Science.gov

Sample records for striping issue downstream

  1. Upstream/downstream: Issues in environmental ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, D.

    1991-01-01

    Upstream/Downstream reminds us that there are four issues that are more or less distinctive to environmental ethics. First, and most distinctively, environmental issues involve the standing of nonhuman living things and systems. Thus, environmental politics is only partly a clash among the interest of the parties involved; it often involves actions on behalf of the existence rights of nonhuman life forms. Second, environmental ethics concern the intergenerational distribution of benefits more explicitly than do most other ethical issues, which brings out serious weaknesses in legal frameworks that rely on claims for damages. Third, the complexity and indirectness of many environmental impacts introduces a high degree of uncertainty and thus technical as well as ethical issues of prudent behavior. Specifically, where science may not fully reveal environmental risks, should development proceed; should analysis proceed if it is known to have a Pollyanna bias Fourth, insofar as environmental damage is typically done to common property, and thus its regulation is generally a matter for governmental regulation, the obligations of private actors to make sacrifices beyond what government requires is at issue - an issue that one would expect to be taken up at length in the other volumes.

  2. US Atlantic coast striped bass: Issues with a recovered population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Margraf, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), is an anadromous species naturally occurring along the US Atlantic coast, which historically supported valuable commercial and recreational fisheries. In response to a near order-of-magnitude decline in landings, the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission enacted a management plan in 1981 protecting fish until they could spawn at least once. By 1989, recruitment increased in natal rivers and regulations were relaxed, permitting limited fisheries by 1990. By 1995, the stock was declared fully recovered. Since the recovery, concern has increased over the health of the stocks. In the 1990s, fish in poor physical condition with dermal lesions became common in Chesapeake Bay. Pathogens of most concern in cultures from fish include the genus Mycobacterium. Coincident with declines in fish health were changes in diets, declines of preferred prey, and reduced growth and condition. Theories were suggested linking declines in condition to reductions in forage base or pathogens. Diets have changed since the 1950s and while many Chesapeake fish are infected with mycobacteria, it is still not known how or if these factors are linked. The highest priorities for research were considered to be: linking numerous local and regional studies to provide a coast-wide perspective; continuation of investigations linking population health to the prey-base; determination of the cause-effect of mycobacteria infections; and formulation of management options.

  3. Striped tape arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drapeau, Ann L.; Katz, Randy H.

    1992-01-01

    A growing number of applications require high capacity, high throughput tertiary storage systems. How data striping ideas apply to arrays of magnetic tape drives is investigated. Data striping increases throughput and reduces response time for large accesses to a storage system. Striped magnetic tape systems are particularly appealing because many inexpensive magnetic tape drives have low bandwidth; striping may offer dramatic performance improvements for these systems. There are several important issues in designing striped tape systems: the choice of tape drives and robots, whether to stripe within or between robots, and the choice of the best scheme for distributing data on cartridges. One of the most troublesome problems in striped tape arrays is the synchronization of transfers across tape drives. Another issue is how improved devices will affect the desirability of striping in the future. The results of simulations comparing the performance of striped tape systems to non-striped systems are presented.

  4. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Holographic stripes.

    PubMed

    Rozali, Moshe; Smyth, Darren; Sorkin, Evgeny; Stang, Jared B

    2013-05-17

    We construct inhomogeneous asymptotically anti-de Sitter black hole solutions corresponding to the spontaneous breaking of translational invariance and the formation of striped order in the boundary field theory. We find that the system undergoes a second-order phase transition in both the fixed density and fixed chemical potential ensembles, for sufficiently large values of the axion coupling. We investigate the phase structure as a function of the temperature, axion coupling, and the stripe width. The bulk solutions have striking geometrical features related to a magnetoelectric effect associated with the existence of a near-horizon topological insulator. At low temperatures, the horizon becomes highly inhomogeneous and tends to pinch off. PMID:25167395

  6. Exploding Stars and Stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    The discovery of a pattern of X-ray "stripes" in the remains of an exploded star may provide the first direct evidence that a cosmic event can accelerate particles to energies a hundred times higher than achieved by the most powerful particle accelerator on Earth. This result comes from a very long observation of the Tycho supernova remnant with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. It could explain how some of the extremely energetic particles bombarding the Earth, called cosmic rays, are produced. "We've seen lots of intriguing structures in supernova remnants, but we've never seen stripes before," said Kristoffer Eriksen, a postdoctoral researcher at Rutgers University who led the study. "This made us think very hard about what's happening in the blast wave of this powerful explosion." This latest study from Chandra provides support for a theory about how magnetic fields can be dramatically amplified in such blast waves. In this theory, the magnetic fields become highly tangled and the motions of the particles very turbulent near the expanding supernova shock wave at the front edge of the supernova remnant. High-energy charged particles can bounce back and forth across the shock wave repeatedly, gaining energy with each crossing. Theoretical models of the motion of the most energetic particles -- which are mostly protons -- are predicted to leave a messy network of holes and dense walls corresponding to weak and strong regions of magnetic fields, respectively. The X-ray stripes discovered by the Chandra researchers are thought to be regions where the turbulence is greater and the magnetic fields more tangled than surrounding areas, and may be the walls predicted by the theory. Electrons become trapped in these regions and emit X-rays as they spiral around the magnetic field lines. However, the regular and almost periodic pattern of the X-ray stripes was not predicted by the theory. "It was a big surprise to find such a neatly arranged set of stripes," said co

  7. The function of zebra stripes.

    PubMed

    Caro, Tim; Izzo, Amanda; Reiner, Robert C; Walker, Hannah; Stankowich, Theodore

    2014-04-01

    Despite over a century of interest, the function of zebra stripes has never been examined systematically. Here we match variation in striping of equid species and subspecies to geographic range overlap of environmental variables in multifactor models controlling for phylogeny to simultaneously test the five major explanations for this infamous colouration. For subspecies, there are significant associations between our proxy for tabanid biting fly annoyance and most striping measures (facial and neck stripe number, flank and rump striping, leg stripe intensity and shadow striping), and between belly stripe number and tsetse fly distribution, several of which are replicated at the species level. Conversely, there is no consistent support for camouflage, predator avoidance, heat management or social interaction hypotheses. Susceptibility to ectoparasite attack is discussed in relation to short coat hair, disease transmission and blood loss. A solution to the riddle of zebra stripes, discussed by Wallace and Darwin, is at hand.

  8. Stripe sensor tomography.

    PubMed

    Barbic, Mladen; Vltava, Lvcian; Barrett, Christopher P; Emery, Teresa H; Scherer, Axel

    2008-03-01

    We introduce a general concept of tomographic imaging for the case of an imaging sensor that has a stripelike shape. We first show that there is no difference, in principle, between two-dimensional tomography using conventional electromagnetic or particle radiation and tomography where a stripe sensor is mechanically scanned over a sample at a sequence of different angles. For a single stripe detector imaging, linear motion and angular rotation are required. We experimentally demonstrate single stripe sensor imaging principle using an elongated inductive coil detector. By utilizing an array of parallel stripe sensors that can be individually addressed, two-dimensional imaging can be performed with rotation only, eliminating the requirement for linear motion, as we also experimentally demonstrate with parallel coil array. We conclude that imaging with a stripe-type sensor of particular width and thickness (where the width is much larger than the thickness) is resolution limited only by the thickness (smaller parameter) of the sensor. We give examples of multiple sensor families where this imaging technique may be beneficial such as magnetoresistive, inductive, superconducting quantum interference device, and Hall effect sensors, and, in particular, discuss the possibilities of the technique in the field of magnetic resonance imaging.

  9. Tamper resistant magnetic stripes

    DOEpatents

    Naylor, Richard Brian; Sharp, Donald J.

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a magnetic stripe comprising a medium in which magnetized particles are suspended and in which the encoded information is recorded by actual physical rotation or alignment of the previously magnetized particles within the flux reversals of the stripe which are 180.degree. opposed in their magnetic polarity. The magnetized particles are suspended in a medium which is solid, or physically rigid, at ambient temperatures but which at moderately elevated temperatures, such as 40.degree. C., is thinable to a viscosity permissive of rotation of the particles therein under applications of moderate external magnetic field strengths within acceptable time limits.

  10. Tessellation of a stripe.

    PubMed

    Garstecki, Piotr; Whitesides, George M

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes enumeration of a class of topologically distinct periodic divisions of a stripe. Optimization of the geometry of these periodic tilings--optimization that yields minimum total perimeter of the tiles--gives a set of physically plausible periodic structures of monodisperse, two-dimensional foams bounded by two parallel walls. Evaluation of the minimum total perimeters of the lattices that we enumerated suggests two possible lower bounds for the mean perimeter of tiles forming periodic coverings of a stripe. PMID:16605533

  11. Striped holographic superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Flauger, Raphael; Pajer, Enrico; Papanikolaou, Stefanos

    2011-03-15

    We study inhomogeneous solutions of a 3+1-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory. Our results provide a holographic model of superconductivity in the presence of a charge density wave sourced by a modulated chemical potential. We find that below a critical temperature T{sub c} superconducting stripes develop. We show that they are thermodynamically favored over the normal state by computing the grand canonical potential. We investigate the dependence of T{sub c} on the modulation's wave vector, which characterizes the inhomogeneity. We find that it is qualitatively similar to that expected for a weakly coupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieer theory, but we point out a quantitative difference. Finally, we use our solutions to compute the conductivity along the direction of the stripes.

  12. Mycobacteriosis in striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panek, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis is a bacterial disease in which striped bass (rockfish) may be disfigured as a result of skin ulcers and internal lesions. The bass may also be skinny or in extremely poor condition due to the chronic nature of this wasting disease. Stripers are a highly prized target species for both recreational anglers and commercial fishermen. As such, the economic impact of diseased and devalued fish could be significant. In addition, some of the mycobacteria that commonly infect fishes can cause infections in people and therefore are a human health concern. The total extent to which the disease is occurring along the Eastern seaboard is unknown but the disease has been reported from stripers taken from North Carolina to New York. During 1998-99, skin ulcers attributed to mycobacterial infection were observed in up to 28% of the striped bass from some Virginia tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay. Data obtained during 2002—2003 from fish harvested in Virginia and Maryland waters indicated that, at least in some areas, over 80% of striped bass may be infected with the mycobacteria that are associated with the disease. Given the persistence over the last 8 years of this mycobacteriosis outbreak, this does not appear to be a short-term problem.

  13. Critical Assessment of the Evidence for Striped Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Stirling, Julian; Lekkas, Ioannis; Sweetman, Adam; Djuranovic, Predrag; Guo, Quanmin; Pauw, Brian; Granwehr, Josef; Lévy, Raphaël; Moriarty, Philip

    2014-01-01

    There is now a significant body of literature which reports that stripes form in the ligand shell of suitably functionalised Au nanoparticles. This stripe morphology has been proposed to strongly affect the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the particles. We critique the published evidence for striped nanoparticles in detail, with a particular focus on the interpretation of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) data (as this is the only technique which ostensibly provides direct evidence for the presence of stripes). Through a combination of an exhaustive re-analysis of the original data, in addition to new experimental measurements of a simple control sample comprising entirely unfunctionalised particles, we show that all of the STM evidence for striped nanoparticles published to date can instead be explained by a combination of well-known instrumental artefacts, or by issues with data acquisition/analysis protocols. We also critically re-examine the evidence for the presence of ligand stripes which has been claimed to have been found from transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, small angle neutron scattering experiments, and computer simulations. Although these data can indeed be interpreted in terms of stripe formation, we show that the reported results can alternatively be explained as arising from a combination of instrumental artefacts and inadequate data analysis techniques. PMID:25402426

  14. Critical assessment of the evidence for striped nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Julian; Lekkas, Ioannis; Sweetman, Adam; Djuranovic, Predrag; Guo, Quanmin; Pauw, Brian; Granwehr, Josef; Lévy, Raphaël; Moriarty, Philip

    2014-01-01

    There is now a significant body of literature which reports that stripes form in the ligand shell of suitably functionalised Au nanoparticles. This stripe morphology has been proposed to strongly affect the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the particles. We critique the published evidence for striped nanoparticles in detail, with a particular focus on the interpretation of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) data (as this is the only technique which ostensibly provides direct evidence for the presence of stripes). Through a combination of an exhaustive re-analysis of the original data, in addition to new experimental measurements of a simple control sample comprising entirely unfunctionalised particles, we show that all of the STM evidence for striped nanoparticles published to date can instead be explained by a combination of well-known instrumental artefacts, or by issues with data acquisition/analysis protocols. We also critically re-examine the evidence for the presence of ligand stripes which has been claimed to have been found from transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, small angle neutron scattering experiments, and computer simulations. Although these data can indeed be interpreted in terms of stripe formation, we show that the reported results can alternatively be explained as arising from a combination of instrumental artefacts and inadequate data analysis techniques.

  15. Critical assessment of the evidence for striped nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Julian; Lekkas, Ioannis; Sweetman, Adam; Djuranovic, Predrag; Guo, Quanmin; Pauw, Brian; Granwehr, Josef; Lévy, Raphaël; Moriarty, Philip

    2014-01-01

    There is now a significant body of literature which reports that stripes form in the ligand shell of suitably functionalised Au nanoparticles. This stripe morphology has been proposed to strongly affect the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the particles. We critique the published evidence for striped nanoparticles in detail, with a particular focus on the interpretation of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) data (as this is the only technique which ostensibly provides direct evidence for the presence of stripes). Through a combination of an exhaustive re-analysis of the original data, in addition to new experimental measurements of a simple control sample comprising entirely unfunctionalised particles, we show that all of the STM evidence for striped nanoparticles published to date can instead be explained by a combination of well-known instrumental artefacts, or by issues with data acquisition/analysis protocols. We also critically re-examine the evidence for the presence of ligand stripes which has been claimed to have been found from transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, small angle neutron scattering experiments, and computer simulations. Although these data can indeed be interpreted in terms of stripe formation, we show that the reported results can alternatively be explained as arising from a combination of instrumental artefacts and inadequate data analysis techniques. PMID:25402426

  16. Improving File System Performance by Striping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Terance L.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This document discusses the performance and advantages of striped file systems on the SGI AD workstations. Performance of several striped file system configurations are compared and guidelines for optimal striping are recommended.

  17. LMFBR thermal-striping evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brunings, J.E.

    1982-10-01

    Thermal striping is defined as the fluctuating temperature field that is imposed on a structure when fluid streams at different temperatures mix in the vicinity of the structure surface. Because of the uncertainty in structural damage in LMFBR structures subject to thermal striping, EPRI has funded an effort for the Rockwell International Energy Systems Group to evaluate this problem. This interim report presents the following information: (1) a Thermal Striping Program Plan which identifies areas of analytic and experimental needs and presents a program of specific tasks to define damage experienced by ordinary materials of construction and to evaluate conservatism in the existing approach; (2) a description of the Thermal Striping Test Facility and its operation; and (3) results from the preliminary phase of testing to characterize the fluid environment to be applied in subsequent thermal striping damage experiments.

  18. STRIPE: Remote Driving Using Limited Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, Jennifer S.

    1997-01-01

    Driving a vehicle, either directly or remotely, is an inherently visual task. When heavy fog limits visibility, we reduce our car's speed to a slow crawl, even along very familiar roads. In teleoperation systems, an operator's view is limited to images provided by one or more cameras mounted on the remote vehicle. Traditional methods of vehicle teleoperation require that a real time stream of images is transmitted from the vehicle camera to the operator control station, and the operator steers the vehicle accordingly. For this type of teleoperation, the transmission link between the vehicle and operator workstation must be very high bandwidth (because of the high volume of images required) and very low latency (because delayed images can cause operators to steer incorrectly). In many situations, such a high-bandwidth, low-latency communication link is unavailable or even technically impossible to provide. Supervised TeleRobotics using Incremental Polyhedral Earth geometry, or STRIPE, is a teleoperation system for a robot vehicle that allows a human operator to accurately control the remote vehicle across very low bandwidth communication links, and communication links with large delays. In STRIPE, a single image from a camera mounted on the vehicle is transmitted to the operator workstation. The operator uses a mouse to pick a series of 'waypoints' in the image that define a path that the vehicle should follow. These 2D waypoints are then transmitted back to the vehicle, where they are used to compute the appropriate steering commands while the next image is being transmitted. STRIPE requires no advance knowledge of the terrain to be traversed, and can be used by novice operators with only minimal training. STRIPE is a unique combination of computer and human control. The computer must determine the 3D world path designated by the 2D waypoints and then accurately control the vehicle over rugged terrain. The human issues involve accurate path selection, and the

  19. Exploding Stars and Stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    The discovery of a pattern of X-ray "stripes" in the remains of an exploded star may provide the first direct evidence that a cosmic event can accelerate particles to energies a hundred times higher than achieved by the most powerful particle accelerator on Earth. This result comes from a very long observation of the Tycho supernova remnant with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. It could explain how some of the extremely energetic particles bombarding the Earth, called cosmic rays, are produced. "We've seen lots of intriguing structures in supernova remnants, but we've never seen stripes before," said Kristoffer Eriksen, a postdoctoral researcher at Rutgers University who led the study. "This made us think very hard about what's happening in the blast wave of this powerful explosion." This latest study from Chandra provides support for a theory about how magnetic fields can be dramatically amplified in such blast waves. In this theory, the magnetic fields become highly tangled and the motions of the particles very turbulent near the expanding supernova shock wave at the front edge of the supernova remnant. High-energy charged particles can bounce back and forth across the shock wave repeatedly, gaining energy with each crossing. Theoretical models of the motion of the most energetic particles -- which are mostly protons -- are predicted to leave a messy network of holes and dense walls corresponding to weak and strong regions of magnetic fields, respectively. The X-ray stripes discovered by the Chandra researchers are thought to be regions where the turbulence is greater and the magnetic fields more tangled than surrounding areas, and may be the walls predicted by the theory. Electrons become trapped in these regions and emit X-rays as they spiral around the magnetic field lines. However, the regular and almost periodic pattern of the X-ray stripes was not predicted by the theory. "It was a big surprise to find such a neatly arranged set of stripes," said co

  20. Environmental quality for striped bass

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of environmental changes on the quality of life for striped bass populations can be evaluated objectively with modern procedures of environmental risk analysis. Such analysis requires knowledge of the sources of risk in the context of environmental requirements of the species. A prime environmental requirement of striped bass appears to be a suitable thermal structure that accommodates the hereditary thermal niche, which changes with age. Strong thermal preferences had promoted striped bass survival in the pristine natural estuaries of eastern North America, but they may increase risks to the species in some new environments and in native ones that are altered by man. The magnitude and likelihood of risks for striped bass from many pollutants and physical changes (structures or water flow, for example) depend upon the fish's thermally controlled distribution. The importance of a species' thermal niche and of the thermal structure of aquatic environments for population success is only beginning to be recognized and included in risk assessments.

  1. Striped bass: environmental risks in fresh and salt water

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    At the 112th Annual meeting of the American Fisheries Society (AFS) at Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, the society held a 1-day symposium Striped Bass: Environmental Risks in Fresh and Salt Water. This issue of the Transactions contains some of the papers from that symposium. This symposium explored several hypotheses about sources of environmental risks that could cause problems for striped bass populations: (1) habitat squeeze on adults stemming from their thermal and dissolved oxygen requirements; (2) stress from toxic materials; and (3) meteorological controls of living space and food. A nonenvironmental factor, fishing pressure, also was raised as an alternative hypothesis.

  2. Striped Electrodes for Solid-Electrolyte Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, R.

    1983-01-01

    Striped thick-film platinum electrodes help insure lower overall cell resistance by permitting free flow of gases in gaps between stripes. Thickfilm stripes are also easier to fabricate than porous thin-film electrodes that cover entire surface. Possible applications for improved cells include oxygen production from carbon dioxide, extraction of oxygen from air, small fluidic pumping, sewage treatment, and fuel cells.

  3. Seasonal movement and habitat use by striped bass in the Combahee River, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjorgo, K.A.; Isely, J.J.; Thomason, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    Adult striped bass Morone saxatilis (N = 30, 656-906 mm total length) were captured by electrofishing during January-March 1998 in the Combahee River, South Carolina, and fitted with radio transmitters. Their exact locations were recorded biweekly through December. From January to early April, striped bass were located in the tidally influenced lower region of the river in water temperatures ranging from 9??C to 18??C. The fish then moved an average of 38.5 km upstream from late April to the end of May when water temperatures ranged from 18??C to 26??C. Striped bass remained in the upper region of the river from late May to September when water temperatures were as much as 5??C lower than in the river's lower regions. Striped bass began to move downstream and were spread throughout the river during September and October in water temperatures ranging from 19??C to 27??C. Combahee River striped bass appear to follow a migratory pattern typical of other southern striped bass stocks. Habitat preference appears to be strongly influenced by temperature. Combahee River temperatures are stable and remain close to the preferred temperatures of striped bass during summer extremes. Therefore, unlike northern populations, southern populations are more likely to remain within riverine habitat during the summer months. Discrete thermal refugia, such as springs, apparently are not used or are absent in the Combahee River. It is possible that striped bass in the Combahee River depend on the entire upper region of the river as a thermal refuge.

  4. Zebra: A striped network file system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, John H.; Ousterhout, John K.

    1992-01-01

    The design of Zebra, a striped network file system, is presented. Zebra applies ideas from log-structured file system (LFS) and RAID research to network file systems, resulting in a network file system that has scalable performance, uses its servers efficiently even when its applications are using small files, and provides high availability. Zebra stripes file data across multiple servers, so that the file transfer rate is not limited by the performance of a single server. High availability is achieved by maintaining parity information for the file system. If a server fails its contents can be reconstructed using the contents of the remaining servers and the parity information. Zebra differs from existing striped file systems in the way it stripes file data: Zebra does not stripe on a per-file basis; instead it stripes the stream of bytes written by each client. Clients write to the servers in units called stripe fragments, which are analogous to segments in an LFS. Stripe fragments contain file blocks that were written recently, without regard to which file they belong. This method of striping has numerous advantages over per-file striping, including increased server efficiency, efficient parity computation, and elimination of parity update.

  5. Striped ratio grids for scatter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Wang, Adam S.; Star-Lack, Josh

    2016-03-01

    Striped ratio grids are a new concept for scatter management in cone-beam CT. These grids are a modification of conventional anti-scatter grids and consist of stripes which alternate between high grid ratio and low grid ratio. Such a grid is related to existing hardware concepts for scatter estimation such as blocker-based methods or primary modulation, but rather than modulating the primary, the striped ratio grid modulates the scatter. The transitions between adjacent stripes can be used to estimate and subtract the remaining scatter. However, these transitions could be contaminated by variation in the primary radiation. We describe a simple nonlinear image processing algorithm to estimate scatter, and proceed to validate the striped ratio grid on experimental data of a pelvic phantom. The striped ratio grid is emulated by combining data from two scans with different grids. Preliminary results are encouraging and show a significant reduction of scatter artifact.

  6. Riblets for Stars and Stripes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Stars and Stripes racing yacht brought the American's Cup back to the United States. Originating from NASA's drag reduction technology, the boats "secret weapon" was that the hull's underside was coated with riblets. Riblets are small, barely visible grooves on the surface of an airplane intended to reduce skin friction by smoothing the turbulent airflow next to the skin. Grooves are V-shaped with the angle pointing in the direction of the airflow. No deeper than a scratch, they have a pronounced beneficial influence on air turbulence. *No longer commercially available.

  7. Stripe phases in high-temperature superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Emery, V. J.; Kivelson, S. A.; Tranquada, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Stripe phases are predicted and observed to occur in a class of strongly correlated materials describable as doped antiferromagnets, of which the copper-oxide superconductors are the most prominent representatives. The existence of stripe correlations necessitates the development of new principles for describing charge transport and especially superconductivity in these materials. PMID:10430848

  8. Stripe-shaped apertures in confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shuhao; Zhu, Bingzhao; Zheng, Yao; Gong, Wei; Si, Ke

    2016-09-20

    We have theoretically verified that, compared with the aperture shapes of previous research, combining two stripe-shaped apertures in a confocal microscope with a finite-sized pinhole improves the axial resolution to a certain extent. Because different stripe shapes cause different effects, we also investigated the relationships among resolution, shapes, pinhole size, and the signal-to-background ratio.

  9. Deconvolution of images with periodic striping noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zuoguan; Xu, Wujun; Fu, Yutian

    2008-03-01

    In this paper a new deconvolution algorithm is presented concerning images contaminated by periodic stripes. Inspired by the 2-D power spectrum distribution property of periodic stripes in the frequency domain, we construct a novel regularized inverse filter which allows the algorithm to suppress the amplification of striping noise in the Fourier inverse step and further get rid of most of them, and mirror-wavelet denoising is followed to remove the left colored noise. In simulations with striped images, this algorithm outperforms the traditional mirror-wavelet based deconvolution in terms of both visual effect and SNR comparison, only at the expense of slightly heavier computation load. The same idea about regularized inverse filter can also be used to improve other deconvolution algorithms, such as wavelet packets and wiener filters, when they are employed to images stained by periodic stripes.

  10. Aging of orientation fluctuations in stripe phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesch, Christian; Radons, Günter; Magerle, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Stripe patterns, observed in a large variety of physical systems, often exhibit a slow nonequilibrium dynamics because ordering is impeded by the presence of topological defects. Using computer simulations based on a well-established model for stripe formation, we show that a slow dynamics and aging occur also in stripe patterns free of topological defects. For a wide range of noise strengths, the two-time orientation correlation function follows a scaling form that is typical for systems exhibiting a growing length scale. In our case, the underlying mechanism is the coarsening of orientation fluctuations, ultimately leading to power-law spatial correlations perpendicular to the stripes. Our results show that even for the smallest amount of noise, stripe phases without topological defects do not reach equilibrium. This constitutes an important aspect of the dynamics of modulated phases.

  11. Thailand's downstream projects proliferate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-03

    Thailand continues to press expansion and modernization of its downstream sector. Among recent developments: Construction of an olefins unit at Thailand's second major petrochemical complex and a worldscale aromatics unit in Thailand is threatened by rising costs. Thailand's National Petrochemical Corp (NPC) let a 9 billion yen contract to Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. and C. Itoh and Co. for a dual fuel cogeneration power plant at its Mab Ta Phud, Rayong province, petrochemical complex. Financing is in place to flash a green light for a $530 million Belgian-Thai joint venture sponsoring a worldscale polyvinyl chloride/vinyl chloride monomer plant in Thailand. Work is more than 50% complete on the $345 million second phase expansion of Thai Oil's Sri Racha refinery in Chon Buri province. Petroleum Authority of Thailand (PTT) endorsed a plan to install two more natural gas processing plants in Thailand to meet rapidly growing domestic demand for petroleum gas.

  12. Major diseases of striped bass and redfish.

    PubMed

    Plumb, J A

    1991-01-01

    Diseases of striped bass, their hybrids, and redfish (red drum) are important constraints to the culture of these two species. Since striped bass have been cultured for years the organisms that cause most diseases of these fish are well known, but very little specific disease information exists for redfish. However, it appears that the organisms that cause diseases of striped bass and redfish do not differ greatly from those of other fishes. The most significant viral disease is lymphocystis, but infectious pancreatic necrosis has occurred in striped bass. Vibriosis (Vibrio sp.) and motile Aeromonas septicemia (Aeromonas hydrophila) are the most frequently encountered bacterial diseases. Both species of fish are affected by fungi (usually Saprolegnia) when the fish are injured or stressed. Amyloodinium ocellatum is the most serious protozoan that infects striped bass and redfish, but the other common protozoans (Trichodina, Ichthyophthirius, Cryptocaron, etc.) have also been reported. Treatment of any of these diseases is a problem because of the absence of approved drugs or chemicals for use on striped bass or redfish. The most common therapeutics used on striped bass and redfish are copper sulfate, formalin, salt (in freshwater) and Terramycin.

  13. Invasion of the striped mollusks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Introduced to this country only five years ago, the prolific zebra mussel has infested the Great Lakes and has already begun to move into fresh waters beyond the region. Dense populations in utility water systems have caused serious problems, reducing plant efficiency and blocking lines used for cooling and fire fighting. Experts say the striped mollusk has the potential to become the industry's worst biological problem, possibly affecting 70% of US power plants. While it appears that the invader is here to stay, EPRI and others continue to develop and refine techniques to control mussel growth. This article describes how the mollusk got here, reviews the problems it can cause and what is being done to mitigate the problems and control the growth and spread of the mollusk.

  14. Theory of the striped superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Erez; Fradkin, Eduardo; Kivelson, Steven A.

    2009-02-01

    We define a distinct phase of matter, a pair-density wave (PDW), in which the superconducting order parameter ϕ(r⃗,r⃗') varies periodically as a function of position such that when averaged over the center of mass position, (r⃗+r⃗')/2 , all components of ϕ vanish identically. Specifically, we study the simplest unidirectional PDW, the “striped superconductor,” which we argue may be at the heart of a number of spectacular experimental anomalies that have been observed in the failed high-temperature superconductor La2-xBaxCuO4 . We present a solvable microscopic model with strong electron-electron interactions which supports a PDW ground state. We also discuss, at the level of Landau theory, the nature of the coupling between the PDW and other order parameters and the origins and some consequences of the unusual sensitivity of this state to quenched disorder.

  15. STRIPES AND SUPERCONDUCTIVITY IN CUPRATE SUPERCONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect

    TRANQUADA, J.M.

    2005-08-22

    One type of order that has been observed to compete with superconductivity in cuprates involves alternating charge and antiferromagnetic stripes. Recent neutron scattering studies indicate that the magnetic excitation spectrum of a stripe-ordered sample is very similar to that observed in superconducting samples. In fact, it now appears that there may be a universal magnetic spectrum for the cuprates. One likely implication of this universal spectrum is that stripes of a dynamic form are present in the superconducting samples. On cooling through the superconducting transition temperature, a gap opens in the magnetic spectrum, and the weight lost at low energy piles up above the gap; the transition temperature is correlated with the size of the spin gap. Depending on the magnitude of the spin gap with respect to the magnetic spectrum, the enhanced magnetic scattering at low temperature can be either commensurate or incommensurate. Connections between stripe correlations and superconductivity are discussed.

  16. Stripe states in photonic honeycomb ribbon

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sul-Ah; Son, Young-Woo; Ahn, Kang-Hun

    2015-01-01

    We reveal new stripe states in deformed hexagonal array of photonic wave guides when the array is terminated to have a ribbon-shaped geometry. Unlike the well-known zero energy edge modes of honeycomb ribbon, the new one-dimensional states are shown to originate from high-energy saddle-shaped photonic bands of the ribbon's two-dimensional counterpart. We find that the strain field deforming the ribbon generates pseudo-electric fields in contrast to pseudo-magnetic fields in other hexagonal crystals. Thus, the stripe states experience Bloch oscillation without any actual electric field so that the spatial distributions of stripes have a singular dependence on the strength of the field. The resulting stripe states are located inside the bulk and their positions depend on their energies. PMID:27547090

  17. Downstream in Mawrth Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image is from further downstream in Mawrth Valles than yesterday's image. The channel here is at the end of the vallis. This image was collected during the Northern Spring season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 26.7, Longitude 340.2 East (19.8 West). 37 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages

  18. Genes for "Reverse" fruit striping in squash (Cucurbita pepo).

    PubMed

    Paris, Harry S

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal striping is a common fruit color pattern in Cucurbita pepo and is conferred by any of several alleles at the light coloration-1 locus. Normally, dark stripes appear over the fruit surface areas between the 10 main subepidermal vein tracts with the lighter background color over and adjacent to these vein tracts. Less commonly, the striping is "reversed," that is, lighter than the background color. The present work was conducted to elucidate the mode of inheritance of reverse striping. The results indicated that reverse striping is conferred by the complementary interaction of an allele for striping with a heretofore unidentified allele at the light coloration-2 locus which is hereby designated l-2(R). Fruits of plants carrying an allele for striping and that are homozygous for l-2(R) have completely reversed striping, whereas those heterozygous for l-2(R) have striping that is completely normal or that is partially normal and partially reversed.

  19. Effects of salinity on striped bass eggs and larvae from the Savannah River, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Operation of a tide gate installed in the Savannah River by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to reduce dredging activities increased salinities upstream in important spawning habitat for striped bass Morone saxatilis. To assess the effects of salinity on survival and growth of striped bass at early life stages, newly fertilized eggs and 48-h-posthatch were exposed to serial dilutions of seawater, with salinities ranging from 0 to 33 permill (g/L) in increments of 3 permill in addition, older larvae (5-d posthatch) were exposed to salinities of 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 permill. Eggs were exposed until 24 h posthatch, 48-h-posthatch larvae were exposed for 10 d, and 5-d-posthatch larvae were exposed for 6 d. Eggs died within 24 h in salinities greater than 18 permill. Both survival and total length of larvae hatched from eggs exposed to salinities of 15 permill or higher were reduced. Percent mortality and mean total lengths of newly hatched larvae followed the same pattern for each of three sets of salinity regimes (i.e., changes in salinities over time) that striped bass eggs might encounter during passage downstream in the Savannah River. Hardening eggs in freshwater did not increase survival or length of hatched larvae over that shown by eggs hardened in saline water. The 5-d-posthatch larvae were less sensitive to salinity than the 48-h-posthatch larvae. Survival of larvae was negatively con-elated with both salinity and exposure time. For 48-h-posthatch larvae, the 10-d LC50 (the salinity lethal to 50% of the test fish within 10 d) was 10 permill. Probabilities of survival for larval striped bass exposed to different salinities for different amounts of time can be estimated from curves generated from models of survival analysis. Salinities judged to be critical to Savannah River striped bass eggs and larvae are those greater than 9 permill.

  20. Quantum depinning transition of quantum Hall stripes.

    PubMed

    Li, M-R; Fertig, H A; Côté, R; Yi, Hangmo

    2004-05-01

    We examine the effect of disorder on the electromagnetic response of quantum Hall stripes using an effective elastic theory to describe their low-energy dynamics, and replicas and the Gaussian variational method to handle disorder effects. Within our model we demonstrate the existence of a depinning transition at a critical partial Landau level filling factor Deltanu(c). For Deltanustripes show resonant peaks. These peaks shift to zero frequency as Deltanu-->Deltanu(c). For Deltanu> or =Deltanu(c), we find a partial RSB solution in which there is free sliding only along the stripe direction. The transition is analogous to the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition.

  1. Benzocaine as an anesthetic for striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilderhus, Philip A.; Lemm, Carol A.; Woods, L. Curry, III

    1991-01-01

    Benzocaine was tested as an anesthetic on juvenile and mature adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis ). Concentrations of 55 mg/L at 22 degree C to 80 mg/L at 11 degree C effectively anesthetized fish in about 3 min. Recovery was more rapid as temperature increased. Fish survived concentrations of twice the effective concentration and exposure times up to 60 min at the effective concentration. Striped bass required higher concentrations for anesthetization than had been previously demonstrated for salmonid fishes, but safety margins for both concentration and exposure time were wider than for the salmonids.

  2. Response to "Critical Assessment of the Evidence for Striped Nanoparticles".

    PubMed

    Ong, Quy Khac; Stellacci, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Stirling et al., (10.1371/journal.pone.0108482) presented an analysis on some of our publications on the formation of stripe-like domains on mixed-ligand coated gold nanoparticles. The authors shed doubts on some of our results however no valid argument is provided against what we have shown since our first publication: scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of striped nanoparticles show stripe-like domains that are independent of imaging parameters and in particular of imaging speed. We have consistently ruled out the presence of artifacts by comparing sets of images acquired at different tip speeds, finding invariance of the stipe-like domains. Stirling and co-workers incorrectly analyzed this key control, using a different microscope and imaging conditions that do not compare to ours. We show here data proving that our approach is rigorous. Furthermore, we never solely relied on image analysis to draw our conclusions; we have always used the chemical nature of the particles to assess the veracity of our images. Stirling et al. do not provide any justification for the spacing of the features that we find on nanoparticles: ~1 nm for mixed ligand particles and ~ 0.5 nm for homoligand particles. Hence our two central arguments remain unmodified: independence from imaging parameters and dependence on ligand shell chemical composition. The paper report observations on our STM images; none is a sufficient condition to prove that our images are artifacts. We thoroughly addressed issues related to STM artifacts throughout our microscopy work. Stirling et al. provide guidelines for what they consider good STM images of nanoparticles, such images are indeed present in our literature. They conclude that the evidences we provided to date are insufficient, this is a departure from one of the authors' previous article which concluded that our images were composed of artifacts. Given that four independent laboratories have reproduced our measurements and that no

  3. Stripe glasses in ferromagnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principi, Alessandro; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.

    2016-02-01

    Domain walls in magnetic multilayered systems can exhibit a very complex and fascinating behavior. For example, the magnetization of thin films of hard magnetic materials is in general perpendicular to the thin-film plane, thanks to the strong out-of-plane anisotropy, but its direction changes periodically, forming an alternating spin-up and spin-down stripe pattern. The latter is stabilized by the competition between the ferromagnetic coupling and dipole-dipole interactions, and disappears when a moderate in-plane magnetic field is applied. It has been suggested that such a behavior may be understood in terms of a self-induced stripe glassiness. In this paper we show that such a scenario is compatible with the experimental findings. The strong out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of the film is found to be beneficial for the formation of both stripe-ordered and glassy phases. At zero magnetic field the system can form a glass only in a narrow interval of fairly large temperatures. An in-plane magnetic field, however, shifts the glass transition towards lower temperatures, therefore enabling it at or below room temperature. In good qualitative agreement with the experimental findings, we show that a moderate in-plane magnetic field of the order of 50 mT can lead to the formation of defects in the stripe pattern, which sets the onset of the glass transition.

  4. Stripe glasses in ferromagnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principi, Alessandro; Katsnelson, Mikhail

    Domain walls in magnetic multilayered systems can exhibit a very complex and fascinating behavior. The magnetization of thin films of hard magnetic materials is in general perpendicular to the thin-film plane, but its direction changes periodically, forming an alternating spin-up and spin-down stripe pattern. The latter is stabilized by the competition between the ferromagnetic coupling and dipole-dipole interactions, and disappears when a moderate in-plane magnetic field is applied. It has been suggested that such a behavior may be understood in terms of a self-induced stripe glassiness. In this paper we show that such a scenario is compatible with the experimental findings. The strong out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of the film is found to be beneficial for the formation of both the stripe-ordered and glassy phases. At zero magnetic field the system can form a glass only in a narrow interval of fairly large temperatures. An in-plane magnetic field, however, shifts the glass transition towards lower temperatures, therefore enabling it at or below room temperature. In good qualitative agreement with the experimental findings, we show that a moderate in-plane magnetic field of the order of 30 mT can lead to the formation of defects in the stripe pattern.

  5. Geysers from the Tiger Stripes of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    Enceladus, the sixth-largest moon of Saturn, is a cold, icy world but its also remarkably active. Recent studies have charted over a hundred geysers venting gas and dust into space from Enceladus south polar region. New research addresses the question of how the moons extreme surface terrain influences the locations and behavior of these geysers.Active PlumesEnceladus orbiting within Saturns E ring. Enceladus plumes probably created this ring. [NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute]A decade ago, scientists discovered that Enceladus south polar region is home to a prominent set of four fractures known as the tiger stripes. This region was found to contain roughly 100 geyser jets, which form plumes of gas and dust venting into space at a combined rate of ~200 kilograms per second! These plumes are probably the source of the material in Saturns E ring, in which Enceladus orbits.Recently, Carolyn Porco (UC Berkeley and CICLOPS Space Science Institute) led a study that analyzed 6.5 years of Cassini data, surveying the locations and orientations of 101 geysers. The outcome was peculiar: the geysers are distributed along the tiger stripes, but their directions are not all pointing vertically from the surface (see the video below!).Now, Paul Helfenstein (Cornell University) has teamed up with Porco to examine whether the surface terrain surrounding the geysers affects where the jets erupt, what direction they point, and even when theyre active.Surface InfluenceHelfenstein and Porco demonstrate that the locations and behavior of the geysers are very likely influenced by Enceladus surface features in this region. In particular, they find:The spacing of the geyser jets on Enceladus is not random.The jets are roughly uniformly distributed along the three most active tiger stripes, spaced about 5 kilometers apart. This fixed spacing might be due to shear fractures produced by fault motion along the tiger stripes cutting across the stripes at regular intervals and providing

  6. High spectral resolution image of 'Stripe'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Another early target for the full-color capability of the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was the rock Stripe, named for the vertical, red band on its face. Regions with different color properties include the rock face (blue), bright soil in the background (green), darker intermediate colored soil in front of the rock (red), and the vertical stripe.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  7. Filarial dermatitis in a striped skunk.

    PubMed

    Saito, E K; Little, S E

    1997-10-01

    A striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) from Kansas (USA) with severe diffuse dermatitis characterized by extensive alopecic areas, thickened skin, and multiple, scattered cutaneous abscesses on the dorsal aspect of the head, neck, and trunk was submitted for diagnostic evaluation. More than 50 nematodes identified as Filaria taxideae were found in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue. Histologic examination of the skin revealed multifocal pyogranulomatous inflammation with intralesional larvated nematode eggs, moderate orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, and mild acanthosis. The lesions resemble those reported from badgers (Taxidea taxus) and a lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) with dermatitis caused by Filaria taxideae. Although F. taxideae has been previously collected from skunks, this is the first report of filarid dermatitis caused by this nematode in a striped skunk.

  8. Parallel Vegetation Stripe Formation Through Hydrologic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yiwei; Stieglitz, Marc; Turk, Greg; Engel, Victor

    2010-05-01

    It has long been a challenge to theoretical ecologists to describe vegetation pattern formations such as the "tiger bush" stripes and "leopard bush" spots in Niger, and the regular maze patterns often observed in bogs in North America and Eurasia. To date, most of simulation models focus on reproducing the spot and labyrinthine patterns, and on the vegetation bands which form perpendicular to surface and groundwater flow directions. Various hypotheses have been invoked to explain the formation of vegetation patterns: selective grazing by herbivores, fire, and anisotropic environmental conditions such as slope. Recently, short distance facilitation and long distance competition between vegetation (a.k.a scale dependent feedback) has been proposed as a generic mechanism for vegetation pattern formation. In this paper, we test the generality of this mechanism by employing an existing, spatially explicit, advection-reaction-diffusion type model to describe the formation of regularly spaced vegetation bands, including those that are parallel to flow direction. Such vegetation patterns are, for example, characteristic of the ridge and slough habitat in the Florida Everglades and which are thought to have formed parallel to the prevailing surface water flow direction. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a simple model encompassing a nutrient accumulation mechanism along with biomass development and flow is used to demonstrate the formation of parallel stripes. We also explore the interactive effects of plant transpiration, slope and anisotropic hydraulic conductivity on the resulting vegetation pattern. Our results highlight the ability of the short distance facilitation and long distance competition mechanism to explain the formation of the different vegetation patterns beyond semi-arid regions. Therefore, we propose that the parallel stripes, like the other periodic patterns observed in both isotropic and anisotropic environments, are self-organized and form

  9. Chemical downstream etching of tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Blain, M.G.; Jarecki, R.L.; Simonson, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    The downstream etching of tungsten and tungsten oxide has been investigated. Etching of chemical vapor deposited tungsten and e-beam deposited tungsten oxide samples was performed using atomic fluorine generated by a microwave discharge of argon and NF{sub 3}. Etching was found to be highly activated with activation energies approximated to be 6.0{plus_minus}0.5thinspkcal/mol and 5.4{plus_minus}0.4thinspkcal/mol for W and WO{sub 3}, respectively. In the case of F etching of tungsten, the addition of undischarged nitric oxide (NO) directly into the reaction chamber results in the competing effects of catalytic etch rate enhancement and the formation of a nearly stoichiometric WO{sub 3} passivating tungsten oxide film, which ultimately stops the etching process. For F etching of tungsten oxide, the introduction of downstream NO reduces the etch rate. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Vacuum Society.}

  10. Continuous downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-08-01

    Continuous manufacturing has been applied in many different industries but has been pursued reluctantly in biotechnology where the batchwise process is still the standard. A shift to continuous operation can improve productivity of a process and substantially reduce the footprint. Continuous operation also allows robust purification of labile biomolecules. A full set of unit operations is available to design continuous downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals. Chromatography, the central unit operation, is most advanced in respect to continuous operation. Here, the problem of 'batch' definition has been solved. This has also paved the way for implementation of continuous downstream processing from a regulatory viewpoint. Economic pressure, flexibility, and parametric release considerations will be the driving force to implement continuous manufacturing strategies in future.

  11. Continuous downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-08-01

    Continuous manufacturing has been applied in many different industries but has been pursued reluctantly in biotechnology where the batchwise process is still the standard. A shift to continuous operation can improve productivity of a process and substantially reduce the footprint. Continuous operation also allows robust purification of labile biomolecules. A full set of unit operations is available to design continuous downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals. Chromatography, the central unit operation, is most advanced in respect to continuous operation. Here, the problem of 'batch' definition has been solved. This has also paved the way for implementation of continuous downstream processing from a regulatory viewpoint. Economic pressure, flexibility, and parametric release considerations will be the driving force to implement continuous manufacturing strategies in future. PMID:23849674

  12. Motion camouflage induced by zebra stripes.

    PubMed

    How, Martin J; Zanker, Johannes M

    2014-06-01

    The functional significance of the zebra coat stripe pattern is one of the oldest questions in evolutionary biology, having troubled scientists ever since Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace first disagreed on the subject. While different theories have been put forward to address this question, the idea that the stripes act to confuse or 'dazzle' observers remains one of the most plausible. However, the specific mechanisms by which this may operate have not been investigated in detail. In this paper, we investigate how motion of the zebra's high contrast stripes creates visual effects that may act as a form of motion camouflage. We simulated a biologically motivated motion detection algorithm to analyse motion signals generated by different areas on a zebra's body during displacements of their retinal images. Our simulations demonstrate that the motion signals that these coat patterns generate could be a highly misleading source of information. We suggest that the observer's visual system is flooded with erroneous motion signals that correspond to two well-known visual illusions: (i) the wagon-wheel effect (perceived motion inversion due to spatiotemporal aliasing); and (ii) the barber-pole illusion (misperceived direction of motion due to the aperture effect), and predict that these two illusory effects act together to confuse biting insects approaching from the air, or possibly mammalian predators during the hunt, particularly when two or more zebras are observed moving together as a herd. PMID:24368147

  13. Maryland striped bass: recruitment declining below replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Goodyear, C.P.; Cohen, J.E.; Christensen, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical technique was developed to examined interrelationships among first-year survival rates, adult fecundity, and adult survival of striped bass Morone saxatilis based on indices of year-class strength. Application of this technique to striped bass in Maryland waters of the Chesapeake Bay provided evidence for reduced survival in the life cycle. If adult fecundity and survival have remained constant, first-year survival declined significantly from 1969 to 1983, and averaged less than that needed for replacement for the last 10 years. Treatment of the individual spawning grounds separately indicated that the downward trend in survival for the pooled data was the result of declines in the upper bay and, to a lesser extent, in the Choptank River. Alternatively, if first-year survival and adult fecundity were assumed to have remained constant, an annual decline of about 1.9% in adult survival would have been required to produce the observed trend in the pooled year-class data. This would be consistent with increased fishing mortality and implies declining recruitment because of declining stock size. Continuing declines in first-year or adult survival would eliminate the Maryland striped bass stock and the fishery it supports. Conversely, an increase in adult survival could offset of the unknown factor or factors responsible for the apparent decline in first-year survival. 25 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  14. Motion camouflage induced by zebra stripes.

    PubMed

    How, Martin J; Zanker, Johannes M

    2014-06-01

    The functional significance of the zebra coat stripe pattern is one of the oldest questions in evolutionary biology, having troubled scientists ever since Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace first disagreed on the subject. While different theories have been put forward to address this question, the idea that the stripes act to confuse or 'dazzle' observers remains one of the most plausible. However, the specific mechanisms by which this may operate have not been investigated in detail. In this paper, we investigate how motion of the zebra's high contrast stripes creates visual effects that may act as a form of motion camouflage. We simulated a biologically motivated motion detection algorithm to analyse motion signals generated by different areas on a zebra's body during displacements of their retinal images. Our simulations demonstrate that the motion signals that these coat patterns generate could be a highly misleading source of information. We suggest that the observer's visual system is flooded with erroneous motion signals that correspond to two well-known visual illusions: (i) the wagon-wheel effect (perceived motion inversion due to spatiotemporal aliasing); and (ii) the barber-pole illusion (misperceived direction of motion due to the aperture effect), and predict that these two illusory effects act together to confuse biting insects approaching from the air, or possibly mammalian predators during the hunt, particularly when two or more zebras are observed moving together as a herd.

  15. Aspects of the population dynamics of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spawning in Maryland tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Kohlenstein, L.C.

    1980-02-01

    This is a study of mortality and migration processes that influence the population structure and harvest of adult striped bass spawned in the Maryland tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay and an examination of the influence of stock size on the reproductive success of the population. A model of the adult stock was developed that incorporates the age and sex specific nature of Striped Bass migratory patterns and mortality rates. The model was used to address a number of resource management issues including estimating the effects of a 14 inch minimum size limit in Maryland and the consequences of a reduction in year class strength through power plant operations.

  16. Meat quality of broiler breast fillets with white striping and woody breast muscle myopathies.

    PubMed

    Tijare, V V; Yang, F L; Kuttappan, V A; Alvarado, C Z; Coon, C N; Owens, C M

    2016-09-01

    The global poultry industry has been faced with emerging broiler breast meat quality issues including conditions known as white striping (WS, white striations parallel to muscle fibers) and woody breast (WB, hardness of raw fillet). Experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of WS and WB hardness on meat quality traits in broiler breast fillets. In Exp. 1, birds were processed at approximately 9 wk of age and deboned at 4 h postmortem (PM); in Exp. 2, birds were processed at approximately 6 and 9 wk of age and deboned at 2 h PM. Fillets were categorized as: normal for both white striping and woody breast (NORM); moderate for white striping and mild for woody breast (MILD); severe for white striping and mild for woody breast (WS); severe for woody breast and moderate for white striping (WB); or severe for both white striping and woody breast (BOTH). Sarcomere length, gravimetric fragmentation index, marination uptake, cook loss, and Meullenet-Owens razor shear energy (MORSE) values on non-marinated and marinated fillets were assessed. Sarcomeres tended to be longer (P = 0.07) with increasing severity of WS and WB in both experiments and gravimetric fragmentation index did not differ (P > 0.05) among categories. Marinade uptake decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing severity of WS and WB. Cook losses of non-marinated and marinated fillets were greatest (P < 0.05) in the BOTH category. Even though MORSE values did not differ (P > 0.05) in non-marinated fillets, the marinated BOTH fillets had greater MORSE values (P < 0.05) than other categories of fillets in Exp. 1. Non-marinated NORM fillets had greater (P < 0.05) MORSE values than the other categories at 6 wk age; however, MORSE values did not differ (P > 0.05) among categories of marinated breasts. At 9 wk, WS and BOTH were higher (P < 0.05) in MORSE compared to NORM for non-marinated fillets, but similar to NORM marinated fillets. Results suggest that severe degrees of white striping and woody breast

  17. Using chromatography in downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Becker, C

    1989-01-01

    This article concludes the series on the use of chromatography for downstream processing. Although it has only scratched the surface when considering the number of parameters involved in process chromatography, it does give a broad overview including the choice of components through process standards. Pharmacia LKB Biotechnology has had more than 15 years experience in the design development and running of large scale chromatographic processes. During this time the company has gathered a vast amount of experience and information on the key points to successful product purification. Pharmacia LKB can advise on the choice of techniques and the development of a separation process up to full production scale.

