Science.gov

Sample records for strings small-scale structure

  1. Small scale structure on cosmic strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas

    1989-01-01

    The current understanding of cosmic string evolution is discussed, and the focus placed on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. A physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms is presented. In this picture it can be seen how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. It is also argued that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small scale structure, which argued in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in the present understanding of cosmic string evolution.

  2. Small scale structure on cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, A.

    1989-10-30

    I discuss our current understanding of cosmic string evolution, and focus on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. I present a physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms. In this picture one can see how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. I also argue that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small structure, which I argue in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in our resent understanding of cosmic string evolution. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Small-scale coronal structure, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, David F.

    1986-01-01

    Recent observations and models pertaining specifically to solar coronal bright points (BPs) and generally to small-scale coronal structure are reviewed. Two questions were addressed: What is the degree of correspondence among various alleged signatures of BPs at different levels of atmosphere and what can PBs tell about the emerging flux spectrum of the sun?

  4. Speckle imaging of solar small scale structure. 2: Study of small scale structure in active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Luehe, O.

    1994-01-01

    The speckle imaging technique which is described in the first paper of this series (von der Luehe 1993) was used to analyze time series of high angular resolution images of solar small scale structure at a wavelength of 585 nm in active regions with the 76 cm diameter vacuum tower telescope at National Solar Observatory (NSO)/Sac Peak. Two sets of reconstructed images with a field of 4 by 4 arcsec which cover a period of 36 min and 83 min were generated and analyzed. The image reconstructions are supplemented with simultaneous large field photographs taken within a 15 A passband centered on the Ca II K (3933) line. The prime objective of the observing program was the study of the structure and the dynamics of the continuum wavelength counterpart of facular points which appear with high contrast in the Ca pictures, i.e., continuum bright points (CBPs). In addition to CBPs, the reconstructions allow studying other small scale phenomena. Results of the studies are given.

  5. Characterizing the Small Scale Structure in Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, William R.

    1999-01-01

    We have applied a wavelet transform analysis to quantify the small-scale (less than a few arcminutes) X-ray structure of clusters of galaxies to several clusters. Three of these clusters show interesting structure. In addition to the small scale structure in surface brightness, we have searched for temperature structure using Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) observations. For A754, we find a filamentary structure, similar to that previously detected in A85. For A119, we find small scale structure associated with both cool and hot regions with a hot filament extending to the northeast. For A1750, one of the first clusters to show substructure from Einstein, we have a rederived the substructure from the ROSAT observations. The ASCA observations show a hot region between the two small scale features - sub-clusters. The hot region shows that the two subclusters are merging and producing a shock wave at the leading edge of the interaction. This analysis had been applied to a sample of 17 clusters to determine the radial distribution of substructure in a sample. The number of detected substructures was rather small and it was decided to select a different cluster sample at larger redshift. This provided a larger radial range over which substructure could be detected. This new cluster sample also includes about 20 clusters and is being analyzed. Finally, we are considering how to compare the substructure parameters of nearby clusters with a more distant sample to see if one can extract cosmological information. Since substructure frequency should depend on the cosmological density parameter, it may be possible to derive new constraints by comparing nearby and distant clusters.

  6. MIX DESIGN FOR SMALL-SCALE MODELS OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An easily applied method of mix design was developed for concretes suitable for use in small -scale models of concrete structures. By use of the...properties were collected for model concretes with portland cement and gypsum cement bases. These concretes had maximum aggregate sizes of No. 4...strength, the model concretes using approximately scaled aggregate were found to have about the same splitting-tensile strength and flexural strength, a

  7. Electron Precipitation Associated with Small-Scale Auroral Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michell, R.; Samara, M.; Grubbs, G. A., II; Hampton, D. L.; Bonnell, J. W.; Ogasawara, K.

    2014-12-01

    We present results from the Ground-to-Rocket Electrons Electrodynamics Correlative Experiment (GREECE) sounding rocket mission, where we combined high-resolution ground-based auroral imaging with high time-resolution precipitating electron measurements. The GREECE payload successfully launched from Poker Flat, Alaska on 03 March 2014 and reached an apogee of approximately 335 km. The narrow field-of-view auroral imaging was taken from Venetie, AK, which is directly under apogee. This enabled the small-scale auroral features at the magnetic footpoint of the rocket payload to be imaged in detail. The electron precipitation was measured with the Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer (APES) onboard the payload. Features in the electron data are matched up with their corresponding auroral structures and boundaries, enabling measurement of the exact electron distributions responsible for the specific small-scale auroral features. These electron distributions will then be used to infer what the potential electron acceleration processes were.

  8. Cosmic string parameter constraints and model analysis using small scale Cosmic Microwave Background data

    SciTech Connect

    Urrestilla, Jon; Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin E-mail: n.bevis@imperial.ac.uk E-mail: martin.kunz@physics.unige.ch

    2011-12-01

    We present a significant update of the constraints on the Abelian Higgs cosmic string tension by cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, enabled both by the use of new high-resolution CMB data from suborbital experiments as well as the latest results of the WMAP satellite, and by improved predictions for the impact of Abelian Higgs cosmic strings on the CMB power spectra. The new cosmic string spectra [1] were improved especially for small angular scales, through the use of larger Abelian Higgs string simulations and careful extrapolation. If Abelian Higgs strings are present then we find improved bounds on their contribution to the CMB anisotropies, fd{sup AH} < 0.095, and on their tension, Gμ{sub AH} < 0.57 × 10{sup −6}, both at 95% confidence level using WMAP7 data; and fd{sup AH} < 0.048 and Gμ{sub AH} < 0.42 × 10{sup −6} using all the CMB data. We also find that using all the CMB data, a scale invariant initial perturbation spectrum, n{sub s} = 1, is now disfavoured at 2.4σ even if strings are present. A Bayesian model selection analysis no longer indicates a preference for strings.

  9. Small-scale flow structures in the solar wind turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tieyan; Fu, Huishan; Cao, Jinbin; He, Jiansen; Zhao, Jinsong; Zhang, Lei; Dunlop, Malcolm; Yang, Jian; Chen, Zuzheng; Lu, Haoyu

    2017-04-01

    Small-scale flow structures play a key role in balancing and dissipating turbulent kinetic energy. Significant progress has been made towards understanding the flow patterns in hydrodynamic (HD) turbulence. However, the geometry/topology of the turbulent, magnetized plasma flow remains not fully understood. By virtue of the multi-point plasma moments measured by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, quantification of the velocity gradient, which carries geometrical information of the fluid elements, becomes available. Through analyzing the geometric invariants of the coarse-grained velocity gradient (R and Q), we have investigated the small-scale structure of the turbulent flow in the solar wind. Three main results that agree with theoretical/numerical and experimental results of homogeneous HD turbulence are reported: (1) The joint probability density function of the (R, Q) phase map exhibit a 'teardrop' shape; (2) The vorticity is aligned with the positive intermediate principal of the strain tensor; (3) The ratios of the mean eigenvalues of the stains tensor are around 3: 1: -4, implying sheet-like structures with viscous dissipation and dissipation production. Interestingly, dissimilarities from HD flows are found, featuring a population whose enstrophy is correlated with dissipation. Further investigation of the magnetic field patterns shows a dominance of quasi-2D structures, which is different from the velocity field. Implications of our work are discussed.

  10. Extreme events and small-scale structure in computational turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, X. M.; Yeung, P. K.; Sreenivasan, K. R.

    2015-11-01

    Detailed analyses have been made of data from a direct numerical simulation of turbulence on a periodic domain with 81923 grid points designed to improve our understanding of small-scale structure and intermittency. At the Reynolds number of this simulation (1300 based on the Taylor scale) extreme events of dissipation and enstrophy as large as 105 times the mean value are observed. These events are shown to possess a form that is different from similar events at low Reynolds numbers. Extreme vorticity appears to be ``chunky'' in character, in contrast to elongated vortex tubes at moderately large amplitudes commonly reported in the literature. We track the temporal evolution of these extreme events and find that they are generally short-lived, which suggests frequent sampling on-the-fly is useful. Extreme magnitudes of energy dissipation rate and enstrophy are essentially coincident in space and remain so during their evolution. Numerical tests show sensitivity to small-scale resolution and sampling but not machine precision. The connections expected between indicators of fine-scale intermittency such as acceleration statistics and the anomalous scaling of high-order velocity structure functions are also investigated. Supported by NSF Grant ACI-1036170 (Track 1 Petascale Resource Allocations Program).

  11. Large-scale structure from wiggly cosmic strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachaspati, Tanmay; Vilenkin, Alexander

    1991-08-01

    Recent simulations of the evolution of cosmic strings indicate the presence of small-scale structure on the strings. It is shown that wakes produced by such 'wiggly' cosmic strings can result in the efficient formation of large-scale structure and large streaming velocities in the universe without significantly affecting the microwave-background isotropy. It is also argued that the motion of strings will lead to the generation of a primordial magnetic field. The most promising version of this scenario appears to be the one in which the universe is dominated by light neutrinos.

  12. Small-Scale Fabrication of Biomimetic Structures for Periodontal Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Green, David W; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Han-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The periodontium is the supporting tissues for the tooth organ and is vulnerable to destruction, arising from overpopulating pathogenic bacteria and spirochaetes. The presence of microbes together with host responses can destroy large parts of the periodontium sometimes leading tooth loss. Permanent tissue replacements are made possible with tissue engineering techniques. However, existing periodontal biomaterials cannot promote proper tissue architectures, necessary tissue volumes within the periodontal pocket and a "water-tight" barrier, to become clinically acceptable. New kinds of small-scale engineered biomaterials, with increasing biological complexity are needed to guide proper biomimetic regeneration of periodontal tissues. So the ability to make compound structures with small modules, filled with tissue components, is a promising design strategy for simulating the anatomical complexity of the periodotium attachment complexes along the tooth root and the abutment with the tooth collar. Anatomical structures such as, intima, adventitia, and special compartments such as the epithelial cell rests of Malassez or a stellate reticulum niche need to be engineered from the start of regeneration to produce proper periodontium replacement. It is our contention that the positioning of tissue components at the origin is also necessary to promote self-organizing cell-cell connections, cell-matrix connections. This leads to accelerated, synchronized and well-formed tissue architectures and anatomies. This strategy is a highly effective preparation for tackling periodontitis, periodontium tissue resorption, and to ultimately prevent tooth loss. Furthermore, such biomimetic tissue replacements will tackle problems associated with dental implant support and perimimplantitis.

  13. Small-Scale Fabrication of Biomimetic Structures for Periodontal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Green, David W.; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Han-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The periodontium is the supporting tissues for the tooth organ and is vulnerable to destruction, arising from overpopulating pathogenic bacteria and spirochaetes. The presence of microbes together with host responses can destroy large parts of the periodontium sometimes leading tooth loss. Permanent tissue replacements are made possible with tissue engineering techniques. However, existing periodontal biomaterials cannot promote proper tissue architectures, necessary tissue volumes within the periodontal pocket and a “water-tight” barrier, to become clinically acceptable. New kinds of small-scale engineered biomaterials, with increasing biological complexity are needed to guide proper biomimetic regeneration of periodontal tissues. So the ability to make compound structures with small modules, filled with tissue components, is a promising design strategy for simulating the anatomical complexity of the periodotium attachment complexes along the tooth root and the abutment with the tooth collar. Anatomical structures such as, intima, adventitia, and special compartments such as the epithelial cell rests of Malassez or a stellate reticulum niche need to be engineered from the start of regeneration to produce proper periodontium replacement. It is our contention that the positioning of tissue components at the origin is also necessary to promote self-organizing cell–cell connections, cell–matrix connections. This leads to accelerated, synchronized and well-formed tissue architectures and anatomies. This strategy is a highly effective preparation for tackling periodontitis, periodontium tissue resorption, and to ultimately prevent tooth loss. Furthermore, such biomimetic tissue replacements will tackle problems associated with dental implant support and perimimplantitis. PMID:26903872

  14. The Physical Character of Small-Scale Interstellar Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauroesch, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the multiple interstellar absorption lines of H2 toward the members of 3 resolvable binary/multiple star systems to explore the physical conditions in known interstellar small-scale structures. Each of the selected systems was meant to address a different aspect of the models for the origin of these structures: 1) The stars HD 32039/40 were meant to probe a temporally varying component which probed a cloud with an inferred size of tens to a few hundreds of AU. The goal was to see if there was any significant H2 associated with this component; 2) The star HD 36408B and its companion HD 36408A (observed as part of FUSE GTO program P119) show significant spatial and temporal (proper motion induced) Na I column variations in a strong, relatively isolated component, as well as a relatively simple component structure. The key goal here was to identify any differences in H2 or C I excitation between the sightlines, and to measure the physical conditions (primarily density and temperature) in the temporally varying component; 3) The stars HD 206267C and HD 206267D are highly reddened sightlines which showed significant variations in K I and molecular absorption lines in multiple velocity components. Coupled with FUSE GTO observations of HD 206267A (program P116), the goal was to study the variations in H2 along sightlines which are significantly more distant, with larger separations, and with greater extinctions than the other selected binary systems.

  15. Detecting small scale CO2 emission structures using OCO-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Eldering, Annmarie; Verhulst, Kristal R.; Miller, Charles E.; Nguyen, Hai M.; Oda, Tomohiro; O'Dell, Christopher; Rao, Preeti; Kahn, Brian; Crisp, David; Gunson, Michael R.; Sanchez, Robert M.; Ashok, Manasa; Pieri, David; Linick, Justin P.; Yuen, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Localized carbon dioxide (CO2) emission structures cover spatial domains of less than 50 km diameter and include cities and transportation networks, as well as fossil fuel production, upgrading and distribution infra-structure. Anthropogenic sources increasingly upset the natural balance between natural carbon sources and sinks. Mitigation of resulting climate change impacts requires management of emissions, and emissions management requires monitoring, reporting and verification. Space-borne measurements provide a unique opportunity to detect, quantify, and analyze small scale and point source emissions on a global scale. NASA's first satellite dedicated to atmospheric CO2 observation, the July 2014 launched Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2), now leads the afternoon constellation of satellites (A-Train). Its continuous swath of 2 to 10 km in width and eight footprints across can slice through coincident emission plumes and may provide momentary cross sections. First OCO-2 results demonstrate that we can detect localized source signals in the form of urban total column averaged CO2 enhancements of ~2 ppm against suburban and rural backgrounds. OCO-2's multi-sounding swath observing geometry reveals intra-urban spatial structures reflected in XCO2 data, previously unobserved from space. The transition from single-shot GOSAT soundings detecting urban/rural differences (Kort et al., 2012) to hundreds of soundings per OCO-2 swath opens up the path to future capabilities enabling urban tomography of greenhouse gases. For singular point sources like coal fired power plants, we have developed proxy detections of plumes using bands of imaging spectrometers with sensitivity to SO2 in the thermal infrared (ASTER). This approach provides a means to automate plume detection with subsequent matching and mining of OCO-2 data for enhanced detection efficiency and validation. © California Institute of Technology

  16. The Structure and Climate of Size: Small Scale Schooling in an Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeChasseur, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    This study explores mechanisms involved in small scale schooling and student engagement. Specifically, this study questions the validity of arguments for small scale schooling reforms that confound the promised effects of small scale schooling "structures" (such as smaller enrollments, schools-within-schools, and smaller class sizes)…

  17. The Structure and Climate of Size: Small Scale Schooling in an Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeChasseur, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    This study explores mechanisms involved in small scale schooling and student engagement. Specifically, this study questions the validity of arguments for small scale schooling reforms that confound the promised effects of small scale schooling "structures" (such as smaller enrollments, schools-within-schools, and smaller class sizes)…

  18. Visualization of small scale structures on high resolution DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Zakšek, Klemen; Pehani, Peter; Čotar, Klemen; Oštir, Krištof

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge on the terrain morphology is very important for observation of numerous processes and events and digital elevation models are therefore one of the most important datasets in geographic analyses. Furthermore, recognition of natural and anthropogenic microrelief structures, which can be observed on detailed terrain models derived from aerial laser scanning (lidar) or structure-from-motion photogrammetry, is of paramount importance in many applications. In this paper we thus examine and evaluate methods of raster lidar data visualization for the determination (recognition) of microrelief features and present a series of strategies to assist selecting the preferred visualization of choice for structures of various shapes and sizes, set in varied landscapes. Often the answer is not definite and more frequently a combination of techniques has to be used to map a very diverse landscape. Researchers can only very recently benefit from free software for calculation of advanced visualization techniques. These tools are often difficult to understand, have numerous options that confuse the user, or require and produce non-standard data formats, because they were written for specific purposes. We therefore designed the Relief Visualization Toolbox (RVT) as a free, easy-to-use, standalone application to create visualisations from high-resolution digital elevation data. It is tailored for the very beginners in relief interpretation, but it can also be used by more advanced users in data processing and geographic information systems. It offers a range of techniques, such as simple hillshading and its derivatives, slope gradient, trend removal, positive and negative openness, sky-view factor, and anisotropic sky-view factor. All included methods have been proven to be effective for detection of small scale features and the default settings are optimised to accomplish this task. However, the usability of the tool goes beyond computation for visualization purposes, as sky

  19. The Small-Scale Structure of Acceleration in Wall Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Kenneth T.; Adrian, Ronald J.

    2001-11-01

    Temporal and convective derivatives of velocity are measured in the streamwise--wall-normal plane of turbulent channel flow at Re_τ=547, 1133, and 1734 using a new technique called particle-image accelerometry. Pairs of temporally-resolved instantaneous velocity fields are acquired in rapid succession using a two-CCD-camera arrangement, and the associated instantaneous temporal and convective derivatives of velocity are computed numerically from this data. Advection of the small-scale vortices embedded within the flow dominates the small-scale behavior of the velocity time-derivative as noted in both the instantaneous rate-of-change fields as well as in the statistics of the temporal derivative. However, in a reference frame traveling with the vortices, a marked deceleration is present and represents the evolution of the flow. This large-scale deceleration is conjectured to be the dynamic influence of larger-scale vortices present further away from the wall on the smaller scale vortices present closer to the wall.

  20. Observation and Analysis of Small-scale Solar Magnetic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T.

    1996-05-01

    Solar magnetic flux elements on spatial scales below 350 km (0\\arcsec.5) are analyzed using G-Band 4305 Angstroms, Ca II K-line, and 4686 Angstroms continuum filtegrams as well as Fe I 6302 Angstroms and 5250 Angstroms magnetograms acquired nearly simultaneously at the Swedish Solar Vacuum Telescope on La Palma. Spatial resolution is below 0\\arcsec.3 in the majority of images. Phase-diversity image restoration is applied to yield a 180 frame (78 minute) image set in which nearly every frame exhibits 0\\arcsec.2 spatial resolution. Image processing algorithms are developed which successfully segment the magnetic elements from the surrounding granulation for analysis. The FWHM of magnetic elements demarcated by G-band bright points in disk-center plage is log-normally distributed with a modal value of 220 km and an average value of 250 km. Average disk center contrast of magnetic elements in the G-band is 31% with maximum values frequently exceeding 70% relative to the quiet-Sun average. Simulataneous 4686 Angstroms continuum contrast is 2 to 3 times lower. The average G-band contrast of magnetic elements shows no size dependency over a range of 150---600 km in diameter. G-band bright points occur without exception on sites of isolated magnetic flux concentrations or peninsular concentrations extending from larger concentrations of flux; isolated magnetic flux concentrations are found without associated G-band bright points. Magnetic elements demarcated by G-band bright points occupy no more than 1---2% of plage and active network regions by area at any one time. Magnetic elements move in the intergranular flowfield at speeds from 0.5 to 5 km sec(-1) . The RMS speed is 2.4 km sec(-1) over an average range of 2100 km (3\\arcsec). Continual fragmentation and merging of magnetic elements is the normal evolutionary mode for small-scale magnetic elements. The time scale for the dynamics is approximately 6--8 minutes, but significant morphological changes occur on time

  1. Pervasive small-scale structure in molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, B.; Lada, E.

    1986-01-01

    An unbiased CO survey of molecular cloud cores was completed, and the profiles were analyzed within the context of a model for emission from clumpy clouds. It was found that all sources observed contain a significant amount of structure that is not resolved with our 2.3-arcmin beam, and that the parameters which describe the degree of clumping span a remarkably narrow range of the possible values. We studied two separate samples of cloud cores: a large sample of warm cores from the Massachusetts-Stony Brook 12CO survey of the first galactic quadrant, and a sample of cool cores in the Taurus dark clouds chosen primarily on the basis of H2CO emission. We observed all sources in the 1-0 transition of 12CO and 13CO with the 5-m telescope of the Millimeter Wave Observatory. The 12CO/13CO ratios can be explained if there is unresolved structure giving rise to significant variations of opacity across the beam. Our model cloud consists of a large number of identical clumps distributed randomly in the beam. These clumps have velocity widths v small compared to the width of the observed profile, which is determined by the relative motion of the clumps. The entire cloud is isothermal and in local thermodynamic equilibrium. With these assumptions the intensity and linewidth ratios depend on three parameters: the abundance ratio; the peak 13CO opacity through a single clump, tau(0); and the average number of clumps on a line of sight N. Small tau(0) and large N correspond to the microturbulent limit, which is indistinguishable from a uniform gas distribution. In the other extreme, large tau(0) and snall N, at a given velocity at most one clump contributes to the profile on each line of sight. A figure is presented which shows the model parameters which reproduce the measured intensity and linewidth ratios for the sample of warm cores, assuming an abundance ratio of 75.

  2. Modelling of Dust Extinction through Dark Clouds: Small Scale Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, D.; Lada, C.

    1993-12-01

    In order to understand some curious effects discovered in analyzing our deep JHK near-infrared survey of the background stars probing the IC 5146 dark cloud complex (Lada, Lada, Clemens, & Bally 1993), we have constructed a simple model of the dust extinction through a molecular cloud. The effect noticed involved a correlation between the dispersion of the E(H-K) based estimate of A_V, when the stellar estimates of E(H-K) were binned into arcmin sized bins, with the mean A_V computed for those bins. The sense of the correlation is that the dispersion of the extinction rises with the extinction in a nearly linear fashion. Further, the dispersion of the dispersion also rises with extinction. Our model was constructed to try to understand the origin of this unexpected behavior. The model consists of a Poisson generator to populate a bin with stars and various extinction generating functions to add extinction to each star. Additionally, measurement noise and varying amounts of foreground star contamination are added to simulate the actual observations. Remarkably, this simple model is able to rule out several cloud structure models, including uniform extinction across an arcmin sized bin and the case of dense clumplets (rocks) embedded in a low extinction medium. We show that a power law parameterization of the extinction variation with position across a bin is able to fully reproduce the observations for a fairly robust set of power law indices. We also show that foreground star contamination plus any simple extinction model cannot reproduce the observations, while foreground star contamination does not appreciably affect the power law extinction model for foreground stellar fractions less than 30 - 50% of the total stellar content.

  3. Isocurvature Perturbation of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles and Small Scale Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Young; Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Shin, Chang Sub

    2015-11-01

    The adiabatic perturbation of dark matter is damped during the kinetic decoupling due to the collision with a relativistic component on subhorizon scales. However, the isocurvature part is free from damping and could be large enough to make a substantial contribution to the formation of small scale structure. We explicitly study the weakly interacting massive particles as dark matter with an early matter dominated period before radiation domination and show that the isocurvature perturbation is generated during the phase transition and leaves an imprint in the observable signatures for small scale structure.

  4. Fabrication of small-scale structures with non-planar features

    DOEpatents

    Burckel, David B.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2015-11-19

    The fabrication of small-scale structures is disclosed. A unit-cell of a small-scale structure with non-planar features is fabricated by forming a membrane on a suitable material. A pattern is formed in the membrane and a portion of the substrate underneath the membrane is removed to form a cavity. Resonators are then directionally deposited on the wall or sides of the cavity. The cavity may be rotated during deposition to form closed-loop resonators. The resonators may be non-planar. The unit-cells can be formed in a layer that includes an array of unit-cells.

  5. Fabrication method for small-scale structures with non-planar features

    DOEpatents

    Burckel, David Bruce; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2016-09-20

    The fabrication of small-scale structures is disclosed. A unit-cell of a small-scale structure with non-planar features is fabricated by forming a membrane on a suitable material. A pattern is formed in the membrane and a portion of the substrate underneath the membrane is removed to form a cavity. Resonators are then directionally deposited on the wall or sides of the cavity. The cavity may be rotated during deposition to form closed-loop resonators. The resonators may be non-planar. The unit-cells can be formed in a layer that includes an array of unit-cells.

  6. Formation of the small-scale structure of auroral electron precipitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropotkin, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    This paper is aimed at physical causes of the small-scale transverse structure in the flows of auroral electrons, generating the corresponding small-scale structure of discrete auroras. The parallel electric field existing in the lower part of the auroral magnetosphere, in the auroral cavity region, in the presence of a strong upward field-aligned current, accelerates magnetospheric electrons to energies of ∼ 1 - 10 keV. The flow of these particles while maintaining the high density of the field-aligned current, produces a current-driven instability, which generates Alfvénic turbulence at short perpendicular wavelengths ≤ 1 km. These short-wavelength inertial Alfvén disturbances possess a nonzero parallell electric field, which modulates the electron flow velocity. The modulation occurring at high altitudes ≥104 km leads to a nonlinear effect of formation of strong density peaks at low altitudes of electron precipitation. The transverse, horizontal scales of the corresponding electron flow structure coincide with the small scales of the Alfvénic turbulence; and this structuring leads to non-uniformities in the auroral luminosity on the same scales, i.e., to small-scale structure of discrete auroras.

  7. Low-force magneto-rheological damper design for small-scale structural control experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Benjamin D.; Velazquez, Antonio; Swartz, R. Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Experimental validation of novel structural control algorithms is a vital step in both developing and building acceptance for this technology. Small-scale experimental test-beds fulfill an important role in the validation of multiple-degree-offreedom (MDOF) and distributed semi-active control systems, allowing researchers to test the control algorithms, communication topologies, and timing-critical aspects of structural control systems that do not require full-scale specimens. In addition, small-scale building specimens can be useful in combined structural health monitoring (SHM) and LQG control studies, diminishing safety concerns during experiments by using benchtop-scale rather than largescale specimens. Development of such small-scale test-beds is hampered by difficulties in actuator construction. In order to be a useful analog to full-scale structures, actuators for small-scale test-beds should exhibit similar features and limitations as their full-scale counterparts. In particular, semi-active devices, such as magneto-rheological (MR) fluid dampers, with limited authority (versus active mass dampers) and nonlinear behavior are difficult to mimic over small force scales due to issues related to fluid containment and friction. In this study, a novel extraction-type small-force (0- 10 N) MR-fluid damper which exhibits nonlinear hysteresis similar to a full-scale, MR-device is proposed. This actuator is a key development to enable the function of a small-scale structural control test-bed intended for wireless control validation studies. Experimental validation of this prototype is conducted using a 3-story scale structure subjected to simulated single-axis seismic excitation. The actuator affects the structural response commanded by a control computer that executes an LQG state feedback control law and a modified Bouc-Wen lookup table that was previously developed for full-scale MR-applications. In addition, damper dynamic limitations are characterized and

  8. Transverse structure of the QCD string

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Harvey B.

    2010-11-15

    The characterization of the transverse structure of the QCD string is discussed. We formulate a conjecture as to how the stress-energy tensor of the underlying gauge theory couples to the string degrees of freedom. A consequence of the conjecture is that the energy density and the longitudinal-stress operators measure the distribution of the transverse position of the string, to leading order in the string fluctuations, whereas the transverse-stress operator does not. We interpret recent numerical measurements of the transverse size of the confining string and show that the difference of the energy and longitudinal-stress operators is a particularly natural probe at next-to-leading order. Second, we derive the constraints imposed by open-closed string duality on the transverse structure of the string. We show that a total of three independent ''gravitational'' form factors characterize the transverse profile of the closed string, and obtain the interpretation of recent effective string theory calculations: the square radius of a closed string of length {beta} defined from the slope of its gravitational form factor, is given by (d-1/2{pi}{sigma})log({beta}/4r{sub 0}) in d space dimensions. This is to be compared with the well-known result that the width of the open string at midpoint grows as (d-1/2{pi}{sigma})log(r/r{sub 0}). We also obtain predictions for transition form factors among closed-string states.

  9. Interpreting Small-Scale Structure from High Resolution Global MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikic, Zoran; Titov, V. S.; Linker, J. A.; Lionello, R.; Riley, P.; Antiochos, S.

    2010-05-01

    High resolution 3D MHD simulations of the solar corona are beginning to reveal how small-scale structures in the magnetic field interact with the global structure of the corona and solar wind. In particular, it has become evident that the detailed characteristics of coronal holes, especially their equatorial extensions, may be related to the source of the slow solar wind. Using structural analysis based on the squashing factor Q (Titov et al. 2002, 2008; Titov 2007) we show how small-scale structure in the magnetic field is related to the structure of the streamer belt. These results have led to a new interpretation of the source of the slow solar wind. Research supported by NASA's Heliospheric Theory and Living With a Star Programs, and NSF/CISM.

  10. A multifractal representation of the small-scale structure in a turbulent plume

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, R.I.; Gabruk, R.S.; Hen, D.S.

    1995-10-01

    An improved method for representing the small-scale structure of a turbulent scalar field using fractal recursion techniques is described. The model generalizes the fractal successive refinement method described by Sykes and Gabruk to include a more realistic description of the pseudodissipation field, that is, the square of the scalar gradient. Turbulent dissipation fields are known to be multifractal, so a multifractal generation technique has been incorporated into the fractal refinement model to yield a scalar field with fractal isosurfaces but with a multifractal pseudodissipation field. The model fields are compared with realizations from large-eddy simulations of turbulent scalar dispersion and shown to provide improved agreement with the small-scale structure. The simple combination of fractal and multifractal properties employed in the model also provides insight into the structure of the random scalar field. Finally, the generation technique is completely localized in physical space and is therefore applicable to inhomogeneous fields. 17 refs., 19 figs.

  11. Small-Scale Heterogeneity in Deep-Sea Nematode Communities around Biogenic Structures

    PubMed Central

    Hasemann, Christiane; Soltwedel, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The unexpected high species richness of deep-sea sediments gives rise to the questions, which processes produce and maintain diversity in the deep sea, and at what spatial scales do these processes operate? The idea of a small-scale habitat structure at the deep-sea floor provides the background for this study. At small scales biogenic structures create a heterogeneous environment that influences the structure of the surrounding communities and the dynamics of the meiobenthic populations. As an example for biogenic structures, small deep-sea sponges (Tentorium semisuberites Schmidt 1870) and their sedimentary environment were investigated for small-scale distribution patterns of benthic deep-sea nematodes. Sampling was carried out with the remotely operated vehicle Victor 6000 at the Arctic deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN. In order to investigate nematode community patterns sediment cores around three small sponges and corresponding control cores were analysed. A total of approx. 5800 nematodes were identified. The comparison of the nematode communities from sponge and control samples indicated an influence of the biogenic structure “sponge” on diversity patterns and habitat heterogeneity. The increased number of nematode species and functional groups found in the sediments around the sponges suggest that on a small scale the sponge acts as a gradient and creates a more divers habitat structure. The nematode community from the sponge sediments shows a greater taxonomic variance and species richness together with lower relative abundances of the species compared to those from control sediments. Obviously, the more homogeneous habitat conditions of the control sediments offer less micro-habitats than the sediments around the sponges. This seems to reduce the number of functional groups and species coexisting in the control sediments. PMID:22216193

  12. Universal small-scale structure in turbulence driven by magnetorotational instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdankin, Vladimir; Walker, Justin; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Lesur, Geoffroy

    2017-05-01

    The intermittent small-scale structure of turbulence governs energy dissipation in many astrophysical plasmas and is often believed to have universal properties for sufficiently large systems. In this work, we argue that small-scale turbulence in accretion discs is universal in the sense that it is insensitive to the magnetorotational instability (MRI) and background shear, and therefore indistinguishable from standard homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence at small scales. We investigate the intermittency of current density, vorticity and energy dissipation in numerical simulations of incompressible MHD turbulence driven by the MRI in a shearing box. We find that the simulations exhibit a similar degree of intermittency as in standard MHD turbulence. We perform a statistical analysis of intermittent dissipative structures and find that energy dissipation is concentrated in thin sheet-like structures that span a wide range of scales up to the box size. We show that these structures exhibit strikingly similar statistical properties to those in standard MHD turbulence. Additionally, the structures are oriented in the toroidal direction with a characteristic tilt of approximately 17.^{circ}5, implying an effective guide field in that direction.

  13. Classical chaos and the sensitivity of the acoustic field to small-scale ocean structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, D. R.; Georges, T. M.; Jones, R. M.

    1991-04-01

    Ray theory is usually the basis of data inversion schemes for acoustic remote sensing of the ocean. Chaotic ray paths are expected to be present whenever the ocean environment possesses small-scale, range-dependent structure. We are studying the implications of their presence for data inversion schemes. Using numerical simulations we consider ray-path characteristics for acoustic remote sensing of the Florida Current. We find small-scale bathymetric structure results in chaotic ray paths and an exponential proliferation of eigenrays. As a result, for each feature in the time-of-arrival pattern, there is associated not a single eigenray but a group, thereby limiting the spatial resolution of a remote sensing system.

  14. Dissipative structures of diffuse molecular gas. III. Small-scale intermittency of intense velocity-shears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hily-Blant, P.; Falgarone, E.; Pety, J.

    2008-04-01

    Aims: We further characterize the structures tentatively identified on thermal and chemical grounds as the sites of dissipation of turbulence in molecular clouds (Papers I and II). Methods: Our study is based on two-point statistics of line centroid velocities (CV), computed from three large 12CO maps of two fields. We build the probability density functions (PDF) of the CO line centroid velocity increments (CVI) over lags varying by an order of magnitude. Structure functions of the line CV are computed up to the 6th order. We compare these statistical properties in two translucent parsec-scale fields embedded in different large-scale environments, one far from virial balance and the other virialized. We also address their scale dependence in the former, more turbulent, field. Results: The statistical properties of the line CV bear the three signatures of intermittency in a turbulent velocity field: (1) the non-Gaussian tails in the CVI PDF grow as the lag decreases, (2) the departure from Kolmogorov scaling of the high-order structure functions is more pronounced in the more turbulent field, (3) the positions contributing to the CVI PDF tails delineate narrow filamentary structures (thickness ~0.02 pc), uncorrelated to dense gas structures and spatially coherent with thicker ones (~0.18 pc) observed on larger scales. We show that the largest CVI trace sharp variations of the extreme CO linewings and that they actually capture properties of the underlying velocity field, uncontaminated by density fluctuations. The confrontation with theoretical predictions leads us to identify these small-scale filamentary structures with extrema of velocity-shears. We estimate that viscous dissipation at the 0.02 pc-scale in these structures is up to 10 times higher than average, consistent with their being associated with gas warmer than the bulk. Last, their average direction is parallel (or close) to that of the local magnetic field projection. Conclusions: Turbulence in these

  15. Response function of the large-scale structure of the universe to the small scale inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimichi, Takahiro; Bernardeau, Francis; Taruya, Atsushi

    2016-11-01

    In order to infer the impact of the small-scale physics to the large-scale properties of the universe, we use a series of cosmological N-body simulations of self-gravitating matter inhomogeneities to measure, for the first time, the response function of such a system defined as a functional derivative of the nonlinear power spectrum with respect to its linear counterpart. Its measured shape and amplitude are found to be in good agreement with perturbation theory predictions except for the coupling from small to large-scale perturbations. The latter is found to be significantly damped, following a Lorentzian form. These results shed light on validity regime of perturbation theory calculations giving a useful guideline for regularization of small scale effects in analytical modeling. Most importantly our result indicates that the statistical properties of the large-scale structure of the universe are remarkably insensitive to the details of the small-scale physics, astrophysical or gravitational, paving the way for the derivation of robust estimates of theoretical uncertainties on the determination of cosmological parameters from large-scale survey observations.

  16. THE OPACITY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM DURING REIONIZATION: RESOLVING SMALL-SCALE STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Emberson, J. D.; Thomas, Rajat M.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.

    2013-02-15

    Early in the reionization process, the intergalactic medium (IGM) would have been quite inhomogeneous on small scales, due to the low Jeans mass in the neutral IGM and the hierarchical growth of structure in a cold dark matter universe. This small-scale structure acted as an important sink during the epoch of reionization, impeding the progress of the ionization fronts that swept out from the first sources of ionizing radiation. Here we present results of high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations that resolve the cosmological Jeans mass of the neutral IGM in representative volumes several Mpc across. The adiabatic hydrodynamics we follow are appropriate in an unheated IGM, before the gas has had a chance to respond to the photoionization heating. Our focus is determination of the resolution required in cosmological simulations in order to sufficiently sample and resolve small-scale structure regulating the opacity of an unheated IGM. We find that a dark matter particle mass of m {sub dm} {approx}< 50 M {sub Sun} and box size of L {approx}> 1 Mpc are required. With our converged results we show how the mean free path of ionizing radiation and clumping factor of ionized hydrogen depend on the ultraviolet background flux and redshift. We find, for example at z = 10, clumping factors typically of 10-20 for an ionization rate of {Gamma} {approx} (0.3-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} s{sup -1}, with corresponding mean free paths of {approx}3-15 Mpc, extending previous work on the evolving mean free path to considerably smaller scales and earlier times.

  17. Small-scale structure of nonlinearly interacting species advected by chaotic flows.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Lopez, Cristobal; Neufeld, Zoltan

    2002-06-01

    We study the spatial patterns formed by interacting biological populations or reacting chemicals under the influence of chaotic flows. Multiple species and nonlinear interactions are explicitly considered, as well as cases of smooth and nonsmooth forcing sources. The small-scale structure can be obtained in terms of characteristic Lyapunov exponents of the flow and of the chemical dynamics. Different kinds of morphological transitions are identified. Numerical results from a three-component plankton dynamics model support the theory, and they serve also to illustrate the influence of asymmetric couplings. (c) 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Investigation of the small-scale structure and dynamics of Uranus' atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eshleman, Von R.; Hinson, David P.

    1991-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report of the Uranus Analysis Program. Papers and/or abstracts resulting from this research are presented. The following topics are covered: (1) past and future of radio occultation studies of planetary atmospheres; (2) equatorial waves in the stratosphere of Uranus; (3) the atmosphere of Uranus- results of radio occultation measurements with Voyager 2; (4) Uranus' atmospheric dynamics and circulation; (5) small-scale structure and dynamics in the atmosphere of Uranus; (6) evidence for inertia-gravity waves in the stratosphere of Uranus derived from Voyager 2 radio occultation data; and (7) planetary waves in the equatorial stratosphere of Uranus.

  19. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 7: The small scale structure catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helou, George (Editor); Walker, D. W. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, it surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. Volume 1 describes the instrument, the mission, and the data reduction process. Volumes 2 through 6 present the observations of the approximately 245,000 individual point sources detected by IRAS; each volume gives sources within a specified range of declination. Volume 7 gives the observations of the approximately 16,000 sources spatially resolved by IRAS and smaller than 8'. This is Volume 7, The Small Scale Structure Catalog.

  20. A Statistical Test of the Relationship between Galactic HI Structure and Small-scale Structure in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    2014-06-01

    The archive of IRIS, PLANCK and WMAP data available at the IRSA website of IPAC allows the apparent associations between galactic neutral hydrogen (HI) features and small-scale structure in WMAP and PLANCK data to be closely examined. In addition, HI new observations made with the Green Bank Telescope are used to perform a statistical test of putative associations. It is concluded that attention should be paid to the possibility that some of the small-scale structure found in WMAP and PLANCK data harbors the signature of a previously unrecognized source of high-frequency continuum emission in the Galaxy.

  1. Self-interacting inelastic dark matter: a viable solution to the small scale structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Clementz, Stefan; Herrero-Garcia, Juan

    2017-03-01

    Self-interacting dark matter has been proposed as a solution to the small-scale structure problems, such as the observed flat cores in dwarf and low surface brightness galaxies. If scattering takes place through light mediators, the scattering cross section relevant to solve these problems may fall into the non-perturbative regime leading to a non-trivial velocity dependence, which allows compatibility with limits stemming from cluster-size objects. However, these models are strongly constrained by different observations, in particular from the requirements that the decay of the light mediator is sufficiently rapid (before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis) and from direct detection. A natural solution to reconcile both requirements are inelastic endothermic interactions, such that scatterings in direct detection experiments are suppressed or even kinematically forbidden if the mass splitting between the two-states is sufficiently large. Using an exact solution when numerically solving the Schrödinger equation, we study such scenarios and find regions in the parameter space of dark matter and mediator masses, and the mass splitting of the states, where the small scale structure problems can be solved, the dark matter has the correct relic abundance and direct detection limits can be evaded.

  2. Cosmic Microwave Background Small-Scale Structure: II. Model of the Foreground Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.; Schmelz, Joan T.

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility that a population of galactic electrons may contribute to the small-scale structure in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) found by WMAP and PLANCK. Model calculations of free-free emission from these electrons which include beam dilution produce a nearly flat spectrum. Data at nine frequencies from 22 to 100 GHz were fit with the model, which resulted in excellent values of reduced chi squared. The model involves three unknowns: electron excitation temperature, angular extent of the sources of emission, and emission measure. The resulting temperatures agree with the observed temperatures of related HI features. The derived angular extent of the continuum sources corresponds well with the observed angular extent of HI filamentary structures in the areas under consideration. The derived emission measures can be used to determine the fractional ionization along the path lengths through the emitting volumes of space. Understanding the role that free-free emission plays in the small-scale features observed by PLANCK and WMAP should allow us to create better masks of the galactic foreground. Pursuing such discoveries may yet transform our understanding of the origins of the universe.

  3. Radio Brightness Temperatures and Angular Dimensions of Recently Predicted Vl-Bi Small-Scale Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opher, R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Muestro que analisis recientes publicados de fuentes de radio galacticas y extragalacticas predicen estructuras en pequera escala en fuentes de radio extendidas, remanentes de supernova, vientos protoestelares, nubes moleculares, distorsiones del fondo de 3 K, enanas blancas magnetizadas, estrellas de tipo tardio y el Sol. Discuto las temperatu- ras de brillo de radio de estas estructuras y sus ditnensiones. Muestro que estas estructuras son detectables con las sensibilidades actuales de VLBI (o en el futuro cercano). ABSTRACT. I show that recently published analysis of galactic and extragalactic radio sources make predictions of small-scale structures in extended radio sources, supernovae remnants, protostellar winds, molecu- lar clouds, distortions of the 3 K background, magnetized white dwarf binaries, late-type stars and the sun. I discuss the radio brightness temperatures of these structures and their dimensions. I show that these structures are detectable with present (or near future) VLBI sensitivities. : RADIO SOURCES-EXTENDED

  4. SMALL-SCALE STRUCTURE OF THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM TOWARD {rho} Oph STARS: DIFFUSE BAND OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Cordiner, M. A.; Smith, A. M.; Sarre, P. J.; Fossey, S. J.

    2013-02-10

    We present an investigation of small-scale structure in the distribution of large molecules/dust in the interstellar medium through observations of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). High signal-to-noise optical spectra were recorded toward the stars {rho} Oph A, B, C, and DE using the University College London Echelle Spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The strengths of some of the DIBs are found to differ by about 5%-9% between the close binary stars {rho} Oph A and B, which are separated by a projected distance on the sky of only c. 344 AU. This is the first star system in which such small-scale DIB strength variations have been reported. The observed variations are attributed to differences between a combination of carrier abundance and the physical conditions present along each sightline. The sightline toward {rho} Oph C contains relatively dense, molecule-rich material and has the strongest {lambda}{lambda}5850 and 4726 DIBs. The gas toward DE is more diffuse and is found to exhibit weak ''C{sub 2}'' (blue) DIBs and strong yellow/red DIBs. The differences in diffuse band strengths between lines of sight are, in some cases, significantly greater in magnitude than the corresponding variations among atomic and diatomic species, indicating that the DIBs can be sensitive tracers of interstellar cloud conditions.

  5. Challenges During Microstructural Analysis and Mechanical Testing of Small-Scale Pseudoelastic NiTi Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, S.; Wagner, M. F.-X.

    2016-06-01

    Most investigations on NiTi-based shape memory alloys involve large-scale bulk material; knowledge about the martensitic transformation in small-scale NiTi structures is still limited. In this paper, we study the microstructures of thin NiTi layers and their mechanical properties, and we discuss typical challenges that arise when experiments are performed on small samples. A physical vapor deposition (PVD) process was used to deposit thin NiTi wires with a cross section of 15 × 15 μm2 and dogbone-shaped samples 5 × 500 μm2. Microstructural properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, tensile tests were performed using optical strain measurements in order to observe martensite band formation during cyclic loading. The surfaces of the crystalline wires reflect the columnar growth of NiTi during deposition. The wires exhibit pseudoelastic material behavior during tensile testing. Fracture typically occurs along the columns because the column growth direction is perpendicular to the straining direction. Electropolishing removes these local stress raisers and hence increases fracture strains. Our results demonstrate that the pseudoelastic properties of the PVD-processed materials agree well with those of conventional NiTi, and that they provide new opportunities to study the fundamentals of martensitic transformation in small-scale model systems.

  6. A mathematical model of the structure and evolution of small scale discrete auroral arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seyler, C. E.

    1990-01-01

    A three dimensional fluid model which includes the dispersive effect of electron inertia is used to study the nonlinear macroscopic plasma dynamics of small scale discrete auroral arcs within the auroral acceleration zone and ionosphere. The motion of the Alfven wave source relative to the magnetospheric and ionospheric plasma forms an oblique Alfven wave which is reflected from the topside ionosphere by the negative density gradient. The superposition of the incident and reflected wave can be described by a steady state analytical solution of the model equations with the appropriate boundary conditions. This two dimensional discrete auroral arc equilibrium provides a simple explanation of auroral acceleration associated with the parallel electric field. Three dimensional fully nonlinear numerical simulations indicate that the equilibrium arc configuration evolves three dimensionally through collisionless tearing and reconnection of the current layer. The interaction of the perturbed flow and the transverse magnetic field produces complex transverse structure that may be the origin of the folds and curls observed to be associated with small scale discrete arcs.

  7. Small-scale structure and turbulence observed in MAP/WINE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blix, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    During MAP/WINE small scale structure and turbulence in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere was studied in situ by rocket-borne instruments as well as from the ground by remote sensing techniques. The eight salvoes launched during the campaign resulted in a wealth of information on the dynamical structure of these regions. The experimental results are reviewed and their interpretation is discussed in terms of gravity waves and turbulence. It is shown that eddy diffusion coefficients and turbulent energy dissipation rates may be derived from the in situ measurements in a consistent manner. The observations are also shown to be consistent with the hypothesis that turbulence can be created by a process of gravity wave saturation.

  8. Probing small-scale structure in galaxies with strong gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, Arthur Benjamin

    We use gravitational lensing to study the small-scale distribution of matter in galaxies. First, we examine galaxies and their dark matter halos. Roughly half of all observed four-image quasar lenses have image flux ratios that differ from the values predicted by simple lens potentials. We show that smooth departures from elliptical symmetry fail to explain anomalous radio fluxes, strengthening the case for dark matter substructure. Our results have important implications for the "missing satellites'' problem. We then consider how time delays between lensed images can be used to identify lens galaxies containing small-scale structure. We derive an analytic relation for the time delay between the close pair of images in a "fold'' lens, and perform Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the utility of time delays for probing small- scale structure in realistic lens populations. We compare our numerical predictions with systems that have measured time delays and discover two anomalous lenses. Next, we consider microlensing, where stars in the lens galaxy perturb image magnifications. This is relevant at optical wavelengths, where the size of the lensed source is comparable to the Einstein radius of a typical star. Our simulations of negative-parity images show that raising the fraction of dark matter relative to stars increases image flux variability for small sources, and decreases it for large sources. This suggests that quasar accretion disks and broad-emission-line regions may respond differently to microlensing. We also consider extended sources with a range of ellipticities, which has relevance to a population of inclined accretion disks. Depending on their orientation, more elongated sources lead to more rapid variability, which may complicate the interpretation of microlensing light curves. Finally, we consider prospects for observing strong lensing by the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, Sgr A*. Assuming a black hole on the million

  9. Small-scale structure and 21cm fluctuations by primordial black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Kitajima, Naoya

    2017-08-01

    We discuss early structure formation of small scales sourced by primordial black holes (PBHs) which constitute a small part of present cold dark matter component. We calculate the mass function and power spectrum of haloes originated from the Poisson fluctuations of PBH number and show that the number of small haloes is significantly modified in the presence of PBHs even if their fraction accounts for only 10-4-10-3 of total dark matter abundance. We then compute the subsequent 21cm signature from those haloes. We find that PBHs can provide major contributions at high redshifts within the detectability of future experiments such as Square Kilometer Array, and provide a forecast constraint on the PBH fraction.

  10. Detection of small-scale structures in the dissipation regime of solar-wind turbulence.

    PubMed

    Perri, S; Goldstein, M L; Dorelli, J C; Sahraoui, F

    2012-11-09

    Recent observations of the solar wind have pointed out the existence of a cascade of magnetic energy from the scale of the proton Larmor radius ρ(p) down to the electron Larmor radius ρ(e) scale. In this Letter we study the spatial properties of magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind and find that at small scales the magnetic field does not resemble a sea of homogeneous fluctuations, but rather a two-dimensional plane containing thin current sheets and discontinuities with spatial sizes ranging from l >/~ ρ(p) down to ρ(e) and below. These isolated structures may be manifestations of intermittency that localize sites of turbulent dissipation. Studying the relationship between turbulent dissipation, reconnection, and intermittency is crucial for understanding the dynamics of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.

  11. Solving the small-scale structure puzzles with dissipative dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foot, Robert; Vagnozzi, Sunny

    2016-07-01

    Small-scale structure is studied in the context of dissipative dark matter, arising for instance in models with a hidden unbroken Abelian sector, so that dark matter couples to a massless dark photon. The dark sector interacts with ordinary matter via gravity and photon-dark photon kinetic mixing. Mirror dark matter is a theoretically constrained special case where all parameters are fixed except for the kinetic mixing strength, epsilon. In these models, the dark matter halo around spiral and irregular galaxies takes the form of a dissipative plasma which evolves in response to various heating and cooling processes. It has been argued previously that such dynamics can account for the inferred cored density profiles of galaxies and other related structural features. Here we focus on the apparent deficit of nearby small galaxies (``missing satellite problem"), which these dissipative models have the potential to address through small-scale power suppression by acoustic and diffusion damping. Using a variant of the extended Press-Schechter formalism, we evaluate the halo mass function for the special case of mirror dark matter. Considering a simplified model where Mbaryons propto Mhalo, we relate the halo mass function to more directly observable quantities, and find that for epsilon ≈ 2 × 10-10 such a simplified description is compatible with the measured galaxy luminosity and velocity functions. On scales Mhalo lesssim 108 Msolar, diffusion damping exponentially suppresses the halo mass function, suggesting a nonprimordial origin for dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies, which we speculate were formed via a top-down fragmentation process as the result of nonlinear dissipative collapse of larger density perturbations. This could explain the planar orientation of satellite galaxies around Andromeda and the Milky Way.

  12. Small-scale spatial structuring of interstitial invertebrates on three embayed beaches, Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Belinda C.; Goodwin, Ian D.; Bishop, Melanie J.

    2014-10-01

    An understanding of ecological processes hinges upon an understanding of the spatial structuring of their key biotic components. Interstitial invertebrates are a ubiquitous and ecologically important component of sandy beach ecosystems. As many sandy beach taxa have limited dispersal, it may be expected that their populations exhibit a high degree of spatial structuring, yet the spatial scales across which they display baseline variability remain largely unknown. To assess (1) whether interstitial invertebrates display patchiness on embayed sandy beaches, (2) whether the size of patches they form is consistent across three geographically proximal beaches, (3) the key environmental correlates of this variation and (4) its taxonomic dependence, samples were collected at regular (0.5 m) intervals along 15 m long geomorphically similar stretches of three proximal intermediate beaches and analyses of spatial autocorrelation were conducted. On each of the three beaches, interstitial invertebrate communities formed patches of 2-4.5 m in diameter. Spatial structuring of invertebrate communities was driven by harpacticoid copepods and gastrotrichs, and corresponded to spatial structuring of sediments. Sediments, however, explained only 33% of spatial variation in faunal communities, indicating the importance of other abiotic and/or biotic factors. Our study highlights that even on seemingly homogeneous sandy beaches, faunal communities may display considerable small-scale spatial structuring. Examination of spatial structure may lead to a greater understanding of the ecological processes in this system.

  13. Ethical Guidelines for Structural Interventions to Small-Scale Historic Stone Masonry Buildings.

    PubMed

    Hurol, Yonca; Yüceer, Hülya; Başarır, Hacer

    2015-12-01

    Structural interventions to historic stone masonry buildings require that both structural and heritage values be considered simultaneously. The absence of one of these value systems in implementation can be regarded as an unethical professional action. The research objective of this article is to prepare a guideline for ensuring ethical structural interventions to small-scale stone historic masonry buildings in the conservation areas of Northern Cyprus. The methodology covers an analysis of internationally accepted conservation documents and national laws related to the conservation of historic buildings, an analysis of building codes, especially Turkish building codes, which have been used in Northern Cyprus, and an analysis of the structural interventions introduced to a significant historic building in a semi-intact state in the walled city of Famagusta. This guideline covers issues related to whether buildings are intact or ruined, the presence of earthquake risk, the types of structural decisions in an architectural conservation project, and the values to consider during the decision making phase.

  14. The horizontal and vertical structure of noctilucent clouds: Small scale dynamics in the summer mesopause region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarten, Gerd; Fiedler, Jens; Lübken, Franz-Josef; Stober, Gunter

    2017-04-01

    Noctilucent clouds (NLC) are thin ice clouds forming in the summer mesopause region at high latitudes. Their highly structured appearance has attracted scientific interest since more than 130 years as they are found at an altitude of about 83 km where the atmosphere pressure is about 5 orders of magnitude lower than at the earth surface. The structured appearance of NLC has been linked to atmospheric waves and their transition to turbulence, these clouds are therefore used as tracers for dynamics in a height region that is difficult to study otherwise. We use the ALOMAR RMR-lidar, located in Northern Norway at 69°N, that is able to measure NLC with sub-second resolution. Although the ice particles in NLC are only a few tenths of nanometer their size can be measured when observing the clouds at different colors. In combination with ground and space based cameras or radars the horizontal structure is investigated on scales from meters to hundreds of kilometers. We present recent results indicating that the rich structures of NLC - that are even visible to the naked eye - are caused by the peculiar nature of the clouds. Lidar observations give evidence that at times the brightest part of NLC is confined to 100 m vertical extend, giving a superior resolution to small scale atmosphere dynamics compared to, e.g., airglow layers in the Mesosphere lower Thermosphere region.

  15. Small-scale, semi-automated purification of eukaryotic proteins for structure determination

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Ronnie O.; Bergeman, Lai; Blommel, Paul G.; Bailey, Lucas J.; McCoy, Jason G.; Song, Jikui; Meske, Louise; Bingman, Craig A.; Riters, Megan; Dillon, Nicholas A.; Kunert, John; Yoon, Jung Whan; Lim, Ahyoung; Cassidy, Michael; Bunge, Jason; Aceti, David J.; Primm, John G.; Markley, John L.; Phillips, George N.

    2007-01-01

    A simple approach that allows cost-effective automated purification of recombinant proteins in levels sufficient for functional characterization or structural studies is described. Studies with four human stem cell proteins, an engineered version of green fluorescent protein, and other proteins are included. The method combines an expression vector (pVP62K) that provides in vivo cleavage of an initial fusion protein, a factorial designed auto-induction medium that improves the performance of small-scale production, and rapid, automated metal affinity purification of His8-tagged proteins. For initial small-scale production screening, single colony transformants were grown overnight in 0.4 ml of auto-induction medium, produced proteins were purified using the Promega Maxwell 16, and purification results were analyzed by Caliper LC90 capillary electrophoresis. The yield of purified [U-15N]-His8-Tcl-1 was 7.5 μg/ml of culture medium, of purified [U-15N]-His8-GFP was 68 μg/ml, and of purified selenomethione-labeled AIA–GFP (His8 removed by treatment with TEV protease) was 172 μg/ml. The yield information obtained from a successful automated purification from 0.4 ml was used to inform the decision to scale-up for a second meso-scale (10–50 ml) cell growth and automated purification. 1H–15N NMR HSQC spectra of His8-Tcl-1 and of His8-GFP prepared from 50 ml cultures showed excellent chemical shift dispersion, consistent with well folded states in solution suitable for structure determination. Moreover, AIA–GFP obtained by proteolytic removal of the His8 tag was subjected to crystallization screening, and yielded crystals under several conditions. Single crystals were subsequently produced and optimized by the hanging drop method. The structure was solved by molecular replacement at a resolution of 1.7 Å. This approach provides an efficient way to carry out several key target screening steps that are essential for successful operation of proteomics

  16. Reconciling large- and small-scale structure in Twin Higgs models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prilepina, Valentina; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2017-09-01

    We study possible extensions of the Twin Higgs model that solve the Hierarchy problem and simultaneously address problems of the large- and small-scale structures of the Universe. Besides naturally providing dark matter (DM) candidates as the lightest charged twin fermions, the twin sector contains a light photon and neutrinos, which can modify structure formation relative to the prediction from the ΛCDM paradigm. We focus on two viable scenarios. First, we study a Fraternal Twin Higgs model in which the spin-3/2 baryon \\widehat{Ω}˜ (\\widehat{b}\\widehat{b}\\widehat{b}) and the lepton twin tau \\widehat{τ} contribute to the dominant and subcomponent dark matter densities. A non-decoupled scattering between the twin tau and twin neutrino arising from a gauged twin lepton number symmetry provides a drag force that damps the density inhomogeneity of a dark matter subcomponent. Next, we consider the possibility of introducing a twin hydrogen atom Ĥ as the dominant DM component. After recombination, a small fraction of the twin protons and leptons remains ionized during structure formation, and their scattering to twin neutrinos through a gauged U(1) B-L force provides the mechanism that damps the density inhomogeneity. Both scenarios realize the Partially Acoustic dark matter (PAcDM) scenario and explain the σ 8 discrepancy between the CMB and weak lensing results. Moreover, the self-scattering neutrino behaves as a dark fluid that enhances the size of the Hubble rate H 0 to accommodate the local measurement result while satisfying the CMB constraint. For the small-scale structure, the scattering of \\widehat{Ω} 's and Ĥ's through the twin photon exchange generates a self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) model that solves the mass deficit problem from dwarf galaxy to galaxy cluster scales. Furthermore, when varying general choices of the twin photon coupling, bounds from the dwarf galaxy and the cluster merger observations can set an upper limit on the twin

  17. Small-scale, semi-automated purification of eukaryotic proteins for structure determination.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Ronnie O; Bergeman, Lai; Blommel, Paul G; Bailey, Lucas J; McCoy, Jason G; Song, Jikui; Meske, Louise; Bingman, Craig A; Riters, Megan; Dillon, Nicholas A; Kunert, John; Yoon, Jung Whan; Lim, Ahyoung; Cassidy, Michael; Bunge, Jason; Aceti, David J; Primm, John G; Markley, John L; Phillips, George N; Fox, Brian G

    2007-12-01

    A simple approach that allows cost-effective automated purification of recombinant proteins in levels sufficient for functional characterization or structural studies is described. Studies with four human stem cell proteins, an engineered version of green fluorescent protein, and other proteins are included. The method combines an expression vector (pVP62K) that provides in vivo cleavage of an initial fusion protein, a factorial designed auto-induction medium that improves the performance of small-scale production, and rapid, automated metal affinity purification of His8-tagged proteins. For initial small-scale production screening, single colony transformants were grown overnight in 0.4 ml of auto-induction medium, produced proteins were purified using the Promega Maxwell 16, and purification results were analyzed by Caliper LC90 capillary electrophoresis. The yield of purified [U-15N]-His8-Tcl-1 was 7.5 microg/ml of culture medium, of purified [U-15N]-His8-GFP was 68 microg/ml, and of purified selenomethione-labeled AIA-GFP (His8 removed by treatment with TEV protease) was 172 microg/ml. The yield information obtained from a successful automated purification from 0.4 ml was used to inform the decision to scale-up for a second meso-scale (10-50 ml) cell growth and automated purification. 1H-15N NMR HSQC spectra of His8-Tcl-1 and of His8-GFP prepared from 50 ml cultures showed excellent chemical shift dispersion, consistent with well folded states in solution suitable for structure determination. Moreover, AIA-GFP obtained by proteolytic removal of the His8 tag was subjected to crystallization screening, and yielded crystals under several conditions. Single crystals were subsequently produced and optimized by the hanging drop method. The structure was solved by molecular replacement at a resolution of 1.7 A. This approach provides an efficient way to carry out several key target screening steps that are essential for successful operation of proteomics pipelines

  18. A study of large, medium and small scale structures in the topside ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Stanley H.; Kuo, Spencer P.; Shmoys, Jerry

    1986-01-01

    Alouette and ISIS data were studied for large, medium, and small scale structures in the ionosphere. Correlation was also sought with measurements by other satellites, such as the Atmosphere Explorer C and E and the Dynamic Explorer 2 satellites, of both neutrals and ionization, and with measurements by ground facilities, such as the incoherent scatter radars. Large scale coherent wavelike structures were found from ISIS 2 electron density contours from above the F peak to nearly the satellite altitude. Such structures were also found to correlate with the observation by AE-C below the F peak during a conjunction of the two satellites. Vertical wavefronts found in the upper F region suggest the dominance of diffusion along field lines as well. Also discovered were multiple, evenly spaced field-aligned ducts in the F region that, at low latitudes, extended to the other hemisphere and were in the form of field-aligned sheets in the east-west direction. Low latitude heating events were discovered that could serve as sources for waves in the ionosphere.

