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  1. Positionsbestimmung des Unternehmens: Interne und externe Analyse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Lars; Crespo, Isabel; Portmann, Stefan

    Die Initiierung und Lenkung von Maßnahmen zur integrierten Modernisierung zielen auf die Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit eines Unternehmens ab. Damit diese Maßnahmen zielgerichtet die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit verbessern können, ist Wissen über die bestehende Wettbewerbsfähigkeit sowie über die bestehenden Fähigkeiten eine zentrale Voraussetzung. Eine zielgerichtete Auswahl problemadäquater Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit bedarf daher im Vorfeld einer Bewertung der aktuellen Situation des Unternehmens im Sinne einer Positionsbestimmung. Erst wenn die internen Stärken und Schwächen sowie die externen Chancen und Risiken identifiziert sind, kann ein ganzheitliches Bild von der Position eines Unternehmens in seiner Umwelt gewonnen werden. Auf Basis der Kenntnisse über die Position des Unternehmens können anschließend zielgerichtet Maßnahmen ausgewählt werden, die einen Beitrag zur Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit des Unternehmens haben. Damit kommt der Positionsbestimmung als initialer Schritt des Prozesses der strategischen Unternehmensplanung eine zentrale Bedeutung im Rahmen der integrierten Modernisierung zu. Erfolgt die Auswahl von Maßnahmen ohne eine vorherige Positionsbestimmung, also lediglich auf Basis drängender Probleme, so besteht die Gefahr einer unbedachten und nur auf das "hier und heute“ bezogenen Schwerpunktbildung ohne Berücksichtigung der mittel- und langfristigen Ziele des Unternehmens.

  2. Darwin, Engels und die Rolle der Arbeit in der biologischen und kulturellen Evolution des Menschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichholf, Josef H.

    Im Jahre 1876, 5 Jahre nach Erscheinen von Darwins Buch über die Evolution des Menschen und die sexuelle Selektion (Darwin 1871), veröffentlichte Friedrich Engels den berühmt gewordenen Essay "Anteil der Arbeit an der Menschwerdung des Affen“ (Engels 1876). Die Kernfrage darin lautet in Kurzform: Warum hat der Mensch eigentlich ein Bedürfnis nach Arbeit? Engels Antwort wird nachfolgend näher betrachtet und vom gegenwärtigen Kenntnisstand aus beurteilt. Wie sich zeigen wird, beantworten seine Überlegungen die Frage nicht wirklich. Sie ist weiterhin offen. Es können lediglich einige zusätzliche Anhaltspunkte zur Diskussion gestellt werden. Angesichts des drängenden Problems millionenfacher Arbeitslosigkeit und der Forderungen nach einem "Grundrecht auf Arbeit“ kommt den Überlegungen zum möglichen Ursprung des Bedürfnisses nach Arbeit mehr als nur akademisches Interesse zu.

  3. Modellierung und Simulation des Substrat-Rauschens in integrierten RF CMOS-Schaltungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, L.; Xiong, J.; Mathis, W.

    2009-05-01

    Im integrierten CMOS-Schaltungsentwurf kann das Substrat-Rauschen, das vom digitalen Teil entsteht, die Funktionalität des analogen Teils stark beeinflussen. Es wird daher immer wichtiger, das Substrat als ein Medium der Rauschen-Propagation genau zu modellieren. Im vorliegenden Artikel wird ein auf der Finite Elemente Methode (FEM) und Modellordnungsreduktion (MOR) basiertes Modellierungsverfahren zur Admittanzen-Extraktion im Halbleitersubstrat vorgestellt. Nach der Diskretisierung mit FEM wird das Substrat im Allgemeinen als ein resistives/kapazitives Netz angesehen. Durch Bestimmung der Admittanz-Matrix und MOR ist es möglich ein äquivalentes Dreipol-Modell zwischen digitalem und analogem Teil über das Substrat zu bilden. Das Ergebnis der Modellierung wird dargestellt und mit numerischer Simulation des Substrat-Rauschens verglichen. Die Modellierung ermöglicht es, die Einflüsse des Substrat-Rauschens im Schaltungsentwurf zu berücksichtigen und so bestehende CMOS-Schaltungsarchitekturen zu optimieren.

  4. Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Stroke About Stroke Stroke -- A Serious Event A stroke is serious, just ... lifestyle can help you prevent stroke. What Is Stroke? A stroke is sometimes called a "brain attack." ...

  5. Fische und Fischerzeugnisse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehlenschläger, Jörg

    Fische und Fischerzeugnisse lassen sich gemäß den "Leitsätzen für Fische, Krebs- und Weichtiere und Erzeugnisse daraus" des Deutschen Lebensmittelbuches einteilen. Tiefgefrorene Fische werden von den "Leitsätzen für tiefgefrorene Fische, Krebs- und Weichtiere und Erzeugnisse daraus" und Salate mit Fleisch von Fischen, Krebs- und/oder Weichtieren durch Abschnitt II.B. der "Leitsätze für Feinkostsalate" abgedeckt. Zu nennen sind: Frischfische, Getrocknete Fische, Räucherfische, Gesalzene Fische, Erzeugnisse aus gesalzenen Fischen, Anchosen, Marinaden, Bratfischwaren, Kochfischwaren, Fischerzeugnisse in Gelee, Pasteurisierte Fischerzeugnisse, Fischdauerkonserven, Erzeugnisse aus Surimi, Krebstiere und Krebstiererzeugnisse, Weichtiere und Weichtiererzeugnisse und tiefgekühlte Fischereierzeugnisse.

  6. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    Die Ausstattung der gastrointestinalen Mukosa des Menschen und der Ratte mit Sulfotransferasen wurde mit Hilfe von Immunodetektion und Enzymaktivitätsmessungen untersucht. In Proben aus Colon und Rektum von 39 Personen wurden die Formen h1A1, h1A3 und h1B1 identifiziert, wobei in einer weiteren Probe, die als einzige von einem an Colitis Ulcerosa erkrankten Patienten stammte, keine Sulfotransferasen nachgewiesen werden konnten. Bei der Immunblot-Analyse war das Expressionsmuster der einzelnen Formen in allen Proben ähnlich. In wenigen Proben waren die relativen Signalintensitäten der h1A1 und der h1B1 um die Hälfte erniedrigt. Der Gehalt von SULT an zytosolischem Protein zeigte einen bis zu 8 - 10fachen Unterschied, er betrug jedoch bei zwei Dritteln der Proben zwischen 0,15 und 0,3 (h1A1 und h1A3) bzw. 0,6 und 0,8 Promille (h1B1). Die Variation konnte nicht auf Alter, Geschlecht oder Krankheitsbild der Patienten zurückgeführt werden. Auch der für die allelischen Varianten der h1A1 beschriebene Effekt auf die Enzymaktiviät bzw. Stabilität konnte in der Menge an immunreaktivem Protein nicht in diesem Ausma detektiert werden. Die Allelhäufigkeit von h1A1*R und h1A1*H war gegenüber der gesunden Bevölkerung nicht verändert. In den sieben Proben aus dem Dünndarm (Coecum, viermal Ileum, Jejunum) konnten zusätzlich die Formen h1E1 und h2A1 identifiziert werden. Ein möglicherweise der Form h1C1 entsprechendes Protein wurde im Magen detektiert. Im Vergleich zum Menschen war die Expression in der Ratte stärker auf die Leber konzentriert. Während beim Menschen in allen untersuchten Abschnitten Sulfotransferasen in Mengen detektiert wurden, die in zwei Fällen (h1B1 und h1A3) sogar den Gehalt in der Leber überstiegen, beschränkte sich die Expression in der Ratte auf im Vergleich zur Leber geringe Mengen im Magen und Dickdarm. Nachgewiesen wurden die r1B1, r1A1 sowie eine nicht identifizierte Form von 35kD, bei der es sich vermutlich um die r1C2 handelt. Im

  7. Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency. Strokes happen when blood flow to your brain stops. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds ... blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. The other kind, called hemorrhagic stroke, is caused ...

  8. Getreide, Brot und Feine Backwaren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Grabowski, Hans-Uwe; Rolfe, Birgit

    Getreide und Getreideerzeugnisse sind ebenso wie Brot und Feine Backwaren nach dem Lebensmittel- und Futtermittel-Gesetzbuch (LFGB) [1] Lebensmittel im Sinne des Artikels 2 der VO (EG) Nr. 178/2002 (BasisVO) (s. auch Kap. 1.6/2.4.1/3.2). Gesetzlich festgelegte Begriffsbestimmungen gibt es für diese Lebensmittel nicht. Man muss sich daher allgemeiner Verkehrsauffassungen bedienen, wie sie von der Deutschen Lebensmittelbuch-Kommission in Form von Leitsätzen erarbeitet und veröffentlicht wurden [2]. Der Gesundheitsschutz und der Schutz des Verbrauchers vor Täuschung sind in der Basis-VO und dem LFGB geregelt.

  9. Peter Andreas Hansen und die astronomische Gemeinschaft - eine erste Auswertung des Hansen-Nachlasses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, O.; Strumpf, M.

    The literary assets of Peter Andreas Hansen are deposited in the Staatsarchiv Hamburg, the Forschungs- und Landesbibliothek Gotha and the Thüringer Staatsarchiv Gotha. They were never systematically investigated. The authors present here some results of a first evaluation. It was possible to reconstruct the historical events with regard to the maintenance of the Astronomische Nachrichten and the Altona observatory in 1854. Hansen was a successful teacher for many young astronomers. His way of stimulating the evolution of astronomy followed Zach's tradition.

  10. Enseignement des langues et theories d'acquisition Sprachunterricht unde Spracherwerbstheorien. (Language Teaching and Acquisition Theories).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Alexander, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This collection of articles on language teaching and language acquisition theories includes: "Enseignement des langues et theories de l'acquisition. Introduction au colloque" ("Language Teaching and Theories of Acquisition. Introduction to the Colloquium") (Rene Richterich); "Apprendre une langue dans l'interaction verbale" ("Language Learning in…

  11. Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is a Stroke? A stroke occurs if the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a portion of the brain ... pressure from the leaked blood damages brain cells. High blood pressure and ... A TIA occurs if blood flow to a portion of the brain is blocked ...

  12. Arzt und Hobby-Astronom in stürmischen Zeiten Der Büchernachlass des Doktor Johannes Häringshauser, Viertelsmedicus in Mistelbach (1630-1641) in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, Giles; Glaßner, Gottfried

    2009-06-01

    Auf der Suche nach astronomischer Literatur stieß Giles Davison in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek auf den Namen "Doctor Johannes Häringshauser“ als Besitzer seltener und interessanter astronomischer Werke u.a. von Johannes Regiomontan, Georg von Peuerbach, Michael Mästlin, Johannes Kepler und Daniel Sennert. Weitere in den Jahren 2007-2009 durchgeführte Nachforschungen ergaben, dass es sich um den von 1630-1641 in Mistelbach, Niederösterreich, als Landschaftsarzt tätigen Vater des Melker Konventualen und Bibliothekars Sigismund Häringshauser (1631-1698) handelt. Er wurde 1603 als Sohn des aus Magdeburg stammenden Apothekers Johannes Häringshauser geboren und starb 1642 in Mistelbach. Johannes Häringshauser Sen. bekleidete von 1613-1640 eine Reihe wichtiger Ämter in der Wiener Stadtregierung und starb 1647. Der Studienaufenthalt von Dr. Johannes Häringshauser Jun. in Padua (1624-1626) dürfte das Interesse für Astronomie geweckt haben, das sich in seiner in die Bestände der Melker Stiftsbibliothek eingegangenen Privatbibliothek widerspiegelt. Der Großteil der 10 dem Fachbereich der Astronomie und Astrologie zuzuweisenden Titel wurde von ihm in den Jahren 1636 und 1637 erworben.

  13. Edelgase als Tracer für Wechselwirkungen von Krusten- und Mantelfluiden mit diamantführenden Gesteinen des östlichen Baltischen Schildes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, Thomas

    2001-11-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden anhand der Edelgaszusammensetzung von Kimberliten und Lamproiten sowie ihrer gesteinsbildenden Minerale die Wechselwirkungen dieser Gesteine mit Fluiden diskutiert. Die untersuchten Proben stammen vom östlichen Baltischen Schild, vom Kola-Kraton (Poria Guba und Kandalaksha) und vom karelischen Kraton (Kostamuksha). Edelgasanalysen nach thermischer oder mechanischer Gasextraktion von 23 Gesamtgesteinsproben und 15 Mineralseparaten ergeben folgendes Bild: Helium- und Neon-Isotopendaten der Fluideinschlüsse von Lamproiten aus Kostamuksha lassen auf den Einfluss einer fluiden Phase krustaler Herkunft schliessen. Diese Wechselwirkungen fanden wahrscheinlich schon während des Magmenaufstiegs statt, denn spätere Einflüsse krustaler Fluide auf die Lamproite und ihr Nebengestein (Quarzit) sind gering, wie anhand der C/36Ar-Zusammensetzung gezeigt wird. Auch sind die mit verschiedenen Datierungsmethoden (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, K-Ar) an Mineralseparaten und teilweise an Gesamtgestein ermittelten Alter konsistent und machen eine metamorphe Überprägung unwahrscheinlich. Aufgrund der Verteilung der primordialen Edelgasisotope zwischen Fluideinschlüssen und Gesteinsmatrix ist ein langsamer Magmenaufstieg anzunehmen, was die Möglichkeit der Kontamination mit einem krustalen Fluid während des Magmenaufstiegs erhöht. Die Gasextraktion aus Mineralseparaten erfolgte thermisch, wodurch eine Freisetzung der Gase ausschließlich aus Fluideinschlüssen nicht möglich ist. Hierbei zeigen Amphibol und Klinopyroxen, separiert aus Kostamuksha-Lamproiten, in ihrer Neon-Isotopenzusammensetzung im Vergleich zur krustalen Zusammensetzung (Kennedy et al., 1990) ein leicht erhöhtes Verhältnis von 20Ne/22Ne, was ein Hinweis auf Mantel-Neon sein könnte. Kalifeldspäte, Quarz und Karbonate enthalten dagegen nur Neon krustaler Zusammensetzung. Phlogopite haben sehr kleine Verhältnisse von 20Ne/22Ne und 21Ne/22Ne, zurückzuführen auf in-situ-Produktion von 22Ne

  14. Die Tabellen von Ulugh Beg. Die Sternkataloge des Ptolemäus, Ulugh Beg und Tycho Brahe im Vergleich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwan, Heiner

    2002-09-01

    Im 15. Jahrhundert schuf Ulugh Beg, der Herrscher von Samarkand (1394 - 1449), ein wichtiges Tabellenwerk. Das Kernstück dieses Werks (Zij Ulugh Beg, "Tabellen Ulugh Begs") ist ein Katalog mit 1018 Sternen, ihren Helligkeiten und Positionen. In diesem Bericht werden die Zij Ulugh Beg mit den großen Katalogen von Ptolemäus und Tycho Brahe verglichen.

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Astronomie und Anschaulichkeit. Die Bilder der populaeren Astronomie des 19. Jahrhunderts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Utzt, S.

    2004-12-01

    Today, popularisation of science also means "pretty pictures": images that accompany articles in magazines and webpages, or are squeezed between the covers of so-called coffee-table books, and the reviewer pleads guilty to having added to this growing pile. But how did this "disease" came into existence? Susanne Utzt, a manager, journalist and student in the history of sciences, has dedicated her master thesis to the investigation of the growing influence of such pictures in the popularisation of astronomy. She has analyzed French and German popular texts by Arago, Guillemin, Flammarion, as well as Littrow, Maedler and Max Wilhelm Meyer that mainly appeared in the second half of the 19th century. Earlier astronomy books just had a few foldout pages with mathematical figures, as the author exemplifies by Littrow's first edition of "Die Wunder des Himmels" of 1834-36. But Flammarion with his "Astronomie Populaire", changed everything: 51 "art pages" and more than 300 figures in the text made it a true picture book, and about a third of Utzt's work is dedicated to its analysis. (In passing, it should be noted that the first 1880 edition of Flammarion's book did not yet contain the "art pages"; the author quotes such pages and text figures according to a German edition of 1907). Besides sober diagrams illustrating the solar system, and telescope drawings showing planetary surfaces and the structure of the solar photosphere, Flammarion includes poetic illustrations like a couple at the seashore at sunset; a scene showing dying Copernicus, already flanked by two angels, as he receives a copy of his De Revolutionibus; or a painting showing a flock of mammoths in an ancient landscape. In most cases, the images are chosen to illustrate the text, but sometimes the text "makes a detour" to permit the inclusion of a pretty picture. Flammarion's book contains drawings illustrating the sphericity of the earth, which appeared in almost identical form in Apian's Cosmography of

  16. Statistik in Naturwissenschaft und Technik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilrich, Peter-Theodor

    Mit dem Aufschwung von Naturwissenschaft und Technik zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts entstand die mathematische Statistik, angeregt aus der Geodäsie (wie die Methode der kleinsten Quadrate) und der Anthropologie (wie die statistische Analyse mehrdimensionaler Beobachtungen und ihrer stochastischen Abhängigkeiten). Im Gegensatz zu den Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, in denen Daten vorwiegend aus Beobachtungsstudien gewonnen werden, stehen in den Naturwissenschaften Experimente im Vordergrund. Daher gehört die statistische Versuchsplanung zu den insbesondere in Naturwissenschaft und Technik angewendeten statistischen Methoden, aber auch die Extremwertstatistik und Lebensdaueranalysen sowie die Methoden der räumlichen Statistik (insbesondere in der Umweltforschung). Im 20. Jahrhundert wurden Stichprobenpläne und Regelkarten (Kontrollkarten) zur Prozessregelung als Hilfsmittel der statistischen Qualitätssicherung entwickelt. Diese Methodenbündel, mit denen sich der Ausschuss Statistik in Naturwissenschaft und Technik immer wieder befasst, werden im Folgenden vorgestellt.

  17. Mittelwert- und Arbeitstaktsynchrone Simulation von Dieselmotoren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, Sebastian

    Getrieben durch die immer restriktiveren Anforderungen an das Emissions- und Verbrauchsverhalten moderner Verbrennungsmotoren steigt die Komplexität von Motormanagementsystemen mit jeder Modellgeneration an. Damit geht nicht nur eine Zunahme des Softwareumfangs von Steuergeräten sondern zugleich ein deutlicher Anstieg des Applikations-, Vermessungs- und Testaufwandes einher. Zur Effizienzsteigerung des Software- und Funktionsentwicklungsprozesses haben sich daher in der Automobilindustrie sowie in Forschungsinstituten verschiedene modell- und simulationsbasierte Methoden wie die Model-in-the-Loop (MiL) Simulation, die Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) Simulation, das Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) sowie die Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) Simulation etabliert.

  18. Neuausrichtung und Konsolidierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohmann, Heinz

    Mit der Wahl von Wolfgang Wetzel zum Vorsitzenden der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft im Jahre 1972 begann eine 32jährige Ära, in der die praktische und die theoretische Statistik in einem ausgewogenen Verhältnis gepflegt wurden. Ein regelmäßiger vierjähriger Wechsel im Vorsitz stärkte die Gemeinschaft und die praktische wie die wissenschaftliche Arbeit gleichermaßen. Die jährlichen Hauptversammlungen behandelten gesellschaftlich aktuelle wie zukunftsorientierte Themen, und die Ausschüsse sowie weitere Veranstaltungen gaben Gelegenheit zur Förderung und Pflege einer Vielzahl von Arbeitsgebieten der Statistik. Darüber wird nicht nur in diesem Kapitel, sondern auch in den Teilen II und III des Bandes berichtet.

  19. Messung und Analyse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathelt, Hartmut; Scheinhardt, Michael; Sell, Hendrik; Sottek, Roland; Guidati, Sandro; Helfer, Martin

    Für die Beurteilung von Akustik und Fahrkomfort eines Fahrzeugs gilt in der Fahrzeugentwicklung immer noch der alte Grundsatz: "Der Kunde fährt nicht am Prüfstand, sondern auf der Straße“. Daher werden Gesamtbeurteilungen des Entwicklungsstandes und Konkurrenzvergleiche (Benchmarking) nach wie vor auf der Straße durchgeführt, meist auf ausgewählten Fahrbahnen am Prüfgelände oder im Rahmen der regelmäßigen Winter- und Sommererprobungen unter extremen Witterungsverhältnissen.

  20. Falten und fliegen: Papierflieger und ihre Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Werner

    2004-09-01

    Mit Papierfliegern können wichtige Eigenschaften der Aerodynamik anschaulich vermittelt werden: ein Blatt Papier, ein paar Faltungen und schon kann man experimentieren. Allerdings sind beim Trimmen des Fliegers einige Punkte zu beachten. Besonders wichtig ist die Y-Stellung der Flügel, die ihm Flugstabilität verleiht. Ist der Flieger fertig, dann gilt es, die dem Modell am besten angepasste Wurftechnik herauszufinden. Dazu variiert man Wurfgeschwindigkeit und Abwurfwinkel. Den Boden kann ein Papierflieger auf vier prinzipiell verschiedenen Flugkurven erreichen: Optimal ist die Gerade, dann fliegt er am weitesten.

  1. Bewegungsapparat: Postcraniales Skelett und Muskulatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Martin S.

    Der Bewegungsapparat bestimmt die Form des Wirbeltierkörpers. So lässt sich z. B. aus der Gestalt eines Fisches auf seine bevorzugt e Schwimmweise schließen (S. 61). Bei den aquatisch en Schädeltieren dominiert die Fortbewegung mit axialem Antrieb; bei den meisten Tetrapoda findet sich eine Kombination aus axialem Antrieb und Bewegung durch Gliedmaßen. Selbst beim höchst spezialisierten Gang, der bipeden Bewegung des Menschen, sind Torsionsbewegungen des Rumpfes noch maßgeblich und bestimmen auch die Grundform des menschlichen Körpers (z. B. die Taille). Obwohl die verschiedenen Antriebsmechanismen eine funktionelle Einheit bilden, werden im Folgenden das Axialskelett sowie der Schulter- und Beckengürtel mit den zugehörigen Extremitäten getrennt besprochen.

  2. Ökophysik: Plaudereien über das Leben auf dem Land, im Wasser und in der Luft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachtigall, W.

    Prof. em. Dr. rer. nat. Werner Nachtigall, geb. 1934, war als Zoophysiologe und Biophysiker Leiter des Zoologischen Instituts der Universität des Saarlandes in Saarbrücken. In Forschung und Ausbildung hat er sich insbesondere mit Aspekten der Technischen Biologie und Bionik befasst und mit seinen Forschergruppen viele Basisdaten insbesondere zur Ökologie, Physiologie und Physik des Fliegens und Schwimmens aber auch zur Stabilität beispielsweise der Gräser erarbeitet. Lebewesen überraschen immer wieder durch ihre "Biodiversität", ihre hochspezifischen Ausgestaltungen und Anpassungen.