  18. Issue Backgrounder : Downstream Fish Migration : Improving the Odds of Survival.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-05-01

    Background information is given on the problems caused to anadromous fish migrations, especially salmon and steelhead trout, by the development of hydroelectric power dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Programs arising out of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and conservation Act of 1980 to remedy these problems and restore fish and wildlife populations are described. (ACR)

  19. Stripe glass and stripe supersolid of two-dimensional dipolar bosons in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscilde, Tommaso; Boninsegni, Massimo

    2010-03-01

    Making use of mean-field theory and quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the zero-temperature phase diagram of dipolar bosons (with hardcore on-site interactions) on a square and triangular lattice. We consider dipoles forming an angle of 45 degrees with respect to the lattice plane, so that the dipolar interaction takes a spatially anisotropic nature, and it is attractive along the dipole direction and repulsive perpendicular to it. In the case of the square lattice, the attractive part of the interaction leads to the collapse of the dipolar gas and phase separation. On the contrary, in the case of the triangular lattice a stripe crystal is stabilized at most commensurate fillings of the form n/L, where 1 < n < L and L is the linear size. Yet, dislocations in the stripe crystal give rise to highly metastable states, which can be systematically studied at the mean-field level. Metastability is most pronounced close to half filling, and it leads to a strong tendency towards the formation of a ``stripe glass,'' which exhibits a characteristic signature in the structure factor. For higher fillings crystal phase exhibits strong quantum fluctuations, and it hosts a superfluid fraction for sufficiently low strength of the dipolar potential, resulting in a stripe supersolid phase.

  20. Striped bass annual site fidelity and habitat utilization in J. Strom Thurmond Reservoir, South Carolina-Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Forty-eight adult striped bass Morone saxatilis (3.2-19.1 kg) were captured by electrofishing in the tailrace of Richard B. Russell Dam and in the upper reaches of two major tributaries; they were implanted with temperature-sensitive radio transmitters and tracked approximately bimonthly for 20 months. As J. Strom Thurmond Reservoir downstream from the dam became thermally stratified in May, fish vacated the tributaries. From June to October, all striped bass were found within the reservoir's historical Savannah River channel. By August, most of the instrumented fish were found in the upper section of the reservoir, where optimal habitat was available throughout the summer owing to cool, artificially oxygenated hypolimnetic discharges from Richard B. Russell Dam. In mid-October the reservoir destratified, and fish dispersed from their up-reservoir summering areas and redistributed themselves throughout the reservoir. During early winter, the striped bass returned to tributary habitat or down-reservoir areas and generally used these locations throughout the winter. The fish exhibited a high degree of site fidelity to their summering areas, source tributaries (after fall dispersal and throughout the winter), and spring spawning areas. Mean movement rates were highest in the spring and fall, corresponding to the migration from tributaries in May and the return migration after fall dispersal. Mean movement rates were lowest in summer and winter, corresponding to the periods of high fidelity to summering and wintering areas. The average monthly temperatures and dissolved oxygen concentrations in areas used by striped bass were 19.0-20.4??C and 4.86-6.44 mg/L during May-October, which corresponded to average monthly habitat suitability index values of 0.76-0.98. Striped bass avoided temperatures above 25.1??C and dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 2.3 mg/L.

  1. Critical effects of downstream boundary conditions on vortex breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1992-01-01

    The unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are used to study the critical effects of the downstream boundary conditions on the supersonic vortex breakdown. The present study is applied to two supersonic vortex breakdown cases. In the first case, quasi-axisymmetric supersonic swirling flow is considered in a configured circular duct, and in the second case, quasi-axisymmetric supersonic swirling jet, that is issued from a nozzle into a supersonic jet of lower Mach number, is considered. For the configured duct flow, four different types of downstream boundary conditions are used, and for the swirling jet flow from the nozzle, two types of downstream boundary conditions are used. The solutions are time accurate which are obtained using an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme.

  2. A Downstream voyage with mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective essay for the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.As I look back on my paper, “Effects of Low Dietary Levels of Methyl Mercury on Mallard Reproduction,” published in 1974 in the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, a thought sticks in my mind. I realize just how much my mercury research was not unlike a leaf in a stream, carried this way and that, sometimes stalled in an eddy, restarted, and carried downstream at a pace and path that was not completely under my control. I was hired in 1969 by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to study the effects of environmental pollutants on the behavior of wildlife. A colleague was conducting a study on the reproductive effects of methylmercury on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and he offered to give me some of the ducklings. I conducted a pilot study, testing how readily ducklings approached a tape-recorded maternal call. Sample sizes were small, but the results suggested that ducklings from mercury-treated parents behaved differently than controls. That’s how I got into mercury research—pretty much by chance.

  3. A downstream voyage with mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective essay for the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.As I look back on my paper, “Effects of Low Dietary Levels of Methyl Mercury on Mallard Reproduction,” published in 1974 in the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, a thought sticks in my mind. I realize just how much my mercury research was not unlike a leaf in a stream, carried this way and that, sometimes stalled in an eddy, restarted, and carried downstream at a pace and path that was not completely under my control. I was hired in 1969 by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to study the effects of environmental pollutants on the behavior of wildlife. A colleague was conducting a study on the reproductive effects of methylmercury on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and he offered to give me some of the ducklings. I conducted a pilot study, testing how readily ducklings approached a tape-recorded maternal call. Sample sizes were small, but the results suggested that ducklings from mercury-treated parents behaved differently than controls. That’s how I got into mercury research—pretty much by chance.

  4. Periodic Modulation of the Doping Level in Striped MoS₂ Superstructures.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiebo; Shi, Jianping; Qi, Yue; Liu, Mengxi; Ma, Donglin; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Qingqing; Zhang, Zhepeng; Li, Cong; Liu, Zhongfan; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2016-03-22

    Although the recently discovered monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides exhibit novel electronic and optical properties, fundamental physical issues such as the quasiparticle bandgap tunability and the substrate effects remain undefined. Herein, we present the report of a quasi-one-dimensional periodically striped superstructure for monolayer MoS2 on Au(100). The formation of the unique striped superstructure is found to be mainly modulated by the symmetry difference between MoS2 and Au(100) and their lattice mismatch. More intriguingly, we find that the monolayer MoS2 is heavily n-doped on the Au(100) facet with a bandgap of 1.3 eV, and the Fermi level is upshifted by ∼0.10 eV on the ridge (∼0.2 eV below the conduction band) in contrast to the valley regions (∼0.3 eV below the conduction band) of the striped patterns after high-temperature sample annealing process. This tunable doping effect is considered to be caused by the different defect densities over the ridge/valley regions of the superstructure. Additionally, an obvious bandgap reduction is observed in the vicinity of the domain boundary for monolayer MoS2 on Au(100). This work should therefore inspire intensive explorations of adlayer-substrate interactions, the defects, and their effects on band-structure engineering of monolayer MoS2. PMID:26913990

  5. Suomi NPP VIIRS Striping Analysis using Radiative Transfer Model Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Cao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Modern satellite radiometers such as VIIRS have many detectors with slightly different relative spectral response (RSR). These differences can introduce artifacts such as striping in the imagery. In recent studies we have analyzed the striping pattern related to the detector level RSR difference in VIIRS Thermal Emissive Bands (TEB) M15 and M16, which includes line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) detector level response study and onboard detector stability evaluation using the solar diffuser. Now we extend these analysis to the Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) using MODTRAN atmospheric radiative transfer model (RTM) for detector level radiance simulation. Previous studies analyzed the striping pattern in the images of VIIRS ocean color and reflectance in RSB, further studies about the root cause for striping are still needed. In this study, we will use the MODTRAN model at spectral resolution of 1 cm^-1 under different atmospheric conditions for VIIRS RSB, for example band M1 centered at 410nm which is used for Ocean Color product retrieval. The impact of detector level RSR difference, atmospheric dependency, and solar geometry on the striping in VIIRS SDR imagery will be investigated. The cumulative histogram method used successfully for the TEB striping analysis will be used to quantify the striping. These analysis help S-NPP and J1 to better understand the root cause for VIIRS image artifacts and reduce the uncertainties in geophysical retrievals to meet the user needs.

  6. Transcriptome annotation and marker discovery in white bass (Morone chrysops) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Striped bass and white bass are the parental species of the hybrid striped bass (white bass, Morone chrysops X striped bass, M. saxatilis), which is a major U.S. aquaculture species. Currently, genomic resources for striped bass/white bass and its hybrid lag behind those of other aquaculture species...

  7. Quantification of red stripe variability in Louisiana sugarcane using precision agriculture methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red stripe of sugarcane caused by Acidovirax avenae subsp. avenae consists of two forms – leaf stripe and top rot. Symptoms of red stripe in Louisiana over the past 25 years have been limited to the leaf stripe form which causes no measurable yield losses. During 2010, the more severe top rot form ...

  8. Relationship of soil properties and sugarcane yields to red stripe in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red stripe of sugarcane caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae consists of two forms: leaf stripe and top rot. Symptoms of red stripe in Louisiana observed by the authors between 1985 and 2010 were limited to the leaf stripe form which caused no apparent yield loss. During 2010, the more severe t...

  9. Rotational Electrophoresis of Striped Metallic Microrods

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K A; Meier, J A; Dougherty, G M; Santiago, J G

    2005-11-28

    Analytical models are developed for the translation and rotation of metallic rods in a uniform electric field. The limits of thin and thick electric double layers are considered. These models include the effect of stripes of different metals along the length of the particle. Modeling results are compared to experimental measurements for metallic rods. Experiments demonstrate the increased alignment of particles with increasing field strength and the increase in degree of alignment of thin versus thick electric double layers. The metal rods polarize in the applied field and align parallel to its direction due to torques on the polarized charge. The torque due to polarization has a second order dependence on the electric field strength. The particles are also shown to have an additional alignment torque component due to non-uniform densities along their length. The orientation distributions of dilute suspensions of particles are also shown to agree well with results predicted by a rotational convective-diffusion equation.

  10. Comparison of barley stripe mosaic virus strains.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Elsayed E; Abdel Aleem, Engy E; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2008-01-01

    BSMV (barley stripe mosaic virus) particles were obtained in a pure state from infected host plant tissues of Hordeum vulgare. The three genomic parities (alpha, beta and gamma) were amplified by PCR using specific primers for each particle; each was cloned. Partial sequence of the alpha, beta and gamma segments was determined for the Egyptian isolate of barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV AE1). Alignment of nucleotide sequences with that of other known strains of the virus, BSMV type strains (CV17, ND18 and China), and the generation of phylogenetic trees was performed. A low level of homology was detected comparing 467 bp of the a and 643 bp of the segments to that of the other strains, and thus BSMV alpha and beta segments were in separate clusters. However, 1154 bp of the gamma segments of BSMV AE1 showed a high level of homology especially to strain BSMV ND18, as they both formed a distinct cluster. Northern blotting of pure BSMV AE1 virus and H. vulgare-infected tissue were compared using an alpha ND18 specific probe. Western blotting using antibodies specific for the coat protein (CP) and the triple gene block 1 (TGB1) protein, which are both encoded by the beta ND18 segment, still indicated a high level of similarity between proteins produced by BSMV ND18 and AE1. We suggest that the BSMV AE1 isolate is a distinct strain of BSMV which reflects the genetic evolutionary divergence among BSMV strains and members of the Hordeivirus group. PMID:18533473

  11. Striped Fabry-Perots: Improved efficiency for velocimetry

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, C.; Steinmetz, L.

    1990-07-01

    Removing a narrow stripe of the reflective coating from the input mirror of a Fabry-Perot interferometer can dramatically increase the amount of light transmitted through the system; we have observed gains in excess of 50 when we compare a conventional Fabry-Perot with the striped Fabry-Perot under similar lighting conditions. The stripe affects the distribution of light in the Fabry-Perot peaks causing them to be lower in the center of the pattern. We examine this distribution, and discuss its application in analyzing velocities. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Collective modes and the periodicity of quantum Hall stripes.

    PubMed

    Kukushkin, I V; Umansky, V; von Klitzing, K; Smet, J H

    2011-05-20

    We investigate the quantum Hall stripe phase at filling factor 9/2 at the microscopic level by probing the dispersion of its collective modes with the help of surface acoustic waves with wavelengths down to 60 nm. The dispersion is strongly anisotropic. It is highly dispersive and exhibits a roton minimum for wave vectors aligned along the easy transport direction. In the perpendicular direction, however, the dispersion is featureless, although not flat as predicted by theory. Oscillatory behavior in the absorption intensity of the collective mode with a wave vector perpendicular to the stripes is attributed to a commensurability effect. It allows us to extract the periodicity of the quantum Hall stripes.

  13. Canine adenovirus downstream processing protocol.

    PubMed

    Puig, Meritxell; Piedra, Jose; Miravet, Susana; Segura, María Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are efficient gene delivery tools. A major caveat with vectors derived from common human adenovirus serotypes is that most adults are likely to have been exposed to the wild-type virus and exhibit active immunity against the vectors. This preexisting immunity limits their clinical success. Strategies to circumvent this problem include the use of nonhuman adenovirus vectors. Vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) are among the best-studied representatives. CAV-2 vectors are particularly attractive for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, CAV-2 vectors have shown great promise as oncolytic agents in virotherapy approaches and as vectors for recombinant vaccines. The rising interest in CAV-2 vectors calls for the development of scalable GMP compliant production and purification strategies. A detailed protocol describing a complete scalable downstream processing strategy for CAV-2 vectors is reported here. Clarification of CAV-2 particles is achieved by microfiltration. CAV-2 particles are subsequently concentrated and partially purified by ultrafiltration-diafiltration. A Benzonase(®) digestion step is carried out between ultrafiltration and diafiltration operations to eliminate contaminating nucleic acids. Chromatography purification is accomplished in two consecutive steps. CAV-2 particles are first captured and concentrated on a propyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography column followed by a polishing step using DEAE anion exchange monoliths. Using this protocol, high-quality CAV-2 vector preparations containing low levels of contamination with empty viral capsids and other inactive vector forms are typically obtained. The complete process yield was estimated to be 38-45 %. PMID:24132487

  14. A novel virtual hub approach for multisource downstream service integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Previtali, Mattia; Cuca, Branka; Barazzetti, Luigi

    2016-08-01

    A large development of downstream services is expected to be stimulated starting from earth observations (EO) datasets acquired by Copernicus satellites. An important challenge connected with the availability of downstream services is the possibility for their integration in order to create innovative applications with added values for users of different categories level. At the moment, the world of geo-information (GI) is extremely heterogeneous in terms of standards and formats used, thus preventing a facilitated access and integration of downstream services. Indeed, different users and data providers have also different requirements in terms of communication protocols and technology advancement. In recent years, many important programs and initiatives have tried to address this issue even on trans-regional and international level (e.g. INSPIRE Directive, GEOSS, Eye on Earth and SEIS). However, a lack of interoperability between systems and services still exists. In order to facilitate the interaction between different downstream services, a new architectural approach (developed within the European project ENERGIC OD) is proposed in this paper. The brokering-oriented architecture introduces a new mediation layer (the Virtual Hub) which works as an intermediary to bridge the gaps linked to interoperability issues. This intermediation layer de-couples the server and the client allowing a facilitated access to multiple downstream services and also Open Data provided by national and local SDIs. In particular, in this paper an application is presented integrating four services on the topic of agriculture: (i) the service given by Space4Agri (providing services based on MODIS and Landsat data); (ii) Gicarus Lab (providing sample services based on Landsat datasets) and (iii) FRESHMON (providing sample services for water quality) and services from a several regional SDIs.

  15. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference.

    PubMed

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  16. Striping artifact reduction in lunar orbiter mosaic images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mlsna, P.A.; Becker, T.

    2006-01-01

    Photographic images of the moon from the 1960s Lunar Orbiter missions are being processed into maps for visual use. The analog nature of the images has produced numerous artifacts, the chief of which causes a vertical striping pattern in mosaic images formed from a series of filmstrips. Previous methods of stripe removal tended to introduce ringing and aliasing problems in the image data. This paper describes a recently developed alternative approach that succeeds at greatly reducing the striping artifacts while avoiding the creation of ringing and aliasing artifacts. The algorithm uses a one dimensional frequency domain step to deal with the periodic component of the striping artifact and a spatial domain step to handle the aperiodic residue. Several variations of the algorithm have been explored. Results, strengths, and remaining challenges are presented. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  17. Nematic liquid-crystal alignment on stripe-patterned substrates.

    PubMed

    Anquetil-Deck, C; Cleaver, D J

    2010-09-01

    Here, we use molecular simulation to consider the behavior of a thin nematic film confined between two identical nanopatterned substrates. Using patterns involving alternating stripes of homeotropic-favoring and homogeneous-favoring substrates, we investigate the influence of the relative stripe width and the film thickness. From this, we show that the polar anchoring angle can be varied continuously from planar to homeotropic by appropriate tuning of these parameters. For very thin films with equal stripe widths, we observe orientational bridging, the surface patterning being written in domains which traverse the nematic film. This dual-bridging-domain arrangement breaks down with increase in film thickness, however, being replaced by a single tilted monodomain. Strong azimuthal anchoring in the plane of the stripe boundaries is observed for all systems. PMID:21230093

  18. Barley stripe mosaic virus: Structure and relationship to the tobamoviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, Amy; Williams, Dewight; Bian, Wen; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Stubbs, Gerald

    2013-09-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is the type member of the genus Hordeivirus, rigid, rod-shaped viruses in the family Virgaviridae. We have used fiber diffraction and cryo-electron microscopy to determine the helical symmetry of BSMV to be 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix, and to obtain a low-resolution model of the virus by helical reconstruction methods. Features in the model support a structural relationship between the coat proteins of the hordeiviruses and the tobamoviruses. - Highlights: • We report a low-resolution structure of barley stripe mosaic virus. • Barley stripe mosaic virus has 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix. • We compare barley stripe mosaic virus with tobacco mosaic virus.

  19. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference

    PubMed Central

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  20. Quantitative comparison of the stress response of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops and Morone saxatilis x Morone americana).

    PubMed

    Noga, E J; Kerby, J H; King, W; Aucoin, D P; Giesbrecht, F

    1994-03-01

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) exposed to a standardized confinement stress had markedly different clinical and endocrinologic responses, compared with hybrid striped bass exposed to the same stress. Plasma cortisol concentration increased at a faster rate and appeared to reach a higher value in striped bass than in hybrid bass. Mean plasma cortisol concentration was 742 +/- 43 ng/ml in striped bass, compared with 490 +/- 37 and 531 +/- 40 ng/ml in striped bass x white perch (M americana) and striped bass x white bass (M chrysops) hybrids, respectively, after a 45-minute net confinement. Plasma cortisol concentration also remained significantly (P = 0.003) higher in striped bass for at least 48 hours after the net confinement. These hormonal differences were associated with a markedly lower survival and resistance to infection in striped bass, compared with the hybrids.

  1. Posttournament survival and dispersal of adult striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a telemetry study from November 2004 to June 2005 at J. Strom Thurmond Reservoir in South Carolina and Georgia to quantify posttournament survival of striped bass and their dispersal from tournament weigh-in sites. During November-December 2004, 30 adult striped bass weighing 1.0-10.0 kg were angled, held in "striped bass tube" live-holding systems for 2-5 h, transported to a predetermined weigh-in and release site, and surgically implanted with telemetry transmitters. All striped bass survived transport, recovered from the surgical procedure, and were immediately released. The postrelease survival rate after 120 d was 87%. Surviving striped bass dispersed from the release site within 2-9 d. Fifty-four percent returned to their capture sites. Capture, holding, displacement, and weigh-in appeared to have no long-term adverse affects on behavior. Live release of striped bass may now be a viable option after tournaments during periods of cool water temperatures. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  2. Immunological discrimination of Atlantic striped bass stocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schill, W.B.; Dorazio, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Stocks of Atlantic striped bass Morone saxatilis that were assumed to be geographically isolated during spawning showed strong antigenic differences in blood serum albumin. A discriminant function was estimated from the immunologic responses of northern (Canadian and Hudson River) and southern (Chesapeake Bay and Roanoke River) stocks to two reference antisera. The function correctly classified 92% of the northern and 95% of the southern fish in the training set. Cross-validation revealed similar percentages of correct classification for fish that were of known origin but not used to estimate the discriminant function. Monte Carlo experiments were used to evaluate the ability of the discriminant function to predict the relative contribution of northern fish in samples of various size and stock composition. Averages of predicted proportions of northern fish in the samples agreed well with actual proportions. Coefficients of variation (100 × SD/mean) in the predicted proportions ranged from 1.5 to 36% for samples of 50–400 fish that contained at least 10% northern stock. In samples that contained only 2% northern stock, however, at least 1,600 fish were required to achieve similar levels of precision.

  3. Turing patterns beyond hexagons and stripes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingfa; Dolnik, Milos; Zhabotinsky, Anatol M; Epstein, Irving R

    2006-09-01

    The best known Turing patterns are composed of stripes or simple hexagonal arrangements of spots. Until recently, Turing patterns with other geometries have been observed only rarely. Here we present experimental studies and mathematical modeling of the formation and stability of hexagonal and square Turing superlattice patterns in a photosensitive reaction-diffusion system. The superlattices develop from initial conditions created by illuminating the system through a mask consisting of a simple hexagonal or square lattice with a wavelength close to a multiple of the intrinsic Turing pattern's wavelength. We show that interaction of the photochemical periodic forcing with the Turing instability generates multiple spatial harmonics of the forcing patterns. The harmonics situated within the Turing instability band survive after the illumination is switched off and form superlattices. The square superlattices are the first examples of time-independent square Turing patterns. We also demonstrate that in a system where the Turing band is slightly below criticality, spatially uniform internal or external oscillations can create oscillating square patterns. PMID:17014248

  4. The fundamental thermal niche of adult landlocked striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have described the temperatures selected by landlocked striped bass Morone saxatilis in different locales throughout the USA. However, seasonally low concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) in many systems prevented striped bass from using the cool waters (<22??C) they may have preferred. In Melton Hill Reservoir, a 92-km-long impoundment on the Clinch River in east Tennessee, 15 adult striped bass were tagged with temperature-sensing radio tags and tracked for an average of 418 d in 1999-2000. Cold, hypolimnetic discharges from an upstream dam and heated discharge from a steam-generating electric facility near the midpoint of this run-of-the-river reservoir provided a broad range of temperatures in most seasons, and hypoxic habitats were uncommon even during stratification. The mean temperature occupied by striped bass varied seasonally (repeated-measures analysis of variance, P < 0.0001) and was highest in summer (17.5??C), intermediate in spring and fall (15.4-16.9??C), and lowest in winter (13.0??C). The mean and modal temperatures occupied during the growing season (May-October 1999) were 17.5??C and 19.0??C, respectively; 30% of the observations were between 9??C and 15??C. These data indicate that the fundamental thermal niche of adult landlocked striped bass may be lower than literature estimates. These results also represent the first unbiased field estimates of the influence of season on the thermal ecology of adult striped bass. The thermal characteristics of habitats considered optimal in habitat suitability index models for adult landlocked striped bass (i.e., 18-24??C) should be revised to include cooler waters. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  5. Experimental mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gauthier, David T.; Rhodes, M.W.; Vogelbein, W.K.; Kator, H.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Striped bass Morone saxatilis were infected intraperitoneally with approximately 105 Mycobacterium marinum, M. shottsii sp. nov., or M. gordonae. Infected fish were maintained in a flow-through freshwater system at 18 to 21??C, and were examined histologically and bacteriologically at 2, 4, 6, 8, 17, 26, 36 and 45 wk post-infection (p.i.). M. marinum caused acute peritonitis, followed by extensive granuloma development in the mesenteries, spleen and anterior kidney. Granulomas in these tissues underwent a temporal progression of distinct morphological stages, culminating in well-circumscribed lesions surrounded by normal or healing tissue. Mycobacteria were cultured in high numbers from splenic tissue at all times p.i. Standard Ziehl-Neelsen staining, however, did not demonstrate acid-fast rods in most early inflammatory foci and granulomas. Large numbers of acid-fast rods were present in granulomas beginning at 8 wk p.i. Between 26 and 45 wk p.i., reactivation of disease was observed in some fish, with disintegration of granulomas, renewed inflammation, and elevated splenic bacterial densities approaching 109 colony-forming units g-1. Infection with M. shottsii or M. gordonae did not produce severe pathology. Mild peritonitis was followed by granuloma formation in the mesenteries, but, with 1 exception, granulomas were not observed in the spleen or anterior kidney. M. shottsii and M. gordonae both established persistent infections in the spleen, but were present at densities at least 2 orders of magnitude less than M. marinum at all time points observed. Granulomas in the mesenteries of M. shottsii- and M. gordonae-infected fish resolved over time, and no reactivation of disease was observed.

  6. Millijansky radio variability in SDSS stripe 82

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, J. A.; Becker, R. H.; White, R. L.; Richards, G. T.

    2013-06-01

    We report on a blind survey for extragalactic radio variability that was carried out by comparing two epochs of data from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters survey with a third epoch from a new 1.4 GHz survey of SDSS Stripe 82. The three epochs are spaced seven years apart and have an overlapping area of 60 deg{sup 2}. We uncover 89 variable sources down to the millijansky level, 75 of which are newly identified, and we find no evidence for transient phenomena. This new sample of variable sources allows us to infer an upper limit to the mean characteristic timescale of active galactic nucleus radio variability of 14 yr. We find that only 1% of extragalactic sources have fractional variability f {sub var} > 3, while 44% of Galactic sources vary by this much. The variable sample contains a larger fraction of quasars than a comparable non-variable control sample, though the majority of the variable sources appear to be extended galaxies in the optical. This implies that either quasars are not the dominant contributor to the variability of the sample, or that the deep optical data allow us to detect the host galaxies of some low-z quasars. We use the new, higher resolution data to report on the morphology of the variable sources. Finally, we show that the fraction of sources that are variable remains constant or increases at low flux densities. This may imply that next generation radio surveys with telescopes like Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder and MeerKAT will see a constant or even increasing fraction of variable sources down into the sub-millijansky regime.

  7. Millijansky Radio Variability in SDSS Stripe 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, J. A.; Becker, R. H.; White, R. L.; Richards, G. T.

    2013-06-01

    We report on a blind survey for extragalactic radio variability that was carried out by comparing two epochs of data from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters survey with a third epoch from a new 1.4 GHz survey of SDSS Stripe 82. The three epochs are spaced seven years apart and have an overlapping area of 60 deg2. We uncover 89 variable sources down to the millijansky level, 75 of which are newly identified, and we find no evidence for transient phenomena. This new sample of variable sources allows us to infer an upper limit to the mean characteristic timescale of active galactic nucleus radio variability of 14 yr. We find that only 1% of extragalactic sources have fractional variability f var > 3, while 44% of Galactic sources vary by this much. The variable sample contains a larger fraction of quasars than a comparable non-variable control sample, though the majority of the variable sources appear to be extended galaxies in the optical. This implies that either quasars are not the dominant contributor to the variability of the sample, or that the deep optical data allow us to detect the host galaxies of some low-z quasars. We use the new, higher resolution data to report on the morphology of the variable sources. Finally, we show that the fraction of sources that are variable remains constant or increases at low flux densities. This may imply that next generation radio surveys with telescopes like Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder and MeerKAT will see a constant or even increasing fraction of variable sources down into the sub-millijansky regime.

  8. Penetration of Enceladus Ice Tiger Stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Castillo, J. C.

    2006-09-01

    INTRODUCTION: Measurements from Cassini have determined that warm "tiger stripe” regions on Enceladus are made of water ice that is at a temperature of up to 157 +/-32K (Spencer et al, Science, 311, 1401, 2006). If the tiger stripe region is assumed to be pure polycrystalline water ice, and if liquid water exists below the ice lithosphere, then thermal analyses show that the thickness of the ice is less than 40-m. Two possible means to penetrate the ice are described below. HARPOON PENETRATOR: Sandia National Laboratories has published reports, which give ground penetration depth as a function of various projectile parameters. Applying the Sandia equations (Young, SAND97-2426, 1997) to an Enceladus penetrator, one example shows that a sharp, steel penetrator, that is 10 cm diameter and 2-m length (132 kg) could penetrate through 40-m of ice with an impact velocity of about 150 m/sec and maximum deceleration of 350 g's. This allows ruggedized science instruments to be carried on the harpoon and tethered to an antenna dropped off at the surface level, as was done in many of the Sandia tests. Larger diameters or shorter rods require higher velocities and higher g's. SUBLIMATION PENETRATOR: Calculations have also been performed on soft-landed, heated probes. Using power tethered from the surface craft, the penetrator would sublimate down to the liquid layer. Assuming a 3-cm diameter probe with a 50-w heated tip, the probe would descend at the rate of about 1-m per day with descent rates approximately proportional to power/area. An insulated cylindrical area above the heated tip could contain ports for science instruments that could be located on the surface craft with data transmitted by optical fiber. This research was carried out at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  9. The size of plume heterogeneities constrained by Marquesas isotopic stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvel, Catherine; Maury, René C.; Blais, Sylvain; Lewin, Eric; Guillou, Hervé; Guille, GéRard; Rossi, Philippe; Gutscher, Marc-André

    2012-07-01

    The scale and geometry of chemical and isotopic heterogeneities in the source of plumes have important scientific implications on the nature, composition and origin of plumes and on the dynamics of mantle mixing over time. Here, we address these issues through the study of Marquesas Islands, one of the Archipelagoes in Polynesia. We present new Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf isotopes as well as trace element data on lavas from several Marquesas Islands and demonstrate that this archipelago consists of two adjacent and distinct rows of islands with significantly different isotopic compositions. For the entire 5.5 Ma construction period, the northern islands, hereafter called the Ua Huka group, has had systematically higher 87Sr/86Sr and lower 206Pb/204Pb ratios than the southern Fatu Hiva group at any given 143Nd/144Nd value. The shape and curvature of mixing arrays preclude the ambient depleted MORB mantle as one of the mixing end-members. We believe therefore that the entire isotopic heterogeneity originates in the plume itself. We suggest that the two Marquesas isotopic stripes originate from partial melting of two adjacent filaments contained in small plumes or "plumelets" that came from a large dome structure located deep in the mantle under Polynesia. Low-degree partial melting under Marquesas and other "weak" Polynesian hot spot chains (Pitcairn-Gambier, Austral-Cook, Society) sample small areas of the dome and preserve source heterogeneities. In contrast, more productive hot spots build up large islands such as Big Island in Hawaii or Réunion Island, and the higher degrees of melting blur the isotopic variability of the plume source.

  10. Dipole-exchange modes in transversely magnetized ferromagnetic stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Rodrigo; Duan, Zheng; Krivorotov, Ilya

    2014-03-01

    We present a theory of dipole-exchange modes in transversely magnetized ferromagnetic stripes of rectangular cross sections: a comparison is made with experimental results on Permalloy stripes. The model applies to very thin stripes (of the order of the exchange length): the magnetization is considered uniform over their thickness, and we consider modes of long wavelength along the longitudinal direction of the stripes. An applied magnetic field saturates the stripes along the transverse direction, and we also consider the effect of the exchange and dipolar fields. Under these assumptions we obtain the frequencies and shapes of the modes either considering free or pinned boundary conditions. We obtain good agreement with measurements of the frequency spectra in Permalloy nano wires of several rectangular cross sections: this happens for modes with appreciable amplitude throughout the samples. There is frequency disagreement for edge modes due to limitations of the model, since the effects of roughness, corners and imperfections at the edges of the samples are quite relevant in this case. This work was supported by the NSF Materials World Network Program Grant No. DMR-1210850 and by DOE grant DE-FG02-84ER45083. Also, supported by ``Proyecto ICM FP10-061-F-FIC'', and ``Proyecto FONDECYT 1130192, Conicyt, Chile''.

  11. Effect of low-head lock and dam structures on migration and spawning of American shad and striped bass in the Cape Fear River, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joseph A.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations within the Cape Fear River, North Carolina, have declined substantially since the late 1800s. Three low-head lock-and-dam (LD) structures on the river (LD-1–3) contributed to this decline by limiting access to upstream spawning habitat. We used egg sampling and sonic telemetry to examine the effects of the LD structures on migration and spawning activity of American shad Alosa sapidissima and striped bassMorone saxatilis. Egg distribution and stage of development suggested that most of the American shad spawning took place downstream from the lowermost structure, LD-1. The predicted mean density of stage-1 American shad eggs at a water temperature of 21°C was 895 eggs/1,000 m3 (95% credible interval [CI] = 800–994) below LD-1; 147 eggs/1,000 m3 (95% CI = 103–197) below LD-2; and 32 eggs/1,000 m3 (95% CI = 17–49) below the uppermost structure, LD-3. The probability of capturing a stage-1 American shad egg was strongly dependent on water temperature and hour of egg collection. Transmitter detections for 20 sonic-tagged American shad and 20 striped bass in 2008 showed that for both species, the majority of fish moved upstream of LD-1; 35% of American shad and 25% of striped bass migrated upstream of LD-3. Based on passage rates at the three LD structures, American shad would be expected to be most abundant downstream of LD-1 and upstream of LD-3. For striped bass, the river section between LD-2 and LD-3 had the highest egg collections and highest predicted proportion of the run. In combination, these results demonstrate that the locking program provides some access to historical spawning habitat, although further improvements in fish passage could benefit both species.

  12. Strong-Coupling and the Stripe Phase of ^3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiman, Joshua J.; Sauls, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    Thin films of superfluid 3He were predicted, based on weak-coupling BCS theory, to have a stable phase which spontaneously breaks translational symmetry in the plane of the film. This crystalline superfluid, or "stripe" phase, develops as a one-dimensional periodic array of domain walls separating degenerate B phase domains. We report calculations of the phases and phase diagram for superfluid 3He in thin films using a strong-coupling Ginzburg-Landau theory that accurately reproduces the bulk 3He superfluid phase diagram. We find that the stability of the Stripe phase is diminished relative to the A phase, but the Stripe phase is stable in a large range of temperatures, pressures, confinement, and surface conditions.

  13. Direct evidence for charge stripes in a layered cobalt oxide

    PubMed Central

    Babkevich, P.; Freeman, P. G.; Enderle, M.; Prabhakaran, D.; Boothroyd, A. T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments indicate that static stripe-like charge order is generic to the hole-doped copper oxide superconductors and competes with superconductivity. Here we show that a similar type of charge order is present in La5/3Sr1/3CoO4, an insulating analogue of the copper oxide superconductors containing cobalt in place of copper. The stripe phase we have detected is accompanied by short-range, quasi-one-dimensional, antiferromagnetic order, and provides a natural explanation for the distinctive hourglass shape of the magnetic spectrum previously observed in neutron-scattering measurements of La2−xSrxCoO4 and many hole-doped copper oxide superconductors. The results establish a solid empirical basis for theories of the hourglass spectrum built on short-range, quasi-static, stripe correlations. PMID:27212023

  14. Chaotic and Arnold stripes in weakly chaotic Hamiltonian systems.

    PubMed

    Custódio, M S; Manchein, C; Beims, M W

    2012-06-01

    The dynamics in weakly chaotic Hamiltonian systems strongly depends on initial conditions (ICs) and little can be affirmed about generic behaviors. Using two distinct Hamiltonian systems, namely one particle in an open rectangular billiard and four particles globally coupled on a discrete lattice, we show that in these models, the transition from integrable motion to weak chaos emerges via chaotic stripes as the nonlinear parameter is increased. The stripes represent intervals of initial conditions which generate chaotic trajectories and increase with the nonlinear parameter of the system. In the billiard case, the initial conditions are the injection angles. For higher-dimensional systems and small nonlinearities, the chaotic stripes are the initial condition inside which Arnold diffusion occurs.

  15. A unified design space of synthetic stripe-forming networks.

    PubMed

    Schaerli, Yolanda; Munteanu, Andreea; Gili, Magüi; Cotterell, James; Sharpe, James; Isalan, Mark

    2014-09-23

    Synthetic biology is a promising tool to study the function and properties of gene regulatory networks. Gene circuits with predefined behaviours have been successfully built and modelled, but largely on a case-by-case basis. Here we go beyond individual networks and explore both computationally and synthetically the design space of possible dynamical mechanisms for 3-node stripe-forming networks. First, we computationally test every possible 3-node network for stripe formation in a morphogen gradient. We discover four different dynamical mechanisms to form a stripe and identify the minimal network of each group. Next, with the help of newly established engineering criteria we build these four networks synthetically and show that they indeed operate with four fundamentally distinct mechanisms. Finally, this close match between theory and experiment allows us to infer and subsequently build a 2-node network that represents the archetype of the explored design space.

  16. Distinct signals generate repeating striped pattern in the embryonic parasegment.

    PubMed

    Hatini, V; DiNardo, S

    2001-01-01

    How repeating striped patterns arise across cellular fields is unclear. To address this we examined the repeating pattern of Stripe (Sr) expression across the parasegment (PS) in Drosophila. This pattern is generated in two steps. First, the ligands Hedgehog (Hh) and Wingless (Wg) subdivide the PS into smaller territories. Second, the ligands Hh, Spitz (Spi), and Wg each emanate from a specific territory and induce Sr expression in an adjacent territory. We also show that the width of Sr expression is determined by signaling strength. Finally, an enhancer trap in the sr gene detects the response to Spi and Wg, but not to Hh, implying the existence of separable control elements in the sr gene. Thus, a distinct inductive event is used to initiate each element of the repeating striped pattern.

  17. A unified design space of synthetic stripe-forming networks

    PubMed Central

    Schaerli, Yolanda; Munteanu, Andreea; Gili, Magüi; Cotterell, James; Sharpe, James; Isalan, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a promising tool to study the function and properties of gene regulatory networks. Gene circuits with predefined behaviours have been successfully built and modelled, but largely on a case-by-case basis. Here we go beyond individual networks and explore both computationally and synthetically the design space of possible dynamical mechanisms for 3-node stripe-forming networks. First, we computationally test every possible 3-node network for stripe formation in a morphogen gradient. We discover four different dynamical mechanisms to form a stripe and identify the minimal network of each group. Next, with the help of newly established engineering criteria we build these four networks synthetically and show that they indeed operate with four fundamentally distinct mechanisms. Finally, this close match between theory and experiment allows us to infer and subsequently build a 2-node network that represents the archetype of the explored design space. PMID:25247316

  18. Apparatus And Method For Reconstructing Data Using Cross-Parity Stripes On Storage Media

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, James Prescott

    2003-06-17

    An apparatus and method for reconstructing missing data using cross-parity stripes on a storage medium is provided. The apparatus and method may operate on data symbols having sizes greater than a data bit. The apparatus and method makes use of a plurality of parity stripes for reconstructing missing data stripes. The parity symbol values in the parity stripes are used as a basis for determining the value of the missing data symbol in a data stripe. A correction matrix is shifted along the data stripes, correcting missing data symbols as it is shifted. The correction is performed from the outside data stripes towards the inner data stripes to thereby use previously reconstructed data symbols to reconstruct other missing data symbols.

  19. User experience network. Erroneous downstream occlusion alarms may disable Smiths Medical CADD-Solis infusion pumps.

    PubMed

    2010-10-01

    Due to an issue in manufacturing, downstream occlusion (DSO) sensors in some Smiths Medical CADD-Solis infusion pumps may drift out of calibration, potentially resulting in erroneous alarms that disable the units. Hospitals experiencing the problem should return affected units to Smiths Medical for recalibration (free of charge) and should consider testing all their CADD-Solis pumps during routine maintenance to ensure that they alarm appropriately for downstream occlusions.

  20. Selectively splitting a droplet using superhydrophobic stripes on hydrophilic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Song, Dong; Song, Baowei; Hu, Haibao; Du, Xiaosong; Zhou, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Superhydrophobic patterns were fabricated on hydrophilic surfaces by selective painting. The impinging process of water droplets on these hybrid surfaces was investigated. The droplet can be split by impinging on the hydrophilic surface with a single stripe at a high velocity. The time to split the droplet is independent of the impact velocity and it is smaller than the contact time of a droplet impinging on the fully superhydrophobic surface. The volume ratios of the split mini-droplets could be precisely controlled by adjusting the landing position of the original droplet. The droplet could be split uniformly into more mini-marbles by increasing the stripe numbers. PMID:25946666

  1. Quantum theory of the smectic metal state in stripe phases

    PubMed

    Emery; Fradkin; Kivelson; Lubensky

    2000-09-01

    We present a theory of the electron smectic fixed point of the stripe phases of doped layered Mott insulators. We show that in the presence of a spin gap three phases generally arise: (a) a smectic superconductor, (b) an insulating stripe crystal, and (c) a smectic metal. The latter phase is a stable two-dimensional anisotropic non-Fermi liquid. In the absence of a spin gap there is also a more conventional Fermi-liquid-like phase. The smectic superconductor and smectic metal phases (or glassy versions thereof) may have already been seen in Nd-doped La2-xSrxCuO4.

  2. Striped bass and the management of cooling lakes. [Morone saxatilis

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    Striped bass, Morone saxatilis, is being introduced to freshwater reservoirs, some of which are used for power plant cooling. The thermal niche of this fish species changes with age and greatly influences its success. Juveniles, which prefer and grow optimally near 24 to 26/sup 0/C (75-80/sup 0/F), may thrive in cooling lakes. However, adults, which seek temperatures near 20/sup 0/C (68/sup 0/F) and exhibit poor growth and survival above 22/sup 0/C (72/sup 0/F), may not survive summer conditions. Striped bass management in cooling lakes should be guided by these thermal requirements.

  3. Laser light stripe measurements assure correct piston assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Norbert; Frohn, Heiko

    1993-12-01

    Two VIKON-3D optical inspection systems assure the correct assembly of piston rings and guard rings in a new Volkswagen piston/rod assembly line. Both systems use laser light stripe measurements to locate and identify the relevant parts with high accuracy. The piston ring assembly is checked dynamically in video real time using laser light stripe and parallel projection techniques. In addition structured light is used to verify the correct piston/rod assembly. Both inspection systems are fully integrated into the manufacturing line. All types of pistons assembled can be checked without any mechanical changes to the measurement setup.

  4. Interactions between striped bass and other gamefish in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Raborn, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Competitive interactions among reservoir fishes may be pronounced because fish assemblages in these artificial environments have had little time to develop niche-partitioning strategies that alleviate negative interspecific interactions. Such interactions may at times have been intensified by introductions of predators such as striped bass Morone saxatilis, introduced to create additional fisheries and control pelagic clupeids. Possible interactions between existing fish assemblages and striped bass include predation and competition. While there is a perception among angler groups that predation by striped bass on co-existing game fish is significant, most studies have reported little or no predation on game fish my striped bass and have considered predation rare and inconsequential. Moreover, predation that occurs will likely be compensatory and fail to reduce overall game fish survival. Any indirect effect of striped bass predation by restricting prey-sized game fish to limited refuge sites remains unknown. Exploitative competition may be more common. Although infrequently, introduced striped bass have depleted prey resources shared with other piscivores, particularly when stocking rates have been high, when there is a high rate of natural reproduction, or when prey supply has plunged in response to environmental fluxes. Fluctuation in prey supply, associated with ordinary environmental variability, and associated time lages in prey supply and predator demand, preclude adjusting predator densities to exactly balance demand with supply. The frequency of low supply-demand rations varies across systems and exhibits seasonal trends. Nevertheless, chronic supply-demand imbalances are manageable where the predator assemblage is at least partially controlled through stocking, harvest regulations, or both. Because of the poor state of knowledge concerning the parameters defining balance and because uncontrollable annual fluctuations preclude exact management of

  5. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors E... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors E... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors E... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors E... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and...

  9. Response to “Critical Assessment of the Evidence for Striped Nanoparticles”

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Quy Khac; Stellacci, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Stirling et al., (10.1371/journal.pone.0108482) presented an analysis on some of our publications on the formation of stripe-like domains on mixed-ligand coated gold nanoparticles. The authors shed doubts on some of our results however no valid argument is provided against what we have shown since our first publication: scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of striped nanoparticles show stripe-like domains that are independent of imaging parameters and in particular of imaging speed. We have consistently ruled out the presence of artifacts by comparing sets of images acquired at different tip speeds, finding invariance of the stipe-like domains. Stirling and co-workers incorrectly analyzed this key control, using a different microscope and imaging conditions that do not compare to ours. We show here data proving that our approach is rigorous. Furthermore, we never solely relied on image analysis to draw our conclusions; we have always used the chemical nature of the particles to assess the veracity of our images. Stirling et al. do not provide any justification for the spacing of the features that we find on nanoparticles: ~1 nm for mixed ligand particles and ~ 0.5 nm for homoligand particles. Hence our two central arguments remain unmodified: independence from imaging parameters and dependence on ligand shell chemical composition. The paper report observations on our STM images; none is a sufficient condition to prove that our images are artifacts. We thoroughly addressed issues related to STM artifacts throughout our microscopy work. Stirling et al. provide guidelines for what they consider good STM images of nanoparticles, such images are indeed present in our literature. They conclude that the evidences we provided to date are insufficient, this is a departure from one of the authors’ previous article which concluded that our images were composed of artifacts. Given that four independent laboratories have reproduced our measurements and that no

  10. Philippines' downstream sector poised for growth

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    This paper reports that the Philippines' downstream sector is poised for sharp growth. Despite a slip in refined products demand in recent years, Philippines products demand will rebound sharply by 2000, East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu, predicts. Philippines planned refinery expansions are expected to meet that added demand, EWC Director Fereidun Fesharaki says. Like the rest of the Asia-Pacific region, product specifications are changing, but major refiners in the area expect to meet the changes without major case outlays. At the same time, Fesharaki says, push toward deregulation will further bolster the outlook for the Philippines downstream sector.

  11. Earth Magnetism: Teaching "Magnetic Stripes" to Secondary Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Owain

    2002-01-01

    Pupils need to grasp many linked concepts to understand how observed magnetic stripes can be produced by sea floor spreading, as required by some courses. This article suggest simple practical demonstrations that can be of great help. (Contains 2 online resources and 2 figures.)

  12. Striped gold nanoparticles: New insights from molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velachi, Vasumathi; Bhandary, Debdip; Singh, Jayant K.; Cordeiro, M. Natália D. S.

    2016-06-01

    Recent simulations have improved our knowledge of the molecular-level structure and hydration properties of mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with equal and unequal alkyl thiols at three different arrangements, namely, random, patchy, and Janus. In our previous work [V. Vasumathi et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 119, 3199-3209 (2015)], we showed that the bending of longer thiols over shorter ones clearly depends on the thiols' arrangements and chemical nature of their terminal groups. In addition, such a thiol bending revealed to have a strong impact on the structural and hydration properties of SAMs coated on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In this paper, we extend our previous atomistic simulation study to investigate the bending of longer thiols by increasing the stripe thickness of mixed SAMs of equal and unequal lengths coated on AuNPs. We study also the effect of stripe thickness on the structural morphology and hydration of the coated SAMs. Our results show that the structural and hydration properties of SAMs are affected by the stripe thickness for mixtures of alkyl thiols with unequal chain length but not for equal length. Hence, the stability of the stripe configuration depends on the alkyl's chain length, the length difference between the thiol mixtures, and solvent properties.

  13. CRSP Hyperspectral Stripe Array Targets: Preliminary Results and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrie, Gregory; Jenner, Jeff; Tate, Steve; Muston, Shaun; Schaefer, Jason; Grant, Brennan; Sellers, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Objectives of this program: Assess the capability of a spaceborne hyperspectral sensor/algorithm system to perform target detection; Provide information to guide the design and construction of surrogate targets and stripe arrays; Target development cost of less than 50,000.

  14. Dissolved oxygen concentration affects hybrid striped bass growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in ponds at night during the growing season is important because fish growth and yield are greater in ponds with higher nightly DO concentrations. Three studies were conducted to quantify performance traits and metabolic responses of hybrid striped b...

  15. Hydrodynamic coarsening in striped pattern formation with a conservation law.

    PubMed

    Shiwa, Y

    2005-07-01

    We observed in numerical simulations that the interaction of striped-pattern-forming instability and a neutrally stable zero mode induces patterns of domains of upflow hexagons coexisting with domains of downflow hexagons. They appear only when hydrodynamic flow is present.

  16. TROPHIC DYNAMICS OF STRIPED BASS IN SMITH MOUNTAIN LAKE, VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the adequacy of the forage base to meet demand of striped bass in Smith Mountain Lake, Virginia. In regards to prey supply, mean alewife biomass from 1993-1998 was 37 kg/ha and mean gizzard shad biomass from 1990-1997 was 112 kg/ha. Mean annual alewife surplus produ...

  17. Enhancement of chromatic contrast increases predation risk for striped butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Stobbe, Nina; Schaefer, H. Martin

    2008-01-01

    Many prey species have evolved defensive colour patterns to avoid attacks. One type of camouflage, disruptive coloration, relies on contrasting patterns that hinder predators' ability to recognize an object. While high contrasts are used to facilitate detection in many visual communication systems, they are thought to provide misleading information about prey appearance in disruptive patterns. A fundamental tenet in disruptive coloration theory is the principle of ‘maximum disruptive contrast’, i.e. disruptive patterns are more effective when higher contrasts are involved. We tested this principle in highly contrasting stripes that have often been described as disruptive patterns. Varying the strength of chromatic contrast between stripes and adjacent pattern elements in artificial butterflies, we found a strong negative correlation between survival probability and chromatic contrast strength. We conclude that too high a contrast leads to increased conspicuousness rather than to effective camouflage. However, artificial butterflies that sported contrasts similar to those of the model species Limenitis camilla survived equally well as background-matching butterflies without these stripes. Contrasting stripes do thus not necessarily increase predation rates. This result may provide new insights into the design and characteristics of a range of colour patterns such as sexual, mimetic and aposematic signals. PMID:18381256

  18. STABLE ISOTOPE RATIOS IN ARCHIVED STRIPED BASS SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years fishermen and scientists have noted that striped bass caught along the East Coast of the United States have reduced weight to length ratios with many of the fish caught in Chesapeake Bay exhibiting skin lesions. Several theories have been suggested to explain thes...

