiencing a TE. Conclusions Having an accident is commonly reported among Spanish adults, but two TE are responsible for the highest burden associated with PTSD: the unexpected death of someone close and sexual assault. These results can help designing public health interventions to reduce the societal PTSD burden. PMID:24565167

  7. The relationship between acculturative stress and eating disorder symptoms: is it unique from general life stress?

    PubMed

    Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Tartakovsky, Margarita; Stachon, Caitlin; Pettit, Jeremy W; Perez, Marisol

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to expand upon the literature examining the relationship between acculturative stress and eating disorder symptoms among different ethnic groups. Specifically, acculturative stress was explored as a moderator of the relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms among ethnic minority women. Additionally, the distinction between acculturative stress and general life stress in predicting eating disorder symptoms was assessed. Participants consisted of 247 undergraduate women, all of whom were members of an ethnic minority group including African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinas. Acculturative stress was found to moderate the relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms, but only among African American women. Acculturative stress was also found to significantly predict bulimic symptoms above and beyond general life stress among African American, Asian American, and Latina women.

  8. Prevalence and Positive Correlates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Chinese Patients with Hematological Malignancies: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Yang, Yi-Long; Wang, Zi-Yue; Wu, Hui; Wang, Yang; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Positive psychological constructs have been given increasing attention in research on the coping resources of cancer-related distresses. However, little research is available on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with hematological malignancies. The purposes of this study were to assess the prevalence of PTSD symptoms and to explore the associations of perceived social support (PSS), hope, optimism and resilience with PTSD symptoms among Chinese patients with hematological malignancies. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period from July 2013 through April 2014. A total of 225 inpatients with hematological malignancies, which were eligible for the study, completed the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist-Civilian Version, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Adult Hope Scale, Life Orientation Scale-Revised, and Resilience Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the correlates of PTSD symptoms. Results Overall, the prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 10.7%. Initially, PSS was negatively associated with PTSD symptoms (β = -0.248, P < 0.01). However, when positive psychological variables were added, optimism was negatively associated with PTSD symptoms (β = -0.452, P < 0.01), and gender had a significant effect on PTSD symptoms. Women were more vulnerable to these symptoms than men (β = 0.123, P < 0.05). When the analysis was performed separately by gender, only optimism showed a significantly negative association with PTSD symptoms in both men (β = -0.389, P < 0.01) and women (β = -0.493, P < 0.01). Conclusions Some patients with hematological malignancies suffer from PTSD symptoms. The positive effects of PSS and optimism on PTSD symptoms suggest that an integrated approach to psychosocial intervention from both external and internal perspectives could have practical significance. Gender difference should be considered in developing potential interventions in reducing cancer-related PTSD

  9. Do Cognitive Models Help in Predicting the Severity of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Phobia, and Depression after Motor Vehicle Accidents? A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehring, Thomas; Ehlers, Anke; Glucksman, Edward

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the power of theoretically derived cognitive variables to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), travel phobia, and depression following injury in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). MVA survivors (N = 147) were assessed at the emergency department on the day of their accident and 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months…

  10. Trauma to the Psyche and Soma: A Case Study of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Comorbid Problems Arising from a Road Traffic Collision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wald, Jaye; Taylor, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Randomized controlled studies have shown that cognitive-behavioral therapies are effective for treating various forms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with most research focusing on combat or sexual-assault-related PTSD. A challenge currently facing researchers and practitioners is to develop specialized protocols for treating other forms…

  11. Stabilizing Group Treatment for Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Related to Childhood Abuse Based on Psycho-Education and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorrepaal, Ethy; Thomaes, Kathleen; Smit, Johannes H.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; van Dyck, Richard; Veltman, Dick J.; Draijer, Nel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study tests a Stabilizing Group Treatment protocol, designed for the management of the long-term sequelae of child abuse, that is, Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD). Evidence-based treatment for this subgroup of PTSD patients is largely lacking. This stabilizing treatment aims at improving Complex PTSD using…

  12. Prospective open-label study of add-on and monotherapy topiramate in civilians with chronic nonhallucinatory posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Berlant, Jeffrey L

    2004-01-01

    Background In order to confirm therapeutic effects of topiramate on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) observed in a prior study, a new prospective, open-label study was conducted to examine acute responses in chronic, nonhallucinatory PTSD. Methods Thirty-three consecutive newly recruited civilian adult outpatients (mean age 46 years, 85% female) with DSM-IV-diagnosed chronic PTSD, excluding those with concurrent auditory or visual hallucinations, received topiramate either as monotherapy (n = 5) or augmentation (n = 28). The primary measure was a change in the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) score from baseline to 4 weeks, with response defined as a ≥ 30% reduction of PTSD symptoms. Results For those taking the PCL-C at both baseline and week 4 (n = 30), total symptoms declined by 49% at week 4 (paired t-test, P < 0.001) with similar subscale reductions for reexperiencing, avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal symptoms. The response rate at week 4 was 77%. Age, sex, bipolar comorbidity, age at onset of PTSD, duration of symptoms, severity of baseline PCL-C score, and monotherapy versus add-on medication administration did not predict reduction in PTSD symptoms. Median time to full response was 9 days and median dosage was 50 mg/day. Conclusions Promising open-label findings in a new sample converge with findings of a previous study. The use of topiramate for treatment of chronic PTSD, at least in civilians, warrants controlled clinical trials. PMID:15315714

  13. Imagery Rescripting in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackmann, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of methods of working with imagery to change meanings and ameliorate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It opens with a description of phenomenology in this disorder, usually characterized by a small number of recurrent images of the trauma, each representing a moment that warned of a threat to the physical or…

  14. Health-related quality of life and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in accident and emergency attenders suffering from psychosocial crises: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Senneseth, Mette; Alsaker, Kjersti; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2012-01-01

    Aims This paper is a report of a study of health-related quality of life and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in patients attending an Accident and Emergency department because of psychosocial crises. Background Psychosocial crises are commonplace globally, but there is little knowledge about patients attending Accident and Emergency departments because of psychosocial crises. Methods Data were collected at an Accident and Emergency department in Norway from September 2008 to June 2009. A total of 99 adults participated in the baseline study and 41 of these participated at 2 months follow-up. The Short Form-36 Health Survey and the Post Traumatic Symptom Scale were used to obtain data. Findings Participants reported significantly lower scores in all health-related quality of life domains at baseline compared with the general Norwegian population. The mental health score was two standard deviations below the norm. Health-related quality of life scores were improved and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were reduced after 2 months. High levels of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were reported by 78% of the participants at baseline and 59% at follow-up. Participants with high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms at follow-up also reported low health-related quality of life scores. Conclusion This study suggests a need for an acute psychosocial intervention and an opportunity to receive follow-up support at Accident and Emergency departments. PMID:21740459

  15. Genome-wide Association Study of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Cohort of Iraq- Afghanistan era Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Ashley-Koch, Allison E.; Garrett, Melanie E.; Gibson, Jason; Liu, Yutao; Dennis, Michelle F.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Beckham, Jean C.; Hauser, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that can develop after experiencing traumatic events. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) design was used to identify genetic risk factors for PTSD within a multi-racial sample primarily composed of U.S. veterans. Methods Participants were recruited at multiple medical centers, and structured interviews were used to establish diagnoses. Genotypes were generated using three Illumina platforms and imputed with global reference data to create a common set of SNPs. SNPs that increased risk for PTSD were identified with logistic regression, while controlling for gender, trauma severity, and population substructure. Analyses were run separately in non-Hispanic black (NHB; n=949) and non-Hispanic white (NHW; n=759) participants. Meta-analysis was used to combine results from the two subsets. Results SNPs within several interesting candidate genes were nominally significant. Within the NHB subset, the most significant genes were UNC13C and DSCAM. Within the NHW subset, the most significant genes were TBC1D2, SDC2 and PCDH7. In addition, PRKG1 and DDX60L were identified through meta-analysis. The top genes for the three analyses have been previously implicated in neurologic processes consistent with a role in PTSD. Pathway analysis of the top genes identified alternative splicing as the top GO term in all three analyses (FDR q < 3.5 × 10−5). Limitations No individual SNPs met genome-wide significance in the analyses. Conclusions This multi-racial PTSD GWAS identified biologically plausible candidate genes and suggests that post-transcriptional regulation may be important to the pathology of PTSD; however, replication of these findings is needed. PMID:26114229

  16. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE HAITI EARTHQUAKE: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY OF POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AND MAJOR DEPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Paczkowski, Magdalena; Galea, Sandro; Nemethy, Kevin; Péan, Claude; Desvarieux, Moïse

    2013-01-01

    Background In the first population-based study of psychopathology conducted in Haiti, we documented earthquake-related experiences associated with risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) 2–4 months following the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Methods A population-based survey was conducted of 1,323 survivors randomly selected from the general nondisplaced community, internally displaced persons camps, and a community clinic. Respondents were from the Nazon area of Port-au-Prince, ~20 miles from the epicenter. Results Respondents (90.5%) reported at least one relative/close friend injured/killed, 93% saw dead bodies, and 20.9% lost their job post-earthquake. The prevalence of PTSD (24.6%) and MDD (28.3%) was high. History of violent trauma was associated with risk of PTSD and MDD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–1.9; AOR, 1.7, 95% CI 1.3, 2.2, respectively). Low social support (AOR, 1.7, 95% CI 1.2, 2.3; AOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0, 1.9, respectively) increased risk of PTSD and MDD among women. Suffering damage to the home increased risk of MDD in males (AOR 2.8, 95% CI 1.5, 5.5). Associations between being trapped in rubble, major damage to house, job loss, and PTSD; and participation in rescue/recovery, friends/family injured/killed, and MDD varied based on prior history of violent trauma. Conclusions Addressing mental health in a post-earthquake setting such as Haiti will require focusing resources on screening and treatment of identified vulnerable groups while targeting improvement of post-earthquake living conditions. Investment in sources of social support for women may make help mitigate the vulnerability of women to PTSD and MDD. PMID:23124841

  17. Post-tsunami stress: a study of posttraumatic stress disorder in children living in three severely affected regions in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Frank; Schauer, Elisabeth; Catani, Claudia; Ruf, Martina; Elbert, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    At 3 to 4 weeks after the December 2004 tsunami disaster we assessed symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 264 children who lived in severely affected coastal communities in Manadkadu (northern coast), Kosgoda (western coast), and Galle (southern coast) in Sri Lanka. The prevalence rate of tsunami-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (ignoring the time criterion) ranged between 14% and 39% and an additional 5% to 8% had PTSD unrelated to the tsunami. The PTSD symptoms were explained by the severity of the trauma exposure and family loss, as well as previous traumatic events. The results confirm the relevance of the individual history of traumatic events for the genesis of PTSD and indicate a high need of mental health assistance among the tsunami-affected children in Sri Lanka.

  18. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    This paper is a clinical discussion of post-traumatic stress disorder and violence, particularly as it applies to the Vietnam Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome. In the first section, the syndrome is described as the sudden onset of explosive rage and unprovoked violence with little or no warning, accompanied by a drastic change in personality. It is…

  19. Stress situations of daily living in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a retrospective case note study.

    PubMed

    Tarumi, Shin; Tashiiro, Nobutada

    2004-02-01

    About 40% of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are said to have treatment-refractory symptoms and chronic course of illness in spite of cognitive-behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy. The present purpose was to investigate factors relevant to OCD patients' chronic course and disturbed daily functions in view of human basic needs based on Maslow's hierarchy of five basic needs. Case notes of 101 outpatients with OCD (47 men and 54 women who were 18 to 55 years old) and seen on a psychiatry unit of a general hospital were studied to explore their stressful situations and identify thwarted basic needs. 84 of the 101 patients had Love Needs, and Esteem Needs (n = 47) and Safety Needs (n = 45) were next. The Poor-functioning group mainly had histories with problems of Safety Needs (70.8%), while the Good-functioning group tended to mainly have problems of Esteem Needs (51.5%) rather than Safety Needs (33.3%). 57 patients (23 men and 34 women) who were treated for more than three months were divided into two groups according to their Global Assessment of Functioning score at the final assessment (cut-off point: 61); patients in the Good-functioning group tended to have problems of higher needs.

  20. A longitudinal study of several potential mediators of the relationship between child maltreatment and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Chad E; Putnam, Frank W; Rausch, Joseph R; Peugh, James L; Noll, Jennie G

    2014-02-01

    Child maltreatment is a reliable predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, not all maltreated children develop PTSD symptoms, suggesting that additional mediating variables explain how certain maltreated children develop PTSD symptoms and others do not. The current study tested three potential mediators of the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent PTSD symptoms: (a) respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity, (b) cortisol reactivity, and (c) experiential avoidance, or the unwillingness to experience painful private events, such as thoughts and memories. Maltreated (n = 51) and nonmaltreated groups (n = 59) completed a stressor paradigm, a measure of experiential avoidance, and a semistructured interview of PTSD symptoms. One year later, participants were readministered the PTSD symptoms interview. Results of a multiple mediator model showed the set of potential mediators mediated the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent PTSD symptoms. However, experiential avoidance was the only significant, specific indirect effect, demonstrating that maltreated children avoiding painful private events after the abuse were more likely to develop a range of PTSD symptoms 1 year later. These results highlight the importance of experiential avoidance in the development of PTSD symptoms for maltreated children, and implications for secondary prevention and clinical intervention models are discussed. PMID:24444173

  1. Adversities in childhood and adult psychopathology in the South Africa Stress and Health Study: associations with first-onset DSM-IV disorders.

    PubMed

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R; Seedat, Soraya; Moomal, Hashim; Herman, Allen; Stein, Dan J

    2010-11-01

    Extensive epidemiologic research from the United States demonstrates that childhood adversities (CAs) are predictive of several psychiatric outcomes, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and externalizing disorders. To date, this has not been explored in a national sample of adults in South Africa. The present study examined the joint predictive effects of 11 retrospectively reported CAs on the first onset of DSM-IV disorders in the South Africa Stress and Health Study (SASH), a nationally representative sample of adults. We utilized substantively plausible regression models of joint CA effects that account for the comorbidity between individual CAs; outcomes included DSM-IV anxiety disorders, mood disorders, substance use disorders, and externalizing disorders measured with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The results indicated that experiences of CA varied by race, and many CAs were correlated with one another. The best-fitting model for first onset of any disorder included separate indicators for each type of CA, in addition to indicator variables for the number of other CAs reported. Results disaggregated by class of disorder showed that the majority of CAs with significant odds ratios only predicted anxiety disorder. Results disaggregated by life course stage of first onset showed that significant effects of CAs can be observed at each stage of the life course. This study contributes to a growing body of research on the social determinants of mental health in South Africa. Our findings illustrate the importance of utilizing a model that accounts for the clustering and accumulation of CAs, and suggest that a variety of CAs predict onset of mental disorders, particularly anxiety disorders, at several stages of the life course. PMID:20870332

  2. Studying Anxiety Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Phobias and Anxiety Disorders Studying Anxiety Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... physical and psychological stress, and diet. 5 Major Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) : chronic anxiety, exaggerated ...

  3. Diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Young, Alexandra C.; Kenardy, Justin A.; Cobham, Vanessa E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the existing diagnostic algorithms for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to determine the most developmentally sensitive and valid approach for diagnosing this disorder in preschoolers. Participants were 130 parents of unintentionally burned children (1-6 years). Diagnostic interviews were conducted with parents to…

  4. Acquiring a Pet Dog Significantly Reduces Stress of Primary Carers for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Prospective Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Wright, H F; Hall, S; Hames, A; Hardiman, J; Mills, R; Mills, D S

    2015-08-01

    This study describes the impact of pet dogs on stress of primary carers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Stress levels of 38 primary carers acquiring a dog and 24 controls not acquiring a dog were sampled at: Pre-intervention (17 weeks before acquiring a dog), post-intervention (3-10 weeks after acquisition) and follow-up (25-40 weeks after acquisition), using the Parenting Stress Index. Analysis revealed significant improvements in the intervention compared to the control group for Total Stress, Parental Distress and Difficult Child. A significant number of parents in the intervention group moved from clinically high to normal levels of Parental Distress. The results highlight the potential of pet dogs to reduce stress in primary carers of children with an ASD. PMID:25832799

  5. Trait Dissociation Predicts Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in a Prospective Study of Urban Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    McCaslin, Shannon E.; Inslicht, Sabra S.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Henn-Haase, Clare; Maguen, Shira; Neylan, Thomas C.; Choucroun, Gerard; Marmar, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    The current study prospectively examines the predictive relationship of trait dissociation, assessed during academy training, to PTSD symptoms assessed at 12 months of active police duty in relatively young and healthy police academy recruits (N = 180). The roles of pre-academy trauma exposure, exposure to life-threatening critical incidents during police duty, and peritraumatic dissociation at the time of the officer’s worst critical incident were also examined. Utilizing path analytic techniques, greater trait dissociation, assessed during academy training, was predictive of both peritraumatic dissociation, and PTSD symptoms assessed at 12 months of police service. Moreover, after accounting for trait dissociation and peritraumatic dissociation, the relationship of previous trauma to later PTSD symptoms was no longer significant, demonstrating that the effect of previous trauma on later vulnerability to PTSD symptoms in this sample may be mediated by both trait and peritraumatic dissociation. PMID:19077859

  6. Traumatic stress, oxidative stress and posttraumatic stress disorder: neurodegeneration and the accelerated-aging hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark W.; Sadeh, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with elevated risk for a variety of age-related diseases and neurodegeneration. In this paper, we review evidence relevant to the hypothesis that chronic PTSD constitutes a form of persistent life stress that potentiates oxidative stress (OXS) and accelerates cellular aging. We provide an overview of empirical studies that have examined the effects of psychological stress on OXS, discuss the stress-perpetuating characteristics of PTSD, and then identify mechanisms by which PTSD might promote OXS and accelerated aging. We review studies on OXS-related genes and the role that they may play in moderating the effects of PTSD on neural integrity and conclude with a discussion of directions for future research on antioxidant treatments and biomarkers of accelerated aging in PTSD. PMID:25245500

  7. HIGHER IN VIVO SEROTONIN-1A BINDING IN POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: A PET STUDY WITH [11C]WAY-100635

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Gregory M.; Ogden, R. Todd; Huang, Yung-yu; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Parsey, Ramin V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain serotonin-1A receptors (5-HT1A) are implicated in anxiety. We compared regional brain 5-HT1A binding in medication-free participants with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and healthy volunteers using fully quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) methods. Methods Twenty patients with DSM-IV PTSD (13 with comorbid major depressive disorder, [MDD]) and 49 healthy volunteers underwent PET imaging with 5-HT1A antagonist radioligand [C-11]WAY100635. Arterial blood sampling provided a metabolite-corrected input function and the concentration of free ligand in plasma (fP) for estimation of regional binding potential, BPF ( = Bavailable /KD). Linear mixed modeling compared BPF between groups across regions of interest (ROIs). Results The PTSD group had higher 5-HT1A BPF across brain ROIs (P = .0006). Post hoc comparisons showed higher 5-HT1A BPF in PTSD in all cortical ROIs (26–33%), amygdala (34%), and brainstem raphe nuclei (43%), but not hippocampus. The subgroup of seven PTSD patients without comorbid MDD had higher 5-HT1A BPF compared with healthy volunteers (P = .03). Conclusions This is the first report of higher brainstem and forebrain 5-HT1A binding in vivo in PTSD. The finding is independent of MDD. PTSD and MDD have in common an upregulation of 5-HT1A binding including midbrain autoreceptors that would favor less firing and serotonin release. This abnormality may represent a common biomarker of these stress-associated brain disorders. PMID:23408467

  8. Acute Stress Disorder as a Predictor of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Physical Assault Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Brink, Ole

    2004-01-01

    The authors' objective was to examine the ability of acute stress disorder (ASD) and other trauma-related factors in a group of physical assault victims in predicting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 6 months later. Subjects included 214 victims of violence who completed a questionnaire 1 to 2 weeks after the assault, with 128 participating…

  9. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician September 01, 2000, http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000901/1035.html) Post-traumatic Stress Reactions Following ... Physician August 01, 1999, http://www.aafp.org/afp/990800ap/524.html) Written by familydoctor.org editorial ...

  10. Peripheral Biomarker Candidates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee Jin; Lyoo, In Kyoon

    2015-01-01

    There is high variability in the manifestation of physical and mental health problems following exposure to trauma and disaster. Although most people may show a range of acute symptoms in the aftermath of traumatic events, chronic and persistent mental disorders may not be developed in all individuals who were exposed to traumatic events. The most common long-term pathological consequence after trauma exposure is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, comorbid conditions including depression, anxiety disorder, substance use-related problems, and a variety of other symptoms may frequently be observed in individuals with trauma exposure. Post-traumatic syndrome (PTS) is defined collectively as vast psychosocial problems that could be experienced in response to traumatic events. It is important to predict who will continue to suffer from physical and mental health problems and who will recover following trauma exposure. However, given the heterogeneity and variability in symptom manifestations, it is difficult to find identify biomarkers which predict the development of PTSD. In this review, we will summarize the results of recent studies with regard to putative biomarkers of PTSD and suggest future research directions for biomarker discovery for PTSD. PMID:26412967

  11. Production of Syllable Stress in Speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea; Bianchi, Nancy; Augustyn, Amy; Klin, Ami; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the ability to reproduce stress in a nonsense syllable imitation task by adolescent speakers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as compared to typically developing (TD) age-mates. Results are reported for both raters' judgments of the subjects' stress production, as well as acoustic measures of pitch range and…

  12. Post-traumatic stress disorder and occupational characteristics of police officers in Republic of Korea: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Inah; Won, Jong-Uk; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective South Korean police officers have a greater workload compared to their counterparts in advanced countries. However, few studies have evaluated the occupational challenges that South Korean police officers face. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the police officer's job characteristics and risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among South Korean police officers. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Police officers in South Korea. Participants 3817 police officers with a traumatic event over a 1-year period. Main outcome measures Officers with a response to the Impact of Event Scale (revised Korean version) score of ≥26 were classified as high risk, and we evaluated their age, sex, department and rank, as well as the frequency and type of traumatic events that they experienced. Results Among the respondents, 41.11% were classified as having a high risk of PTSD. From the perspective of the rank, Inspector group (46.0%) and Assistant Inspector group (42.7%) show the highest frequencies of PTSD. From the perspective of their working division, Intelligence and National Security Division (43.6%) show the highest frequency, followed by the Police Precinct (43.5%) and the Traffic Affairs Management Department (43.3%). It is shown that working in different departments was associated with the prevalence of PTSD (p=0.004). Conclusions The high-risk classification was observed in 41.11% of all officers who had experienced traumatic events, and this frequency is greater than that for other specialised occupations (eg, firefighters). Therefore, we conclude that groups with an elevated proportion of high-risk respondents should be a priority for PTSD treatment, which may help increase its therapeutic effect and improve the awareness of PTSD among South Korean police officers. PMID:26951212

  13. Associations between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaal, Susanne; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Jacob, Nadja; Neuner, Frank; Elbert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) represent a symptom cluster distinct from bereavement-related depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the present study was to confirm and extend these findings using the most recent criteria defining PGD. The authors interviewed…

  14. Muscoloskeletal disorders and occupational stress of violinists.

    PubMed

    Savino, E; Iannelli, S; Forcella, L; Narciso, L; Faraso, G; Bonifaci, G; Sannolo, N

    2013-01-01

    Although musculoskeletal disorders are the most frequent cause of occupational diseases in musicians, very few studies have focused attention on a single category of instruments, in particular on the violin. This involves, in its practice, almost all the areas of the body, besides being in the category of strings which is the most numerous in an orchestra. A specific protocol, investigating postural and clinical profiles of the musculoskeletal apparatus as well as job stress, was utilized in a conservatory on graduates in the tenth year of violin study, who regularly participated in activities of orchestras or string quartets. The investigation revealed target segments of osteoarticular apparatus (jaw, vertebral spine, shoulders, elbows, hands and fingers, lower limbs) electively subjected to overuse, as well as muscle contracture of trapezoids and hyperkeratosis of fingers and clavicle. Although the work environment was comfortable, most violinists claimed to undergo intense rhythms and competitiveness. This study, highlighting subclinical occupational diseases in young musicians (violinists) suggests adequate prevention measures.

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Borsari, Brian; Read, Jennifer P.; Campbell, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates that many college students report post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or substance use disorder (SUD), yet there has been scant attention paid to the co-occurrence of these disorders in college students. This review examines the co-occurrence of PTSD and SUD in college students. Recommendations for counseling centers are provided regarding the assessment of this population, an overview of treatment issues, and three areas of clinical importance when working with this population: risk behaviors, interpersonal violence, and social isolation. Future directions for research are also suggested. PMID:19834572

  16. Early heart rate responses to standardized trauma-related pictures predict posttraumatic stress disorder – a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Suendermann, Oliver; Ehlers, Anke; Boellinghaus, Inga; Gamer, Matthias; Glucksman, Edward

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) report heightened physiological responses to a wide range of stimuli. It has been suggested that associative learning and stimulus generalization play a key role in the development of these symptoms. Some studies have found that trauma survivors with PTSD show greater physiological responses to individualized trauma reminders in the initial weeks after trauma than those without PTSD. This study investigated whether heart rate and skin conductance responses (HRR, SCR) to standardized trauma-related pictures at 1 month after the trauma predict chronic PTSD. METHOD Survivors of motor vehicle accidents or physical assaults (N=166) watched standardized trauma-related, generally threatening and neutral pictures at 1 month post- trauma while their HRR and SCR were recorded. PTSD symptoms were assessed with structured clinical interviews at 1 and 6 months; self-reports of fear responses and dissociation during trauma were obtained soon after the trauma. RESULTS At 1 month, trauma survivors with PTSD showed greater HRR to trauma-related pictures than those without PTSD, but not to general threat or neutral pictures. HRR to trauma-related pictures predicted PTSD severity at 1 and 6 months, and were related to fear and dissociation during trauma. SCR was not related to PTSD. CONCLUSION HRR to standardized trauma reminders at 1 month after the trauma differentiate between trauma survivors with and without PTSD, and predict chronic PTSD. Results are consistent with a role of associative learning in PTSD and suggest that early stimulus generalization may be an indicator of risk for chronic PTSD. PMID:20124426

  17. Social Bonds and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Charuvastra, Anthony; Cloitre, Marylene

    2009-01-01

    Retrospective and prospective studies consistently show that individuals exposed to human-generated traumatic events carry a higher risk of developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) than those exposed to other kinds of events. These studies also consistently identify perceptions of social support both before and after a traumatic event as an important factor in the determining vulnerability to the development of PTSD. We review the literature on interpersonal traumas, social support and risk for PTSD and integrate findings with recent advances in developmental psychopathology, attachment theory and social neuroscience. We propose and gather evidence for what we term the social ecology of PTSD, a conceptual framework for understanding how both PTSD risk and recovery are highly dependent on social phenomena. We explore clinical implications of this conceptual framework. PMID:17883334

  18. Conduct disorder, war zone stress, and war-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in American Indian Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Denise; Jacobsen, Clemma; Ramsey, Scott; Manson, Spero

    2007-02-01

    This study examined whether conduct disorder (CD) was associated with war zone stress and war-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in American Indian (AI) Vietnam veterans. Cross-sectional lay-interview data was analyzed for 591 male participants from the American Indian Vietnam Veterans Project. Logistic regression evaluated the association of CD with odds of high war zone stress and linear regression evaluated the association of CD and PTSD symptom severity. Childhood CD was not associated with increased odds of high war zone stress. Conduct disorder was associated with elevated war-related PTSD symptoms among male AI Vietnam Veterans independent of war zone stress level and other mediators. Future efforts should examine reasons for this association and if the association exists in other AI populations.

  19. Psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: risk factors and associations with birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Koen, Nastassja; Brittain, Kirsty; Donald, Kirsten A.; Barnett, Whitney; Koopowitz, Sheri; Maré, Karen; Zar, Heather J.; Stein, Dan J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prenatal and peripartum trauma may be associated with poor maternal–fetal outcomes. However, relatively few data on these associations exist from low-middle income countries, and populations in transition. Objective We investigated the prevalence and risk factors for maternal trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and their association with adverse birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study, a South African birth cohort study. Methods Pregnant women were recruited from two clinics in a peri-urban community outside Cape Town. Trauma exposure and PTSD were assessed using diagnostic interviews; validated self-report questionnaires measured other psychosocial characteristics. Gestational age at delivery was calculated and birth outcomes were assessed by trained staff. Multiple logistic regression explored risk factors for trauma and PTSD; associations with birth outcomes were investigated using linear regression. Potential confounders included study site, socioeconomic status (SES), and depression. Results A total of 544 mother–infant dyads were included. Lifetime trauma was reported in approximately two-thirds of mothers, with about a third exposed to past-year intimate partner violence (IPV). The prevalence of current/lifetime PTSD was 19%. In multiple logistic regression, recent life stressors were significantly associated with lifetime trauma, when controlling for SES, study site, and recent IPV. Childhood trauma and recent stressors were significantly associated with PTSD, controlling for SES and study site. While no association was observed between maternal PTSD and birth outcomes, maternal trauma was significantly associated with a 0.3 unit reduction (95% CI: 0.1; 0.5) in infant head-circumference-for-age z-scores (HCAZ scores) at birth in crude analysis, which remained significant when adjusted for study site and recent stressors in a multivariate regression model. Conclusions In this exploratory study, maternal trauma and

  20. Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; O, Wuliji; Li, Wei; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Ghanbari, Hossein A.

    2013-01-01

    Living cells continually generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the respiratory chain during energetic metabolism. ROS at low or moderate concentration can play important physiological roles. However, an excessive amount of ROS under oxidative stress would be extremely deleterious. The central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress due to its high oxygen consumption, weakly antioxidative systems and the terminal-differentiation characteristic of neurons. Thus, oxidative stress elicits various neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, chemotherapy could result in severe side effects on the CNS and peripheral nervous system (PNS) of cancer patients, and a growing body of evidence demonstrates the involvement of ROS in drug-induced neurotoxicities as well. Therefore, development of antioxidants as neuroprotective drugs is a potentially beneficial strategy for clinical therapy. In this review, we summarize the source, balance maintenance and physiologic functions of ROS, oxidative stress and its toxic mechanisms underlying a number of neurodegenerative diseases, and the possible involvement of ROS in chemotherapy-induced toxicity to the CNS and PNS. We ultimately assess the value for antioxidants as neuroprotective drugs and provide our comments on the unmet needs. PMID:24351827

  1. Blood-Based Gene-Expression Biomarkers of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Deployed Marines: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tylee, Daniel S.; Chandler, Sharon D.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Liu, Xiaohua; Pazol, Joel; Woelk, Christopher H.; Lohr, James B.; Kremen, William S.; Baker, Dewleen G.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Tsuang, Ming T.

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) likely involves the interaction of numerous genes and environmental factors. Similarly, gene-expression levels in peripheral blood are influenced by both genes and environment, and expression levels of many genes show good correspondence between peripheral blood and brain tissues. In that context, this pilot study sought to test the following hypotheses: 1) post-trauma expression levels of a gene subset in peripheral blood would differ between Marines with and without PTSD; 2) a diagnostic biomarker panel of PTSD among high-risk individuals could be developed based on gene expression in readily assessable peripheral blood cells; and 3) a diagnostic panel based on expression of individual exons would surpass the accuracy of a model based on expression of full-length gene transcripts. Gene-expression levels in peripheral blood samples from 50 U.S. Marines (25 PTSD cases and 25 non-PTSD comparison subjects) were determined by microarray following their return from deployment to war-zones in Iraq or Afghanistan. The original sample was carved into training and test subsets for construction of support vector machine classifiers. The panel of peripheral blood biomarkers achieved 80% prediction accuracy in the test subset based on the expression of just two full-length transcripts (GSTM1 and GSTM2). A biomarker panel based on 20 exons attained an improved 90% accuracy in the test subset. Though further refinement and replication of these biomarker profiles are required, these preliminary results provide proof-of-principle for the diagnostic utility of blood-based mRNA-expression in PTSD among trauma-exposed individuals. PMID:25311155

  2. White Matter Changes in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Prospective Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Sun, Gang; Liu, Kai; Li, Min; Li, Bo; Qian, Shao-Wen; Yu, Li-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: The ability to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a critical issue in the management of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), as early medical and rehabilitative interventions may reduce the risks of long-term cognitive changes. The aim of the present study was to investigate how diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics changed in the transition from acute to chronic phases in patients with mTBI and whether the alteration relates to the development of PTSD. Methods: Forty-three patients with mTBI and 22 healthy volunteers were investigated. The patients were divided into two groups: successful recovery (SR, n = 22) and poor recovery (PR, n = 21), based on neurocognitive evaluation at 1 or 6 months after injury. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging investigation at acute (within 3 days), subacute (10–20 days), and chronic (1–6 months) phases after injury. Group differences of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). The accuracy of DTI metrics for classifying PTSD was estimated using Bayesian discrimination analysis. Results: TBSS showed white matter (WM) abnormalities in various brain regions. In the acute phase, FA values were higher for PR and SR patients than controls (all P < 0.05). In subacute phase, PR patients have higher mean MD than SR and controls (all P < 0.05). In the chronic phase, lower FA and higher MD were observed in PR compared with both SR and control groups (all P < 0.05). PR and SR groups could be discriminated with a sensitivity of 73%, specificity of 78%, and accuracy of 75.56%, in terms of MD value in subacute phase. Conclusions: Patients with mTBI have multiple abnormalities in various WM regions. DTI metrics change over time and provide a potential indicator at subacute stage for PTSD following mTBI. PMID:27098796

  3. A cross-sectional community study of post-traumatic stress disorder and social support in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Southivong, Bouavanh; Nakahara, Shinji; Southivong, Chanhpheng

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in those injured and not injured by landmines or unexploded ordnance (UXO) in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic and to determine whether the perception of social support was associated with PTSD symptom severity. Methods A community survey was conducted among 190 people injured by landmines or UXO and 380 age-, sex- and neighbourhood-matched non-injured individuals in the Sepone district of Savannakhet Province, the part of the Lao People's Democratic Republic most heavily bombed during the Viet Nam War. Using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey, trained health-care workers conducted face-to-face interviews to assess PTSD symptoms and level of perceived social support. Multiple linear regression was performed to explore the association between social support and other factors and PTSD. Findings The prevalence of PTSD was higher among the injured (10%) than among the non-injured (4%), but the level of perceived social support was not significantly different between the two groups. A higher level of perceived social support was associated with milder symptoms of PTSD. Women, older people and those with a formal education were more often and more severely affected by PTSD. Conclusion The perception of strong social support might help to alleviate the symptoms of PTSD among people injured by landmines or UXO in rural parts of the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Psychosocial interventions should be incorporated in assistance for the injured because they have more severe and longer-lasting symptoms of PTSD than the non-injured. PMID:24115800

  4. Neural circuits in anxiety and stress disorders: a focused review

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Elizabeth R; Javanbakht, Arash; Liberzon, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and stress disorders are among the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders. In recent years, multiple studies have examined brain regions and networks involved in anxiety symptomatology in an effort to better understand the mechanisms involved and to develop more effective treatments. However, much remains unknown regarding the specific abnormalities and interactions between networks of regions underlying anxiety disorder presentations. We examined recent neuroimaging literature that aims to identify neural mechanisms underlying anxiety, searching for patterns of neural dysfunction that might be specific to different anxiety disorder categories. Across different anxiety and stress disorders, patterns of hyperactivation in emotion-generating regions and hypoactivation in prefrontal/regulatory regions are common in the literature. Interestingly, evidence of differential patterns is also emerging, such that within a spectrum of disorders ranging from more fear-based to more anxiety-based, greater involvement of emotion-generating regions is reported in panic disorder and specific phobia, and greater involvement of prefrontal regions is reported in generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. We summarize the pertinent literature and suggest areas for continued investigation. PMID:25670901

  5. Behavioral Activation in the Treatment of Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulick, Patrick S.; Naugle, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of 10-weeks of Behavioral Activation (BA) in the treatment of comorbid Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in four adults using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design. All participants met full "DSM-IV" criteria for both MDD and PTSD at the outset of…

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Part I: A Comparison of Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Shelley L.; Coons, Kelly D.; Hayes, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a long history of research on parents of children with disabilities, but to the authors' knowledge, no study has compared the stress of parents of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) to parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: Twenty-five parents of children with ASD and 25 parents of…

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Individuals with Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehtar, Mohamad; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli

    2011-01-01

    Although children and adolescents with developmental disabilities are said to have higher risks of abuse than those without, trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are little examined in those diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Our study aims to assess trauma types, prevalence, risk factors and symptoms; and PTSD in…

  8. Salivary Cortisol Lower in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wahbeh, Helané; Oken, Barry S.

    2013-01-01

    Altered cortisol has been demonstrated to be lower in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in most studies. This cross-sectional study evaluated salivary cortisol at waking, 30 minutes after, and bedtime in 51 combat veterans with PTSD compared to 20 veterans without PTSD. It also examined the relationship of cortisol to PTSD symptoms using two classifications: DSM-IV and the more recent four-factor classification proposed for DSM-V. The PTSD group had lower cortisol values than the control group (F(6, 69) = 3.35, p = .006). This significance did not change when adding age, body mass index, smoking, medications affecting cortisol, awakening time, sleep duration, season, depression, perceived stress, service era, combat exposure, and lifetime trauma as covariates. Post-hoc analyses revealed that the PTSD group had lower area under the curve ground and waking, 30min, and bedtime values while the cortisol awakening response and area under the curve increase were not different between groups. The four-factor avoidance PTSD symptom cluster was associated with cortisol but not the other symptom clusters. This study supports the finding that cortisol is lower in people with PTSD. PMID:23529862

  9. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in postwar Kosovo high school students using mind-body skills groups: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, James S; Staples, Julie K; Blyta, Afrim; Bytyqi, Murat

    2004-04-01

    This preliminary study examined whether the practice of mind-body techniques decreases symptoms of posttraumatic stress in adolescents. Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index questionnaires were collected from 139 high school students in Kosovo who participated in a 6-week program that included meditation, biofeedback, drawings, autogenic training, guided imagery, genograms, movement, and breathing techniques. Three separate programs were held approximately 2 months apart. There was no control group. Posttraumatic stress scores significantly decreased after participation in the programs. These scores remained decreased in the 2 groups that participated in the follow-up study when compared to pretest measures. These data indicate that mind-body skills groups were effective in reducing posttraumatic stress symptoms in war-traumatized high school students.

  10. Enhancing Exposure Therapy for Anxiety Disorders, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Joseph F.; Lewin, Adam B.; Storch, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Translating findings from basic science, several compounds have been identified that may enhance therapeutic outcomes and/or expedite treatment gains when administered alongside exposure-based treatments. Four of these compounds (referred to as cognitive enhancers) have been evaluated in the context of randomized controlled trials for anxiety disorders (e.g., specific phobias, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These cognitive enhancers include D-cycloserine, yohimbine hydrochloride, glucocorticoids and cortisol, and brain derived neurotrophic factor. There is consistent evidence that cognitive enhancers can enhance therapeutic outcomes and/or expedite treatment gains across anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD. Emerging evidence has highlighted the importance of within-session fear habituation and between-session fear learning, which can either enhance fear extinction or reconsolidate of fear responses. Although findings from these trials are promising, there are several considerations that warrant further evaluation prior to wide-spread use of cognitive enhancers in exposure-based treatments. Consistent trial design and large sample sizes are important in future studies of cognitive enhancers. PMID:24972729

  11. Genetic approaches to understanding post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Almli, Lynn M; Fani, Negar; Smith, Alicia K; Ressler, Kerry J

    2014-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is increasingly recognized as both a disorder of enormous mental health and societal burden, but also as an anxiety disorder that may be particularly understandable from a scientific perspective. Specifically, PTSD can be conceptualized as a disorder of fear and stress dysregulation, and the neural circuitry underlying these pathways in both animals and humans are becoming increasingly well understood. Furthermore, PTSD is the only disorder in psychiatry in which the initiating factor, the trauma exposure, can be identified. Thus, the pathophysiology of the fear and stress response underlying PTSD can be examined and potentially interrupted. Twin studies have shown that the development of PTSD following a trauma is heritable, and that genetic risk factors may account for up to 30-40% of this heritability. A current goal is to understand the gene pathways that are associated with PTSD, and how those genes act on the fear/stress circuitry to mediate risk vs. resilience for PTSD. This review will examine gene pathways that have recently been analysed, primarily through candidate gene studies (including neuroimaging studies of candidate genes), in addition to genome-wide associations and the epigenetic regulation of PTSD. Future and on-going studies are utilizing larger and collaborative cohorts to identify novel gene candidates through genome-wide association and other powerful genomic approaches. Identification of PTSD biological pathways strengthens the hope of progress in the mechanistic understanding of a model psychiatric disorder and allows for the development of targeted treatments and interventions.

  12. The Genetics of Stress-Related Disorders: PTSD, Depression, and Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Smoller, Jordan W

    2016-01-01

    Research into the causes of psychopathology has largely focused on two broad etiologic factors: genetic vulnerability and environmental stressors. An important role for familial/heritable factors in the etiology of a broad range of psychiatric disorders was established well before the modern era of genomic research. This review focuses on the genetic basis of three disorder categories-posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and the anxiety disorders-for which environmental stressors and stress responses are understood to be central to pathogenesis. Each of these disorders aggregates in families and is moderately heritable. More recently, molecular genetic approaches, including genome-wide studies of genetic variation, have been applied to identify specific risk variants. In this review, I summarize evidence for genetic contributions to PTSD, MDD, and the anxiety disorders including genetic epidemiology, the role of common genetic variation, the role of rare and structural variation, and the role of gene-environment interaction. Available data suggest that stress-related disorders are highly complex and polygenic and, despite substantial progress in other areas of psychiatric genetics, few risk loci have been identified for these disorders. Progress in this area will likely require analysis of much larger sample sizes than have been reported to date. The phenotypic complexity and genetic overlap among these disorders present further challenges. The review concludes with a discussion of prospects for clinical translation of genetic findings and future directions for research.