  3. Werk und Leben Walter Christallers . Auszüge aus der Festrede anläßlich der Verleihung des Walter-Christaller-Preises 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hottes, Ruth

    1997-03-01

    Unter der Betreuung und Federführung von Robert Gradmann promovierte am Erlanger Geographischen Institut 1932 Walter Christaller mit seiner Dissertation `Die Zentralen Orte in Süddeutschland'. Diese mit summa cum laude bewertete Monographie sollte die vielleicht berühmteste geographische Doktorarbeit unseres Jahrhunderts werden. Sie hat in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten einen beispiellosen Siegeszug angetreten. Heute gilt sie für Geographie, Raumwirtschaftslehre, Stadtforschung und Standorttheorie als eine bahnbrechende Grundkonzeption, und sie ist von größter Bedeutung für Raumordnungspolitik und Planungspraxis."

  4. Fehlertoleranzanalyse des FlexRay Startup-Prozesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bünte, Sven; Milbredt, Paul

    Die PlexfiRay-Prozeduren Wakeup und Startup sollen eine konsistent-synchrone Kommunikation bezüglich eines TDMA verwandten Verfuhrens herstellen. Beide Algorithmen werden in dieser Arbeit ubstrukt modelliert und mit Hilfe des Model Checkers SPIN bezüglich Terminierung analysiert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in bestimmten Fehlerszenarios die Verwendung von Central Bus Guardians, die Clusterkonfiguration und das Verhalten des Hosts darüber entscheiden, ob Fehlertoleranz und Laufzeitbeschränkungen garantiert werden können.

  5. Physik gestern und heute Das Eiskalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, P.

    2003-07-01

    Kalorimetrische Messungen gehören heute zum experimentellen Standardrepertoire im Bereich der Thermodynamik und der physikalischen Chemie. Das erste Gerät für derartige Messungen entwickelten Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts die französischen Wissenschaftler Antoine Laurent Lavoisier und Pierre Simon de Laplace.

  6. Restaurierung von Seen und Renaturierung von Seeufern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüneberg, Björn; Ostendorp, Wolfgang; Leßmann, Dieter; Wauer, Gerlinde; Nixdorf, Brigitte

    Süßwasserseen haben als ökosysteme und Lebensraum für Pflanzen und Tiere eine herausragende Bedeutung für die Artenvielfalt auf der Erde und prägen als Landschaftselemente unsere natürliche Umwelt. Seen fungieren als natürliche Stoffsenken, vor allem für Kohlenstoff und Nährstoffe, aber auch als Senken für in ihren Einzugsgebieten emittierte gelöste und feste Schadstoffe. Darüber hinaus ist Wasser eine wichtige Naturressource. Süßwasserseen stellen in den meisten Regionen der Erde lebenswichtige Quellen für die Versorgung mit Trinkwasser und tierischem Eiweiß (Fischfang) dar. Sie dienen als Wasserspeicher für die landwirtschaftliche und industrielle Nutzung. Auch für Erholungsaktivitäten des Menschen kommt ihnen eine große Bedeutung zu.

  7. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip (2nd Aufl.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Modell einer kausalen Bewirkung der Welt, und logische, geometrische, physikalische Interprätation dieser Kausalmenge und Fortwirkung der frühsten ihrer sukzessiv als echt Neues bewirkten und durch Vorhandenes oder Späteres nicht darstellbaren oder widerrufbaren Ereignisse als Dimensionen und sie verkörpernde primäre Naturkräfte, mit Korrespondenz zur beobachteten Welt und ihrer grundlegendsten Eigenschaften. Wirklich ist nur was wirkt, wo und wie. Entsprechend ist im Bogenelement statt der Eigenzeit die variante Anzahl Wirkungen relevant, 0 ≈ 1/h2 dS2 - 1/tpl2 (dt2 - 1/c2 {dq12 + G02/G2 [dq2,32 - ...]}) mit G0 = c4lpl/Epl ≈ G. Die heutigen Dimensionen und Naturkräfte entstanden in dieser Reihenfolge, haben 'komplementäre' aber gleichwertige statische und dynamische Aspekte, entsprechend ihren Termen in Bogenelement bzw. Vierervektor, aus derem Vergleich sowie mit denen ihrer Nachbarn folgen Grundgleichungen bzw. Erhaltungssätze. Jeweils individuelle Eigenschaften wie ihre Naturkonstante konkretisieren sie und tragen zu gattungsmäßigen wie globale Affinität und Äquivalenzen bei. Ältestes Gebiet oder räumlicher Rand jeder Dimension sind die ersten vom Vorgänger bewirkten Ereignisse, selbst raumzeitlicher Ursprung des Nachfolgers, dort einmalig und ewig maximal rotverschoben fortwirkend und nicht lokalisierbar, um neue Elementareinheiten verschieden und lichtartig mit deren Verhältnis oder dem ihrer globalen Zustandsgrößen als konstanten Anfangsimpuls, Expansion, Längen- oder Ereignisdichte zueinander. Der Übergang vom diskreten Modell weniger Informationen zum Kontinuum und die Korrespondenz zur Physik ist problemlos, Details wie ein kontinuierlicher, abrupter oder ganz fehlender Abfall der Metrik beim ältesten Gebiet sind aber nur durch Beobachtungen entscheidbar. Erörtert werden allgemeine und individuelle Eigenschaften und ihre Konsequenzen der Dimensionen mit ihren Kräften, selbst und im Verhältnis zueinander, etwa ihrer begrenzten

  8. Aufbau und Anpassung der Motorsteuerungs-Software für Otto- und Dieselmotoren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuhler, Harald; Ricken, Volker; Diener, René

    Die Erfüllung steigender Kundenansprüche und strenger gesetzlicher Vorgaben hinsichtlich der Verringerung des Kraftstoffverbrauchs, der Reduzierung von Schadstoffemissionen, der Erhöhung von Fahrsicherheit, Fahrleistung und Fahrkomfort ist untrennbar mit dem Einzug elektronischer Systeme in moderne Kraftfahrzeuge verbunden. Die elektronischen Systeme bestimmen zunehmend den Kundennutzen und werden für die Differenzierung der Automobilhersteller untereinander immer wichtiger. Daher sind sie ein wesentlicher Erfolgsfaktor moderner Kraftfahrzeuge.

  9. Topika und deren Einsatz in der Dermatologie.

    PubMed

    Wohlrab, Johannes

    2016-11-01

    Grundkenntnisse zur Zusammensetzung und den regulatorischen Hintergründen von Topika gehören zu den alltäglich benötigten Herausforderungen dermatologisch-ärztlichen Handelns. Ein professioneller und indikationsgerechter Umgang bei der Auswahl, Verordnung und Anwendung topischer Präparate ist somit Voraussetzung für eine verantwortungsvolle fachärztliche Tätigkeit. Dabei bereiten die regulatorische Zuordnung (Arzneimittel, Medizinprodukt, Kosmetikum), die Feststellung der Erstattungsfähigkeit durch die GKV und die unzureichende Kennzeichnung des Vehikelsystems einzelner Präparate nicht selten Probleme. Bestreben sollte es sein, neben der Wahl des geeigneten Wirkstoffs und der geeigneten Konzentration ein an die Indikation der Therapie angepasstes galenisches System auszuwählen, um dessen Eigenwirkung für den therapeutischen Effekt nutzen zu können. Bei der Verschreibung von Rezepturarzneimitteln sollte nach Möglichkeit immer auf eine standardisierte Rezeptur (Magistralrezeptur) zurückgegriffen werden. Durch die Vielzahl der möglichen Inhaltsstoffe und der sich daraus ergebenden Komplexität eines galenischen Systems ist eine willkürliche Manipulation durch qualitative oder quantitative Veränderungen einzelner Komponenten mit hohen Risiken für eine Instabilität und damit für Sicherheit und Sinnhaftigkeit verbunden. Eine optimierte Anwendung von Topika setzt zudem Grundlagenkenntnisse zur Pharmakokinetik und zur evidenzbasierten Therapieplanung voraus.

  10. Entwicklung und Formulierung der Unternehmensstrategie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, Isabel; Bergmann, Lars; Lacker, Thomas

    Ursprünglich stammt der Begriff "Strategie“ aus dem Altgriechischen: "strategos“ bedeutete "Heer“, "Heeresmacht“ und damit auch "konzentrierte Kraft“; das Wort "agein“ bedeutete "tun, machen, treiben“. Ein Stratege war also eine Person, die ein Heer führte und damit Kraft, Macht und Stärke konzentrierte und einsetzen konnte. Strategie bezeichnete dementsprechend die Maßnahmen, die in dieser Funktion entwickelt wurden. Daher ist es leicht verständlich, dass der Begriff Strategie bis in die Mitte des letzten Jahrhunderts in erster Linie militärisch verstanden wurde. Anschließend wurde der Begriff in weiteren Bereichen, wie beispielsweise der Unternehmensführung, verwendet. Im betriebswirtschaftlichen Sinne bedeutet der Begriff Strategie die langfristig geplante Verhaltensweise eines Unternehmens zur Erreichung seiner Ziele.

  11. Organe der Osmoregulation und Exkretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møbjerg, Nadja

    Die meisten Schädeltiere sind in der Lage, die Wasser- und Ionenkonzentration ihres Innenmilieus zu regulieren, sind also im Hinblick auf ihren Ionenhaushalt weitgehend unabhängig von der Umgebung. Sie halten die Konzentration von Wasser und anorganischen Ionen in ihren Körperflüssigkeiten (interstitielle Flüssigkeit und Blut) innerhalb enger Grenzen konstant (Osmoregulierer). Schleim aale (Myxinoida) können zwar die Konzentration einzelner anorganischer Ionen regulieren, sind aber insgesamt der hohen Osmolarität des Meerwassers angepasst, also isoosmostisch zu diesem. Isoosmotisch oder leic ht hyperosmostisch zur Umgebung sind auch marine Neoselachier und Latimeria chalumnae (Actinistia), die dazu organische Osmolyte (Harnstoff und Trimethylaminoxid) im Blut akkumulieren (Osmokonformer). Bei anderen aquatischen Schädeltieren sind die Körperflüssigkeiten zur Umgebung hypoosmotisch (im Meerwasser) — sie halten Wasser zurück und scheiden anorganiche Ionen aus — oder hyperosmotisch (im Süßwasser), indem sie Wasser abgeben und anorganische Ionen aufnehmen.

  12. Die Gasultrazentrifuge als mediale Projektion des Kalten Krieges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmbold, Bernd

    Studien der letzten Dekaden nach der Wiedervereinigung von BRD und DDR erweitern die Perspektive der Wissenschaftsgeschichte vom Fokus des Big Science und der technisch-militärisch-industriellen Auseinandersetzung zwischen den zwei Blöcken zu einer globalen Transformation im Konflikt der Supermächte geprägt durch lokale und auch interne Ausformungen.

  13. Pediatric Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis Stroke ... communicate with your child’s doctor. Symptoms of a Stroke Stroke is an injury to part of the ...

  14. Fragwuerdige Luxussteuern: Statusstreben und Demonstratives Konsumverhalten in der Geschichte Oekonomischen Denkens (Questionable Luxury Taxes: Status Seeking and Conspicuous Consumption in the History of Economic Thought)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    England immer mehr, und der Markt ffir Luxusgiiter und Mode begann zu florieren. Die Kommerzialisierung des Handels im England des 18. Jahrhunderts...der insbesondere Hirsch (1976) in seinen Social Limits to Growth wieder Nachdruck verleihen sollte. Siehe hierzu Abschnitt 2.9. 5 auf seinen...klassischen Schule ibertriebenes statusbedingtes Konsumverhalten als social waste an und pladiert fdr eine Lenkung statusbedingten Konsumverhaltens in

  15. Physik gestern und heute Von der Metallstange zum Hochenergielaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2002-05-01

    Im Mai 1752 wurde in Marly bei Paris auf Anregung des amerikanischen Forschers und Politikers Benjamin Franklin erstmals die elektrische Natur des Blitzes nachgewiesen. Damals beschrieb Franklin auch eine technische Vorrichtung, die als Schutz von Gebäuden vor Blitzschlägen dienen sollte: den Blitzableiter. Diese aus heutiger Sicht scheinbar triviale Vorrichtung wurde aber keineswegs unmittelbar akzeptiert. Und bis heute ist die Forschung zum Schutz von Einrichtungen vor Blitzschlägen nicht abgeschlossen.

  16. Newtons Universum. Materialien zur Geschichte des Kraftbegriffes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mit einem Vorwort von E. Seibold und einer Einführung von W. Neuser. This book is a selection of 15 articles published in the journal "Spektrum der Wissenschaft". The original English versions of the papers were first published in "Scientific American". Contents: 1. Impetustheorie und Intuition in der Physik (M. McCloskey). 2. Mittelalterliche Ursprünge der industriellen Revolution (T. S. Reynolds). 3. Leonardo da Vincis Beiträge zur theoretischen Mechanik (V. Foley, W. Soedel). 4. Nikolaus Kopernikus und Tycho Brahe (O. Gingerich). 5. Keplers Entdeckung der ersten beiden Planetengesetze (C. Wilson). 6. Galileis Entdeckung des Fallgesetzes (S. Drake). 7. Galileis Beobachtung des Neptun (S. Drake, C. T. Kowal). 8. Galileo Galilei und der Schatten des Giordano Bruno (L. S. Lerner, E. A. Gosselin). 9. Der Fall Galilei (O. Gingerich). 10. Newtons Apfel und Galileis "Dialog" (S. Drake). 11. Newtons Gravitationsgesetz - aus Formeln wird eine Idee (I. B. Cohen). 12. Christopher Wren: Astronom und Architekt (H. Dorn, R. Mark). 13. Atomismus und Kräfte in der Geschichte (L. Holliday). 14. Ein Elitezirkel vor 200 Jahren: Die Lunar Society von Birmingham (L. Ritchie-Calder). 15. Sadi Carnot: Technik und Theorie der Dampfmaschine (S. S. Wilson).

  17. Ökologische Grundlagen und limitierende Faktoren der Renaturierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölzel, N.; Rebele, F.; Rosenthal, G.; Eichberg, C.

    In den dicht besiedelten und agrarisch besonders intensiv genutzten Regionen Mittel- und Westeuropas ist seit Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges ein fortschreitender Verlust an naturnahen ökosystemen mit hoher biologischer Vielfalt zu verzeichnen. Spätestens seit den 1970er-Jahren ist daher die Neuschaffung und Wiederherstellung gefährdeter Lebensräume und Biozönosen zunehmend in den Mittelpunkt von Naturschutzmaßnahmen gerückt (Bakker 1989, Muller et al. 1998, Bakker und Berendse 1999). Aufgrund fehlender wissenschaftlicher Grundlagen und praktischer Erfahrungen wurden Renaturierungsmaßnahmen anfangs fast durchweg nach dem trial and error-Prinzip durchgeführt. Im Vordergrund standen dabei zunächst die Wiederherstellung adäquater abiotischer Standortbedingungen sowie die Reorganisation traditioneller Nutzungsmanagements. Bei Ersterem ging es neben der Wiedervernässung entwässerter Feuchtgebiete (Pfadenhauer und Grootjans 1999) vor allem darum, Eutrophierungseffekte zu beseitigen und die Produktivität des Standortes auf das Niveau der Zielgemeinschaft zurückzuführen (Gough und Marrs 1990, Oomes et al. 1996, Snow et al. 1997, Tallowin et al. 1998).

  18. Ischemic Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    A stroke is a medical emergency. There are two types - ischemic and hemorrhagic. Ischemic stroke is the most common type. It is usually ... are at risk for having a more serious stroke. Symptoms of stroke are Sudden numbness or weakness ...

  19. Grundlagen des Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Jörg; Blum, Janaki; Wintermantel, Erich

    Die Organtransplantation stellt eine verbreitete Therapie dar, um bei krankheitsoder unfallbedingter Schädigung eines Organs die Gesamtheit seiner Funktionen wieder herzustellen, indem es durch ein Spenderorgan ersetzt wird. Organtransplantationen werden für die Leber, die Niere, die Lunge, das Herz oder bei schweren grossflächigen Verbrennungen der Haut vorgenommen. Der grosse apparative, personelle und logistische Aufwand und die Risiken der Transplantationschirurgie (Abstossungsreaktionen) sowie die mangelnde Verfügbarkeit von immunologisch kompatiblen Spenderorganen führen jedoch dazu, dass der Bedarf an Organtransplantaten nur zu einem sehr geringen Teil gedeckt werden kann. Sind Spenderorgane nicht verfügbar, können in einzelnen Fällen lebenswichtige Teilfunktionen, wie beispielsweise die Filtrationsfunktion der Niere durch die Blutreinigung mittels Dialyse ersetzt oder, bei mangelnder Funktion der Bauchspeicheldrüse (Diabetes), durch die Verabreichung von Insulin ein normaler Zustand des Gesamtorganismus auch über Jahre hinweg erhalten werden. Bei der notwendigen lebenslangen Anwendung apparativer oder medikamentöser Therapie können für den Patienten jedoch häufig schwerwiegende, möglicherweise lebensverkürzende Nebenwirkungen entstehen. Daher werden in der Forschung Alternativen gesucht, um die Funktionen des ausgefallenen Organs durch die Implantation von Zellen oder in vitro gezüchteten Geweben möglichst umfassend wieder herzustellen. Dies erfordert biologisch aktive Implantate, welche die für den Stoffwechsel des Organs wichtigen Zellen enthalten und einen organtypischen Stoffwechsel entfalten.

  20. Verbesserte Ausbildung für neue Betriebsleiter und -ingenieure - eine wichtige Investition in die Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franta, Oliver

    Bedingt durch die Globalisierung und die damit einhergehende Verschärfung des Wettbewerbs befinden sich die Produktionsbetriebe der chemischen Industrie in stetigem Wandel. Für Betriebsleiter und Betriebsingenieure werden damit Fähigkeiten wie Kostenmanagement, Sozial- und Organisationskompetenz, Führungsqualifikationen und unternehmerisches Handeln immer wichtiger. Neben den Anforderungsprofilen bei Neueinstellungen ist dies auch bei der Fortbildung zu berücksichtigen. Das Trainingsprogramm der Evonik Degussa wurde daher durch die Konzeption neuer Seminare und die Anpassung bestehender Weiterbildungsmaßnahmen weiterentwickelt. Neben Vorträgen und Fallbeispielen sind ebenfalls die Durchführung von Planspielen sowie das Kennenlernen eines Produktionsbetriebes einer anderen Organisationseinheit enthalten. Ziel ist es vor allem die unternehmerische Orientierung neuer Betriebsleiter und -ingenieure zu fördern, die Innovationsgeschwindigkeit zu erhöhen und durch Kenntnis und Nutzung bereits anderweitig entwickelter Lösungen und Methoden die Produktivität zu steigern. Die Produktionsmeister werden aufgrund der Bedeutung dieser Funktion für die Führung der Mitarbeiter und bei der Umsetzung von Veränderungsprojekten in das Ausbildungsprogramm einbezogen. Der Erfolg des Trainingsprogramms zeigt sich an den Teilnehmerzahlen und den ausgesprochen positiven Rückmeldungen.

  1. S1-Leitlinie zur UV-Phototherapie und Photochemotherapie.

    PubMed

    Herzinger, Thomas; Berneburg, Mark; Ghoreschi, Kamran; Gollnick, Harald; Hölzle, Erhard; Hönigsmann, Herbert; Lehmann, Percy; Peters, Thorsten; Röcken, Martin; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Schwarz, Thomas; Simon, Jan; Tanew, Adrian; Weichenthal, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Die heilsame Wirkung des Sonnenlichts war teilweise schon im Altertum bekannt und fand in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts wieder zunehmend Beachtung. Den Beginn der modernen Phototherapien markiert die Entwicklung einer Apparatur zur ultravioletten Bestrahlung der Hauttuberkulose durch Finnsen zu Beginn des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts. Zur Therapie von Hauterkrankungen finden beinahe ausschließlich die spektralen Bereiche unterhalb des sichtbaren Lichtes (ultraviolett) Anwendung. Seit den 1970er Jahren stehen zunehmend leistungsfähige künstliche Strahlenquellen bereit für die Therapie mit UVB, UVA und die Kombination von UVA mit Photosensibilisatoren (Photochemotherapie). Hohe strukturelle und prozedurale Qualitätsstandards sind unabdingbare Voraussetzung für die Durchführung einer gleichermaßen wirkungsvollen wie auch sicheren Phototherapie. Die Leitlinie formuliert den aktuellen Konsens führender Experten auf dem Gebiet der Phototherapie in Bezug auf die Indikationen für die jeweiligen Therapieverfahren, deren Gegenanzeigen und Nebenwirkungen und insbesondere für die Wahl der korrekten Dosis zu Beginn und im Verlauf einer Therapie sowie das Management von Nebenwirkungen.

  2. Aufnahme, Analyse und Visualisierung von Bewegungen nativer Herzklappen in-vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, Oliver; Friedl, Sven; Kondruweit, Markus; Wittenberg, Thomas

    Die hohe Zahl an Transplantationen von Herzklappen und viele nötige Re-Operationen machen eine detaillierte Analyse der Strömungen und Klappenbewegungen klinisch interessant. Ein neuer Ansatz ist hierbei der Einsatz von Hochgeschwindigkeitskameras um Bewegungsabl äufe der Herzklappen beobachten und auswerten zu können. Die hohen Datenraten erfordern allerdings eine möglichst automatisierte Analyse und möglichst komprimierte Darstellung des Schwingungsverhaltens. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, bei dem Bewegungen nativer Herzklappen in-vitro aufgenommen, analysiert und kompakt visualisiert werden.

  3. Tycho Brahe - Instrumentenbauer und Meister der Beobachtungstechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Vor der Erfindung des Fernrohrs war der dänische Astronom Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601) der bedeutendste beobachtende Astronom. Von seinem Observatorium Uraniborg auf der - damals dänischen - Insel Hven ist heute noch der Grundriß erkennbar, von Stjerneborg sind die Fundamente erhalten, die Kuppeln in den 1950er Jahren ergänzt. In der Astronomie-Ausstellung im Deutschen Museum gibt es ein Modell der Sternwarte Uraniborg und der zugehörigen Instrumente (Maßstab 1:10); das größere Modell wurde dem Technischen Museum in Malmö geschenkt. Die Instrumente, die er in den Observatorien Uraniborg und Stjerneborg benutzte, sind nicht erhalten. Aber es gibt gute Beschreibungen der Instrumente (Halbkreis, Quadranten, Sextanten, Armillarsphären, Triquetrum, Himmelsglobus) in seinem Buch Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (Wandsbek 1598). Eine Nachbildung des großen hölzernen Quadranten kann man im Runden Turm in Kopenhagen sehen. Zwei Sextanten, hergestellt für Tycho um 1600 von Jost Bürgi und Erasmus Habermel, gibt es noch im Nationalmuseum für Technik in Prag. Ähnlichkeiten von Tychos Instrumenten mit Groß-Instrumenten aus dem islamischen Kulturkreis sind auffällig. Tycho Brahes Meßgeräte markieren einen großen Fortschritt in der Entwicklung astronomischer Instrumente und Meßtechniken und bilden die Grundlage für den weiteren Fortschritt der Positionsastronomie und der damit verbundenen Tabellenwerke. Die Nachwirkungen sind bis ins 17. und 18. Jahrhundert nachweisbar.