  19. Experimental toxoplasma gondii infection in striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-three striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) without demonstrable antibodies in 1:25 serum dilution in the modified agglutination test (MAT) were fed sporulated Toxoplasma gondii oocysts (9 skunks) or tissue cysts (10 skunks), and 4 skunks (controls) were not given T. gondii. Skunks were bled be...

  20. Organized Stone Stripes in the Northern Plains of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    Polygonally-patterned ground at scales of meters to tens of meters is nearly ubiquitous in the northern plains of Mars. Collections of cobble to boulder-sized clasts are commonly found superimposed on polygonal terrain in a regular pattern that resembles the surface of a basketball [Mellon et al., 2008; Malin and Edgett, 2001]. Here we describe a variation of this basketball terrain, dubbed "stone stripes," in which piles of clastic debris are arranged into a series of parallel to subparallel ridges spaced at intervals of ~40 m. Stone stripes appear to be continuous or nearly continuous over areas of tens to hundreds of square kilometers. This type of landform is most prevalent poleward of ~70°N latitude, at the northern margin of Utopia Planitia . We hypothesize that the orientation of stone stripes is controlled by regional structures, such as wrinkle ridges. First results from a survey of THEMIS VIS images within the area from 60°N-80°N and from 70°E-130°E show no obvious correlation between wrinkle ridge orientation and the orientation of stone stripes. Work is ongoing to further characterize the orientation of stone stripes in relation to regional structures and local and regional topographic slopes. Mellon et al., (2008), Periglacial landforms at the Phoenix landing site and the northern plains of Mars, Journal of Geophysical Research, doi:10.1029/2007JE003039, in press. Malin and Edgett, (2001), Mars global surveyor mars orbiter camera: Interplanetary cruise through primary mission, Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 23429-23570.

  1. Biotelemetry study of spring and summer habitat selection by striped bass in Cherokee Reservoir, Tennessee, 1978. [Morone saxatilis

    SciTech Connect

    Schaich, B.A.; Coutant, C.C.

    1980-08-01

    Habitat selection of 31 adult striped bass was monitored by temperature sensing ultrasonic and radio transmitters in Cherokee Reservoir, Tennessee, from March through October 1978. This study sought to corroborate summer data obtained by Waddle (1979) in 1977 and to examine mechanisms of habitat selection by observing establishment of the summer distribution. During the spring and early summer months the striped bass ranged throughout the study area in the downstream half of the reservoir. Fish stayed near the bottom at the preferred temperatures throughout the whole study, and no individuals were observed in open water. Movement rates of up to 2.6 km/day were estimated, and rates of 1 km/day were common in the spring. By late July they were apparently avoiding low dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentrations (<3 mg/l) near the bottom of the main reservoir and epilimnion temperatures greater than 22/sup 0/C, and they moved into cool, oxygenated spring or creek channels (refuges). Low movement rates of 0 to 25 m/day within these refuges occurred. The rates of the few migrations between refuges could not be estimated. Tagged fish moved out of the refuges 3 to 4 weeks after the fall overturn when reservoir temperatures approximated 22 to 24/sup 0/C.

  2. Downstream Sediment Sorting as a Fractionation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paola, C.; Fedele, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    Downstream size segregation in net depositional systems can be thought of as a fractination process in which a well mixed, heterogeneous input is unmixed based on its relative mobility. Although we are accustomed to thinking of the segregation process as hydraulically driven and rather complex, we argue that at large time and length scales size segregation can be substantially simplified. The main controls are the downstream distribution of sediment extraction, which is typically controlled externally (e.g. by subsidence) and the size distribution of the sediment supply. Hydraulics plays a secondary role because of the tendency for river channels to self organize to a shape that maintains a limited range of dimensionless shear stress on the channel bed. The end result of this line of reasoning is a simple method for calculating downstream size segregation in depositional systems that is in good agreement with the limited data available. In terms of local dynamics, we introduce evidence that topographic roughness plays an important role. This is not explicitly incorporated in our analysis, and the best ways to characterize roughness for this purpose are yet to be determined. Finally, to estimate the importance of abrasion effects at large scales, we re-introduce a dimensionless parameter to describe the relative importance of abrasion, which sorts material by durability, and selective transport, which sorts by transportability.

  3. How the zebra got its stripes: a problem with too many solutions

    PubMed Central

    Larison, Brenda; Harrigan, Ryan J.; Thomassen, Henri A.; Rubenstein, Daniel I.; Chan-Golston, Alec M.; Li, Elizabeth; Smith, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive significance of zebra stripes has thus far eluded understanding. Many explanations have been suggested, including social cohesion, thermoregulation, predation evasion and avoidance of biting flies. Identifying the associations between phenotypic and environmental factors is essential for testing these hypotheses and substantiating existing experimental evidence. Plains zebra striping pattern varies regionally, from heavy black and white striping over the entire body in some areas to reduced stripe coverage with thinner and lighter stripes in others. We examined how well 29 environmental variables predict the variation in stripe characteristics of plains zebra across their range in Africa. In contrast to recent findings, we found no evidence that striping may have evolved to escape predators or avoid biting flies. Instead, we found that temperature successfully predicts a substantial amount of the stripe pattern variation observed in plains zebra. As this association between striping and temperature may be indicative of multiple biological processes, we suggest that the selective agents driving zebra striping are probably multifarious and complex. PMID:26064590

  4. Bulk temperature measurement in thermally striped pipe flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lemure, N.; Olvera, J.R.; Ruggles, A.E.

    1995-12-01

    The hot leg flows in some Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designs have a temperature distribution across the pipe cross-section. This condition is often referred to as a thermally striped flow. Here, the bulk temperature measurement of pipe flows with thermal striping is explored. An experiment is conducted to examine the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the external surface of the pipe to estimate the bulk temperature of the flow. Simple mixing models are used to characterize the development of the temperature profile in the flow. Simple averaging techniques and Backward Propagating Neural Net are used to predict bulk temperature from the external temperature measurements. Accurate bulk temperatures can be predicted. However, some temperature distributions in the flow effectively mask the bulk temperature from the wall and cause significant error in the bulk temperature predicted using this technique.

  5. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Bills, T.D.; Marking, L.L.; Howe, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. The authors determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222), metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass fry (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degrees C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin.

  6. Controlled particle transport in a plasma chamber with striped electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Ke; Li Yangfang; Shimizu, T.; Konopka, U.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.

    2009-12-15

    The controlled transport of micrometer size dust particles in a parallel-plate radio frequency discharge has been investigated. The lower stainless steel electrode consisted of 100 independently controllable electrical metal stripes. The voltage signals on these stripes were modulated, causing traveling plasma sheath distortions. Because the particles trapped in local potential wells moved according to the direction of the distortion, the transport velocity could be actively controlled by adjusting frequencies and phase shifts of the applied periodic voltage signals. To investigate the detailed principle of this transport, molecular dynamic simulations was performed to reproduce the observations with the plasma background conditions calculated by separated particle-in-cell simulations for the experimental parameters. The findings will help develop novel technologies for investigating large-scale complex plasma systems and techniques for achieving clean environments in plasma processing reactors.

  7. Very high coercivity magnetic stripes produced by particle rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, R.B.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes a current research program at Sandia National Laboratories whereby magnetic stripes are produced through the use of a new particle rotation technology. This new process allows the stripes to be produced in bulk and then held in a latent state so that they may be encoded at a later date. Since particle rotation is less dependent on the type of magnetic particle used, very high coercivity particles could provide a way to increase both magnetic tamper-resistance and accidental erasure protection. This research was initially funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Safeguard and Security as a portion of their Science and Technology Base Development, Advanced Security Concepts program. Current program funding is being provided by Sandia National Laboratories as part of their Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  8. Quantum Theory of the Smectic Metal State in Stripe Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, V. J.; Fradkin, E.; Kivelson, S. A.; Lubensky, T. C.

    2000-09-04

    We present a theory of the electron smectic fixed point of the stripe phases of doped layered Mott insulators. We show that in the presence of a spin gap three phases generally arise: (a) a smectic superconductor, (b) an insulating stripe crystal, and (c) a smectic metal. The latter phase is a stable two-dimensional anisotropic non-Fermi liquid. In the absence of a spin gap there is also a more conventional Fermi-liquid-like phase. The smectic superconductor and smectic metal phases (or glassy versions thereof) may have already been seen in Nd-doped La{sub 2-x}Sr {sub x}CuO{sub 4} . (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  9. Non-stripe charge order in dimerized organic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takehiko

    2016-06-01

    This paper demonstrates charge order is important in dimerized β - and κ -phase organic conductors similar to the uniform θ - and α -phase conductors. Here the magnitude of the dimerization represents the deviation from the ideal triangular lattice in analogy with the anisotropy in the θ phase. Since the ratio of the intradimer transfer integral to the interdimer transfer integral is as large as ˜2.6 , these dimerized phases lead to a dimer Mott insulator, whereas the Coulomb repulsion is closer to the triangular lattice because the ratio of the intradimer Coulomb repulsion to the interdimer Coulomb repulsion is comparatively small (˜1.7 ). Accordingly, in the static-limit calculation, non-stripe charge order with threefold periodicity appears between the uniform and the stripe phases, and the analogy with the θ phase suggests the first-order nature of the metal-insulator transition.

  10. Striped bass stocks and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Sloan, Ronald J.; O'Brien, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Harvest restrictions on striped bass Morone saxatilis fisheries in Atlantic coastal states were relaxed in 1990, but consistent, coastwide regulations of the harvest have been difficult to implement because of the mixed-stock nature of the fisheries and the recognized contamination of Hudson River fish by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We examined PCB concentrations and stock of origin of coastal striped bass to better understand the effects of these two factors on the composition of the harvest. The probability of observing differences in PCB concentration among fish from the Hudson River stock and the 'southern' group (Chesapeake Bay and Roanoke River stocks combined) was investigated with the logit model (a linear model for analysis of categorical data). Although total PCB concentrations were highly variable among fish from the two groups, striped bass classified as Hudson River stock had a significantly greater probability of having PCB concentrations equal to or greater than 2.00 mg/kg than did fish belonging to the southern group for all age- and size-classes examined. There was a significantly greater probability of observing total PCB concentrations equal to or exceeding 2.00 mg/kg in fish that were 5, 6, and 7 or more years old, and this probability increased linearly with age. We observed similar results when we examined the effect of size on total PCB concentration. The minimum-size limit estimated to permit escapement of fish to sustain stock production is 610 mm total length. Unless total PCB concentrations decrease in striped bass, it is likely that many harvestable fish will have concentrations that exceed the tolerance limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  11. Temperature selection by juvenile striped bass in laboratory and field

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C.C.; Zachman, K.L.; Cox, D.K.; Pearman, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    Juvenile striped bass Morone saxatilis, 80-300 mm in total length and acclimated to 22-24 C, generally selected temperatures in the range 24-27 C during spring and summer in laboratory horizontal temperature gradients and electronic shuttleboxes and in exploratory telemetry trials at a freshwater quarry lake. During autumn, preferred temperatures in laboratory gradients declined to 20-25 C. 35 references, 2 tables.

  12. Transverse instabilities in chemical Turing patterns of stripes.

    PubMed

    Peña, B; Pérez-García, C; Sanz-Anchelergues, A; Míguez, D G; Muñuzuri, A P

    2003-11-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the sideband instabilities in Turing patterns of stripes. We compare numerical computations of the Brusselator model with experiments in a chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid (CDIMA) reaction in a thin gel layer reactor in contact with a continuously refreshed reservoir of reagents. Spontaneously evolving Turing structures in both systems typically exhibit many defects that break the symmetry of the pattern. Therefore, the study of sideband instabilities requires a method of forcing perfect, spatially periodic Turing patterns with the desired wave number. This is easily achieved in numerical simulations. In experiments, the photosensitivity of the CDIMA reaction permits control and modulation of Turing structures by periodic spatial illumination with a wave number outside the stability region. When a too big wave number is imposed on the pattern, the Eckhaus instability may arise, while for too small wave numbers an instability sets in forming zigzags. By means of the amplitude equation formalism we show that, close to the hexagon-stripe transitions, these sideband instabilities may be preceded by an amplitude instability that grows transient spots locally before reconnecting with stripes. This prediction is tested in both the reaction-diffusion model and the experiment. PMID:14682870

  13. Transverse instabilities in chemical Turing patterns of stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, B.; Pérez-García, C.; Sanz-Anchelergues, A.; Míguez, D. G.; Muñuzuri, A. P.

    2003-11-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the sideband instabilities in Turing patterns of stripes. We compare numerical computations of the Brusselator model with experiments in a chlorine dioxide iodine malonic acid (CDIMA) reaction in a thin gel layer reactor in contact with a continuously refreshed reservoir of reagents. Spontaneously evolving Turing structures in both systems typically exhibit many defects that break the symmetry of the pattern. Therefore, the study of sideband instabilities requires a method of forcing perfect, spatially periodic Turing patterns with the desired wave number. This is easily achieved in numerical simulations. In experiments, the photosensitivity of the CDIMA reaction permits control and modulation of Turing structures by periodic spatial illumination with a wave number outside the stability region. When a too big wave number is imposed on the pattern, the Eckhaus instability may arise, while for too small wave numbers an instability sets in forming zigzags. By means of the amplitude equation formalism we show that, close to the hexagon-stripe transitions, these sideband instabilities may be preceded by an amplitude instability that grows transient spots locally before reconnecting with stripes. This prediction is tested in both the reaction-diffusion model and the experiment.

  14. Gaze Stripes: Image-Based Visualization of Eye Tracking Data.

    PubMed

    Kurzhals, Kuno; Hlawatsch, Marcel; Heimerl, Florian; Burch, Michael; Ertl, Thomas; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We present a new visualization approach for displaying eye tracking data from multiple participants. We aim to show the spatio-temporal data of the gaze points in the context of the underlying image or video stimulus without occlusion. Our technique, denoted as gaze stripes, does not require the explicit definition of areas of interest but directly uses the image data around the gaze points, similar to thumbnails for images. A gaze stripe consists of a sequence of such gaze point images, oriented along a horizontal timeline. By displaying multiple aligned gaze stripes, it is possible to analyze and compare the viewing behavior of the participants over time. Since the analysis is carried out directly on the image data, expensive post-processing or manual annotation are not required. Therefore, not only patterns and outliers in the participants' scanpaths can be detected, but the context of the stimulus is available as well. Furthermore, our approach is especially well suited for dynamic stimuli due to the non-aggregated temporal mapping. Complementary views, i.e., markers, notes, screenshots, histograms, and results from automatic clustering, can be added to the visualization to display analysis results. We illustrate the usefulness of our technique on static and dynamic stimuli. Furthermore, we discuss the limitations and scalability of our approach in comparison to established visualization techniques.

  15. Ultrafast charge localization in a stripe-phase nickelate

    SciTech Connect

    Coslovich, Giacomo; Huber, Bernhard; Lee, Wei-Sheng; Sasagawa, Takao; Hussain, Zahid; Bechtel, Hans A.; Martin, Michael C.; Shen, Zhi-Xun; W. Schoenlein, Robert; A. Kaindl, Robert

    2013-08-30

    Self-organized electronically-ordered phases are a recurring feature in correlated materials, resulting in e.g. fluctuating charge stripes whose role in high-Tc superconductivity is under debate. However, the relevant cause-effect relations between real-space charge correlations and low-energy excitations remain hidden in time-averaged studies. Here, we reveal ultrafast charge localization and lattice vibrational coupling as dynamical precursors of stripe formation in the model compound La1.75Sr0.25NiO4, using ultrafast and equilibrium mid-infrared spectroscopy. The opening of a pseudogap at a crossover temperature T* far above long-range stripe formation establishes the onset of electronic localization which is accompanied by an enhanced Fano asymmetry of Ni-O stretch vibrations. Ultrafast excitation triggers a sub-picosecond dynamics exposing the synchronous modulation of electron-phonon coupling and charge localization. These results illuminate the role of localization in forming the pseudogap in nickelates, opening a path to understanding this mysterious phase in a broad class of complex oxides.

  16. Survey of cardiac pathologies in captive striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Benato, Livia; Wack, Allison; Cerveny, Shannon N S; Rosenthal, Steven L; Bronson, Ellen

    2014-06-01

    Cardiac disease is a common finding in small mammals but it is rarely reported in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). The aim of this survey was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiac disease in striped skunks and to characterize the types of cardiac disease that might be present. In April 2010, a questionnaire was sent to veterinarians in zoologic collections with membership in the International Species Inventory System. Surveys were distributed to 55 institutions in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Twenty collections with a total of 95 skunks replied to the questionnaire. Of these, five collections reported at least one skunk with cardiac conditions for a total of 11 cases. In these 11 animals, the following conditions were diagnosed: myocardial fibrosis (n = 4), myxomatous valve degeneration (n = 4), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 1), dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 1), and valvular endocarditis (n = 1). Based on these findings, cardiac diseases should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in captive striped skunks presenting with weakness, lethargy, and decreased appetite. Cardiac ultrasound also should be considered at the time of annual health examinations to evaluate for possible cardiac conditions at an early stage. PMID:25000693

  17. Gaze Stripes: Image-Based Visualization of Eye Tracking Data.

    PubMed

    Kurzhals, Kuno; Hlawatsch, Marcel; Heimerl, Florian; Burch, Michael; Ertl, Thomas; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We present a new visualization approach for displaying eye tracking data from multiple participants. We aim to show the spatio-temporal data of the gaze points in the context of the underlying image or video stimulus without occlusion. Our technique, denoted as gaze stripes, does not require the explicit definition of areas of interest but directly uses the image data around the gaze points, similar to thumbnails for images. A gaze stripe consists of a sequence of such gaze point images, oriented along a horizontal timeline. By displaying multiple aligned gaze stripes, it is possible to analyze and compare the viewing behavior of the participants over time. Since the analysis is carried out directly on the image data, expensive post-processing or manual annotation are not required. Therefore, not only patterns and outliers in the participants' scanpaths can be detected, but the context of the stimulus is available as well. Furthermore, our approach is especially well suited for dynamic stimuli due to the non-aggregated temporal mapping. Complementary views, i.e., markers, notes, screenshots, histograms, and results from automatic clustering, can be added to the visualization to display analysis results. We illustrate the usefulness of our technique on static and dynamic stimuli. Furthermore, we discuss the limitations and scalability of our approach in comparison to established visualization techniques. PMID:26529744

  18. Retention of internal anchor tags by juvenile striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.; Wallin, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    We marked hatchery-reared striped bass Morone saxatilis (145-265 mm total length) with internal anchor tags and monitored retention for 28 months after stocking in the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina. Anchor tags (with an 18-mm, T-shaped anchor and 42-mm streamer) were surgically implanted ventrally, and coded wire tags (1 mm long and 0.25 mm in diameter) were placed into the cheek muscle to help identify subsequent recaptures. The estimated probability of retention (SD) of anchor tags was 0.94 (0.05) at 4 months, 0.64 (0.13) at 16 months, and 0.33 (0.19) at 28 months. Of 10 fish recaptured with only coded wire tags, 5 showed an externally visible wound or scar near the point of anchor tag insertion. The incidence of wounds or scars, which we interpreted as evidence of tag shedding, increased to 50% in recaptures taken at 28 months (three of six fish). Our estimates for retention of anchor tags were generally lower than those in other studies of striped bass, possibly because of differences in the style of anchor or sizes of fish used. Because of its low rate of retention, the type of anchor tag we used may not be suitable for long-term assessments of stock enhancement programs that use striped bass of the sizes we evaluated.

  19. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Terry D.; Marking, Leif L.; Howe, George E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. We determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222) , metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass fry (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degree C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin. We also determined the effects of selected levels of water temperature, hardness, and pH on the toxicity of chloramine-T, formalin, malachite green, and Roccal. There were no differences in toxicity for any of the chemicals at any water quality variable tested except for chloramine-T, which was about 25 times more toxic in soft, acid water than in soft, alkaline water. Our data show that the striped bass is as sensitive to fishery chemicals as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), but is generally less resistant than bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

  20. The CFHT/MegaCam Stripe-82 Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, B.; Kneib, J.-P.; Leauthaud, A.; Makler, M.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Bundy, K.; Erben, T.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Miller, L.; Shan, H. Y.; Woods, D.; Charbonnier, A.; Pereira, M. E.

    2014-10-01

    The CFTH/MegaCam Stripe-82 Survey (CS82) is a joint Canada-France-Brazil project covering ˜ 170 sq. deg. in the SDSS Stripe-82 area down to magnitude 24.1 in the optical i-band with a mean 0.6" seeing (PIs: J.-P. Kneib, A. Leauthaud, M. Makler, L. Van Waerbeke). Its main focus is the study of weak and strong gravitational lensing, with additional applications in other fields such as galaxy evolution and galaxy cluster science. Furthermore, the multitude of existing and future projects in Stripe-82, covering from the radio to the UV and including a large set of spectroscopic data, offers the possibility of exploring applications in many fields of astronomy, thereby enhancing the scientific value of the survey. In this Short Talk, we will give an overview of the main published and ongoing CS82 scientific projects. They include the measurement of the largest contiguous lensing convergence map to date and its peak statistics, providing direct information on the large scale dark matter distribution; the first CMB-lensing × shear cross-correlation measurement, probing the dark matter distribution at redshifts of order 1; galaxy-galaxy lensing measurements around SDSS-III/BOSS galaxies, constraining halo occupation distribution (HOD) models and obtaining complementary mass measurements in combination with BOSS spectroscopic data; the discovery of several new gravitational arc systems and more.

  1. Survey of cardiac pathologies in captive striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Benato, Livia; Wack, Allison; Cerveny, Shannon N S; Rosenthal, Steven L; Bronson, Ellen

    2014-06-01

    Cardiac disease is a common finding in small mammals but it is rarely reported in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). The aim of this survey was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiac disease in striped skunks and to characterize the types of cardiac disease that might be present. In April 2010, a questionnaire was sent to veterinarians in zoologic collections with membership in the International Species Inventory System. Surveys were distributed to 55 institutions in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Twenty collections with a total of 95 skunks replied to the questionnaire. Of these, five collections reported at least one skunk with cardiac conditions for a total of 11 cases. In these 11 animals, the following conditions were diagnosed: myocardial fibrosis (n = 4), myxomatous valve degeneration (n = 4), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 1), dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 1), and valvular endocarditis (n = 1). Based on these findings, cardiac diseases should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in captive striped skunks presenting with weakness, lethargy, and decreased appetite. Cardiac ultrasound also should be considered at the time of annual health examinations to evaluate for possible cardiac conditions at an early stage.

  2. Ultrafast charge localization in a stripe-phase nickelate

    PubMed Central

    Coslovich, G.; Huber, B.; Lee, W. -S.; Chuang, Y. -D.; Zhu, Y.; Sasagawa, T.; Hussain, Z.; Bechtel, H. A.; Martin, M. C.; Shen, Z. -X.; Schoenlein, R. W.; Kaindl, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Self-organized electronically ordered phases are a recurring feature in correlated materials, resulting in, for example, fluctuating charge stripes whose role in high-TC superconductivity is under debate. However, the relevant cause–effect relations between real-space charge correlations and low-energy excitations remain hidden in time-averaged studies. Here we reveal ultrafast charge localization and lattice vibrational coupling as dynamic precursors of stripe formation in the model compound La1.75Sr0.25NiO4, using ultrafast and equilibrium mid-infrared spectroscopy. The opening of a pseudogap at a crossover temperature T* far above long-range stripe formation establishes the onset of electronic localization, which is accompanied by an enhanced Fano asymmetry of Ni-O stretch vibrations. Ultrafast excitation triggers a sub-picosecond dynamics exposing the synchronous modulation of electron–phonon coupling and charge localization. These results illuminate the role of localization in forming the pseudogap in nickelates, opening a path to understanding this mysterious phase in a broad class of complex oxides. PMID:24153394

  3. Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam: Implications for Downstream Riparian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.

  4. Turbocharger with downstream pressure-gain combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Sherikar, S.V.

    1991-05-14

    This patent describes a turbocharger. It comprises: an internal combustion engine; a compressor located upstream of the internal combustion engine for increasing the inlet pressure of the internal combustion engine; a turbine located down stream of the internal combustion engine and mechanically coupled to the compressor for driving the compressor; and a pressure-gain combustor located downstream of the turbine for decreasing the outlet pressure of the internal combustion engineer and thus increasing the turbine power output and improving the starting characteristics of the turbocharger.

  5. The STRIPES Trial - Support to Rural India's Public Education System

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Performance of primary school students in India lags far below government expectations, and major disparity exists between rural and urban areas. The Naandi Foundation has designed and implemented a programme using community members to deliver after-school academic support for children in over 1,100 schools in five Indian states. Assessments to date suggest that it might have a substantial effect. This trial aims to evaluate the impact of this programme in villages of rural Andhra Pradesh and will compare test scores for children in three arms: a control and two intervention arms. In both intervention arms additional after-school instruction and learning materials will be offered to all eligible children and in one arm girls will also receive an additional 'kit' with a uniform and clothes. Methods/Design The trial is a cluster-randomised controlled trial conducted in conjunction with the CHAMPION trial. In the CHAMPION trial 464 villages were randomised so that half receive health interventions aiming to reduce neonatal mortality. STRIPES will be introduced in those CHAMPION villages which have a public primary school attended by at least 15 students at the time of a baseline test in 2008. 214 villages of the 464 were found to fulfil above criteria, 107 belonging to the control and 107 to the intervention arm of the CHAMPION trial. These latter 107 villages will serve as control villages in the STRIPES trial. A further randomisation will be carried out within the 107 STRIPES intervention villages allocating half to receive an additional kit for girls on the top of the instruction and learning materials. The primary outcome of the trial is a composite maths and language test score. Discussion The study is designed to measure (i) whether the educational intervention affects the exam score of children compared to the control arm, (ii) if the exam scores of girls who receive the additional kit are different from those of girls living in the other STRIPES

  6. Prey selectivity and diet of striped bass in Western Albemarle Sound, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudershausen, P.J.; Tuomikoski, J.E.; Buckel, J.A.; Hightower, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    We collected 1,399 striped bass Morone saxatilis from western Albemarle Sound, North Carolina, during May through October of 2002 and 2003 to characterize diet, prey type selectivity, and prey size selectivity. Herrings Alosa spp., Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus, bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli, silversides Menidia spp., and yellow perch Perca flavescens dominated the diets of age-1 striped bass, while Atlantic menhaden dominated the diets of older striped bass. Selectivity was calculated for three categories of striped bass (ages 1, 2, and 3 + [3-7]) based on fish prey collections from a 61-m beach seine and a 76-m purse seine. Striped bass of all ages primarily consumed fish prey regardless of the month or year. Each age category of striped bass selected for one or more species of prey from the suborder Clupeoidei. Age-1 striped bass selectivity of Alosa spp. generally increased with the progression of each sampling season, whereas selectivity for Atlantic menhaden, Menidia spp., and yellow perch decreased over time within each season. Striped bass of all ages displayed strong selection for Atlantic menhaden and strong selection against spiny-rayed fish prey. Striped bass displayed selection for specific prey, although the mechanisms responsible for selection appear to vary through time and may differ for different prey types. Striped bass either displayed neutral size selectivity or selected for relatively small prey. The mean and maximum sizes of fish prey increased with increases in striped bass size, but the minimum prey size changed little. Our results of seasonal and age-specific changes in selectivity will be valuable for modeling the impact of striped bass predation on resource prey species. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  7. Plasma waves downstream of weak collisionless shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, F. V.; Greenstadt, E. W.; Moses, S. L.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1993-01-01

    In September 1983 the International Sun Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE 3) International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft made a long traversal of the distant dawnside flank region of the Earth's magnetosphere and had many encounters with the low Mach number bow shock. These weak shocks excite plasma wave electric field turbulence with amplitudes comparable to those detected in the much stronger bow shock near the nose region. Downstream of quasi-perpendicular (quasi-parallel) shocks, the E field spectra exhibit a strong peak (plateau) at midfrequencies (1 - 3 kHz); the plateau shape is produced by a low-frequency (100 - 300 Hz) emission which is more intense behind downstream of two quasi-perpendicular shocks show that the low frequency signals are polarized parallel to the magnetic field, whereas the midfrequency emissions are unpolarized or only weakly polarized. A new high frequency (10 - 30 kHz) emission which is above the maximum Doppler shift exhibit a distinct peak at high frequencies; this peak is often blurred by the large amplitude fluctuations of the midfrequency waves. The high-frequency component is strongly polarized along the magnetic field and varies independently of the lower-frequency waves.

  8. Headwater Influences on Downstream Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Oakes, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the influence of riparian and whole watershed land use as a function of stream size on surface water chemistry and assessed regional variation in these relationships. Sixty-eight watersheds in four level III U.S. EPA ecoregions in eastern Kansas were selected as study sites. Riparian land cover and watershed land use were quantified for the entire watershed, and by Strahler order. Multiple regression analyses using riparian land cover classifications as independent variables explained among-site variation in water chemistry parameters, particularly total nitrogen (41%), nitrate (61%), and total phosphorus (63%) concentrations. Whole watershed land use explained slightly less variance, but riparian and whole watershed land use were so tightly correlated that it was difficult to separate their effects. Water chemistry parameters sampled in downstream reaches were most closely correlated with riparian land cover adjacent to the smallest (first-order) streams of watersheds or land use in the entire watershed, with riparian zones immediately upstream of sampling sites offering less explanatory power as stream size increased. Interestingly, headwater effects were evident even at times when these small streams were unlikely to be flowing. Relationships were similar among ecoregions, indicating that land use characteristics were most responsible for water quality variation among watersheds. These findings suggest that nonpoint pollution control strategies should consider the influence of small upland streams and protection of downstream riparian zones alone is not sufficient to protect water quality. PMID:17999108

  9. Zebra Stripes through the Eyes of Their Predators, Zebras, and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Melin, Amanda D.; Kline, Donald W.; Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Caro, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The century-old idea that stripes make zebras cryptic to large carnivores has never been examined systematically. We evaluated this hypothesis by passing digital images of zebras through species-specific spatial and colour filters to simulate their appearance for the visual systems of zebras’ primary predators and zebras themselves. We also measured stripe widths and luminance contrast to estimate the maximum distances from which lions, spotted hyaenas, and zebras can resolve stripes. We found that beyond ca. 50 m (daylight) and 30 m (twilight) zebra stripes are difficult for the estimated visual systems of large carnivores to resolve, but not humans. On moonless nights, stripes are difficult for all species to resolve beyond ca. 9 m. In open treeless habitats where zebras spend most time, zebras are as clearly identified by the lion visual system as are similar-sized ungulates, suggesting that stripes cannot confer crypsis by disrupting the zebra’s outline. Stripes confer a minor advantage over solid pelage in masking body shape in woodlands, but the effect is stronger for humans than for predators. Zebras appear to be less able than humans to resolve stripes although they are better than their chief predators. In conclusion, compared to the uniform pelage of other sympatric herbivores it appears highly unlikely that stripes are a form of anti-predator camouflage. PMID:26799935

  10. Relationship of Soil Properties and Sugarcane Yields to Red Stripe in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Richard M; Grisham, Michael P; Warnke, Kathryn Z; Maggio, Jeri R

    2016-07-01

    Symptoms of red stripe disease caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana between 1985 and 2010 were limited to the leaf stripe form, which caused no apparent yield loss. During 2010, the more severe top rot form was observed, and a study was initiated to investigate the distribution of red stripe in the field and determine its effects on cane and sugar yields. Soil properties data, red stripe incidence, and sugarcane yields were all highly variable and were not randomly distributed in the field. Combined harvest data showed a negative correlation between yield components and red stripe incidence, with the strongest relationship between sucrose per metric ton and disease incidence. Red stripe incidence was positively correlated with several soil properties, including phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and calcium. Red stripe incidence also was found to increase with increasing nitrogen rate, with the greatest effects in heavy soils. Results also indicated that using red-stripe-infected cane as a seed source can significantly decrease shoot emergence, stalk population, and subsequent cane and sugar yields. These combined data suggest that red stripe disease can exhibit a highly variable rate of infection in commercial sugarcane fields and may also significantly decrease sugar yields. PMID:27003508

  11. Zebra Stripes through the Eyes of Their Predators, Zebras, and Humans.

    PubMed

    Melin, Amanda D; Kline, Donald W; Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Caro, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The century-old idea that stripes make zebras cryptic to large carnivores has never been examined systematically. We evaluated this hypothesis by passing digital images of zebras through species-specific spatial and colour filters to simulate their appearance for the visual systems of zebras' primary predators and zebras themselves. We also measured stripe widths and luminance contrast to estimate the maximum distances from which lions, spotted hyaenas, and zebras can resolve stripes. We found that beyond ca. 50 m (daylight) and 30 m (twilight) zebra stripes are difficult for the estimated visual systems of large carnivores to resolve, but not humans. On moonless nights, stripes are difficult for all species to resolve beyond ca. 9 m. In open treeless habitats where zebras spend most time, zebras are as clearly identified by the lion visual system as are similar-sized ungulates, suggesting that stripes cannot confer crypsis by disrupting the zebra's outline. Stripes confer a minor advantage over solid pelage in masking body shape in woodlands, but the effect is stronger for humans than for predators. Zebras appear to be less able than humans to resolve stripes although they are better than their chief predators. In conclusion, compared to the uniform pelage of other sympatric herbivores it appears highly unlikely that stripes are a form of anti-predator camouflage. PMID:26799935

  12. Relationship of Soil Properties and Sugarcane Yields to Red Stripe in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Richard M; Grisham, Michael P; Warnke, Kathryn Z; Maggio, Jeri R

    2016-07-01

    Symptoms of red stripe disease caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana between 1985 and 2010 were limited to the leaf stripe form, which caused no apparent yield loss. During 2010, the more severe top rot form was observed, and a study was initiated to investigate the distribution of red stripe in the field and determine its effects on cane and sugar yields. Soil properties data, red stripe incidence, and sugarcane yields were all highly variable and were not randomly distributed in the field. Combined harvest data showed a negative correlation between yield components and red stripe incidence, with the strongest relationship between sucrose per metric ton and disease incidence. Red stripe incidence was positively correlated with several soil properties, including phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and calcium. Red stripe incidence also was found to increase with increasing nitrogen rate, with the greatest effects in heavy soils. Results also indicated that using red-stripe-infected cane as a seed source can significantly decrease shoot emergence, stalk population, and subsequent cane and sugar yields. These combined data suggest that red stripe disease can exhibit a highly variable rate of infection in commercial sugarcane fields and may also significantly decrease sugar yields.

  13. Zebra Stripes through the Eyes of Their Predators, Zebras, and Humans.

    PubMed

    Melin, Amanda D; Kline, Donald W; Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Caro, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The century-old idea that stripes make zebras cryptic to large carnivores has never been examined systematically. We evaluated this hypothesis by passing digital images of zebras through species-specific spatial and colour filters to simulate their appearance for the visual systems of zebras' primary predators and zebras themselves. We also measured stripe widths and luminance contrast to estimate the maximum distances from which lions, spotted hyaenas, and zebras can resolve stripes. We found that beyond ca. 50 m (daylight) and 30 m (twilight) zebra stripes are difficult for the estimated visual systems of large carnivores to resolve, but not humans. On moonless nights, stripes are difficult for all species to resolve beyond ca. 9 m. In open treeless habitats where zebras spend most time, zebras are as clearly identified by the lion visual system as are similar-sized ungulates, suggesting that stripes cannot confer crypsis by disrupting the zebra's outline. Stripes confer a minor advantage over solid pelage in masking body shape in woodlands, but the effect is stronger for humans than for predators. Zebras appear to be less able than humans to resolve stripes although they are better than their chief predators. In conclusion, compared to the uniform pelage of other sympatric herbivores it appears highly unlikely that stripes are a form of anti-predator camouflage.

  14. Western blot expression of 5-lipoxygenase in the brain from striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) with or without encephalitis/meningo-encephalitis of infectious nature.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, G; Falconi, A; Di Francesco, A; Mazzariol, S; Centelleghe, C; Casalone, C; Pautasso, A; Cocumelli, C; Eleni, C; Petrella, A; Di Francesco, C E; Sabatucci, A; Leonardi, L; Serroni, A; Marsili, L; Storelli, M M; Giacominelli-Stuffler, R

    2015-01-01

    Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV), Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella ceti are pathogens of major concern for wild cetaceans. Although a more or less severe encephalitis/meningo-encephalitis may occur in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) infected by the aforementioned agents, almost no information is available on the neuropathogenesis of brain lesions, including the neuronal and non-neuronal cells targeted during infection, along with the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. We analyzed 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) expression in the brain of 11 striped dolphins and 5 bottlenose dolphins, affected or not by encephalitic lesions of various degrees associated with DMV, T. gondii and B. ceti. All the 8 striped dolphins with encephalitis showed a more consistent 5-LOX expression than that observed in the 3 striped dolphins showing no morphologic evidence of brain lesions, with the most prominent band intensity being detected in a B. ceti-infected animal. Similar results were not obtained in T. gondii-infected vs T. gondii-uninfected bottlenose dolphins. Overall, the higher 5-LOX expression found in the brain of the 8 striped dolphins with infectious neuroinflammation is of interest, given that 5-LOX is a putative marker for neurodegeneration in human patients and in experimental animal models. Therefore, further investigation on this challenging issue is also needed in stranded cetaceans affected by central neuropathies.

  15. Western blot expression of 5-lipoxygenase in the brain from striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) with or without encephalitis/meningo-encephalitis of infectious nature.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, G; Falconi, A; Di Francesco, A; Mazzariol, S; Centelleghe, C; Casalone, C; Pautasso, A; Cocumelli, C; Eleni, C; Petrella, A; Di Francesco, C E; Sabatucci, A; Leonardi, L; Serroni, A; Marsili, L; Storelli, M M; Giacominelli-Stuffler, R

    2015-01-01

    Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV), Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella ceti are pathogens of major concern for wild cetaceans. Although a more or less severe encephalitis/meningo-encephalitis may occur in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) infected by the aforementioned agents, almost no information is available on the neuropathogenesis of brain lesions, including the neuronal and non-neuronal cells targeted during infection, along with the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. We analyzed 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) expression in the brain of 11 striped dolphins and 5 bottlenose dolphins, affected or not by encephalitic lesions of various degrees associated with DMV, T. gondii and B. ceti. All the 8 striped dolphins with encephalitis showed a more consistent 5-LOX expression than that observed in the 3 striped dolphins showing no morphologic evidence of brain lesions, with the most prominent band intensity being detected in a B. ceti-infected animal. Similar results were not obtained in T. gondii-infected vs T. gondii-uninfected bottlenose dolphins. Overall, the higher 5-LOX expression found in the brain of the 8 striped dolphins with infectious neuroinflammation is of interest, given that 5-LOX is a putative marker for neurodegeneration in human patients and in experimental animal models. Therefore, further investigation on this challenging issue is also needed in stranded cetaceans affected by central neuropathies. PMID:25864766

  16. 9. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM NORTH SIDE OF DOWNSTREAM BANK OF DAM - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  17. Unit 4, downstream from Johns Street Bridge Johnstown Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 4, downstream from Johns Street Bridge - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  18. Unit 6, downstream from Ferndale Bridge Johnstown Local Flood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 6, downstream from Ferndale Bridge - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  19. Unit 3, downstream from Point Park Johnstown Local Flood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 3, downstream from Point Park - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  20. Unit 3, downstream from Fourth Avenue Bridge Johnstown Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 3, downstream from Fourth Avenue Bridge - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  1. Unit 1, downstream from Laurel Run Johnstown Local Flood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 1, downstream from Laurel Run - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  2. Unit 5, downstream from Haynes Street Bridge Johnstown Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, downstream from Haynes Street Bridge - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  3. Unit 6, downstream from Horner Street Bridge Johnstown Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 6, downstream from Horner Street Bridge - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  4. Unit 4, downstream from First Street Bridge Johnstown Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 4, downstream from First Street Bridge - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  5. Unit 5, downstream from Hickory Street Bridge Johnstown Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, downstream from Hickory Street Bridge - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  6. Unit 2, downstream from Coppersdale Bridge Johnstown Local Flood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 2, downstream from Coppersdale Bridge - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  7. 7. VIEW DOWNSTREAM FROM THE NEWHALEM INTAKE WITH NO WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW DOWNSTREAM FROM THE NEWHALEM INTAKE WITH NO WATER BEING DIVERTED TO THE POWER TUNNEL, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Newhalem Powerhouse & Dam, On Skagit River, 0.3 mile downstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  8. Turbulence decay downstream of an active grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bewley, Gregory; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2015-11-01

    A grid in a wind tunnel stirs up turbulence that has a certain large-scale structure. The moving parts in a so-called ``active grid'' can be programmed to produce different structures. We use a special active grid in which each of 129 paddles on the grid has its own position-controlled servomotor that can move independently of the others. We observe among other things that the anisotropy in the amplitude of the velocity fluctuations and in the correlation lengths can be set and varied with an algorithm that oscillates the paddles in a specified way. The variation in the anisotropies that we observe can be explained by our earlier analysis of anisotropic ``soccer ball'' turbulence (Bewley, Chang and Bodenschatz 2012, Phys. Fluids). We define the influence of this variation in structure on the downstream evolution of the turbulence. with Eberhard Bodenschatz and others.

  9. Channel changes downstream from a dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hadley, R.F.; Emmett, W.W.

    1998-01-01

    A flood-control dam was completed during 1979 on Bear Creek, a small tributary stream to the South Platte River in the Denver, Colorado, area. Before and after dam closure, repetitive surveys between 1977 and 1992 at five cross sections downstream of the dam documented changes in channel morphology. During this 15-year period, channel width increased slightly, but channel depth increased by more than 40 percent. Within the study reach, stream gradient decreased and median bed material sizes coarsened from sand in the pools and fine gravel on the riffle to a median coarse gravel throughout the reach. The most striking visual change was from a sparse growth of streamside grasses to a dense growth of riparian woody vegetation.

  10. Downstream process options for the ABE fermentation.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Anton

    2016-05-01

    Butanol is a very interesting substance both for the chemical industry and as a biofuel. The classical distillation process for the removal of butanol is far too energy demanding, at a factor of 220% of the energy content of butanol. Alternative separation processes studied are hybrid processes of gas-stripping, liquid-liquid extraction and pervaporation with distillation and a novel adsorption/drying/desorption hybrid process. Compared with the energy content of butanol, the resulting energy demand for butanol separation and concentration of optimized hybrid processes is 11%-22% for pervaporation/distillation and 11%-17% for liquid-liquid extraction/distillation. For a novel adsorption/drying/desorption process, the energy demand is 9.4%. But all downstream process options need further proof of industrial applicability. PMID:27020411

  11. Widespread Inducible Transcription Downstream of Human Genes

    PubMed Central

    Vilborg, Anna; Passarelli, Maria C.; Yario, Therese A.; Tycowski, Kazimierz T.; Steitz, Joan A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pervasive transcription of the human genome generates RNAs whose mode of formation and functions are largely uncharacterized. Here, we combine RNA-Seq with detailed mechanistic studies to describe a transcript type derived from protein-coding genes. The resulting RNAs, which we call DoGs for downstream of gene containing transcripts, possess long non-coding regions (often >45 kb) and remain chromatin bound. DoGs are inducible by osmotic stress through an IP3 receptor signaling-dependent pathway, indicating active regulation. DoG levels are increased by decreased termination of the upstream transcript, a previously undescribed mechanism for rapid transcript induction. Relative depletion of polyA signals in DoG regions correlates with increased levels of DoGs after osmotic stress. We detect DoG transcription in several human cell lines and provide evidence for thousands of DoGs genome-wide. PMID:26190259

  12. Ammonia downstream from HH 80 North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girart, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Anglada, Guillem; Estalella, Robert; Torrelles, Jose, M.; Marti, Josep; Pena, Miriam; Ayala, Sandra; Curiel, Salvador; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto

    1994-01-01

    HH 80-81 are two optically visible Herbig-Haro (HH) objects located about 5 minutes south of their exciting source IRAS 18162-2048. Displaced symmetrically to the north of this luminous IRAS source, a possible HH counterpart was recently detected as a radio continuum source with the very large array (VLA). This radio source, HH 80 North, has been proposed to be a member of the Herbig-Haro class since its centimeter flux density, angular size, spectral index, and morphology are all similar to those of HH 80. However, no object has been detected at optical wavelengths at the position of HH 80 North, possibly because of high extinction, and the confirmation of the radio continuum source as an HH object has not been possible. In the prototypical Herbig-Haro objects HH 1 and 2, ammonia emission has been detected downstream of the flow in both objects. This detection has been intepreted as a result of an enhancement in the ammonia emission produced by the radiation field of the shock associated with the HH object. In this Letter we report the detection of the (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions of ammonia downstream HH 80 North. This detection gives strong suppport to the interpretation of HH 80 North as a heavily obscured HH object. In addition, we suggest that ammonia emission may be a tracer of embedded Herbig-Haro objects in other regions of star formation. A 60 micrometer IRAS source could be associated with HH 80 North and with the ammonia condensation. A tentative explanation for the far-infrared emission as arising in dust heated by their optical and UV radiation of the HH object is presented.

  13. Assessing Fishers' Support of Striped Bass Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert D; Scyphers, Steven B; Grabowski, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the perspectives and insights of stakeholders is an essential component of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such that policy strategies should account for the diverse interests of various groups of anglers to enhance their efficacy. Here we assessed fishing stakeholders' perceptions on the management of Atlantic striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and receptiveness to potential future regulations using an online survey of recreational and commercial fishers in Massachusetts and Connecticut (USA). Our results indicate that most fishers harbored adequate to positive perceptions of current striped bass management policies when asked to grade their state's management regime. Yet, subtle differences in perceptions existed between recreational and commercial fishers, as well as across individuals with differing levels of fishing experience, resource dependency, and tournament participation. Recreational fishers in both states were generally supportive or neutral towards potential management actions including slot limits (71%) and mandated circle hooks to reduce mortality of released fish (74%), but less supportive of reduced recreational bag limits (51%). Although commercial anglers were typically less supportive of management changes than their recreational counterparts, the majority were still supportive of slot limits (54%) and mandated use of circle hooks (56%). Our study suggests that both recreational and commercial fishers are generally supportive of additional management strategies aimed at sustaining healthy striped bass populations and agree on a variety of strategies. However, both stakeholder groups were less supportive of harvest reductions, which is the most direct measure of reducing mortality available to fisheries managers. By revealing factors that influence stakeholders' support or willingness to comply with management strategies, studies such as ours can help managers identify potential stakeholder support for or conflicts that may

  14. Mycobacterial infections in striped bass from Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, C.A.; Brown, J.J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Starliper, C.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Weyers, H.S.; Beauchamp, K.A.; Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Gauthier, David T.; Vogelbein, W.K.