  19. Analysis of small scale turbulent structures and the effect of spatial scales on gas transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnieders, Jana; Garbe, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The exchange of gases through the air-sea interface strongly depends on environmental conditions such as wind stress and waves which in turn generate near surface turbulence. Near surface turbulence is a main driver of surface divergence which has been shown to cause highly variable transfer rates on relatively small spatial scales. Due to the cool skin of the ocean, heat can be used as a tracer to detect areas of surface convergence and thus gather information about size and intensity of a turbulent process. We use infrared imagery to visualize near surface aqueous turbulence and determine the impact of turbulent scales on exchange rates. Through the high temporal and spatial resolution of these types of measurements spatial scales as well as surface dynamics can be captured. The surface heat pattern is formed by distinct structures on two scales - small-scale short lived structures termed fish scales and larger scale cold streaks that are consistent with the footprints of Langmuir Circulations. There are two key characteristics of the observed surface heat patterns: 1. The surface heat patterns show characteristic features of scales. 2. The structure of these patterns change with increasing wind stress and surface conditions. In [2] turbulent cell sizes have been shown to systematically decrease with increasing wind speed until a saturation at u* = 0.7 cm/s is reached. Results suggest a saturation in the tangential stress. Similar behaviour has been observed by [1] for gas transfer measurements at higher wind speeds. In this contribution a new model to estimate the heat flux is applied which is based on the measured turbulent cell size und surface velocities. This approach allows the direct comparison of the net effect on heat flux of eddies of different sizes and a comparison to gas transfer measurements. Linking transport models with thermographic measurements, transfer velocities can be computed. In this contribution, we will quantify the effect of small scale

  20. Optical distortions by compressible turbulence: distortion measures and importance of small-scale structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Ali

    2010-11-01

    This study is focused on aero-optics, which investigates optical distortions due to the compressibility mechanism, rather than entropy fluctuations. In particular, distortion effects by separated shear layers and turbulent wakes are considered. Typically, wavefront aberrations by these flows are larger than the optical wavelength; therefore, traditional measures (i.e. the Strehl ratio) would be inaccurate if used for quantifying optical distortions. Through statistical analysis of highly aberrated waves we introduce alternative measures with provable scaling properties. These norms, provide explicit relations between far-field optical statistics and statistics of the distorting media. We also present results of our study on the optical importance of small-scale flow structures. Using Kolmogorov hypothesis, a relation is derived to estimate the smallest optically-important length scale in a general aero-optical framework. This length is typically in the inertial range and the developed criterion is shown to reasonably predict the resolution requirements for simulations. This analysis can also be used to estimate frequency requirements for adaptive-optics.

  1. Role of Lagrangian chaoticity on the small scale structure of passive scalars in fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisanti, Andrea; Falcioni, Massimo; Paladin, Giovanni; Vulpiani, Angelo

    1990-07-01

    We study the small scale (viscous convective subrange) structure of convective quantities in incompressible fluids. We revise the classical theory of Batchelor, which gives the k-1 law for the power spectrum of a passive scalar at wavenumbers k, for which the molecular diffusion is unimportant and is much smaller than the fluid viscosity. Using some ideas borrowed from the theory of dynamical systems, we show that this power law is related to the chaotic motion of marker particles (Lagrangian chaos) and to the incompressibility constraint. We stress that the k-1 regime is also present in fluids which are not turbulent. Moreover our approach permits showing that Batchelor's law is valid for all dimensionalities d⩾2. We consider in particular the case of fully developed turbulence in two and three dimensions. We show that when d = 2, the k-1 power law is obeyed even in the inertial range, in contrast with the d = 3 case where one has approximately a k {-5}/{3} power law in the inertial range, and a k-1 power law in the viscous convective subrange.

  2. Study of Structure and Small-Scale Fragmentation in TMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, W. D.; Velusamy, T.; Kuiper, T. B.; Levin, S.; Olsen, E.; Migenes, V.

    1995-01-01

    Large-scale C(sup 18)O maps show that the Taurus molecular cloud 1 (TMC-1) has numerous cores located along a ridge which extends about 12 minutes by at least 35 minutes. The cores traced by C(sup 18)O are about a few arcminutes (0.1-0.2 pc) in extent, typically contain about 0.5-3 solar mass, and are probably gravitationally bound. We present a detailed study of the small-scale fragmentary structure of one of these cores, called core D, within TMC-1 using very high spectral and spatial resolution maps of CCS and CS. The CCS lines are excellent tracers for investigating the density, temperature, and velocity structure in dense cores. The high spectral resolution, 0.008 km /s, data consist mainly of single-dish, Nyquist-sampled maps of CCS at 22 GHz with 45 sec spatial resolution taken with NASA's 70 m DSN antenna at Goldstone. The high spatial resolution spectral line maps were made with the Very Large Array (9 sec resolution) at 22 GHz and with the OVRO millimeter array in CCS and CS at 93 GHz and 98 GHz, respectively, with 6 sec resolution. These maps are supplemented with single-dish observations of CCS and CC(sup 34)S spectra at 33 GHz using a NASA 34 m DSN antenna, CCS 93 GHz, C(sup 34)S (2-1), and C(sup 18)O (1-0) single-dish observations made with the AT&T Bell Laboratories 7 m antenna. Our high spectral and spatial CCS and CS maps show that core D is highly fragmented. The single-dish CCS observations map out several clumps which range in size from approx. 45 sec to 90 sec (0.03-0.06 pc). These clumps have very narrow intrinsic line widths, 0.11-0.25 km/s, slightly larger than the thermal line width for CCS at 10 K, and masses about 0.03-0.2 solar mass. Interferometer observations of some of these clumps show that they have considerable additional internal structure, consisting of several condensations ranging in size from approx. 10 sec- 30 sec (0.007-0.021 pc), also with narrow line widths. The mass of these smallest fragments is of order 0.01 solar mass

  3. Space-borne detection of small scale CO2 emission structures with OCO-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwandner, F. M.; Eldering, A.; Verhulst, K. R.; Miller, C. E.; Nguyen, H.; Oda, T.; O'Dell, C.; Rao, P.; Kahn, B. H.; Crisp, D.; Gunson, M. R.; Sanchez, R. M.; Ashok, M.; Birman, L.; Pieri, D. C.; Linick, J. P.; Xing, Z.; Yuen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Localized carbon dioxide (CO2) emission structures covering spatial domains of less than 50km diameter include cities, transportation infrastructure, fossil fuel production, upgrading and consumption sites. Anthropogenic sources upset the natural balance between carbon sources and sinks. Mitigation of resulting climate change impacts requires management of emissions, and emissions management requires monitoring, reporting and verification. Space-borne measurements provide a unique opportunity to detect, quantify, and analyze small scale and point source emissions on a global scale. In 2014, NASA launched its first satellite dedicated to atmospheric CO2 observation, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2). Its observation strategy differs from sparse point-wise measurements from the Japanese Greenhouse gas Observation SATellite (GOSAT) instrument. At the expense of GOSAT's fast time series capability (3-day repeat cycle, vs. 16 for OCO-2), its 8-footprint continuous swath of 2 to 10 km in width can slice through emission plumes and possibly provide momentary cross sections. While GOSAT measured approximately circular ~10.5 km diameter single-shot footprints, OCO-2 can provide hundreds more soundings per area at single kilometer scale footprint resolution. First OCO-2 results demonstrate that we can detect localized source signals in the form of urban XCO2 enhancements of ~2 ppmv against suburban and rural backgrounds. OCO-2's multi-sounding swath observing geometry reveals intra-urban emission spatial structures previously unobserved from space. The transition from single-shot GOSAT soundings detecting urban/rural differences (Kort et al., 2012) to hundreds of soundings per OCO-2 swath opens up the path to future capabilities enabling urban greenhouse gas tomography. © California Institute of Technology

  4. Toward resolving small-scale structures in ionospheric convection from SuperDARN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, R.; Villain, J.-P.; Senior, C.; Barthes, L.; Hanuise, C.; Cerisier, J.-C.; Thorolfsson, A.

    1999-09-01

    The combination of radial velocities measured by a pair of Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) HF coherent radars gives, in their common field of view, the velocity vectors in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. The standard merging is based on a natural grid defined by the beam intersections, which provides a resolution varying between 90 and 180 km (depending upon the distance to the radars). This allows the description of structures with a typical scale size (L) of the order of 500 km. The present study is devoted to a merging method which takes advantage of individual radar grids to enhance the resolution (L ≈ 200 km). After a brief description of the standard merging method, we define the high-resolution grid and discuss the potential problems which have to be overcome. The first problem concerns the localization of the scattering volume, whereas the second one deals with the independence of the velocity vectors. These two limitations have been addressed in previous studies [André et al., 1997; Barthes et al., 1998]. In the method proposed here, several velocity vectors are determined at each grid point, from which the selection is made by using the hypothesis of minimization of the divergence magnitude. The selected map is the one which minimizes the divergence. The performances are tested and compared to the standard merging algorithm through simulated double vortices. Finally, we apply this method to real data, and show, through two examples, its ability to describe small-scale structures (L ≈ 200 km).

  5. Small-Scale Interstellar Structure Toward the Open Cluster CHI Persei-Fuse II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Friedman, Scott

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the physical conditions of gas along sight lines toward 6 stars in the core Chi Persei open cluster. These sight lines traverse gas in both the Orion and Perseus spiral arms of the Galaxy, at distances of 500 and 2000 pc, respectively. The stars have angular separations ranging from 45 to 280 arcsec; 60 arcsec corresponds to linear distances of 0.15 and 0.6 pc in the two arms. Thus, abundance variations in these observations would constitute evidence for small-scale variations in the properties of the interstellar medium. Ground-based Na I observations at high resolution (approx. 15 km/sec) toward 172 stars (including the 6 in this study) in the double open cluster h and Chi Persei have revealed complex spatial variation. These variations are especially evident in the gas at velocities of -40 and -55 km/sec, corresponding to the Perseus spiral arm. 21 cm observations of HI emission using the Low Resolution DRAO Survey, with a 12-arcmin beam, also show variations. Averaging the Na I apparent optical depth profiles of neighboring sight lines in order to mimic such a beam size reduces the variation, as compared to the individual Na I measurements, but still show variations larger than seen in the 21 cm profiles. Na I is not the dominant ionization state of Na in the interstellar medium. Thus, it is possible that the variations seen really trace physical structures in the interstellar medium, or they may simply result from variations in the radiation field seen by the gas, or be due to some other environmental circumstance. To distinguish among these possibilities in the present study we obtained FUSE spectra toward the 6 targets in order to measure the molecular hydrogen absorption profiles along these sight lines. The higher J states of H2 are populated by the ambient W radiation field, and thus can provide insight into the environment affecting the gas. If both the high and low J states reveal absorption line profiles with

  6. The Auroral Spatial Structures Probe: Exploring Small-Scale High-Latitude Electric Field Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, D.; Weston, C.; Nelson, W.; Stromberg, E. M.; Byers, B.; Frazier, C.; Swenson, A.; Miller, J.; Carrick, B.; Neilsen, T. L.; Hidalgo, J. M.; Cox, W.; Evans, T.; Vangeison, V.; Perkins, C.; Fish, C. S.; Swenson, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Auroral Spatial Structures Probe (ASSP) is a NASA sounding rocket mission to be launched in the late January 2014 time frame that will be used to study both the spatial and temporal small scale variation of the electric and magnetic fields during active aurora and just before the onset of an auroral sub-storm. This will be accomplished through the use of a constellation of small payloads that separate relative to each other throughout a sounding rocket flight. The multiple baseline observations of the electric and magnetic fields will be used to observe variability of both the E-field and the Poynting flux. These observations will be placed in the context of available data, including winds, large scale E-fields, and proxy conductivity (airglow image) observations. In this way we will address the main scientific objective of this mission which is: What are the contributions of small spatial scale and rapid temporal scale fluctuations of electric fields relative to the larger-scale electrodynamic processes? The high altitude rocket will be launched along the magnetic field line and carry six sub-payloads to be ejected from the main payload at high velocity. The sub-payloads will be deployed both along the flight path and perpendicular to the flight path so that both spatial features and temporal-spatial ambiguities can be explored. The low-mass sub-payloads will achieve at least a 35 km separation by the end of the flight and are key to observational success. Each sub-payload will carry a crossed pair of double-probe sensors to measure in-situ electric fields, a three axis magnetometer, a Langmuir probe and a GPS receiver. In this poster we review the ASSP science, mission, and design, and present instrument calibration and testing results.

  7. Bursting process of large- and small-scale structures in turbulent boundary layer perturbed by a cylinder roughness element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhanqi; Jiang, Nan; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wu, Yanhua

    2016-05-01

    Hot-wire measurements on a turbulent boundary layer flow perturbed by a wall-mounted cylinder roughness element (CRE) are carried out in this study. The cylindrical element protrudes into the logarithmic layer, which is similar to those employed in turbulent boundary layers by Ryan et al. (AIAA J 49:2210-2220, 2011. doi: 10.2514/1.j051012) and Zheng and Longmire (J Fluid Mech 748:368-398, 2014. doi: 10.1017/jfm.2014.185) and in turbulent channel flow by Pathikonda and Christensen (AIAA J 53:1-10, 2014. doi: 10.2514/1.j053407). The similar effects on both the mean velocity and Reynolds stress are observed downstream of the CRE perturbation. The series of hot-wire data are decomposed into large- and small-scale fluctuations, and the characteristics of large- and small-scale bursting process are observed, by comparing the bursting duration, period and frequency between CRE-perturbed case and unperturbed case. It is indicated that the CRE perturbation performs the significant impact on the large- and small-scale structures, but within the different impact scenario. Moreover, the large-scale bursting process imposes a modulation on the bursting events of small-scale fluctuations and the overall trend of modulation is not essentially sensitive to the present CRE perturbation, even the modulation extent is modified. The conditionally averaging fluctuations are also plotted, which further confirms the robustness of the bursting modulation in the present experiments.

  8. SMALL-SCALE STRUCTURING OF ELLERMAN BOMBS AT THE SOLAR LIMB

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C. J.; Doyle, J. G.; Scullion, E. M.; Freij, N.; Erdélyi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) have been widely studied in recent years due to their dynamic, explosive nature and apparent links to the underlying photospheric magnetic field implying that they may be formed by magnetic reconnection in the photosphere. Despite a plethora of researches discussing the morphologies of EBs, there has been a limited investigation of how these events appear at the limb, specifically, whether they manifest as vertical extensions away from the disk. In this article, we make use of high-resolution, high-cadence observations of an Active Region at the solar limb, collected by the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) instrument, to identify EBs and infer their physical properties. The upper atmosphere is also probed using the Solar Dynamic Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA). We analyze 22 EB events evident within these data, finding that 20 appear to follow a parabolic path away from the solar surface at an average speed of 9 km s{sup –1}, extending away from their source by 580 km, before retreating back at a similar speed. These results show strong evidence of vertical motions associated with EBs, possibly explaining the dynamical ''flaring'' (changing in area and intensity) observed in on-disk events. Two in-depth case studies are also presented that highlight the unique dynamical nature of EBs within the lower solar atmosphere. The viewing angle of these observations allows for a direct linkage between these EBs and other small-scale events in the Hα line wings, including a potential flux emergence scenario. The findings presented here suggest that EBs could have a wider-reaching influence on the solar atmosphere than previously thought, as we reveal a direct linkage between EBs and an emerging small-scale loop, and other near-by small-scale explosive events. However, as previous research found, these extensions do not appear to impact upon the Hα line core, and are not observed by the SDO/AIA EUV filters.

  9. Small-scale Structuring of Ellerman Bombs at the Solar Limb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, C. J.; Scullion, E. M.; Doyle, J. G.; Freij, N.; Erdélyi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) have been widely studied in recent years due to their dynamic, explosive nature and apparent links to the underlying photospheric magnetic field implying that they may be formed by magnetic reconnection in the photosphere. Despite a plethora of researches discussing the morphologies of EBs, there has been a limited investigation of how these events appear at the limb, specifically, whether they manifest as vertical extensions away from the disk. In this article, we make use of high-resolution, high-cadence observations of an Active Region at the solar limb, collected by the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) instrument, to identify EBs and infer their physical properties. The upper atmosphere is also probed using the Solar Dynamic Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA). We analyze 22 EB events evident within these data, finding that 20 appear to follow a parabolic path away from the solar surface at an average speed of 9 km s-1, extending away from their source by 580 km, before retreating back at a similar speed. These results show strong evidence of vertical motions associated with EBs, possibly explaining the dynamical "flaring" (changing in area and intensity) observed in on-disk events. Two in-depth case studies are also presented that highlight the unique dynamical nature of EBs within the lower solar atmosphere. The viewing angle of these observations allows for a direct linkage between these EBs and other small-scale events in the Hα line wings, including a potential flux emergence scenario. The findings presented here suggest that EBs could have a wider-reaching influence on the solar atmosphere than previously thought, as we reveal a direct linkage between EBs and an emerging small-scale loop, and other near-by small-scale explosive events. However, as previous research found, these extensions do not appear to impact upon the Hα line core, and are not observed by the SDO/AIA EUV filters.

  10. SMALL-SCALE PRESSURE-BALANCED STRUCTURES DRIVEN BY OBLIQUE SLOW MODE WAVES MEASURED IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Shuo; He, J.-S.; Tu, C.-Y.; Wang, L.-H.; Marsch, E.

    2013-09-01

    Recently, small-scale pressure-balanced structures (PBSs) were identified in the solar wind, but their formation mechanism remains unclear. This work aims to reveal the dependence of the properties of small-scale PBSs on the background magnetic field (B{sub 0}) direction and thus to corroborate the in situ mechanism that forms them. We analyze the plasma and magnetic field data obtained by WIND in the quiet solar wind at 1 AU. First, we use a developed moving-average method to obtain B{sub 0}(s, t) for every temporal scale (s) at each time moment (t). By wavelet cross-coherence analysis, we obtain the correlation coefficients between the thermal pressure P{sub th} and the magnetic pressure P{sub B}, distributing against the temporal scale and the angle {theta}{sub xB} between B{sub 0}(s, t) and Geocentric Solar Ecliptic coordinates (GSE)-x. We note that the angle coverage of a PBS decreases with shorter temporal scale, but the occurrence of the PBSs is independent of {theta}{sub xB}. Suspecting that the isolated small PBSs are formed by compressive waves in situ, we continue this study by testing the wave modes forming a small-scale PBS with B{sub 0}(s, t) quasi-parallel to GSE-x. As a result, we identify that the cross-helicity and the compressibility attain values for a slow mode from theoretical calculations. The wave vector is derived from minimum variance analysis. Besides, the proton temperatures obey T < T{sub Parallel-To} derived from the velocity distribution functions, excluding a mirror mode, which is the other candidate for the formation of PBSs in situ. Thus, a small-scale PBS is shown to be driven by oblique, slow-mode waves in the solar wind.

  11. The small scale structure of the interstellar medium in the Orion association: The flotsam of star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, G.; Shore, S. N.; Brown, D. N.

    1988-01-01

    The small scale dynamics and structure of the interstellar medium of the Orion OB1b, c association was studied using IUE high dispersion SWP and LWR/LWP spectra. The area surveyed centers on the Belt and encompasses the Orion Cloak. The dynamics and abundances of the ionized and warm neutral gas surrounding the central parts of the association are determined using 35 B stars. Results are compared with the picture of the Orion interstellar medium gained using COPERNICUS, especially for the structure and dynamics of the Orion Cloak.

  12. The small scale structure of the interstellar medium in the Orion association: The flotsam of star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonneborn, G.; Shore, S. N.; Brown, D. N.

    1988-06-01

    The small scale dynamics and structure of the interstellar medium of the Orion OB1b, c association was studied using IUE high dispersion SWP and LWR/LWP spectra. The area surveyed centers on the Belt and encompasses the Orion Cloak. The dynamics and abundances of the ionized and warm neutral gas surrounding the central parts of the association are determined using 35 B stars. Results are compared with the picture of the Orion interstellar medium gained using COPERNICUS, especially for the structure and dynamics of the Orion Cloak.

  13. Small-scale structures in common-volume meteor wind measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, G. J.; Marsh, S. H.; Baggaley, W. J.; Bennett, R. G. T.; Lawrence, B. N.; McDonald, A. J.; Plank, G. E.

    2006-02-01

    Observational differences occur when different techniques are used for measuring mesospheric winds because the different instruments observe different physical quantities to infer the wind velocity, and have differing time and space resolution. The AMOR meteor wind radar near Christchurch, New Zealand [Marsh et al., 2000. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 62,1129 1133.] has good resolution in time (˜0.1 s) and height (˜1 km) and a narrow beam centred in the geographic N S meridian. The meteor echoes randomly sample the atmosphere in a region extending over several hundred kilometres to the South of the radar. The volume of data obtained from the one instrument has made it possible to use correlations between measurements made from individual meteor trails to identify the contribution of atmospheric variability to the observational differences. Measurements of the meridional wind component made from May July 1997 inclusive show that a large part (20 30 m/s r.m.s.) of the atmospheric variation is due to inhomogeneities with small scales, of the order of 10 km and 1 h. There is also a component which has a random time phase over the observation interval but a spatial scale which is coherent over several hundred kilometres, consistent with the behaviour of gravity waves.

  14. Effects of bannertail kangaroo rat mounds on small-scale plant community structure.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qinfeng

    1996-04-01

    The effects of bannertail kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis) mounds and associated soil-surface disturbance on plant species composition and diversity in the Chihuahuan Desert were examined with multivariate analysis. Kangaroo rat mounds created disturbance gaps and contributed to local species diversity by creating microhabitats that supported unique plant communities. These microhabitats supported populations of species that were relatively rare in surrounding areas. The diversity observed at the whole habitat level resulted from (1) local spatial heterogeneity, because the mounds offered microenvironments with distinctive nutrient, water, and light conditions; and (2) local patterning of disturbance, because the digging and traffic of the kangaroo rats maintained high levels of soil disturbance at and near the mounds. At a finer scale, species diversity was highest in the area immediately adjacent to active and inactive mounds, and was lower on both the highly disturbed soil of the mounds and in the relatively undisturbed area between mounds. Lowest species diversity occurred on inactive mounds. Annual plant biomass was much greater on mounds than in inter-mound areas. The results support the predictions that intermediate levels of disturbance and small-scale environmental heterogeneity contribute to supporting high species diversity.

  15. Optical and radar observations of small-scale polar cap auroral structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    We present ground-based auroral observations from Resolute Bay, Nunavut, Canada (74.73°N, 94.9°W) during January 2011. Two electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD) imagers were operated at 31 frames per second. One was equipped with an all-sky field of view (FOV) lens and the other with a narrow (19°) FOV lens, centered on the geographic zenith (0° Az., 90° El.), a few degrees away from magnetic zenith (315° Az., 88° El.). The Resolute Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR) was operating in a mode that enabled common-volume observations with the imagers. Being well inside the polar cap, the magnetic field at Resolute Bay is considered ‘open’ and connects to the lobes of the magnetotail. However, there is no clear consensus on whether polar cap aurorae occur on open or closed field lines. The electron acceleration is likely driven by direct solar wind processes, distant tail lobe processes or plasma sheet processes. One possible mechanism for accelerating the precipitating electrons is the parallel electric field of inertial Alfvén waves. The dynamic nature of the small-scale auroral features, observed on several nights, and the altitude extent of the ionization observed with RISR provide support for this hypothesis.

  16. The statistical analysis of energy release in small-scale coronal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanov, Artyom; Kuzin, Sergey; Bogachev, Sergey

    We present the results of statistical analysis of impulsive flare-like brightenings, which numerously occur in the quiet regions of solar corona. For our study, we utilized high-cadence observations performed with two EUV-telescopes - TESIS/Coronas-Photon and AIA/SDO. In total, we processed 6 sequences of images, registered throughout the period between 2009 and 2013, covering the rising phase of the 24th solar cycle. Based on high-speed DEM estimation method, we developed a new technique to evaluate the main parameters of detected events (geometrical sizes, duration, temperature and thermal energy). We then obtained the statistical distributions of these parameters and examined their variations depending on the level of solar activity. The results imply that near the minimum of the solar cycle the energy release in quiet corona is mainly provided by small-scale events (nanoflares), whereas larger events (microflares) prevail on the peak of activity. Furthermore, we investigated the coronal conditions that had specified the formation and triggering of registered flares. By means of photospheric magnetograms obtained with MDI/SoHO and HMI/SDO instruments, we examined the topology of local magnetic fields at different stages: the pre-flare phase, the peak of intensity and the ending phase. To do so, we introduced a number of topological parameters including the total magnetic flux, the distance between magnetic sources and their mutual arrangement. The found correlation between the change of these parameters and the formation of flares may offer an important tool for application of flare forecasting.

  17. Small-Scale Habitat Structure Modulates the Effects of No-Take Marine Reserves for Coral Reef Macroinvertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Pascal; Jimenez, Haizea; Peignon, Christophe; Wantiez, Laurent; Adjeroud, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    No-take marine reserves are one of the oldest and most versatile tools used across the Pacific for the conservation of reef resources, in particular for invertebrates traditionally targeted by local fishers. Assessing their actual efficiency is still a challenge in complex ecosystems such as coral reefs, where reserve effects are likely to be obscured by high levels of environmental variability. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential interference of small-scale habitat structure on the efficiency of reserves. The spatial distribution of widely harvested macroinvertebrates was surveyed in a large set of protected vs. unprotected stations from eleven reefs located in New Caledonia. Abundance, density and individual size data were collected along random, small-scale (20×1 m) transects. Fine habitat typology was derived with a quantitative photographic method using 17 local habitat variables. Marine reserves substantially augmented the local density, size structure and biomass of the target species. Density of Trochus niloticus and Tridacna maxima doubled globally inside the reserve network; average size was greater by 10 to 20% for T. niloticus. We demonstrated that the apparent success of protection could be obscured by marked variations in population structure occurring over short distances, resulting from small-scale heterogeneity in the reef habitat. The efficiency of reserves appeared to be modulated by the availability of suitable habitats at the decimetric scale (“microhabitats”) for the considered sessile/low-mobile macroinvertebrate species. Incorporating microhabitat distribution could significantly enhance the efficiency of habitat surrogacy, a valuable approach in the case of conservation targets focusing on endangered or emblematic macroinvertebrate or relatively sedentary fish species PMID:23554965

  18. Analysis of small-scale structures in lidar observations of noctilucent clouds using a pattern recognition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridder, C.; Baumgarten, G.; Fiedler, J.; Lübken, F.-J.; Stober, G.

    2017-09-01

    Noctilucent clouds (NLC) have been observed with the ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar at 69° N using a temporal resolution of 30 s since 2008. We present an approach to identify and analyze the localized small scale wave structures of the varying altitude of the NLC layers in the range of 5-30 min that may be caused by gravity waves. Small scale gravity waves breaking in the mesopause region contribute notably to the momentum flux but are difficult to observe and to characterize. The approach is based on a template matching method using generalized structures to be identified in the NLC observations. The new method permits the identification of structures that are present in NLC only for a time too short to appear in a Fourier or wavelet spectrum. Without the need for a continuous time series the method can handle multiple NLC layers and data gaps. In the 2000 h of NLC data from the years 2008-2015, we find almost 5000 single wave structures with a total length of 738 h. The structures are found on average 400 m below the NLC centroid altitude and a large number of the structures has a length at the lower limit of 5 min. With the background wind from the meteor radar near ALOMAR a horizontal scale is estimated based on the length of the individual structures. The distribution of horizontal scales shows a peak of wave structures at 15-20 km in accordance with the horizontal wavelengths found by ground-based camera observations of NLC.

  19. Small Scale Organic Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using small scale experimentation in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Describes small scale filtration techniques as an example of a semi-micro method applied to small quantities of material. (MLH)

  20. Highly damped quasinormal modes and the small scale structure of quantum corrected black hole exteriors

    SciTech Connect

    Babb, James; Kunstatter, Gabor; Daghigh, Ramin

    2011-10-15

    Quasinormal modes provide valuable information about the structure of spacetime outside a black hole. There is also a conjectured relationship between the highly damped quasinormal modes and the semiclassical spectrum of the horizon area/entropy. In this paper, we show that for spacetimes characterized by more than one scale, the 'infinitely damped' modes in principle probe the structure of spacetime outside the horizon at the shortest length scales. We demonstrate this with the calculation of the highly damped quasinormal modes of the nonsingular, single-horizon, quantum corrected black hole derived in [A. Peltola and G. Kunstatter, Phys. Rev. D 79, 061501 (2009); ].

  1. Arithmetic and Hyperbolic Structures in String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This monograph is an updated and extended version of the author's PhD thesis. It consists of an introductory text followed by two separate parts which are loosely related but may be read independently of each other. In Part I we analyze certain hyperbolic structures arising when studying gravity in the vicinity of a spacelike singularity (the "BKL-limit"). In this limit, spatial points decouple and the dynamics exhibits ultralocal behaviour which may be described in terms of a (possibly chaotic) hyperbolic billiard. In all supergravities arising as low-energy limits of string theory or M-theory, the billiard dynamics takes place within the fundamental Weyl chambers of certain hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebras, suggesting that these algebras generate hidden infinite-dimensional symmetries of the theory. Part II of the thesis is devoted to a study of how (U-)dualities in string theory provide powerful constraints on perturbative and non-perturbative quantum corrections. These dualities are described by certain arithmetic groups G(Z) which are conjectured to be preserved in the effective action. The exact couplings are given by automorphic forms on the double quotient G(Z)G/K. We discuss in detail various methods of constructing automorphic forms, with particular emphasis on non-holomorphic Eisenstein series. We provide detailed examples for the physically relevant cases of SL(2,Z) and SL(3,Z), for which we construct their respective Eisenstein series and compute their (non-abelian) Fourier expansions. We also show how these techniques can be applied to hypermultiplet moduli spaces in type II Calabi-Yau compactifications, and we provide a detailed analysis for the universal hypermultiplet.

  2. The large- and small-scale structures of 3C 293

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridle, A. H.; Fomalont, E. B.; Cornwell, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    A Very Large Array (VLA) 1.465-GHz map of the radio galaxy 3C 293 shows that the source, which is unusual in that it is dominated by a steep-spectrum extended core, has a two-sided Z-shaped structure whose physical association with the galaxy VV 5-33-12 is now clear. The core is resolved by the Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) at 1.666-GHz, and the VLA at 15.035 GHz, into an inner, two-sided structure within 1 kpc of the center of VV 5-33-12, and curved bridges of emission linking this structure to the large-scale emission. The major axis of the core lies 35 deg from the major axes of the emission bridges that make up the bar of the large-scale Z structure, and 60 deg from the minor axis of VV 5-33-12. Precessional and buoyant-refraction models for these misalignments are discussed.

  3. DETECTION OF SMALL-SCALE GRANULAR STRUCTURES IN THE QUIET SUN WITH THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, V. I.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Goode, P. R.; Kitiashvili, I. N.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2012-09-10

    Results of a statistical analysis of solar granulation are presented. A data set of 36 images of a quiet-Sun area on the solar disk center was used. The data were obtained with the 1.6 m clear aperture New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory and with a broadband filter centered at the TiO (705.7 nm) spectral line. The very high spatial resolution of the data (diffraction limit of 77 km and pixel scale of 0.''0375) augmented by the very high image contrast (15.5% {+-} 0.6%) allowed us to detect for the first time a distinct subpopulation of mini-granular structures. These structures are dominant on spatial scales below 600 km. Their size is distributed as a power law with an index of -1.8 (which is close to the Kolmogorov's -5/3 law) and no predominant scale. The regular granules display a Gaussian (normal) size distribution with a mean diameter of 1050 km. Mini-granular structures contribute significantly to the total granular area. They are predominantly confined to the wide dark lanes between regular granules and often form chains and clusters, but different from magnetic bright points. A multi-fractality test reveals that the structures smaller than 600 km represent a multi-fractal, whereas on larger scales the granulation pattern shows no multi-fractality and can be considered as a Gaussian random field. The origin, properties, and role of the population of mini-granular structures in the solar magnetoconvection are yet to be explored.

  4. Cosmic strings and the large-scale structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Albert

    1988-01-01

    A possible problem for cosmic string models of galaxy formation is presented. If very large voids are common and if loop fragmentation is not much more efficient than presently believed, then it may be impossible for string scenarios to produce the observed large-scale structure with Omega sub 0 = 1 and without strong environmental biasing.

  5. ON THE PROPERTIES OF SLOW MHD SAUSAGE WAVES WITHIN SMALL-SCALE PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETIC STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Freij, N.; Ruderman, M. S.; Erdélyi, R.; Dorotovič, I.; Morton, R. J.; Karlovský, V. E-mail: ivan.dorotovic@suh.sk E-mail: m.s.ruderman@sheffield.ac.uk E-mail: robertus@sheffield.ac.uk

    2016-01-20

    The presence of magnetoacoustic waves in magnetic structures in the solar atmosphere is well-documented. Applying the technique of solar magneto-seismology (SMS) allows us to infer the background properties of these structures. Here, we aim to identify properties of the observed magnetoacoustic waves and study the background properties of magnetic structures within the lower solar atmosphere. Using the Dutch Open Telescope and Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instruments, we captured two series of high-resolution intensity images with short cadences of two isolated magnetic pores. Combining wavelet analysis and empirical mode decomposition (EMD), we determined characteristic periods within the cross-sectional (i.e., area) and intensity time series. Then, by applying the theory of linear magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), we identified the mode of these oscillations within the MHD framework. Several oscillations have been detected within these two magnetic pores. Their periods range from 3 to 20 minutes. Combining wavelet analysis and EMD enables us to confidently find the phase difference between the area and intensity oscillations. From these observed features, we concluded that the detected oscillations can be classified as slow sausage MHD waves. Furthermore, we determined several key properties of these oscillations such as the radial velocity perturbation, the magnetic field perturbation, and the vertical wavenumber using SMS. The estimated range of the related wavenumbers reveals that these oscillations are trapped within these magnetic structures. Our results suggest that the detected oscillations are standing harmonics, and this allows us to estimate the expansion factor of the waveguides by employing SMS. The calculated expansion factor ranges from 4 to 12.

  6. On the Properties of Slow MHD Sausage Waves within Small-scale Photospheric Magnetic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freij, N.; Dorotovič, I.; Morton, R. J.; Ruderman, M. S.; Karlovský, V.; Erdélyi, R.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of magnetoacoustic waves in magnetic structures in the solar atmosphere is well-documented. Applying the technique of solar magneto-seismology (SMS) allows us to infer the background properties of these structures. Here, we aim to identify properties of the observed magnetoacoustic waves and study the background properties of magnetic structures within the lower solar atmosphere. Using the Dutch Open Telescope and Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instruments, we captured two series of high-resolution intensity images with short cadences of two isolated magnetic pores. Combining wavelet analysis and empirical mode decomposition (EMD), we determined characteristic periods within the cross-sectional (i.e., area) and intensity time series. Then, by applying the theory of linear magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), we identified the mode of these oscillations within the MHD framework. Several oscillations have been detected within these two magnetic pores. Their periods range from 3 to 20 minutes. Combining wavelet analysis and EMD enables us to confidently find the phase difference between the area and intensity oscillations. From these observed features, we concluded that the detected oscillations can be classified as slow sausage MHD waves. Furthermore, we determined several key properties of these oscillations such as the radial velocity perturbation, the magnetic field perturbation, and the vertical wavenumber using SMS. The estimated range of the related wavenumbers reveals that these oscillations are trapped within these magnetic structures. Our results suggest that the detected oscillations are standing harmonics, and this allows us to estimate the expansion factor of the waveguides by employing SMS. The calculated expansion factor ranges from 4 to 12.

  7. Impact of small-scale vegetation structure on tephra layer preservation

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Nick A.; Shears, Olivia M.; Streeter, Richard T.; Dugmore, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The factors that influence tephra layer taphonomy are poorly understood, but vegetation cover is likely to play a role in the preservation of terrestrial tephra deposits. The impact of vegetation on tephra layer preservation is important because: 1) the morphology of tephra layers could record key characteristics of past land surfaces and 2) vegetation-driven variability in tephra thickness could affect attempts to infer eruption and dispersion parameters. We investigated small- (metre-) scale interactions between vegetation and a thin (<10 cm), recent tephra layer. We conducted surveys of vegetation structure and tephra thickness at two locations which received a similar tephra deposit, but had contrasting vegetation cover (moss vs shrub). The tephra layer was thicker and less variable under shrub cover. Vegetation structure and layer thickness were correlated on the moss site but not under shrub cover, where the canopy reduced the influence of understory vegetation on layer morphology. Our results show that vegetation structure can influence tephra layer thickness on both small and medium (site) scales. These findings suggest that some tephra layers may carry a signal of past vegetation cover. They also have implications for the sampling effort required to reliably estimate the parameters of initial deposits. PMID:27845415

  8. Describing small-scale structure in random media using pulse-echo ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Michael F.; Wagner, Robert F.; Brown, David G.; Hall, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    A method for estimating structural properties of random media is described. The size, number density, and scattering strength of particles are estimated from an analysis of the radio frequency (rf) echo signal power spectrum. Simple correlation functions and the accurate scattering theory of Faran [J. J. Faran, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 23, 405–418 (1951)], which includes the effects of shear waves, were used separately to model backscatter from spherical particles and thereby describe the structures of the medium. These methods were tested using both glass sphere-in-agar and polystyrene sphere-in-agar scattering media. With the appropriate correlation function, it was possible to measure glass sphere diameters with an accuracy of 20%. It was not possible to accurately estimate the size of polystyrene spheres with the simple spherical and Gaussian correlation models examined because of a significant shear wave contribution. Using the Faran scattering theory for spheres, however, the accuracy for estimating diameters was improved to 10% for both glass and polystyrene scattering media. It was possible to estimate the product of the average scattering particle number density and the average scattering strength per particle, but with lower accuracy than the size estimates. The dependence of the measurement accuracy on the inclusion of shear waves, the wavelength of sound, and medium attenuation are considered, and the implications for describing the structure of biological soft tissues are discussed. PMID:2299033

  9. Characterizing the small scale structures in the earliest stages of low-mass star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhelm Persson, Magnus; van Dishoeck, Ewine; Tobin, John; Harsono, Daniel; Jørgensen, Jes K.

    2015-08-01

    In deeply-embedded low-mass protostars, the density and temperature distribution in the inner few hundred AU’s are poorly constrained. In sources where the envelope is less massive, i.e. the Class I stage, disks with Keplerian rotation have been inferred using C18O lines. However, constraining the various disk characteristics turns out to be difficult even in this case. Continuum and molecular line observations of optically thin tracers at very high sensitivity and resolution are needed to constrain the density, temperature and kinematics. Ultimately the assumed structure affects the determination of molecular abundances.We are attempting to model high-resolution dust continuum radio-interferometric observations of a few deeply-embedded low-mass protostars with a power-law disk model embedded in a spherical envelope.We model the interferometric visibilities taken with either the Plateau de Bure Interferometer or the ALMA telescope, probing scales down to a few tens of AU in some cases. Given the assumptions, the study shows disk sizes in the deeply-embedded phase that could be slightly larger than typical found in the more evolved Class I sources. The fitting also highlights that models for the physical structure of the inner envelope, on 500-2000 AU scales, needs to be improved. With future high sensitivity observations, we could potentially also be able to constrain any vertical density and temperature structure. In this poster I will present the

  10. Impact of small-scale vegetation structure on tephra layer preservation.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Nick A; Shears, Olivia M; Streeter, Richard T; Dugmore, Andrew J

    2016-11-15

    The factors that influence tephra layer taphonomy are poorly understood, but vegetation cover is likely to play a role in the preservation of terrestrial tephra deposits. The impact of vegetation on tephra layer preservation is important because: 1) the morphology of tephra layers could record key characteristics of past land surfaces and 2) vegetation-driven variability in tephra thickness could affect attempts to infer eruption and dispersion parameters. We investigated small- (metre-) scale interactions between vegetation and a thin (<10 cm), recent tephra layer. We conducted surveys of vegetation structure and tephra thickness at two locations which received a similar tephra deposit, but had contrasting vegetation cover (moss vs shrub). The tephra layer was thicker and less variable under shrub cover. Vegetation structure and layer thickness were correlated on the moss site but not under shrub cover, where the canopy reduced the influence of understory vegetation on layer morphology. Our results show that vegetation structure can influence tephra layer thickness on both small and medium (site) scales. These findings suggest that some tephra layers may carry a signal of past vegetation cover. They also have implications for the sampling effort required to reliably estimate the parameters of initial deposits.

  11. Impact of small-scale vegetation structure on tephra layer preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutler, Nick A.; Shears, Olivia M.; Streeter, Richard T.; Dugmore, Andrew J.

    2016-11-01

    The factors that influence tephra layer taphonomy are poorly understood, but vegetation cover is likely to play a role in the preservation of terrestrial tephra deposits. The impact of vegetation on tephra layer preservation is important because: 1) the morphology of tephra layers could record key characteristics of past land surfaces and 2) vegetation-driven variability in tephra thickness could affect attempts to infer eruption and dispersion parameters. We investigated small- (metre-) scale interactions between vegetation and a thin (<10 cm), recent tephra layer. We conducted surveys of vegetation structure and tephra thickness at two locations which received a similar tephra deposit, but had contrasting vegetation cover (moss vs shrub). The tephra layer was thicker and less variable under shrub cover. Vegetation structure and layer thickness were correlated on the moss site but not under shrub cover, where the canopy reduced the influence of understory vegetation on layer morphology. Our results show that vegetation structure can influence tephra layer thickness on both small and medium (site) scales. These findings suggest that some tephra layers may carry a signal of past vegetation cover. They also have implications for the sampling effort required to reliably estimate the parameters of initial deposits.

  12. The correspondence between small-scale coronal structures and the evolving solar magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, D. F.; Moses, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Solar coronal bright points, first identified in soft X-rays as X-ray Bright Points (XBPs), are compact, short-lived and associated with small bipolar magnetic flux. Coordinated data obtained during recent X-ray sounding rocket flights on August 15 and December 11, 1987 are used to determine the correspondence of XBPs with time-series, ground-based observations of evolving bipolar magnetic structures, He-I dark points, and the network. The results are consistent with the view that coronal bright points are more likely to be associated with the annihilation of preexisting flux than with emerging flux.

  13. Small-scale structures and the density irregularity of the inner corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orrall, F. Q.; Rottman, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    The observational evidence is considered that the electron density irregularity factor is much greater than unity in the inner corona, in particular, evidence derived from the photometric comparison of the K-corona emission p Beta with the EUV emission from coronal ions. A simple mathematical model was developed for the irregularity having a minimum number of parameters. This model was used to explore some implications of the observations and to show that well-known resolved structures such as polar plumes and coronal loops as presently understood cannot alone explain the irregularity.

  14. Single Cell Spectroscopy: Noninvasive Measures of Small-Scale Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Mousoulis, Charilaos; Xu, Xin; Reiter, David A.; Neu, Corey P.

    2013-01-01

    The advancement of spectroscopy methods attained through increases in sensitivity, and often with the coupling of complementary techniques, has enabled real-time structure and function measurements of single cells. The purpose of this review is to illustrate, in light of advances, the strengths and the weaknesses of these methods. Included also is an assessment of the impact of the experimental setup and conditions of each method on cellular function and integrity. A particular emphasis is placed on noninvasive and nondestructive techniques for achieving single cell detection, including nuclear magnetic resonance, in addition to physical, optical, and vibrational methods. PMID:23886910

  15. The correspondence between small-scale coronal structures and the evolving solar magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, D. F.; Moses, J. Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Solar coronal bright points, first identified in soft X-rays as X-ray Bright Points (XBPs), are compact, short lived and associated with small bipolar magnetic flux. Contradictory studies have suggested that XBPs are either a primary signature of the emerging flux spectrum of the quiet Sun, or that they are representative of the disappearance of pre-existing flux. Results are presented using coordinated data obtained during recent X-ray sounding rocket flights on 15 August and 11 December 1987 to determine the correspondence of XBPs with time-series, ground based observations of evolving bipolar magnetic structures, He-I dark points, and the network. The results are consistent with the view that coronal bright points are more likely to be associated with the annihilation of pre-existing flux than with emerging flux.

  16. Observations of small-scale latitudinal structure in energetic electron precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, J. B.; O'Brien, T. P.

    2016-04-01

    We describe first-light observations from the AC6 mission, a pair of CubeSats that are in polar orbit and whose in-track separations range up to several hundred kilometers and whose separations are controlled by differential drag. We present temporal dose rate profiles from electrons greater than 35 keV that are very similar at the two vehicles, but offset in time by the GPS-derived in-track separation. We interpret these structures as spatial and propose that they are the result of multiple microbursts that have experienced bounce phase mixing and differential drift over a small fraction of a drift orbit before reaching the spacecraft.

  17. Structure of small-scale magnetic fields in the kinematic dynamo theory.

    PubMed

    Schekochihin, Alexander; Cowley, Steven; Maron, Jason; Malyshkin, Leonid

    2002-01-01

    A weak fluctuating magnetic field embedded into a a turbulent conducting medium grows exponentially while its characteristic scale decays. In the interstellar medium and protogalactic plasmas, the magnetic Prandtl number is very large, so a broad spectrum of growing magnetic fluctuations is excited at small (subviscous) scales. The condition for the onset of nonlinear back reaction depends on the structure of the field lines. We study the statistical correlations that are set up in the field pattern and show that the magnetic-field lines possess a folding structure, where most of the scale decrease is due to the field variation across itself (rapid transverse direction reversals), while the scale of the field variation along itself stays approximately constant. Specifically, we find that, though both the magnetic energy and the mean-square curvature of the field lines grow exponentially, the field strength and the field-line curvature are anticorrelated, i.e., the curved field is relatively weak, while the growing field is relatively flat. The detailed analysis of the statistics of the curvature shows that it possesses a stationary limiting distribution with the bulk located at the values of curvature comparable to the characteristic wave number of the velocity field and a power tail extending to large values of curvature where it is eventually cut off by the resistive regularization. The regions of large curvature, therefore, occupy only a small fraction of the total volume of the system. Our theoretical results are corroborated by direct numerical simulations. The implication of the folding effect is that the advent of the Lorentz back reaction occurs when the magnetic energy approaches that of the smallest turbulent eddies. Our results also directly apply to the problem of statistical geometry of the material lines in a random flow.

  18. Cosmological simulations of decaying dark matter: implications for small-scale structure of dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei-Yu; Peter, Annika H. G.; Strigari, Louis E.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Arant, Bryan; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Rocha, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    We present a set of N-body simulations of a class of models in which an unstable dark matter particle decays into a stable dark matter particle and a non-interacting light particle with decay lifetime comparable to the Hubble time. We study the effects of the recoil kick velocity (Vk) received by the stable dark matter on the structures of dark matter haloes ranging from galaxy-cluster to Milky Way-mass scales. For Milky Way-mass haloes, we use high-resolution, zoom-in simulations to explore the effects of decays on Galactic substructure. In general, haloes with circular velocities comparable to the magnitude of kick velocity are most strongly affected by decays. We show that models with lifetimes Γ-1 ˜ H_0^{-1} and recoil speeds Vk ˜ 20-40 km s-1 can significantly reduce both the abundance of Galactic subhaloes and their internal densities. We find that decaying dark matter models that do not violate current astrophysical constraints can significantly mitigate both the `missing satellites problem' and the more recent `too big to fail problem'. These decaying models predict significant time evolution of haloes, and this implies that at high redshifts decaying models exhibit the similar sequence of structure formation as cold dark matter. Thus, decaying dark matter models are significantly less constrained by high-redshift phenomena than warm dark matter models. We conclude that models of decaying dark matter make predictions that are relevant for the interpretation of small galaxies observations in the Local Group and can be tested as well as by forthcoming large-scale surveys.

  19. A COMPACT HIGH VELOCITY CLOUD NEAR THE MAGELLANIC STREAM: METALLICITY AND SMALL-SCALE STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Kumari, Nimisha; Fox, Andrew J.; Tumlinson, Jason; Thom, Christopher; Ely, Justin; Westmeier, Tobias

    2015-02-10

    The Magellanic Stream (MS) is a well-resolved gaseous tail originating from the Magellanic Clouds. Studies of its physical properties and chemical composition are needed to understand its role in Galactic evolution. We investigate the properties of a compact HVC (CHVC 224.0-83.4-197) lying close on the sky to the MS to determine whether it is physically connected to the Stream and to examine its internal structure. Our study is based on analysis of HST/COS spectra of three QSOs (Ton S210, B0120-28, and B0117-2837) all of which pass through this single cloud at small angular separation (≲0.°72), allowing us to compare physical conditions on small spatial scales. No significant variation is detected in the ionization structure from one part of the cloud to the other. Using Cloudy photoionization models, toward Ton S210 we derive elemental abundances of [C/H] = –1.21 ± 0.11, [Si/H] = –1.16 ± 0.11, [Al/H] = –1.19 ± 0.17, and [O/H] = –1.12 ± 0.22, which agree within 0.09 dex. The CHVC abundances match the 0.1 solar abundances measured along the main body of the Stream. This suggests that the CHVC (and by extension the extended network of filaments to which it belongs) has an origin in the MS. It may represent a fragment that has been removed from the Stream as it interacts with the gaseous Galactic halo.

  20. Reconstruction of the inner structure of small scale mining waste dumps by combining GPR and ERTdata.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniess, Rudolf; Martin, Tina

    2015-04-01

    Two abandoned small waste dumps in the west of the Harz mountains (Germany) were analysed using ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Aim of the project (ROBEHA, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (033R105)) is the assessment of the recycling potential of the mining residues taking into account environmental risks of reworking the dump site. One task of the geophysical prospection is the investigation of the inner structure of the mining dump. This is important for the estimation of the approximate volume of potentially reusable mining deposits within the waste dump. The two investigated dump sites are different in age and therefore differ in their structure. The older residues (< 1930) consist of ore processing waste from density separation (stamp mill sand). The younger dump site descends from comprises slag dump waste. The layer of fine grained residues at the first dump site is less than 6 m thick and the slag layer is less than 2 m thick. Both sites are partially overlain by forest or grassland vegetation and characterized by topographical irregularities. Due to the inhomogeneity of the sites we applied electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) for detailed investigation. Using ERT we could distinguish various layers within the mining dumps. The resistivities of the dumped material differ from the bedrock resistivities at both sites. The GPR measurements show near surface layer boundaries down to 3 - 4 m. In consecutive campaigns 100 MHz and 200 MHz antennas were used. The GPR results (layer boundaries) were included into the ERT inversion algorithm to enable more precise and stable resistivity models. This needs some special preprocessing steps. The 3D-Position of every electrode from ERT measurement and the GPR antenna position on the surface require an accuracy of less than 1cm. At some points, the layer boundaries and radar wave velocities can be calibrated

  1. Infrasonic ray tracing applied to small-scale atmospheric structures: thermal plumes and updrafts/downdrafts.

    PubMed

    Jones, R Michael; Bedard, Alfred J

    2015-02-01

    A ray-tracing program is used to estimate the refraction of infrasound by the vertical structure of the atmosphere in thermal plumes, showing only weak effects, as well as in updrafts and downdrafts, which can act as vertical wave guides. Thermal plumes are ubiquitous features of the daytime atmospheric boundary layer. The effects of thermal plumes on lower frequency sound propagation are minor with the exception of major events, such as volcanoes, forest fires, or industrial explosions where quite strong temperature gradients are involved. On the other hand, when strong, organized vertical flows occur (e.g., in mature thunderstorms and microbursts), there are significant effects. For example, a downdraft surrounded by an updraft focuses sound as it travels upward, and defocuses sound as it travels downward. Such propagation asymmetry may help explain observations that balloonists can hear people on the ground; but conversely, people on the ground cannot hear balloonists aloft. These results are pertinent for those making surface measurements from acoustic sources aloft, as well as for measurements of surface sound sources using elevated receivers.

  2. Structure and chemistry of the high mass star forming region S255 on small scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinchenko, I.; Kurtz, S.; Liu, S. Y.; Ojha, D.; Su, Y. N.

    2011-05-01

    S255, a molecular condensation at a distance of about 2 kpc consists of two main components (S255 IR and S255 N) separated by slightly over 1'. Observations by single-dish telescopes inferred dense gas residing in both components suitable for forming massive stars and clusters. We performed observations of these two components with SMA, VLA and GMRT at an angular resolution of a few arc seconds. SMA observations covered broad frequency ranges around 220, 230, 279 and 288 GHz. The continuum emission and about 50 spectral lines from about 20 different species were detected (including N2H+, SiO, DCN, DNC, DCO+, H2CO, HNCO, etc.). VLA observations provide data on NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) while at GMRT we mapped the 610 and 1280 MHz continuum emission. We combine these data to obtain a rather complete picture of this area. Distributions of various molecules are quite different (some maps for S255IR are shown in Fig. 1). Several new clumps are revealed; some of them have no visible counterpart in continuum. In both components high velocity outflows and disk-like structures are present. We estimate physical parameters of the observed objects and discuss their chemistry with an emphasis on N2H+, NH3 and deuterated species.

  3. ncRNA consensus secondary structure derivation using grammar strings.

    PubMed

    Achawanantakun, Rujira; Sun, Yanni; Takyar, Seyedeh Shohreh

    2011-04-01

    Many noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) function through both their sequences and secondary structures. Thus, secondary structure derivation is an important issue in today's RNA research. The state-of-the-art structure annotation tools are based on comparative analysis, which derives consensus structure of homologous ncRNAs. Despite promising results from existing ncRNA aligning and consensus structure derivation tools, there is a need for more efficient and accurate ncRNA secondary structure modeling and alignment methods. In this work, we introduce a consensus structure derivation approach based on grammar string, a novel ncRNA secondary structure representation that encodes an ncRNA's sequence and secondary structure in the parameter space of a context-free grammar (CFG) and a full RNA grammar including pseudoknots. Being a string defined on a special alphabet constructed from a grammar, grammar string converts ncRNA alignment into sequence alignment. We derive consensus secondary structures from hundreds of ncRNA families from BraliBase 2.1 and 25 families containing pseudoknots using grammar string alignment. Our experiments have shown that grammar string-based structure derivation competes favorably in consensus structure quality with Murlet and RNASampler. Source code and experimental data are available at http://www.cse.msu.edu/~yannisun/grammar-string.

  4. Large and small-scale structures and the dust energy balance problem in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saftly, W.; Baes, M.; De Geyter, G.; Camps, P.; Renaud, F.; Guedes, J.; De Looze, I.

    2015-04-01

    The interstellar dust content in galaxies can be traced in extinction at optical wavelengths, or in emission in the far-infrared. Several studies have found that radiative transfer models that successfully explain the optical extinction in edge-on spiral galaxies generally underestimate the observed FIR/submm fluxes by a factor of about three. In order to investigate this so-called dust energy balance problem, we use two Milky Way-like galaxies produced by high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations. We create mock optical edge-on views of these simulated galaxies (using the radiative transfer code SKIRT), and we then fit the parameters of a basic spiral galaxy model to these images (using the fitting code FitSKIRT). The basic model includes smooth axisymmetric distributions along a Sérsic bulge and exponential disc for the stars, and a second exponential disc for the dust. We find that the dust mass recovered by the fitted models is about three times smaller than the known dust mass of the hydrodynamical input models. This factor is in agreement with previous energy balance studies of real edge-on spiral galaxies. On the other hand, fitting the same basic model to less complex input models (e.g. a smooth exponential disc with a spiral perturbation or with random clumps), does recover the dust mass of the input model almost perfectly. Thus it seems that the complex asymmetries and the inhomogeneous structure of real and hydrodynamically simulated galaxies are a lot more efficient at hiding dust than the rather contrived geometries in typical quasi-analytical models. This effect may help explain the discrepancy between the dust emission predicted by radiative transfer models and the observed emission in energy balance studies for edge-on spiral galaxies.

  5. Estimation of small-scale soil erosion in laboratory experiments with Structure from Motion photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguer-Puig, Matilde; Marqués-Mateu, Ángel; Lerma, José Luis; Ibáñez-Asensio, Sara

    2017-10-01

    The quantitative estimation of changes in terrain surfaces caused by water erosion can be carried out from precise descriptions of surfaces given by means of digital elevation models (DEMs). Some stages of water erosion research efforts are conducted in the laboratory using rainfall simulators and soil boxes with areas less than 1 m2. Under these conditions, erosive processes can lead to very small surface variations and high precision DEMs are needed to account for differences measured in millimetres. In this paper, we used a photogrammetric Structure from Motion (SfM) technique to build DEMs of a 0.5 m2 soil box to monitor several simulated rainfall episodes in the laboratory. The technique of DEM of difference (DoD) was then applied using GIS tools to compute estimates of volumetric changes between each pair of rainfall episodes. The aim was to classify the soil surface into three classes: erosion areas, deposition areas, and unchanged or neutral areas, and quantify the volume of soil that was eroded and deposited. We used a thresholding criterion of changes based on the estimated error of the difference of DEMs, which in turn was obtained from the root mean square error of the individual DEMs. Experimental tests showed that the choice of different threshold values in the DoD can lead to volume differences as large as 60% when compared to the direct volumetric difference. It turns out that the choice of that threshold was a key point in this method. In parallel to photogrammetric work, we collected sediments from each rain episode and obtained a series of corresponding measured sediment yields. The comparison between computed and measured sediment yields was significantly correlated, especially when considering the accumulated value of the five simulations. The computed sediment yield was 13% greater than the measured sediment yield. The procedure presented in this paper proved to be suitable for the determination of sediment yields in rainfall-driven soil

  6. Habitat heterogeneity and associated microbial community structure in a small-scale floodplain hyporheic flow path.

    PubMed

    Lowell, Jennifer L; Gordon, Nathan; Engstrom, Dale; Stanford, Jack A; Holben, William E; Gannon, James E

    2009-10-01

    The Nyack floodplain is located on the Middle Fork of the Flathead River, an unregulated, pristine, fifth-order stream in Montana, USA, bordering Glacier National Park. The hyporheic zone is a nutritionally heterogeneous floodplain component harboring a diverse array of microbial assemblages essential in fluvial biogeochemical cycling, riverine ecosystem productivity, and trophic interactions. Despite these functions, microbial community structure in pristine hyporheic systems is not well characterized. The current study was designed to assess whether physical habitat heterogeneity within the hyporheic zone of the Nyack floodplain was sufficient to drive bacterial beta diversity between three different hyporheic flow path locations. Habitat heterogeneity was assessed by measuring soluble reactive phosphorous, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, and soluble total nitrogen levels seasonally at surface water infiltration, advection, and exfiltration zones. Significant spatial differences were detected in dissolved oxygen and nitrate levels, and seasonal differences were detected in dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and dissolved organic carbon levels. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cell counts indicated that bacterial diversity increased with abundance, and DGGE fingerprints covaried with nitrate levels where water infiltrated the hyporheic zone. The ribosomal gene phylogeny revealed that hyporheic habitat heterogeneity was sufficient to drive beta diversity between bacterial assemblages. Phylogenetic (P) tests detected sequence disparity between the flow path locations. Small distinct lineages of Firmicutes, Actinomycetes, Planctomycetes, and Acidobacteria defined the infiltration zone and alpha- and beta-proteobacterial lineages delineated the exfiltration and advection zone communities. These data suggest that spatial habitat heterogeneity drives hyporheic microbial community development and that attempts to understand functional

  7. Long-period quasi-periodic oscillations of a small-scale magnetic structure on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolotkov, D. Y.; Smirnova, V. V.; Strekalova, P. V.; Riehokainen, A.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Long-period quasi-periodic variations of the average magnetic field in a small-scale magnetic structure on the Sun are analysed. The structure is situated at the photospheric level and is involved in a facula formation in the chromosphere. Methods: The observational signal obtained from the SDO/HMI line-of-sight magnetograms of the target structure has a non-stationary behaviour, and is therefore processed with the Hilbert-Huang Transform spectral technique. Results: The empirical decomposition of the original signal and subsequent testing of the statistical significance of its intrinsic modes reveal the presence of the white and pink noisy components for the periods shorter and longer than 10 min, respectively, and a significant oscillatory mode. The oscillation is found to have a non-stationary period growing from approximately 80 to 230 min and an increasing relative amplitude, while the mean magnetic field in the oscillating structure is seen to decrease. The observed behaviour could be interpreted either by the dynamical interaction of the structure with the boundaries of supergranula cells in the region of interest or in terms of the vortex shedding appearing during the magnetic flux emergence.