  13. Treatment Practices for Childhood Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Rogal, Shari

    2001-01-01

    A survey concerning treatment of children with posttraumatic stress disorder was completed by 77 child psychiatrists and 82 nonmedical therapists. Medical responders reported most preferred treatments included pharmacotherapy, psychodynamic, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Nonmedical respondents preferred cognitive-behavioral, family, and…

  14. Posttraumatic stress disorder in combat veterans.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Nicole R

    2014-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects up to 18% of combat veterans, many of whom will seek care from clinicians outside the military healthcare system. This article reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and referral options for PTSD so that PAs in primary care can recognize and appropriately manage patients with PTSD.

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Vietnam Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helwig, Andrew A.; Assa, Roberta

    1991-01-01

    Notes that many unemployed Vietnam veterans may be suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Symptoms and behaviors of PTSD are reviewed to assist employment counselors in identifying clients with PTSD. Counseling and referral actions are suggested. Outlines four-phase approach used by many Veterans Centers in counseling veterans with…

  16. The Psychophysiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pole, Nnamdi

    2007-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 58 resting baseline studies, 25 startle studies, 17 standardized trauma cue studies, and 22 idiographic trauma cue studies compared adults with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on psychophysiological variables: facial electromyography (EMG), heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and blood pressure.…

  17. Psychosocial therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Foa, Edna B

    2006-01-01

    Immediately after experiencing a traumatic event, many people have symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). If trauma victims restrict their routine and systematically avoid reminders of the incident, symptoms of PTSD are more likely to become chronic. Several clinical studies have shown that programs of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can be effective in the management of patients with PTSD. Prolonged exposure (PE) therapy-a specific form of exposure therapy-can provide benefits, as can stress inoculation training (SIT) and cognitive therapy (CT). PE is not enhanced by the addition of SIT or CT. PE therapy is a safe treatment that is accepted by patients, and benefits remain apparent after treatment programs have finished. Nonspecialists can be taught to practice effective CBT. For the treatment of large numbers of patients, or for use in centers where CBT has not been routinely employed previously, appropriate training of mental health professionals should be performed. Methods used for the dissemination of CBT to nonspecialists need to be modified to meet the requirements of countries affected by the Asian tsunami. This will entail the use of culturally sensitive materials and the adaptation of training methods to enable large numbers of mental health professionals to be trained together.

  18. Changes in FKBP5 expression and memory functions during cognitive-behavioral therapy in posttraumatic stress disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Csilla; Kelemen, Oguz; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2014-05-21

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by hyperarousal, flashbacks, avoidance, and memory dysfunctions. Although psychotherapy improves the clinical symptoms, its effect on memory has not been explored. In addition, there is no information about gene expression changes related to hippocampal functions. We assessed PTSD patients (n=20) using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and a paired associates learning (PAL) test, as well as changes in blood FK506 binding protein (FKBP5) mRNA expression before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Results revealed that before CBT PTSD patients were impaired on WAIS-R delayed recall, attention/concentration, and PAL compared with trauma-exposed control subjects (n=20). These memory dysfunctions showed a significant improvement after CBT. Better performance on the PAL test correlated with enhanced blood FKBP5 mRNA expression. These results suggest that elevated FKBP5 expression during CBT is related to improved associative memory linked to the hippocampal formation.

  19. Stress-related psycho-physiological disorders: randomized single blind placebo controlled naturalistic study of psychometric evaluation using a radio electric asymmetric treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a radio electric asymmetric treatment on psycho-physiological disorders (PPD). PPD are often stress related and are under the unconscious control of the patient and cannot be traced back to any serious physical disease. The brain stimulation treatment protocol used is called Neuro Psycho Physical Optimization (NPPO) with a Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC) device. Methods Psychological stress and PPD were measured for a group of 888 subjects using the Psychological Stress Measure (PSM) test, a self-administered questionnaire. Data were collected immediately before and after the 4-weeks of REAC treatment cycle. Results This study showed a significant reduction in scores measuring subjective perceptions of stress for subjects treated with a cycle of NPPO REAC treatment. At the end-point the number of subjects reporting symptoms of stress-related PPD on the PSM test was significantly reduced, whereas in the placebo group the difference was not significant. Conclusion A cycle of NPPO treatment with REAC was shown to reduce subjective perceptions of stress measured by the PSM test and in particular on PPD. Trial Registration This trial has been registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) with the number: ACTRN12607000463471. PMID:21771304

  20. Associations between childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and past-year drug use disorders in the National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

    PubMed

    Myers, Bronwyn; McLaughlin, Katie A; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos; Stein, Dan J

    2014-12-01

    Stress sensitization, whereby CA lowers tolerance to later stressors, has been proposed as a potential mechanism explaining the association between exposure to childhood adversities (CA) and drug use disorders in adulthood. However, this mechanism remains untested. This paper begins to address this gap through exploring associations between CA exposure and stressful events in adulthood for predicting drug use disorders. We used data drawn from Wave 2 of the U.S. National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34,653) to explore whether the association between past-year stressful life events and the 12-month prevalence of disordered cannabis, stimulant, and opiate use varied by the number of types of CA that an individual was exposed to. Past-year stressful life events were associated with an increased risk of cannabis, stimulant, and opiate use disorders among men and women. Exposure to CA was associated with increased risk for disordered cannabis use among men and women and opiate use among men only. Finally, we found significant associations between exposure to CA and past-year stressful life events in predicting disordered drug use, but only for women in relation to disordered stimulant and opiate use. Findings are suggestive of possible stress sensitization effects in predicting disordered stimulant and opiate use among women. Implications of these findings for the prevention and treatment of drug use disorders and for future research are discussed.

  1. Multimodal Approach to Identifying Malingered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jabeen, Shagufta; Alam, Farzana

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to aid clinicians in differentiating true posttraumatic stress disorder from malingered posttraumatic stress disorder. Posttraumatic stress disorder and malingering are defined, and prevalence rates are explored. Similarities and differences in diagnostic criteria between the fourth and fifth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are described for posttraumatic stress disorder. Possible motivations for malingering posttraumatic stress disorder are discussed, and common characteristics of malingered posttraumatic stress disorder are described. A multimodal approach is described for evaluating posttraumatic stress disorder, including interview techniques, collection of collateral data, and psychometric and physiologic testing, that should allow clinicians to distinguish between those patients who are truly suffering from posttraumatic disorder and those who are malingering the illness. PMID:25852974

  2. Sensory Processing Disorder in a Primate Model: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study of Prenatal Alcohol and Prenatal Stress Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Gajewski, Lisa L.; Larson, Julie A.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Converse, Alexander K.; DeJesus, Onofre T.

    2008-01-01

    Disrupted sensory processing, characterized by over- or underresponsiveness to environmental stimuli, has been reported in children with a variety of developmental disabilities. This study examined the effects of prenatal stress and moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure on tactile sensitivity and its relationship to striatal dopamine system…

  3. Health functioning impairments associated with posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorders, and depression.

    PubMed

    Zayfert, Claudia; Dums, Aricca R; Ferguson, Robert J; Hegel, Mark T

    2002-04-01

    Although anxiety disorders have been associated with impairments in self-reported health functioning, the relative effect of various anxiety disorders has not been studied. We compared health functioning of patients with a principal diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients with PTSD and MDD were equally impaired on overall mental health functioning, and both were significantly worse than patients with PD and GAD. PTSD was associated with significantly worse physical health functioning relative to PD, GAD, and MDD. Hierarchical regression showed that the association of PTSD with physical health functioning was unique and was not caused by the effects of age, depression, or comorbid anxiety disorders. Both PTSD and comorbid anxiety accounted for unique variance in mental functioning. These results highlight the association of PTSD with impaired physical and mental functioning and suggest that effective treatment of PTSD may affect overall health.

  4. College Student Stress: A Predictor of Eating Disorder Precursor Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Virginia L.; Valkyrie, Karena T.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders are compulsive behaviors that can consume a person's life to the point of becoming life threatening. Previous research found stress associated with eating disorders. College can be a stressful time. If stress predicted precursor behaviors to eating disorders, then counselors would have a better chance to help students sooner. This…

  5. A Cross-sectional Study on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and General Psychiatric Morbidity Among Adult Survivors 3 Years After the Wenchuan Earthquake, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Duan, Guangfeng; Xu, Qin; Jia, Zhaobao; Bai, Zhengyang; Liu, Weizhi; Pan, Xiao; Tian, Wenhua

    2015-11-01

    After the Wenchuan earthquake, a large number of studies have focused on postearthquake psychological disorders among survivors; however, most of these studies were conducted within a relatively short period. This study was conducted to examine the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and general psychiatric morbidity among adult survivors 3 years after the Wenchuan earthquake, China. Through a multistage systematic sampling approach, a cross-sectional survey of 360 participants, 18 years or older, was conducted. The prevalence of PTSD and general psychiatric morbidity was 10.3% and 20.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed significant predictors for PTSD, including female gender and having felt guilt concerning someone's death or injury. Significant predictors for general psychiatric morbidity included unmarried status and having been in serious danger. These results suggest that mental health services should be continuously available to earthquake survivors.

  6. Muscoloskeletal disorders and occupational stress of violinists.

    PubMed

    Savino, E; Iannelli, S; Forcella, L; Narciso, L; Faraso, G; Bonifaci, G; Sannolo, N

    2013-01-01

    Although musculoskeletal disorders are the most frequent cause of occupational diseases in musicians, very few studies have focused attention on a single category of instruments, in particular on the violin. This involves, in its practice, almost all the areas of the body, besides being in the category of strings which is the most numerous in an orchestra. A specific protocol, investigating postural and clinical profiles of the musculoskeletal apparatus as well as job stress, was utilized in a conservatory on graduates in the tenth year of violin study, who regularly participated in activities of orchestras or string quartets. The investigation revealed target segments of osteoarticular apparatus (jaw, vertebral spine, shoulders, elbows, hands and fingers, lower limbs) electively subjected to overuse, as well as muscle contracture of trapezoids and hyperkeratosis of fingers and clavicle. Although the work environment was comfortable, most violinists claimed to undergo intense rhythms and competitiveness. This study, highlighting subclinical occupational diseases in young musicians (violinists) suggests adequate prevention measures. PMID:24152849

  7. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gu, Simeng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fushun; Huang, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC)/norepinephrine (NE) system is regarded as a critical part of the central "stress circuitry," whose major function is to induce "fight or flight" behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty). The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear), but also for fight (anger). Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. "Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush" and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders.

  8. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gu, Simeng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fushun; Huang, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC)/norepinephrine (NE) system is regarded as a critical part of the central "stress circuitry," whose major function is to induce "fight or flight" behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty). The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear), but also for fight (anger). Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. "Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush" and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders. PMID:27051536

  9. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Simeng; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jason H.

    2016-01-01

    Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC)/norepinephrine (NE) system is regarded as a critical part of the central “stress circuitry,” whose major function is to induce “fight or flight” behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty). The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear), but also for fight (anger). Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. “Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush” and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders. PMID:27051536

  10. Automatism and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Bisson, J I

    1993-12-01

    A soldier with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who committed a criminal act during a dissociative episode is described. This report and other published cases indicate that criminal acts can occur during dissociative episodes among people who suffer from PTSD. However, the evidence suggests that such incidents are rare and may be overemphasised. There often seems to be little relationship between the crimes committed by war veterans and their war experiences.

  11. The Impact of Healthy Parenting As a Protective Factor for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adulthood: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Adriano R.; Mello, Marcelo F.; Andreoli, Sérgio B.; Fossaluza, Victor; de Araújo, Célia M.; Jackowski, Andrea P.; Bressan, Rodrigo A.; Mari, Jair J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early life social adversity can influence stress response mechanisms and is associated with anxious behaviour and reductions in callosal area later in life. Objective To evaluate the association between perceptions of parental bonding in childhood/adolescence, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response, and callosal structural integrity in adult victims of severe urban violence with and without PTSD. Methods Seventy-one individuals with PTSD and 62 without the disorder were assessed with the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). The prednisolone suppression test was administered to assess cortisol levels, and magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the total area of the corpus callosum (CC), as well as the areas of callosal subregions. Results The PBI items related to the perception of ‘not having a controlling mother’ (OR 4.84; 95%CI [2.26–10.3]; p = 0.01), ‘having a caring father’ (OR 2.46; 95'%CI [1.18–5.12]; p = 0.02), and ‘not having controlling parents’ (OR 2.70; 95%CI [1.10–6.63]; p = 0.04) were associated with a lower risk of PTSD. The PTSD group showed a blunted response to the prednisolone suppression test, with lower salivary cortisol levels upon waking up (p = 0.03). Individuals with PTSD had smaller total CC area than those without the disorder, but these differences were not statistically significant (e-value  = 0.34). Conclusions Healthy parental bonding, characterized by the perception of low parental control and high affection, were associated with a lower risk of PTSD in adulthood, suggesting that emotional enrichment and the encouragement of autonomy are protective against PTSD in adulthood. PMID:24489851

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder and completed suicide.

    PubMed

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Qin, Ping; Lincoln, Alisa K; Miller, Matthew; Lawler, Elizabeth; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Lash, Timothy L

    2010-03-15

    Most research regarding posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suicide has focused on suicidal ideation or attempts; no known study of the association between PTSD and completed suicide in a population-based sample has been reported. This study examined the association between PTSD and completed suicide in a population-based sample. Data were obtained from the nationwide Danish health and administrative registries, which include data on all 5.4 million residents of Denmark. All suicides between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2006, were included, and controls were selected from a sample of all Danish residents. Using this nested case-control design, the authors examined 9,612 suicide cases and 199,306 controls matched to cases on gender, date of birth, and time. Thirty-eight suicide cases (0.40%) and 95 controls (0.05%) were diagnosed with PTSD. The odds ratio associating PTSD with suicide was 9.8 (95% confidence interval: 6.7, 15). The association between PTSD and completed suicide remained after controlling for psychiatric and demographic confounders (odds ratio = 5.3, 95% confidence interval: 3.4, 8.1). Additionally, persons with PTSD and depression had a greater rate of suicide than expected based on their independent effects. In conclusion, a registry-based diagnosis of PTSD based on International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision, is a risk factor for completed suicide. PMID:20160171

  13. Psychometric evaluation of a radio electric auricular treatment for stress related disorders: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this double-blind randomized study is to test the efficacy of a radio electric stimulator device using an auricular reflex therapy protocol for stress-related symptoms. Methods The study has been carried out on 200 subjects (138 females, 62 males) that voluntarily came to our Institute declaring to "feel stressed". The participants were randomly allocated with a computerized procedure: 150 were treated with auricular therapeutic protocol with radio electric stimulator device (REAC) and 50 were treated with an inactivated, placebo REAC. Psychological stress was evaluated trough the self-administered questionnaire Psychological Stress Measure (PSM). Assessment data were collected at 2 time points: before the treatment (T0) and immediately after the therapy cycle of 18 sessions about 4 weeks later (T1). Results In the group treated with REAC, the psychometric evaluation after the therapy's cycle showed a significant reduction of PSM total scores, from 107.8 ± 23,13 at T0 to 87.1 ± 16,21 at T1 (p < 0.5), while in the control group no significant variation in decreasing stress-related symptomatology has been noted (107.86 ± 25,80 at T0 and 106.32 ± 25,88 at T1 (p = NS). Conclusions The protocol of the auricular treatment with REAC seems to reduce the subjective perception of stress, as "psychometrically" demonstrated by the significant reduction in PSM test total score. This therapeutical procedure also provides a non invasive, not painful and very simple innovative approach to treat the widely diffused stress related disorders. Trial Registration This trial has been registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) with the number: ACTRN12607000529448 PMID:20302662

  14. Maternal post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and alcohol dependence and child behaviour outcomes in mother–child dyads infected with HIV: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Nöthling, Jani; Martin, Cherie L; Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark F; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Objectives HIV and psychiatric disorders are prevalent and often concurrent. Childbearing women are at an increased risk for both HIV and psychiatric disorders, specifically depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Poor mental health in the peripartum period has adverse effects on infant development and behaviour. Few studies have investigated the relationship between maternal PTSD and child behaviour outcomes in an HIV vertically infected sample. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal postpartum trauma exposure and PTSD were risk factors for child behaviour problems. In addition, maternal depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability were explored as cofactors. Setting The study was conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants 70 mother–child dyads infected with HIV were selected from a group of participants recruited from community health centres. Design The study followed a longitudinal design. Five measures were used to assess maternal trauma exposure, PTSD, depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability at 12 months postpartum: Life Events Checklist (LEC), Harvard Trauma Scale (HTS), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) Scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Child behaviour was assessed at 42 months with the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Results The rate of maternal disorder was high with 50% scoring above the cut-off for depression, 22.9% for PTSD and 7% for alcohol abuse. Half of the children scored within the clinical range for problematic behaviour. Children of mothers with depression were significantly more likely to display total behaviour problems than children of mothers without depression. Maternal PTSD had the greatest explanatory power for child behaviour problems, although it did not significantly predict child outcomes. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of identifying and managing maternal PTSD and

  15. The psychobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    van der Kolk, B A

    1997-01-01

    This review summarizes the current state of our knowledge of the psychobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). People with PTSD develop an enduring vigilance for and sensitivity to environmental threat. They have difficulty in properly evaluating sensory stimuli and responding with appropriate levels of physiologic and neurohormonal arousal. The inappropriate mobilization of biological emergency responses to innocuous stimuli is mirrored psychologically in an inability to properly integrate memories of the trauma and in a fixation on the past. The biological dysregulation of PTSD can be measured on physiologic, neurohormonal, immunologic, and functional neuroanatomical levels. The developmental level at which the trauma occurs affects the nature and extent of psychobiological disruptions. The availability of neuroimaging for documenting structural and functional abnormalities in PTSD has opened up new ways for understanding the neuronal filters concerned with the interpretation of sensory information in PTSD. These studies have produced a number of unexpected findings, which may alter how we conceptualize PTSD and which may force us to reevaluate appropriate therapeutic interventions.

  16. Multiple Traumatic Experiences and the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sheryn T.

    2007-01-01

    This study assesses the differential and combined impacts of multiple lifetime stressors in the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. One hundred and four clinical and 64 nonclinical participants were assessed for their exposure to four types of interpersonal trauma: physical and sexual abuse in childhood,…

  17. Being a Wife of a Veteran with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekel, Rachel; Goldblatt, Hadass; Keidar, Michal; Solomon, Zahava; Polliack, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We present the findings from a qualitative study examining the marital perceptions of 9 wives of veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data were from a semistructured in-depth focus group interview. Findings reveal how the lives of these women largely revolved around their husbands' illness. The wives faced constant tension between…

  18. The MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical Scales in the Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Comorbid Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Erika J.; Miller, Mark W.; Orazem, Robert J.; Weierich, Mariann R.; Castillo, Diane T.; Milford, Jaime; Kaloupek, Danny G.; Keane, Terence M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Restructured Clinical Scales (RCSs) in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) receiving clinical services at Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers. Study 1 included 1,098 men who completed the MMPI-2 and were…

  19. Adaptation to extreme stress: post-traumatic stress disorder, neuropeptide Y and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rasmusson, Ann M; Schnurr, Paula P; Zukowska, Zofia; Scioli, Erica; Forman, Daniel E

    2010-10-01

    The prevalence rates of obesity and metabolic syndrome are on the rise in the United States. Epidemiological surveys suggest that the rates of these medical conditions are especially high among persons with psychiatric disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A variety of factors are thought to contribute to the risk for metabolic syndrome, including excessive caloric intake, decreased activity and energy expenditure, use of certain medications, stress and genetic influences. Recent research demonstrates that stress, acting through the neuropeptide Y (NPY) and glucocorticoid systems, potentiates the development of obesity and other aspects of metabolic syndrome in mice fed a high caloric, fat and sugar diet. Alterations in the NPY and glucocorticoid systems also impact behavioral adaptation to stress, as indicated by studies in animals and persons exposed to severe, life-threatening or traumatic stress. The following review examines the biology of the NPY and neuroactive steroid systems as physiological links between metabolic syndrome and PTSD, a paradigmatic neuropsychiatric stress disorder. Hopefully, understanding the function of these systems from both a translational and systems biology point of view in relation to stress will enable development of more effective methods for preventing and treating the negative physical and mental health consequences of stress.

  20. Oxidative stress and metabolic disorders: Pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Rani, Vibha; Deep, Gagan; Singh, Rakesh K; Palle, Komaraiah; Yadav, Umesh C S

    2016-03-01

    Increased body weight and metabolic disorder including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications together constitute metabolic syndrome. The pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome involves multitude of factors. A number of studies however indicate, with some conformity, that oxidative stress along with chronic inflammatory condition pave the way for the development of metabolic diseases. Oxidative stress, a state of lost balance between the oxidative and anti-oxidative systems of the cells and tissues, results in the over production of oxidative free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Excessive ROS generated could attack the cellular proteins, lipids and nucleic acids leading to cellular dysfunction including loss of energy metabolism, altered cell signalling and cell cycle control, genetic mutations, altered cellular transport mechanisms and overall decreased biological activity, immune activation and inflammation. In addition, nutritional stress such as that caused by high fat high carbohydrate diet also promotes oxidative stress as evident by increased lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonylation, and decreased antioxidant system and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. These changes lead to initiation of pathogenic milieu and development of several chronic diseases. Studies suggest that in obese person oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are the important underlying factors that lead to development of pathologies such as carcinogenesis, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases through altered cellular and nuclear mechanisms, including impaired DNA damage repair and cell cycle regulation. Here we discuss the aspects of metabolic disorders-induced oxidative stress in major pathological conditions and strategies for their prevention and therapy.

  1. The psychobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Nutt, D J

    2000-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops after exposure to events that are threatening and/or intensely distressing. Accumulating evidence suggests that intense psychological trauma can cause long-standing alterations in the neurobiological response to stress. These alterations translate into a number of symptoms commonly experienced by patients with PTSD. Current treatments for this disorder are only partially effective in managing the disease, and patients have to endure unpleasant symptoms associated with hyperarousal. As a result, they often withdraw from social interaction and increase the use of central nervous system depressants. Data suggest that biological dysregulation of the glutamatergic, amine neurotransmitter (noradrenergic and serotonergic), and neuroendocrine pathways plays a fundamental part in the pathology of PTSD and may cause brain structural as well as functional abnormalities. Knowledge of these pathologic changes in PTSD provides direction for the development of new treatments that will offer more comprehensive management of PTSD and enable patients to enjoy a much improved quality of life. This article reviews current knowledge regarding the psychobiology of PTSD and considers specific agents that are emerging as key modulators of this pathological process.

  2. A four-year follow-up controlled study of stress response and symptom persistence in Brazilian children and adolescents with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Palma, Sonia Maria Motta; Natale, Ana Carolina Motta Palma; Calil, Helena Maria

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Disorder andHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), reassessing them at a four-year follow-up. Their cortisol response to a stress stimulus was measured twice. ADHD symptom persistence, development of comorbidities, and psychostimulant usage were also reassessed. The initial sample consisted of 38 ADHD patients and 38 healthy controls, age ranging 6-14. At the follow-up, there were 37 ADHD patients and 22 healthy controls, age ranging 10-18. ADHD was classified as persistent if the patients fulfilled all DSM IV criteria for syndromic or subthreshold or had functional impairment. Salivary cortisol samples were collected prior to the application of a cognitive stressor (Continuous Performance Test - CPT), and at three time intervals afterwards at baseline and at the follow-up. Their reassessment showed that 75% had persistent symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities (oppositional defiant and behavioral disorders), functional and academic impairement. Only seven patients were on medication. The ADHD group's cortisol levels were lower than those measured four years earlier, but cortisol concentrations were similar for both ADHD and control groups at the four-year follow-up. The cortisol results suggest that HPA axis reactivity could be a marker differentiating ADHD from ADHD with comorbidities.

  3. A four-year follow-up controlled study of stress response and symptom persistence in Brazilian children and adolescents with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Palma, Sonia Maria Motta; Natale, Ana Carolina Motta Palma; Calil, Helena Maria

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Disorder andHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), reassessing them at a four-year follow-up. Their cortisol response to a stress stimulus was measured twice. ADHD symptom persistence, development of comorbidities, and psychostimulant usage were also reassessed. The initial sample consisted of 38 ADHD patients and 38 healthy controls, age ranging 6-14. At the follow-up, there were 37 ADHD patients and 22 healthy controls, age ranging 10-18. ADHD was classified as persistent if the patients fulfilled all DSM IV criteria for syndromic or subthreshold or had functional impairment. Salivary cortisol samples were collected prior to the application of a cognitive stressor (Continuous Performance Test - CPT), and at three time intervals afterwards at baseline and at the follow-up. Their reassessment showed that 75% had persistent symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities (oppositional defiant and behavioral disorders), functional and academic impairement. Only seven patients were on medication. The ADHD group's cortisol levels were lower than those measured four years earlier, but cortisol concentrations were similar for both ADHD and control groups at the four-year follow-up. The cortisol results suggest that HPA axis reactivity could be a marker differentiating ADHD from ADHD with comorbidities. PMID:26365689

  4. Understanding posttraumatic stress disorder: insights from the methylome.

    PubMed

    Malan-Müller, S; Seedat, S; Hemmings, S M J

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous disease-associated variants; however, these variants have a minor effect on disease and explain only a small amount of the heritability of complex disorders. The search for the missing heritability has shifted attention to rare variants, copy number variants, copy neutral variants and epigenetic modifications. The central role of epigenetics, and specifically DNA methylation, in disease susceptibility and progression has become more apparent in recent years. Epigenetic mechanisms facilitate the response to environmental changes and challenges by regulating gene expression. This makes the study of DNA methylation in psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) highly salient, as the environment plays such a vital role in disease aetiology. The epigenome is dynamic and can be modulated by numerous factors, including learning and memory, which are important in the context of PTSD. Numerous studies have shown the effects of early life events, such as maternal separation and traumas during adulthood, on DNA methylation patterns and subsequent gene expression profiles. Aberrations in adaptive DNA methylation contribute to disease susceptibility when an organism is unable to effectively respond to environmental demands. Epigenetic mechanisms are also involved in higher order brain functions. Dysregulation of methylation is associated with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative cognitive disorders, affective disorders, addictive behaviours and altered stress responses. A thorough understanding of how the environment, methylome and transcriptome interact and influence each other in the context of fear and anxiety is integral to our understanding and treatment of stress-related disorders such as PTSD. PMID:24286388

  5. High self-perceived stress and poor coping in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Blomqvist, My

    2015-08-01

    Despite average intellectual capacity, autistic traits may complicate performance in many everyday situations, thus leading to stress. This study focuses on stress in everyday life in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorders. In total, 53 adults (25 with autism spectrum disorder and 28 typical adults from the general population) completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Autistic traits were assessed using the Autism Spectrum Quotient. Adults with autism spectrum disorder reported significantly higher subjective stress and poorer ability to cope with stress in everyday life, as compared to typical adults. Autistic traits were associated with both subjective stress/distress and coping in this cross-sectional series. The long-term consequences of chronic stress in everyday life, as well as treatment intervention focusing on stress and coping, should be addressed in future research as well as in the clinical management of intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorder.

  6. Addiction as a Stress Surfeit Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Koob, George F.; Buck, Cara L.; Cohen, Ami; Edwards, Scott; Park, Paula E.; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Schmeichel, Brooke; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.; Wade, Carrie L.; Whitfield, Timothy W.; George, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction has been conceptualized as a chronically relapsing disorder of compulsive drug seeking and taking that progresses through three stages: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation. Drug addiction impacts multiple motivational mechanisms and can be conceptualized as a disorder that progresses from positive reinforcement (binge/intoxication stage) to negative reinforcement (withdrawal/negative affect stage). The construct of negative reinforcement is defined as drug taking that alleviates a negative emotional state. Our hypothesis is that the negative emotional state that drives such negative reinforcement is derived from dysregulation of key neurochemical elements involved in the brain stress systems within the frontal cortex, ventral striatum, and extended amygdala. Specific neurochemical elements in these structures include not only recruitment of the classic stress axis mediated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the extended amygdala as previously hypothesized but also recruitment of dynorphin-κ opioid aversive systems in the ventral striatum and extended amygdala. Additionally, we hypothesized that these brain stress systems may be engaged in the frontal cortex early in the addiction process. Excessive drug taking engages activation of CRF not only in the extended amygdala, accompanied by anxiety-like states, but also in the medial prefrontal cortex, accompanied by deficits in executive function that may facilitate the transition to compulsive-like responding. Excessive activation of the nucleus accumbens via the release of mesocorticolimbic dopamine or activation of opioid receptors has long been hypothesized to subsequently activate the dynorphin-κ opioid system, which in turn can decrease dopaminergic activity in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Blockade of the κ opioid system can also block anxiety-like and reward deficits associated with withdrawal from drugs of abuse and block the

  7. Addiction as a stress surfeit disorder.

    PubMed

    Koob, George F; Buck, Cara L; Cohen, Ami; Edwards, Scott; Park, Paula E; Schlosburg, Joel E; Schmeichel, Brooke; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Wade, Carrie L; Whitfield, Timothy W; George, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction has been conceptualized as a chronically relapsing disorder of compulsive drug seeking and taking that progresses through three stages: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation. Drug addiction impacts multiple motivational mechanisms and can be conceptualized as a disorder that progresses from positive reinforcement (binge/intoxication stage) to negative reinforcement (withdrawal/negative affect stage). The construct of negative reinforcement is defined as drug taking that alleviates a negative emotional state. Our hypothesis is that the negative emotional state that drives such negative reinforcement is derived from dysregulation of key neurochemical elements involved in the brain stress systems within the frontal cortex, ventral striatum, and extended amygdala. Specific neurochemical elements in these structures include not only recruitment of the classic stress axis mediated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the extended amygdala as previously hypothesized but also recruitment of dynorphin-κ opioid aversive systems in the ventral striatum and extended amygdala. Additionally, we hypothesized that these brain stress systems may be engaged in the frontal cortex early in the addiction process. Excessive drug taking engages activation of CRF not only in the extended amygdala, accompanied by anxiety-like states, but also in the medial prefrontal cortex, accompanied by deficits in executive function that may facilitate the transition to compulsive-like responding. Excessive activation of the nucleus accumbens via the release of mesocorticolimbic dopamine or activation of opioid receptors has long been hypothesized to subsequently activate the dynorphin-κ opioid system, which in turn can decrease dopaminergic activity in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Blockade of the κ opioid system can also block anxiety-like and reward deficits associated with withdrawal from drugs of abuse and block the

  8. Addiction as a stress surfeit disorder.

    PubMed

    Koob, George F; Buck, Cara L; Cohen, Ami; Edwards, Scott; Park, Paula E; Schlosburg, Joel E; Schmeichel, Brooke; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Wade, Carrie L; Whitfield, Timothy W; George, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction has been conceptualized as a chronically relapsing disorder of compulsive drug seeking and taking that progresses through three stages: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation. Drug addiction impacts multiple motivational mechanisms and can be conceptualized as a disorder that progresses from positive reinforcement (binge/intoxication stage) to negative reinforcement (withdrawal/negative affect stage). The construct of negative reinforcement is defined as drug taking that alleviates a negative emotional state. Our hypothesis is that the negative emotional state that drives such negative reinforcement is derived from dysregulation of key neurochemical elements involved in the brain stress systems within the frontal cortex, ventral striatum, and extended amygdala. Specific neurochemical elements in these structures include not only recruitment of the classic stress axis mediated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the extended amygdala as previously hypothesized but also recruitment of dynorphin-κ opioid aversive systems in the ventral striatum and extended amygdala. Additionally, we hypothesized that these brain stress systems may be engaged in the frontal cortex early in the addiction process. Excessive drug taking engages activation of CRF not only in the extended amygdala, accompanied by anxiety-like states, but also in the medial prefrontal cortex, accompanied by deficits in executive function that may facilitate the transition to compulsive-like responding. Excessive activation of the nucleus accumbens via the release of mesocorticolimbic dopamine or activation of opioid receptors has long been hypothesized to subsequently activate the dynorphin-κ opioid system, which in turn can decrease dopaminergic activity in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Blockade of the κ opioid system can also block anxiety-like and reward deficits associated with withdrawal from drugs of abuse and block the

  9. [Interpersonal psychotherapy for work-related stress depressive disorders].

    PubMed

    Schramm, E; Berger, M

    2013-07-01

    In general work involves health promoting functions but can also have hazardous impacts on well-being. Due to a massive change in working conditions it has become increasingly more recognized that depressive disorders are highly prevalent at the workplace and that work stress belongs to the most common triggers of depressive disorders, particularly in men. It is relevant to differentiate between subjectively experienced burnout and clinical depression. The best investigated psychosocial work stressors include increased job demands in connection with low control possibilities and lack of gratification, interpersonal conflicts, role stress and social isolation. For the treatment of work-related clinical depression, an additional focus of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) of depression, namely "work-related stress and burnout experience" was conceptualized based on a vulnerability-stress model and the fact that work usually takes place in an interpersonal context. This new problem area focuses on role stress and conflicts at work and the reduction of stressful working conditions. Interpersonal psychotherapy has so far been useful for the treatment of depression due to problems at work; however, further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this newly designed problem area.

  10. Post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid use disorder: A narrative review of conceptual models.

    PubMed

    Danovitch, Itai

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is highly prevalent among individuals who suffer from opioid use disorder. Compared to individuals with opioid use disorder alone, those with post-traumatic stress disorder have a worse course of illness, occupational functioning, and physical health. The neurobiological pathways underlying each disorder overlap substantially, and there are multiple pathways through which these disorders may interact. This narrative review explores evidence underpinning 3 explanatory perspectives on comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid use disorder: The opioid susceptibility model (a.k.a.: the Self-Medication Hypothesis), the post-traumatic stress disorder susceptibility model, and the common factors model. Diagnostic implications, treatment implications, and directions for future research are discussed.

  11. Neurofeedback Treatment and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Effectiveness of Neurofeedback on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and the Optimal Choice of Protocol.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Karen; Andersen, Søren Bo; Carlsson, Jessica

    2016-02-01

    Neurofeedback is an alternative, noninvasive approach used in the treatment of a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many different neurofeedback protocols and methods exist. Likewise, PTSD is a heterogeneous disorder. To review the evidence on effectiveness and preferred protocol when using neurofeedback treatment on PTSD, a systematic search of PubMed, PsychInfo, Embase, and Cochrane databases was undertaken. Five studies were included in this review. Neurofeedback had a statistically significant effect in three studies. Neurobiological changes were reported in three studies. Interpretation of results is, however, limited by differences between the studies and several issues regarding design. The optimistic results presented here qualify neurofeedback as probably efficacious for PTSD treatment.

  12. In search of the trauma memory: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    PubMed

    Sartory, Gudrun; Cwik, Jan; Knuppertz, Helge; Schürholt, Benjamin; Lebens, Morena; Seitz, Rüdiger J; Schulze, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding some discrepancy between results from neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is broad agreement as to the neural circuit underlying this disorder. It is thought to be characterized by an exaggerated amygdalar and decreased medial prefrontal activation to which the elevated anxiety state and concomitant inadequate emotional regulation are attributed. However, the proposed circuit falls short of accounting for the main symptom, unique among anxiety disorders to PTSD, namely, reexperiencing the precipitating event in the form of recurrent, distressing images and recollections. Owing to the technical demands, neuroimaging studies are usually carried out with small sample sizes. A meta-analysis of their findings is more likely to cast light on the involved cortical areas. Coordinate-based meta-analyses employing ES-SDM (Effect Size Signed Differential Mapping) were carried out on 19 studies with 274 PTSD patients. Thirteen of the studies included 145 trauma-exposed control participants. Comparisons between reactions to trauma-related stimuli and a control condition and group comparison of reactions to the trauma-related stimuli were submitted to meta-analysis. Compared to controls and the neutral condition, PTSD patients showed significant activation of the mid-line retrosplenial cortex and precuneus in response to trauma-related stimuli. These midline areas have been implicated in self-referential processing and salient autobiographical memory. PTSD patients also evidenced hyperactivation of the pregenual/anterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral amygdala to trauma-relevant, compared to neutral, stimuli. Patients showed significantly less activation than controls in sensory association areas such as the bilateral temporal gyri and extrastriate area which may indicate that the patients' attention was diverted from the presented stimuli by being focused on the elicited trauma memory. Being involved in

  13. In Search of the Trauma Memory: A Meta-Analysis of Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Symptom Provocation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    PubMed Central

    Sartory, Gudrun; Cwik, Jan; Knuppertz, Helge; Schürholt, Benjamin; Lebens, Morena; Seitz, Rüdiger J.; Schulze, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding some discrepancy between results from neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is broad agreement as to the neural circuit underlying this disorder. It is thought to be characterized by an exaggerated amygdalar and decreased medial prefrontal activation to which the elevated anxiety state and concomitant inadequate emotional regulation are attributed. However, the proposed circuit falls short of accounting for the main symptom, unique among anxiety disorders to PTSD, namely, reexperiencing the precipitating event in the form of recurrent, distressing images and recollections. Owing to the technical demands, neuroimaging studies are usually carried out with small sample sizes. A meta-analysis of their findings is more likely to cast light on the involved cortical areas. Coordinate-based meta-analyses employing ES-SDM (Effect Size Signed Differential Mapping) were carried out on 19 studies with 274 PTSD patients. Thirteen of the studies included 145 trauma-exposed control participants. Comparisons between reactions to trauma-related stimuli and a control condition and group comparison of reactions to the trauma-related stimuli were submitted to meta-analysis. Compared to controls and the neutral condition, PTSD patients showed significant activation of the mid-line retrosplenial cortex and precuneus in response to trauma-related stimuli. These midline areas have been implicated in self-referential processing and salient autobiographical memory. PTSD patients also evidenced hyperactivation of the pregenual/anterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral amygdala to trauma-relevant, compared to neutral, stimuli. Patients showed significantly less activation than controls in sensory association areas such as the bilateral temporal gyri and extrastriate area which may indicate that the patients’ attention was diverted from the presented stimuli by being focused on the elicited trauma memory. Being involved in

  14. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Orofacial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Prica, Natalija; Shejbal, Dražen

    2015-01-01

    Chronic orofacial pain occurs frequently in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and at the same time any pathological process involving orofacial area can be reflected in emotional interpretation of pain and can trigger a series of reactions associated with the PTSD group of symptoms in patients with PTSD. Painful stimuli caused in this way may occur after the primary cause ceased, and because of convergence can cause referred pain outside of the anatomical site where the primary injury occurred. Chronic orofacial pain and PTSD are diagnosed on the basis of subjective testimony and this regularly occurs in the context of social interaction between patients, doctors, medical staff or researchers making it difficult to standardize the results and introduces many cultural phenomena.

  15. Posttraumatic stress disorder among black Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Allen, I M

    1986-01-01

    Because of racism in the military and racial and social upheaval in the United States during the Vietnam War years, as well as limited opportunities for blacks in the postwar period, black veterans of the Vietnam War often harbor conflicting feelings about their wartime experiences and have difficulty rationalizing brutality against the Vietnamese. As a result, black veterans suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at a higher rate than white veterans. Diagnosis and treatment of PTSD in black veterans is complicated by the tendency to misdiagnose black patients, by the varied manifestations of PTSD, and by patients' frequent alcohol and drug abuse and medical, legal, personality, and vocational problems. The author presents his and others' recommendations about ways to treat black veterans with PTSD.

  16. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Acute Stress Disorder Resulting from an Anti-Gay Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaysen, Debra; Lostutter, Ty W.; Goines, Marie A.

    2005-01-01

    This case study describes Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) with a 30-year-old gay man with symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) following a recent homophobic assault. Treatment addressed assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Also addressed were low self-esteem, helplessness, and high degrees of…

  17. High Self-Perceived Stress and Poor Coping in Intellectually Able Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Blomqvist, My

    2015-01-01

    Despite average intellectual capacity, autistic traits may complicate performance in many everyday situations, thus leading to stress. This study focuses on stress in everyday life in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorders. In total, 53 adults (25 with autism spectrum disorder and 28 typical adults from the general population)…

  18. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoboria, Alan; Ford, Julian; Lin, Hsiu-ju; Frisman, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to provide the first empirical examination of the factor structure of a revised version of the clinically derived Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress, a structured interview designed to assess associated features of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) thought to be related to early onset, interpersonal,…

  19. Factor Structure of the Acute Stress Disorder Scale in a Sample of Hurricane Katrina Evacuees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Donald; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal L.

    2010-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) is a poorly understood and controversial diagnosis (A. G. Harvey & R. A. Bryant, 2002). The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factor structure of the most widely used self-report measure of ASD, the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (R. A. Bryant, M. L. Moulds, & R. M. Guthrie, 2000), in a…

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder and partner-specific social cognition: A pilot study of sex differences in the impact of arginine vasopressin

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Amy D.

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with problems in intimate relationships, partly due to deficits in social cognition. In this study, the role of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the link between PTSD and partner-specific social cognition was examined. Participants were 24 individuals from 12 heterosexual couples in which at least one partner exhibited clinically significant PTSD symptoms. Attention to partner expressions of anger was examined as an indicator of distress and need for affiliative behaviors to repair the relationship bond. AVP administration improved the speed of men’s attentional engagement with their partners’ expressions of anger and alleviated the negative impact of PTSD on this social cognitive process. Further, men’s morning urinary AVP levels were negatively correlated with their PTSD severity. No such effects were found among women or for attention to unfamiliar men’s or women’s anger expressions. Thus, the AVP system may function in the relationship problems associated with PTSD. PMID:23470513

  1. Aberrant EEG functional connectivity and EEG power spectra in resting state post-traumatic stress disorder: a sLORETA study.

    PubMed

    Imperatori, Claudio; Farina, Benedetto; Quintiliani, Maria Isabella; Onofri, Antonio; Castelli Gattinara, Paola; Lepore, Marta; Gnoni, Valentina; Mazzucchi, Edoardo; Contardi, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the modifications of EEG power spectra and EEG connectivity of resting state (RS) condition in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventeen patients and seventeen healthy subjects matched for age and gender were enrolled. EEG was recorded during 5min of RS. EEG analysis was conducted by means of the standardized Low Resolution Electric Tomography software (sLORETA). In power spectra analysis PTSD patients showed a widespread increase of theta activity (4.5-7.5Hz) in parietal lobes (Brodmann Area, BA 7, 4, 5, 40) and in frontal lobes (BA 6). In the connectivity analysis PTSD patients also showed increase of alpha connectivity (8-12.5Hz) between the cortical areas explored by Pz-P4 electrode. Our results could reflect the alteration of memory systems and emotional processing consistently altered in PTSD patients.