    2007-01-01

    Eighty striped bass Morone saxatilis were obtained from Delaware Bay using commercial gill nets set adjacent to Woodland Beach (n = 70) and Bowers Beach (n = 10) in December 2003. Fish were examined for gross lesions. Total lengths (TLs) and eviscerated weights were determined to calculate condition factors (K). Portions of spleens were aseptically harvested for bacterial culture, and portions of spleens, kidneys (anterior and posterior), livers, and gonads were obtained for histological examination. The size distribution of the striped bass was relatively homogeneous; the mean TL was about 600 mm for all samples. Mean K exceeded 0.95 in all samples and was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among samples. Significant differences in mycobacterial infection prevalence (P ??? 0.05) were observed among samples; samples obtained at Woodland Beach (WB) on December 10 (53.8%, n = 13) and December 17 (7.1%, n = 42) exhibited the most striking differences in prevalence. Mycobacterial infection intensity ranged from 1 ?? 102 to 1 ?? 107 colony-forming units per gram of spleen. Acanthocephalan infection prevalence and intensity, non-acid-fast bacterial infection prevalence, and fish sex ratio were also significantly different among the samples (P ??? 0.05). Similar to the mycobacterial infections, differences in sex ratio, acanthocephalan infection, and non-acid-fast bacterial infection were observed between the WB samples taken on December 10 and 17. However, no significant associations (P > 0.05) were observed between sex ratio or these infections and mycobacterial infection. The differences in bacterial and parasite infection prevalence and intensity and fish sex ratio in some samples indicate that these fish had a different history and that the epizootiology of mycobacterial infection in striped bass from Delaware Bay may be relatively complex. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  15. Assessing Fishers' Support of Striped Bass Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert D; Scyphers, Steven B; Grabowski, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the perspectives and insights of stakeholders is an essential component of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such that policy strategies should account for the diverse interests of various groups of anglers to enhance their efficacy. Here we assessed fishing stakeholders' perceptions on the management of Atlantic striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and receptiveness to potential future regulations using an online survey of recreational and commercial fishers in Massachusetts and Connecticut (USA). Our results indicate that most fishers harbored adequate to positive perceptions of current striped bass management policies when asked to grade their state's management regime. Yet, subtle differences in perceptions existed between recreational and commercial fishers, as well as across individuals with differing levels of fishing experience, resource dependency, and tournament participation. Recreational fishers in both states were generally supportive or neutral towards potential management actions including slot limits (71%) and mandated circle hooks to reduce mortality of released fish (74%), but less supportive of reduced recreational bag limits (51%). Although commercial anglers were typically less supportive of management changes than their recreational counterparts, the majority were still supportive of slot limits (54%) and mandated use of circle hooks (56%). Our study suggests that both recreational and commercial fishers are generally supportive of additional management strategies aimed at sustaining healthy striped bass populations and agree on a variety of strategies. However, both stakeholder groups were less supportive of harvest reductions, which is the most direct measure of reducing mortality available to fisheries managers. By revealing factors that influence stakeholders' support or willingness to comply with management strategies, studies such as ours can help managers identify potential stakeholder support for or conflicts that may

  16. Spots and stripes: ecology and colour pattern evolution in butterflyfishes.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Jennifer L; Fitzpatrick, John L; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-04-22

    The incredible diversity of colour patterns in coral reef fishes has intrigued biologists for centuries. Yet, despite the many proposed explanations for this diversity in coloration, definitive tests of the role of ecological factors in shaping the evolution of particular colour pattern traits are absent. Patterns such as spots and eyespots (spots surrounded by concentric rings of contrasting colour) have often been assumed to function for predator defence by mimicking predators' enemies' eyes, deflecting attacks or intimidating predators, but the evolutionary processes underlying these functions have never been addressed. Striped body patterns have been suggested to serve for both social communication and predator defence, but the impact of ecological constraints remains unclear. We conducted the first comparative analysis of colour pattern diversity in butterflyfishes (Family: Chaetodontidae), fishes with conspicuous spots, eyespots and wide variation in coloration. Using a dated molecular phylogeny of 95 species (approx. 75% of the family), we tested whether spots and eyespots have evolved characteristics that are consistent with their proposed defensive function and whether the presence of spots and body stripes is linked with species' body length, dietary complexity, habitat diversity or social behaviour. Contrary to our expectations, spots and eyespots appeared relatively recently in butterflyfish evolution and are highly evolutionarily labile, suggesting that they are unlikely to have played an important part in the evolutionary history of the group. Striped body patterns showed correlated evolution with a number of ecological factors including habitat type, sociality and dietary complexity. Our findings question the prevailing view that eyespots are an evolutionary response to predation pressure, providing a valuable counter example to the role of these markings as revealed in other taxa. PMID:23427170

  17. Cholesteric liquid crystals in rectangular microchannels: skyrmions and stripes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yubing; Afghah, Sajedeh; Xiang, Jie; Lavrentovich, Oleg D; Selinger, Robin L B; Wei, Qi-Huo

    2016-07-20

    In this paper, we present experimental and numerical studies on the microstructures of a cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) confined in rectangular micron-channels. By using a sequence of microfabrication techniques we fabricated the micro-sized channels with accurately controlled size, aspect ratio and homeotropic surface anchoring. Through optical microscopic studies we established a phase diagram for the liquid crystal defect textures as a function of the channel depth and width. For the channel width larger than ∼2 times the cholesteric pitch p, the LC molecules are oriented primarily vertical to the channel when the channel depth is below 0.75p, form bubble domain defects when the channel depth is around 0.75p, and form stripe textures when the cell depth is above the cholesteric pitch p. In addition, the bubble domain size and the stripe texture periodicity are found to grow with the increase of the channel width. For the channel width smaller than ∼2p and the channel depth between 0.6p to 1.1p, no textures can be observed in the channels. Numerical simulations based on a director tensor relaxation approach yield detailed molecular director fields, and show that the bubble domain defects are baby-skyrmions and that the stripes are the first type of cholesteric fingerprints. A comparison with previous experiments and numerical simulations indicates that the size of the microchannels also influences what type of soliton-like topological textures form in the CLCs confined in the channels. PMID:27396898

  18. Spots and stripes: ecology and colour pattern evolution in butterflyfishes

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Jennifer L.; Fitzpatrick, John L.; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-01-01

    The incredible diversity of colour patterns in coral reef fishes has intrigued biologists for centuries. Yet, despite the many proposed explanations for this diversity in coloration, definitive tests of the role of ecological factors in shaping the evolution of particular colour pattern traits are absent. Patterns such as spots and eyespots (spots surrounded by concentric rings of contrasting colour) have often been assumed to function for predator defence by mimicking predators' enemies' eyes, deflecting attacks or intimidating predators, but the evolutionary processes underlying these functions have never been addressed. Striped body patterns have been suggested to serve for both social communication and predator defence, but the impact of ecological constraints remains unclear. We conducted the first comparative analysis of colour pattern diversity in butterflyfishes (Family: Chaetodontidae), fishes with conspicuous spots, eyespots and wide variation in coloration. Using a dated molecular phylogeny of 95 species (approx. 75% of the family), we tested whether spots and eyespots have evolved characteristics that are consistent with their proposed defensive function and whether the presence of spots and body stripes is linked with species' body length, dietary complexity, habitat diversity or social behaviour. Contrary to our expectations, spots and eyespots appeared relatively recently in butterflyfish evolution and are highly evolutionarily labile, suggesting that they are unlikely to have played an important part in the evolutionary history of the group. Striped body patterns showed correlated evolution with a number of ecological factors including habitat type, sociality and dietary complexity. Our findings question the prevailing view that eyespots are an evolutionary response to predation pressure, providing a valuable counter example to the role of these markings as revealed in other taxa. PMID:23427170

  19. Spots and stripes: ecology and colour pattern evolution in butterflyfishes.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Jennifer L; Fitzpatrick, John L; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-04-22

    The incredible diversity of colour patterns in coral reef fishes has intrigued biologists for centuries. Yet, despite the many proposed explanations for this diversity in coloration, definitive tests of the role of ecological factors in shaping the evolution of particular colour pattern traits are absent. Patterns such as spots and eyespots (spots surrounded by concentric rings of contrasting colour) have often been assumed to function for predator defence by mimicking predators' enemies' eyes, deflecting attacks or intimidating predators, but the evolutionary processes underlying these functions have never been addressed. Striped body patterns have been suggested to serve for both social communication and predator defence, but the impact of ecological constraints remains unclear. We conducted the first comparative analysis of colour pattern diversity in butterflyfishes (Family: Chaetodontidae), fishes with conspicuous spots, eyespots and wide variation in coloration. Using a dated molecular phylogeny of 95 species (approx. 75% of the family), we tested whether spots and eyespots have evolved characteristics that are consistent with their proposed defensive function and whether the presence of spots and body stripes is linked with species' body length, dietary complexity, habitat diversity or social behaviour. Contrary to our expectations, spots and eyespots appeared relatively recently in butterflyfish evolution and are highly evolutionarily labile, suggesting that they are unlikely to have played an important part in the evolutionary history of the group. Striped body patterns showed correlated evolution with a number of ecological factors including habitat type, sociality and dietary complexity. Our findings question the prevailing view that eyespots are an evolutionary response to predation pressure, providing a valuable counter example to the role of these markings as revealed in other taxa.

  20. Assessing Fishers' Support of Striped Bass Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Robert D.; Scyphers, Steven B.; Grabowski, Jonathan H.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the perspectives and insights of stakeholders is an essential component of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such that policy strategies should account for the diverse interests of various groups of anglers to enhance their efficacy. Here we assessed fishing stakeholders’ perceptions on the management of Atlantic striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and receptiveness to potential future regulations using an online survey of recreational and commercial fishers in Massachusetts and Connecticut (USA). Our results indicate that most fishers harbored adequate to positive perceptions of current striped bass management policies when asked to grade their state’s management regime. Yet, subtle differences in perceptions existed between recreational and commercial fishers, as well as across individuals with differing levels of fishing experience, resource dependency, and tournament participation. Recreational fishers in both states were generally supportive or neutral towards potential management actions including slot limits (71%) and mandated circle hooks to reduce mortality of released fish (74%), but less supportive of reduced recreational bag limits (51%). Although commercial anglers were typically less supportive of management changes than their recreational counterparts, the majority were still supportive of slot limits (54%) and mandated use of circle hooks (56%). Our study suggests that both recreational and commercial fishers are generally supportive of additional management strategies aimed at sustaining healthy striped bass populations and agree on a variety of strategies. However, both stakeholder groups were less supportive of harvest reductions, which is the most direct measure of reducing mortality available to fisheries managers. By revealing factors that influence stakeholders’ support or willingness to comply with management strategies, studies such as ours can help managers identify potential stakeholder support for or conflicts that

  1. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  2. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Roy L.; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L.

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012–2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown. PMID:26266543

  3. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown. PMID:26266543

  4. Unfolding of Vortices into Topological Stripes in a Multiferroic Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Mostovoy, M.; Han, M. G.; Horibe, Y.; Aoki, T.; Zhu, Y.; Cheong, S.-W.

    2014-06-01

    Multiferroic hexagonal RMnO3 (R =rare earths) crystals exhibit dense networks of vortex lines at which six domain walls merge. While the domain walls can be readily moved with an applied electric field, the vortex cores so far have been impossible to control. Our experiments demonstrate that shear strain induces a Magnus-type force pulling vortices and antivortices in opposite directions and unfolding them into a topological stripe domain state. We discuss the analogy between this effect and the current-driven dynamics of vortices in superconductors and superfluids.

  5. Downstream cumulative effects of land use on freshwater communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuglerová, L.; Kielstra, B. W.; Moore, D.; Richardson, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Many streams and rivers are subject to disturbance from intense land use such as urbanization and agriculture, and this is especially obvious for small headwaters. Streams are spatially organized into networks where headwaters represent the tributaries and provide water, nutrients, and organic material to the main stems. Therefore perturbations within the headwaters might be cumulatively carried on downstream. Although we know that the disturbance of headwaters in urban and agricultural landscapes poses threats to downstream river reaches, the magnitude and severity of these changes for ecological communities is less known. We studied stream networks along a gradient of disturbance connected to land use intensity, from urbanized watersheds to watersheds placed in agricultural settings in the Greater Toronto Area. Further, we compared the patterns and processes found in the modified watershed to a control watershed, situated in a forested, less impacted landscape. Preliminary results suggest that hydrological modifications (flash floods), habitat loss (drainage and sewer systems), and water quality issues of small streams in urbanized and agricultural watersheds represent major disturbances and threats for aquatic and riparian biota on local as well as larger spatial scales. For example, communities of riparian plants are dominated by species typical of the land use on adjacent uplands as well as the dominant land use on the upstream contributing area, instead of riparian obligates commonly found in forested watersheds. Further, riparian communities in disturbed environments are dominated by invasive species. The changes in riparian communities are vital for various functions of riparian vegetation. Bank erosion control is suppressed, leading to severe channel transformations and sediment loadings in urbanized watersheds. Food sources for instream biota and thermal regimes are also changed, which further triggers alterations of in-stream biological communities

  6. Color Fringes Bordering Black Stripes at the Bottom of a Swimming Pool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuster, Gonzalo; Rojas, Roberto; Slüsarenko, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    We have observed a nice example of chromatic dispersion due to refraction in water, in the form of color fringes bordering the black stripes that exist at the bottom of a swimming pool. Here we give a qualitative description of the phenomenon, explaining the role of the black stripes and the dispersive index of refraction of water.

  7. Assessing the variability of Red Stripe Disease in Louisiana sugarcane using precision agriculture methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of red stripe disease caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana between 1985 and 2010 were limited to the leaf stripe form which caused no apparent yield loss. During 2010, the more severe top rot form was observed, and a study was initiated to investigate the distribution of r...

  8. Control of stripe rust on winter wheat cultivars with foliar fungicide in 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study was conducted in a field with Palouse silt loam under natural infection of stripe rust near Pullman, WA. Fertilizer (Osmocota 14-14-14) was applied at 60 lb/A at the time of cultivation on 29 Oct 2012. Stripe rust susceptible ‘PS 279’ winter wheat was seeded in rows spaced 14 in. apart at ...

  9. Is the striped mealybug, Ferrisia virgata, a vector of huanglongbing bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ (Las) present in striped mealybugs feeding on Las-infected periwinkle plants. In November 2010, specimens of a common greenhouse pest, the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Pseudococcidae; Hemiptera), were collected from Las-infected periw...

  10. Responses of winter wheat cultivars to fungicide application for control of stripe rust in 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the responses of winter wheat cultivars with various levels of stripe rust resistance grown in the U.S. Pacific Northwest to fungicide application for control of stripe rust, this study was conducted in a field near Pullman, WA. Urea (46N-0P-0K) was applied at 100 lb/A at the time of pl...

  11. Comparative cost analysis of hybrid striped bass fingerling production in ponds and tanks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Year-round production of hybrid striped bass (female white bass Morone chrysops×male striped bass M. saxatilis) fingerlings would allow food fish growers to sell their product throughout the year, which would improve the consistency of market supply and cash flow for the farm. However, pond producti...

  12. Color Fringes Bordering Black Stripes at the Bottom of a Swimming Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuster, Gonzalo; Rojas, Roberto; Slüsarenko, Viktor

    2016-09-01

    We have observed a nice example of chromatic dispersion due to refraction in water, in the form of color fringes bordering the black stripes that exist at the bottom of a swimming pool. Here we give a qualitative description of the phenomenon, explaining the role of the black stripes and the dispersive index of refraction of water.

  13. STABLE ISOPTOPE RATIOS IN ARCHIVED STRIPED BASS SCALES SUGGEST CHANGES IN TROPHIC STRUCTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable carbon isotope ratios were measured in archived striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), scales to identify changes in the feeding behaviour of this species over time. Striped bass tissue and scale samples were collected from Rhode Island coastal waters during 1996 and ar...

  14. User's manual for STRIPE: a computer code for simulating striped bass young-of-the-year population in the Hudson River. [Morone saxatilis

    SciTech Connect

    Eraslan, A.H.; Sharp, R.D.; Van Winkle, W.

    1982-01-01

    The structure and operational features of the main program and subroutines of the STRIPE computer code are described. All the necessary information and instructions are presented for implementing the computer code in simulating the daily variations and the longitudinal distributions of the various life stages of the young-of-the-year striped bass population in the Hudson River. Complete samples of input data and output results are given for 1973 conditions.

  15. Food and feeding habits of larval striped bass: an analysis of larval striped bass stomachs from 1976 Potomac Estuary collections. Potomac River fisheries program. Final report. [Morone saxatilis

    SciTech Connect

    Beaven, M.; Mihursky, J.

    1980-01-01

    The stomachs of 605 striped bass (Morone saxatilis) larvae collected from the Potomac River Estuary during the spring of 1976 were examined, and food organisms identified to species when possible. Copepods, cladocerans, and rotifers were the most abundant organisms found. Electivity indices indicated positive selection for the larger stages of copepods and cladocerans, and negative selection for copepod nauplii and most rotifer species, regardless of the size or stage of striped bass larvae.

  16. Periodically striped films produced from super-aligned carbon nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Sun, Yinghui; Liu, Peng; Wang, Jiaping; Li, Qunqing; Fan, Shoushan; Jiang, Kaili

    2009-08-19

    We report a novel way to draw films from super-aligned carbon nanotube arrays at large drawing angles. The obtained super-aligned carbon nanotube films have a periodically striped configuration with alternating thinner and thicker film sections, and the width of the stripes is equal to the height of the original arrays. Compared with ordinary uniform films, the striped films provide a better platform for understanding the mechanism of spinning films from arrays because carbon nanotube junctions are easily observed and identified at the boundary of the stripes. Further studies show that the carbon nanotube junctions are bottleneck positions for thermal conduction and mechanical strength of the film, but do not limit its electrical conduction. These films can be utilized as striped and high-degree polarized light emission sources. Our results will be valuable for new applications and future large-scale production of tunable super-aligned carbon nanotube films. PMID:19636102

  17. Dynamic regulation of eve stripe 2 expression reveals transcriptional bursts in living Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Bothma, Jacques P; Garcia, Hernan G; Esposito, Emilia; Schlissel, Gavin; Gregor, Thomas; Levine, Michael

    2014-07-22

    We present the use of recently developed live imaging methods to examine the dynamic regulation of even-skipped (eve) stripe 2 expression in the precellular Drosophila embryo. Nascent transcripts were visualized via MS2 RNA stem loops. The eve stripe 2 transgene exhibits a highly dynamic pattern of de novo transcription, beginning with a broad domain of expression during nuclear cycle 12 (nc12), and progressive refinement during nc13 and nc14. The mature stripe 2 pattern is surprisingly transient, constituting just ∼15 min of the ∼90-min period of expression. Nonetheless, this dynamic transcription profile faithfully predicts the limits of the mature stripe visualized by conventional in situ detection methods. Analysis of individual transcription foci reveals intermittent bursts of de novo transcription, with duration cycles of 4-10 min. We discuss a multistate model of transcription regulation and speculate on its role in the dynamic repression of the eve stripe 2 expression pattern during development.

  18. The diet of Chesapeake Bay striped bass in the late 1950s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, J.C.; Margraf, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    The diet of Chesapeake Bay striped bass, (Morone saxatilis) Walbaum, based on unpublished stomach content data from 916 fish collected between 1955 and 1959 was described. The diet in the late 1950s, quantified using an index of relative importance (IRI), was dominated by Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus Latrobe. Atlantic menhaden (66%) and bay anchovy, Anchoa mitchilli Valenciennes, (19%) had the highest IRI value overall. Small striped bass ( <600 mm total length) ate predominantly bay anchovy (IRI = 67%). Large striped bass (??? 600 mm total length) ate predominantly Atlantic menhaden (IRI = 93%). Since 1990 small striped bass rely more on invertebrate prey and larger fish now rely more on small pelagic prey, such as bay anchovy and 0-age clupeids. Analysis of historical data using current techniques provided a valuable tool for comparison to help in understanding the current striped bass predator-prey relationship in Chesapeake Bay.

  19. X-ray study of aligned magnetic stripe domains in perpendicular multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Hellwig, O.; Denbeaux, G.P.; Kortright, J.B.; Fullerton, Eric E.

    2003-03-03

    We have investigated the stripe domain structure and the magnetic reversal of perpendicular Co/Pt based multilayers at room temperature using magnetometry, magnetic imaging and magnetic x-ray scattering. In-plane field cycling aligns the stripe domains along the field direction. In magnetic x-ray scattering the parallel stripe domains act as a magnetic grating resulting in observed Bragg reflections up to 5th order. We model the scattering profile to extract and quantify the domain as well as domain wall widths. Applying fields up to {approx}1.2 kOe perpendicular to the film reversibly changes the relative width of up versus down domains while maintaining the overall stripe periodicity. Fields above 1.2 kOe introduce irreversible changes into the domain structure by contracting and finally annihilating individual stripe domains. We compare the current results with modeling and previous measurements of films with perpendicular anisotropy.

  20. Downstream Processing of Synechocystis for Biofuel Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Jie

    Lipids and free fatty acids (FFA) from cyanobacterium Synechocystis can be used for biofuel (e.g. biodiesel or renewable diesel) production. In order to utilize and scale up this technique, downstream processes including culturing and harvest, cell disruption, and extraction were studied. Several solvents/solvent systems were screened for lipid extraction from Synechocystis. Chloroform + methanol-based Folch and Bligh & Dyer methods were proved to be "gold standard" for small-scale analysis due to their highest lipid recoveries that were confirmed by their penetration of the cell membranes, higher polarity, and stronger interaction with hydrogen bonds. Less toxic solvents, such as methanol and MTBE, or direct transesterification of biomass (without preextraction step) gave only slightly lower lipid-extraction yields and can be considered for large-scale application. Sustained exposure to high and low temperature extremes severely lowered the biomass and lipid productivity. Temperature stress also triggered changes of lipid quality such as the degree of unsaturation; thus, it affected the productivities and quality of Synechocystis-derived biofuel. Pulsed electric field (PEF) was evaluated for cell disruption prior to lipid extraction. A treatment intensity > 35 kWh/m3 caused significant damage to the plasma membrane, cell wall, and thylakoid membrane, and it even led to complete disruption of some cells into fragments. Treatment by PEF enhanced the potential for the low-toxicity solvent isopropanol to access lipid molecules during subsequent solvent extraction, leading to lower usage of isopropanol for the same extraction efficiency. Other cell-disruption methods also were tested. Distinct disruption effects to the cell envelope, plasma membrane, and thylakoid membranes were observed that were related to extraction efficiency. Microwave and ultrasound had significant enhancement of lipid extraction. Autoclaving, ultrasound, and French press caused significant

  1. Zebrafish stripes as a model for vertebrate colour pattern formation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2015-01-19

    Colour patterns are prominent features of many animals and have important functions in communication, such as camouflage, kin recognition and mate choice. As targets for natural as well as sexual selection, they are of high evolutionary significance. The molecular mechanisms underlying colour pattern formation in vertebrates are not well understood. Progress in transgenic tools, in vivo imaging and the availability of a large collection of mutants make the zebrafish (Danio rerio) an attractive model to study vertebrate colouration. Zebrafish display golden and blue horizontal stripes that form during metamorphosis as mosaics of yellow xanthophores, silvery or blue iridophores and black melanophores in the hypodermis. Lineage tracing revealed the origin of the adult pigment cells and their individual cellular behaviours during the formation of the striped pattern. Mutant analysis indicated that interactions between all three pigment cell types are required for the formation of the pattern, and a number of cell surface molecules and signalling systems have been identified as mediators of these interactions. The understanding of the mechanisms that underlie colour pattern formation is an important step towards deciphering the genetic basis of variation in evolution. PMID:25602311

  2. Rotationally driven 'zebra stripes' in Earth's inner radiation belt.

    PubMed

    Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Mitchell, D G; Takahashi, K; Lanzerotti, L J; Mauk, B H

    2014-03-20

    Structured features on top of nominally smooth distributions of radiation-belt particles at Earth have been previously associated with particle acceleration and transport mechanisms powered exclusively by enhanced solar-wind activity. Although planetary rotation is considered to be important for particle acceleration at Jupiter and Saturn, the electric field produced in the inner magnetosphere by Earth's rotation can change the velocity of trapped particles by only about 1-2 kilometres per second, so rotation has been thought inconsequential for radiation-belt electrons with velocities of about 100,000 kilometres per second. Here we report that the distributions of energetic electrons across the entire spatial extent of Earth's inner radiation belt are organized in regular, highly structured and unexpected 'zebra stripes', even when the solar-wind activity is low. Modelling reveals that the patterns are produced by Earth's rotation. Radiation-belt electrons are trapped in Earth's dipole-like magnetic field, where they undergo slow longitudinal drift motion around the planet because of the gradient and curvature of the magnetic field. Earth's rotation induces global diurnal variations of magnetic and electric fields that resonantly interact with electrons whose drift period is close to 24 hours, modifying electron fluxes over a broad energy range into regular patterns composed of multiple stripes extending over the entire span of the inner radiation belt. PMID:24646996

  3. The dietary lysine requirement of juvenile hybrid striped bass.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M E; Brown, P B; Grant, A L

    1992-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the dietary lysine requirement of juvenile hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x M. chrysops). In both experiments the diets contained 35 g crude protein/100 g diet (10 g crude protein supplied by casein and gelatin and 25 g crude protein supplied by crystalline L-amino acids) and contained graded levels of L-lysine.HCl resulting in eight dietary treatments. Diets were fed to triplicate groups of fish and ranged in dietary lysine concentration from 1.2 to 2.6 g/100 g of the dry diet in Experiment 1 and from 0.8 to 2.2 g/100 g of the dry diet in Experiment 2. Weight gain and food efficiency data from Experiment 1 indicated the dietary lysine requirement to be between 1.2 and 1.4 g/100 g of the dry diet. Weight gain, food efficiency and serum lysine data from Experiment 2 confirmed the requirement to be between 1.2 and 1.4 g/100 g of the dry diet. Broken-line analysis of weight gain and food efficiency data from Experiment 2 indicated the dietary lysine requirement to be 1.4 +/- 0.2% of the dry diet, or 4.0 g/100 g of the dietary protein. Changes in the relative proportions of dietary lipid and carbohydrate between the two experiments, although maintaining similar gross energy levels, did not alter the lysine requirement estimate of juvenile hybrid striped bass.

  4. Rotationally driven 'zebra stripes' in Earth's inner radiation belt.

    PubMed

    Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Mitchell, D G; Takahashi, K; Lanzerotti, L J; Mauk, B H

    2014-03-20

    Structured features on top of nominally smooth distributions of radiation-belt particles at Earth have been previously associated with particle acceleration and transport mechanisms powered exclusively by enhanced solar-wind activity. Although planetary rotation is considered to be important for particle acceleration at Jupiter and Saturn, the electric field produced in the inner magnetosphere by Earth's rotation can change the velocity of trapped particles by only about 1-2 kilometres per second, so rotation has been thought inconsequential for radiation-belt electrons with velocities of about 100,000 kilometres per second. Here we report that the distributions of energetic electrons across the entire spatial extent of Earth's inner radiation belt are organized in regular, highly structured and unexpected 'zebra stripes', even when the solar-wind activity is low. Modelling reveals that the patterns are produced by Earth's rotation. Radiation-belt electrons are trapped in Earth's dipole-like magnetic field, where they undergo slow longitudinal drift motion around the planet because of the gradient and curvature of the magnetic field. Earth's rotation induces global diurnal variations of magnetic and electric fields that resonantly interact with electrons whose drift period is close to 24 hours, modifying electron fluxes over a broad energy range into regular patterns composed of multiple stripes extending over the entire span of the inner radiation belt.

  5. Photometric redshifts of 5000 Xray selected Stripe 82 sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasnim Ananna, Tonima; Salvato, Mara; Urry, C. Megan; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Stripe 82X Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary spectroscopic and photometric redshifts of 5000 X-ray-selected AGN sources from our Stripe 82X survey, which is designed to study rare high-redshift and/or high-luminosity AGN like the luminous quasars identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey but also including heavily reddened AGN not identified as such in SDSS. The sample covers a total of 31.3 deg2 in Stripe 82, a combination of 15.6 deg2 XMM AO13 data, 10.6 deg2 XMM AO10 and archival data, and 7.4 deg2 archival Chandra data. About 80% of the newly discovered X-ray sources have an optical counterpart in the co-added SDSS data; of these, roughly half have spectroscopic redshifts. We derived estimates of the photometric redshifts for the rest, using multiwavelength photometry from GALEX, SDSS, UKIDSS, VISTA, 2MASS, Spitzer, and WISE. The photometric redshifts will be used to determine the fraction of obscured black hole growth at high redshift and/or high luminosity, as well as to derive the evolving X-ray luminosity function and to measure AGN clustering in several redshift slices — information vital to understanding the co-evolution of galaxies and their central black holes.

  6. Systemic sarcocystosis in a striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Burcham, G N; Ramos-Vara, J A; Vemulapalli, R

    2010-05-01

    A striped skunk with neurological signs was euthanized and examined via necropsy. Histologically, protozoa were found in multiple tissues. Protozoal schizonts measured 15 to 25 mum in diameter and contained 4 to 6 mum crescent-shaped merozoites. Protozoa were associated with necrosis and inflammation in the lung, brain, liver, and nasal epithelium. Immunohistochemistry labeled protozoa strongly positive for Sarcocystis neurona. Polymerase chain reaction-amplified products from the protozoan were 99.6% identical to the corresponding portion of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of S neurona. S neurona origin was further confirmed by amplifying a 451-base pair DNA fragment from the skunk lung, which differed by just 2 or 3 base pairs from the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of S neurona. Striped skunks act as intermediate and aberrant hosts for S neurona; however, S neurona has rarely been found in extraneural tissues in any species, and systemic sarcocystosis has not been reported in skunks. Additionally, canine distemper virus infection was confirmed with histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Concurrent canine distemper suggests that immunosuppression may have played a role in S neurona infection in this skunk.

  7. Comparative severity of experimentally induced mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis and hybrid tilapia Oreochromis spp.

    PubMed

    Wolf, J C; Smith, S A

    1999-11-30

    Twenty striped bass Morone saxatilis and 20 hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus x O. aureus each received a single intramuscular injection of 1.6 x 10(6) colony forming units per gram body weight of Mycobacterium marinum. Striped bass manifested significantly greater clinical and microscopic disease compared to tilapia. Whereas all the striped bass had died or were clinically ill by Day 8 post-infection, there was no apparent disruption of normal behaviour, physical appearance, or growth in any of the sacrificed or surviving tilapia. Histologically, granulomas in striped bass were generally larger and less discrete, with a higher proportion of heavily vacuolated macrophages, and large cores of necrotic cells. Visceral granulomas in tilapia were smaller, with a higher proportion of epithelioid macrophages, more pigment-containing cells, more peripheral lymphocytes, and virtually no central necrosis. Visceral granulomas were 18-fold more numerous in striped bass than in tilapia. Based upon histomorphometric data, mean proportions of acid-fast bacteria within pronephros granulomas were 4-fold greater in striped bass than tilapia, and striped bass granulomas averaged more than twice as large as tilapia granulomas. In the anterior kidney of striped bass, a positive correlation existed between mean mycobacterial proportions and mean necrosis scores. In tilapia, mean mycobacterial proportions correlated negatively with mean granuloma numbers, whereas there was no correlation between these parameters in striped bass. Results suggest that intrinsic functional differences in the immunologic systems of striped bass and hybrid tilapia may contribute to inter-species variation in mycobacteriosis susceptibility.

  8. Comparative severity of experimentally induced mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis and hybrid tilapia Oreochromis spp.

    PubMed

    Wolf, J C; Smith, S A

    1999-11-30

    Twenty striped bass Morone saxatilis and 20 hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus x O. aureus each received a single intramuscular injection of 1.6 x 10(6) colony forming units per gram body weight of Mycobacterium marinum. Striped bass manifested significantly greater clinical and microscopic disease compared to tilapia. Whereas all the striped bass had died or were clinically ill by Day 8 post-infection, there was no apparent disruption of normal behaviour, physical appearance, or growth in any of the sacrificed or surviving tilapia. Histologically, granulomas in striped bass were generally larger and less discrete, with a higher proportion of heavily vacuolated macrophages, and large cores of necrotic cells. Visceral granulomas in tilapia were smaller, with a higher proportion of epithelioid macrophages, more pigment-containing cells, more peripheral lymphocytes, and virtually no central necrosis. Visceral granulomas were 18-fold more numerous in striped bass than in tilapia. Based upon histomorphometric data, mean proportions of acid-fast bacteria within pronephros granulomas were 4-fold greater in striped bass than tilapia, and striped bass granulomas averaged more than twice as large as tilapia granulomas. In the anterior kidney of striped bass, a positive correlation existed between mean mycobacterial proportions and mean necrosis scores. In tilapia, mean mycobacterial proportions correlated negatively with mean granuloma numbers, whereas there was no correlation between these parameters in striped bass. Results suggest that intrinsic functional differences in the immunologic systems of striped bass and hybrid tilapia may contribute to inter-species variation in mycobacteriosis susceptibility. PMID:10686670

  9. Microbial production of scleroglucan and downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Natalia A; Valdez, Alejandra L; Fariña, Julia I

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic petroleum-based polymers and natural plant polymers have the disadvantage of restricted sources, in addition to the non-biodegradability of the former ones. In contrast, eco-sustainable microbial polysaccharides, of low-cost and standardized production, represent an alternative to address this situation. With a strong global market, they attracted worldwide attention because of their novel and unique physico-chemical properties as well as varied industrial applications, and many of them are promptly becoming economically competitive. Scleroglucan, a β-1,3-β-1,6-glucan secreted by Sclerotium fungi, exhibits high potential for commercialization and may show different branching frequency, side-chain length, and/or molecular weight depending on the producing strain or culture conditions. Water-solubility, viscosifying ability and wide stability over temperature, pH and salinity make scleroglucan useful for different biotechnological (enhanced oil recovery, food additives, drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, biocompatible materials, etc.), and biomedical (immunoceutical, antitumor, etc.) applications. It can be copiously produced at bioreactor scale under standardized conditions, where a high exopolysaccharide concentration normally governs the process optimization. Operative and nutritional conditions, as well as the incidence of scleroglucan downstream processing will be discussed in this chapter. The relevance of using standardized inocula from selected strains and experiences concerning the intricate scleroglucan scaling-up will be also herein outlined. PMID:26528259

  10. Microbial production of scleroglucan and downstream processing

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Natalia A.; Valdez, Alejandra L.; Fariña, Julia I.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic petroleum-based polymers and natural plant polymers have the disadvantage of restricted sources, in addition to the non-biodegradability of the former ones. In contrast, eco-sustainable microbial polysaccharides, of low-cost and standardized production, represent an alternative to address this situation. With a strong global market, they attracted worldwide attention because of their novel and unique physico-chemical properties as well as varied industrial applications, and many of them are promptly becoming economically competitive. Scleroglucan, a β-1,3-β-1,6-glucan secreted by Sclerotium fungi, exhibits high potential for commercialization and may show different branching frequency, side-chain length, and/or molecular weight depending on the producing strain or culture conditions. Water-solubility, viscosifying ability and wide stability over temperature, pH and salinity make scleroglucan useful for different biotechnological (enhanced oil recovery, food additives, drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, biocompatible materials, etc.), and biomedical (immunoceutical, antitumor, etc.) applications. It can be copiously produced at bioreactor scale under standardized conditions, where a high exopolysaccharide concentration normally governs the process optimization. Operative and nutritional conditions, as well as the incidence of scleroglucan downstream processing will be discussed in this chapter. The relevance of using standardized inocula from selected strains and experiences concerning the intricate scleroglucan scaling-up will be also herein outlined. PMID:26528259

  11. Striped Bass, morone saxatilis, egg incubation in large volume jars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, C.J.; Wrege, B.M.; Jeffery, Isely J.

    2010-01-01

    The standard McDonald jar was compared with a large volume jar for striped bass, Morone saxatilis, egg incubation. The McDonald jar measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. The experimental jar measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. The hypothesis is that there is no difference in percent survival of fry hatched in experimental jars compared with McDonald jars. Striped bass brood fish were collected from the Coosa River and spawned using the dry spawn method of fertilization. Four McDonald jars were stocked with approximately 150 g of eggs each. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96, and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg loading rate (??1 SE) in McDonald jars of 21.9 ?? 0.03 eggs/mL and in experimental jars of 10.9 ?? 0.57 eggs/mL. The major finding of this study was that average fry survival was 37.3 ?? 4.49% for McDonald jars and 34.2 ?? 3.80% for experimental jars. Although survival in experimental jars was slightly less than in McDonald jars, the effect of container volume on survival to 48 h (F = 6.57; df = 1,5; P > 0.05), 96 h (F = 0.02; df = 1, 4; P > 0.89), and 144 h (F = 3.50; df = 1, 4; P > 0.13) was not statistically significant. Mean survival between replicates ranged from 14.7 to 60.1% in McDonald jars and from 10.1 to 54.4% in experimental jars. No effect of initial stocking rate on survival (t = 0.06; df = 10; P > 0.95) was detected. Experimental jars allowed for incubation of a greater number of eggs in less than half the floor space of McDonald jars. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental jars offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing labor and operations cost. As survival was similar to McDonald jars, the experimental jar is suitable for striped bass egg incubation. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010.

  12. AERIAL VIEW FACING NORTH. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF FABRIC BUILDING, STRUCTURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW FACING NORTH. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF FABRIC BUILDING, STRUCTURAL WAREHOUSE, RAIL MILL, & OPEN HEARTH COMPLEX. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  13. 7. STONE PIER OF ORIGINAL WATERWHEEL INSTALLATION DOWNSTREAM FROM MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. STONE PIER OF ORIGINAL WATERWHEEL INSTALLATION DOWNSTREAM FROM MILL William E. Barrett, photographer, 1973 (copy negative) - Thomas Shepherd's Grist Mill, High Street Vicinity, Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, WV

  14. 5. DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BRIDGE AND SUBSTRUCTURE (with graduated meter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BRIDGE AND SUBSTRUCTURE (with graduated meter pole); VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Auwaiakeakua Bridge, Spanning Auwaiakekua Gulch at Mamalahoa Highway, Waikoloa, Hawaii County, HI

  15. Testing the thermal-niche oxygen-squeeze hypothesis for estuarine striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Richard T.; Secor, D.H.; Wingate, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many stratified coastal ecosystems, conceptual and bioenergetics models predict seasonal reduction in quality and quantity of fish habitat due to high temperatures and hypoxia. We tested these predictions using acoustic telemetry of 2 to 4 kg striped bass (Morone saxatilis Walbaum) and high-resolution spatial water quality sampling in the Patuxent River, a sub-estuary of the Chesapeake Bay, during 2008 and 2009. Striped bass avoided hypoxic (dissolved oxygen ≤2 mg·l−1) subpycnocline waters, but frequently occupied habitats with high temperatures (>25 °C) in the summer months, as cooler habitats were typically not available. Using traditional concepts of the seasonal thermal-niche oxygen-squeeze, most of the Patuxent estuary would beconsidered unsuitable habitat for adult striped bass during summer. Application of a bioenergetics model revealed that habitats selected by striped bass during summer would support positive growth rates assuming fish could feed at one-half ofmaximum consumption. Occupancy of the estuary during summer by striped bass in this study was likely facilitated by sufficient prey and innate tolerance of high temperatures by sub-adult fish of the size range that we tagged. Our results help extend the thermalniche oxygen-squeeze hypothesis to native populations of striped bass in semi-enclosed coastal systems. Tolerance of for supraoptimal temperatures in our study supports recent suggestions by others that the thermal-niche concept for striped bass should be revised to include warmer temperatures.

  16. Structure and evolution of electron "zebra stripes" in the inner radiation belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Foster, J. C.; Rankin, R.

    2016-05-01

    "Zebra stripes" are newly found energetic electron energy-spatial (L shell) distributed structure with an energy between tens to a few hundreds keV in the inner radiation belt. Using high-quality measurements of electron fluxes from Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) on board the twin Van Allen Probes, we carry out case and statistical studies from April 2013 to April 2014 to study the structural and evolutionary characteristics of zebra stripes below L = 3. It is revealed that the zebra stripes can be transformed into evenly spaced patterns in the electron drift frequency coordinate: the detrended logarithmic fluxes in each L shell region can be well described by sinusoidal functions of drift frequency. The "wave number" of this sinusoidal function, which corresponds to the reciprocal of the gap between two adjacent peaks in the drift frequency coordinate, increases in proportion to real time. Further, these structural and evolutionary characteristics of zebra stripes can be reproduced by an analytic model of the evolution of the particle distribution under a single monochromatic or static azimuthal electric field. It is shown that the essential ingredient for the formation of multiple zebra stripes is the periodic drift of particles. The amplitude of the zebra stripes shows a good positive correlation with Kp index, which indicates that the generation mechanism of zebra stripes should be related to geomagnetic activities.

  17. Alternative downstream processes for production of antibodies and antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Ejima, Daisuke

    2014-11-01

    Protein-A or Protein-L affinity chromatography and virus inactivation are key processes for the manufacturing of therapeutic antibodies and antibody fragments. These two processes often involve exposure of therapeutic proteins to denaturing low pH conditions. Antibodies have been shown to undergo conformational changes at low pH, which can lead to irreversible damages on the final product. Here, we review alternative downstream approaches that can reduce the degree of low pH exposure and consequently damaged product. We and others have been developing technologies that minimize or eliminate such low pH processes. We here cover facilitated elution of antibodies using arginine in Protein-A and Protein-G affinity chromatography, a more positively charged amidated Protein-A, two Protein-A mimetics (MEP and Mabsorbent), mixed-mode and steric exclusion chromatography, and finally enhanced virus inactivation by solvents containing arginine. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Recent advances in molecular engineering of antibody. PMID:24859179

  18. Diamagnetic vortex barrier stripes in underdoped BaFe2(As1-xPx) 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagil, A.; Lamhot, Y.; Almoalem, A.; Kasahara, S.; Watashige, T.; Shibauchi, T.; Matsuda, Y.; Auslaender, O. M.

    2016-08-01

    We report magnetic force microscopy (MFM) measurements on underdoped BaFe2(As1 -xPx)2 (x =0.26 ) that show enhanced superconductivity along stripes parallel to twin boundaries. These stripes of enhanced diamagnetic response repel superconducting vortices and act as barriers for them to cross. The width of the stripes is hundreds of nanometers, on the scale of the penetration depth, well within the inherent spatial resolution of MFM and implying that the width is set by the interaction of the superconductor with the MFM's magnetic tip. Unlike similar stripes observed previously by scanning SQUID in the electron doped Ba (Fe1 -xCox)2As2 , the stripes in the isovalently doped BaFe2(As1 -xPx)2 disappear gradually when we warm the sample towards the superconducting transition temperature. Moreover, we find that the stripes move well below the reported structural transition temperature in BaFe2(As1 -xPx)2 and that they can be much denser than in the Ba (Fe1 -xCox)2As2 study. When we cool in finite magnetic field we find that some vortices appear in the middle of stripes, suggesting that the stripes may have an inner structure, which we cannot resolve. Finally, we use both vortex decoration at higher magnetic field and deliberate vortex dragging by the MFM magnetic tip to obtain bounds on the strength of the interaction between the stripes and vortices. We find that this interaction is strong enough to play a significant role in determining the critical current in underdoped BaFe2(As1 -xPx)2 .

  19. Potential of lattice Boltzmann to model droplets on chemically stripe-patterned substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick Jansen, H.; Sotthewes, K.; Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Kooij, E. Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Lattice Boltzmann modelling (LBM) has recently been applied to a range of different wetting situations. Here we demonstrate its potential in representing complex kinetic effects encountered in droplets on chemically stripe-patterned surfaces. An ultimate example of the power of LBM is provided by comparing simulations and experiments of impacting droplets with varying Weber numbers. Also, the shape evolution of droplets is discussed in relation to their final shape. The latter can then be compared to Surface Evolver (SE) results, since under the proper boundary conditions both approaches should yield the same configuration in a static state. During droplet growth in LBM simulations, achieved by increasing the density within the droplet, the contact line initially advances in the direction parallel to the stripes, therewith increasing its aspect ratio. Once the volume becomes too large the droplet starts wetting additional stripes, leading to a lower aspect ratio. The maximum aspect ratio is shown to be a function of the width ratio of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic stripes and also their absolute widths. In the limit of sufficiently large stripe widths the aspect ratio is solely dependent on the relative stripe widths. The maximum droplet aspect ratio in the LBM simulations is compared to SE simulations and results are shown to be in good agreement. Additionally, we also show the ability of LBM to investigate single stripe wetting, enabling determination of the maximum aspect ratio that can be achieved in the limit of negligible hydrophobic stripe width, under the constraint that the stripe widths are large enough such that they are not easily crossed.

  20. Microsatellite markers linked to the locus of the watermelon fruit stripe pattern.

    PubMed

    Gama, R N C S; Santos, C A F; Dias, R C S; Alves, J C S F; Nogueira, T O

    2015-01-01

    Agronomic performance and external and internal appearance of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit are important traits that should be taken into consideration during the development of a new cultivar, as well as being the principal identification elements used by the consumer, which are based on the external appearance and quality of the fruit. Externally, the fruit can be characterized in terms of the shape, the color of the lower rind, and the presence of grooves and stripes, the stripes can be classified as clearly defined or diffuse. The objective of this study was to identify microsatellite markers linked to the stripe pattern of watermelon fruit to support watermelon improvement programs, with the selection of this characteristic in the plantlet stage. F1 and F2 populations, result of a cross between the cultivars BRS Opara (clearly defined stripes) and Pérola (diffuse stripes), were phenotyped for their fruit stripe pattern. The CTAB 2X protocol was used for DNA extraction and 116 microsatellite markers were examined in a group of F2 plants that had fruit with well-defined stripes and fruit with diffuse stripes. The microsatellite loci MCPI_05 and MCPI_16 exhibited a linkage to the stripe pattern at a distance of 1.5 and 1.8 cM, respectively, with LOD scores of 39.28 and 38.11, respectively, which were located on chromosome six of the watermelon genome. These markers can be used in marker-assisted selection in watermelon improvement programs, by various research institutions. PMID:25729959

  1. Explanation of the nature of stripe magnetic anomalies without inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikhov, Vjacheslav; Lygin, Ivan; Sokolova, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    Several scientists of different branches express doubts on the validity of the Earth's geomagnetic field inversions hypothesis [Vine F.J., Matthews D.H, 1963]. Presently a lot of information allows to link the appearance of stripe magnetic anomalies of both signs with the spreading fracture structure (horizontal segmentation of intrusions and sills, breaks in the strong crust, vertical movements of blocks), remagnetization near the borders of the blocks, hydrothermal activity. Non-inversion mechanism of origin of linear stripe magnetic anomalies in the oceans could be explained as follows. Ascending asthenospheric flows have been enrich with volatile components, become thinner, pressure on the walls of the lithospheric plates grows and part them. When it approaches the surface: - horizontal tensile pressure grows, - lithostatic pressure in the vertical column of rocks decreases, - crust strong upper layer flakes away and begins to move horizontally. It is important that thin magmatic and magnetic layers (further layers) of the newly formed strong upper crust move away from the ridge axis. The structure of such layers forms by horizontal stresses and so consist of the hills and depressions sequences or updiped and downdiped blocks heaped each other. This layer is the main source of the magnetic field and cannot be approximated by a horizontal homogeneous plate as it proved before. In the mid-ocean ridges (MOR) the folding periods of layer depend on its thickness and rigidity and horizontal velocity of spreading. The higher velocity - the longer periods of roughness are and contrary. Same pattern is observed for the stripe magnetic anomalies distribution. The magnetic field of the MOR forms there due to young lava flows which get thermoremanent magnetization according the current direction of geomagnetic field. Partial destruction of the relief, overlaying and creation of the new shapes occur when new magma penetrates the moved magnetic layer. The process entails

  2. Fermi-surface reconstruction by stripe order in cuprate superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, F.; Chang, J.; Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Hassinger, E.; Daou, R.; Rondeau, M.; Ramshaw, B.J.; Liang, R.; Bonn, D.A.; Hardy, W.N.; Pyon, S.; Takayama, T.; Takagi, H.; Sheikin, I.; Malone, L.; Proust, C.; Behnia, K.; Taillefer, Louis

    2011-01-01

    The origin of pairing in a superconductor resides in the underlying normal state. In the cuprate high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO), application of a magnetic field to suppress superconductivity reveals a ground state that appears to break the translational symmetry of the lattice, pointing to some density-wave order. Here we use a comparative study of thermoelectric transport in the cuprates YBCO and La1.8−xEu0.2SrxCuO4 (Eu-LSCO) to show that the two materials exhibit the same process of Fermi-surface reconstruction as a function of temperature and doping. The fact that in Eu-LSCO this reconstruction coexists with spin and charge modulations that break translational symmetry shows that stripe order is the generic non-superconducting ground state of hole-doped cuprates. PMID:21847106

  3. Pathology of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) infected with Brucella ceti.

    PubMed

    González-Barrientos, R; Morales, J-A; Hernández-Mora, G; Barquero-Calvo, E; Guzmán-Verri, C; Chaves-Olarte, E; Moreno, E

    2010-05-01

    Seventeen striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) displaying swimming disorders compatible with neurological syndromes were investigated for Brucella infection. Sixteen dolphins had meningoencephalomyelitis. Serum antibody against Brucella antigen was detected in all 14 animals tested and Brucella ceti was isolated from eight out of nine animals. Brucella antigen was detected in the brain by immunofluorescence, but not by immunohistochemical labelling. By contrast, Brucella antigen was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in the trophoblast of animals with severe placentitis and in the mitral valve of animals with myocarditis. The microscopical lesions observed in the tissues of the infected dolphins were similar to those of chronic brucellosis in man. The severity of brucellosis in S. coeruleoalba indicates that this dolphin species is highly susceptible to infection by B. ceti. PMID:19954790

  4. Thermal mortality prediction equations for entrainable striped bass

    SciTech Connect

    Kellogg, R.J.; Ligotino, R.J.; Jinks, S.M.

    1984-11-01

    Thermal mortality prediction equations based on a logistic regression model were developed for eggs, for yolk-sac larvae, and for postyolk-sac larvae plus early juveniles of striped bass Morone saxatilis. Exposure temperature, exposure duration, acclimation temperature, and fish size were important explanatory variables. Mortality increased as test temperature and exposure duration increased and decreased as acclimation temperature and size increased. In addition to these main variables, interaction terms significantly improved the performance of the equations for yolk-sac larvae and for postyolk-sac larvae plus early juveniles. These mortality models can be used to make predictive assessments of the thermal component of entrainment mortality or to help determine power plant operating conditions that minimize the entrainment impact. 23 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  5. Structure-guided unidirectional variation de-striping in the infrared bands of MODIS and hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaozong; Zhang, Tianxu

    2016-07-01

    Images taken using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and hyperspectral imaging systems, especially in their infrared bands, usually lead to undesired stripe noises, which seriously affect the image quality. A variational de-striping model has been proven to have good performance, but knowing how to detect stripes effectively, especially to distinguish them from edges/textures, is still challenging. In this paper, a structure-guided unidirectional variational (SGUV) model that considers the structure of stripes is proposed. Because of the use of structure information, which textures and edges do not have, the proposed algorithm can effectively distinguish stripes from image textures and almost does not blur details while removing stripes. Comparative experiments based on real stripe images demonstrated that the proposed method provides optimal qualitative and quantitative results.

  6. The Stripe 82 Massive Galaxy Project. I. Catalog Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundy, Kevin; Leauthaud, Alexie; Saito, Shun; Bolton, Adam; Lin, Yen-Ting; Maraston, Claudia; Nichol, Robert C.; Schneider, Donald P.; Thomas, Daniel; Wake, David A.

    2015-11-01

    The Stripe 82 Massive Galaxy Catalog (s82-mgc) is the largest-volume stellar mass-limited sample of galaxies beyond z ≈ 0.1 constructed to date. Spanning 139.4 deg2, the s82-mgc includes a mass-limited sample of 41,770 galaxies with {log}{M}*/{M}⊙ ≳ 11.2 to z ≈ 0.7, sampling a volume of 0.3 Gpc3, roughly equivalent to the volume of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II (SDSS-I/II) z < 0.15 main sample. The catalog is built on three pillars of survey data: the SDSS Stripe 82 Coadd photometry which reaches r-band magnitudes of ˜23.5 AB, Y JHK photometry at depths of 20th magnitude (AB) from the UK Infrared Deep Sky Survey Large Area Survey, and over 70,000 spectroscopic galaxy redshifts from the SDSS-I/II and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We describe the catalog construction and verification, the production of 9-band matched aperture photometry, tests of existing and newly estimated photometric redshifts required to supplement spectroscopic redshifts for 55% of the {log}{M}*/{M}⊙ ≳ 11.2 sample, and geometric masking. We provide near-IR based stellar mass estimates and compare these to previous estimates. All catalog products are made publicly available. The s82-mgc not only addresses previous statistical limitations in high-mass galaxy evolution studies, but also begins tackling inherent data challenges in the coming era of wide-field imaging surveys.

  7. Dietary choline requirement of juvenile hybrid striped bass.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M E; Wilson, K A; White, M R; Brown, P B

    1994-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to estimate the dietary choline requirement and to determine the effects of dietary choline on liver lipid deposition in juvenile hybrid striped bass (Monrone saxatilis x M. chrysops). Experimental diets contained 0.73 g total sulfur amino acids/100 g diet (0.47 g methionine + 0.26 g cyst(e)ine/100 g diet), thus meeting, but not exceeding, the requirement. Graded levels of choline bitartrate in Experiment 1 and choline chloride in Experiment 2 were added to the basal diet, resulting in eight dietary treatments in each experiment. Dietary treatments were 0, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 mg choline/kg dry diet. Diets were fed for 12 and 10 wk in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Dietary choline concentrations significantly affected weight gain, feed efficiency, survival and total liver lipid concentrations in each experiment. Weight gain and feed efficiency were greatest in fish fed 500 mg choline/kg dry diet as choline bitartrate. Total liver lipid concentrations were variable but tended to be lowest in fish fed diets containing at least 2000 mg choline/kg diet. Survival was significantly lower in the group of fish fed 8000 mg choline/kg diet supplied by choline bitartrate. Weight gain and feed efficiency were greatest and total liver lipid concentration was lowest in groups of fish fed at least 500 mg choline/kg diet as choline chloride; survival was unaffected by dietary treatment. Therefore, choline chloride seems to be a better source of dietary choline than choline bitartrate and 500 mg choline/kg diet is adequate for maximum weight gain and prevention of increased liver lipid concentration in juvenile hybrid striped bass.