  8. Cosmic string scaling in flat space

    SciTech Connect

    Vanchurin, Vitaly; Olum, Ken; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2005-09-15

    We investigate the evolution of infinite strings as a part of a complete cosmic string network in flat space. We perform a simulation of the network which uses functional forms for the string position and thus is exact to the limits of computer arithmetic. Our results confirm that the wiggles on the strings obey a scaling law described by universal power spectrum. The average distance between long strings also scales accurately with the time. These results suggest that small-scale structure will also scale in an expanding universe, even in the absence of gravitational damping.

  9. Wiggly cosmic strings, neutrinos and large-scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachaspati, Tanmay

    1993-04-01

    We discuss the cosmic string scenario of large-scale structure formation in light of the result that the strings are not smooth but instead have a lot of sub-structure or wiggles on them. It appears from the results of Albrecht and Stebbins that the scenario works best if the universe is dominated by massive neutrinos or some other form of hot dark matter. Some unique features of the scenario, such as the generation of primordial magnetic fields, are also described.

  10. Short superstrings and the structure of overlapping strings.

    PubMed

    Armen, C; Stein, C

    1995-01-01

    Given a collection of strings S = [s1,...,sn] over an alphabet sigma, a superstring alpha of S is a string containing each si as a substring, that is, for each i, 1 < or = i < or = n, alpha contains a block of magnitude of si consecutive characters that match si exactly. The shortest superstring problem is the problem of finding a superstring alpha of minimum length. The shortest superstring problem has applications in both computational biology and data compression. The shortest superstring problem is NP-hard (Gallant et al., 1980); in fact, it was recently shown to be MAX SNP-hard (Blum et al., 1994). Given the importance of the applications, several heuristics and approximation algorithms have been proposed. Constant factor approximation algorithms have been given in Blum et al. (1994) (factor of 3), Teng and Yao (1993) (factor of 2 8/9), Czumaj et al. (1994) (factor of 2 5/6), and Kosaraju et al. (1994) (factor of 2 50/63). Informally, the key to any algorithm for the shortest superstring problem is to identify sets of strings with large amounts of similarity, or overlap. Although the previous algorithms and their analyses have grown increasingly sophisticated, they reveal remarkably little about the structure of strings with large amounts of overlap. In this sense, they are solving a more general problem than the one at hand. In this paper, we study the structure of strings with large amounts of overlap and use our understanding to give an algorithm that finds a superstring whose length is no more than 2 3/4 times that of the optimal superstring. Our algorithm runs in O(magnitude of S + n3) time, which matches that of previous algorithms. We prove several interesting properties about short periodic strings, allowing us to answer questions of the following form: Given a string with some periodic structure, characterize all the possible periodic strings that can have a large amount of overlap with the first string.

  11. The dominating impact of small-scale streambed structural heterogeneity on hyporheic exchange and biogeochemical hotspots in lowland rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, S.; Gomez, J. D.; Blume, T.; Weatherill, J.; Angermann, L.; Munz, M.; Tecklenburg, C.; Cassidy, N. J.; Wilson, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Exchange fluxes and residence times of groundwater and surface water at aquifer-river interfaces are driven by hydrodynamic and hydrostatic forcing. While previous research, with a predominantly surface water perspective, has mainly focussed on the impact of bedform controlled advective pumping on hyporheic zone extent and residence times, little attention has been paid to the impact of streambed structural controls on groundwater up-welling patterns and its implications for hyporheic exchange. Following a combined experimental and model-based approach, this paper highlights the impact of small-scale streambed structural variability on spatial patterns of hyporheic exchange flow, residence time distribution and the development of hotspots of biogeochemical cycling in the hyporheic zone of a lowland river. Combining Fibre-optic DTS and active Heat Pulse Sensing, this study identified distinct low conductivities peat and clay structures in the streambed to determine patterns, quantity and temporal dynamics of groundwater up-welling. Model simulations confirmed that streambed structure controlled patterns of groundwater up-welling exceeded the impact of bedform driven fluxes on aquifer-river exchange flow patterns. In addition, enhanced residence times of up-welling groundwater in and around these organic rich structures lead to an increase in dissolved oxygen consumption and the development of anaerobic denitrification hotspots. The resulting increases in streambed nitrate attenuation as well as enhanced production of CO2, CH4 and N2O as respiration end products highlight the importance of biogeochemical hotspots at aquifer-river interfaces under the dominant impact of streambed structural heterogeneity. Conceptual model of streambed hydrofacies controlling groundwater up-welling in a typical lowland river including their effect on heat transport at the aquifer-river interface (the star indicates the temperature of the surface water). B: core logs of exemplary

  12. A Measurement of Small-scale Structure in the 2.2 <= z <= 4.2 Lyα Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidz, Adam; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Dall'Aglio, Aldo; McQuinn, Matthew; Fechner, Cora; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Hernquist, Lars; Dutta, Suvendra

    2010-07-01

    The amplitude of fluctuations in the Lyα forest on small spatial scales is sensitive to the temperature of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and its spatial fluctuations. The temperature of the IGM and its spatial variations contain important information about hydrogen and helium reionization. We present a new measurement of the small-scale structure in the Lyα forest from 40 high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio, VLT spectra for absorbing gas at redshifts between 2.2 <= z <= 4.2. We convolve each Lyα forest spectrum with a suitably chosen Morlet wavelet filter, which allows us to extract the amount of small-scale structure in the forest as a function of position across each spectrum. We monitor contamination from metal line absorbers. We present a first comparison of these measurements with high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of the Lyα forest that track more than 2 billion particles. This comparison suggests that the IGM temperature close to the cosmic mean density (T 0) peaks at a redshift near z = 3.4, at which point it is greater than 20, 000 K at gsim2σ confidence. The temperature at lower redshift is consistent with the fall-off expected from adiabatic cooling (T 0 vprop (1 + z)2), after the peak temperature is reached near z = 3.4. In our highest redshift bin, centered around z = 4.2, the results favor a temperature of T 0 = 15-20, 000 K. However, owing mostly to uncertainties in the mean transmitted flux at this redshift, a cooler IGM model with T 0 = 10, 000 K is only disfavored at the 2σ level here, although such cool IGM models are strongly discrepant with the z ≈ 3-3.4 measurement. We do not detect large spatial fluctuations in the IGM temperature at any redshift covered by our data set. The simplest interpretation of our measurements is that He II reionization completes sometime near z ≈ 3.4, although statistical uncertainties are still large. Our method can be fruitfully combined with future He II Lyα forest measurements.

  13. Global structure of Gott's two-string spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutler, Curt

    1992-01-01

    Gott has recently obtained exact solutions to Einstein's equation representing two infinitely long, straight cosmic strings that gravitationally scatter off each other. A remarkable feature of these solutions is that they contain closed timelike curves when the relative velocity of the strings is sufficiently high. In this paper we elucidate the global structure of Gott's two-string spacetime. In particular, we prove that the closed timelike curves are confined to a certain region of the spacetime, and that the spacetime contains complete spacelike, edgeless, achronal hypersurfaces, from which the causality-violating regions may be said to evolve. We then explicitly determine the boundary of the region containing closed timelike curves.

  14. Characteristics of medium- and small-scale neutral turbulence in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere as drivers for ionospheric structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, M.

    2012-12-01

    In the lower E region the initial organization of ionization irregularity structures appears to be strongly linked to structure in the neutral flow, as would be expected because of the strong collisional coupling between the neutrals and ions. An example is the structure of quasi-periodic (QP) radar echoes in sporadic E layers, which have horizontal scale sizes of a few tens of kilometers that correspond to shear instabilities in the neutral flow. The subsequent evolution of the irregularities is controlled by a combination of plasma physics and electrodynamics, that is likely to be further influenced by the range of structure scale sizes in the neutral flow. The mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region that overlaps the lower E region is characterized by complex turbulent processes that include neutral dynamical instabilities associated with the large winds and shears that are common in the altitude range, neutral convective instabilities associated with large negative vertical temperature gradients, and effects associated with gravity waves that are breaking either because of the amplitude growth with height or because of the increased likelihood of a critical level encounter due to the large winds and shears. Much of the earlier analysis of velocity or temperature power spectra in the altitude range has focused on gravity waves as an explanation for the observed characteristics, but recent studies suggest that the dynamics are more complex, with a transition from three-dimensional to two-dimensional turbulence in the range of horizontal scales sizes between 10 and 100 km and breaking waves or neutral flow instabilities acting as a driving input for the turbulent spectra subranges. Various aspects of the current understanding of the dynamics will be reviewed and an overview of recent observations of neutral turbulence relevant to medium- and small-scale plasma irregularities will be shown.

  15. Large- and small-scale structure of the intermediate- and high-velocity clouds towards the LMC and SMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoker, J. V.; Fox, A. J.; Keenan, F. P.

    2015-08-01

    We employ Ca II K and Na I D interstellar absorption-line spectroscopy of early-type stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC, SMC) to investigate the large- and small-scale structure in foreground intermediate- and high-velocity clouds (I/HVCs). Data include FLAMES-GIRAFFE Ca II K observations of 403 stars in four open clusters, plus FEROS or UVES spectra of 156 stars in the LMC and SMC. The FLAMES observations are amongst the most extensive probes to date of Ca II structures on ˜20 arcsec scales in Magellanic I/HVCs. From the FLAMES data within a 0.5° field of view, the Ca II K equivalent width in the I/HVC components towards three clusters varies by factors of ≥10. There are no detections of molecular gas in absorption at intermediate or high velocities, although molecular absorption is present at LMC and Galactic velocities towards some sightlines. The FEROS/UVES data show Ca II K I/HVC absorption in ˜60 per cent of sightlines. The range in the Ca II/Na I ratio in I/HVCs is from -0.45 to +1.5 dex, similar to previous measurements for I/HVCs. In 10 sightlines we find Ca II/O I ratios in I/HVC gas ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 dex below the solar value, indicating either dust or ionization effects. In nine sightlines I/HVC gas is detected in both H I and Ca II at similar velocities, implying that the two elements form part of the same structure.

  16. Associations between Small-scale Structure in Local Galactic Neutral Hydrogen and in the Cosmic Microwave Background Observed by PLANCK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    2015-11-01

    High-resolution galactic neutral hydrogen (HI) data obtained with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) over 56 square degrees of sky around l = 132°, b = 25° are compared with small-scale structure in the Cosmic Microwave Background observed by PLANCK, specifically at 143 and 857 GHz, as well as with 100 μm observations from the IRIS survey. The analysis uses data in 13 2° × 2° sub-areas found in the IRSA database at IPAC. The results confirm what has been reported previously; nearby galactic HI features and high-frequency continuum sources believed to be cosmological are in fact clearly associated. While several attempts strongly suggest that the associations are statistically significant, the key to understanding the phenomenon lies in the fact that in any given area HI is associated with cirrus dust at certain HI velocities and with 143 GHz features at different velocities. At the same time, for the 13 sub-areas studied, there is very little overlap between the dust and 143 GHz features. The data do not imply that the HI itself gives rise to the high-frequency continuum emission. Rather, they appear to indicate undiagnosed brightness enhancements indirectly associated with the HI. If low density interstellar electrons concentrated into clumps, or observed in directions where their integrated line-of-sight column densities are greater than the background in a manner similar to the phenomena that give rise to structure in diffuse HI structure, they will profoundly affect attempts to create a foreground electron mask used for processing PLANCK as well as WMAP data.

  17. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN SMALL-SCALE STRUCTURE IN LOCAL GALACTIC NEUTRAL HYDROGEN AND IN THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND OBSERVED BY PLANCK

    SciTech Connect

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    2015-11-01

    High-resolution galactic neutral hydrogen (HI) data obtained with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) over 56 square degrees of sky around l = 132°, b = 25° are compared with small-scale structure in the Cosmic Microwave Background observed by PLANCK, specifically at 143 and 857 GHz, as well as with 100 μm observations from the IRIS survey. The analysis uses data in 13 2° × 2° sub-areas found in the IRSA database at IPAC. The results confirm what has been reported previously; nearby galactic HI features and high-frequency continuum sources believed to be cosmological are in fact clearly associated. While several attempts strongly suggest that the associations are statistically significant, the key to understanding the phenomenon lies in the fact that in any given area HI is associated with cirrus dust at certain HI velocities and with 143 GHz features at different velocities. At the same time, for the 13 sub-areas studied, there is very little overlap between the dust and 143 GHz features. The data do not imply that the HI itself gives rise to the high-frequency continuum emission. Rather, they appear to indicate undiagnosed brightness enhancements indirectly associated with the HI. If low density interstellar electrons concentrated into clumps, or observed in directions where their integrated line-of-sight column densities are greater than the background in a manner similar to the phenomena that give rise to structure in diffuse HI structure, they will profoundly affect attempts to create a foreground electron mask used for processing PLANCK as well as WMAP data.

  18. Image restoration and superresolution as probes of small scale far-IR structure in star forming regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, D. F.; Harvey, P. M.; Joy, M.; Ellis, H. B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Far-infrared continuum studies from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory are described that are designed to fully exploit the small-scale spatial information that this facility can provide. This work gives the clearest picture to data on the structure of galactic and extragalactic star forming regions in the far infrared. Work is presently being done with slit scans taken simultaneously at 50 and 100 microns, yielding one-dimensional data. Scans of sources in different directions have been used to get certain information on two dimensional structure. Planned work with linear arrays will allow us to generalize our techniques to two dimensional image restoration. For faint sources, spatial information at the diffraction limit of the telescope is obtained, while for brighter sources, nonlinear deconvolution techniques have allowed us to improve over the diffraction limit by as much as a factor of four. Information on the details of the color temperature distribution is derived as well. This is made possible by the accuracy with which the instrumental point-source profile (PSP) is determined at both wavelengths. While these two PSPs are different, data at different wavelengths can be compared by proper spatial filtering. Considerable effort has been devoted to implementing deconvolution algorithms. Nonlinear deconvolution methods offer the potential of superresolution -- that is, inference of power at spatial frequencies that exceed D lambda. This potential is made possible by the implicit assumption by the algorithm of positivity of the deconvolved data, a universally justifiable constraint for photon processes. We have tested two nonlinear deconvolution algorithms on our data; the Richardson-Lucy (R-L) method and the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM). The limits of image deconvolution techniques for achieving spatial resolution are addressed.

  19. Missing strings of residues in protein crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Djinovic-Carugo, Kristina; Carugo, Oliviero

    2015-01-01

    A large fraction of the protein crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank are incomplete, since the position of one or more residues is not reported, despite these residues are part of the material that was analyzed. This may bias the use of the protein crystal structures by molecular biologists. Here we observe that in the large majority of the protein crystal structures strings of residues are missing. Polar residues incline to occur in missing strings together with glycine, while apolar and aromatic residues tend to avoid them. Particularly flexible residues, as shown by their extremely high B-factors, by their exposure to the solvent and by their secondary structures, flank the missing strings. These data should be a helpful guideline for crystallographers that encounter regions of flat and uninterpretable electron density as well as end-users of crystal structures.

  20. Higher-order derivative correlations and the alignment of small-scale structures in isotropic numerical turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The classical approach to the investigation of small-scale intermittency in turbulence is based on the higher-order derivative correlations such as skewness and flatness factors. In the study of the small scales, numerial simulations can provide more detail than experiments. In the present paper, a variety of velocity- and scalar-derivative correlations are calculated over a range of Reynolds numbers. Particular attention is given to third- and fourth-order correlations, taking into account also some fifth- and sixth-order correlations to allow comparisons with the phenomenological models. The governing equations are the incompresssible Navier-Stokes equation for the velocity and transport equation for a passive scalar. Two numerical codes are used for the simulations presented. Attention is given to details regarding the numerical method used, forcing, simulation parameters, spectra and skewnesses, and graphics.

  1. Small-scale and mesoscale lake surface water temperature structure: Thermography and in situ measurements from Lake Geneva, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irani Rahaghi, Abolfazl; Lemmin, Ulrich; Bouffard, Damien; Riffler, Michael; Wunderle, Stefan; Barry, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Lake surface water temperature (LSWT), which varies spatially and temporarily, reflects meteorological and climatological forcing more than any other physical lake parameter. There are different data sources for LSWT mapping, including remote sensing and in situ measurements. Depending on cloud cover, satellite data can depict large-scale thermal patterns, but not the meso- or small-scale processes. Meso-scale thermography allows complementing (and hence ground-truth) satellite imagery at the sub-pixel scale. A Balloon Launched Imaging and Monitoring Platform (BLIMP) was used to measure the LSWT at the meso-scale. The BLIMP consists of a small balloon tethered to a boat and is equipped with thermal and RGB cameras, as well as other instrumentation for geo-location and communication. A feature matching-based algorithm was implemented to create composite thermal images. Simultaneous ground-truthing of the BLIMP data were achieved using an autonomous craft measuring among other in situ surface/near surface temperatures, radiation and meteorological data. Latent and sensible surface heat fluxes were calculated using the bulk parameterization algorithm based on similarity theory. Results are presented for the day-time stratified low wind speed (up to 3 ms-1) conditions over Lake Geneva for two field campaigns, each of 6 h on 18 March and 19 July 2016. The meso-scale temperature field ( 1-m pixel resolution) had a range and standard deviation of 2.4°C and 0.3°C, respectively, over a 1-km2 area (typical satellite pixel size). Interestingly, at the sub-pixel scale, various temporal and spatial thermal structures are evident - an obvious example being streaks in the along-wind direction during March, which we hypothesize are caused by the steady 3 h wind condition. The results also show that the spatial variability of the estimated total heat flux is due to the corresponding variability of the longwave cooling from the water surface and the latent heat flux.

  2. Strings matter: Dynamics and evolution of cosmic string networks in flat spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakellariadou, Maria

    1990-12-01

    This research inquires into the dynamics and evolution of cosmic string networks in flat spacetime. It involves the study of the statistical properties of string networks and the dynamics of long strings, including the scaling density; the fractal nature of string substructure; and the effectiveness of the gravitational damping mechanism, regarding the long strings' wiggles. Methodologically, it employs both numerical (within the framework of an exact soluble model in flat spacetime) and analytical analyses. The central propositions of this research are a follows: (1) for a string network in equilibrium, when the energy density of the network is low, the dominant part of the string is in the form of closed loops of the smallest allowed size, and a certain critical density the system undergoes a phase transition characterized by formation of very long strings; (2) for an evolving network, the typical curvature radius of long strings, and the characteristic distance between them, are both comparable to the evolution time, and at the same time, long strings possess a significant small-scale structure, which plays an important role in the energy distribution of the produced loops: and (3) gravitational radiation is rather effective in damping the small-scale structure, but only for large amplitude waves.

  3. Strings matter: Dynamics and evolution of cosmic string networks in flat spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Sakellariadou, M.

    1990-01-01

    This research inquires into the dynamics and evolution of cosmic string networks in flat spacetime. It involves the study of the statistical properties of string networks and the dynamics of long strings, including the scaling density; the fractal nature of string substructure; and the effectiveness of the gravitational damping mechanism, regarding the long strings' wiggles. Methodologically, it employs both numerical (within the framework of an exact soluble model in flat spacetime) and analytical analyses. The central propositions of this research are a follows: (1) for a string network in equilibrium, when the energy density of the network is low, the dominant part of the string is in the form of closed loops of the smallest allowed size, and a certain critical density the system undergoes a phase transition characterized by formation of very long strings; (2) for an evolving network, the typical curvature radius of long strings, and the characteristic distance between them, are both comparable to the evolution time, and at the same time, long strings possess a significant small-scale structure, which plays an important role in the energy distribution of the produced loops: and (3) gravitational radiation is rather effective in damping the small-scale structure, but only for large amplitude waves.

  4. Wavelet transform analysis of the small-scale X-ray structure of the cluster Abell 1367

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebeney, S. A.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Murray, S.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a new technique based on a wavelet transform analysis to quantify the small-scale (less than a few arcminutes) X-ray structure of clusters of galaxies. We apply this technique to the ROSAT position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) and Einstein high-resolution imager (HRI) images of the central region of the cluster Abell 1367 to detect sources embedded within the diffuse intracluster medium. In addition to detecting sources and determining their fluxes and positions, we show that the wavelet analysis allows a characterization of the sources extents. In particular, the wavelet scale at which a given source achieves a maximum signal-to-noise ratio in the wavelet images provides an estimate of the angular extent of the source. To account for the widely varying point response of the ROSAT PSPC as a function of off-axis angle requires a quantitative measurement of the source size and a comparison to a calibration derived from the analysis of a Deep Survey image. Therefore, we assume that each source could be described as an isotropic two-dimensional Gaussian and used the wavelet amplitudes, at different scales, to determine the equivalent Gaussian Full Width Half-Maximum (FWHM) (and its uncertainty) appropriate for each source. In our analysis of the ROSAT PSPC image, we detect 31 X-ray sources above the diffuse cluster emission (within a radius of 24 min), 16 of which are apparently associated with cluster galaxies and two with serendipitous, background quasars. We find that the angular extents of 11 sources exceed the nominal width of the PSPC point-spread function. Four of these extended sources were previously detected by Bechtold et al. (1983) as 1 sec scale features using the Einstein HRI. The same wavelet analysis technique was applied to the Einstein HRI image. We detect 28 sources in the HRI image, of which nine are extended. Eight of the extended sources correspond to sources previously detected by Bechtold et al. Overall, using both the

  5. Wavelet transform analysis of the small-scale X-ray structure of the cluster Abell 1367

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebeney, S. A.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Murray, S.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a new technique based on a wavelet transform analysis to quantify the small-scale (less than a few arcminutes) X-ray structure of clusters of galaxies. We apply this technique to the ROSAT position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) and Einstein high-resolution imager (HRI) images of the central region of the cluster Abell 1367 to detect sources embedded within the diffuse intracluster medium. In addition to detecting sources and determining their fluxes and positions, we show that the wavelet analysis allows a characterization of the sources extents. In particular, the wavelet scale at which a given source achieves a maximum signal-to-noise ratio in the wavelet images provides an estimate of the angular extent of the source. To account for the widely varying point response of the ROSAT PSPC as a function of off-axis angle requires a quantitative measurement of the source size and a comparison to a calibration derived from the analysis of a Deep Survey image. Therefore, we assume that each source could be described as an isotropic two-dimensional Gaussian and used the wavelet amplitudes, at different scales, to determine the equivalent Gaussian Full Width Half-Maximum (FWHM) (and its uncertainty) appropriate for each source. In our analysis of the ROSAT PSPC image, we detect 31 X-ray sources above the diffuse cluster emission (within a radius of 24 min), 16 of which are apparently associated with cluster galaxies and two with serendipitous, background quasars. We find that the angular extents of 11 sources exceed the nominal width of the PSPC point-spread function. Four of these extended sources were previously detected by Bechtold et al. (1983) as 1 sec scale features using the Einstein HRI. The same wavelet analysis technique was applied to the Einstein HRI image. We detect 28 sources in the HRI image, of which nine are extended. Eight of the extended sources correspond to sources previously detected by Bechtold et al. Overall, using both the

  6. Silica dust control in small-scale building/structure demolition operations using good work practice guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muianga, C. V.; Rice, C. H.; Succop, P.

    2009-02-01

    Work practices can influence exposure, especially in small-scale operations conducted by mobile work crews. This study evaluated the use of information on good work practice in control guidance sheets adapted from UK Silica Essentials guidance sheets by trained workers and supervisors employed in small-scale concrete and masonry demolition operations. A one-page employee silica task-based control guidance sheet for each of four demolition tasks and multiple-page silica control guidance for supervisors were developed. Interactive, hands-on worker training on these task-based good work practice controls was developed. Training was presented to 26 participants from two demolition crews. Feedback on the training and task-based good work practice control guidance sheets was elicited. Observations of work practices were made before and after training. Participants indicated gains in knowledge and checklists were used to document skill attainment. The quality of the training and usefulness of the material/skills was rated high by trainees. Increased use of water to suppress dust and wet cleaning methods on the job were documented following the training. Additional follow-up after training is required to determine long-term impact on sustained changes in work practices, and to evaluate the need for refresher training.

  7. Enhanced Monopropellant Fuel Decomposition by High Aspect Ratio, Catalytic CNT Structures for Propulsion of Small Scale Underwater Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, Kevin; Claussen, Jonathan; Iverson, Brian

    2014-11-01

    Both maneuverability and efficiency for reagent-based propulsion systems of small-scale exploratory devices, such as autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), is largely dependent on their maximum fuel decomposition rate. Reagent-based systems, however, require large catalyst surface area to fuel volume ratios in order to achieve the fuel decomposition rates necessary for locomotion. This work demonstrates the utility of platinum-coated, carbon nanotube (CNT) scaffolds as high surface area catalysts for decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a flowing environment. Usage of these functionalized microchannels ensures that both the maximum distance between fuel and catalyst is only half the microchannel diameter, and that the fuel concentration gradient increases due to boundary-layer thinning. These conditions facilitate intimate contact between fuel and catalyst and, therefore, faster decomposition rates. Electrochemical testing revealed that electroactive surface area to volume ratios of approximately 61.4 cm-1 can be achieved for samples fabricated using a static Pt deposition scheme. Thrust measurements were taken using a small-scale submersible which indicated a maximum thrust of 0.114 N using 50 weight percent H2O2 exposed to eight inline 2.867 cm2 Pt-CNT scaffolds.

  8. On the Nature of the Small-scale Structure in the Cosmic Microwave Background Observed by PLANCK and WMAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschuur, G. L.; Schmelz, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Small-scale features observed by Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and PLANCK in the frequency range of 22-90 GHz show a nearly flat spectrum, which meets with expectations that they originate in the early universe. However, free-free emission from electrons in small angular scale galactic sources that suffer beam dilution very closely mimic the observed spectrum in this frequency range. Fitting such a model to the PLANCK and WMAP data shows that the angular size required to fit the data is comparable to the angular width of associated H i filaments found in the Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array-H isurvey data. Also, the temperature of the electrons is found to be in the range of 100-300 K. The phenomenon revealed by these data may contribute to a more precise characterization of the foreground masks required to interpret the cosmological aspect of PLANCK and WMAP data.

  9. In situ calibration of an interferometric velocity sensor for measuring small scale flow structures using a Talbot-pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Jörg; Czarske, Jürgen

    2017-10-01

    Small scale flow phenomena play an important role across engineering, biological and chemical sciences. To gain deeper understanding of the influence of those flow phenomena involved, measurement techniques with high spatial resolution are often required, presuming a calibration of very low uncertainty. To enable such measurements, a method for the in situ calibration of an interferometric flow velocity profile sensor is presented. This sensor, with demonstrated spatial resolution better than 1 μm, allows for spatially-resolving measurements with low velocity uncertainty in flows with high velocity gradients, on condition that the spatial behavior of the interference fringe systems is well-known by calibration with low uncertainty, especially challenging to obtain at applications with geometries difficult to access. The calibration method described herein uses three interfering beams to form the interference fringe systems of the sensor, yielding Doppler burst signals exhibiting two peaks in the frequency domain whose amplitude ratio varies periodically along the measurement volume major z-axis, giving a further independent value of the axial tracer particle position that can be used to determine the calibration functions of the sensor during the flow measurement. A flow measurement in a microchannel experimentally validates that the presented approach allows for simultaneously estimating the calibration functions and the velocity profile, providing flow measurements with very low systematic measurement errors of the particle position of less than 400 nm (confidence interval 95%). In that way, the interferometric flow velocity profile sensor utilizing the in situ self-calibration method promises valuable insights on small scale flow phenomena, such as those given in shear and boundary layer flows, by featuring reliable flow measurements due to minimum systematic and statistical measurement errors.

  10. Small-scale structure of the midlatitude storm enhanced density plume during the 17 March 2015 St. Patrick's Day storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, Thomas R. P.; Moldwin, Mark B.; Zou, Shasha

    2017-03-01

    Kilometer-scale density irregularities in the ionosphere can cause ionospheric scintillation—a phenomenon that degrades space-based navigation and communication signals. During strong geomagnetic storms, the midlatitude ionosphere is primed to produce these ˜1-10 km small-scale irregularities along the steep gradients between midlatitude storm enhanced density (SED) plumes and the adjacent low-density trough. The length scales of irregularities on the order of 1-10 km are determined from a combination of spatial, temporal, and frequency analyses using single-station ground-based Global Positioning System total electron content (TEC) combined with radar plasma velocity measurements. Kilometer-scale irregularities are detected along the boundaries of the SED plume and depleted density trough during the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm, but not equatorward of the plume or within the plume itself. Analysis using the fast Fourier transform of high-pass filtered slant TEC suggests that the kilometer-scale irregularities formed near the poleward gradients of SED plumes can have similar intensity and length scales to those typically found in the aurora but are shown to be distinct phenomena in spacecraft electron precipitation measurements.

  11. Protein Structure Prediction Using String Kernels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-03

    evaluated using the sets of sequences obtained from the SCOP database [39]. The SCOP database is a manually curated protein structure database assigning...proteins into hierarchically defined classes. The fold prediction problem in the context of SCOP can be defined as assigning a protein sequence to its...above techniques, remote homology detection is simulated by formulating it as a superfamily classification problem within the context of the SCOP database

  12. Retrieving Backbone String Neighbors Provides Insights Into Structural Modeling of Membrane Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiang-Ming; Li, Tong-Hua; Cong, Pei-Sheng; Tang, Sheng-Nan; Xiong, Wen-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Identification of protein structural neighbors to a query is fundamental in structure and function prediction. Here we present BS-align, a systematic method to retrieve backbone string neighbors from primary sequences as templates for protein modeling. The backbone conformation of a protein is represented by the backbone string, as defined in Ramachandran space. The backbone string of a query can be accurately predicted by two innovative technologies: a knowledge-driven sequence alignment and encoding of a backbone string element profile. Then, the predicted backbone string is employed to align against a backbone string database and retrieve a set of backbone string neighbors. The backbone string neighbors were shown to be close to native structures of query proteins. BS-align was successfully employed to predict models of 10 membrane proteins with lengths ranging between 229 and 595 residues, and whose high-resolution structural determinations were difficult to elucidate both by experiment and prediction. The obtained TM-scores and root mean square deviations of the models confirmed that the models based on the backbone string neighbors retrieved by the BS-align were very close to the native membrane structures although the query and the neighbor shared a very low sequence identity. The backbone string system represents a new road for the prediction of protein structure from sequence, and suggests that the similarity of the backbone string would be more informative than describing a protein as belonging to a fold. PMID:22415040

  13. Structure of the string R-matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrielli, Alessandro

    2009-02-01

    By requiring invariance directly under the Yangian symmetry, we rederive Beisert's quantum R-matrix, in a form that carries explicit dependence on the representation labels, the braiding factors and the spectral parameters ui. In this way, we demonstrate that there exists rewriting of its entries, such that the dependence on the spectral parameters is purely of a difference form. Namely, the latter enter only in the combination u1 - u2, as indicated by the shift automorphism of the Yangian. When recasted in this fashion, the entries exhibit a cleaner structure, which allows us to spot new interesting relations among them. This permits us to package them into a practical tensorial expression, where the nondiagonal entries are taken care of by explicit combinations of symmetry algebra generators.

  14. Small scale sanitation technologies.

    PubMed

    Green, W; Ho, G

    2005-01-01

    Small scale systems can improve the sustainability of sanitation systems as they more easily close the water and nutrient loops. They also provide alternate solutions to centrally managed large scale infrastructures. Appropriate sanitation provision can improve the lives of people with inadequate sanitation through health benefits, reuse products as well as reduce ecological impacts. In the literature there seems to be no compilation of a wide range of available onsite sanitation systems around the world that encompasses black and greywater treatment plus stand-alone dry and urine separation toilet systems. Seventy technologies have been identified and classified according to the different waste source streams. Sub-classification based on major treatment methods included aerobic digestion, composting and vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, sand/soil/peat filtration and constructed wetlands. Potential users or suppliers of sanitation systems can choose from wide range of technologies available and examine the different treatment principles used in the technologies. Sanitation systems need to be selected according to the local social, economic and environmental conditions and should aim to be sustainable.

  15. A novel method for the identification of conserved structural patterns in RNA: From small scale to high-throughput applications

    PubMed Central

    Pietrosanto, Marco; Mattei, Eugenio; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Ferrè, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Functional RNA regions are often related to recurrent secondary structure patterns (or motifs), which can exert their role in several different ways, particularly in dictating the interaction with RNA-binding proteins, and acting in the regulation of a large number of cellular processes. Among the available motif-finding tools, the majority focuses on sequence patterns, sometimes including secondary structure as additional constraints to improve their performance. Nonetheless, secondary structures motifs may be concurrent to their sequence counterparts or even encode a stronger functional signal. Current methods for searching structural motifs generally require long pipelines and/or high computational efforts or previously aligned sequences. Here, we present BEAM (BEAr Motif finder), a novel method for structural motif discovery from a set of unaligned RNAs, taking advantage of a recently developed encoding for RNA secondary structure named BEAR (Brand nEw Alphabet for RNAs) and of evolutionary substitution rates of secondary structure elements. Tested in a varied set of scenarios, from small- to large-scale, BEAM is successful in retrieving structural motifs even in highly noisy data sets, such as those that can arise in CLIP-Seq or other high-throughput experiments. PMID:27580722

  16. A novel method for the identification of conserved structural patterns in RNA: From small scale to high-throughput applications.

    PubMed

    Pietrosanto, Marco; Mattei, Eugenio; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Ferrè, Fabrizio

    2016-10-14

    Functional RNA regions are often related to recurrent secondary structure patterns (or motifs), which can exert their role in several different ways, particularly in dictating the interaction with RNA-binding proteins, and acting in the regulation of a large number of cellular processes. Among the available motif-finding tools, the majority focuses on sequence patterns, sometimes including secondary structure as additional constraints to improve their performance. Nonetheless, secondary structures motifs may be concurrent to their sequence counterparts or even encode a stronger functional signal. Current methods for searching structural motifs generally require long pipelines and/or high computational efforts or previously aligned sequences. Here, we present BEAM (BEAr Motif finder), a novel method for structural motif discovery from a set of unaligned RNAs, taking advantage of a recently developed encoding for RNA secondary structure named BEAR (Brand nEw Alphabet for RNAs) and of evolutionary substitution rates of secondary structure elements. Tested in a varied set of scenarios, from small- to large-scale, BEAM is successful in retrieving structural motifs even in highly noisy data sets, such as those that can arise in CLIP-Seq or other high-throughput experiments. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Small Scale High Speed Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, Adam P. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd J. (Inventor); Lehman, Matthew K. (Inventor); Mehra, Amitav (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A small scale, high speed turbomachine is described, as well as a process for manufacturing the turbomachine. The turbomachine is manufactured by diffusion bonding stacked sheets of metal foil, each of which has been pre-formed to correspond to a cross section of the turbomachine structure. The turbomachines include rotating elements as well as static structures. Using this process, turbomachines may be manufactured with rotating elements that have outer diameters of less than four inches in size, and/or blading heights of less than 0.1 inches. The rotating elements of the turbomachines are capable of rotating at speeds in excess of 150 feet per second. In addition, cooling features may be added internally to blading to facilitate cooling in high temperature operations.

  18. MICA sounding rocket observations of conductivity-gradient-generated auroral ionospheric responses: Small-scale structure with large-scale drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, K. A.; Hampton, D. L.; Zettergren, M.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Conde, M.; Fernandes, P. A.; Horak, P.; Lessard, M.; Miceli, R.; Michell, R.; Moen, J.; Nicolls, M.; Powell, S. P.; Samara, M.

    2015-11-01

    A detailed, in situ study of field-aligned current (FAC) structure in a transient, substorm expansion phase auroral arc is conducted using electric field, magnetometer, and electron density measurements from the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Alfvén Resonator (MICA) sounding rocket, launched from Poker Flat, AK. These data are supplemented with larger-scale, contextual measurements from a heterogeneous collection of ground-based instruments including the Poker Flat incoherent scatter radar and nearby scanning doppler imagers and filtered all-sky cameras. An electrostatic ionospheric modeling case study of this event is also constructed by using available data (neutral winds, electron precipitation, and electric fields) to constrain model initial and boundary conditions. MICA magnetometer data are converted into FAC measurements using a sheet current approximation and show an up-down current pair, with small-scale current density and Poynting flux structures in the downward current channel. Model results are able to roughly recreate only the large-scale features of the field-aligned currents, suggesting that observed small-scale structures may be due to ionospheric feedback processes not encapsulated by the electrostatic model. The model is also used to assess the contributions of various processes to total FAC and suggests that both conductance gradients and neutral dynamos may contribute significantly to FACs in a narrow region where the current transitions from upward to downward. Comparison of Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar versus in situ electric field estimates illustrates the high sensitivity of FAC estimates to measurement resolution.

  19. A higher-order mathematical modeling for dynamic behavior of protein microtubule shell structures including shear deformation and small-scale effects.

    PubMed

    Daneshmand, Farhang; Farokhi, Hamed; Amabili, Marco

    2014-06-01

    Microtubules in mammalian cells are cylindrical protein polymers which structurally and dynamically organize functional activities in living cells. They are important for maintaining cell structures, providing platforms for intracellular transport, and forming the spindle during mitosis, as well as other cellular processes. Various in vitro studies have shown that microtubules react to applied mechanical loading and physical environment. To investigate the mechanisms underlying such phenomena, a mathematical model based on the orthotropic higher-order shear deformation shell formulation and Hamilton's principle is presented in this paper for dynamic behavior of microtubules. The numerical results obtained by the proposed shell model are verified by the experimental data from the literature, showing great consistency. The nonlocal elasticity theory is also utilized to describe the nano-scale effects of the microtubule structure. The wave propagation and vibration characteristics of the microtubule are examined in the presence and absence of the cytosol employing proposed formulations. The effects of different system parameters such as length, small scale parameter, and cytosol viscosity on vibrational behavior of a microtubule are elucidated. The definitions of critical length and critical viscosity are introduced and the results obtained using the higher order shell model are compared with those obtained employing a first-order shear deformation theory. This comparison shows that the small scale effects become important for higher values of the wave vector and the proposed model gives more accurate results for both small and large values of wave vectors. Moreover, it is shown that for higher circumferential wave number, the torsional wave velocity obtained by the higher-order shell model tend to be higher than the one predicted by the first-order shell model.

  20. Small-scale wavelike structures in the Alpine Region observed in OH-Airglow - Comparison of measurements at Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany and Sonnblick, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannawald, Patrick; Sedlak, René; Schmidt, Carsten; Wüst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The OH-airglow layer in about 87 km altitude is well-suited for the investigation of atmospheric dynamics, allowing continuous observations of the night-sky throughout the year. Especially, atmospheric gravity waves are prominent features in the data of airglow imaging systems. Our system FAIM 1 (Fast Airglow IMager 1) focusses on small-scale wave-like structures in the range of 1 km to 30 km with a spatial resolution of about 200m at mesopause heights and a FOV of about 20° to 25°. Covering the brightest OH vibrational bands between 1.0 µm and 1.7 µm, a temporal resolution of 2 frames per second is acquired. The instrumental setup is designed to cover small-scale gravity waves as well as larger scale instability structures. The instrument FAIM 1 is operational since 2014 as part of the Virtual Alpine Observatory program (VAO). For the first 1.5 years it was placed at Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, afterwards it has been set-up at Sonnblick Observatory, Austria. This currently provides about 3 years of data at two sites. The two-dimensional FFT is used for the extraction of horizontal wavelengths and propagation directions from the images. Additionally, a new approach based on the so-called structure tensor is tested in order to overcome the disadvantages of the FFT. For both stations, the dominating horizontal wavelengths and propagation directions are retrieved; the similarities and differences are presented and discussed. This work received funding from the Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Consumer Protection.

  1. Composite strings in (2+1)-dimensional anisotropic weakly coupled Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Orland, Peter

    2008-01-15

    The small-scale structure of a string connecting a pair of static sources is explored for the weakly coupled anisotropic SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in (2+1) dimensions. A crucial ingredient in the formulation of the string Hamiltonian is the phenomenon of color smearing of the string constituents. The quark-antiquark potential is determined. We close with some discussion of the standard, fully Lorentz-invariant Yang-Mills theory.

  2. Ectoparasite infestations of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) are associated with small-scale landscape structures in an urban-suburban environment.

    PubMed

    Thamm, Sven; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Wells, Konstans

    2009-09-01

    Animals that exploit heterogeneous and patchy environments encounter different local habitat conditions that influence their interaction with the environment, such as the acquisition of parasites. How and at which scales interaction processes between parasites, hosts, and the environment are realized remains largely unknown. We examined the infestation patterns of 56 hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) with fleas and ticks at a small spatial scale within a 12 km(2) area along a suburban-urban gradient in southwestern Germany. The structure and type of habitats surrounding hedgehog capture locations were estimated from digital land cover data within radii of 20, 50, and 100 m. These were assumed to match the ranging area and underlying heterogeneous landscape matrix in which host-parasite interactions take place. Landscape-based models suggested that flea burdens significantly decreased with the diversity and heterogeneity of land cover, as well as with the areal coverage of roads within radii of 50 and 100 m. Overall tick infestation levels were mostly explained by the number of arable patches and the areal coverage of roads within radii of 50 and 100 m, as well as date of capture. Examination of the semivariance in model residuals revealed no evident spatial structure in any of the models with flea or tick infestation patterns as response variables. Our results, which are based on a sampling scheme within a relatively small spatio-temporal window, suggest that heterogeneous landscape matrices affect parasitization rates of animals in urban environments, with clear differences at the individual level.

  3. In situ ionospheric observations of severe weather-related gravity waves and associated small-scale plasma structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Michael C.

    1997-01-01

    On July 27, 1988, two sounding rockets were launched over a small thunderstorm cell which constituted the remnants of a large frontal event which had lasted for several hours over the eastern seaboard. One of the rockets was instrumented for detection of the electromagnetic impulse from lightning strikes and its subsequent interaction with the ionospheric plasma [Kelley et al., 1990]. The second had on board an absolute electron density probe, the results from which we report here. We present evidence that a gravity wave was spawned by the front and propagated nearly to the F peak in the ionosphere, where it steepened and created structure in the medium at scales much less than the vertical wavenumber of the major disturbance. The fluctuation spectrum along the rocket path was elevated for scales from 25 km down to less than 10 m. At scales between 10 km and just under 100 m, characterization of the spectrum by a power law yields a spectral index less than that displayed by such well-studied processes as bottomside spread F and barium cloud striations. Similar results have been reported for gravity wave induced intermediate scale structures at midlatitudes [Wernik et al., 1986]. The mixing theory described by Fridman [1990] may be relevant to these observations.

  4. Wind structure and small-scale wind variability in the stratosphere and mesosphere during the November 1980 Energy Budget Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Carlson, M.; Rees, D.; Offermann, D.; Philbrick, C. R.; Widdel, H. U.

    1982-01-01

    Rocket observations made from two sites in northern Scandinavia between November 6 and December 1, 1980, as part of the Energy Budget Campaign are discussed. It was found that significant vertical and temporal changes in the wind structure were present and that they coincided with different geomagnetic conditions, that is, quiet and enhanced. Before November 16, the meridional wind component above 60 km was found to be positive (southerly), whereas the magnitude of the zonal wind component increased with altitude. After November 16 the meridional component became negative (northerly), and the magnitude of the zonal wind component was observed to decrease with altitude. Time sections of the perturbations of the zonal wind reveal the presence of vertically propagating waves, suggesting gravity wave activity. The waves are found to increase in wavelength from 3-4 km near 40 km to more than 12 km near 80 km. The observational techniques made use of chaff foil, chemical trails, inflatable spheres, and parachutes.

  5. Wind structure and small-scale wind variability in the stratosphere and mesosphere during the November 1980 Energy Budget Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Carlson, M.; Rees, D.; Offermann, D.; Philbrick, C. R.; Widdel, H. U.

    1982-01-01

    Rocket observations made from two sites in northern Scandinavia between November 6 and December 1, 1980, as part of the Energy Budget Campaign are discussed. It was found that significant vertical and temporal changes in the wind structure were present and that they coincided with different geomagnetic conditions, that is, quiet and enhanced. Before November 16, the meridional wind component above 60 km was found to be positive (southerly), whereas the magnitude of the zonal wind component increased with altitude. After November 16 the meridional component became negative (northerly), and the magnitude of the zonal wind component was observed to decrease with altitude. Time sections of the perturbations of the zonal wind reveal the presence of vertically propagating waves, suggesting gravity wave activity. The waves are found to increase in wavelength from 3-4 km near 40 km to more than 12 km near 80 km. The observational techniques made use of chaff foil, chemical trails, inflatable spheres, and parachutes.

  6. Higher-order derivative correlations and the alignment of small-scale structures in isotropic numerical turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    In a three dimensional simulation higher order derivative correlations, including skewness and flatness factors, are calculated for velocity and passive scalar fields and are compared with structures in the flow. The equations are forced to maintain steady state turbulence and collect statistics. It is found that the scalar derivative flatness increases much faster with Reynolds number than the velocity derivative flatness, and the velocity and mixed derivative skewness do not increase with Reynolds number. Separate exponents are found for the various fourth order velocity derivative correlations, with the vorticity flatness exponent the largest. Three dimensional graphics show strong alignment between the vorticity, rate of strain, and scalar-gradient fields. The vorticity is concentrated in tubes with the scalar gradient and the largest principal rate of strain aligned perpendicular to the tubes. Velocity spectra, in Kolmogorov variables, collapse to a single curve and a short minus 5/3 spectral regime is observed.

  7. Hidden sector hydrogen as dark matter: Small-scale structure formation predictions and the importance of hyperfine interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boddy, Kimberly K.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Kwa, Anna; Peter, Annika H. G.

    2016-12-01

    We study the atomic physics and the astrophysical implications of a model in which the dark matter is the analog of hydrogen in a secluded sector. The self-interactions between dark matter particles include both elastic scatterings as well as inelastic processes due to a hyperfine transition. The self-interaction cross sections are computed by numerically solving the coupled Schrödinger equations for this system. We show that these self-interactions exhibit the right velocity dependence to explain the low dark matter density cores seen in small galaxies while being consistent with all constraints from observations of clusters of galaxies. For a viable solution, the dark hydrogen mass has to be in the 10-100 GeV range and the dark fine-structure constant has to be larger than 0.01. This range of model parameters requires the existence of a dark matter-antimatter asymmetry in the early universe to set the relic abundance of dark matter. For this range of parameters, we show that significant cooling losses may occur due to inelastic excitations to the hyperfine state and subsequent decays, with implications for the evolution of low-mass halos and the early growth of supermassive black holes. Cooling from excitations to higher n levels of dark hydrogen and subsequent decays is possible at the cluster scale, with a strong dependence on halo mass. Finally, we show that the minimum halo mass is in the range of 1 03.5 to 1 07M⊙ for the viable regions of parameter space, significantly larger than the typical predictions for weakly interacting dark matter models. This pattern of observables in cosmological structure formation is unique to this model, making it possible to rule in or rule out hidden sector hydrogen as a viable dark matter model.

  8. THE SMALL-SCALE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE AND FRAGMENTATION DIFFERENCE OF TWO EMBEDDED INTERMEDIATE-MASS PROTOSTARS IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kempen, T. A.; Longmore, S. N.; Johnstone, D.; Pillai, T.; Fuente, A.

    2012-06-01

    Intermediate-mass (IM) protostars, the bridge between the very common solar-like protostars and the more massive, but rarer, O and B stars, can only be studied at high physical spatial resolutions in a handful of clouds. In this paper, we present and analyze the continuum results from an observing campaign at the Submillimeter Array (SMA) targeting two well-studied IM protostars in Orion, NGC 2071 and L1641 S3 MMS 1. The extended SMA (eSMA) probes structure at angular resolutions up to 0.''2, revealing protostellar disks on scales of {approx}200 AU. Continuum flux measurements on these scales indicate that a significant amount of mass, a few tens of M{sub Sun }, is present. Envelope, stellar, and disk masses are derived using compact, extended, and eSMA configurations and compared against spectral energy distribution fitting models. We hypothesize that fragmentation into three components occurred within NGC 2071 at an early time, when the envelopes were less than 10% of their current masses, e.g., <0.5 M{sub Sun }. No fragmentation occurred for L1641 S3 MMS 1. For NGC 2071, evidence is given that the bulk of the envelope material currently around each source was accreted after the initial fragmentation. In addition, about 30% of the total core mass is not yet associated to one of the three sources. A global accretion model is favored and a potential accretion history of NGC 2071 is presented. It is shown that the relatively low level of fragmentation in NGC 2071 was stifled compared to the expected fragmentation from a Jeans argument. Similarly, the lack of fragmentation in L1641 S3 MMS 1 is likely due to similar arguments.

  9. The Phenomenology of Small-Scale Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasan, K. R.; Antonia, R. A.

    I have sometimes thought that what makes a man's work classic is often just this multiplicity [of interpretations], which invites and at the same time resists our craving for a clear understanding. Wright (1982, p. 34), on Wittgenstein's philosophy Small-scale turbulence has been an area of especially active research in the recent past, and several useful research directions have been pursued. Here, we selectively review this work. The emphasis is on scaling phenomenology and kinematics of small-scale structure. After providing a brief introduction to the classical notions of universality due to Kolmogorov and others, we survey the existing work on intermittency, refined similarity hypotheses, anomalous scaling exponents, derivative statistics, intermittency models, and the structure and kinematics of small-scale structure - the latter aspect coming largely from the direct numerical simulation of homogeneous turbulence in a periodic box.

  10. Resolving the fine-scale density structure of oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere from small-scale geoid anomalies: a case study from the Mendocino Fracture zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadio, C.; Korenaga, J.

    2013-12-01

    As oceanic lithosphere corresponds to the top boundary layer of mantle convection, its gross density structure reflects how the convecting mantle is actually cooled near the surface. A recent wavelet analysis of the geoid data around the Mendocino fracture zone has revealed 100- to 200-km scale anomalies, which notably deviate from any of reference evolution models and therefore call for prominent density anomalies at relatively shallow depths (Cadio and Korenaga, 2012). Given their spatial scales and weak correlation with seafloor topography, their sources must be within or right beneath the oceanic lithosphere. Such short-wavelength geoid anomalies carry important information regarding the fine-scale density structure of the oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere. A new inversion scheme has been developed to investigate these local anomalies. To overcome the nonuniqueness of potential-field data, we reduce the model space by using spectral localization, reference models, and a priori bounds on the amplitude of geologically possible density perturbations that can be caused by thermal or chemical processes within the convecting mantle. Our approach is based on Bayesian statistics and is implemented by combining forward modeling with Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. The depth and the vertical extent of density anomalies derived from our inversion indicate that they are intimately related to the structure of the lowermost lithosphere. They reflect very likely small-scale convection induced by lateral temperature gradient across the fracture zone. The amplitude of density perturbations varying between -25 to 30 kg m-3 and their spatial organization are also in agreement with predictions derived from numerical simulations of such instabilities (Huang et al., 2003; Dumoulin et al., 2008). A global analysis of these local anomalies will allow us to resolve the fine-scale density structure of shallow oceanic mantle not only along fracture zones, but also in other parts

  11. Cosmic string wakes and large-scale structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlton, Jane C.

    1988-01-01

    The formation of structure from infinite cosmic string wakes is modeled for a universe dominated by cold dark matter (CDM). Cross-sectional slices through the wake distribution tend to outline empty regions with diameters which are not inconsistent with the range of sizes of the voids in the CfA slice of the universe. The topology of the wake distribution is found to be spongy rather than cell-like. Correlations between CDM wakes do not extend much beyond a horizon length, so it is unlikely that CDM wakes are responsible for the correlations between clusters of galaxies. An estimate of the fraction of matter to accrete onto CDM wakes indicates that wakes could be more important in galaxy formation than previously anticipated.

  12. On validating Quasi-Steady Quasi-Homogeneous nature of the relationgship between large-scale and small-scale structures in a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Chernyshenko, Sergei

    2016-11-01

    A formal definition to the two hypotheses of the quasi-steady and quasi-homogeneous (QSQH) theory was proposed. The theory is supposed to explain the phenomenon of the large-scale structures influencing the small-scale structures in a turbulent boundary layer. Multi-objective optimisations were performed to find the optimal cut-off parameters for the new large-scale filters. The new filters were proved to obtain much more clear large-scale structures than the filter suggested by the previous studies. Calculations and comparisons for a set of statistical flow properties extracted from the databases of the direct numerical simulations of a plane channel flow were conducted. The accuracy of the predictions based on the QSQH theory was observed improving when the Reynolds number increases. Extrapolations of urms and two-points correlation from medium to high Reynolds number based on the QSQH approach were preformed and about 10 % accuracy was reported. The more interesting thing is that the QSQH theory implies a dependence of the mean profile log-law constants on the Reynolds number. The main overall result of the present work is the validations of the two hypotheses of the quasi-steady quasi-homogeneous theory in near-wall turbulent flows.

  13. Cosmic strings and superconducting cosmic strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Edmund

    1988-01-01

    The possible consequences of forming cosmic strings and superconducting cosmic strings in the early universe are discussed. Lecture 1 describes the group theoretic reasons for and the field theoretic reasons why cosmic strings can form in spontaneously broken gauge theories. Lecture 2 discusses the accretion of matter onto string loops, emphasizing the scenario with a cold dark matter dominated universe. In lecture 3 superconducting cosmic strings are discussed, as is a mechanism which leads to the formation of structure from such strings.

  14. Small-scale hydropower systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report covers several aspects of small-scale hydropower systems. The topics covered are: head and flow; waterwheels; impulse and reaction turbines; feasibility and practicality; environmental impact; and economics. 24 refs., 5 figs. (JF)

  15. Text String Detection from Natural Scenes by Structure-based Partition and Grouping

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Chucai; Tian, YingLi

    2012-01-01

    Text information in natural scene images serves as important clues for many image-based applications such as scene understanding, content-based image retrieval, assistive navigation, and automatic geocoding. However, locating text from complex background with multiple colors is a challenging task. In this paper, we explore a new framework to detect text strings with arbitrary orientations in complex natural scene images. Our proposed framework of text string detection consists of two steps: 1) Image partition to find text character candidates based on local gradient features and color uniformity of character components. 2) Character candidate grouping to detect text strings based on joint structural features of text characters in each text string such as character size differences, distances between neighboring characters, and character alignment. By assuming that a text string has at least three characters, we propose two algorithms of text string detection: 1) adjacent character grouping method, and 2) text line grouping method. The adjacent character grouping method calculates the sibling groups of each character candidate as string segments and then merges the intersecting sibling groups into text string. The text line grouping method performs Hough transform to fit text line among the centroids of text candidates. Each fitted text line describes the orientation of a potential text string. The detected text string is presented by a rectangle region covering all characters whose centroids are cascaded in its text line. To improve efficiency and accuracy, our algorithms are carried out in multi-scales. The proposed methods outperform the state-of-the-art results on the public Robust Reading Dataset which contains text only in horizontal orientation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of our methods to detect text strings with arbitrary orientations is evaluated on the Oriented Scene Text Dataset collected by ourselves containing text strings in non

  16. Geologic utility of small-scale airphotos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, M. M.

    1969-01-01

    The geologic value of small scale airphotos is emphasized by describing the application of high altitude oblique and 1:120,000 to 1:145,000 scale vertical airphotos to several geologic problems in California. These examples show that small-scale airphotos can be of use to geologists in the following ways: (1) high altitude, high oblique airphotos show vast areas in one view; and (2) vertical airphotos offer the most efficient method of discovering the major topographic features and structural and lithologic characteristics of terrain.

  17. On Ramachandran angles, closed strings and knots in protein structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Si; Niemi, Antti J.

    2016-08-01

    The Ramachandran angles (φ,\\psi ) of a protein backbone form the vertices of a piecewise geodesic curve on the surface of a torus. When the ends of the curve are connected to each other similarly, by a geodesic, the result is a closed string that in general wraps around the torus a number of times both in the meridional and the longitudinal directions. The two wrapping numbers are global characteristics of the protein structure. A statistical analysis of the wrapping numbers in terms of crystallographic x-ray structures in the protein data bank (PDB) reveals that proteins have no net chirality in the ϕ direction but in the ψ direction, proteins prefer to display chirality. A comparison between the wrapping numbers and the concept of folding index discloses a non-linearity in their relationship. Thus these three integer valued invariants can be used in tandem, to scrutinize and classify the global loop structure of individual PDB proteins, in terms of the overall fold topology.

  18. String mediated phase transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, ED; Haws, D.; Rivers, R.; Holbraad, S.

    1988-01-01

    It is demonstrated from first principles how the existence of string-like structures can cause a system to undergo a phase transition. In particular, the role of topologically stable cosmic string in the restoration of spontaneously broken symmetries is emphasized. How the thermodynamic properties of strings alter when stiffness and nearest neighbor string-string interactions are included is discussed.

  19. A geostatistical analysis of small-scale spatial variability in bacterial abundance and community structure in salt marsh creek bank sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Rima B.; Blum, Linda K.; McComb, Alison C.; Mills, Aaron L.

    2002-01-01

    Small-scale variations in bacterial abundance and community structure were examined in salt marsh sediments from Virginia's eastern shore. Samples were collected at 5 cm intervals (horizontally) along a 50 cm elevation gradient, over a 215 cm horizontal transect. For each sample, bacterial abundance was determined using acridine orange direct counts and community structure was analyzed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting of whole-community DNA extracts. A geostatistical analysis was used to determine the degree of spatial autocorrelation among the samples, for each variable and each direction (horizontal and vertical). The proportion of variance in bacterial abundance that could be accounted for by the spatial model was quite high (vertical: 60%, horizontal: 73%); significant autocorrelation was found among samples separated by 25 cm in the vertical direction and up to 115 cm horizontally. In contrast, most of the variability in community structure was not accounted for by simply considering the spatial separation of samples (vertical: 11%, horizontal: 22%), and must reflect variability from other parameters (e.g., variation at other spatial scales, experimental error, or environmental heterogeneity). Microbial community patch size based upon overall similarity in community structure varied between 17 cm (vertical) and 35 cm (horizontal). Overall, variability due to horizontal position (distance from the creek bank) was much smaller than that due to vertical position (elevation) for both community properties assayed. This suggests that processes more correlated with elevation (e.g., drainage and redox potential) vary at a smaller scale (therefore producing smaller patch sizes) than processes controlled by distance from the creek bank. c2002 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ETHOS - an effective theory of structure formation: dark matter physics as a possible explanation of the small-scale CDM problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelsberger, Mark; Zavala, Jesús; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Pfrommer, Christoph; Bringmann, Torsten; Sigurdson, Kris

    2016-08-01

    We present the first simulations within an effective theory of structure formation (ETHOS), which includes the effect of interactions between dark matter and dark radiation on the linear initial power spectrum and dark matter self-interactions during non-linear structure formation. We simulate a Milky Way-like halo in four different dark matter models and the cold dark matter case. Our highest resolution simulation has a particle mass of 2.8 × 104 M⊙ and a softening length of 72.4 pc. We demonstrate that all alternative models have only a negligible impact on large-scale structure formation. On galactic scales, however, the models significantly affect the structure and abundance of subhaloes due to the combined effects of small-scale primordial damping in the power spectrum and late-time self-interactions. We derive an analytic mapping from the primordial damping scale in the power spectrum to the cutoff scale in the halo mass function and the kinetic decoupling temperature. We demonstrate that certain models within this extended effective framework that can alleviate the too-big-to-fail and missing satellite problems simultaneously, and possibly the core-cusp problem. The primordial power spectrum cutoff of our models naturally creates a diversity in the circular velocity profiles, which is larger than that found for cold dark matter simulations. We show that the parameter space of models can be constrained by contrasting model predictions to astrophysical observations. For example, some models may be challenged by the missing satellite problem if baryonic processes were to be included and even oversolve the too-big-to-fail problem; thus ruling them out.