  2. Longitudinal Associations Among Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Disordered Eating, and Weight Gain in Military Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, K S; Porter, B; Boyko, E J; Field, A E

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in the United States and a growing concern among members of the military. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with overweight and obesity and may increase the risk of those conditions among military service members. Disordered eating behaviors have also been associated with PTSD and weight gain. However, eating disorders remain understudied in military samples. We investigated longitudinal associations among PTSD, disordered eating, and weight gain in the Millennium Cohort Study, which includes a nationally representative sample of male (n = 27,741) and female (n = 6,196) service members. PTSD at baseline (time 1; 2001-2003) was associated with disordered eating behaviors at time 2 (2004-2006), as well as weight change from time 2 to time 3 (2007-2008). Structural equation modeling results revealed that the association between PTSD and weight change from time 2 to time 3 was mediated by disordered eating symptoms. The association between PTSD and weight gain resulting from compensatory behaviors (vomiting, laxative use, fasting, overexercise) was significant for white participants only and for men but not women. PTSD was both directly and indirectly (through disordered eating) associated with weight change. These results highlight potentially important demographic differences in these associations and emphasize the need for further investigation of eating disorders in military service members. PMID:27283146

  3. Prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Due to Community Violence Among University Students in the World's Most Dangerous Megacity: A Cross-Sectional Study From Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Ahad; Haider, Ghani; Sheikh, Maryam Rahim; Ali, Ambreen Fatima; Khalid, Zain; Tahir, Muhammad Munaim; Malik, Tayyaba Maqbool; Salick, Muhammad Musa; Lakhani, Laila Saleem; Yousuf, Fatimah Sireen; Khan, Muhammad Babar; Saleem, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Community violence among the youth can lead to a number of adverse psychiatric outcomes including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, little research has been conducted in non-Western countries to assess this problem. This study aims to fill the void by assessing the lifetime exposure to traumatic events and burden of probable PTSD among university students in Karachi, Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted at four private institutions in Karachi. Self-administered questionnaires were filled out by 320 students. Lifetime exposure and symptoms of PTSD were assessed using modified Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) questionnaires, respectively. A PCL-C score of 44 or above was used as cutoff for probable PTSD. Pearson chi-square test was used to assess the association between PTSD and different variables at a level of significance of 5%. Ninety-three percent of the respondents reported having lifetime exposure to at least one traumatic event with sudden unexpected death of a loved one (n = 187) and assaultive violence (n = 169) being the commonest reported traumatic events. Positive association for PTSD was seen with enduring physical attacks and motor vehicle accidents. Over a quarter of the students screened positive for probable PTSD, among them almost one third were male and 17% were female. Our results indicate a high exposure to violent events and elevated rates of lifetime PTSD among urban youth. Reduction in violence and better access to mental health facilities is warranted to decrease the health burden of PTSD in Pakistan. PMID:25814507

  4. Prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Due to Community Violence Among University Students in the World's Most Dangerous Megacity: A Cross-Sectional Study From Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Ahad; Haider, Ghani; Sheikh, Maryam Rahim; Ali, Ambreen Fatima; Khalid, Zain; Tahir, Muhammad Munaim; Malik, Tayyaba Maqbool; Salick, Muhammad Musa; Lakhani, Laila Saleem; Yousuf, Fatimah Sireen; Khan, Muhammad Babar; Saleem, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Community violence among the youth can lead to a number of adverse psychiatric outcomes including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, little research has been conducted in non-Western countries to assess this problem. This study aims to fill the void by assessing the lifetime exposure to traumatic events and burden of probable PTSD among university students in Karachi, Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted at four private institutions in Karachi. Self-administered questionnaires were filled out by 320 students. Lifetime exposure and symptoms of PTSD were assessed using modified Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) questionnaires, respectively. A PCL-C score of 44 or above was used as cutoff for probable PTSD. Pearson chi-square test was used to assess the association between PTSD and different variables at a level of significance of 5%. Ninety-three percent of the respondents reported having lifetime exposure to at least one traumatic event with sudden unexpected death of a loved one (n = 187) and assaultive violence (n = 169) being the commonest reported traumatic events. Positive association for PTSD was seen with enduring physical attacks and motor vehicle accidents. Over a quarter of the students screened positive for probable PTSD, among them almost one third were male and 17% were female. Our results indicate a high exposure to violent events and elevated rates of lifetime PTSD among urban youth. Reduction in violence and better access to mental health facilities is warranted to decrease the health burden of PTSD in Pakistan.

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder is associated with emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Lisa S; Maguen, Shira; Epel, Elissa S; Metzler, Thomas J; Neylan, Thomas C

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and emotional eating in a sample of medically healthy and medication-free adults. Participants with PTSD (n = 44) and control participants free of lifetime psychiatric history (n = 49) completed a measure of emotional eating. Emotional eating is the tendency to eat or overeat in response to negative emotions. PTSD participants exhibited greater emotional eating than control participants (η(2)  = .20) and emotional eating increased with higher PTSD symptom severity (R(2)  = .11). Results supported the stress-eating-obesity model whereby emotional eating is a maladaptive response to stressors. Over time, this could lead to weight gain, particularly abdominal stores, and contribute to higher risk for comorbid medical disorders. Findings suggest the importance of future longitudinal research to understand whether emotional eating contributes to the high rates of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease in PTSD.

  6. The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Workgroup: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Enters the Age of Large-Scale Genomic Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Logue, Mark W; Amstadter, Ananda B; Baker, Dewleen G; Duncan, Laramie; Koenen, Karestan C; Liberzon, Israel; Miller, Mark W; Morey, Rajendra A; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Ressler, Kerry J; Smith, Alicia K; Smoller, Jordan W; Stein, Murray B; Sumner, Jennifer A; Uddin, Monica

    2015-09-01

    The development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is influenced by genetic factors. Although there have been some replicated candidates, the identification of risk variants for PTSD has lagged behind genetic research of other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism, and bipolar disorder. Psychiatric genetics has moved beyond examination of specific candidate genes in favor of the genome-wide association study (GWAS) strategy of very large numbers of samples, which allows for the discovery of previously unsuspected genes and molecular pathways. The successes of genetic studies of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have been aided by the formation of a large-scale GWAS consortium: the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC). In contrast, only a handful of GWAS of PTSD have appeared in the literature to date. Here we describe the formation of a group dedicated to large-scale study of PTSD genetics: the PGC-PTSD. The PGC-PTSD faces challenges related to the contingency on trauma exposure and the large degree of ancestral genetic diversity within and across participating studies. Using the PGC analysis pipeline supplemented by analyses tailored to address these challenges, we anticipate that our first large-scale GWAS of PTSD will comprise over 10 000 cases and 30 000 trauma-exposed controls. Following in the footsteps of our PGC forerunners, this collaboration-of a scope that is unprecedented in the field of traumatic stress-will lead the search for replicable genetic associations and new insights into the biological underpinnings of PTSD.

  7. Epigenetic signaling in psychiatric disorders: stress and depression.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Labonté, Benoit; Peña, Catherine J; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-09-01

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial disorders involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function. While genetic factors play a role in the etiology of disorders such as depression, addiction, and schizophrenia, relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins clearly point to the importance of additional factors. Environmental factors, such as stress, play a major role in the psychiatric disorders by inducing stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior. Insults at the developmental stage and in adulthood appear to induce distinct maladaptations. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and associated aberrant epigenetic regulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Aspects of depression can be modeled in animals by inducing disease-like states through environmental manipulations, and these studies can provide a more general understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in psychiatric disorders. Understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery in animal models is providing new insights into disease mechanisms in humans. PMID:25364280

  8. Epigenetic signaling in psychiatric disorders: stress and depression.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Labonté, Benoit; Peña, Catherine J; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-09-01

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial disorders involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function. While genetic factors play a role in the etiology of disorders such as depression, addiction, and schizophrenia, relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins clearly point to the importance of additional factors. Environmental factors, such as stress, play a major role in the psychiatric disorders by inducing stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior. Insults at the developmental stage and in adulthood appear to induce distinct maladaptations. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and associated aberrant epigenetic regulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Aspects of depression can be modeled in animals by inducing disease-like states through environmental manipulations, and these studies can provide a more general understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in psychiatric disorders. Understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery in animal models is providing new insights into disease mechanisms in humans.

  9. Neural mechanisms of impaired fear inhibition in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Tanja; Norrholm, Seth Davin

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can develop in some individuals who are exposed to an event that causes extreme fear, horror, or helplessness (APA, 1994). PTSD is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, which is often co-morbid with depression, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders such as panic or social phobia. Given this complexity, progress in the field can be greatly enhanced by focusing on phenotypes that are more proximal to the neurobiology of the disorder. Such neurobiological intermediate phenotypes can provide investigative tools to increase our understanding of the roots of the disorder and develop better prevention or intervention programs. In the present paper, we argue that the inhibition of fear responses is an intermediate phenotype that is related to both the neurocircuitry associated with the disorder, and is linked to its clinical symptoms. An advantage of focusing on fear inhibition is that the neurobiology of fear has been well investigated in animal models providing the necessary groundwork in understanding alterations. Furthermore, because many paradigms can be tested across species, fear inhibition is an ideal translational tool. Here we review both the behavioral tests and measures of fear inhibition and the related neurocircuitry in neuroimaging studies with both healthy and clinical samples. PMID:21845177

  10. Treating Low-Income and Minority Women with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Pilot Study Comparing Prolonged Exposure and Treatment as Usual Conducted by Community Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feske, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-one female psychiatric outpatients with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are randomly assigned to prolonged exposure (PE; n = 9) for PTSD or treatment as usual (TAU; n = 12). Participants are predominately low income and African American with complex trauma and psychiatric histories. Treatment is delivered by community…

  11. Posttraumatic stress disorder as an insanity defense: medicolegal quicksand.

    PubMed

    Sparr, L F; Atkinson, R M

    1986-05-01

    A growing awareness of posttraumatic stress disorder has led to recent use of the disorder as a legal defense against criminal responsibility for both violent and nonviolent crimes. Diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder is difficult because the symptoms are mostly subjective, often nonspecific, usually well publicized, and, therefore, relatively easy to imitate. Accurate psychiatric testimony in such cases requires diligent searching for collateral sources of information. The authors argue that the insanity defense is appropriate only in the rare instance that a dissociative episode related to posttraumatic stress disorder directly leads to criminal activity.

  12. [Post-traumatic stress disorder: a problem for occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Koniarek, J

    2000-01-01

    The impact of the mental stress on the human functioning and health has been evidenced in numerous studies. The majority of these studies focus on adverse effects of a long-term stress. Recently, a growing attention has been paid to the relationship between health and acute stress induced by sudden and short-lasting events or experiences characterised by particular intensity. A traumatic stress is one of the forms of the acute stress. It is some kind of reaction to an event in which life of an individual is directly threatened (serious injury, endangered physical integrity, etc.) or he/she witnesses sudden death, serious injury or life-threatening situation of other people. Traumatic experiences may lead among others to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The review of the studies, presented in this paper, indicates that the proportion of people with traumatic experiences ranges between 40 and 90% depending on the population. There are professions (rescue services, the police, etc.) with inherent traumatic experiences. About 10% of people with traumatic experiences develop PTSD. The author indicates factors responsible for the development of PTSD. The society, particularly people whose professions involve traumatic experiences, and those employed in various institutions responsible for health care should be aware of health problems related to this kind of experiences. PMID:11002473

  13. Diagnosis and Management of Sleep Disorders in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder:A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mohsenin, Shahla

    2014-01-01

    Objective: International and societal conflicts and natural disasters can leave physical and mental scars in people who are directly affected by these traumatic experiences. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the clinical manifestation of these experiences in the form of re-experiencing the trauma, avoidance of trauma-related stimuli, and persistent symptoms of hyperarousal. There is growing evidence that sleep disruption that occurs following trauma exposure may in fact contribute to the pathophysiology of PTSD and poor clinical outcomes. The purpose of this review is to highlight the importance of recognition and management of sleep disorders in patients with PTSD. Data Sources: English-language, adult research studies published between 1985 and April 2014 were identified via the PubMed database. The search terms used were PTSD AND sleep disorders. Study Selection: The search identified 792 original and review articles. Of these, 53 articles that discussed or researched sleep disorders in PTSD were selected. Fourteen randomized controlled trials of therapy for PTSD are included in this review. Results: Impaired sleep is a common complaint mainly in the form of nightmares and insomnia among people with PTSD. Sleep apnea and periodic limb movement disorder are particularly prevalent in patients with PTSD and, yet, remain unrecognized. Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are effective in improving PTSD global symptoms, they have a variable and modest effect on sleep disorder symptoms. Cognitive-behavioral treatment targeted to sleep and/or the use of the centrally acting selective α1 antagonist prazosin have been more successful in treating insomnia and nightmares in PTSD than other classes of medications. In view of the high occurrence of sleep apnea and periodic leg movement disorder, a thorough sleep evaluation and treatment are warranted. Conclusions: Patients with PTSD have a high prevalence of sleep disorders and should be queried for

  14. At the crossroads: the intersection of substance use disorders, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Ruglass, Lesia M; Lopez-Castro, Teresa; Cheref, Soumia; Papini, Santiago; Hien, Denise A

    2014-11-01

    The co-occurrence of substance use disorders with anxiety disorders and/or posttraumatic stress disorder has been widely documented and when compared to each disorder alone, consistently linked to increased risk for a host of negative outcomes including greater impairment, poorer treatment response, and higher rates of symptom relapse. This article focuses on recent advances in the understanding and effective treatment of this common and highly complex comorbidity. Prevalence and epidemiological data are introduced, followed by a review of contemporary models of etiology and associative pathways. Conceptualizations of effective treatment approaches are discussed alongside evidence from the past decade of clinical research trials. Highlighted are ongoing questions regarding the benefit of sequential, parallel, and integrated approaches and the necessity of further investigation into the mechanisms underlying treatment efficacy. Lastly, recent contributions from neuroscience research are offered as a promising bridge for the development and testing of novel, interdisciplinary treatment approaches. PMID:25224608

  15. Neural response to errors in combat-exposed returning veterans with and without post-traumatic stress disorder: a preliminary event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Rabinak, Christine A; Holman, Alexis; Angstadt, Mike; Kennedy, Amy E; Hajcak, Greg; Phan, Kinh Luan

    2013-07-30

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by sustained anxiety, hypervigilance for potential threat, and hyperarousal. These symptoms may enhance self-perception of one's actions, particularly the detection of errors, which may threaten safety. The error-related negativity (ERN) is an electrocortical response to the commission of errors, and previous studies have shown that other anxiety disorders associated with exaggerated anxiety and enhanced action monitoring exhibit an enhanced ERN. However, little is known about how traumatic experience and PTSD would affect the ERN. To address this gap, we measured the ERN in returning Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans with combat-related PTSD (PTSD group), combat-exposed OEF/OIF veterans without PTSD [combat-exposed control (CEC) group], and non-traumatized healthy participants [healthy control (HC) group]. Event-related potential and behavioral measures were recorded while 16 PTSD patients, 18 CEC, and 16 HC participants completed an arrow version of the flanker task. No difference in the magnitude of the ERN was observed between the PTSD and HC groups; however, in comparison with the PTSD and HC groups, the CEC group displayed a blunted ERN response. These findings suggest that (1) combat trauma itself does not affect the ERN response; (2) PTSD is not associated with an abnormal ERN response; and (3) an attenuated ERN in those previously exposed to combat trauma but who have not developed PTSD may reflect resilience to the disorder, less motivation to do the task, or a decrease in the significance or meaningfulness of 'errors,' which could be related to combat experience.

  16. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adult Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Is ADHD a Vulnerability Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, L. A.; Kunz, M.; Chua, H. C.; Rotrosen, J.; Resnick, S. G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: There is limited evidence suggesting a link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This study examined the association between PTSD and ADHD using retrospective and current clinical evaluations. Method: Twenty-five male veterans with PTSD and 22 male veterans with panic …

  17. Co-occurring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorders in Veteran Populations

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Ashlee C.; Capone, Christy; Short, Erica Eaton

    2012-01-01

    Co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorders have become increasingly prevalent in military populations. Over the past decade, PTSD has emerged as one of the most common forms of psychopathology among the 1.7 million American military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND). Among veterans from all eras, symptoms of PTSD have been highly correlated with hazardous drinking, leading to greater decreases in overall health and greater difficulties readjusting to civilian life. In fact, a diagnosis of co-occurring PTSD and alcohol use disorder has proven more detrimental than a diagnosis of PTSD or alcohol use disorder alone. In order to effectively address co-occurring PTSD and alcohol use disorder, both the clinical and research communities have focused on better understanding this comorbidity, as well as increasing treatment outcomes among the veteran population. The purpose of the present article is threefold: (1) present a case study that highlights the manner in which PTSD and alcohol use disorder co-develop after trauma exposure; (2) present scientific theories on co - occurrence of PTSD and alcohol use disorder; and (3) present current treatment options for addressing this common comorbidity. PMID:23087599

  18. Disgust and implicit self-concept in women with borderline personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Schulz, Daniela; Valerius, Gabi; Steil, Regina; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2011-08-01

    Disgust may be a key emotion and target for psychotherapeutic interventions in borderline personality disorder (BPD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at explicit and implicit-automatic levels. However, automatically activated disgust reactions in individuals with these disorders have not been studied. Disgust and its correlation with childhood abuse were assessed in women with BPD, but without PTSD; women with PTSD, but without BPD; women with BPD and PTSD; and healthy women. Disgust sensitivity, anxiety and depression were measured by self-report. Implicit disgust-prone (relative to anxiety-prone) self-concept was assessed using the Implicit Association Test. Women with BPD and/or PTSD reported more disgust sensitivity than controls. The implicit self-concept among patients was more disgust-prone (relative to anxiety-prone) than in controls. Women with BPD, with PTSD, or BPD and PTSD did not differ significantly in self-reported disgust levels or implicit disgust-related self-concept. Among women with BPD and/or PTSD, current psychiatric comorbidity (major depression, anxiety disorder, eating disorder, or substance-related disorder) did not affect disgust-related variables. More severe physical abuse in childhood was associated with a more anxiety-prone (less disgust-prone) implicit self-concept. Independent of psychiatric comorbidity, disgust appears to be elevated at implicit and explicit levels in trauma-related disorders. Psychotherapeutic approaches to address disgust should take implicit processes into account.

  19. Validating the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist with Soldiers Returning from Combat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliese, Paul D.; Wright, Kathleen M.; Adler, Amy B.; Cabrera, Oscar; Castro, Carl A.; Hoge, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to assess the diagnostic efficiency of the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen (PC-PTSD) and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) as clinical screening tools for active duty soldiers recently returned from a combat deployment. A secondary goal was to examine the item-level characteristics…

  20. Acute stress disorder in hospitalised victims of 26/11-terror attack on Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Balasinorwala, Vanshree Patil; Shah, Nilesh

    2010-11-01

    The 26/11 terror attacks on Mumbai have been internationally denounced. Acute stress disorder is common in victims of terror. To find out the prevalence and to correlate acute stress disorder, 70 hospitalised victims of terror were assessed for presence of the same using DSM-IV TR criteria. Demographic data and clinical variables were also collected. Acute stress disorder was found in 30% patients. On demographic profile and severity of injury, there were some interesting observations and differences between the victims who developed acute stress disorder and those who did not; though none of the differences reached the level of statistical significance. This study documents the occurrence of acute stress disorder in the victims of 26/11 terror attack.

  1. Effects of posttraumatic stress disorder on pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rogal, Shari S.; Poschman, Karalee; Belanger, Kathleen; Howell, Heather B.; Smith, Megan V.; Medina, Jessica; Yonkers, Kimberly A.

    2007-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), diagnosed prospectively during pregnancy, and the risk of delivering a low birthweight (<2500 grams) or preterm (<37 weeks gestational age) infant. Methods Pregnant women were recruited from obstetrics clinics and screened for major and minor depressive disorder, panic disorder, PTSD, and substance use. Current episodes of PTSD were diagnosed according to the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and pregnancy outcomes were abstracted from hospital records. Results Among the 1100 women included in analysis, 31 (3%) were in episode for PTSD during pregnancy. Substance use in pregnancy, panic disorder, major and minor depressive disorder, and prior preterm delivery were significantly associated with a diagnosis of PTSD. Preterm delivery was non-significantly higher in pregnant women with (16.1%) compared to those without (7.0%) PTSD (OR= 2.82, 95% C.I. 0.95, 8.38). Low birthweight (LBW) was present in 6.5% of women and was not significantly associated with a diagnosis of PTSD in pregnancy after adjusting for potential confounders. However, LBW was significantly associated with minor depressive disorder (OR= 1.82, 95% C.I.1.01, 3.29). Limitations There was a low prevalence of PTSD in this cohort, resulting in limited power. Conclusions These data suggest a possible association between PTSD and preterm delivery. Coupled with the association found between LBW and a depressive disorder, these results support the utility of screening for mental health disorders in pregnancy. PMID:17291588

  2. Relationship between Self-Reported Health and Stress in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Phil; Sejunaite, Karolina; Osborne, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study explore the relationship between various forms of experienced stress (general stress and parenting stress) and both health-related quality of life (QoL) and reported physical health symptoms. One hundred and twenty-two mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder responded to an online survey included questionnaires on…

  3. Disorder specificity despite comorbidity: resting EEG alpha asymmetry in major depressive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Kemp, A H; Griffiths, K; Felmingham, K L; Shankman, S A; Drinkenburg, W; Arns, M; Clark, C R; Bryant, R A

    2010-10-01

    The approach-withdrawal and valence-arousal models highlight that specific brain laterality profiles may distinguish depression and anxiety. However, studies remain to be conducted in multiple clinical populations that directly test the diagnostic specificity of these hypotheses. The current study compared electroencephalographic data under resting state, eyes closed conditions in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (N=15) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (N=14) relative to healthy controls (N=15) to examine the specificity of brain laterality in these disorders. Key findings included (1) reduced left-frontal activity in MDD, (2) a positive correlation between PTSD severity and right-frontal lateralisation, (3) greater activity in PTSD patients relative to MDD within the right-parietotemporal region, and (4) globally increased alpha power in MDD. Findings partially support the diagnostic applicability of the theoretical frameworks. Future studies may benefit from examining task-driven differences between groups.

  4. Posttraumatic stress disorder: neuroendocrine and pharmacotherapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Amihaesei, Ioana Cristina; Mungiu, O C

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is represented by the development of characteristic symptoms, that appear following direct/indirect exposure to a traumatic event in which physical harm was threatened, witnessed or experienced. PTSD can also occur after the unexpected death of a family member or close friend, following a serious harm or threat of death or injury to a loved one, or in case of divorce or unemplyoement. It occurs in 1%-4% of the population. As neuroendocrine pattern, PTSD is characterized by abnormal low cortisol levels and higher than normal epinephrine and norepinephrine levels. In chronique forms a total decrease of the hippocampal volume, was found, region of the brain involved in processing memories and in the memorization process. Symptoms are grouped in three main categories: re-experiencing the event, accompanied by anxiety, nightmares and flashbacks; persistent avoidance of any reminders of the event, feeling detached or estranged from others; persistent anxiety and/or physical reactivity. As treatment, besides various psychotherapy techniques, various classes of psychotropic drugs are used, such as morphine, antipsychotics, usual or atypical antidepressants, anticonvulsants, to reduce anxiety, avoidance, nightmares and hyperexcitability.

  5. High-intensity sports for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression: feasibility study of ocean therapy with veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Carly M; Mallinson, Trudy; Peppers, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a pretest-posttest investigation of a sports-oriented occupational therapy intervention using surfing in an experiential, skills-based program to support veterans with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in their transition to civilian life. The purpose of this feasibility study was to evaluate the intervention for attendance rates and retention in the program provided in 5 sessions over 5 wk. Fourteen veterans from a specialty postdeployment clinic at a Veterans Affairs hospital were enrolled; 11 completed the study, and 10 attended ≥3 sessions. Participants reported clinically meaningful improvement in PTSD symptom severity (PTSD Checklist-Military Version, Wilcoxon signed rank Z = 2.5, p = .01) and in depressive symptoms (Major Depression Inventory, Wilcoxon signed rank Z = 2.05, p = .04). The results of this small, uncontrolled study suggest that a sports-oriented occupational therapy intervention has potential as a feasible adjunct intervention for veterans seeking mental health treatment for symptoms of PTSD.

  6. Interactions between Disordered Sleep, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vandrey, Ryan; Babson, Kimberly A.; Herrmann, Evan S.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

    2014-01-01

    Disordered sleep is associated with a number of adverse health consequences and is an integral component of many psychiatric disorders. Rates of substance use disorders (SUDs) are markedly higher among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and this relationship may be partly mediated by disturbed sleep. Sleep disturbances (e.g. insomnia, daytime sleepiness, vivid nightmares) are hallmark features of PTSD and there is evidence that individuals with PTSD engage in substance use as a means of coping with these symptoms. However, prolonged substance use can lead to more severe sleep disturbances due to the development of tolerance and withdrawal. Behavioral or pharmacological treatment of disordered sleep is associated with improved daytime symptoms and psychosocial functioning among individuals who have developed PTSD. Initial research also suggests that improving sleep could be similarly beneficial in reducing coping oriented substance use and preventing relapse among those seeking treatment for SUDs. Together, these findings suggest that ameliorating sleep disturbance among at-risk individuals would be a viable target for the prevention and treatment of PTSD and associated SUDs, but prospective research is needed to examine this hypothesis. Enhanced understanding of the interrelation between sleep, PTSD, and SUDs may yield novel prevention and intervention approaches for these costly, prevalent and frequently co-occurring disorders. PMID:24892898

  7. The relation of general socio-emotional processing to parenting specific behavior: a study of mothers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Dominik A.; Aue, Tatjana; Suardi, Francesca; Manini, Aurélia; Sancho Rossignol, Ana; Cordero, Maria I.; Merminod, Gaëlle; Ansermet, François; Rusconi Serpa, Sandra; Favez, Nicolas; Schechter, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Socio-emotional information processing during everyday human interactions has been assumed to translate to social-emotional information processing when parenting a child. Yet, few studies have examined whether this is indeed the case. This study aimed to improve on this by connecting the functional neuroimaging data when seeing socio-emotional interactions that are not parenting specific to observed maternal sensitivity. The current study considered 45 mothers of small children (12–42 months of age). It included healthy controls (HC) and mothers with interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (IPV-PTSD), as well as mothers without PTSD, both with and without IPV exposure. We found that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activity correlated negatively with observed maternal sensitivity when mothers watched videos of menacing vs. prosocial adult male–female interactions. This relationship was independent of whether mothers were HC or had IPV-PTSD. We also found dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) activity to be correlated negatively with maternal sensitivity when mothers watched any kind of arousing adult interactions. With regards to ACC and vmPFC activity, we interpret our results to mean that the ease of general emotional information integration translates to parenting-specific behavior. Our dlPFC activity findings support the idea that the efficiency of top-down control of socio-emotional processing in non-parenting specific contexts may be predictive of parenting behavior. PMID:26578996

  8. Prefrontal responses to digit span memory phases in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): a functional near infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fenghua; Yennu, Amarnath; Smith-Osborne, Alexa; Gonzalez-Lima, F; North, Carol S; Liu, Hanli

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related memory impairments have consistently implicated abnormal activities in the frontal and parietal lobes. However, most studies have used block designs and could not dissociate the multiple phases of working memory. In this study, the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in working memory phases was assessed among veterans with PTSD and age-/gender-matched healthy controls. Multichannel functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was utilized to measure prefrontal cortex hemodynamic activations during memory of neutral (i.e., not trauma-related) forward and backward digit span tasks. An event-related experimental design was utilized to dissociate the different phases (i.e., encoding, maintenance and retrieval) of working memory. The healthy controls showed robust hemodynamic activations during the encoding and retrieval processes. In contrast, the veterans with PTSD were found to have activations during the encoding process, but followed by distinct deactivations during the retrieval process. The PTSD participants, but not the controls, appeared to suppress prefrontal activity during memory retrieval. This deactivation was more pronounced in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the retrieval phase. These deactivations in PTSD patients might implicate an active inhibition of dorsolateral prefrontal neural activity during retrieval of working memory.

  9. The cortisol response to social stress in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Vaccarino, Oriana; Levitan, Robert; Ravindran, Arun

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the cortisol stress response (CSR) following the Trier Social Stress Test in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and control participants, to determine whether individual differences in CSR associate more with SAD diagnosis or dimensional characteristics [i.e. childhood trauma (CT)]. Twenty-one participants (11 with SAD) had full data available for both CT-scores and cortisol area-under-the-curve (AUC). Linear regression produced significant results: predicting AUCG with study group, emotional abuse (EA) scores and their interaction (F=3.14, df=5,15; p=.039); of note, the study group by EA interaction was significant at p=.015, driven by a strong positive association between EA and cortisol AUCG in the control group, and a negative association between these variables in the SAD group (standardized-beta=1.56, t=2.75, p=.015). This suggests that EA in SAD patients is associated with altered CSR, highlighting need to measure dimensional characteristics.

  10. Family characteristics and posttraumatic stress disorder: a follow-up of Israeli combat stress reaction casualties.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Z; Mikulincer, M; Freid, B; Wosner, Y

    1987-09-01

    This study assessed the role of family status and family relationships in the course of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The sample consisted of 382 Israeli soldiers who suffered a combat stress reaction episode during the 1982 Lebanon War. Results showed that one year after the war married soldiers had higher rates of PTSD than did unmarried soldiers. Furthermore, higher rates of PTSD were associated with low expressiveness, low cohesiveness, and high conflict in the casualties' families. Theoretical, methodological, and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:3622749

  11. [Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescent Girls with Posttraumatic Stress Disorders and Substance Use Disorders].

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Monika; Baldus, Christiane; Herschelmann, Susanne; Schäfer, Ingo; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescent Girls with Posttraumatic Stress Disorders and Substance Use Disorders Already in adolescence posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) often occur comorbid. SUD is usually in the focus of treatment and underlying PTSD is not always recognized. To date there is no explicit offer for the simultaneous treatment of both clinical pictures in adolescence. In the present study we tested whether the group intervention Seeking Safety, that is implemented successfully in adulthood, would also be interesting for the youth clientele. In addition we analyzed the characteristics of a target group of girls and young women between 14 and 21 years, that could be reached for such a program in a German city. In the present study we conducted 39 complete interviews that enable an estimation of the various strains and symptoms of those affected. The results clarify that female adolescents with a dual diagnosis PTSD and SUD are currently not sufficiently addressed by the supply system and could benefit from a specific treatment like Seeking Safety. PMID:27595808

  12. Chronic pain patients with possible co-morbid post-traumatic stress disorder admitted to multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation—a 1-year cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Andersen, Lou-Ann Christensen; Andersen, Per Grünwald

    2014-01-01

    Background Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common co-morbidity in chronic pain, little is known about the association between PTSD and pain in the context of chronic pain rehabilitation. Objective The aim of the present study was two-fold: (1) to investigate the association of a possible PTSD diagnosis with symptoms of pain, physical and mental functioning, as well as the use of opioids, and (2) to compare the outcome of multidisciplinary chronic pain rehabilitation for patients with a possible PTSD diagnosis at admission with patients without PTSD at admission. Method A consecutively referred cohort of 194 patients completed a baseline questionnaire at admission covering post-traumatic stress, pain symptoms, physical and mental functioning, as well as self-reported sleep quality and cognitive difficulties. Medication use was calculated from their medical records. A total of 95 were admitted to further multidisciplinary treatment and included in the outcome study. Results A high prevalence of possible PTSD was found (26.3%). Patients with possible co-morbid PTSD experienced significantly poorer general and mental health, poorer sleep quality, and more cognitive problems as well as inferior social functioning compared to patients without PTSD. Possible co-morbid PTSD did not result in higher use of opioids or sedatives. Surprisingly, possible co-morbid PTSD at admission was not associated with lower levels of symptom reduction from pre- to post-treatment. Conclusions Possible co-morbid PTSD in chronic pain is a major problem associated with significantly poorer functioning on several domains. Nevertheless, our results indicate that pain-related symptoms could be treated with success despite possible co-morbid PTSD. However, since PTSD was only measured at admission it is not known whether rehabilitation actually reduced PTSD. PMID:25147628

  13. Peritraumatic reactions and posttraumatic stress disorder in psychiatrically impaired youth.

    PubMed

    Sugar, Jeff; Ford, Julian D

    2012-02-01

    Although peritraumatic dissociation and other subjective peritraumatic reactions, such as emotional distress and arousal, have been shown to affect the relationship between a traumatic event and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults, systematic studies with youth have not been done. In a mixed ethnic and racial sample of 90 psychiatrically impaired youth (ages 10-18, 56% boys), we investigated the contributions of peritraumatic dissociation, emotional distress, and arousal to current PTSD severity after accounting for the effects of gender, trauma history, trait dissociation, and psychopathology (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depression). Peritraumatic dissociation emerged as the only peritraumatic variable associated with current PTSD severity assessed both by questionnaire and interview methods (β = .30 and .47 p < .01). Peritraumatic dissociation can be rapidly assessed in clinical practice and warrants further testing in prospective studies as a potential mediator of the trauma-PTSD relationship in youth. PMID:22354507

  14. Lower Electrodermal Activity to Acute Stress in Caregivers of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Adaptive Habituation to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Caring for a relative with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entails being under chronic stress that could alter body homeostasis. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system related to emotionality and homeostasis. This study compares EDA in response to acute stress in the laboratory between…

  15. Cortisol Response to Stress in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Palomar, Gloria; Ferrer, Roser; Real, Alberto; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differences in the cortisol response have been reported between children exhibiting the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there is no such information about adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes in the cortisol response to stress. Methods: Ninety-six adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38 inattentive and 58 combined, without any medical or psychiatric comorbidities and 25 healthy controls were included. The Trier Social Stress Test was used to assess physiological stress responses. Clinical data and subjective stress levels, including the Perceived Stress Scale, were also recorded. Results: No significant differences in the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test were found between patients and controls. However, albeit there were no basal differences, lower cortisol levels at 15 (P=.015), 30 (P=.015), and 45 minutes (P=.045) were observed in the combined compared with the inattentive subtype after the stress induction; these differences disappeared 60 minutes after the stress. In contrast, the subjective stress responses showed significant differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients and controls (P<.001), but no differences were seen between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. In turn, subjective stress measures, such as the Perceived Stress Scale, positively correlated with the whole cortisol stress response (P<.027). Conclusions: Both the combined and inattentive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults exhibited a normal cortisol response to stress when challenged. Nevertheless, the inattentive patients displayed a higher level of cortisol after stress compared with the combined patients. Despite the differences in the cortisol response, adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reported high levels of subjective

  16. Rationale and study protocol for a multi-component Health Information Technology (HIT) screening tool for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in the primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Biegler, Kelly; Mollica, Richard; Sim, Susan Elliott; Nicholas, Elisa; Chandler, Maria; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Paigne, Kittya; Paigne, Sompia; Nguyen, Danh V; Sorkin, Dara H

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence rate of depression in primary care is high. Primary care providers serve as the initial point of contact for the majority of patients with depression, yet, approximately 50% of cases remain unrecognized. The under-diagnosis of depression may be further exacerbated in limited English-language proficient (LEP) populations. Language barriers may result in less discussion of patients' mental health needs and fewer referrals to mental health services, particularly given competing priorities of other medical conditions and providers' time pressures. Recent advances in Health Information Technology (HIT) may facilitate novel ways to screen for depression and other mental health disorders in LEP populations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale and protocol of a clustered randomized controlled trial that will test the effectiveness of an HIT intervention that provides a multi-component approach to delivering culturally competent, mental health care in the primary care setting. The HIT intervention has four components: 1) web-based provider training, 2) multimedia electronic screening of depression and PTSD in the patients' primary language, 3) Computer generated risk assessment scores delivered directly to the provider, and 4) clinical decision support. The outcomes of the study include assessing the potential of the HIT intervention to improve screening rates, clinical detection, provider initiation of treatment, and patient outcomes for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among LEP Cambodian refugees who experienced war atrocities and trauma during the Khmer Rouge. This technology has the potential to be adapted to any LEP population in order to facilitate mental health screening and treatment in the primary care setting. PMID:27394385

  17. The relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and paternal parenting of adult children among ex-prisoners of war: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zerach, Gadi; Greene, Talya; Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Solomon, Zahava

    2012-04-01

    The aversive impact of combat and combat-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on parenting of young children has been examined in a few studies. Nevertheless, the toll of war captivity on parenting and the long-term relations between posttraumatic symptoms and paternal parenting of adult children remains unknown. This longitudinal study examined paternal parenting of adult children among war veterans, some of whom were held in captivity. Furthermore, we examined the mediating role of PTSD symptoms in the association between captivity and parenting. The sample included two groups of male Israeli veterans from the 1973 Yom Kippur War: ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) and comparable veterans who had not been held captive. Both groups were assessed via self-report measures of PTSD at three time points: Time 1 (18 after the war), Time 2 (30 after the war), and Time 3 (35 after the war) years after the war. Results shows that ex-POWs reported lower levels of positive parenting compared to comparison group veterans at Time 3. Furthermore, PTSD symptoms at Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3 mediated the association between captivity experience and parenting at Time 3. In addition, it was found that increases in the levels of PTSD symptom clusters over time were associated with lower levels of positive parenting at Time 3.

  18. Longitudinal linkages between posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth in adolescent survivors following the Wenchuan earthquake in China: A three-wave, cross-lagged study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Xinchun; Chen, Jieling

    2015-07-30

    The aim of this study is to examine the longitudinal relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among adolescent survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. The participants in our study included 245 adolescent survivors who were randomly selected from several primary and secondary schools in the counties of Wenchuan, which are the areas most severely affected by the Wenchuan earthquake. Participants completed the Revised Child PTSD Symptom Scale and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) at 3.5 years after the earthquake (T1), 4.5 years after the earthquake (T2), and 5.5 years after the earthquake (T3). The results found that PTSD reported in T1 and T2 predicted subsequent PTG reported at T2 and T3 and that PTG did not predict PTSD from T1 to T3. In addition, the cross-sectional correlation between PTSD and PTG weakened from T1 to T3. These results indicate that PTSD and PTG can coexist in individuals after a traumatic experience, and they further suggest that the reduction in PTSD does not indicate the appearance of PTG.