  8. Mycobacterium-Inducible Nramp in Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burge, E.J.; Gauthier, David T.; Ottinger, C.A.; Van Veld, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    In mammals, the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 gene, Nramp1, plays a major role in resistance to mycobacterial infections. Chesapeake Bay striped bass (Morone saxatilis) is currently experiencing an epizootic of mycobacteriosis that threatens the health of this ecologically and economically important species. In the present study, we characterized an Nramp gene in this species and obtained evidence that there is induction following Mycobacterium exposure. The striped bass Nramp gene (MsNramp) and a 554-amino-acid sequence contain all the signal features of the Nramp family, including a topology of 12 transmembrane domains (TM), the transport protein-specific binding-protein-dependent transport system inner membrane component signature, three N-linked glycosylation sites between TM 7 and TM 8, sites of casein kinase and protein kinase C phosphorylation in the amino and carboxy termini, and a tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site between TM 6 and TM 7. Phylogenetic analysis most closely grouped MsNramp with other teleost Nramp genes and revealed high sequence similarity with mammalian Nramp2. MsNramp expression was present in all tissues assayed by reverse transcription-PCR. Within 1 day of injection of Mycobacterium marinum, MsNramp expression was highly induced (17-fold higher) in peritoneal exudate (PE) cells compared to the expression in controls. The levels of MsNramp were three- and sixfold higher on days 3 and 15, respectively. Injection of Mycobacterium shottsii resulted in two-, five-, and threefold increases in gene expression in PE cells over the time course. This report is the first report of induction of an Nramp gene by mycobacteria in a poikilothermic vertebrate.

  9. Striped Bass Spawning in Non-Estuarine Portions of the Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.; Paller, M.

    2007-04-17

    Historically, the estuarine portions of the Savannah River have been considered to be the only portion of the river in which significant amounts of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spawning normally occur. A reexamination of data from 1983 through 1985 shows a region between River Kilometers 144 and 253 where significant numbers of striped bass eggs and larvae occur with estimated total egg production near that currently produced in the estuarine reaches. It appears possible that there are two separate spawning populations of striped bass in the Savannah River.

  10. Analytical solution for the lateral current distribution in multiple stripe laser diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Amann, M.; Kappeler, F.

    1986-06-23

    The lateral profile of the injection current along the active layer in multiple stripe laser diodes is analyzed for the practical case of homogeneous current density within each individual stripe contact. By means of conformal mapping an exact analytical solution is found for arbitrary contact configurations (number, width, and location) driven with different currents. The simple form of the solution eases the analysis of modal gain and supermode discrimination in gain-guided and index-guided arrays of stripe-geometry laser diodes.

  11. Reorientation of the Stripe Phase of 2D Electrons by a Minute Density Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueed, M. A.; Hossain, Md. Shafayat; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Baldwin, K. W.; Shayegan, M.

    2016-08-01

    Interacting two-dimensional electrons confined in a GaAs quantum well exhibit isotropic transport when the Fermi level resides in the first excited (N =1 ) Landau level. Adding an in-plane magnetic field (B||) typically leads to an anisotropic, stripelike (nematic) phase of electrons with the stripes oriented perpendicular to the B|| direction. Our experimental data reveal how a periodic density modulation, induced by a surface strain grating from strips of negative electron-beam resist, competes against the B||-induced orientational order of the stripe phase. Even a minute (<0.25 %) density modulation is sufficient to reorient the stripes along the direction of the surface grating.

  12. 1. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER, LOOKING NORTHEAST. NOTE HEADGATE STRUCTURE ON NORTH BANK, SPILLWAY ON LEFT SIDE OF DAM, AND SPLASH LOGS ON DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DAM. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  13. 11. VIEW NORTH ALONG DOWNSTREAM BANK OF DAM FROM SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW NORTH ALONG DOWNSTREAM BANK OF DAM FROM SOUTH SIDE OF CHANNEL ON DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF RESERVOIR - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  14. Transcriptome annotation and marker discovery in white bass (Morone chrysops) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Beck, Benjamin H; Fuller, S Adam; Peatman, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and white bass (Morone chrysops) are the parental species of the hybrid striped bass, a major U.S. aquaculture species. Currently, genomic resources for striped bass, white bass, and their hybrid lag behind those of other aquaculture species. Current resources consist of a medium-density genetic linkage map and a well-annotated ovarian transcriptome. A well-annotated transcriptome from across striped bass and white bass tissues is needed to advance both broad-based RNA-seq studies of gene expression as well as aid in more targeted studies of important genes and pathways critical for reproductive physiology and immunity. Here, we carried out Illumina-based transcriptome sequencing and annotation in both species utilizing the trinity and trinotate packages. The assembled Moronid reference transcriptomes and identified SSRs and SNPs should advance ongoing studies of reproduction, physiology, and immunology in these species and provide markers for broodstock management and selection. PMID:25160849

  15. Stripes display in hover-wasps (Vespidae: Stenogastrinae): a socially costly status badge.

    PubMed

    Beani; Turillazzi

    1999-06-01

    During their daily patrols of their hover sites, male stenogastrine wasps display three white stripes on their tergites by fully stretching their abdomen. In captive Parischnogaster mellyi males, we observed a positive relationship between mating and both display frequency and successful aerial duels. Approaches of receptive females to hovering males and sexual interactions were most frequent at the end of the males' performance, when only a few individuals displayed their stripes in flight. We investigated the function and cost of the stripes display by manipulating this sex-dimorphic trait. Wasps with additional white stripes (simulating continuously displaying individuals) were pursued and touched more frequently by rivals, stopped their activity earlier than controls and foraged more intensely. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  16. Transcriptome annotation and marker discovery in white bass (Morone chrysops) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Beck, Benjamin H; Fuller, S Adam; Peatman, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and white bass (Morone chrysops) are the parental species of the hybrid striped bass, a major U.S. aquaculture species. Currently, genomic resources for striped bass, white bass, and their hybrid lag behind those of other aquaculture species. Current resources consist of a medium-density genetic linkage map and a well-annotated ovarian transcriptome. A well-annotated transcriptome from across striped bass and white bass tissues is needed to advance both broad-based RNA-seq studies of gene expression as well as aid in more targeted studies of important genes and pathways critical for reproductive physiology and immunity. Here, we carried out Illumina-based transcriptome sequencing and annotation in both species utilizing the trinity and trinotate packages. The assembled Moronid reference transcriptomes and identified SSRs and SNPs should advance ongoing studies of reproduction, physiology, and immunology in these species and provide markers for broodstock management and selection.

  17. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of Atlantic Coast striped bass.

    PubMed

    Bielawski, J P; Pumo, D E

    1997-01-01

    Atlantic Coast striped bass exhibit exceptionally low levels of genetic variation. The ability of the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method to uncover genetic variation in this highly conserved species was investigated. Sufficient levels of variation were detected to allow a population genetic analysis of the four migratory populations of Atlantic Coast striped bass. Lynch's analogue of Wright's FST (F'ST) suggests that Atlantic Coast striped bass are genetically subdivided (F'ST for pooled Atlantic samples = 0.44). Significant heterogeneity was detected in the frequencies of 32 per cent of surveyed RAPD markers. A modification of Slatkin's conditional average frequency method suggests that gene flow is present among the sampled Atlantic Coast striped bass. Results of the RAPD analysis suggest that gene flow is sufficient to prevent fixation of alternate genetic markers, but not sufficient to prevent the development of significant divergence in frequencies of these markers.

  18. Periodic stripe formation by a Turing-mechanism operating at growth zones in the mammalian palate

    PubMed Central

    Economou, Andrew D.; Ohazama, Atsushi; Porntaveetus, Thantrira; Sharpe, Paul T.; Kondo, Shigeru; Basson, M. Albert; Gritli-Linde, Amel; Cobourne, Martyn T.; Green, Jeremy B.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present direct evidence of an activator-inhibitor system in the generation of the regularly spaced transverse ridges of the palate. We show that new ridges, or rugae, marked by stripes of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression, appear at two growth zones where the space between previously laid-down rugae increases. However, inter-rugal growth is not absolutely required: new stripes still appear when growth is inhibited. Furthermore, when a ruga is excised new Shh expression appears, not at the cut edge but as bifurcating stripes branching from the neighbouring Shh stripe, diagnostic of a Turing-type reaction-diffusion mechanism. Genetic and inhibitor experiments identify Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) and Shh as an activator-inhibitor pair in this system. These findings demonstrate a reaction-diffusion mechanism likely to be widely relevant in vertebrate development. PMID:22344222

  19. Multiple-stripe lithiation mechanism of individual SnO2 nanowires in a flooding geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Li; Liu, Xiao H.; Wang, G. F.; Mao, Scott X.; Huang, Jian Yu

    2011-06-17

    The atomic scale lithiation mechanism of individual SnO2 nanowires in a flooding geometry with the entire wires being immersed in the electrolyte was revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. The lithiation initiated multiple stripes with width of a few nanometer parallel to {l_brace}020{r_brace} planes transversing the entire wires, serving as multiple reaction fronts for late stage of lithiation. Inside the stripes, we identified high density of dislocations and enlarged inter-planar spacing, which provide effective path for lithium ion transport. The density of the stripes increased with further lithiation, and eventually they merged with one another, causing a large enlongation and volume expansion and the crystalline to amorphous phase transformation. This multiple stripes and multiple reaction fronts lithiation mechanism is unexpected and differs completely from the expected core-shell lithiation mechanism.

  20. A Sarcocystis neurona-like organism associated with encephalitis in a striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Hamir, A N; Niezgoda, M; Rupprecht, C E

    1996-02-01

    A Sarcocystis neurona-like organism was associated with granulomatous encephalitis in an ataxic male juvenile striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Various stages of schizonts and merozoites of S. neurona were seen within some of the granulomata.

  1. Simulated impacts of climate change on current farming locations of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus; Sauvage) in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh L; Dang, Vinh H; Bosma, Roel H; Verreth, Johan A J; Leemans, Rik; De Silva, Sena S

    2014-12-01

    In Vietnam, culturing striped catfish makes an important contribution to the Mekong Delta's economy. Water level rise during rainy season and salt intrusion during dry season affect the water exchange and quality for this culture. Sea level rise as a consequence of climate change will worsen these influences. In this study, water level rise and salt water intrusion for three sea level rise (SLR) scenarios (i.e., +30, +50, and +75 cm) were simulated. The results showed that at SLR +50, the 3-m-flood level would spread downstream and threaten farms located in AnGiang, DongThap and CanTho provinces. Rising salinity levels for SLR +75 would reduce the window appropriate for the culture in SocTrang and BenTre provinces, and in TienGiang's coastal districts. Next to increasing dikes to reduce the impacts, the most tenable and least disruptive option to the farming community would be to shift to a salinity tolerant strain of catfish.

  2. Simulated impacts of climate change on current farming locations of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus; Sauvage) in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh L; Dang, Vinh H; Bosma, Roel H; Verreth, Johan A J; Leemans, Rik; De Silva, Sena S

    2014-12-01

    In Vietnam, culturing striped catfish makes an important contribution to the Mekong Delta's economy. Water level rise during rainy season and salt intrusion during dry season affect the water exchange and quality for this culture. Sea level rise as a consequence of climate change will worsen these influences. In this study, water level rise and salt water intrusion for three sea level rise (SLR) scenarios (i.e., +30, +50, and +75 cm) were simulated. The results showed that at SLR +50, the 3-m-flood level would spread downstream and threaten farms located in AnGiang, DongThap and CanTho provinces. Rising salinity levels for SLR +75 would reduce the window appropriate for the culture in SocTrang and BenTre provinces, and in TienGiang's coastal districts. Next to increasing dikes to reduce the impacts, the most tenable and least disruptive option to the farming community would be to shift to a salinity tolerant strain of catfish. PMID:24715387

  3. Feeding activity and spawning time of striped bass in the Colorado River Inlet, Lake Powell, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persons, William R.; Bulkly, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    Striped bass, Morone saxatilis, from Lake Powell, Utah spawned in or near the mixing zone of the reservoir and the Colorado River in 1980 and 1981. The fish did not move through Cataract Canyon rapids just above the reservoir in either year. Of 321 adult striped bass stomachs examined, 30% contained food and 28% contained threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense. No stomachs contained native threatened or endangered Colorado River fishes.

  4. Finite Element Analysis Of Thermal Transients In Multi-Stripe Laser Diode Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippincott, Wendy L.; Clement, Anne E.

    1989-05-01

    The NASTRAN finite element code was used to simulate the temperature transients in the active area of laser diode arrays caused by driving the array with a pulsed waveform. A ten-stripe multi-quantum-well (MQW) structure was used. The thermal impedance of the array was also determined and compared to experimental values obtained by monitoring the threshold dependance of the device during pulsed and cw operation. The single-stripe diode was also modeled for comparison purposes.

  5. Formation of longitudinal patterns and dimensionality crossover of nonlinear spin waves in ferromagnetic stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, V. E.; Hansen, U.-F.; Dzyapko, O.; Koulev, N.; Demokritov, S. O.; Slavin, A. N.

    2006-09-01

    Formation of stationary longitudinal amplitude patterns by propagating nonlinear spin waves has been discovered and studied experimentally by means of space-resolved Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy. The pattern formation is observed for spin waves propagating in narrow, longitudinally magnetized yttrium iron garnet stripes, characterized by attractive nonlinearity in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. A clear crossover of the effective dimensionality describing the propagation of spin waves in the stripe is observed with increase of the wave amplitude.

  6. Applying the Helmholtz illusion to fashion: horizontal stripes won't make you look fatter.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Peter; Mikellidou, Kyriaki

    2011-01-01

    A square composed of horizontal lines appears taller and narrower than an identical square made up of vertical lines. Reporting this illusion, Hermann von Helmholtz noted that such illusions, in which filled space seems to be larger than unfilled space, were common in everyday life, adding the observation that ladies' frocks with horizontal stripes make the figure look taller. As this assertion runs counter to modern popular belief, we have investigated whether vertical or horizontal stripes on clothing should make the wearer appear taller or fatter. We find that a rectangle of vertical stripes needs to be extended by 7.1% vertically to match the height of a square of horizontal stripes and that a rectangle of horizontal stripes must be made 4.5% wider than a square of vertical stripes to match its perceived width. This illusion holds when the horizontal or vertical lines are on the dress of a line drawing of a woman. We have examined the claim that these effects apply only for 2-dimensional figures in an experiment with 3-D cylinders and find no support for the notion that horizontal lines would be 'fattening' on clothes. Significantly, the illusion persists when the horizontal or vertical lines are on pictures of a real half-body mannequin viewed stereoscopically. All the evidence supports Helmholtz's original assertion.

  7. Pin stripe lamination: A distinctive feature of modern and ancient eolian sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fryberger, S.G.; Schenk, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Pin stripe laminations are a distinctive feature of modern and ancient eolian sediments. In sets of eolian ripple (or translatent) strata they represent deposition of silt and very fine sand in the troughs of the advancing wind ripples. In sets of avalanche strata they probably result from the downward settling of fine sand and silt within the moving avalanche to the interface of moving and unmoving sands. Wind tunnel experiments suggest that pin stripe laminations can also form in grainfall deposits. The textural segregation associated with deposition of the fine layers in most cases leads to early cementation along and near the finest sand and silt comprising the pin stripe lamination. The pin stripe effect seen in outcrops is usually due to resistance to weathering along such cemented zones. The cementation of the pin stripe laminations can occur early in the history of diagenesis and thus may provide clues to the post-depositional history of the rock. Pin stripe laminations in many instances represent the sequestering of the small population of ultrafine sediment present in most eolian depositional systems. They may prove useful in the recognition of ancient eolian sediments. ?? 1988.

  8. Linking habitat use of Hudson River striped bass to accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, J.T.F.; Secor, D.H.; Zlokovitz, E.; Wales, S.Q.; Baker, J.E.

    2000-03-15

    Since 1976, the commercial striped bass fishery in the Hudson River (NY) has been closed due to total polychlorinated biphenyl (t-PCB) concentrations that exceed the US Food and Drug Administration's advisory level of 2 {micro}g/g-wet weight. Extensive monitoring of Hudson River striped bass demonstrated much more variability in t-PCB levels among individual striped bass than could be explained by their age, sex, or lipid contents. To investigate the possible role of differential habitat use among subpopulations of striped bass in controlling their PCB exposures, 70 fish collected throughout the Hudson River estuary and Long Island Sound in 1994--1995 were analyzed for PCB congeners, and their lifetime migration behaviors were estimated by otolith microchemistry. The mean salinity encountered during the fish's last growth season prior to capture was inversely correlated with the t-PCB body burden. Striped bass permanently residing in fresh and oligohaline portions of the estuary adjacent to known PCB sources had elevated t-PCB levels and congeneric patterns with higher proportions of di-, tri-, and tetrachlorobiphenyls. Conversely, fish spending the majority of their life in more saline waters of the estuary or migrating frequently throughout the salinity gradient contained lower PCB levels composed of more highly chlorinated congeners. The approach used in this study allows habitat use to be incorporated into exposure assessments for anadromous fish species such as striped bass.

  9. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest): Striped bass

    SciTech Connect

    Hassler, T.J.

    1988-03-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The striped bass supports one of the most important sport fisheries in the Pacific Southwest. The only population of striped bass of consequence in the Pacific Southwest is in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary and Pacific Ocean within 40 km of San Francisco Bay. Males mature at age 2 or 3 and females at ages 4 to 7. Striped bass are anadromous and spawn in fresh- or nearly fresh-water from April to June in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and the Delta area formed by the rivers. The semibuoyant eggs require a minimum current of 30.5 cm/s during development to keep them from settling to the bottom and dying. Year-class size of striped bass in the estuary has been correlated with survival during early life. The abundance of young bass, mean FL 38 mm, has been associated with river outflow from the Delta and the percentage of the river inflow diverted. The abundance of striped bass in the estuary has steadily declined since the 1960's; the decline is believed to be related to a combination of toxic substances and entrainment of young bass. Temperature, salinity, and river discharge are also important environmental factors affecting the survival of striped bass. 109 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Effects of historic PCB exposures on the reproductive success of the Hudson River striped bass population.

    PubMed

    Barnthouse, Lawrence W; Glaser, David; Young, John

    2003-01-15

    Scientists and regulatory agencies have expressed concern that exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) might be contributing to reductions in the abundance of fish populations exposed to these chemicals. The specific effects of concern involve impairment of fish reproduction, including both reduced egg production and decreased viability of eggs and larvae. We tested hypotheses concerning the effects of PCBs on fish populations using long-term data sets available for the striped bass population of the Hudson River, NY, a population that has long been a subject of regulatory concern because of potential effects of PCB exposures. The data sets examined include both measurements of PCB concentrations in adult female striped bass over the period from 1976 through 1997 and estimates of the numbers of striped bass eggs, larvae, and juveniles produced annually during this same period. We found strong correlations between estimates of the abundance of spawners and the number of eggs and larvae produced by those spawners and also between independent estimates of year-class strength derived from different sampling programs. However, we found no relationships between PCB exposure and any measure of striped bass abundance or reproduction. Although inconsistent with the expected effects of PCB exposures, trends in all measures of striped bass abundance and reproductive success were consistent with the expected effects of striped bass harvest restrictions that were imposed during the 1980s. Our results demonstrate a need for caution in inferring risks to populations in nature from effects observed in laboratory studies.

  11. A Sample Of Sagittarius Debris From The Parallel Stripes Of SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Zhu; Smith, M.

    2011-01-01

    The SDSS equatorial stripe (stripe 82) and the parallel stripes (stripe 86 and 79) contain spectroscopic data for over tens of thousand stars in total. We have identified and analysed Sagittarius debris through the radial velocity of the stars. The stars in the stream have a global radial velocity different from the stars in the halo, and they also have their own velocity dispersion. This dispersion gives an important constraint on simulations of the Sagittarius stream, which can determine the mass of the progenitor and also diagnose the gravitational potential of the Milky Way. Combined with photometry, a blue horizontal star and blue stragglers sample of Sagittarius debris stars have been obtained. The samples are thought to be clean, which means the contamination from the smooth halo is constrained to be very low. Using the wide variety of information available for these stars (metallicity, radial velocity, gravity, photometry), we are able to gain deep insights into the nature of the Sagittarius system. There is probably another stream intersect sagittarius stream at this area. This new stream has different radial velocity than sagittarius in the position of stripe 82. This stream can also be detected in the BHB sample from stripe 86 and 79. It is most likely to be the Cetus Polar Stream recently reported.

  12. Edge instability in a chiral stripe domain under an electric current and skyrmion generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shi-Zeng

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the recent experimental observations on the skyrmion creation by cutting chiral stripe domains under a current drive [Jiang et al., Science 349, 283 (2015), 10.1126/science.aaa1442], we study the mechanism of skyrmion generation by simulating the dynamics of stripe domains. Our theory for skyrmion generation is based on the fact that there are two half skyrmions attached to the ends of a stripe domain. These half skyrmions move due to the coupling between the skyrmion topological charge and current. As a consequence, the stripe domain is bent or stretched depending on the direction of motion of the half skyrmions. For a large current, skyrmions are created by chopping the stripe domains via strong bending or stretching. Our theory provides an explanation to the experiments and is supported by the new experiments. Furthermore, we predict that skyrmions can also be generated using a Bloch stripe domain under a spin transfer torque which can be realized in B20 compounds.

  13. Edge instability in a chiral stripe domain under an electric current and skyrmion generation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lin, Shi -Zeng

    2016-07-05

    Motivated by the recent experimental observations on the skyrmion creation by cutting chiral stripe domains under a current drive [Jiang et al., Science 349, 283 (2015)], we study the mechanism of skyrmion generation by simulating the dynamics of stripe domains. Our theory for skyrmion generation is based on the fact that there are two half skyrmions attached to the ends of a stripe domain. These half skyrmions move due to the coupling between the skyrmion topological charge and current. As a consequence, the stripe domain is bent or stretched depending on the direction of motion of the half skyrmions. Formore » a large current, skyrmions are created by chopping the stripe domains via strong bending or stretching. Our theory provides an explanation to the experiments and is supported by the new experiments. Moreover, we predict that skyrmions can also be generated using a Bloch stripe domain under a spin transfer torque which can be realized in B20 compounds.« less

  14. Are stripes beneficial? Dazzle camouflage influences perceived speed and hit rates.

    PubMed

    von Helversen, Bettina; Schooler, Lael J; Czienskowski, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    In the animal kingdom, camouflage refers to patterns that help potential prey avoid detection. Mostly camouflage is thought of as helping prey blend in with their background. In contrast, disruptive or dazzle patterns protect moving targets and have been suggested as an evolutionary force in shaping the dorsal patterns of animals. Dazzle patterns, such as stripes and zigzags, are thought to reduce the probability with which moving prey will be captured by impairing predators' perception of speed. We investigated how different patterns of stripes (longitudinal-i.e., parallel to movement direction-and vertical-i.e., perpendicular to movement direction) affect the probability with which humans can hit moving objects and if differences in hitting probability are caused by a misperception of speed. A first experiment showed that longitudinally striped objects were hit more often than unicolored objects. However, vertically striped objects did not differ from unicolored objects. A second study examining the link between perceived speed and hitting probability showed that longitudinally and vertically striped objects were both perceived as moving faster and were hit more often than unicolored objects. In sum, our results provide evidence that striped patterns disrupt the perception of speed, which in turn influences how often objects are hit. However, the magnitude and the direction of the effects depend on additional factors such as speed and the task setup. PMID:23637795

  15. Multicultural Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Charrles; Kampfe, Charlene

    This chapter examines issues related to working with diverse populations with addictions. A brief history of multiculturalism and multicultural counseling is presented. Issues particular to the treatment of people with addictions are examined, as well as prevention and assessment issues. Substance abuse issues among people in the gay male and…

  16. Scaled Accelerator Test for the DARHT-II Downstream Transport System

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y; Blackfield, D T; Caporaso, G J; Guethlein, G; McCarrick, J F; Paul, A C; Watson, J A; Weir, J T

    2005-10-03

    The second axis of the Dual Axial radiography Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT-II) facility at LANL is currently in the commissioning phase[1]. The beam parameters for the DARHT-II machine will be nominally 18 MeV, 2 kA and 1.6 {micro}s. This makes the DARHT-II downstream system the first system ever designed to transport a high current, high energy and long pulse beam [2]. We will test these physics issues of the downstream transport system on a scaled DARHT-II accelerator with a 7.8-MeV and 660-A beam at LANL before commissioning the machine at its full energy and current. The scaling laws for various physics concerns and the beam parameters selection is discussed in this paper.

  17. RNA recombination in the genome of barley stripe mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M C; Petty, I T; Jackson, A O

    1992-07-01

    Barley stripe mosaic Hordeivirus (BSMV) is a positive-strand RNA virus requiring three single-stranded RNAs (alpha, beta, and gamma) for infectivity. A terminal-sequence-dependent cloning strategy was used to clone the entire genome of the CV17 strain. Full-length gamma cDNA clones were obtained when oligonucleotides specific for the 5'-terminal sequence of RNA alpha were used in the cloning procedure, but not when RNA gamma-specific oligonucleotides were used. Sequence analysis of six putative gamma cDNA clones revealed that nucleotides 1-70 possess 89% homology with the first 70 nucleotides of RNA alpha. This leader region is separated from the gamma-specific coding region by an eight-base intervening sequence common to both CV17 RNAs alpha and gamma. Northern and Southern hybridization with oligonucleotide probes specific for either alpha or gamma leader sequences indicated that CV17 gamma cDNA clones are representative of native CV17 gamma RNAs. Furthermore, bioassays indicated that in vitro transcripts derived from these gamma cDNA clones were infectious when coinoculated with in vitro transcripts of full-length alpha and beta cDNA clones. Thus, the evidence suggests that RNA gamma of BSMV strain CV17 is a recombinant molecule which may have arisen as a result of natural recombination between RNAs alpha and gamma. PMID:1604824

  18. Orbital bi-stripes in highly doped bilayer manganites

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, T.A.W.; Spencer, P.D.; Hatton, P.D.; Wilkins, S.B.; Zimmermann, M. von; Brown, S.D.; Prabhakaran, D.; Boothroyd, A.T.

    2005-08-01

    We present high-resolution high-energy and resonant x-ray-diffraction results from La{sub 2-2x}Sr{sub 1+2x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} for x=0.55, 0.575, and 0.60. These compounds show superlattice reflections at wave vectors of (h{+-}{delta},k{+-}{delta},l) and (h{+-}2{delta},k{+-}2{delta},l), arising from orbital ordering with associated Jahn-Teller distortions and charge ordering, respectively. We observe a phase transition boundary between the x=0.55 and x=0.575 doping levels. Samples with x=0.55 display structural characteristics similar to those previously reported for x=0.5. Compared to this the long-range order in samples with x=0.55 and x=0.6 have a distinct change in wave-vector and correlation length. We attribute this to a new orbital bi-stripe phase, accompanied by weak, frustrated, charge ordering. The observed azimuthal dependence of the orbital order reflection supports the model proposed for this new phase.

  19. Periodic Striped Ground States in Ising Models with Competing Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Alessandro; Seiringer, Robert

    2016-11-01

    We consider Ising models in two and three dimensions, with short range ferromagnetic and long range, power-law decaying, antiferromagnetic interactions. We let J be the ratio between the strength of the ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic interactions. The competition between these two kinds of interactions induces the system to form domains of minus spins in a background of plus spins, or vice versa. If the decay exponent p of the long range interaction is larger than d + 1, with d the space dimension, this happens for all values of J smaller than a critical value J c ( p), beyond which the ground state is homogeneous. In this paper, we give a characterization of the infinite volume ground states of the system, for p > 2 d and J in a left neighborhood of J c ( p). In particular, we prove that the quasi-one-dimensional states consisting of infinite stripes ( d = 2) or slabs ( d = 3), all of the same optimal width and orientation, and alternating magnetization, are infinite volume ground states. Our proof is based on localization bounds combined with reflection positivity.

  20. Use of a laser stripe illuminator for enhanced underwater viewing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetlow, Steve; Allwood, Robert L.

    1994-10-01

    A laser-based illumination system that can be incorporated into the existing underwater viewing system of current remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) has been investigated. A stripe of projected laser light is scanned over the target and resultant image frames are processed and combined to produce a computer generated composite image. Initially, the system was characterized through trials in the underwater optical test facility at Cranfield where water conditions are easily controlled. Subsequently, further work was carried out on a self- contained underwater unit at a flooded quarry in Leicestershire. Several advantages of this technique have been identified from the laboratory and field trials. Scanning the laser source allows greater control of the lighting envelope resulting in more optically uniform images. Contrast improvements of 300% and range improvements of 50% over orthodox systems have been measured. The use of image processing allows a greater degree of flexibility in image presentation and because this methodology is based on a standard underwater camera, it is complementary and can be fitted retrospectively at relatively low cost.

  1. Transient genital abnormalities in striped hyenas (Hyaena hyaena).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Aaron P; Frank, Laurence G; Creel, Scott; Coscia, Elizabeth M

    2007-05-01

    The highly masculinized genitalia of female spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta is unique among mammals: Crocuta have no external vagina so urination, penile intromission and parturition take place through the clitoris, which mimics a fully erectile male penis. Among hyenids, virilization of external female genitalia has previously been observed only in Crocuta, so functional explanations of masculinization have focused on aspects of social ecology unique to the species. Here we first show that the striped hyena Hyaena hyaena exhibits both unusual similarity in male and female androgen concentrations and transient genital anomalies characterized by a convergence in genital appearance among young males and females. We then evaluate hypotheses regarding the evolution of genital masculinization in the Hyaenidae and other taxa. Hyaena are behaviorally solitary, so discovery of unusual genital development patterns in this species does not support any current evolutionary models for masculinization in Crocuta, which all rely on the trait originating within a highly social species. Some hypotheses can be modified so that masculinization in Crocuta represents an extreme elaboration of a preexisting trait, shared as a homology with Hyaena.

  2. Ultrastructure of Mycobacterium marinum granuloma in striped bass Morone saxatilis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gauthier, David T.; Vogelbein, W.K.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    An emerging epizootic of mycobacteriosis currently threatens striped bass Morone saxatilis populations in Chesapeake Bay, USA. Several species of mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium marinum, species resembling M. avium, M. gordonae, M. peregrinum, M. scrofulaceum and M. terrae, and the new species M. shottsii have been isolated from diseased and healthy bass. In this study, we describe the ultrastructure of developing M. marinum granulomas in experimentally infected bass over a period of 45 wk. The primary host response to injected mycobacteria was formation of large macrophage aggregations containing phagocytosed bacilli, M. marinum were always contained within phagosomes. Close association of lysosomes with mycobacterial phagosomes, as well as the presence of electron-opaque material within phagosomes, suggested phagolysosomal fusion. Development of granulomas involved epithelioid transformation of macrophages, followed by appearance of central necrosis. Desmosomes were present between mature epithelioid cells. The necrotic core region of M. marinum granulomas was separated from overlying epithelioid cells by several layers of flattened, electron-opaque spindle-shaped cells. These cells appeared to be formed by compression of epithelioid cells and, aside from a flattened nucleus, did not possess recognizable organelles. Following the development of well-defined, paucibacillary granulomas, secondary disease was observed. Recrudescence was marked by bacterial replication followed by disruption of granuloma architecture, including loss of epithelioid and spindle cell layers. In advanced recrudescent lesions, normal tissue was replaced by macrophages, fibroblasts, and other inflammatory leukocytes. Large numbers of mycobacteria were observed, both intracellular and suspended in cellular debris.

  3. Zinc toxicosis in a captive striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena).

    PubMed

    Agnew, D W; Barbiers, R B; Poppenga, R H; Watson, G L

    1999-09-01

    An 11-yr-old captive-born female striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) acutely developed lameness and swelling of the left front foot with anorexia, depression, and lethargy. Hematologic evaluation revealed regenerative anemia, azotemia, and other mild serum electrolyte and mineral abnormalities. Twenty radiographically visible coins and 10 coin fragments were removed by laparotomy and gastrotomy following unsuccessful medical therapy. The animal died during anesthetic recovery. Zinc serum levels were 41.0 ppm at first presentation and 36.0 ppm at the time of surgery, compared with concentrations of 1.78 ppm and 2.82 ppm for serum taken from this female and a male hyena 3 mo previously. Zinc toxicosis was diagnosed based on the similarity of clinical signs to those described in dogs, presence in the stomach of pennies minted after 1982 (when the zinc content of U.S. pennies was increased substantially), necropsy findings, and elevated serum and liver zinc values. The case highlights the risk posed by penny ingestion for subsequent zinc toxicosis in captive omnivores.

  4. Dietary arginine requirement of juvenile hybrid striped bass.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M E; Wilson, K A; Brown, P B

    1994-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the dietary arginine requirement of juvenile hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x M. chrysops); a third experiment evaluated the interaction of lysine and arginine. Diets in Experiments 1 and 2 were supplemented with graded concentrations of L-arginine-HCl, resulting in eight dietary treatments. Dietary arginine concentrations ranged from 1.0 to 2.4 g/100 g diet in Experiment 1 and from 0.6 to 2.0 g/100 g diet in Experiment 2. Weight gain was not affected by dietary treatments in Experiment 1. Feed efficiency was significantly affected by dietary arginine concentrations, and the data, when subjected to broken-line analysis, resulted in a requirement estimate of 1.53 +/- 0.20 g/100 g diet. Weight gain and feed efficiency were both significantly affected by dietary arginine concentrations in Experiment 2. Broken-line analyses of weight gain and feed efficiency data indicated the dietary arginine requirement to be 1.55 +/- 0.10 and 1.45 +/- 0.12 g/100 g diet, respectively. Diets in Experiment 3 contained lysine and arginine in ratios of 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2 and 1:2.5 for the previously estimated requirements for both lysine:arginine and arginine:lysine. No differences were observed in weight gain or feed efficiency for fish fed various lysine:arginine ratios, but serum lysine was significantly different among treatment groups.

  5. Periodic Striped Ground States in Ising Models with Competing Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Alessandro; Seiringer, Robert

    2016-06-01

    We consider Ising models in two and three dimensions, with short range ferromagnetic and long range, power-law decaying, antiferromagnetic interactions. We let J be the ratio between the strength of the ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic interactions. The competition between these two kinds of interactions induces the system to form domains of minus spins in a background of plus spins, or vice versa. If the decay exponent p of the long range interaction is larger than d + 1, with d the space dimension, this happens for all values of J smaller than a critical value J c (p), beyond which the ground state is homogeneous. In this paper, we give a characterization of the infinite volume ground states of the system, for p > 2d and J in a left neighborhood of J c (p). In particular, we prove that the quasi-one-dimensional states consisting of infinite stripes (d = 2) or slabs (d = 3), all of the same optimal width and orientation, and alternating magnetization, are infinite volume ground states. Our proof is based on localization bounds combined with reflection positivity.

  6. Sliding drops across alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic stripes.

    PubMed

    Sbragaglia, M; Biferale, L; Amati, G; Varagnolo, S; Ferraro, D; Mistura, G; Pierno, M

    2014-01-01

    We perform a joint numerical and experimental study to systematically characterize the motion of 30 μl drops of pure water and of ethanol in water solutions, sliding over a periodic array of alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic stripes with a large wettability contrast and a typical width of hundreds of microns. The fraction of the hydrophobic areas has been varied from about 20% to 80%. The effects of the heterogeneous patterning can be described by a renormalized value of the critical Bond number, i.e., the critical dimensionless force needed to depin the drop before it starts to move. Close to the critical Bond number we observe a jerky motion characterized by an evident stick-slip dynamics. As a result, dissipation is strongly localized in time, and the mean velocity of the drops can easily decrease by an order of magnitude compared to the sliding on the homogeneous surface. Lattice Boltzmann numerical simulations are crucial for disclosing to what extent the sliding dynamics can be deduced from the computed balance of capillary, viscous, and body forces by varying the Bond number, the surface composition, and the liquid viscosity. Beyond the critical Bond number, we characterize both experimentally and numerically the dissipation inside the droplet by studying the relation between the average velocity and the applied volume forces.

  7. Experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection in striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Quirk, Travis; Dubey, J P

    2008-06-01

    Twenty-three striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) without demonstrable antibodies in 1:25 serum dilution in the modified agglutination test (MAT) were fed sporulated Toxoplasma gondii oocysts (9 skunks) or tissue cysts (10 skunks), and 4 skunks (controls) were not fed T. gondii. Skunks were bled before feeding T. gondii, 10 and 23- 25 days postinoculation (PI). All 9 seronegative skunks fed oocysts died of acute toxoplasmosis between 7 and 19 days PI; T. gondii tachyzoites were found in histological sections of many tissues. One of the 10 skunks fed tissue cysts and 1 of the 4 controls also died of acute toxoplasmosis days 19 and 20 PI; these animals probably became infected by ingestion of unexcysted oocysts passed in feces of skunks fed oocysts that were housed in the same room that skunks fed tissue cysts were housed. The remaining 9 skunks fed tissue cysts and the 3 controls developed only a mild illness and were killed in good health on days 23-25 PI. Antibodies to T. gondii were not found in 1:25 serum dilution of any of the 19 of 23 skunks that were alive on day 10 PI; 12 of 13 skunks had antibodies (MAT 1:80 or higher) on the day they were killed. Antibodies were not found in 1 skunk. Results indicate that skunks can develop IgG antibodies to T. gondii within 3 wk PI, and primary toxoplasmosis can be fatal in skunks.

  8. Evaluation of marked-recapture for estimating striped skunk abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, R.J.; Sargeant, A.B.; Johnson, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    The mark-recapture method for estimating striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) abundance was evaluated by systematically livetrapping a radio-equipped population on a 31.4-km2 study area in North Dakota during late April of 1977 and 1978. The study population was 10 females and 13 males in 1977 and 20 females and 8 males in 1978. Skunks were almost exclusively nocturnal. Males traveled greater nightly distances than females (3.3 vs. 2.6 km, P < 0.05) and had larger home ranges (308 vs. 242 ha) although not significantly so. Increased windchill reduced night-time activity. The population was demographically but not geographically closed. Frequency of capture was positively correlated with time skunks spent on the study area. Little variation in capture probabilities was found among trap-nights. Skunks exhibited neither trap-proneness nor shyness. Capture rates in 1977 were higher for males than for females; the reverse occurred in 1978. Variation in individual capture rates was indicated among males in 1977 and among females in 1978. Ten estimators produced generally similar results, but all underestimated true population size. Underestimation was a function of the number of untrapped skunks, primarily those that spent limited time on the study area. The jackknife method produced the best estimates of skunk abundance.

  9. 3. VIEW OF DIABLO CANYON LOOKING DOWNSTREAM FROM THE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF DIABLO CANYON LOOKING DOWNSTREAM FROM THE VALVE HOUSE AT ELEVATION 1044, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Dam, On Skagit River, 6.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  10. 7. VIEW OF MAIN CANAL, LOOKING SOUTH, IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF MAIN CANAL, LOOKING SOUTH, IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM FROM THE SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, SECTION 34, T2N, R37E - Woodville Canal Company, West side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Woodville, Bingham County, ID

  11. 5. VIEW SHOWING THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SWAN FALLS DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SWAN FALLS DAM AND POWER HOUSE, LOOKING UPSTREAM TO SOUTH FROM THE A MOUND OF DEBRIS ABOUT THIRTY TO FORTY FEET ABOVE THE RIVER - Swan Falls Dam, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  12. 14. INSIDE VIEW OF FLUME, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM TOWARD SETTLING BASIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INSIDE VIEW OF FLUME, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM TOWARD SETTLING BASIN, SHOWING RIGHT FORK TO BYPASS, LEFT FORK TO BASIN - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  13. 15. INSIDE VIEW OF FLUME, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM, LEFT FORK TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INSIDE VIEW OF FLUME, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM, LEFT FORK TO SETTLING BASIN, SHOWING RIGHT FORK WITH GATE IN PLACE AND A FEW NEEDLES IN PLACE - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  14. 3. EASTERLY VIEW OF THE DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BIG DALTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EASTERLY VIEW OF THE DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE SOUTHEAST END OF THE DAM, AND THE HOLLOW BAYS. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 29. VIEW OF STONE BUILDING, ABOUT ONE MILE DOWNSTREAM OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF STONE BUILDING, ABOUT ONE MILE DOWNSTREAM OF DAM, USED TO STORE EXPLOSIVES DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF HORSE MESA - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. Wave and particle evolution downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckean, M. E.; Omidi, N.; Krauss-Varban, D.; Karimabadi, H.

    1995-01-01

    Distributions of ions heated in quasi-perpendicular bow shocks have large perpendicular temperature anisotropies that provide free energy for the growth of Alfven ion cyclotron (AIC) and mirror waves. These modes are often obsreved in the Earth's magnetosheath. Using two-dimensional hybrid simulations, we show that these waves are produced near the shock front and convected downstream rather than being produced locally downstream. The wave activity reduces the proton anisotropy to magnetosheath levels within a few tens of gyroradii of the shock but takes significantly longer to reduce the anisotropy of He(++) ions. The waves are primarily driven by proton anisotropy and the dynamics of the helium ions is controlled by the proton waves. Downstream of high Mach number shocks, mirror waves compete effectively with AIC waves. Downstream of low Mach number shocks, AIC waves dominate.

  17. 10. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM UNDERSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM UNDERSIDE OF GARDEN STATE PARKWAY ABUTMENT - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  18. COMPLETED STRUCTURE. View is eastsoutheast of downstream side of bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COMPLETED STRUCTURE. View is east-southeast of downstream side of bridge, from beyond confluence of Trinity and South Fork Trinity Rivers - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  19. 7. View to southeast. View of downstream side of bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View to southeast. View of downstream side of bridge from confluence of Trinity and South Fork Trinity Rivers. (90mm Lens) - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  20. LOOKING EASTSOUTHEAST. Showing downstream side of completed bridge, from confluence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST. Showing downstream side of completed bridge, from confluence of Trinity and South Fork Trinity Rivers - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  1. 10. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam under construction. Cement ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam under construction. Cement storage shed is at center right. Photographer unknown, September 1924. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 27. DETAIL VIEW OF CONCRETE MONOLITH CONSTRUCTION AT DOWNSTREAM END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. DETAIL VIEW OF CONCRETE MONOLITH CONSTRUCTION AT DOWNSTREAM END OF WEST MAIN LOCK WALL, LOOKiNG SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  3. 32. Otter Lake Dam. View from downstream show how the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Otter Lake Dam. View from downstream show how the dam blends into its environment. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  4. 5. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  5. 6. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  6. 9. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM MITER GATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM MITER GATES FOR NAVIGATION LOCK #1. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  7. 2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING CHANNEL DOWNSTREAM FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING CHANNEL DOWNSTREAM FROM NAVIGATION LOCK #1; MOVABLE BRIDGE IS VISIBLE IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  8. 40. Reservoir behind Pleasant Dam, looking downstream, spillway is at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Reservoir behind Pleasant Dam, looking downstream, spillway is at right. Photographer unknown, c. late 1920s. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 54. Downstream face of Agua Fria project's diversion dam showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Downstream face of Agua Fria project's diversion dam showing initial masonry construction and poured concrete capping. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 57. Downstream side of left section of diversion dam. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Downstream side of left section of diversion dam. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. 55. Downstream face of diversion dam looking northwest. Photographer Mark ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Downstream face of diversion dam looking northwest. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 28. View of construction shops looking west and downstream. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. View of construction shops looking west and downstream. Photographer unknown, October 29, 1926. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 70. Downstream view of Waddell Dam spillway and taintor gates. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Downstream view of Waddell Dam spillway and taintor gates. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 42. View of emergency spillway excavation looking downstream from spillway. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. View of emergency spillway excavation looking downstream from spillway. Photographer unknown, 1929. Source: ADWR. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 69. View of downstream face from west or right abutment. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. View of downstream face from west or right abutment. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 49. Downstream face of Humbug Creek Diversion Dam with sluice ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Downstream face of Humbug Creek Diversion Dam with sluice opening at center. Photographer James Eastwood, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 51. Downstream end of diversion tunnel around east end of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Downstream end of diversion tunnel around east end of Humbug Creek Diversion Dam. Photographer James Eastwood, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 65. Close up view of downstream face of arch, buttress ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Close up view of downstream face of arch, buttress ties and roadway support work. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 27. Evening view of downstream face of Pleasant Dam under ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Evening view of downstream face of Pleasant Dam under construction. Part of construction camp housing is visible in foreground. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 2. NORTHERLY VIEW OF THE DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BIG DALTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTHERLY VIEW OF THE DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE NORTHWEST END OF THE DAM, THE CONTROL HOUSE, AND SPILLWAY CHUTE. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 9. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH OF DOWNSTREAM SIDES OF ALL THREE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH OF DOWNSTREAM SIDES OF ALL THREE BRIDGES, SHOWING PROXIMITY OF BRIDGE TO ONE ANOTHER - Van Duzen River Bridge, Spanning Van Duzen River at CA State Highway 101, Alton, Humboldt County, CA

  2. 7. Contextual view to eastnortheast showing downstream (west) side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Contextual view to east-northeast showing downstream (west) side of bridge in setting, depicting dense riparian nature of area. - Stanislaus River Bridge, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway at Stanislaus River, Riverbank, Stanislaus County, CA

  3. MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS, FROM DOWNSTREAM (TO RIGHT), NOTE SAND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS, FROM DOWNSTREAM (TO RIGHT), NOTE SAND AND SILT SLUICE GATE FOR DIVERSION DAM ON LEFT, VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Main Canal Headworks, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  4. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING CREST AND DOWNSTREAM FACE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING CREST AND DOWNSTREAM FACE, WITH CONCRETE EXTENSION IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Fire Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  5. 2. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF THE SOUTH CHANNEL DAM, LOOKING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF THE SOUTH CHANNEL DAM, LOOKING WEST. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, South Channel Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  6. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF CCCBUILT RIVERCOBBLE WING WALL ON DOWNSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF CCC-BUILT RIVER-COBBLE WING WALL ON DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF OUTLET WORKS AT DAM 87, LOOKING WEST - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 87, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  7. 15. WAIKOLU STREAM CROSSING NO. 1, VIEW DOWNSTREAM ACROSS TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. WAIKOLU STREAM CROSSING NO. 1, VIEW DOWNSTREAM ACROSS TOP OF STRUCTURE. LINE IS BURIED BEYOND. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  8. 14. WAIKOLU STREAM CROSSING NO. 1, VIEW DOWNSTREAM WITH PALI ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. WAIKOLU STREAM CROSSING NO. 1, VIEW DOWNSTREAM WITH PALI SEEN IN BACKGROUND. AQUEDUCT CROSSES AT RIGHT. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  9. DOWNSTREAM LOCK GATE DETAIL VIEW WITH DOG HOUSE. NOTE CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DOWNSTREAM LOCK GATE DETAIL VIEW WITH DOG HOUSE. NOTE CONTROL ARM AND GEAR FOR GATE. LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Illinois Waterway, Dresden Island Lock and Dam , 7521 North Lock Road, Channahon, Will County, IL

  10. 10. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BRIDGE FROM YOLO COUNTY SIDE OF THE SACRAMENTO RIVER - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  11. 8. EMPTY LOCK CHAMBER FROM DOWNSTREAM (WEST) END, WITH VISITORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EMPTY LOCK CHAMBER FROM DOWNSTREAM (WEST) END, WITH VISITORS CENTER (LEFT) AND LOCKMASTER'S HOUSE ON NORTH BANK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  12. 6. DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF LOWER MITER GATES WITH FULL LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF LOWER MITER GATES WITH FULL LOCK CHAMBER, VISITORS, AND LOCKMASTER'S HOUSE IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  13. EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF UPSTREAM WATERSHED ACTIVITIES TO DOWNSTREAM STREAMFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linking the impacts of upstream activities such as urban development to changes in downstream streamflow is critical to achieving a balance between economic development and environmental protection as a basis for sustainable watershed development. This paper presents a modeling a...

  14. View of downstream debris field at the Merry Generator House, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of downstream debris field at the Merry Generator House, showing possible concrete generator seats, looking south - Arthur Holmes Merry Generator House, Signal Lake North of Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  15. 18. GENERAL VIEW OF THE OUTLET STRUCTURE LOOKING DOWNSTREAM AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. GENERAL VIEW OF THE OUTLET STRUCTURE LOOKING DOWNSTREAM AT WEST ABUTMENT.... Volume XVI, No. 13, July 26, 1939. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  16. 16. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF OUTLET STRUCTURE AND OUTLET CHANNEL, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF OUTLET STRUCTURE AND OUTLET CHANNEL, FROM WEST END OF EMBANKMENT. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  17. 23. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF COMPLETED OUTLET CONTROL STRUCTURE.... Volume XIX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF COMPLETED OUTLET CONTROL STRUCTURE.... Volume XIX, No. 8, April 12, 1940. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  18. 28. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF ROCK PAVING OPERATIONS ON LEFT BANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF ROCK PAVING OPERATIONS ON LEFT BANK OF OUTLET CHANNEL.... Volume XVI, No. 18, September 29, 1939. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  19. 14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race and trestle used to carry excavated rock and construction materials across tail race. Photo c. 1909. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  20. 8. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM OUTLET CULVERT AND WING RETAINING WALLS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM OUTLET CULVERT AND WING RETAINING WALLS, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Twin Pots Dam, Ashley National Forest, 10.1 miles North of Mountain Home, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  1. 34. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF COOLIDGE DAM COMPLETED. POWER HOUSE, INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF COOLIDGE DAM COMPLETED. POWER HOUSE, INTAKE TOWERS, WEST SPILLWAY CHANNEL AND DECORATIVE EAGLES ALL CLEARLY VISIBLE, c. 1928 - Coolidge Dam, Gila River, Peridot, Gila County, AZ

  2. 14. VIEW OF DAM SITE, LOOKING SOUTH (DOWNSTREAM). MIXING PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF DAM SITE, LOOKING SOUTH (DOWNSTREAM). MIXING PLANT IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT, COFFER DAM IS UPSTREAM OF PLACING TOWER. EAST DOME IS VISIBLE AT LEFT OF TOWER, c. 1927 - Coolidge Dam, Gila River, Peridot, Gila County, AZ

  3. Downstream influence scaling of turbulent flow past expansion corners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Frank K.; Chung, Kung-Ming

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies of the high-speed viscous inviscid interaction between a turbulent boundary layer and an expansion at a convex corner have noted that surface pressure decreases toward the downstream inviscid value yielded by a Prandtl-Meyer expansion. A downstream influence on the corner is presently identified which is based on the mean surface pressure distribution; a scaling law is proposed for this distance.