  1. Modeling small-scale physical non-equilibrium and large-scale preferential fluid and solute transport in a structured soil

    SciTech Connect

    Gwo, J.P.; Jardine, P.M.; Wilson, G.V.; Yeh, G.-T.

    1994-09-01

    The deviation of non-reactive solute transport from that predicted by classical convection-dispersion equations is usually attributed to physical non-equilibrium caused by small- and large-scale pore structures in porous media. Diffusion of fluid and solute into micropores or rock matrix may occur locally, while fluid and solutes can also be channeled preferentially through interconnected macropores or fractures. A multiple-pore-region (MPR) approach with local advective-diffusive mass exchange is adopted to simulate soil column tracer breakthrough and field-scale tracer releases in the Melton Branch Subsurface Transport Facility within the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. The soil column simulation indicates that both inter-region mass exchange and intra-region convection-dispersion contribute to small-scale solute transport in approximately the same order of magnitude. The field-scale study suggests that advective mass exchange has minor effect on subsurface hydrographs, and that large diffusive mass exchange may retain tracers near the source area. Comparison of modeling results and field data suggests that subsurface bedding planes on the field site may be the cause of large-scale heterogeneity and preferential mass transport.

  2. APEX/SABOCA observations of small-scale structure of infrared-dark clouds . I. Early evolutionary stages of star-forming cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragan, Sarah E.; Henning, Thomas; Beuther, Henrik

    2013-11-01

    Infrared-dark clouds (IRDCs) harbor the early phases of cluster and high-mass star formation and are comprised of cold (~20 K), dense (n > 104 cm-3) gas. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of IRDCs is dominated by the far-infrared and millimeter wavelength regime, and our initial Herschel study examined IRDCs at the peak of the SED with high angular resolution. Here we present a follow-up study using the SABOCA instrument on APEX which delivers 7.8″ angular resolution at 350 μm, matching the resolution we achieved with Herschel/PACS, and allowing us to characterize substructure on ~0.1 pc scales. Our sample of 11 nearby IRDCs are a mix of filamentary and clumpy morphologies, and the filamentary clouds show significant hierarchical structure, while the clumpy IRDCs exhibit little hierarchical structure. All IRDCs, regardless of morphology, have about 14% of their total mass in small scale core-like structures which roughly follow a trend of constant volume density over all size scales. Out of the 89 protostellar cores we identified in this sample with Herschel, we recover 40 of the brightest and re-fit their SEDs and find their properties agree fairly well with our previous estimates (⟨ T ⟩ ~ 19 K). We detect a new population of "cold cores" which have no 70 μm counterpart, but are 100 and 160 μm-bright, with colder temperatures (⟨ T ⟩ ~ 16 K). This latter population, along with SABOCA-only detections, are predominantly low-mass objects, but their evolutionary diagnostics are consistent with the earliest starless or prestellar phase of cores in IRDCs. Based on observations carried out with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). APEX is a collaboration between Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Onsala Space Observatory (OSO), and the European Southern Observatory (ESO).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. The Hydrodynamic Feedback of Cosmic Reionization on Small-scale Structures and Its Impact on Photon Consumption During the Epoch of Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park(박 현배, Hyunbae; Shapiro, Paul R.; Choi, Jun-hwan; Yoshida, Naoki; Hirano, Shingo; Ahn, Kyungjin

    2016-11-01

    Density inhomogeneity in the intergalactic medium (IGM) can boost the recombination rate of ionized gas substantially, affecting the growth of H ii regions during reionization. Previous attempts to quantify this effect typically failed to resolve down to the Jeans scale in the preionization IGM, which is important in establishing this effect, along with the hydrodynamical back-reaction of reionization on it. Toward that end, we perform a set of fully coupled, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations from cosmological initial conditions, extending the mass resolution of previous work to the scale of minihalos. Pre-reionization structure is evolved until a redshift z i at which the ionizing radiation from external sources arrives to sweep an R-type ionization front supersonically across the volume in a few million years, until it is trapped on the surfaces of minihalos and converted to D-type, after which the minihalo gas is removed by photoevaporative winds. Small-scale density structures during this time lead to a high (>10) clumping factor for ionized gas, which hugely boosts the recombination rate until the structures are disrupted by the hydrodynamic feedback after ˜10-100 Myr. For incoming stellar radiation with intensity J 21 in a 200 h -1 kpc box with the mean density contrast \\bar{δ }, the number of extra recombinations per H atom, on top of what is expected from homogeneously distributed gas, is given by 0.32{[{J}21]}0.12{[(1+{z}i)/11]}-1.7{[1+\\bar{δ }]}2.5. In models in which most of the volume is ionized toward the end of reionization, this can add more than one recombination per H atom to the ionizing photon budget to achieve reionization.

  4. Spider silk violin strings with a unique packing structure generate a soft and profound timbre.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Shigeyoshi

    2012-04-13

    We overcome the difficulties in pulling long draglines from spiders, twist bundles of dragline filaments, and succeed in preparing violin strings. The twisting is found to change the cross section shapes of filaments from circular to polygonal and to optimize the packing structure with no openings among filaments providing mechanically strong and elastic strings. The spider string signal peaks of overtones for the violin are relatively large at high frequencies, generating a soft and profound timbre. Such a preferable timbre is considered to be due to the unique polygonal packing structure which provides valuable knowledge for developing new types of materials.

  5. Spider Silk Violin Strings with a Unique Packing Structure Generate a Soft and Profound Timbre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osaki, Shigeyoshi

    2012-04-01

    We overcome the difficulties in pulling long draglines from spiders, twist bundles of dragline filaments, and succeed in preparing violin strings. The twisting is found to change the cross section shapes of filaments from circular to polygonal and to optimize the packing structure with no openings among filaments providing mechanically strong and elastic strings. The spider string signal peaks of overtones for the violin are relatively large at high frequencies, generating a soft and profound timbre. Such a preferable timbre is considered to be due to the unique polygonal packing structure which provides valuable knowledge for developing new types of materials.

  6. Annotating the structure and components of a nanoparticle formulation using computable string expressions

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Dennis G.; Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chappell, Alan R.; Baker, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle formulations that are being developed and tested for various medical applications are typically multi-component systems that vary in their structure, chemical composition, and function. It is difficult to compare and understand the differences between the structural and chemical descriptions of hundreds and thousands of nanoparticle formulations found in text documents. We have developed a string nomenclature to create computable string expressions that identify and enumerate the different high-level types of material parts of a nanoparticle formulation and represent the spatial order of their connectivity to each other. The string expressions are intended to be used as IDs, along with terms that describe a nanoparticle formulation and its material parts, in data sharing documents and nanomaterial research databases. The strings can be parsed and represented as a directed acyclic graph. The nodes of the graph can be used to display the string ID, name and other text descriptions of the nanoparticle formulation or its material part, while the edges represent the connectivity between the material parts with respect to the whole nanoparticle formulation. The different patterns in the string expressions can be searched for and used to compare the structure and chemical components of different nanoparticle formulations. The proposed string nomenclature is extensible and can be applied along with ontology terms to annotate the complete description of nanoparticles formulations. PMID:24533226

  7. Small scale structures of NLC observed by lidar at 69°N/69°S and their possible relation to gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaifler, N.; Baumgarten, G.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Alexander, S. P.; Fiedler, J.; Lübken, F.-J.

    2013-11-01

    Lidar measurements of noctilucent clouds (NLC) were conducted by the Davis Rayleigh-/Raman-lidar in Antarctica (68.58°S, 77.97°E) and by the Rayleigh-/Mie-/Raman-lidar at the ALOMAR observatory in northern Norway (69.28°N, 16.01°E). We compare southern and northern hemisphere NLC at time scales of 10 min to several hours using multi-year datasets (four seasons at ALOMAR, 2008-2011, and nine seasons at Davis, 2001/2002 to 2009/2010). NLC characteristics studied include the vertical structure of NLC layers, the duration of NLC layers as well as the apparent downward motion of NLC layers with time. We find multiple layers during 9% of all NLC observations with vertical separations of double layers between 1.5 and 3 km. The mean downward progression of NLC with measurement time is -0.3 km/h and comparable at Davis and ALOMAR. We find no general spatial tilt of the layer at ALOMAR but individual layers show up to 2 km altitude difference at 40 km horizontal separation. Typical NLC observations at both stations last about 5 hours, hinting at horizontal extents of about 700 km, and reoccur after approximately 10 hours. This is in the range of mid-frequency gravity waves (GW). On short-time scales NLC characteristics are presumably impacted by small scale processes in the vicinity of the clouds, generated by e.g. breaking GW. In addition, we discuss a possible relation to GW by looking at the influence of stratospheric wind conditions on NLC layer characteristics at 69°S.

  8. The structural dynamics of the American five-string banjo.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Joe

    2003-11-01

    The American five-string banjo is unique among musical instruments in that many significant parameters that effect tone are easily adjusted. This is probably why so many banjo players fiddle with their banjo. The instrument is a combination of canonical vibrating systems (strings, and a circular membrane) and therefore more amenable to analysis and modeling than most other musical instruments (e.g., the violin). Such an analysis is presented here. The model is a harmonically driven string which excites the other strings and a membrane under tension, causing the membrane to radiate sound. Three figures-of-merit, FOMs, are assumed. They are loudness, brightness, and decay of the sound. The effects of a number of parameters on the proposed FOMs are investigated. Among these are the loss factor and tension of the membrane, the mass of the bridge, and the location on the string of the excitation. It is noted that the calculated effects of the changes agree with generally accepted setup practices.

  9. The structural dynamics of the American five-string banjo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickey, Joe

    2003-11-01

    The American five-string banjo is unique among musical instruments in that many significant parameters that effect tone are easily adjusted. This is probably why so many banjo players fiddle with their banjo. The instrument is a combination of canonical vibrating systems (strings, and a circular membrane) and therefore more amenable to analysis and modeling than most other musical instruments (e.g., the violin). Such an analysis is presented here. The model is a harmonically driven string which excites the other strings and a membrane under tension, causing the membrane to radiate sound. Three figures-of-merit, FOMs, are assumed. They are loudness, brightness, and decay of the sound. The effects of a number of parameters on the proposed FOMs are investigated. Among these are the loss factor and tension of the membrane, the mass of the bridge, and the location on the string of the excitation. It is noted that the calculated effects of the changes agree with generally accepted setup practices.

  10. On the causal structure of spinning Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs strings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slagter, R.

    1998-06-01

    It is claimed that it will be exceedingly unlikely to obtain CTC's in the spacetime of a spinning EYMH-string. It is conjectured that the pathological problems concerning the induced angular momentum and helical structure of time that afflict the U(1)-gauge string, will be solved in the non-abelian YM string model. In the pure YM case one finds regular solutions, which resembles the abelian counterpart solution but without causality violating regions. Just as in the spherical symmetric case, there will be probably critical behavior of the field equations at the threshold of black hole masses.

  11. Simulation of large scale motions and small scale structures in planetary atmospheres and oceans: From laboratory to space experiments on ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egbers, Christoph; Futterer, Birgit; Zaussinger, Florian; Harlander, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Baroclinic waves are responsible for the transport of heat and momentum in the oceans, in the Earth's atmosphere as well as in other planetary atmospheres. The talk will give an overview on possibilities to simulate such large scale as well as co-existing small scale structures with the help of well defined laboratory experiments like the baroclinic wave tank (annulus experiment). The analogy between the Earth's atmosphere and the rotating cylindrical annulus experiment only driven by rotation and differential heating between polar and equatorial regions is obvious. From the Gulf stream single vortices seperate from time to time. The same dynamics and the co-existence of small and large scale structures and their separation can be also observed in laboratory experiments as in the rotating cylindrical annulus experiment. This experiment represents the mid latitude dynamics quite well and is part as a central reference experiment in the German-wide DFG priority research programme ("METSTRÖM", SPP 1276) yielding as a benchmark for lot of different numerical methods. On the other hand, those laboratory experiments in cylindrical geometry are limited due to the fact, that the surface and real interaction between polar and equatorial region and their different dynamics can not be really studied. Therefore, I demonstrate how to use the very successful Geoflow I and Geoflow II space experiment hardware on ISS with future modifications for simulations of small and large scale planetary atmospheric motion in spherical geometry with differential heating between inner and outer spheres as well as between the polar and equatorial regions. References: Harlander, U., Wenzel, J., Wang, Y., Alexandrov, K. & Egbers, Ch., 2012, Simultaneous PIV- and thermography measurements of partially blocked flow in a heated rotating annulus, Exp. in Fluids, 52 (4), 1077-1087 Futterer, B., Krebs, A., Plesa, A.-C., Zaussinger, F., Hollerbach, R., Breuer, D. & Egbers, Ch., 2013, Sheet-like and

  12. Small-Scale-Field Dynamo

    SciTech Connect

    Gruzinov, A.; Cowley, S.; Sudan, R. ||

    1996-11-01

    Generation of magnetic field energy, without mean field generation, is studied. Isotropic mirror-symmetric turbulence of a conducting fluid amplifies the energy of small-scale magnetic perturbations if the magnetic Reynolds number is high, and the dimensionality of space {ital d} satisfies 2.103{lt}{ital d}{lt}8.765. The result does not depend on the model of turbulence, incompressibility, and isotropy being the only requirements. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. Soil physical and X-ray computed tomographic measurements to investigate small-scale structural differences under strip tillage compared to mulch till and no-till

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhlitz, Julia; Rücknagel, Jan; Schlüter, Steffen; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2017-04-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing application of conservation tillage techniques where the soil is no longer turned, but only loosened or left completely untilled. Dead plant material remains on the soil surface, which provides environmental and economic benefits such as the conservation of water, preventing soil erosion and saving time during seedbed preparation. There is a variety of conservation tillage systems, e.g. mulch till, no-till and strip tillage, which is a special feature. In strip tillage, the seed bed is divided into a seed zone (strip-till within the seed row: STWS) and a soil management zone (strip-till between the seed row: STBS). However, each tillage application affects physical soil properties and processes. Here, the combined application of classical soil mechanical and computed tomographic methods is used on a Chernozem (texture 0-30 cm: silt loam) to show small-scale structural differences under strip tillage (STWS, STBS) compared to no-till (NT) and mulch till (MT). In addition to the classical soil physical parameters dry bulk density and saturated conductivity (years: 2012, 2014, 2015) at soil depths 2-8 and 12-18 cm, stress-strain tests were carried out to map mechanical behavior. The stress-strain tests were performed for a load range from 5-550 kPa at 12-18 cm depth (year 2015). Mechanical precompression stress was determined on the stress-dry bulk density curves. Further, CT image cross sections and computed tomographic examinations (average pore size, porosity, connectivity, and anisotropy) were used from the same soil samples. For STBS and NT, a significant increase in dry bulk density was observed over the course of time compared to STWS and MT, which was more pronounced at 2-8 cm than at 12-18 cm depth. Despite higher dry bulk density, STBS displayed higher saturated conductivity in contrast to STWS, which can be attributed to higher earthworm abundance. In strip tillage, structural differences were identified

  14. On the large-scale structures formed by wakes of open cosmic strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hara, Tetsuya; Morioka, Shoji; Miyoshi, Shigeru

    1990-01-01

    Large-scale structures of the universe have been variously described as sheetlike, filamentary, cellular, bubbles or spongelike. Recently cosmic strings became one of viable candidates for a galaxy formation scenario, and some of the large-scale structures seem to be simply explained by the open cosmic strings. According to this scenario, sheets are wakes which are traces of moving open cosmic strings where dark matter and baryonic matter have accumulated. Filaments are intersections of such wakes and high density regions are places where three wakes intersect almost orthogonally. The wakes formed at t sub eq become the largest surface density among all wakes, where t sub eq is the epoch when matter density equals to radiation density. If we assume that there is one open cosmic string per each horizon, then it can be explained that the typical distances among wakes, filaments and clusters are also approx. 10(exp 2) Mpc. This model does not exclude a much more large scale structure. Open cosmic string may move even now and accumulate cold dark matter after its traces. However, the surface density is much smaller than the ones formed at t sub eq. From this model, it is expected that the typical high density region will have extended features such as six filaments and three sheets and be surrounded by eight empty regions (voids). Here, the authors are mainly concerned with such structures and have made numerical simulations for the formation of such large scale structures.

  15. Small-scale Starshade Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-09

    A test of a small-scale starshade model (58 cm), made from metal, in a dry lake bed in central Nevada's Smith Creek, took place from May to June 2014. Nineteen different versions of the miniaturized starshade were tested over five days. The tests revealed that a starshade, or external occulter, is capable of blocking starlight to a degree that reveals the relatively dim reflected light of a planet next to its brighter star. Like holding your hand up to block sunlight, the starshade works to block excessive starlight from the "eyes" of a space telescope like Hubble. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20902

  16. Low Dimensional String-like Relaxation Underpins Superionic Conduction in Fluorites and Related Structures.

    PubMed

    Annamareddy, Ajay; Eapen, Jacob

    2017-03-27

    Among the superionic conductors that show a Faraday transition - the continuous increase in the ionic conductivity over a range of temperatures - the fluorite structures have enjoyed incisive examinations over the past four decades; yet the fundamental nature of superionicity has remained largely inconclusive. Departing from the traditional quasi-static defect framework, we provide weighty evidence for string-like dynamical structures that govern the fast ion conduction process in fluorites. We show that lower temperatures encourage the growth of longer but slowly relaxing strings and vice-versa - a direct manifestation of heterogeneous dynamics. Remarkably, the ionic conductivity is inversely correlated to the lifetime of the ions that participate in the strings and not explicitly to the ion population. Our analysis methodology, which resolves a long-standing disagreement on defect structures and the mechanism of ionic transport in fcc fluorite structures, is well-positioned to describe the dynamics of low dimensional conduction in a larger class of superionic conductors.

  17. ``Short'' spinning strings and structure of quantum AdS5×S5 spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccaria, M.; Giombi, S.; Macorini, G.; Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2012-09-01

    Using information from the marginality conditions of vertex operators for the AdS5×S5 superstring, we determine the structure of the dependence of the energy of quantum string states on their conserved charges and the string tension ˜λ. We consider states on the leading Regge trajectory in the flat space limit which carry one or two (equal) spins in AdS5 or S5 and an orbital momentum in S5, with Konishi multiplet states being particular cases. We argue that the coefficients in the energy may be found by using a semiclassical expansion. By analyzing the examples of folded spinning strings in AdS5 and S5, as well as three cases of circular two-spin strings, we demonstrate the universality of transcendental (zeta-function) parts of few leading coefficients. We also show the consistency with target space supersymmetry with different states belonging to the same multiplet having the same nontrivial part of the energy. We suggest, in particular, that a rational coefficient (found by Basso for the folded string using Bethe Ansatz considerations and which, in general, is yet to be determined by a direct two-loop string calculation) should, in fact, be universal.

  18. The large- and small-scale Ca II K structure of the Milky Way from observations of Galactic and Magellanic sightlines⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoker, J. V.; Keenan, F. P.; Fox, A. J.

    2015-10-01

    Aims: The large and small-scale (pc) structure of the Galactic interstellar medium can be investigated by utilising spectra of early-type stellar probes of known distances in the same region of the sky. This paper determines the variation in line strength of Ca ii at 3933.661 Å as a function of probe separation for a large sample of stars, including a number of sightlines in the Magellanic Clouds. Methods: FLAMES-GIRAFFE data taken with the Very Large Telescope towards early-type stars in 3 Galactic and 4 Magellanic open clusters in Ca ii are used to obtain the velocity, equivalent width, column density, and line width of interstellar Galactic calcium for a total of 657 stars, of which 443 are Magellanic Cloud sightlines. In each cluster there are between 43 and 111 stars observed. Additionally, FEROS and UVES Ca ii K and Na i D spectra of 21 Galactic and 154 Magellanic early-type stars are presented and combined with data from the literature to study the calcium column density - parallax relationship. Results: For the four Magellanic clusters studied with FLAMES, the strength of the Galactic interstellar Ca ii K equivalent width on transverse scales from ~0.05-9 pc is found to vary by factors of ~1.8-3.0, corresponding to column density variations of ~0.3-0.5 dex in the optically-thin approximation. Using FLAMES, FEROS, and UVES archive spectra, the minimum and maximum reduced equivalent widths for Milky Way gas are found to lie in the range ~35-125 mÅ and ~30-160 mÅ for Ca ii K and Na i D, respectively. The range is consistent with a previously published simple model of the interstellar medium consisting of spherical cloudlets of filling factor ~0.3, although other geometries are not ruled out. Finally, the derived functional form for parallax (π) and Ca ii column density (NCaII) is found to be π(mas) = 1 / (2.39 × 10-13 × NCaII (cm-2) + 0.11). Our derived parallax is ~25 per cent lower than predicted by Megier et al. (2009, A&A, 507, 833) at a distance of

  19. Physical properties and small-scale structure of the Lyman-alpha forest: Inversion of the HE 1122-1628 UVES spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollinde, E.; Petitjean, P.; Pichon, C.

    2001-09-01

    We study the physical properties of the Lyman-alpha forest by applying the inversion method described by Pichon et al. (\\cite{Pichon01}) to the high resolution and high S/N ratio spectrum of the zem=2.40 quasar HE 1122-1628 obtained during Science Verification of UVES at the VLT. We compare the column densities obtained with the new fitting procedure with those derived using standard Voigt profile methods. The agreement is good and gives confidence in the new description of the Lyman-alpha forest as a continuous field as derived from our method. We show that the observed number density of lines with log N > 13 and 14 is, respectively, 50 and 250 per unit redshift at z ~ 2. We study the physical state of the gas, neglecting peculiar velocities, assuming a relation between the overdensity and the temperature, T={/line T}(rho (x)/{bar rho })2beta . There is an intrinsic degeneracy between the parameters beta and {/line T}. We demonstrate that, at a fixed beta , the temperature at mean density, {/line T}, can be uniquely extracted, however. While applying the method to HE 1122-1628, we conclude that for 0.2 < beta < 0.3, 6000 < {/line T} < 15 000 K at z ~ 2. We investigate the small-scale structure of strong absorption lines using the information derived from the Lyman-beta , Lyman-gamma and C iv profiles. Introducing the Lyman-beta line in the fit allows us to reconstruct the density field up to rho /{bar rho } ~ 10 instead of 5 for the Lyman-alpha line only. The neutral hydrogen density is of the order of ~ 2x 10-9 cm-3 and the C IV/H I ratio varies from about 0.001 to 0.01 within the complexes of total column density N(H I) ~ 1015 cm-2. Such numbers are expected for photo-ionized gas of density nH ~ 10-4 cm-3 and [C/H] ~ -2.5. There may be small velocity shifts ( ~ 10 km s-1) between the peaks in the C iv and H I density profiles. Although the statistics is small, it seems that C IV/H I and nHI are anti-correlated. This could be a consequence of the high

  20. Small scale folding observed in the NEEM ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Daniela; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Westhoff, Julien; Steinbach, Florian; Bons, Paul D.; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Griera, Albert; Weikusat, Ilka

    2015-04-01

    Disturbances on the centimeter scale in the layering of the NEEM ice core (North Greenland) can be mapped by means of visual stratigraphy as long as the ice does have a visual layering, such as, for example, cloudy bands. Different focal depths of the visual stratigraphy method allow, to a certain extent, a three dimensional view of the structures. In this study we present a structural analysis of the visible folds, discuss characteristics and frequency and present examples of typical fold structures. With this study we aim to quantify the potential impact of small scale folding on the integrity of climate proxy data. We also analyze the structures with regard to the stress environment under which they formed. The structures evolve from gentle waves at about 1700 m to overturned z-folds with increasing depth. Occasionally, the folding causes significant thickening of layers. Their shape indicates that they are passive features and are probably not initiated by rheology differences between layers. Layering is heavily disturbed and tracing of single layers is no longer possible below a depth of 2160 m. Lattice orientation distributions for the corresponding core sections were analyzed where available in addition to visual stratigraphy. The data show axial-plane parallel strings of grains with c.axis orientations that deviate from that of the matrix, which has more or less a single-maximum fabric at the depth where the folding occurs. We conclude from these data that folding is a consequence of deformation along localized shear planes and kink bands. The findings are compared with results from other deep ice cores. The observations presented are supplemented by microstructural modeling using a crystal plasticity code that reproduces deformation, applying a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), coupled with ELLE to include dynamic recrystallization processes. The model results reproduce the development of bands of grains with a tilted orientation relative to the single maximum

  1. Axions, neutrinos and strings: The formation of structure in an SO(10) universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    In a class of grand unified theories containing SO(10), cosmologically significant axion and neutrino energy densities are obtainable naturally. To obtain large scale structure, both components of dark matter are considered to exist with comparable energy densities. To obtain large scale structure, inflationary and non-inflationary scenarios are considered, as well as scenarios with and without vacuum strings. It is shown that inflation may be compatible with recent observations of the mass density within galaxy clusters and superclusters, especially if strings are present.

  2. Axions, neutrinos and strings - The formation of structure in an SO(10) universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1986-01-01

    In a class of grand unified theories containing SO(10), cosmologically significant axion and neutrino energy densities are obtainable naturally. To obtain large scale structure, both components of dark matter are considered to exist with comparable energy densities. To obtain large scale structure, inflationary and non-inflationary scenarios are considered, as well as scenarios with and without vacuum strings. It is shown that inflation may be compatible with recent observations of the mass density within galaxy clusters and superclusters, especially if strings are present.

  3. Axions, neutrinos and strings - The formation of structure in an SO(10) universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1986-01-01

    In a class of grand unified theories containing SO(10), cosmologically significant axion and neutrino energy densities are obtainable naturally. To obtain large scale structure, both components of dark matter are considered to exist with comparable energy densities. To obtain large scale structure, inflationary and non-inflationary scenarios are considered, as well as scenarios with and without vacuum strings. It is shown that inflation may be compatible with recent observations of the mass density within galaxy clusters and superclusters, especially if strings are present.

  4. Philippines: Small-scale renewable energy update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the application of small scale renewable energy sources in the Philippines. Sources looked at include solar, biomass, micro-hydroelectric, mini-hydroelectric, wind, mini-geothermal, and hybrid. A small power utilities group is being spun off the major utility, to provide a structure for developing rural electrification programs. In some instances, private companies have stepped forward, avoiding what is perceived as overwhelming beaurocracy, and installed systems with private financing. The paper provides information on survey work which has been done on resources, and the status of cooperative programs to develop renewable systems in the nation.

  5. Supersymmetric structure of the bosonic string theory in the Beltrami parametrization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, M. Werneck; Schweda, M.; Sorella, S. P.

    1993-09-01

    We show that the bosonic string theory quantized in the Beltrami parametrization possesses a supersymmetric structure like the vector-supersymmetry already observed in topological field theories. Supported in part by the ``Fonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung'', M008-Lise Meitner Fellowship.

  6. Small-scale eruptive filaments on the quiet sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermans, Linda M.; Martin, Sara F.

    1986-01-01

    A study of a little known class of eruptive events on the quiet sun was conducted. All of 61 small-scale eruptive filamentary structures were identified in a systematic survey of 32 days of H alpha time-lapse films of the quiet sun acquired at Big Bear Solar Observatory. When fully developed, these structures have an average length of 15 arc seconds before eruption. They appear to be the small-scale analog of large-scale eruptive filaments observed against the disk. At the observed rate of 1.9 small-scale eruptive features per field of view per average 7.0 hour day, the rate of occurence of these events on the sun were estimated to be greater than 600 per 24 hour day.. The average duration of the eruptive phase was 26 minutes while the average lifetime from formation through eruption was 70 minutes. A majority of the small-scale filamentary sturctures were spatially related to cancelling magnetic features in line-of-sight photospheric magnetograms. Similar to large-scale filaments, the small-scale filamentary structures sometimes divided opposite polarity cancelling fragments but often had one or both ends terminating at a cancellation site. Their high numbers appear to reflect the much greater flux on the quiet sun. From their characteristics, evolution, and relationship to photospheric magnetic flux, it was concluded that the structures described are small-scale eruptive filaments and are a subset of all filaments.

  7. A small-scale turbulence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgren, T. S.

    1992-01-01

    A model for the small-scale structure of turbulence is reformulated in such a way that it may be conveniently computed. The model is an ensemble of randomly oriented structured two dimensional vortices stretched by an axially symmetric strain flow. The energy spectrum of the resulting flow may be expressed as a time integral involving only the enstrophy spectrum of the time evolving two-dimensional cross section flow, which may be obtained numerically. Examples are given in which a k(exp -5/3) spectrum is obtained by this method without using large wave number asymptotic analysis. The k(exp -5/3) inertial range spectrum is shown to be related to the existence of a self-similar enstrophy preserving range in the two-dimensional enstrophy spectrum. The results are insensitive to time dependence of the strain-rate, including even intermittent on-or-off strains.

  8. A high-resolution X-ray and optical study of SN 1006: asymmetric expansion and small-scale structure in a type IA supernova remnant

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, P. Frank; Williams, Brian J.; Petre, Robert; Hwang, Una; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Long, Knox S.; Katsuda, Satoru E-mail: brian.j.williams@nasa.gov E-mail: reynolds@ncsu.edu

    2014-02-01

    We introduce a deep (670 ks) X-ray survey of the entire SN 1006 remnant from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, together with a deep Hα image of SN 1006 from the 4 m Blanco telescope at CTIO. Comparison with Chandra images from 2003 gives the first measurement of the X-ray proper motions around the entire periphery, carried out over a 9 yr baseline. We find that the expansion velocity varies significantly with azimuth. The highest velocity of ∼7400 km s{sup –1} (almost 2.5 times that in the northwest (NW)) is found along the southeast (SE) periphery, where both the kinematics and the spectra indicate that most of the X-ray emission stems from ejecta that have been decelerated little, if at all. Asymmetries in the distribution of ejecta are seen on a variety of spatial scales. Si-rich ejecta are especially prominent in the SE quadrant, while O and Mg are more uniformly distributed, indicating large-scale asymmetries arising from the explosion itself. Neon emission is strongest in a sharp filament just behind the primary shock along the NW rim, where the pre-shock density is highest. Here the Ne is likely interstellar, while Ne within the shell may include a contribution from ejecta. Within the interior of the projected shell we find a few isolated 'bullets' of what appear to be supernova ejecta that are immediately preceded by bowshocks seen in Hα, features that we interpret as ejecta knots that have reached relatively dense regions of the surrounding interstellar medium, but that appear in the interior in projection. Recent three-dimensional hydrodynamic models for Type Ia supernovae display small-scale features that strongly resemble the ones seen in X-rays in SN 1006; an origin in the explosion itself or from subsequent hydrodynamic instabilities both remain viable options. We have expanded the search for precursor X-ray emission ahead of a synchrotron-dominated shock front, as expected from diffusive shock acceleration theory, to numerous regions along both

  9. A High-Resolution X-Ray and Optical Study of SN1006: Asymmetric Expansion and Small-Scale Structure in a Type Ia Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, P. Frank; Williams, Brian J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Petre, Robert; Long, Knox S.; Katsuda, Satoru; Hwang, Una

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a deep (670 ks) X-ray survey of the entire SN 1006 remnant from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, together with a deep Ha image of SN 1006 from the 4 m Blanco telescope at CTIO. Comparison with Chandra images from 2003 gives the first measurement of the X-ray proper motions around the entire periphery, carried out over a 9 yr baseline. We find that the expansion velocity varies significantly with azimuth. The highest velocity of approx.7400 km/s (almost 2.5 times that in the northwest (NW)) is found along the southeast (SE) periphery, where both the kinematics and the spectra indicate that most of the X-ray emission stems from ejecta that have been decelerated little, if at all. Asymmetries in the distribution of ejecta are seen on a variety of spatial scales. Si-rich ejecta are especially prominent in the SE quadrant, while O and Mg are more uniformly distributed, indicating large-scale asymmetries arising from the explosion itself. Neon emission is strongest in a sharp filament just behind the primary shock along the NWrim, where the pre-shock density is highest. Here the Ne is likely interstellar, while Ne within the shell may include a contribution from ejecta. Within the interior of the projected shell we find a few isolated "bullets" of what appear to be supernova ejecta that are immediately preceded by bowshocks seen in Ha, features that we interpret as ejecta knots that have reached relatively dense regions of the surrounding interstellar medium, but that appear in the interior in projection. Recent three-dimensional hydrodynamic models for Type Ia supernovae display small-scale features that strongly resemble the ones seen in X-rays in SN 1006; an origin in the explosion itself or from subsequent hydrodynamic instabilities both remain viable options. We have expanded the search for precursor X-ray emission ahead of a synchrotron-dominated shock front, as expected from diffusive shock acceleration theory, to numerous regions along both the

  10. Practical small-scale explosive seam welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    A small-scale explosive seam welding process has been developed that can significantly contribute to remote metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions, such as nuclear reactor repair and assembly of structure in space. This paper describes this explosive seam welding process in terms of joining principles, variables, types of joints created, capabilities, and applications. Very small quantities of explosive in a ribbon configuration are used to create narrow (less than 0.5 inch), long-length, uniform, hermetically sealed joints that exhibit parent metal properties in a wide variety of metals, alloys, and combinations. The practicality of this process has been demonstrated by its current acceptance, as well as its capabilities that are superior in many applications to the universally accepted joining processes, such as mechanical fasteners, fusion and resistance welding, and adhesives.

  11. Practical small-scale explosive seam welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    A small-scale explosive seam welding process has been developed that can significantly contribute to remote metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions, such as nuclear reactor repair and assembly of structure in space. This paper describes this explosive seam welding process in terms of joining principles, variables, types of joints created, capabilities, and applications. Very small quantities of explosive in a ribbon configuration are used to create narrow (less than 0.5 inch), long-length, uniform, hermetically sealed joints that exhibit parent metal properties in a wide variety of metals, alloys, and combinations. The practicality of this process has been demonstrated by its current acceptance, as well as its capabilities that are superior in many applications to the universally accepted joining processes, such as mechanical fasteners, fusion and resistance welding, and adhesives. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24896

  12. Cosmic string lens effects on CMB polarization patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benabed, K.; Bernardeau, F.

    2000-06-01

    Extending the Kaiser-Stebbins mechanism we propose here a method for detecting relics of topological defects such as cosmic strings based on lens-induced small-scale B-type polarization in the cosmic microwave background. Models of inflation, in which large-scale structures of the Universe emerge from the inflaton fluctuations, do not exclude the formation of topological defects at the end of the inflationary phase. In such a case, we show that the lens effect of a string on the small-scale E-type polarization of the cosmic microwave background induces a significant amount of B-type polarization along the line of sight. The amplitude of the effect is estimated for different resolutions of cosmic microwave background experiments.

  13. The Microphysics Explorer (MPEX) Mission: A Small Explorer Mission to Investigate the Role of Small Scale Non-Linear Time Domain Structures (TDS) and Waves in the Energization of Electrons and Energy Flow in Space Plasmas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wygant, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Evidence has accumulated that most energy conversion structures in space plasmas are characterized by intense small-scale size electric fields with strong parallel components, which are prime suspects in the rapid and efficient bulk acceleration of electrons. The proposed MPEX mission will provide, for the first time, 1 ms measurements of electrons capable of resolving the acceleration process due to these small-scale structures. These structures include Time Domain Structures (TDS) which are often organized into wave trains of hundreds of discrete structures propagating along magnetic fields lines. Recent measurements in the near Earth tail on auroral field lines indicate these wave trains are associated with electron acceleration in layers of strong energy flow in the form of particle energy flux and Poynting flux. Also coincident are kinetic Alfven waves which may be capable of driving the time domain structures or directly accelerating electrons. Other waves that may be important include lower hybrid wave packets, electron cyclotron waves, and large amplitude whistler waves. High time resolution field measurements show that such structures occur within dayside and tail reconnection regions, at the bow shock, at interplanetary shocks, and at other structures in the solar wind. The MPEX mission will be a multiphase mission with apogee boosts, which will explore all these regions. An array of electron ESAs will provide a 1 millisecond measurement of electron flux variations with nearly complete pitch angle coverage over a programmable array of selected energy channels. The electric field detector will provide measurement a fully 3-D measurement of the electric field with the benefit of an extremely large ratio of boom length to spacecraft radius and an improved sensor design. 2-D ion distribution functions will be provided by ion mass spectrometer and energetic electrons will be measured by a solid-state telescope.

  14. Low Dimensional String-like Relaxation Underpins Superionic Conduction in Fluorites and Related Structures

    PubMed Central

    Annamareddy, Ajay; Eapen, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Among the superionic conductors that show a Faraday transition – the continuous increase in the ionic conductivity over a range of temperatures – the fluorite structures have enjoyed incisive examinations over the past four decades; yet the fundamental nature of superionicity has remained largely inconclusive. Departing from the traditional quasi-static defect framework, we provide weighty evidence for string-like dynamical structures that govern the fast ion conduction process in fluorites. We show that lower temperatures encourage the growth of longer but slowly relaxing strings and vice-versa – a direct manifestation of heterogeneous dynamics. Remarkably, the ionic conductivity is inversely correlated to the lifetime of the ions that participate in the strings and not explicitly to the ion population. Our analysis methodology, which resolves a long-standing disagreement on defect structures and the mechanism of ionic transport in fcc fluorite structures, is well-positioned to describe the dynamics of low dimensional conduction in a larger class of superionic conductors. PMID:28344314

  15. Formation of large-scale structure from cosmic-string loops and cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Scherrer, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Some results from a numerical simulation of the formation of large-scale structure from cosmic-string loops are presented. It is found that even though G x mu is required to be lower than 2 x 10 to the -6th (where mu is the mass per unit length of the string) to give a low enough autocorrelation amplitude, there is excessive power on smaller scales, so that galaxies would be more dense than observed. The large-scale structure does not include a filamentary or connected appearance and shares with more conventional models based on Gaussian perturbations the lack of cluster-cluster correlation at the mean cluster separation scale as well as excessively small bulk velocities at these scales.

  16. Multicamera system extrinsic stability analysis and large-span truss string structure displacement measurement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Dong, Shuai; Mokhtar, Mohammed; He, Xiaoyuan; Lu, Jinyu; Wu, Xiaolong

    2016-10-10

    A novel technique for measuring the displacements of large-span truss string structures that employs multicamera systems is proposed. The coordinates of the stereo-vision systems are unified in a single global coordinate system by employing 3D data reconstructed using close-range photogrammetry. To estimate the camera's attitude motions during an experiment, an instantaneous extrinsic rectification algorithm was developed. Experiments in which a camera was rotated and translated were conducted to verify the accuracy and precision of the developed algorithm. In addition, the proposed multicamera systems were employed to analyze a large-span truss string structure. The displacement results obtained from numerical simulations and experiments using pre-calibration and rectification methods are compared in this paper, and the stability of the camera's extrinsic parameters is discussed.

  17. Large-scale structure from cosmic-string loops in a baryon-dominated universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Scherrer, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of a numerical simulation of the formation of large-scale structure in a universe with Omega(0) = 0.2 and h = 0.5 dominated by baryons in which cosmic strings provide the initial density perturbations. The numerical model yields a power spectrum. Nonlinear evolution confirms that the model can account for 700 km/s bulk flows and a strong cluster-cluster correlation, but does rather poorly on smaller scales. There is no visual 'filamentary' structure, and the two-point correlation has too steep a logarithmic slope. The value of G mu = 4 x 10 to the -6th is significantly lower than previous estimates for the value of G mu in baryon-dominated cosmic string models.

  18. Formation of large-scale structure from cosmic-string loops and cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Scherrer, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Some results from a numerical simulation of the formation of large-scale structure from cosmic-string loops are presented. It is found that even though G x mu is required to be lower than 2 x 10 to the -6th (where mu is the mass per unit length of the string) to give a low enough autocorrelation amplitude, there is excessive power on smaller scales, so that galaxies would be more dense than observed. The large-scale structure does not include a filamentary or connected appearance and shares with more conventional models based on Gaussian perturbations the lack of cluster-cluster correlation at the mean cluster separation scale as well as excessively small bulk velocities at these scales.

  19. Formation of large-scale structure from cosmic strings and massive neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, Robert J.; Melott, Adrian L.; Bertschinger, Edmund

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations of large-scale structure formation from cosmic strings and massive neutrinos are described. The linear power spectrum in this model resembles the cold-dark-matter power spectrum. Galaxy formation begins early, and the final distribution consists of isolated density peaks embedded in a smooth background, leading to a natural bias in the distribution of luminous matter. The distribution of clustered matter has a filamentary appearance with large voids.

  20. Formation of large-scale structure from cosmic strings and massive neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, Robert J.; Melott, Adrian L.; Bertschinger, Edmund

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations of large-scale structure formation from cosmic strings and massive neutrinos are described. The linear power spectrum in this model resembles the cold-dark-matter power spectrum. Galaxy formation begins early, and the final distribution consists of isolated density peaks embedded in a smooth background, leading to a natural bias in the distribution of luminous matter. The distribution of clustered matter has a filamentary appearance with large voids.

  1. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, David H.; Bullock, James S.; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H. G.

    2015-01-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way’s dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these “small-scale controversies.” Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years. PMID:25646464

  2. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, David H; Bullock, James S; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H G

    2015-10-06

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these "small-scale controversies." Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years.

  3. Three-dimensional simulations of near-surface convection in main-sequence stars. III. The structure of small-scale magnetic flux concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeck, B.; Schüssler, M.; Cameron, R. H.; Reiners, A.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The convective envelopes of cool main-sequence stars harbour magnetic fields with a complex global and local structure. These fields affect the near-surface convection and the outer stellar atmospheres in many ways and are responsible for the observable magnetic activity of stars. Aims: Our aim is to understand the local structure in unipolar regions with moderate average magnetic flux density. These correspond to plage regions covering a substantial fraction of the surface of the Sun (and likely also the surface of other Sun-like stars) during periods of high magnetic activity. Methods: We analyse the results of 18 local-box magnetohydrodynamics simulations covering the upper layers of the convection zones and the photospheres of cool main-sequence stars of spectral types F to early M. The average vertical field in these simulations ranges from 20 to 500 G. Results: We find a substantial variation of the properties of the surface magnetoconvection between main-sequence stars of different spectral types. As a consequence of a reduced efficiency of the convective collapse of flux tubes, M dwarfs lack bright magnetic structures in unipolar regions of moderate field strength. The spatial correlation between velocity and the magnetic field as well as the lifetime of magnetic structures and their sizes relative to the granules vary significantly along the model sequence of stellar types. Movies associated to Fig. A.1 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Resurrecting hot dark matter - Large-scale structure from cosmic strings and massive neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    These are the results of a numerical simulation of the formation of large-scale structure from cosmic-string loops in a universe dominated by massive neutrinos (hot dark matter). This model has several desirable features. The final matter distribution contains isolated density peaks embedded in a smooth background, producing a natural bias in the distribution of luminous matter. Because baryons can accrete onto the cosmic strings before the neutrinos, the galaxies will have baryon cores and dark neutrino halos. Galaxy formation in this model begins much earlier than in random-phase models. On large scales the distribution of clustered matter visually resembles the CfA survey, with large voids and filaments.

  5. Resurrecting hot dark matter - Large-scale structure from cosmic strings and massive neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    These are the results of a numerical simulation of the formation of large-scale structure from cosmic-string loops in a universe dominated by massive neutrinos (hot dark matter). This model has several desirable features. The final matter distribution contains isolated density peaks embedded in a smooth background, producing a natural bias in the distribution of luminous matter. Because baryons can accrete onto the cosmic strings before the neutrinos, the galaxies will have baryon cores and dark neutrino halos. Galaxy formation in this model begins much earlier than in random-phase models. On large scales the distribution of clustered matter visually resembles the CfA survey, with large voids and filaments.

  6. Thick strings, the liquid crystal blue phase, and cosmological large-scale structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Xiaochun; Schramm, David N.

    1992-01-01

    A phenomenological model based on the liquid crystal blue phase is proposed as a model for a late-time cosmological phase transition. Topological defects, in particular thick strings and/or domain walls, are presented as seeds for structure formation. It is shown that the observed large-scale structure, including quasi-periodic wall structure, can be well fitted in the model without violating the microwave background isotropy bound or the limits from induced gravitational waves and the millisecond pulsar timing. Furthermore, such late-time transitions can produce objects such as quasars at high redshifts. The model appears to work with either cold or hot dark matter.

  7. Thick strings, the liquid crystal blue phase, and cosmological large-scale structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Xiaochun; Schramm, David N.

    1992-01-01

    A phenomenological model based on the liquid crystal blue phase is proposed as a model for a late-time cosmological phase transition. Topological defects, in particular thick strings and/or domain walls, are presented as seeds for structure formation. It is shown that the observed large-scale structure, including quasi-periodic wall structure, can be well fitted in the model without violating the microwave background isotropy bound or the limits from induced gravitational waves and the millisecond pulsar timing. Furthermore, such late-time transitions can produce objects such as quasars at high redshifts. The model appears to work with either cold or hot dark matter.

  8. Interactions of Small-Scale Physical Mixing Processes with the Structure, Morphology and Bloom Dynamics and Optics of Non-Spheroid Phytoplankton

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    microscopic imaging techniques , and microscopic video- cinematography protocols for both phytoplankton and zooplankton for use in current laboratory...phytoplankton, zooplankton and bioluminescence papers, and examined data/figures for layered structures. Imaging and Cinematography : Off-the-shelf...to preview it as a work-in-progress, email me (jrines@gso.uri.edu), and I will provide you with a temporary URL. Imaging and Cinematography

  9. A small-scale turbulence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgren, T. S.

    1993-01-01

    A previously derived analytical model for the small-scale structure of turbulence is reformulated in such a way that the energy spectrum may be computed. The model is an ensemble of two-dimensional (2D) vortices with internal spiral structure, each stretched by an axially symmetric strain flow. Stretching and differential rotation produce an energy cascade to smaller scales in which the stretching represents the effect of instabilities and the spiral structure is the source of dissipation at the end of the cascade. The energy spectrum of the resulting flow may be expressed as a time integration involving only the enstrophy spectrum of the time evolving 2D cross section flow, which may be obtained numerically. Examples are given in which a k exp -5/3 spectrum is obtained by this method. The k exp -5/3 inertial range spectrum is shown to be related to the existence of a self-similar enstrophy preserving range in the 2D enstrophy spectrum. The results are found to be insensitive to time dependence of the strain rate, including even intermittent on-or-off strains.

  10. Method and system for small scale pumping

    DOEpatents

    Insepov, Zeke; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2010-01-26

    The present invention relates generally to the field of small scale pumping and, more specifically, to a method and system for very small scale pumping media through microtubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for small scale pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more microtubes, the one or more tubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more tubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the tubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the tube.

  11. Small scale bipolar nickel-hydrogen testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1988-01-01

    Bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, ranging in capacity from 6 to 40 A-hr, have been tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center over the past six years. Small scale tests of 1 A-hr nickel-hydrogen stacks have been initiated as a means of screening design and component variations for bipolar nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries. Four small-scale batteries have been built and tested. Characterization and limited cycle testing were performed to establish the validity of test results in the scaled down hardware. The results show characterization test results to be valid. LEO test results in the small scale hardware have limited value.

  12. High-speed imaging and small-scale explosive characterization techniques to understand effects of primary blast-induced injury on nerve cell structure and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piehler, T.; Banton, R.; Zander, N.; Duckworth, J.; Benjamin, R.; Sparks, R.

    2017-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often associated with blast exposure. Even in the absence of penetrating injury or evidence of tissue injury on imaging, blast TBI may trigger a series of neural/glial cellular and functional changes. Unfortunately, the diagnosis and proper treatment of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) caused by explosive blast is challenging, as it is not easy to clinically distinguish blast from non-blast TBI on the basis of patient symptoms. Damage to brain tissue, cell, and subcellular structures continues to occur slowly and in a manner undetectable by conventional imaging techniques. The threshold shock impulse levels required to induce damage and the cumulative effects upon multiple exposures are not well characterized. Understanding how functional and structural damage from realistic blast impact at cellular and tissue levels at variable timescales after mTBI events may be vital for understanding this injury phenomenon and for linking mechanically induced structural changes with measurable effects on the nervous system. Our working hypothesis is that there is some transient physiological dysfunction occurring at cellular and subcellular levels within the central nervous system due to primary blast exposure. We have developed a novel in vitro indoor experimental system that uses real military explosive charges to more accurately represent military blast exposure and to probe the effects of primary explosive blast on dissociated neurons. We believe this system offers a controlled experimental method to analyze and characterize primary explosive blast-induced cellular injury and to understand threshold injury phenomenon. This paper will also focus on the modeling aspect of our work and how it relates to the experimental work.

  13. Map showing distribution of small-scale deformation structures in a part of the upper coastal plain of South Carolina and adjacent Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDowell, R.C.; Houser, B.B.

    1983-01-01

    Fieldwork was done principally by vehicle along roads, but also included railroad cuts and excavation sites, such as quarries and landfills. Natural exposures are rare and provided no examples of deformation structures for this study. The geologic units exposed in the area are chiefly clastic sediments deposited in nearshore marine to continental environments. They include semi-consolidated sand, silt, clay, and rare thin impure limestone beds of Late Cretaceous to Eocene age (fig. 2). These sedimentary beds generally have a gentle regional dip to the southeast (Faye and Prowell, 1982, p. 6).

  14. Fabricating small-scale, curved, polymeric structures for biological applications using a combination of photocurable/thermocurable polydimethylsiloxane and phase interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ting-Ya; Sung, Chun-Yen; Hashimoto, Michinao; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes an easy-to-handle technique for creating curved, millimetrically scaled polymeric structures in order to develop in vitro cell culture devices for biologically relevant applications. For the master mold in this study, the authors used UV-activated photocurable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This product can readily be used to create millimetrically scaled pattern molds by controlling droplet contact angles during deposition onto a flexible paper-based substrate that has been prepatterned with ink/wax. Resultant desired patterns can be transferred onto thermocurable PDMS as arrays of wells for biological applications. By combining photocurable and thermocurable PDMS manufacturing processes, this approach endows PDMS-based structures with unique controllability in terms of size, pattern, and curvature. Providing such features enhances the biocompatibility and practicality of devices so manufactured in that they mimic the natural topography of the extracellular matrix. Additionally, three-dimensional cell culturing and immunofluorescent staining can be demonstrated on this biomimetic platform. This manufacturing method takes only several minutes to complete and does not require complicated facilities in order to fabricate PDMS-based biomedical devices. We believe that this method would be very useful for rapid, economical fabrication of cell-focused assay platforms, which would be particularly useful in resource-limited settings.

  15. Outmigration of landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts and effectiveness of an angled trash rack/fish bypass structure at a small scale hydroelectric facility. [Salmo salar

    SciTech Connect

    Nettles, D.C.; Gloss, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    Modes of downstream passage (penstock, spillway, diversion chute) by Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts were monitored using radio telemetry to assess the effectiveness of an angled trash rack/fish bypass structure at a small hydroelectric dam on the Boquet River, New York. Telemetry of 170 Atlantic salmon smolts and visual observations of stocked smolts were used to determine aspects of Atlantic salmon outmigration behavior. Smolts initiated mass migrations after river temperatures reached or exceeded 10/sup 0/C. Many radio-tagged smolts interrupted movements upon reaching ponded waters and/or the dam. River flow did not (P > .05) affect the frequency of migratory movements, passages, or rate of movement. Migrations were of approximately 30 days duration. Passages at the dam occurred primarily at night (61%) with diurnal passages (17%) and crepuscular passages (17%) of secondary importance. Timing of 5% of the passages was undetermined. All passages which occurred when angled trash racks were in place were through the bypass or over the spillway. Six (6) passages occurred when trash racks perpendicular to the penstock were in place: 3 of these were penstock passages. The angled trash rack and bypass structure served to reduce entrainment.

  16. Large and small scale structural evolution of salt controlled minibasin in a fold and thrust belt setting: the case of the Sivas Basin, Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kergaravat, Charlie; Ribes, Charlotte; Legeay, Etienne; Callot, Jean-Paul; Aubourg, Charles; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2016-04-01

    The Sivas Basin in the Central Anatolian Plateau (Turkey) is a foreland fold-and-thrust belt, showing a core composed by a typical wall and basin structure (WABS), where the quality of reservoir rocks is governed primarily by the fracture and matrix damage, in relation to the macroscopic structure. Based on extensive fieldwork including detailed mapping of minibasins contacts, along with interpretation of a 2D regional seismic line, provide evidence for the development of a canopy separating two generations of MBs. The quality of reservoir rocks in these minibasins framed by evaporites is studied through (1) the characterization of the fracture network in two mini-basins, where 40 sites have been acquired, and (2) the magnetic fabric of 135 samples from sandstones to siltstones rocks from both Emirhan and Karayun mini-basins. The Late Eocene-early Oligocene evaporite level was remobilized during the northward migration of the sedimentary load during propagation of the foreland FTB. Evaporites occur at the base of several MBs, overlain by formations younger than those filling the initial generation of MBs. This support a second generation of MBs developped over an allochthonous evaporite level. The wavelength of tectonic structures increases away from the WABS domain and suggests a deepening of the decollement level. The polygonal pattern of the WABS influences the growing FTB system during the late stage of secondary MBs development, acting as a transfer zone between a forelandward thrust sheet propagating to the west and a triangular zone with hinterlandward thrusts to the east. The shortening is accommodated within the WABS by squeezed walls and diapirs, and by the translation/rotation of MBs, recorded by strike-slip fault zones. Considering the reservoir scale damage, both mini-basins display similar fracture network of pre-tilt fractures. In both mini-basins, we observed an early N-S fracture network, bed-perpendicular and parallel to the shortening. It is

  17. Small-scale explosive welding of aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    Welding technique uses very small quantities of explosive ribbon to accomplish small-scale lap-welding of aluminum plates. Technique can perform small controlled welding with no length limitations and requires minimal protective shielding.

  18. Small Scale Features at Vesta South Pole

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-01

    This image from NASA Dawn spacecraft shows a raised mound material overlying the brighter material that makes up the floor of the south polar depression of asteroid Vesta. Many small scale craters are clear in this image.

  19. Marine turtles are not fussy nesters: a novel test of small-scale nest site selection using structure from motion beach terrain information

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Javier X.; Gilby, Ben L.; Olds, Andrew D.; Schlacher, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Nest selection is widely regarded as a key process determining the fitness of individuals and viability of animal populations. For marine turtles that nest on beaches, this is particularly pivotal as the nesting environment can significantly control reproductive success.The aim of this study was to identify the environmental attributes of beaches (i.e., morphology, vegetation, urbanisation) that may be associated with successful oviposition in green and loggerhead turtle nests. Methods We quantified the proximity of turtle nests (and surrounding beach locations) to urban areas, measured their exposure to artificial light, and used ultra-high resolution (cm-scale) digital surface models derived from Structure-from-Motion (SfM) algorithms, to characterise geomorphic and vegetation features of beaches on the Sunshine Coast, eastern Australia. Results At small spatial scales (i.e., <100 m), we found no evidence that turtles selected nest sites based on a particular suite of environmental attributes (i.e., the attributes of nest sites were not consistently different from those of surrounding beach locations). Nest sites were, however, typically characterised by occurring close to vegetation, on parts of the shore where the beach- and dune-face was concave and not highly rugged, and in areas with moderate exposure to artificial light. Conclusion This study used a novel empirical approach to identify the attributes of turtle nest sites from a broader ‘envelope’ of environmental nest traits, and is the first step towards optimizing conservation actions to mitigate, at the local scale, present and emerging human impacts on turtle nesting beaches. PMID:28070454

  20. Verification of the Adjoint-tomography Inversion of the Small-scale Surface Sedimentary Structure: The Case of the Mygdonian Basin, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubina, Filip; Moczo, Peter; Kristek, Jozef

    2015-04-01

    We apply the full-waveform inversion using the adjoint method to the Mygdonian basin, Greece, a local surface sedimentary basin. A canonical perturbation of the 2D EUROSEISTEST model is considered as a true (target) model and numerically simulated seismograms for the model as recorded seismograms. The 2D EUROSEISTEST model itself is taken as a starting model for inversion. The point DC sources are located relatively deeply beneath the basin and receivers are at the free surface. Due to the configuration and relatively strong velocity gradient in sediments, direct waves propagate almost vertically and almost in the same way for all sources. As a consequence, the coverage of the basin by the source-receiver configuration cannot be considered favourable. Resolution of kernels based on direct arrivals in the vertical direction is therefore very weak. It is necessary to use the entire seismograms. The complete wavefield in the basin is complicated and seismic motion considerably prolonged due to multiple reflections resulting in generation and propagation of local surface waves. Consequently, the corresponding kernel is very complicated. Large velocity contrasts and configuration of receivers imply kernel concentration in low-velocity layers near receivers. The spatial complexity of a kernel strongly depends on a seismogram section used for evaluating misfit and can be simplified by smoothing and spatially dependent normalization. Without simplification the inversion may be not converging properly. On the other hand, the simplification reduces the resolution of the inversion. We investigate a balance between a reasonable level of kernel simplification and inversion resolution in order to find practical criteria for the inversion of the local surface sedimentary structures.

  1. X-ray computed tomography investigation of structures in Opalinus Clay from large-scale to small-scale after mechanical testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufhold, Annette; Halisch, Matthias; Zacher, Gerhard; Kaufhold, Stephan

    2016-08-01

    In the past years X-ray computed tomography (CT) has became more and more common for geoscientific applications and is used from the µm-scale (e.g. for investigations of microfossils or pore-scale structures) up to the dm-scale (full drill cores or soil columns). In this paper we present results from CT imaging and mineralogical investigations of an Opalinus Clay core on different scales and different regions of interest, emphasizing especially the 3-D evaluation and distribution of cracks and their impact on mechanical testing of such material. Enhanced knowledge of the testing behaviour of the Opalinus Clay is of great interest, especially since this material is considered for a long-term radioactive waste disposal and storage facility in Switzerland. Hence, results are compared regarding the mineral (i.e. phase) contrast resolution, the spatial resolution, and the overall scanning speed.With this extensive interdisciplinary scale-down approach it has been possible to characterize the general fracture propagation in comparison to mineralogical and textural features of the Opalinus Clay. Additionally, and as far as we know, a so-called mylonitic zone, located at an intersect of two main fractures, has been observed for the first time for an experimentally deformed Opalinus sample. The multi-scale results are in good accordance to data from naturally deformed Opalinus Clay samples, which enables us to perform systematical research under controlled laboratory conditions. Accompanying 3-D imaging greatly enhances the capability of data interpretation and assessment of such a material.

  2. Hidden founder effects: small-scale spatial genetic structure in recently established populations of the grassland specialist plant Anthyllis vulneraria.

    PubMed

    Helsen, Kenny; Jacquemyn, Hans; Honnay, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    The long-term establishment success of founder plant populations has been commonly assessed based on the measures of population genetic diversity and among population genetic differentiation, with founder populations expected to carry sufficient genetic diversity when population establishment is the result of many colonists from multiple source populations (the 'migrant pool' colonization model). Theory, however, predicts that, after initial colonization, rapid population expansion may result in a fast increase in the extent of spatial genetic structure (SGS), independent of extant genetic diversity. This SGS can reduce long-term population viability by increasing inbreeding. Using 12 microsatellite markers, we inferred colonization patterns in four recent populations of the grassland specialist plant Anthyllis vulneraria and compared the extent of SGS between recently established and old populations. Assignment analyses of the individuals of recent population based on the genetic composition of nine adjacent putative source populations suggested the occurrence of the 'migrant pool' colonization model, further confirmed by high genetic diversity within and low genetic differentiation among recent populations. Population establishment, however, resulted in the build-up of strong SGS, most likely as a result of spatially restricted recruitment of the progeny of initial colonists. Although reduced, significant SGS was nonetheless observed to persist in old populations. The presence of SGS was in all populations associated with elevated inbreeding coefficients, potentially affecting the long-term viability of these populations. In conclusion, this study illustrates the importance of studying SGS next to population genetic diversity and differentiation to adequately infer colonization patterns and long-term establishment success of plant species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. TS-AMIR: a topology string alignment method for intensive rapid protein structure comparison

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In structural biology, similarity analysis of protein structure is a crucial step in studying the relationship between proteins. Despite the considerable number of techniques that have been explored within the past two decades, the development of new alternative methods is still an active research area due to the need for high performance tools. Results In this paper, we present TS-AMIR, a Topology String Alignment Method for Intensive Rapid comparison of protein structures. The proposed method works in two stages: In the first stage, the method generates a topology string based on the geometric details of secondary structure elements, and then, utilizes an n-gram modelling technique over entropy concept to capture similarities in these strings. This initial correspondence map between secondary structure elements is submitted to the second stage in order to obtain the alignment at the residue level. Applying the Kabsch method, a heuristic step-by-step algorithm is adopted in the second stage to align the residues, resulting in an optimal rotation matrix and minimized RMSD. The performance of the method was assessed in different information retrieval tests and the results were compared with those of CE and TM-align, representing two geometrical tools, and YAKUSA, 3D-BLAST and SARST as three representatives of linear encoding schemes. It is shown that the method obtains a high running speed similar to that of the linear encoding schemes. In addition, the method runs about 800 and 7200 times faster than TM-align and CE respectively, while maintaining a competitive accuracy with TM-align and CE. Conclusions The experimental results demonstrate that linear encoding techniques are capable of reaching the same high degree of accuracy as that achieved by geometrical methods, while generally running hundreds of times faster than conventional programs. PMID:22336468

  4. TS-AMIR: a topology string alignment method for intensive rapid protein structure comparison.

    PubMed

    Razmara, Jafar; Deris, Safaai; Parvizpour, Sepideh

    2012-02-15

    In structural biology, similarity analysis of protein structure is a crucial step in studying the relationship between proteins. Despite the considerable number of techniques that have been explored within the past two decades, the development of new alternative methods is still an active research area due to the need for high performance tools. In this paper, we present TS-AMIR, a Topology String Alignment Method for Intensive Rapid comparison of protein structures. The proposed method works in two stages: In the first stage, the method generates a topology string based on the geometric details of secondary structure elements, and then, utilizes an n-gram modelling technique over entropy concept to capture similarities in these strings. This initial correspondence map between secondary structure elements is submitted to the second stage in order to obtain the alignment at the residue level. Applying the Kabsch method, a heuristic step-by-step algorithm is adopted in the second stage to align the residues, resulting in an optimal rotation matrix and minimized RMSD. The performance of the method was assessed in different information retrieval tests and the results were compared with those of CE and TM-align, representing two geometrical tools, and YAKUSA, 3D-BLAST and SARST as three representatives of linear encoding schemes. It is shown that the method obtains a high running speed similar to that of the linear encoding schemes. In addition, the method runs about 800 and 7200 times faster than TM-align and CE respectively, while maintaining a competitive accuracy with TM-align and CE. The experimental results demonstrate that linear encoding techniques are capable of reaching the same high degree of accuracy as that achieved by geometrical methods, while generally running hundreds of times faster than conventional programs.