  19. Gray Matter Alterations in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Social Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bochao; Huang, Xiaoqi; Li, Shiguang; Hu, Xinyu; Luo, Ya; Wang, Xiuli; Yang, Xun; Qiu, Changjian; Yang, Yanchun; Zhang, Wei; Bi, Feng; Roberts, Neil; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD) all bear the core symptom of anxiety and are separately classified in the new DSM-5 system. The aim of the present study is to obtain evidence for neuroanatomical difference for these disorders. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie to compare gray matter volume (GMV) in magnetic resonance images obtained for 30 patients with PTSD, 29 patients with OCD, 20 patients with SAD, and 30 healthy controls. GMV across all four groups differed in left hypothalamus and left inferior parietal lobule and post hoc analyses revealed that this difference is primarily due to reduced GMV in the PTSD group relative to the other groups. Further analysis revealed that the PTSD group also showed reduced GMV in frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and cerebellum compared to the OCD group, and reduced GMV in frontal lobes bilaterally compared to SAD group. A significant negative correlation with anxiety symptoms is observed for GMV in left hypothalamus in three disorder groups. We have thus found evidence for brain structure differences that in future could provide biomarkers to potentially support classification of these disorders using MRI. PMID:26347628

  20. Gray Matter Alterations in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder, and Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bochao; Huang, Xiaoqi; Li, Shiguang; Hu, Xinyu; Luo, Ya; Wang, Xiuli; Yang, Xun; Qiu, Changjian; Yang, Yanchun; Zhang, Wei; Bi, Feng; Roberts, Neil; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD) all bear the core symptom of anxiety and are separately classified in the new DSM-5 system. The aim of the present study is to obtain evidence for neuroanatomical difference for these disorders. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie to compare gray matter volume (GMV) in magnetic resonance images obtained for 30 patients with PTSD, 29 patients with OCD, 20 patients with SAD, and 30 healthy controls. GMV across all four groups differed in left hypothalamus and left inferior parietal lobule and post hoc analyses revealed that this difference is primarily due to reduced GMV in the PTSD group relative to the other groups. Further analysis revealed that the PTSD group also showed reduced GMV in frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and cerebellum compared to the OCD group, and reduced GMV in frontal lobes bilaterally compared to SAD group. A significant negative correlation with anxiety symptoms is observed for GMV in left hypothalamus in three disorder groups. We have thus found evidence for brain structure differences that in future could provide biomarkers to potentially support classification of these disorders using MRI. PMID:26347628

  1. The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Workgroup: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Enters the Age of Large-Scale Genomic Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Logue, Mark W; Amstadter, Ananda B; Baker, Dewleen G; Duncan, Laramie; Koenen, Karestan C; Liberzon, Israel; Miller, Mark W; Morey, Rajendra A; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Ressler, Kerry J; Smith, Alicia K; Smoller, Jordan W; Stein, Murray B; Sumner, Jennifer A; Uddin, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is influenced by genetic factors. Although there have been some replicated candidates, the identification of risk variants for PTSD has lagged behind genetic research of other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism, and bipolar disorder. Psychiatric genetics has moved beyond examination of specific candidate genes in favor of the genome-wide association study (GWAS) strategy of very large numbers of samples, which allows for the discovery of previously unsuspected genes and molecular pathways. The successes of genetic studies of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have been aided by the formation of a large-scale GWAS consortium: the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC). In contrast, only a handful of GWAS of PTSD have appeared in the literature to date. Here we describe the formation of a group dedicated to large-scale study of PTSD genetics: the PGC-PTSD. The PGC-PTSD faces challenges related to the contingency on trauma exposure and the large degree of ancestral genetic diversity within and across participating studies. Using the PGC analysis pipeline supplemented by analyses tailored to address these challenges, we anticipate that our first large-scale GWAS of PTSD will comprise over 10 000 cases and 30 000 trauma-exposed controls. Following in the footsteps of our PGC forerunners, this collaboration—of a scope that is unprecedented in the field of traumatic stress—will lead the search for replicable genetic associations and new insights into the biological underpinnings of PTSD. PMID:25904361

  2. Posttraumatic stress disorder: a state-of-the-science review.

    PubMed

    Nemeroff, Charles B; Bremner, J Douglas; Foa, Edna B; Mayberg, Helen S; North, Carol S; Stein, Murray B

    2006-02-01

    This article reviews the state-of-the-art research in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from several perspectives: (1) Sex differences: PTSD is more frequent among women, who tend to have different types of precipitating traumas and higher rates of comorbid panic disorder and agoraphobia than do men. (2) Risk and resilience: The presence of Group C symptoms after exposure to a disaster or act of terrorism may predict the development of PTSD as well as comorbid diagnoses. (3) Impact of trauma in early life: Persistent increases in CRF concentration are associated with early life trauma and PTSD, and may be reversed with paroxetine treatment. (4) Imaging studies: Intriguing findings in treated and untreated depressed patients may serve as a paradigm of failed brain adaptation to chronic emotional stress and anxiety disorders. (5) Neural circuits and memory: Hippocampal volume appears to be selectively decreased and hippocampal function impaired among PTSD patients. (6) Cognitive behavioral approaches: Prolonged exposure therapy, a readily disseminated treatment modality, is effective in modifying the negative cognitions that are frequent among PTSD patients. In the future, it would be useful to assess the validity of the PTSD construct, elucidate genetic and experiential contributing factors (and their complex interrelationships), clarify the mechanisms of action for different treatments used in PTSD, discover ways to predict which treatments (or treatment combinations) will be successful for a given individual, develop an operational definition of remission in PTSD, and explore ways to disseminate effective evidence-based treatments for this condition. PMID:16242154

  3. ER Stress-induced Aberrant Neuronal Maturation and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Koichi; Iekumo, Takaaki; Kaneko, Masayuki; Nomura, Yasuyuki; Okuma, Yasunobu

    2016-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, which include autism spectrum disorder, are congenital impairments in the growth and development of the central nervous system. They are mainly accentuated during infancy and childhood. Autism spectrum disorder may be caused by environmental factors, genomic imprinting of chromosome 15q11-q13 regions, and gene defects such as those in genes encoding neurexin and neuroligin, which are involved in synaptogenesis and synaptic signaling. However, regardless of the many reports on neurodevelopmental disorders, the pathogenic mechanism and treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders remain unclear. Conversely, it has been reported that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in neurodegenerative diseases. ER stress is increased by environmental factors such as alcohol consumption and smoking. Here we show the recent results on ER stress-induced neurodevelopmental disorders. ER stress led to a decrease in the mRNA levels of the proneural factors Hes1/5 and Pax6, which maintain an undifferentiated state of the neural cells. This stress also led to a decrease in nestin expression and an increase in beta-III tubulin expression. In addition, dendrite length was shortened by ER stress in microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) positive cells. However, the ubiquitin ligase HRD1 expression was increased by ER stress. By suppressing HRD1 expression, the ER stress-induced decrease in nestin and MAP-2 expression and increase in beta-III tubulin returned to control levels. Therefore, we suggest that ER stress induces abnormalities in neuronal differentiation and maturation via HRD1 expression. These results suggest that targeting ER stress may facilitate quicker approaches toward the prevention and treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:27252060

  4. Posttraumatic stress disorder in peacekeepers: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Wanderson Fernandes; Figueira, Ivan; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Volchan, Eliane; Portella, Carla Marques; Mendonça-de-Souza, Ana Carolina Ferraz; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2011-05-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among peacekeepers. A systematic review was carried out using Medline, Institute for Scientific Information/Web of Science and Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress databases, leading to a total of 12 studies reporting PTSD estimates. Pooled current PTSD prevalence was 5.3%, ranging from 0.05% to 25.8%, and a metaregression was used to investigate the variables that could account for the lack of homogeneity. However, none of the extracted information was capable of explaining the heterogeneity of the estimates. Peacekeeping studies presented different methodologies such as several screening instruments and different times from the deployment to the moment of PTSD assessment. The wide difference found among those estimates highlights the importance of the creation of standards for PTSD evaluation among peacekeepers. PMID:21543949

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Not Depression Is Associated with Shorter Leukocyte Telomere Length: Findings from 3,000 Participants in the Population-Based KORA F4 Study

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Brockhaus, Anne Catharina; Baumert, Jens; Lukaschek, Karoline; Emeny, Rebecca T.; Kruse, Johannes; Codd, Veryan; Häfner, Sibylle; Albrecht, Eva; Illig, Thomas; Samani, Nilesh J.; Wichmann, H. Erich; Gieger, Christian; Peters, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Background A link between severe mental stress and shorter telomere length (TL) has been suggested. We analysed the impact of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) on TL in the general population and postulated a dose-dependent TL association in subjects suffering from partial PTSD compared to full PTSD. Methods Data are derived from the population-based KORA F4 study (2006–2008), located in southern Germany including 3,000 individuals (1,449 men and 1,551 women) with valid and complete TL data. Leukocyte TL was measured using a quantitative PCR-based technique. PTSD was assessed in a structured interview and by applying the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Impact of Event Scale (IES). A total of 262 (8.7%) subjects qualified for having partial PTSD and 51 (1.7%) for full PTSD. To assess the association of PTSD with the average TL, linear regression analyses with adjustments for potential confounding factors were performed. Results The multiple model revealed a significant association between partial PTSD and TL (beta = −0.051, p = 0.009) as well as between full PTSD and shorter TL (beta = −0.103, p = 0.014) indicating shorter TL on average for partial and full PTSD. An additional adjustment for depression and depressed mood/exhaustion gave comparable beta estimations. Conclusions Participants with partial and full PTSD had significantly shorter leukocyte TL than participants without PTSD. The dose-dependent variation in TL of subjects with partial and full PTSD exceeded the chronological age effect, and was equivalent to an estimated 5 years in partial and 10 years in full PTSD of premature aging. PMID:23843935

  6. Stress-induced alterations in prefrontal dendritic spines: Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Moench, Kelly M; Wellman, Cara L

    2015-08-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in a variety of important functions including emotional regulation, HPA axis regulation, and working memory. It also demonstrates remarkable plasticity in an experience-dependent manner. There is extensive evidence that stressful experiences can produce profound changes in the morphology of neurons within mPFC with a variety of behavioral consequences. The deleterious behavioral outcomes associated with mPFC dysfunction have been implicated in multiple psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Given the prevalence of these disorders, a deeper understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying stress-induced morphological changes in mPFC is critical, and could lead to improved therapeutic treatments. Here we give a brief review of recent studies examining the mechanisms underlying changes in mPFC pyramidal neuron dendritic spines - the primary sites of excitatory input in cortical pyramidal neurons. We begin with an overview of the effects of chronic stress on mPFC dendritic spine density and morphology followed by proposed mechanisms for these changes. We then discuss the time course of stress effects on mPFC as well as potential intercellular influences. Given that many psychopathologies, including PTSD, have different prevalence rates among men and women, we end with a discussion of the sex differences that have been observed in morphological changes in mPFC. Future directions and implications for PTSD are discussed throughout.

  7. Stress-induced drinking in parents of boys with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: heterogeneous groups in an experimental study of adult-child interactions.

    PubMed

    Kashdan, Todd B; Adams, Leah M; Kleiman, Evan M; Pelham, William E; Lang, Alan R

    2013-08-01

    Research on whether parents of children with externalizing disorders are at elevated risk for alcohol problems is equivocal. To reduce this ambiguity, we examined how individual differences in stress reactivity might moderate the drinking behavior of such parents. Parents (119 mothers, 44 fathers) of ADHD sons interacted with different child confederates during each of two counter-balanced sessions. In one, the confederate portrayed a friendly, cooperative, "normal" boy; in the other, the confederate portrayed a "deviant" boy who exhibited behavior characteristic of externalizing disorders. Following each interaction, parents were given an opportunity for ad lib consumption of alcohol while anticipating a second interaction. Latent class analysis identified three subgroups of parents using distress scores and alcohol consumption: minimal stress reactivity; reacts to child deviance with increased distress, but not increased drinking; marked stress-induced drinking. Decisions about the nature and proper treatment of parents raising children with ADHD may be compromised by failure to attend to individual differences in stress reactivity and inclinations to use drinking to cope.

  8. How well can post-traumatic stress disorder be predicted from pre-trauma risk factors? An exploratory study in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C; Rose, Sherri; Koenen, Karestan C; Karam, Elie G; Stang, Paul E; Stein, Dan J; Heeringa, Steven G; Hill, Eric D; Liberzon, Israel; McLaughlin, Katie A; McLean, Samuel A; Pennell, Beth E; Petukhova, Maria; Rosellini, Anthony J; Ruscio, Ayelet M; Shahly, Victoria; Shalev, Arieh Y; Silove, Derrick; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Bromet, Evelyn J; de Almeida, José Miguel Caldas; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Murphy, Samuel D; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate; Torres, Yolanda; Carmen Viana, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) should be one of the most preventable mental disorders, since many people exposed to traumatic experiences (TEs) could be targeted in first response settings in the immediate aftermath of exposure for preventive intervention. However, these interventions are costly and the proportion of TE-exposed people who develop PTSD is small. To be cost-effective, risk prediction rules are needed to target high-risk people in the immediate aftermath of a TE. Although a number of studies have been carried out to examine prospective predictors of PTSD among people recently exposed to TEs, most were either small or focused on a narrow sample, making it unclear how well PTSD can be predicted in the total population of people exposed to TEs. The current report investigates this issue in a large sample based on the World Health Organization (WHO)'s World Mental Health Surveys. Retrospective reports were obtained on the predictors of PTSD associated with 47,466 TE exposures in representative community surveys carried out in 24 countries. Machine learning methods (random forests, penalized regression, super learner) were used to develop a model predicting PTSD from information about TE type, socio-demographics, and prior histories of cumulative TE exposure and DSM-IV disorders. DSM-IV PTSD prevalence was 4.0% across the 47,466 TE exposures. 95.6% of these PTSD cases were associated with the 10.0% of exposures (i.e., 4,747) classified by machine learning algorithm as having highest predicted PTSD risk. The 47,466 exposures were divided into 20 ventiles (20 groups of equal size) ranked by predicted PTSD risk. PTSD occurred after 56.3% of the TEs in the highest-risk ventile, 20.0% of the TEs in the second highest ventile, and 0.0-1.3% of the TEs in the 18 remaining ventiles. These patterns of differential risk were quite stable across demographic-geographic sub-samples. These results demonstrate that a sensitive risk algorithm can be created using

  9. How well can post-traumatic stress disorder be predicted from pre-trauma risk factors? An exploratory study in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Ronald C; Rose, Sherri; Koenen, Karestan C; Karam, Elie G; Stang, Paul E; Stein, Dan J; Heeringa, Steven G; Hill, Eric D; Liberzon, Israel; McLaughlin, Katie A; McLean, Samuel A; Pennell, Beth E; Petukhova, Maria; Rosellini, Anthony J; Ruscio, Ayelet M; Shahly, Victoria; Shalev, Arieh Y; Silove, Derrick; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Bromet, Evelyn J; de Almeida, José Miguel Caldas; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Murphy, Samuel D; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate; Torres, Yolanda; Carmen Viana, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) should be one of the most preventable mental disorders, since many people exposed to traumatic experiences (TEs) could be targeted in first response settings in the immediate aftermath of exposure for preventive intervention. However, these interventions are costly and the proportion of TE-exposed people who develop PTSD is small. To be cost-effective, risk prediction rules are needed to target high-risk people in the immediate aftermath of a TE. Although a number of studies have been carried out to examine prospective predictors of PTSD among people recently exposed to TEs, most were either small or focused on a narrow sample, making it unclear how well PTSD can be predicted in the total population of people exposed to TEs. The current report investigates this issue in a large sample based on the World Health Organization (WHO)'s World Mental Health Surveys. Retrospective reports were obtained on the predictors of PTSD associated with 47,466 TE exposures in representative community surveys carried out in 24 countries. Machine learning methods (random forests, penalized regression, super learner) were used to develop a model predicting PTSD from information about TE type, socio-demographics, and prior histories of cumulative TE exposure and DSM-IV disorders. DSM-IV PTSD prevalence was 4.0% across the 47,466 TE exposures. 95.6% of these PTSD cases were associated with the 10.0% of exposures (i.e., 4,747) classified by machine learning algorithm as having highest predicted PTSD risk. The 47,466 exposures were divided into 20 ventiles (20 groups of equal size) ranked by predicted PTSD risk. PTSD occurred after 56.3% of the TEs in the highest-risk ventile, 20.0% of the TEs in the second highest ventile, and 0.0-1.3% of the TEs in the 18 remaining ventiles. These patterns of differential risk were quite stable across demographic-geographic sub-samples. These results demonstrate that a sensitive risk algorithm can be created using

  10. Update on the management of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John

    2015-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8-12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin.

  11. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children: Suggested Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews literature-based techniques of intervention with posttraumatic stress disorder in children, including such techniques as crisis intervention, in vitro flooding, communication training, physical mastery, perspective taking, elimination of self-blame, and self-calming. (JDD)

  12. Update on the management of post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John

    2015-01-01

    Summary Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8–12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin. PMID:26648617

  13. Update on the management of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John

    2015-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8-12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin. PMID:26648617

  14. Exacerbation of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms with medical illness.

    PubMed

    Hamner, M B

    1994-03-01

    Chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may increase the risk for associated psychiatric and medical illnesses. In turn, the onset of medical illness may result in an exacerbation of PTSD symptoms leading to excessive or maladaptive psychological and physiological reactions. Five combat veterans with PTSD and medical disease are presented to illustrate this potential for worsening of PTSD with concurrent medical illness. Health care workers in general hospital settings should be aware of unique psychological vulnerabilities in PTSD patients. Prospective studies are needed to assess the impact of medical comorbidity on the course of PTSD.

  15. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Amanda

    2016-07-01

    Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is not fully understood, considerable research has gone into studying anatomical changes in the brain that take place with this condition. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can demonstrate changes in the volume of numerous brain regions, and functional MR imaging shows changes in activation when subjects are exposed to trauma-related stimuli. This article reviews current research findings on PTSD-associated brain changes and behavioral effects and discusses how PTSD affects patients of different ages. PMID:27390232

  16. Animal models of post-traumatic stress disorder: face validity

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sonal; Rodríguez-Sierra, Olga; Cascardi, Michele; Paré, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that develops in a proportion of individuals following a traumatic event. Despite recent advances, ethical limitations associated with human research impede progress in understanding PTSD. Fortunately, much effort has focused on developing animal models to help study the pathophysiology of PTSD. Here, we provide an overview of animal PTSD models where a variety of stressors (physical, psychosocial, or psychogenic) are used to examine the long-term effects of severe trauma. We emphasize models involving predator threat because they reproduce human individual differences in susceptibility to, and in the long-term consequences of, psychological trauma. PMID:23754973

  17. Functional impairment, stress, and psychosocial intervention in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Miklowitz, David J

    2011-12-01

    The longitudinal course of bipolar disorder (BD) is highly impairing. This article reviews recent research on functional impairment in the course of BD, the roles of social and intrafamilial stress in relapse and recovery, and the role of adjunctive psychosocial interventions in reducing risk and enhancing functioning. Comparative findings in adult and childhood BD are highlighted. Life events and family-expressed emotion have emerged as significant predictors of the course of BD. Studies of social information processing suggest that impairments in the recognition of facial emotions may characterize both adult- and early-onset bipolar patients. Newly developed psychosocial interventions, particularly those that focus on family and social relationships, are associated with more rapid recovery from episodes and better psychosocial functioning. Family-based psychoeducational approaches are promising as early interventions for children with BD or children at risk of developing the disorder. For adults, interpersonal therapy, mindfulness-based strategies, and cognitive remediation may offer promise in enhancing functioning.

  18. Tailoring therapeutic strategies for treating posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters.

    PubMed

    Norrholm, Seth D; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by three major symptom clusters following an event that elicited fear, helplessness, or horror. This review will examine each symptom cluster of PTSD separately, giving case study examples of patients who exhibit a preponderance of a given symptom domain. We use a translational approach in describing the underlying neurobiology that is relevant to particular symptoms and treatment options, thus showing how clinical practice can benefit from current research. By focusing on symptom clusters, we provide a more specific view of individual patient's clinical presentations, in order to better address treatment needs. Finally, the review will also address potential genetic approaches to treatment as another form of individualized treatment. PMID:20856915

  19. Reduced Specificity in Episodic Future Thinking in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Belinda; Fihosy, Sonia; Stott, Richard; Ehlers, Anke

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one of the most common disorders following trauma, has been associated with a tendency to remember past personal memories in a nonspecific, overgeneral way. The present study investigated whether such a bias also applies to projections of future personal events. Trauma survivors (N = 50) generated brief descriptions of imagined future experiences in response to positive and negative cues in a future-based Autobiographical Memory Test. Survivors with PTSD imagined fewer specific future events in response to positive, but not to negative, cues, compared to those without PTSD. This effect was independent of comorbid major depression. Reduced memory specificity in response to positive cues was related to appraisals of foreshortened future and permanent change. Training to enhance specificity of future projections may be helpful in PTSD and protect against potentially toxic effects of autobiographical memory overgenerality. PMID:24926418

  20. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... with post-traumatic stress need early treatment with methods that are used to treat other trauma victims. ... symptoms of post-traumatic stress. The crisis intervention method aims to relieve distress and help the patient ...

  1. Simultaneous Treatment of Neurocognitive and Psychiatric Symptoms in Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pilot Study of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction.

    PubMed

    Cole, Michael A; Muir, James J; Gans, Jennifer J; Shin, Lisa M; D'Esposito, Mark; Harel, Brian T; Schembri, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    Treating patient populations with significant psychiatric and neurocognitive symptomatology can present a unique clinical dilemma: progress in psychotherapy can be significantly fettered by cognitive deficits, whereas neurocognitive rehabilitation efforts can be ineffective because of psychiatric overlay. Application of mindfulness-based interventions to address either cognitive or psychiatric symptoms in isolation appears efficacious in many contexts; however, it remains unclear whether this type of intervention might help address simultaneous neurocognitive and psychiatric symptomatology. In a pre-post mixed methods design pilot study, nine Veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a history of mild traumatic brain injury with chronic cognitive complaints participated in Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). Clinical interview, questionnaires, and attention and PTSD measures were administered immediately before, immediately after, and 3 months after MBSR completion. Qualitative and quantitative findings suggest high levels of safety, feasibility, and acceptability. Measurement of attention revealed significant improvement immediately following MBSR (p < 0.05, d = 0.57) and largely sustained improvement 3 months after completion of MBSR (p < 0.10, d = 0.48). Significant reduction in PTSD symptoms was found immediately after MBSR (p < 0.05, d = -1.56), and was sustained 3 months following MBSR completion (p < 0.05, d = -0.93). These results warrant a randomized controlled trial follow-up. Potential mechanisms for the broad effects observed will be explored.

  2. The renal effects of vanadate exposure: potential biomarkers and oxidative stress as a mechanism of functional renal disorders--preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Ucibior, Agnieszka; Gołębiowska, Dorota; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Niedźwiecka, Irmina; Fornal, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    The alterations in the levels/activities of selected biomarkers for detecting kidney toxicity and in the levels of some oxidative stress (OS) markers and elements were studied in male rats to evaluate biochemically the degree of kidney damage, investigate the role of OS in the mechanism of functional renal disorders, reveal potential biomarkers of renal function, and assess the renal mineral changes in the conditions of a 12-week sodium metavanadate (SMV, 0.125 mg V/mL) exposure. The results showed that OS is involved in the mechanism underlying the development of SMV-induced functional renal disturbances. They also suggest that the urinary cystatin C (CysCu) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1u) could be the most appropriate to evaluate renal function at the conditions of SMV intoxication when the fluid intake, excreted urinary volume (EUV), body weight (BW), and the urinary creatinine excretion (Creu) decreased. The use of such tests as the urinary lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (LDHu, ALPu, GGTPu, and NAGu) seems not to be valid given their reduced activities. The use of only traditional biomarkers of renal function in these conditions may, in turn, be insufficient because their alterations are greatly influenced by the changes in the fluid intake and/or BW. PMID:24605335

  3. Health-related quality of life in posttraumatic stress disorder: 4 years follow-up study of individuals exposed to urban violence.

    PubMed

    Pupo, Mariana Cadrobbi; Serafim, Paula Maria; de Mello, Marcelo Feijó

    2015-08-30

    Evidence suggests that Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with substantially reduced Health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study aimed to explore the impact of PTSD symptoms in HRQoL and its predictors in individuals exposed to urban violence. We follow-up a cohort of 267 individuals exposed to urban violence, derived from an epidemiological survey and clinical cases from an outpatient program of victims of violence, with and without PTSD, by assessing symptoms and other measures at two intervals, approximately 4 years apart. PTSD symptom severity was associated with poorer quality of life at baseline and at follow-up. Higher levels of depression and anxiety, new trauma experiences, more traumas in childhood and more PTSD arousal symptoms were all predictors of lower HRQoL over time. Results strongly suggest the need to assess HRQoL in addition to symptoms in order to assess the true severity of PTSD. These results have implications for the functional recovery in the treatment of PTSD.

  4. The Association of Social Inhibition and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Vicious Circle?: Results From the Population-Based KORA F4 Study With 1232 Participants With Trauma Exposure.

    PubMed

    Lukaschek, Karoline; Baumert, Jens; Kruse, Johannes; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional analysis investigated the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and social inhibition (SI). A total of 1232 individuals aged 32-71 years with a history of traumatic experience were identified from the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 study conducted in 2006-2008. PTSD was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale, Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, and interview data. SI was measured by the SI subscale of the German version of the Type-D scale and dichotomized in a high (score of ≥10) and nonhigh group. Even in the fully adjusted multinomial logistic regression model (adjusted for age, sex, sociodemographic and metabolic risk factors, anxiety, depression), high levels of SI were significantly associated with PTSD (partial: odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-2.09; p = 0.002; full: odds ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-4.82; p = 0.009). Our findings suggest a dose-response relationship between PTSD and SI and should be integrated in individual therapy plans, especially of patients with interpersonal violence experience. PMID:26807881

  5. Acupuncture and moxibustion for stress-related disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Acupuncture and moxibustion, which medical doctors are licensed by the government of Japan to perform, can improve the psychological relationship between doctors and patients, especially when it is disturbed by a “game”, a dysfunctional interpersonal interaction that is repeated unintentionally. This advantage is due to the essential properties of acupuncture and moxibustion. Acupuncture and moxibustion are helpful in treating somatoform disorders, especially musculoskeletal symptoms. In Japan, a holistic acupuncture and moxibustion therapy called Sawada-style has been developed. This is based on fundamental meridian points that are considered to have effects on central, autonomic nervous, immune, metabolic, and endocrine systems to regulate the whole body balance. In addition, some of the fundamental points have effects on Qi, blood, and water patterns associated with major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, eating disorders, and somatoform disorders. The fixed protocol of Sawada-style would be suitable for large-scale, randomized, controlled studies in the future. Recent systematic reviews indicate that electroacupuncture would be a useful addition to antidepressant therapy for some symptoms accompanying fibromyalgia. Acupuncture and moxibustion are also recommended for irritable bowel syndrome, instead of Western drug therapy. Surprisingly, the dorsal prefrontal cerebral cortex, which is associated with a method of scalp acupuncture applied for gastrointestinal disorders, has been found to be activated in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. It is quite possible that regulation of this cortical area is related to the effect of scalp acupuncture. This acupuncture method can be effective not only for irritable bowel syndrome but also for other stress-related gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:24456818

  6. [Personalized Internet-based treatment services for posttraumatic stress disorder].

    PubMed

    Maercker, A; Hecker, T; Heim, E

    2015-11-01

    Among the most important innovations within the psychotherapeutic care system are the new opportunities in the field of e-mental health. During the past decade, Internet-based and other e-mental health approaches for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and related stress-associated symptoms have been developed in great variety. Solely Internet-based self-help programs are the lowest-threshold approaches in a stepped-care system. By contrast, individualized online psychotherapy and virtual reality programs are at the opposite pole of the spectrum. Approaches in the field of m(obile)-mental health complement these new developments in psychotherapy. The existing evidence supports the clinical efficacy of all the described approaches, although not all have been tested rigorously analog to phase III studies in psychopharmacology. Nonetheless, e-mental health approaches will shape our field more and more in the future.

  7. Neuropsychological Effects of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Matthew R.; Obrzut, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can affect people of all ages but the literature is lacking on children and adolescents who experience PTSD. The consequences of this disorder extend beyond the basic symptoms by which it is defined. Neuroanatomically, the brains of children with PTSD have been found to be abnormally symmetrical in several…

  8. Psychotherapeutic and Adjunctive Pharmacologic Approaches to Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nisenoff, Carolina D.

    2008-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a potentially disabling illness that affects millions of people worldwide and can be very difficult to treat, especially the sleep disturbances often associated with this disorder. Successful treatment focuses on psychotherapy, and medications may be useful adjuncts. This article gives examples of successful therapeutic approaches and adjunctive medication use in PTSD. PMID:19727267

  9. Effects of RSA Feedback on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fourie, Phillip

    2006-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders with particularly debilitating effects due to flashbacks and hypervigilance in daily life. Treatments commonly focus upon either pharmacological or psychotherapeutic modalities, but there is often a need to merge both of these approaches to deal effectively with the somatic, as…

  10. Behavioral Interventions for Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassija, Christina M.; Gray, Matt J.

    2007-01-01

    Optimal therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) follows logically from an understanding of etiological models describing the development and maintenance of the disorder. Accordingly, the present article provides a brief overview of PTSD with particular attention paid to etiology. Exposure-based interventions have consistently been shown…

  11. The structure of personality disorders in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Erika J; Miller, Mark W; Brown, Timothy A

    2011-10-01

    Research on the structure of personality disorders (PDs) has relied primarily on exploratory analyses to evaluate trait-based models of the factors underlying the covariation of these disorders. This study used confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate whether a model that included both PD traits and a general personality dysfunction factor would account for the comorbidity of the PDs better than a trait-only model. It also examined if the internalizing/externalizing model of psychopathology, developed previously through research on the structure of Axis I disorders, might similarly account for the covariation of the Axis II disorders in a sample of 245 veterans and nonveterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Results indicated that the best fitting model was a modified bifactor structure composed of nine lower-order common factors. These factors indexed pathology ranging from aggression to dependency, with the correlations among them accounted for by higher-order Internalizing and Externalizing factors. Further, a general factor, reflecting a construct that we termed boundary disturbance, accounted for additional variance and covariance across nearly all the indicators. The Internalizing, Externalizing, and Boundary Disturbance factors evidenced differential associations with trauma-related covariates. These findings suggest continuity in the underlying structure of psychopathology across DSM-IV Axes I and II and provide empirical evidence of a pervasive, core disturbance in the boundary between self and other across the PDs.

  12. [Clinical approach to post-traumatic stress disorders].

    PubMed

    Boussaud, Marie

    2015-01-01

    A confrontation with death can lead to acute reactions of stress, followed possibly, after a phase of latency, by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is characterised by the appearance of a repetition syndrome combining reliving, hypervigilance and avoidance; comorbidities frequently arise, increasingthe risk of suicide. Caregivers have an important role to play in identifying them.

  13. Victimization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Homeless Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Angela J.; Steiman, Mandy; Cauce, Ana Mari; Cochran, Bryan N.; WhiteBeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine street victimization and posttraumatic stress symptoms among urban homeless adolescents and to test whether emotional numbing and avoidance represent distinct posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters. Method: Structured, private interviews were conducted with homeless adolescents (N = 374) in the Seattle…

  14. Determinants of Stress in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivard, Mélina; Terroux, Amélie; Parent-Boursier, Claudel; Mercier, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder are known to experience more stress than parents of children with any other conditions. The current study describes the parental stress of 118 fathers and 118 mothers at the onset of their children's Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention program. The objectives of the study were to compare…

  15. Cognitive Disruptions in Stress-Related Psychiatric Disorders: A Role for Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF)

    PubMed Central

    Bangasser, Debra A.; Kawasumi, Yushi

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a potential etiology contributor to both post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and major depression. One stress-related neuropeptide that is hypersecreted in these disorders is corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). Dysregulation of CRF has long been linked to the emotion and mood symptoms that characterize PTSD and depression. However, the idea that CRF also mediates the cognitive disruptions observed in patients with these disorders has received less attention. Here we review literature indicating that CRF can alter cognitive functions. Detailed are anatomical studies revealing that CRF is poised to modulate regions required for learning and memory. We also describe preclinical behavioral studies that demonstrate CRF’s ability to alter fear conditioning, impair memory consolidation, and alter a number of executive functions, including attention and cognitive flexibility. The implications of these findings for the etiology and treatment of the cognitive impairments observed in stress-related psychiatric disorders are described. PMID:25888454

  16. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Diagnostic Data Analysis by Data Mining Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Marinić, Igor; Supek, Fran; Kovačić, Zrnka; Rukavina, Lea; Jendričko, Tihana; Kozarić-Kovačić, Dragica

    2007-01-01

    Aim To use data mining methods in assessing diagnostic symptoms in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Methods The study included 102 inpatients: 51 with a diagnosis of PTSD and 51 with psychiatric diagnoses other than PTSD. Several models for predicting diagnosis were built using the random forest classifier, one of the intelligent data analysis methods. The first prediction model was based on a structured psychiatric interview, the second on psychiatric scales (Clinician-administered PTSD Scale – CAPS, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale – PANSS, Hamilton Anxiety Scale – HAMA, and Hamilton Depression Scale – HAMD), and the third on combined data from both sources. Additional models placing more weight on one of the classes (PTSD or non-PTSD) were trained, and prototypes representing subgroups in the classes constructed. Results The first model was the most relevant for distinguishing PTSD diagnosis from comorbid diagnoses such as neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders. The second model pointed out the scores obtained on the Clinician-administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and additional Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scales, together with comorbid diagnoses of neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders as most relevant. In the third model, psychiatric scales and the same group of comorbid diagnoses were found to be most relevant. Specialized models placing more weight on either the PTSD or non-PTSD class were able to better predict their targeted diagnoses at some expense of overall accuracy. Class subgroup prototypes mainly differed in values achieved on psychiatric scales and frequency of comorbid diagnoses. Conclusion Our work demonstrated the applicability of data mining methods for the analysis of structured psychiatric data for PTSD. In all models, the group of comorbid diagnoses, including neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders, surfaced as important. The important attributes of the data, based on the

  17. Deficient cardiovascular stress reactivity predicts poor executive functions in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Olsson, Erik M G; Nordenstrom, Anna; Lindholm, Torun; Nordstrom, Anna-Lena; Lajic, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Associations between cardiovascular stress markers, subjective stress reactivity, and executive functions were studied in 60 adults (30 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, and 30 controls) using the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT, a test of executive functions) as a cognitive stressor. Despite higher self-perceived stress, the adults with ADHD showed lower or atypical cardiovascular stress reactivity, which was associated with poorer performance on PASAT. Using cardiovascular stress markers, subjective stress, and results on PASAT as predictors in a logistic regression, 83.3% of the ADHD group and 86.9% of the controls could be classified correctly.

  18. Vulnerability-Stress Factors in Development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Heidi S.; And Others

    Log-linear chi-square analyses were conducted to examine potential interactions between presence of pre-crime Axis I psychiatric diagnoses and differential levels of crime stress in association with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a community sample of 295 female crime victims. High crime stress was defined as crime that included either…

  19. Prenatal stress and inhibitory neuron systems: implications for neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Rebecca; Zhang, Jie; Stevens, Hanna E.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal stress is a risk factor for several psychiatric disorders in which inhibitory neuron pathology is implicated. A growing body of research demonstrates that inhibitory circuitry in the brain is directly and persistently affected by prenatal stress. This review synthesizes research that elucidates how this early, developmental risk factor impacts inhibitory neurons and how these findings intersect with research on risk factors and inhibitory neuron pathophysiology in schizophrenia, anxiety, autism and Tourette syndrome. The specific impact of prenatal stress on inhibitory neurons, particularly developmental mechanisms, may elucidate further the pathophysiology of these disorders. PMID:24751963

  20. [Update on Current Care Guidelines: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder].

    PubMed

    Ponteva, Matti; Henriksson, Markus; Isoaho, Raimo; Laukkala, Tanja; Punamäki, Leena; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    The updated Current Care Guidelines for ASD and PTSD recommend psychosocial support and careful monitoring for acute stress reaction (ASR) and acute stress disorder (ASD). If symptoms require, short focused cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy can be used for ASD. Medication is rarely necessary. Trauma-focused psychotherapeutic interventions are the first-line treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Antidepressant medication is an effective second-line treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions and medication should often be combined. Specific groups, such as children, the elderly, and military and peacekeeping personnel need tailored interventions. PMID:26237898

  1. Tryptophan Hydroxylase-2: An Emerging Therapeutic Target for Stress Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo-Lin; Miller, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been long recognized to modulate the stress response, and dysfunction of 5-HT has been implicated in numerous stress disorders. Accordingly, the 5-HT system has been targeted for the treatment of stress disorders. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT synthesis, and the recent identification of a second, neuron-specific TPH isoform (TPH2) opened up a new area of research. With a decade of extensive investigation, it is now recognized that: 1) TPH2 exhibits a highly flexible gene expression that is modulated by an increasing number of internal and external environmental factors including the biological clock, stressors, endogenous hormones, and antidepressant therapies; and 2) genetically determined TPH2 activity is linked to a growing body of stress-related neuronal correlates and behavioral traits. These findings reveal an active role of TPH2 in the stress response and provide new insights into the long recognized but not yet fully understood 5-HT-stress interaction. As a major modulator of 5-HT neurotransmission and the stress response, TPH2 is of both pathophysiological and pharmacological significance, and is emerging as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of stress disorders. Given that numerous antidepressant therapies influence TPH2 gene expression, TPH2 is already inadvertently targeted for the treatment of stress disorders. With increased understanding of the regulation of TPH2 activity we can now purposely utilize TPH2 as a target to develop new or optimize current therapies, which are expected to greatly improve the prevention and treatment of a wide variety of stress disorders. PMID:23435356

  2. Construct Validity of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist in Cancer Survivors: Analyses Based on Two Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuHamel, Katherine N.; Ostrof, Jamie; Ashman, Teresa; Winkel, Gary; Mundy, Elizabeth A.; Keane, Terence M.; Morasco, Benjamin J.; Vickberg, Suzanne M. J.; Hurley, Karen; Chhabra, Rosy; Scigliano, Eileen; Papadopoulos, Esperanza; Moskowitz, Craig; Redd, William

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is critically important for the identification and treatment of this disorder. The PTSD Checklist (PCL; F. W. Weathers & J. Ford, 1996) is a self-report measure that is increasingly used. In this study, the authors investigated the factorial validity of the PCL with data from 236 cancer…

  3. A Prospective Examination of Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Victims of Nonsexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, David S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were examined prospectively in 84 nonsexual assault victims, beginning shortly after the assault and continuing weekly for 3 months. Severity of PTSD decreased significantly over the course of the study in the groups who were not diagnosed with the disorder at the final assessment. (JBJ)

  4. Victimization, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptomatology, and Later Nonsuicidal Self-Harm in a Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Skegg, Keren

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal population-based study examined pathways to nonsuicidal self-harm (NSSH) in relation to childhood sexual abuse (CSA), assault victimization in early adulthood, posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology (PTSD), and other mental disorders. At age 21, 476 men and 455 women completed interviews on assault victimization, PTSD, and…

  5. Parenting Stress in Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Ana; Tárraga, Raul; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla; Pastor, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the parenting stress experienced by parents of 121 children from 5 to 9 years old with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), comorbid ASD+ADHD, and typical development in different domains related to child and parent characteristics using the Parenting Stress…

  6. Neighborhood Disorder, Spiritual Well-Being, and Parenting Stress in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Wilson, Christina K.; Tarantino, Nicholas; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a culturally-informed risk-protective framework, the purpose of this study was to examine spiritual well-being (existential, religious) as a moderator (protective factor) in the relation between neighborhood disorder (risk factor) and parenting stress in among a high risk sample of low-socioeconomic status (SES), African American women (N = 144). These women, who were primary caregivers of children aged between 8 and 12 reported on disorder in their existential and religious well-being, neighborhoods, and three types of parenting stress. Women who perceived more disorder in their neighborhood had more parenting stress, and women who reported more existential and religious well-being had less parenting stress. Existential (characterized by a sense of purpose in life), but not religious (characterized by a sense of life in relationship with God) well-being, moderated the relation between neighborhood disorder and all types of parenting stress such that women with medium or high levels of existential well-being had low levels of parenting stress at low levels of neighborhood disorder, but higher levels of parenting stress at higher levels of neighborhood disorder. No moderation effects were found at low levels of existential well-being. Results are framed in a context that emphasizes their relevance to incorporating family interventions that bolster culturally relevant resilience factors, such as spirituality, pertinent to low-SES African American families. PMID:24707802

  7. Neighborhood disorder, spiritual well-being, and parenting stress in African American women.

    PubMed

    Lamis, Dorian A; Wilson, Christina K; Tarantino, Nicholas; Lansford, Jennifer E; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2014-12-01

    Using a culturally informed risk-protective framework, the purpose of this study was to examine spiritual well-being (existential, religious) as a moderator (protective factor) in the relation between neighborhood disorder (risk factor) and parenting stress in a high-risk sample of low-socioeconomic status (SES) African American women (N = 144). These women, who were primary caregivers of children between 8 and 12 years old, reported on disorder in their existential and religious well-being, neighborhoods, and 3 types of parenting stress. Women who perceived more disorder in their neighborhood had more parenting stress, and women who reported more existential and religious well-being had less parenting stress. Existential (characterized by a sense of purpose in life), but not religious (characterized by a sense of life in relation with God) well-being moderated the relation between neighborhood disorder and all types of parenting stress, such that women with medium or high levels of existential well-being had low levels of parenting stress at low levels of neighborhood disorder, but higher levels of parenting stress at higher levels of neighborhood disorder. No moderation effects were found at low levels of existential well-being. Results are framed in a context that emphasizes their relevance to incorporating family interventions that bolster culturally relevant resilience factors, such as spirituality, pertinent to low-SES African American families. PMID:24707802

  8. Challenges to be overcome using population-based sampling methods to recruit veterans for a study of post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many investigators are interested in recruiting veterans from recent conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and/or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Researchers pursuing such studies may experience problems in recruiting sufficient numbers unless effective strategies are used. Currently, there is very little information on recruitment strategies for individuals with TBI and/or PTSD. It is known that groups of patients with medical conditions may be less likely to volunteer for clinical research. This study investigated the feasibility of recruiting veterans returning from recent military conflicts— Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) - using a population-based sampling method. Methods Individuals were sampled from a previous epidemiological study. Three study sites focused on recruiting survey respondents (n = 445) who lived within a 60 mile radius of one of the sites. Results Overall, the successful recruitment of veterans using a population-based sampling method was dependent on the ability to contact potential participants following mass mailing. Study enrollment of participants with probable TBI and/or PTSD had a recruitment yield (enrolled/total identified) of 5.4%. We were able to contact 146 individuals, representing a contact rate of 33%. Sixty-six of the individuals contacted were screened. The major reasons for not screening included a stated lack of interest in the study (n = 37), a failure to answer screening calls after initial contact (n = 30), and an unwillingness or inability to travel to a study site (n = 10). Based on the phone screening, 36 veterans were eligible for the study. Twenty-four veterans were enrolled, (recruitment yield = 5.4%) and twelve were not enrolled for a variety of reasons. Conclusions Our experience with a population-based sampling method for recruitment of recent combat veterans illustrates the challenges encountered

  9. Psychological treatments for concurrent posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Debora; Vedel, Ellen; Ehring, Thomas; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2012-04-01

    This article gives an overview of research into psychological treatments for concurrent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance used disorder (SUD), with a special focus on the effectiveness of treatments addressing both disorders compared to treatments addressing one of the disorders alone. In addition, a distinction is made between trauma-focused versus non-trauma-focused therapies for concurrent PTSD and SUD. The databases Embase, Psychinfo, Medline and Web of science were searched for relevant articles. In total, seventeen studies were identified evaluating ten treatments protocols (six trauma-focused and four non-trauma-focused treatment approaches). In general, the studies showed pre-post reductions for PTSD and/or SUD symptoms. Although most treatments for concurrent PTSD and SUD did not prove to be superior to regular SUD treatments, there are some promising preliminary results suggesting that some patients might benefit from trauma-focused interventions. However, the lack of methodologically sound treatment trials makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Methodological limitations are discussed, along with recommendations for future research.

  10. [Violence and post-traumatic stress disorder in childhood].

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Liana Furtado; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcelos Carvalhães; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the prevalence of symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in 500 schoolchildren (6-13 years old) in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro. It also investigates the association between PTSD, violence and other adverse events in the lives of these children. The multi-stage cluster sampling strategy involved three selection stages. Parents were interviewed about their children's behavior. The instrument used to screen symptoms of PTSD was the Child Behavior Checklist-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale (CBCL-PTSD). Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS) were applied to evaluate family violence and other scales to investigate the socioeconomic profile, familiar relationship, characteristics and adverse events in the lives of the children. Multivariate analysis was performed using a hierarchical model with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of clinical symptoms of PTSD was of 6.5%. The multivariate analysis suggested an explanation model of PTSD characterized by 18 variables, such as the child's characteristics; specific life events; family violence; and other family factors. The results reveal that it is necessary to work with the child in particularly difficult moments of his/her life in order to prevent or minimize the impact of adverse events on their mental and social functioning.