  4. How to make stripes: deciphering the transition from non-periodic to periodic patterns in Drosophila segmentation.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Mark D; Greer, Christina; Gaul, Ulrike

    2011-07-01

    The generation of metameric body plans is a key process in development. In Drosophila segmentation, periodicity is established rapidly through the complex transcriptional regulation of the pair-rule genes. The 'primary' pair-rule genes generate their 7-stripe expression through stripe-specific cis-regulatory elements controlled by the preceding non-periodic maternal and gap gene patterns, whereas 'secondary' pair-rule genes are thought to rely on 7-stripe elements that read off the already periodic primary pair-rule patterns. Using a combination of computational and experimental approaches, we have conducted a comprehensive systems-level examination of the regulatory architecture underlying pair-rule stripe formation. We find that runt (run), fushi tarazu (ftz) and odd skipped (odd) establish most of their pattern through stripe-specific elements, arguing for a reclassification of ftz and odd as primary pair-rule genes. In the case of run, we observe long-range cis-regulation across multiple intervening genes. The 7-stripe elements of run, ftz and odd are active concurrently with the stripe-specific elements, indicating that maternal/gap-mediated control and pair-rule gene cross-regulation are closely integrated. Stripe-specific elements fall into three distinct classes based on their principal repressive gap factor input; stripe positions along the gap gradients correlate with the strength of predicted input. The prevalence of cis-elements that generate two stripes and their genomic organization suggest that single-stripe elements arose by splitting and subfunctionalization of ancestral dual-stripe elements. Overall, our study provides a greatly improved understanding of how periodic patterns are established in the Drosophila embryo.

  5. Modeling Neutral Densities Downstream of a Gridded Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    2010-01-01

    The details of a model for determining the neutral density downstream of a gridded ion thruster are presented. An investigation of the possible sources of neutrals emanating from and surrounding a NEXT ion thruster determined that the most significant contributors to the downstream neutral density include discharge chamber neutrals escaping through the perforated grids, neutrals escaping from the neutralizer, and vacuum facility background neutrals. For the neutral flux through the grids, near- and far-field equations are presented for rigorously determining the neutral density downstream of a cylindrical aperture. These equations are integrated into a spherically-domed convex grid geometry with a hexagonal array of apertures for determining neutral densities downstream of the ion thruster grids. The neutrals escaping from an off-center neutralizer are also modeled assuming diffuse neutral emission from the neutralizer keeper orifice. Finally, the effect of the surrounding vacuum facility neutrals is included and assumed to be constant. The model is used to predict the neutral density downstream of a NEXT ion thruster with and without neutralizer flow and a vacuum facility background pressure. The impacts of past simplifying assumptions for predicting downstream neutral densities are also examined for a NEXT ion thruster.

  6. Temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis: effects on adult striped bass Morone saxatilis metabolic performance.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Dominique; Vogelbein, Wolfgang K; Fabrizio, Mary C; Gauthier, David T; Brill, Richard W

    2014-02-19

    Mycobacteriosis, a chronic bacterial disease of fishes, is prevalent in adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay (USA). Although environmental factors may play a role in disease expression, the interaction between the disease and environmental stress remains unexplored. We therefore examined the individual and interactive effects of elevated temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis on the metabolism of wild-caught adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay using respirometry. Because the spleen is the primary target organ of mycobacteriosis in striped bass, we hypothesized that the disease interferes with the ability of fish to increase their hematocrit in the face of increasing oxygen demands. We determined standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate under normoxia (MMRN), critical oxygen saturation (S(crit)), and MMR under hypoxia (3 mg O(2) l-1: MMR(H)) for healthy and visibly diseased fish (i.e. exhibiting skin lesions indicative of mycobacteriosis). Measurements were taken at a temperature within the preferred thermal range (20°C) and at an elevated temperature (28°C) considered stressful to striped bass. In addition, we calculated aerobic scope (AS(N) = MMR(N) - SMR, AS(H) = MMR(H) - SMR) and factorial scope (FS(N) = MMR(N) SMR-1, FS(H) = MMR(H) SMR-1). SMR increased with increasing temperature, and hypoxia reduced MMR, AS, and FS. Mycobacteriosis alone did not affect either MMR(N) or MMR(H). However, elevated temperature affected the ability of diseased striped bass to tolerate hypoxia (S(crit)). Overall, our data indicate that striped bass performance under hypoxia is impaired, and that elevated water temperatures, hypoxia, and severe mycobacteriosis together reduce aerobic scope more than any of these stressors acting alone. We conclude that the scope for activity of diseased striped bass in warm hypoxic waters is significantly compromised. PMID:24553417

  7. Temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis: effects on adult striped bass Morone saxatilis metabolic performance.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Dominique; Vogelbein, Wolfgang K; Fabrizio, Mary C; Gauthier, David T; Brill, Richard W

    2014-02-19

    Mycobacteriosis, a chronic bacterial disease of fishes, is prevalent in adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay (USA). Although environmental factors may play a role in disease expression, the interaction between the disease and environmental stress remains unexplored. We therefore examined the individual and interactive effects of elevated temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis on the metabolism of wild-caught adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay using respirometry. Because the spleen is the primary target organ of mycobacteriosis in striped bass, we hypothesized that the disease interferes with the ability of fish to increase their hematocrit in the face of increasing oxygen demands. We determined standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate under normoxia (MMRN), critical oxygen saturation (S(crit)), and MMR under hypoxia (3 mg O(2) l-1: MMR(H)) for healthy and visibly diseased fish (i.e. exhibiting skin lesions indicative of mycobacteriosis). Measurements were taken at a temperature within the preferred thermal range (20°C) and at an elevated temperature (28°C) considered stressful to striped bass. In addition, we calculated aerobic scope (AS(N) = MMR(N) - SMR, AS(H) = MMR(H) - SMR) and factorial scope (FS(N) = MMR(N) SMR-1, FS(H) = MMR(H) SMR-1). SMR increased with increasing temperature, and hypoxia reduced MMR, AS, and FS. Mycobacteriosis alone did not affect either MMR(N) or MMR(H). However, elevated temperature affected the ability of diseased striped bass to tolerate hypoxia (S(crit)). Overall, our data indicate that striped bass performance under hypoxia is impaired, and that elevated water temperatures, hypoxia, and severe mycobacteriosis together reduce aerobic scope more than any of these stressors acting alone. We conclude that the scope for activity of diseased striped bass in warm hypoxic waters is significantly compromised.

  8. THE z = 5 QUASAR LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM SDSS STRIPE 82

    SciTech Connect

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan Xiaohui; Jiang Linhua; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; White, Martin; Shen Yue; Schneider, Donald P.; Brandt, W. Niel; Myers, Adam D.; DeGraf, Colin; Glikman, Eilat; Ge Jian; Streblyanska, Alina

    2013-05-10

    We present a measurement of the Type I quasar luminosity function at z = 5 using a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed quasars selected from optical imaging data. We measure the bright end (M{sub 1450} < -26) with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data covering {approx}6000 deg{sup 2}, then extend to lower luminosities (M{sub 1450} < -24) with newly discovered, faint z {approx} 5 quasars selected from 235 deg{sup 2} of deep, coadded imaging in the SDSS Stripe 82 region (the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap). The faint sample includes 14 quasars with spectra obtained as ancillary science targets in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, and 59 quasars observed at the MMT and Magellan telescopes. We construct a well-defined sample of 4.7 < z < 5.1 quasars that is highly complete, with 73 spectroscopic identifications out of 92 candidates. Our color selection method is also highly efficient: of the 73 spectra obtained, 71 are high-redshift quasars. These observations reach below the break in the luminosity function (M{sub 1450}{sup *}{approx}-27). The bright-end slope is steep ({beta} {approx}< -4), with a constraint of {beta} < -3.1 at 95% confidence. The break luminosity appears to evolve strongly at high redshift, providing an explanation for the flattening of the bright-end slope reported previously. We find a factor of {approx}2 greater decrease in the number density of luminous quasars (M{sub 1450} < -26) from z = 5 to z = 6 than from z = 4 to z = 5, suggesting a more rapid decline in quasar activity at high redshift than found in previous surveys. Our model for the quasar luminosity function predicts that quasars generate {approx}30% of the ionizing photons required to keep hydrogen in the universe ionized at z = 5.

  9. Environmental contaminant effects on juvenile striped bass in the San Francisco Estuary, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Spearow, Jimmy L; Kota, Rama S; Ostrach, David J

    2011-02-01

    The decline of pelagic organisms in the San Francisco Estuary (SFE) (California, USA) is attributed to several factors, including water diversions, invasive species, and exposure to environmental toxicants. The present study evaluated the effects of environmental contaminants on liver vitellogenin, metallothionein, 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), and benzyloxyresorufin O-deethylase (BROD) activity in juvenile striped bass (Morone saxitilis) in the SFE. Analysis of juvenile striped bass liver extracts revealed site-specific elevations of vitellogenin, metallothionein, and EROD biomarkers across the estuary. Although some striped bass in the estuary showed EROD activity similar to unhandled hatchery controls, several sites in the estuary showed significantly higher EROD activity that was in the range of beta-naphthoflavone (BNF)-injected, positive controls. Overall, EROD activity averaged 283% higher in estuary fish than in hatchery controls. Chemical analyses of extracts from semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) deployed in the estuary for one month showed elevated polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels. Semipermeable membrane devices extract injections-induced metallothionein and BROD in striped bass livers. These data show that environmental exposures are impacting EROD and other biomarkers in the SFE striped bass population. Previous studies in our laboratory have associated poor larval development with maternal transfer of environmental contaminants. Further studies are needed to monitor contaminant exposures by the use of biomarkers and to integrate them into a more effective pelagic species recovery plan in the SFE. PMID:21038432

  10. Seasonal use of a New England estuary by foraging contingents of migratory striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mather, Martha E.; Pautzke, Sarah M.; Finn, John T.; Deegan, Linda A.; Muth, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Using acoustic telemetry on migratory striped bass Morone saxatilis in Plum Island Estuary (PIE), Massachusetts, we found that striped bass (335–634 mm total length) tagged in the spring and summer of 2005 (n = 14) and 2006 (n = 46) stayed in the estuary for an average of 66.0 d in 2005 and 72.2 d in 2006. Striped bass spent the most time in two specific reaches: middle Plum Island Sound and lower Rowley River. In both years, three different use-groups of striped bass were observed in PIE. Short-term visitors (n = 24) stayed in the estuary only briefly (range = 5–20 d). Two groups of seasonal residents stayed for more than 30 d, either in the Rowley River (n = 14) or in Plum Island Sound (n = 22). Within PIE, the two seasonal-resident use-groups may be foraging contingents that learn how to feed efficiently in specific parts of the estuary. These distinct within-estuary use patterns could have different implications for striped bass condition and prey impact.

  11. Research investment implications of shifts in the global geography of wheat stripe rust.

    PubMed

    Beddow, Jason M; Pardey, Philip G; Chai, Yuan; Hurley, Terrance M; Kriticos, Darren J; Braun, Hans-Joachim; Park, Robert F; Cuddy, William S; Yonow, Tania

    2015-09-14

    Breeding new crop varieties with resistance to the biotic stresses that undermine crop yields is tantamount to increasing the amount and quality of biological capital in agriculture. However, the success of genes that confer resistance to pests induces a co-evolutionary response that depreciates the biological capital embodied in the crop, as pests evolve the capacity to overcome the crop's new defences. Thus, simply maintaining this biological capital, and the beneficial production and economic outcomes it bestows, requires continual reinvestment in new crop defences. Here we use observed and modelled data on stripe rust occurrence to gauge changes in the geographic spread of the disease over recent decades. We document a significant increase in the spread of stripe rust since 1960, with 88% of the world's wheat production now susceptible to infection. Using a probabilistic Monte Carlo simulation model we estimate that 5.47 million tonnes of wheat are lost to the pathogen each year, equivalent to a loss of US$979 million per year. Comparing the cost of developing stripe-rust-resistant varieties of wheat with the cost of stripe-rust-induced yield losses, we estimate that a sustained annual research investment of at least US$32 million into stripe rust resistance is economically justified.

  12. Drawing a Stripe in Drosophila Imaginal Disks: Negative Regulation of Decapentaplegic and Patched Expression by Engrailed

    PubMed Central

    Sanicola, M.; Sekelsky, J.; Elson, S.; Gelbart, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    During development of the Drosophila adult appendage precursors, the larval imaginal disks, the decapentaplegic (dpp) gene is expressed in a stripe just anterior to the anterior/posterior (A/P) compartment boundary. Here, we investigate the genetic controls that lead to production of this stripe. We extend previous observations on leaky engrailed (en) mutations by showing that mutant clones completely lacking both en and invected (inv) activity ectopically express dpp-lacZ reporter genes in the posterior compartment, where dpp activity ordinarily is repressed. Similarly, patched (ptc) is also ectopically expressed in such posterior compartment en(-)inv(-) null clones. In contrast, these en(-)inv(-) clones exhibit loss of hedgehog (hh) expression. We suggest that the absence of dpp expression in the posterior compartment is due to direct repression by en. Ubiquitious expression of en in imaginal disks, produced by a hs-en construct, eliminates the expression of dpp-lacZ in its normal A/P boundary stripe. We identify three in vitro Engrailed binding sites in one of our dpp-lacZ reporter gene. Mutagenesis of these Engrailed binding sites results in ectopic expression of this reporter gene, but does not alter the normal stripe of expression at the A/P boundary. We propose that the en-hh-ptc regulatory loop that is responsible for segmental expression of wingless in the embryo is reutilized in imaginal disks to create a stripe of dpp expression along the A/P compartment boundary. PMID:7713429

  13. Major histocompatibility complex class II A gene polymorphism in the striped bass

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, J.J.; Godwin, U.; Benedetto, R.; McConnell, T.J.

    1995-02-01

    Adaptions of the polymerase chain reaction were used to isolate cDNA sequences encoding the Major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class II A gene(s) of the striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Four complete Mhc class II A genes were cloned and sequenced from a specimen originating on the Roanoke River, North Carolina, and another three A genes from a specimen originating from the Santee-Cooper Reservoir, South Carolina, identifying a total of seven unique sequences. The sequence suggests the presence of at least two Mhc class II A loci. The extensive sequence variability observed between the seven different Mhc class II clones was concentrated in the {alpha}1 encoding domain. The encoded {alpha}2, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic regions of all seven striped bass genes correlated well with those of known vertebrate Mhc class II proteins. Overall, the striped bass sequences showed greatest similarity to the Mhc class II A genes of the zebrafish. Southern blot analysis demonstrated extensive polymorphism in the Mhc class II A genes in members of a Roanoke river-caught population of striped bass versus a lesser degree of polymorphism in an aquacultured Santee-Cooper population of striped bass. 55 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Distribution and habitat selection of adult striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Cheek, T.E.; Van den Avyle, M.J.; Coutant, C.C.

    1983-09-01

    Biotelemetry was used to determine seasonal distribution patterns and habitat preferences and to evaluate factors affecting movements of adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee. Distribution and movement of striped bass were strongly influenced by water temperature. Mean distances moved per day during spring and winter were similar but significantly higher than rates for summer and fall. During spring, striped bass moved into headwater areas as water temperatures approached those associated with spawning (15/sup 0/ to 19/sup 0/C). Brief habitation of the main body of the reservoir was noted during summer prior to movement to cool-water refuges located in the Clinch River and Tennessee River arms. No striped bass were located in the main body of the reservoir in early fall when temperatures ranged from 24/sup 0/ to 25/sup 0/C. Fish were located in thermal refuges during this period and occupied water temperatures averaging 20.5/sup 0/C. The only extended period of striped bass habitation of the main body of the reservoir occurred in winter, when the fish occupied a mean water temperature of 11/sup 0/C. Although distribution was restricted during warmer seasons, individual fish moved freely throughout the 116-km-long reservoir at other times, indicating that subpopulations did not exist. 64 references.

  15. Physiological responses of hybrid striped bass to aqueous copper in freshwater and saltwater.

    PubMed

    Bielmyer, G K; Tomasso, J; Klaine, S J

    2006-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is an abundant trace metal, and although essential at low levels, it is also potentially toxic to aquatic organisms. Mechanisms of toxicity and consequences of exposure vary depending on ionoregulatory status (acclimated to freshwater or salt water). The goal of this research was to examine the responses of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x Morone saxatilis) exposed to Cu in freshwater and 15 g/L salt water. In freshwater, a general dose- and time-dependent pattern of increasing Cu accumulation in gill tissue was evident in fish exposed to aqueous Cu (220 and 447 mg/L) for up to 96 hours. The 96-hour acute median lethal concentration for freshwater-acclimated hybrid striped bass exposed to Cu was 94 mg/L (confidence interval = 62 to 144 mg/L). Plasma osmolality and Na(+) concentrations decreased in Cu-exposed fish. Freshwater-acclimated hybrid striped bass exposed to aqueous Cu (60 mg/L) for 3 weeks decreased in mass and accumulated Cu in gill, intestine, and liver. In salt water, no mortality occurred, and there were no statistical differences in growth, tissue Cu, or plasma ion concentrations in hybrid striped bass exposed to Cu compared with control fish. Freshwater-acclimated hybrid striped bass were very sensitive to Cu exposure and exhibited responses typical of commonly tested teleost fishes; however, the same sensitivity was not observed in salt water-acclimated fish.

  16. Major histocompatibility complex class II A gene polymorphism in the striped bass.

    PubMed

    Hardee, J J; Godwin, U; Benedetto, R; McConnell, T J

    1995-01-01

    Adaptions of the polymerase chain reaction were used to isolate cDNA sequences encoding the Major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class II A gene(s) of the striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Four complete Mhc class II A genes were cloned and sequenced from a specimen originating in the Roanoke River, North Carolina, and another three A genes from a specimen originating from the Santee-Cooper Reservoir, South Carolina, identifying a total of seven unique sequences. The sequence suggests the presence of at least two Mhc class II A loci. The extensive sequence variability observed between the seven different Mhc class II clones was concentrated in the alpha 1 encoding domain. The encoded alpha 2, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic regions of all seven striped bass genes correlated well with those of known vertebrate Mhc class II proteins. Overall, the striped bass sequences showed greatest similarity to the Mhc class II A genes of the zebrafish. Southern blot analysis demonstrated extensive polymorphism in the Mhc class II A genes in members of a Roanoke river-caught population of striped bass versus a lesser degree of polymorphism in an aquacultured Santee-Cooper population of striped bass.

  17. Apolipoprotein A-I from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) demonstrates antibacterial activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Johnston, L Danielle; Brown, Gwynne; Gauthier, David; Reece, Kimberly; Kator, Howard; Van Veld, Peter

    2008-10-01

    HDL and apolipoprotein A-I from teleostean fishes demonstrate in vitro activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we purified ApoA-1 from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) plasma and examined its in vitro antibacterial activity against Streptococcus sp., Escherichia coli, and Mycobacterium marinum. In addition, we obtained sequence for a putative striped bass ApoA-1 gene, which when translated contained the identical sequence generated from N-terminal sequencing of the purified ApoA-1. The predicted secondary and tertiary structures contained the characteristic proline residues and high alpha-helical content conserved between mammals and fishes. Purified ApoA-1 exhibited antibacterial activity against the bacteria assayed. Concentrations of 125 microg/mL for E. coli, 250 microg/mL for Streptococcus sp., and 250 microg/mL for M. marinum, inhibited bacterial growth by 50% compared to control. ApoA-1 plasma concentrations in experimental and wild fish ranged from undetectable levels to greater than 5 mg/mL, indicating that striped bass ApoA-1 is an effective antibacterial agent at concentrations below the range of physiological concentrations in striped bass plasma. We therefore conclude that ApoA-1 could play a role in innate defense against bacterial pathogens in striped bass.

  18. Environmental contaminant effects on juvenile striped bass in the San Francisco Estuary, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Spearow, Jimmy L; Kota, Rama S; Ostrach, David J

    2011-02-01

    The decline of pelagic organisms in the San Francisco Estuary (SFE) (California, USA) is attributed to several factors, including water diversions, invasive species, and exposure to environmental toxicants. The present study evaluated the effects of environmental contaminants on liver vitellogenin, metallothionein, 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), and benzyloxyresorufin O-deethylase (BROD) activity in juvenile striped bass (Morone saxitilis) in the SFE. Analysis of juvenile striped bass liver extracts revealed site-specific elevations of vitellogenin, metallothionein, and EROD biomarkers across the estuary. Although some striped bass in the estuary showed EROD activity similar to unhandled hatchery controls, several sites in the estuary showed significantly higher EROD activity that was in the range of beta-naphthoflavone (BNF)-injected, positive controls. Overall, EROD activity averaged 283% higher in estuary fish than in hatchery controls. Chemical analyses of extracts from semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) deployed in the estuary for one month showed elevated polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels. Semipermeable membrane devices extract injections-induced metallothionein and BROD in striped bass livers. These data show that environmental exposures are impacting EROD and other biomarkers in the SFE striped bass population. Previous studies in our laboratory have associated poor larval development with maternal transfer of environmental contaminants. Further studies are needed to monitor contaminant exposures by the use of biomarkers and to integrate them into a more effective pelagic species recovery plan in the SFE.

  19. Mortality estimates of striped bass caught in Albemarle Sound and Roanoke River, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, Robert M.

    1996-01-01

    A statistical analysis of the age composition of striped bass Morone saxatilis harvested in Albemarle Sound and the Roanoke River, North Carolina. indicated that in 1988–1992 the population experienced a relatively high rate of total mortality. Age-3 and older fish were estimated to have been fully vulnerable to fishing mortality and to have experienced a total instantaneous mortality rate of 1.04/year, which equals about 65% annually. Legal size limits in directed striped bass fisheries appear to have provided some protection to age-2 fish, which were only partially vulnerable to fishing mortality. The portion of total mortality due to fishing could not be estimated unconditionally because the numbers of striped bass taken in fisheries not directed at striped bass were unknown. An eggs-per-recruit model was developed to provide a conceptual framework for comparing the effects of fishery management options, such as reductions in hycatch or fishing mortality. on the striped bass population.

  20. Endothelin signalling in iridophore development and stripe pattern formation of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Jana; Frohnhöfer, Hans Georg; Walderich, Brigitte; Maischein, Hans-Martin; Weiler, Christian; Irion, Uwe; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Colour patterns of adult fish are composed of several different types of pigment cells distributing in the skin during juvenile development. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, displays a striking pattern of dark stripes of melanophores interspersed with light stripes of xanthophores. A third cell type, silvery iridophores, contributes to both stripes and plays a crucial role in adult pigment pattern formation. Several mutants deficient in iridophore development display similar adult phenotypes with reduced numbers of melanophores and defects in stripe formation. This indicates a supporting role of iridophores for melanophore development and maintenance. One of these mutants, rose (rse), encodes the Endothelin receptor b1a. Here we describe a new mutant in zebrafish, karneol (kar), which has a phenotype similar to weak alleles of rse with a reduction in iridophore numbers and defects of adult pigment patterning. We show that, unlike rse, kar is not required in iridophores. The gene defective in the kar mutant codes for an endothelin-converting enzyme, Ece2, which activates endothelin ligands by proteolytic cleavage. By morpholino-mediated knockdown, we identify Endothelin 3b (Edn3b) as the ligand for endothelin receptor signalling in larval iridophores. Thus, Endothelin signalling is involved in iridophore development, proliferation and stripe morphogenesis in larvae as well as adult zebrafish. In mammals the pathway is required for melanocyte development; therefore, our results indicate a previously unrecognized close evolutionary relationship between iridophores in zebrafish and melanocytes in mammals. PMID:24857848

  1. Sediment conditions in the San Antonio River Basin downstream from San Antonio, Texas, 2000-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Banta, J. Ryan; Crow, Cassi L.; Opsahl, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment plays an important role in the ecological health of rivers and estuaries and consequently is an important issue for water-resource managers. To better understand sediment characteristics in the San Antonio River Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority, completed a two-part study in the San Antonio River Basin downstream from San Antonio, Texas, to (1) collect and analyze sediment data to characterize sediment conditions and (2) develop and calibrate a watershed model to simulate hydrologic conditions and suspended-sediment loads during 2000–12.

  2. Gas phase oxidation downstream of a catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, J. S.; Anderson, D. N.

    1979-01-01

    Effect of the length available for gas-phase reactions downstream of the catalytic reactor on the emission of CO and unburned hydrocarbons was investigated. A premixed, prevaporized propane/air feed to a 12/cm/diameter catalytic/reactor test section was used. The catalytic reactor was made of four 2.5 cm long monolithic catalyst elements. Four water cooled gas sampling probes were located at positions between 0 and 22 cm downstream of the catalytic reactor. Measurements of unburned hydrocarbon, CO, and CO2 were made. Tests were performed with an inlet air temperature of 800 K, a reference velocity of 10 m/s, pressures of 3 and 600,000 Pa, and fuel air equivalence ratios of 0.14 to 0.24. For very lean mixtures, hydrocarbon emissions were high and CO continued to be formed downstream of the catalytic reactor. At the highest equivalence ratios tested, hydrocarbon levels were much lower and CO was oxidized to CO2 in the gas phase downstream. To achieve acceptable emissions, a downstream region several times longer than the catalytic reactor could be required.

  3. Downstream Yangtze River levels impacted by Three Gorges Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jida; Sheng, Yongwei; Gleason, Colin J.; Wada, Yoshihide

    2013-12-01

    Changes in the Yangtze River level induced by large-scale human water regulation have profound implications on the inundation dynamics of surrounding lakes/wetlands and the integrity of related ecosystems. Using in situ measurements and hydrological simulation, this study reveals an altered Yangtze level regime downstream from the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) to the Yangtze estuary in the East China Sea as a combined result of (i) TGD’s flow regulation and (ii) Yangtze channel erosion due to reduced sediment load. During the average annual cycle of TGD’s regular flow control in 2009-2012, downstream Yangtze level variations were estimated to have been reduced by 3.9-13.5% at 15 studied gauging stations, manifested as evident level decrease in fall and increase in winter and spring. The impacts on Yangtze levels generally diminished in a longitudinal direction from the TGD to the estuary, with a total time lag of ˜9-12 days. Chronic Yangtze channel erosion since the TGD closure has lowered water levels in relation to flows at most downstream stations, which in turn counteracts the anticipated level increase by nearly or over 50% in winter and spring while reinforcing the anticipated level decrease by over 20% in fall. Continuous downstream channel erosion in the near future may further counteract the benefit of increased Yangtze levels during TGD’s water supplement in winter and accelerate the receding of inundation areas/levels of downstream lakes in fall.

  4. Modeling downstream fining in sand-bed rivers. I: Formulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, S.; Parker, G.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a numerical modeling formulation is presented for simulation of the development of the longitudinal profile and bed sediment distribution in sand-bed rivers. The objective of the model application, which is presented in the companion paper (Wright and Parker, 2005), is to study the development of two characteristics of large, low-slope, sand-bed rivers: (1) a downstream decrease in bed slope (i.e. concave upward longitudinal profile) and (2) a downstream decrease in characteristic bed sediment diameter (e.g. the median bed surface size D50). Three mechanisms that lead to an upward concave profile and downstream fining are included in the modeling formulation: (1) a delta prograding into standing water at the downstream boundary, (2) sea-level rise, and (3) tectonic subsidence. In the companion paper (Wright and Parker, 2005) the model is applied to simulate the development of the longitudinal profile and downstream fining in sand-bed rivers flowing into the ocean during the past 5000 years of relatively slow sea-level rise. ?? 2005 International Association of Hydraulic Engineering and Research.

  5. Mortality of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, veligers during downstream transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horvath, T.G.; Lamberti, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    1. Streams flowing from lakes which contain zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, provide apparently suitable habitats for mussel colonization and downstream range expansion, yet most such streams contain few adult mussels. We postulated that mussel veligers experience high mortality during dispersal via downstream transport. They tested this hypothesis in Christiana Creek, a lake-outlet stream in south-western Michigan, U.S.A., in which adult mussel density declined exponentially with distance downstream. 2. A staining technique using neutral red was developed and tested to distinguish quickly live and dead veligers. Live and dead veligers were distinguishable after an exposure of fresh samples to 13.3 mg L-1 of neutral red for 3 h. 3. Neutral red was used to determine the proportion of live veligers in samples taken longitudinally along Christiana Creek. The proportion of live veligers (mean ?? SE) declined from 90 ?? 3% at the lake outlet to 40 ?? 8% 18 km downstream. 4. Veligers appear to be highly susceptible to damage by physical forces (e.g. shear), and therefore, mortality in turbulent streams could be an important mechanism limiting zebra mussel dispersal to downstream reaches. Predictions of zebra mussel spread and population growth should consider lake-stream linkages and high mortality in running waters.

  6. Downstream and coastal impacts of damming and water abstraction in Africa.

    PubMed

    Snoussi, Maria; Kitheka, Johnson; Shaghude, Yohanna; Kane, Alioune; Arthurton, Russell; Le Tissier, Martin; Virji, Hassan

    2007-05-01

    Anthropogenic factors associated with damming and water abstraction, and the resultant environmental pressures, are reviewed in six African river catchments using records and forecasts of climatic, demographic, and land-use change. Changes in the states of the flow regime through catchment drainage systems to the coastal sea are considered in conjunction with climate change and other human-induced pressures. The impacts of these changes on downstream and coastal environments and their communities are described in past, present, and future perspectives. Linkages between the issues and the pressures of damming and water abstraction are appraised and scientific, policy, and management responses proposed aimed at remedying existing and perceived future negative impacts. The study proposes that there is a need to integrate catchment and coastal management to account for the whole water flow regime together with its human dimensions. Management priorities relating to the operation of existing damming and abstraction schemes and planning of future schemes include the following: consideration of ways in which water discharges could be adjusted to provide improvements in downstream and coastal environmental and socioeconomic conditions; addressing the problem of sediment trapping impacting on the sustainability of dam reservoirs; and assessment of downstream and coastal impacts of future schemes in the light of climate change forecasts.

  7. Sediment Mobilization From Reservoirs Can Cause Short Term Oxygen Depletion In Downstream Receiving Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Schenk, L.; Bragg, H.; Singer, M.; Hume, N.

    2013-12-01

    Reservoir management can cause incidences of short-term sediment mobilization, e.g. during dam removal or drawdown for maintenance or habitat purposes. Much of the associated planning focuses on predicting, quantifying, and mitigating the physical impacts of sediment mobilization, transport, and deposition. Sediment pulses can cause multiple regulatory and management concerns, such as turbidity or suspended sediment concentrations that may exceed State standards, geomorphic change and effects on property or infrastructure, or wildlife impacts such as stress to fish via gill abrasion or burial of critical habitat. Water-quality issues associated with sediment mobilization, including nutrient and contaminant transport, are often given less attention, presumably because their effects are less immediate or because of resource constraints. Recent experience with large pulses of sediment from several western reservoirs involving dam removals and temporary drawdowns indicates that oxygen demand, leading to depletion of downstream dissolved oxygen (DO), can also be a significant short-term concern. During the October 2011 Condit Dam removal on the White Salmon River in Washington, DO in receiving waters about 4.5 km downstream of the dam dropped to less than 1 mg/L within 2 hours of the demolition; in response, salmonids were observed to be in distress, apparently gulping for air at the water surface. DO remained low for at least 24 hours in this reach, and dead fish were observed. In December 2012, during a drawdown designed to aid juvenile-salmonid migration through Fall Creek Reservoir in Oregon, DO dropped precipitously about 1.5 km downstream as turbidity peaked, and a muted DO decrease was also observed approximately 14 miles further downstream despite a large dilution from unaffected sources. Laboratory experiments and modeling using sediments from reservoirs proposed for removal on the Klamath River, California, demonstrated the likelihood for downstream DO

  8. Plasma corticosteroid and electrolyte dynamics of hybrid striped bass (white bass x striped bass) during netting and hauling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomasso J. R., Davis; Parker, N.C.

    1980-01-01

    Striped bass hybrids (Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male) confined in a net for 10 minutes had significantly elevated corticosteroid levels (24.2 † 5.4 μg/100 ml) and significant hyperchloremia (150.02 † 2.7 meq/liter), in comparison with baseline levels of 0.8 † 0.1 μg/100 ml and 132.6 † 1.5 meq/liter, respectively. Hauling hybrids for 2 hours in freshwater significantly elevated corticosteroid levels (12.2 † 1.2 μg/100 ml) and reduced chloride levels (119.8 † 1.4 meq/liter). Corticosteroid levels remained high and hypochloremia developed within 24 hours after both netting and hauling. Although netting and hauling in 25 mg/liter MS-2223 or 10 g/liter NaCl prevented chloride depletion during the stress, hypochloremia developed within 72 hours after the fish were transferred to freshwater. The development of hypochloremia several hours after handling indicates that hybrid bass that survive the initial stress do not necessarily recover, but may die in the days following handling. Fish anesthetized in 50 mg/liter MS-222 for 15 minutes prior to handling followed by hauling in water containing a combination of 25 mg/liter MS-222 and 10 g/liter NaCl did not develop hypochloremia within 72 hours after hauling; plasma corticosteroids were elevated during transport, but returned to nearly normal levels within 24 hours. This combination of 25 mg/liter MS-222 and 10 g/liter salt was the most successful handling medium tested.

  9. Stationary propagation of a wave segment along an inhomogeneous excitable stripe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Hong; Zykov, Vladimir; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2014-03-01

    We report a numerical and theoretical study of an excitation wave propagating along an inhomogeneous stripe of an excitable medium. The stripe inhomogeneity is due to a jump of the propagation velocity in the direction transverse to the wave motion. Stationary propagating wave segments of rather complicated curved shapes are observed. We demonstrate that the stationary segment shape strongly depends on the initial conditions which are used to initiate the excitation wave. In a certain parameter range, the wave propagation is blocked at the inhomogeneity boundary, although the wave propagation is supported everywhere within the stripe. A free-boundary approach is applied to describe these phenomena which are important for a wide variety of applications from cardiology to information processing.

  10. Surface Scattering Effect and the Stripe Order in Films of the Superfluid 3He B Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Kazushi

    2016-09-01

    Surface scattering effects in thin films of the superfluid 3He B phase have been theoretically investigated, with an emphasis on the stability of the stripe order with spontaneous broken translational symmetry in the film plane and quasiparticle excitations in this spatially inhomogeneous phase. Based on the Ginzburg-Landau theory in the weak coupling limit, we have shown that the stripe order, which was originally discussed for a film with two specular surfaces, can be stable in a film with one specular and one diffusive surfaces which should correspond to superfluid 3He on a substrate. It is also found by numerically solving the Eilenberger equation that due to the stripe structure, a midgap state distinct from the surface Andreev bound state emerges and its signature is reflected in the local density of states.

  11. A new species of striped Ichthyophis Fitzinger, 1826 (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Ichthyophiidae) from Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Mark; Presswell, Bronwen; Sherratt, Emma; Papadopoulou, Anna; Gower, David J

    2014-04-02

    A new species of striped ichthyophiid caecilian, Ichthyophis multicolor sp. nov., is described on the basis of morphological and molecular data from a sample of 14 specimens from Ayeyarwady Region, Myanmar. The new species resembles superficially the Indian I. tricolor Annandale, 1909 in having both a pale lateral stripe and an adjacent dark ventrolateral stripe contrasting with a paler venter. It differs from I. tricolor in having many more annuli, and in many details of cranial osteology, and molecular data indicate that it is more closely related to other Southeast Asian Ichthyophis than to those of South Asia. The caecilian fauna of Myanmar is exceptionally poorly known but is likely to include chikilids as well as multiple species of Ichthyophis.

  12. Short-term infection of striped bass Morone saxatilis with Mycobacterium marinum.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Soo Jin; Gonsalves, Lonnie C; Jacobs, John M; Rhodes, Matt; Councilman, Jimmy; Baya, Ana; May, Eric B; Fast, Mark D

    2011-04-01

    Striped bass Morone saxatilis were studied in order to characterize their immune responses over the short term following challenge with Mycobacterium marinum. The expression of immunity-related genes (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, Nramp and TGF-beta) quickly increased following infection with M. marinum, but these genes were subsequently down-regulated despite the fact that bacterial counts remained high. The number of monocytes and neutrophils also initially increased at 1 d postinfection. This confirms the importance of these types of cells in initial inflammation and mycobacterial infection in striped bass. The phagocytic index of splenic leukocytes over these same time frames did not change significantly following infection. The discrete window in which inflammatory mechanisms were stimulated in striped bass may be related to the intracellular nature of this pathogen. PMID:21648240

  13. Before the Tiger Stripes: A History of Fracturing in the South Polar Terrain of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patthoff, D. A.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Extending for over 120 km, four fairly linear fractures (dubbed tiger stripes) stand out against the background of much shorter, but more numerous, fractures in the tectonically diverse south-polar region of Enceladus. The tiger stripes, and the plumes generated along them, have been the focus of numerous studies, leaving many of the smaller features largely ignored. Using the most recently available Cassini spacecraft images, we have created detailed maps revealing three additional relict, tiger stripe-like fracture sets among the smaller fractures. These old tiger stripe-like features have similar characteristics, but different orientations, to the present-day tiger stripes. The younger fractures have cut and deformed the older fractures, making them much less prominent than the named tiger stripes. However, the older fracture sets do retain some long, over 40 km, linear features. We believe these longer features once looked similar to the present day tiger stripes, before they were rotated away from the primary stress field in which they formed and were overprinted by younger features. By using crosscutting relationships, we were able to establish relative ages of the three old systematic fracture sets and the tiger stripes to determine the sequence of fracturing in the south polar terrain (SPT). The fracture sets show a counterclockwise progression in orientation through time which implies the causal SPT stress field created distinct fracture sets at different points in time, gradually rotating approximately 153° counterclockwise relative to the present day surface and culminating in the stress field that produced the tiger stripes. Older fracture sets clearly influenced the development of younger sets. For example, the tiger stripe Alexandria Sulcus inherited a portion of an older fracture along part of its length, creating a distinct jog along the otherwise nearly linear feature. Similar geometries occur at other locations where younger tiger stripes

  14. Directional multimode coupler for planar magnonics: Side-coupled magnetic stripes

    SciTech Connect

    Sadovnikov, A. V. Nikitov, S. A.; Beginin, E. N.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Romanenko, D. V.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.

    2015-11-16

    We experimentally demonstrate spin waves coupling in two laterally adjacent magnetic stripes. By the means of Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy, we show that the coupling efficiency depends both on the magnonic waveguides' geometry and the characteristics of spin-wave modes. In particular, the lateral confinement of coupled yttrium-iron-garnet stripes enables the possibility of control over the spin-wave propagation characteristics. Numerical simulations (in time domain and frequency domain) reveal the nature of intermodal coupling between two magnonic stripes. The proposed topology of multimode magnonic coupler can be utilized as a building block for fabrication of integrated parallel functional and logic devices such as the frequency selective directional coupler or tunable splitter, enabling a number of potential applications for planar magnonics.

  15. Tag recovery estimates of migration of striped bass from spawning areas of the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, R.M.; Hattala, K.A.; McCollough, C.B.; Skjeveland, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    In 1988–1991 striped bass Morone saxatilis were collected for tagging from various spawning areas within the Hudson River (New York) and the Chesapeake Bay (Maryland). The fish were tagged and released during traditional periods of spawning and recovered by commercial and recreational fishermen. The proportion of fish that migrated in spring–fall from spawning areas in Chesapeake Bay to more northern waters of mid-Atlantic and New England states was estimated from the geographically stratified tag returns. Most of the tagged fish were 40–100 cm total length (TL). The estimated proportion of migrant striped bass increased with body size, and nearly all fish larger than 100 cm TL left the bay during the spring–fall migration. Sex-specific differences in migration appear to be associated with the differences in body size of mature males and females, thus lending support to previously hypothesized patterns of striped bass migration.

  16. Effects of five metals on susceptibility of striped bass to Flexibacter columnaris

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, R.D.; Bullock, G.L.; McLaughlin, J.J.A.

    1986-03-01

    Exposure of young striped bass Morone saxatilis (weight, 8.5-34 g) to a mixture of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and selenium at 4 and 10 times the verage environmental concentrations of 1-3 ..mu..g/L protected the fish from experimental infection with Flexibacter columnaris, the causal organism of columnaris disease. In four trials, all striped bass died within 7 d after a 2-min exposure to 5 x 10/sup 6/ F. columnaris cells in untreated water. In contrast, no fish died after a single day's exposure to the metal mixture followed by infection with F. columnaris and a second exposure to the metals for seven more days. When striped bass were exposed 5 d to individual metals, copper protected against infection and cadmium offered marginal protection but was slightly toxic after 2 d exposure. Arsenic increased susceptibility to infection, and lead and selenium were without an apparent effect.

  17. Short-term infection of striped bass Morone saxatilis with Mycobacterium marinum.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Soo Jin; Gonsalves, Lonnie C; Jacobs, John M; Rhodes, Matt; Councilman, Jimmy; Baya, Ana; May, Eric B; Fast, Mark D

    2011-04-01

    Striped bass Morone saxatilis were studied in order to characterize their immune responses over the short term following challenge with Mycobacterium marinum. The expression of immunity-related genes (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, Nramp and TGF-beta) quickly increased following infection with M. marinum, but these genes were subsequently down-regulated despite the fact that bacterial counts remained high. The number of monocytes and neutrophils also initially increased at 1 d postinfection. This confirms the importance of these types of cells in initial inflammation and mycobacterial infection in striped bass. The phagocytic index of splenic leukocytes over these same time frames did not change significantly following infection. The discrete window in which inflammatory mechanisms were stimulated in striped bass may be related to the intracellular nature of this pathogen.

  18. Slow growth did not decouple the otolith size-fish size relationship in striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickey, C.L.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Eight-day-old striped bass Morone saxatilis (6.17-6.22 mm, total length) were fed twice daily at three feeding rates to produce three growth rates. Fish were sampled once per week for 4 weeks to determine total length and otolith radius. Feed ration treatments resulted in discrete size-classes of striped bass after 4 weeks with a 27% difference in mean length between the low and high feed ration treatments. No significant differences in slope or intercept for the regression of fish length on otolith radius were observed among treatments, suggesting that slow growth alone may not be sufficient to result in decoupling of the otolith size-fish size relationship in striped bass.

  19. Stripe noise removal for infrared image by minimizing difference between columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu-Peng

    2016-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to eliminate stripe noise in infrared images. The differences between bias voltages in column readout circuit of uncooled infrared sensors result in strong stripe noise which changes slowly in time. The problem can be solved by estimating the bias of each column of infrared images and correcting infrared images with the estimated biases. The bias estimation is translated into an energy optimization problem in the paper. The optimization aims to minimize difference between neighboring columns of images. Our approach can be processed on a single image, or in a recursive way in order to significantly reduce the computation in one frame time. Our approach is compared to the state-of-the-art the stripe noise removal method using realistic infrared images, and the experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiencies of our proposed approach.

  20. Zero-bias-field microwave dynamic magnetic properties in trapezoidal ferromagnetic stripe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Mei; Wang, Xin; Lu, Haipeng; Zhang, Li; Deng, Longjiang; Xie, Jianliang

    2016-06-01

    Dynamic magnetization response of the axially magnetized ferromagnetic stripe with trapezoidal cross section has been studied. The stripe with beveled edges exhibits multiple resonant peaks modes under an in-plane microwave excitation compared with the single resonant of vertical edge surfaces. The complexity of the observed response is attributed to the spatially nonuniform equilibrium spin distribution at the stripe edges. Micromagnetic simulations identify spin waves as spatially localized mode at the modified edges. This one is also described by effective pinning boundary conditions taking into account finite-size effects, which is related to the exchange interaction, surface anisotropy and dipole-dipole interaction. These results provide detailed insights into the nonlinear spin dynamics of microstructures influenced by the edge properties.

  1. Rotor wake mixing effects downstream of a compressor rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindranath, A.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental study of rotor wake was conducted in the trailing-edge and near-wake regions of a moderately loaded compressor rotor blade using a rotating triaxial hot-wire probe in a rotating frame of reference. The flow-field was surveyed very close to the trailing-edge as well as inside the annulus- and hub-wall boundary layers. The large amount of data acquired during this program has been analyzed to discern the decay effects as well as the spanwise variation of three components of velocity, three components of intensities and three components of shear stresses. The data set also include extensive information on the variation of the flow properties downstream. The other derived quantities include wake momentum thickness and deviation angles at various spanwise and downstream locations. These data are presented and interpreted, with emphasis on the downstream mixing as well as endwall-wake interaction effects.

  2. Experimental investigation of unsteady fan flow interaction with downstream struts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, W. F.; Obrien, W. F.; Olsen, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    In the present study of the unsteady pressure field produced on fan rotor blades by interaction with downstream struts, a single stage, low speed axial-flow fan was instrumented with blade-mounted high frequency pressure transducers. In addition, stationary pressure problems were used to map out the flowfield. Fluctuating pressure measurements are presented for blade midspan and 85-percent span on both the suction and pressure surfaces of the rotor blades at several positions of the downstream struts, and for two different flow coefficients. The strut is found to produce an effect on the unsteady pressure field on the rotor blades; this effect exceeds that due to the stator at design rotor-stator-strut spacing, but it rapidly declines as the struts are moved downstream.

  3. The effects of bupropion on hybrid striped bass brain chemistry and predatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Lauren E; Bisesi, Joseph H; Lei, E N Y; Lam, Michael H W; Klaine, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Increased use of antidepressants has led to an increase in their detection in final treated wastewater effluents and receiving streams. Antidepressants are intended to modify human behavior by altering brain chemistry, and because of the high functional conservation of antidepressant target receptors in vertebrates, aquatic organisms may be at risk. The antidepressant bupropion is designed to alter brain norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations in humans. The objective of the present study was to understand if alteration of dopaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations in the hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis × Morone chrysops) brain by bupropion would alter this predator's ability to capture prey. The authors exposed hybrid striped bass to bupropion in a static system for 6 d, followed by a 6-d recovery period. During the present study's 12-d experiment, each hybrid striped bass was fed 4 unexposed fathead minnows every 3 d, and the time it took the hybrid striped bass to consume each of those 4 fathead minnows was quantified. After each feeding event, hybrid striped bass brains were harvested and analyzed for changes in several brain neurotransmitter concentrations, including serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and many of their metabolites. Although bupropion altered the concentration of dopamine and many of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter metabolite concentrations in the brains on day 3 of the exposure, it did not alter the time to capture prey. This suggests that alteration of dopaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations in the hybrid striped bass brain does not alter a predator's ability to capture prey. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2058-2065. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26748934

  4. The effects of bupropion on hybrid striped bass brain chemistry and predatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Lauren E; Bisesi, Joseph H; Lei, E N Y; Lam, Michael H W; Klaine, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Increased use of antidepressants has led to an increase in their detection in final treated wastewater effluents and receiving streams. Antidepressants are intended to modify human behavior by altering brain chemistry, and because of the high functional conservation of antidepressant target receptors in vertebrates, aquatic organisms may be at risk. The antidepressant bupropion is designed to alter brain norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations in humans. The objective of the present study was to understand if alteration of dopaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations in the hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis × Morone chrysops) brain by bupropion would alter this predator's ability to capture prey. The authors exposed hybrid striped bass to bupropion in a static system for 6 d, followed by a 6-d recovery period. During the present study's 12-d experiment, each hybrid striped bass was fed 4 unexposed fathead minnows every 3 d, and the time it took the hybrid striped bass to consume each of those 4 fathead minnows was quantified. After each feeding event, hybrid striped bass brains were harvested and analyzed for changes in several brain neurotransmitter concentrations, including serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and many of their metabolites. Although bupropion altered the concentration of dopamine and many of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter metabolite concentrations in the brains on day 3 of the exposure, it did not alter the time to capture prey. This suggests that alteration of dopaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations in the hybrid striped bass brain does not alter a predator's ability to capture prey. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2058-2065. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. X-RAY STRIPES IN TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT: SYNCHROTRON FOOTPRINTS OF A NONLINEAR COSMIC-RAY-DRIVEN INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Bykov, Andrei M.; Osipov, Sergei M.; Uvarov, Yury A.; Ellison, Donald C.; Pavlov, George G. E-mail: osm@astro.ioffe.ru E-mail: don_ellison@ncsu.edu

    2011-07-10

    High-resolution Chandra observations of Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) have revealed several sets of quasi-steady, high-emissivity, nearly parallel X-ray stripes in some localized regions of the SNR. These stripes are most likely the result of cosmic-ray (CR) generated magnetic turbulence at the SNR blast wave. However, for the amazingly regular pattern of these stripes to appear, simultaneous action of a number of shock-plasma phenomena is required, which is not predicted by most models of magnetic field amplification. A consistent explanation of these stripes yields information on the complex nonlinear plasma processes connecting efficient CR acceleration and magnetic field fluctuations in strong collisionless shocks. The nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration (NL-DSA) model described here, which includes magnetic field amplification from a CR-current-driven instability, does predict stripes consistent with the synchrotron observations of Tycho's SNR. We argue that the local ambient mean magnetic field geometry determines the orientation of the stripes and therefore it can be reconstructed with the high-resolution X-ray imaging. The estimated maximum energy of the CR protons responsible for the stripes is {approx}10{sup 15} eV. Furthermore, the model predicts that a specific X-ray polarization pattern, with a polarized fraction {approx}50%, accompanies the stripes, which can be tested with future X-ray polarimeter missions.

  6. Sequence-characterized amplified polymorphism markers for selecting rind stripe pattern in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inheritance of foreground stripe pattern in rind of watermelon fruits [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] was evaluated and the molecular markers for selecting the JT stripe pattern were developed based on bulked segregant analysis (BSA). Divergence in rind pattern among F2 progeny deri...

  7. Linkage maps of wheat stripe rust resistance genes Yr5 and Yr15 for use in marker assisted selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stripe rust (also known as yellow rust) caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks. is a serious global disease of wheat. Two important stripe rust resistance genes, Yr5 and Yr15, are being introgressed into wheat in several breeding programs and are the only known all-stage ...