  5. Mapping hydrogeophysical structures with time--domain electromagnetic methods: Resolving small-scale details with large loops and three--component measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, C. J.; Li, Y.; Nabighian, M.

    2004-12-01

    One of the outstanding problems in managing water resources in geologically complex aquifers is to develop improved techniques for mapping compartmentalization due to faulting. And although the role of faults in aquifer dynamics can vary considerably, knowledge of their location is key to understanding aquifer recharge and developing a sensible model for predicting aquifer response due to anthropogenic loads. We have explored the application of time--domain electromagnetic methods for mapping shallow aquifer faults on the western flanks of the Estancia Basin, central New Mexico. The field site is underlain by massive Pennsylvanian limestones (Madera Group) subsequently faulted by Laramide tectonics of the Ancestral Rockies and Neogene extension of the Rio Grande Rift. Two experimental configurations were deployed: a large 50 × 40 m transmitter loop with receiver stations located on a 5 m grid over the loop's interior; and an azimuthal survey consisting of a smaller fixed transmitter with receiver stations at ˜2 m intervals along a 30 m radius circle centered on the transmitter. Three--component transients of magnetic field due to a fast linear ramp--off in the transmitter were recorded at each station. As a rapid reconnaisance tool, the azimuthal experiment is well--suited for identification of subsurface fault planes since symmetry constraints require a vanishing azimuthal ̂ φ component of magnetic field when the electrical strike, or fault plane, lies in the ̂ φ direction. However, each of the experimental configurations revealed that the site's electrical structure is far more three--dimensional than previously believed and is not dominated by the response of a previously identified fault plane. Instead, we have observed spatially coherent transient signals which may indicate compartmentalization over length scales as small as a few tens of meters. Sections of this work were performed at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia is a multi--program laboratory

  6. Latitudinal structure of the Venus O2 infrared airglow: A signature of small-scale dynamical processes in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, J.-C.; Soret, L.; Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.

    2014-07-01

    Images of the nightside limb of Venus have been obtained in the northern hemisphere with the VIRTIS multispectral infrared imager on board Venus Express between April 2006 and October 2008. We analyze the latitudinal distribution of the O2(a1Δ) airglow limb profiles at 1.27 μm to characterize its distribution and variability. We show that the instantaneous structure of the emission is very different from the statistical global view of an enhanced emission near the equator, decreasing in brightness and slightly increasing in altitude toward the poles. The peak intensity of the limb profiles varies by a factor up to 50 between the brightest spots and the darkest regions. The bright airglow spots correspond to regions of enhanced downward flow of oxygen atoms originating from the dayside. Considerable variations in brightness and morphology are observed in the altitude-latitudinal distribution over a 24-h period. Analysis of the limb profiles indicates that secondary airglow peaks located at altitudes higher than the mean value of 96 km are observed on about 30% of the latitudinal cuts, but they are concentrated in narrow latitude areas extending over a few hundred kilometers. Most of them occur in transition regions between two altitude regimes in the 50° to 60°N region, possibly associated with the drop of the cloud top altitude observed equatorward of the “cold collar”. We interpret these results as an indication that the strength of vertical transport in this mesosphere-thermosphere transition region is very variable both in location and time. This variability, also observed in nadir airglow images and wind measurements, is a key characteristic of the mesosphere-thermosphere transition region. It may be caused by fluctuations of the global day-to-night circulation generated by gravity waves. We show with a one-dimensional model that local enhancements of eddy transport is a possibility. This variability is currently not accounted for by global circulation

  7. SMALL-SCALE ANISOTROPIES OF COSMIC RAYS FROM RELATIVE DIFFUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlers, Markus; Mertsch, Philipp

    2015-12-10

    The arrival directions of multi-TeV cosmic rays show significant anisotropies at small angular scales. It has been argued that this small-scale structure can naturally arise from cosmic ray scattering in local turbulent magnetic fields that distort a global dipole anisotropy set by diffusion. We study this effect in terms of the power spectrum of cosmic ray arrival directions and show that the strength of small-scale anisotropies is related to properties of relative diffusion. We provide a formalism for how these power spectra can be inferred from simulations and motivate a simple analytic extension of the ensemble-averaged diffusion equation that can account for the effect.

  8. Reconnection rates, small scale structures and simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    The study of reconnection in the context of one fluid, two dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), with spatially uniform constant density, viscosity and resistivity is though to retain most of the physics important in reconnection. Much of the existing reconnection literature makes use of this approach. This discussion focuses on attempts to determine the properties of reconnection solutions to MHD as precisely as possible without regard to the intrinsic limitations of the model.

  9. Large Scale Coordination of Small Scale Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobelski, Adam; Tarr, Lucas A.; Jaeggli, Sarah A.; Savage, Sabrina

    2017-08-01

    Transient brightenings are ubiquitous features of the solar atmosphere across many length and energy scales, the most energetic of which manifest as large-class solar flares. Often, transient brightenings originate in regions of strong magnetic activity and create strong observable enhancements across wavelengths from X-ray to radio, with notable dynamics on timescales of seconds to hours.The coronal aspects of these brightenings have often been studied by way of EUV and X-ray imaging and spectra. These events are likely driven by photospheric activity (such as flux emergence) with the coronal brightenings originating largely from chromospheric ablation (evaporation). Until recently, chromospheric and transition region observations of these events have been limited. However, new observational capabilities have become available which significantly enhance our ability to understand the bi-directional flow of energy through the chromosphere between the photosphere and the corona.We have recently obtained a unique data set with which to study this flow of energy through the chromosphere via the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS), Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT), Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuStar), Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), and Interferometric BIdimensional Spectropolarimeter (IBIS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST). This data set targets a small active area near disk center which was tracked simultaneously for approximately four hours. Within this region, many transient brightenings detected through multiple layers of the solar atmosphere. In this study, we combine the imaging data and use the spectra from EIS and IRIS to track flows from the photosphere (HMI, SOT) through the chromosphere and transition region (AIA, IBIS, IRIS, ALMA) into the corona (EIS, XRT, AIA).

  10. The stochastic string model as a unifying theory of the term structure of interest rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno-Guerrero, Alberto; Moreno, Manuel; Navas, Javier F.

    2016-11-01

    We present the stochastic string model of Santa-Clara and Sornette (2001), as reformulated by Bueno-Guerrero et al. (2015), as a unifying theory of the continuous-time modeling of the term structure of interest rates. We provide several new results, such as: (a) an orthogonality condition for the volatilities in the Heath, Jarrow, and Morton (1992) (HJM) model, (b) the interpretation of multi-factor HJM models as approximations to a full infinite-dimensional model, (c) a result of consistency based on Hilbert spaces, and (d) a theorem for option valuation.

  11. Discovery of Small-Scale Spiral Structures in the Disk of SAO 206462 (HD 135344B)(exp 1): Implications for the Physical State of the Disk from Spiral Density Wave Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muto, T.; Grady, C. A.; Hashimoto, J.; Fukagawa, M.; Hornbeck, J. B.; Sitko, M.; Russell, R.; Werren, C.; Cure, M; Currie, T.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present high-resolution, H-band, imaging observations, collected with Subaru /HiCIAO, of the scattered light from the transitional disk around SAO 206462 (HD 1353448). Although previous sub-mm imagery suggested the existence of the dust-depleted cavity at r <= 46 AU, our observations reveal the presence of scattered light components as close as O".2 (approx 28 AU) from the star. Moreover , we have discovered two small-scale spiral structures lying within 0".5 (approx 70 AU). We present models for the spiral structures using the spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h approx. 0.1, which is consistent with previous sub-mm observations. This model can potentially give estimates of the temperature and rotation profiles of the disk based on dynamical processes. independently from sub-nun observations. It also predicts the evolution of the spiral structures, which can be observable on timescales of 10-20 years, providing conclusive tests of the model. While we cannot uniquely identify the origin of these spirals, planets embedded in the disk may be capable of exciting the observed morphology. Assuming that this is the case, we can make predictions on the locations and, possibly, the masses of the unseen planets. Such planets may be detected by future multi-wavelengths observations,

  12. Discovery of Small-Scale Spiral Structures in the Disk of SAO 206462 (HD 135344B): Implications for the Physical State of the Disk from Spiral Density Wave Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Currie, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present high-resolution, H-band, imaging observations, collected with Subaru/HiCIAO, of the scattered light from the transitional disk around SAO 206462 (HD 135344B). Although previous sub-mm imagery suggested the existence of the dust-depleted cavity at r approximates 46 AU, our observations reveal the presence of scattered light components as close as 0".2 (approx 28 AU) from the star. Moreover, we have discovered two small-scale spiral structures lying within 0".5 (approx 70 AU). We present models for the spiral structures using the spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h approx 0.1, which is consistent with previous sub-mm observations. This model can potentially give estimates of the temperature and rotation profiles of the disk based on dynamical processes, independently from sub-mm observations. It also predicts the evolution of the spiral structures, which can be observable on timescales of 10-20 years, providing conclusive tests of the model. While we cannot uniquely identify the origin of these spirals, planets embedded in the disk may be capable of exciting the observed morphology. Assuming that this is the case, we can make predictions on the locations and, possibly, the masses of the unseen planets. Such planets may be detected by future multi-wavelengths observations.

  13. Small-scale models of multiring basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allemand, Pascal; Thomas, Pierre

    1999-07-01

    Small-scale sand-silicone simulations of multiring impact structures have been undertaken in order to understand the effects of the rheology of the lithosphere on the variability of natural multiring structures. For low sand-silicone thickness ratio (1:3), brittle strain is accommodated by spiral strike-slip faults. For higher sand-silicone ratios (1:1 or 2:1), an inner concentric ring affected by strike-slip faults is relayed by an external ring affected by concentric normal faults. The diameter of the inner ring decreases with the increase of the sand-silicone thickness ratio. It is suggested that the flexure of the brittle layer due to the silicone flow is responsible for the brittle strain field which is enhanced by the channel flow of the lower crust. The characteristic geometry of the intersection of conjugated strike-slip faults can be observed around large multiring basins on silicate crust such as Orientale on the Moon and on icy crust, such as Valhalla on Callisto and Gilgamesh on Ganymede. The strain field around these large craters is discussed in terms of mechanical properties of the lithospheres. On the Moon, large craters without relaxation faults, such as Imbrium are located on thin crust regions. The crust was too thin to have a ductile lower layer at the time of impact. Gilgamesh on Ganymede is surrounded mainly by strike-slip faults. Asgard on Callisto has the same diameter as Gilgamesh but is surrounded by concentric normal faults. The brittle-ductile thickness ratio is thus higher on Callisto than on Ganymede.

  14. Small-scale physics of the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in research on the small-scale physics of the ocean is reviewed. The contribution of such research to the understanding of the large scales is addressed and compared for various depth ranges of the ocean. The traditional framework for discussing small-scale measurements and turbulence is outlined, and recent research in the area is reviewed, citing references. Evidence for the existence of salt fingering in oceanic mixing is discussed. Factors that might inhibit the growth of salt fingers are assessed, and the influence of differences between laboratory tank and ocean in studying the fingers is discussed. The role of salt fingers in creating intrusions is examined. Instruments and methods used to measure the smallest scales at which there is appreciable variation and the stability of the patch of ocean in which the small-scale motions take place are considered.

  15. Superhydrophobicity of PHBV fibrous surface with bead-on-string structure.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young Il; Moon, Hyun Sik; Lyoo, Won Seok; Lee, Taek Seung; Park, Won Ho

    2008-04-01

    A poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) fibrous surface with various bead-on-string structures was fabricated by electrospinning. PHBV was electrospun at various concentrations and then CF4 plasma treatment was employed to further improve the hydrophobicity of the PHBV fiber surfaces. The surface morphology of the electrospun PHBV mats was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface properties were characterized by water contact angle (WCA) measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface morphology of the electrospun PHBV fibrous mats with the bead-son-string structure varied with the solution concentration. The WCA of all of the electrospun PHBV mats was higher than that of the PHBV film. In particular, a very rough fiber surface including porous beads was observed when PHBV was electrospun from the solution with a concentration of 26 wt%. Also, its WCA further increased from 141 degrees to 158 degrees after CF(4) plasma treatment for 150 s. PHBV can be rendered superhydrophobic by controlling the surface morphology and surface energy, which can be achieved by adjusting the electrospinning and plasma treatment conditions.

  16. Cosmic strings and galaxy formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertschinger, Edmund

    1989-01-01

    The cosmogonical model proposed by Zel'dovich and Vilenkin (1981), in which superconducting cosmic strings act as seeds for the origin of structure in the universe, is discussed, summarizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. Consideration is given to the formation of cosmic strings, the microscopic structure of strings, gravitational effects, cosmic string evolution, and the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Simulation results are presented in graphs, and several outstanding issues are listed and briefly characterized.

  17. SMALL SCALE BIOMASS FUELED GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The n...

  18. IAPSA 2 small-scale system specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Torkelson, Thomas C.

    1990-01-01

    The details of a hardware implementation of a representative small scale flight critical system is described using Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) building block components and simulated sensor/actuator interfaces. The system was used to study application performance and reliability issues during both normal and faulted operation.

  19. SMALL SCALE BIOMASS FUELED GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The n...

  20. Developing JSequitur to Study the Hierarchical Structure of Biological Sequences in a Grammatical Inference Framework of String Compression Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Galbadrakh, Bulgan; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Park, Hyun-Seok

    2012-12-01

    Grammatical inference methods are expected to find grammatical structures hidden in biological sequences. One hopes that studies of grammar serve as an appropriate tool for theory formation. Thus, we have developed JSequitur for automatically generating the grammatical structure of biological sequences in an inference framework of string compression algorithms. Our original motivation was to find any grammatical traits of several cancer genes that can be detected by string compression algorithms. Through this research, we could not find any meaningful unique traits of the cancer genes yet, but we could observe some interesting traits in regards to the relationship among gene length, similarity of sequences, the patterns of the generated grammar, and compression rate.

  1. Open String on Symmetric Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuji, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Yutaka

    We discuss some basic properties of the open string on the symmetric product which is supposed to describe the open string field theory in discrete light-cone quantization (DLCQ). We first derive the consistent twisted boundary conditions for Annulus/Möbius/Klein Bottle diagrams and give the explicit form of the corresponding amplitude. They have the interpretation as the long open (or closed) string amplitude but the world sheet topology viewed from the short string and from the long string is in general different. Boundary (cross-cap) states of the short string are classified into three categories, the boundary (cross-cap) states of the long string and the "joint" state which connects two strings. The partition function has the typical structure of the string field theory in DLCQ. Tadpole condition is also analyzed and gives a reasonable gauge group SO(213).

  2. Biaxial shear of confined colloidal hard spheres: the structure and rheology of the vorticity-aligned string phase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Neil Y C; Cheng, Xiang; Cohen, Itai

    2014-03-28

    Using a novel biaxial confocal rheoscope, we investigate the flow of the shear induced vorticity aligned string phase [X. Cheng et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2011, 109, 63], which has a highly anisotropic microstructure. Using biaxial shear protocols we show that we have excellent control of the string phase anisotropic morphology. We choose a shear protocol that drives the system into the string phase. Subsequently, a biaxial force measurement device is used to determine the suspension rheology along both the flow and vorticity directions. We find no measurable dependence of the suspension stress response along the shear and vorticity directions due to the hydrodynamically induced string morphology. In particular, we find that the suspension's high frequency stress response is nearly identical along the two orthogonal directions. While we do observe an anisotropic stress response at lower shear frequencies associated with shear thinning, we show that this anisotropy is independent of the shear induced string structure. These results suggest that for the range of flows explored, Brownian and hydrodynamic contributions to the stress arising from the anisotropic suspension microstructure are sufficiently weak that they do not significantly contribute to the rheology. Collectively, this study presents a general and powerful approach for using biaxial confocal rheometry to elucidate the relationship between microstructure and rheology in complex fluids driven far-from-equilibrium.

  3. DOE small scale fuel alcohol plant design

    SciTech Connect

    LaRue, D.M.; Richardson, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in an effort to facilitate the deployment of rural-based ethanol production capability, has undertaken this effort to develop a basic small-scale plant design capable of producing anhydrous ethanol. The design, when completed, will contain all necessary specifications and diagrams sufficient for the construction of a plant. The design concept is modular; that is, sections of the plant can stand alone or be integrated into other designs with comparable throughput rates. The plant design will be easily scaled up or down from the designed flow rate of 25 gallons of ethanol per hour. Conversion factors will be provided with the final design package to explain scale-up and scale-down procedures. The intent of this program is to provide potential small-scale producers with sound information about the size, engineering requirements, costs and level of effort in building such a system.

  4. Small Scale Equidistribution of Random Eigenbases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaolong

    2017-01-01

    We investigate small scale equidistribution of random orthonormal bases of eigenfunctions (i.e., eigenbases) on a compact manifold M. Assume that the group of isometries acts transitively on M and the multiplicity {m_λ} of eigenfrequency {λ} tends to infinity at least logarithmically as {λ to ∞}. We prove that, with respect to the natural probability measure on the space of eigenbases, almost surely a random eigenbasis is equidistributed at small scales; furthermore, the scales depend on the growth rate of {m_λ}. In particular, this implies that almost surely random eigenbases on the sphere S^n ({n ≥ 2}) and the tori T^n ({n ≥ 5}) are equidistributed at polynomial scales.

  5. Small Scale Water Disinfection for Military Purposes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    AD-A268 654 Small scale water disinfection for military purposes. Gary Thomson DSTO DoGC Materials Research Laboratory ELECTE P.O. Box 147 m...Scottsdale AUG 2 4 •9 3 1. SUMTasmania 7260 E When a military force is in the field, it is impossible to apply at all times the normal practices of water ...purification such as coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorination used for a municipal water supply. For personnel who are

  6. Theoretical and experimental investigations of acoustic waves in embedded fluid-solid multi-string structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; D'Angelo, Ralph M.; Sinha, Bikash K.; Zeroug, Smaine

    2017-03-01

    Current acoustic measurements provide viable inspection for single cased wells, yet their interpretation for complicated multi-string wellbores where, for instance, two or more nested steel strings are deployed, is largely hampered by a lack of knowledge of the measured acoustic wave fields. This letter reports on theoretical and experimental investigations of the acoustic wave propagation in fluid-filled double string systems. Experimental measurements show excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions by a Sweeping Frequency Finite Element Method. The results lead to the identification of acoustic signatures that are crucial for an effective diagnosis of cement conditions in double-string cased wellbores.

  7. Dislocation dynamics simulations of plasticity at small scales

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Caizhi

    2010-01-01

    As metallic structures and devices are being created on a dimension comparable to the length scales of the underlying dislocation microstructures, the mechanical properties of them change drastically. Since such small structures are increasingly common in modern technologies, there is an emergent need to understand the critical roles of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture in small structures. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, in which the dislocations are the simulated entities, offer a way to extend length scales beyond those of atomistic simulations and the results from DD simulations can be directly compared with the micromechanical tests. The primary objective of this research is to use 3-D DD simulations to study the plastic deformation of nano- and micro-scale materials and understand the correlation between dislocation motion, interactions and the mechanical response. Specifically, to identify what critical events (i.e., dislocation multiplication, cross-slip, storage, nucleation, junction and dipole formation, pinning etc.) determine the deformation response and how these change from bulk behavior as the system decreases in size and correlate and improve our current knowledge of bulk plasticity with the knowledge gained from the direct observations of small-scale plasticity. Our simulation results on single crystal micropillars and polycrystalline thin films can march the experiment results well and capture the essential features in small-scale plasticity. Furthermore, several simple and accurate models have been developed following our simulation results and can reasonably predict the plastic behavior of small scale materials.

  8. Role of string-like collective atomic motion on diffusion and structural relaxation in glass forming Cu-Zr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhong, Cheng; Douglas, Jack F.; Wang, Xiaodong; Cao, Qingping; Zhang, Dongxian; Jiang, Jian-Zhong

    2015-04-01

    We investigate Cu-Zr liquid alloys using molecular dynamics simulation and well-accepted embedded atom method potentials over a wide range of chemical composition and temperature as model metallic glass-forming (GF) liquids. As with other types of GF materials, the dynamics of these complex liquids are characterized by "dynamic heterogeneity" in the form of transient polymeric clusters of highly mobile atoms that are composed in turn of atomic clusters exhibiting string-like cooperative motion. In accordance with the string model of relaxation, an extension of the Adam-Gibbs (AG) model, changes in the activation free energy ΔGa with temperature of both the Cu and Zr diffusion coefficients D, and the alpha structural relaxation time τα can be described to a good approximation by changes in the average string length, L. In particular, we confirm that the strings are a concrete realization of the abstract "cooperatively rearranging regions" of AG. We also find coexisting clusters of relatively "immobile" atoms that exhibit predominantly icosahedral local packing rather than the low symmetry packing of "mobile" atoms. These two distinct types of dynamic heterogeneity are then associated with different fluid structural states. Glass-forming liquids are thus analogous to polycrystalline materials where the icosahedrally packed regions correspond to crystal grains, and the strings reside in the relatively disordered grain boundary-like regions exterior to these locally well-ordered regions. A dynamic equilibrium between localized ("immobile") and wandering ("mobile") particles exists in the liquid so that the dynamic heterogeneity can be considered to be type of self-assembly process. We also characterize changes in the local atomic free volume in the course of string-like atomic motion to better understand the initiation and propagation of these fluid excitations.

  9. Role of string-like collective atomic motion on diffusion and structural relaxation in glass forming Cu-Zr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hao; Zhong, Cheng; Wang, Xiaodong; Cao, Qingping; Jiang, Jian-Zhong E-mail: jack.douglas@nist.gov; Douglas, Jack F. E-mail: jack.douglas@nist.gov; Zhang, Dongxian

    2015-04-28

    We investigate Cu-Zr liquid alloys using molecular dynamics simulation and well-accepted embedded atom method potentials over a wide range of chemical composition and temperature as model metallic glass-forming (GF) liquids. As with other types of GF materials, the dynamics of these complex liquids are characterized by “dynamic heterogeneity” in the form of transient polymeric clusters of highly mobile atoms that are composed in turn of atomic clusters exhibiting string-like cooperative motion. In accordance with the string model of relaxation, an extension of the Adam-Gibbs (AG) model, changes in the activation free energy ΔG{sub a} with temperature of both the Cu and Zr diffusion coefficients D, and the alpha structural relaxation time τ{sub α} can be described to a good approximation by changes in the average string length, L. In particular, we confirm that the strings are a concrete realization of the abstract “cooperatively rearranging regions” of AG. We also find coexisting clusters of relatively “immobile” atoms that exhibit predominantly icosahedral local packing rather than the low symmetry packing of “mobile” atoms. These two distinct types of dynamic heterogeneity are then associated with different fluid structural states. Glass-forming liquids are thus analogous to polycrystalline materials where the icosahedrally packed regions correspond to crystal grains, and the strings reside in the relatively disordered grain boundary-like regions exterior to these locally well-ordered regions. A dynamic equilibrium between localized (“immobile”) and wandering (“mobile”) particles exists in the liquid so that the dynamic heterogeneity can be considered to be type of self-assembly process. We also characterize changes in the local atomic free volume in the course of string-like atomic motion to better understand the initiation and propagation of these fluid excitations.

  10. Role of string-like collective atomic motion on diffusion and structural relaxation in glass forming Cu-Zr alloys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Zhong, Cheng; Douglas, Jack F; Wang, Xiaodong; Cao, Qingping; Zhang, Dongxian; Jiang, Jian-Zhong

    2015-04-28

    We investigate Cu-Zr liquid alloys using molecular dynamics simulation and well-accepted embedded atom method potentials over a wide range of chemical composition and temperature as model metallic glass-forming (GF) liquids. As with other types of GF materials, the dynamics of these complex liquids are characterized by "dynamic heterogeneity" in the form of transient polymeric clusters of highly mobile atoms that are composed in turn of atomic clusters exhibiting string-like cooperative motion. In accordance with the string model of relaxation, an extension of the Adam-Gibbs (AG) model, changes in the activation free energy ΔGa with temperature of both the Cu and Zr diffusion coefficients D, and the alpha structural relaxation time τα can be described to a good approximation by changes in the average string length, L. In particular, we confirm that the strings are a concrete realization of the abstract "cooperatively rearranging regions" of AG. We also find coexisting clusters of relatively "immobile" atoms that exhibit predominantly icosahedral local packing rather than the low symmetry packing of "mobile" atoms. These two distinct types of dynamic heterogeneity are then associated with different fluid structural states. Glass-forming liquids are thus analogous to polycrystalline materials where the icosahedrally packed regions correspond to crystal grains, and the strings reside in the relatively disordered grain boundary-like regions exterior to these locally well-ordered regions. A dynamic equilibrium between localized ("immobile") and wandering ("mobile") particles exists in the liquid so that the dynamic heterogeneity can be considered to be type of self-assembly process. We also characterize changes in the local atomic free volume in the course of string-like atomic motion to better understand the initiation and propagation of these fluid excitations.

  11. A Portrait of Cold Gas in Galaxies at 60 pc Resolution and a Simple Method to Test Hypotheses That Link Small-scale ISM Structure to Galaxy-scale Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Hughes, Annie; Schruba, Andreas; Rosolowsky, Erik; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Colombo, Dario; Escala, Andres; Kramer, Carsten; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Meidt, Sharon; Pety, Jerome; Querejeta, Miguel; Sandstrom, Karin; Schinnerer, Eva; Sliwa, Kazimierz; Usero, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The cloud-scale density, velocity dispersion, and gravitational boundedness of the interstellar medium (ISM) vary within and among galaxies. In turbulent models, these properties play key roles in the ability of gas to form stars. New high-fidelity, high-resolution surveys offer the prospect to measure these quantities across galaxies. We present a simple approach to make such measurements and to test hypotheses that link small-scale gas structure to star formation and galactic environment. Our calculations capture the key physics of the Larson scaling relations, and we show good correspondence between our approach and a traditional “cloud properties” treatment. However, we argue that our method is preferable in many cases because of its simple, reproducible characterization of all emission. Using, low-J 12CO data from recent surveys, we characterize the molecular ISM at 60 pc resolution in the Antennae, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), M31, M33, M51, and M74. We report the distributions of surface density, velocity dispersion, and gravitational boundedness at 60 pc scales and show galaxy-to-galaxy and intragalaxy variations in each. The distribution of flux as a function of surface density appears roughly lognormal with a 1σ width of ∼0.3 dex, though the center of this distribution varies from galaxy to galaxy. The 60 pc resolution line width and molecular gas surface density correlate well, which is a fundamental behavior expected for virialized or free-falling gas. Varying the measurement scale for the LMC and M31, we show that the molecular ISM has higher surface densities, lower line widths, and more self-gravity at smaller scales.

  12. Hammered Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    In the next three chapters we consider the science of hammered string instruments. In this chapter, we present a brief discussion of vibrating strings excited by a hard or soft hammer. Chapter 20 discusses the most important hammered string instrument, the piano - probably the most versatile and popular of all musical instruments. Chapter 21 discusses hammered dulcimers, especially the American folk dulcimer.

  13. Bead-on-string structure printed by electrohydrodynamic jet under alternating current electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juan; Lin, Yihuang; Jiang, Jiaxin; Liu, Haiyan; Zhao, Yang; Zheng, Gaofeng

    2016-09-01

    Electrohydrodynamic printing (EHDP) under alternating current (AC) electric field provides a novel way for the precise micro-/nano-droplet printing. The AC electric field induces the free charge to reciprocate along the EHDP jet and changes the electric field force on the jet periodically. The stability of jet can be enhanced by increasing the voltage frequency, and the regular bead-on-string structure is direct-written along the trajectory of collector. The deposition frequency of bead structure increases with the increasing of voltage frequency, due to the short period of AC electric field. As the voltage frequency is increased from 10 to 60 Hz, the diameter of bead structure decreases from 200 to 110 µm. As the duty ration increased from 10 to 60 %, the diameter of bead structure increased from 100 to 140 µm. This work would accelerate the development and the application of micro-/nano-printing technology in the fields of flexible electronic and micro-/nano-system.

  14. Small-scale physics of the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Douglas R.

    1987-01-01

    Observations and theoretical models of small-scale phenomena in the oceans are reviewed, with a focus on progress during the period 1983-1986. Topics examined include surface layers, equatorial turbulence, off-equator mixed layers, the scaling of mixing, turbulence concepts, laboratory results, internal waves and mixing, rings, the nature of the bottom layer, double diffusion and intrusions, salt fingers, and biological interactions. Also discussed are developments in instrumentation (fast sampling profilers with upward-profiling capability, deep profilers, ship-motion correction, horizontal samplers, small submersibles, submarines, towed packages, conductivity sensors, dissolved-oxygen sensors, and acoustic Doppler current profilers) and goals for future research.

  15. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  16. Small-scale physics of the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Douglas R.

    1987-01-01

    Observations and theoretical models of small-scale phenomena in the oceans are reviewed, with a focus on progress during the period 1983-1986. Topics examined include surface layers, equatorial turbulence, off-equator mixed layers, the scaling of mixing, turbulence concepts, laboratory results, internal waves and mixing, rings, the nature of the bottom layer, double diffusion and intrusions, salt fingers, and biological interactions. Also discussed are developments in instrumentation (fast sampling profilers with upward-profiling capability, deep profilers, ship-motion correction, horizontal samplers, small submersibles, submarines, towed packages, conductivity sensors, dissolved-oxygen sensors, and acoustic Doppler current profilers) and goals for future research.

  17. Empirical spatial econometric modelling of small scale neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerkman, Linda

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to model small scale neighbourhood in a house price model by implementing the newest methodology in spatial econometrics. A common problem when modelling house prices is that in practice it is seldom possible to obtain all the desired variables. Especially variables capturing the small scale neighbourhood conditions are hard to find. If there are important explanatory variables missing from the model, the omitted variables are spatially autocorrelated and they are correlated with the explanatory variables included in the model, it can be shown that a spatial Durbin model is motivated. In the empirical application on new house price data from Helsinki in Finland, we find the motivation for a spatial Durbin model, we estimate the model and interpret the estimates for the summary measures of impacts. By the analysis we show that the model structure makes it possible to model and find small scale neighbourhood effects, when we know that they exist, but we are lacking proper variables to measure them.

  18. Accurate age estimation in small-scale societies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel; Gerbault, Pascale; Dyble, Mark; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg; Thomas, Mark G.

    2017-01-01

    Precise estimation of age is essential in evolutionary anthropology, especially to infer population age structures and understand the evolution of human life history diversity. However, in small-scale societies, such as hunter-gatherer populations, time is often not referred to in calendar years, and accurate age estimation remains a challenge. We address this issue by proposing a Bayesian approach that accounts for age uncertainty inherent to fieldwork data. We developed a Gibbs sampling Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm that produces posterior distributions of ages for each individual, based on a ranking order of individuals from youngest to oldest and age ranges for each individual. We first validate our method on 65 Agta foragers from the Philippines with known ages, and show that our method generates age estimations that are superior to previously published regression-based approaches. We then use data on 587 Agta collected during recent fieldwork to demonstrate how multiple partial age ranks coming from multiple camps of hunter-gatherers can be integrated. Finally, we exemplify how the distributions generated by our method can be used to estimate important demographic parameters in small-scale societies: here, age-specific fertility patterns. Our flexible Bayesian approach will be especially useful to improve cross-cultural life history datasets for small-scale societies for which reliable age records are difficult to acquire. PMID:28696282

  19. On the Dynamics of Small-Scale Solar Magnetic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, T. E.; Title, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    We report on the dynamics of the small-scale solar magnetic field, based on analysis of very high resolution images of the solar photosphere obtained at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope. The data sets are movies from 1 to 4 hr in length, taken in several wavelength bands with a typical time between frames of 20 s. The primary method of tracking small-scale magnetic elements is with very high contrast images of photospheric bright points, taken through a 12 A bandpass filter centered at 4305 A in the Fraunhofer 'G band.' Previous studies have established that such bright points are unambiguously associated with sites of small-scale magnetic flux in the photosphere, although the details of the mechanism responsible for the brightening of the flux elements remain uncertain. The G band bright points move in the intergranular lanes at speeds from 0.5 to 5 km/s. The motions appear to be constrained to the intergranular lanes and are primarily driven by the evolution of the local granular convection flow field. Continual fragmentation and merging of flux is the fundamental evolutionary mode of small-scale magnetic structures in the solar photosphere. Rotation and folding of chains or groups of bright points are also observed. The timescale for magnetic flux evolution in active region plage is on the order of the correlation time of granulation (typically 6-8 minutes), but significant morphological changes can occur on timescales as short as 100 S. Smaller fragments are occasionally seen to fade beyond observable contrast. The concept of a stable, isolated subarcsecond magnetic 'flux tube' in the solar photosphere is inconsistent with the observations presented here.

  20. The "fault of the Pool" along the Congo River between Kinshasa and Brazzaville, R(D)Congo is no more a myth: Paleostress from small-scale brittle structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvaux, Damien; Ganza, Gloire; Kongota, Elvis; Fukiabantu, Guilain; Mbokola, Dim; Boudzoumou, Florent; Miyouna, Timothée; Gampio, Urbain; Nkodia, Hardy

    2017-04-01

    Small-scale brittle structures such as shear fractures and tension joints are well developed in the indurated Paleozoic Inkisi red sandstones of the West-Congo Supergroup in the "pool" region of Kinshasa and Brazzaville, along the Congo River. They appear to be related to the evolution of intraplate stresses during the late Cretaceous-Paleogene period, possibly related to the opening of the South Atlantic. However, inferring paleostresses from such structures is difficult due to the lack of clear kinematic indicators, so we used mainly the geometry, architecture and sequence of the joint systems to infer paleostresses. A limited number of kinematic indicators for slip sense (displaced pebbles, irregularities on striated surfaces, slickensides) or extension (plume joints) confirm the general conclusions of the joint architecture analysis. We found evidence for two major brittle deformation systems, leading to almost orthogonal fracture sets. They both started by the development of plume joints, which progressively evolved into open tension joints, isolated shear fractures and long (up to several hundred meters) brittle shear zones. The first system started to develop under NE-SW extension and evolved into strike-slip with NNW-SSE horizontal compression while the second (and later), started to develop under NW-SE extension and evolved into strike-slip with NNE-SSW horizontal compression. The second brittle deformation episode was associated with fluid flow as shown by the presence of palygorskite-calcite veins in the most prominent fractures of the second fracture system. Along the NE-SW brittle shear zones which run parallel to the Congo River, carbonate-rich fault-gauge lenses are filled by sand derived from the crushed adjacent walls and calcite vein fragments injected at a high fluid pressure, with late precipitation of palygorskite. Our study demonstrates the existence of two fault systems between Kinshasa and Brazzaville, the first one orthogonal to the trend

  1. A new spatially scanning 2.7 µm laser hygrometer and new small-scale wind tunnel for direct analysis of the H2O boundary layer structure at single plant leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderle, K.; Rascher, U.; Pieruschka, R.; Schurr, U.; Ebert, V.

    2015-01-01

    A new spatially scanning TDLAS in situ hygrometer based on a 2.7-µm DFB diode laser was constructed and used to analyse the water vapour concentration boundary layer structure at the surface of a single plant leaf. Using an absorption length of only 5.4 cm, the TDLAS hygrometer permits a H2O vapour concentration resolution of 31 ppmv. This corresponds to a normalized precision of 1.7 ppm m. In order to preserve and control the H2O boundary layer on an individual leaf and to study the boundary layer dependence on the wind speed to which the leaf might be exposed in nature, we also constructed a new, application specific, small-scale, wind tunnel for individual plant leaves. The rectangular, closed-loop tunnel has overall dimensions of 1.2 × 0.6 m and a measurement chamber dimension of 40 × 54 mm (H × W). It allows to generate a laminar flow with a precisely controlled wind speed at the plant leaf surface. Combining honeycombs and a miniaturized compression orifice, we could generate and control stable wind speeds from 0.1 to 0.9 m/s, and a highly laminar and homogeneous flow with an excellent relative spatial homogeneity of 0.969 ± 0.03. Combining the spectrometer and the wind tunnel, we analysed (for the first time) non-invasively the wind speed-dependent vertical structure of the H2O vapour distribution within the boundary layer of a single plant leaf. Using our time-lag-free data acquisition procedure for phase locked signal averaging, we achieved a temporal resolution of 0.2 s for an individual spatial point, while a complete vertical spatial scan at a spatial resolution of 0.18 mm took 77 s. The boundary layer thickness was found to decrease from 6.7 to 3.6 mm at increasing wind speeds of 0.1-0.9 m/s. According to our knowledge, this is the first experimental quantification of wind speed-dependent H2O vapour boundary layer concentration profiles of single plant leaves.

  2. The social structure of experimental'' strings at Fermilab; a physics and detector driven model

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1990-12-12

    Physicists in HEP have been forced to organize large scientific projects without a well defined organizational or sociological model to guide them. In the absence of such models, what structures do experimentalists use to develop social structures in HEP In this paper, I claim that physicists organize around what they know best, the physics problems they study and the detectors and devices they study them with. After describing the advent of management'' in HEP, I use a case study of 4 Fermilab experiments as the base upon which to propose a physics and detector driven model of social structure for experiments. In addition, I show how this model can be extended to describe strings'' of experiments, where continuities of physics interests, spectrometer design, and a core group of physicists become a definable sociological unit that can exist for over 15 years. A dominate theme that emerges from my analysis is the conscious attempt on the part of experimenters to remove the uncertainties that are part of the practice of HEP.

  3. Small-scale universality in fluid turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Jörg; Scheel, Janet D.; Krasnov, Dmitry; Donzis, Diego A.; Yakhot, Victor; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2014-01-01

    Turbulent flows in nature and technology possess a range of scales. The largest scales carry the memory of the physical system in which a flow is embedded. One challenge is to unravel the universal statistical properties that all turbulent flows share despite their different large-scale driving mechanisms or their particular flow geometries. In the present work, we study three turbulent flows of systematically increasing complexity. These are homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in a periodic box, turbulent shear flow between two parallel walls, and thermal convection in a closed cylindrical container. They are computed by highly resolved direct numerical simulations of the governing dynamical equations. We use these simulation data to establish two fundamental results: (i) at Reynolds numbers Re ∼ 102 the fluctuations of the velocity derivatives pass through a transition from nearly Gaussian (or slightly sub-Gaussian) to intermittent behavior that is characteristic of fully developed high Reynolds number turbulence, and (ii) beyond the transition point, the statistics of the rate of energy dissipation in all three flows obey the same Reynolds number power laws derived for homogeneous turbulence. These results allow us to claim universality of small scales even at low Reynolds numbers. Our results shed new light on the notion of when the turbulence is fully developed at the small scales without relying on the existence of an extended inertial range. PMID:25024175

  4. Small-scale ethanol-production demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Adcock, L.E. II; Eley, M.H.; Schroer, B.J.

    1981-09-01

    The Johnson Environmental and Energy Center with assistance from the Madison County Farm Bureau Association received a grant from the US Department of Energy to design, fabricate, and evaluate a small scale continuous ethanol plant. The scope of the study was to satisfy four specific objectives. The first objective was to design a small scale continuous distillation unit capable of producing 10 to 15 gallons per hour of 170 to 190 proof ethanol. A second objective was to economically fabricate the distillation unit. A third objective was to thoroughly evaluate the unit with emphasis on production potential, operation considerations, and energy balance. The fourth objective was to work with the Farm Bureau in identifying an organization that would place the unit in a production environment. The results of the study indicate that the distillation unit is capable of producing an average of 9 to 14 gallons per hour (based on alcohol percent in beer) of 174 proof ethanol. The energy ratio for distillation is a positive 3:1. Once the unit has reached steady state very little operator attention is required with the exception of periodically refluxing. Material cost of the plate column is approximately $5000. The unit could be built by an individual provided he is trained in welding and has the necessary shop equipment. The report also contains 7 appendices entitled: Principles of ethanol production; pump manufacturer specifications; boiler manufacturer specifications, water treatment manufacturer specifications; tank specifications; test results; and boiler efficiency data sheets. 39 figures, 112 tables.

  5. Expanded Small-Scale Shock Reactivity Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granholm, Richard

    2005-07-01

    Explosives react from a strong shock, even in quantities too small for detonation. The potential for a new material to be an explosive can be evaluated from this shock reactivity. The recently developed small-scale shock reactivity test (SSRT)ootnotetextH. W. Sandusky, R. H. Granholm, D. G. Bohl, ``Small-Scale Shock Reactivity Test,'' NSWC Technical Report (in publication), Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD 20640 uses very high confinement to allow prompt reactions to occur in less than half-gram samples well below critical diameter, with the reactions quantified by a dent in a soft aluminum witness block. This test has been expanded to simultaneously measure both early and late-time reactions from a single sample subjected to the output from an RP-80 detonator. The sample apparatus is further confined within a small chamber instrumented with a pressure gage for internal air blast. This provides a measure of late-time reactions, such as from fuel/air combustion. Results are shown from several simultaneous early- and late-reaction measurements.

  6. Cosmic string with a light massive neutrino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Stebbins, Albert

    1992-01-01

    We have estimated the power spectra of density fluctuations produced by cosmic strings with neutrino hot dark matter (HDM). Normalizing at 8/h Mpc, we find that the spectrum has more power on small scales than HDM + inflation, less than cold dark matter (CDM) + inflation, and significantly less the CDM + strings. With HDM, large wakes give significant contribution to the power on the galaxy scale and may give rise to large sheets of galaxies.

  7. WIPP small scale seal performance tests: Status and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.E.; Tillerson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous small-scale in situ seal experiments have been emplaced in boreholes up to 38 in. in diameter at the WIPP. Seal materials include expansive salt concrete, bentonite, and crushed salt. Emplacement techniques stressed conventional technology and the use of available site personnel. Preliminary evaluation of the performance of these seals has been completed by using structural data from embedded instrumentation and fluid flow data from gas and brine flow measurements. Preliminary results suggest that submicrodarcy permeabilities can be obtained using these materials and that structural performance is satisfactory. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. WIPP small scale seal performance tests: Status and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.E.; Tillerson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Numerous small-scale in situ seal experiments have been emplaced in boreholes up to 38 in. in diameter at the WIPP. Seal materials include expansive salt concrete, bentonite, and crushed salt. Emplacement techniques stressed conventional technology and the use of available site personnel. Preliminary evaluation of the performance of these seals has been completed by using structural data from embedded instrumentation and fluid flow data from gas and brine flow measurements. Preliminary results suggest that submicrodarcy permeabilities can be obtained using these materials and that structural performance is satisfactory.

  9. Large- and small-scale constraints on power spectra in Omega = 1 universes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelb, James M.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami; Frieman, Joshua A.

    1993-01-01

    The CDM model of structure formation, normalized on large scales, leads to excessive pairwise velocity dispersions on small scales. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, we study three scenarios (all with Omega = 1) with more large-scale and less small-scale power than the standard CDM model: (1) cold dark matter with significantly reduced small-scale power (inspired by models with an admixture of cold and hot dark matter); (2) cold dark matter with a non-scale-invariant power spectrum; and (3) cold dark matter with coupling of dark matter to a long-range vector field. When normalized to COBE on large scales, such models do lead to reduced velocities on small scales and they produce fewer halos compared with CDM. However, models with sufficiently low small-scale velocities apparently fail to produce an adequate number of halos.

  10. Evolution of cosmic string networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Turok, Neil

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of the evolution and observable consequences of a network of cosmic strings is given. A simple model for the evolution of the string network is presented, and related to the statistical mechanics of string networks. The model predicts the long string density throughout the history of the universe from a single parameter, which researchers calculate in radiation era simulations. The statistical mechanics arguments indicate a particular thermal form for the spectrum of loops chopped off the network. Detailed numerical simulations of string networks in expanding backgrounds are performed to test the model. Consequences for large scale structure, the microwave and gravity wave backgrounds, nucleosynthesis and gravitational lensing are calculated.

  11. Energetics in robotic flight at small scales.

    PubMed

    Karydis, Konstantinos; Kumar, Vijay

    2017-02-06

    Recent advances in design, sensing and control have led to aerial robots that offer great promise in a range of real-world applications. However, one critical open question centres on how to improve the energetic efficiency of aerial robots so that they can be useful in practical situations. This review paper provides a survey on small-scale aerial robots (i.e. less than 1 m(2) area foot print, and less than 3 kg weight) from the point of view of energetics. The paper discusses methods to improve the efficiency of aerial vehicles, and reports on recent findings by the authors and other groups on modelling the impact of aerodynamics for the purpose of building energy-aware motion planners and controllers.

  12. Small-scale Features in Pulsating Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S.; Jaynes, A. N.; Knudsen, D. J.; Trondsen, T.; Lessard, M.

    2011-12-01

    A field study was conducted from March 12-16, 2002 using a narrow-field intensified CCD camera installed at Churchill, Manitoba. The camera was oriented along the local magnetic zenith where small-scale black auroral forms are often visible. This analysis focuses on such forms occurring within a region of pulsating aurora. The observations show black forms with irregular shape and nonuniform drift with respect to the relatively stationary pulsating patches. The pulsating patches occur within a diffuse auroral background as a modulation of the auroral brightness in a localized region. The images analyzed show a decrease in the brightness of the diffuse background in the region of the pulsating patch at the beginning of the 'off' phase of the modulation. Throughout the off phase the brightness of the diffuse aurora gradually increases back to the average intensity. The time constant for this increase is measured as the first step toward determining the physical process.

  13. Small-Scale Features in Pulsating Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sarah; Jaynes, Allison N.; Knudsen, David J.; Trondsen, Trond; Lessard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    A field study was conducted from March 12-16, 2002 using a narrow-field intensified CCD camera installed at Churchill, Manitoba. The camera was oriented along the local magnetic zenith where small-scale black auroral forms are often visible. This analysis focuses on such forms occurring within a region of pulsating aurora. The observations show black forms with irregular shape and nonuniform drift with respect to the relatively stationary pulsating patches. The pulsating patches occur within a diffuse auroral background as a modulation of the auroral brightness in a localized region. The images analyzed show a decrease in the brightness of the diffuse background in the region of the pulsating patch at the beginning of the offphase of the modulation. Throughout the off phase the brightness of the diffuse aurora gradually increases back to the average intensity. The time constant for this increase is measured as the first step toward determining the physical process.

  14. Models of Small-Scale Patchiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGillicuddy Dennis J., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Patchiness is perhaps the most salient characteristic of plankton populations in the ocean. The scale of this heterogeneity spans many orders of magnitude in its spatial extent, ranging from planetary down to microscale. It has been argued that patchiness plays a fundamental role in the functioning of marine ecosystems, insofar as the mean conditions may not reflect the environment to which organisms are adapted. For example, the fact that some abundant predators cannot thrive on the mean concentration of their prey in the ocean implies that they are somehow capable of exploiting small-scale patches of prey whose concentrations are much larger than the mean. Understanding the nature of this patchiness is thus one of the major challenges of oceanographic ecology. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Elastocapillarity can control the formation and the morphology of beads-on-string structures in solid fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taffetani, M.; Ciarletta, P.

    2015-03-01

    Beads-on-string patterns have been experimentally observed in solid cylinders for a wide range of material properties and structural lengths, from millimetric soft gels to nanometric hard fibers. In this work, we combine theoretical analysis and numerical tools to investigate the formation and nonlinear dynamics of such beaded structures. We show that this morphological transition is driven by elastocapillarity, i.e., a complex interplay between the effects of surface tension and bulk elasticity. Unlike buckling or wrinkling, the presence of an axial elongation is found here to favor the onset of fiber beading, in agreement with existing experimental results on electrospun fibers, hydrogels, and nerves. Our results also prove that the applied stretch can be used in fabrication techniques to control the morphology of the emerging beads-on-string patterns. Such quantitative predictions open the way for several applications, from tissue engineering to the design of stretchable electronics and the microfabrication of functionalized surfaces.

  16. Bowed Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Hanson, Roger J.

    In the next eight chapters, we consider some aspects of the science of bowed string instruments, old and new. In this chapter, we present a brief discussion of bowed strings, a subject that will be developed much more thoroughly in Chap. 16. Chapters 13-15 discuss the violin, the cello, and the double bass. Chapter 17 discusses viols and other historic string instruments, and Chap. 18 discusses the Hutchins-Schelleng violin octet.

  17. Overview of the Testing of a Small-Scale Proprotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Botha, Gavin; Dawson, Seth

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of results from the wind tunnel test of a 1/4-scale V-22 proprotor in the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel (DNW) in The Netherlands. The small-scale proprotor was tested on the isolated rotor configuration of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM). The test was conducted by a joint team from NASA Ames, NASA Langley, U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, and The Boeing Company. The objective of the test was to acquire a benchmark database for validating aeroacoustic analyses. Representative examples of airloads, acoustics, structural loads, and performance data are provided and discussed.

  18. Perturbations from cosmic strings in cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Stebbins, Albert

    1991-01-01

    A systematic linear analysis of the perturbations induced by cosmic strings in cold dark matter is presented. The power spectrum is calculated and it is found that the strings produce a great deal of power on small scales. It is shown that the perturbations on interesting scales are the result of many uncorrelated string motions, which indicates a much more Gaussian distribution than was previously supposed.

  19. Perturbations from cosmic strings in cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Stebbins, Albert

    1992-01-01

    A systematic linear analysis of the perturbations induced by cosmic strings in cold dark matter is presented. The power spectrum is calculated and it is found that the strings produce a great deal of power on small scales. It is shown that the perturbations on interesting scales are the result of many uncorrelated string motions, which indicates a much more Gaussian distribution than was previously supposed.

  20. Perturbations from cosmic strings in cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Stebbins, Albert

    1992-01-01

    A systematic linear analysis of the perturbations induced by cosmic strings in cold dark matter is presented. The power spectrum is calculated and it is found that the strings produce a great deal of power on small scales. It is shown that the perturbations on interesting scales are the result of many uncorrelated string motions, which indicates a much more Gaussian distribution than was previously supposed.

  1. Modeling Small-Scale Nearshore Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slinn, D.; Holland, T.; Puleo, J.; Puleo, J.; Hanes, D.

    2001-12-01

    In recent years advances in high performance computing have made it possible to gain new qualitative and quantitative insights into the behavior and effects of coastal processes using high-resolution physical-mathematical models. The Coastal Dynamics program at the U.S. Office of Naval Research under the guidance of Dr. Thomas Kinder has encouraged collaboration between modelers, theoreticians, and field and laboratory experimentalists and supported innovative modeling efforts to examine a wide range of nearshore processes. An area of emphasis has been small-scale, time-dependent, turbulent flows, such as the wave bottom boundary layer, breaking surface waves, and the swash zone and their effects on shoaling waves, mean currents, and sediment transport that integrate to impact the long-term and large-scale response of the beach system to changing environmental conditions. Examples of small-scale modeling studies supported by CD-321 related to our work include simulation of the wave bottom boundary layer. Under mild wave field conditions the seabed forms sand ripples and simulations demonstrate that the ripples cause increases in the bed friction, the kinetic energy dissipation rates, the boundary layer thickness, and turbulence in the water column. Under energetic wave field conditions the ripples are sheared smooth and sheet flow conditions can predominate, causing the top few layers of sand grains to move as a fluidized bed, making large aggregate contributions to sediment transport. Complementary models of aspects of these processes have been developed simultaneously in various directions (e.g., Jenkins and Hanes, JFM 1998; Drake and Calantoni, 2001; Trowbridge and Madsen, JGR, 1984). Insight into near-bed fluid-sediment interactions has also been advanced using Navier-Stokes based models of swash events. Our recent laboratory experiments at the Waterways Experiment Station demonstrate that volume-of-fluid models can predict salient features of swash uprush

  2. Construction of a virtual combinatorial library using SMILES strings to discover potential structure-diverse PPAR modulators.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chenzhong; Liu, Bing; Shi, Leming; Zhou, Jiaju; Lu, Xian-Ping

    2005-07-01

    Based on the structural characters of PPAR modulators, a virtual combinatorial library containing 1226,625 compounds was constructed using SMILES strings. Selected ADME filters were employed to compel compounds having poor drug-like properties from this library. This library was converted to sdf and mol2 files by CONCORD 4.0, and was then docked to PPARgamma by DOCK 4.0 to identify new chemical entities that may be potential drug leads against type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. The method to construct virtual combinatorial library using SMILES strings was further visualized by Visual Basic.net that can facilitate the needs of generating other type virtual combinatorial libraries.

  3. Charged black holes in string-inspired gravity. I. Causal structures and responses of the Brans-Dicke field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Jakob; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-10-01

    We investigate gravitational collapses of charged black holes in string-inspired gravity models, including dilaton gravity and braneworld model, as well as f( R) gravity and the ghost limit. If we turn on gauge coupling, the causal structures and the responses of the Brans-Dicke field depend on the coupling between the charged matter and the BransDicke field. For Type IIA inspired models, a Cauchy horizon exists, while there is no Cauchy horizon for Type I or Heterotic inspired models. For Type IIA inspired models, the no-hair theorem is satisfied asymptotically, while it is biased to the weak coupling limit for Type I or Heterotic inspired models. Apart from string theory, we find that in the ghost limit, a gravitational collapse can induce inflation by itself and create one-way traversable wormholes without the need of other special initial conditions.

  4. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  5. Marrying kin in small-scale societies.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert S; Bailey, Drew H

    2014-01-01

    Marriages among kin have the dual effect of both increasing average group relatedness as well as reducing the total number of kin by eliminating more genealogically and geographically distant individuals from kinship networks. Marriage decisions therefore face a tradeoff between density of kin, or formation of intensive kinship systems, and the diversity of kin, or extensive kinship systems. This article tests the hypothesis that extensive kinship systems best characterize hunter-gatherer societies, whereas more intensive forms of subsistence, like horticultural, agricultural, and pastoral economies, are more likely to have intensive kinship systems. Here, we investigate the wide range of variation in prevalence of kin marriages across a sample of 46 small-scale societies, split evenly between hunter-gatherers and agropastoralists (including horticulturalists), using genealogies that range in depth from 4 to 16 generations. Regression methods examine how subsistence and polygyny relate to spousal relatedness and inbreeding across societies. On average, hunter-gatherers show limited numbers of kin marriages and low levels of inbreeding, whereas some agropastoralists are characterized by much higher levels of both, especially in societies where polygynous marriages are more common. Intensive kinship systems emerge in some intensive economies. This pattern may have favored a kin-selected increase in more large-scale cooperation and inequality occurring relatively recently in human history after the advent of domesticated plants and animals. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Primordial anisotropies from cosmic strings during inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jazayeri, Sadra; Sadr, Alireza Vafaei; Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we study the imprint of an individual primordial cosmic string within a Hubble patch on the inflationary power spectrum. A straight cosmic string induces two distinct contributions to the curvature perturbations power spectrum. The first type of correction respects the translation invariance while violating isotropy. This generates quadrupolar statistical anisotropy in cosmic microwave background maps, which is constrained by the Planck data. The second contribution breaks both homogeneity and isotropy, generating a dipolar power asymmetry in the variance of temperature fluctuations with its amplitude falling on small scales. We show that the strongest constraint on the tension of primordial cosmic strings is obtained from the quadrupolar anisotropy and argue that the mass scale of the underlying theory responsible for the formation of the string cannot be much higher than the grand unified theory scale. The predictions for the diagonal and off-diagonal components of the cosmic microwave background angular power spectrum induced by the string are presented.

  7. TURBULENT SMALL-SCALE DYNAMO ACTION IN SOLAR SURFACE SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Jonathan Pietarila; Cameron, Robert; Schuessler, Manfred

    2010-05-10

    We demonstrate that a magneto-convection simulation incorporating essential physical processes governing solar surface convection exhibits turbulent small-scale dynamo action. By presenting a derivation of the energy balance equation and transfer functions for compressible magnetohydrodynamics, we quantify the source of magnetic energy on a scale-by-scale basis. We rule out the two alternative mechanisms for the generation of the small-scale magnetic field in the simulations: the tangling of magnetic field lines associated with the turbulent cascade and Alfvenization of small-scale velocity fluctuations ('turbulent induction'). Instead, we find that the dominant source of small-scale magnetic energy is stretching by inertial-range fluid motions of small-scale magnetic field lines against the magnetic tension force to produce (against Ohmic dissipation) more small-scale magnetic field. The scales involved become smaller with increasing Reynolds number, which identifies the dynamo as a small-scale turbulent dynamo.

  8. Small scale geothermal development strategy framework

    SciTech Connect

    Ciptomulyono, U.

    1995-12-31

    With request to the promotion for diversification of energy resources geothermal energy is an alternative energy, renewable, relatively clean and nonexportable resource; the maximum utilization of these resources therefore has a first priority as Indonesia is one of the world prominent volcanics countries with many active volcanic phenomena. Most of the geothermal prospects are located in rural areas, which have limited small diesel generating plants or no electricity at all; under the energy sector policy of the Government of Indonesia which stressed rural electrification, taking into account the equity of development for ail Indonesia`s regions and with the goal of National benefits. To ensure that small scale geothermal power plants for rural electrification can be implemented most effectively and efficiently, a strategy framework needs to include appropriate arrangement for project planning; from scientific study to construction periods, which are currently a constraint on both cost and time domains. This paper discusses the strategy framework approaches, including a possible combining of a serial plural activities and streamlining of contract packages. Indonesia as a country which is made up more than 16,000 islands of varying sizes, located between 6{degrees} N-11{degrees} S Lat and 95{degrees}-141{degrees} E Long. The Government of Indonesia stresses a guideline for the energy policy, namely: intensification on the survey and exploration of resources; diversification of energy by means of reducing oil depency utilization and promoting through development, utilization and customary use of substitute fuels; conservation of natural resources with goals to economize and efficiently use energy utilization; and indexation of each energy need with the most appropriate energy resources available in the country.

  9. Non-perturbative structure in heterotic strings from dual F-theory models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Driscoll, Dónal

    1999-05-01

    We examine how to construct explicit heterotic string models dual to F-theory in eight dimensions. In doing so we learn about where the moduli spaces of the two theories overlap, and how non-perturbative features leave their trace on a purely perturbative level. We also briefly look at the relationship with NS9-branes

  10. yaInChI: modified InChI string scheme for line notation of chemical structures.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y S; No, K T; Cho, K-H

    2012-01-01

    A modified InChI (International Chemical Identifier) string scheme, yaInChI (yet another InChI), is suggested as a method for including the structural information of a given molecule, making it straightforward and more easily readable. The yaInChI theme is applicable for checking the structural identity with higher sensitivity and generating three-dimensional (3-D) structures from the one-dimensional (1-D) string with less ambiguity than the general InChI method. The modifications to yaInChI provide non-rotatable single bonds, stereochemistry of organometallic compounds, allene and cumulene, and parity of atoms with a lone pair. Additionally, yaInChI better preserves the original information of the given input file (SDF) using the protonation information, hydrogen count +1, and original bond type, which are not considered or restrictively considered in InChI and SMILES. When yaInChI is used to perform a duplication check on a 3D chemical structure database, Ligand.Info, it shows more discriminating power than InChI. The structural information provided by yaInChI is in a compact format, making it a promising solution for handling large chemical structure databases.