  11. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AND TRAUMA IN YOUTH IN JUVENILE DETENTION

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; Charles, Devon R.; Longworth, Sandra L.; McClelland, Gary M.; Dulcan, Mina K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine prevalence estimates of exposure to trauma and 12-month rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among juvenile detainees by demographic subgroups (sex, race/ethnicity, and age). Design Epidemiologic study of juvenile detainees. Master’s level clinical research interviewers administered the posttraumatic stress disorder module of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) to randomly selected detainees. Setting A large, temporary detention center for juveniles in Cook County, Illinois (which includes Chicago and surrounding suburbs). Participants Randomly selected, stratified sample of 898 African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic youth (532 males, 366 females, ages 10–18) arrested and newly detained. Main Outcome Measures Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV). Results Most participants (92.5%) had experienced one or more traumas (mean = 14.6 incidents, median = 6 incidents). Significantly more males (93.2%) than females (84.0%) reported at least one traumatic experience; 11.2% of the sample met criteria for PTSD in the past year. Over half of the participants with PTSD reported witnessing violence as the precipitating trauma. Conclusion Trauma and PTSD appear to be more prevalent among juvenile detainees than in community samples. We recommend directions for research and discuss implications for mental health policy. PMID:15066899

  12. The dopamine D3 receptor gene and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Erika J; Mitchell, Karen S; Logue, Mark W; Baldwin, Clinton T; Reardon, Annemarie F; Aiello, Alison; Galea, Sandro; Koenen, Karestan C; Uddin, Monica; Wildman, Derek; Miller, Mark W

    2014-08-01

    The dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene has been implicated in schizophrenia, autism, and substance use-disorders and is related to emotion reactivity, executive functioning, and stress-responding, processes impaired in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this candidate gene study was to evaluate DRD3 polymorphisms for association with PTSD. The discovery sample was trauma-exposed White, non-Hispanic U.S. veterans and their trauma-exposed intimate partners (N = 491); 60.3% met criteria for lifetime PTSD. The replication sample was 601 trauma-exposed African American participants living in Detroit, Michigan; 23.6% met criteria for lifetime PTSD. Genotyping was based on high-density bead chips. In the discovery sample, 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs2134655, rs201252087, rs4646996, and rs9868039, showed evidence of association with PTSD and withstood correction for multiple testing. The minor alleles were associated with reduced risk for PTSD (OR range = 0.59 to 0.69). In the replication sample, rs2251177, located 149 base pairs away from the most significant SNP in the discovery sample, was nominally associated with PTSD in men (OR = 0.32). Although the precise role of the D3 receptor in PTSD is not yet known, its role in executive functioning and emotional reactivity, and the sensitivity of the dopamine system to environmental stressors could potentially explain this association. PMID:25158632

  13. The Dopamine D3 Receptor Gene and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Erika J.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Logue, Mark W.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Aiello, Alison; Galea, Sandro; Koenen, Karestan C.; Uddin, Monica; Wildman, Derek; Miller, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene has been implicated in schizophrenia, autism, and substance use-disorders and is related to emotion reactivity, executive functioning, and stress-responding, processes impaired in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This aim of this candidate gene study was to evaluate DRD3 polymorphisms for association with PTSD. The discovery sample was trauma-exposed white, non-Hispanic veterans and their trauma-exposed intimate partners (N = 491); 60% met criteria for lifetime PTSD. The replication sample was 601 trauma-exposed African American participants; 24% met criteria for lifetime PTSD. Genotyping was based on high-density bead chips. In the discovery sample, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs2134655, rs201252087, rs4646996, and rs9868039, showed evidence of association with PTSD and withstood correction for multiple testing. The minor alleles were associated with reduced risk for PTSD (odds ratio range: 0.59 – 0.69). In the replication sample, rs2251177, located 149 base pairs away from the most significant SNP in the discovery sample, was nominally associated with PTSD in men (odds ratio: 0.32). Although the precise role of the D3 receptor in PTSD is not yet known, its role in executive functioning and emotional reactivity, and the sensitivity of the dopamine system to environmental stressors, could potentially explain this association. PMID:25158632

  14. Reduced white matter integrity in the cingulum and anterior corona radiata in posttraumatic stress disorder in male combat veterans: A diffusion tensor imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Sanjuan, Pilar Margaret; Thoma, Robert; Claus, Eric Daniel; Mays, Nicci; Caprihan, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress (PTSD) and alcohol use (AUD) disorders are associated with abnormal anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex, thalamus, and amygdala function, yet microstructural white matter (WM) differences in executive-limbic tracts are likely also involved. Investigating WM in limbic-thalamo-cortical tracts, this study hypothesized (1) fractional anisotropy (FA) in dorsal cingulum, parahippocampal cingulum, and anterior corona radiata (ACR) would be lower in individuals with comorbid PTSD/AUD compared to in individuals with AUD-only and (2) that FA would be related to both AUD and PTSD severity. 22 combat veterans with comorbid PTSD/AUD or AUD-only completed DTI scans. ANCOVAs indicated lower FA in right (F(df= 1,19)=9.091, P=0.0071) and left (F(df= 1,19) = 10.375, P=0.0045) dorsal cingulum and right ACR (F(df= 1,19) = 18.914, P= 0.0003) for individuals with comorbid PTSD/AUD vs. individuals with AUD-only, even controlling for alcohol use. Multiple linear regressions revealed that FA in the right ACR was inversely related to PTSD severity (r= −0.683, P=0.004). FA was not significantly related to alcohol severity. Reduced WM integrity in limbic-thalamo-cortical tracts is implicated in PTSD, even in the presence of comorbid AUD. These findings suggest that diminished WM integrity in tracts important for top-down control may be an important anomaly in PTSD and/or comorbid PTSD/AUD. PMID:24074963

  15. Sleep and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bottom of the page. Share this page Search PTSD Site Choose Section Enter Term and Search ... Coach Online Tools to help you manage stress. Search Pilots Search PILOTS *, the largest citation database on ...

  16. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... more efficient. Research on corticosterone, a hormone in rats involved in responding to stress, and energy-producing ... in the same way as corticocosterone does in rats. This finding may be relevant to research on ...

  17. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Intimate Relationship Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Casey T.; Watkins, Laura E.; Stafford, Jane; Street, Amy E.; Monson, Candice M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors conducted a meta-analysis of empirical studies investigating associations between indices of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and intimate relationship problems to empirically synthesize this literature. Method: A literature search using PsycINFO, Medline, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress (PILOTS),…

  18. Stress for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effects of Age, Gender, and Intelligence Quotient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Kristen Louise

    2009-01-01

    Researchers previously have found that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) experience higher levels of stress and anxiety than individuals who are typically developing and than those with other disabilities. The purpose of this study was to identify the nature and degree of stress reported for individuals with ASD, with particular…

  19. Factors Contributing to Stress in Parents of Individuals with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tehee, Erin; Honan, Rita; Hevey, David

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study explores the experiences of parents of individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs), and examines the influences of parent gender and child age on perceived stress, stress and coping, child-rearing involvement, support and information/education accessed. Methods and Materials: Questionnaires assessed general perceived…

  20. Underdiagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder in at risk youth.

    PubMed

    Miele, Drew; O'Brien, Edward J

    2010-10-01

    Three studies examined the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in agencies treating at risk youth. Studies 1 and 2 (1999) found that baseline PTSD diagnosis was rare in a residential and an outpatient agency (2.3% and 5.4%, respectively) whereas trauma-focused interviews identified PTSD in 47.7% and 44.6% of these clients. Subsequent training efforts increased awareness of PTSD and recognition of unique issues in assessing at risk youth. Study 3 (2009) reexamined PTSD diagnosis rates in these agencies 10 years later and found that the residential agency had an increased rate of PTSD diagnosis (10.8%), whereas PTSD diagnosis remained rare in the outpatient agency (4.0%). Suggestions are offered for increased accuracy in the diagnosis of PTSD and complex PTSD with at risk youth. PMID:20931661

  1. Posttraumatic stress disorder, drug companies, and the Internet.

    PubMed

    Mansell, Penny; Read, John

    2009-01-01

    The public increasingly acquires information about the causes of, and treatments for, mental health problems from the Internet. This study investigated the top 54 websites about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Google and Yahoo! to assess differences in the content of websites funded and not funded by drug companies. In all, 42% of the websites received drug company funding. There was no relationship found between the causes stated and whether the website was drug company funded. Drug company-funded websites, however, gave significantly more emphasis to medication in the treatment of PTSD. This study confirms an earlier study indicating that the pervasive influence of the pharmaceutical industry in the mental health field, designed to maximize product sales, now includes information available to the public via the Internet. PMID:19197709

  2. Gene-environment interaction in posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Nicole R.; Amstadter, Ananda B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to encourage research investigating the role of measured gene-environment interaction (G × E) in the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is uniquely suited to the study of G × E as the diagnosis requires exposure to a potentially-traumatic life event. PTSD is also moderately heritable; however, the role of genetic factors in PTSD etiology has been largely neglected both by trauma researchers and psychiatric geneticists. First, we summarize evidence for genetic influences on PTSD from family, twin, and molecular genetic studies. Second, we discuss the key challenges in G × E studies of PTSD and offer practical strategies for addressing these challenges and for discovering replicable G × E for PTSD. Finally, we propose some promising new directions for PTSD G × E research. We suggest that G × E research in PTSD is essential to understanding vulnerability and resilience following exposure to a traumatic event. PMID:18297420

  3. The associations between migraine, unipolar psychiatric comorbidities, and stress-related disorders and the role of estrogen.

    PubMed

    Peterlin, B Lee; Katsnelson, Michael J; Calhoun, Anne H

    2009-10-01

    Migraine is a common and often disabling neurovascular disorder. It has been linked with several psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety, and to stress-related disorders, such as abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Epidemiological data have consistently shown a higher prevalence of migraine, depression, anxiety, abuse, and PTSD in women as compared with men. The increased vulnerability of women to migraine and psychiatric disorders often occurs during periods of marked hormonal fluctuations of ovarian hormones. One consequence of these associations is the hypothesis that estrogens have a role in the pathophysiology of both disorders. This article offers an in-depth review of several studies linking psychiatric disorders and stress-related disorders with migraine. We also discuss the role of estrogen in the pathophysiologic overlap between these disorders. Finally, we briefly touch on where future research may be headed, in light of these data.

  4. Personality Disorders, Coping Strategies, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women with Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dawn M.; Sheahan, Timothy C.; Chard, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    Using a treatment-seeking sample of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the relationships between coping strategies, personality disorders (PD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were explored. A variety of PDs were found to exist in this population, with avoidant, antisocial, dependent PDs having higher frequencies than…

  5. ADULT ANXIETY DISORDERS IN RELATION TO TRAIT ANXIETY AND PERCEIVED STRESS IN CHILDHOOD.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Elizabeth A; Weber, Mareen; Rauch, Scott L; Killgore, William D S; Simon, Naomi M; Pollack, Mark H; Rosso, Isabelle M

    2015-10-01

    It is well established that objective early life stressors increase risk for anxiety disorders and that environmental stressors interact with dispositional factors such as trait anxiety. There is less information on how subjective perception of stress during childhood relates to later clinical anxiety. This study tested whether childhood perceived stress and trait anxiety were independently and interactively associated with adult anxiety disorders. Forty-seven adults diagnosed with anxiety disorders (M age = 34 yr., SD = 11) and 29 healthy participants (M = 33 yr., SD = 13) completed the adult Perceived Stress Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Global Perceived Early Life Events Scale as a measure of perceived stress during childhood. In a logistic regression model, high childhood perceived stress (β = 0.64) and trait anxiety (β = 0.11) were associated with significantly greater odds of adult anxiety disorder. The association between childhood perceived stress and adult anxiety remained significant when controlling for adult perceived stress. These findings suggest that children's perception of stress in their daily lives may be an important target of intervention to prevent the progression of stress into clinically significant anxiety.

  6. Post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Neria, Y.; Nandi, A.; Galea, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Disasters are traumatic events that may result in a wide range of mental and physical health consequences. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is probably the most commonly studied post-disaster psychiatric disorder. This review aimed to systematically assess the evidence about PTSD following exposure to disasters. Method A systematic search was performed. Eligible studies for this review included reports based on the DSM criteria of PTSD symptoms. The time-frame for inclusion of reports in this review is from 1980 (when PTSD was first introduced in DSM-III) and February 2007 when the literature search for this examination was terminated. Results We identified 284 reports of PTSD following disasters published in peer-reviewed journals since 1980. We categorized them according to the following classification: (1) human-made disasters (n=90), (2) technological disasters (n=65), and (3) natural disasters (n=116). Since some studies reported on findings from mixed samples (e.g. survivors of flooding and chemical contamination) we grouped these studies together (n=13). Conclusions The body of research conducted after disasters in the past three decades suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons exposed to disasters is substantial. Post-disaster PTSD is associated with a range of correlates including sociodemographic and background factors, event exposure characteristics, social support factors and personality traits. Relatively few studies have employed longitudinal assessments enabling documentation of the course of PTSD. Methodological limitations and future directions for research in this field are discussed. PMID:17803838

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Neria, Yuval; DiGrande, Laura; Adams, Ben G.

    2012-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks were unprecedented in their magnitude and aftermath. In the wake of the attacks, researchers reported a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the one most commonly studied. In this review, we aim to assess the evidence about PTSD among highly exposed populations in the first 10 years after the 9/11 attacks. We performed a systematic review. Eligible studies included original reports based on the full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria of PTSD among highly exposed populations such as those living or working within close proximity to the World Trade Center (WTC) and the Pentagon in New York City and Washington, DC, respectively, and first responders, including rescue, cleaning, and recovery workers. The large body of research conducted after the 9/11 attacks in the past decade suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons with high exposure to 9/11 was substantial. PTSD that was 9/11-related was associated with a wide range of correlates, including sociodemographic and background factors, event exposure characteristics, loss of life of significant others, and social support factors. Few studies used longitudinal study design or clinical assessments, and no studies reported findings beyond six years post-9/11, thus hindering documentation of the long-term course of confirmed PTSD. Future directions for research are discussed. PMID:21823772

  8. Different profiles of acute stress disorder differentially predict posttraumatic stress disorder in a large sample of female victims of sexual trauma.

    PubMed

    Shevlin, Mark; Hyland, Philip; Elklit, Ask

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to test the dimensional structure of acute stress disorder (ASD). Latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (Bryant, Moulds, & Guthrie, 2000) using a large sample of female victims of sexual trauma. Four distinct classes were found. Two of the classes represented high and low levels of ASD, and the high ASD class was associated with a high probability of subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There were 2 intermediate classes that were differentiated by the number of arousal symptoms, and the class with high levels of arousal symptoms had a higher risk of PTSD. The results suggested that ASD is best described by qualitatively and quantitatively differing subgroups in this sample, whereas previous research has assumed ASD to be dimensional. This may explain the limited success of using ASD to predict subsequent PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. A Study to Assess the Emotional Disorders with Special Reference to Stress of Medical Students of Agartala Government Medical College and Govinda Ballabh Pant Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Reang, Taranga; Bhattacharjya, Himadri

    2013-01-01

    Background: Stress is very common psychological phenomena where medical students faced in day to day activities. Epidemiological studies have asserted that about 70-80% of the diseases may be related to stress. Research related to this stress especially among medical students is essential, considering their learning, role and responsibilities as a future physician and health intervention programs. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of stress and identify stressors among medical students. Materials and Methods: A Cross-sectional study was carried out among undergraduate medical students and self administered GHQ-12 and stressor questionnaire were used to collect information regarding stress. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratio (OR). Results: Prevalence of stress was 94.52% and more common among females. 33.56% students felt constantly under strain and 25.34% had loss of sleep over worry. Majority of the students of all semesters had stress (P > 0.05) and stressors viz. ‘competition for marks’ (P = 0.005), ‘frequent examination’ (P = 0.001), ‘difficulty in finding time for recreation’ (P = 0.014) and ‘being away from home’ (P = 0.027) were predominantly experienced by the 1st year medical students. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed the causal effect of main parameter on the GHQ caseness and students who found difficulties in following teaching language among the caseness had 81.59% higher chance of developing stress (OR = 8.159, CI = 1.228-54.213). Conclusion: The stress experience was more common due to academics and seen among all year of medical students. Strategy development for eliminating stressors is necessary for promoting healthy life. PMID:24302820

  10. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder among urban residents.

    PubMed

    Parto, Jacklyn A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies indicate a high risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women and low-income, urban-residing African-Americans. This study examined PTSD symptoms among urban-residing, socioeconomically diverse, working-age African-Americans and whites. The participants completed the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Of the 2104 participants, 268 (12.7%) were screened positive for PTSD symptoms. Women (13.8%) were more likely than men (11.3%), white participants (13.8%) were more likely than African-Americans (11.9%), and younger participants (16.1%) were more likely than older participants (10.2%) to screen positive for PTSD symptoms. A significant interaction (p = 0.05) revealed that white women living below the 125% poverty level were most likely to report PTSD symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of PTSD screening in low-income urban neighborhoods.

  11. Written Disclosure Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Substance Use Disorder Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragdon, Rodney A.; Lombardo, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive exposure-based approaches to treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are effective, but they are time intensive and not widely used because of factors such as client noncompliance and fears of iatrogenic effects. Exposure by writing disclosure (WD), modeled after Pennebaker's brief stress-reduction procedure, may circumvent…

  12. Circulating Levels of Hormones, Lipids, and Immune Mediators in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder – A 3-Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Jergović, Mladen; Bendelja, Krešo; Savić Mlakar, Ana; Vojvoda, Valerija; Aberle, Neda; Jovanovic, Tanja; Rabatić, Sabina; Sabioncello, Ante; Vidović, Anđelko

    2015-01-01

    A number of peripheral blood analytes have been proposed as potential biomarkers of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies have investigated whether observed changes in biomarkers persist over time. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of combat-related chronic PTSD with a wide array of putative PTSD biomarkers and to determine reliability of the measurements, i.e., correlations over time. Croatian combat veterans with chronic PTSD (n = 69) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 32), all men, were assessed at two time points separated by 3 months. Serum levels of lipids, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), prolactin, and C-reactive protein were determined. Multiplex assay was used for the simultaneous assessment of 13 analytes in sera: cytokines [interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α], adhesion molecules (sPECAM-1, sICAM-1), chemokines (IL-8 and MIP-1α), sCD40L, nerve growth factor, and leptin. Group differences and changes over time were tested by parametric or non-parametric tests, including repeated measures analysis of covariance. Reliability estimates [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and kappa] were also calculated. Robust associations of PTSD with higher levels of DHEA-S [F(1,75) = 8.14, p = 0.006)] and lower levels of prolactin [F(1,75) = 5.40, p = 0.023] were found. Measurements showed good to excellent reproducibility (DHEA-S, ICC = 0.50; prolactin, ICC = 0.79). Serum lipids did not differ between groups but significant increase of LDL-C after 3 months was observed in the PTSD group (t = 6.87, p < 0.001). IL-8 was lower in the PTSD group (t = 4.37, p < 0.001) but assessments showed poor reproducibility (ICC = −0.08). Stable DHEA-S and prolactin changes highlight their potential to be reliable markers of PTSD. Change in lipid profiles after 3 months suggests that PTSD patients may be more prone to hyperlipidemia. High

  13. [Stressful events in childhood and psychiatric disorders in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Bidzan, Leszek

    2006-01-01

    Neurotrophins have been implicated in the regulation of development, neuronal survival, and adult synaptic plasticity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in development, synapse remodelling and responses to stress and injury. Its abnormal expression has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Adverse life events occurring early in development may alter the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and other brain areas and render the organism more vulnerable to psychiatric disorders. PMID:16756035

  14. Alcoholism in Black Vietnam Veterans: Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Carter, James H.

    1982-01-01

    A definitive diagnosis of a posttraumatic stress disorder in black Vietnam veterans can be made when recognition is given, not only to the stressors of war but to racism. An aftermath of the war for black veterans has been an alarming increase in alcoholism, believed to be an attempt to reduce feeling of inadequacy, pessimism, and uncontrollable rage. Two cases are described that are illustrative of the posttraumatic stress disorder and alcoholism in black Vietnam veterans. A brief discussion of salient issues that are crucial to diagnosis and treatment is presented. PMID:7120496

  15. Alcoholism in black Vietnam veterans: symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Carter, J H

    1982-07-01

    A definitive diagnosis of a posttraumatic stress disorder in black Vietnam veterans can be made when recognition is given, not only to the stressors of war but to racism. An aftermath of the war for black veterans has been an alarming increase in alcoholism, believed to be an attempt to reduce feeling of inadequacy, pessimism, and uncontrollable rage.Two cases are described that are illustrative of the posttraumatic stress disorder and alcoholism in black Vietnam veterans. A brief discussion of salient issues that are crucial to diagnosis and treatment is presented.

  16. New approaches in the pharmacotherapy of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Silver, J M; Sandberg, D P; Hales, R E

    1990-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop after exposure to severe stress, such as combat, accidents, assaults, and natural disasters. Pharmacotherapy can be a useful adjunct in the comprehensive treatment of these patients. The presence of comorbid conditions, including depression, panic disorder, substance abuse, and traumatic brain injury, should be carefully evaluated. Symptoms of PTSD that are associated with central nervous system hyperarousal or reexperiencing of the traumatic event appear to be the most responsive to pharmacotherapy. Social withdrawal and dulled responsiveness have not been shown to be alleviated through standard pharmacologic interventions. A therapeutic strategy is proposed that is based on the patient's symptoms and initial response to medication. PMID:2120203

  17. Posttraumatic stress disorder among survivors of a kamikaze attack.

    PubMed

    Chara, P J; Chara, K A

    2001-12-01

    26 sailors who survived a Kamikaze attack during the battle for Okinawa in World War II were given two adapted forms of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian to assess the psychological reactions they had to the sinking of their ship. Depending on the assessment criteria used, their responses indicated significant stress reactions ranging from 8.3% to 44% of the sample. The findings provide evidence that a single combat experience can have lifelong, averse psychological effects.

  18. Post-traumatic stress disorder: theory and treatment update.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Heather A; Heller, Grant M

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the few mental disorders in which the cause is readily identifiable. In this article, we review the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria, prevalence, and presentation of patients with PTSD in primary care. The purpose of this article is to review current literature regarding theory, etiology, and treatment effectiveness. Key findings in terms of neurobiological underpinnings with implications for future treatment are discussed. Recommendations regarding effective psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy, emerging treatment, and management issues in primary care settings are offered.

  19. Gene-environment interaction in posttraumatic stress disorder: an update.

    PubMed

    Koenen, Karestan C; Amstadter, Ananda B; Nugent, Nicole R

    2009-10-01

    The authors provide a detailed review of the extant gene-environment interaction (GxE) research in the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They begin with a discussion of why PTSD is uniquely fitting for the innovative framework of GxE methodology, followed by a review of the heritability and main effect molecular genetics studies of PTSD. Next, they discuss the six GxE investigations to date on PTSD. They end with a discussion of future directions and significance of this research, with an emphasis on the expansion of psychosocial factors that may be fitting environmental variables for inclusion in this new research area. The authors posit that GxE research is vital to elucidating risk and resilience following exposure to a potentially traumatic event.

  20. Management on tsunami causing posttraumatic stress disorder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jarusuraisin, Ngamwong; Kesornsukon, Kanch

    2005-11-01

    On December 26, 2004, tsunamis hit Southeast Asia and caused serious damage and loss of lives. In Thailand, six provinces (Ranong, Phang-Nga, Phuket, Krabi, Trang, and Satun) were impacted. The present study reports the psychiatric assessments such as Thai GHQ-60 and IES. It also reports management techniques of both cognitive behavior therapy and medication. Those were provided to a Thai female patient who was 54 years old. The patient responded to treatment quickly because of early management. The tsunami victim with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is not an individual. A mass of people who faced or witnessed the tsunami are vulnerable to get PTSD any time during 6 months after trauma. These early management techniques are useful and practical for a mass of victims and survivors.

  1. Dysfunctional cognitive appraisal and psychophysiological reactivity in acute stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Elsesser, Karin; Freyth, Claudia; Lohrmann, Thomas; Sartory, Gudrun

    2009-10-01

    The present study investigated the extent of dysfunctional appraisal as measured with the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI) and physiological responses to trauma-related material in patients with acute stress disorder (ASD; N=44) in comparison to participants without trauma exposure (N=27). Heart-rate (HR), skin conductance responses (SCR), and viewing time were recorded in response to - for trauma victims - idiosyncratically trauma-relevant and control pictures. ASD patients evidenced greater dysfunctional appraisal than control participants with regard to the PTCI scales Self and World and also an accelerative HR reaction and greater SCRs to trauma-relevant pictures. Among patients, PTCI was highly correlated with ASD severity while PTCI World was positively correlated with resting HR and depression. Amplitude of the HR reaction to trauma-related pictures was negatively correlated with viewing time. Results suggest that dysfunctional appraisal and autonomic reactivity are only loosely related in ASD.

  2. Multiple traumatic experiences and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sheryn T

    2007-07-01

    This study assesses the differential and combined impacts of multiple lifetime stressors in the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. One hundred and four clinical and 64 nonclinical participants were assessed for their exposure to four types of interpersonal trauma: physical and sexual abuse in childhood, lifetime community violence, and domestic violence in adulthood. PTSD symptomatology was assessed using the Los Angeles Symptom Checklist (LASC). Results indicated that exposure to lifetime multiple traumatic experiences was positively correlated with severity of PTSD symptoms. Clinical participants had experienced significantly more multiple traumas and had a higher rate of PTSD than the nonclinical participants. Results also suggested that adults who had experienced childhood sexual abuse were at higher risk for the development of PTSD related to interpersonal violence than adults who were not sexually abused as children. PMID:17575070

  3. Primary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder: drugs and implications.

    PubMed

    Burbiel, Joachim C

    2015-01-01

    Because posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly debilitating condition, prevention is an important research topic. This article reviews possible prevention approaches that involve the administration of drugs before the traumatic event takes place. The considered approaches include drugs that address the sympathetic nervous system, drugs that interfere with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, narcotics and other psychoactive drugs, as well as modulators of protein synthesis. Furthermore, some thoughts on potential ethical implications of the use of drugs for the primary prevention of PTDS are presented. While there are many barriers to overcome in this field of study, this paper concludes with a call for additional research, as there are currently no approaches that are well-suited for regular use. PMID:26504586

  4. Measuring use of evidence based psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Shiner, Brian; D'Avolio, Leonard W; Nguyen, Thien M; Zayed, Maha H; Young-Xu, Yinong; Desai, Rani A; Schnurr, Paula P; Fiore, Louis D; Watts, Bradley V

    2013-07-01

    To improve methods of estimating use of evidence-based psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in the Veteran's health administration, we evaluated administrative data and note text for patients newly enrolling in six VHA outpatient PTSD clinics in New England during the 2010 fiscal year (n = 1,924). Using natural language processing, we developed machine learning algorithms that mimic human raters in classifying note text. We met our targets for algorithm performance as measured by precision, recall, and F-measure. We found that 6.3 % of our study population received at least one session of evidence-based psychotherapy during the initial 6 months of treatment. Evidence-based psychotherapies appear to be infrequently utilized in VHA outpatient PTSD clinics in New England. Our method could support efforts to improve use of these treatments. PMID:22535469

  5. Effective psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: a review and critique.

    PubMed

    Cloitre, Marylene

    2009-01-01

    This report reviews and critiques the psychotherapy literature for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and systematically presents data on sample size, rates of completion and effect sizes. Substantial progress has been made in the use of cognitive behavioral therapies and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for the resolution of PTSD. Innovations in PTSD treatments are identified. Further advances are needed in the treatment of populations with complex and chronic forms of PTSD such as those found in childhood abuse populations, refugee populations, and those experiencing chronic mental illness. The need to address comorbid emotional, social, and physical health consequences of trauma, to implement treatments in community-based settings, and to incorporate larger systems of care into study designs is noted. PMID:19169192

  6. Multiple traumatic experiences and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sheryn T

    2007-07-01

    This study assesses the differential and combined impacts of multiple lifetime stressors in the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. One hundred and four clinical and 64 nonclinical participants were assessed for their exposure to four types of interpersonal trauma: physical and sexual abuse in childhood, lifetime community violence, and domestic violence in adulthood. PTSD symptomatology was assessed using the Los Angeles Symptom Checklist (LASC). Results indicated that exposure to lifetime multiple traumatic experiences was positively correlated with severity of PTSD symptoms. Clinical participants had experienced significantly more multiple traumas and had a higher rate of PTSD than the nonclinical participants. Results also suggested that adults who had experienced childhood sexual abuse were at higher risk for the development of PTSD related to interpersonal violence than adults who were not sexually abused as children.

  7. Rape myth acceptance, sexual trauma history, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Baugher, Shannon N; Elhai, Jon D; Monroe, James R; Gray, Matt J

    2010-11-01

    The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma history, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. Using linear regression and testing interaction effects, negative attitudes toward women significantly predicted greater RMA for individuals without a sexual trauma history. However, neither attitudes toward women nor GRI were significant predictors of RMA for individuals with a sexual trauma history. PTSD did not moderate RMA's relationship with attitudes toward women and GRI. This study has clinical implications for treatment as well as for the development of rape myth-dispelling programs.

  8. Risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder after an earthquake disaster.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Jasim; Mpofu, Elias; Matthews, Lynda R; Brock, Kaye E

    2013-12-01

    This study sought to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from women's reproductive health events after an earthquake experience. Data on antenatal care, pregnancy outcomes, family planning, socioeconomic status, earthquake experiences, and mental health were collected from a random sample of 425 women of reproductive age using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Reproductive Health Assessment Toolkit and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis to predict PTSD symptoms from posttrauma care variables and reproductive health events. Restricted social participation, use of temporary accommodation, pregnancy complications, and use of injectable contraceptives were significant risk factors of PTSD. These factors may be exacerbated by the social context of conservative societies, traditions about health care-seeking behavior, and access to health care. Antecedent reproductive health events influence women's reaction to major trauma including events such as an earthquake.

  9. Combat posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, and traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Brady, Kathleen T; Tuerk, Peter; Back, Sudie E; Saladin, Michael E; Waldrop, Angela E; Myrick, Hugh

    2009-12-01

    Among both civilian and veteran populations, substance use disorders (SUDs) and anxiety disorders frequently co-occur. One of the most common comorbid anxiety disorder is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a condition which may develop after exposure to traumatic events, such as military combat. In comparison with the general population, rates of both SUDs and PTSD are elevated among veterans. Recent data show that soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan demonstrate high rates of co-occurring SUDs, PTSD, and traumatic brain injury. Careful assessment of these conditions is critical and may be complicated by symptom overlap. More research targeting integrated interventions for these conditions is needed to establish optimal treatments.

  10. Co-occurrence of and remission from general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms after acute lung injury: a 2-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Shanholtz, Carl; Dennison-Himmelfarb, Cheryl R.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the co-occurrence, and predictors of remission, of general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms during 2-year follow-up in survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) treated in an intensive care unit (ICU). Design, Setting, and Patients This prospective cohort study enrolled 520 patients from 13 medical and surgical ICUs in 4 hospitals, with follow-up at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months post-ALI. Measurements and Main Results The outcomes of interest were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) anxiety and depression subscales (scores ≥8 indicating substantial symptoms) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IESR, scores ≥1.6 indicating substantial PTSD symptoms). Of the 520 enrolled patients, 274 died before 3-month follow-up; 186/196 consenting survivors (95%) completed at least one HADS and IESR assessment during 2-year follow-up, and most completed multiple assessments. Across follow-up time points, the prevalence of supra-threshold general anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms ranged from 38–44%, 26–33%, and 22–24%, respectively; more than half of the patients had supra-threshold symptoms in at least one domain during 2-year follow-up. The majority (59%) of survivors with any supra-threshold symptoms were above threshold for 2 or more types of symptoms (i.e., of general anxiety, depression, and/or PTSD). In fact, the most common pattern involved simultaneous general anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms. Most patients with general anxiety, depression, or PTSD symptoms during 2-year follow-up had supra-threshold symptoms at 24-month (last) follow-up. Higher SF-36 physical functioning domain scores at the prior visit were associated with a greater likelihood of remission from general anxiety and PTSD symptoms during follow-up. Conclusions The majority of ALI survivors had clinically significant general anxiety, depressive, or PTSD symptoms, and these symptoms tended to co-occur across

  11. Parenting Stress of Parents of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Judith; Biondic, Daniella; Grimbos, Teresa; Herbert, Monique

    2016-04-01

    This study examined parenting stress among parents of adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 138 adolescents (84 ADHD, 52 boys, 32 girls; 54 non-ADHD, 24 boys, 30 girls) age 13 to 18 and their parents. Mothers (n = 135) and fathers (n = 98) of participating teens completed the Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents. Mothers and fathers of adolescents with ADHD reported more stress than parents of adolescents without ADHD with regard to their children's challenging behaviors (Adolescent domain stress). Mothers of adolescents with ADHD also reported that they experienced elevated levels of stress in terms of role restrictions, feelings of social alienation, conflict with their partner, feelings of guilt and incompetence (Parent domain stress), and relationship with their children (Adolescent-Parent Relationship domain stress; APR). The extent to which clinical levels of adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) symptoms or externalizing behavior in general were associated with parenting stress depended on the rater of these behaviors. Parenting stress was associated with higher levels of ODD and other externalizing behaviors when these behaviors were rated by parents but not when they were rated by teachers. In addition, over and above adolescent ADHD classification, mothers' self-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with higher parenting stress in the Adolescent and Parent domains, and fathers' self-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with lower APR stress. The results suggest directions that should be considered for addressing parenting stress when designing interventions for families of adolescents with ADHD.

  12. Epigenetic and immune function profiles associated with posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Monica; Aiello, Allison E.; Wildman, Derek E.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Pawelec, Graham; de los Santos, Regina; Goldmann, Emily; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    The biologic underpinnings of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have not been fully elucidated. Previous work suggests that alterations in the immune system are characteristic of the disorder. Identifying the biologic mechanisms by which such alterations occur could provide fundamental insights into the etiology and treatment of PTSD. Here we identify specific epigenetic profiles underlying immune system changes associated with PTSD. Using blood samples (n = 100) obtained from an ongoing, prospective epidemiologic study in Detroit, the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study, we applied methylation microarrays to assay CpG sites from more than 14,000 genes among 23 PTSD-affected and 77 PTSD-unaffected individuals. We show that immune system functions are significantly overrepresented among the annotations associated with genes uniquely unmethylated among those with PTSD. We further demonstrate that genes whose methylation levels are significantly and negatively correlated with traumatic burden show a similar strong signal of immune function among the PTSD affected. The observed epigenetic variability in immune function by PTSD is corroborated using an independent biologic marker of immune response to infection, CMV—a typically latent herpesvirus whose activity was significantly higher among those with PTSD. This report of peripheral epigenomic and CMV profiles associated with mental illness suggests a biologic model of PTSD etiology in which an externally experienced traumatic event induces downstream alterations in immune function by reducing methylation levels of immune-related genes. PMID:20439746

  13. Alexithymia and posttraumatic stress disorder following asthma attack.

    PubMed

    Chung, Man Cheung; Wall, Natalie

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following asthma attack (post-asthma attack PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity among college students. It also investigated the association between these variables and alexithymia. One hundred and six college students participated in the study and completed an on-line survey comprising the Asthma Symptom Checklist, PTSD Checklist, General Health Questionnaire-28 and Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Ninety-one students without asthma and major illness formed the control group. 2 % met the diagnostic criteria for full-PTSD, while 42 and 56 % met the partial and no-PTSD criteria respectively. Compared with the control, the asthma group reported significantly more somatic problems, social dysfunction and depression and was five times more likely to have an elevated risk of developing a general psychiatric disorder. After adjusting age, marital status, asthma experience and symptoms, alexithymia did not predict PTSD, while difficulty identifying feelings predicted psychiatric co-morbidity. Mediational analyses showed that asthma symptoms partially mediated the link between difficulty identifying feelings and psychiatric co-morbidity. People can develop PTSD symptoms and other psychological difficulties following asthma attack. Alexithymia influenced general psychological difficulties independently of PTSD symptoms.

  14. Latent Factor Structure of DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gentes, Emily; Dennis, Paul A.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Kirby, Angela C.; Hair, Lauren P.; Beckham, Jean C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the latent factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on DSM-5 criteria in a sample of participants (N = 374) recruited for studies on trauma and health. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were used to compare the fit of the previous 3-factor DSM-IV model of PTSD to the 4-factor model specified in DSM-5 as well as to a competing 4-factor “dysphoria” model (Simms, Watson, & Doebbeling, 2002) and a 5-factor (Elhai et al., 2011) model of PTSD. Results indicated that the Elhai 5-factor model (re-experiencing, active avoidance, emotional numbing, dysphoric arousal, anxious arousal) provided the best fit to the data, although substantial support was demonstrated for the DSM-5 4-factor model. Low factor loadings were noted for two of the symptoms in the DSM-5 model (psychogenic amnesia and reckless/self-destructive behavior), which raises questions regarding the adequacy of fit of these symptoms with other core features of the disorder. Overall, the findings from the present research suggest the DSM-5 model of PTSD is a significant improvement over the previous DSM-IV model of PTSD. PMID:26366290

  15. Dimensions of trauma associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caseness, severity and functional impairment: a study of Bosnian refugees resettled in Australia.

    PubMed

    Momartin, S; Silove, D; Manicavasagar, V; Steel, Z

    2003-09-01

    Refugee survivors of inter-ethnic warfare vary greatly in the extent and range of their trauma experiences. Discerning which experiences are most salient to generating and perpetuating disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is critical to the mounting rational strategies for targeted psychosocial interventions. In a sample of Bosnian Muslim refugees (n=126) drawn from a community centre and supplemented by a snowball sampling method, PTSD status and associated disability were measured using the clinician-administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) for DSM-IV. A principal components analysis (PCA) based on a pool of trauma items yielded four coherent trauma dimensions: Human Rights Violations, Threat to Life, Traumatic Loss and Dispossession and Eviction. A cluster analysis identified three subgroupings according to extent of trauma exposure. There were no differences in PTSD risk for the group most exposed to human rights violations (internment in concentration camps, torture) compared to the general war-exposed group. Logistic regression analysis using the dimensions derived from the PCA indicated that Threat to Life alone of the four trauma factors predicted PTSD status, a finding that supports the DSM-IV definition of a trauma. Both Threat to Life and Traumatic Loss contributed to symptom severity and disability associated with PTSD. It may be that human rights violations pose a more general threat to the survivor's future psychosocial adaptation in areas of functioning that extend beyond the confines of PTSD.

  16. Post-traumatic stress disorder in different types of stress (clinical features and treatment).

    PubMed

    Rumyantseva, G M; Stepanov, A L

    2008-01-01

    Two types of stress situation were compared: involvement in combat actions and working in the post-Chernobyl atomic energy station clean-up. A total of 30 subjects involved in combat actions (combatants) and 33 clean-up workers were observed for 5-6 years and 15-17 years after involvement in stress situations. Mean ages in the two groups were 27.0 +/- 2.8 and 43.7 +/- 4.5 years respectively. Clinical features were analyzed in terms of the major criteria of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - "immersion" in the experience, "avoidance," "hyperexcitability," and "social functioning." There were both common features in the two groups of subjects as well as individual characteristics dependent on the nature of the stress. Patients were treated with Coaxil at a dose of 37.5 mg/day for four weeks. In both groups of patients, Coaxil had the most favorable effects on immersion and hyperexcitability, which improved social adaptation. The "avoidance" symptom was more resistant. These studies lead to the conclusion that Coaxil is an effective agent for the treatment of different types of PTSD.

  17. Sex differences in anxiety disorders: Interactions between fear, stress, and gonadal hormones.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Lisa Y; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Women are more vulnerable to stress- and fear-based disorders, such as anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing literature on this topic, the neural basis of these sex differences remains unclear, and the findings appear inconsistent. The neurobiological mechanisms of fear and stress in learning and memory processes have been extensively studied, and the crosstalk between these systems is beginning to explain the disproportionate incidence and differences in symptomatology and remission within these psychopathologies. In this review, we discuss the intersect between stress and fear mechanisms and their modulation by gonadal hormones and discuss the relevance of this information to sex differences in anxiety and fear-based disorders. Understanding these converging influences is imperative to the development of more effective, individualized treatments that take sex and hormones into account.

  18. Post-traumatic stress disorder status in a rescue group after the Wenchuan earthquake relief.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junhua; Liu, Qunying; Li, Jinliang; Li, Xuejiang; You, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tian, Changfu; Luan, Rongsheng

    2013-07-15

    Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake rescue workers is relatively high. Risk factors for this disorder include demographic characteristics, earthquake-related high-risk factors, risk factors in the rescue process, personality, social support and coping style. This study examined the current status of a unit of 1 040 rescue workers who participated in earthquake relief for the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12(th), 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed primarily using the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale during structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine major risk factors that contributed to the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Results revealed that the incidence of this disorder in the rescue group was 5.96%. The impact factors in univariate analysis included death of family members, contact with corpses or witnessing of the deceased or seriously injured, near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma in the rescue process and working at the epicenter of the earthquake. Correlation analysis suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder was positively correlated with psychotic and neurotic personalities, negative coping and low social support. Impact factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis included near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma, working in the epicenter of the rescue, neurotic personality, negative coping and low social support, among which low social support had the largest odds ratio of 20.42. Findings showed that the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the result of the interaction of multiple factors. PMID:25206499

  19. Post-traumatic stress disorder status in a rescue group after the Wenchuan earthquake relief

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Junhua; Liu, Qunying; Li, Jinliang; Li, Xuejiang; You, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tian, Changfu; Luan, Rongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake rescue workers is relatively high. Risk factors for this disorder include demographic characteristics, earthquake-related high-risk factors, risk factors in the rescue process, personality, social support and coping style. This study examined the current status of a unit of 1 040 rescue workers who participated in earthquake relief for the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12th, 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed primarily using the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale during structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine major risk factors that contributed to the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Results revealed that the incidence of this disorder in the rescue group was 5.96%. The impact factors in univariate analysis included death of family members, contact with corpses or witnessing of the deceased or seriously injured, near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma in the rescue process and working at the epicenter of the earthquake. Correlation analysis suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder was positively correlated with psychotic and neurotic personalities, negative coping and low social support. Impact factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis included near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma, working in the epicenter of the rescue, neurotic personality, negative coping and low social support, among which low social support had the largest odds ratio of 20.42. Findings showed that the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the result of the interaction of multiple factors. PMID:25206499

  20. A biological measure of stress levels in patients with functional movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Carine W.; LaFaver, Kathrin; Ameli, Rezvan; Toledo, Ryan; Hallett, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While the presence of co-existing psychological stressors has historically been used as a supportive factor in the diagnosis of functional neurological disorders, many patients with functional neurological disorders deny the presence of these stressors. The stress response circuitry in these patients remains largely unexplored. Methods We performed an observational study examining biological stress levels in patients with functional movement disorders as compared with matched healthy controls. Specifically, we compared levels of circulating cortisol, the end-product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Salivary cortisol samples were collected from patients with “clinically definite” functional movement disorders (n=33) and their age- and sex-matched controls (n=33). Collections were performed at five standardized time points, reflecting participants’ diurnal cortisol cycles. To rule out confounders, participants also underwent extensive psychological assessment including Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Results Patients with functional movement disorders did not differ from matched controls with respect to levels of circulating cortisol. Conclusion We demonstrate that current stress levels are not altered in patients with functional movement disorders. Our results warrant careful review of current management of patients with functional neurological symptoms, and suggest that the insistence on heightened stress levels in these patients is unjustified. PMID:26117436

  1. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Examination of What Clinicians Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Kylie J.; Smith, David I.