  8. Histology and Ultrastructure of Transitional Changes in Skin Morphology in the Juvenile and Adult Four-Striped Mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio)

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Eranée; Ajao, Moyosore Salihu

    2013-01-01

    The four-striped mouse has a grey to brown coloured coat with four characteristic dark stripes interspersed with three lighter stripes running along its back. The histological differences in the skin of the juvenile and adult mouse were investigated by Haematoxylin and Eosin and Masson Trichrome staining, while melanocytes in the skin were studied through melanin-specific Ferro-ferricyanide staining. The ultrastructure of the juvenile skin, hair follicles, and melanocytes was also explored. In both the juvenile and adult four-striped mouse, pigment-containing cells were observed in the dermis and were homogeneously dispersed throughout this layer. Apart from these cells, the histology of the skin of the adult four-striped mouse was similar to normal mammalian skin. In the juvenile four-striped mouse, abundant hair follicles of varying sizes were observed in the dermis and hypodermis, while hair follicles of similar size were only present in the dermis of adult four-striped mouse. Ultrastructural analysis of juvenile hair follicles revealed that the arrangement and differentiation of cellular layers were typical of a mammal. This study therefore provides unique transition pattern in the four-striped mouse skin morphology different from the textbook description of the normal mammalian skin. PMID:24288469

  9. Atlantic coast feeding habits of striped bass: A synthesis supporting a coast-wide understanding of trophic biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, J. F.; Overton, A.S.; Ferry, K.H.; Mather, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    The recent increase in the Atlantic coast population of striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), prompted managers to re-evaluate their predatory impact. Published and unpublished diet data for striped bass on the Atlantic Coast of North America were examined for geographical, ontogenetic and seasonal patterns in the diet and to assess diet for this species. Diets of young-of-the-year (YOY) striped bass were similar across the Upper Atlantic (UPATL), Chesapeake and Delaware Bays (CBDEL) and North Carolina (NCARO) areas of the Atlantic coast where either fish or mysid shrimp dominate the diet. For age one and older striped bass, cluster analysis partitioned diets based on predominance of either Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe), characteristic of striped bass from the CBDEL and NCARO regions, or non-menhaden fishes or invertebrates, characteristic of fish from the UPATL, in the diet. The predominance of invertebrates in the diets of striped bass in the UPATL region can be attributed to the absence of several important species groups in Northern waters, particularly sciaenid fishes, and to the sporadic occurrences of Atlantic menhaden to UPATL waters. In all regions, across most seasons and in most size classes of striped bass, the clupeiod fishes; menhaden, anchovies (Anchoa spp.) and river herrings (Alosa spp,) and Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L., dominated the diets of striped bass above the first year of life.

  10. Identification and mapping of adult plant stripe rust resistance in soft red winter wheat cultivar ‘USG 3555’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the extent or diversity of resistance in soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to stripe rust, caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici. The soft red winter (SRW) wheat cultivar ‘USG 3555’ has effective adult-plant resistance to stripe rust, which...

  11. Identification and mapping of adult-plant stripe rust resistance in soft red winter wheat cultivar ‘USG 3555'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the extent or diversity of resistance in soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to stripe rust, caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici. The soft red winter (SRW) wheat cultivar ‘USG 3555’ has effective adult-plant resistance to stripe rust, which...

  12. Identification of Yr59 conferring high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in wheat germplasm PI 178759

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most widespread and destructive wheat diseases worldwide. Resistant cultivars are the preferred means of control. The spring wheat germplasm ‘PI 178759’ originating from Iraq showed effective resistance to stripe rust in fie...

  13. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) reveals conserved synteny with the hree-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its relatives (genus Morone) are of great importance to fisheries and aquaculture in North America. As part of a collaborative effort to employ molecular genetic technologies in striped bass breeding programs, nearly 500 microsatellite markers were...

  14. Interaction of fan rotor flow with downstream struts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, W. F., Jr.; Reimers, S. L.; Richardson, S. W.

    1983-01-01

    The detailed unsteady pressure field produced on the rotor blades of an axial-flow fan by interaction with downstream struts was investigated. The experimental arrangement was similar to that found in the fan casings of turbofan aircraft engines. Acoustically significant pressure fluctuations were measured on both thy suction and pressure sides of the rotor blades for several positions of the downstream struts. The level of the observed interaction decreased with increased spacing of the struts behind the rotor. An inviscid flow analysis for the disturbance level is compared with trends of the measured results.

  15. Transition duct with divided upstream and downstream portions

    SciTech Connect

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Maldonado, Jaime Javier; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Flanagan, James Scott

    2015-07-14

    Turbine systems are provided. In one embodiment, a turbine system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a duct passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The duct passage includes an upstream portion extending from the inlet and a downstream portion extending from the outlet. The turbine system further includes a rib extending from an outer surface of the duct passage, the rib dividing the upstream portion and the downstream portion.

  16. Self-assembled stripes on the anodic aluminum oxide by atomic force microscope observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. W.; Guo, H. M.; Wang, Y. L.; Wang, Y. T.; Shen, C. M.; Wei, L.

    2003-12-01

    Non-polished aluminum sheets were anodized. The nanostructures were investigated in details using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The coexistence of self-assembled stripes and porous arrays on the Al surface was observed. The formation mechanism of the stripes is discussed based on the Brusselator model. We suggest that the self-assembled patterns on the Al surface strongly depend on the competition of the formation and the dissolution rate of alumina film during the reaction process. It is also found that this type of ordered structure can only form in certain conditions.

  17. Exchange anisotropy as mechanism for spin-stripe formation in frustrated spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pregelj, M.; Zaharko, O.; Herak, M.; Gomilšek, M.; Zorko, A.; Chapon, L. C.; Bourdarot, F.; Berger, H.; Arčon, D.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the spin-stripe mechanism responsible for the peculiar nanometer modulation of the incommensurate magnetic order that emerges between the vector-chiral and the spin-density-wave phase in the frustrated zigzag spin-1/2 chain compound β -TeVO4 . A combination of magnetic-torque, neutron-diffraction, and spherical-neutron-polarimetry measurements is employed to determine the complex magnetic structures of all three ordered phases. Based on these results, we develop a simple phenomenological model, which exposes the exchange anisotropy as the key ingredient for the spin-stripe formation in frustrated spin systems.

  18. Iteratively reweighted unidirectional variational model for stripe non-uniformity correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongzhong; He, Cong; Fang, Houzhang; Wang, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive unidirectional variational nonuniformity correction algorithm for fixed-pattern noise removal. The proposed algorithm is based on a unidirectional variational sparse model that makes use of unidirectional characteristics of stripe nonuniformity noise. The iteratively reweighted least squares (IRLS) technique is introduced to optimize the proposed correction model, which makes the proposed algorithm easy to implement with existing conjugate gradient method without introducing additional variables and parameters. Moreover, we derive a formula to automatically update the regularization parameter from the images. Comparative experimental results on real infrared images indicate that the proposed method can remove the stripe nonuniformity noise effectively while maintaining more useful image details.

  19. Uptake, retention, and elmination of PCB (Aroclor 1254) by larval striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    SciTech Connect

    Califano, R.J.; O'Conner, J.M.; Peters, L.S.

    1980-03-01

    Research report:Experiments to determine the rates of uptake and clearance of the PCB Aroclor 1254 in larvae of striped bass (Morone saxatilus) from the Hudson River in New York are described. Larval striped bass removed Aroclor 1254 from Hudson River water rapidly and nearly completely. More than 80% of the final Aroclor concentration was attained during the first 12 hr of exposure to contaminated water. However, Aroclor elimination from the fish was slow; less than 1% of the total Aroclor was released after 24 hr. (14 references, 1 table)

  20. Evaluation of potential candidate genes involved in salinity tolerance in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) using an RNA-Seq approach.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan Viet; Jung, Hyungtaek; Nguyen, Thanh Minh; Hurwood, David; Mather, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Increasing salinity levels in freshwater and coastal environments caused by sea level rise linked to climate change is now recognized to be a major factor that can impact fish growth negatively, especially for freshwater teleost species. Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) is an important freshwater teleost that is now widely farmed across the Mekong River Delta in Vietnam. Understanding the basis for tolerance and adaptation to raised environmental salinity conditions can assist the regional culture industry to mitigate predicted impacts of climate change across this region. Attempt of next generation sequencing using the ion proton platform results in more than 174 million raw reads from three tissue libraries (gill, kidney and intestine). Reads were filtered and de novo assembled using a variety of assemblers and then clustered together to generate a combined reference transcriptome. Downstream analysis resulted in a final reference transcriptome that contained 60,585 transcripts with an N50 of 683 bp. This resource was further annotated using a variety of bioinformatics databases, followed by differential gene expression analysis that resulted in 3062 transcripts that were differentially expressed in catfish samples raised under two experimental conditions (0 and 15 ppt). A number of transcripts with a potential role in salinity tolerance were then classified into six different functional gene categories based on their gene ontology assignments. These included; energy metabolism, ion transportation, detoxification, signal transduction, structural organization and detoxification. Finally, we combined the data on functional salinity tolerance genes into a hypothetical schematic model that attempted to describe potential relationships and interactions among target genes to explain the molecular pathways that control adaptive salinity responses in P. hypophthalmus. Our results indicate that P. hypophthalmus exhibit predictable plastic regulatory responses

  1. Evaluation of potential candidate genes involved in salinity tolerance in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) using an RNA-Seq approach.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan Viet; Jung, Hyungtaek; Nguyen, Thanh Minh; Hurwood, David; Mather, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Increasing salinity levels in freshwater and coastal environments caused by sea level rise linked to climate change is now recognized to be a major factor that can impact fish growth negatively, especially for freshwater teleost species. Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) is an important freshwater teleost that is now widely farmed across the Mekong River Delta in Vietnam. Understanding the basis for tolerance and adaptation to raised environmental salinity conditions can assist the regional culture industry to mitigate predicted impacts of climate change across this region. Attempt of next generation sequencing using the ion proton platform results in more than 174 million raw reads from three tissue libraries (gill, kidney and intestine). Reads were filtered and de novo assembled using a variety of assemblers and then clustered together to generate a combined reference transcriptome. Downstream analysis resulted in a final reference transcriptome that contained 60,585 transcripts with an N50 of 683 bp. This resource was further annotated using a variety of bioinformatics databases, followed by differential gene expression analysis that resulted in 3062 transcripts that were differentially expressed in catfish samples raised under two experimental conditions (0 and 15 ppt). A number of transcripts with a potential role in salinity tolerance were then classified into six different functional gene categories based on their gene ontology assignments. These included; energy metabolism, ion transportation, detoxification, signal transduction, structural organization and detoxification. Finally, we combined the data on functional salinity tolerance genes into a hypothetical schematic model that attempted to describe potential relationships and interactions among target genes to explain the molecular pathways that control adaptive salinity responses in P. hypophthalmus. Our results indicate that P. hypophthalmus exhibit predictable plastic regulatory responses

  2. Gender Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilfeld, Ellen M., Ed.; Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This issue of "Coordinators' Notebook" focuses on gender issues in early childhood. The first article, "Both Halves of the Sky: Gender Socialization in the Early Years," focuses on the arguments that have led to an international call for increased participation of girls in education, an introduction to studies which map young children's…

  3. Issues Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sando, Joe S.

    A program for teaching techniques of critical thinking on issues concerning American Indians was developed for students at Albuquerque Indian School. It was designed to include not only the students but also their families with learning activities that required consultation in search of answers or understanding. The first issue presented sought to…

  4. Hooking mortality and physiological responses of striped bass angled in freshwater and held in live-release tubes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettinger, J.M.; Tomasso, J.R.; Isely, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Mortality and physiological responses of adult striped bass Morone saxatilis angled from Lake Murray, South Carolina, and held in live-release tubes were evaluated during the spring and summer of 2003. To estimate mortality, we attached external ultrasonic transmitters to 59 striped bass (mean total length [TL] = 585 mm). Striped bass were caught with angling gear, tagged, and immediately released or held in live-release tubes for 2, 4, or 6 h prior to release. No mortality of striped bass was observed during spring. Overall mortality during summer was 83%. Mortality of summer-caught striped bass was not related to tube residence time, fish TL, depth of capture, or surface water temperature. To characterize physiological stress, we measured the plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, and osmolality levels of 62 additional striped bass (mean TL = 563 mm) that were angled and immediately released or angled and held in live-release tubes. Plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, and osmolality were positively related to tube residence time. When the hematological characteristics were considered only in relation to tube residence time, responses indicative of physiological stress continued for about 150 min, after which blood chemistry began to return to normal. Live-release tubes appear to be useful for keeping striped bass alive when they are angled from cool water, but they are not effective for striped bass angled from warm water. The high summer mortality of striped bass suggests a need for restrictive fishing regulations during the summer for the Lake Murray striped bass fishery. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  5. 3. VIEW ALONG FLUME TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BRIDGE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW ALONG FLUME TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BRIDGE AND POWERHOUSE. FLUME IS FED FROM AFTERBAY OF POWERHOUSE. LOOKING NEAST-NORTHEAST. 90mm lens - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, Tule River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  6. 5. AERATOR VIEW FROM DOWNSTREAM. FLUSH VALVE AT RIGHT OPENS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERATOR VIEW FROM DOWNSTREAM. FLUSH VALVE AT RIGHT OPENS TO CLEAR THE SYSTEM ABOVE THE SILT AND DEBRIS AND TO STOP THE FLOW OF WATER INTO THE SYSTEM DOWN LINE. BOX FLUME CONTINUES DOWN LINE TO SEDIMENTATION CHAMBER. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  7. Modeling downstream fining in sand-bed rivers. II: Application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, S.; Parker, G.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the model presented in the companion paper, Wright and Parker (2005) is applied to a generic river reach typical of a large, sand-bed river flowing into the ocean in order to investigate the mechanisms controlling longitudinal profile development and downstream fining. Three mechanisms which drive downstream fining are studied: a delta prograding into standing water, sea-level rise, and tectonic subsidence. Various rates of sea-level rise (typical of the late Holocene) and tectonic subsidence are modeled in order to quantify their effects on the degree of profile concavity and downstream fining. Also, several other physical mechanisms which may affect fining are studied, including the relative importance of the suspended versus bed load, the effect of the loss of sediment overbank, and the influence of the delta bottom slope. Finally, sensitivity analysis is used to show that the grain-size distribution at the interface between the active layer and substrate has a significant effect on downstream fining. ?? 2005 International Association of Hydraulic Engineering and Research.

  8. 8. NORTHERLY VIEW OF THE DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BIG DALTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. NORTHERLY VIEW OF THE DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE HOLLOW BAYS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6 AND THE PLUNGE POOL IN THE FOREGROUND. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 1. LOOKING DOWNSTREAM (NORTHEAST) ALONG WINTER'S RUN TOWARD THE MITCHELL'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING DOWNSTREAM (NORTHEAST) ALONG WINTER'S RUN TOWARD THE MITCHELL'S MILL BRIDGE, SHOWING THE SETTING OF THE BRIDGE. CARRS MILL ROAD APPROACHES THE BRIDGE FROM THE SOUTH, ON THE RIGHT. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  10. 8. Detail view of downstream side, looking south. Buttresses, struttie ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail view of downstream side, looking south. Buttresses, strut-tie beams, and arch-rings are shown. The white discoloration on the concrete is the result of efflorescence. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. LOOKING DOWNSTREAM FROM KACHESS DAM CREST, 1910 RIVER CUTOFF CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING DOWNSTREAM FROM KACHESS DAM CREST, 1910 RIVER CUTOFF CHANNEL WITH CRIB STRUCTURE IN CENTER. BRIDGE FOOTING CRIB STRUCTURE AT RIGHT (Upstream face of Kachess Dam in foreground) - Kachess Dam, Cutoff Channel and Crib Structures, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  12. 16. Detail, lower chord connection point on downstream side at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail, lower chord connection point on downstream side at end panel showing lower chord eye bars, vertical tension eye bar, original and supplemental floor beams, turnbuckled lower laterals. View to northwest. - Dry Creek Bridge, Spanning Dry Creek at Cook Road, Ione, Amador County, CA

  13. STEEL ERECTION. View of downstream of bridge, looking southeast from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STEEL ERECTION. View of downstream of bridge, looking southeast from confluence of Trinity and South Fork Trinity rivers. The old suspension bridge is in background - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  14. 1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM DOWNSTREAM OF BRIDGE IN ITS SETTING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM DOWNSTREAM OF BRIDGE IN ITS SETTING, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST FROM PIONEER BRIDGE (BUSINESS ROUTE 80). CAPITOL BANK OF COMMERCE BUILDING IS AT EXTREME RIGHT. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  15. 13. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF THE ARCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF THE ARCH NEAR THE TOP AND THE SPILLWAY OF BIG TUJUNGA DAM, TAKEN ON APRIL 22, 1931, (PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN). PICTURE WAS DEVELOPED FROM COPY NEGATIVES WHICH WERE TAKEN ON JUNE 5, 1973, BY PHOTOGRAPHER GATSON OF L.A. COUNTY PUBLIC WORKS. - Big Tujunga Dam, 809 West Big Tujunga Road, Sunland, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 8. Chandler Falls, looking downstream, and downhill from the edge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Chandler Falls, looking downstream, and downhill from the edge of the mesa (from south). Penstock and foundation of the hydropower plant visible on left. Photographer: Mark Durben, February 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 2. View from the Minnesota bank looking downstream (northnorthwest) at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View from the Minnesota bank looking downstream (north-northwest) at bridge's southwest elevation; the bridge approach is missing - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

  18. 1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM END OF NAVIGATION LOCK #1 WITH CHAMBER FILLED; THE CONTROL HOUSE IS ON RIGHT; VIEW IS TAKEN FROM ROOF OF POWERHOUSE #1. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  19. 51. Photocopy of photograph, October 16, 1942. VIEW, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopy of photograph, October 16, 1942. VIEW, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM, OF POWER HOUSE DURING FLOOD. (Courtesy of the Potomac Edison Company Library (Hagerstown, MD), Historical Data Files, Dam NO. 5 listing) - Dam No. 5 Hydroelectric Plant, On Potomac River, Hedgesville, Berkeley County, WV

  20. 5. DETAIL OF THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF THE GATES SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF THE GATES SHOWING REINFORCEMENT AND THE TOP EDGE OF THE UPSTREAM MASONRY WALL OF THE HISTORIC OUTLET WORKS TAKEN FROM THE SOUTHERN EMBANKMENT. VIEW LOOKING NORTH. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  1. 4. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF HISTORIC OUTLET WORKS TAKEN FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF HISTORIC OUTLET WORKS TAKEN FROM THE NORTH BANK OF THE CHANNEL BETWEEN THE OLD WORKS AND TWIN LAKES DAM. VIEW LOOKING WEST. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  2. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF THE MASONRY FACING ON THE DOWNSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF THE MASONRY FACING ON THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF THE HISTORIC OUTLET WORKS. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  3. 3. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF HISTORIC OUTLET WORKS TAKEN FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF HISTORIC OUTLET WORKS TAKEN FROM THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE CHANNEL BETWEEN THE OLD WORKS AND TWIN LAKES DAM. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  4. 53. Humbug Creek looking downstream from Humbug Diversion Dam. Retaining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Humbug Creek looking downstream from Humbug Diversion Dam. Retaining wall for canal is visible beginning at left center. Photographer James Eastwood, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 71. Close up view of downstream view of four large ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. Close up view of downstream view of four large taintor gates and section for sector gate (now removed). Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. 59. Downstream view of Waddell Dam showing buttress ties, crane, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Downstream view of Waddell Dam showing buttress ties, crane, housing over penstock outlet (left) and storage building (right). Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 10. EASTERLY VIEW OF THE ACCESS ROAD TO THE DOWNSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. EASTERLY VIEW OF THE ACCESS ROAD TO THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BIG DALTON DAM EXTENDING FROM THE FOOTBRIDGE TO THE GAGING STATION. BIG DALTON DAM IN BACKGROUND. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 13. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF THE ARCHES AND ARCH WALLS TAKEN IN 1928-1929 (PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN). PICTURE WAS DEVELOPED FROM COPY NEGATIVES WHICH WERE TAKEN ON 2-15-1973 BY PHOTOGRAPHER D. MEIER OF L.A. COUNTY PUBLIC WORKS. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 2. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM END OF SPILLWAY CHUTE FROM SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM END OF SPILLWAY CHUTE FROM SOUTH SIDE OF PLUNGE POOL, FACING NORTHWEST. CUTOFF WALL AND RETAINING WALL (ON EAST SIDE OF CHUTE) VISIBLE ABOVE WATER LEVEL - Cushman No. 1 Hydroelectric Power Plant, Spillway, North Fork of Skokomish River, 5 miles West of Hood Canal, Hoodsport, Mason County, WA

  10. 19. Downstream elevation of bridge. Original photograph published in The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Downstream elevation of bridge. Original photograph published in The Architect and Engineer, July 1920, p.90, photographer unknown. Note width of channel, and compare to CA-126-5 and CA-126-7. - Salt River Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Dillon Road, Ferndale, Humboldt County, CA

  11. 12. Close up view of construction on the downstream face. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Close up view of construction on the downstream face. Track at lower center conveyed aggregate from the stream bed to the mixing plant. Photographer unknown, October 15, 1924. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF CHECK DAM, CONCRETE SPILLWAY WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF CHECK DAM, CONCRETE SPILLWAY WITH MORTARED ROCK WALLS, AND CIPPOLETTI WEIR ON TUMALO RESERVOIR FEED CANAL NEAR COLLINS ROAD (IN BACKGROUND). LOOKING NORTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  13. 60. PANORAMIC VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM FACE. No date, but believed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. PANORAMIC VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM FACE. No date, but believed to be just subsequent to construction. Photograph by C.G. Duffey, Long Beach, California. (38' x 11' framed print). - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 9. OBLIQUE OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. OBLIQUE OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST FROM YOLO COUNTY SIDE OF THE SACRAMENTO RIVER. VESSEL MOORED AT RIGHT IS DELTA KING, WHICH HAS SINCE BEEN REFURBISHED AND MOVED UPSTREAM OF BRIDGE TO PERMANENT MOORING. CAPITOL BANK OF COMMERCE BUILDING IS BEHIND VESSEL. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  15. 13. OVERALL VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM FACE OF LIFT GATE SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. OVERALL VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM FACE OF LIFT GATE SECTION (FROM EDGE OF COFFERDAM) WITH BOILERHOUSE AND TAINTER GATE SECTION IN BACKGROUND TO THE RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  16. 1. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from downstream, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from downstream, view to south from edge of bluff east of Rawson Road. Bridge visible among trees at left center. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  17. 20. VIEW FROM DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DAM SHOWING BUTTS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW FROM DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DAM SHOWING BUTTS OF LOGS PROJECTING BETWEEN CROSS LOGS. FREQUENTLY WHOLE TREES WERE USED IN CONSTRUCTING THESE DAMS. THE BRANCHES WERE PLACED UPSTREAM AND COVERED WITH EARTH AND STONE TO ANCHOR THEM. Photographed November 6, 1935. - Forge Creek Dam-John Cable Mill, Townsend, Blount County, TN

  18. 8. View of gabeon west wall added downstream from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of gabeon west wall added downstream from the lower dam. Photograph taken from east side of Millstone Creek. VIEW SOUTH - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  19. 9. SOUTHERLY VIEW OF THE ACCESS ROAD TO THE DOWNSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SOUTHERLY VIEW OF THE ACCESS ROAD TO THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BIG DALTON DAM EXTENDING FROM THE DAM TO THE FOOTBRIDGE. VIEW FROM BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE TOE WEIR IN FOREGROUND AND FOOTBRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 23. The Salt River, downstream, from atop Mormon Flat Dam. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. The Salt River, downstream, from atop Mormon Flat Dam. HEFU generator deck is at center bottom. Photographer Mark Durben, 1988. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 5. Downstream elevation, view to southeast. Dark stains on side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Downstream elevation, view to southeast. Dark stains on side of main girder are from deck drain scuppers, marking deck level within the girders. Compare this view and CA-126-7 to CA-126-19 for indication of severity of siltation of Salt River channel has silted. - Salt River Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Dillon Road, Ferndale, Humboldt County, CA

  2. 1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE POST FALLS POWERHOUSE LOOKING DOWNSTREAM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE POST FALLS POWERHOUSE LOOKING DOWNSTREAM. POWER PLANT AND INTAKE GATES ARE IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND, AND THE ATTACHED 'OLD SWITCHING BUILDING' (NOW ABANDONED) IS IN THE RIGHT BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  3. 1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM (NORTHERLY) OF THE CONCRETE ARCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM (NORTHERLY) OF THE CONCRETE ARCH ('ONE-WAY BRIDGE') THAT PROVIDES PRIVATE (WWP) ACCESS TO THE MIDDLE CHANNEL OF THE POST FALLS POWER PLANT. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Concrete Arch Bridge, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  4. 3. DOWNSTREAM AERIAL VIEW OF THE DIVERSION CHANNEL AND CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DOWNSTREAM AERIAL VIEW OF THE DIVERSION CHANNEL AND CONTROL WORKS. THE OUTLET CONTROL TOWER AND THE PIER FOR THE SERVICE BRIDGE ARE SHOWN COMPLETED.... Volume XVIII, No. 11, January 18, 1940. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  5. 20. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF THE INTAKE STRUCTURE, SHOWING THE SLIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF THE INTAKE STRUCTURE, SHOWING THE SLIDE GATES FOR THE CONTROLLED OUTLET, IN POSITION FOR INSTALLATION.... Volume XVII, No. 15, November 13, 1939. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  6. 27. A DOWNSTREAM VIEW FROM THE LOWER END OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. A DOWNSTREAM VIEW FROM THE LOWER END OF THE OUTLET CONDUIT, SHOWING STILLING BASIN BAFFLE PIERS.... Volume XVII, No. 17, November 29, 1939. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  7. 17. VIEW EASTERLY ALONG DOWNSTREAM END OF THE SPILLWAY, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW EASTERLY ALONG DOWNSTREAM END OF THE SPILLWAY, SHOWING CELL WALL CONSTRUCTION IN THE CRIB CUTOFF.... Volume XX, No. 4, August 3, 1940. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  8. 7. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, WITH OUTLET CULVERT AND WING RETAINING WALLS, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Twin Pots Dam, Ashley National Forest, 10.1 miles North of Mountain Home, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  9. 2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF COTTAGE 191 TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF COTTAGE 191 TAKEN FROM ROOF OF GARAGE 393. CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST. COTTAGE 181 AND CHILDREN'S PLAY AREA VISIBLE ON EITHER SIDE OF ROOF. GRAPE ARBOR IN FOREGROUND. - Swan Falls Village, Cottage 191, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  10. 3. View of Potomac River looking downstream from the Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Potomac River looking downstream from the Great Falls of the Potomac. Reduction of stream in width during low water, is clearly shown by exposed beach on left side and indisputable normal water height markings shown on right side of photograph. Mr. Horyduzak, photographer, 1943. - Potowmack Company: Great Falls Canal & Locks, Great Falls, Fairfax County, VA

  11. View of Flume Bridge #5 from FS 502 looking downstream ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Flume Bridge #5 from FS 502 looking downstream (south). Bridge is on the left side of the photograph. This is similar to other flume bridges in the system and is the only photograph representing these features. - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Bridge No. 5, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  12. Further Evidence that Shallot Yellow Stripe Virus (SYSV) Is a Distinct Potyvirus and Reidentification of Welsh Onion Yellow Stripe Virus as a SYSV Strain.

    PubMed

    van der Vlugt, R A; Steffens, P; Cuperus, C; Barg, E; Lesemann, D E; Bos, L; Vetten, H J

    1999-02-01

    ABSTRACT An antiserum to shallot yellow stripe virus (SYSV) was raised and used in combination with a range of other antisera to potyviruses of Allium spp. in electron microscopic decoration experiments. The serological results corroborated an earlier finding that the type isolates of SYSV and Welsh onion yellow stripe virus (WoYSV) are closely related to each other and only distantly related to onion yellow dwarf (OYDV) and leek yellow stripe (LYSV) viruses, the two other major potyviruses infecting Allium spp. Moreover, the decoration results indicated that Japanese potyviruses named OYDV and Wakegi yellow dwarf virus are isolates of SYSV. Sequence analysis of the 3'-terminal regions of the SYSV and WoYSV ge-nomes revealed coat protein (CP) amino acid and 3'-nontranslated region (3'-NTR) nucleotide sequence identities of 95 and 89%, respectively. The CP amino acid and 3'-NTR nucleotide sequences of these viruses differed from those of OYDV and LYSV by >25 and >67%, respectively. The serological and molecular studies showed that SYSV and WoYSV are different strains of a potyvirus distinct from OYDV and LYSV. For priority reasons, we propose that these strains together with the Wakegi-type isolates of OYDV described in Japan be referred to as SYSV and that SYSV isolates from Allium spp. other than shallot be designated as the Welsh onion strain of SYSV (SYSV-Wo).

  13. Further Evidence that Shallot Yellow Stripe Virus (SYSV) Is a Distinct Potyvirus and Reidentification of Welsh Onion Yellow Stripe Virus as a SYSV Strain.

    PubMed

    van der Vlugt, R A; Steffens, P; Cuperus, C; Barg, E; Lesemann, D E; Bos, L; Vetten, H J

    1999-02-01

    ABSTRACT An antiserum to shallot yellow stripe virus (SYSV) was raised and used in combination with a range of other antisera to potyviruses of Allium spp. in electron microscopic decoration experiments. The serological results corroborated an earlier finding that the type isolates of SYSV and Welsh onion yellow stripe virus (WoYSV) are closely related to each other and only distantly related to onion yellow dwarf (OYDV) and leek yellow stripe (LYSV) viruses, the two other major potyviruses infecting Allium spp. Moreover, the decoration results indicated that Japanese potyviruses named OYDV and Wakegi yellow dwarf virus are isolates of SYSV. Sequence analysis of the 3'-terminal regions of the SYSV and WoYSV ge-nomes revealed coat protein (CP) amino acid and 3'-nontranslated region (3'-NTR) nucleotide sequence identities of 95 and 89%, respectively. The CP amino acid and 3'-NTR nucleotide sequences of these viruses differed from those of OYDV and LYSV by >25 and >67%, respectively. The serological and molecular studies showed that SYSV and WoYSV are different strains of a potyvirus distinct from OYDV and LYSV. For priority reasons, we propose that these strains together with the Wakegi-type isolates of OYDV described in Japan be referred to as SYSV and that SYSV isolates from Allium spp. other than shallot be designated as the Welsh onion strain of SYSV (SYSV-Wo). PMID:18944789

  14. The Role of Headwater Streams in Downstream Water Quality.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Richard B; Boyer, Elizabeth W; Smith, Richard A; Schwarz, Gregory E; Moore, Richard B

    2007-02-01

    Knowledge of headwater influences on the water-quality and flow conditions of downstream waters is essential to water-resource management at all governmental levels; this includes recent court decisions on the jurisdiction of the Federal Clean Water Act (CWA) over upland areas that contribute to larger downstream water bodies. We review current watershed research and use a water-quality model to investigate headwater influences on downstream receiving waters. Our evaluations demonstrate the intrinsic connections of headwaters to landscape processes and downstream waters through their influence on the supply, transport, and fate of water and solutes in watersheds. Hydrological processes in headwater catchments control the recharge of subsurface water stores, flow paths, and residence times of water throughout landscapes. The dynamic coupling of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in upland streams further controls the chemical form, timing, and longitudinal distances of solute transport to downstream waters. We apply the spatially explicit, mass-balance watershed model SPARROW to consider transport and transformations of water and nutrients throughout stream networks in the northeastern United States. We simulate fluxes of nitrogen, a primary nutrient that is a water-quality concern for acidification of streams and lakes and eutrophication of coastal waters, and refine the model structure to include literature observations of nitrogen removal in streams and lakes. We quantify nitrogen transport from headwaters to downstream navigable waters, where headwaters are defined within the model as first-order, perennial streams that include flow and nitrogen contributions from smaller, intermittent and ephemeral streams. We find that first-order headwaters contribute approximately 70% of the mean-annual water volume and 65% of the nitrogen flux in second-order streams. Their contributions to mean water volume and nitrogen flux decline only marginally to about 55% and

  15. The Role of Headwater Streams in Downstream Water Quality1

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Richard B; Boyer, Elizabeth W; Smith, Richard A; Schwarz, Gregory E; Moore, Richard B

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of headwater influences on the water-quality and flow conditions of downstream waters is essential to water-resource management at all governmental levels; this includes recent court decisions on the jurisdiction of the Federal Clean Water Act (CWA) over upland areas that contribute to larger downstream water bodies. We review current watershed research and use a water-quality model to investigate headwater influences on downstream receiving waters. Our evaluations demonstrate the intrinsic connections of headwaters to landscape processes and downstream waters through their influence on the supply, transport, and fate of water and solutes in watersheds. Hydrological processes in headwater catchments control the recharge of subsurface water stores, flow paths, and residence times of water throughout landscapes. The dynamic coupling of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in upland streams further controls the chemical form, timing, and longitudinal distances of solute transport to downstream waters. We apply the spatially explicit, mass-balance watershed model SPARROW to consider transport and transformations of water and nutrients throughout stream networks in the northeastern United States. We simulate fluxes of nitrogen, a primary nutrient that is a water-quality concern for acidification of streams and lakes and eutrophication of coastal waters, and refine the model structure to include literature observations of nitrogen removal in streams and lakes. We quantify nitrogen transport from headwaters to downstream navigable waters, where headwaters are defined within the model as first-order, perennial streams that include flow and nitrogen contributions from smaller, intermittent and ephemeral streams. We find that first-order headwaters contribute approximately 70% of the mean-annual water volume and 65% of the nitrogen flux in second-order streams. Their contributions to mean water volume and nitrogen flux decline only marginally to about 55% and

  16. The role of headwater streams in downstream water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, R.B.; Boyer, E.W.; Smith, R.A.; Schwarz, G.E.; Moore, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of headwater influences on the water-quality and flow conditions of downstream waters is essential to water-resource management at all governmental levels; this includes recent court decisions on the jurisdiction of the Federal Clean Water Act (CWA) over upland areas that contribute to larger downstream water bodies. We review current watershed research and use a water-quality model to investigate headwater influences on downstream receiving waters. Our evaluations demonstrate the intrinsic connections of headwaters to landscape processes and downstream waters through their influence on the supply, transport, and fate of water and solutes in watersheds. Hydrological processes in headwater catchments control the recharge of subsurface water stores, flow paths, and residence times of water throughout landscapes. The dynamic coupling of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in upland streams further controls the chemical form, timing, and longitudinal distances of solute transport to downstream waters. We apply the spatially explicit, mass-balance watershed model SPARROW to consider transport and transformations of water and nutrients throughout stream networks in the northeastern United States. We simulate fluxes of nitrogen, a primary nutrient that is a water-quality concern for acidification of streams and lakes and eutrophication of coastal waters, and refine the model structure to include literature observations of nitrogen removal in streams and lakes. We quantify nitrogen transport from headwaters to downstream navigable waters, where headwaters are defined within the model as first-order, perennial streams that include flow and nitrogen contributions from smaller, intermittent and ephemeral streams. We find that first-order headwaters contribute approximately 70% of the mean-annual water volume and 65% of the nitrogen flux in second-order streams. Their contributions to mean water volume and nitrogen flux decline only marginally to about 55% and

  17. Methylation of Hg downstream from the Bonanza Hg mine, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Hines, Mark E.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Thoms, Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Speciation of Hg and conversion to methyl-Hg were evaluated in stream sediment, stream water, and aquatic snails collected downstream from the Bonanza Hg mine, Oregon. Total production from the Bonanza mine was >1360t of Hg, during mining from the late 1800s to 1960, ranking it as an intermediate sized Hg mine on an international scale. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution, transport, and methylation of Hg downstream from a Hg mine in a coastal temperate climatic zone. Data shown here for methyl-Hg, a neurotoxin hazardous to humans, are the first reported for sediment and water from this area. Stream sediment collected from Foster Creek flowing downstream from the Bonanza mine contained elevated Hg concentrations that ranged from 590 to 71,000ng/g, all of which (except the most distal sample) exceeded the probable effect concentration (PEC) of 1060ng/g, the Hg concentration above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in stream sediment collected from Foster Creek varied from 11 to 62ng/g and were highly elevated compared to regional baseline concentrations (0.11-0.82ng/g) established in this study. Methyl-Hg concentrations in stream sediment collected in this study showed a significant correlation with total organic C (TOC, R2=0.62), generally indicating increased methyl-Hg formation with increasing TOC in sediment. Isotopic-tracer methods indicated that several samples of Foster Creek sediment exhibited high rates of Hg-methylation. Concentrations of Hg in water collected downstream from the mine varied from 17 to 270ng/L and were also elevated compared to baselines, but all were below the 770ng/L Hg standard recommended by the USEPA to protect against chronic effects to aquatic wildlife. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in the water collected from Foster Creek ranged from 0.17 to 1.8ng/L, which were elevated compared to regional baseline sites upstream and downstream

  18. Downstream-migrating fluvial point bars in the rock record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Ielpi, Alessandro; Aldinucci, Mauro; Fustic, Milovan

    2016-04-01

    Classical models developed for ancient fluvial point bars are based on the assumption that meander bends invariably increase their radius as meander-bend apices migrate in a direction transverse to the channel-belt axis (i.e., meander bend expansion). However, many modern meandering rivers are also characterized by down-valley migration of the bend apex, a mechanism that takes place without a significant change in meander radius and wavelength. Downstream-migrating fluvial point bars (DMFPB) are the dominant architectural element of these types of meander belts. Yet they are poorly known from ancient fluvial-channel belts, since their disambiguation from expansional point bars often requires fully-3D perspectives. This study aims to review DMFPB deposits spanning in age from Devonian to Holocene, and to discuss their main architectural and sedimentological features from published outcrop, borehole and 3D-seismic datasets. Fluvial successions hosting DMFPB mainly accumulated in low accommodation conditions, where channel belts were affected by different degrees of morphological (e.g., valleys) or tectonic (e.g., axial drainage of shortening basins) confinement. In confined settings, bends migrate downstream along the erosion-resistant valley flanks and little or no floodplain deposits are preserved. Progressive floor aggradation (e.g., valley filling) allow meander belts with DMFPB to decrease their degree of confinement. In less confined settings, meander bends migrate downstream mainly after impinging against older, erosion-resistant channel fill mud. By contrast, tectonic confinement is commonly associated with uplifted alluvial plains that prevented meander-bend expansion, in turn triggering downstream translation. At the scale of individual point bars, translational morphodynamics promote the preservation of downstream-bar deposits, whereas the coarser-grained upstream and central beds are less frequently preserved. However, enhanced preservation of upstream

  19. Spin-stripe phase in a frustrated zigzag spin-1/2 chain.

    PubMed

    Pregelj, M; Zorko, A; Zaharko, O; Nojiri, H; Berger, H; Chapon, L C; Arčon, D

    2015-01-01

    Motifs of periodic modulations are encountered in a variety of natural systems, where at least two rival states are present. In strongly correlated electron systems, such behaviour has typically been associated with competition between short- and long-range interactions, for example, between exchange and dipole-dipole interactions in the case of ferromagnetic thin films. Here we show that spin-stripe textures may develop also in antiferromagnets, where long-range dipole-dipole magnetic interactions are absent. A comprehensive analysis of magnetic susceptibility, high-field magnetization, specific heat and neutron diffraction measurements unveils β-TeVO4 as a nearly perfect realization of a frustrated (zigzag) ferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain. Notably, a narrow spin-stripe phase develops at elevated magnetic fields due to weak frustrated short-range interchain exchange interactions, possibly assisted by the symmetry-allowed electric polarization. This concept provides an alternative route for the stripe formation in strongly correlated electron systems and may help understanding of other widespread, yet still elusive, stripe-related phenomena. PMID:26068618

  20. Spin-stripe phase in a frustrated zigzag spin-1/2 chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pregelj, M.; Zorko, A.; Zaharko, O.; Nojiri, H.; Berger, H.; Chapon, L. C.; Arčon, D.

    2015-06-01

    Motifs of periodic modulations are encountered in a variety of natural systems, where at least two rival states are present. In strongly correlated electron systems, such behaviour has typically been associated with competition between short- and long-range interactions, for example, between exchange and dipole-dipole interactions in the case of ferromagnetic thin films. Here we show that spin-stripe textures may develop also in antiferromagnets, where long-range dipole-dipole magnetic interactions are absent. A comprehensive analysis of magnetic susceptibility, high-field magnetization, specific heat and neutron diffraction measurements unveils β-TeVO4 as a nearly perfect realization of a frustrated (zigzag) ferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain. Notably, a narrow spin-stripe phase develops at elevated magnetic fields due to weak frustrated short-range interchain exchange interactions, possibly assisted by the symmetry-allowed electric polarization. This concept provides an alternative route for the stripe formation in strongly correlated electron systems and may help understanding of other widespread, yet still elusive, stripe-related phenomena.

  1. Stripe smuts of grasses: one lineage or high levels of polyphyly?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe smut of grasses, Ustilago striiformis s.l., is caused by a complex of smut fungi widely distributed over temperate and subtropical regions. The disease results in the shredding and death of leaf tissue following the rupture of elongated sori. Nearly 100 different grass species in more than 30...

  2. The effect of freezing rate on the quality of striped bass sperm.

    PubMed

    Frankel, T E; Theisen, D D; Guthrie, H D; Welch, G R; Woods, L C

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have been conducted in an attempt to determine the optimal freezing rate for cryopreservation of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) sperm. In this study, the effects of freezing rate (-10 °C, -15 °C, -20 °C, and -40 °C/min) on gamete quality was examined, using Sybr-14 and propidium iodide to determine viability (sperm cell membrane integrity), ATP concentration using a luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay, and a CEROS computer-assisted sperm analysis system to characterize striped bass sperm motion. Adult male striped bass (N = 12) were sampled once a week for 5 weeks. Collected samples were extended, cryoprotected using a 7.5% (vol/vol) dimethyl sulfoxide final concentration solution, and frozen using a Planer Kryosave controlled-rate freezer. Samples were stored in liquid nitrogen for 49 days, and sperm quality was re-evaluated after thaw (same methods). Sperm cryopreserved at -40 °C/min resulted in means for total motility (10.06%), progressive motility (7.14%), ATP concentration (0.86 pmol/10(6) cells), and sperm viability (56.5%) that were greater (P < 0.05) than those for slower cooling rates. Therefore, -40 °C/min was the optimal freezing rate (among those tested) for cryopreservation of striped bass sperm. PMID:23427940

  3. Emergence of the stripe-domain phase in patterned permalloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voltan, S.; Cirillo, C.; Snijders, H. J.; Lahabi, K.; García-Santiago, A.; Hernández, J. M.; Attanasio, C.; Aarts, J.

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of stripe domains in ferromagnetic permalloy (Py =Fe20Ni80) is a well-known phenomenon which has been extensively observed and characterized. This peculiar magnetic configuration appears only in films with a thickness above a critical value (dc r), which is strongly determined by the sputtering conditions (i.e., deposition rate, temperature, magnetic field). So far, dc r has usually been presented as the boundary between the homogeneous (H) and stripe-domain (SD) regime, respectively, below and above dc r. In this work we study the transition from the H to the SD regime in thin films and microstructured bridges of Py with different thicknesses. We find there is an intermediate regime, over a quite significant thickness range below dc r, which is signaled in confined structures by a quickly changing domain-wall configuration and by a broadening of the magnetoresistance dip at the coercive field. We call this the emerging stripe-domain (ESD) regime. The transition from the ESD to the SD regime is accompanied by a sharp increase of the magnetoresistance ratio at the thickness where stripes appear in MFM.

  4. Isolation of an Yr5 candidate gene for resistance to wheat stripe rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Yr5 gene from the Triticum spelta album wheat confers resistance to all races of the wheat stripe rust pathogen (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) identified so far in the US. To cloneYr5, a sequence tagged site (STS) marker developed from resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) markers co...

  5. A digital architecture for striping noise compensation in push-broom hyperspectral cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Wladimir E.; Figueroa, Miguel; Pezoa, Jorge E.; Meza, Pablo

    2015-09-01

    We present a striping noise compensation architecture for hyperspectral push-broom cameras, implemented on a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The circuit is fast, compact, low power, and is capable of eliminating the striping noise in-line during the image acquisition process. The architecture implements a multi dimensional neural network (MDNN) algorithm for striping noise compensation previously reported by our group. The algorithm relies on the assumption that the amount of light impinging at the neighboring photo-detectors is approximately the same in the spatial and spectral dimensions. Under this assumption, two striping noise parameters are estimated using spatial and spectral information from the raw data. We implemented the circuit on a Xilinx ZYNQ XC7Z2010 FPGA and tested it with images obtained from a NIR N17E push-broom camera, with a frame rate of 25fps and a band-pixel rate of 1.888 MHz. The setup consists of a loop of 320 samples of 320 spatial lines and 236 spectral bands between 900 and 1700 nanometers, in laboratory condition, captured with a rigid push-broom controller. The noise compensation core can run at more than 100 MHZ and consumes less than 30mW of dynamic power, using less than 10% of the logic resources available on the chip. It also uses one of two ARM processors available on the FPGA for data acquisition and communication purposes.

  6. Cross-reactivity of human and bovine antibodies in striped dolphin paraffin wax-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Jaber, J R; Fernández, A; Herráez, P; Espinosa de los Monteros, A; Ramírez, G A; García, P M; Fernández, T; Arbelo, M; Pérez, J

    2003-11-15

    This study evaluates the cross-reactivity of seven anti-human and one anti-bovine antibodies in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of liver and mesenteric lymph nodes of 13 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). Four antibodies (CD3, IgG, lysozyme and S100 protein) reacted with striped dolphin lymph nodes in a similar pattern to that observed in the species of origin. The anti-human MHC class II mAb reacted strongly with macrophages and dendritic-like cells of striped dolphins, whereas a small number of lymphocytes were labelled with this antibody. These antibodies were used to study the immunophenotype of the inflammatory infiltrated in non-specific chronic reactive hepatitis (eight cases) and chronic parasite cholangitis (two cases) and normal liver (three cases) of striped dolphins. Non-specific chronic reactive hepatitis was composed of inflammatory infiltration of CD3+ T lymphocytes and IgG+ plasma cells in portal spaces and hepatic sinusoids. Lymphonodular aggregates observed in chronic parasitic cholangitis showed a cellular distribution similar to that found in lymph node cortex, including the presence of S100+ and MHC class II+ dendritic-like cells in lymphoid follicles and interfollicular areas. This result suggests that those inflammatory infiltrates are highly organised to enhance antigen presentation to B and T cells.

  7. Spin-stripe phase in a frustrated zigzag spin-1/2 chain

    PubMed Central

    Pregelj, M.; Zorko, A.; Zaharko, O.; Nojiri, H.; Berger, H.; Chapon, L. C.; Arčon, D.

    2015-01-01

    Motifs of periodic modulations are encountered in a variety of natural systems, where at least two rival states are present. In strongly correlated electron systems, such behaviour has typically been associated with competition between short- and long-range interactions, for example, between exchange and dipole–dipole interactions in the case of ferromagnetic thin films. Here we show that spin-stripe textures may develop also in antiferromagnets, where long-range dipole–dipole magnetic interactions are absent. A comprehensive analysis of magnetic susceptibility, high-field magnetization, specific heat and neutron diffraction measurements unveils β-TeVO4 as a nearly perfect realization of a frustrated (zigzag) ferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain. Notably, a narrow spin-stripe phase develops at elevated magnetic fields due to weak frustrated short-range interchain exchange interactions, possibly assisted by the symmetry-allowed electric polarization. This concept provides an alternative route for the stripe formation in strongly correlated electron systems and may help understanding of other widespread, yet still elusive, stripe-related phenomena. PMID:26068618

  8. Postulation and mapping of seedling stripe rust resistance genes in Ethiopian bread wheat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. In Ethiopia, grain yield loss in wheat cultivars ranges from 30 to 69%. The use of resistant cultivars is the most economical and environmentally friendly method of controlling ...

  9. The Wide-Area X-ray Survey in the Legacy Stripe 82 Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMassa, S.; Urry, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Glikman, E.; Richards, G.; B"ohringer, H.

    2016-06-01

    We are carrying out a wide-area X-ray survey in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 field to uncover how luminous, obscured AGN evolve over cosmic time and the role they play in galaxy evolution. Stripe 82 is a legacy field with a high level of spectroscopic completeness and rich multi-wavelength coverage from the ultraviolet to far-infrared, including Spitzer and Herschel imaging. Our Stripe 82X survey currently reaches 31 deg^{2}, with ˜6200 X-ray point sources detected at ≥5σ level. I will review the characteristics of this survey, on-going programs to target obscured AGN candidates, and how we can use the lessons learned from the synergistic multi-wavelength coverage to develop strategic plans for future surveys and missions. Finally, I will comment on how extending the Stripe 82X survey area to 100 deg^{2} will provide unprecedented insight into the high-L (Lx > 10^{45} erg/s), high-z (z > 2) AGN population.

  10. Filaria taxideae in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) of Colorado, USA, and commonly associated filarial dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fox, Karen A; Martin, Laura E R; Baeten, Laurie A; Webb, Brett T; LeVan, Ivy K; Ballweber, Lora R; Wolfe, Lisa L

    2013-07-01

    During 2007-09, we necropsied striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from Colorado, USA. Eight of 51 (16%) had severe infections with the subcutaneous filarid nematode Filaria taxideae, and four of the infected skunks (50%) had dermatitis that was histologically associated with parasite ova in the skin. PMID:23778634

  11. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on growth of fingerling hybrid striped bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in production ponds is important because fish growth and yield are greater in ponds with higher DO concentrations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth and metabolic responses of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis; HSB) f...

  12. Effect of daily minimum pond dissolved oxygen concentration on hybrid striped bass fingerling yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in ponds at night during the growing season is important because fish growth and yield are greater in ponds with higher nightly DO concentrations. The purpose of this study was to quantify the production and water quality responses of hybrid striped ...

  13. Effects of fungicide application on control of stripe rust on winter wheat cultivars in 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effects of fungicide application on control of stripe rust on individual winter wheat cultivars with various levels of resistance grown in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, this study was conducted in a field near Pullman, WA. Fertilizer (100N-20K-25S) was applied at 80 lb/A at the time o...