  11. Cosmic strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, David P.

    1988-01-01

    Cosmic strings are linear topological defects which are predicted by some grand unified theories to form during a spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition in the early universe. They are the basis for the only theories of galaxy formation aside from quantum fluctuations from inflation based on fundamental physics. In contrast to inflation, they can also be observed directly through gravitational lensing and their characterisitc microwave background anisotropy. It was recently discovered that details of cosmic string evolution are very differnt from the so-called standard model that was assumed in most of the string-induced galaxy formation calculations. Therefore, the details of galaxy formation in the cosmic string models are currently very uncertain.

  12. String test

    MedlinePlus

    Duodenal parasites test; Giardia - string test ... may be a sign parasite infection such as giardia . ... Elsevier; 2017:chap 58. Hill DR, Nash TE. Giardia lamblia. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ...

  13. Dark strings

    SciTech Connect

    Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2009-09-15

    Recent astrophysical observations have motivated novel theoretical models of the dark matter sector. A class of such models predicts the existence of GeV scale cosmic strings that communicate with the standard model sector by Aharonov-Bohm interactions with electrically charged particles. We discuss the cosmology of these 'dark strings' and investigate possible observational signatures. More elaborate dark sector models are argued to contain hybrid topological defects that may also have observational signatures.

  14. Classical string in curved backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilic, Milovan; Vojinovic, Marko

    2006-06-15

    The Mathisson-Papapetrou method is originally used for derivation of the particle world line equation from the covariant conservation of its stress-energy tensor. We generalize this method to extended objects, such as a string. Without specifying the type of matter the string is made of, we obtain both the equations of motion and boundary conditions of the string. The world sheet equations turn out to be more general than the familiar minimal surface equations. In particular, they depend on the internal structure of the string. The relevant cases are classified by examining canonical forms of the effective 2-dimensional stress-energy tensor. The case of homogeneously distributed matter with the tension that equals its mass density is shown to define the familiar Nambu-Goto dynamics. The other three cases include physically relevant massive and massless strings, and unphysical tachyonic strings.

  15. Cosmic String Global Superconducting Dirac Born Infeld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikrima, Ika; Ramadhan, Handhika S.; Mart, Terry

    2016-08-01

    Superconducting cosmic string possibly plays an important role in the formation of the universe structure. The physics of this phenomenon has been explored by studying the field theory in the string interior. Numerical solutions of superconducting strings with all relevant fields are presented in this paper. The field is constructed from a generalization of the usual field theory of superconducting global string, but the kinetic term consists of the Dirac Born Infeld (DBI). Some changes in the characteristic of the superconducting string DBI from the usual superconducting string case have been observed. The observation includes physical mechanism of all related fields.

  16. Small Scale Isocurvature Perturbation of Weakly Interacting Massive Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Young; Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Shin, Chang Sub

    2016-07-01

    It is known that the smallest size of the structures of the Universe with the weakly interacting massive dark matter is determined by the scale that enters the Hubble horizon at the time of kinetic decoupling of WIMP. This comes from the fact that the perturbation at smaller scales is erased due to the collisional damping during the kinetic decoupling. However the isocurvature mode is not affected and continue to be constant. We discuss about the generation of the isocurvature mode of WIMP dark matter at small scales recently found by Choi, Gong, and Shin1 and its implications for the indirect detection of dark matter through the formation of the small size of halos.

  17. Small-Scale Variability in Warm Continental Cumulus Clouds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, P. H.; Baker, M. B.; Blyth, A. M.; Jensen, J. B.

    1985-06-01

    We have analyzed small-scale fluctuations in microphysical, dynamical and thermodynamical parameters measured in two warm cumulus clouds during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) project (1981) in light of predictions of several recent models. The measurements show the existence at all levels throughout the sampling period of two statistically distinct kinds of cloudy regions, termed `variable' and `steady,' often separated by transition zones of less than ten meters. There is some evidence for microphysical variability induced by local fluctuations in thermodynamic and dynamic parameters; however, the predominant variations are of a nature consistent with laboratory evidence suggesting that mixing is dominated by large structures. Entrainment appears to occur largely near cloud top but the data presented here do not permit identification of a mechanism for transport of the entrained air throughout the cloud.

  18. Small scale tests on the progressive retreat of soil slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voulgari, Chrysoula; Utili, Stefano; Castellanza, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the influence due to the presence of cracks on the morphologic evolution of natural cliffs subject to progressive retreat induced by weathering is investigated through small scale laboratory tests. Weathering turns hard rocks into soft rocks that maintain the structure of the intact rocks, but are characterised by higher void ratios and reduced bond strengths; soft rocks are transformed into granular soils generally called residual soils. A number of landslides develop in slopes due to weathering which results in the progressive retrogression of the slope face and the further degradation within the weathering zone. Cracks, that are widely present, can be a result of weathering and they can cause a significant decrease in their stability, as they provide preferential flow channels which increase the soil permeability and decrease the soil strength. The geological models employed until now are mainly empirical. Several researchers have tried to study the stability of slopes through experimental procedures. Centrifuge modelling is widely used to investigate the failure of slopes. Small scale tests are also an important approach, in order to study the behaviour of a slope under certain conditions, such as the existence of water, as they allow the observation of the infiltration processes, the movement of the weathering front, deformation and failure. However, the deformation response of a slope subject to weathering is not yet thoroughly clarified. In this work, a set of experiments were conducted to investigate weathering induced successive landslides. Weathering was applied to the slope model by wetting the slope crest through a rainfall simulator device. The moisture content of the soil during the tests was monitored by soil moisture sensors that were buried inside the slope model. High resolution cameras were recording the behaviour of the slope model. GeoPIV was used to analyse the frames and obtain the deformations of the slope model during the

  19. Two aspects of one loop structure: Unitarity delay in the Standard Model and modular invariance in string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, C.

    1989-08-01

    We study two aspects of one loop structures in quantum field theories which describe two different areas of particle physics: the one loop unitarity behavior of the Standard Model of electroweak interactions and modular invariance of string model theory. Loop expansion has its importance in that it contains quantum fluctuations due to all physical states in the theory. Therefore, by studying the various models to one loop, we can understand how the contents of the theory can contribute to physically measurable quantities and how the consistency at quantum level restricts the physical states of the theory, as well. In the first half of the thesis, we study one loop corrections to the process {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} {yields} {ital W}{sup +}{ital W}{sup {minus}}. In this process, there is a delicate unitarity-saving cancellation between s-channel and t-channel tree level Feynman diagrams. If the one loop contribution due to heavy particles corrects the channels asymmetrically, the cancellation, hence unitarity, will be delayed up to the mass scale of these heavy particles. We refer to this phenomena as the unitarity delay effect. Due to this effect, cross section below these mass scales can have significant radiative corrections which may provide an appropriate window through which we can see the high energy structure of the Standard Model from relatively low energy experiments. In the second half, we will show how quantum consistency can restrict the physical states in string theory. 53 refs., 13 figs.

  20. Plucked Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    In the next ten chapters we will discuss the science of plucked string instruments. Acoustic guitars and lutes are discussed in Chap. 3. Portuguese guitars, used in fado music, are discussed in Chap. 4 and guitars in Chap. 5, while electric guitars are discussed in Chap. 22. Banjos are discussed in Chap. 5, while mandolins are the subject of Chap. 6. Zithers and psalteries, especially Baltic psalteries, are discussed in Chap. 7. Harpsichords are discussed in Chap. 8, while harps are discussed in Chap. 9 and 10. Finally, plucked string instruments from Asia, such as the kito, shamisen, biwa, gayageum, geomungo, ch'in, p'I-p'a, and sitar are discussed in Chap. 11. These instruments are very different in character and in their musical roles, but they all depend upon plucked strings vibrating and exciting one or more soundboards or radiating surfaces.

  1. Entangling strings of neutral atoms in 1D atomic pipeline structures.

    PubMed

    Dorner, U; Fedichev, P; Jaksch, D; Lewenstein, M; Zoller, P

    2003-08-15

    We study a string of neutral atoms with nearest neighbor interaction in a 1D beam splitter configuration, where the longitudinal motion is controlled by a moving optical lattice potential. The dynamics of the atoms crossing the beam splitter maps to a 1D spin model with controllable time dependent parameters, which allows the creation of maximally entangled states of atoms by crossing a quantum phase transition. Furthermore, we show that this system realizes protected quantum memory, and we discuss the implementation of one- and two-qubit gates in this setup.

  2. String fields and their interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Theodore George, IV

    2005-07-01

    In this thesis is devoted to illuminating the underlying structure of Witten's star product, which defines the interactions of open strings in cubic bosonic string field theory [3]. We give an in depth analysis of the product from the perspective of noncommutative geometry, specifically using the split string [19] and Moyal formalisms [20, 22]. We identify some fundamental algebraic features of the star product originating from the singular structure of the overlap conditions at the string midpoint. Finally, we use some of these insights to construct a consistent and nonsingular initial value formulation of the theory in lightcone time. Such a general formalism seems prerequisite to address questions of time, causality, and cosmology in string theory.

  3. Small-scale Materials Behavior from X-ray Microdiffraction and Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, Rozaliya; Ice, Gene E

    2010-01-01

    This commentary introduces a JOM topic that highlights novel applications of x-ray microdiffraction and imaging to study structural properties of materials at a small scale. The development of ultra-brilliant synchrotron x-ray sources provides important new opportunities for the analysis of local and near-surface material structures. This topic includes manuscripts that describe how different versions of polychromatic and monochromatic microdiffraction can be used to study small scale plasticity in a range of materials. A variety of ingenious methods are described as developed in laboratories around the world.

  4. String primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Enrique; Meessen, Patrick

    1999-02-01

    This is the written version of a set of introductory lectures to string theory. The lectures were given at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid in the semester 1997/98 and at the VI Escuela de Otoño de Física Teórica, held in Santiago de Compostela (10-23 september 1998).

  5. Teaching Strings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    Intended primarily for use by instrumental music teachers who do not have a major concentration in strings, this guide provides pertinent basic resources, materials, teaching--learning expectation, and a general overall guide to achievement levels at various stages of development. Discussions are presented of Choosing the Proper Method Book,…

  6. Practical small-scale explosive seam welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Joining principles and variables, types of joints, capabilities, and current and potential applications are described for an explosive seam welding process developed at NASA Langley Research Center. Variable small quantities of RDX explosive in a ribbon configuration are used to create narrow (less than 0.5 inch), long length, uniform, hermetrically sealed joints that exhibit parent metal properties in a wide variety of metals, alloys, and combinations. The first major all application of the process is the repair of four nuclear reactors in Canada. Potential applications include pipelines, sealing of vessels, and assembly of large space structures.

  7. Small scale turbulence and the finite Reynolds number effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonia, R. A.; Djenidi, L.; Danaila, L.; Tang, S. L.

    2017-02-01

    Failure to recognize the importance of the finite Reynolds number effect on small scale turbulence has, by and large, resulted in misguided assessments of the first two hypotheses of Kolmogorov ["Local structure of turbulence in an incompressible fluid for very large Reynolds numbers," Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 30, 299-303 (1941)] or K41 as well as his third hypothesis [A. N. Kolmogorov, "A refinement of previous hypotheses concerning the local structure of turbulence in a viscous incompressible fluid at high Reynolds number," J. Fluid Mech. 13, 82-85 (1962)] or K62. As formulated by Kolmogorov, all three hypotheses require local isotropy to be valid and the Reynolds number to be very large. In the context of the first hypothesis, there is now strong evidence to suggest that this requirement can be significantly relaxed, at least for dissipative scales and relatively low order moments of the velocity structure function. As the scale increases, the effect of the large scale motion on these moments becomes more prominent and higher Reynolds numbers are needed before K41 and K62 can be tested unambiguously.

  8. Small-scale plasma irregularities in the nightside Venus ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Curtis, S. A.; Brace, L. H.

    1991-01-01

    The individual volt-ampere curves from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter electron temperature probe showed evidence for small-scale density irregularities, or short-period plasma waves, in regions of the nightside ionosphere where the Orbiter electric field detector observed waves in its 100-Hz channel. A survey of the nightside volt-ampere curves has revealed several hundred examples of such irregularities. The I-V structures correspond to plasma density structure with spatial scale sizes in the range of about 100-2000 m, or alternatively they could be viewed as waves having frequencies extending toward 100 Hz. They are often seen as isolated events, with spatial extent along the orbit frequently less than 80 km. The density irregularities or waves occur in or near prominent gradients in the ambient plasma concentrations both at low altitudes where molecular ions are dominant and at higher altitudes in regions of reduced plasma density where O(+) is the major ion. Electric field 100-Hz bursts occur simultaneously, with the majority of the structured I-V curves providing demonstrative evidence that at least some of the E field signals are produced within the ionosphere.

  9. Four-dimensional visualization of a small-scale flame based on deflection tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Zhigang; Zhao, Minmin

    2016-11-01

    Optical computed tomography is an important technique in the visualization and diagnosis of various flow fields. A small-scale diffusion flame was visualized using deflection tomography. A projection sampling system was proposed for deflection tomography to obtain deflectograms with a pair of gratings. Wave-front retrieval was employed for processing the deflectograms to obtain the deflection angles of the rays. This two-dimensional data extraction method expanded the application of deflection tomography and was suitable for the projection extraction of small-scale combustion. Deflection angle revision reconstruction algorithm was used to reconstruct the temperature distributions in 10 cross sections for each deflectogram in different instants. The flow structure was reconstructed using a visualization toolkit equipped with the marching cube and ray casting algorithms. The performed experiments demonstrated the three-dimensional dynamic visualization of temperature distributions and the flame structures of small-scale diffusion combustion.

  10. Risk of resource failure and toolkit variation in small-scale farmers and herders.

    PubMed

    Collard, Mark; Ruttle, April; Buchanan, Briggs; O'Brien, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Recent work suggests that global variation in toolkit structure among hunter-gatherers is driven by risk of resource failure such that as risk of resource failure increases, toolkits become more diverse and complex. Here we report a study in which we investigated whether the toolkits of small-scale farmers and herders are influenced by risk of resource failure in the same way. In the study, we applied simple linear and multiple regression analysis to data from 45 small-scale food-producing groups to test the risk hypothesis. Our results were not consistent with the hypothesis; none of the risk variables we examined had a significant impact on toolkit diversity or on toolkit complexity. It appears, therefore, that the drivers of toolkit structure differ between hunter-gatherers and small-scale food-producers.

  11. Exotic nonrelativistic string

    SciTech Connect

    Casalbuoni, Roberto; Gomis, Joaquim; Longhi, Giorgio

    2007-12-15

    We construct a classical nonrelativistic string model in 3+1 dimensions. The model contains a spurion tensor field that is responsible for the noncommutative structure of the model. Under double-dimensional reduction the model reduces to the exotic nonrelativistic particle in 2+1 dimensions.

  12. String Cosmology: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, Liam P.; Silverstein, Eva

    2007-10-22

    We give an overview of the status of string cosmology. We explain the motivation for the subject, outline the main problems, and assess some of the proposed solutions. Our focus is on those aspects of cosmology that benefit from the structure of an ultraviolet-complete theory.

  13. A Small-Scale Low-Cost Gas Chromatograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gros, Natasa; Vrtacnik, Margareta

    2005-01-01

    The design and application of a small-scale portable gas chromatograph for learning of the basic concepts of chromatography is described. The apparatus consists of two basic separable units, which includes a chromatographic unit and an electronic unit.

  14. Small scale thematic mapping - A case for radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.

    1974-01-01

    Small scale thematic maps (1:250,000 and smaller) of physical and cultural phenomena manifested on the landscape are a major concern to scientists and investigators in diverse disciplines. A strip of K-band radar imagery consisting of a traverse from eastern Minnesota to northern Utah was employed to evaluate the potential of radar imagery for small scale land use mapping. In the course of this investigation, it was discovered that certain borders derived from radar imagery were compatible with borders found on the nonland use thematic maps used for comparison. Specifically, numerous borders and regions of small scale maps of landforms, soils, vegetation, and geology are found to be similar to the radar land use regions. Although far from conclusive it appears that radar imagery can be employed in the small scale mapping of landforms and possibly for mapping physiognomic or economic vegetation.

  15. A Small-Scale Low-Cost Gas Chromatograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gros, Natasa; Vrtacnik, Margareta

    2005-01-01

    The design and application of a small-scale portable gas chromatograph for learning of the basic concepts of chromatography is described. The apparatus consists of two basic separable units, which includes a chromatographic unit and an electronic unit.

  16. Dynamic properties of small-scale solar wind plasma fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Riazantseva, M O; Budaev, V P; Zelenyi, L M; Zastenker, G N; Pavlos, G P; Safrankova, J; Nemecek, Z; Prech, L; Nemec, F

    2015-05-13

    The paper presents the latest results of the studies of small-scale fluctuations in a turbulent flow of solar wind (SW) using measurements with extremely high temporal resolution (up to 0.03 s) of the bright monitor of SW (BMSW) plasma spectrometer operating on astrophysical SPECTR-R spacecraft at distances up to 350,000 km from the Earth. The spectra of SW ion flux fluctuations in the range of scales between 0.03 and 100 s are systematically analysed. The difference of slopes in low- and high-frequency parts of spectra and the frequency of the break point between these two characteristic slopes was analysed for different conditions in the SW. The statistical properties of the SW ion flux fluctuations were thoroughly analysed on scales less than 10 s. A high level of intermittency is demonstrated. The extended self-similarity of SW ion flux turbulent flow is constantly observed. The approximation of non-Gaussian probability distribution function of ion flux fluctuations by the Tsallis statistics shows the non-extensive character of SW fluctuations. Statistical characteristics of ion flux fluctuations are compared with the predictions of a log-Poisson model. The log-Poisson parametrization of the structure function scaling has shown that well-defined filament-like plasma structures are, as a rule, observed in the turbulent SW flows.

  17. Mapping small-scale mantle heterogeneities using seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentham, H. L.; Rost, S.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years array seismology has been used extensively to detect and locate the small scale (~10 km) structure of the Earth. In the mantle, small scale structure likely represents chemical heterogeneity and is essential in our understanding of mechanical mixing processes within mantle convection. As subducted crust is chemically distinct from the background mantle, imaging the remains of the crust provides a tracer for convectional flow. Evidence for heterogeneities has been found in the lower mantle in previous seismology studies but the arrivals associated with such heterogeneities are difficult to detect in the seismic data as they are typically low amplitude and are often masked by a multitude of larger amplitude arrivals. In this study we find global and regional seismic heterogeneities in the mantle by processing teleseismic earthquake data through array seismology methods. We find global patterns of heterogeneity using a stacking approach. To locate regional heterogeneities, we target the "quiet" window prior to the PP arrival for earthquakes with epicentral distances of 90-110°. Within this time window, we enhance the weak coherent energy that arrives off great circle path by calculating the observed directivity (slowness and backazimuth) and using a semblance weighted beampower measure. We use the directivity and travel times of suitable precursors to back-trace the energy to the origin of P-to-P reflections, using a 1D raytracer. Most of the P-to-P reflections that we observe have reflection origins in the upper/mid mantle. Beneath the western Pacific subduction zones, such reflections show a good correlation with subduction zone contours that are derived from subduction zone seismicity, and correlate well with tomography gradients of 0.01-0.5% per degree, interpreted as the edge of the slab. Deep mantle reflections (>600 km) are also observed to depths of ~1900 km. The locations of these heterogeneities are combined with previous seismological

  18. Experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies of small scale combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bo

    Recently, the demand increased for the development of microdevices such as microsatellites, microaerial vehicles, micro reactors, and micro power generators. To meet those demands the biggest challenge is obtaining stable and complete combustion at relatively small scale. To gain a fundamental understanding of small scale combustion in this thesis, thermal and kinetic coupling between the gas phase and the structure at meso and micro scales were theoretically, experimentally, and numerically studied; new stabilization and instability phenomena were identified; and new theories for the dynamic mechanisms of small scale combustion were developed. The reduction of thermal inertia at small scale significantly reduces the response time of the wall and leads to a strong flame-wall coupling and extension of burning limits. Mesoscale flame propagation and extinction in small quartz tubes were theoretically, experimentally and numerically studied. It was found that wall-flame interaction in mesoscale combustion led to two different flame regimes, a heat-loss dominant fast flame regime and a wall-flame coupling slow flame regime. The nonlinear transition between the two flame regimes was strongly dependent on the channel width and flow velocity. It is concluded that the existence of multiple flame regimes is an inherent phenomenon in mesoscale combustion. In addition, all practical combustors have variable channel width in the direction of flame propagation. Quasi-steady and unsteady propagations of methane and propane-air premixed flames in a mesoscale divergent channel were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The emphasis was the impact of variable cross-section area and the flame-wall coupling on the flame transition between different regimes and the onset of flame instability. For the first time, spinning flames were experimentally observed for both lean and rich methane and propane-air mixtures in a broad range of equivalence ratios. An effective Lewis number

  19. Small-scale flow patterns at the vertical sidewalls of the thermally driven rotating annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Larcher, Thomas; Viazzo, Stephane; Randriamampianina, Anthony; Harlander, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    We report on small-scale instabilities in the thermally driven rotating annulus filled with a liquid of moderate Prandtl number. Our study is based on numerical computations and accompanying laboratory experiments. The computations were performed independently with two different flow solvers, that is the finite volume flow solver EULAG and a higher order finite difference compact scheme (HOC). We found small-scale flow patterns at both vertical sidewalls of the annulus, the cooled inner sidewall and the heated outer one. Obviously, these small-scale instabilities are localized and connected to the large-scale baroclinic wave field. While the existence of small-scale flow structures at the inner sidewall is already described in recent publications, e.g., [1], [2], the occurrence of short wavelength waves at the outer sidewall has not been reported yet. Here, we focus on characterising the dynamics of the small-scale patterns at the outer sidewall. Physical mechanisms that might trigger these patterns are discussed. References: [1] Jacoby, T.N.L., Read, P.L., Williams, P.D. & Young, R.M.B., 2011, Generation of inertia-gravity waves in the rotating, thermal annulus by a localised boundary layer instability. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn., 105, 161-181. [2] Randriamampianina, A. & Crespo del Arco, E., 2015, Inertia-gravity waves in a liquid-filled, differentially heated, rotating annulus. J. Fluid Mech., 782, 144-177.

  20. Seismic detection method for small-scale discontinuities based on dictionary learning and sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Caixia; Zhao, Jingtao; Wang, Yanfei

    2017-02-01

    Studying small-scale geologic discontinuities, such as faults, cavities and fractures, plays a vital role in analyzing the inner conditions of reservoirs, as these geologic structures and elements can provide storage spaces and migration pathways for petroleum. However, these geologic discontinuities have weak energy and are easily contaminated with noises, and therefore effectively extracting them from seismic data becomes a challenging problem. In this paper, a method for detecting small-scale discontinuities using dictionary learning and sparse representation is proposed that can dig up high-resolution information by sparse coding. A K-SVD (K-means clustering via Singular Value Decomposition) sparse representation model that contains two stage of iteration procedure: sparse coding and dictionary updating, is suggested for mathematically expressing these seismic small-scale discontinuities. Generally, the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm is employed for sparse coding. However, the method can only update one dictionary atom at one time. In order to improve calculation efficiency, a regularized version of OMP algorithm is presented for simultaneously updating a number of atoms at one time. Two numerical experiments demonstrate the validity of the developed method for clarifying and enhancing small-scale discontinuities. The field example of carbonate reservoirs further demonstrates its effectiveness in revealing masked tiny faults and small-scale cavities.

  1. Geometry, topology, and string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Varadarajan, Uday

    2003-01-01

    A variety of scenarios are considered which shed light upon the uses and limitations of classical geometric and topological notions in string theory. The primary focus is on situations in which D-brane or string probes of a given classical space-time see the geometry quite differently than one might naively expect. In particular, situations in which extra dimensions, non-commutative geometries as well as other non-local structures emerge are explored in detail. Further, a preliminary exploration of such issues in Lorentzian space-times with non-trivial causal structures within string theory is initiated.

  2. The role of citizen science in monitoring small-scale pollution events.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Kieran; Wright, Serena; Kirby, Mark; Brant, Jan

    2017-07-15

    Small-scale pollution events involve the release of potentially harmful substances into the marine environment. These events can affect all levels of the ecosystem, with damage to both fauna and flora. Numerous reporting structures are currently available to document spills, however there is a lack of information on small-scale events due to their magnitude and patchy distribution. To this end, volunteers may provide a useful tool in filling this data gap, especially for coastal environments with a high usage by members of the public. The potential for citizen scientists to record small-scale pollution events is explored using the UK as an example, with a focus on highlighting methods and issues associated with using this data source. An integrated monitoring system is proposed which combines citizen science and traditional reporting approaches. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. SCION: CubeSat Mission Concept to Observe Midlatitude Small-Scale Irregularities and Scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, T.; Moldwin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The SCintillation and Ionospheric Occultation NanoSats (SCION) mission concept is to deploy two low-cost CubeSat spacecraft that maintain a separation distance <1 km to measure scintillation and associated small-scale density irregularities in the midlatitude ionosphere. Each spacecraft is equipped with a dual frequency GPS receiver to measure total electron content (TEC) and the S4 scintillation index along raypaths from the receiver to the GPS constellation. Scintillation causing small-scale density irregularities are increasingly observed in the vicinity of large TEC gradients associated with storm enhanced density (SED) regions. Detection of irregularities of the scale that cause GPS and VHF scintillation has previously relied on assumptions about their structural stability and drift speed. Space-based, multipoint observations would provide broad, regional coverage and disambiguation of temporal and spatial density fluctuations in order to detect small-scale irregularities without these assumptions.

  4. Small-scale plasma, magnetic, and neutral density fluctuations in the nightside Venus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, W. R.; Brace, L. H.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Russell, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    The evolution of the Venus small-scale waves as they propagate into the nightsite is examined, and the small-scale structures are compared with the waves in the three components of the magnetic field, magnetic dip angle, and neutral density. It is demonstrated that the small-scale fluctuations evolve between the transterminator and antisolar regions. It is shown that atmospheric gravity waves may also be producing some of the fluctuations observed at longer wavelengths. The electron temperature and density are shown to be approximately 180 deg out of phase and exhibiting the highest correlation of any pair of variables. Waves in the electron and neutral densities are found to be correlated moderately on most orbits, while the average electron temperature is higher when the average magnetic field is more horizontal.

  5. Solar Magnetoconvection and Small-Scale Dynamo. Recent Developments in Observation and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, J. M.; Jafarzadeh, S.; Schüssler, M.; Solanki, S. K.

    2017-09-01

    A number of observational and theoretical aspects of solar magnetoconvection are considered in this review. We discuss recent developments in our understanding of the small-scale structure of the magnetic field on the solar surface and its interaction with convective flows, which is at the centre of current research. Topics range from plage areas in active regions over the magnetic network shaped by supergranulation to the ubiquituous `turbulent' internetwork fields. On the theoretical side, we focus upon magnetic field generation by small-scale dynamo action.

  6. A Small-Scale, Feasibility Study of Academic Language Time in Primary Grade Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen A.; Zuzolo, Nicole; Primm, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    A small-scale feasibility study was conducted to explore the implementation of academic language time (ALT) in primary grade classrooms with and without access to digital devices. Academic language time is a structural change that dedicates a portion of language arts instructional time to direct vocabulary instruction using evidence-based…

  7. Observations of How Magnetofluid Turbulence Dissipates at Small Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Sahraoui, Fouad

    2012-01-01

    The solar wind is a turbulent magneto fluid that can be studied intensively at multiple scales. Investigations using single spacecraft have revealed much about the properties of the solar wind throughout the heliosphere (from 0.3 AU to 100 AU). More recently, data from multiple spacecraft have provided further details of both the statistical properties of the turbulence and its small-scale structure. In particular, high time resolution magnetic field measurements from the four Cluster spacecrafl have led to the conclusion that at spatial scales of order the proton inertial length and smaller, the turbulence becomes strongly anisotropic and the power in fluctuations that are perpendicular to the (local) magnetic field is measured to be much larger than that in fluctuations that are parallel to the magnetic field. As the spatial scales approach the electron inertial length, the power is almost completely dissipated. Various analysis techniques and theoretical ideas have been put forward to account for the properties of those measurements. The talk will describe the current state of observations, theory and simulations.

  8. Small scale modelling of dynamic impact of debris flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanvitale, Nicoletta; Bowman, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Fast landslides, such as debris flows, involve high speed downslope motion of rocks, soil and water. Engineering attempts to reduce the risk posed by these natural hazards often involve the placement of barriers or obstacles to inhibit movement. The impact pressures exert by debris flows are difficult to estimate because they not only depend on the geometry and size of the flow and the obstacle but also on the characteristics of the flow mixture. The presence of a solid phase can increase local impact pressure due to hard contact often caused by single boulder. This can lead to higher impact forces compared to the estimates of the peak pressure value obtained from hydraulic based models commonly adopted in such analyses. The proposed study aims at bringing new insight to the impact loading of structures generated by segregating granular debris flow. A small-scale flume, designed to enable plane laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and digital image correlation (DIC) to be applied internally will be used for 2D analyses. The flow will incorporate glass particles suitable for refractive index matching (RIM) with a matched fluid to gain optical access to the internal behaviour of the flow, via a laser sheet applied away from sidewall boundaries. For these tests, the focus will be on assessing 2D particle interactions in unsteady flow. The paper will present in details the methodology and the set-up of the experiments together with some preliminary results

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities are phylogenetically clustered at small scales

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Sebastian; Caruso, Tancredi; Verbruggen, Erik; Rillig, Matthias C; Hempel, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies with markers covering the full Glomeromycota phylum were used to uncover phylogenetic community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with Festuca brevipila. The study system was a semi-arid grassland with high plant diversity and a steep environmental gradient in pH, C, N, P and soil water content. The AMF community in roots and rhizosphere soil were analyzed separately and consisted of 74 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in total. Community-level variance partitioning showed that the role of environmental factors in determining AM species composition was marginal when controlling for spatial autocorrelation at multiple scales. Instead, phylogenetic distance and spatial distance were major correlates of AMF communities: OTUs that were more closely related (and which therefore may have similar traits) were more likely to co-occur. This pattern was insensitive to phylogenetic sampling breadth. Given the minor effects of the environment, we propose that at small scales closely related AMF positively associate through biotic factors such as plant-AMF filtering and interactions within the soil biota. PMID:24824667

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities are phylogenetically clustered at small scales.

    PubMed

    Horn, Sebastian; Caruso, Tancredi; Verbruggen, Erik; Rillig, Matthias C; Hempel, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies with markers covering the full Glomeromycota phylum were used to uncover phylogenetic community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with Festuca brevipila. The study system was a semi-arid grassland with high plant diversity and a steep environmental gradient in pH, C, N, P and soil water content. The AMF community in roots and rhizosphere soil were analyzed separately and consisted of 74 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in total. Community-level variance partitioning showed that the role of environmental factors in determining AM species composition was marginal when controlling for spatial autocorrelation at multiple scales. Instead, phylogenetic distance and spatial distance were major correlates of AMF communities: OTUs that were more closely related (and which therefore may have similar traits) were more likely to co-occur. This pattern was insensitive to phylogenetic sampling breadth. Given the minor effects of the environment, we propose that at small scales closely related AMF positively associate through biotic factors such as plant-AMF filtering and interactions within the soil biota.

  11. Small-Scale Convection Raising East Anatolia and Northern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogus, O.; Pysklywec, R. N.; Sengul Uluocak, E.

    2014-12-01

    The East Anatolia and Iranian plateaus (originally referred as a Turkish-Iranian plateau) are characterized by 1.5-2 km average elevation and have been deformed through Alpine-Himalayan continental collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Recent seismological and geological studies suggest that the lithospheric structure between these two plateaus differs significantly since the Zagros fold-thrust belt in western Iran is associated with a thick lithospheric root (up to 225 km) whereas the East Anatolia seems to be lacking its mantle lithosphere. In this work, we use 2-D numerical experiments to test the applicability of small-scale convection model to account for the anomalous topography and uplift across the Turkish-Iranian plateau. Our models are designed to track the evolution of the surface topography as a response to a mantle flow activity in the step like morphology of the lithospheric base as wells as the temperature field. We test the role of several rheological parameters (e.g., viscosity) and variation in the lithospheric thickness in a series of experiments. Modeling results are tested against various observables for eastern Anatolia and Iran such as surface topography, crustal thickness, and surface strain rate. Our results provide new insight in the geodynamic evolution of Alpine type orogenic systems and suggest alternative mechanism to lithospheric delamination and/or slab break-off for the uplift of mountain belts.

  12. Vacuum structure and string tension in Yang-Mills dimeron ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Falk; Forkel, Hilmar; Müller-Preußker, Michael

    2012-11-01

    We numerically simulate ensembles of SU(2) Yang-Mills dimeron solutions with a statistical weight determined by the classical action and perform a comprehensive analysis of their properties as a function of the bare coupling. In particular, we examine the extent to which these ensembles and their classical gauge interactions capture topological and confinement properties of the Yang-Mills vacuum. This also allows us to put the classic picture of meron-induced quark confinement, with the confinement-deconfinement transition triggered by dimeron dissociation, to stringent tests. In the first part of our analysis we study spacial, topological-charge and color correlations at the level of both the dimerons and their meron constituents. At small to moderate couplings, the dependence of the interactions between the dimerons on their relative color orientations is found to generate a strong attraction (repulsion) between nearest neighbors of opposite (equal) topological charge. Hence, the emerging short- to mid-range order in the gauge-field configurations screens topological charges. With increasing coupling this order weakens rapidly, however, in part because the dimerons gradually dissociate into their less localized meron constituents. Monitoring confinement properties by evaluating Wilson-loop expectation values, we find the growing disorder due to the long-range tails of these progressively liberated merons to generate a finite and (with the coupling) increasing string tension. The short-distance behavior of the static quark-antiquark potential, on the other hand, is dominated by small, “instantonlike” dimerons. String tension, action density and topological susceptibility of the dimeron ensembles in the physical coupling region turn out to be of the order of standard values. Hence, the above results demonstrate without reliance on weak-coupling or low-density approximations that the dissociating dimeron component in the Yang-Mills vacuum can indeed produce a

  13. The "Magic" String

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Todd F.

    2010-01-01

    The "Magic" String is a discrepant event that includes a canister with what appears to be the end of two strings protruding from opposite sides of it. Due to the way the strings are attached inside the canister, it appears as if the strings can magically switch the way they are connected. When one string end is pulled, the observer's expectation…

  14. The "Magic" String

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Todd F.

    2010-01-01

    The "Magic" String is a discrepant event that includes a canister with what appears to be the end of two strings protruding from opposite sides of it. Due to the way the strings are attached inside the canister, it appears as if the strings can magically switch the way they are connected. When one string end is pulled, the observer's expectation…

  15. Small-Scale Fisheries Bycatch Jeopardizes Endangered Pacific Loggerhead Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Peckham, S. Hoyt; Diaz, David Maldonado; Walli, Andreas; Ruiz, Georgita; Crowder, Larry B.; Nichols, Wallace J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Although bycatch of industrial-scale fisheries can cause declines in migratory megafauna including seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles, the impacts of small-scale fisheries have been largely overlooked. Small-scale fisheries occur in coastal waters worldwide, employing over 99% of the world's 51 million fishers. New telemetry data reveal that migratory megafauna frequent coastal habitats well within the range of small-scale fisheries, potentially producing high bycatch. These fisheries occur primarily in developing nations, and their documentation and management are limited or non-existent, precluding evaluation of their impacts on non-target megafauna. Principal Findings/Methodology 30 North Pacific loggerhead turtles that we satellite-tracked from 1996–2005 ranged oceanwide, but juveniles spent 70% of their time at a high use area coincident with small-scale fisheries in Baja California Sur, Mexico (BCS). We assessed loggerhead bycatch mortality in this area by partnering with local fishers to 1) observe two small-scale fleets that operated closest to the high use area and 2) through shoreline surveys for discarded carcasses. Minimum annual bycatch mortality in just these two fleets at the high use area exceeded 1000 loggerheads year−1, rivaling that of oceanwide industrial-scale fisheries, and threatening the persistence of this critically endangered population. As a result of fisher participation in this study and a bycatch awareness campaign, a consortium of local fishers and other citizens are working to eliminate their bycatch and to establish a national loggerhead refuge. Conclusions/Significance Because of the overlap of ubiquitous small-scale fisheries with newly documented high-use areas in coastal waters worldwide, our case study suggests that small-scale fisheries may be among the greatest current threats to non-target megafauna. Future research is urgently needed to quantify small-scale fisheries bycatch worldwide. Localizing

  16. Antisymmetric string actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragone, C.

    1986-12-01

    An action is presented for the free bosonic string on external flat space in terms of an antisymmetric second-rank string background tensor which is classically equivalent to the Nambu-Goto action. Both action and field equations are entirely described in terms of 2D world-sheet forms, without any reference to a 2D metric tensor background. The analysis of its canonical formulation shows how the quadratic Virasoro constraints are generated in this case and what their connection with the Bianchi identities are. Since in the orthonormal gauge the reduced action coincides with the standard one, it has the same critical dimension D = 26. The existence of an interaction term of a purely geometric structure stemming in the extrinsic curvature is pointed out. Its action and the new string field equations are then derived. This polynomial antisymmetric string action is uniformly generalized in order to describe d < D-dimensional extended objects in D-dimensional flat space. On leave of absence from Departamento de Física, Universidad Simon Bolívar, Apartado 80659, Caracas 1080A, Venezuela.

  17. Power spectrum for the small-scale Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widrow, Lawrence M.; Elahi, Pascal J.; Thacker, Robert J.; Richardson, Mark; Scannapieco, Evan

    2009-08-01

    The first objects to arise in a cold dark matter (CDM) universe present a daunting challenge for models of structure formation. In the ultra small-scale limit, CDM structures form nearly simultaneously across a wide range of scales. Hierarchical clustering no longer provides a guiding principle for theoretical analyses and the computation time required to carry out credible simulations becomes prohibitively high. To gain insight into this problem, we perform high-resolution (N = 7203-15843) simulations of an Einstein-de Sitter cosmology where the initial power spectrum is P(k) ~ kn, with -2.5 <= n <= - 1. Self-similar scaling is established for n = -1 and -2 more convincingly than in previous, lower resolution simulations and for the first time, self-similar scaling is established for an n = -2.25 simulation. However, finite box-size effects induce departures from self-similar scaling in our n = -2.5 simulation. We compare our results with the predictions for the power spectrum from (one-loop) perturbation theory and demonstrate that the renormalization group approach suggested by McDonald improves perturbation theory's ability to predict the power spectrum in the quasi-linear regime. In the non-linear regime, our power spectra differ significantly from the widely used fitting formulae of Peacock & Dodds and Smith et al. and a new fitting formula is presented. Implications of our results for the stable clustering hypothesis versus halo model debate are discussed. Our power spectra are inconsistent with predictions of the stable clustering hypothesis in the high-k limit and lend credence to the halo model. Nevertheless, the fitting formula advocated in this paper is purely empirical and not derived from a specific formulation of the halo model.

  18. Small-Scale Challenges to the ΛCDM Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, James S.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The dark energy plus cold dark matter ($\\Lambda$CDM) cosmological model has been a demonstrably successful framework for predicting and explaining the large-scale structure of Universe and its evolution with time. Yet on length scales smaller than $\\sim 1$ Mpc and mass scales smaller than $\\sim 10^{11} M_{\\odot}$, the theory faces a number of challenges. For example, the observed cores of many dark-matter dominated galaxies are both less dense and less cuspy than naively predicted in $\\Lambda$CDM. The number of small galaxies and dwarf satellites in the Local Group is also far below the predicted count of low-mass dark matter halos and subhalos within similar volumes. These issues underlie the most well-documented problems with $\\Lambda$CDM: Cusp/Core, Missing Satellites, and Too-Big-to-Fail. The key question is whether a better understanding of baryon physics, dark matter physics, or both will be required to meet these challenges. Other anomalies, including the observed planar and orbital configurations of Local Group satellites and the tight baryonic/dark matter scaling relations obeyed by the galaxy population, have been less thoroughly explored in the context of $\\Lambda$CDM theory. Future surveys to discover faint, distant dwarf galaxies and to precisely measure their masses and density structure hold promising avenues for testing possible solutions to the small-scale challenges going forward. Observational programs to constrain or discover and characterize the number of truly dark low-mass halos are among the most important, and achievable, goals in this field over then next decade. These efforts will either further verify the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm or demand a substantial revision in our understanding of the nature of dark matter.

  19. Artificial cells: building bioinspired systems using small-scale biology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Ruder, Warren C; LeDuc, Philip R

    2008-01-01

    Artificial cells have generated much interest since the concept was introduced by Aleksandr Oparin in the 1920s, and they have had an impact on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry in various areas, including potential therapeutic applications. Here, we discuss the development of small-scale, bio-inspired artificial cell components that recreate the function of key cellular and physiological systems. We describe artificial cells, selected current applications and how small-scale biology could be used to provide what might be a next-generation approach in this area. We believe that this type of work is in its infancy and that exploiting small-scale biological inspiration in the field of artificial cells has great potential for successes in the future.

  20. When does small-scale convection begin beneath oceanic lithosphere?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    A numerical model of small-scale convection in a fluid of variable viscosity is described. The results indicate that recently observed gravity anomalies showing a pattern of highs and lows aligned in the direction of oceanic plate motion may be the result of small-scale mantle flow. The convective flow must begin in the first six Myr of lithospheric cooling to produce the observed signals, which is not inconsistent with constraints on the viscosity of the mantle. The calculated trend for the subsidence of the ocean floor is found to be almost linear with the square root of time even when small-scale convection has significantly changed the rate of subsidence. For average shallow asthenospheric viscosities of about 10 to the 18th Pa/s, the model subsidence can match data for the oceans and reproduce the magnitude and wavelength of the observed gravity anomalies.

  1. Small-scale spatial genetic structure in the Central African rainforest tree species Aucoumea klaineana: a stepwise approach to infer the impact of limited gene dispersal, population history and habitat fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Born, Céline; Hardy, Olivier J; Chevallier, Marie-Hélène; Ossari, Simon; Attéké, Christiane; Wickings, E Jean; Hossaert-McKey, Martine

    2008-04-01

    Under the isolation-by-distance model, the strength of spatial genetic structure (SGS) depends on seed and pollen dispersal and genetic drift, which in turn depends on local demographic structure. SGS can also be influenced by historical events such as admixture of differentiated gene pools. We analysed the fine-scale SGS in six populations of a pioneer tree species endemic to Central Africa, Aucoumea klaineana. To infer the impacts of limited gene dispersal, population history and habitat fragmentation on isolation by distance, we followed a stepwise approach consisting of a Bayesian clustering method to detect differentiated gene pools followed by the analysis of kinship-distance curves. Interestingly, despite considerable variation in density, the five populations situated under continuous forest cover displayed very similar extent of SGS. This is likely due to an increase in dispersal distance with decreased tree density. Admixture between two gene pools was detected in one of these five populations creating a distinctive pattern of SGS. In the last population sampled in open habitat, the genetic diversity was in the same range as in the other populations despite a recent habitat fragmentation. This result may due to the increase of gene dispersal compensating the effect of the disturbance as suggested by the reduced extent of SGS estimated in this population. Thus, in A. klaineana, the balance between drift and dispersal may facilitate the maintenance of genetic diversity. Finally, from the strength of the SGS and population density, an indirect estimate of gene dispersal distances was obtained for one site: the quadratic mean parent-offspring distance, sigma(g), ranged between 210 m and 570 m.

  2. Small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers.

    PubMed

    Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S

    2012-12-01

    The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude, fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. The efficiency of the dynamo depends on the type of turbulence indicated by the slope of the turbulence spectrum v(ℓ)∝ℓ^{ϑ}, where v(ℓ) is the eddy velocity at a scale ℓ. We explore turbulent spectra ranging from incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence with ϑ=1/3 to highly compressible Burgers turbulence with ϑ=1/2. In this work, we analyze the properties of the small-scale dynamo for low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, which denotes the ratio of the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, to the hydrodynamical one, Re. We solve the Kazantsev equation, which describes the evolution of the small-scale magnetic field, using the WKB approximation. In the limit of low magnetic Prandtl numbers, the growth rate is proportional to Rm^{(1-ϑ)/(1+ϑ)}. We furthermore discuss the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_{crit}, which is required for small-scale dynamo action. The value of Rm_{crit} is roughly 100 for Kolmogorov turbulence and 2700 for Burgers. Furthermore, we discuss that Rm_{crit} provides a stronger constraint in the limit of low Pm than it does for large Pm. We conclude that the small-scale dynamo can operate in the regime of low magnetic Prandtl numbers if the magnetic Reynolds number is large enough. Thus, the magnetic field amplification on small scales can take place in a broad range of physical environments and amplify week magnetic seed fields on short time scales.

  3. Small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2012-12-01

    The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude, fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. The efficiency of the dynamo depends on the type of turbulence indicated by the slope of the turbulence spectrum v(ℓ)∝ℓϑ, where v(ℓ) is the eddy velocity at a scale ℓ. We explore turbulent spectra ranging from incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence with ϑ=1/3 to highly compressible Burgers turbulence with ϑ=1/2. In this work, we analyze the properties of the small-scale dynamo for low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, which denotes the ratio of the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, to the hydrodynamical one, Re. We solve the Kazantsev equation, which describes the evolution of the small-scale magnetic field, using the WKB approximation. In the limit of low magnetic Prandtl numbers, the growth rate is proportional to Rm(1-ϑ)/(1+ϑ). We furthermore discuss the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rmcrit, which is required for small-scale dynamo action. The value of Rmcrit is roughly 100 for Kolmogorov turbulence and 2700 for Burgers. Furthermore, we discuss that Rmcrit provides a stronger constraint in the limit of low Pm than it does for large Pm. We conclude that the small-scale dynamo can operate in the regime of low magnetic Prandtl numbers if the magnetic Reynolds number is large enough. Thus, the magnetic field amplification on small scales can take place in a broad range of physical environments and amplify week magnetic seed fields on short time scales.

  4. A unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Pallavi; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Brandenburg, Axel

    2016-09-01

    We use high resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS) to show that helical turbulence can generate significant large-scale fields even in the presence of strong small-scale dynamo action. During the kinematic stage, the unified large/small-scale dynamo grows fields with a shape-invariant eigenfunction, with most power peaked at small scales or large k, as in Subramanian & Brandenburg. Nevertheless, the large-scale field can be clearly detected as an excess power at small k in the negatively polarized component of the energy spectrum for a forcing with positively polarized waves. Its strength overline{B}, relative to the total rms field Brms, decreases with increasing magnetic Reynolds number, ReM. However, as the Lorentz force becomes important, the field generated by the unified dynamo orders itself by saturating on successively larger scales. The magnetic integral scale for the positively polarized waves, characterizing the small-scale field, increases significantly from the kinematic stage to saturation. This implies that the small-scale field becomes as coherent as possible for a given forcing scale, which averts the ReM-dependent quenching of overline{B}/B_rms. These results are obtained for 10243 DNS with magnetic Prandtl numbers of PrM = 0.1 and 10. For PrM = 0.1, overline{B}/B_rms grows from about 0.04 to about 0.4 at saturation, aided in the final stages by helicity dissipation. For PrM = 10, overline{B}/B_rms grows from much less than 0.01 to values of the order the 0.2. Our results confirm that there is a unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence.

  5. Loop gravity string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Perez, Alejandro; Pranzetti, Daniele

    2017-05-01

    In this work we study canonical gravity in finite regions for which we introduce a generalization of the Gibbons-Hawking boundary term including the Immirzi parameter. We study the canonical formulation on a spacelike hypersurface with a boundary sphere and show how the presence of this term leads to an unprecedented type of degrees of freedom coming from the restoration of the gauge and diffeomorphism symmetry at the boundary. In the presence of a loop quantum gravity state, these boundary degrees of freedom localize along a set of punctures on the boundary sphere. We demonstrate that these degrees of freedom are effectively described by auxiliary strings with a three-dimensional internal target space attached to each puncture. We show that the string currents represent the local frame field, that the string angular momenta represent the area flux, and that the string stress tensor represents the two-dimensional metric on the boundary of the region of interest. Finally, we show that the commutators of these broken diffeomorphism charges of quantum geometry satisfy, at each puncture, a Virasoro algebra with central charge c =3 . This leads to a description of the boundary degrees of freedom in terms of a CFT structure with central charge proportional to the number of loop punctures. The boundary S U (2 ) gauge symmetry is recovered via the action of the U (1 )3 Kac-Moody generators (associated with the string current) in a way that is the exact analog of an infinite dimensional generalization of the Schwinger spin representation. We finally show that this symmetry is broken by the presence of background curvature.

  6. Fundamental economic issues in the development of small scale hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Some basic economic issues involved in the development of small-scale hydroelectric power are addressed. The discussion represents an economist's view of the investment process in this resource. Very little investment has been made in small-scale hydro development and an attempt is made to show that the reason for this may not be that the expected present worth of the returns of the project do not exceed the construction cost by a sufficient amount. Rather, a set of factors in combination impose costs on the project not normally incurred in small businesses. The discussion covers costs, supply, demand, and profitability.

  7. Feedback of a small-scale magnetic dynamo.

    PubMed

    Nazarenko, S V; Falkovich, G E; Galtier, S

    2001-01-01

    We develop a WKB approach to the rapid distortion theory for magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with large magnetic Prandtl number. Within this theory, we study the growth of small-scale magnetic fluctuations in a large-scale velocity field being initially a pure strain. We show that the magnetic Lorentz force excites a secondary flow in the form of counterrotating vortices on the periphery of the magnetic spot. Those vortices slow down stretching of the magnetic spot and thus provide a negative feedback for a small-scale magnetic dynamo.

  8. Design for a small-scale fuel-alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, G.R.; Richardson, J.G.

    1981-06-01

    The design of a small scale fuel alcohol plant 100 L/h (26.4 gal/h) of 95% (190 proof) ethanol is presented. The plant was designed and constructed using commercially available equipment. The object was to provide an energy efficiency and economical feasible reference design of a small scale fuel alcohol plant. The design requirements of the plant are presented. Each subsystem is described in detail. The systems discussed are feedstock handling and preparation; cooking and saccharification fermentation, distillation, and the automatic control system. Also discussed are test results, and costs.

  9. String dualities and empirical equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawid, Richard

    2017-08-01

    String dualities establish empirical equivalence between theories that often look entirely different with respect to their basic ontology and physical structure. Therefore, they represent a particularly interesting example of empirical equivalence in physics. However, the status of duality relations in string physics differs substantially from the traditional understanding of the role played by empirical equivalence. The paper specifies three important differences and argues that they are related to a substantially altered view on the underdetermination of theory building.

  10. Large- and Small-Scale Ring Current Electrodynamic Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.

    2003-01-01

    In this talk we will address the two primary issues of ring current (RC) electrodynamic coupling: 1. RC self-consistent magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling that includes calculation of the magnetospheric electric field (large scale electrodynamic coupling); and 2. RC self-consistent coupling with electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves (small scale electrodynamic coupling). Our study will be based on two RC models that we have recently developed in our group. The first model by Khazanov et al. [2002] couples the system of two kinetic equations: one equation which describes the RC ion dynamics and another equation which describes the energy density evolution of EMIC waves. The second model by Khazanov et al. [2003] deals with large scale electrodynamic coupling processes and provides a self-consistent simulation of RC ions and the magnetospheric electric field. There is presently no model that addresses both of these issues simultaneously in a self-consistent calculation. However, the need exists for such a model, because these two processes directly influence each other, with the mesoscale coupling changing the drift paths of the thermal and energetic particle populations in the inner magnetosphere, thereby changing the wave interactions, and the microscale coupling altering the pitch angle distributions and ionospheric conductivities (through increased precipitation), thus changing the field-aligned currents and electric potential structure. The initial thrust of the work will be the development of a combined kinetic model of micro- and meso-scale RC electrodynamic coupling processes and to examine their interactions with each other on a global scale.

  11. DSP: a protein shape string and its profile prediction server

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiangming; Tang, Shengnan; Xiong, Wenwei; Cong, Peisheng; Li, Tonghua

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that shape string is an extremely important structure representation, since it is more complete than the classical secondary structure. The shape string provides detailed information also in the regions denoted random coil. But few services are provided for systematic analysis of protein shape string. To fill this gap, we have developed an accurate shape string predictor based on two innovative technologies: a knowledge-driven sequence alignment and a sequence shape string profile method. The performance on blind test data demonstrates that the proposed method can be used for accurate prediction of protein shape string. The DSP server provides both predicted shape string and sequence shape string profile for each query sequence. Using this information, the users can compare protein structure or display protein evolution in shape string space. The DSP server is available at both http://cheminfo.tongji.edu.cn/dsp/ and its main mirror http://chemcenter.tongji.edu.cn/dsp/. PMID:22553364

  12. DSP: a protein shape string and its profile prediction server.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiangming; Tang, Shengnan; Xiong, Wenwei; Cong, Peisheng; Li, Tonghua

    2012-07-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that shape string is an extremely important structure representation, since it is more complete than the classical secondary structure. The shape string provides detailed information also in the regions denoted random coil. But few services are provided for systematic analysis of protein shape string. To fill this gap, we have developed an accurate shape string predictor based on two innovative technologies: a knowledge-driven sequence alignment and a sequence shape string profile method. The performance on blind test data demonstrates that the proposed method can be used for accurate prediction of protein shape string. The DSP server provides both predicted shape string and sequence shape string profile for each query sequence. Using this information, the users can compare protein structure or display protein evolution in shape string space. The DSP server is available at both http://cheminfo.tongji.edu.cn/dsp/ and its main mirror http://chemcenter.tongji.edu.cn/dsp/.

  13. Inflation, string theory and cosmic strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernoff, David F.; Tye, S.-H. Henry

    2015-02-01

    At its very beginning, the universe is believed to have grown exponentially in size via the mechanism of inflation. The almost scale-invariant density perturbation spectrum predicted by inflation is strongly supported by cosmological observations, in particular the cosmic microwave background (MB) radiation. However, the universe's precise inflationary scenario remains a profound problem for cosmology and for fundamental physics. String theory, the most-studied theory as the final physical theory of nature, should provide an answer to this question. Some of the proposals on how inflation is realized in string theory are reviewed. Since everything is made of strings, some string loops of cosmological sizes are likely to survive in the hot big bang that followed inflation. They appear as cosmic strings, which can have intricate properties. Because of the warped geometry in flux compactification of the extra spatial dimensions in string theory, some of the cosmic strings may have tensions substantially below the Planck or string scale. Such strings cluster in a manner similar to dark matter leading to hugely enhanced densities. As a result, numerous fossil remnants of the low tension cosmic strings may exist within the galaxy. They can be revealed through the optical lensing of background stars in the near future and studied in detail through gravitational wave emission. We anticipate that these cosmic strings will permit us to address central questions about the properties of string theory as well as the birth of our universe.

  14. Nanoflares, Spicules, and Other Small-Scale Dynamic Phenomena on the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James

    2010-01-01

    There is abundant evidence of highly dynamic phenomena occurring on very small scales in the solar atmosphere. For example, the observed pr operties of many coronal loops can only be explained if the loops are bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively by nanoflares. Type II spicules recently discovered by Hinode are an example of small-scale impulsive events occurring in the chromosphere. The exist ence of these and other small-scale phenomena is not surprising given the highly structured nature of the magnetic field that is revealed by photospheric observations. Dynamic phenomena also occur on much lar ger scales, including coronal jets, flares, and CMEs. It is tempting to suggest that these different phenomena are all closely related and represent a continuous distribution of sizes and energies. However, this is a dangerous over simplification in my opinion. While it is tru e that the phenomena all involve "magnetic reconnection" (the changin g of field line connectivity) in some form, how this occurs depends s trongly on the magnetic geometry. A nanoflare resulting from the interaction of tangled magnetic strands within a confined coronal loop is much different from a major flare occurring at the current sheet form ed when a CME rips open an active region. I will review the evidence for ubiquitous small-scale dynamic phenomena on the Sun and discuss wh y different phenomena are not all fundamentally the same.

  15. Nanoflares, Spicules, and Other Small-Scale Dynamic Phenomena on the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James

    2010-01-01

    There is abundant evidence of highly dynamic phenomena occurring on very small scales in the solar atmosphere. For example, the observed pr operties of many coronal loops can only be explained if the loops are bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively by nanoflares. Type II spicules recently discovered by Hinode are an example of small-scale impulsive events occurring in the chromosphere. The exist ence of these and other small-scale phenomena is not surprising given the highly structured nature of the magnetic field that is revealed by photospheric observations. Dynamic phenomena also occur on much lar ger scales, including coronal jets, flares, and CMEs. It is tempting to suggest that these different phenomena are all closely related and represent a continuous distribution of sizes and energies. However, this is a dangerous over simplification in my opinion. While it is tru e that the phenomena all involve "magnetic reconnection" (the changin g of field line connectivity) in some form, how this occurs depends s trongly on the magnetic geometry. A nanoflare resulting from the interaction of tangled magnetic strands within a confined coronal loop is much different from a major flare occurring at the current sheet form ed when a CME rips open an active region. I will review the evidence for ubiquitous small-scale dynamic phenomena on the Sun and discuss wh y different phenomena are not all fundamentally the same.

  16. Small Scale Beekeeping. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Curtis

    This manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in the development and implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives; intermediate technology beekeeping;…

  17. On the Small-Scale Morphology of Asthenospheric Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, V.; Davaille, A.; Crambes, C.

    2003-12-01

    We investigated the interaction of small-scale cold instabilities dripping from a cooling lithosphere with a shear flow confined in the asthenosphere, using analog experiments. Rayleigh numbers ranged between 104 and 108. The fluids were either polymer solutions (constant viscosity), sugar or corn syrups (viscosity depending on temperature), or wax (phase transition). When cooling away from the ridge, the thickening lithosphere becomes thermally unstable and develops small-scale convective instabilities at its bottom. For sufficiently fast asthenospheric flow, these instabilities are sheared and remain trapped in the asthenosphere, following a helicoidal path aligned with the direction of plate motion. A phase diagram and scaling laws for the flow characteristics were determined. The observed helicoidal pattern could explain some geophysical observables such as small wavelength lineations in the terrestrial gravity field, or seismic anisotropy anomalies under the Pacific plate. Moreover, the distance from the ridge at which the small-scale instabilities form depends on the underlying mantle temperature: for a hotter mantle, they are generated closer to the ridge. Therefore, in the case of a ridge-centered plume, the hot temperature anomaly due to the plume triggers small-scale instabilities almost at the ridge. The heat transfer out of the mantle is accelerated, and the thickening of the lithosphere away from the ridge is delayed. Therefore, a groove at the bottom of the lithosphere may be expected along the track of a ridge-centred hotspot.

  18. Application of Small-Scale Systems: Evaluation of Alternatives

    Treesearch

    John Wilhoit; Robert Rummer

    1999-01-01

    Large-scale mechanized systems are not well-suited for harvesting smaller tracts of privately owned forest land. New alternative small-scale harvesting systems are needed which utilize mechanized felling, have a low capital investment requirement, are small in physical size, and are based primarily on adaptations of current harvesting technology. This paper presents...

  19. 2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Thomas Balk

    2010-07-30

    Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

  20. Solar small-scale dynamo and polarity of sunspot groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoloff, D.; Khlystova, A.; Abramenko, V.

    2015-08-01

    In order to clarify a possible role of small-scale dynamo in formation of solar magnetic field, we suggest an observational test for small-scale dynamo action based on statistics of anti-Hale sunspot groups. As we have shown, according to theoretical expectations the small-scale dynamo action has to provide a population of sunspot groups which do not follow the Hale polarity law, and the density of such groups on the time-latitude diagram is expected to be independent on the phase of the solar cycle. Correspondingly, a percentage of the anti-Hale groups is expected to reach its maximum values during solar minima. For several solar cycles, we considered statistics of anti-Hale groups obtained by several scientific teams, including ours, to find that the percentage of anti-Hale groups becomes indeed maximal during a solar minimum. Our interpretation is that this fact may be explained by the small-scale dynamo action inside the solar convective zone.