    2006-01-01

    Undetected posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has serious adverse consequences. General practitioners (GPs), psychologists, and psychiatrists all have an important part to play in recognising, assessing, and treating individuals with PTSD. The knowledge level of these clinicians was investigated using a purpose-designed PTSD Knowledge…

  2. Narrative Therapy to Prevent Illness-Related Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Suni; Bull, Carolyn; Propst, Olivia; Dettinger, Sara; Detwiler, Laura

    2005-01-01

    More than 94% of cancer patients described the experience as the most traumatic event they have ever faced and 13% have posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the aftermath. Empirical evidence demonstrates that certain behaviors lead to more positive health outcomes. Although many patients automatically engage in these behaviors, many others do…

  3. [Insanity defense in post-traumatic stress disorder].

    PubMed

    Wild, Barbara; Foerster, Klaus

    2003-04-01

    We report the forensic psychiatric evaluation of a 40 year old Iraqi who suffers from a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). She committed multiple non violent shopliftings. We mention criteria for a possible causal relationship between the PTSD and the crimes and discuss, why we affirm a insanity defense in this case.

  4. In Vitro Flooding of a Childhood Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saigh, Philip A.

    1987-01-01

    An in vitro flooding package was used to treat the posttraumatic stress disorder of a 10-year-old girl. Traumatic scenes were identified and stimulus and response imagery cues were presented according to a multiple baseline across traumatic scenes design. Postreatment and follow-up assessment revealed the positive influence of the treatment.…

  5. Post-traumatic stress disorder and the lost memory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Berman, L H

    1995-03-01

    A number of different symptoms may result as the reaction to severe stress. It is unjustified to assume that specific disorders, such as bulimia, multiple personality, borderline personality, etc., are caused by specific early childhood trauma. Fadism is harmful to the patient and the medical profession.

  6. Aftermath of Violence: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Vietnam Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayman, Peter M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive four-phase treatment approach for helping Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Describes phases in the recovery process: assessment, stabilization of symptoms, working through the trauma and reintegration into the family and society. Also describes the Vet Center Outreach Program designed to meet…

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Army Nurse Corps Vietnam Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stretch, Robert H.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Army nurse veterans. Analysis of questionnaire data (N=712) revealed a current PTSD rate for Vietnam veteran nurses of 3.3 percent. This rate is comparable to that found among nonnurse active duty Army Vietnam veterans and is much lower than estimates for civilian Vietnam veterans.…

  8. Conceptualization and Treatment for Vietnam Veterans Experiencing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Presents model that can be employed in working with Vietnam veterans experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Incorporates cognitive, behavioral, and interactional components and focuses on helping veterans to identify schemas that are related to five areas of psychological and interpersonal functioning: safety, trust, power, esteem, and…

  9. Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in World War II Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engdahl, Brian E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scales were compared in a community sample of 330 former prisoners of war and World War II combat veterans. The Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, and the Impact of Event Scale demonstrated moderate relationships with PTSD. (SLD)

  10. Cannabis for posttraumatic stress disorder: A neurobiological approach to treatment.

    PubMed

    Krumm, Bryan A

    2016-01-16

    The endocannabinoid system is intricately involved in regulation of the neurobiological processes, which underlie the symptomatology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article discusses the neurobiological underpinnings of PTSD and the use of cannabis for treating PTSD in the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program.

  11. Connection and Recovery: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and School Reintegration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    This paper provides an introduction to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in a manner that facilitates the interested learner's further exploration. It presents theoretical references and reviews the social factors and epidemiology of PTSD in children and adolescents. The psychobiology of PTSD is described in relation to the types of memory it…

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children: What Elementary Teachers Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is not limited to the men and women who have been exposed to the horrors of war through military service. Children who are exposed to traumatic and life-threatening events, such as school shootings, physical and sexual abuse, and community violence, also can suffer from PTSD. This article explores the causes,…

  13. 75 FR 41092 - Stressor Determinations for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN32 Stressor Determinations for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Correction In rule document 2010-16885 beginning on page 39843 in the issue of Tuesday, July 13, 2010 make...

  14. Preclinical Perspectives on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Criteria in DSM-5

    PubMed Central

    Tye, Susannah; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; Hu, Chunling; Lineberry, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) now sits within the newly created “Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders” section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fifth edition; DSM-5). Through the refinement and expansion of diagnostic criteria, the DSM-5 version better clarifies the broad and pervasive effects of trauma on functioning, as well as the impact of development on trauma reactions. Aggressive and dissociative symptoms are more thoroughly characterized, reflecting increasing evidence that reactions to trauma often reach beyond the domains of fear and anxiety (these latter domains were emphasized in DSM-IV). These revised criteria are supported by decades of preclinical and clinical research quantifying traumatic stress–induced changes in neurobiological and behavioral function. Several features of the DSM-5 PTSD criteria are similarly and consistently represented in preclinical animal models and humans following exposure to extreme stress. In rodent models, for example, increases in anxiety-like, helplessness, or aggressive behavior, along with disruptions in circadian/neurovegetative function, are typically induced by severe, inescapable, and uncontrollable stress. These abnormalities are prominent features of PTSD and can help us in understanding the pathophysiology of this and other stress-associated psychiatric disorders. In this article we examine some of the changes to the diagnostic criteria of PTSD in the context of trauma-related neurobiological dysfunction, and discuss implications for how preclinical data can be useful in current and future clinical conceptualizations of trauma and trauma-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:25563569

  15. Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Delinquent Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariga, Michio; Uehara, Toru; Takeuchi, Kazuo; Ishige, Yoko; Nakano, Reiko; Mikuni, Masahiko

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although juveniles within the justice system have high psychiatric morbidity, few comprehensive investigations have shown posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female delinquents. Here, we aim to describe the nature and extent of PTSD and trauma exposure and to clarify the relationships among comorbidity and psychosocial factors in…

  16. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Vaginal Delivery at Primiparous Women.

    PubMed

    Milosavljevic, Maja; Lecic Tosevski, Dusica; Soldatovic, Ivan; Vukovic, Olivera; Miljevic, Cedo; Peljto, Amir; Kostic, Milutin; Olff, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Although severe gynaecological pathology during delivery and negative outcome have been shown to be related with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) little is known about traumatic experiences following regular delivery, at the expected time and with a healthy child. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of PTSD during postpartum period after vaginal delivery and its risk factors. The sample included 126 primiparous women. Monthly, for the next three months, the women were assessed for PTSD using the gold standard interview for PTSD, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Risk factors were assessed including sociodemographic variables, personal medical history and clinical variables. After the first month, 2.4% women had acute full PTSD and another 9.5% had clinically significant level of PTSD symptoms. Following the second and the third month, partial PTSD was found in 5.9% and 1.3% of the women, respectively, and none of participants had full PTSD. Obstetrical interventions were the only significant risk factor for the development of PTSD. Symptoms of postpartum PTSD are not rare after a traumatic delivery, and associated with specific obstetrical risk factors. Awareness of these risk factors may stimulate interventions to prevent this important and neglected postpartum disorder. PMID:27271544

  17. Posttraumatic stress disorder in a nationally representative mexican community sample.

    PubMed

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Petukhova, Maria; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the public health burden of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relation to the full range of traumatic events to identify the conditional risk of PTSD from each traumatic event experienced in the Mexican population and other risk factors. The representative sample comprised a subsample (N = 2,362) of the urban participants of the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001-2002). We used the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess exposure to trauma and the presence of PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, ) in each respondents' self-reported worst traumatic event, as well as a randomly selected lifetime trauma. The results showed that traumatic events were extremely common in Mexico (68.8%). The estimate of lifetime PTSD in the whole population was 1.5%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 2.1%. The 12-month prevalence of PTSD in the whole population was 0.6%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 0.8%. Violence-related events were responsible for a large share of PTSD. Sexual violence, in particular, was one of the greatest risks for developing PTSD. These findings support the idea that trauma in Mexico should be considered a public health concern. PMID:24850143

  18. Posttraumatic stress disorder in a nationally representative mexican community sample.

    PubMed

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Petukhova, Maria; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the public health burden of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relation to the full range of traumatic events to identify the conditional risk of PTSD from each traumatic event experienced in the Mexican population and other risk factors. The representative sample comprised a subsample (N = 2,362) of the urban participants of the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001-2002). We used the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess exposure to trauma and the presence of PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, ) in each respondents' self-reported worst traumatic event, as well as a randomly selected lifetime trauma. The results showed that traumatic events were extremely common in Mexico (68.8%). The estimate of lifetime PTSD in the whole population was 1.5%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 2.1%. The 12-month prevalence of PTSD in the whole population was 0.6%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 0.8%. Violence-related events were responsible for a large share of PTSD. Sexual violence, in particular, was one of the greatest risks for developing PTSD. These findings support the idea that trauma in Mexico should be considered a public health concern.

  19. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Vaginal Delivery at Primiparous Women

    PubMed Central

    Milosavljevic, Maja; Lecic Tosevski, Dusica; Soldatovic, Ivan; Vukovic, Olivera; Miljevic, Cedo; Peljto, Amir; Kostic, Milutin; Olff, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Although severe gynaecological pathology during delivery and negative outcome have been shown to be related with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) little is known about traumatic experiences following regular delivery, at the expected time and with a healthy child. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of PTSD during postpartum period after vaginal delivery and its risk factors. The sample included 126 primiparous women. Monthly, for the next three months, the women were assessed for PTSD using the gold standard interview for PTSD, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Risk factors were assessed including sociodemographic variables, personal medical history and clinical variables. After the first month, 2.4% women had acute full PTSD and another 9.5% had clinically significant level of PTSD symptoms. Following the second and the third month, partial PTSD was found in 5.9% and 1.3% of the women, respectively, and none of participants had full PTSD. Obstetrical interventions were the only significant risk factor for the development of PTSD. Symptoms of postpartum PTSD are not rare after a traumatic delivery, and associated with specific obstetrical risk factors. Awareness of these risk factors may stimulate interventions to prevent this important and neglected postpartum disorder. PMID:27271544

  20. Job-Related Stress and Sleep Disorders among North Carolina College Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal, Patricia; Grobe, William J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold. First, the study was to determine the extent of job-related stress among North Carolina community college presidents. Second, the study was to determine the extent of sleep disorders that exist in the target population. And finally, the study was to measure, if any, the relationship between job-related…

  1. The Relationship between Parenting Stress and Behavior Problems of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Lisa A.; Reed, Phil

    2009-01-01

    Two 9- to 10-month-Iong studies (N = 137) examined the interaction between parenting stress and behavior problems in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). Study 1 focused on very young children, and Study 2 employed a wider range of child ages; both studies assessed these factors at 2 points in time. The researchers noted a strong…

  2. Childhood maltreatment, juvenile disorders and adult posttraumatic stress disorder: A prospective investigation

    PubMed Central

    Breslau, Naomi; Koenen, Karestan C.; Luo, Zhehui; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Swanson, Sonja; Houts, Renate M.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background We examine prospectively the influence of two separate but potentially interrelated factors in the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): childhood maltreatment as conferring a susceptibility to the PTSD-response to adult trauma and juvenile disorders as precursors of adult PTSD. Method The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study is a birth cohort (n=1037) from the general population of New Zealand's South Island, with multiple assessments up to age 38. DSM-IV PTSD was assessed among participants exposed to trauma at ages 26–38. Complete data were available on 928 participants. Results Severe maltreatment in the first decade of life, experienced by 8.5% of the sample, was associated significantly with the risk of PTSD among those exposed to adult trauma (odds ratio, (OR)=2.64, 95% CI: 1.16, 6.01), compared to no maltreatment. Moderate maltreatment, experienced by 27.2 %, was not associated significantly with that risk (OR=1.55, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.85). However, the two estimates did not differ significantly from one another. Juvenile disorders (ages 11–15), experienced by 35% of the sample, independent of childhood maltreatment, was associated significantly with the risk of PTSD-response to adult trauma (OR=2.35, 95% CI: 1.32, 4.18). Conclusions Severe maltreatment was associated with risk of PTSD-response to adult trauma, compared to no maltreatment, and juvenile disorders, independent of earlier maltreatment, was associated with that risk. The role of moderate maltreatment remained unresolved. Larger longitudinal studies are needed to assess the impact of moderate maltreatment, experienced by the majority of adult trauma victims with history of maltreatment. PMID:24168779

  3. Use of the Transcendental Meditation Technique to Reduce Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by Reducing Stress and Anxiety: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosswald, Sarina J.; Stixrud, William R.; Travis, Fred; Bateh, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study tested the feasibility of using the Transcendental Meditation[R] technique to reduce stress and anxiety as a means of reducing symptoms of ADHD. Students ages 11-14 were taught the technique, and practiced it twice daily in school. Common ADHD inventories and performance measures of executive function were administered at…

  4. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Dependence in Young Women*

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Carolyn E.; Mccutcheon, Vivia V.; Pommer, Nicole E.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study is to characterize the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) in women, distinguishing PTSD-specific influences on AD from the contribution of co-occurring psychiatric conditions and from the influences of trauma more generally. Method: Trauma histories and DSM-IV lifetime diagnoses, including PTSD and AD, were obtained via telephone interview from 3,768 female twins. Based on PTSD status and trauma history, participants were categorized as no trauma (43.7%), trauma without PTSD (52.6%), or trauma with PTSD (3.7%). Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted using trauma/PTSD status to predict AD, first adjusting only for ethnicity and parental problem drinking, then including conduct disorder, major depressive disorder, regular smoking, and cannabis abuse. Results: Before accounting for psychiatric covariates, elevated rates of AD were evident in both trauma-exposed groups, but those with PTSD were at significantly greater risk for AD than those without PTSD. This distinction was no longer statistically significant when psychiatric covariates were included in the model, but both trauma-exposed groups continued to show elevated odds of developing AD compared with the no trauma group. Conclusions: The elevated rates of AD in women who have experienced trauma are not accounted for in full by psychiatric conditions that commonly co-occur with AD and trauma exposure. The greater likelihood of developing AD in the subset of trauma-exposed individuals who develop PTSD may reflect higher levels of distress and/ or higher rates of psychopathology associated with traumas that lead to PTSD rather than PTSD-specific influences. PMID:20946737

  5. Stress studies in EFG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Electrical characterization of defects induced in FZ and CZ silicon stress in four-point bending above 1200 C was started. Techniques to study electrical activity that will permit correlation of defect activity with diffusion length and with room and low temperature EBIC are being developed. Preliminary characterization of defects in ribbon grown at very low speeds of less than 1 cm/min shows that the dislocation density is very low over significant regions of cross section, while regions of high dislocation density (approx. 5 x 10(6)/cm(2)) occur in bands in a number of places. Addition measurements of stress distributions in EFG material were obtained at the University of Illinois using shadow-Moire interferometry.

  6. Markers of Oxidative Stress and Neuroprogression in Depression Disorder.

    PubMed

    Vaváková, Magdaléna; Ďuračková, Zdeňka; Trebatická, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Major depression is multifactorial disorder with high prevalence and alarming prognostic in the nearest 15 years. Several mechanisms of depression are known. Neurotransmitters imbalance and imbalance between neuroprogressive and neuroprotective factors are observed in major depression. Depression is accompanied by inflammatory responses of the organism and consequent elevation of proinflammatory cytokines and increased lipid peroxidation are described in literature. Neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression are also associated with telomerase shortening, oxidative changes in nucleotides, and polymorphisms in several genes connected to metabolism of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondrion dysfunction is directly associated with increasing levels of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress plays significant role in pathophysiology of major depression via actions of free radicals, nonradical molecules, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Products of oxidative stress represent important parameters for measuring and predicting of depression status as well as for determining effectiveness of administrated antidepressants. Positive effect of micronutrients, vitamins, and antioxidants in depression treatment is also reviewed.

  7. Markers of Oxidative Stress and Neuroprogression in Depression Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Vaváková, Magdaléna; Trebatická, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Major depression is multifactorial disorder with high prevalence and alarming prognostic in the nearest 15 years. Several mechanisms of depression are known. Neurotransmitters imbalance and imbalance between neuroprogressive and neuroprotective factors are observed in major depression. Depression is accompanied by inflammatory responses of the organism and consequent elevation of proinflammatory cytokines and increased lipid peroxidation are described in literature. Neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression are also associated with telomerase shortening, oxidative changes in nucleotides, and polymorphisms in several genes connected to metabolism of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondrion dysfunction is directly associated with increasing levels of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress plays significant role in pathophysiology of major depression via actions of free radicals, nonradical molecules, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Products of oxidative stress represent important parameters for measuring and predicting of depression status as well as for determining effectiveness of administrated antidepressants. Positive effect of micronutrients, vitamins, and antioxidants in depression treatment is also reviewed. PMID:26078821

  8. Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and phobias Bipolar disorder Depression Mood disorders Personality disorders Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia ...

  9. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Psychiatric Defense

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Harold W.; Howe, Gary L.; Gelsomino, Joe; Lockert, Edna W.

    1986-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders recently included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III).1 The disorder refers to the psychological sequelae that may follow a significant stressor. The military has previously referred to PTSD as “war neurosis,” “shell shock,” and “combat neurosis.” PTSD has recently gained attention as a means of legal defense. As a defense, it may exist separately from “innocence by reason of insanity.” The authors review the literature, provide case vignettes exemplifying the clinical features, and present three additional cases that gained local and national notoriety because of their defense motions. The senior author served as an expert witness in these cases. Recommendations are given to readers who may in the future serve as expert witnesses or consultants in similar cases. PMID:3950984

  10. Post-traumatic stress disorder: a psychiatric defense.

    PubMed

    Jordan, H W; Howe, G L; Gelsomino, J; Lockert, E W

    1986-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders recently included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III).(1) The disorder refers to the psychological sequelae that may follow a significant stressor. The military has previously referred to PTSD as "war neurosis," "shell shock," and "combat neurosis."PTSD has recently gained attention as a means of legal defense. As a defense, it may exist separately from "innocence by reason of insanity." The authors review the literature, provide case vignettes exemplifying the clinical features, and present three additional cases that gained local and national notoriety because of their defense motions. The senior author served as an expert witness in these cases. Recommendations are given to readers who may in the future serve as expert witnesses or consultants in similar cases.

  11. Impact of Race on Early Treatment Termination and Outcomes in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Kristin; Artz, Caroline; Resick, Patricia A.; Young-Xu, Yinong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the influence of race on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment among 94 African American and 214 Caucasian female victims of interpersonal violence participating in 2 studies of cognitive-behavioral treatment for PTSD that were conducted sequentially and continuously. Method: In each study,…

  12. Post-traumatic stress disorder in children witnessing a public hanging in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Attari, A; Dashty, S; Mahmoodi, M

    2006-01-01

    A study was made of post-traumatic stress disorder in 200 children aged 7-11 years who had witnessed a public hanging next to their school in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. A standard checklist was completed through interviews with the children's parents 3 months after the event. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were identified in 104 children (52%), with 88 suffering re-experiences, 24 avoidance and 62 hyperarousal. The mean stress severity according to the Child Post-Traumatic Stress Reaction Index was 39.1, indicating a moderate to severe severity of stress. The study highlights the serious emotional effects on children who witness traumatic events.

  13. The MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical Scales in the Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Comorbid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Erika J.; Miller, Mark W.; Orazem, Robert J.; Weierich, Mariann R.; Castillo, Diane T.; Milford, Jaime; Kaloupek, Danny G.; Keane, Terence M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Restructured Clinical Scales (RCSs) in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) receiving clinical services at Veterans Affairs medical centers. Study 1 included 1,098 men who completed the MMPI-2 and were assessed for a range of psychological disorders via structured clinical interview. Study 2 included 136 women who completed the MMPI-2 and were interviewed with the Clinician Administered Scale for PTSD. The utility of the RCSs was compared to that of the Clinical Scales (CSs) and the Keane PTSD (PK) scale. The RCSs demonstrated good psychometric properties along with patterns of associations with other measures of psychopathology that corresponded to current theory regarding the structure of comorbidity. A notable advantage of the RCSs compared to the MMPI-2 CSs was their enhanced construct validity and clinical utility in the assessment of comorbid internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. The PK scale demonstrated incremental validity in the prediction of PTSD beyond that of the RCSs or CSs. PMID:19086756

  14. Differentiation between autism and multiple complex developmental disorder in response to psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lucres M C; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; van Engeland, Herman

    2003-03-01

    Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder (MCDD) represents a distinct group within the autistic spectrum based on symptomatology. Unlike autistic children, part of MCDD children develop schizophrenia in adult life. Despite the differences, patients of both disorders are mainly characterized by abnormal reactions to their social environment. At the biological level, we showed in a previous study that MCDD children have a reduced cortisol response to psychosocial stress. Given the fact that autistic children clinically show more social impairments, it was hypothesized that they may have even further decreased cortisol responses to psychosocial stress than MCDD patients. Therefore, 10 autistic children were compared to 10 MCDD children and 12 healthy control children in their response to a psychosocial stressor, consisting of a public speaking task. In order to test whether any impairments in the biological stress response are specific for psychosocial stress, the autistic children were compared with 11 MCDD children and 15 control children in their response to a physical stressor, consisting of 10 min of bicycle exercise. Heart rate and salivary cortisol levels were used as indicators of response to the stress tests. Autistic children showed a relatively elevated cortisol response to psychosocial stress, in contrast to MCDD children who showed a reduced cortisol response. No differences in heart rate or cortisol responses to the physical stress test were found. The specific difference between autistic and MCDD children in their cortisol response to psychosocial stress indicates that the disturbed reactions to the social environment observed in these disorders may have different biological backgrounds.

  15. Emotionally based strategic communications and societal stress-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Cosić, Krešimir; Srbljinović, Armano; Popović, Siniša; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Wiederhold, Mark D

    2012-11-01

    This article discusses the potential of emotionally based strategic communications (EBSCs) as an extension of traditional strategic communications in prevention of societal stress-related disorders. The concept of EBSCs takes into consideration dominant emotional maps of a specific sociocultural environment in which communications take place. EBSCs may have a significant potential to transform mainly negative-dominant emotional maps of targeted social groups into more positive ones, as a precondition of building a more resilient and stress-resistant social environment. A better understanding of dominant emotional maps and their conditioning may facilitate restoration of more positive emotional maps by touching the right emotions of significant parts of the targeted social groups in the right way. Dominant emotional maps of societies afflicted by economic downturns, natural disasters, conflicts etc., are typically characterized by negatively valenced emotions. Persistent negatively valenced group-based dominant emotions may be used as a quantitative statistical measure of potential stress-related disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders among respected group members. The toxic power of extreme negative emotions, attitudes, actions, and behavior might be reduced by EBSCs as a communication method for transforming negative-dominant emotional maps into more positive ones. EBSCs are conceptualized as the positively valenced stimulation of a negatively emotionally affected group by an appropriate communication strategy to minimize dominant-negative emotional maps and behavior of the targeted group.

  16. Comorbidity between post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder: alternative explanations and treatment considerations.

    PubMed

    Flory, Janine D; Yehuda, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    Approximately half of people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) also suffer from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The current paper examines evidence for two explanations of this comorbidity. First, that the comorbidity reflects overlapping symptoms in the two disorders. Second, that the co-occurrence of PTSD and MDD is not an artifact, but represents a trauma-related phenotype, possibly a subtype of PTSD. Support for the latter explanation is inferred from literature that examines risk and biological correlates of PTSD and MDD, including molecular processes. Treatment implications of the comorbidity are considered.

  17. Comorbidity between post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder: alternative explanations and treatment considerations

    PubMed Central

    Flory, Janine D.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Approximately half of people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) also suffer from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The current paper examines evidence for two explanations of this comorbidity. First, that the comorbidity reflects overlapping symptoms in the two disorders. Second, that the co-occurrence of PTSD and MDD is not an artifact, but represents a trauma-related phenotype, possibly a subtype of PTSD. Support for the latter explanation is inferred from literature that examines risk and biological correlates of PTSD and MDD, including molecular processes. Treatment implications of the comorbidity are considered. PMID:26246789

  18. Functional network topology associated with posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans.

    PubMed

    Kennis, M; van Rooij, S J H; van den Heuvel, M P; Kahn, R S; Geuze, E

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling disorder associated with resting state functional connectivity alterations. However, whether specific brain regions are altered in PTSD or whether the whole brain network organization differs remains unclear. PTSD can be treated with trauma-focused therapy, although only half of the patients recover after treatment. In order to better understand PTSD psychopathology our aim was to study resting state networks in PTSD before and after treatment. Resting state functional magnetic resonance images were obtained from veterans with PTSD (n = 50) and controls (combat and civilian controls; n = 54) to explore which network topology properties (degree and clustering coefficient) of which brain regions are associated with PTSD. Then, PTSD-associated brain regions were investigated before and after treatment. PTSD patients were subdivided in persistent (n = 22) and remitted PTSD patients (n = 17), and compared with combat controls (n = 22), who were also reassessed. Prior to treatment associations with PTSD were found for the degree of orbitofrontal, and temporoparietal brain regions, and for the clustering coefficient of the anterior cingulate cortex. No significant effects were found over the course of treatment. Our results are in line with previous resting state studies, showing resting state connectivity alterations in the salience network and default mode network in PTSD, and also highlight the importance of other brain regions. However, network metrics do not seem to change over the course of treatment. This study contributes to a better understanding of the psychopathology of PTSD. PMID:26900570

  19. Decreased Prolidase Activity in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Mahmut; Atli, Abdullah; Kaplan, İbrahim; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Bez, Yasin; Özdemir, Pınar Güzel; Sır, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many neurochemical systems have been implicated in the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The prolidase enzyme is a cytosolic exopeptidase that detaches proline or hydroxyproline from the carboxyl terminal position of dipeptides. Prolidase has important biological effects, and to date, its role in the etiology of PTSD has not been studied. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate prolidase activity in patients with PTSD. Methods The study group consisted of patients who were diagnosed with PTSD after the earthquake that occurred in the province of Van in Turkey in 2011 (n=25); the first control group consisted of patients who experienced the earthquake but did not show PTSD symptoms (n=26) and the second control group consisted of patients who have never been exposed to a traumatic event (n=25). Prolidase activities in the patients and the control groups were determined by the ELISA method using commercial kits. Results Prolidase activity in the patient group was significantly lower when compared to the control groups. Prolidase activity was also significantly lower in the traumatized healthy subjects compared to the other healthy group (p<0.01). Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that the decrease in prolidase activity may have neuroprotective effects in patients with PTSD. PMID:27482243

  20. Melatonin Attenuates Noise Stress-induced Gastrointestinal Motility Disorder and Gastric Stress Ulcer: Role of Gastrointestinal Hormones and Oxidative Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Gong, Ji T; Zhang, Hu Q; Song, Quan H; Xu, Guang H; Cai, Lei; Tang, Xiao D; Zhang, Hai F; Liu, Fang-E; Jia, Zhan S; Zhang, Hong W

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims There are increasing evidences for gastrointestinal motility disorder (GIMD) and gastric stress ulcer induced by noise stress. The present study was to investigate the reversed effect of melatonin on GIMD and gastric stress ulcer induced by noise stress and potential mechanism. Methods Noise stress was induced on rats, and melatonin (15 mg/kg) was administered to rats by intraperitoneal injection. Differences were assessed in gastric residual rate (GRR), small intestine propulsion rate (SPR), Guth injury score, cortisol, gastrointestinal hormones (calcitonin-gene-related peptide and motilin) and oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase and malondialde hyde) in blood plasma as well as gastric mucosa homogenate with or without melatonin. The pathological examination of gastric mucosa was also performed. Results The GRR and SPR were improved by noise stress compared with control (P < 0.05). The pathological examination and Guth injury score revealed gastric stress ulcer. Moreover, the levels of cortisol, motilin and malondialdehyde in blood plasma and malondialdehyde in gastric mucosa homogenate were increased by noise stress (P < 0.05). CGRP and superoxide dismutase activity in both of blood plasma and gastric mucosa homogenate were significantly decreased (P< 0.05). Furthermore, melatonin reversed changes in GRR, SPR, pathological examination, Guth injury score, cortisol, motilin, CGRP, superoxide dismutase activity and malondialdehyde (P < 0.05). Conclusions Melatonin is effective in reversing the GIMD and gastric stress ulcer induced by noise stress. The underlying mechanism may be involved in oxidative stress and gastrointestinal hormones. PMID:25537679

  1. Narrative Exposure Therapy as a treatment for child war survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder: Two case reports and a pilot study in an African refugee settlement

    PubMed Central

    Onyut, Lamaro P; Neuner, Frank; Schauer, Elisabeth; Ertl, Verena; Odenwald, Michael; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Background Little data exists on the effectiveness of psychological interventions for children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that has resulted from exposure to war or conflict-related violence, especially in non-industrialized countries. We created and evaluated the efficacy of KIDNET, a child-friendly version of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET), as a short-term treatment for children. Methods Six Somali children suffering from PTSD aged 12–17 years resident in a refugee settlement in Uganda were treated with four to six individual sessions of KIDNET by expert clinicians. Symptoms of PTSD and depression were assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and at nine months follow-up using the CIDI Sections K and E. Results Important symptom reduction was evident immediately after treatment and treatment outcomes were sustained at the 9-month follow-up. All patients completed therapy, reported functioning gains and could be helped to reconstruct their traumatic experiences into a narrative with the use of illustrative material. Conclusions NET may be safe and effective to treat children with war related PTSD in the setting of refugee settlements in developing countries. PMID:15691374

  2. Spiritual well-being, intrinsic religiosity, and suicidal behavior in predominantly Catholic Croatian war veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Nad, Sanea; Marcinko, Darko; Vuksan-Aeusa, Bjanka; Jakovljević, Miro; Jakovljevic, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    We investigated relationships between spiritual well-being (SWB), intrinsic religiosity (IR), and suicidal behavior in 45 Croatian war veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder and 32 healthy volunteers. Compared with the volunteers, the veterans had significantly lower SWB scores (p = 0.000) and existential well-being (EWB) scores (p = 0.000). Scores on the religious well-being (RWB) subscale (p = 0.108) and the IR scale did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.803). Veterans' suicidality inversely correlated with SWB (p = 0.000), EWB (p = 0.000), RWB (p = 0.026), and IR (p = 0.041), with the association being stronger for the EWB subscale than for the RWB subscale. Veterans who had attempted suicide at least once in their lifetime had significantly higher Suicidal Assessment Scale scores and lower EWB scores than veterans who never attempted suicide. Low EWB scores may imply an increased risk of suicidality. Some religious activities were more frequent among the veterans than among the healthy volunteers, possibly reflecting the veterans' increased help-seeking behavior due to poor EWB.

  3. Interactive effects of stress and individual differences on alcohol use and posttraumatic stress disorder among personnel deployed to Guantanamo Bay.

    PubMed

    De La Rosa, Gabriel M; Delaney, Eileen M; Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; Johnston, Scott L

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the role of factors such as perceived stress, neuroticism, beliefs in psychotherapy stigma, resilience, and demographics in understanding posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) among deployed military personnel. Results show that personnel who screened positive for PTSD were more likely to screen positive for AUD (versus those who did not screen positive for PTSD). Perceived stress, neuroticism, and psychotherapy stigma all have direct multivariate relationships with PTSD symptoms. Moderated regression analyses show that the positive relationship between perceived stress and PTSD symptoms is significantly stronger among those scoring high on neuroticism and psychotherapy stigma. The positive relationship between perceived stress and AUD symptoms is only significant among those scoring high on psychotherapy stigma. Given the moderating role of psychotherapy stigma in the relationship between perceived stress and PTSD symptoms and the relationship between perceived stress and AUD symptoms efforts to reduce the stigma associated with mental health care in the military should be expanded. Also, the current research adds to the literature highlighting the role of neuroticism as a key variable in understanding PTSD.

  4. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Structure in Chinese Adolescents Exposed to a Deadly Earthquake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li; Long, Di; Li, Zhongquan; Armour, Cherie

    2011-01-01

    This present study examined the structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a large sample of Chinese adolescents exposed to a deadly earthquake. A total of 2,800 middle school students aged 12 to 18 years participated in the study 6 months after the "Wenchuan Earthquake". Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a…

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Parenting Stress Index with Parents of Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardas, L. A.; Ahmad, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and the theoretical structure of the Parenting Stress Index-short form (PSI-SF) with Jordanian parents of children with autistic disorder. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design for data collection, the convenience sample of the study was composed of 184 Jordanian…

  6. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Late-Onset Smoking in the Vietnam Era Twin Registry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenen, Karestan C.; Hitsman, Brian; Lyons, Michael J.; Stroud, Laura; Niaura, Raymond; McCaffery, Jeanne; Goldberg, Jack; Eisen, Seth A.; True, William; Tsuang, Ming

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have consistently reported associations between smoking and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study analyzed diagnostic interview data on 6,744 members of the Vietnam Era Twin Registry to clarify the PTSD-smoking relation and to examine whether genetic liability for smoking moderated this relation.…

  7. Change in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: Do Clinicians and Patients Agree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monson, Candice M.; Gradus, Jaimie L.; Young-Xu, Yinong; Schnurr, Paula P.; Price, Jennifer L.; Schumm, Jeremiah A.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the longitudinal association between clinician and patient ratings of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms over the course of 2 different randomized clinical trials of veterans with chronic PTSD. One trial, the Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study 420 (CSP 420; N = 360) compared trauma-focused and…

  8. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Former Prisoners of War: Incidence and Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeiss, Robert A.; And Others

    Following World War I, researchers began to study psychological and behavior problems resulting from war experiences. Today these problems are defined as Posttraumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD). The PTSD problems of Vietnam veterans have been widely reported but less is known about World War II and Korean veterans. A study was undertaken to examine…

  9. Human brain evolution and the "Neuroevolutionary Time-depth Principle:" Implications for the Reclassification of fear-circuitry-related traits in DSM-V and for studying resilience to warzone-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Bracha, H Stefan

    2006-07-01

    The DSM-III, DSM-IV, DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 have judiciously minimized discussion of etiologies to distance clinical psychiatry from Freudian psychoanalysis. With this goal mostly achieved, discussion of etiological factors should be reintroduced into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V). A research agenda for the DSM-V advocated the "development of a pathophysiologically based classification system". The author critically reviews the neuroevolutionary literature on stress-induced and fear circuitry disorders and related amygdala-driven, species-atypical fear behaviors of clinical severity in adult humans. Over 30 empirically testable/falsifiable predictions are presented. It is noted that in DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10, the classification of stress and fear circuitry disorders is neither mode-of-acquisition-based nor brain-evolution-based. For example, snake phobia (innate) and dog phobia (overconsolidational) are clustered together. Similarly, research on blood-injection-injury-type-specific phobia clusters two fears different in their innateness: 1) an arguably ontogenetic memory-trace-overconsolidation-based fear (hospital phobia) and 2) a hardwired (innate) fear of the sight of one's blood or a sharp object penetrating one's skin. Genetic architecture-charting of fear-circuitry-related traits has been challenging. Various, non-phenotype-based architectures can serve as targets for research. In this article, the author will propose one such alternative genetic architecture. This article was inspired by the following: A) Nesse's "Smoke-Detector Principle", B) the increasing suspicion that the "smooth" rather than "lumpy" distribution of complex psychiatric phenotypes (including fear-circuitry disorders) may in some cases be accounted for by oligogenic (and not necessarily polygenic) transmission, and C) insights from the initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome by the Chimpanzee Sequencing

  10. Human brain evolution and the "Neuroevolutionary Time-depth Principle:" Implications for the Reclassification of fear-circuitry-related traits in DSM-V and for studying resilience to warzone-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Bracha, H Stefan

    2006-07-01

    The DSM-III, DSM-IV, DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 have judiciously minimized discussion of etiologies to distance clinical psychiatry from Freudian psychoanalysis. With this goal mostly achieved, discussion of etiological factors should be reintroduced into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V). A research agenda for the DSM-V advocated the "development of a pathophysiologically based classification system". The author critically reviews the neuroevolutionary literature on stress-induced and fear circuitry disorders and related amygdala-driven, species-atypical fear behaviors of clinical severity in adult humans. Over 30 empirically testable/falsifiable predictions are presented. It is noted that in DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10, the classification of stress and fear circuitry disorders is neither mode-of-acquisition-based nor brain-evolution-based. For example, snake phobia (innate) and dog phobia (overconsolidational) are clustered together. Similarly, research on blood-injection-injury-type-specific phobia clusters two fears different in their innateness: 1) an arguably ontogenetic memory-trace-overconsolidation-based fear (hospital phobia) and 2) a hardwired (innate) fear of the sight of one's blood or a sharp object penetrating one's skin. Genetic architecture-charting of fear-circuitry-related traits has been challenging. Various, non-phenotype-based architectures can serve as targets for research. In this article, the author will propose one such alternative genetic architecture. This article was inspired by the following: A) Nesse's "Smoke-Detector Principle", B) the increasing suspicion that the "smooth" rather than "lumpy" distribution of complex psychiatric phenotypes (including fear-circuitry disorders) may in some cases be accounted for by oligogenic (and not necessarily polygenic) transmission, and C) insights from the initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome by the Chimpanzee Sequencing

  11. Latent Classes of Adolescent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Predict Functioning and Disorder after 1 Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayer, Lynsay; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Ruggiero, Ken; Saunders, Ben; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify latent classes of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a national sample of adolescents, and to test their associations with PTSD and functional impairment 1 year later. Method: A total of 1,119 trauma-exposed youth aged 12 through 17 years (mean = 14.99 years, 51% female and 49% male) participating in the…

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Part II: A Qualitative Comparison of Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Shelley L.; Hayes, Stephanie A.; Coons, Kelly D.; Radford-Paz, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Researchers investigating the impact of parenting children with disabilities suggest that regardless of the specific diagnosis, parents experience increased levels of stress. However, particular disabilities may be associated with distinct stressors and strains. Method: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and…

  13. Use of thioridazine in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Dillard, M L; Bendfeldt, F; Jernigan, P

    1993-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is a condition that develops in persons who have experienced emotional or physical stress of sufficient magnitude to be extremely traumatic for virtually anyone. This may include natural catastrophes, combat experiences, rape, or other such horrifying events. The three major features of the disorder are reexperiencing the trauma through dreams, emotional numbing, and autonomic instability. To date, several treatment modalities have been used, usually consisting of a combination of psychotherapy and drug treatment. Although controversy exists, antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors are used most commonly, while other drugs such as lithium, carbamazepine, and antipsychotic drugs may be useful. We have reported a case involving a 44-year-old combat veteran who experienced severe flashbacks of his time spent in Vietnam. His symptoms and general state of mind improved significantly while taking the antipsychotic drug thioridazine. PMID:8235786

  14. [Post-traumatic stress disorder: Clinical aspects and pharmacological approach].