  14. The effect of freezing rate on the quality of striped bass sperm.

    PubMed

    Frankel, T E; Theisen, D D; Guthrie, H D; Welch, G R; Woods, L C

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have been conducted in an attempt to determine the optimal freezing rate for cryopreservation of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) sperm. In this study, the effects of freezing rate (-10 °C, -15 °C, -20 °C, and -40 °C/min) on gamete quality was examined, using Sybr-14 and propidium iodide to determine viability (sperm cell membrane integrity), ATP concentration using a luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay, and a CEROS computer-assisted sperm analysis system to characterize striped bass sperm motion. Adult male striped bass (N = 12) were sampled once a week for 5 weeks. Collected samples were extended, cryoprotected using a 7.5% (vol/vol) dimethyl sulfoxide final concentration solution, and frozen using a Planer Kryosave controlled-rate freezer. Samples were stored in liquid nitrogen for 49 days, and sperm quality was re-evaluated after thaw (same methods). Sperm cryopreserved at -40 °C/min resulted in means for total motility (10.06%), progressive motility (7.14%), ATP concentration (0.86 pmol/10(6) cells), and sperm viability (56.5%) that were greater (P < 0.05) than those for slower cooling rates. Therefore, -40 °C/min was the optimal freezing rate (among those tested) for cryopreservation of striped bass sperm.

  15. Influences of water quality on distribution of striped bass in a Tennessee River impoundment

    SciTech Connect

    Cheek, T.E.; van den Avyle, M.J.; Coutant, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Telemetry techniques were used to evaluate relationships between water quality and distribution of adult striped bass Morone saxatilis during an 18-month period in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee. Distribution and movements of fish were influenced by water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration. During winter and early spring, temperature was vertically and horizontally uniform, and striped bass were relatively mobile and occurred in both tributary arms as well as in the main body of the reservoir. As the reservoir warmed in summer, fish were less mobile and progressively limited to areas in the tributary arms where temperature was less than 24 C and dissolved oxygen exceeded 4 mg/liter. Parts of the tributary arms of Watts Bar Reservoir provided such areas due to hypolimnetic discharges from upstream impoundments and groundwater inflows. Striped bass were restricted to these areas until late fall, when the entire reservoir cooled and again was nearly isothermal. Knowledge of relationships between striped bass habitat use and water quality is useful for fishery management and resource protection for reservoirs; an example is provided for Watts Bar Reservoir. 35 references, 3 figures.

  16. Use of diets formulated for summer water temperatures in pond production of hybrid striped bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated water temperatures are common in hybrid striped bass or Sunshine bass (HSB; Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) production ponds during summer months in the southern US. Median daily water temperatures often exceed 30 C from June through September. This experiment was conducted to extend and re...

  17. S-oxygenation of eptam in hepatic microsomes from fresh- and saltwater striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Cashman, J R; Olsen, L D; Young, G; Bern, H

    1989-01-01

    The in vitro liver microsomal oxidation of eptam (ethyl N,N-dipropylthiocarbamate) in the presence of freshwater and salt water adapted striped bass liver microsomes was investigated. In freshwater hepatic microsomes from striped bass, eptam is S-oxygenated in a process consistent with the involvement of monooxygenase activity. In contrast, both eptam S-oxide and eptam sulfone are formed in microsomes from salt water adapted striped bass microsomes in a process that is independent of monooxygenase activity and consistent with a role of cooxidation by hydroperoxy fatty acids. The mechanism of oxidation of eptam by hydroperoxy fatty acids may involve radical species. Both eptam S-oxide and eptam sulfone are efficient carbamylating agents toward thiol nucleophiles and react with substituted thiophenols to produce thiocarbamates while eptam itself is relatively stable to trans thiocarbamylation. Monooxygenase-catalyzed S-oxygenation of eptam in freshwater striped bass hepatic microsomes may represent a bioactivation route, which may explain the toxicity of thiocarbamate herbicides such as eptam toward freshwater fish.

  18. Nested polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of Mycobacterium shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii in striped bass.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, D T; Vogelbein, W K; Rhodes, M W; Reece, K S

    2008-12-01

    Wild striped bass Morone saxatilis in Chesapeake Bay are experiencing a high prevalence of mycobacteriosis, which produces granulomatous lesions of the skin and visceral organs. Culture-based studies have indicated that the newly described species Mycobacterium shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii are the dominant isolates from diseased fish. The classical fish pathogen M. marinum is also found, albeit at much lower frequencies. Both M. shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii are extremely slow-growing on standard selective media, and up to 12 months may be required for isolation and characterization. Epidemiological studies of mycobacteriosis in Chesapeake Bay would therefore benefit from rapid molecular assays with which to detect these species in fish. In this paper, we describe the development of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays capable of detecting M. shottsii, M. pseudoshottsii, and, in most instances, coinfections thereof in striped bass tissues. In addition, PCR-RFLP assays were designed to detect M. marinum and other as-yet-undescribed Mycobacterium spp. present in Chesapeake Bay striped bass. Comparison of these molecular assays with culture-based techniques using splenic tissue from wild striped bass yielded generally concordant results and demonstrated the applicability of these techniques to the study of wild fish.

  19. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) gonadotrophin-I and -II subunits.

    PubMed

    Hassin, S; Elizur, A; Zohar, Y

    1995-08-01

    Two types of cDNA, each encoding a different beta-subunit of striped bass (Morone saxatilis, Teleostei) gonadotrophins (GTH-I beta and GTH-II beta), as well as the glycoprotein alpha-subunit, were cloned by screening a striped bass pituitary cDNA library. The probes used for screening the library were cloned cDNA fragments, generated by PCR amplification of reverse-transcribed mRNA obtained from two pituitaries. The nucleotide sequences of the alpha-subunit, GTH-I beta and GTH-II beta are 626, 524 and 580 bases long, encoding peptides of 117, 120 and 147 amino acids respectively. Striped bass GTH-I beta and GTH-II beta share a sequence identity of 48% at the nucleic acid level, and 30% at the amino acid level. A cluster analysis of vertebrate pituitary glycoprotein beta-subunits suggests that teleost GTH-II beta is more closely related to tetrapod LH than to FSH. Administration of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue ([D-Ala6,Pro9Net]-LHRH) to juvenile striped resulted in ten-, two- and fivefold increases in the expression of the alpha-subunit, GTH-I beta and GTH-II beta respectively. These results suggest that each of the GTH subunits is differentially regulated, and further corroborate the functional duality of teleost gonadotrophins.

  20. Meat quality and protein functionality attributes of white striped broiler breast meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The white striping (WS) condition is known to influence the composition of broiler breast meat and to have a negative impact on consumer appeal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of WS on meat quality and protein functionality attributes in breast fillets (pectoralis major) ...

  1. Control of stripe rust of winter wheat with various foliar fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study was conducted in a field with Palouse silt loam under natural infection of stripe rust near Pullman, WA. Susceptible ‘PS 279’ winter wheat was seeded in rows spaced 14 in. apart at 60 lb/A (99% germination rate) with a drill planter on 30 Oct 12. Fungicides were applied in 16 gal water/A o...

  2. Control of stripe rust of spring wheat with various foliar fungicides, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study was conducted in a field with Palouse silt loam near Pullman, WA. Nitrogen fertilizer (46-0-0) was applied at 100 lb/A at the time of cultivation on 6 May 2014. Stripe rust susceptible ‘Lemhi’ spring wheat was seeded in rows spaced 14 in. apart at 80 lb/A (99% germination rate) with a dril...

  3. Control of stripe rust of spring wheat with various foliar fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study was conducted in a field with Palouse silt loam under natural infection of stripe rust near Pullman, WA. Susceptible ‘Avocet S’ spring wheat was seeded in rows spaced 14 in. apart at 80 lb/A (99% germination rate) with a drill planter on 18 Apr. Fungicides were applied in 16 gal water/A on...

  4. Hepatic transcriptomic and metabolic responses of hybrid striped bass to acute and chronic hypoxic insult

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis), white bass (Morone chrysops), and their hybrid are an important group of recreational and farmed species in the United States. Regardless of habitat, it is not uncommon for fish of the genus Morone to encounter and cope with conditions of scarce oxygen availability....

  5. Virulence diversity of international collections of the wheat stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virulence information in the wheat stripe rust (yellow rust, Yr) pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is important for controlling the disease with resistant cultivars. A total of 236 Pst isolates from Algeria, Australia, Canada, Chile, China, Hungary, Kenya, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia,...

  6. Automated removal of stripe interference in full-disk solar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Sheng; He, Shuan; Huang, Yao; He, Hui-Ling; Lin, Gang-Hua

    2016-06-01

    The quality of full-disk solar Hα images is significantly degraded by stripe interference. In this paper, to improve the analysis of morphological evolution, a robust solution for stripe interference removal in a partial full-disk solar Hα image is proposed. The full-disk solar image is decomposed into a set of support value images on different scales by convolving the image with a sequence of multiscale support value filters, which are calculated from the mapped least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVMs). To match the resolution of the support value images, a scale-adaptive LS-SVM regression model is used to remove stripe interference from the support value images. We have demonstrated the advantages of our method on solar Hα images taken in 2001–2002 at the Huairou Solar Observing Station. Our experimental results show that our method can remove the stripe interference well in solar Hα images and the restored image can be used in morphology researches.

  7. Use of non-natal estuaries by migratory striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in summer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mather, M. E.; Finn, John T.; Ferry, K.H.; Deegan, Linda A.; Nelson, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    For most migratory fish, little is known about the location and size of foraging areas or how long individuals remain in foraging areas, even though these attributes may affect their growth, survival, and impact on local prey. We tested whether striped bass (Morone saxatilis Walbaum), found in Massachusetts in summer, were migratory, how long they stayed in non-natal estuaries, whether observed spatial patterns differed from random model predictions, whether fish returned to the same area across multiple years, and whether fishing effort could explain recapture patterns. Anchor tags were attached to striped bass that were caught and released in Massachusetts in 1999 and 2000, and recaptured between 1999 and 2007. In fall, tagged striped bass were caught south of where they were released in summer, confirming that fish were coastal migrants. In the first summer, 77% and 100% of the recaptured fish in the Great Marsh and along the Massachusetts coast, respectively, were caught in the same place where they were released. About two thirds of all fish recaptured near where they were released were caught 2-7 years after tagging. Our study shows that smaller (400-500 mm total length) striped bass migrate hundreds of kilometers along the Atlantic Ocean coast, cease their mobile lifestyle in summer when they use a relatively localized area for foraging (<20 km2), and return to these same foraging areas in subsequent years.

  8. Genetic architecture of resistance to stripe rust in a global winter wheat germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virulence shifts in populations of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal pathogen of wheat stripe rust, are a major challenge to resistance breeding. The majority of known resistance genes are already ineffective against current races of Pst, necessitating the identification and intr...

  9. Comparison of sensory descriptive texture attributes of broiler breast fillets with different degree of white striping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The white striping condition in chicken meat, known as the presence of white striated tissue in the muscle of breast or thighs, is currently an emerging concern to the chicken processing industry. This condition, negatively affecting appearance in retail chicken and consumer buying decision, but no...

  10. Responses of hybrid striped bass to waterborne and dietary copper in freshwater and saltwater.

    PubMed

    Bielmyer, Gretchen K; Gatlin, Delbert; Isely, J Jeffrey; Tomasso, Joseph; Klaine, Stephen J

    2005-01-01

    Mechanisms of copper toxicity and consequences of exposure vary due to uptake route and ionoregulatory status. The goal of this research was to develop a model fish system to assess the influence of different Cu exposure routes (waterborne or dietary) on bioavailability, uptake, and effects in hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x Morone saxatilis) acclimated to fresh- or saltwater. Initially, hybrid striped bass were exposed to dietary Cu concentrations of 571, 785, and 1013 mug Cu/g, along with a control (approximately 5 microg Cu/g), for 14 days in saltwater. Intestinal and liver Cu accumulated in a dose-dependent manner in fish exposed to increasing levels of dietary Cu. Chronic (42 days) experiments were then conducted to determine sub-lethal effects of aqueous, dietary, and combined aqueous and dietary Cu exposures to both freshwater- and saltwater-acclimated hybrid striped bass. Growth and Cu accumulation in the gill, intestine, and liver were measured. Although no significant effects were observed in fish exposed to waterborne Cu, those exposed through the diet accumulated significant liver and intestinal Cu but showed no significant change in growth. Overall, these results suggest that at the levels tested, exposure to elevated waterborne Cu did not cause significant long-term tissue Cu accumulation, whereas dietary Cu exposure caused significant liver and intestinal Cu accumulation in hybrid striped bass which was comparable in both freshwater and saltwater (15 g/L).

  11. Responses of hybrid striped bass to waterborne and dietary copper in freshwater and saltwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bielmyer, G.K.; Gatlin, D.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.; Klaine, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Mechanisms of copper toxicity and consequences of exposure vary due to uptake route and ionoregulatory status. The goal of this research was to develop a model fish system to assess the influence of different Cu exposure routes (waterborne or dietary) on bioavailability, uptake, and effects in hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops??Morone saxatilis) acclimated to fresh- or saltwater. Initially, hybrid striped bass were exposed to dietary Cu concentrations of 571, 785, and 1013 ??g Cu/g, along with a control (??? 5 ??g Cu/g), for 14 days in saltwater. Intestinal and liver Cu accumulated in a dose-dependent manner in fish exposed to increasing levels of dietary Cu. Chronic (42 days) experiments were then conducted to determine sub-lethal effects of aqueous, dietary, and combined aqueous and dietary Cu exposures to both freshwater- and saltwater-acclimated hybrid striped bass. Growth and Cu accumulation in the gill, intestine, and liver were measured. Although no significant effects were observed in fish exposed to waterborne Cu, those exposed through the diet accumulated significant liver and intestinal Cu but showed no significant change in growth. Overall, these results suggest that at the levels tested, exposure to elevated waterborne Cu did not cause significant long-term tissue Cu accumulation, whereas dietary Cu exposure caused significant liver and intestinal Cu accumulation in hybrid striped bass which was comparable in both freshwater and saltwater (15 g/L). ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiple dermal lipomas in farmed striped seabream Lithognathus mormyrus on the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Serafín

    2009-05-27

    Two cases of multiple dermal lipomas were found in cultured striped seabream Lithognathus mormyrus (L.) from the southeast coast of Spain. A histopathological study suggests that pigmented cells may correspond to melanomacrophage aggregates. The presence of these aggregations is likely related to the occurrence of a pathological process of tumoral nature.

  13. Impact of white striping on functionality attributes of broiler breast meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of white striping (WS) on the water-holding capacity (WHC) and protein functionality attributes of broiler breast meat was investigated. Boneless breast fillets (Pectoralis major) were collected from the deboning line of a commercial processing plant and categorized by WS score (norma...

  14. Melting of stripe phases and its signature in the single-particle spectral function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raczkowski, Marcin; Assaad, Fakher F.

    2010-12-01

    Motivated by the recent experimental data [J. Fink, E. Schierle, E. Weschke, J. Geck, D. Hawthorn, V. Soltwisch, H. Wadati, H.-H. Wu, H. A. Dürr, N. Wizent, B. Büchner, and G. A. Sawatzky, Phys. Rev. B 79, 100502 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevB.79.100502] indicating the existence of a pure stripe charge order over unprecedently wide temperature range in La1.8-xEu0.2SrxCuO4 , we investigate the temperature-induced melting of the metallic stripe phase. In spite of taking into account local dynamic correlations within a real-space dynamical mean-field theory of the Hubbard model, we observe a mean-field-like melting of the stripe order irrespective of the choice of the next-nearest-neighbor hopping. The temperature dependence of the single-particle spectral function shows the stripe induced formation of a flat band around the antinodal points accompanied by the opening a gap in the nodal direction.

  15. Mapping stripe rust resistance genes in a Brundage x Coda winter wheat recombinant inbred line population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population developed from a cross between winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Coda and Brundage was evaluated for reaction to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici). Two hundred and sixty eight RIL from the population were evalua...

  16. Control of stripe rust of winter wheat with various foliar fungicides, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study was conducted in a field with Palouse silt loam soil near Pullman, WA. Stripe rust susceptible ‘PS 279’ winter wheat was seeded in rows spaced 14-in. apart at 60 lb/A (99% germination rate) with a drill planter on 16 Oct 2014. Nitrogen fertilizer (46-0-0) was applied at the rate of 100 lb/...

  17. Striped pattern selection by advective reaction-diffusion systems: resilience of banded vegetation on slopes.

    PubMed

    Siero, E; Doelman, A; Eppinga, M B; Rademacher, J D M; Rietkerk, M; Siteur, K

    2015-03-01

    For water-limited arid ecosystems, where water distribution and infiltration play a vital role, various models have been set up to explain vegetation patterning. On sloped terrains, vegetation aligned in bands has been observed ubiquitously. In this paper, we consider the appearance, stability, and bifurcations of 2D striped or banded patterns in an arid ecosystem model. We numerically show that the resilience of the vegetation bands is larger on steeper slopes by computing the stability regions (Busse balloons) of striped patterns with respect to 1D and transverse 2D perturbations. This is corroborated by numerical simulations with a slowly decreasing water input parameter. Here, long wavelength striped patterns are unstable against transverse perturbations, which we also rigorously prove on flat ground through an Evans function approach. In addition, we prove a "Squire theorem" for a class of two-component reaction-advection-diffusion systems that includes our model, showing that the onset of pattern formation in 2D is due to 1D instabilities in the direction of advection, which naturally leads to striped patterns. PMID:25833449

  18. Striped pattern selection by advective reaction-diffusion systems: resilience of banded vegetation on slopes.

    PubMed

    Siero, E; Doelman, A; Eppinga, M B; Rademacher, J D M; Rietkerk, M; Siteur, K

    2015-03-01

    For water-limited arid ecosystems, where water distribution and infiltration play a vital role, various models have been set up to explain vegetation patterning. On sloped terrains, vegetation aligned in bands has been observed ubiquitously. In this paper, we consider the appearance, stability, and bifurcations of 2D striped or banded patterns in an arid ecosystem model. We numerically show that the resilience of the vegetation bands is larger on steeper slopes by computing the stability regions (Busse balloons) of striped patterns with respect to 1D and transverse 2D perturbations. This is corroborated by numerical simulations with a slowly decreasing water input parameter. Here, long wavelength striped patterns are unstable against transverse perturbations, which we also rigorously prove on flat ground through an Evans function approach. In addition, we prove a "Squire theorem" for a class of two-component reaction-advection-diffusion systems that includes our model, showing that the onset of pattern formation in 2D is due to 1D instabilities in the direction of advection, which naturally leads to striped patterns.

  19. Family Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... not mean that everyone gets along all the time. Conflicts are a part of family life. Many things can lead to conflict, such as illness, disability, addiction, job loss, school problems, and marital issues. Listening to ...

  20. Evaluation of Pakistan wheat germplasms for stripe rust resistance using molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Sobia, Tabassum; Muhammad, Ashraf; Chen, XianMing

    2010-09-01

    Wheat production in Pakistan is seriously constrained due to rust diseases and stripe rust (yellow) caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, which could limit yields. Thus development and cultivation of genetically diverse and resistant varieties is the most sustainable solution to overcome these diseases. The first objective of the present study was to evaluate 100 Pakistan wheat cultivars that have been grown over the past 60 years. These cultivars were inoculated at the seedling stage with two virulent stripe rust isolates from the United States and two from Pakistan. None of the wheat cultivars were resistant to all tested stripe rust isolates, and 16% of cultivars were susceptible to the four isolates at the seedling stage. The data indicated that none of the Pakistan wheat cultivars contained either Yr5 or Yr15 genes that were considered to be effective against most P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates from around the world. Several Pakistan wheat cultivars may have gene Yr10, which is effective against isolate PST-127 but ineffective against PST-116. It is also possible that these cultivars may have other previously unidentified genes or gene combinations. The second objective was to evaluate the 100 Pakistan wheat cultivars for stripe rust resistance during natural epidemics in Pakistan and Washington State, USA. It was found that a higher frequency of resistance was present under field conditions compared with greenhouse conditions. Thirty genotypes (30% of germplasms) were found to have a potentially high temperature adult plant (HTAP) resistance. The third objective was to determine the genetic diversity in Pakistan wheat germplasms using molecular markers. This study was based on DNA fingerprinting using resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) marker analysis. The highest polymorphism detected with RGAP primer pairs was 40%, 50% and 57% with a mean polymorphism of 36%. A total of 22 RGAP markers were obtained in this study. RGAP, simple

  1. The genetic characterisation of stripe rust resistance in the German wheat cultivar Alcedo.

    PubMed

    Jagger, L J; Newell, C; Berry, S T; MacCormack, R; Boyd, L A

    2011-03-01

    Stripe rust resistance in the German winter wheat cv. Alcedo has been described as durable, the resistance having remained effective when grown extensively in Germany and Eastern Europe between 1975 and 1989. Genetic characterisation of field resistance in a cross between Alcedo and the stripe rust susceptible UK winter wheat cv. Brigadier identified two major QTL in Alcedo located on the long arms of chromosomes 2D (QPst.jic-2D) and 4B (QPst.jic-4B). Stripe rust resistance was evaluated by measuring the extent of fungal growth, percentage infection (Pi) and the necrotic/chlorotic response of the plant to infection, infection type (IT). Both QPst.jic-2D and QPst.jic-4B contributed significantly to the reduction in stripe rust infection (Pi), with QPst.jic-2D explaining up to 36.20% and QPst.jic-4B 28.90% of the phenotypic variation measured for Pi. Both QTL were identified by the IT phenotypic scores, with QPst.jic-2D in particular being associated with a strong necrotic phenotype (low IT), QPst.jic-2D explaining up to 53.10% of IT phenotypic variation and QPst.jic-4B 22.30%. In addition, two small effect QTL for field stripe rust resistance were identified in Brigadier, QPst.jic-1B on the long arm of chromosome 1B and QPst.jic-5A on the short arm of chromosome 5A. The influence of QPst.jic-1B was primarily seen with the Pi phenotype, contributing up to 13.10% of the explained phenotypic variation. QPst.jic-5A was only detected using an approximate multiple-QTL model and selecting markers linked to the major effect QTL, QPst.jic-2D and QPst.jic-4B as co-factors. Seedling stripe rust resistance was also mapped in the cross, which confirmed the location of Yr17 from Brigadier to the short arm of chromosome 2A. A seedling expressed QTL was also located in Alcedo that mapped to the same location as the field stripe rust resistance QPst.jic-2D.

  2. Bioaccumulation of PCB and the effects of supplemented diets in striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of PCBs (Aroclor 1254) from contaminated water (1.0 0.1 ppB) and Artemia (1.0 0.1 ppB) was studied using striped bass (Morone saxatilis) larvae. After 10 and 20 days exposure, striped bass were transferred to PCB-free environments for depuration examination. Results showed that striped bass can significantly accumulate PCBs in either 10- or 20-day exposures. When fed contaminated water and Artemia together to striped bass resulted higher PCB body burdens than when fed either contaminated water or Artemia. Among these treatments, 1.0 ppB water and 1.0 ppB treated Artemia caused the highest PCB residues, 323.62 ppB and 647.90 ppB, in 10- and 20-day exposures, respectively. A diet containing 0.1 ppB PCB contaminated Artemia accounted for 10--27% of the total body burden in this experiment. The percent body burden due to dietary contaminants increased when striped bass were fed 1.0 ppB contaminated Artemia. This suggests that a higher feeding dose could elevate the percent contribution of the total PCB uptake in aquatic food chains. The percent of PCBs remaining in striped bass when transferred to PCB-free environments is less in the 20-day depuration period than in 10-day period. In an effort to culture this valuable fish species, experiments were conducted by adding protease, attractants and protein hydrolysates to striped bass diet for the purpose of elevating growth and survival of this fish species through feeding trials. No significant difference was found for the growth and survival between protease supplemented diet and basal diet (19.0%). The combination of sucrose, glutamic acid and glycine for the 0.5% supplemented diet produced a final fish weight close to values obtained by feeding the basal diet. Live Artemia nauplii diet fed to the larvae gave the best performance in both growth and survival.

  3. Stripe rust resistance genes in the UK winter wheat cultivar Claire.

    PubMed

    Powell, N M; Lewis, C M; Berry, S T; Maccormack, R; Boyd, L A

    2013-06-01

    Stripe rust resistance in the winter wheat cultivar Claire had remained effective in the UK and Europe since its release in 1999 and consequently has been used extensively in wheat breeding programs. However, in 2012, reports indicated that this valuable resistance may now have been compromised. To characterise stripe rust resistance in Claire and determine which genes may still confer effective resistance a cross was made between Claire and the stripe rust susceptible cultivar Lemhi. A genetic linkage map, constructed using SSR, AFLP, DArT and NBS-AFLP markers had a total map length of 1,730 cM. To improve the definition of two quantitative trait loci (QTL) identified on the long arm of chromosome 2D further markers were developed from wheat EST. Stripe rust resistance was evaluated on adult plants under field and glasshouse conditions by measuring the extent of fungal growth and sporulation, percentage infection (Pi) and the necrotic/chlorotic responses of the plant to infection, infection type (IT). Four QTL contributing to stripe rust adult plant resistance (APR) were identified in Claire, QYr.niab-2D.1, QYr.niab-2D.2, QYr.niab-2B and QYr.niab-7B. For Pi QYr.niab-2D.1 explained up to 25.4 % of the phenotypic variation, QYr.niab-2D.2 up to 28.7 %, QYr.niab-2B up to 21.7 % and QYr.niab-7B up to 13.0 %. For IT the percentages of phenotypic variation explained were 23.4, 31.8, 17.2 and 12.6 %, respectively. In addition to the four QTL conferring APR in Claire, a race-specific, seedling expressed resistance gene was identified on chromosome 3B.

  4. Genetic Architecture of Resistance to Stripe Rust in a Global Winter Wheat Germplasm Collection.

    PubMed

    Bulli, Peter; Zhang, Junli; Chao, Shiaoman; Chen, Xianming; Pumphrey, Michael

    2016-08-09

    Virulence shifts in populations of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal pathogen of wheat stripe rust, are a major challenge to resistance breeding. The majority of known resistance genes are already ineffective against current races of Pst, necessitating the identification and introgression of new sources of resistance. Germplasm core collections that reflect the range of genetic and phenotypic diversity of crop species are ideal platforms for examining the genetic architecture of complex traits such as resistance to stripe rust. We report the results of genetic characterization and genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) for resistance to stripe rust in a core subset of 1175 accessions in the National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) winter wheat germplasm collection, based on genotyping with the wheat 9K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) iSelect assay and phenotyping of seedling and adult plants under natural disease epidemics in four environments. High correlations among the field data translated into high heritability values within and across locations. Population structure was evident when accessions were grouped by stripe rust reaction. GWAS identified 127 resistance loci that were effective across at least two environments, including 20 with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values. Based on relative map positions of previously reported genes and QTL, five of the QTL with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values in this study represent potentially new loci. This study provides an overview of the diversity of Pst resistance in the NSGC winter wheat germplasm core collection, which can be exploited for diversification of stripe rust resistance in breeding programs.

  5. Mapping stripe rust resistance in a BrundageXCoda winter wheat recombinant inbred line population.

    PubMed

    Case, Austin J; Naruoka, Yukiko; Chen, Xianming; Garland-Campbell, Kimberly A; Zemetra, Robert S; Carter, Arron H

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population developed from a cross between winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Coda and Brundage was evaluated for reaction to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici). Two hundred and sixty eight RIL from the population were evaluated in replicated field trials in a total of nine site-year locations in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Seedling reaction to stripe rust races PST-100, PST-114 and PST-127 was also examined. A linkage map consisting of 2,391 polymorphic DNA markers was developed covering all chromosomes of wheat with the exception of 1D. Two QTL on chromosome 1B were associated with adult plant and seedling reaction and were the most significant QTL detected. Together these QTL reduced adult plant infection type from a score of seven to a score of two reduced disease severity by an average of 25% and provided protection against race PST-100, PST-114 and PST-127 in the seedling stage. The location of these QTL and the race specificity provided by them suggest that observed effects at this locus are due to a complementation of the previously known but defeated resistances of the cultivar Tres combining with that of Madsen (the two parent cultivars of Coda). Two additional QTL on chromosome 3B and one on 5B were associated with adult plant reaction only, and a single QTL on chromosome 5D was associated with seedling reaction to PST-114. Coda has been resistant to stripe rust since its release in 2000, indicating that combining multiple resistance genes for stripe rust provides durable resistance, especially when all-stage resistance genes are combined in a fashion to maximize the number of races they protect against. Identified molecular markers will allow for an efficient transfer of these genes into other cultivars, thereby continuing to provide excellent resistance to stripe rust.

  6. Genetic Architecture of Resistance to Stripe Rust in a Global Winter Wheat Germplasm Collection.

    PubMed

    Bulli, Peter; Zhang, Junli; Chao, Shiaoman; Chen, Xianming; Pumphrey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Virulence shifts in populations of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal pathogen of wheat stripe rust, are a major challenge to resistance breeding. The majority of known resistance genes are already ineffective against current races of Pst, necessitating the identification and introgression of new sources of resistance. Germplasm core collections that reflect the range of genetic and phenotypic diversity of crop species are ideal platforms for examining the genetic architecture of complex traits such as resistance to stripe rust. We report the results of genetic characterization and genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) for resistance to stripe rust in a core subset of 1175 accessions in the National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) winter wheat germplasm collection, based on genotyping with the wheat 9K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) iSelect assay and phenotyping of seedling and adult plants under natural disease epidemics in four environments. High correlations among the field data translated into high heritability values within and across locations. Population structure was evident when accessions were grouped by stripe rust reaction. GWAS identified 127 resistance loci that were effective across at least two environments, including 20 with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values. Based on relative map positions of previously reported genes and QTL, five of the QTL with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values in this study represent potentially new loci. This study provides an overview of the diversity of Pst resistance in the NSGC winter wheat germplasm core collection, which can be exploited for diversification of stripe rust resistance in breeding programs. PMID:27226168

  7. Measurement error affects risk estimates for recruitment to the Hudson River stock of striped bass.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Dennis J; Ross, Quentin E; Munch, Stephan B; Ginzburg, Lev R

    2002-06-01

    We examined the consequences of ignoring the distinction between measurement error and natural variability in an assessment of risk to the Hudson River stock of striped bass posed by entrainment at the Bowline Point, Indian Point, and Roseton power plants. Risk was defined as the probability that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more, relative to the equilibrium value, at least once during the time periods examined (1, 5, 10, and 15 years). Measurement error, estimated using two abundance indices from independent beach seine surveys conducted on the Hudson River, accounted for 50% of the variability in one index and 56% of the variability in the other. If a measurement error of 50% was ignored and all of the variability in abundance was attributed to natural causes, the risk that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more after 15 years was 0.308 at the current level of entrainment mortality (11%). However, the risk decreased almost tenfold (0.032) if a measurement error of 50% was considered. The change in risk attributable to decreasing the entrainment mortality rate from 11 to 0% was very small (0.009) and similar in magnitude to the change in risk associated with an action proposed in Amendment #5 to the Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic striped bass (0.006)--an increase in the instantaneous fishing mortality rate from 0.33 to 0.4. The proposed increase in fishing mortality was not considered an adverse environmental impact, which suggests that potentially costly efforts to reduce entrainment mortality on the Hudson River stock of striped bass are not warranted.

  8. Diel behavior of adult striped bass using tailwater habitat as summer refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    General patterns of summer diel distribution and movement were identified for adult striped bass Morone saxatilis using tailwater habitat influenced by the diel operation cycle of a hydroelectric dam during the summers of 2003 and 2004. Striped bass distribution within the tailwater was similar during each diel-tracking event and across both summers. The majority of fish remained within the tailwater the entire summer; however, some made periodic excursions to and from the tailwater throughout the summer. Further, most striped bass were located within 0.5 km of Richard B. Russell Dam during all stages of operation on all occasions - probably because of the constant availability of optimal habitat during all three stages of operation on all diel-tracking events. The diel cycle of dam operation, which included pumped storage during each summer, did not degrade tailwater habitat below optimal conditions, according to summer habitat suitability index values for inland adult striped bass. Movement was significantly higher during hydroelectric generation operations than during no-generation and pumped storage periods in summer 2003; this difference was not apparent during summer 2004. Mean absolute movement peaked during hydroelectric generation on six of eight diel-tracking events. During both summers, movement was directed up-reservoir during no-generation and generation periods and down-reservoir during pumped storage. Mean total daily movement rates ranged from 0.59 to 4.04 km/d and were greater than those previously estimated from bimonthly sampling for this population. Total daily movement rate peaked during the first tracking event each summer and then declined as summer progressed. These findings suggest that hydroelectric discharges affect adult striped bass behavior, but the effects are not adverse as long as habitat is not degraded by hydroelectric facility operations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  9. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in young-of-the-year striped bass: A nine month time series

    SciTech Connect

    Brownawell, B.J.; Malloy, T.A.; LeBlanc, L.A.; Thomann, R.V.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to determine uptake of PCBs in rapidly growing young-of-the-year (YOY) striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Hudson River Estuary and to compare the data to predictions from both steady-state and time-dependent food-chain bioaccumulation modeling. Striped bass in the Hudson are spawned in freshwater, enter the upper estuary in early summer, and overwinter in the lower estuary. The authors have determined that their PCB exposure in water varies little over this time. Striped bass life history, prey composition, and bioenergetics have been determined in prior or ongoing projects. High and relatively uniform PCB water concentrations (10--28 ng/L) in the Hudson Estuary make it an excellent model ecosystem to study PCB bioaccumulation. YOY fish were collected at approximately one month intervals from the upper Hudson River Estuary on ten dates beginning on July 1, 1994 (average wet of 0.3 g) and ending on April 4, 1995 (wet weights of 100--150 g). Striped bass and zooplankton prey (determined by gut contents) were analyzed for PCBs and lipids. PCB concentrations generally increased over the first three months with a stronger time dependence for more highly chlorinated homologues. Lipid-based PCB concentrations decreased in the late fall, likely due to a seasonal increase in storage lipids, Consistent with steady-state food-chain model predictions, bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were highly correlated with K{sub ow} and lipid-based BAFs were above those estimated by lipid-based equilibrium with water. In the presentation they discuss the results of fully time-dependent BAF calculations and will show how the implications of steady-stale assumptions on bioaccumulation modeling become apparent when considering rapidly growing organisms like YOY striped bass.

  10. Numerical Studies of Pairing and Stripe Order In High Landau Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezayi, E. H.

    2000-03-01

    We study two dimensional electron systems confined to a single Landau Level with periodic boundary conditions. For Landau level index N>= 2 and near 1/2 filling (of the uppermost level) a striped phase is cleanly identified in agreement with Hartree-Fock theory(Koulakov, Fogler and Shklovskii PRL 76, 499 (1996) and Moessner and Chalker, PRB 54 5006 (1996).) and recent experiments. The energy spectrum shows a remarkable near degeneracy of the ground state characterized by a one-dimensional ordering wavevector q* of the stripes. Similarly, we obtain an essentially infinite response to a density modulation with wavevector q*. We calculate q* for N=2,3,4 by tuning the geometry and obtain very good agreement with the predictions of HF theory. The stripe phase persists to 2/5 (and 3/5) filling. At about ν=1/3 the stripe phase becomes unstable and a 2-d crystalline order begins to emerge. At 1/4 filling the crystal is fully developed and corresponds to the ``bubble" phase predicted by Koulakov et al. with 2 electrons per bubble. We have also studied the quantum Hall state occurring at 5/2 filling. We unambiguously identify the ground state to be related to the Moore-Read (MR) pairing state. More precisely, we obtain 97% overlap with the ground state (for 10 electrons) of the Coulomb potential for a thick layer (>0.2 l) provided that the MR state is made particle-hole symmetric. As the layer is thinned we find a first order transition to a compressible stripe phase. The nature of the both the quantum Hall and the compressible state are reconfirmed for more realistic potentials with or without tilted fields obtained by Jungwirth et al. for the sample used in Eisenstein's experiments. We also find tilted fields drive the transition to the compressible state as observed.

  11. Sustained eruptions on Enceladus explained by turbulent dissipation in tiger stripes.

    PubMed

    Kite, Edwin S; Rubin, Allan M

    2016-04-12

    Spacecraft observations suggest that the plumes of Saturn's moon Enceladus draw water from a subsurface ocean, but the sustainability of conduits linking ocean and surface is not understood. Observations show eruptions from "tiger stripe" fissures that are sustained (although tidally modulated) throughout each orbit, and since the 2005 discovery of the plumes. Peak plume flux lags peak tidal extension by ∼1 rad, suggestive of resonance. Here, we show that a model of the tiger stripes as tidally flexed slots that puncture the ice shell can simultaneously explain the persistence of the eruptions through the tidal cycle, the phase lag, and the total power output of the tiger stripe terrain, while suggesting that eruptions are maintained over geological timescales. The delay associated with flushing and refilling of O(1)-m-wide slots with ocean water causes erupted flux to lag tidal forcing and helps to buttress slots against closure, while tidally pumped in-slot flow leads to heating and mechanical disruption that staves off slot freezeout. Much narrower and much wider slots cannot be sustained. In the presence of long-lived slots, the 10(6)-y average power output of the tiger stripes is buffered by a feedback between ice melt-back and subsidence to O(10(10)) W, which is similar to observed power output, suggesting long-term stability. Turbulent dissipation makes testable predictions for the final flybys of Enceladus by Cassini Our model shows how open connections to an ocean can be reconciled with, and sustain, long-lived eruptions. Turbulent dissipation in long-lived slots helps maintain the ocean against freezing, maintains access by future Enceladus missions to ocean materials, and is plausibly the major energy source for tiger stripe activity.

  12. Sustained eruptions on Enceladus explained by turbulent dissipation in tiger stripes.

    PubMed

    Kite, Edwin S; Rubin, Allan M

    2016-04-12

    Spacecraft observations suggest that the plumes of Saturn's moon Enceladus draw water from a subsurface ocean, but the sustainability of conduits linking ocean and surface is not understood. Observations show eruptions from "tiger stripe" fissures that are sustained (although tidally modulated) throughout each orbit, and since the 2005 discovery of the plumes. Peak plume flux lags peak tidal extension by ∼1 rad, suggestive of resonance. Here, we show that a model of the tiger stripes as tidally flexed slots that puncture the ice shell can simultaneously explain the persistence of the eruptions through the tidal cycle, the phase lag, and the total power output of the tiger stripe terrain, while suggesting that eruptions are maintained over geological timescales. The delay associated with flushing and refilling of O(1)-m-wide slots with ocean water causes erupted flux to lag tidal forcing and helps to buttress slots against closure, while tidally pumped in-slot flow leads to heating and mechanical disruption that staves off slot freezeout. Much narrower and much wider slots cannot be sustained. In the presence of long-lived slots, the 10(6)-y average power output of the tiger stripes is buffered by a feedback between ice melt-back and subsidence to O(10(10)) W, which is similar to observed power output, suggesting long-term stability. Turbulent dissipation makes testable predictions for the final flybys of Enceladus by Cassini Our model shows how open connections to an ocean can be reconciled with, and sustain, long-lived eruptions. Turbulent dissipation in long-lived slots helps maintain the ocean against freezing, maintains access by future Enceladus missions to ocean materials, and is plausibly the major energy source for tiger stripe activity. PMID:27035954

  13. ACCELERATION OF PARTICLES AT THE TERMINATION SHOCK OF A RELATIVISTIC STRIPED WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Sironi, Lorenzo; Spitkovsky, Anatoly E-mail: anatoly@astro.princeton.edu

    2011-11-01

    The relativistic wind of obliquely rotating pulsars consists of toroidal stripes of opposite magnetic field polarity, separated by current sheets of hot plasma. By means of two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate particle acceleration and magnetic field dissipation at the termination shock of a relativistic striped wind. At the shock, the flow compresses and the alternating fields annihilate by driven magnetic reconnection. Irrespective of the stripe wavelength {lambda} or the wind magnetization {sigma} (in the regime {sigma} >> 1 of magnetically dominated flows), shock-driven reconnection transfers all the magnetic energy of alternating fields to the particles, whose average Lorentz factor increases by a factor of {sigma} with respect to the pre-shock value. The shape of the post-shock spectrum depends primarily on the ratio {lambda}/(r{sub L} {sigma}), where r{sub L} is the relativistic Larmor radius in the wind. The spectrum becomes broader as the value of {lambda}/(r{sub L} {sigma}) increases, passing from a relativistic Maxwellian to a flat power-law tail with slope around -1.5, populated by particles accelerated by the reconnection electric field. Close to the equatorial plane of the wind, where the stripes are symmetric, the highest energy particles resulting from magnetic reconnection can escape ahead of the shock, and be injected into a Fermi-like acceleration process. In the post-shock spectrum, they populate a power-law tail with slope around -2.5, which extends beyond the flat component produced by reconnection. Our study suggests that the spectral break between the radio and the optical band in Pulsar Wind Nebulae can be a natural consequence of particle acceleration at the termination shock of striped pulsar winds.

  14. Genetic Architecture of Resistance to Stripe Rust in a Global Winter Wheat Germplasm Collection

    PubMed Central

    Bulli, Peter; Zhang, Junli; Chao, Shiaoman; Chen, Xianming; Pumphrey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Virulence shifts in populations of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal pathogen of wheat stripe rust, are a major challenge to resistance breeding. The majority of known resistance genes are already ineffective against current races of Pst, necessitating the identification and introgression of new sources of resistance. Germplasm core collections that reflect the range of genetic and phenotypic diversity of crop species are ideal platforms for examining the genetic architecture of complex traits such as resistance to stripe rust. We report the results of genetic characterization and genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) for resistance to stripe rust in a core subset of 1175 accessions in the National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) winter wheat germplasm collection, based on genotyping with the wheat 9K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) iSelect assay and phenotyping of seedling and adult plants under natural disease epidemics in four environments. High correlations among the field data translated into high heritability values within and across locations. Population structure was evident when accessions were grouped by stripe rust reaction. GWAS identified 127 resistance loci that were effective across at least two environments, including 20 with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values. Based on relative map positions of previously reported genes and QTL, five of the QTL with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values in this study represent potentially new loci. This study provides an overview of the diversity of Pst resistance in the NSGC winter wheat germplasm core collection, which can be exploited for diversification of stripe rust resistance in breeding programs. PMID:27226168

  15. Stacked charge stripes in the quasi-2D trilayer nickelate La4Ni3O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junjie; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Phelan, D.; Zheng, Hong; Norman, M. R.; Mitchell, J. F.

    2016-08-01

    The quasi-2D nickelate La4Ni3O8 (La-438), consisting of trilayer networks of square planar Ni ions, is a member of the so-called T' family, which is derived from the Ruddlesden-Popper (R-P) parent compound La4Ni3O10-x by removing two oxygen atoms and rearranging the rock salt layers to fluorite-type layers. Although previous studies on polycrystalline samples have identified a 105-K phase transition with a pronounced electronic and magnetic response but weak lattice character, no consensus on the origin of this transition has been reached. Here, we show using synchrotron X-ray diffraction on high-pO2 floating zone-grown single crystals that this transition is associated with a real space ordering of charge into a quasi-2D charge stripe ground state. The charge stripe superlattice propagation vector, q = (2/3, 0, 1), corresponds with that found in the related 1/3-hole doped single-layer R-P nickelate, La5/3Sr1/3NiO4 (LSNO-1/3; Ni2.33+), with orientation at 45° to the Ni-O bonds. The charge stripes in La-438 are weakly correlated along c to form a staggered ABAB stacking that reduces the Coulomb repulsion among the stripes. Surprisingly, however, we find that the charge stripes within each trilayer of La-438 are stacked in phase from one layer to the next, at odds with any simple Coulomb repulsion argument.

  16. Modelling Kepone in the striped bass food chain of the James River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, John P.; Tonelli, Rosella

    1985-03-01

    A mathematical model that computes the accumulation of Kepone in the striped bass food chain of the James River estuary was developed. The purpose of the model was to help understand the relationship of Kepone levels in important fish species to sediment and water column Kepone concentrations and then to address the question of why these levels still exceed Food and Drug Administration limits eight years after discharge ceased. The model considers exposure through diet and respiration at rates based on species bioenergetics. It was successfully calibrated to the Kepone concentrations observed in the period 1976 through 1982 in striped bass, white perch, and Atlantic croaker. The model indicates that for the upper levels of the food chain, diet is the major route of contamination, accounting for 87-88% of the observed concentration in croaker and white perch and 91% of the observed concentration in striped bass. The two Kepone sources; sediment and water column, contribute approximately equally to the croaker and white perch. The water column is more significant for striped bass, being the original source for approximately 60% of the observed body burdens. It was estimated that a criterion requiring Kepone concentrations in fish to be at or below 0·3 μg g -1 would require dissolved water column and sediment Kepone concentrations to be reduced to somewhere between 3 and 9 ng l -1 and 13-39 ng g -1, respectively, depending on the species. Striped bass require the greatest reductions in dissolved water column and sediment Kepone concentrations to somewhere between 3 and 5 ng l -1 and 13 and 24 ng g -1, respectively.

  17. Temporal and spatial estimates of adult striped bass mortality from telemetry and transmitter return data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of total mortality, fishing mortality, and natural mortality in the fishery for the adult striped bass Morone saxatilis in J. Strom Thurmond Reservoir, South Carolina-Georgia, were determined from long-term radiotelemetry data and high-reward radio transmitter return data using catch curve analyses. Annual total mortality rates were 0.81 ?? 0.06 (mean ?? SE) for year 1 (July 1999-June 2000) and 0.42 ?? 0.04 for year 2 (July 2000-June 2001). We observed that the force of fishing was much greater than the force of natural death on total mortality in this fishery. Total exploitation of all implanted striped bass over the 2-year study period was 48%. Fishing mortality rates were 0.67 ?? 0.04 for year 1 and 0.33 ?? 0.02 for year 2, and natural mortality rates were 0.14 ?? 0.02 for year 1 and 0.09 ?? 0.02 for year 2. We also identified seasonal increases in total and fishing mortality rates from July to September. Fishing mortality was highest temporally and spatially during late spring and late summer near the tailrace below Richard B. Russell Dam owing to high angling pressure for striped bass while the fish were congregated in summer refugia. Natural mortality occurred only during mid to late summer in the middle section of the reservoir. These deaths were attributed to striped bass's becoming trapped in unsuitable summer habitat in the lower and middle sections of the reservoir. Mean postsurgery growth from 15 harvested study fish at large for a mean of 1.16 ?? 0.81 years was estimated to be 1.71 ?? 0.73 kg/year. Internal implantation of telemetry devices appeared to have no negative effect on long-term growth, health, and survival of adult striped bass and did not bias mortality and survival estimates.

  18. Identification of adult plant resistance to stripe rust in the wheat cultivar Cappelle-Desprez.

    PubMed

    Agenbag, G M; Pretorius, Z A; Boyd, L A; Bender, C M; Prins, R

    2012-06-01

    Following the appearance of stripe rust in South Africa in 1996, efforts have been made to identify new sources of durable resistance. The French cultivar Cappelle-Desprez has long been considered a source of durable, adult plant resistance (APR) to stripe rust. As Cappelle-Desprez contains the seedling resistance genes Yr3a and Yr4a, wheat lines were developed from which Yr3a and Yr4a had been removed, while selecting for Cappelle-Desprez derived APR effective against South African pathotypes of the stripe rust fungus, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Line Yr16DH70, adapted to South African wheat growing conditions, was selected and crossed to the stripe rust susceptible cultivar Palmiet to develop a segregating recombinant inbred line mapping population. A major effect QTL, QYr.ufs-2A was identified on the short arm of chromosome 2A derived from Cappelle-Desprez, along with three QTL of smaller effect, QYr.ufs-2D, QYr.ufs-5B and QYr.ufs-6D. QYr.ufs-2D was located within a region on the short arm of chromosome 2D believed to be the location of the stripe rust resistance gene Yr16. An additional minor effect QTL, QYr.ufs-4B, was identified in the cv. Palmiet. An examination of individual RILs carrying single or combinations of each QTL indicated significant resistance effects when QYr.ufs-2A was combined with the three minor QTL from Cappelle-Desprez, and between QYr.ufs-2D and QYr.ufs-5B.

  19. Finding rare AGN: X-ray number counts of Chandra sources in Stripe 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Urry, C. Megan; Glikman, Eilat; Cappelluti, Nico; Civano, Francesca; Comastri, Andrea; Treister, Ezequiel; Böhringer, Hans; Cardamone, Carie; Chon, Gayoung; Kephart, Miranda; Murray, Stephen S.; Richards, Gordon; Ross, Nicholas P.; Rozner, Joshua S.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2013-06-01

    We present the first results of a wide-area X-ray survey within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, a 300 deg2 region of the sky with a substantial investment in multiwavelength coverage. We analysed archival Chandra observations that cover 6.2 deg2 within Stripe 82 (`Stripe 82 ACX'), reaching 4.5σ flux limits of 1.2 × 10-15, 5.4 × 10-15 and 2.9 × 10-15 erg s-1 cm-2 in the soft (0.5-2 keV), hard (2-7 keV) and full (0.5-7 keV) bands, to find 480, 137 and 705 X-ray sources, respectively. 214 sources are detected only in the full band and 4 sources are detected solely in the soft band. Utilizing data products from the Chandra Source Catalog, we construct independent log N-log S relationships, detailing the number density of X-ray sources as a function of flux. The soft and full bands show general agreement with previous Chandra surveys; the hard band number counts agree among Stripe 82 ACX, XBoötes and XDEEP2, but all three are somewhat systematically lower than the counts derived from Chandra Multiwavelength Project. We compare the luminosity distribution of Stripe 82 ACX with the smaller, deeper Chandra Deep Field-South, Extended Chandra Deep Field-South and Chandra-COSMOS surveys to illustrate the benefit of wide-area surveys in locating high-luminosity and/or high-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGN). Finally, we compare the identified AGN with predictions from population synthesis models, noting that prior to any spectroscopic follow-up campaign, we have already located roughly half the high-luminosity quasars at high redshift expected to lie within the survey area. However, our data also suggest that refinements to population synthesis models will be required.

  20. Spatial Response of Epilithic Diatom Communities to Downstream Nutrient Increases.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Marilia; Oliveira, Maria Angelica; Lobo, Eduardo A

    2015-06-01

    To monitor water quality and investigate relationships between downstream nutrient increases and diatom communities in the Pardo River Basin, Brazil, water and diatom samples were collected between 2005 and 2009. There were significant differences in diatom community composition among all river zones, with the greatest differences found between the upper and lower reaches. Significant changes were detected in relative abundances of diatom species and spatial structuring was evident. Dissolved oxygen, phosphates, turbidity, Eicherichia coli, and total dissolved solids were the most important variables shaping diatom communities, characterizing an organic pollution and eutrophication gradient. However, the hypothesis of sensitive species prevailing upstream and their gradual downstream replacement for more tolerant species was not confirmed because shifts in relative abundances of the same group of species in both the upper and lower reaches of the rivers were identified. PMID:26459823