  1. Small Scale Charcoal Making: A Manual for Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karch, Ed; And Others

    This training program offers skills training in all stages of the development of technologies related to small-scale charcoal production, including the design, construction, operation, maintenance, repair, and evaluation of prototype kilns. The kiln designs are selected to be as consistent as possible with the realities of rural areas in…

  2. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Gus

    This manual is the second volume in a series of publications on community development programs. Guidelines are suggested for small-scale water projects that would benefit segments of the world's urban or rural poor. Strategies in project planning, implementation and evaluation are presented that emphasize environmental conservation and promote…

  3. Small Scale Marine Fisheries: An Extension Training Manual. TR-30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Steven; And Others

    This manual is designed for use in a preservice training program for prospective volunteers whose Peace Corps service will be spent working with small-scale artisanal fishing communities in developing nations. The program consists of 8 weeks of intensive training to develop competencies in marine fisheries technology and fisheries extension work…

  4. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Energy Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassan, Elizabeth Ann; Wood, Timothy S., Ed.

    This manual is the fourth volume in a series of publications that provide information for the planning of environmentally sound small-scale projects. Programs that aim to protect the renewable natural resources that supply most of the energy used in developing nations are suggested. Considerations are made for physical environmental factors as…

  5. The Role of Leadership in Small Scale Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Wei; DeBrot, David; Witney, Carol

    2015-01-01

    By investigating the factors facilitating and hindering a small scale educational change, this study highlights the crucial role of leadership in designing and implementing an educational change at a transnational university in Vietnam. During its initiation stage, the programme leaders seemed to fail to (1) set up a clear schedule for changing,…

  6. Design and operation of a small-scale ethanol still

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a small-scale alcohol still utilizing beer derived from both corn and potato mash. Use was made of the ethanol in alcohol vehicles imported from Brazil. By-products (stillage) were successfully used as cattle feed. (DMC)

  7. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Forestry Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ffolliott, Peter F.; Thames, John L.

    This manual, the third in a series of publications that address community development possibilities in developing nations, provides guidelines for small-scale forestry projects that are integrative and conservation-oriented. Chapters focus on: (1) users and uses (specifying targeted audience and general objectives); (2) planning process (including…

  8. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Gus

    This manual is the second volume in a series of publications on community development programs. Guidelines are suggested for small-scale water projects that would benefit segments of the world's urban or rural poor. Strategies in project planning, implementation and evaluation are presented that emphasize environmental conservation and promote…

  9. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Forestry Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ffolliott, Peter F.; Thames, John L.

    This manual, the third in a series of publications that address community development possibilities in developing nations, provides guidelines for small-scale forestry projects that are integrative and conservation-oriented. Chapters focus on: (1) users and uses (specifying targeted audience and general objectives); (2) planning process (including…

  10. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Energy Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassan, Elizabeth Ann; Wood, Timothy S., Ed.

    This manual is the fourth volume in a series of publications that provide information for the planning of environmentally sound small-scale projects. Programs that aim to protect the renewable natural resources that supply most of the energy used in developing nations are suggested. Considerations are made for physical environmental factors as…

  11. The Role of Leadership in Small Scale Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Wei; DeBrot, David; Witney, Carol

    2015-01-01

    By investigating the factors facilitating and hindering a small scale educational change, this study highlights the crucial role of leadership in designing and implementing an educational change at a transnational university in Vietnam. During its initiation stage, the programme leaders seemed to fail to (1) set up a clear schedule for changing,…

  12. Small-Scale Spatial Variability of Ozone in Boulder, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deanes, L. N.; Sadighi, K.; Casey, J. G.; Collier, A. M.; Hannigan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Surface ozone (O3) can pose several health risks to humans, such as an increased number of and intensity of asthma attacks. Considering this, it is important that ozone levels are monitored. While municipal air quality monitors are present in cities like Boulder, Colorado, these monitors often only consider regional analysis, neglecting the variability of compounds, such as ozone or carbon monoxide, over smaller distances. Small-scale (approximately 1 kilometer) spatial variability in ozone is important because humans experience these small scales on a daily basis. Using low-cost, next-generation air quality monitors ("pods") developed at the University of Colorado-Boulder, we assessed small-scale spatial variability of surface ozone in Boulder, Colorado. This was done by placing clusters of 4-5 pods within approximately 1 kilometer of each other at specific sites in the city of Boulder. We collected data at two sites: one on the University of Colorado-Boulder campus (i.e., an urban site) and one outside of the city (i.e., a rural site). Pods were left in their positions for one to two weeks allowing for observation of ozone trends. As expected the typical diurnal trend was observed; however, further analysis revealed differences between these daily trends. Data collected by the pods allows for better understanding of small-scale spatial variability of surface ozone and how this may be driven by nearby sources.

  13. Shaping Component Leads for Small-Scale Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Simple tool makes it easy to bend leads of electronic components quickly and uniformly for assembly on circuit board. Useful in small-scale production of electronic circuits; saves labor but avoids cost of complicated machinery. Made in range of sizes to accommodate components in variety of dimensions.

  14. Aspects of topological string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Paul L. H.

    Two aspects of the topological string and its applications are considered in this thesis. Firstly, non-perturbative contributions to the OSV conjecture relating four-dimensional extremal black holes and the closed topological string partition function are studied. A new technique is formulated for encapsulating these contributions for the case of a Calabi-Yau manifold constructed by fibering two line bundle over a torus, with the unexpected property that the resulting non-perturbative completion of the topological string partition function is such that the black hole partition function is equal to a product of a chiral and an anti-chiral function. This new approach is considered both in the context of the requirement of background independence for the topological string, and for more general Calabi-Yau manifolds. Secondly, this thesis provides a microscopic derivation of the open topological string holomorphic anomaly equations proposed by Walcher in arXiv:0705.4098 under the assumption that open string moduli do not contribute. In doing so, however, new anomalies are found for compact Calabi-Yau manifolds when the disk one-point functions (string to boundary amplitudes) are non-zero. These new anomalies introduce coupling to wrong moduli (complex structure moduli in A-model and Kahler moduli in B-model), and spoil the recursive structure of the holomorphic anomaly equations. For vanishing disk one-point functions, the open string holomorphic anomaly equations can be integrated to solve for amplitudes recursively, using a Feynman diagram approach, for which a proof is presented.

  15. Characterizing the Small Scale Structure in Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, William R.

    2001-01-01

    We studied galaxy clusters Abell 119, Abell 754, and Abell 1750, using data from the ASCA and ROSAT satellites. In addition, we completed the paper "Merging Binary Clusters". In this paper we study three prominent bi-modal X-ray clusters: A3528, A1750 and A3395. Since the sub-clusters in these systems have projected separations of 0.93, 1.00 and 0.67 Mpc respectively, we examine their X-ray and optical observations to investigate the dynamics and possible merging of these sub-clusters. Using data taken with ROSAT and ASCA, we analyze the temperature and surface brightness distributions. We also analyze the velocity distributions of the three clusters using new measurements supplemented with previously published data. We examined both the overall cluster properties as well as the two sub-cluster elements in each. These results were then applied to the determination of the overall cluster masses, that demonstrate excellent consistency between the various methods used. While the characteristic parameters of the sub-clusters are typical of isolated objects, our temperature results for the regions between the two sub-clusters clearly confirm the presence of merger activity that is suggested by the surface brightness distributions. These three clusters represent a progression of equal-sized sub-cluster mergers, starting from initial contact to immediately before first core passage.

  16. Gravity Effects in Small-Scale Structural Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    attenuating material (Reference 23). The materials tested were cellular concrete with fly ash, expanded polystyrene concrete with fly ash, foamed...polyurethane, foamed sulfer and molded expanded polystyrene . The studies showed that with proper adjustments in the cement content, water-cement ratio and foam...Compression (Ou,c) 4000 100 Tension (Ou,t) 400 10 E/Quc 1000 1000 Ou,c/Ou,t 10 10 Further analysis of the properties of expanded polystyrene concrete with

  17. Physics and Chemistry of Small Scale Structures for Modern Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    that in AIGaAs. In the InAs- ZnTe system, the increase in speed is due to the small dielectric constant in ZaTe and the high mobility in InAs, and the...temperature. In addition, 1 _____0__ ._._... ... the small dielectric constant in ZnTe and the high mobility ---- : T = 3OCK GoAs-ZnSe in InAs should...semiconductors were explored. While the materials to date have not been single crystal but have consisted of relatively small grain polycrystal in vandium

  18. Vacuum fluctuations and the small scale structure of spacetime.

    PubMed

    Carlip, S; Mosna, R A; Pitelli, J P M

    2011-07-08

    We show that vacuum fluctuations of the stress-energy tensor in two-dimensional dilaton gravity lead to a sharp focusing of light cones near the Planck scale, effectively breaking space up into a large number of causally disconnected regions. This phenomenon, called "asymptotic silence" when it occurs in cosmology, might help explain several puzzling features of quantum gravity, including evidence of spontaneous dimensional reduction at short distances. While our analysis focuses on a simplified two-dimensional model, we argue that the qualitative features should still be present in four dimensions.

  19. Spiral small-scale structures in compressible turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Thomas; Politano, Hélène; Pouquet, Annick; LarchevÊque, Michèle

    We extend the spiral vortex solution of Lundgren 1982 to compressible turbulent flows following a perfect gas law. Lundgren's model links the dynamical and spectral properties of incompressible flows, providing a k-5/3 Kolmogorov spectrum. A similar compressible spatio-temporal transformation is now derived, reducing the dynamics of three-dimensional (3D) vortices stretched by an axisymmetric incompressible strain into a 2D compressible vortex dynamics. It enables to write the 3D spectra of the incompressible and compressible square velocities u{s2/and ud2} in terms of, respectively, the 2D spectra of the enstrophy and of the square velocity divergence, by use of a temporal integration (Gomez &al. 2001). New numerical results are presented now using 10242 gridpoints; initially, the r.m.s. Mach number is 0.32, with local values up to 0.9, the Reynolds number is 1,400, and x=us2/ud2=0.1. A k-5/3 inertial behaviour is seen to result from the dynamical evolution for both the compressible and incompressible three-dimensional kinetic energy spectra.

  20. Lagrangian chaos and small scale structure of passive scalars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulpiani, Angelo

    1989-09-01

    We revise the classical theory of Batchelor, which gives a k-1 law for the power spectrum of a passive scalar at wavenumbers k, for which the molecular diffusion is unimportant and much smaller than the fluid viscosity. Using some ideas borrowed from the theory of dynamical systems, we show that this power law is related to the chaotic motion of marker particles (Lagrangian chaos) and to the incompressibility constraint. Moreover our approach permits showing that the k-1 regime is present in fluids which are not turbulent and it is valid for all dimensionalities d⩾2.

  1. Sampling problems: The small scale structure of precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    The quantitative measurement of precipitation characteristics for any area on the surface of the Earth is not an easy task. Precipitation is rather variable in both space and time, and the distribution of surface rainfall data given location typically is substantially skewed. There are a number of precipitation process at work in the atmosphere, and few of them are well understood. The formal theory on sampling and estimating precipitation appears considerably deficient. Little systematic attention is given to nonsampling errors that always arise in utilizing any measurement system. Although the precipitation measurement problem is an old one, it continues to be one that is in need of systematic and careful attention. A brief history of the presently competing measurement technologies should aid us in understanding the problem inherent in this measurement task.

  2. Constraint Reasoning Over Strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Golden, Keith; Pang, Wanlin

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to representing and reasoning about constraints over strings. We discuss how many string domains can often be concisely represented using regular languages, and how constraints over strings, and domain operations on sets of strings, can be carried out using this representation.

  3. Beads-on-String Structured Nanofibers for Smart and Reversible Oil/Water Separation with Outstanding Antifouling Property.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanfeng; Lai, Chuilin; Wang, Xiaowen; Liu, Yang; Hu, Huawen; Guo, Yujuan; Ma, Kaikai; Fei, Bin; Xin, John H

    2016-09-28

    It is challenging to explore a unified solution for the treatment of oily wastewater from complex sources. Thus, membrane materials with flexible separation schemes are highly desired. Herein, we fabricated a smart membrane by electrospinning TiO2 doped polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibers. The as-formed beads-on-string structure and hierarchical roughness of the nanofibers contribute to its superwetting/resisting property to liquids, which is desirable in oil/water separation. Switched simply by UV (or sunlight) irradiation and heating treatment, the smart membrane can realize reversible separation of oil/water mixtures by selectively allowing water or oil to pass through alone. Most importantly, the as-prepared nanofiber membrane possesses outstanding antifouling and self-cleaning performance resulting from the photocatalytic property of TiO2, which has practical significance in saving solvents and recycling materials. This work provides a route for fabricating cost-effective, easily scaled up, and recyclable membranes for on-demand oil/water separation in versatile situations, which can be of great usage in the new green separation technology.

  4. The Effects of Kinetic Instabilities on Small-scale Turbulence in Earth’s Magnetosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuillard, H.; Yordanova, E.; Vaivads, A.; Alexandrova, O.

    2016-09-01

    The Earth's magnetosheath is the region delimited by the bow shock and the magnetopause. It is characterized by highly turbulent fluctuations covering all scales from MHD down to kinetic scales. Turbulence is thought to play a fundamental role in key processes such as energy transport and dissipation in plasma. In addition to turbulence, different plasma instabilities are generated in the magnetosheath because of the large anisotropies in plasma temperature introduced by its boundaries. In this study we use high-quality magnetic field measurements from Cluster spacecraft to investigate the effects of such instabilities on the small-scale turbulence (from ion down to electron scales). We show that the steepening of the power spectrum of magnetic field fluctuations in the magnetosheath occurs at the largest characteristic ion scale. However, the spectrum can be modified by the presence of waves/structures at ion scales, shifting the onset of the small-scale turbulent cascade toward the smallest ion scale. This cascade is therefore highly dependent on the presence of kinetic instabilities, waves, and local plasma parameters. Here we show that in the absence of strong waves the small-scale turbulence is quasi-isotropic and has a spectral index α ≈ -2.8. When transverse or compressive waves are present, we observe an anisotropy in the magnetic field components and a decrease in the absolute value of α. Slab/2D turbulence also develops in the presence of transverse/compressive waves, resulting in gyrotropy/non-gyrotropy of small-scale fluctuations. The presence of both types of waves reduces the anisotropy in the amplitude of fluctuations in the small-scale range.

  5. String-driven inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turok, Neil

    1988-01-01

    It is argued that, in fundamental string theories, as one traces the universe back in time a point is reached when the expansion rate is so fast that the rate of string creation due to quantum effects balances the dilution of the string density due to the expansion. One is therefore led into a phase of constant string density and an exponentially expanding universe. Fundamental strings therefore seem to lead naturally to inflation.

  6. String driven inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Turok, N.

    1987-11-01

    It is argued that, in fundamental string theories, as one traces the universe back in time a point is reached when the expansion rate is so fast that the rate of string creation due to quantum effects balances the dilution of the string density due to the expansion. One is therefore led into a phase of constant string density and an exponentially expanding universe. Fundamental strings therefore seem to lead naturally to inflation. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Leadership solves collective action problems in small-scale societies

    PubMed Central

    Glowacki, Luke; von Rueden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Observation of leadership in small-scale societies offers unique insights into the evolution of human collective action and the origins of sociopolitical complexity. Using behavioural data from the Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia and Nyangatom nomadic pastoralists of Ethiopia, we evaluate the traits of leaders and the contexts in which leadership becomes more institutional. We find that leaders tend to have more capital, in the form of age-related knowledge, body size or social connections. These attributes can reduce the costs leaders incur and increase the efficacy of leadership. Leadership becomes more institutional in domains of collective action, such as resolution of intragroup conflict, where collective action failure threatens group integrity. Together these data support the hypothesis that leadership is an important means by which collective action problems are overcome in small-scale societies. PMID:26503683

  8. Radar for small-scale land-use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.

    1975-01-01

    Small-scale (1:250,000 and smaller) land-use maps are a major concern not only to geographers but also to national and regional planners. Unfortunately, such maps are usually out of date by the time they are printed. An interpretation key consisting of five physical and cultural characteristics of the environment evident on radar imagery is used to create land-use regions. Regions and borders interpreted from radar are compared with those found on two existing land-use maps created by traditional methods. Radar imagery can be used to create a small-scale land-use map with regions comparable to those found on existing land-use maps. However, the radar regions depict something more than land use and should be termed rural landscape regions.

  9. Development of a small scale orange juice extractor.

    PubMed

    Olaniyan, A M

    2010-01-01

    A small scale motorized orange juice extractor was designed and fabricated, using locally-available construction materials. The essential components of the machine include feeding hopper, top cover, worm shaft, juice sieve, juice collector, waste outlet, transmission belt, main frame, pulleys and bearings. In operation, the worm shaft conveys, crushes, presses and squeezes the fruit to extract the juice. The juice extracted is filtered through the juice sieve into juice collector while the residual waste is discharged through waste outlet. Result showed that the average juice yield and juice extraction efficiency were 41.6 and 57.4%, respectively. Powered by a 2 hp electric motor, the machine has a capacity of 14 kg/h. With a machine cost of about $100, it is affordable for small-scale citrus farmers in the rural communities.

  10. LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

    1996-06-01

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives, propellants and other energetic materials, is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. Testing is done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing {open_quotes}BAM{close_quotes} Small-Scale Friction Test, and the methods used to determine the friction sensitivity pertinent to handling energetic materials. The accumulated data for the materials tested is not listed here - that information is in a database. Included is, however, a short list of (1) materials that had an unusual response, and (2), a few {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} materials representing the range of typical responses usually seen.

  11. Leadership solves collective action problems in small-scale societies.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Luke; von Rueden, Chris

    2015-12-05

    Observation of leadership in small-scale societies offers unique insights into the evolution of human collective action and the origins of sociopolitical complexity. Using behavioural data from the Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia and Nyangatom nomadic pastoralists of Ethiopia, we evaluate the traits of leaders and the contexts in which leadership becomes more institutional. We find that leaders tend to have more capital, in the form of age-related knowledge, body size or social connections. These attributes can reduce the costs leaders incur and increase the efficacy of leadership. Leadership becomes more institutional in domains of collective action, such as resolution of intragroup conflict, where collective action failure threatens group integrity. Together these data support the hypothesis that leadership is an important means by which collective action problems are overcome in small-scale societies.

  12. Design for a small-scale fuel alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, G.R.; Richardson, J.G.

    1982-08-01

    The paper describes the small-scale fuel alcohol plant (SSFAT) which was designed as a small-scale chemical processing plant. The DOE publication, Fuel from Farms, set forth the basic design requirements. To lower operating costs, it was important that all the processes required to produce alcohol were integrated. Automated control was also an important consideration in the design to reduce the number of operators and operator time, thus reducing operating costs. Automated control also provides better quality control of the final product. The plant is presently operating in a test mode to evaluate operating characteristics. The discussion covers the following topics - design requirements; plan operations; fermentation; distillation; microprocessor control; automatic control; operating experience. 1 ref.

  13. Turbulent small-scale neutral and ion density fluctuations as measured during MAC/Epsilon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebken, F.-J.; Hillert, W.; Vonzahn, U.; Blix, T. A.; Thrane, E. V.

    1989-01-01

    During the MAC/Epsilon campaign (Fall 1987, from Andoya, Northern Norway, 69 N, 16 E) a total of four altitude profiles of neutral gas number densities and six profiles of ion number densities were measured with high spatial resolution in the height range from 60 to 120 km. First results of these rocket-borne experiments are presented with emphasis on small scale turbulent density variations and related turbulent parameter as structure function constants and energy dissipation rates.

  14. Small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Rohan E.; Beck, Christian; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

    2014-07-01

    Context. The chromosphere above sunspot umbrae and penumbrae shows several different types of fast dynamic events such as running penumbral waves, umbral flashes, and penumbral microjets. Aims: The aim of this paper is to identify the physical driver responsible for the dynamic and small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge. Methods: High-resolution broadband filtergrams of active region NOAA 11271 in Ca ii H and G band were obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode. We identified the jets in the Ca ii H images using a semi-automatic routine and determined their length and orientation. We applied local correlation tracking (LCT) to the G-band images to obtain the photospheric horizontal velocity field. The magnetic field topology was derived from a Milne-Eddington inversion of a simultaneous scan with the Spectropolarimeter. Results: The chromospheric jets consist of a bright, triangular-shaped blob that lies on the light bridge, while the apex of this blob extends into a spike-like structure that is bright against the dark umbral background. Most of the jets have apparent lengths of less than 1000 km and about 30% of the jets have lengths between 1000-1600 km. The jets are oriented within ±35° to the normal of the spine of the light bridge. Most of them are clustered near the central part of the light bridge within a 2'' area. The jets are seen to move rapidly along the light bridge and many of them cannot be identified in successive images taken with a 2 min cadence. The jets are primarily located on one side of the light bridge and are directed into the umbral core. The Stokes profiles at or close to the location of the blobs on the LB exhibit both a significant net circular polarization and multiple components, including opposite-polarity lobes. The magnetic field diverges from the light bridge towards the umbral cores that it separates. The LCT reveals that in the photosphere there is a predominantly uni-directional flow with

  15. Cosmic strings with twisted magnetic flux lines and wound-strings in extra dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, Matthew; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2012-09-01

    We consider a generalization of the Nielsen-Olesen ansatz, in the abelian-Higgs model, which describes strings with twisted magnetic flux lines in the vortex core. The solution does not possess cylindrical symmetry, which leads to the existence of components of conserved momentum, both around the core-axis and along the length of the string. In addition, we consider a model of F-strings with rotating, geodesic windings in the compact space of the Klebanov-Strassler geometry and determine matching conditions which ensure energy and momentum conservation when loops chop off from the long-string network. We find that the expressions for the constants of motion, which determine the macroscopic string dynamics, can be made to coincide with those for the twisted flux line string, suggesting that extra-dimensional effects for F-strings may be mimicked by field-theoretic structure in topological defects.

  16. Passive Plasma Contact Mechanisms for Small-Scale Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTernan, Jesse K.

    Small-scale spacecraft represent a paradigm shift in how entities such as academia, industry, engineering firms, and the scientific community operate in space. However, although the paradigm shift produces unique opportunities to build satellites in unique ways for novel missions, there are also significant challenges that must be addressed. This research addresses two of the challenges associated with small-scale spacecraft: 1) the miniaturization of spacecraft and associated instrumentation and 2) the need to transport charge across the spacecraft-environment boundary. As spacecraft decrease in size, constraints on the size, weight, and power of on-board instrumentation increase--potentially limiting the instrument's functionality or ability to integrate with the spacecraft. These constraints drive research into mechanisms or techniques that use little or no power and efficiently utilize existing resources. One limited resource on small-scale spacecraft is outer surface area, which is often covered with solar panels to meet tight power budgets. This same surface area could also be needed for passive neutralization of spacecraft charging. This research explores the use of a transparent, conductive layer on the solar cell coverglass that is electrically connected to spacecraft ground potential. This dual-purpose material facilitates the use of outer surfaces for both energy harvesting of solar photons as well as passive ion collection. Mission capabilities such as in-situ plasma measurements that were previously infeasible on small-scale platforms become feasible with the use of indium tin oxide-coated solar panel coverglass. We developed test facilities that simulate the space environment in low Earth orbit to test the dual-purpose material and the various application of this approach. Particularly, this research is in support of two upcoming missions: OSIRIS-3U, by Penn State's Student Space Programs Lab, and MiTEE, by the University of Michigan. The purpose of

  17. Formation and evolution of small-scale solar magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. A.

    2008-06-01

    In this thesis I investigate the formation and evolution of small-scale magnetic fields on the surface of the Sun. I observe the magnetic field in quiet sun regions in an effort to further understand the baseline magnetic field that exists throughout the photosphere at all phases of the solar cycle. An automated feature tracking algorithm that I helped develop allows me to systematically analyze datasets containing over 10 5 evolving magnetic features. In 1.2"-resolution Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) magnetograms, I find that 30% of features identified by our algorithm originate without other detectable flux within 2.2 Mm. These features having an apparent unipolar origin account for 94% of the flux newly detected by the algorithm. I infer from their ensemble average that these features are actually previously existing flux, coalesced by surface flows into concentrations large and strong enough to detect. Flux coalescence is at least as important as bipolar ephemeral region emergence for introducing detectable flux into the photosphere, underscoring the importance of small-scale fields to the overall photospheric flux budget. Using 0.3"-resolution magnetograms from the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) on the recently-launched Hinode spacecraft, I confirm that apparent unipolar emergence seen with MDI is indeed flux coalescence. I then demonstrate that apparent unipolar emergence seen in NFI magnetograms also corresponds to coalescence of previously existing weak field. The uncoalesced flux, detectable only in the ensemble average of hundreds of these events, accounts for 30-50% of the total flux within 3 Mm of the detected features. Finally, I study small-scale fields around intermediate-scale supergranular network concentrations. This is motivated by simulations and observations showing suppression of flux production by background magnetic fields at small and large scales. Within 12 Mm of the network concentrations, I find no evidence that the concentrations

  18. Beads on a string: structure of bound aggregates of globular particles and long polymer chains.

    PubMed

    Souslov, Anton; Curtis, Jennifer E; Goldbart, Paul M

    2015-11-07

    Macroscopic properties of suspensions, such as those composed of globular particles (e.g., colloidal or macromolecular), can be tuned by controlling the equilibrium aggregation of the particles. We examine how aggregation - and, hence, macroscopic properties - can be controlled in a system composed of both globular particles and long, flexible polymer chains that reversibly bind to one another. We base this on a minimal statistical mechanical model of a single aggregate in which the polymer chain is treated either as ideal or self-avoiding, and, in addition, the globular particles are taken to interact with one another via excluded volume repulsion. Furthermore, each of the globular particles is taken to have one single site to which at most one polymer segment may bind. Within the context of this model, we examine the statistics of the equilibrium size of an aggregate and, thence, the structure of dilute and semidilute suspensions of these aggregates. We apply the model to biologically relevant aggregates, specifically those composed of macromolecular proteoglycan globules and long hyaluronan polymer chains. These aggregates are especially relevant to the materials properties of cartilage and the structure-function properties of perineuronal nets in brain tissue, as well as the pericellular coats of mammalian cells.

  19. Detecting small scale heterogeneities in the crust from ambient noise cross-correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.; Fu, L.

    2012-12-01

    Ambient noise cross-correlation is extensively applied to obtain the surface wave dispersion, and further to study the structures of the crust and the upper mantle. In recent years, many applications of the ambient noise tomography are reported in many locations, e.g., California, Europe, New Zealand, Tibet, and even in the Antarctica. The scale is regional or even continental. However, the applications of the method in detecting small scale heterogeneities are paid little attention. Small scale heterogeneities may be important to monitor/predict activities of volcano. This is concluded from the fact activities of volcano will result in stress variations. Correspondingly, the velocity distribution, i.e., heterogeneities, will change. Here, we will try to extend the ambient noise cross-correlation method to study small heterogeneities in the crust.

  20. Prevalence of small-scale jets from the networks of the solar transition region and chromosphere.

    PubMed

    Tian, H; DeLuca, E E; Cranmer, S R; De Pontieu, B; Peter, H; Martínez-Sykora, J; Golub, L; McKillop, S; Reeves, K K; Miralles, M P; McCauley, P; Saar, S; Testa, P; Weber, M; Murphy, N; Lemen, J; Title, A; Boerner, P; Hurlburt, N; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J P; Kleint, L; Kankelborg, C; Jaeggli, S; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V; McIntosh, S W

    2014-10-17

    As the interface between the Sun's photosphere and corona, the chromosphere and transition region play a key role in the formation and acceleration of the solar wind. Observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal the prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with speeds of 80 to 250 kilometers per second from the narrow bright network lanes of this interface region. These jets have lifetimes of 20 to 80 seconds and widths of ≤300 kilometers. They originate from small-scale bright regions, often preceded by footpoint brightenings and accompanied by transverse waves with amplitudes of ~20 kilometers per second. Many jets reach temperatures of at least ~10(5) kelvin and constitute an important element of the transition region structures. They are likely an intermittent but persistent source of mass and energy for the solar wind.

  1. Assessing the Impact of Small-Scale Magnetic Morphology on Solar Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, Courtney; Rast, Mark; Criscuoli, Serena

    2017-08-01

    Spectral solar irradiance (SSI), the radiant energy flux per wavelength of the Sun received at Earth, is an important driver of chemical reactions in the Earth’s atmosphere. Accurate measurements of SSI are therefore necessary as an input for global climate models. While models and observations of the spectrally-integrated total solar irradiance (TSI) variations agree within ˜ 95%, they can disagree on the sign and magnitude of the SSI variations. In this work, we examine the contribution of currently-unresolved small-scale magnetic structures to SSI variations in the photosphere. We examine the emergent spectra of two atmospheres with differing imposed-field conditions — one with a small-scale dynamo and the other with a predominantly vertical magnetic field — with similar mean field strengths at wavelengths spanning from visible to infrared. Comparing the radiative output at various viewing angles of pixels of equal vertical magnetic field strength between the two simulations, we find that the small-scale dynamo simulations produce higher radiative output than those in the predominantly vertical field simulation. This implies that the radiative output of a small magnetic structure depends on the magnetic morphology of the environment in which it is embedded, which is currently not included in SSI models. We deduce the effect on inferred irradiance by comparing the disk-integrated irradiance of these two atmospheres with standard 1D model atmospheres used in SSI modeling.

  2. Specifications for Managed Strings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    string_m 3.1.3.1 The strcreate_m Function Synopsis #include <string_m.h> errno_t strcreate_m(string_m *s, const char * cstr , const rsize_t maxlen...strcreate_m function creates a managed string, referenced by s, given a conven- tional string cstr (which may be null or empty). maxlen specifies the...characters to be those in the null-terminated byte string cstr (which may be empty). If charset is a null pointer, no restricted character set is

  3. Spin-string interaction in QCD strings

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Vikram

    2008-08-15

    I consider the question of the interaction between a QCD string and the spin of a quark or an antiquark on whose worldline the string terminates. The problem is analyzed from the point of view of a string representation for the expectation value of a Wilson loop for a spin-half particle. A string representation of the super Wilson loop is obtained starting from an effective string representation of a Wilson Loop. The action obtained in this manner is invariant under a worldline supersymmetry and has a boundary term which contains the spin-string interaction. For rectangular loops the spin-string interaction vanishes and there is no spin-spin term in the resulting heavy quark potential. On the other hand if an allowance is made for the finite intrinsic thickness of the flux tube by assuming that the spin-string interaction takes place not just at the boundary of the string world sheet but extends to a distance of the order of the intrinsic thickness of the flux tube then we do obtain a spin-spin interaction which falls as the fifth power of the distance. Such a term was previously suggested by Kogut and Parisi in the context of a flux-tube model of confinement.

  4. Modeling the Influence of Small-Scale Surface Roughness on the Lunar Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prem, Parvathy; Goldstein, David B.; Varghese, Philip L.; Trafton, Laurence M.

    2016-10-01

    The Moon and other virtually airless bodies provide distinctive environments for the transport and sequestration of water and other volatiles delivered to their surfaces by various sources. In this work, we conduct Monte Carlo simulations of water vapor transport on the Moon to investigate the role of small-scale roughness (unresolved by orbital measurements) in the migration and cold-trapping of volatiles. Observations indicate that the roughness of the lunar surface, together with the insulating nature of lunar regolith and the absence of significant exospheric heat flow, can cause large variations in temperature over very small scales. Surface temperature is a critical parameter in determining the residence time of migrating water molecules on the lunar surface, which in turn affects the rate and magnitude of volatile transport to permanently shadowed craters (cold traps) near the lunar poles, as well as exospheric structure and the susceptibility of migrating molecules to photodestruction. Here, we develop a rough surface temperature model suitable for simulations of volatile transport on a global scale. We compare results of Monte Carlo simulations of volatile transport with and without the surface roughness model and find that including small-scale temperature variations and shadowing leads to an increased probability of polar cold-trapping, as well as increased thermal escape, compensated for by decreased photodestruction. Exospheric structure is altered only slightly, primarily at the dawn terminator. We also examine the sensitivity of our results to the temperature of small-scale shadows, and the energetics of water molecule desorption from the lunar regolith (two factors that remain to be definitively constrained by other methods) and find that both these factors affect the rate at which cold trap capture and photodissociation occur, as well as exospheric longevity and density.

  5. Three-dimensional gravity and string ghosts

    SciTech Connect

    Carlip, S. ); Kogan, I.I. )

    1991-12-23

    It is known that much of the structure of string theory can be derived from three-dimensional topological field theory and gravity. We show here that, at least for simple topologies, the string diffeomorphism ghosts can also be explained in terms of three-dimensional physics.

  6. On bulk singularity structures and all order α‧ contact terms of BPS string amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatefi, Ehsan

    2016-10-01

    The entire form of the amplitude of three SYM (involving two transverse scalar fields, a gauge field) and a potential Cn-1 Ramond-Ramond (RR) form field is found out. We first derive and then start constructing an infinite number of t , s channel bulk singularity structures by means of all order α‧ corrections to pull-back of brane in an Effective Field Theory (EFT). Due to presence of the complete form of S-matrix, several new contact interactions as well as new couplings are explored. It is also shown that these couplings can be verified at the level of EFT by either the combinations of Myers terms, pull-back, Taylor expanded of scalar fields or the mixed combination of the couplings of this paper as well as employed Bianchi identities. For the first time, we also derive the algebraic and the complete form of the integrations for some arbitrary combinations of Mandelstam variables and for the most general case ∫d2 z | 1 - z|a | z|b(z - z bar) c(z + z bar) 3 on upper half plane as well.

  7. Spontaneous knotting of an agitated string.

    PubMed

    Raymer, Dorian M; Smith, Douglas E

    2007-10-16

    It is well known that a jostled string tends to become knotted; yet the factors governing the "spontaneous" formation of various knots are unclear. We performed experiments in which a string was tumbled inside a box and found that complex knots often form within seconds. We used mathematical knot theory to analyze the knots. Above a critical string length, the probability P of knotting at first increased sharply with length but then saturated below 100%. This behavior differs from that of mathematical self-avoiding random walks, where P has been proven to approach 100%. Finite agitation time and jamming of the string due to its stiffness result in lower probability, but P approaches 100% with long, flexible strings. We analyzed the knots by calculating their Jones polynomials via computer analysis of digital photos of the string. Remarkably, almost all were identified as prime knots: 120 different types, having minimum crossing numbers up to 11, were observed in 3,415 trials. All prime knots with up to seven crossings were observed. The relative probability of forming a knot decreased exponentially with minimum crossing number and Möbius energy, mathematical measures of knot complexity. Based on the observation that long, stiff strings tend to form a coiled structure when confined, we propose a simple model to describe the knot formation based on random "braid moves" of the string end. Our model can qualitatively account for the observed distribution of knots and dependence on agitation time and string length.

  8. Spontaneous knotting of an agitated string

    PubMed Central

    Raymer, Dorian M.; Smith, Douglas E.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that a jostled string tends to become knotted; yet the factors governing the “spontaneous” formation of various knots are unclear. We performed experiments in which a string was tumbled inside a box and found that complex knots often form within seconds. We used mathematical knot theory to analyze the knots. Above a critical string length, the probability P of knotting at first increased sharply with length but then saturated below 100%. This behavior differs from that of mathematical self-avoiding random walks, where P has been proven to approach 100%. Finite agitation time and jamming of the string due to its stiffness result in lower probability, but P approaches 100% with long, flexible strings. We analyzed the knots by calculating their Jones polynomials via computer analysis of digital photos of the string. Remarkably, almost all were identified as prime knots: 120 different types, having minimum crossing numbers up to 11, were observed in 3,415 trials. All prime knots with up to seven crossings were observed. The relative probability of forming a knot decreased exponentially with minimum crossing number and Möbius energy, mathematical measures of knot complexity. Based on the observation that long, stiff strings tend to form a coiled structure when confined, we propose a simple model to describe the knot formation based on random “braid moves” of the string end. Our model can qualitatively account for the observed distribution of knots and dependence on agitation time and string length. PMID:17911269

  9. [Qualitative evaluation of employer requirements associated with occupational health and safety as good practice in small-scale enterprises].

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Naomi; Miyashita, Nana; Hino, Yoshiyuki; Kayashima, Kotaro; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Takada, Mikio; Nagata, Tomohisa; Yamataki, Hajime; Sakuragi, Sonoko; Kan, Hirohiko; Morita, Tetsuya; Ito, Akiyoshi; Mori, Koji

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify what motivates employers to promote good occupational health and safety practices in small-scale enterprises. Previous studies have shown that small-scale enterprises generally pay insufficient attention to issues of occupational health and safety. These findings were mainly derived from questionnaire based surveys. Nevertheless, some small-scale enterprises in which employers exercise good leadership do take a progressive approach to occupational health and safety. Although good practices can be identified in small-scale enterprises, it remains unclear what motivates employers in small-scale enterprises to actively implement occupational health and safety practices. We speculated that identifying employer motivations in promoting occupational health would help to spread good practices among small-scale enterprises. Using a qualitative approach based on the KJ methods, we interviewed ten employers who actively promote occupational health and safety in the workplace. The employers were asked to discuss their views of occupational health and safety in their own words. A semi-structured interview format was used, and transcripts were made of the interviews. Each transcript was independently coded by two or more researchers. These transcripts and codes were integrated and then the research group members discussed the heading titles and structural relationships between them according to the KJ method. Qualitative analysis revealed that all the employers expressed a strong interest in a "good company" and "good management". They emphasized four elements of "good management", namely "securing human resources", "trust of business partners", "social responsibility" and "employer's health condition itself", and considered that addressing occupational health and safety was essential to the achievement of these four elements. Consistent with previous findings, the results showed that implementation of occupational health and safety

  10. Quark Confinement and Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    't Hooft, Gerardus

    QCD was proposed as a theory for the strong interactions long before we had any idea as to how it could be that its fundamental constituents, the quarks, are never seen as physical particles. Massless gluons also do not exist as free particles. How can this be explained? The first indication that this question had to be considered in connection with the topological structure of a gauge theory came when Nielsen and Olesen observed the occurrence of stable magnetic vortex structures [1] in the Abelian Higgs model. Expanding on such ideas, the magnetic monopole solution was found [2]. Other roundabout attempts to understand confinement involve instantons. Today, we have better interpretations of these topological structures, including a general picture of the way they do lead to unbound potentials confining quarks. It is clear that these unbound potentials can be ascribed to a string-like structure of the vortices formed by the QCD field lines. Can string theory be used to analyze QCD? Many researchers think so. The leading expert on this is Sacha Polyakov. In his instructive account he adds how he experienced the course of events in Gauge Theory, emphasizing the fact that quite a few discoveries often ascribed to researchers from the West, actually were made independently by scientists from the Soviet Union…

  11. CMB ISW-lensing bispectrum from cosmic strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Sendouda, Yuuiti; Takahashi, Keitaro

    2014-02-01

    We study the effect of weak lensing by cosmic (super-)strings on the higher-order statistics of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). A cosmic string segment is expected to cause weak lensing as well as an integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, the so-called Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins (GKS) effect, to the CMB temperature fluctuation, which are thus naturally cross-correlated. We point out that, in the presence of such a correlation, yet another kind of the post-recombination CMB temperature bispectra, the ISW-lensing bispectra, will arise in the form of products of the auto- and cross-power spectra. We first present an analytic method to calculate the autocorrelation of the temperature fluctuations induced by the strings, and the cross-correlation between the temperature fluctuation and the lensing potential both due to the string network. In our formulation, the evolution of the string network is assumed to be characterized by the simple analytic model, the velocity-dependent one scale model, and the intercommutation probability is properly incorporated in order to characterize the possible superstringy nature. Furthermore, the obtained power spectra are dominated by the Poisson-distributed string segments, whose correlations are assumed to satisfy the simple relations. We then estimate the signal-to-noise ratios of the string-induced ISW-lensing bispectra and discuss the detectability of such CMB signals from the cosmic string network. It is found that in the case of the smaller string tension, Gμ << 10-7, the ISW-lensing bispectrum induced by a cosmic string network can constrain the string-model parameters even more tightly than the purely GKS-induced bispectrum in the ongoing and future CMB observations on small scales.

  12. CMB ISW-lensing bispectrum from cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Sendouda, Yuuiti; Takahashi, Keitaro E-mail: sendouda@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp

    2014-02-01

    We study the effect of weak lensing by cosmic (super-)strings on the higher-order statistics of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). A cosmic string segment is expected to cause weak lensing as well as an integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, the so-called Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins (GKS) effect, to the CMB temperature fluctuation, which are thus naturally cross-correlated. We point out that, in the presence of such a correlation, yet another kind of the post-recombination CMB temperature bispectra, the ISW-lensing bispectra, will arise in the form of products of the auto- and cross-power spectra. We first present an analytic method to calculate the autocorrelation of the temperature fluctuations induced by the strings, and the cross-correlation between the temperature fluctuation and the lensing potential both due to the string network. In our formulation, the evolution of the string network is assumed to be characterized by the simple analytic model, the velocity-dependent one scale model, and the intercommutation probability is properly incorporated in order to characterize the possible superstringy nature. Furthermore, the obtained power spectra are dominated by the Poisson-distributed string segments, whose correlations are assumed to satisfy the simple relations. We then estimate the signal-to-noise ratios of the string-induced ISW-lensing bispectra and discuss the detectability of such CMB signals from the cosmic string network. It is found that in the case of the smaller string tension, Gμ << 10{sup -7}, the ISW-lensing bispectrum induced by a cosmic string network can constrain the string-model parameters even more tightly than the purely GKS-induced bispectrum in the ongoing and future CMB observations on small scales.

  13. Small scale production of biofuels: a feasibility assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Geyler, J.

    1980-01-01

    Current public policy fails to adequately address one of the most exigent concerns of the agricultural producer: the cost and availability of energy. Specifically, they are interested in energy production alternatives that are feasible and economic for implementation by smaller agricultural producers. After a extended review of much of the available popular and technical literature, as well as conducting interviews with numerous individuals knowledgeable in the field of alternative energy production, the Roosevelt-Custer Regional Council for Development has prepared this preliminary feasibility assessment on the small scale production of biofuels in North Dakota. The production of energy from renewable sources is not chimerical; it is reality. Currently, North Dakotan's rely on energy produced from agricultural products to run their automobiles and to heat their homes, as well as to dry the crops on which much of the North Dakota economy depends. Over the next 20 years, this reliance on renewable energy sources is expected to triple. Unfortunately, most of the processes currently used to produce these biofuels are not adaptable for use by the smaller producer/consumer. Today, economics simply preclude the small scale production of biofuels. A deplorable consequence of this lag between demand and technical feasibility is the appearance of the quick-buck consultant. These individuals have not limited their activities to North Dakota but, in fact, they have appeared over the length and breadth of this Nation. This report then is an assessment of the feasibility of producing biofuels in North Dakota by the small scale producer. Specific types of biofuels to be critiqued are: alcohol; vegetable oils; biogas/methane; and biomass briquettes.

  14. Small scale production of biofuels: a feasibility assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Geyler, J.

    1980-01-01

    Current public policy fails to adequately address one of the most exigent concerns of the agricultural producer: the cost and availability of energy. Specifically, they are interested in energy production alternatives that are feasible and economic for implementation by smaller agricultural producers. After an extended review of much of the available popular and technical literature, as well as conducting interviews with numerous individuals knowledgeable in the field of alternative energy production, the Roosevelt-Custer Regional Council for Development has prepared this preliminary feasibility assessment on the small scale production of biofuels in North Dakota. The production of energy from renewable sources is not commerical; it is reality. Currently, North Dakotan's rely on energy produced from agricultural products to run their automobiles and to heat their homes, as well as to dry the crops on which much of the North Dakota economy depends. Over the next 20 years, this reliance on renewable energy sources is expected to triple. Unfortunately, most of the processes currently used to produce these biofuels are not adaptable for use by the smaller producer/consumer. Today, economics simply preclude the small scale production of biofuels. A deplorable consequence of this lag between demand and technical feasibility is the appearance of the quick-buck consultant. These individuals have not limited their activities to North Dakota but, in fact, they have appeared over the length and breadth of this nation. This report then is an assessment of the feasibility of producing biofuels in North Dakota by the small scale producer. Specific types of biofuels to be critiqued are: alcohol; vegetable oils; biogas/methane; and biomass briquettes.

  15. Small-scale Conformity of the Virgo Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hye-Ran; Lee, Joon Hyeop; Jeong, Hyunjin; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the small-scale conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in the Virgo Cluster. Cluster member galaxies are spectroscopically determined using the Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We find that the luminosity-weighted mean color of faint galaxies depends on the color of adjacent bright galaxy as well as on the cluster-scale environment (gravitational potential index). From this result for the entire area of the Virgo Cluster, it is not distinguishable whether the small-scale conformity is genuine or if it is artificially produced due to cluster-scale variation of galaxy color. To disentangle this degeneracy, we divide the Virgo Cluster area into three sub-areas so that the cluster-scale environmental dependence is minimized: A1 (central), A2 (intermediate), and A3 (outermost). We find conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions (color-color slope significance S ˜ 2.73σ and correlation coefficient {cc}˜ 0.50) in A2, where the cluster-scale environmental dependence is almost negligible. On the other hand, the conformity is not significant or very marginal (S ˜ 1.75σ and {cc}˜ 0.27) in A1. The conformity is not significant either in A3 (S ˜ 1.59σ and {cc}˜ 0.44), but the sample size is too small in this area. These results are consistent with a scenario in which the small-scale conformity in a cluster is a vestige of infallen groups and these groups lose conformity as they come closer to the cluster center.

  16. Classification of wetlands vegetation using small scale color infrared imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. S. L.

    1975-01-01

    A classification system for Chesapeake Bay wetlands was derived from the correlation of film density classes and actual vegetation classes. The data processing programs used were developed by the Laboratory for the Applications of Remote Sensing. These programs were tested for their value in classifying natural vegetation, using digitized data from small scale aerial photography. Existing imagery and the vegetation map of Farm Creek Marsh were used to determine the optimal number of classes, and to aid in determining if the computer maps were a believable product.

  17. Development of small scale soft x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.; Suckewer, S. . Plasma Physics Lab. Princeton Univ., NJ . Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering); Skinner, C.H.; Voorhees, D. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1991-05-01

    At present rapid progress is being made in the application of soft x-ray lasers to fields such as microscopy and microlithography. A critical factor in the range of suitable applications is the scale and hence cost of the soft x-ray lasers. At Princeton, gain at 183{angstrom} has been obtained with relatively low pump laser energies (as low as 6J) in a portable'' small-scale soft x-ray laser system. We will also discuss aspects of data interpretation and pitfalls to be avoided in measurements of gain in such systems. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Computer graphics in small-scale mechanism design

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    At a time when many small-scale mechanisms are being functionally replaced by logic circuits, some applications, because of strength and durability requirements, continue to require mechanical systems. Because of this, Sandia National Laboratories is moving to upgrade the capabilities and productivity of its mechanism design staff. The key to better design efficiency of these systems is to identify and alleviate real or potential problems prior to construction of any working test model. Productivity is gained when design iterations are performed on a numerical, instead of a phycial, model. The trick is to allow the engineer to interface to the numerical world in a manner that is accurate and natural.

  19. String resistance detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, A. Daniel (Inventor); Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Method and system are disclosed for determining individual string resistance in a network of strings when the current through a parallel connected string is unknown and when the voltage across a series connected string is unknown. The method/system of the invention involves connecting one or more frequency-varying impedance components with known electrical characteristics to each string and applying a frequency-varying input signal to the network of strings. The frequency-varying impedance components may be one or more capacitors, inductors, or both, and are selected so that each string is uniquely identifiable in the output signal resulting from the frequency-varying input signal. Numerical methods, such as non-linear regression, may then be used to resolve the resistance associated with each string.

  20. Light from cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Steer, Daniele A.; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2011-02-15

    The time-dependent metric of a cosmic string leads to an effective interaction between the string and photons--the ''gravitational Aharonov-Bohm'' effect--and causes cosmic strings to emit light. We evaluate the radiation of pairs of photons from cosmic strings and find that the emission from cusps, kinks and kink-kink collisions occurs with a flat spectrum at all frequencies up to the string scale. Further, cusps emit a beam of photons, kinks emit along a curve, and the emission at a kink-kink collision is in all directions. The emission of light from cosmic strings could provide an important new observational signature of cosmic strings that is within reach of current experiments for a range of string tensions.

  1. Systematic Work Environment Management: experiences from implementation in Swedish small-scale enterprises.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Rosén, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Small-scale enterprises face difficulties in fulfilling the regulations for organising Systematic Work Environment Management. This study compared three groups of small-scale manufacturing enterprises with and without support for implementing the provision. Two implementation methods, supervised and network method, were used. The third group worked according to their own ideas. Twenty-three enterprises participated. The effects of the implementation were evaluated after one year by semi-structured dialogue with the manager and safety representative. Each enterprise was classified on compliance with ten demands concerning the provision. The work environment was estimated by the WEST-method. Impact of the implementation on daily work was also studied. At the follow-up, the enterprises in the supervised method reported slightly more improvements in the fulfilment of the demands in the provision than the enterprises in the network method and the enterprises working on their own did. The effect of the project reached the employees faster in the enterprises with the supervised method. In general, the work environment improved to some extent in all enterprises. Extensive support to small-scale enterprises in terms of advise and networking aimed to fulfil the regulations of Systematic Work Environment Management had limited effect - especially considering the cost of applying these methods.

  2. 2012 THIN FILM AND SMALL SCALE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR GRS/GRC, JULY 21-27, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Balk, Thomas

    2012-07-27

    The mechanical behavior of materials with small dimension(s) is of both fundamental scientific interest and technological relevance. The size effects and novel properties that arise from changes in deformation mechanism have important implications for modern technologies such as thin films for microelectronics and MEMS devices, thermal and tribological coatings, materials for energy production and advanced batteries, etc. The overarching goal of the 2012 Gordon Research Conference on "Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior" is to discuss recent studies and future opportunities regarding elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation, as well as degradation and failure mechanisms such as fatigue, fracture and wear. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to: fundamental studies of physical mechanisms governing small-scale mechanical behavior; advances in test techniques for materials at small length scales, such as nanotribology and high-temperature nanoindentation; in-situ mechanical testing and characterization; nanomechanics of battery materials, such as swelling-induced phenomena and chemomechanical behavior; flexible electronics; mechanical properties of graphene and carbon-based materials; mechanical behavior of small-scale biological structures and biomimetic materials. Both experimental and computational work will be included in the oral and poster presentations at this Conference.

  3. Why do large and small scales couple in a turbulent boundary layer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.

    2011-11-01

    Correlation measurement, which is not definitive, suggests that large and small scales in a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) couple. A TBL is modeled as a jungle of interacting nonlinear oscillators to explore the origin of the coupling. These oscillators have the inherent property of self-sustainability, disturbance rejection, and of self-referential phase reset whereby several oscillators can phase align (or have constant phase difference between them) when an ``external'' impulse is applied. Consequently, these properties of a TBL are accounted for: self-sustainability, return of the wake component after a disturbance is removed, and the formation of the 18o large structures, which are composed of a sequential train of hairpin vortices. The nonlinear ordinary differential equations of the oscillators are solved using an analog circuit for rapid solution. The post-bifurcation limit cycles are determined. A small scale and a large scale are akin to two different oscillators. The state variables from the two disparate interacting oscillators are shown to couple and the small scales appear at certain regions of the phase of the large scale. The coupling is a consequence of the nonlinear oscillatory behavior. Although state planes exist where the disparate scales appear de-superposed, all scales in a TBL are in fact coupled and they cannot be monochromatically isolated.

  4. Assessment of biosecurity practices of small-scale broiler producers in central Egypt.

    PubMed

    Negro-Calduch, E; Elfadaly, S; Tibbo, M; Ankers, P; Bailey, E

    2013-06-01

    In the current situation of endemicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Egypt, improving the biosecurity of poultry production has become essential to the progressive reduction the incidence of the disease. A significant proportion of the Egyptian commercial poultry system consists of small-scale poultry producers operating with low to minimal biosecurity measures. An investigation was conducted into the level of adoption of standard biosecurity measures of the small-scale commercial chicken growers, including both farm- and home-based commercial production, input suppliers and other actors along the meat chicken value chain in Fayoum, Egypt. The study which used direct observations and group discussions of nearly 160 participants and structured interviews with 463 respondents, assessed biosecurity implementation to improve management practices and ultimately to control and prevent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The survey found that overall, biosecurity measures are rarely implemented in small-scale commercial poultry production units. Compliance with recommended biosecurity practices did not greatly vary from home-based to farm-based commercial production. Furthermore, serious risk practices were identified, such as unsafe disposal of poultry carcasses and potential disease spread posed by poor biosecurity measures implemented during vaccination. HPAI control measures have been ineffective due to limited cooperation between public and private sector, aggravated by the unpopular measures taken in the event of outbreaks and no compensation paid for incurred losses. Outreach and biosecurity awareness raising initiatives should be specifically developed for small-scale producers with the objective of improving general poultry management and thus preventing HPAI and other poultry diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Large- to small-scale dynamo in domains of large aspect ratio: kinematic regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumaylova, Valeria; Teed, Robert J.; Proctor, Michael R. E.

    2017-04-01

    The Sun's magnetic field exhibits coherence in space and time on much larger scales than the turbulent convection that ultimately powers the dynamo. In this work, we look for numerical evidence of a large-scale magnetic field as the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, is increased. The investigation is based on the simulations of the induction equation in elongated periodic boxes. The imposed flows considered are the standard ABC flow (named after Arnold, Beltrami & Childress) with wavenumber ku = 1 (small-scale) and a modulated ABC flow with wavenumbers ku = m, 1, 1 ± m, where m is the wavenumber corresponding to the long-wavelength perturbation on the scale of the box. The critical magnetic Reynolds number R_m^{crit} decreases as the permitted scale separation in the system increases, such that R_m^{crit} ∝ [L_x/L_z]^{-1/2}. The results show that the α-effect derived from the mean-field theory ansatz is valid for a small range of Rm after which small scale dynamo instability occurs and the mean-field approximation is no longer valid. The transition from large- to small-scale dynamo is smooth and takes place in two stages: a fast transition into a predominantly small-scale magnetic energy state and a slower transition into even smaller scales. In the range of Rm considered, the most energetic Fourier component corresponding to the structure in the long x-direction has twice the length-scale of the forcing scale. The long-wavelength perturbation imposed on the ABC flow in the modulated case is not preserved in the eigenmodes of the magnetic field.

  6. Effect of experimental small-scale spatial heterogeneity on resource use of a Mediterranean ground-ant community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Luque, Gloria; Reyes López, Joaquín

    2007-07-01

    Small-scale habitat complexity has been shown to influence interspecific competition and resource use in ant communities. Nevertheless, in Mediterranean communities, where temperature variations have a stronger effect on the foraging of subordinate species than competition by dominants, the effect of small-scale habitat complexity on resource use by ants is unknown. We investigated the influence of an experimental spatial mosaic of microhabitats (interior, edge and open) on the dynamics of resource use in a guild of ants of a Mediterranean grassland. We used baits containing one of three food resource types (honey, tuna and seeds) placed in the different microhabitats. Variation in resource use among microhabitats appears to result from differential responses among ant species to small-scale spatial heterogeneity. Analysis of frequency of occurrence, number of foragers and monopoly at baits of ant species indicated that the resource use and recruitment intensity was modified by microhabitat, once the effect of temperature was removed from the analysis. Thus, foraging activity and competitive interactions of ant species were influenced by the different microhabitats apart from temperature, which suggests an effect of small-scale structural complexity. Small-scale spatial variations in structural complexity have an effect in resource use by most ants in this system that is not wholly explained by differences in temperature. Finally, this suggests that microhabitat may be one factor influencing the outcome of the dominance hierarchies.

  7. [The string of Einthoven's string galvanometer].

    PubMed

    Wyers, P J

    1996-01-01

    The Dutch physiologist Willem Einthoven (1860-1927) published in 1901 his construction of a string galvanometer. With this apparatus he opened the era for electrocardiography. As the quality of his instrument largely depended on the string of the string galvanometer it is surprising to note that in his publications Einthoven never mentioned the exact way of producing the string. However, Einthoven's hand written laboratory notes are preserved at the Museum Boerhaave in Leiden. From these notes it comes clear what problems Einthoven had with the string. To get a very thin thread of quarts he first used the method of shooting the thread as was described by Boys (1887), later the blowing method of Nichols (1894). The silvering of the thread was done first chemically, later by cathode spray. In all cases premature breaking of the thread was a nuisance. Because of these failures Einthoven might have decided not to publish any details.

  8. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Douglas K.; Kuhns, Douglass J.; Wiersholm, Otto; Miller, Timothy A.

    1993-01-01

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  9. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.

    1993-03-02

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  10. Dynamics of Carroll strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Biel; Gomis, Joaquim; Pons, Josep M.

    2016-07-01

    We construct the canonical action of a Carroll string doing the Carroll limit of a canonical relativistic string. We also study the Killing symmetries of the Carroll string, which close under an infinite dimensional algebra. The tensionless limit and the Carroll p-brane action are also discussed.

  11. Suprathermal Charged Particle Acceleration by Small-scale Flux Ropes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zank, G. P.; le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    We consider different limits of our recently developed kinetic transport theory to investigate the potential of super-Alvenic solar wind regions containing several small-scale flux ropes to explain the acceleration of suprathermal ions to power-law spectra as observations show. Particle acceleration is modeled in response to flux-rope activity involving contraction, merging (reconnection), and collisions in the limit where the particle gyoradius is smaller than the characteristic flux-rope scale length. The emphasis is mainly on the statistical variance in the electric fields induced by flux-rope dynamics rather than on the mean electric field induced by multiple flux ropes whose acceleration effects are discussed elsewhere. Our steady-state analytical solutions suggest that particle drift acceleration by flux ropes, irrespective of whether displaying incompressible or compressible behavior, can yield power laws asymptotically at higher energies whereas an exponential spectral rollover results asymptotically when field-aligned guiding center motion acceleration occur by reconnection electric fields from merging flux ropes. This implies that at sufficiently high particle energies, drift acceleration might dominate. We also expect compressive flux ropes to yield harder power-law spectra than incompressible flux ropes. Preliminary results will be discussed to illustrate how particle acceleration might be affected when both diffusive shock and small-scale flux acceleration occur simultaneously at interplanetary shocks.

  12. A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

    2014-07-01

    Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source-target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and 125I, 90Y, 211At, 99mTc, 111In, 177Lu, 131I and 18F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons (125I) or high-LET alpha particles (211At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose-effect relationships in the liver.

  13. Interpreting chemical compositions of small scale basaltic systems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, Lucy E.; Smith, Ian E. M.

    2016-10-01

    Small scale basaltic magmatic systems occur in all of the major tectonic environments of planet Earth and are characteristically expressed at the Earth's surface as fields of small monogenetic cones. The chemical compositions of the materials that make up these cones reflect processes of magma generation and differentiation that occur in their plumbing system. The volumes of magmas involved are very small and significantly their compositional ranges reveal remarkably complex processes which are overwhelmed or homogenized in larger scale systems. Commonly, compositions are basaltic, alkalic and enriched in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements, although the spectrum extends from highly enriched nephelinites to subalkalic and tholeiitic basalts. Isotopic analyses of rocks from volcanic fields almost always display compositions which can only be explained by the interaction of two or more mantle sources. Ultimately their basaltic magmas originate by small scale melting of mantle sources. Compositional variety is testament to melting processes at different depths, a range of melting proportions, a heterogeneous source and fractionation, magma mixing and assimilation within the plumbing system that brings magmas to the surface. The fact that such a variety of compositions is preserved in a single field shows that isolation of individual melting events and their ascent is an important and possibly defining feature of monogenetic volcanism, as well as the window their chemical behavior provides into the complex process of melt generation and extraction in the Earth's upper mantle.

  14. A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver.

    PubMed

    Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

    2014-07-07

    Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source-target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and (125)I, (90)Y, (211)At, (99m)Tc, (111)In, (177)Lu, (131)I and (18)F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons ((125)I) or high-LET alpha particles ((211)At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose-effect relationships in the liver.

  15. Effects of thermal inflation on small scale density perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sungwook E.; Lee, Hyung-Joo; Lee, Young Jae; Stewart, Ewan D.; Zoe, Heeseung E-mail: ohsk111@kaist.ac.kr E-mail: jcap@profstewart.org

    2015-06-01

    In cosmological scenarios with thermal inflation, extra eras of moduli matter domination, thermal inflation and flaton matter domination exist between primordial inflation and the radiation domination of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. During these eras, cosmological perturbations on small scales can enter and re-exit the horizon, modifying the power spectrum on those scales. The largest modified scale, k{sub b}, touches the horizon size when the expansion changes from deflation to inflation at the transition from moduli domination to thermal inflation. We analytically calculate the evolution of perturbations from moduli domination through thermal inflation and evaluate the curvature perturbation on the constant radiation density hypersurface at the end of thermal inflation to determine the late time curvature perturbation. Our resulting transfer function suppresses the power spectrum by a factor 0∼ 5 at k >> k{sub b}, with k{sub b} corresponding to anywhere from megaparsec to subparsec scales depending on the parameters of thermal inflation. Thus, thermal inflation might be constrained or detected by small scale observations such as CMB distortions or 21cm hydrogen line observations.