  4. „Überholen ohne einzuholen“ Die Entwicklung von Technologien für übermorgen in Kernenergie und Mikroelektronik der DDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkleit, Gerhard

    Dem nuklearen Patt zwischen Ostblock und westlichem Staatenbündnis ist es nach weitgehend übereinstimmender Auffassung von Politik und Wissenschaft zu danken, dass der "Kalte Krieg" in der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts nicht zum weltumfassenden Flächenbrand eskalierte. An der raschen Herstellung dieses Patts waren zwei Dresdner Physiker maßgeblich beteiligt, deren einer im Manhattan-Projekt in den USA gearbeitet hatte und später in England der Spionage für die Sowjetunion und des Verrats des Know-how der Atombombe überführt wurde.

  5. Ischemic Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Advocate Share Spread the Word Contact Us Contact Us 1-800-STROKES (787-6537) 9707 E. ... Stroke En Espanol Stroke Facts Come Back Strong Contact Us 1-800-787-6537 9707 E. Easter ...

  6. Stroke Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    A stroke can cause lasting brain damage. People who survive a stroke need to relearn skills they lost because of ... them relearn those skills. The effects of a stroke depend on which area of the brain was ...

  7. Hemorrhagic Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    A stroke is a medical emergency. There are two types - ischemic and hemorrhagic. Hemorrhagic stroke is the less common type. It happens when ... an artery wall that breaks open. Symptoms of stroke are Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, ...

  8. Zahlen und Rechenvorgänge auf unterschiedlichen Abstraktionsniveaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödler, Klaus

    "Das Verständnis geht langsam vor sich!" Diesen wichtigen Satz hörte ich bei einem Vortrag von Martin Lowsky. Auf die hier behandelte Fragestellung übertragen heißt das: Was eine Zahl ist und wie ich sie im Rechenvorgang einsetzen und interpretieren kann, das erschließt sich erst allmählich. Die Zahl des Rechenanfängers ist nicht dieselbe wie die des kompetenten Rechners und es ist nicht die Zahl des Lehrers oder der Lehrerin. Die Zahlen sind nur auf der Oberfläche der Worte und Zeichen gleich. Im Innern, im Verständnis, sind sie völlig verschieden! Ich glaube, dass die Missachtung dieser Divergenz dazu führt, dass manche Kinder in für den Lehrer und Lehrerin nicht nachvollziehbaren Routinen stecken bleiben, einfachste Informationen nicht wirklich integrieren. Die auf beiden Seiten wachsende Verunsicherung durch die nicht erkannte und daher nicht kommunizierbare Diskrepanz im inneren Zahlkonzept stört den allmählichen Aufbau strukturierter Zahlvorstellungen.

  9. Hinderniserkennung und -verfolgung mit einer PMD-kamera im automobil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schamm, Thomas; Vacek, Stefan; Natroshvilli, Koba; Marius Zöllner, J.; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    Die Detektion von Hindernissen vor dem Automobil ist eine Hauptanforderung an moderne Fahrerassistenzsysteme (FAS). In dieser Arbeit wird ein System vorgestellt, das mit Hilfe einer PMDKamera (Photomischdetektor) Hindernisse auf der Fahrspur erkennt und deren relevante Parameter bestimmt. Durch die PMD-Kamera werden zunächst 3D-Tiefenbilder der Fahrzeugumwelt generiert. Nach einem initialen Filterprozess werden im Tiefenbild mit Hilfe eines Bereichswachstumsverfahrens Hindernisse gesucht. Zur Stabilisierung des Verfahrens und zur Parameterberechnung wird ein Kaiman Filter eingesetzt. Das Ergebnis ist eine Liste aller Hindernisse im Fahrbereich des Automobils.

  10. Implantate und Verfahren in der Augenheilkunde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhann, Tobias H.

    Das in der Medizin mit am häufigsten verwendete Implantat weltweit ist die Intraokulare Linse (IOL). Die Gründe hierfür sind vielschichtig: einmal haben die Operationstechniken in den letzten 30 Jahren eine wesentliche Steigerung an Gleichmäßigkeit, Erfolg und Effizienz erfahren, zum anderen verursachen die gestiegenen Anforderungen des Alltags in den Industrienationen und im Berufsleben den höheren Anspruch an das Sehvermögen. Ist die menschliche Linse Ursache für schlechtes Sehvermögen, besteht meist eine Trübung des Linsenproteins. Diese Trübung nennt wird Volksmund Grauer Star genannt, wissenschaftlich die Katarakt (cataracta). Es gibt unterschiedliche Formen wie angeborene (congenita) oder erworbene, traumatische, krankheitsoder altersbedingte Formen [45]. Wird die eingetrübte Linse nun mittels moderner Operationsverfahren entfernt, muss für Ersatz dieses lichtbrechenden Mediums gesorgt werden [2].

  11. Stroke rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Bindawas, Saad M.; Vennu, Vishal S.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a major cause of death and other complications worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, stroke has become an emerging health issue leading to disability and death. However, stroke care including rehabilitation services, in Saudi Arabia lags behind developed countries. Stroke rehabilitation is an essential recovery option after stroke and should start as early as possible to avoid potential complications. The growing evidence on stroke rehabilitation effectiveness in different health care settings and outcome measures used widely are reviewed in this call to action paper. PMID:27744457

  12. Information und Kommunikation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesoly, Michael; Ohlhausen, Peter; Bucher, Michael; Hichert, Rolf; Korge, Gabriele; Schnabel, Ulrich; Gairola, Arun; Reichwald, Ralf; Habicht, Hagen; Möslein, Kathrin; Schwarz, Torsten; Schönsleben, Paul; Scherer, Eric; Schloske, Alexander; Adlbrecht, Gerald; Federhen, Jens

    Wissen ist mittlerweile unverzichtbar für den entscheidenden Vorsprung auf dem Markt. Unabhängig davon, ob sich das Wissen in Innovationen, neuen Produkten und Dienstleistungen oder in der Verbesserung interner Unternehmensprozesse manifestiert: Wissen ist Treiber von Innovation, Wissen bringt Schnelligkeit und Wissen ist die Voraussetzung für Problemlösungen [40]. Wissensmanagement ist daher der Schlüssel für Unternehmenserfolg und bezeichnet den "bewussten und systematischen Umgang mit der Ressource Wissen und den zielgerichteten Einsatz von Wissen in der Organisation“ [6]. In dieser umfassenden Sichtweise ist Wissensmanagement ein Begriff, der Konzepte, Strategien und Methoden umfasst.

  13. Ingenieurgeologie: Grundlagen und Anwendung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genske, Dieter D.

    Geplünderter Planet? Die Ingenieurgeologie ist ein junges, interdisziplinäres Fachgebiet. Es befasst sich mit der Wechselwirkung zwischen Geosphäre und Mensch. Der Autor stellt Georisiken vor und diskutiert die Folgen menschlicher Eingriffe in die Natur. Er thematisiert aktuelle Herausforderungen und entwirft nachhaltige Lösungskonzepte für verschiedene Problembereiche: z.B. Naturgefahren wie Hangrutschungen und Bergfälle, die Ausbeute natürlicher Ressourcen, Bau- und Sanierungsvorhaben. Fallbeschreibungen und ausgearbeitete Beispiele vertiefen das Verständnis für diesen neuen, zukunftsweisenden Zweig der Wissenschaft.

  14. [Naturheilkunde und Komplementärmedizin in medizinischen Leitlinien - können europäische Normen Leitlinien für Naturheilkunde und Komplementärmedizin verdrängen?].

    PubMed

    Jütte, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Leitlinien machen in der Komplementärmedizin, wie das Beispiel der Naturheilkunde zeigt, durchaus Sinn. Sie ergänzen zum Wohle des Patienten und zur besseren Orientierung des Therapeuten die bislang, auch auf europäischer Ebene, bereits bestehenden Leitlinien, die ständig weiterentwickelt werden. Diese Ergänzung ist dringend notwendig, weil die meisten der vorliegenden Leitlinien einzelner Fachgesellschaften die Forschungsergebnisse der Komplementärmedizin, die zum Teil beachtlich und auch evidenzbasiert sind, zum Nachteil des Patienten ignorieren. Es ist bedauerlich, dass einige Richtungen der Komplementärmedizin jedoch meinen, dass eine europäische Norm, wie sie beispielsweise Osteopathen und Homöopathen mithilfe des europäischen Normungsinstituts (CEN) durchzusetzen hoffen, sie in ihrem Kampf um Anerkennung weiterbringen wird. Der Patient, der auf eine individuelle und bestmögliche Behandlung wert legt, wird jedenfalls davon nicht profitieren.

  15. Know Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Know Stroke Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... D. Director, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Photo courtesy of NIH/NINDS Welcome to this ...

  16. Ischemic Strokes (Clots)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quiz 5 Things to Know About Stroke Ischemic Strokes (Clots) Updated:Nov 9,2016 Ischemic stroke accounts ... strokes. Read more about silent strokes . TIA and Stroke: Medical Emergencies When someone has shown symptoms of ...

  17. Recovering after stroke

    MedlinePlus

    Stroke rehabilitation; Cerebrovascular accident - rehabilitation; Recovery from stroke; Stroke - recovery; CVA - recovery ... WHERE TO LIVE AFTER A STROKE Most people will need stroke ... after they leave the hospital. Stroke rehab will help you ...

  18. Lymph- und Immunsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Steven F.

    Alle Lebewesen müssen sich gegen Eindringlinge wehren. Ihre Abwehrmechanismen wirken auf verschiedenen Ebenen, von übergeordneten Feindvermeidungsstrategien und Putzverhalten bis hin zu molekularen Erkennungs- und Tötungsmechanismen. Da Eindringlinge über Kontaktflächen mit der Außenwelt, wie z.B. Körperoberfläche, Darmwand und Atmungsoberflächen, in den Organismus gelangen, sind an diesen Stellen immer primäre Abwehrmechanismen zu finden. Dazu zählen (1) Schleimabsonderung (Schleimhäute bei allen Schädeltieren, Fischkiemen, epidermale Schleimdrüsen (Fische, Amphibien)), (2) Stoffwechselgifte und antibakteriell wirkende Substanzen in der Haut (Fische, Amphibien) und im Speichel (Amnioten), (3) Flimmerepithelien zum Abtransport von Eindringlingen und (4) starke Keratinbildung in der mehrschichtigen Epidermis und schützende Strukturen wie Schuppen, Federn und Haare (Amnioten) (S. 20). Auch die starke Säurebildung im Magen kann als Schutz gegen Eindringlinge betrachtet werden.

  19. Methodik und Qualität statistischer Erhebungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, Walter; Schmidt, Jürgen; Wiegert, Rolf

    Kapitel 8 wirft einen Blick hinter die Kulissen statistischer Arbeit und ihrer Methoden, insbesondere auch hinter die der amtlichen Statistik: Wie kommen die Myriaden von Zahlen zustande, die heute aus statistischen Quellenwerken aller Art und aus Datenbanken abgerufen werden können? Dabei wird deutlich, welche Schwierigkeiten bei Erhebungen, insbesondere bei Stichprobenerhebungen, zu überwinden sind, wie man Antwortverweigerer kooperativer stimmt, wie sich auch aus kleinen Stichproben auf intelligente Weise verlässliche Ergebnisse erzielen lassen und wie Großstichproben auf europäischer Ebene harmonisiert werden. Am Beispiel des Zensus 2011 wird gezeigt, wie sich eine Kombination von Stichproben und Registerauswertungen als Ersatz für eine Volkszählung nutzen lässt. Mitglieder der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft waren daran kooperativ beteiligt.

  20. Der Physik-Nobelpreis vor 100 Jahren Die Entdeckung des trägen Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2004-11-01

    Im Jahr 1904 erhielt der britische Physiker Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt, 1842 bis 1919) den Nobelpreis für seine Untersuchungen über die Dichte von Gasen und die Entdeckung des Edelgases Argon.

  1. Dentalwerkstoffe und Dentalimplantate - Teil 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltermeier, Andreas

    Wie in allen Bereichen der Medizin findet auch in der Zahnmedizin eine kontinuierliche Weiterentwicklung der verwendeten Werkstoffe statt. Gerade für Zahnersatz werden Werkstoffe gesucht, die zum einen ästhetisch, zum anderen haltbar und darüber hinaus auch körperverträglich sind. Auch steigt immer mehr der Wunsch der Patienten nach ästhetischen und zugleich biokompatiblen Materialien. Wurde früher fast ausschließlich als Füllungsmaterial im Seitenzahngebiet quecksilberhaltiges Amalgam verwendet, hat der Zahnarzt heutzutage eine große Auswahl an verschiedenen zahnfarbenen Materialien: zum einen werden sog. Komposite verwendet, das aus einer Polymermatrix mit eingebetteten Füllstoffen besteht, zum anderen können diverse Dentalkeramiken verwendet werden. Besonders die Verwendung von Hochleistungskeramiken, wie beispielsweise Zirkonoxid, das sich bereits als Bremsscheiben für Sportwägen, Hitzeschilde im Space Shuttle und als Kugelköpfe künstlicher Hüftgelenke bewährt hat, spielt heutzutage eine große Rolle bei der Verdrängung des Metalls aus der Mundhöhle. War es früher nur möglich, einen verloren gegangen Zahn mittels einer Brücke, die ein Beschleifen der Nachbarzähne zur Folge hat, oder durch herausnehmbaren Zahnersatz zu ersetzen, ist es heutzutage mit der modernen Implantologie möglich, Zahnersatz zahnschonend einzugliedern. Auch kann mittels Dentalimplantaten dem Wunsch vieler Patienten nach festem Zahnersatz anstelle eines herausnehmbaren Zahnersatzes entsprochen werden. So kann mit Hilfe neuer biokompatiblen Werkstoffe sowohl der ästhetische Anspruch befriedigt als auch das Selbstwertgefühl vieler Patienten angehoben werden.

  2. Herschel und die Zukunft der Fern-Infrarot-Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    Schon lange ist die beobachtende Astronomie den engen Grenzen des optisch Sichbaren entwachsen und hat fast alle Bereiche des elektromagnetischen Spektrums für sich dienstbar gemacht. Im sogenannten nahen und mittleren Infrarot (Wellenlängen zwischen 1-30 μm) sowie im Millimeter- und Radio-Regime (Wellenlängen zwischen 1 mm und 10 m) ist die Erdatmosphäre relativ gut durchlässig für elektromagnetische Signale oder hat zumindest eine Vielzahl von spektral begrenzten Transmissionsfenstern, die astronomische Beobachtungen zumindest von höheren Bergen aus möglich machen. Allerdings ist das sogenannte Ferne Infrarot (FIR, 30-300 μm Wellenlänge) von der Erde aus fast völlig unzugänglich für astronomische Beobachtungen. Selbst für die besten Beobachtungsplätze der Erde bleibt die atmosphärische Transmission durch die immense Wasserdampf- Absorption auf ein absolutes Minimum beschränkt. Jedoch erlaubt uns das FIR Zugang zu Informationen, die sehr nützlich sind für die astrophysikalische Forschung und komplementär zu anderen Wellenlängen-Bereichen.

  3. Stroke Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... how to subscribe to the Stroke Connection Magazine. Community Resources Home health services, available from the Visiting Nurses Association, public health departments, hospital home care departments ...

  4. Atherosclerosis and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... After Stroke Inspirational Stories Stroke Heroes Among Us Atherosclerosis and Stroke Updated:Oct 24,2016 Excerpted and ... cause difficulty walking and eventually gangrene. Stroke and atherosclerosis There are two types of ischemic stroke caused ...

  5. Haptische Modellierung und Deformation einer Kugelzelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippritt, Darius; Wiemann, Martin; Lipinski, Hans-Gerd

    Haptische Simulationsmodelle dienen in der Medizin in erster Linie dem Training operativer Eingriffe. Sie basieren zumeist auf physikalischen Gewebemodellen, welche eine sehr genaue Simulation der biomechanischen Eigenschaften des betreffenden Gewebes erlauben, aber gleichzeitig sehr rechenintensiv und damit zeitaufwändig in der Ausführung sind. Die menschliche Wahrnehmung kann allerdings auch eine ungenaue haptische Modellierung psychooptisch ausgleichen. Daher kann es sinnvoll sein, haptische Simulationen auch mit nicht vollständig physikalisch definierten Deformationsmodellen durchzuführen. Am Beispiel der haptischer Simulation einer in-vitro Fertilisation wird gezeigt, dass durch die Anwendung eines geometrischen Deformationsmodells eine künstliche Befruchtung unter realistischen experimentellen Bedingungen in Echtzeit haptisch simuliert und damit trainiert werden kann.

  6. Peter Andreas Hansen and the astronomical community - a first investigation of the Hansen papers. (German Title: Peter Andreas Hansen und die astronomische Gemeinschaft - eine erste Auswertung des Hansen-Nachlasses. )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Oliver; Strumpf, Manfred

    The literary assets of Peter Andreas Hansen are deposited in the Staatsarchiv Hamburg, the Forschungs- und Landesbibliothek Gotha and the Thüringer Staatsarchiv Gotha. They were never systematically investigated. We present here some results of a first evaluation. It was possible to reconstruct the historical events with regard to the maintenance of the Astronomische Nachrichten and the Altona observatory in 1854. Hansen was a successful teacher for many young astronomers. His way of stimulating the evolution of astronomy followed Zach's tradition.

  7. Zur ethischen Dimension von Renaturierungsökologie und Ökosystemrenaturierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Konrad

    Die wissenschaftlich angeleitete Ökosystemrena-turierung kann mittlerweile als eine etablierte Praxis im Bereich des Naturschutzes gelten. Diese Praxis bezieht sich notwendigerweise auf Ziele und Werte und weist damit auch eine naturethische Dimension auf. Daher hat diese Praxis die Aufmerksamkeit auch von Sozialwissenschaftlern und Ethikern auf sich gezogen. Dieses Kapitel geht der Frage nach, wie sich die naturethische Dimension der Ökosystemrenaturierung analysieren und inhaltlich bestimmen lässt. Hierzu erweist sich auch die Auseinandersetzung mit Philosophen als hilfreich, die der Ökosystemrenaturierung ein technizistisches Naturverständnis vorgeworfen haben. Am Ende des Kapitels wird ein in sich gestuftes mögliches naturethisches Selbstverständnis der Ökosystemrenaturierung diskutiert, das den an dieser Praxis Beteiligten Freiheitsgrade der Positionierung belässt.

  8. Segmentierung des Femurs aus MRT-Daten mit Shape-Based Level-Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekomien, Claudia; Busch, Martin; Teske, Wolfram; Winter, Susanne

    Inhalt dieser Arbeit ist die Segmentierung des Femurs aus MRT-Datensätzen mit einem Shape-based Level-Set-Ansatz. Der Algorithmus besteht aus zwei Phasen, der Modellerstellung und der Segmentierungsphase. In der Segmentierungsphase wurde ein kantenbasiertes und ein auf Intensitäten basierendes Optimierungskriterium mit einander kombiniert. Für eine lokale Verbesserung des Ergebnisses wurde zusätzlich ein Laplacian Level-Set-Verfahren angewendet. Der Femur konnte mit diesem Ansatz in drei verschiedenen MRT-Sequenzen und einem Fusionsdatensatz gut segmentiert werden.

  9. Reflexionseigenschaften von Windenergieanlagen im Funkfeld von Funknavigations- und Radarsystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandmann, S.; Divanbeigi, S.; Garbe, H.

    2015-11-01

    Die hier behandelte Untersuchung befasst sich mit den Störungen des elektrischen Feldes einer Doppler Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Radio Range Navigationsanlage (DVOR) in der Gegenwart von Windenergieanlagen (WEA). Hierfür wird die Feldstärke auf 25 konzentrischen Kreisbahnen, sog. Orbit Flights verschiedener Höhen und mit verschiedenen Radien rund um die DVOR-Anlage numerisch simuliert. Insbesondere werden die Einflüsse diverser Parameter der WEA wie deren Anzahl, Position, Rotorwinkel, Turmhöhe und Rotordurchmesser auf die Feldverteilung herausgestellt, sowie die Anwendbarkeit der Simulationsmethode Physical Optics (PO) durch Vergleich der Simulationsergebnisse mit denen der Multi Level Fast Multipol Method (MLFMM) untersucht.

  10. Fetal stroke.

    PubMed

    Ozduman, Koray; Pober, Barbara R; Barnes, Patrick; Copel, Joshua A; Ogle, Eileen A; Duncan, Charles C; Ment, Laura R

    2004-03-01

    Fetal stroke, or that which occurs between 14 weeks of gestation and the onset of labor resulting in delivery, has been associated with postnatal epilepsy, mental retardation, and cerebral palsy. The entity is caused by antenatal ischemic, thrombotic, or hemorrhagic injury. We present seven new cases of fetal stroke diagnosed in utero and review the 47 cases reported in the literature. Although risk factors could not be assigned to 50% of the fetuses with stroke, the most common maternal conditions associated with fetal stroke were alloimmune thrombocytopenia and trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging was optimal for identifying fetal stroke, and prenatal imaging revealed hemorrhagic lesions in over 90% of studies; porencephalies were identified in just 13%. Seventy-eight percent of cases with reported outcome resulted in either death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcome at ages 3 months to 6 years. Fetal stroke appears to have different risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcomes than other perinatal or childhood stroke syndromes. A better understanding of those risk factors predisposing a fetus to cerebral infarction may provide a basis for future therapeutic intervention trials. Ozduman K, Pober BR, Barnes P, Copel JA, Ogle EA, Duncan CC, Ment LR. Fetal stroke.

  11. Zwergsatelliten und Sternriesen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baade, Dietrich; Kuschnig, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    Leuchtkräftige Sterne sind schwierig: Fär Fotometrie mit großen Teleskopen sind sie zu hell, und ihre geringe Zahl macht konventionelle Lösungen unwirtschaftlich, besonders im Weltraum, wo die äußerste Präzision gegeben wäre. Mit einer Mini-Armada von Nanosatelliten haben Ingenieure und Astronomen aus Kanada, Österreich und Polen nun die Lösung gefunden - auch schon für viele wissenschaftliche Fragen.