    PubMed

    Auxéméry, Y

    2012-12-01

    All medical specialities are interested in the clinical aspects of psychological trauma. Due to psychopathological determinants which structure the trauma, although pathognomonic of posttraumatic stress disorder, flashbacks are rarely highlighted by the psychotraumatised patient in their contact with the health care system. Contact with the medical profession is expressed by somatic symptoms or psychiatric comorbidities. Addictive and suicidal problems, as well as somatisations and physical pain, are more traditional methods of contact with the health care system. In relation to the evolution of investigative techniques, modern wars have highlighted other dissociative and psychotic dimensions of the psycho- and craniatraumatic repercussions. These different clinical forms of posttraumatic stress disorder can receive a specific pharmacological treatment according to the predominant impairment of the incriminated monoaminergic neuromodulatory system. PMID:23036781

  15. New avenues for treating emotional memory disorders: towards a reconsolidation intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kindt, Merel; van Emmerik, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The discovery that fear memories may change upon retrieval, a process referred to as memory reconsolidation, opened avenues to develop a revolutionary new treatment for emotional memory disorders. Reconsolidation is a two-phase process in which retrieval of a memory initiates a transient period of memory destabilization, followed by a protein synthesis-dependent restabilization phase. This reconsolidation window offers unique opportunities for amnesic agents to interfere with the process of memory restabilization, thereby weakening or even erasing the emotional expression from specific fear memories. Here we present four uncontrolled case descriptions of patients with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who received a reconsolidation intervention. The intervention basically involves a brief reactivation of the trauma memory aimed to trigger memory destabilization, followed by the intake of one pill of 40 mg propranolol HCl (i.e. a noradrenergic beta-blocker) that should disrupt the process of memory restabilization. We present three cases who showed a steep decline of fear symptoms after only one or two intervention sessions. To illustrate that the translation from basic science to clinical practice is not self-evident, we also present a description of a noneffective intervention in a relatively complex case. Even though the reconsolidation intervention is very promising, the success of the treatment depends on whether the memory reactivation actually triggers memory reconsolidation. Obviously the uncontrolled observations described here warrant further study in placebo-controlled designs. PMID:27536348

  16. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN WOMEN WITH BINGE EATING DISORDER IN PRIMARY CARE

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.; Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Background To examine the frequency and significance of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ethnically diverse obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) seeking treatment for obesity and binge eating in primary care. Methods Participants were a consecutive series of 105 obese women with BED; 43% were African-American, 36% were Caucasian, and 21% were Hispanic-American/other. Participants were evaluated with reliable semi-structured interviews and established measures. Results Of the 105 women, 25 (24%) met criteria for PTSD. PTSD was associated with significantly elevated rates of mood, anxiety, and drug use disorders, significantly elevated eating disorder psychopathology (Eating Disorder Examination global score and scales), greater depressive affect, and lower self-esteem, even though the patients with comorbid PTSD did not have higher body mass indexes (BMIs) or greater frequency of binge eating. The heightened eating disorder psychopathology and depression and the lower self-esteem among patients with comorbid PTSD persisted even after controlling for anxiety disorder comorbidity. Conclusions Our findings suggest that among ethnically/racially diverse obese women with BED who present for obesity and binge eating treatment in primary care settings, PTSD is common and is associated with heightened psychiatric comorbidity, greater eating disorder psychopathology, and poorer psychological functioning. PMID:23160245

  17. Is Helplessness Still Helpful in Diagnosing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder?

    PubMed

    Pivovarova, Ekaterina; Tanaka, Gen; Tang, Michael; Bursztajn, Harold J; First, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Criteria A2, experience of helplessness, fear, or horror at the time of the traumatic event, was removed from the posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. We argue that there is empirical support for retention of A2, a criterion that has clinical value and may improve diagnostic accuracy. Specifically, we demonstrate that A2 has high negative predictive power, aids in the prediction of symptom severity, and can be indispensible to detecting the disorder in children. We examine how augmenting A2 with other peritramautic emotions could improve clinical and diagnostic utility. In our opinion, rather than being eliminated, A2 needs to be reconstructed and included as one criterion of PTSD. PMID:26704461

  18. Posttraumatic stress disorder in early childhood: classification and diagnostic issues

    PubMed Central

    Simonelli, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    The 0–3 diagnostic classification of infant mental health, on the basis of DSM-IV-R, describes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a pattern of symptoms that may be shown by children who have experienced a single traumatic event, a series of connected traumatic events, or chronic, enduring stress situations. This definition, related to young children, needs the consideration of several factors to understand the child's symptoms, organize the diagnostic process, and realize clinical interventions. In this sense, the clinician must appreciate the classification criteria of PTSD in early childhood in the context of the child's age, temperament, and developmental level. This report presents a review of the research in the domain of the PTSD in early childhood with particular attention to the developmental considerations to define critical diagnostic criteria, specifically organized on the child characteristics, competences, and needs. Along this line, it will describe two proposed modifications of the diagnostic classification in childhood: the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Alternative Algorithm (PTSD-AA) and the definition of developmental trauma disorder (DTD). PMID:24371512

  19. Relations between anger and DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Durham, Tory A; Byllesby, Brianna M; Armour, Cherie; Forbes, David; Elhai, Jon D

    2016-10-30

    The present study investigated the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anger. Anger co-occurring with PTSD is found to have a severe effect across a wide range of traumatic experiences, making this an important relationship to examine. The present study utilized data regarding dimensions of PTSD symptoms and anger collected from a non-clinical sample of 247 trauma-exposed participants. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to determine the underlying factor structure of both PTSD and anger by examining anger in the context of three models of PTSD. Results indicate that a five-factor representation of PTSD and one-factor representation of anger fit the data best. Additionally, anger demonstrated a strong relationship with the dysphoric arousal and negative alterations in cognitions and mood (NACM) factors; and dysphoric arousal was differentially related to anger. Clinical implications include potential need to reevaluate PTSD's diagnostic symptom structure and highlight the potential need to target and treat comorbid anger in individuals with PTSD. In regard to research, these results support the heterogeneity of PTSD. PMID:27525831

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Organ Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Davydow, Dimitry S.; Lease, Erika D.; Reyes, Jorge D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To summarize and critically review the existing literature on the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following organ transplantation, risk factors for post-transplantation PTSD and the relationship of post-transplant PTSD to other clinical outcomes including health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and mortality. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review using PubMed, CINAHL Plus, the Cochrane Library, PsycInfo and a search of the online contents of 18 journals. Results Twenty-three studies were included. Post-transplant, the point prevalence of clinician-ascertained PTSD ranged from 1% to 16% (n = 738), the point prevalence of questionnaire-assessed substantial PTSD symptoms ranged from 0% to 46% (n = 1,024), and the cumulative incidence of clinician-ascertained transplant-specific PTSD ranged from 10% to 17% (n = 482). Consistent predictors of post-transplant PTSD included history of psychiatric illness prior to transplantation and poor social support post-transplantation. Post-transplant PTSD was consistently associated with worse mental HRQOL and potentially associated with worse physical HRQOL. Conclusions PTSD may impact a substantial proportion of organ transplant recipients. Future studies should focus on transplant-specific PTSD, and clarify potential risk factors for, and adverse outcomes related to, post-transplant PTSD. PMID:26073159

  1. Improvement in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Postconflict Rwandan Women

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qiuhu; Fabri, Mary; Mukanyonga, Henriette; Cai, Xiaotao; Hoover, Donald R.; Binagwaho, Agnes; Anastos, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common in developing and postconflict countries. The purpose of this study is to examine longitudinal changes in PTSD in HIV-infected and uninfected Rwandan women who experienced the 1994 genocide. Methods Five hundred thirty-five HIV-positive and 163 HIV-negative Rwandan women in an observational cohort study were followed for 18 months. Data on PTSD symptoms were collected longitudinally by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) and analyzed in relationship to demographics, HIV status, antiretroviral treatment (ART), and depression. PTSD was defined as a score on the HTQ of ≥2. Results There was a continuing reduction in HTQ scores at each follow-up visit. The prevalence of PTSD symptoms changed significantly, with 61% of the cohort having PTSD at baseline vs. 24% after 18 months. Women with higher HTQ score were most likely to have improvement in PTSD symptoms (p<0.0001). Higher rate of baseline depressive symptoms (p<0.0001) was associated with less improvement in PTSD symptoms. HIV infection and ART were not found to be consistently related to PTSD improvement. Conclusions HIV care settings can become an important venue for the identification and treatment of psychiatric problems affecting women with HIV in postconflict and developing countries. Providing opportunities for women with PTSD symptoms to share their history of trauma to trained counselors and addressing depression, poverty, and ongoing violence may contribute to reducing symptoms. PMID:21732802

  2. Epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder: prevalence, correlates and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Atwoli, Lukoye; Stein, Dan J.; Koenen, Karestan C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review discusses recent findings from epidemiological surveys of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) globally, including their prevalence, risk factors, and consequences in the community. Recent findings A number of studies on the epidemiology of PTSD have recently been published from diverse countries, with new methodological innovations introduced. Such work has not only documented the prevalence of PTSD in different settings, but has also shed new light on the PTSD conditional risk associated with specific traumatic events, and on the morbidity and comorbidities associated with these events. Summary Recent community studies show that trauma exposure is higher in lower-income countries compared with high-income countries. PTSD prevalence rates are largely similar across countries, however, with the highest rates being found in postconflict settings. Trauma and PTSD-risk factors are distributed differently in lower-income countries compared with high-income countries, with sociodemographic factors contributing more to this risk in high-income than low-income countries. Apart from PTSD, trauma exposure is also associated with several chronic physical conditions. These findings indicate a high burden of trauma exposure in low-income countries and postconflict settings, where access to trained mental health professionals is typically low. PMID:26001922

  3. Information Processing Bias in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Darren L

    2008-01-01

    This review considers theory and evidence for abnormal information processing in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cognitive studies have indicated sensitivity in PTSD for traumatic information, more so than general emotional information. These findings were supported by neuroimaging studies that identify increased brain activity during traumatic cognition, especially in affective networks (including the amygdala, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex). In theory, it is proposed that traumatic cognition may interfere with neutral cognition and there is evidence of abnormal neutral stimulus processing in PTSD. Firstly, PTSD patients perform poorly on a variety of neuropsychology tasks that involve attention and memory for neutral information. The evidence from event-related potentials and functional neuroimaging also indicates abnormal results in PTSD during neutral stimulus processing. The research evidence generally provides support for theories of trauma sensitivity and abnormal neutral stimulus processing in PTSD. However, there is only tentative evidence that trauma cognition concurrently interferes with neutral cognition. There is even some evidence that traumatic or novelty arousal processes can increase the capacity for attentive processing, thereby enhancing cognition for neutral stimulus information. Research on this topic has not yet fully explored the mechanisms of interaction between traumatic and neutral content in the cognitive dynamics of PTSD. PMID:19639038

  4. Cognitive Load Undermines Thought Suppression in Acute Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Reginald D V; Rackebrandt, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Thought suppression studies demonstrate that attempts to suppress can be undermined by cognitive load. We report the first instance in which this has been tested experimentally in a sample of recently traumatized individuals. Individuals with and without acute stress disorder (ASD) were recruited following recent trauma and randomized to load or no load conditions (N=56). They monitored intrusive memories during baseline, suppression, and think anything phases. The impact of suppression and load on self-reported intrusions, attention bias (dot-probe), and memory priming (word-stem task) was assessed. The ASD load group were less able to suppress memories (d=0.32, CI95 [-0.15, 0.83], p=.088) than the ASD no load group (d=0.63, CI95 [0.08, 1.24], p<.001). In the think anything phase, the ASD load group reported more intrusions than the ASD no load or non-ASD groups (with and without load). No consistent findings were observed in relation to attentional bias. ASD load individuals exhibited stronger priming responses for motor vehicle accident and assault words than all other groups (ds between 0.35-0.73). Working memory did not moderate any outcomes of interest. The findings indicate that cognitive load interferes with suppression and may enhance access to trauma memories and associated material. The study extends previous research by demonstrating these effects for the first time in a clinical sample of recent survivors of trauma. PMID:27157032

  5. Post-traumatic stress disorder: medicine and politics.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya; Iversen, Amy; Wessely, Simon

    2007-01-13

    Regrettably, exposure to trauma is common worldwide, and can have serious adverse psychological results. The introduction of the notion of post-traumatic stress disorder has led to increasing medicalisation of the problem. This awareness has helped popular acceptance of the reality of post-traumatic psychiatric sequelae, which has boosted research into the pathogenesis of the disorder, leading to improved pharmacological and psychological management. The subjective experience of trauma and subsequent expression of symptoms vary considerably over space and time, and we emphasise that not all psychological distress or psychiatric disorders after trauma should be termed post-traumatic stress disorder. There are limits to the medicalisation of distress and there is value in focusing on adaptive coping during and after traumas. Striking a balance between a focus on heroism and resilience versus victimhood and pathological change is a crucial and constant issue after trauma for both clinicians and society. In this Review we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of medicalising trauma response, using examples from South Africa, the Armed Services, and post-disaster, to draw attention to our argument.

  6. Disparity in posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis among African American pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Seng, Julia S; Kohn-Wood, Laura P; McPherson, Melnee D; Sperlich, Mickey

    2011-08-01

    To determine whether African American women expecting their first infant carry a disproportionate burden of posttraumatic stress disorder morbidity, we conducted a comparative analysis of cross-sectional data from the initial psychiatric interview in a prospective cohort study of posttraumatic stress disorder effects on childbearing outcomes. Participants were recruited from maternity clinics in three health systems in the Midwestern USA. Eligibility criteria were being 18 years or older, able to speak English, expecting a first infant, and less than 28 weeks gestation. Telephone interview data was collected from 1,581 women prior to 28 weeks gestation; four declined to answer racial identity items (n = 1,577), 709 women self-identified as African American, 868 women did not. Measures included the Life Stressor Checklist, the National Women's Study Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Module, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and the Centers for Disease Control's Perinatal Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey. The 709 African American pregnant women had more trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and diagnosis, comorbidity and pregnancy substance use, and had less mental health treatment than 868 non-African Americans. Lifetime prevalence was 24.0% versus 17.1%, respectively (OR = 1.5, p = 0.001). Current prevalence was 13.4% versus 3.5% (OR = 4.3, p < 0.001). Current prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was four times higher among African American women. Their risk for PTSD did not differ by sociodemographic status, but was explained by greater trauma exposure. Traumatic stress may be an additional, addressable stress factor in birth outcome disparities.

  7. Disparity in posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis among African American pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Kohn-Wood, Laura P.; McPherson, Melnee D.; Sperlich, Mickey

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether African American women expecting their first infant carry a disproportionate burden of posttraumatic stress disorder morbidity, we conducted a comparative analysis of cross-sectional data from the initial psychiatric interview in a prospective cohort study of posttraumatic stress disorder effects on childbearing outcomes. Participants were recruited from maternity clinics in three health systems in the Midwestern USA. Eligibility criteria were being 18 years or older, able to speak English, expecting a first infant, and less than 28 weeks gestation. Telephone interview data was collected from 1,581 women prior to 28 weeks gestation; four declined to answer racial identity items (n =1,577), 709 women self-identified as African American, 868 women did not. Measures included the Life Stressor Checklist, the National Women’s Study Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Module, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and the Centers for Disease Control’s Perinatal Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey. The 709 African American pregnant women had more trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and diagnosis, comorbidity and pregnancy substance use, and had less mental health treatment than 868 non-African Americans. Lifetime prevalence was 24.0% versus 17.1%, respectively (OR=1.5, p=0.001). Current prevalence was 13.4% versus 3.5% (OR=4.3, p< 0.001). Current prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was four times higher among African American women. Their risk for PTSD did not differ by sociodemographic status, but was explained by greater trauma exposure. Traumatic stress may be an additional, addressable stress factor in birth outcome disparities. PMID:21573930

  8. Correlation of stress and muscle activity of patients with different degrees of temporomandibular disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tosato, Juliana de Paiva; Caria, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Gomes, Cid Andre Fidelis de Paula; Berzin, Fausto; Politti, Fabiano; Gonzalez, Tabajara de Oliveira; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Temporomandibular disorder is one of the many different adverse health conditions that can be triggered by stress. Therefore, a biopsychosocial model has been proposed to characterize the multifactorial nature of temporomandibular disorder. The aim of the present study was investigate the correlation of salivary cortisol levels with the activities of the masseter and anterior temporal muscles of patients with different degrees of temporomandibular disorder. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-nine women between 18 and 40 years of age with a diagnosis of myogenous temporomandibular disorder based on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for temporomandibular disorders were evaluated using the Fonseca Index to determine the degree of the disorder. Salivary cortisol levels were determined and surface electromyography was used to evaluate electrical activity in the masticatory muscles. [Results] Positive correlations were found among the degree of temporomandibular disorder, electromyographic activity and salivary cortisol: as women with more severe temporomandibular disorder had greater electrical activity in the muscles analyzed, especially the anterior temporal muscle, and higher levels of cortisol. [Conclusion] Muscle activity was greater among individuals with severe temporomandibular disorder and positive correlations were found among electromyographic activity, salivary cortisol and the degree of temporomandibular disorder severity. PMID:25995595

  9. A genome-wide association study of posttraumatic stress disorder identifies the retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) gene as a significant risk locus

    PubMed Central

    Logue, Mark W.; Baldwin, Clinton; Guffanti, Guia; Melista, Efi; Wolf, Erika J.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Uddin, Monica; Wildman, Derek; Galea, Sandro; Koenen, Karestan C.; Miller, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the results of the first genome-wide association study of PTSD performed using trauma-exposed white non-Hispanic participants from a cohort of veterans and their intimate partners (295 cases and 196 controls). Several SNPs yielded evidence of association. One SNP (rs8042149), located in the retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha gene (RORA), reached genome-wide significance. Nominally significant associations were observed for other RORA SNPs in two African American replication samples—one from the veteran cohort (43 cases and 41 controls) and another independent cohort (100 cases and 421 controls). However, only the associated SNP from the veteran African American replication sample survived gene-level multiple testing correction. RORA has been implicated in prior GWAS studies of psychiatric disorders and is known to play an important role in neuroprotection and other behaviorally-relevant processes. This study represents an important step towards identifying the genetic underpinnings of PTSD. PMID:22869035

  10. Child attention deficit hyperactive disorder co morbidities on family stress: effect of medication.

    PubMed

    Silva, Desiree; Houghton, Stephen; Hagemann, Erika; Jacoby, Peter; Jongeling, Brad; Bower, Carol

    2015-04-01

    We examined the degree of parental and child mental health in a community sample of children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder and the effect on family stress prior to and during treatment using a community retrospective questionnaire study. In total 358 questionnaires were returned for analysis where 92 % of children had at least one co-morbid condition and mental health conditions in parents was common. Overall, the Family Strain Index was significantly reduced after commencement of medication (p < 0.0001), but remained higher in families where the children had either externalizing disorders or autism spectrum disorder.

  11. Unique and related predictors of major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and their comorbidity after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Nillni, Yael I; Nosen, Elizabeth; Williams, Patrick A; Tracy, Melissa; Coffey, Scott F; Galea, Sandro

    2013-10-01

    The current study examined demographic and psychosocial factors that predict major depressive disorder (MDD) and comorbid MDD/posttraumatic stress disorder (MDD/PTSD) diagnostic status after Hurricane Katrina, one of the deadliest and costliest hurricanes in the history of the United States. This study expanded on the findings published in the article by Galea, Tracy, Norris, and Coffey (J Trauma Stress 21:357-368, 2008), which examined the same predictors for PTSD, to better understand related and unique predictors of MDD, PTSD, and MDD/PTSD comorbidity. A total of 810 individuals representative of adult residents living in the 23 southernmost counties of Mississippi before Hurricane Katrina were interviewed. Ongoing hurricane-related stressors, low social support, and hurricane-related financial loss were common predictors of MDD, PTSD, and MDD/PTSD, whereas educational and marital status emerged as unique predictors of MDD. Implications for postdisaster relief efforts that address the risk for both MDD and PTSD are discussed.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) as a Basis for Individualized and Personalized Therapy: Rationale, Design and Methods of the South Eastern Europe (SEE)-PTSD study.

    PubMed

    Kulenovic, Alma Dzubur; Agani, Ferid; Avdibegovic, Esmina; Jakovljevic, Miro; Babic, Dragan; Kucukalic, Abdulah; Kucukalic, Sabina; Dzananovic, Emina Sabic; Mehmedbasic, Alma Bravo; Uka, Aferdita Goci; Haxhibeqiri, Shpend; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete; Hoxha, Blerina; Sinanovic, Osman; Kravic, Nermina; Muminovic, Mirnesa; Aukst-Margetic, Branka; Jaksic, Nenad; Franc, Ana Cima; Rudan, Dusko; Pavlovic, Marko; Babic, Romana; Bojic, Elma Feric; Marjanovic, Damir; Bozina, Nada; Ziegler, Christiane; Wolf, Christiane; Warrings, Bodo; Domschke, Katharina; Deckert, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a major health problem in South Eastern Europe (SEE). Available treatment options are not efficient enough and the course is often chronic. Little is known about molecular mediators and moderators of pathogenesis and therapy. Genetic and epigenetic variation may be one central molecular mechanism. We therefore established a consortium combining clinical expertise on PTSD from SEE countries Bosnia-Herzegovina (Sarajevo, Tuzla and Mostar), Kosovo (Prishtina) and Croatia (Zagreb) with genetic and epigenetic competence from Germany (Würzburg) in 2011 within the framework of the DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst)-funded Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe. After obtaining ethical votes and performing rater trainings as well as training in DNA extraction from EDTA blood between 2011 and 2013, we recruited 747 individuals who had experienced war-related trauma in the SEE conflicts between 1991 and 1999. 236 participants had current PTSD, 161 lifetime PTSD and 350 did not have and never had PTSD. Demographic and clinical data are currently merged together with genetic and epigenetic data in a single database to allow for a comprehensive analysis of the role of genetic and epigenetic variation in the pathogenesis and therapy of PTSD. Analyses will be done to a great degree by PhD students from participating SEE centers who in addition to participation in the project had an opportunity to take part in spring and summer schools of the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) funded Research Training Group (RTG) 1253 and thus meet PhD students from Germany and other countries We are confident that our project will not only contribute to a better understanding of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of PTSD as a basis for future individualized and personalized therapies, but also to the academic development of South Eastern Europe. PMID:27287790

  13. Association between total serum cholesterol and depression, aggression, and suicidal ideations in war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Vilibić, Maja; Jukić, Vlado; Pandžić-Sakoman, Mirna; Bilić, Petar; Milošević, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate the relationship between total serum cholesterol and levels of depression, aggression, and suicidal ideations in war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) without psychiatric comorbidity. Methods A total of 203 male PTSD outpatients were assessed for the presence of depression, aggression, and suicidality using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17), Corrigan Agitated Behavior Scale (CABS), and Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI), respectively, followed by plasma lipid parameters determination (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein [HDL]-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein [LDL]-cholesterol, and triglycerides). PTSD severity was assessed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-IV, Current and Lifetime Diagnostic Version (CAPS-DX) and the Clinical Global Impressions of Severity Scale (CGI-S), before which Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered to exclude psychiatric comorbidity and premorbidity. Results After adjustments for PTSD severity, age, body mass index, marital status, educational level, employment status, use of particular antidepressants, and other lipid parameters (LDL- and HDL- cholesterol and triglycerides), higher total cholesterol was significantly associated with lower odds for having higher suicidal ideation (SSI≥20) (odds ratio [OR] 0.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03-0.23], clinically significant aggression (CABS≥22) (OR 0.28; 95% CI 0.14-0.59), and at least moderate depressive symptoms (HAM-D17≥17) (OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.08-0.48). Association of total cholesterol and HAM-D17 scores was significantly moderated by the severity of PTSD symptoms (P < 0.001). Conclusion Our results indicate that higher total serum cholesterol is associated with lower scores on HAM-D17, CABS, and SSI in patients with chronic PTSD. PMID:25358885

  14. Self-esteem, life stress and psychiatric disorder.

    PubMed

    Miller, P M; Kreitman, N B; Ingham, J G; Sashidharan, S P

    1989-01-01

    Using a special subsample from a survey of women in Edinburgh investigations were carried out into (a) which types of life event are associated with lowered self-esteem; (b) the role of life events and self-esteem in onset of psychiatric disorder; and (c) the additional significance of prior psychiatric consultation in determining onset. Stressors involving impaired relationships with others were the only ones clearly associated with lowered self-esteem. Minor psychiatric illness was predicted by stress of uncertain outcome, and, to a lesser extent, by impaired relationship stress. Onset of major depression was best predicted by an interaction between total stress experienced and low self-esteem. There was evidence that such onset involves a pre-existing low level of self-esteem on which life stress impinges, rather than life stress generating low self-esteem and then onset. A small group of subjects characterised by low self-esteem, prior psychiatric consultation and maladaptive coping seemed to be fluctuating in and out of psychiatric illness irrespective of stress.

  15. Post-traumatic stress disorder vs traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) often coexist because brain injuries are often sustained in traumatic experiences. This review outlines the significant overlap between PTSD and TBI by commencing with a critical outline of the overlapping symptoms and problems of differential diagnosis. The impact of TBI on PTSD is then described, with increasing evidence suggesting that mild TBI can increase risk for PTSD. Several explanations are offered for this enhanced risk. Recent evidence suggests that impairment secondary to mild TBI is largely attributable to stress reactions after TBI, which challenges the long-held belief that postconcussive symptoms are a function of neurological insult This recent evidence is pointing to new directions for treatment of postconcussive symptoms that acknowledge that treating stress factors following TBI may be the optimal means to manage the effects of many TBIs, PMID:22034252

  16. The effect of stress management training on stress and depression in women with depression disorders: Using cognitive-behavioral techniques

    PubMed Central

    Abbasian, Farahzad; Najimi, Arash; Meftagh, Sayyed Davood; Ghasemi, Gholamreza; Afshar, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of stress management training through cognitive-behavioral techniques on stress, social adaptability and depression in women with depression disorders. Materials and Methods: In this study, 40 patients diagnosed with depression who had referred to psychiatry and consultation clinics of Isfahan were randomly selected and assigned to intervention and control groups (20 patients in each group). The intervention group received eight 90-min sessions of stress training through cognitive–behavioral techniques. Data collection tools included Cooper's stress questionnaire, Bell's social adaptability questionnaire and Hamilton's depression scale questionnaire. The participants completed the questionnaires before the intervention and 1 month after the same. Data analysis was performed using covariance analysis. Results: Based on the results, considering variables of stress, social adaptability and depression, the equal variance hypothesis was confirmed. The relationship between pre- and post-test scores on stress, social adaptability and depression was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The modified mean difference was F = 12.45, P < 0.001 on stress; F = 6.88, P < 0.01 on social adaptability; and F = 5.36, P < 0.02 on depression, all of which were significant. Conclusion: Stress management training through cognitive behavioral techniques can play a main role in depression reduction and development of social adaptability through modifying inappropriate social information-processing patterns. PMID:25077163

  17. Assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder four and one-half years after the Iraqi invasion.

    PubMed

    al-Naser, F; al-Khulaifi, I M; Martino, C

    2000-01-01

    In the earliest formulations of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and even posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it was clear that war could engender PTSD within both primary and secondary victims. The clinical course of PTS and PTSD is not always clear, but the disorder may persist months and even years after the precipitating traumatic event. The current study was undertaken in an effort to assess the prevalence of PTSD in a sample of 404 Kuwaiti citizens 4.5 years after the invasion and occupation of Kuwait by the Iraqi Army. Results indicate a psychometrically assessed prevalence of PTSD of 28.4%. A subsample of 195 students revealed a prevalence of 45.6%. If correct, these data are worrisome indeed and point to 1) a significant public health challenge facing the government of Kuwait, as well as, 2) the increased sensitivity of the young to traumatic stress, both personally and vicariously. Based upon the current data, there may exist a virtual epidemic of posttraumatic stress disorder within the Kuwaiti population 4.5 years after the end of the Iraqi occupation. These data argue the need for a comprehensive confirmatory epidemiological investigation in the current prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder within the Kuwaiti population so that appropriate resources may be further directed to address what may be a significant public health problem. PMID:11232095

  18. Acupuncture for posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Hollifield, Michael; Sinclair-Lian, Nityamo; Warner, Teddy D; Hammerschlag, Richard

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the potential efficacy and acceptability of accupuncture for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). People diagnosed with PTSD were randomized to either an empirically developed accupuncture treatment (ACU), a group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or a wait-list control (WLC). The primary outcome measure was self-reported PTSD symptoms at baseline, end treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Repeated measures MANOVA was used to detect predicted Group X Time effects in both intent-to-treat (ITT) and treatment completion models. Compared with the WLC condition in the ITT model, accupuncture provided large treatment effects for PTSD (F [1, 46] = 12.60; p < 0.01; Cohen's d = 1.29), similar in magnitude to group CBT (F [1, 47] = 12.45; p < 0.01; d = 1.42) (ACU vs. CBT, d = 0.29). Symptom reductions at end treatment were maintained at 3-month follow-up for both interventions. Accupuncture may be an efficacious and acceptable nonexposure treatment option for PTSD. Larger trials with additional controls and methods are warranted to replicate and extend these findings. PMID:17568299

  19. Improvement in cerebral function with treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Roy, Michael J; Francis, Jennifer; Friedlander, Joshua; Banks-Williams, Lisa; Lande, Raymond G; Taylor, Patricia; Blair, James; McLellan, Jennifer; Law, Wendy; Tarpley, Vanita; Patt, Ivy; Yu, Henry; Mallinger, Alan; Difede, Joann; Rizzo, Albert; Rothbaum, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are signature illnesses of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, but current diagnostic and therapeutic measures for these conditions are suboptimal. In our study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used to try to differentiate military service members with: PTSD and mTBI, PTSD alone, mTBI alone, and neither PTSD nor mTBI. Those with PTSD are then randomized to virtual reality exposure therapy or imaginal exposure. fMRI is repeated after treatment and along with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scores to compare with baseline. Twenty subjects have completed baseline fMRI scans, including four controls and one mTBI only; of 15 treated for PTSD, eight completed posttreatment scans. Most subjects have been male (93%) and Caucasian (83%), with a mean age of 34. Significant improvements are evident on fMRI scans, and corroborated by CGI scores, but CAPS scores improvements are modest. In conclusion, CGI scores and fMRI scans indicate significant improvement in PTSD in both treatment arms, though CAPS score improvements are less robust. PMID:20955336

  20. Prospectively Assessed Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Associated Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    LeardMann, Cynthia A.; Kelton, Molly L.; Smith, Besa; Littman, Alyson J.; Boyko, Edward J.; Wells, Timothy S.; Smith, Tyler C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We examined the association of physical activity with prospectively assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a military cohort. Methods Using baseline and follow-up questionnaire data from a large prospective study of U.S. service members, we applied multivariable logistic regression to examine the adjusted odds of new-onset and persistent PTSD symptoms associated with light/moderate physical activity, vigorous physical activity, and strength training at follow-up. Results Of the 38,883 participants, 89.4% reported engaging in at least 30 minutes of physical activity per week. At follow-up, those who reported proportionately less physical activity were more likely to screen positive for PTSD. Vigorous physical activity had the most consistent relationship with PTSD. Those who reported at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity twice weekly had significantly decreased odds for new-onset (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49, 0.70) and persistent (OR=0.59, 95% CI 0.42, 0.83) PTSD symptoms. Conclusions Engagement in physical activity, especially vigorous activity, is significantly associated with decreased odds of PTSD symptoms among U.S. service members. While further longitudinal research is necessary, a physical activity component may be valuable to PTSD treatment and prevention programs. PMID:21553666

  1. Neurobiological Indicators of Disinhibition in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sadeh, Naomi; Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Miller, Mark W.; Milberg, William P.; Salat, David H.; Amick, Melissa M.; Fortier, Catherine B.; McGlinchey, Regina E.

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in impulse control are increasingly recognized in association with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To further our understanding of the neurobiology of PTSD-related disinhibition, we examined alterations in brain morphology and network connectivity associated with response inhibition failures and PTSD severity. The sample consisted of 189 trauma-exposed Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans (89% male, ages 19–62) presenting with a range of current PTSD severity. Disinhibition was measured using commission errors on a Go/No-Go task with emotional stimuli, and PTSD was assessed using a measure of current symptom severity. Whole-brain vertex-wise analyses of cortical thickness revealed two clusters associated with PTSD-related disinhibition (Monte Carlo cluster corrected p< .05). The first cluster included portions of right inferior and middle frontal gyri and frontal pole. The second cluster spanned portions of left medial orbital frontal, rostral anterior cingulate, and superior frontal gyrus. In both clusters, commission errors were associated with reduced cortical thickness at higher (but not lower) levels of PTSD symptoms. Resting-state fMRI analyses revealed alterations in the functional connectivity of the right frontal cluster. Together, study findings suggest that reductions in cortical thickness in regions involved in flexible decision-making, emotion regulation, and response inhibition contribute to impulse control deficits in PTSD. Further, aberrant coupling between frontal regions and networks involved in selective attention, memory/learning, and response preparation suggest disruptions in functional connectivity may also play a role. PMID:25959594

  2. Comparing Screening Instruments to Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Olff, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Background Following traumatic exposure, a proportion of trauma victims develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Early PTSD risk screening requires sensitive instruments to identify everyone at risk for developing PTSD in need of diagnostic follow-up. Aims This study compares the accuracy of the 4-item SPAN, 10-item Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ) and 22-item Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) in predicting chronic PTSD at a minimum sensitivity of 80%. Method Injury patients admitted to a level-I trauma centre (N = 311) completed the instruments at a median of 23 days and were clinically assessed for PTSD at 6 months. Areas under the curve and specificities at 80% sensitivity were compared between instruments. Results Areas under the curve in all instruments were adequate (SPAN: 0.83; TSQ: 0.82; IES-R: 0.83) with no significant differences. At 80% sensitivity, specificities were 64% for SPAN, 59% for TSQ and 72% for IES-R. Conclusion The SPAN, TSQ and IES-R show similar accuracy in early detection of individuals at risk for PTSD, despite differences in number of items. The modest specificities and low positive predictive values found for all instruments could lead to relatively many false positive cases, when applied in clinical practice. PMID:24816642

  3. A Predictive Screening Index for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression following Traumatic Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Meaghan L.; Creamer, Mark C.; Parslow, Ruth; Elliott, Peter; Holmes, Alexander C. N.; Ellen, Steven; Judson, Rodney; McFarlane, Alexander C.; Silove, Derrick; Bryant, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive episode (MDE) are frequent and disabling consequences of surviving severe injury. The majority of those who develop these problems are not identified or treated. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a screening instrument that identifies, during hospitalization, adults at high…

  4. Therapeutic Alliance, Negative Mood Regulation, and Treatment Outcome in Child Abuse-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloitre, Marylene; Chase Stovall McClough,K.; Miranda, Regina; Chemtob, Claude M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the related contributions of the therapeutic alliance and negative mood regulation to the outcome of a 2-phase treatment for childhood abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Phase 1 focused on stabilization and preparatory skills building, whereas Phase 2 was comprised primarily of imaginal exposure to traumatic…

  5. The Coronary Health Improvement Projects Impact on Lowering Eating, Sleep, Stress, and Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Ray M.; Aldana, Stephen G.; Greenlaw, Roger L.; Diehl, Hans A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The Coronary Health Improvement Project (CHIP) is designed to lower cardiovascular risk factors among a group of generally healthy individuals through health education. Purpose: This study will evaluate the efficacy of the CHIP intervention at improving eating, sleep, stress, and depressive disorders. Methods: A health education…

  6. Employment Status and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder following Compensation Seeking in Victims of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunst, Maarten J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study was developed to explore the associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), level of compensation for pain and suffering, and employment status in a sample of victims of violence (n = 226) who had held a full-time job at time of victimization and had filed a claim with the Dutch Victim Compensation Fund (DVCF)…

  7. The Additive Benefit of Hypnosis and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Treating Acute Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2005-01-01

    This research represents the first controlled treatment study of hypnosis and cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) of acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma survivors (N = 87) who met criteria for ASD were randomly allocated to 6 sessions of CBT, CBT combined with hypnosis (CBT-hypnosis), or supportive counseling (SC). CBT comprised exposure,…

  8. Potential Mediators of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Child Witnesses to Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Kym L.; Williams, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined variables that might mediate the incidence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in 20 Australian child witnesses (ages 6-12) to domestic violence. Results found PTSD was not mediated by maternal emotional well-being, age and gender of the child, or the child's style of coping with parental conflict. (Author/CR)

  9. Prevalence and Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Victims of Violence Applying for State Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunst, Maarten; Winkel, Frans Willem; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have focused on the predictive value of victims' emotions experienced shortly after violence exposure to identify those vulnerable for development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, many victims remain unidentified during the initial recovery phase, yet may still be highly in need of psychological help after substantial…

  10. Fatigue, Stress and Coping in Mothers of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Monique; Wood, Catherine; Giallo, Rebecca; Jellett, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be exhausting, which has the potential to impact on parental health and wellbeing. The current study investigated the influence of maternal fatigue and coping on the relationship between children's problematic behaviours and maternal stress for 65 mothers of young children (aged…

  11. Anger, Hostility, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Trauma-Exposed Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orth, Ulrich; Wieland, Elias

    2006-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes the available data on the strength of association between anger and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and between hostility and PTSD, covering 39 studies with trauma-exposed adults. Effect sizes did not differ for anger and hostility, which could therefore be combined; effect sizes for anger expression variables…

  12. Avoidant Coping and Treatment Outcome in Rape-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiner, Amy S.; Kearns, Megan C.; Jackson, Joan L.; Astin, Millie C.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the impact of avoidant coping on treatment outcome in rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Adult women with rape-related PTSD (N = 62) received 9 sessions of prolonged exposure (PE) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). The mean age for the sample was 34.7 years, and race…

  13. Relationship between Type of Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Urban Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luthra, Rohini; Abramovitz, Robert; Greenberg, Rick; Schoor, Alan; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Schmeidler, James; Levine, Paul; Nomura, Yoko; Chemtob, Claude M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the association between trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 157 help-seeking children (aged 8-17). Structured clinical interviews are carried out, and linear and logistic regression analyses are conducted to examine the relationship between PTSD and type of trauma exposure controlling for age, gender,…

  14. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Diagnosis for Youth from Violent, Impoverished Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Rosalyn M.; Dartt, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the historical development and use of the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder that has been primarily applied to war veterans. We explore how study of this population and refinement of this diagnosis were influenced by changing paradigms and the emergence of new theory. From this context, we then explore similarities and…

  15. Who Drops Out of Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Mastrodomenico, Julie; Hopwood, Sally; Felmingham, Kim; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2007-01-01

    Significant proportions of participants drop out of cognitive behaviour therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study indexed the pretreatment characteristics of civilian trauma survivors who remained in (n = 95) and dropped out (n = 33) of therapy for chronic PTSD. Therapy involved either cognitive behaviour therapy or supportive…

  16. Recognition of Facial Emotions among Maltreated Children with High Rates of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Carrie L.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Hodgdon, Hilary B.; McClure, Erin B.; Charney, Dennis S.; Ernst, Monique; Kaufman, Joan; Pine, Daniel S.; Monk, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine processing of facial emotions in a sample of maltreated children showing high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Maltreatment during childhood has been associated independently with both atypical processing of emotion and the development of PTSD. However, research has provided little…

  17. Sex Differences in Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Quantitative Review of 25 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolin, David F.; Foa, Edna B.

    2006-01-01

    Meta-analyses of studies yielding sex-specific risk of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) indicated that female participants were more likely than male participants to meet criteria for PTSD, although they were less likely to experience PTEs. Female participants were more likely than male participants to…

  18. Maladaptive Self-Appraisals before Trauma Exposure Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Richard A.; Guthrie, Rachel M.

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the proposal that negative appraisals represent a risk factor for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after trauma. Trainee firefighters (N = 68) were assessed during training (before trauma exposure) for PTSD, history of traumatic events, and tendency to engage in negative appraisals. Firefighters were reassessed 4…

  19. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder's Frequency and Intensity Ratings Are Associated with Factor Structure Differences in Military Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elhai, Jon D.; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Biehn, Tracey L.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Magruder, Kathryn M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined possible differences in the factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the basis of whether frequency or intensity symptom response formats were used to assess PTSD. Participants included 669 veterans recruited from an epidemiological study of four Veterans Affairs Medical Centers' primary care clinics in the…

  20. Validation of a Multimethod Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorders in Vietnam Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Paul F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Studied whether posttraumtic stress disorders (PTSD) could be distinguished through use of videotaped mild combat stimuli. Results of anxiety measures showed that this assessment device clearly distinguished the PTSD Veterans from both veterans without combat exposure but who sought psychiatric help for other problems, and well adjusted veterans.…

  1. Baseline and Modulated Acoustic Startle Responses in Adolescent Girls with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipschitz, Deborah S.; Mayes, Linda M.; Rasmusson, Ann M.; Anyan, Walter; Billingslea, Eileen; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Southwick, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess baseline and modulated acoustic startle responses in adolescent girls with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Twenty-eight adolescent girls with PTSD and 23 healthy control girls were recruited for participation in the study. Acoustic stimuli were bursts of white noise of 104 dB presented biaurally through…

  2. Impact of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Injury Severity on Recovery in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenardy, Justin; Le Brocque, Robyne; Hendrikz, Joan; Iselin, Greg; Anderson, Vicki; McKinlay, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The adverse impact on recovery of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been demonstrated in returned veterans. The study assessed this effect in children's health outcomes following TBI and extended previous work by including a full range of TBI severity, and improved assessment of PTSD within a…

  3. Reduced Autobiographical Memory Specificity Predicts Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Recent Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleim, Birgit; Ehlers, Anke

    2008-01-01

    In this prospective longitudinal study, the authors examined the relationship between reduced specificity in autobiographical memory retrieval and the development of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and specific phobia after injury in an assault. Assault survivors (N = 203) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (J. M. G.…

  4. Enrichment, Stress, and Growth from Parenting an Individual with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Kenneth W.; McCammon, Susan L.; Wuensch, Karl L.; Golden, Jeannie A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Past researchers have focused primarily on the associated negative impact of caring for a child with special needs. In this study, caregivers report the enrichment and stress of caring for a child with an autism spectrum disorder. Method Eighty caregivers completed the "Social Communication Questionnaire" (SCQ), "Effects of the…

  5. Meta-Analysis of Dropout in Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Zac E.; Laska, Kevin; Jakupcak, Matthew; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Many patients drop out of treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); some clinicians believe that trauma-focused treatments increase dropout. Method: We conducted a meta-analysis of dropout among active treatments in clinical trials for PTSD (42 studies; 17 direct comparisons). Results: The average dropout rate was 18%, but it…

  6. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Quality of Life in Sexually Abused Australian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gospodarevskaya, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The study used publicly available data on post-traumatic stress disorder in a sample of the Australian population with a history of sexual abuse to demonstrate how this evidence can inform economic analyses. The 2007 Australian Mental Health Survey revealed that 8.3% of 993 adolescents experienced childhood sexual abuse, of which 40.2% were…

  7. Trait Resilience Moderates the Longitudinal Linkage between Adolescent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Liuhua; Wang, Yanli; Lin, Chongde; Chen, Chuansheng

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and posttraumatic growth (PTG) as well as the moderating role of trait resilience in that association. Participants completed measures of PTSD symptoms, PTG, and trait resilience at 12, 18, and 24 months after the Wenchuan earthquake.…

  8. The Materiality of Virtual War: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and the Disabling Effects of Imperialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Laura Jordan

    2016-01-01

    A slew of recent news coverage has reported favorably on the use of virtual reality video games as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in U.S. soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Drawing on critical disability studies work, this paper argues that such depictions (re)produce a depoliticized framework for understanding…

  9. Changes in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depressive Symptoms during Cognitive Processing Therapy: Evidence for Concurrent Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liverant, Gabrielle I.; Suvak, Michael K.; Pineles, Suzanne L.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Trauma-focused psychotherapies reduce both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and co-occurring depression. However, little is known about the relationship between changes in PTSD and depression during treatment. This study examined the association between changes in PTSD and depression during the course of cognitive processing therapy…

  10. Cognitive Change Predicts Symptom Reduction with Cognitive Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleim, Birgit; Grey, Nick; Wild, Jennifer; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W.; Stott, Richard; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.; Ehlers, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There is a growing body of evidence for the effectiveness of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (TF-CBT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies to date have investigated the mechanisms by which TF-CBT leads to therapeutic change. Models of PTSD suggest that a core treatment mechanism is the change in…

  11. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Foster Care Alumni: The Role of Race, Gender, and Foster Care Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Lovie J.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult alumni of foster care and its demographic and contextual correlates. This is one of the first studies to report on racial/ethnic and gender differences and the influence of foster care experiences (i.e., revictimization during foster care, placement change rate,…

  12. Chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder: mutual maintenance?

    PubMed

    Sharp, T J; Harvey, A G

    2001-08-01

    Common sequelae following a traumatic event include chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Over the last decade, the literature relating to PTSD has become progressively more sophisticated, resulting in well-supported theories and treatments for sufferers. Equivalent research relating to chronic pain has more recently gathered momentum. However, to date there has been minimal attention devoted to the concurrence of the two disorders, even though high comorbidity has been noted. This review begins by briefly summarizing the literature relating to the two disorders in terms of symptoms, prevalence and comorbidity. It explicates the major psychological theories of chronic pain and PTSD and reviews the evidence relating what factors maintain the disorders. A number of pathways by which chronic pain and PTSD may be mutually maintaining are highlighted. We conclude that chronic pain and PTSD are mutually maintaining conditions and that there are several pathways by which both disorders may be involved in the escalation of symptoms and distress following trauma. Treatment implications are considered, as are issues for future research.