  16. The case for small-scale domestic cannabis cultivation.

    PubMed

    Decorte, Tom

    2010-07-01

    The shift to (inter)regional production, trade and domestic cultivation has become an irreversible international trend. Until now, the focus of most empirical work has been on large-scale, commercially oriented and professionally organized segments of the cannabis industry, often based on police data and on the perspective of law enforcement agencies. This paper offers a review of recent Dutch-language research that focuses on cannabis cultivation. Empirical studies were identified through literature searches using relevant search terms and Web of Science, Elin, Social Science Research Network and Elsevier ScienceDirect. The paper presents the main findings of Dutch and Belgian empirical work on the factors that stimulated the import substitution process on the cannabis market, aspects related to quality and potency issues, typologies of cannabis growers, and (unintended) effects of pursued policies. In the light of this (selective) review the author offers some commentary and analysis concerning the claims made by different stakeholders, and concludes with some reflections on future research and on policy implications. The author outlines the importance of small-scale, independent or ideologically oriented cannabis cultivation as an under-researched market segment. The author also makes a case for greater toleration of small-scale cannabis cultivation, to secure the least worst of cannabis markets.

  17. A small-scale extreme ultraviolet wave observed by SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, R.; Jiang, Y.; Hong, J.; Yang, J.; Bi, Y.; Yang, L.; Yang, D.

    2012-06-01

    "Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) waves" are large-scale wavelike transients often associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In this Letter, we present a possible detection of a fast-mode EUV wave associated with a mini-CME observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory. On 2010 December 1, a small-scale EUV wave erupted near the disk center associated with a mini-CME, which showed all the low corona manifestations of a typical CME. The CME was triggered by the eruption of a mini-filament, with a typical length of about 30''. Although the eruption was tiny, the wave had the appearance of an almost semicircular front and propagated at a uniform velocity of 220-250km s-1 with very little angular dependence. The CME lateral expansion was asymmetric with an inclination toward north, and the southern footprints of the CME loops hardly shifted. The lateral expansion resulted in deep long-duration dimmings, showing the CME extent. Our analysis confirms that the small-scale EUV wave is a true wave, interpreted as the fast-mode wave.

  18. Small-scale morphology across the surf zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thornton, E.B.; Swayne, J.L.; Dingler, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Small-scale (< 5 m horizontal length) nearshore morphologic height variations were measured by combining CRAB surveys with bed elevations acquired with a 1 MHz sonic altimeter mounted on the CRAB during the October Phase of the DUCK94 experiment. Bedform plan views were recorded simultaneously using a 500 kHz side-scan sonar mounted on the CRAB. Waves and currents were measured at the same time. Significant temporal and spatial variations in the small-scale morphology were measured in response to changing waves and currents during the 2 weeks examined. Three cases are examined in detail: (1) mild waves and weak longshore currents resulting in wave ripples throughout the study area; (2) storm waves with strong longshore currents resulting in lunate and straight-crested mega-ripples in the trough of the barred beach; and (3) narrow-band, normally incident waves with a strong rip current resulting in a planar bed except in the throat of the rip where mega-ripples were measured. Wavenumber spectra of the bed were generally broad, indicating newly formed ripples coexisted with residual ripples from the past to form complex, multi-scaled ripple patterns.

  19. Small-scale AFBC hot air gas turbine power cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, R.A.; Keener, H.M.; Hall, A.W.

    1995-12-31

    The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC), the Will-Burt Company (W-B) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully developed and completed pilot plant tests on a small scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. This system can be used to generate electricity, and/or hot water, steam. Following successful pilot plant operation, commercial demonstration will take place at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The system demonstration will be completed by the end of 1995. The project is being funded through a cooperative effort between the DOE, EER, W-B, OARDC, CLF and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO). The small scale AFBC, has no internal heat transfer surfaces in the fluid bed proper. Combining the combustor with a hot air gas turbine (HAGT) for electrical power generation, can give a relatively high overall system thermal efficiency. Using a novel method of recovering waste heat from the gas turbine, a gross heat rate of 13,500 Btu/kWhr ({approximately}25% efficiency) can be achieved for a small 1.5 MW{sub e} plant. A low technology industrial recuperation type gas turbine is used that operates with an inlet blade temperature of 1,450 F and a compression ratio of 3.9:1. The AFBC-HAGT technology can be used to generate power for remote rural communities to replace diesel generators, or can be used for small industrial co-generation applications.

  20. Small-Scale Smart Grid Construction and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surface, Nicholas James

    The smart grid (SG) is a commonly used catch-phrase in the energy industry yet there is no universally accepted definition. The objectives and most useful concepts have been investigated extensively in economic, environmental and engineering research by applying statistical knowledge and established theories to develop simulations without constructing physical models. In this study, a small-scale version (SSSG) is constructed to physically represent these ideas so they can be evaluated. Results of construction show data acquisition three times more expensive than the grid itself although mainly due to the incapability to downsize 70% of data acquisition costs to small-scale. Experimentation on the fully assembled grid exposes the limitations of low cost modified sine wave power, significant enough to recommend pure sine wave investment in future SSSG iterations. Findings can be projected to full-size SG at a ratio of 1:10, based on the appliance representing average US household peak daily load. However this exposes disproportionalities in the SSSG compared with previous SG investigations and recommended changes for future iterations are established to remedy this issue. Also discussed are other ideas investigated in the literature and their suitability for SSSG incorporation. It is highly recommended to develop a user-friendly bidirectional charger to more accurately represent vehicle-to-grid (V2G) infrastructure. Smart homes, BEV swap stations and pumped hydroelectric storage can also be researched on future iterations of the SSSG.

  1. Design report: small-scale fuel alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of the report are to (a) provide potential alcohol producers with a reference design and (b) provide a complete, demonstrated design of a small-scale fuel alcohol plant. This report describes a small-scale fuel alcohol plant designed and constructed for the DOE by EG and G Idaho, Inc., an operating contractor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The plant is reasonably complete, having the capability for feedstock preparation, cooking, saccharification, fermentation, distillation, by-product dewatering, and process steam generation. An interesting feature is an instrumentation and control system designed to allow the plant to run 24 hours per day with only four hours of operator attention. Where possible, this document follows the design requirements established in the DOE publication Fuel From Farms, which was published in February 1980. For instance, critical requirements such as using corn as the primary feedstock, production of 25 gallons of 190 proof ethanol per hour, and using batch fermentation were taken from Fuel From Farms. One significant deviation is alcohol dehydration. Fuel From Farms recommends the use of a molecular sieve for dehydration, but a preliminary design raised significant questions about the cost effectiveness of this approach. A cost trade-off study is currently under way to establish the best alcohol dehydration method and will be the subject of a later report. Volume one contains background information and a general description of the plant and process.

  2. 3D Tracking of small-scale convective upflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmerer, Birgit; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Veronig, Astrid; Muthsam, Herbert; Piantschitsch, Isabell

    2015-08-01

    High resolution simulations and observations of the solar photosphere and convection zone show a new population of small granules with diameters less than 800 km. The mechanism of formation and dissipation is still unclear. We developed automated detection and tracking algorithms to study their evolution as well as their physical and statistical properties in 2D. We found that small granules may not result from the fragmentation of larger granules because they show a small variation in size from the point of appearance at the photosphere until their dissolution. In this study we present a newly developed 3D segmentation and tracking algorithm for the analysis of small-scale convective cells in high resolution simulations. We study the 3D topology and evolution of convective upflows and their interaction with strong vortex motions and magnetic flux tubes. We show that the evolution of small-scale convective upflows in the convection zone is mainly governed by strong vortex motions within downdrafts rather than by strong magnetic fields.

  3. A new statistical model of small-scale fluid turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmah, Deep; Tessarotto, Massimo

    2004-11-01

    A famous and still unsolved theoretical problem in fluid dynamics is related to the statistical description of small-scale (or subgrid ) turbulence in fluids [1,2]. As is well known, in fact, no physically consistent model, based on first principles, is yet available, which is able to cope with numerical (or laboratory) experiments in so-called non-asymptotic regimes. These are characterized locally by finite values of the the characteristic lengths and time scales of subgrid fluid-field fluctuations δ p, δ V, which result comparable in order, or at least not so small, with respect to the corresponding quantities for the average fields , . Purpose of this investigation is to propose a new statistical model of small-scale turbulence based on a consistent kinetic description of an incompressible Newtonian fluid. Predictions of the theory [3] will be presented with particular reference to small-amplitude fluctuations. References 1 - A.N.Kolgomorov, Dokl.Akad. Nauk. SSSR 32, 16 (1941). 2 - A.N.Kolgomorov, J.Fluid Mech.13, 82 (1962). 3 - D.Sarmarh and M.Tessarotto, to appear (2004).

  4. Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2013-09-12

    The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

  5. Observations and analysis of small-scale magnetic flux ropes in the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jinlei; Hu, Qiang

    2016-11-01

    The small-scale magnetic flux ropes (of duration ranging from a few minutes to a few hours) in the solar wind have the typical topology of winding field lines around a central axis, which is similar to the large-scale flux ropes, i.e., magnetic clouds. However, accumulating evidence suggests that their plasma characteristics, origin, formation mechanism and evolution are different from those of large-scale flux ropes. The small-scale flux ropes are intensively studied in recent years, since they affect particle transport and energization, and are considered as the potential source of local acceleration. The Grad-Shafranov reconstruction technique is a tool to reconstruct the two and a half dimensional field structure based on in-situ measurements captured by an observing platform moving past it. In this study, we reconstruct the flux rope structures in two events using the Grad-Shafranov reconstruction approach. In one event, a twin flux rope structure at 1 AU occurring on 2002 February 1 and two following single flux rope structures are identified behind an interplanetary shock. In the other event, we reconstruct the flux rope structures occurring on 1998 March 25 and 26 at 1 AU in the ambient solar wind. The associated energetic particle signatures and the possible origin of these flux rope structures are discussed.

  6. Canny Algorithm, Cosmic Strings and the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danos, Rebecca J.; Brandenberger, Robert H.

    We describe a new code to search for signatures of cosmic strings in cosmic microwave anisotropy maps. The code implements the Canny algorithm, an edge detection algorithm designed to search for the lines of large gradients in maps. Such a gradient signature which is coherent in position-space is produced by cosmic strings via the Kaiser-Stebbins effect. We test the power of our new code to set limits on the tension of the cosmic strings by analyzing simulated data, with and without cosmic strings. We compare maps with a pure Gaussian scale-invariant power spectrum with maps which have a contribution of a distribution of cosmic strings obeying a scaling solution. The maps have angular scale and angular resolution comparable to what current and future ground-based small-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy experiments will achieve. We present tests of the codes, indicate the limits on the string tension which could be set with the current code, and describe various ways to refine the analysis. Our results indicate that when applied to the data of ongoing cosmic microwave experiments such as the South Pole Telescope project, the sensitivity of our method to the presence of cosmic strings will be more than an order of magnitude better than the limits from existing analyses.

  7. Small-scale lunar graben: Distribution, dimensions, and formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Renee A.; Bina, Craig R.; Robinson, Mark S.; Watters, Thomas R.

    2015-05-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) is the first instrument to provide widespread coverage with a range of incidence angles at the resolution required to detect small-scale landforms. A sample (n = 238) of globally distributed, small-scale graben average 26 m wide and 179 m long. When dividing the population into those located within mare and highland regions, we observe that graben located within mare tend to be narrower, shorter, and more irregularly spaced than those in highland terrane. For graben associated with contractional landforms, those in mare are smaller in width and length than those in highlands; the same is true for graben independent of contractional landforms. Assuming a simple geometry, widths of mare graben associated with scarps or ridges are used to estimate the minimum depth range to a mechanical discontinuity (e.g., base of the regolith) resulting in values of ∼4-48 m. These values are similar to the ranges estimated for regolith thickness from previous workers using Apollo 14 seismic data (3.9-8.5 m), crater counting techniques (8-33 m), crater morphology techniques (2.5-9 m), and crater blockiness (8-31 m). Widths of highland graben yield minimum depths of faulting of 209-296 m. While this range agrees well with models for regolith production (an older surface will have thicker regolith), this estimate likely does not represent the thickness of a mechanical unit due to the fragmented nature of the highland crust (it does not provide a defining boundary between bedrock and regolith). Spacing of mare graben not associated with contractional landforms is used to estimate maximum local mare unit thickness for two graben groups: 190 m for Posidonius and 296 m for Vitello. Maximum graben ages range from late Eratosthenian to early Copernican based on superposed and crosscut crater ages with a group of graben deforming ejecta from Copernicus crater. Data presented here provide further evidence of a globally distributed, young, small-scale

  8. Semilocal cosmic string networks

    SciTech Connect

    Achucarro, Ana; Salmi, Petja; Urrestilla, Jon

    2007-06-15

    We report on a large-scale numerical study of networks of semilocal cosmic strings in flat space in the parameter regime in which they are perturbatively stable. We find a population of segments with an exponential length distribution and indications of a scaling network without significant loop formation. Very deep in the stability regime strings of superhorizon size grow rapidly and ''percolate'' through the box. We believe these should lead at late times to a population of infinite strings similar to topologically stable strings. However, the strings are very light; scalar gradients dominate the energy density, and the network has thus a global texturelike signature. As a result, the observational constraints, at least from the temperature power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background, on models predicting semilocal strings should be closer to those on global textures or monopoles, rather than on topologically stable gauged cosmic strings.

  9. A novel 3D structure composed of strings of hierarchical TiO{sub 2} spheres formed on TiO{sub 2} nanobelts with high photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yongjian; Li, Meicheng; Song, Dandan; Li, Xiaodan; Yu, Yue

    2014-03-15

    A novel hierarchical titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) composite nanostructure with strings of anatase TiO{sub 2} hierarchical micro-spheres and rutile nanobelts framework (TiO{sub 2} HSN) is successfully synthesized via a one-step hydrothermal method. Particularly, the strings of hierarchical spheres are assembled by very thin TiO{sub 2} nanosheets, which are composed of highly crystallized anatase nanocrystals. Meanwhile, the HSN has a large surface area of 191 m{sup 2}/g, which is about 3 times larger than Degussa P25. More importantly, the photocatalytic activity of HSN and P25 were evaluated by the photocatalytic oxidation decomposition of methyl orange (MO) under UV light illumination, and the TiO{sub 2} HSN shows enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with Degussa P25, as result of its continuous hierarchical structures, special conductive channel and large specific surface area. With these features, the hierarchical TiO{sub 2} may have more potential applications in the fields of dye-sensitized solar cells and lithium ion batteries. -- Graphical abstract: Novel TiO{sub 2} with anatase micro-spheres and rutile nanobelts is synthesized. Enhanced photocatalysis is attributed to hierarchical structures (3D spheres), conductive channel (1D nanobelts) and large specific surface area (2D nanosheet). Highlights: • The novel TiO{sub 2} nanostructure (HSN) is fabricated for the first time. • HSN is composed of strings of anatase hierarchical spheres and rutile nanobelt. • HSN presents a larger S{sub BET} of 191 m{sup 2}/g, 3 times larger than the Degussa P25 (59 m{sup 2}/g). • HSN owns three kinds of dimensional TiO{sub 2} (1D, 2D and 3D) simultaneously. • HSN exhibits better photocatalytic performance compared with Degussa P25.

  10. Small-scale Rainfall Challenges Tested with Semi-distributed and Distributed Hydrological Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiba, Abdellah; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Gires, Auguste; Schertzer, Daniel; Bompard, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    -France C-band radar data at 1km pixel scale and (3) ENPC X-band dual polarization radar data at 250m pixel scale. Results show that considering bigger number of smaller sub-catchments improve the response of CANOE model to small-scale rainfall. However, the fully distributed approach demonstrates much higher sensitivity than the semi-distributed one, suggesting that this approach is more appropriate to integrate the rainfall structures measured at small scales. Finally, we compare these results with those obtained earlier in the framework of the RainGain project (www.raingain.eu), which helps to re-interpret some of our former conclusions.

  11. Small-scale anisotropy in turbulent shearless mixing.

    PubMed

    Tordella, Daniela; Iovieno, Michele

    2011-11-04

    The generation of small-scale anisotropy in turbulent shearless mixing is numerically investigated. Data from direct numerical simulations at Taylor Reynolds' numbers between 45 and 150 show not only that there is a significant departure of the longitudinal velocity derivative moments from the values found in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence but that the variation of skewness has an opposite sign for the components across the mixing layer and parallel to it. The anisotropy induced by the presence of a kinetic energy gradient has a very different pattern from the one generated by an homogeneous shear. The transversal derivative moments in the mixing are in fact found to be very small, which highlights that smallness of the transversal moments is not a sufficient condition for isotropy.

  12. Small-scale volcanoes on Mars: distribution and types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broz, Petr; Hauber, Ernst

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes differ in sizes, as does the amount of magma which ascends to a planetary surface. On Earth, the size of volcanoes is anti-correlated with their frequency, i.e. small volcanoes are much more numerous than large ones. The most common terrestrial volcanoes are scoria cones (small-scale volcanoes were not intensely studied for a long time due to a lack of high-resolution data enabling their proper identification; however their existence and basic characteristics were predicted on theoretical grounds. Streams of new high-resolution images now enable discovering and studying kilometer-size volcanoes with various shapes in unprecedented detail. Several types of small-scale volcanoes in various regions on Mars were recently described. Scoria cones provide a record of magmatic volatile content and have been identified in Tharsis (Ulysses Colles), on flanks of large volcanoes (e.g., Pavonis Mons), in the caldera of Ulysses Patera, in chaotic terrains or other large depressions (Hydraotes Colles, Coprates Chasma) and in the northern lowlands. Tuff rings and tuff cones, formed as a result of water-magma interaction, seem to be relatively rare on Mars and were only tentatively identified in three locations (Nepenthes/Amenthes region, Arena Colles and inside Lederberg crater), and alternative interpretations (mud volcanoes) seem possible. Other relatively rare volcanoes seem to be lava domes, reported only from two regions (Acracida Planitia and Terra Sirenum). On the other hand, small shields and rootless cones (which are not primary volcanic landforms) represent widely spread phenomena recognized in Tharsis and Elysium. Based on these new observations, the distribution of small volcanoes on Mars seems to be much more widespread than anticipated a decade

  13. Technology Overview and Assessment for Small-Scale EDL Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidrich, Casey R.; Smith, Brandon P.; Braun, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by missions to land large rovers and humans at Mars and other bodies, high-mass EDL technologies are a prevalent trend in the research community. In contrast, EDL systems for low-mass payloads have attracted less attention. Significant potential in science and discovery exists in small-scale EDL systems. Payloads acting secondary to a flagship mission are a currently under-utilzed resource. Before taking advantage of these opportunities, further developed of scaled EDL technologies is required. The key limitations identified in this study are compact decelerators and deformable impact systems. Current technologies may enable rough landing of small payloads, with moderate restrictions in packaging volume. Utilization of passive descent and landing stages will greatly increase the applicability of small systems, allowing for vehicles robust to entry environment uncertainties. These architectures will provide an efficient means of achieving science and support objectives while reducing cost and risk margins of a parent mission.

  14. Alternative Bioenergy: Small Scale Pellet Production from Forest Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Audra S.

    Forests can readily supply feedstock for alternative bioenergy production. Feedstock removal has the potential to benefit forest health and provide ecosystem services, while also generating profit for landowners, contractors and forest managers. However, many landowners are faced with the challenge of managing forest residuals to meet slash compliances and fire regulations. Currently, most residuals are burned or left on site to decompose. Every year, the north-central Idaho region produces over 16 million dry tons of unutilized forest residues. In a time where alternative energy sources are growing in demand, new approaches to utilize these residuals for bioenergy production are being examined. One approach is a portable, small-scale wood pellet mill that can be taken directly to the logging site. Utilizing forest residues for pellet production reduces residue burning and its potential negative impacts on air quality. This presentation focuses on the quality of wood pellets manufactured by a portable wood pellet mill utilizing various forms of forest residuals.

  15. Small-scale experiments in STOVL ground effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsiglia, Victor R.; Wardwell, Douglas A.; Kuhn, Richard E.

    1990-01-01

    A series of tests has been completed in which suckdown and fountain forces and pressures were measured on circular plates and twin-tandem-jet generic STOVL (short takeoff and vertical landing) configurations. The tests were conducted using a small-scale hover rig, for jet pressure ratios up to 6 and jet temperatures up to 700 F. The measured suckdown force on a circular plate with a central jet was greater than that found with a commonly used empirical prediction method. The present data showed better agreement with other sets of data. The tests of the generic STOVL configurations were conducted to provide force and pressure data with a parametric variation of parameters so that an empirical prediction method cold be developed. The effects of jet pressure ratio and temperature were found to be small. Lift improvement devices were shown to substantially reduce the net suckdown forces.

  16. Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plant Field Verification Projects: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.

    2001-07-03

    In the spring of 2000, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory issued a Request for Proposal for the construction of small-scale (300 kilowatt [kW] to 1 megawatt [MW]) geothermal power plants in the western United States. Five projects were selected for funding. Of these five, subcontracts have been completed for three, and preliminary design work is being conducted. The three projects currently under contract represent a variety of concepts and locations: a 1-MW evaporatively enhanced, air-cooled binary-cycle plant in Nevada; a 1-MW water-cooled Kalina-cycle plant in New Mexico; and a 750-kW low-temperature flash plant in Utah. All three also incorporate direct heating: onion dehydration, heating for a fish hatchery, and greenhouse heating, respectively. These projects are expected to begin operation between April 2002 and September 2003. In each case, detailed data on performance and costs will be taken over a 3-year period.

  17. Evolving Flare Ribbon Small-Scale Substructure: A Second Candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roegge, Alissa; Brannon, Sean

    2017-01-01

    We present preliminary analysis on imaging and spectroscopic observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) of the evolution of the flare ribbon in the SOL2014-06-22T13:08 B-class flare event, at high spatial resolution and time cadence. IRIS is a solar observation satellite containing a high frame rate ultraviolet imaging spectrometer. This work continues the work started in Brannon et al 2015 by searching for small-scale substructure within flare ribbons, which manifest themselves as coherent quasiperiodic oscillations in both position and Doppler velocities. Using IRIS observations from October 2013 to June 2016, we selected candidate observations on the basis of physical characteristics, Si IV intensity, and shift in doppler velocity. In addition to our preliminary analysis and images, we present our techniques that can be used to find further observations also containing the periodic oscillations, and other small-substructure.

  18. Small-scale experiments in STOVL ground effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsiglia, Victor R.; Wardwell, Douglas A.; Kuhn, Richard E.

    1990-01-01

    A series of tests has been completed in which suckdown and fountain forces and pressures were measured on circular plates and twin-tandem-jet generic STOVL (short takeoff and vertical landing) configurations. The tests were conducted using a small-scale hover rig, for jet pressure ratios up to 6 and jet temperatures up to 700 F. The measured suckdown force on a circular plate with a central jet was greater than that found with a commonly used empirical prediction method. The present data showed better agreement with other sets of data. The tests of the generic STOVL configurations were conducted to provide force and pressure data with a parametric variation of parameters so that an empirical prediction method cold be developed. The effects of jet pressure ratio and temperature were found to be small. Lift improvement devices were shown to substantially reduce the net suckdown forces.

  19. Small-scale experiments in STOVL ground effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsiglia, Victor R.; Wardwell, Douglas A.; Kuhn, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    A series of tests was completed in which suckdown and fountain forces and pressures were measured on circular plates and twin-tandem-jet generic STOVL (short takeoff and vertical landing) configurations. The tests were conducted using a small-scale hover rig, for jet pressure ratios up to 6 and jet temperatures up to 700 F. The measured suckdown force on a circular plate with a central jet was greater than that found with a commonly used empirical prediction method. The present data showed better agreement with other sets of data. The tests of the generic STOVL configurations were conducted to provide force and pressure data with a parametric variation of parameters so that an empirical prediction method could be developed. The effects of jet pressure ratio and temperature were found to be small. Lift improvement devices were shown to substantially reduce the net suckdown forces.

  20. LLNL small-scale drop-hammer impact sensitivity test

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives and other energetic materials is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. This testing is typically done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing ``ERL Type 12 Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity Apparatus``, or ``Drop Hammer Machine``, and the methods used to determine the impact sensitivity of energetic materials, Also discussed are changes made to both the machine and methods since the inception of impact sensitivity testing at LLNL in 1956. The accumulated data for the materials tested in not listed here, the exception being the discussion of those specific materials (primary calibrants: PETN, RDX, Comp-B3,and TNT; secondary calibrants: K-6, RX-26-AF, and TATB) used to calibrate the machine.

  1. Small-Scale Performance Testing for Studying New Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, F J; Chambers, R D; Tran, T D

    2005-04-29

    The development of new high-explosive (HE) formulations involves characterizing their safety and performance. Small-scale experiments requiring only a small amount of explosives are of interest because they can facilitate development while minimizing hazards and reducing cost. A detonation-spreading, dent test, called the Floret test, was designed to obtain performance data for new explosives. It utilizes the detonation of about a 1.0 g sample of HE, initiated by an accelerated aluminum flyer. Upon impact, the HE sample detonates and a copper witness plate absorbs the ensuing shock wave. The dent of the plate is then measured and correlated to the energetic output of the HE. Additionally, the dent measurement can be used to compare the performance of different explosives. The Floret test is beneficial because it quickly returns important performance information, while requiring only a small explosive sample. This work will explain the Floret test and discuss some exemplary results.

  2. Determining the Products of Inertia for Small Scale UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzetti, Joseph S.; Banuelos, Leonel C.; Clarke, Robert; Murillo, Oscar J.; Bowers, Albion H.

    2017-01-01

    Moments of inertia and products of inertia often need to be determined for aircraft. As complex bodies, their mass properties need to be determined experimentally for best accuracy. While several moment of inertia experimental techniques have been developed, there are few to determine the products of inertia. Products of inertia can be easily determined mathematically if the angle between the aircraft x body axis and principal x axis is known. This method finds the principal inclination angle by mathematically correlating the measured moments of inertia about a range of axes of the aircraft. This correlation uses a least squares error minimization of a mathematical model that describes the ellipse of inertia in the aircraft's x-z axes plane. Results from a test conducted on a small scale UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center is also presented, which is an example of the intended application of this technique.

  3. Concepts for Small-Scale Testing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Marschman, Steven Craig; Winston, Philip Lon

    2015-09-01

    This report documents a concept for a small-scale test involving between one and three Boiling Water Rector (BWR) high burnup (HBU) fuel assemblies. This test would be similar to the DOE funded High Burn-Up (HBU) Confirmatory Data Project to confirm the behavior of used high burn-up fuel under prototypic conditions, only on a smaller scale. The test concept proposed would collect data from fuel stored under prototypic dry storage conditions to mimic, as closely as possible, the conditions HBU UNF experiences during all stages of dry storage: loading, cask drying, inert gas backfilling, and transfer to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for multi-year storage.

  4. Design for a small-scale fuel alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, G.R.; Richardson, J.G.

    1982-08-01

    This article describes how operating costs were lowered by integrating all the alcohol-producing processes in a facility designed for the US DOE as a chemical processing plant. Typical minimum DOE requirements for a fuel alcohol plant operated by a single owner or small cooperative include: the plant must continuously produce 100 L (26.4 gal) of ethanol per hour; plant products must be 190 proof ethanol and wet stillage for animal feed; and required operator time shall be limited to 4 hours per 24-hour day including both normal operation and routine preventive maintenance. Presents diagram of small-scale fuel alcohol plant and table with design requirements and test results. Topics covered include fermentation and saccharification; distillation; by-product dewatering; and plant costs and start-up schedule.

  5. Microbial inoculants for small scale composting of putrescible kitchen wastes.

    PubMed

    Nair, J; Okamitsu, K

    2010-06-01

    This research looked at the need for ligno-cellulolytic inoculants (EM bacteria and Trichoderma sp.) in small to medium scale composting of household wastes. A mixture of household organic waste comprised of kitchen waste, paper, grass clippings and composted material was subjected to various durations of thermo composting followed by vermicomposting with and without microbial inoculants for a total of 28days. The results revealed that ligno-celluloytic inoculants are not essential to speed up the process of composting for onsite small scale household organic waste treatment as no significant difference was observed between the control and those inoculated with Trichoderma and EM in terms of C:N ratio of the final product. However, it was observed that EM inoculation enhanced reproductive rate of earthworms, and so probably created the best environment for vermicomposting, in all treatment groups.

  6. Small-Scale Magnetic Reconnection at Equatorial Coronal Hole Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Derek; DeForest, C. E.

    2011-05-01

    Coronal holes have long been known to be the source of the fast solar wind at both high and low latitudes. The equatorial extensions of polar coronal holes have long been assumed to have substantial magnetic reconnection at their boundaries, because they rotate more rigidly than the underlying photosphere. However, evidence for this reconnection has been sparse until very recently. We present some evidence that reconnection due to the evolution of small-scale magnetic fields may be sufficient to drive coronal hole boundary evolution. We hypothesize that a bias in the direction of that reconnection is sufficient to give equatorial coronal holes their rigid rotation. We discuss the prospects for investigating this using FLUX, a reconnection-controlled coronal MHD simulation framework. This work was funded by the NASA SHP-GI program.

  7. CAMUI Type Hybrid Rocket as Small Scale Ballistic Flight Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Harunori; Uematsu, Tsutomu; Ito, Kenichi

    The authors have been developing CAMUI (Cascaded Multistage Impinging-jet) type hybrid rockets, explosive-flee small rocket motors. This is to downsize the scale of suborbital flight experiments on space related technology development. A key idea is a new fuel grain design to increase gasification rates of a solid fuels. By the new fuel grain design, the combustion gas repeatedly impinges on fuel surfaces to hasten the heat transfer to the fuel. Suborbital flight experiments by sounding rockets provide variety of test beds to accumulate basic technologies common to the next step of space development in Japan. By using hybrid rockets one can take the cost advantage of small-scale rocket experiments. This cost advantage improves robustness of space technology development projects by dispersion of risk.

  8. Small Scale Response and Modeling of Periodically Forced Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bos, Wouter; Clark, Timothy T.; Rubinstein, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The response of the small scales of isotropic turbulence to periodic large scale forcing is studied using two-point closures. The frequency response of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate, and the phase shifts between production, energy and dissipation are determined as functions of Reynolds number. It is observed that the amplitude and phase of the dissipation exhibit nontrivial frequency and Reynolds number dependence that reveals a filtering effect of the energy cascade. Perturbation analysis is applied to understand this behavior which is shown to depend on distant interactions between widely separated scales of motion. Finally, the extent to which finite dimensional models (standard two-equation models and various generalizations) can reproduce the observed behavior is discussed.

  9. Robust attitude tracking control of small-scale unmanned helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiafu; Chen, You; Lu, Geng; Zhong, Yisheng

    2015-06-01

    Robust attitude control problem for small-scale unmanned helicopters is investigated to improve attitude control performances of roll and pitch channels under both small and large amplitude manoeuvre flight conditions. The model of the roll or pitch angular dynamics is regarded as a nominal single-input single-output linear system with equivalent disturbances which contain nonlinear uncertainties, coupling-effects, parameter perturbations, and external disturbances. Based on the signal compensation method, a robust controller is designed with two parts: a proportional-derivative controller and a robust compensator. The designed controller is linear and time-invariant, so it can be easily realised. The robust properties of the closed-loop system are proven. According to the ADS-33E-PRF military rotorcraft standard, the controller can achieve top control performances. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  10. Evaluation of the TSI small-scale powder disperser

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.T.; Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Fan, Bijian

    1994-11-01

    Several dry powder generators, including the Wright-dust-feed, the fluidized-bed, the venturi tube, and the jet-o-mizer systems, have been used for inhalation toxicity studies involving relatively high concentrations of aerosols. For fundamental laboratory studies, however, a powder generator that can produce a limited quantity of test aerosol is more practical than a system that generates high concentrations. The TSI small-scale powder disperser (SSPD) is a low flow rate, low mass output generator that uses venturi aspiration through a capillary tube to remove particles from the surface of a turntable, like a vacuum cleaner. The particles are then deagglomerated in a venturi throat and an expansion cone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the SSPD by investigating the effects of flow rate, particle size, and particle shape on the generation efficiency and internal losses.

  11. Formation control for a network of small-scale robots.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoonsoo

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a network of small-scale robots (typically centimeter-scale robots) equipped with artificial actuators such as electric motors is considered. The purpose of this network is to have the robots keep a certain formation shape (or change to another formation shape) during maneuvers. The network has a fixed communication topology in the sense that robots have a fixed group of neighbors to communicate during maneuvers. Assuming that each robot and its actuator can be modeled as a linear system, a decentralized control law (such that each robot activates its actuator based on the information from its neighbors only) is introduced to achieve the purpose of formation keeping or change. A linear matrix inequality (LMI) for deriving the upper bound on the actuator's time constant is also presented. Simulation results are shown to demonstrate the merit of the introduced control law.

  12. A reverberation chamber for rodents' exposure to wideband radiofrequency electromagnetic fields with different small-scale fading distributions.

    PubMed

    Li, Congsheng; Yang, Lei; Lu, Bingsong; Xie, Yi; Wu, Tongning

    2016-01-01

    A reverberation chamber (RC) is realized for the rodents' in vivo exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) with various small-scale fading characteristics. Its performance is evaluated to ensure the exposure experiments from 0.85 to 2.60 GHz. By different configurations, line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight exposures can be established. The measured electric field in the RC is analyzed to determine its statistical distribution. We accordingly reconstruct the EMF environment by numerical methods. Simulations are carried to compare the dosimetric variability due to different small-scale fading characteristics. It demonstrates that the surveyed fading distribution will not change the specific absorption rate in the rats. The possibility to reproduce the realistic multi-reflective EMF environment by adjusting the structures of the RC is discussed. It is the first reported in vivo exposure system aiming to provide the EMF exposure with different small-scale fading distributions.

  13. Small-Scale Variability of Large Cloud Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Knyazikhin, Y.; Wiscombe, Warren

    2004-01-01

    Cloud droplet size distribution is one of the most fundamental subjects in cloud physics. Understanding of spatial distribution and small-scale fluctuations of cloud droplets is essential for both cloud physics and atmospheric radiation. For cloud physics, it relates to the coalescence growth of raindrops while for radiation, it has a strong impact on a cloud's radiative properties. Most of the existing cloud radiation and precipitation formation models assume that the mean number of drops with a given radius varies proportionally to volume. The analysis of microphysical data on liquid water drop sizes shows that, for sufficiently small volumes, the number is proportional to the drop size dependent power of the volume. For abundant small drops present, the exponent is 1 as assumed in the conventional approach. However, for rarer large drops, the exponents fall below unity. At small scales, therefore, the mean number of large drops decreases with volume at a slower rate than the conventional approach assumes, suggesting more large drops at these scales than conventional models account for; their impact is consequently underestimated. Size dependent models of spatial distribution of cloud drops that simulate the observed power laws show strong drop clustering, the more so the larger the drops. The degree of clustering is determined by the observed exponents. The strong clustering of large drops arises naturally from the observed power-law statistics. Current theories of photon-cloud interaction and warm rain formation will need radical revision in order to produce these statistics; their underlying equations are unable to yield the observed power law.

  14. Design and modeling of small scale multiple fracturing experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cuderman, J F

    1981-12-01

    Recent experiments at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have demonstrated the existence of three distinct fracture regimes. Depending on the pressure rise time in a borehole, one can obtain hydraulic, multiple, or explosive fracturing behavior. The use of propellants rather than explosives in tamped boreholes permits tailoring of the pressure risetime over a wide range since propellants having a wide range of burn rates are available. This technique of using the combustion gases from a full bore propellant charge to produce controlled borehole pressurization is termed High Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF). Several series of HEGF, in 0.15 m and 0.2 m diameter boreholes at 12 m depths, have been completed in a tunnel complex at NTS where mineback permitted direct observation of fracturing obtained. Because such large experiments are costly and time consuming, smaller scale experiments are desirable, provided results from small experiments can be used to predict fracture behavior in larger boreholes. In order to design small scale gas fracture experiments, the available data from previous HEGF experiments were carefully reviewed, analytical elastic wave modeling was initiated, and semi-empirical modeling was conducted which combined predictions for statically pressurized boreholes with experimental data. The results of these efforts include (1) the definition of what constitutes small scale experiments for emplacement in a tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site, (2) prediction of average crack radius, in ash fall tuff, as a function of borehole size and energy input per unit length, (3) definition of multiple-hydraulic and multiple-explosive fracture boundaries as a function of boreholes size and surface wave velocity, (4) semi-empirical criteria for estimating stress and acceleration, and (5) a proposal that multiple fracture orientations may be governed by in situ stresses.

  15. Small-Scale Variability of Large Cloud Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Knyazikhin, Y.; Wiscombe, Warren

    2004-01-01

    Cloud droplet size distribution is one of the most fundamental subjects in cloud physics. Understanding of spatial distribution and small-scale fluctuations of cloud droplets is essential for both cloud physics and atmospheric radiation. For cloud physics, it relates to the coalescence growth of raindrops while for radiation, it has a strong impact on a cloud's radiative properties. Most of the existing cloud radiation and precipitation formation models assume that the mean number of drops with a given radius varies proportionally to volume. The analysis of microphysical data on liquid water drop sizes shows that, for sufficiently small volumes, the number is proportional to the drop size dependent power of the volume. For abundant small drops present, the exponent is 1 as assumed in the conventional approach. However, for rarer large drops, the exponents fall below unity. At small scales, therefore, the mean number of large drops decreases with volume at a slower rate than the conventional approach assumes, suggesting more large drops at these scales than conventional models account for; their impact is consequently underestimated. Size dependent models of spatial distribution of cloud drops that simulate the observed power laws show strong drop clustering, the more so the larger the drops. The degree of clustering is determined by the observed exponents. The strong clustering of large drops arises naturally from the observed power-law statistics. Current theories of photon-cloud interaction and warm rain formation will need radical revision in order to produce these statistics; their underlying equations are unable to yield the observed power law.

  16. Work related injuries in small scale commercial fishing

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, S; Kucera, K; Loomis, D; McDonald, M; Lipscomb, H

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the epidemiology of work related injury in a group of small scale, independent commercial fishers. Design: Cross sectional survey (baseline instrument of a prospective cohort study). Setting and subjects: Commercial fishers in eastern North Carolina. Results: A cohort of 219 commercial fishers was established and 215 subjects completed an injury questionnaire. The main types of fishing conducted by the cohort were finfishing (159/215) and crabbing (154/215). Of the 215 fishers, 83 reported that they had suffered an injury event in the previous 12 months, a retrospective recall incidence proportion of 38.6 per 100 workers (95% confidence interval 32.1 to 45.1). The 83 injury events resulted in 94 injuries; 47% were penetrating wounds and 24% were strains/sprains. Half of injuries were to the hand/wrist/digits and 13% were to the back. Of the penetrating wounds, 87% were to the hand/wrist/digits, 32% became infected, and 80% were caused by contact with finfish, shellfish, or other marine animal. Of the strains/sprains, 48% were to the back and 26% were to the shoulder. Seventy percent of strains/sprains were caused by moving heavy objects, mainly either while hauling in nets, pots, or lines or loading/unloading the boat. Conclusion: In this group of small scale, independent fishers, the most common reported injuries were penetrating wounds to the hand/wrist/digits from marine animals and strains/sprains to the back while moving heavy objects. PMID:15314048

  17. Open G2 strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; de Medeiros, Paul; El-Showk, Sheer; Sinkovics, Annamaria

    2008-02-01

    We consider an open string version of the topological twist previously proposed for sigma-models with G2 target spaces. We determine the cohomology of open strings states and relate these to geometric deformations of calibrated submanifolds and to flat or anti-self-dual connections on such submanifolds. On associative three-cycles we show that the worldvolume theory is a gauge-fixed Chern-Simons theory coupled to normal deformations of the cycle. For coassociative four-cycles we find a functional that extremizes on anti-self-dual gauge fields. A brane wrapping the whole G2 induces a seven-dimensional associative Chern-Simons theory on the manifold. This theory has already been proposed by Donaldson and Thomas as the higher-dimensional generalization of real Chern-Simons theory. When the G2 manifold has the structure of a Calabi-Yau times a circle, these theories reduce to a combination of the open A-model on special Lagrangians and the open B + B-bar-model on holomorphic submanifolds. We also comment on possible applications of our results.

  18. String Mining in Bioinformatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Ghanem, Moustafa

    Sequence analysis is a major area in bioinformatics encompassing the methods and techniques for studying the biological sequences, DNA, RNA, and proteins, on the linear structure level. The focus of this area is generally on the identification of intra- and inter-molecular similarities. Identifying intra-molecular similarities boils down to detecting repeated segments within a given sequence, while identifying inter-molecular similarities amounts to spotting common segments among two or multiple sequences. From a data mining point of view, sequence analysis is nothing but string- or pattern mining specific to biological strings. For a long time, this point of view, however, has not been explicitly embraced neither in the data mining nor in the sequence analysis text books, which may be attributed to the co-evolution of the two apparently independent fields. In other words, although the word "data-mining" is almost missing in the sequence analysis literature, its basic concepts have been implicitly applied. Interestingly, recent research in biological sequence analysis introduced efficient solutions to many problems in data mining, such as querying and analyzing time series [49,53], extracting information from web pages [20], fighting spam mails [50], detecting plagiarism [22], and spotting duplications in software systems [14].

  19. String Mining in Bioinformatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Ghanem, Moustafa

    Sequence analysis is a major area in bioinformatics encompassing the methods and techniques for studying the biological sequences, DNA, RNA, and proteins, on the linear structure level. The focus of this area is generally on the identification of intra- and inter-molecular similarities. Identifying intra-molecular similarities boils down to detecting repeated segments within a given sequence, while identifying inter-molecular similarities amounts to spotting common segments among two or multiple sequences. From a data mining point of view, sequence analysis is nothing but string- or pattern mining specific to biological strings. For a long time, this point of view, however, has not been explicitly embraced neither in the data mining nor in the sequence analysis text books, which may be attributed to the co-evolution of the two apparently independent fields. In other words, although the word “data-mining” is almost missing in the sequence analysis literature, its basic concepts have been implicitly applied. Interestingly, recent research in biological sequence analysis introduced efficient solutions to many problems in data mining, such as querying and analyzing time series [49,53], extracting information from web pages [20], fighting spam mails [50], detecting plagiarism [22], and spotting duplications in software systems [14].

  20. Cosmic string wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba; Silk, Joseph; Brandenberger, Robert; Turok, Neil

    1987-01-01

    Accretion of matter onto wakes left behind by horizon-sized pieces of cosmic string is investigated, and the effects of wakes on the large-scale structure of the universe are determined. Accretion of cold matter onto wakes, the effects of a long string on fluids with finite velocity dispersion or sound speeds, the interactions between loops and wakes, and the conditions for wakes to survive disruption by loops are discussed. It is concluded that the most important wakes are those which were formed at the time of equal matter and radiation density. This leads to sheetlike overdense regions of galaxies with a mean separation in agreement with the scale of the bubbles of de Lapparent, Geller, and Huchra (1986). However, for the value of G(mu) favored from galaxy formation considerations in a universe with cold dark matter, a wake accretes matter from a distance of only about 1.5 Mpc, which is much less than the distance between the wakes.

  1. Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

    Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

  2. A Method for Measuring Fishing Effort by Small-Scale Fish Aggregating Device (FAD) Fishers from the Commonwealth of Dominica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvard, Michael; McGaffey, Ethan; Carlson, David

    2015-01-01

    We used global positioning system (GPS) technology and tracking analysis to measure fishing effort by marine, small-scale, fish aggregating device (FAD) fishers of the Commonwealth of Dominica. FADs are human-made structures designed to float on the surface of the water and attract fish. They are also prone to common pool resource problems. To…

  3. Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

    Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

  4. Driving factors of small-scale variability in a savanna plant population after a fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodonov, Pavel; Xavier, Rafael de Oliveira; Tiberio, Fernanda Cristina dos Santos; Lucena, Isabela Codolo de; Zanelli, Carolina Brandão; Silva Matos, Dalva Maria da

    2014-04-01

    The severity of fire impacts on fire-prone vegetation is often spatially heterogeneous, and may lead to small-scale patchiness in the structure of plant populations by affecting mortality, topkill, and reproduction. This patchiness, however, is not usually taken into account in fire ecology studies. We show that a dry-season fire may result in small-scale patchiness in the population structure of the common shrub Miconia albicans, mostly by differential topkill and resprouting. We related fire severity to population structure parameters of the study species and assessed the effects of fire on its soil seed bank. Basal area of non-woody live stems and of dead stems increased with fire severity, whereas that of woody live stems decreased, indicating topkill and resprouting. However, there was no relationship between fire severity and the total number of live or dead plants, showing that mortality in the fire was low. We found very few seedlings, indicating that resprouting, not germination from the soil seed bank, is the main recovery strategy of this species. The fire also affected the soil seed bank, as there were fewer seedlings emerging from soil collected in burned patches. Although this study was performed with a single species, it is likely that other species, especially those with basal resprouting, will show similar patterns of post-fire patchiness in population structure. This patchiness, in turn, may affect the spatial distribution of future fires, and should be taken into account in studies of fire ecology.

  5. Origin of sample size effect: Stochastic dislocation formation in crystalline metals at small scales.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guan-Rong; Huang, J C; Tsai, W Y

    2016-12-15

    In crystalline metals at small scales, the dislocation density will be increased by stochastic events of dislocation network, leading to a universal power law for various material structures. In this work, we develop a model obeyed by a probability distribution of dislocation density to describe the dislocation formation in terms of a chain reaction. The leading order terms of steady-state of probability distribution gives physical and quantitative insight to the scaling exponent n values in the power law of sample size effect. This approach is found to be consistent with experimental n values in a wide range.

  6. A small-scale plasmoid formed during the May 13, 1985, AMPTE magnetotail barium release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.; Fritz, T. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Plasmoids are closed magnetic-loop structures with entrained hot plasma which are inferred to occur on large spatial scales in space plasma systems. A model is proposed here to explain the brightening and rapid tailward movement of the barium cloud released by the AMPTE IRM spacecraft on May 13, 1985. The model suggests that a small-scale plasmoid was formed due to a predicted development of heavy-ion-induced tearing in the thinned near-tail plasma sheet. Thus, a plasmoid may actually have been imaged due to the emissions of the entrained plasma ions within the plasma bubble.

  7. Origin of sample size effect: Stochastic dislocation formation in crystalline metals at small scales

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guan-Rong; Huang, J. C.; Tsai, W. Y.

    2016-01-01

    In crystalline metals at small scales, the dislocation density will be increased by stochastic events of dislocation network, leading to a universal power law for various material structures. In this work, we develop a model obeyed by a probability distribution of dislocation density to describe the dislocation formation in terms of a chain reaction. The leading order terms of steady-state of probability distribution gives physical and quantitative insight to the scaling exponent n values in the power law of sample size effect. This approach is found to be consistent with experimental n values in a wide range. PMID:27976740

  8. Origin of sample size effect: Stochastic dislocation formation in crystalline metals at small scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guan-Rong; Huang, J. C.; Tsai, W. Y.

    2016-12-01

    In crystalline metals at small scales, the dislocation density will be increased by stochastic events of dislocation network, leading to a universal power law for various material structures. In this work, we develop a model obeyed by a probability distribution of dislocation density to describe the dislocation formation in terms of a chain reaction. The leading order terms of steady-state of probability distribution gives physical and quantitative insight to the scaling exponent n values in the power law of sample size effect. This approach is found to be consistent with experimental n values in a wide range.

  9. Beads + String = Atoms You Can See.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Christine K. F.

    1998-01-01

    Presents hands-on activities that give students a head start in learning the vocabulary and basic theory involved in understanding atomic structure. Uses beads to represent protons, neutrons, and electrons and string to represent orbitals. (DDR)

  10. Beads + String = Atoms You Can See.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Christine K. F.

    1998-01-01

    Presents hands-on activities that give students a head start in learning the vocabulary and basic theory involved in understanding atomic structure. Uses beads to represent protons, neutrons, and electrons and string to represent orbitals. (DDR)

  11. Measurement of the effects of large scale anisotropy on the small scales of turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesinghe, Susantha W. A.

    This thesis reports measurements of anisotropy in a laboratory turbulent flow generated by two oscillating grids. It has recently been identified that SO(3) decomposition of Eulerian structure functions provides a powerful tool for analyzing anisotropy in turbulence. From 3D particle tracks obtained with stereoscpic high speed video, we measure the longitudinal Eulerian structure functions for which SO(3) decomposition becomes a spherical harmonic decomposition. This method allows us to measure the anisotropy in different sectors, specified by j and m of the spherical harmonics Yjm (theta, φ). In order to acquire huge data sets required for the full 3D measurement of anisotropy as a function of scale, we have upgraded the optical tracking system to four high speed cameras with a new real-time image compression system. We achieved compression ratios of 154--614 depending on the number of particles appearing in an image. Anisotropy measurements are performed at three different detection volumes in the tank for two grid frequencies where Reynolds numbers vary from Relambda = 132 to Relambda = 277. Increasing j sectors show faster decay of anisotropy as scale decreases, consistent with the idea that the small scales should become isotropic at very high Reynolds number. Measured anisotropic scaling exponents are also consistent with previous studies performed with numerical simulations and hot wire anemometry. By conditioning the different j sectors on the instantaneous large scale velocity, we are able to quantify the dependence of the anisotropy on the state of the large scales. The isotropic sector shows a strong dependence on the state of the large scales. For the isotropic sector, this strong dependence is the same at all length scales showing that the small scales do not become independent of the large scales and confirms previous work by Blum et al. However, for a given state of the large scales, the anisotropic sector diminishes toward smaller length scales

  12. Small-scale wind disturbances observed by the MU radar during the passage of typhoon Kelly

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Kaoru )

    1993-02-14

    This paper describes small-scale wind disturbances associated with Typhoon Kelly (October 1987) that were observed by the MU radar, one of the MST (mesosphere, stratosphere, and troposphere) radars, for about 60 hours with fine time and height resolution. To elucidate the background of small-scale disturbances, synoptic-scale variation in atmospheric stability related to the typhoon structure during the observation is examined. When the typhoon passed near the MU radar site, the structure was no longer axisymmetric. There is deep convection only in north-northeast side of the typhoon while convection behind it is suppressed by a synoptic-scale cold air mass moving eastward to the west of the typhoon. A change in atmospheric stability over the radar site as indicated by echo power profiles is likely due to the passage of the sharp transition zone of convection. Strong small-scale wind disturbances were observed around the typhoon passage. The statistical characteristics are different before (BT) and after (AT) the typhoon passage, especially in frequency spectra of vertical wind fluctuations. The spectra for BT are unique compared with earlier studies of vertical winds observed by VHF radars. Another difference is dominance of a horizontal wind component with a vertical wavelength of about 3 km, observed only in AT. Further analyses are made of characteristics and vertical momentum fluxes for dominant disturbances. Some disturbances are generated to remove the momentum of cyclonic wind rotation of the typhoon. Deep convection, topographic effects in strong winds, and strong vertical shear of horizontal winds around an inversion layer are possible sources of the disturbances. Two monochromatic disturbances lasting for more than 10 h in the lower stratosphere observed in BT and AT are identified as inertio-gravity waves, by obtaining wave parameters consistent with all observed quantities. Both of the inertio-gravity waves propagate energy away from the typhoon.

  13. Modelling galaxy clustering on small scales to tighten constraints on dark energy and modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We present a new approach to measuring cosmic expansion history and growth rate of large-scale structure using the anisotropic two-dimensional galaxy correlation function (2DCF) measured from data; it makes use of the empirical modelling of small-scale galaxy clustering derived from numerical simulations by Zheng et al. We validate this method using mock catalogues, before applying it to the analysis of the CMASS sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We find that this method enables accurate and precise measurements of cosmic expansion history and growth rate of large-scale structure. Modelling the 2DCF fully including non-linear effects and redshift space distortions in the scale range of 16-144 h-1 Mpc, we find H(0.57)rs(zd)/c = 0.0459 ± 0.0006, DA(0.57)/rs(zd) = 9.011 ± 0.073, and fg(0.57)σ8(0.57) = 0.476 ± 0.050, which correspond to precisions of 1.3 per cent, 0.8 per cent, and 10.5 per cent, respectively. We have defined rs(zd) to be the sound horizon at the drag epoch computed using a simple integral, fg(z) as the growth rate at redshift z, and σ8(z) as the matter power spectrum normalization on 8 h-1 Mpc scale at z. We find that neglecting the small-scale information significantly weakens the constraints on H(z) and DA(z), and leads to a biased estimate of fg(z). Our results indicate that we can significantly tighten constraints on dark energy and modified gravity by reliably modelling small-scale galaxy clustering.

  14. Coronal energy distribution and X-ray activity in the small scale magnetic field of the quiet sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habbal, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    The energy distribution in the small-scale magnetic field that pervades the solar surface, and its relationship to X-ray/coronal activity are discussed. The observed emission from the small scale structures, at temperatures characteristic of the chromosphere, transition region and corona, emanates from the boundaries of supergranular cells, within coronal bright points. This emission is characterized by a strong temporal and spatial variability with no definite pattern. The analysis of simultaneous, multiwavelength EUV observations shows that the spatial density of the enhanced as well as variable emission from the small scale structures exhibits a pronounced temperature dependence with significant maxima at 100,000 and 1,000,000 K. Within the limits of the spatial (1-5 arcsec) and temporal (1-5 min) resolution of data available at present, the observed variability in the small scale structure cannot account for the coroal heating of the quiet sun. The characteristics of their emission are more likely to be an indicator of the coronal heating mechanisms.

  15. Coronal energy distribution and X-ray activity in the small scale magnetic field of the quiet sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habbal, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    The energy distribution in the small-scale magnetic field that pervades the solar surface, and its relationship to X-ray/coronal activity are discussed. The observed emission from the small scale structures, at temperatures characteristic of the chromosphere, transition region and corona, emanates from the boundaries of supergranular cells, within coronal bright points. This emission is characterized by a strong temporal and spatial variability with no definite pattern. The analysis of simultaneous, multiwavelength EUV observations shows that the spatial density of the enhanced as well as variable emission from the small scale structures exhibits a pronounced temperature dependence with significant maxima at 100,000 and 1,000,000 K. Within the limits of the spatial (1-5 arcsec) and temporal (1-5 min) resolution of data available at present, the observed variability in the small scale structure cannot account for the coroal heating of the quiet sun. The characteristics of their emission are more likely to be an indicator of the coronal heating mechanisms.

  16. Investigation of the feasibility of a small scale transmutation device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sit, Roger Carson

    This dissertation presents the design and feasibility of a small-scale, fusion-based transmutation device incorporating a commercially available neutron generator. It also presents the design features necessary to optimize the device and render it practical for the transmutation of selected long-lived fission products and actinides. Four conceptual designs of a transmutation device were used to study the transformation of seven radionuclides: long-lived fission products (Tc-99 and I-129), short-lived fission products (Cs-137 and Sr-90), and selective actinides (Am-241, Pu-238, and Pu-239). These radionuclides were chosen because they are major components of spent nuclear fuel and also because they exist as legacy sources that are being stored pending a decision regarding their ultimate disposition. The four designs include the use of two different devices; a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator (for one design) and a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator (for three designs) in configurations which provide different neutron energy spectra for targeting the radionuclide for transmutation. Key parameters analyzed include total fluence and flux requirements; transmutation effectiveness measured as irradiation effective half-life; and activation products generated along with their characteristics: activity, dose rate, decay, and ingestion and inhalation radiotoxicity. From this investigation, conclusions were drawn about the feasibility of the device, the design and technology enhancements that would be required to make transmutation practical, the most beneficial design for each radionuclide, the consequence of the transmutation, and radiation protection issues that are important for the conceptual design of the transmutation device. Key conclusions from this investigation include: (1) the transmutation of long-lived fission products and select actinides can be practical using a small-scale, fusion driven transmutation device; (2) the transmutation of long

  17. Controls on sublithospheric small-scale convection on Curie depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likerman, Jeremias; Zlotnik, Sergio; Chun-Feng, Li

    2017-04-01

    As the ocean lithosphere cools and thickens, its bottom layer goes unstable leading to sub-lithospheric small-scale convection (SSC). Since SSC was originally proposed, there have been considerable efforts regarding the understanding of the physics that rules the thermal instabilities of the SSC (e.g. Dumoulin et al, 1999; Solomatov and Moresi, 2000). Over the last several years, it is understood that the interaction between the plate movement and the SSC tends to form longitudinal (LRs or also called 'Richter rolls') and transverse rolls (TRs), of which the axis is parallel and perpendicular to the plate motion, respectively. The geometry of these rolls have been been recently inferred by Li et al (2013) using Curie depths from the North Atlantic as proxies for plates temperatures. They showed that Curie depths have a large oscillating and heterogeneous patterns that could be related to SSC. In the North Atlantic transverse rolls seem predominant. In this work we analyze, by means of 3D dynamical numerical simulations, the influence of SSC on the Curie depths patterns observed in the North Atlantic and Pacific plates. We investigate the behaviour of the Curie isotherms trying to determine if SSC is able to reproduce the observed data, and the influence of several poorly constrained rheological parameters. Our numerical simulations show that: a) using realistic laboratory-constrained rheologies and temperature it is possible to modify temperatures as low as those at Curie depths; b) transverse rolls are generated as well as longitudinal rolls on those isotherms; c) the spreading rate is a first order control on the developing of transverse rolls. References Dumoulin, C., Doin, M. P., & Fleitout, L. (1999). Heat transport in stagnant lid convection with temperature-and pressure-dependent Newtonian or non-Newtonian rheology. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 104(B6), 12759-12777. Li, C. F., Wang, J., Lin, J., & Wang, T. (2013). Thermal evolution of the

  18. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  19. Small Scale Landscape Evolution: Rainfall Simulations On High Precision Dtms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, F.; Moretti, S.

    Processes characterizing the evolution of relief have recently been recognized as hav- ing scaling properties both in their physical behavior and in their effects on the shape of landscape. Sophisticated evolutionary models have been devised so far, which takes also into account fractal properties, self-similarity and self-organized criticality, espe- cially in the organization of river networks inside catchments. Despite these efforts, which are generally successful from a theoretical point of view, few attempts have been made to actually test these hypotheses in the field. This is due mainly to the dif- ficulties connected with the practical realization of suitable physical models as well as with the problem of the time scale of such processes when dealing with whole river basins. This paper, that presents experimental data on the geometric and morphometric evolution of small scale soil parcels after simulated cycles of rainfall, could contribute to partially fill this gap giving insight on the spatial patterns of newly formed valleys and ridges as well as on the most stable geomorphological configurations. Starting from chosen parcels on crops or bare soils in central Italy, rainfall simulations have been undertaken over repeating cycles of storms. At the beginning of the experiment and after each event, a high resolution DTM of the parcel was automatically generated by means of a recently developed digital stereo-photogrammetric ground-based tech- nique. At the same time, sediment yield and runoff were measured. All the studied parcels were initially characterized by the absence of an internal channel system. Ini- tial topographies could basically be considered as random space functions with quasi- isotropic distribution of the elevations. Each DTM sequence can thus be regarded as an example of channel building process, from sheet flow erosion to the convergence and intersection of small flows to the full development of the surface, with a system of valleys and

  20. Effects of overlapping strings in pp collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Bierlich, Christian; Gustafson, Gösta; Lönnblad, Leif; ...

    2015-03-26

    In models for hadron collisions based on string hadronization, the strings are usually treated as independent, allowing no interaction between the confined colour fields. In studies of nucleus collisions it has been suggested that strings close in space can fuse to form "colour ropes." Such ropes are expected to give more strange particles and baryons, which also has been suggested as a signal for plasma formation. Overlapping strings can also be expected in pp collisions, where usually no phase transition is expected. In particular at the high LHC energies the expected density of strings is quite high. To investigate possiblemore » effects of rope formation, we present a model in which strings are allowed to combine into higher multiplets, giving rise to increased production of baryons and strangeness, or recombine into singlet structures and vanish. Also a crude model for strings recombining into junction structures is considered, again giving rise to increased baryon production. The models are implemented in the DIPSY MC event generator, using PYTHIA8 for hadronization, and comparison to pp minimum bias data, reveals improvement in the description of identified particle spectra.« less