  12. Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Teri; Murphy, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Each year, more than 795,000 people in the United States suffer a stroke and by 2030, it is estimated that 4% of the U.S. population will have had a stroke. Home healthcare clinicians will be increasingly called upon to assist stroke survivors and their caregivers adjust to disability and assist the survivor during their reintegration into the community. Therapeutic modalities are changing with advanced technology. Great strides are being made in the treatment of acute stroke; particularly endovascular interventions. More patients are surviving the acute stroke event and therefore will need to learn how to live with various degrees of disability. It is important for home healthcare clinicians to understand the process from acute event to medical stabilization, and from rehabilitation to long-term adaptation.

  13. How a Stroke Is Diagnosed

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis Stroke ... Diagnosis » How a Stroke is Diagnosed How a Stroke is Diagnosed How a Stroke is Diagnosed Lab ...

  14. Stroke management

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is the third most common cause of death in most developed countries. It is a worldwide problem; about 4.5 million people die from stroke each year. Stroke can occur at any age, but half of all strokes occur in people aged over 70 years. About 80% of all acute strokes are ischaemic, usually resulting from thrombotic or embolic occlusion of a cerebral artery. The remainder are caused either by intracerebral or subarachnoid haemorrhage. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of specialised care in people with acute stroke? What are the effects of medical treatment in people with acute ischaemic stroke? What are the effects of decompressive hemicraniectomy in acute ischaemic stroke? What are the effects of surgical evacuation for intracerebral haematomas? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 41 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acute reduction in blood pressure, aspirin, evacuation (early surgical evacuation, or conservative treatment), decompressive hemicraniectomy, neuroprotective agents (calcium channel blockers, citicoline, gamma-aminobutyric acid agonists, glycine antagonists, lubeluzole, magnesium, N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists), specialised stroke care, systemic anticoagulation (heparinoids, specific thrombin inhibitors

  15. Der Kalte Krieg in der Peripherie Griechische Physiker und Atomenergie nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahakis, George N.

    Die vorliegende Arbeit analysiert Ansichten griechischer Physiker zur Atomenergie und deren mögliche Anwendung nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, insbesondere während des Kalten Kriegs. Einerseits werden Ansichten von Physik- Professoren griechischer Universitäten präsentiert - beispielsweise von Dimitrios Hondros, der Student von Arnold Sommerfeld und Mitarbeiter von Peter Debye in München war, und andererseits wird die Politik der griechischen Regierung für die Etablierung eines Forschungsinstitutes diskutiert, das der Entwicklung der Atomenergie dienen sollte; ebenfalls wird eine öffentliche Meinungsumfrage zu diesen Thema, die in den Tageszeitungen der damaligen Zeit präsentiert wurde, diskutiert.

  16. Tensoren und Felder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirschmid, Hans J.

    Das Lehrbuch soll Studierende mit Grundkenntnissen der Differential- und Integralrechnung in die klassische Feldtheorie mit modernen mathematischen Methoden einführen. Dementsprechend ist die Tensoranalysis das mathematische Thema, das Prinzip der Relativität das physikalische. Aus didaktischen Erwägungen gliedert sich der Text in zwei Teile. Um den Leser mit den Objekten vertraut zu machen, wird zunächst der affine und euklidische Raum zugrundegelegt, um verallgemeinernd zur Geometrie auf Mannigfaltigkeiten und Riemannschen Räumen überleiten zu können. Im Anschluß an die mathematische Theorie wird in die spezielle und allgemeine Relativitätstheorie eingeführt, wobei die Geometrie der Raum-Zeit, die Grundgesetze der Elektrodynamik und der Gravitation sowie Folgerungen zur Sprache kommen.

  17. Preventing stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk of stroke. Diseases such as cancer, chronic kidney disease , and some autoimmune diseases . Weak areas in an artery wall or abnormal arteries and veins . Pregnancy, both during and in the weeks right after ...

  18. Kernschmelze Der nachhaltige Einfluss von Nuklearwaffen auf Politik und Wirtschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Bernd

    "Was sollen wir von einer Kultur halten, der die Ethik stets als wesentliches Element des menschlichen Lebens galt, die aber - außer in fachlicher oder spieltheoretischer Terminologie - nicht in der Lage war, über die Möglichkeit zu sprechen, nahezu alle Menschen zu töten?" Der Fragesteller gehört zu den berühmtesten Physikern des 20. Jahrhunderts und zu den nach wie vor Umstrittensten. über ihn wurde in den 1960er Jahren ein international viel beachtetes Theaterstück geschrieben, vor wenigen Jahren gar eine Oper.

  19. Recovery After Stroke: Recurrent Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood pressure  Find out if you have atrial fibrillation (an irregular heartbeat which allows blood to pool ... your stroke risk. One form  known as atrial fibrillation or AF  causes blood to form clots that ...

  20. Stroke (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Stroke KidsHealth > For Kids > Stroke Print A A A ... get help quickly. continue What Happens During a Stroke? A stroke usually happens suddenly, and a person ...

  1. Hippocampal stroke.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The first to link disturbance of memory and lesions of the medial temporal lobe was the Russian neurologist von Bechterew, who in 1989 presented the brain of a 60-year-old man who had suffered from severe amnesia. Autopsy showed bilateral damage of the medial temporal lobe. Several following postmortem case studies confirmed the association between permanent amnesia and bitemporal stroke. Reports of transient memory deficits in unilateral stroke in combination with other neurological and neuropsychological deficits followed. With the advent of brain imaging, persistent or transient amnesia as the sole or primary manifestation of acute - mostly left-sided - hippocampal stroke was described. With the use of modern MRI techniques the identification of typical ischemic stroke lesion patterns affecting the hippocampus has become possible. Although overt cognitive deficits in unilateral hippocampal stroke seem to be rare, a careful neuropsychological examination might be necessary to detect resulting neuropsychological deficits including disturbances of verbal and nonverbal episodic long-term memory and spatial orientation.

  2. Design und Analyse elektrisch kleiner Antennen für den Einsatz in UHF RFID Transpondern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herschmann, R.; Camp, M.; Eul, H.

    2006-09-01

    RFID Systeme werden seit Anfang der neunziger Jahre mit stetig zunehmender Verbreitung im Bereich der automatischen Produktidentifikation, der Diebstahlsicherung (EAS, Electronic Article Surveillance) und für automatische Zutrittskontrollsysteme eingesetzt. Objekte werden hierzu mit einem Transponder ausgestattet, der aus einer Antenne und einem Chip auf einem Trägermaterial besteht. Von großem Interesse ist die Entwicklung und Optimierung von passiven Transpondern für den Einsatz in UHF RFID Systemen. Diese Transponder beziehen die Energie zum Betrieb des Chips aus dem elektromagnetischen Feld einer Schreib-Leseeinheit. Hierfür ist neben der Anpassung der Eingangsimpedanz der Antenne an die Chipimpedanz auch eine möglichst hohe Bandbreite der Antennen wünschenswert, um die Funktion des Transponders bei Schwankungen der Chipimpedanz und variablen Umgebungsparametern zu gewährleisten. Der aus Platzgründen notwendige Einsatz elektrisch kleiner Antennen bedingt eine möglichst optimale Ausnutzung der zur Verfügung stehenden Fläche auf dem Trägermaterial zur Aufnahme der Antenne. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt ein Verfahren zur Analyse und Synthese neuartiger Antennendesigns auf der Basis parametrisierter meandrierter, spiralförmiger und logarithmisch periodischer Dipole.

  3. Schönheit und andere Provokationen - Eine neue evolutionsbiologische Theorie der Kunst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, Thomas

    Die Evolution hat viele spektakuläre Phänomene hervorgebracht - von der Eleganz des Vogelflugs über die gigantischen Körper der Dinosaurier und die farbenprächtige Vielfalt der Korallenriffe bis hin zu ihrem jüngsten Geniestreich - der menschlichen Kunst. Die schönen Künste - Malerei, Bildhauerei und Architektur, Theater, Tanz, Oper und Filmkunst, Musik und Literatur - Produkte der Evolution? Diese Vorstellung mutet vielen Menschen fremd an, aber wie könnte es anders sein? Denn wenn Charles Darwin recht hat, dann sind nicht nur die körperlichen Merkmale der Menschen als Antworten auf die Erfordernisse des Lebens entstanden, sondern auch ihre geistigen Fähigkeiten und Verhaltensweisen. Im Jahr 1859 hatte er auf den letzten Seiten seines berühmten Buches über die Entstehung der Arten eine kühne Prophezeiung gemacht: Durch die Evolutionstheorie werde es "zu einer bemerkenswerten Revolution in der Naturwissenschaft kommen […]. Die Psychologie wird auf die neue Grundlage gestellt, dass jede geistige Kraft und Fähigkeit notwendigerweise durch graduelle Übergänge erworben wird“ (Darwin 1859, S. 484, 488; Junker 2008).

  4. Instandhaltung und Normung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenkranz-Wuttig, Angela

    Das DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. ist ein eingetragener Verein mit Sitz in Berlin. Das DIN erarbeitet gemeinsam mit den Experten der interessierten Kreise Normen und Standards als Dienstleistung für Wirtschaft, Staat und Gesellschaft. Die Kenntnis entsprechender Normen, Standards oder Regeln, sowie deren richtiger Einsatz, ist unter den heutigen Marktbedingungen für jedes Unternehmen ein nicht zu unterschätzender wirtschaftlicher Faktor. Normen schaffen Effizienz bei Produktionsabläufen und sorgen durch eine gleichbleibende sowie vergleichbare Produktqualität für Vertrauen bei den Endverbrauchern. Darüber hinaus stehen Normen unter rechtlichen Aspekten für mehr Sicherheit - Hersteller erreichen bei Anwendung und Einhaltung von Normen ein hohes Maß an rechtlicher Absicherung. Das DIN vertritt die deutschen Interessen in den europäischen und weltweiten Normungsorganisationen, siehe Abb. 1. Zuständig für die elektrotechnische Normung in Deutschland sowie als deutscher Repräsentant in den übernationalen Gremien ist die DKE Deutsche Kommission Elektrotechnik Elektronik Informationstechnik im DIN und VDE.

  5. Datenintegration und Deduplizierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleiholder, Jens; Schmid, Joachim

    In Unternehmen liegen viele Daten heutzutage immer seltener vollständig an einem einzigen physikalischen Ort vor, sondern sind weltweit verteilt. Dies liegt zum einen an der immer besser gewordenen Infrastruktur, die eine solche Verteilung auf einfache Art und Weise ermöglicht, und zum anderen an der Tatsache, dass viele Unternehmen weltweit tätig sind. So fallen Daten weltweit an, werden aber jeweils lokal - vor Ort - gespeichert. Daher müssen oft mehrere Datenquellen genutzt werden, um einen aktuellen, vollständigen und genauen Überblick über die vorhandenen Daten zu gewinnen. Datenintegration hilft, indem sie Daten aus mehreren Quellen zusammenführt und einheitlich darstellt. Diese integrierten Daten können genutzt werden, um sich einen Überblick über das Unternehmen zu verschaffen, z.B. wenn Unternehmen fusionieren und nur noch eine Kundendatenbank bestehen bleiben soll, oder wenn zu einem Kunden die Daten aus den verschiedenen Fachabteilungen zusammengeführt werden sollen. Anhand eines solchen Beispiels, der Integration von Kundendaten zu Kfz- und Lebensversicherungen erläutern wir im Folgenden einzelne Techniken.

  6. Physik gestern und heute Suprafluidität - Von den Schwierigkeiten einer Messung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sichau, Christian

    2003-03-01

    Der Vater der Tieftemperaturphysik, Heike Kammerlingh Onnes, benötigte zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts für die Verflüssigung von wenigen Litern Heliums noch mehrere Jahre, eine riesige Apparatur und viel Geld. Heute gelingt dies routinemäßig. Die Untersuchung der Materie bei tiefen Temperaturen, insbesondere zur Suprafluidität, bietet viele Überraschungen.

  7. Matthias Falter und die frühe Halbleitertechnik in der DDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Frank

    Nach einer ganzen Reihe von Vorarbeiten weltweit1 konnten im Dezember 1947 die amerikanischen Physiker Walter H. Brattain, John Bardeen und William Shockley in den Bell Laboratories den Transistoreffekt demonstrieren. Damit legten sie den Grundstein für die Mikroelektronik als Basistechnologie des Informationszeitalters.

  8. Herstellung von Chitosan und einige Anwendungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struszczyk, Marcin Henryk

    2001-05-01

    1. Die Deacetylierung von crabshell - Chitosan führte gleichzeitig zu einem drastischen Abfall der mittleren viscosimetrischen Molmasse ( Mv), insbesondere wenn die Temperatur und die Konzentration an NaOH erhöht werden. Diese Parameter beeinflussten jedoch nicht den Grad der Deacetylierung (DD). Wichtig ist jedoch die Quelle des Ausgangsmaterials: Chitin aus Pandalus borealis ist ein guter Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Chitosan mit niedrigem DD und gleichzeitig hoher mittlerer Mv, während Krill-Chitin (Euphausia superba) ein gutes Ausgangsmaterial zur Herstellung von Chitosan mit hohem DD und niedrigem Mv ist. Chitosan, das aus Insekten (Calliphora erythrocephala), unter milden Bedingungen (Temperatur: 100°C, NaOH-Konzentration: 40 %, Zeit: 1-2h ) hergestellt wurde, hatte die gleichen Eigenschaften hinsichtlich DD und Mv wie das aus Krill hergestellte Chitosan. Der Bedarf an Zeit, Energie und NaOH ist für die Herstellung von Insekten-Chitosan geringer als für crabshell-Chitosan vergleichbare Resultaten für DD und Mv. 2. Chitosan wurde durch den Schimmelpilz Aspergillus fumigatus zu Chitooligomeren fermentiert. Die Ausbeute beträgt 25%. Die Chitooligomere wurden mit Hilfe von HPLC und MALDI-TOF-Massenspektrmetrie identifiziert. Die Fermentationsmischung fördert die Immunität von Pflanzen gegen Bakterien und Virusinfektion. Die Zunahme der Immunität schwankt jedoch je nach System Pflanze-Pathogen. Die Fermentation von Chitosan durch Aspergillus fumigatus könnte eine schnelle und billige Methode zur Herstellung von Chitooligomeren mit guter Reinheit und Ausbeute sein. Eine partiell aufgereinigte Fermentationsmischung dieser Art könnte in der Landwirtschaft als Pathogeninhibitor genutzt werden. Durch kontrollierte Fermentation, die Chitooligomere in definierter Zusammensetzung (d.h. definierter Verteilung des Depolymerisationsgrades) liefert, könnte man zu Mischungen kommen, die für die jeweilige Anwendung eine optimale Bioaktivität besitzen. 3

  9. "Das Konkrete ist das Abstrakte, an das man sich schließlich gewöhnt hat." (Laurent Schwartz) Über den Ablauf des mathematischen Verstehens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowsky, Martin

    Die im Titel genannte Aussage findet sich in den Lebenserinnerungen von Laurent Schwartz (1915-2002), einem der fruchtbarsten Mathematiker, Mitglied der Gruppe Bourbaki. Im Original lautet die Aussage: "un objet concret est un objet abstrait auquel on a fini par s'habituer." Schwartz erläutert sie am Beispiel des Integrals über {e^{-1/2{x^2}}} , das den Wert Wurzel aus 2π hat und in dem sich also die Zahlen e und π verknüpfen. Was Schwartz aber vor allem ausdrücken will, ist dies: Das mathematische Verständnisd geht langsam vor sich und es bedarf der Anstrengung. "Es ist eine Frage der Zeit und der Energie", sagt Schwartz, und gerade dies mache es so schwer, die höhere Mathematik unter das Volk zu bringen. Das Lernen und Lehren von Mathematik laufe eben mühevoll und langsam ab.

  10. The "Know Stroke" Campaign

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section The "Know Stroke" Campaign Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... campaign for the U.S. Hispanic community. 1 Know Stroke A stroke occurs when the blood supply to ...

  11. Healthy Living after Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Stroke Heroes Among Us Healthy Living After Stroke Nutrition Good nutrition is one way to reduce ... look to maintain health and wellness. Subscribe to Stroke Connection Get quarterly digital issues plus our monthly ...

  12. Denken in Wertschöpfung und Verschwendung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Lars; Lacker, Michael

    Eine Antwort auf die Frage welche Arbeitsschritte, Aktivitäten und Prozesse als wertschöpfend betrachtet werden können, erhält man durch die Überlegung, ob der Kunde bereit ist dafür zu zahlen. Kunden sind sicher bereit dafür zu zahlen, dass z.B. die Räder an ihrem neuen PKW sicher montiert sind. Die im Unternehmen notwendigen logistischen Prozesse, die die Räder zu ihrem Montageort transportieren, sind aus Sicht des Kunden dagegen mit keinem Wert verbunden. Insofern ist er nicht bereit dafür zu zahlen und sämtliche internen logistischen Aktivitäten sind entsprechend nicht wertschöpfend. Verschwendung bzw. nicht wertschöpfende Arbeit umfasst alle Aktivitäten, Tätigkeiten und Prozesse, die Zeit, Ressourcen und/oder Raum kosten, aber nicht zur Erfüllung der Kundenanforderungen beitragen. Verschwendung ist damit der Teil der Arbeit, für den der Kunde nicht zahlt, z.B. den internen Transport von Bauteilen zum Montageort.

  13. Finanzierung des Studiums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domnick, Ivonne

    "Das liebe Geld“ - ein Thema, das Sie durch das ganze Studium begleitet und auch in der Examensphase und bei der späteren Berufswahl eine entscheidende Rolle spielen wird. Naturwissenschaftler und Ingenieure haben auf dem Arbeitsmarkt sicher derzeit die Nase vorn und brauchen sich über ihre berufliche Zukunft nicht so große Gedanken machen. Doch vor der Karriere muss zunächst einmal eine sichere Studienfinanzierung auf die Beine gestellt werden.

  14. Tipps und Tricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häger, Wolfgang; Bauermeister, Dirk

    Hier wollen wir einige uns nützlich erscheinende Hinweise zur Arbeit mit dem Inventor geben. Dabei geht es vor allem darum, das Arbeiten mit dem Inventor zu vereinfachen. Die Beispiele stellen eine unvollständige Aufzählung dar und sollen dazu anregen, nach alternativen Vorgehensweisen zu suchen (hier sei noch einmal ausdrücklich auf das Internet verwiesen).

  15. Arbeitsgestaltung und Mitarbeiterqualifizierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss-Oberdorfer, Werner; Hörner, Barbara; Holm, Ruth; Pirner, Evelin

    Die Wertkette gliedert ein Unternehmen in strategisch relevante Tätigkeiten, um dadurch Kostenverhalten sowie vorhandene und potenzielle Differenzierungsquellen zu verstehen. Wenn ein Unternehmen diese strategisch wichtigen Aktivitäten billiger oder besser als seine Konkurrenten erledigt, verschafft es sich einen Wettbewerbsvorteil." Michael Porter, 1985

  16. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  17. Stroke: First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid Stroke: First aid Stroke: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A stroke occurs when there's bleeding into your brain or when normal blood flow to ... next several hours. Seek immediate medical assistance. A stroke is a true emergency. The sooner treatment is ...

  18. Tanzendes Tier oder exzentrische Positionalität - Philosophische Anthropologie zwischen Darwinismus und Kulturalismus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Joachim

    Zunächst kurz vorweg zu den Formeln im Titel: "exzentrische Positionalität“ ist der Kategorienvorschlag der Philosophischen Anthropologie (genauer: von Helmuth Plessner) für den Menschen, für seine "Sonderstellung“ unter den Lebewesen - ich werde diesen Begriff erläutern. So viel kann man sagen: Der Terminus ist nicht schwieriger als "Transzendentalität“ oder das "Apriori“ oder "Autopoiesis“, also Begriffe, mit deren Orientierungswert in der intellektuellen Öffentlichkeit bereits gespielt wird, bietet aber möglicherweise mehr Erschließungskraft als die Kunstbegriffe z. B. von Kant, Maturana oder Luhmann. Und "tanzendes Tier“ ist ein glücklicher Anschauungsbegriff, eine Art Übersetzung für "exzentrische Positionalität“ - also ein "verrücktes“ Lebewesen, eine Verrückung im evolutionären Leben, die dieses Lebewesen von Natur aus zu einer bestimmten Art von Lebensführung, nämlich Kultur nötigt. Die Absicht des Beitrages ist es, die Philosophische Anthropologie als eine spezifische Theorietechnik zu präsentieren, um einen adäquaten Begriff des Menschen zu erreichen, und zwar eine Theoriestrategie angesichts des cartesianischen Dualismus - also des Dualismus zwischen Naturalismus und Kulturalismus.

  19. Wirkstoffe, Medikamente und Mathematische Bildverarbeitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Günter J.; Lorenz, Dirk A.; Maaß, Peter; Preckel, Hartwig; Trede, Dennis

    Die Entwicklung neuer Medikamente ist langwierig und teuer. Der erste Schritt ist hierbei die Suche nach neuen Wirkstoffkandidaten, die für die Behandlung bislang schwer therapierbarer Krankheiten geeignet sind. Hierfür stehen der Pharma- und Biotechnologieindustrie riesige Substanzbibliotheken zur Verfügung. In diesen Bibliotheken werden die unterschiedlichsten Substanzen gesammelt, die entweder synthetisch hergestellt oder aus Pilzen, Bakterienkulturen und anderen Lebewesen gewonnen werden können.

  20. [Stroke - lifestyle and environment].

    PubMed

    Gerischer, L M; Flöel, A; Endres, M

    2015-08-01

    Lifestyle modifications and environmental factors are important for stroke prevention and rehabilitation after stroke. The individual stroke risk may be modified by factors like physical activity, body weight and nutrition, special dietary supplements such as vitamins, smoking, consumption of tea, coffee and alcohol, psychological factors and by keeping a pet. The focus of this article lies on measures for stroke prevention. For certain topics, it also comments on factors that are important during rehabilitation after stroke.

  1. Was leistet ein Sportler? Kraft, Leistung und Energie im Muskel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Sigrid; Mathelitsch, Leopold

    2006-01-01

    Der Leistungsbegriff ist im Sport weiter gefasst als in der Physik. In beiden Fällen liegt der Fokus jedoch auf einer pro Zeiteinheit erfolgten Energieumsetzung. Allerdings gibt die rein physikalische Leistung nicht immer Auskunft über den Energieumsatz der Muskeln. Die Muskelkraft hängt von der Kontraktionsgeschwindigkeit des Muskels ab. Ein Muskel verhält sich also anders als eine Feder. Für den Hochleistungssport müssen die Energieumsätze der Muskeln durch spezielle Trainings- und Nahrungsprogramme optimiert werden.