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Theoretical Model of the Hyperarousal Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Charles Stewart E.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a frequent and distressing mental disorder, about which much remains to be learned. It is a heterogeneous disorder; the hyperarousal subtype (about 70% of occurrences and simply termed PTSD in this paper) is the topic of this article, but the dissociative subtype (about 30% of occurrences and likely involving quite different brain mechanisms) is outside its scope. A theoretical model is presented that integrates neuroscience data on diverse brain regions known to be involved in PTSD, and extensive psychiatric findings on the disorder. Specifically, the amygdala is a multifunctional brain region that is crucial to PTSD, and processes peritraumatic hyperarousal on grounded cognition principles to produce hyperarousal symptoms. Amygdala activity also modulates hippocampal function, which is supported by a large body of evidence, and likewise amygdala activity modulates several brainstem regions, visual cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), to produce diverse startle, visual, memory, numbing, anger, and recklessness symptoms. Additional brain regions process other aspects of peritraumatic responses to produce further symptoms. These contentions are supported by neuroimaging, neuropsychological, neuroanatomical, physiological, cognitive, and behavioral evidence. Collectively, the model offers an account of how responses at the time of trauma are transformed into an extensive array of the 20 PTSD symptoms that are specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth edition. It elucidates the neural mechanisms of a specific form of psychopathology, and accords with the Research Domain Criteria framework. PMID:24772094

  14. Neurobiology of early life stress: clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Heim, Christine; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2002-04-01

    A burgeoning number of clinical studies have evaluated the immediate and long-term neurobiological effects of early developmental stress, eg, child abuse and neglect or parental loss, in the past years. This review summarizes and discusses the available findings from neuroendocrine (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, other neuroendocrine axes), neurochemical (catecholamines, serotonin, other neurotransmitters), psychophysiological (autonomic function, startle reactivity, brain electrical activity) and neuroimaging studies (brain structure, function) conducted in children or adults with a history of early life stress, with or without psychiatric disorders. Early developmental stress in humans appears to be associated with neurobiological alterations that are similar to many findings in animal models of early life stress, and likely represent the biological basis of an enhanced risk for psychopathology. Clinical studies are now beginning to explore potentially differential neurobiological effects of different types of early life stress and the existence of critical developmental periods, which may be sensitive to the neurobiological effects of specific stressors. In addition, the role of a multitude of moderating and mediating factors in the determination of individual vulnerability or resilience to the neurobiological effects of early life stress should be addressed. Findings from such studies may ultimately help to prevent the deleterious neurobiological and psychopathological consequences in the unacceptably high number of children exposed to early life stress in modern society. PMID:11953939

  15. Examining the intersection of sex and stress in modeling neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Nirupa; Bale, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    Sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, are the major cause of disability in the developed world. Elevated stress sensitivity has been proposed as a key underlying factor in disease onset. Sex differences in stress sensitivity are associated with CRF and serotonin neurotransmission, important central regulators of mood and coping responses. To elucidate the underlying neurobiology of stress-related disease predisposition, it is critical to develop appropriate animal models of stress pathway dysregulation. Further, the inclusion of sex difference comparisons in stress responsive behaviors, physiology, and central stress pathway maturation in these models is essential. Recent studies by our lab and others have begun to investigate the intersection of stress and sex where the development of mouse models of stress pathway dysregulation via prenatal stress experience or early life manipulations has provided insight into points of developmental vulnerability. In addition, examination of the maturation of these pathways including the functional importance of the organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones on stress responsivity is essential for determination of when sex differences in stress sensitivity may begin. In such studies, we have detected distinct sex differences in stress coping strategies where activational effects of testosterone produced females that displayed male-like strategies in tests of passive coping, but were similar to females in tests of active coping. In a second model of elevated stress sensitivity, male mice experiencing prenatal stress early in gestation showed feminized physiological and behavioral stress responses, and were highly sensitive to a low dose of SSRI. Analyses of expression and epigenetic patterns revealed changes in CRF and glucocorticoid receptor genes in these mice. Mechanistically, stress early in pregnancy produced a significant sex-dependent effect on

  16. Still Stressed but Feeling Better: Well-Being in Autism Spectrum Disorder Families as Children Become Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozo, Pilar; Sarriá, Encarnación

    2015-01-01

    The transition to adulthood and adulthood itself have been identified as times of stress for parents of individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Longitudinal studies, however, show improvements in the well-being of mothers of adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder. This article presents a cross-sectional study of 102 Spanish…

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Myocardial Injury in a Rat Model Simulating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mi; Xu, Feifei; Tao, Tianqi; Song, Dandan; Li, Dong; Li, Yuzhen; Guo, Yucheng; Liu, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying myocardial injury induced by simulated PTSD. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n = 18) and PTSD group (n = 30). The PTSD model was replicated using the single prolonged stress (SPS) method. On the 14th day poststress, the apoptotic cells in myocardium were assessed using both TUNEL method and transmission electron microscopy; the protein levels of the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) molecules were measured by using Western blotting analysis. Results Exposure to SPS resulted in characteristic morphologic changes of apoptosis in cardiomyocytes assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, TUNEL staining was also indicative of the elevated apoptosis rate of cardiomyocytes from the SPS rats (30.69% versus 7.26%, p < .001). Simulated PTSD also induced ERS in myocardium, demonstrated by up-regulation of protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (0.64 versus 0.26, p = .017), calreticulin (p = .040), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (0.95 versus 0.43, p = .047), phosphorylation of protein kinase RNA–like ER kinase (p = .003), and caspase 12 activation (0.30 versus 0.06, p < .001) in myocardium from the SPS rats. The ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax decreased significantly in myocardium from the SPS rats (p = .005). Conclusions The ERS-related apoptosis mediated by the protein kinase RNA–like ER kinase/CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein and caspase 12 pathways may be associated with myocardial injury in a rat model simulating PTSD. This study may advance our understanding of how PTSD contributes to myocardial injury on a molecular level. PMID:27359173

  18. Posttraumatic Stress and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Termination of Pregnancy and Reproductive Loss: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Daugirdaitė, Viltė; van den Akker, Olga; Purewal, Satvinder

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aims of this systematic review were to integrate the research on posttraumatic stress (PTS) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after termination of pregnancy (TOP), miscarriage, perinatal death, stillbirth, neonatal death, and failed in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Methods. Electronic databases (AMED, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, PubMEd, ScienceDirect) were searched for articles using PRISMA guidelines. Results. Data from 48 studies were included. Quality of the research was generally good. PTS/PTSD has been investigated in TOP and miscarriage more than perinatal loss, stillbirth, and neonatal death. In all reproductive losses and TOPs, the prevalence of PTS was greater than PTSD, both decreased over time, and longer gestational age is associated with higher levels of PTS/PTSD. Women have generally reported more PTS or PTSD than men. Sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., younger age, lower education, and history of previous traumas or mental health problems) and psychsocial factors influence PTS and PTSD after TOP and reproductive loss. Conclusions. This systematic review is the first to investigate PTS/PTSD after reproductive loss. Patients with advanced pregnancies, a history of previous traumas, mental health problems, and adverse psychosocial profiles should be considered as high risk for developing PTS or PTSD following reproductive loss. PMID:25734016

  19. Parenting Stress of Parents of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Judith; Biondic, Daniella; Grimbos, Teresa; Herbert, Monique

    2016-04-01

    This study examined parenting stress among parents of adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 138 adolescents (84 ADHD, 52 boys, 32 girls; 54 non-ADHD, 24 boys, 30 girls) age 13 to 18 and their parents. Mothers (n = 135) and fathers (n = 98) of participating teens completed the Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents. Mothers and fathers of adolescents with ADHD reported more stress than parents of adolescents without ADHD with regard to their children's challenging behaviors (Adolescent domain stress). Mothers of adolescents with ADHD also reported that they experienced elevated levels of stress in terms of role restrictions, feelings of social alienation, conflict with their partner, feelings of guilt and incompetence (Parent domain stress), and relationship with their children (Adolescent-Parent Relationship domain stress; APR). The extent to which clinical levels of adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) symptoms or externalizing behavior in general were associated with parenting stress depended on the rater of these behaviors. Parenting stress was associated with higher levels of ODD and other externalizing behaviors when these behaviors were rated by parents but not when they were rated by teachers. In addition, over and above adolescent ADHD classification, mothers' self-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with higher parenting stress in the Adolescent and Parent domains, and fathers' self-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with lower APR stress. The results suggest directions that should be considered for addressing parenting stress when designing interventions for families of adolescents with ADHD. PMID:26183609

  20. The Effects of Stress Exposure on Prefrontal Cortex: Translating Basic Research into Successful Treatments for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Arnsten, Amy F T; Raskind, Murray A; Taylor, Fletcher B; Connor, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Research on the neurobiology of the stress response in animals has led to successful new treatments for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in humans. Basic research has found that high levels of catecholamine release during stress rapidly impair the top-down cognitive functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), while strengthening the emotional and habitual responses of the amygdala and basal ganglia. Chronic stress exposure leads to dendritic atrophy in PFC, dendritic extension in the amygdala, and strengthening of the noradrenergic (NE) system. High levels of NE release during stress engage low affinity alpha-1 adrenoceptors, (and likely beta-1 adrenoceptors), which rapidly reduce the firing of PFC neurons, but strengthen amygdala function. In contrast, moderate levels of NE release during nonstress conditions engage higher affinity alpha-2A receptors, which strengthen PFC, weaken amygdala, and regulate NE cell firing. Thus, either alpha-1 receptor blockade or alpha-2A receptor stimulation can protect PFC function during stress. Patients with PTSD have signs of PFC dysfunction. Clinical studies have found that blocking alpha-1 receptors with prazosin, or stimulating alpha-2A receptors with guanfacine or clonidine can be useful in reducing the symptoms of PTSD. Placebo-controlled trials have shown that prazosin is helpful in veterans, active duty soldiers and civilians with PTSD, including improvement of PFC symptoms such as impaired concentration and impulse control. Open label studies suggest that guanfacine may be especially helpful in treating children and adolescents who have experienced trauma. Thus, understanding the neurobiology of the stress response has begun to help patients with stress disorders.

  1. The effects of stress exposure on prefrontal cortex: Translating basic research into successful treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Arnsten, Amy F.T.; Raskind, Murray A.; Taylor, Fletcher B.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the neurobiology of the stress response in animals has led to successful new treatments for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in humans. Basic research has found that high levels of catecholamine release during stress rapidly impair the top-down cognitive functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), while strengthening the emotional and habitual responses of the amygdala and basal ganglia. Chronic stress exposure leads to dendritic atrophy in PFC, dendritic extension in the amygdala, and strengthening of the noradrenergic (NE) system. High levels of NE release during stress engage low affinity alpha-1 adrenoceptors, (and likely beta-1 adrenoceptors), which rapidly reduce the firing of PFC neurons, but strengthen amygdala function. In contrast, moderate levels of NE release during nonstress conditions engage higher affinity alpha-2A receptors, which strengthen PFC, weaken amygdala, and regulate NE cell firing. Thus, either alpha-1 receptor blockade or alpha-2A receptor stimulation can protect PFC function during stress. Patients with PTSD have signs of PFC dysfunction. Clinical studies have found that blocking alpha-1 receptors with prazosin, or stimulating alpha-2A receptors with guanfacine or clonidine can be useful in reducing the symptoms of PTSD. Placebo-controlled trials have shown that prazosin is helpful in veterans, active duty soldiers and civilians with PTSD, including improvement of PFC symptoms such as impaired concentration and impulse control. Open label studies suggest that guanfacine may be especially helpful in treating children and adolescents who have experienced trauma. Thus, understanding the neurobiology of the stress response has begun to help patients with stress disorders. PMID:25436222

  2. 636,120 Ways to Have Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Bryant, Richard A

    2013-11-01

    In an attempt to capture the variety of symptoms that emerge following traumatic stress, the revision of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) has expanded to include additional symptom presentations. One consequence of this expansion is that it increases the amorphous nature of the classification. Using a binomial equation to elucidate possible symptom combinations, we demonstrate that the DSM-IV criteria listed for PTSD have a high level of symptom profile heterogeneity (79,794 combinations); the changes result in an eightfold expansion in the DSM-5, to 636,120 combinations. In this article, we use the example of PTSD to discuss the limitations of DSM-based diagnostic entities for classification in research by elucidating inherent flaws that are either specific artifacts from the history of the DSM or intrinsic to the underlying logic of the DSM's method of classification. We discuss new directions in research that can provide better information regarding both clinical and nonclinical behavioral heterogeneity in response to potentially traumatic and common stressful life events. These empirical alternatives to an a priori classification system hold promise for answering questions about why diversity occurs in response to stressors.

  3. 636,120 Ways to Have Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Bryant, Richard A

    2013-11-01

    In an attempt to capture the variety of symptoms that emerge following traumatic stress, the revision of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) has expanded to include additional symptom presentations. One consequence of this expansion is that it increases the amorphous nature of the classification. Using a binomial equation to elucidate possible symptom combinations, we demonstrate that the DSM-IV criteria listed for PTSD have a high level of symptom profile heterogeneity (79,794 combinations); the changes result in an eightfold expansion in the DSM-5, to 636,120 combinations. In this article, we use the example of PTSD to discuss the limitations of DSM-based diagnostic entities for classification in research by elucidating inherent flaws that are either specific artifacts from the history of the DSM or intrinsic to the underlying logic of the DSM's method of classification. We discuss new directions in research that can provide better information regarding both clinical and nonclinical behavioral heterogeneity in response to potentially traumatic and common stressful life events. These empirical alternatives to an a priori classification system hold promise for answering questions about why diversity occurs in response to stressors. PMID:26173229

  4. Parent Stress Management Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treacy, Lee; Tripp, Gail; Baird, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a targeted 9-week parent stress management program (PSM) on the parenting stress, mood, family functioning, parenting style, locus of control, and perceived social support of parents of children diagnosed with DSM-IV ADHD. Sixty-three parents from 42 families were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions:…

  5. Functional Disorders in Neurology: Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jon; Hoeritzauer, Ingrid; Gelauff, Jeannette; Lehn, Alex; Gardiner, Paula; van Gils, Anne; Carson, Alan

    2016-08-01

    Functional, often called psychogenic, disorders are common in neurological practice. We illustrate clinical issues and highlight some recent research findings using six case studies of functional neurological disorders. We discuss dizziness as a functional disorder, describing the relatively new consensus term Persistent Posturo-Perceptual Dizziness (PPPD), axial jerking/myoclonus as a functional movement disorder, functional speech symptoms, post-concussion disorder with functional cognitive symptoms and finally advances in treatment of dissociative seizures and functional motor disorders. PMID:27445247

  6. Effects of cortisol on cognition in major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder - 2014 Curt Richter Award Winner.

    PubMed

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Wolf, Oliver T

    2015-01-01

    Stress hormones influence a wide range of cognitive functions, including memory performance and executive function. It is well established that glucocorticoids enhance memory consolidation but impair memory retrieval. While most of the effects have been attributed to glucocorticoid receptors (GR), the importance of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) has been also emphasized. Dysfunctions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been reported for several mental disorders. While major depressive disorder (MDD) as well as borderline personality disorder (BPD) seem to be characterized by enhanced cortisol release in concert with a reduced feedback sensitivity of the HPA axis, in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) a contrary picture has been reported. Despite the fact that altered GR function has been discussed for these disorders only very few studies have investigated the effects of glucocorticoids on cognitive performance in these patients so far. In a series of studies, we investigated the effects of glucocorticoids on cognition (i.e. declarative memory, working memory and response inhibition) in different mental disorders such as MDD, PTSD and BPD. While in patients with MDD cortisol administration failed to effect memory retrieval, patients with PTSD and BPD showed enhanced rather than impaired memory retrieval after cortisol administration. These results indicate an altered sensitivity to cortisol in these disorders. Results from one of our recent studies in the field of social cognition underline the importance of the MR. We found that emotional empathy was enhanced through stimulation of the MR via fludrocortisone in healthy participants and women with BPD. This review aims to integrate these findings and discuss potential mechanisms and implications.

  7. Effects of cortisol on cognition in major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder - 2014 Curt Richter Award Winner.

    PubMed

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Wolf, Oliver T

    2015-01-01

    Stress hormones influence a wide range of cognitive functions, including memory performance and executive function. It is well established that glucocorticoids enhance memory consolidation but impair memory retrieval. While most of the effects have been attributed to glucocorticoid receptors (GR), the importance of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) has been also emphasized. Dysfunctions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been reported for several mental disorders. While major depressive disorder (MDD) as well as borderline personality disorder (BPD) seem to be characterized by enhanced cortisol release in concert with a reduced feedback sensitivity of the HPA axis, in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) a contrary picture has been reported. Despite the fact that altered GR function has been discussed for these disorders only very few studies have investigated the effects of glucocorticoids on cognitive performance in these patients so far. In a series of studies, we investigated the effects of glucocorticoids on cognition (i.e. declarative memory, working memory and response inhibition) in different mental disorders such as MDD, PTSD and BPD. While in patients with MDD cortisol administration failed to effect memory retrieval, patients with PTSD and BPD showed enhanced rather than impaired memory retrieval after cortisol administration. These results indicate an altered sensitivity to cortisol in these disorders. Results from one of our recent studies in the field of social cognition underline the importance of the MR. We found that emotional empathy was enhanced through stimulation of the MR via fludrocortisone in healthy participants and women with BPD. This review aims to integrate these findings and discuss potential mechanisms and implications. PMID:25462901

  8. Prevention of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder After Trauma: Current Evidence and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei; Gevonden, Martin; Shalev, Arieh

    2016-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a frequent, tenacious, and disabling consequence of traumatic events. The disorder's identifiable onset and early symptoms provide opportunities for early detection and prevention. Empirical findings and theoretical models have outlined specific risk factors and pathogenic processes leading to PTSD. Controlled studies have shown that theory-driven preventive interventions, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), or stress hormone-targeted pharmacological interventions, are efficacious in selected samples of survivors. However, the effectiveness of early clinical interventions remains unknown, and results obtained in aggregates (large groups) overlook individual heterogeneity in PTSD pathogenesis. We review current evidence of PTSD prevention and outline the need to improve the disorder's early detection and intervention in individual-specific paths to chronic PTSD.

  9. Stress and efficiency studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Optical and electrical characterization of defects has been started in EFG ribbon grown in a system that will be used to test the stress model. Temperature and stress field modeling aimed at defining low stress growth configuration is also in progress, and results will be used to guide development of the experimental system. The baseline defect configuration for ribbon grown at speeds of approx. 1 cm/min consists of dislocation densities of the order of 10 to the 5th power to 10 to the 6th power/sq cm, as well as saucer type etch pits and line defects. All these defects are inhomogeneously distributed. EBIC measurements indicate that diffusion lengths are in the range 20 to 60 microns, and significant spatial inhomogeneities occur through the ribbon thickness. Growth speed changes in the range 0.7-1.0 cm/min do not produce significant variations in ribbon defect configurations.

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Co-Occurring Substance Use Disorders: Advances in Assessment and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Jenna L; Killeen, Therese; Gros, Daniel F.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Back, Sudie E.

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) are prevalent and frequently co-occur. Comorbid PTSD/SUD is associated with a more complex and costly clinical course when compared with either disorder alone, including increased chronic physical health problems, poorer social functioning, higher rates of suicide attempts, more legal problems, increased risk of violence, worse treatment adherence, and less improvement during treatment. In response, psychosocial treatment options have increased substantially over the past decade and integrated approaches – treatments that address symptoms of both PTSD and SUD concurrently –are fast becoming the preferred model for treatment. This paper reviews the prevalence, etiology and assessment practices as well as advances in the behavioral and pharmacologic treatment of comorbid PTSD and SUDs. PMID:24179316

  11. From Soldiers to Children: Developmental Sciences Transform the Construct of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Bridget A.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was first included in the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders" in 1980. Long used to describe the reactions of soldiers affected by stress in combat situations, PTSD is now recognised as a disorder affecting abused and neglected infants and…

  12. Stroop-interference effect in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hong; Chen, Guoliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Shan, Moshui; Jia, Yanyan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the conflict processing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, we conducted the classical Stroop task by recording event-related potentials. Although the reaction time was overall slower for PTSD patients than healthy age-matched control group, the Stroop-interference effect of reaction time did not differ between the two groups. Compared with normal controls, the interference effects of N 2 and N 450 components were larger and the interference effect of slow potential component disappeared in PTSD. These data indicated the dysfunction of conflict processing in individuals with PTSD.

  13. Evolution of posttraumatic stress disorder and future directions.

    PubMed

    Ray, Susan L

    2008-08-01

    The knowledge that trauma can cause long-term physiological and psychological problems has been recognized for centuries. Today, such suffering would be classified as the characteristic symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nurses in all practice settings are increasingly caring for individuals suffering from military trauma, natural disasters, and interpersonal violence such as childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, intimate partner violence, and collective violence. This article discusses how the diagnosis of PTSD evolved over the course of history, limitations of the PTSD diagnostic category, and additional diagnostic categories for trauma. Implications for nursing practice and future directions for research are explored.

  14. Animal Models of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Recent Neurobiological Insights

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Annie M.; Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Edwards, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by the intrusive re-experiencing of past trauma, avoidant behavior, enhanced fear, and hyperarousal following a traumatic event in vulnerable populations. Preclinical animal models do not replicate the human condition in its entirety, but seek to mimic symptoms or endophenotypes associated with PTSD. Although many models of traumatic stress exist, few adequately capture the complex nature of the disorder and the observed individual variability in susceptibility of humans to develop PTSD. In addition, various types of stressors may produce different molecular neuroadaptations that likely contribute to the various behavioral disruptions produced by each model, although certain consistent neurobiological themes related to PTSD have emerged. For example, animal models report traumatic stress- and trauma reminder-induced alterations in neuronal activity in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, in agreement with the human PTSD literature. Models have also provided a conceptual framework for the often observed combination of PTSD and co-morbid conditions such as alcohol use disorder (AUD). Future studies will continue to refine preclinical PTSD models in hopes of capitalizing on their potential to deliver new and more efficacious treatments for PTSD and associated psychiatric disorders. PMID:25083568

  15. The comorbidity of psychotic symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder: evidence for a specifier in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Bosson, Julia Vigna; Reuther, Erin T; Cohen, Alex S

    2011-10-01

    The comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychotic symptoms is higher than what might be expected based on the prevalence of either disorder alone. Furthermore, the presence of psychotic symptoms is evident in PTSD patients who do not otherwise meet criteria for a psychotic spectrum disorder. The current paper discusses three existing hypotheses regarding the relation of PTSD and psychosis and presents a series of case studies that illustrates this phenomenon across a diverse group of patients and scenarios. Clinical implications in light of these case studies are offered, including the suggestion that the next edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders includes a specifier of PTSD with psychotic features.

  16. Relationship between Occupational Stress and Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korean Male Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A growing body of literature has documented that job stress is associated with the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). However, the association of WMSDs with job stress has not yet been fully studied in Korean male firefighters. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of WMSDs in almost all Korean male firefighters and to clarify the effect of job stress on the occurrence of WMSDs. Methods The study design was cross-sectional, and 21,466 firefighters were recruited. The study design included a structured questionnaire to assess general characteristics, the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (optional KOSS-26), Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and WMSDs. The chi-square test, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to look for a correlation between general characteristics and job stress, and the occurrence of WMSD. Results Back pain is the most common WMSD. Among the job stress subgroup, physical environment, job demands, organizational system, occupational climate, lack of reward and job insecurity were related to the occurrence of WMSDs. However, insufficient job control and interpersonal conflict were not related to the occurrence of WMSDs. Conclusion Job stress was related to the occurrence of WMSDs in Korean male firefighters. To reduce the occurrence of WMSDs, a job stress management program may be required. PMID:24472292

  17. Associations Between Academic Stressors, Reaction to Stress, Coping Strategies and Musculoskeletal Disorders Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Daniel, Nyebuk E; Aribo, Ekpe O

    2013-01-01

    Background The adverse health effects of stress are enormous, and vary among people, probably because of differences in how stress is appraised and the strategies individuals use to cope with it. This study assessed the association between academic stress and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among 1365 undergraduates. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a Nigerian university at the beginning of the 2010/2011 academic session with the same group of participants. The Life Stress Assessment Inventory, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, and Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment were administered as tools of data gathering. Results Students' stress level and associated MSDs were higher during the examination period than the pre-examination periods. Stressors were significantly associated with increased risk of MSDs in both sexes were those related to changes (odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, p = 0.002) and pressures (OR = 2.09, p = 0.001). Emotional and physiological reactions to stress were significantly associated with MSDs in both sexes, with higher odds for MSDs in females, whereas cognitive and behavioral reactions showed higher odds (though non-significant) in males. The risk of MSDs was higher in respondents who adopted avoidance and religious coping strategies compared with those who adopted active practical and distracting coping strategies. Conclusions Stress among students could be significantly associated with MSDs depending on individuals' demographics, stressors, reactions to stress, and coping methods. Interventions to reduce stress-induced MSDs among students should consider these factors among others. PMID:23950626

  18. Subclinical Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: Relationships with Blood Pressure, Hostility, and Sleep.

    PubMed

    McCubbin, James A; Zinzow, Heidi M; Hibdon, Melissa A; Nathan, Aaron W; Morrison, Anastasia V; Hayden, Gregg W; Lindberg, Caitlyn; Switzer, Fred S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among subclinical PTSD symptoms, blood pressure, and several variables linked to both frank PTSD and the basic psychobiological adaptation to stress. The authors recruited a sample of 91 healthy, young men and women between 18 and 35 years. We examined links among subclinical posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, blood pressure, sleep quality, and hostility. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with poorer sleep quality and higher hostility scores in both women and men. In men, PTSD symptoms were also associated with elevated resting diastolic blood pressure, and sex was an important moderator of that relationship. Moreover, sleep quality and hostility are substantive mediators of the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and PTSD. Behavioral interventions designed to increase sleep quality and restructure hostile attitudes could potentially serve as preventive interventions for PTSD and the underlying cardiovascular comorbidities in young adults. PMID:27403340

  19. Subclinical Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: Relationships with Blood Pressure, Hostility, and Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Hibdon, Melissa A.; Nathan, Aaron W.; Morrison, Anastasia V.; Hayden, Gregg W.; Lindberg, Caitlyn; Switzer, Fred S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among subclinical PTSD symptoms, blood pressure, and several variables linked to both frank PTSD and the basic psychobiological adaptation to stress. The authors recruited a sample of 91 healthy, young men and women between 18 and 35 years. We examined links among subclinical posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, blood pressure, sleep quality, and hostility. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with poorer sleep quality and higher hostility scores in both women and men. In men, PTSD symptoms were also associated with elevated resting diastolic blood pressure, and sex was an important moderator of that relationship. Moreover, sleep quality and hostility are substantive mediators of the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and PTSD. Behavioral interventions designed to increase sleep quality and restructure hostile attitudes could potentially serve as preventive interventions for PTSD and the underlying cardiovascular comorbidities in young adults. PMID:27403340

  20. A diagnostic interview for acute stress disorder for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alisa; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Reich, Wendy; Saxe, Glenn

    2009-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a semistructured clinical interview for assessing acute stress disorder (ASD) in youth and test its psychometric properties. Youth (N = 168) with an acute burn or injury were administered the acute stress disorder module of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents (DICA-ASD). The DICA-ASD demonstrated strong psychometric properties, including high internal consistency (alpha = .97) and perfect diagnostic interrater agreement (kappa = 1.00). Participants diagnosed with ASD scored significantly higher than those not diagnosed on validated traumatic stress symptomatology measures but not on other symptomatology measures, providing evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. Preliminary evidence supports the reliability and validity of the first semistructured clinical interview for diagnosing ASD in youth.

  1. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event is... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS...

  2. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event is... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS...

  3. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event is... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS...

  4. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event is... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS...

  5. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event is... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS...

  6. Oxidative Stress Implications in the Affective Disorders: Main Biomarkers, Animal Models Relevance, Genetic Perspectives, and Antioxidant Approaches.

    PubMed

    Balmus, Ioana Miruna; Ciobica, Alin; Antioch, Iulia; Dobrin, Romeo; Timofte, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the affective disorders and the almost ubiquitous pathological oxidative stress can be described in a multifactorial way, as an important mechanism of central nervous system impairment. Whether the obvious changes which occur in oxidative balance of the affective disorders are a part of the constitutive mechanism or a collateral effect yet remains as an interesting question. However it is now clear that oxidative stress is a component of these disorders, being characterized by different aspects in a disease-dependent manner. Still, there are a lot of controversies regarding the relevance of the oxidative stress status in most of the affective disorders and despite the fact that most of the studies are showing that the affective disorders development can be correlated to increased oxidative levels, there are various studies stating that oxidative stress is not linked with the mood changing tendencies. Thus, in this minireview we decided to describe the way in which oxidative stress is involved in the affective disorders development, by focusing on the main oxidative stress markers that could be used mechanistically and therapeutically in these deficiencies, the genetic perspectives, some antioxidant approaches, and the relevance of some animal models studies in this context. PMID:27563374

  7. Oxidative Stress Implications in the Affective Disorders: Main Biomarkers, Animal Models Relevance, Genetic Perspectives, and Antioxidant Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Balmus, Ioana Miruna; Dobrin, Romeo; Timofte, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the affective disorders and the almost ubiquitous pathological oxidative stress can be described in a multifactorial way, as an important mechanism of central nervous system impairment. Whether the obvious changes which occur in oxidative balance of the affective disorders are a part of the constitutive mechanism or a collateral effect yet remains as an interesting question. However it is now clear that oxidative stress is a component of these disorders, being characterized by different aspects in a disease-dependent manner. Still, there are a lot of controversies regarding the relevance of the oxidative stress status in most of the affective disorders and despite the fact that most of the studies are showing that the affective disorders development can be correlated to increased oxidative levels, there are various studies stating that oxidative stress is not linked with the mood changing tendencies. Thus, in this minireview we decided to describe the way in which oxidative stress is involved in the affective disorders development, by focusing on the main oxidative stress markers that could be used mechanistically and therapeutically in these deficiencies, the genetic perspectives, some antioxidant approaches, and the relevance of some animal models studies in this context. PMID:27563374

  8. Mental disorders and their association with perceived work stress: an investigation of the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Andrew C H; Dobson, Keith S

    2013-04-01

    The economic repercussions of mental disorders in the workplace are vast. Research has found that individuals in high-stress jobs tend to have higher prevalence of mental disorders. The current cross-sectional study examined the relationships between work-related stress and mental disorders in a recent representative population-based sample-the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey by Statistics Canada (CCHS; 2010a; Retrieved from http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/instrument/3226_Q1_V7-eng.pdf). Respondents in the highest level of perceived work stress had higher odds of ever being treated for an emotional or mental-health problem and for being treated in the past 12 months. These high-stress respondents also had higher odds of being diagnosed for mood and anxiety disorders than their nonstressed counterparts. These associations highlight the continued need to examine and promote mental health and well-being in the workplace. PMID:23458060

  9. Trait rumination predicts onset of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder through trauma-related cognitive appraisals: A 4-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W; Krempeniou, Andriana; van Hemert, Albert M; Elzinga, Bernet

    2015-08-01

    Trauma-related rumination and worry predict chronic PTSD. This study examined whether habitual rumination and worry measured prior to trauma exposure make persons more vulnerable to the onset of PTSD, presumably because habitual ruminators and worriers will be more prone to cognitively appraise trauma exposure in a negative way. A sample of 2981 adults aged 18-65, consisting of healthy controls and persons with past or current depressive and/or anxiety disorders were assessed at baseline and at follow-up four years later (n = 2402). At follow-up, 359 participants reported exposure to a traumatic event during the last four years of whom 52 (14.4%) had developed PTSD. Pre-trauma self-reported depression severity and trait rumination - but not trait worry-predicted onset of PTSD during follow-up, controlling for demographic and clinical history variables, as well as psychiatric diagnoses at baseline. The relation of trait rumination with onset of PTSD was partly mediated by the cognitive appraisal of the traumatic event and not by the affective reaction to trauma exposure. Repetitive negative thinking in the form of rumination may be a risk factor for onset of PTSD amenable to prevention and intervention. PMID:26093467

  10. Epigenetic modulation of glucocorticoid receptors in posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, B; Azoulay, N; Yerko, V; Turecki, G; Brunet, A

    2014-01-01

    Some individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit lower basal salivary cortisol and higher glucocorticoid receptor (GR) sensitivity. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic mechanisms regulate the activity of cortisol and GR. As a means to combine and cross-validate those findings, we compared cortisol, GR expression and promoter methylation levels in peripheral T lymphocytes of healthy controls versus individuals endorsing a diagnosis of lifetime PTSD. Thirty subjects with lifetime (current or remitted) PTSD and 16 subjects never exposed to trauma were recruited. Salivary cortisol was collected at six time points over the course of a single weekday and analyzed utilizing a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay. GR expression (GRtotal, 1B, 1C, 1F and 1H) was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. DNA methylation levels in human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) 1B and 1C variant's promoter were quantified by epityper in T lymphocytes isolated by magnetic-assisted cell sorting. Individuals with lifetime PTSD have lower morning cortisol release, higher mRNA expression of hGRtotal, 1B, and 1C and lower overall methylation levels in hGR 1B and 1C promoters. Cortisol levels were inversely correlated with hGR 1B mRNA expression. Moreover, overall and CpG site-specific methylation levels were inversely correlated with hGRtotal and 1B mRNA expression. There was no difference between current and remitted PTSD across cortisol, GR expression mRNA and DNA methylation data. Traumatic events induce DNA methylation alterations in distinct promoters of hGR with transcriptional modifications that associate with hypoactive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in individuals with PTSD. Our results also point toward an important role of hGR 1B variant in PTSD. PMID:24594779

  11. Risperidone ameliorates post-traumatic stress disorder-like symptoms in modified stress re-stress model.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Sairam; Garabadu, Debapriya; Joy, Keerikkattil P

    2013-12-01

    The management for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves chronic administration of drugs. We have modified the stress re-stress (SRS) model to study the effect of chronic administration of risperidone (RIS) after induction of PTSD in rats. On day-1 (D-1) rats underwent training session for elevated-plus maze (EPM) test. On D-2, rats were subjected to stress protocol of 2 h restraint and 20 min forced-swim test (FST) followed by halothane anesthesia. The rats were exposed to re-stress (FST) on D-8 and at six day intervals on D-14, D-20, D-26 and D-32. The rats were treated with RIS (0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg; p.o.) and standard drug, paroxetine (PAX; 10.0 mg/kg; p.o.) from D-8 to D-32. RIS (0.1 mg/kg) and PAX ameliorated SRS-induced immobility. RIS in median dose reversed SRS-induced hypocorticosteronemia both in urine and plasma. RIS in median dose improved SRS-induced behavioral perturbations such as memory impairment and anxiety-like behavior in EPM and Y-maze tests. RIS (0.1 mg/kg) reversed SRS-induced increase in amygdalar serotonin level. RIS (0.1 mg/kg) increased the expression of hippocampal MR thereby reversing the SRS-induced decrease in MR/GR ratio. Pearson's analysis of data on D-32 showed that there was significant correlation of plasma corticosterone, amygdalar serotonin and hippocampal ratio of mineralocorticoid (MR)/glucocorticoid receptor (GR) with SRS-induced behavioral abnormalities. Hence, median dose of RIS shows anti-PTSD-like effect in the modified SRS model. PAX had earlier onset of action in ameliorating behavioral effects of PTSD compared to RIS. However, RIS showed anti-PTSD like effect in sub-therapeutic dose. The mode of anti-PTSD action of RIS seems to involve the HPA-axis and serotonergic system, whereas PAX did not show any significant action on these pathways. The effect of repeated treatment of drugs for PTSD can be evaluated using the modified SRS model.

  12. [The effect of childhood stress on the development of mental disorders in adults].

    PubMed

    Grishkina, M N; Guliaeva, N V; Akzhigitov, R G; Gersamia, A G; Menshikova, A A; Freiman, S V; Guekht, A B

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that not only severe stressful events, but also common low-threat events, in particular chronic ones, may cause or provoke some mental disorders. The literature data on the degree of pathogenicity of stress factors are insufficient. Authors attempted to summarize the established facts in the following aspects: current conceptions on the physiology and pathology of stress in the frames of the problem of psychosomatic disorders, deprivation in childhood, neurobiological consequences of childhood stress, psychiatric consequences of stress in childhood. Authors believe that this problem demands further investigation to find possible predictors of mental disorders in patients who had experienced stressful life events in childhood. PMID:26978513

  13. Predictive factors of chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in rape victims.

    PubMed

    Darves-Bornoz, J M; Lépine, J P; Choquet, M; Berger, C; Degiovanni, A; Gaillard, P

    1998-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the psychological disorders following rape as well as the course of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and to determine clinical factors predictive of chronic PTSD. Seventy-three rape victims were observed in a systematic follow-up study over 1 year following rape using structured interview schedules. The frequency of PTSD was massive. The early disorders predicting PTSD 1 year after rape included somatoform and dissociative disorders, agoraphobia and specific phobias as well as depressive and gender identity disorders and alcohol abuse. Through stepwise logistic regressions, the following were found to be good models of prediction of chronic PTSD 1 year after rape: for the characteristics of the traumas, intrafamily rape, being physically assaulted outside rape, and added physical violence during rape; for the early psychological and behavioural attitudes, low self-esteem, permanent feelings of emptiness and running away; and for early mental disorders, agoraphobia and depressive disorders. Finally, among all these predictive factors, added physical violence during rape, low self-esteem, permanent feelings of emptiness and agoraphobia were shown to constitute a strong model of predictors. People presenting features such as the predictive factors of chronic PTSD found in the study should be asked about a history of rape and symptoms of PTSD.

  14. Stress Sensitivity and Stress Generation in Social Anxiety Disorder: A Temporal Process Approach

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Antonina S.; Kashdan, Todd B.

    2015-01-01

    Dominant theoretical models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggest that people who suffer from function-impairing social fears are likely to react more strongly to social stressors. Researchers have examined the reactivity of people with SAD to stressful laboratory tasks, but there is little knowledge about how stress affects their daily lives. We asked 79 adults from the community, 40 diagnosed with SAD and 39 matched healthy controls, to self-monitor their social interactions, social events, and emotional experiences over two weeks using electronic diaries. These data allowed us to examine associations of social events and emotional well-being both within-day and from one day to the next. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found all participants to report increases in negative affect and decreases in positive affect and self-esteem on days when they experienced more stressful social events. However, people with SAD displayed greater stress sensitivity, particularly in negative emotion reactions to stressful social events, compared to healthy controls. Groups also differed in how previous days’ events influenced sensitivity to current days’ events. Moreover, we found evidence of stress generation in that the SAD group reported more frequent interpersonal stress, though temporal analyses did not suggest greater likelihood of social stress on days following intense negative emotions. Our findings support the role of heightened social stress sensitivity in SAD, highlighting rigidity in reactions and occurrence of stressful experiences from one day to the next. These findings also shed light on theoretical models of emotions and self-esteem in SAD and present important clinical implications. PMID:25688437

  15. Parental Stress, Family-Professional Partnerships, and Family Quality of Life: Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the quality of life of families that have at least one child with autism spectrum disorder, parental stress level, and partnerships between the family and professionals. Also, parent perceptions of parental stress, family quality of life, and family-professional partnerships were…

  16. Psychosocial Stress Predicts Future Symptom Severities in Children and Adolescents with Tourette Syndrome and/or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Haiqun; Katsovich, Liliya; Ghebremichael, Musie; Findley, Diane B.; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The goals of this prospective longitudinal study were to monitor levels of psychosocial stress in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy control subjects and to examine the relationship between measures of psychosocial stress and fluctuations in tic,…

  17. Adaptation to Daily Stress among Mothers of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Daily Positive Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekas, Naomi V.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder is a challenging experience that can impact maternal well-being. Using a daily diary methodology, this study investigates (1) the relationship between stress and negative affect, and (2) the role of daily positive affect as a protective factor in the stress and negative affect relationship. Results…

  18. Brief Report: The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sarah R.; Jobson, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and autobiographical memory specificity in older adults. Method: Older adult trauma survivors (N = 23) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Addenbrooke's Cognitive…

  19. Parenting Stress, Salivary Biomarkers, and Ambulatory Blood Pressure: A Comparison between Mothers and Fathers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foody, Ciara; James, Jack E.; Leader, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may experience higher levels of stress and health problems than parents of children with typical development. However, most research has focused on mothers, with emphasis on parent-reported stress and wellbeing. This study compared parenting responsibility, distress, anxiety, depression,…

  20. Early Sensory Over-Responsivity in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders as a Predictor of Family Impairment and Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Sasson, A.; Soto, T. W.; Martinez-Pedraza, F.; Carter, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sensory over-responsivity (SOR) affects many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), often leading to stressful encounters during daily routines. Methods: This study describes the associations between early SOR symptoms and the longitudinal course of restrictions in family life activities and parenting stress across three…