  2. Zusammenfassung und Ausblick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopp, Lothar; Wiegleb, Gerhard

    Mit dem vorliegenden Buch wird als Ergebnis eines durch die Deutsche BundesstiftungUmwelt (DBU) geförderten Forschungsprojektes an der Brandenburgischen Technischen Universität Cottbus eine erste Standardisierung der Vorgehensweise zur Erfassung, Risikoabschätzung und Bewertung eines Biodiversitätsschadens nach dem Umweltschadensgesetz (USchadG) vorgelegt. Damit kann eine erste Bewertung potentieller Schadenssituationen vorgenommen werden. Die Nutzung der hier erarbeiteten Vorgehensweise bietet sich daher für all diejenigen an, die mit der Frage einer möglichen Haftung für Biodiversitätsschäden nach dem USchadG konfrontiert sind, seien es die Unteren und Oberen Naturschutzbehörden der Länder, die Schadensversicherer, die potentiell Haftenden oder die Naturschutzverbände.

  3. Global Burden of Stroke.

    PubMed

    Feigin, Valery L; Norrving, Bo; Mensah, George A

    2017-02-03

    On the basis of the GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2013 Study, this article provides an overview of the global, regional, and country-specific burden of stroke by sex and age groups, including trends in stroke burden from 1990 to 2013, and outlines recommended measures to reduce stroke burden. It shows that although stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years rates tend to decline from 1990 to 2013, the overall stroke burden in terms of absolute number of people affected by, or who remained disabled from, stroke has increased across the globe in both men and women of all ages. This provides a strong argument that "business as usual" for primary stroke prevention is not sufficiently effective. Although prevention of stroke is a complex medical and political issue, there is strong evidence that substantial prevention of stroke is feasible in practice. The need to scale-up the primary prevention actions is urgent.

  4. Airplane stroke syndrome.

    PubMed

    Humaidan, Hani; Yassi, Nawaf; Weir, Louise; Davis, Stephen M; Meretoja, Atte

    2016-07-01

    Only 37 cases of stroke during or soon after long-haul flights have been published to our knowledge. In this retrospective observational study, we searched the Royal Melbourne Hospital prospective stroke database and all discharge summaries from 1 September 2003 to 30 September 2014 for flight-related strokes, defined as patients presenting with stroke within 14days of air travel. We hypothesised that a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an important, but not the only mechanism, of flight-related stroke. We describe the patient, stroke, and flight characteristics. Over the study period, 131 million passengers arrived at Melbourne airport. Our centre admitted 5727 stroke patients, of whom 42 (0.73%) had flight-related strokes. Flight-related stroke patients were younger (median age 65 versus 73, p<0.001), had similar stroke severity, and received intravenous thrombolysis more often than non-flight-related stroke patients. Seven patients had flight-related intracerebral haemorrhage. The aetiology of the ischaemic strokes was cardioembolic in 14/35 (40%), including seven patients with confirmed PFO, one with atrial septal defect, four with atrial fibrillation, one with endocarditis, and one with aortic arch atheroma. Paradoxical embolism was confirmed in six patients. Stroke related to air travel is a rare occurrence, less than one in a million. Although 20% of patients had a PFO, distribution of stroke aetiologies was diverse and was not limited to PFO and paradoxical embolism.

  5. Generierung korrespondierender Schichtbilder zur verbesserten lokalen Analyse des linken Ventrikels in 4D-MRT-Bildsequenzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Säring, D.; Müllerleile, K.; Groth, M.; Handels, H.

    Die genaue Erfassung lokaler Veränderungen des linken Ventrikels insbesondere bei der Verlaufskontrolle nach einem Infarkt erfordert die Extraktion lokaler Form- und Funktionsparameter. Die für den Inter- und Intrapatientenvergleich notwendige räumliche Korrespondenz der MRT-Schichtbilder ist durch die manuelle Planung der Schichtpositionen beim Aufnahmeverfahren i.A. nicht gewährleistet. In dieser Arbeit wird daher ein Verfahren vorgestellt, das unter Berücksichtigung der anatomischen Grenzen des linken Ventrikels räumlich korrespondierende Positionen bestimmt, zu denen anschließend unter Verwendung der originären Daten und der strukturerhaltenden Interpolation neue Schichtbilder generiert werden. Dadurch wird eine bessere Übereinstimmung der räumlichen Position der zu vergleichenden Schichten erzielt. Das Verfahren wurde an zu Evaluationszwecken generierten Probandendatensätzen getestet. Dabei konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Generierung korrespondierender Kurzachsen-MRT-Schichtbilder zu einer verbesserten Extraktion lokaler Parameter führt.

  6. Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart disease and stroke prevention Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease and stroke prevention Related information Learn more about healthy eating ... to top More information on Heart disease and stroke prevention Read more from womenshealth.gov A Lifetime ...

  7. Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Stroke Heroes Among Us Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia) Updated:Nov 15,2016 Excerpted and adapted ... stiffness (spasticity), fatigue and more. Let's Talk About Stroke Fact Sheets Our stroke fact sheets cover treatments, ...

  8. Stroke in Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, Brian; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Minorities in the United States have higher stroke risks, stroke occurrence at an earlier age, and for some groups, more severe strokes than non-Hispanic whites. Factors contributing to this disparity are explored. Characteristics of African American, Hispanic, and Native American stroke risk and incidence are reviewed. We mention recent interventions to raise the awareness of stroke risk factors and symptoms in minorities. The importance of the problem is discussed, and we suggest ways stroke in minorities may be reduced. PMID:19026907

  9. Pyropheophorbide und a as a catabolite of ethylene-induced chlorophyll und a degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Shimokawa, Keishi; Hashizume, Akihito ); Shioi, Yuzo )

    1990-05-01

    An enzyme extract prepared from ethylene-induced degreening Citrus fruits contains chlorophyll (Chl) degrading enzymes. The fate of Chl carbons during an enzymatic degradation was investigated using Chl {und a}-{sup 14}C. Accompanying the disappearance of labelled Chl {und a}, pheophorbide {und a} and pyropheophorbide {und a} appeared and accumulation of pyropheophorbide {und a} was observed. HydroxyChl {und a} was also detected, but this is thought to be an artifact during chromatography. Unlike ethylene-induced Citrus fruits (in vivo), further degradation of pyropheophorbide {und a} did not occur in vitro enzyme system. This suggests that there is a lack of enzyme(s) and/or cofactor(s) for further degradation. It is concluded that Chl {und a} degraded enzymatically by the following order: Chl {und a}, chlorophyllide {und a}, pheophorbide {und a} and pyropheophorbide {und a}.

  10. Biologie statt Philosophie? Evolutionäre Kulturerklärungen und ihre Grenzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illies, Christian

    Vor über siebzig Jahren fand man in einer Höhle nahe Hohlenstein-Stadel, im heutigen Baden-Württemberg, eine Frau, die keiner bekannten Spezies und nicht einmal eindeutig den Hominiden zugeordnet werden konnte. Wegen ihres Aussehens wurde sie schon bald als "Löwenfrau“ bekannt (unterdessen wird sie als "Löwenmensch“ bezeichnet, da die in solchen Fragen Klarheit schaffenden Geschlechtsteile bei der Figur fehlen und in Zeiten von gender mainstreaming derartige Festlegungen gerne vermieden werden), denn sie hatte eine menschlich-aufrechte, unbehaarte Gestalt mit weiblichen Rundungen, aber zugleich eine Mähne, sowie Augen, Ohren und Schnauze eines Löwen. Eine sehr weitläufige Verwandte des Minotaurus, so schien es, und doch wesentlich älter als alle Bewohner des Olymps, denn vermutlich wurde die knapp 30 cm große Skulptur bereits in der Altsteinzeit vor etwa 32.000 Jahren aus Mammut-Elfenbein geschnitzt. Wir wissen nicht, ob sie kultischen Zwecken diente oder ein Kind mit ihr spielte, ob sie als Glücksbringer für die Jagd oder als Schamanin mit Löwenmaske verehrt und gefürchtet wurde. Aber die Löwenfrau legt nahe, dass der Mensch schon im Morgendämmern seiner Kultur über die eigene Nähe, aber auch Distanz zum Tier nachgedacht haben muss. Die Frage nach der menschlichen Selbstverortung begegnet uns in dieser Figur, und sie bestimmt viele Zeugnisse menschlichen Nachdenkens, welche uns die Altertumswissenschaften vorlegen. Mit dem Begriff "animal rationale“, wie er unter Bezug auf Aristoteles geprägt wurde, findet sie schließlich ihre klassische, für das Abendland lange Zeit maßgebliche Antwort: Der Mensch als Tier, dessen spezifisches Merkmal die Vernunftbegabtheit ist, die ihn zugleich von allen anderen Tieren abgrenzt und über sie stellt. Aber wo genau verläuft die Grenze? Und wie kann der Mensch beides zugleich sein? Die aristotelische Definition beantwortet diese Fragen nach der Doppelnatur nicht, sondern erhebt das offene R

  11. Campus Single Sign-On und hochschulübergreifendes Identity Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, Wolfgang

    Das im Rahmen von IntegraTUM für die TUM geschaffene Identity & Access Management System setzt das Paradigma unified login um, d. h. ein Benutzer kann alle für ihn relevanten Dienste innerhalb der Hochschule mit derselben Loginname-/Passwortkombination nutzen. Dieser Artikel zeigt, wie auf Basis der Software Shibboleth und der deutschlandweiten Hochschulföderation DFN-AAI als weitere Mehrwerte das campusweite web single sign-on und die nahtlose Nutzung zahlreicher externer Web-Anwendungen erreicht werden. Als Beispiel für die Abläufe bei der Erschließung neuer Dienste für die hochschulübergreifende Nutzung wird die Anbindung von Learning Management Systemen auf Basis des DFN-AAI E-Learning-Profils diskutiert. Den umfassenden Vorteilen werden schließlich die aktuellen technischen Grenzen bei der Umsetzung des hochschulübergreifenden Identity Management gegenübergestellt.

  12. Die Struktur von schlankem Materialfluss mit Lean Production Kanban und Innovationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheid, Wolf-Michael

    In der Literatur wird Materialfluss überwiegend in Spezialdisziplinen betrachtet, etwa der Steuerungslogik, der Logistiktechnik oder dem Supply Chain Management. Ein charakterisierendes Merkmal des Materialflusses ist jedoch, dass er sich aus vielfältigen Einzelbausteinen zusammensetzt, die alle harmonisch abgestimmt sein müssen. Die maximal erreichbare Effizienz wird nicht durch Höchstleistungen in dem einen oder anderen Spezialthema bestimmt, sondern durch das schwächste Glied im gesamten komplexen Netzwerk. Den Schnittstellen zwischen den betroffenen Fachbereichen in einem Unternehmen kommt hier eine ganz besondere Bedeutung zu: Erst ein harmonischer Einklang ermöglicht hohe Effektivität. Dies setzt umfassendes Verständnis für interdisziplinäre Notwendigkeiten, ein hohes Maß an Abstimmung mit den operativen Prozessen und letztlich einen einvernehmlichen Umgang und den Respekt vor den Problemstellungen des Anderen voraus.

  13. Stroke Warning Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms, call 9-1-1 or emergency medical services immediately. After Calling 911: Receiving timely stroke treatment is important and an important step to recovery. Why Getting Quick Stroke Treatment is Important "Let's ...

  14. Two Kinds of Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Two Kinds of Stroke Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table ... minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds of stroke. The more common kind, called ...

  15. Stroke Connection Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... edition or on the Stroke Connection website. The Poetry of Survival Poetry uses words to process emotions, and stroke appears to bring up plenty of emotions. Read the poetry of five survivors as well as guidance from ...

  16. Stroke Trials Registry

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Trials Registry Clinical Trials Interventions Conditions Sponsors ... a clinical trial near you Welcome to the Stroke Trials Registry Our registry of clinical trials in ...

  17. Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More The Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia Click a letter below to get a ... dozens of cardiovascular terms from our Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia and get links to in-depth information. ...

  18. Physik gestern und heute Die Messung elektrostatischer Kräfte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2002-11-01

    Im Jahre 1785 veröffentlichte der französische Militäringenieur Charles Augustin Coulomb das Kraft-Abstand-Gesetz für elektrische Ladungen. Bereits zuvor hatte Henry Cavendish auf andere Art und Weise diese Beziehung nachgewiesen, aber nicht publiziert. Entsprechende Experimente wurden auch noch in jüngerer Zeit ausgeführt, da sie eine obere Abschätzung für die Ruhemasse des Photons erlauben.

  19. Stroke Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems judging distances — The stroke survivor may misjudge distances and fall or be unable to guide her hands to pick something up. Impaired judgment and behavior — The stroke survivor may try to do things that she should not do, such as driving a car. Short-term memory loss — The stroke survivor may ...

  20. [Japan stroke scales and its application for stroke].

    PubMed

    Amano, Takahiro

    2002-11-01

    There are many stroke scales currently available for estimating the severity and outcome of stroke. However, none of the stroke scales have been able to objectively quantify the severity of stroke. The Japan Stroke Society formed a subcommittee to task force the development of an innovative, quantifiable stroke scale. Conjoint analysis was utilized to compile this data. Finally, they developed a novel, and quantifiable Japan Stroke for the acute phase of stroke (JSS) (Stroke 32: 1800-1807, 2001). In addition to standard JSS, the Japan Stroke Scale Motor Function and Japan Stroke scale--Higher Cortical Function were finalized. These stroke scales are all parametric stroke scales. We utilize the stroke scales to monitor stroke patients, to start clinical pathway on patients with lacunas infarction after deciding whether severity of stroke is suitable for the clinical pathway by JSS. We use the JSS for the clinical studies of stroke patients. Furthermore, the JSS was utilized in the phase 2 trial of a new treatment in stroke patients which had significant statistical power. The scales were also introduced to the stroke databank. Therefore, these scales are useful to monitoring the neurological damage of stroke patients in the acute and chronic phase and to estimating the severity of stroke symptoms and predicting stroke outcome in clinical studies. They also have a potential to prove the efficacy of treatments through parametric analysis.

  1. Beschallungstechnik, Beschallungsplanung und Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnert, Wolfgang; Goertz, Anselm

    Die primäre Aufgabe einer Lautsprecheranlage ist es, Musik, Sprache oder auch Signaltöne und Geräusche wiederzugeben. Diese können von einem Tonträger kommen (CD, Sprachspeicher), von einem anderen Ort übertragen (Zuspielung über Radio, TV, Telefon) oder vor Ort erzeugt werden. Letzteres umfasst Konzerte, Ansprachen, Durchsagen oder künstlerische Darbietungen, bei denen es meist darum geht, eine bereits vorhandene Quelle einer größeren oder weiter verteilten Anzahl von Personen zugänglich zu machen.

  2. Psychoneuroimmunology of stroke.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Robert; Georgiou, Rachel; Thornton, Peter; Rothwell, Nancy

    2009-05-01

    Stroke is the major cause of disability in the Western world and is the third greatest cause of death, but there are no widely effective treatments to prevent the devastating effects of stroke. Extensive and growing evidence implicates inflammatory and immune processes in the occurrence of stroke and particularly in the subsequent injury. Several inflammatory mediators have been identified in the pathogenesis of stroke including specific cytokines, adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinases, and eicosanoids. An early clinical trial suggests that inhibiting interleukin-1 may be of benefit in the treatment of acute stroke.

  3. Lightning return stroke models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y. T.; Uman, M. A.; Standler, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    We test the two most commonly used lightning return stroke models, Bruce-Golde and transmission line, against subsequent stroke electric and magnetic field wave forms measured simultaneously at near and distant stations and show that these models are inadequate to describe the experimental data. We then propose a new return stroke model that is physically plausible and that yields good approximations to the measured two-station fields. Using the new model, we derive return stroke charge and current statistics for about 100 subsequent strokes.

  4. Epigenetics in Stroke Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kassis, Haifa; Shehadah, Amjad; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: While the death rate from stroke has continually decreased due to interventions in the hyperacute stage of the disease, long-term disability and institutionalization have become common sequelae in the aftermath of stroke. Therefore, identification of new molecular pathways that could be targeted to improve neurological recovery among survivors of stroke is crucial. Epigenetic mechanisms such as post-translational modifications of histone proteins and microRNAs have recently emerged as key regulators of the enhanced plasticity observed during repair processes after stroke. In this review, we highlight the recent advancements in the evolving field of epigenetics in stroke recovery. PMID:28264471

  5. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft in der Weimarer Republik und während der Nazidiktatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Jürgen

    Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten durch den 1. Weltkrieg erlangte die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft (DStatG) unter dem renommierten Statistiker und Vorsitzenden der DStatG, Friedrich Zahn, durch eine Vielzahl von Aktivitäten hohes Ansehen. Es gab Bestrebungen, Statistiker aus allen Arbeitsfeldern der Statistik in die DStatG zu integrieren, wobei die "Mathematische Statistik" nur zögerlich akzeptiert wurde (Konjunkturforschung, Zeitreihenanalyse). Nach der Machtübernahme 1933 durch Adolf Hitler geriet die DStatG in das Fahrwasser nationalsozialistischer Ideologie und Politik (Führerprinzip, Gleichschaltung des Vereinswesens). Damit war eine personelle Umstrukturierung in der DStatG verbunden. Politisch Missliebige und rassisch Verfolgte mussten die DStatG verlassen (Bernstein, Freudenberg, Gumbel u.a.). Unter den Statistikern gab es alle Abstufungen im Verhalten zum Regime von Ablehnung und zwangsweiser Anpassung über bereitwilliges Mitläufertum bis zu bewusster Täterschaft. Besonders die Bevölkerungsstatistik wurde durch die NS- Rassenpolitik auf lange Sicht diskreditiert. Im Rahmen von Wirtschaftsplanung und Aufrüstung wurden neue zukunftsträchtige statistische Modelle (Grünig, Bramstedt, Leisse) entwickelt.

  6. Missbrauchspotential von Verzeichnisdienst-Metadaten in LDAP-basierten System- und Benutzerverwaltungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluta, Daniel

    Metadaten stellen Zusatzinformationen über elektronisch gespeicherte Kerninformationen zur Verfügung. Sie ergänzen die eigentliche Hauptinformation um nützliche Details. In vielen Bereichen werden Metadaten gespeichert und stehen zur Auswertung zur Verfügung. Alle IT-nahen Systeme, angefangen im Konsumerbereich (z.B. digitale Kameras) bis hin zu unternehmenskritischen Applikationen führen im Hintergrund Metadaten - parallel zu den eigentlichen Hauptdaten. Metadaten im Allgemeinen sind per se als neutral, d.h. weder positiv noch negativ, zu bewerten. So wirken sich diese häufig positiv auf das Finden und Sortieren von digitalen Dokumenten aus. Negativ treten Metadaten eigentlich immer nur dann in Erscheinung, sobald diese ursprünglich zusätzlichen und nützlichen (und daher im Gegensatz zu den Hauptdaten nicht besonders beachteten bzw. geschützten) Informationen entgegen ihrer Bestimmung, zweckentfremdet werden. Auch Verzeichnisdienste verfügen über solche nützlichen Metadaten zu den jeweils in ihnen gespeicherten Inhalten. Ob, und wenn ja wie weit diese nützlichen Inhalte auch ein Risiko darstellen können wird im Rahmen dieses Artikels anhand eines konkreten Szenarios aus dem Umfeld des Systemmanagements gezeigt.

  7. Molekulare Methoden zum Nachweis, zur Quantifizierung und zum Monitoring der Mykotoxinbildung lebensmittelrelevanter Pilze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisen, Rolf

    Schimmelpilze kommen ubiquitär vor und spielen besonders bei pflanzlichen Lebensmitteln und Rohprodukten eine besondere Rolle als Verderbsorganismen. Es wird geschätzt, dass 20-25 % der jährlichen Produktion an pflanzlichen Produkten durch Schimmelpilze verdorben werden (Smith et al., 1994). Viele der lebensmittelrelevanten Schimmelpilze sind zudem in der Lage, Mykotoxine, toxische Sekundärmetabolite, zu bilden, was das Ausmaß des Problems deutlich macht. Die wichtigsten mykotoxinbildenden Spezies gehören zu den Fusarien (Trichothecene, Fumonisine, Zearalenon), Aspergillen (Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin, Cyclopiazonsäure) und Penicillien (Patulin, Ochratoxin). Für viele Mykotoxine, wie die Aflatoxine, Ochratoxin, Fumonisine und Trichothecene sind Grenzwerte erlassen worden, die die Verkehrsfähigkeit betroffener Produkte regeln. Die Einhaltung der Grenzwerte kann sehr genau durch offizielle chemisch-analytische Methoden, wie HPLC, GC-MS etc. kontrolliert werden. Diese analytischen Methoden sind aber für die Anwendung eines HACCP-Ansatzes zur Kontrolle der Mykotoxinbildung nur bedingt geeignet, da sie Endpunktkontrollen darstellen und nur das über eine längere Zeit gebildete Mykotoxin bestimmen. Sie sagen daher nichts über die biologischen Bedingungen zur Zeit der Bildung durch den Pilz aus.

  8. Workflow-Management für organisationsübergreifende Datenübertragung am Beispiel des E-Learning-Systems der TUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boursas, Latifa

    In diesem Paper werden im ersten Schritt die Voraussetzungen und Anforderungen für Workflow-Management zur Bereitstellung einer organisationsübergreifenden Datenübertragung ausgeführt. Weiter werden auf einfache Art und Weise die Grundlagen des Identity Managements (IDM) und der Provisionierung von Zielsystemen erläutert sowie die technischen Lösungsideen für die genannten Anforderungen eingeführt. Am Beispiel des E-Learning-Systems der TU München zeigen wir zwei Lösungsansätze. Zu jedem Lösungsansatz werden die technischen Workflows genauer betrachtet und der Funktionsumfang erläutert. Ein paar Uses Cases bei den Datenkonvertierungen, die sich auf die verschiedenen Identity-Management-Schnittstellen beziehen werden auch präsentiert. Am Ende schließt ein Vergleich der beiden Lösungsansätze die Analyse ab.

  9. Secondary stroke prevention.

    PubMed

    Hankey, Graeme J

    2014-02-01

    Survivors of stroke and transient ischaemic attacks are at risk of a recurrent stroke, which is often more severe and disabling than the index event. Optimum secondary prevention of recurrent stroke needs rapid diagnosis and treatment and prompt identification of the underlying cardiovascular cause. Effective treatments include organised acute assessment and intervention with antithrombotic therapy, carotid revascularisation, and control of causal risk factors, as appropriate. However, effective treatments are not implemented optimally in clinical practice. Recurrent strokes continue to account for 25-30% of all strokes and represent unsuccessful secondary prevention. Immediate and sustained implementation of effective and appropriate secondary prevention strategies in patients with first-ever stroke or transient ischaemic attack has the potential to reduce the burden of stroke by up to a quarter.

  10. Aspiration Pneumonia After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, John R.; Mosher, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen million strokes occur worldwide each year with 5 million associated deaths and an additional 5 million people left permanently disabled. In the United States, about 780 000 people suffer a new or recurrent stroke each year. There were an estimated total 5.8 million stroke survivors as of 2008. Mortality from stroke is the third leading cause of death in America following heart disease and cancer. Chest infection may affect up to as many as one-third of stroke patients. This increases the morbidity and mortality of this patient population. Pneumonia causes the highest attributable mortality of all medical complications following stroke. A comprehensive multidisciplinary team approach is required at the hospital level. This requires active administrative commitment and participation. Implementation of evidence-based management strategies can improve outcomes and reduce costs. We sought to review the problem of post-stroke pneumonia and discuss strategies for prevention and intervention. PMID:23983842

  11. Bestimmung thermischer Eigenschaften der Gesteine des Unteren und Mittleren Buntsandsteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Claudia; Schulze, Marcellus

    2016-03-01

    For accurate planning of vertical borehole heat exchanger systems, knowledge of thermo-physical ground parameters is critical. This study reports laboratory-measured thermal conductivity and diffusivity values of Mesozoic sandstones (Lower and Middle Buntsandstein) from four wells. The measurements were made on drill core using an optical scanning method. The mean thermal conductivities of the sandstones range between 2.6 ± 0.3 W / (m · K) and 3.1 ± 0.4 W / (m · K) for dry conditions and between 3.6 ± 0.3 W / (m · K) and 4.1 ± 0.6 W / (m · K) after saturation with water. The mean thermal diffusivity values range between (1.6 ± 0.2) · 10- 6 m2 / s for dry and (2.0 ± 0.6) · 10- 6 m2 / s for water-saturated sandstones. Thermal properties are closely related to the petrography and lithostratigraphy of the sandstones. Additionally, three temperature correction methods were applied for the purpose of evaluating the comparative accuracy and the correction schemes with respect to local in-situ conditions. The results show that the temperature corrections proposed by Somerton (Thermal properties on temperature-related behavior of rock/fluid systems, Elsevier, New York, S 257, 1992) and Sass et al. (J Geophys Res, 97:5017-5030, 1992) are most suited for the respective sandstone data set.

  12. 25 Jahre - Institut fuer Geodaesie, Teil 3: Aus dem Leben des Instituts (25 Years - Institute of Geodesy, Part 3: The Life of the Institute)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    seit 1995 Dezernatsleiter fOr digitale Kartographie am Landesvermessungsarnt Thiringen in Erfurt Dipl.-Ing. Chengzu Li * geboren 1946 in Chengdu, VR...UniversitUit Berlin, geleiteten Projekte Dl1, D2 und D6 des DFG-Sonderforschungsbereichs 69 waren Dl: die digitale Bildklassifizierung und -interpretation...Messkampagne bei der Einrichtung eines ganz SUid- amerika Oberdeckenden geodditischen Bezugssystems ( Sistema de Referencia Geocentrico para America del

  13. Drug abuse and stroke.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José M

    2013-02-01

    Cerebrovascular disorders contribute to the morbidity and disability associated with illicit drug use. Drug abusers have an increased risk of both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. In geographic areas with a high prevalence of illicit drug use, drug abuse is a frequent cause of stroke in the young adult. The illicit drugs more commonly associated with stroke are psychomotor stimulants, such as amphetamine and cocaine. Less commonly implicated are opioids and psychotomimetic drugs, including cannabis. Toxicology screening for illicit drugs should be done in young patients with stroke with no obvious cause, or if suggested by history or examination. Although in some patients the mechanism of stroke is identified using neuroimaging and other modern diagnostic tools, in a sizeable fraction of cases the mechanism of stroke remains unclear. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of hemodynamic and immunologic mechanisms in these cases.

  14. Posterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Go, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 20-25% of all acute strokes occur in the posterior circulation. These strokes can be rather difficult to diagnose because they present in such diverse ways, and can easily be mistaken for more benign entities. A fastidious history, physical exam, high clinical suspicion, and appropriate use of imaging are essential for the emergency physician to properly diagnose and treat these patients. Expert stroke neurologist consultation should be utilized liberally.

  15. Strömungs- und Tracer-Transportmodellierung am Natural Attenuation-Standort Zeitz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gödeke, Stefan; Weiß, Holger; Geistlinger, Helmut; Fischer, Anko; Richnow, Hans Herrmann; Schirmer, Mario

    Kurzfassung Numerische Modelle spielen bei der Bewertung von Natural-Attenuation-Prozessen an Feldstandorten eine bedeutende Rolle. Daher ist es wichtig diese mit Felddaten zu überprüfen und gegebenenfalls erneut zu kalibrieren. Die Modellierung des Transports eines konservativen Tracers auf der Grundlage von Felddaten ergab eine zuverlässigere Abschätzung der Kf-Werte des numerischen Strömungsmodells für den Standort, als es mit anderen Methoden (z. B. Analyse der Siebwerte) möglich war. Die Kf-Werte berechnet aus Siebanalysen führten zu einer deutlichen Unterschätzung der Tracerausbreitungsgeschwindigkeit. Zwischen beobachteten und berechneten Durchbruchskurven wurde eine gute Übereinstimmung erzielt, sodass das Modell für die Planung weiterer Feldexperimente und als Grundlage für eine reaktive Transportmodellierung genutzt werden kann. Die hydraulischen Leitfähigkeiten im Untersuchungsgebiet ändern sich in vertikaler und horizontaler Richtung im Bereich weniger Dezimeter z. T. stark, was von dem numerischen Modell nur begrenzt wiedergegeben werden kann. Für die Modellierung der Tracerausbreitung ist die Kenntnis der Kf-Wert-Verteilung im Bereich des Infiltrationsbrunnens besonders wichtig, weil sie die Struktur der Tracerfahne im Abstrom wesentlich beeinflusst. Die Wahl des numerischen Verfahrens für die Lösung der Transportgleichung hatte bei der Kalibrierung des Strömungsmodells einen großen Einfluss. Während mit dem in MT3DMS vorhandenen TVD (〝Total Variation Diminishing``)-Algorithmus eine akzeptable Lösung gefunden wurde, zeigten sich bei der Verwendung des MOC (〝Method of Characteristics``)-Verfahrens signifikante Fehler in der Massenbilanz. Reliable numerical models are of primary importance for the evaluation of Natural-Attenuation processes at field sites. Modelling the flow and transport of a conservative tracer, a more realistic distribution of the hydraulic conductivity values for the numerical model was achieved and a good

  16. Recovery After Stroke: Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    Recovery After Stroke: Healthy Eating Eating well after stroke is key to your recovery. Choosing healthy foods can help you keep up ... get the nutrition you need for your stroke recovery.  Eat your biggest meal early in the day ...

  17. Stroke Drills for Swimming Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Peter J.

    1982-01-01

    Stroke drills to be used by swimming instructors to teach four competitive swim strokes are described. The drills include: one arm swims; (2) alternative kicks; (3) fist swims; and (4) catch-up strokes. (JN)

  18. Neurorestoration after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Tej D.; Veeravagu, Anand; Steinberg, Gary K.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in stem cell biology and neuromodulation have ushered in a battery of new neurorestorative therapies for ischemic stroke. While the understanding of stroke pathophysiology has matured, the ability to restore patients’ quality of life remains inadequate. New therapeutic approaches, including cell transplantation and neurostimulation, focus on reestablishing the circuits disrupted by ischemia through multidimensional mechanisms to improve neuroplasticity and remodeling. The authors provide a broad overview of stroke pathophysiology and existing therapies to highlight the scientifc and clinical implications of neurorestorative therapies for stroke. PMID:27132523

  19. Hypercoagulable states and strokes.

    PubMed

    Matijevic, Nena; Wu, Kenneth K

    2006-07-01

    Several hematologic disorders and hemostatic defects increase risk of ischemic stroke. A common feature of these disorders is the creation of a prothrombotic state, now commonly referred to as "hypercoagulable state." Hematologic diseases such as essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura clearly cause stroke. Effective treatment is now available for these disorders. Association of hemostatic defects with stroke risk is still at the investigational stage. Although a number of factors such as soluble thrombomodulin, fibrinogen, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 are associated with stroke risk, their predictive values remain unknown. Furthermore, causal relationship has not been established.

  20. Hydrogeochemie und geogene Fluorid- und Borproblematik des Emschermergels im Münsterland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisotzky, Frank; Droste, Björn; Banning, Andre

    2017-01-01

    The hydrogeochemistry of the Cretaceous Emscher Fm. in northwest Germany was investigated, including analysis of 160 rock samples for carbon and sulfur content. Beneath a weathered zone, unweathered rocks containing pyrite were found. Groundwater data from the Emscher Fm. (580 analyses of house wells and additional literature data) were collected and evaluated. Some groundwater contains high fluoride and boron concentrations of up to 10 mg/l. Regionally, up to 30% of house wells show fluoride concentrations above 1.5 mg/l, and up to 50% above 1 mg/l boron. The spatial distribution depends on the presence of Quaternary cover sediments. Groundwater with high fluoride concentrations displays low Ca2+, and vice versa, indicating equilibrium with the mineral fluorite (CaF2). Concentrations above drinking water guidelines almost exclusively occur in ion exchange waters of the Na-HCO3 -(Cl) type with pH > 7.5. The main mobilization mechanism of both contaminants appears to be pH-triggered desorption from mineral surfaces.

  1. Diskrepanzen und Kongruenzen: Das Dilemma des afrikanischen Kindes zwischen Familie und Schule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Annemarie

    1986-03-01

    This article expounds the theory that the failure of school is due to the incompatibility of the educational goals of school and traditional upbringing in Africa. The thesis is put forward by adherents of the psychoanalytical model of child development and seeks to emphasize the discrepancies between the childhood where children are not frustrated and where their needs are cared for and the school education which represses the drives and its socialization of children. Finding a number of anthropological studies are discussed and reinterpretations of the ethno-psychoanalytical materials attempted. Neither the evaluation of childhood in Africa nor the theory that with school come wholly new expectations of behaviour (e.g., a performance requirement) can no longer be maintained. In conclusion, other explanations for the difficulties encountered by school in Africa are offered.

  2. Hydrogeochemie und geogene Fluorid- und Borproblematik des Emschermergels im Münsterland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisotzky, Frank; Droste, Björn; Banning, Andre

    2017-03-01

    The hydrogeochemistry of the Cretaceous Emscher Fm. in northwest Germany was investigated, including analysis of 160 rock samples for carbon and sulfur content. Beneath a weathered zone, unweathered rocks containing pyrite were found. Groundwater data from the Emscher Fm. (580 analyses of house wells and additional literature data) were collected and evaluated. Some groundwater contains high fluoride and boron concentrations of up to 10 mg/l. Regionally, up to 30% of house wells show fluoride concentrations above 1.5 mg/l, and up to 50% above 1 mg/l boron. The spatial distribution depends on the presence of Quaternary cover sediments. Groundwater with high fluoride concentrations displays low Ca2+, and vice versa, indicating equilibrium with the mineral fluorite (CaF2). Concentrations above drinking water guidelines almost exclusively occur in ion exchange waters of the Na-HCO3 -(Cl) type with pH > 7.5. The main mobilization mechanism of both contaminants appears to be pH-triggered desorption from mineral surfaces.

  3. Recovery After Stroke: Dealing with Pain

    MedlinePlus

    Recovery After Stroke: Dealing with Pain Some survivors have to deal with pain caused by their strokes. ... good quality of life.  Get information on stroke recovery from National Stroke Association. Visit www. stroke. org ...

  4. What to Know - and Do! - about Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Stroke Rehabilitation What to Know – and Do! – About Stroke Past ... chances of having a stroke. Read More "Stroke Rehabilitation" Articles What to Know – and Do! – About Stroke / " ...

  5. Netzgenerierung und Finite-Elemente-Simulation muskulärer Strukturen unter Beachtung korrespondierender histologischer Schnittpräparate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichert, Frank; Schröder, Andreas; Landes, Constantin; Walczak, Lars; Müller, Heinrich; Wagner, Mathias

    In dieser Arbeit wird ein Verfahren zur Netzgenerierung und Finite-Elemente-Simulation muskulärer Strukturen vorgestellt. Eine Herausforderung liegt dabei in der Fusion der Simulationsergebnisse mit den Daten histologischer Schnittpräparate. Basierend auf segmentierten histologischen Daten wird eine Rekonstruktion der relevanten muskulären Strukturen mittels eines BCC-Tetraedernetzes initiiert. Dieses wird getriggert über einen Level-Set-Ansatz. Die Deformation des Muskels wird dann mittels eines hyperelastischen Materialgesetzes modelliert und mithilfe der Finite-Elemente-Methode simuliert. Anschließend erfolgt eine Projektion der Ergebnisse der Simulation auf die histologischen Schnittpräparate. Als Anwendungsfall wurden Daten abortiver Feten mit einer Spaltbildung im Bereich der Lippen-, Kiefer- und Gaumenregion herangezogen.

  6. Technische Systeme für den Herzersatz und die Herzunterstützung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöb, Reto; Loree, Howard M.

    Herzkrankheiten verursachen allein in den Vereinigten Staaten jährlich mehr als 700’000 Todesfälle. Ungefähr 3 Millionen Patienten in den U.S.A. leiden gemäss der American Heart Association (AHA) und dem National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) an kongestivem Herzversagen (Congestive Heart Failure, CHF), welches eine chronische, sehr entkräftende und degenerative Krankheit ist: Das Herz ist dabei unfähig, hinreichend Blut zu den Organen des Körpers zu pumpen. Über 400’000 Fälle von CHF werden jedes Jahr diagnostiziert. Ähnliche Zahlen werden für Europa und Japan zusammen geschätzt. Basierend auf Daten vom AHA und NHLBI beträgt die fünfjährige Überlebensrate für CHF-Patienten lediglich etwa 50% [1]. 70’000-120’000 dieser Patienten könnten von einer Herzverpflanzung profitieren. 1999 wurden in den USA aber nur 2185 Herztransplantationen durchgeführt während die Warteliste über 4000 Patienten beträgt [2]. Ein akuter Mangel an Spenderherzen und die enormen Kosten (250’000-400’000 USD pro Patient) sind die begrenzenden Faktoren für Herztransplantationen [3]. Dies bedeutet, dass eine riesige Anzahl von Patienten durch ein zuverlässiges und verschleissfreies, nichtthrombotisches, total implantierbares, künstliches Herz gerettet werden könnten. Bis heute jedoch kein derartiges Implantat kommerziell verfügbar.

  7. Stroke (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... stroke, doctors usually get an MRI or a CAT scan , which take pictures of the brain and how blood is flowing through the brain. This test can show the doctor what part of the brain has been affected and how big the stroke is. How Does a Person Get ...

  8. Psychoneuroimmunology of stroke.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Robert; Georgiou, Rachel; Thornton, Peter; Rothwell, Nancy

    2006-08-01

    There is now considerable evidence from both experimental and clinical studies that immune and inflammatory processes can contribute to the onset of stroke and the neurologic and psychologic outcomes. Several specific therapeutic targets have been identified that may significantly improve the devastating impact of stroke.

  9. Immune interventions in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ying; Liu, Qiang; Anrather, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory and immune responses in the brain can shape the clinical presentation and outcome of stroke. Approaches for effective management of acute stroke are sparse and many measures for brain protection fail, but our ability to modulate the immune system and modify the disease progression of multiple sclerosis is increasing. As a result, immune interventions are currently being explored as therapeutic interventions in acute stroke. In this Review, we compare the immunological features of acute stroke with those of multiple sclerosis, identify unique immunological features of stroke, and consider the evidence for immune interventions. In acute stroke, microglia activation and cell death products trigger an inflammatory cascade that damages vessels and the parenchyma within minutes to hours of the ischaemia or haemorrhage. Immune interventions that restrict brain inflammation, vascular permeability and tissue oedema must be administered rapidly to reduce acute immune-mediated destruction and to avoid subsequent immunosuppression. Preliminary results suggest that the use of drugs that modify disease in multiple sclerosis might accomplish these goals in ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Further elucidation of the immune mechanisms involved in stroke is likely to lead to successful immune interventions. PMID:26303850

  10. The Danish Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Ingeman, Annette; Hundborg, Heidi Holmager; Schaarup, Susanne Zielke; Gyllenborg, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Stroke Registry is to monitor and improve the quality of care among all patients with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) treated at Danish hospitals. Study population All patients with acute stroke (from 2003) or TIA (from 2013) treated at Danish hospitals. Reporting is mandatory by law for all hospital departments treating these patients. The registry included >130,000 events by the end of 2014, including 10,822 strokes and 4,227 TIAs registered in 2014. Main variables The registry holds prospectively collected data on key processes of care, mainly covering the early phase after stroke, including data on time of delivery of the processes and the eligibility of the individual patients for each process. The data are used for assessing 18 process indicators reflecting recommendations in the national clinical guidelines for patients with acute stroke and TIA. Patient outcomes are currently monitored using 30-day mortality, unplanned readmission, and for patients receiving revascularization therapy, also functional level at 3 months poststroke. Descriptive data Sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors with potential prognostic impact are registered. Conclusion The Danish Stroke Registry is a well-established clinical registry which plays a key role for monitoring and improving stroke and TIA care in Denmark. In addition, the registry is increasingly used for research. PMID:27843349

  11. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  12. Variabilität des Reviergesangs des Buchfinken (Fringilla coelebs) zur Raum-Zeit-Beschreibung von Metapopulationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, Björn

    2003-10-01

    Der Buchfinkengesang wurde in Potsdam in zwei Hauptpopulationen über drei Jahre aufgenommen. Jedes Individuum wurde eindeutig am individuellen Strophentypenrepertoire identifiziert. Ein weiterer Punkt der die individuelle Wiedererkennung bestätigt ist die hohe Standorttreue der adulten Männchen. Die beschriebene Methode eignet sich für die Untersuchung von gesamten Populationen, um den Wandel des Gesangs von Populationen in Raum und Zeit zu beschreiben. Die Haupterkenntnisse der Arbeit sind: - Die Gesamtanzahl der Grundstrophentypen innerhalb einer Population bleibt über Jahre konstant. - Die relative Häufigkeit jedes einzelnen Strophentyps variiert von Jahr zu Jahr und von Population zu Population. - Gesangslernen erfolgt exakt mit einem Korrektheitsgrad von mindestens 96%. - Das Song-Sharing ist innerhalb der Population hoch. Die diskutierten Mechanismen für das Song-Sharing sind: Die Lebenserwartung, das Zugverhalten, das Lernverhalten, die Etabliertheit von Strophentypen, Weibchenpräferenzen und die Reaktionen der territorialen Männchen. - Weiterhin wurde ein Modell zur kulturellen Evolution des Buchfinkengesangs programmiert, um die Rolle der Einflussfaktoren, wie Fehlerquote, Abwanderungsrate und Laufzeit zu ermitteln. Der Wandel des Dialektes erfolgt graduell in Raum und Zeit. Daher sind keine scharfen Dialektgrenzen anzutreffen. Trotz dieser Tatsache markieren die etablierten Strophentypen die Population. 50 % der Juvenilen siedeln am Geburtsort, auf diese Weise bleibt der Dialekt erhalten und Inzest wird vermieden. -Analysiert man das Repertoire benachbarten Männchen bei isolierten Alleen, so entspricht die Gesangsangleichung in etwa dem Zufall. -Intraindividuelle Vergleiche der quantitativen Parameter des jeweiligen Strophentyps wurden saisonal und annuell durchgeführt. Saisonal konnten für einen Strophentyp ein Trend ermittelt werden. Bei jährlichen Vergleichen konnten intraindividuell ausschließlich nicht signifikante Ergebnisse ermittelt

  13. Acute ischemic stroke update.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kathleen; Orr, Sean; Briand, Mary; Piazza, Carolyn; Veydt, Annita; McCoy, Stacey

    2010-05-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the United States and is the number one cause of long-term disability. Legislative mandates, largely the result of the American Heart Association, American Stroke Association, and Brain Attack Coalition working cooperatively, have resulted in nationwide standardization of care for patients who experience a stroke. Transport to a skilled facility that can provide optimal care, including immediate treatment to halt or reverse the damage caused by stroke, must occur swiftly. Admission to a certified stroke center is recommended for improving outcomes. Most strokes are ischemic in nature. Acute ischemic stroke is a heterogeneous group of vascular diseases, which makes targeted treatment challenging. To provide a thorough review of the literature since the 2007 acute ischemic stroke guidelines were developed, we performed a search of the MEDLINE database (January 1, 2004-July 1, 2009) for relevant English-language studies. Results (through July 1, 2009) from clinical trials included in the Internet Stroke Center registry were also accessed. Results from several pivotal studies have contributed to our knowledge of stroke. Additional data support the efficacy and safety of intravenous alteplase, the standard of care for acute ischemic stroke since 1995. Due to these study results, the American Stroke Association changed its recommendation to extend the time window for administration of intravenous alteplase from within 3 hours to 4.5 hours of symptom onset; this recommendation enables many more patients to receive the drug. Other findings included clinically useful biomarkers, the role of inflammation and infection, an expanded role for placement of intracranial stents, a reduced role for urgent carotid endarterectomy, alternative treatments for large-vessel disease, identification of nontraditional risk factors, including risk factors for women, and newly published pediatric stroke guidelines. In addition, new devices for

  14. Kosmologie und Teilchenphysik.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appenzeller, I.

    This book is a selection of 17 articles published in the journal "Spektrum der Wissenschaft". The original English versions of the papers were first published in "Scientific American". Contents: 1. Einführung (I. Appenzeller). 2. Sehr große Strukturen im Universum (J. O. Burns). 3. Die großräumigen Eigenbewegungen der Galaxien (A. Dressler). 4. Dunkle Materie im Universum (L. M. Krauss). 5. Der doppelte Beta-Zerfall (M. K. Moe, S. P. Rosen). 6. Quark-Lepton Familien (D. B. Cline). 7. Beschleunigerexperimente testen kosmologische Theorien (D. N. Schramm, G. Steigman). 8. Das Rätsel der kosmologischen Konstanten (L. Abbott). 9. Das Higgs-Boson (M. J. G. Veltman). 10. Die Suche nach dem Protonenzerfall (J. M. LoSecco, F. Reines, D. Sinclair). 11. Das inflationäre Universum (A. H. Guth, P. J. Steinhardt). 12. Die fünfte Dimension (E. Schmutzer). 13. Die verborgenen Dimensionen der Raumzeit (D. Z. Freedman, P. van Nieuwenhuizen). 14. Ist die Natur supersymmetrisch? (H. E. Haber, G. L. Kane). 15. Schwerkraft und Antimaterie (T. Goldman, R. J. Hughes, M. M. Nieto). 16. Superstrings (M. B. Green). 17. Kosmische Strings (A. Vilenkin).

  15. Der Forschungsflughafen und das Institut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrtsysteme

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Broitzem: Deutsche Verkehrsfliegerschule Völkenrode: Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Luftfahrt (DFL) Waggum: Technische Hochschule Grundsteinlegung...Forschungsflughafen Aerodata Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt DLR VW Air Services TU Braunschweig Luftfahrt -Bundesamt LBA Deutscher Aeroclub

  16. Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Heart Disease & Stroke Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke About 1.5 million heart attacks and strokes happen every year in the United States. You ... some of your risks for heart disease and stroke, but you can manage many of your risks ...

  17. The Migraine–Stroke Connection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Ji; Lee, Chungbin; Chung, Chin-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Migraine and stroke are common neurovascular disorders which share underlying physiological processes. Increased risks of ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and subclinical ischemic lesions have been consistently found in migraineurs. Three possible associations are suggested. One is that underlying pathophysiology of migraine can lead to ischemic stroke. Second, common comorbidities between migraine and stroke can be present. Lastly, some syndromes can manifest with both migraine-like headache and cerebrovascular disease. Future studies should be targeted on bidirectional influence of migraine on different stroke mechanisms and optimal prevention of stroke in migraine patients. PMID:27283278

  18. Sexual function after strokes.

    PubMed

    Boller, François; Agrawal, Kunal; Romano, Alissa

    2015-01-01

    Strokes are the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability worldwide. Thanks in part to better and more available diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation, the vast majority of stroke patients tend to survive strokes, particularly in the industrialized world. Motor disability and cognitive changes such as aphasia and visuospatial disorders are most often considered among the major contributors to stroke burden. This chapter discusses disorders of sexual functions as another frequent sequel of strokes. Strokes generally induce hyposexuality, but in some instances they may be followed by hypersexuality. There is some evidence suggesting that lesions of either hemisphere affect sexual activities, but for different reasons: aphasia and depression after left-hemisphere lesions, a deficit in arousal and perhaps visuospatial disorders after right-hemisphere lesions. Psychologic, psychosocial, and physical factors, as well as medications, play an important role. A better understanding of the psychosocial and physiologic mechanisms underlying sexual functioning can provide insight into improving sexual activity and therefore quality of life in patients affected by strokes and other brain lesions.

  19. Prehospital stroke care

    PubMed Central

    Saver, Jeffrey L.; Starkman, Sidney; Lees, Kennedy R.; Endres, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Brain cells die rapidly after stroke and any effective treatment must start as early as possible. In clinical routine, the tight time–outcome relationship continues to be the major limitation of therapeutic approaches: thrombolysis rates remain low across many countries, with most patients being treated at the late end of the therapeutic window. In addition, there is no neuroprotective therapy available, but some maintain that this concept may be valid if administered very early after stroke. Recent innovations have opened new perspectives for stroke diagnosis and treatment before the patient arrives at the hospital. These include stroke recognition by dispatchers and paramedics, mobile telemedicine for remote clinical examination and imaging, and integration of CT scanners and point-of-care laboratories in ambulances. Several clinical trials are now being performed in the prehospital setting testing prehospital delivery of neuroprotective, antihypertensive, and thrombolytic therapy. We hypothesize that these new approaches in prehospital stroke care will not only shorten time to treatment and improve outcome but will also facilitate hyperacute stroke research by increasing the number of study participants within an ultra-early time window. The potentials, pitfalls, and promises of advanced prehospital stroke care and research are discussed in this review. PMID:23897876

  20. Lineare und verzweigte Blockcopolymere aus Polypeptiden und synthetischen Polymeren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukula, Hildegard

    2001-07-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Synthese und den Eigenschaften von linearen und verzweigten amphiphilen Polypeptid-Blockcopolymeren. Die Frage nach dem Einfluss der Topologie und Konformation der Blockcopolymere auf die supramolekularen und kolloidalen Eigenschaften bildete einen wichtigen Aspekt bei den Untersuchungen. Die Blockcopolymere wurden nach einem mehrstufigen Reaktionsschema durch Kombination von anionischer und ringöffnender Polymerisation von Aminosäuren-N-Carboxyanhydriden (NCA) synthetisiert. Die Untersuchung der Polypeptid-Blockcopolymere hinsichtlich ihres Aggregationsverhaltens in fester Phase sowie in verdünnter wässriger Lösung erfolgte mittels Streumethoden (SAXS, WAXS, DLS) sowie abbildender Methoden (TEM). Durch Einsatz der Blockcopolymere als polymere Stabilisatoren in der Emulsionspolymerisation wurden Oberflächen funktionalisierte Latizes erhalten. Als Beispiel für eine pharmazeutische Anwendung wurden bioverträgliche Polypeptid-Blockcopolymere als Wirkstoff-Trägersysteme in der Krebstherapie eingesetzt. This work describes the synthesis and characterization of linear and branched polypeptide block copolymers having amphiphilic character. The studies focused on the impact of the block copolymers' conformation and architecture on the supramolecular and colloidal properties. The polypeptide block copolymers were prepared in a multi-step process involving the anionic synthesis of (poly)amino-functional polymers (polystyrene and polybutadiene) which where used as macroinitiators for the ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides (NCA) of protected a-aminoacids. Supramolecular structures of the block copolymers in the solid state as well as in diluted aqueous solution were investigated using scattering (SAXS, WAXS, DLS) and microscopic (TEM) methods. Both linear and branched polypeptide block copolymers were used as polymeric stabilizers in the emulsion polymerization of styrene to yield polypeptide

  1. IntegraTUM Teilprojekt E-Mail: Aufbau eines mandantenfähigen Groupware-Services und seine Integration in Identity Management und E-Mail Infrastruktur der Technischen Universität München

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehn, Max

    Die E-Mail-Infrastruktur an der Technischen Universität München (TUM) ist historisch bedingt sehr heterogen und komplex. Viele Einrichtungen müssen wertvolle Arbeitskraft auf die Administration eigener Mailserver verwenden. Auf der anderen Seite wird bei einigen Einrichtungen der Ruf nach Groupware-Funktionalitäten wie z.B. gemeinsame Kalender immer lauter. Das Teilprojekt E-Mail stellt einen zentralen Mail- und Groupware-Service bereit, der den Einrichtungen ermöglichen soll, den Betrieb eigener Server und zugehöriger Systeme (etwa lokaler Benutzerverwaltungen) für diesen Zweck aufzugeben und diese Dienste an das Teilprojekt E-Mail zu migrieren, ohne ihre Verwaltungshoheit oder ihre Maildomains aufgeben zu müssen. Dieser Service versteht sich als eine Ergänzung zur bestehenden Grundversorgung der TUM mit den Maildiensten des myTUM-Mailers, ist mandantenfähig aufgebaut und kann daher künftig neben der TUM auch weiteren Organisationen im Münchner Wissenschaftsnetz zur Verfügung gestellt werden.

  2. Sleep and Stroke.

    PubMed

    Mims, Kimberly Nicole; Kirsch, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Evidence increasingly suggests sleep disorders are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular events, including stroke. Strong data correlate untreated sleep apnea with poorer stroke outcomes and more recent evidence implicates sleep disruption as a possible etiology for increased cerebrovascular events. Also, sleep duration may affect incidence of cardiovascular events. In addition, sleep-disordered breathing, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and parasomnias can occur as a result of cerebrovascular events. Treatment of sleep disorders improve sleep-related symptoms and may also improve stroke recovery and risk of future events.

  3. Stroke: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Megan; Sharma, Jitendra

    2014-11-01

    Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) are the leading cause of disability and the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S. The WHO defines stroke as "rapidly developing clinical signs of focal disturbance of cerebral function lasting more than 24 hours with no apparent cause other than of vascular origin." Strokes are subdivided into two major classifications: ischemic (80-87 percent) andhemorrhagic (13-20 percent). Ischemic strokes occur from thrombi, emboli, or global hypoperfusion. Hemorrhagic strokes are either parenchymal (10 percent of all strokes) or subarachnoid (3 percent of all strokes). There are a variety of recognized risk factors for stroke which include: age, race, family history, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmias, prosthetic valves, hyperlipidemia, cigarette smoking, and others (drugs or hormones). The initial assessment of a patient suspected of stroke should be done quickly enough to ensure maximal reperfusion of brain tissue. The steps to achieve this goal are: 1) exclude an intracranial hemorrhage, 2) assess for contraindications to thrombolytics, 3) characterize the infarct. The workup for a patient should first include a history (especially the time when neurologic symptoms began), a physical exam (including the NIHSS), and imaging studies (to rule out hemorrhagic components). In addition, several lab studies can also be obtained including: PT/INR, glucose, complete blood count, metabolic panel, creatine kinase, ECG, echocardiogram, lipid panel, carotid Doppler, MRA or CTA. Acute management of a stroke is primarily focused on stabilizing the patient and allowing as much reperfusion as possible for at-risk brain tissue. Stroke management in the acute setting includes: use of thrombolytics if indicated, and re-assessment to monitor progression. Several trials have been completed in pursuit of safety and effectiveness of intra-arterial stroke therapy for patients outside the recommended thrombolytic time window

  4. Evaluation of stroke disability.

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, J.; Keltz, E.; Stein, M. C.; White, M. M.

    1976-01-01

    The disabilities resulting from a stroke are not well understood from the epidemiologic or functional point of view. The stroke may impair mental status, perception, sensation, communication and motor ability; the total resulting disability is related to the extent of impairment in each of these areas. A complete evaluation in all these areas has to be done to determine the degree of disability before any rehabilitation program is planned. A comprehensive approach to evaluating stroke disability is presented that includes correlating the degree of impairment in each of the above-mentioned areas with the overall functional ability of the patient. PMID:1260603

  5. Identifizierung der Nitratabbauprozesse und Prognose des Nitratabbaupotenzials in den Sedimenten des Hessischen Rieds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kludt, Christoph; Weber, Frank-Andreas; Bergmann, Axel; Knöller, Kay; Berthold, Georg; Schüth, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Microbial denitrification contributes significantly to the mitigation of nitrate contamination in sedimentary aquifers by reducing nitrate coupled to the consumption of organic carbon (heterotrophic) and iron sulphides like pyrite (autotrophic). However, these phases are often only present in trace amounts and can become depleted, so that denitrification will eventually cease. In order to implement measures within the EC-Water Framework Directive, we investigated the denitrification potential and the denitrification processes in the sediments of the Hessian Ried. The reduction potential was quantified and characterized by solid-phase analyses of drill core samples. Depth-oriented investigations of hydrochemistry (i.e. stable isotopes, N2Excess) allowed determining nitrate input, reduction progress and average reduction kinetics upstream of selected wells. Despite low sulphide contents (max. 123 mg-S/kg), autotrophic denitrification was typically the dominant process. The results can be used to delineate risk areas, downstream of which denitrification can be expected to cease in the near future.

  6. Pediatric Stroke: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Tsze, Daniel S.; Valente, Jonathan H.

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is relatively rare in children, but can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Understanding that children with strokes present differently than adults and often present with unique risk factors will optimize outcomes in children. Despite an increased incidence of pediatric stroke, there is often a delay in diagnosis, and cases may still remain under- or misdiagnosed. Clinical presentation will vary based on the child's age, and children will have risk factors for stroke that are less common than in adults. Management strategies in children are extrapolated primarily from adult studies, but with different considerations regarding short-term anticoagulation and guarded recommendations regarding thrombolytics. Although most recommendations for management are extrapolated from adult populations, they still remain useful, in conjunction with pediatric-specific considerations. PMID:22254140

  7. Strokes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that could affect a child throughout life, including: cerebral palsy mental retardation paralysis or weakness on one side ... ON THIS TOPIC Meningitis First Aid: Seizures Seizures Cerebral Palsy Brain and Nervous System Stroke Your Brain & Nervous ...

  8. Strokes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in adults, which can include sudden weakness, slurred speech, or blurred vision. These effects vary widely depending ... changes in the child's behavior, concentration, memory, or speech. Common signs of stroke in kids and teens : ...

  9. A Stroke of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaisdell, Bob

    2011-01-01

    The author reflects on foreign-language learning by his EFL students as well as his own foreign-language learning. He concludes by musing on the possible and fantastical devastation on language-ability wrought by strokes.

  10. Stroke: Hope through Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States: estimated at about $43 billion / year direct costs for medical care and therapy: estimated at ... days after a stroke: $35,000* percentage of direct cost of care for the first 90 days*: ...

  11. Autopsy approach to stroke.

    PubMed

    Love, Seth

    2011-02-01

    Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality but the brain and other relevant tissues are often examined only cursorily when stroke patients come to autopsy. The pathological findings and clinical implications vary according to the type of stroke and its location and cause. Large ischaemic strokes are usually associated with atherosclerosis of extracranial or major intracranial arteries but can be caused by dissection. Most small cerebral infarcts are caused by arteriosclerosis or, in the elderly, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). However, vasculitides and coagulopathies can cause a range of different patterns of ischaemic (and, occasionally, haemorrhagic) stroke. Global brain ischaemia, caused by severe hypotension or raised intracranial pressure, produces damage that is accentuated in certain regions and neuronal populations and may be confused with hypoglycaemic injury. The main cause of subarachnoid haemorrhage is a ruptured berry aneurysm but CAA, arteriovenous malformations and infective aneurysms are occasionally responsible. These can also cause parenchymal brain haemorrhage, although this most often complicates hypertensive small vessel disease. Sometimes the haemorrhage arises from a neoplasm. Performing an adequate autopsy in stroke requires proper preparation, awareness of the likely pathological processes, familiarity with intracranial vascular anatomy, careful gross examination and dissection, and appropriate use of histology.

  12. Telestroke in stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Jacques; Joubert, Lynette B; de Bustos, Elizabeth Medeiros; Ware, Dallas; Jackson, David; Harrison, Terrence; Cadilhac, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Stroke is a high-frequency disorder placing a significant burden on the health care systems, being the foremost cause of complex chronic disability in adults. Devising systems that can enhance the prevention of stroke recurrence is an important priority and challenge in both the developed and the developing world. The potential for recurrent stroke can be substantially reduced by effective management of vascular risk factors. Telestroke is a tool with potential application to improve risk management of stroke survivors. Lack of acknowledgment of existing practices as well as lack of awareness of potential financial barriers to diffusion of telestroke can lead to limited implementation. Telestroke offers service providers the opportunity to access large numbers of stroke survivors targeting secondary prevention. The ideal 'telestroke model' provides service support, education for the patient and caregiver, as well as integration of specialist and primary care services. Effective use of technological advances, with adequate recognition of the importance of human interaction in the long-term management of a largely elderly population of stroke survivors is challenging but possible. Telestroke should be systems- and not technology-driven. Barriers in the implementation of telestroke have been identified as insufficient planning of IT infrastructure, lack of long-term vision for sustainability, a lack of contextual perspective as well as poor communication across domains. Future telestroke models should provide effective action in an integrated model of care recognizing and involving all existing players and practices.

  13. Improving public education about stroke.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Mark J

    2012-09-01

    Stroke is a common and serious disease. Most studies have shown that basic public knowledge about what a stroke is, symptoms of a stroke, and the proper reaction to a stroke is quite deficient. The fact that a stroke affects cognitive, communicative, and motor functions may partially explain the poor reaction to acute stroke symptoms. Several educational studies, using diverse formats and messaging paradigms, have been shown to positively affect public knowledge of stroke symptoms. Such efforts have often used mass media public education campaigns with an emphasis on recognizing symptoms of an acute stroke. Some have been able to demonstrate an increase in the chance of patients (or by-standers) calling 911 and seeking emergency care. However, many programs were of brief duration, and their long-term benefits are uncertain. Continual educational efforts will be needed to improve stroke knowledge and increase the percentage of patients who seek emergency care.

  14. Burden of stroke in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kõrv, Janika; Vibo, Riina

    2013-07-01

    Estonia is the smallest of the three Baltic countries. The decline in incidence of first-ever stroke during the 1990s has left Tartu, Estonia with a relatively low stroke incidence. However, the incidence rates for younger age groups, and the 28-day case fatality rate are higher compared with several other studies. Developments in the national health care system in recent years have been positive: the decline of mortality rate of stroke in Estonia is greater than the European Union average. However, the mortality of cardiovascular diseases is higher compared with several European countries. The prevalence of most stroke risk factors is comparable with European Union countries, while atrial fibrillation is somewhat more frequent (30%) among the patients having suffered from ischemic stroke. The management of stroke in Estonia has been in accordance with European and national stroke guidelines. Stroke units are organized in regional and central hospitals in bigger cities. A well-developed and free ambulance service, and a high priority of stroke code, enable a quick transportation of patients to the nearest hospital providing thrombolytic therapy. The number of thrombolyzed stroke cases has increased since 2003. The Estonian Stroke Initiative was founded in 2008 to improve stroke care, promote regional networks, and increase stroke knowledge among the general population and medical professionals. Since then, several activities regarding stroke awareness have been organized.

  15. World Stroke Organization global stroke services guidelines and action plan.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Patrice; Furie, Karen L; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Norrving, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Every two seconds, someone across the globe suffers a symptomatic stroke. 'Silent' cerebrovascular disease insidiously contributes to worldwide disability by causing cognitive impairment in the elderly. The risk of cerebrovascular disease is disproportionately higher in low to middle income countries where there may be barriers to stroke care. The last two decades have seen a major transformation in the stroke field with the emergence of evidence-based approaches to stroke prevention, acute stroke management, and stroke recovery. The current challenge lies in implementing these interventions, particularly in regions with high incidences of stroke and limited healthcare resources. The Global Stroke Services Action Plan was conceived as a tool to identifying key elements in stroke care across a continuum of health models. At the minimal level of resource availability, stroke care delivery is based at a local clinic staffed predominantly by non-physicians. In this environment, laboratory tests and diagnostic studies are scarce, and much of the emphasis is placed on bedside clinical skills, teaching, and prevention. The essential services level offers access to a CT scan, physicians, and the potential for acute thrombolytic therapy, however stroke expertise may still be difficult to access. At the advanced stroke services level, multidisciplinary stroke expertise, multimodal imaging, and comprehensive therapies are available. A national plan for stroke care should incorporate local and regional strengths and build upon them. This clinical practice guideline is a synopsis of the core recommendations and quality indicators adapted from ten high quality multinational stroke guidelines. It can be used to establish the current level of stroke services, target goals for expanding stroke resources, and ensuring that all stages of stroke care are being adequately addressed, even at the advanced stroke services level. This document is a start, but there is more to be done

  16. Recovery After Stroke: Bladder and Bowel Function

    MedlinePlus

    Recovery After Stroke: Bladder & Bowel Function Problems with bladder and bowel function are common but distressing for ... embarrassed by – these issues.  Get information on stroke recovery from National Stroke Association.  Visit www. stroke. org ...

  17. Checkpoint-Inhibitoren in der Immuntherapie: Ein Meilenstein in der Behandlung des malignen Melanoms.

    PubMed

    Wilden, Sophia M; Lang, Berenice M; Mohr, Peter; Grabbe, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    Seit Jahrzehnten ist bekannt, dass Tumoren vom Immunsystem erkannt und zerstört werden können. Diese, vor allem in Tierversuchen gewonnene Erkenntnis konnte jedoch in der Vergangenheit nicht zum Nutzen unserer Patienten umgesetzt werden, da immunonkologische Therapieansätze in den letzten Jahrzehnten in der Anwendung beim Menschen stets versagt haben. Daher hat, mit Ausnahme der adjuvanten Interferontherapie, keines dieser Verfahren den Einzug in die klinische Versorgung gefunden. Langzeitüberleben unter guter Lebensqualität war dabei sehr wenigen Patienten vorbehalten. Mit den neuen immunologischen Therapieansätzen wird jedoch sowohl das Langzeitüberleben als auch die Lebensqualität onkologischer Patienten neu definiert. Auf die neuen "Immun-Checkpoint-Inhibitoren" spricht erstmals ein relevanter Teil der behandelten Patienten an und diese zeigen in der Regel langandauernde Remissionen bis hin zur Heilung. Schon jetzt ist klar, dass die Immuntherapie in Zukunft eine der wesentlichen Therapiesäulen bei der Behandlung des metastasierten Melanoms und auch vieler anderer fortgeschrittener Tumoren bilden wird. In dieser Übersicht werden die wichtigsten neuen Therapiemodalitäten besprochen und sowohl deren Wirkprinzip als auch klinische Daten zum Therapieansprechen und zu erwartenden Nebenwirkungen der Therapie referiert.

  18. Mini-Stroke vs. Regular Stroke: What's the Difference?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How is a ministroke different from a regular stroke? Answers from Jerry W. Swanson, M.D. When ... brain, spinal cord or retina, which may cause stroke-like symptoms but does not damage brain cells ...

  19. Education in stroke: strategies to improve stroke patient care.

    PubMed

    Gompertz, Patrick; Slack, Andrew; Vogel, Mira; Burrows, Sharon; Clark, Philippa

    2002-07-01

    'Stroke units save lives', but organized care requires expert staff and regular training to be effective. However, the quality of inpatient care for stroke remains poor, and stroke education is often fragmented between the health-care professions. This review describes some national and local strategies aimed at ensuring that all patients are cared for by expert staff.

  20. An Economic Evaluation Comparing Stroke Telemedicine to Conventional Stroke Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budhram, Stanley Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is not only a serious medical problem, but it also poses an enormous economic burden on society. Stroke ranks the third as the leading cause of death in the United States behind heart disease and cancer. The survivors of stroke suffer from various degrees of long-term disability which create a severe financial burden on society. University…

  1. Post-stroke dyskinesias

    PubMed Central

    Nakawah, Mohammad Obadah; Lai, Eugene C

    2016-01-01

    Strokes, whether ischemic or hemorrhagic, are among the most common causes of secondary movement disorders in elderly patients. Stroke-related (vascular) movement disorders, however, are uncommon complications of this relatively common disease. The spectrum of post-stroke movement disorders is broad and includes both hypo- and hyperkinetic syndromes. Post-stroke dyskinesias are involuntary hyperkinetic movements arising from cerebrovascular insults and often present with mixed phenotypes of hyperkinesia which can sometimes be difficult to classify. Nevertheless, identification of the most relevant motor phenotype, whenever possible, allows for a more specific phenomenological categorization of the dyskinesia and thus helps guide its treatment. Fortunately, post-stroke dyskinesias are usually self-limiting and resolve within 6 to 12 months of onset, but a short-term pharmacotherapy might sometimes be required for symptom control. Functional neurosurgical interventions targeting the motor thalamus or globus pallidus interna might be considered for patients with severe, disabling, and persistent dyskinesias (arbitrarily defined as duration longer than 12 months). PMID:27853372

  2. Controversies in Cardioembolic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wessler, Benjamin S.; Kent, David M

    2015-01-01

    Opinion statement Cardioembolic (CE) stroke mechanisms account for a significant number of ischemic strokes however the true burden is likely underestimated. It is critically important to identify patients with CE strokes since these individuals have high recurrence rates and represent a subgroup of patients who may benefit from targeted therapy in the form of anticoagulation or device based treatments. Current guidelines offer recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of these patients however important questions remain. Appropriate cardiac testing in the setting of CE must be individualized and the optimal duration of electrocardiographic monitoring to rule out atrial fibrillation (AF) is unclear. So too, risk stratification tools for AF remain understudied and there is controversy about which anticoagulant agents are most appropriate. Lastly, important potential CE sources of stroke such as PFO have garnered significant attention recently and debate regarding how to treat these patients remains. In this review we discuss some of the important controversies in diagnosing and treating patients with possible CE stroke, pointing to areas where future research might be particularly valuable. PMID:25398426

  3. Leisure after stroke.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, K

    1982-01-01

    Leisure activities and satisfaction derived from leisure activities were investigated together with feelings of stigma and of depression in 51 first-stroke married/cohabitating hemiplegics (males (n: 39) mean age 54 +/- 9; females (n: 12) mean age 50 +/- 12). Leisure goals appeared to mirror traditional gender roles; males having more outdoor and straining leisure activities. For the majority, number and frequency of active leisure participation decreased after stroke and they became passively discontented. This was the case for outdoor and indoor activities as well as for activities characterized by social interaction and entertainment. Mutual and non-mutual partnership of leisure activities occurred for those investigated within a year after stroke. Dissatisfaction also followed increased, passive, time together with spouse. Stigmatism was common (about 50 per cent) during the first year post-stroke, while depression was most common (65 per cent) between 7 and 12 months after stroke. The findings are discussed in terms of physical (disease-related) resources, geographical circumstances and psychological adaptation in its temporal context.

  4. Hispanics and Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Hispanics and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Aug 30,2016 Heart disease is the No. 1 killer for all Americans and stroke is the fifth leading cause of death. Hispanics ...

  5. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Having diabetes means that ... help to stop. What is the link between diabetes, heart disease, and stroke? Over time, high blood ...

  6. When does stroke rehabilitation end?

    PubMed

    Korner-Bitensky, Nicol

    2013-01-01

    This article examines key evidence on intervention effectiveness late poststroke; provides discussion on how this evidence impacts stroke rehabilitation at a clinical and national level; and explores strategies that should improve the way in which chronic stroke is addressed internationally.

  7. Stroke rehabilitation and discharge planning.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Peter

    Nurses play a pivotal role in the rehabilitation and discharge planning process of patients who have had a stroke. The nurse's role in the wider stroke multidisciplinary team is complex and diverse and, as such, stroke nurses may find it hard to describe their role and how it fits into the rehabilitation and discharge planning process. A definition of the stroke nurse role in prominent publications such as those of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and the Royal College of Physicians is lacking. This article emphasises the role of the stroke nurse in the rehabilitation and discharge planning process in the stroke unit, while highlighting the complexity, diversity and importance of this role in providing holistic care and support for patients who have survived a stroke. The author draws on his clinical experience of stroke nursing practice in primary, secondary and tertiary care in west central Scotland.

  8. Educational approach on stroke training in Europe.

    PubMed

    Corea, F; Gunther, A; Kwan, J; Petzold, A; Debette, S; Sessa, M; Silvestrelli, G; Parnetti, L; Tambasco, N

    2006-01-01

    According to the European Stroke Initiative (EUSI), stroke care is best delivered within a stroke unit by a specialized multidisciplinary stroke team led by stroke specialists. At present, there is no guideline or consensus regarding training requirements or clinical standards that stroke specialists should achieve. It is envisaged that stroke specialists in training would need to acquire adequate knowledge and competency across three major areas of stroke care: acute stroke, stroke rehabilitation, and stroke prevention. With an EUSI document, the European Association of Young Neurologists and Trainees Stroke Subspeciality Group aims to promote discussion on the many aspects of stroke training and the requirements to be a stroke specialist in the European community. The ultimate purpose is to agree on common standards to promote good clinical care and effective stroke prevention across Europe. In the future, this may be translated into better patient outcome and a reduction in the global burden of this condition.

  9. Ruhende Flüssigkeiten und Gase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintze, Joachim

    Das mechanische Verhalten von Flüssigkeiten und Gasen ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie keine statische Schubfestigkeit besitzen, andernfalls würden sie nicht beginnen, zu fließen. In ruhenden Flüssigkeiten und Gasen können daher keine Schubspannungen bestehen:

  10. Recent Epidemiological Trends of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Seok; Kang, Myong-Jin

    2008-01-01

    Objective Rapid increase in aged population and westernization of lifestyle have modified epidemiological status of stroke. The purpose of this study is to analyze changing trends of stroke epidemiology in South Korea. Methods We reviewed retrospectively medical records of 1,124 cases diagnosed as stroke among 54,534 patients who visited the Emergency Medical Center at our hospital from January 1994 to December 1996 (Group A). Also, we evaluated 1,705 cases diagnosed as stroke among 55,381 patients who visited to the same hospital from January 2003 to December 2005 (Group B). The variable features of stroke, such as age, sex, seasonal variation and distribution of stroke subtypes were studied by comparing group A with B. Results In group A, hemorrhagic stroke (67.9%) was more prevalent than ischemic stroke (32.1%). However, group B showed that the ratio of hemorrhagic stroke (40.3%) to ischemic stroke (59.6%) has been reversed. The highest incidence of stroke was noted in their sixties and seventies of age in group B, which was older than that of group A. In group A, male ischemic stroke (IS) patients outnumbered female patients (1.26:1). Moreover, this gender disproportion became higher in group B (1.53:1). In group A, the number of male intracerebral hermorrhage (ICH) patients were similar to that of female patients (0.97:1). However, male ICH patients outnumbered female patients in group B (1.23:1). As for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), female patients outnumbered male patients more than two-fold in both groups. Both groups showed that the occurrence of ischemic stroke was highest in summer, but that of hemorrhagic stroke was the highest in winter. Conclusion This study showed the changing trends of stroke in its distribution of subtypes. Multicenter prospective study using stroke registry would be required for the determination of national epidemiologic trends. PMID:19096539

  11. Plotting Lightning-Stroke Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatom, F. B.; Garst, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Data on lightning-stroke locations become easier to correlate with cloudcover maps with aid of new graphical treatment. Geographic region divided by grid into array of cells. Number of lightning strokes in each cell tabulated, and value representing density of lightning strokes assigned to each cell. With contour-plotting routine, computer draws contours of lightning-stroke density for region. Shapes of contours compared directly with shapes of storm cells.

  12. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  13. [Circadian rhythm and stroke].

    PubMed

    Terayama, Yasuo

    2013-12-01

    Studies on the relationship between stroke incidence and alterations of circadian rhythm are scarce, while pathologically reduced or abolished circadian variation has been described to cause stroke since a long time ago. Although ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes are different entities and are characterized by different pathophysiological mechanisms, they share an identical pattern. A constellation of endogenous circadian rhythms and exogenous cyclic factors are involved. The staging of the circadian rhythms in vascular tone, coagulation balance including platelet function, and blood pressure plus temporal patterns in posture, physical activity, emotional stress, autonomic function, and medication effects play central and/or triggering roles. Features of the circadian rhythm of blood pressure, in terms of their chronic and acute effects on cerebral vessels, and of coagulation are especially important.

  14. Stroke and Episodic Memory Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there…

  15. Quantitative Analyse und Visualisierung der Herzfunktionen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Anne; Schwarz, Tobias; Engel, Nicole; Seitel, Mathias; Kenngott, Hannes; Mohrhardt, Carsten; Loßnitzer, Dirk; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    Die computergestützte bildbasierte Analyse der Herzfunktionen ist mittlerweile Standard in der Kardiologie. Die verfügbaren Produkte erfordern meist ein hohes Maß an Benutzerinteraktion und somit einen erhöhten Zeitaufwand. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, der dem Kardiologen eine größtenteils automatische Analyse der Herzfunktionen mittels MRT-Bilddaten ermöglicht und damit Zeitersparnis schafft. Hierbei werden alle relevanten herzphysiologsichen Parameter berechnet und mithilfe von Diagrammen und Graphen visualisiert. Diese Berechnungen werden evaluiert, indem die ermittelten Werte mit manuell vermessenen verglichen werden. Der hierbei berechnete mittlere Fehler liegt mit 2,85 mm für die Wanddicke und 1,61 mm für die Wanddickenzunahme immer noch im Bereich einer Pixelgrösse der verwendeten Bilder.

  16. Endocarditis and Stroke

    PubMed Central

    GRECU, Nicolae; TIU, Cristina; TERECOASA, Elena; BAJENARU, Ovidiu

    2014-01-01

    Endocarditis is an important, although less common, cause of cerebral embolism. All forms of endocarditis share an initial common pathophysiologic pathway, best illustrated by the non-bacterial thrombotic form, but also a final potential for embolization. Stroke associated with endocarditis has signifficant mortality and morbidity rates, especially due to the frequent concomitant multiple sites of brain embolization. In this article we aim to briefly review endocarditis with a focus on stroke as a complication, while also presenting case correlates from our department. PMID:25705308

  17. Biotherapies in stroke.

    PubMed

    Detante, O; Jaillard, A; Moisan, A; Barbieux, M; Favre, I M; Garambois, K; Hommel, M; Remy, C

    2014-12-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide and the most common cause of severe disability. Neuroprotection and repair mechanisms supporting endogenous brain plasticity are often insufficient to allow complete recovery. While numerous neuroprotective drugs trials have failed to demonstrate benefits for patients, they have provided interesting translational research lessons related to neurorestorative therapy mechanisms in stroke. Stroke damage is not limited to neurons but involve all brain cell type including the extracellular matrix in a "glio-neurovascular niche". Targeting a range of host brain cells, biotherapies such as growth factors and therapeutic cells, currently hold great promise as a regenerative medical strategy for stroke. These techniques can promote both neuroprotection and delayed neural repair through neuro-synaptogenesis, angiogenesis, oligodendrogliogenesis, axonal sprouting and immunomodulatory effects. Their complex mechanisms of action are interdependent and vary according to the particular growth factor or grafted cell type. For example, while "peripheral" stem or stromal cells can provide paracrine trophic support, neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC) or mature neurons can act as more direct neural replacements. With a wide therapeutic time window after stroke, biotherapies could be used to treat many patients. However, guidelines for selecting the optimal time window, and the best delivery routes and doses are still debated and the answers may depend on the chosen product and its expected mechanism including early neuroprotection, delayed neural repair, trophic systemic transient effects or graft survival and integration. Currently, the great variety of growth factors, cell sources and cell therapy products form a therapeutic arsenal that is available for stroke treatment. Their effective clinical use will require prior careful considerations regarding safety (e.g. tumorgenicity, immunogenicity), potential efficacy, cell

  18. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  19. Global stroke statistics.

    PubMed

    Thrift, Amanda G; Thayabaranathan, Tharshanah; Howard, George; Howard, Virginia J; Rothwell, Peter M; Feigin, Valery L; Norrving, Bo; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Cadilhac, Dominique A

    2017-01-01

    Background Up to date data on incidence, mortality, and case-fatality for stroke are important for setting the agenda for prevention and healthcare. Aims and/or hypothesis We aim to update the most current incidence and mortality data on stroke available by country, and to expand the scope to case-fatality and explore how registry data might be complementary. Methods Data were compiled using two approaches: (1) an updated literature review building from our previous review and (2) direct acquisition and analysis of stroke events in the World Health Organization (WHO) mortality database for each country providing these data. To assess new and/or updated data on incidence, we searched multiple databases to identify new original papers and review articles that met ideal criteria for stroke incidence studies and were published between 15 May 2013 and 31 May 2016. For data on case-fatality, we searched between 1980 and 31 May 2016. We further screened reference lists and citation history of papers to identify other studies not obtained from these sources. Mortality codes for ICD-8, ICD-9, and ICD-10 were extracted. Using population denominators provided for each country, we calculated both the crude mortality from stroke and mortality adjusted to the WHO world population. We used only the most recent year reported to the WHO for which both population and mortality data were available. Results Fifty-one countries had data on stroke incidence, some with data over many time periods, and some with data in more than one region. Since our last review, there were new incidence studies from 12 countries, with four meeting pre-determined quality criteria. In these four studies, the incidence of stroke, adjusted to the WHO World standard population, ranged from 76 per 100,000 population per year in Australia (2009-10) up to 119 per 100,000 population per year in New Zealand (2011-12), with the latter being in those aged at least 15 years. Only in Martinique (2011-12) was the

  20. 25 Jahre - Institut fuer Geodaesie, Teil 1: Wissenschaftliche Beitraege und Berichte (25 Years - Institute of Geodesy, Part 1: Scientific Contributions and Reports)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    des Dispersionswinkels zur Bestimmung der Refraktion. AVN 100, S. 51-62, 1993 HAMMING, R., W.: Digitale Filter. VCH-Verlag, Weinheim 1987 HAMPEL, F...KRONMOLLER, H.: Digitale Signalverarbeitung. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1991 KUHLMANN, H.: Ein Beitrag zur Oberwachung von Briickenbauwerken mit...1987), das Europdische Referenzsystem - EUREF (SEEGER/ALTINER/ENGELHARDT/FRANKE/HABRICH/SCHLC- TER 1998) und das Sistema di Referencia del America del

  1. Antiplatelet resistance in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Topçuoglu, Mehmet Akif; Arsava, Ethem Murat; Ay, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Although the exact prevalence of antiplatelet resistance in ischemic stroke is not known, estimates about the two most widely used antiplatelet agents – aspirin and clopidogrel – suggest that the resistance rate is high, irrespective of the definition used and parameters measured. Inadequate antiplatelet responsiveness correlates with an increased risk of recurrent ischemic vascular events in patients with stroke and acute coronary syndrome. It is not currently known whether tailoring antiplatelet therapy based on platelet function test results translates into a more effective strategy to prevent secondary vascular events after stroke. Large-scale clinical trials using a universally accepted definition and standardized measurement techniques for antiplatelet resistance are needed to demonstrate whether a ‘platelet-function test-guided antiplatelet treatment’ strategy translates into improved stroke care. This article gives an overview of the clinical importance of laboratory antiplatelet resistance, describes the challenges for platelet-function test-guided antiplatelet treatment and discusses practical issues about the management of patients with aspirin and/or clopidogrel resistance. PMID:21306212

  2. Knowledge of Stroke Risk Factors among Stroke Survivors in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Taritei

    2016-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of stroke risk factors is expected to reduce the incidence of stroke—whether first-ever or recurrent. This study examined knowledge of stroke risk factors and its determinants among stroke survivors. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of consenting stroke survivors at two physiotherapy facilities in Nigeria was carried out. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained and knowledge of stroke risk factors (defined as the ability to mention at least one correct risk factor) was assessed using open-ended questionnaire. Data were treated with descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Results. Sixty-nine stroke survivors (male = 72.5%; mean ± SD age = 49.7 ± 10.6 years) participated in the study. Thirty-four (49.4%) participants had knowledge of stroke risk factors. Only educational level was significantly associated with knowledge and participants with tertiary educational qualification were about 48 times (odds ratio = 48.5; CI = 7.6–309.8; P < 0.0001) more likely to be knowledgeable than those with no education. Conclusion. Less than half of the participants had knowledge of stroke risk factors. Participants with tertiary education were significantly more knowledgeable than those with lower educational qualifications. Effective means of educating stroke survivors on stroke risk factors should be identified and adopted. PMID:27882262

  3. Etiologic Ischemic Stroke Phenotypes in the NINDS Stroke Genetics Network

    PubMed Central

    Ay, Hakan; Arsava, Ethem Murat; Andsberg, Gunnar; Benner, Thomas; Brown, Robert D.; Chapman, Sherita N.; Cole, John W.; Delavaran, Hossein; Dichgans, Martin; Engström, Gunnar; Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Grewal, Raji P.; Gwinn, Katrina; Jern, Christina; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Jood, Katarina; Katsnelson, Michael; Kissela, Brett; Kittner, Steven J.; Kleindorfer, Dawn O.; Labovitz, Daniel L.; Lanfranconi, Silvia; Lee, Jin-Moo; Lehm, Manuel; Lemmens, Robin; Levi, Chris; Li, Linxin; Lindgren, Arne; Markus, Hugh S.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Melander, Olle; Norrving, Bo; Peddareddygari, Leema Reddy; Pedersén, Annie; Pera, Joanna; Rannikmäe, Kristiina; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Rhodes, David; Rich, Stephen S.; Roquer, Jaume; Rosand, Jonathan; Rothwell, Peter M.; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schürks, Markus; Seiler, Stephan; Sharma, Pankaj; Slowik, Agnieszka; Sudlow, Cathie; Thijs, Vincent; Woodfield, Rebecca; Worrall, Bradford B.; Meschia, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose NINDS Stroke Genetics Network (SiGN) is an international consortium of ischemic stroke studies that aims to generate high quality phenotype data to identify the genetic basis of etiologic stroke subtypes. This analysis characterizes the etiopathogenetic basis of ischemic stroke and reliability of stroke classification in the consortium. Methods Fifty-two trained and certified adjudicators determined both phenotypic (abnormal test findings categorized in major etiologic groups without weighting towards the most likely cause) and causative ischemic stroke subtypes in 16,954 subjects with imaging-confirmed ischemic stroke from 12 US studies and 11 studies from 8 European countries using the web-based Causative Classification of Stroke System. Classification reliability was assessed with blinded re-adjudication of 1509 randomly selected cases. Results The distribution of etiologic categories varied by study, age, sex, and race (p<0.001 for each). Overall, only 40% to 54% of cases with a given major ischemic stroke etiology (phenotypic subtype) were classified into the same final causative category with high confidence. There was good agreement for both causative (kappa 0.72, 95%CI:0.69-0.75) and phenotypic classifications (kappa 0.73, 95%CI:0.70-0.75). Conclusions This study demonstrates that etiologic subtypes can be determined with good reliability in studies that include investigators with different expertise and background, institutions with different stroke evaluation protocols and geographic location, and patient populations with different epidemiological characteristics. The discordance between phenotypic and causative stroke subtypes highlights the fact that the presence of an abnormality in a stroke patient does not necessarily mean that it is the cause of stroke. PMID:25378430

  4. Understanding Stroke - Know Stroke • Know the Signs • Act in Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Understanding Stroke Know Stroke • Know the Signs • Act in Time Past Issues / ... Julie Harris, and motivational speaker David Layton. Preventing Stroke "Until I had my stroke, I didn't ...

  5. Systemlieferant und OEM Hersteller für die Medizintechnik und Pharmabranche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Thomas; Reichenberger, Robert

    Unter einem Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) versteht man einen Hersteller fertiger Komponenten oder Produkte, der diese in seinen eigenen Produktionsfabriken produziert, sie aber anschließend nicht selbst in den Handel bringt. Die Anforderungen an einen OEM für die Medizintechnik- und Pharmabranche sind weitaus komplexer und umfangreicher als in anderen Branchen. Diese zusätzlichen Anforderungen haben schließlich auch ihre Berechtigung, da es letztendlich immer um die Gesundheit und das Leben von Menschen geht. Ein OEM muss neben der heute immer stärker geforderten Flexibilität, Schnelligkeit und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit sämtliche für die Medizintechnik- und Pharmabranche erforderlichen Qualitäts- und Prozesssicherheitskriterien erfüllen. Entsprechende Nachweise sind durch regelmäßige Kunden- und Überwachungsaudits zu erbringen. Das Arbeitsumfeld eines OEM für die Medizintechnik- und Pharmabranche bezieht sich somit nicht nur auf die Herstellung der Produkte für seine Kunden, sondern auch auf die Einhaltung sämtlicher Normen, Sicherheitskriterien, regulatorischen Voraussetzungen und Gesetze die zur Herstellung der Produkte notwendig sind.

  6. PCR und Real-Time PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, Regina; Busch, Ulrich

    Die vielfältigen Anwendungsmöglichkeiten der Polymerasekettenreaktion (polymerase chain reaction, PCR) machen sie zu einer der wichtigsten und am häufigsten eingesetzten Methoden in der molekularbiologischen Forschung und Diagnostik. Für diese Technologie wurde der Erfinder der Methode, Kary Mullis, 1993 mit dem Nobelpreis ausgezeichnet. Die PCR erlaubt einen hochsensitiven und spezifischen in-vitro-Nachweis von Desoxyribonukleinsäuren (DNA), da im Zuge der Reaktion Sequenzabschnitte gezielt vermehrt werden. Innerhalb weniger Stunden können aus einem einzigen Zielmolekül 1012 identische Moleküle entstehen [1].

  7. Maladie des vibrations

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shixin (Cindy); House, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Permettre aux médecins de famille de comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, les symptômes, le diagnostic et la prise en charge de la maladie des vibrations, une maladie professionnelle importante et courante au Canada. Sources d’information Une recherche a été effectuée sur MEDLINE afin de relever les recherches et comptes rendus portant sur la maladie des vibrations. Une recherche a été effectuée sur Google dans le but d’obtenir la littérature grise qui convient au contexte canadien. D’autres références ont été tirées des articles relevés. Message principal La maladie des vibrations est une maladie professionnelle répandue touchant les travailleurs de diverses industries qui utilisent des outils vibrants. La maladie est cependant sous-diagnostiquée au Canada. Elle compte 3 éléments : vasculaire, sous la forme d’un phénomène de Raynaud secondaire; neurosensoriel; et musculosquelettique. Aux stades les plus avancés, la maladie des vibrations entraîne une invalidité importante et une piètre qualité de vie. Son diagnostic exige une anamnèse minutieuse, en particulier des antécédents professionnels, un examen physique, des analyses de laboratoire afin d’éliminer les autres diagnostics, et la recommandation en médecine du travail aux fins d’investigations plus poussées. La prise en charge consiste à réduire l’exposition aux vibrations, éviter les températures froides, abandonner le tabac et administrer des médicaments. Conclusion Pour assurer un diagnostic rapide de la maladie des vibrations et améliorer le pronostic et la qualité de vie, les médecins de famille devraient connaître cette maladie professionnelle courante, et pouvoir obtenir les détails pertinents durant l’anamnèse, recommander les patients aux cliniques de médecine du travail et débuter les demandes d’indemnisation de manière appropriée. PMID:28292812

  8. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Angela M.; Cushman, Mary; Lackland, Daniel T.; Howard, George; McClure, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a major public health concern worldwide given the associated morbidity and mortality. Smoking is a risk factor for stroke, but the relationship between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and stroke has been inconsistent to date. The aim of the current study was to examine the association of SHS exposure and risk of stroke and its subtypes (ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke) among nonsmokers. Methods Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared by SHS exposure status for black and white nonsmokers aged ≥45 years in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study in 2014. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models to assess the relationship between SHS exposure and stroke risk. Results Of the 21,743 participants (38% African American, 45% male), SHS exposure in the past year was reported by 23%. Compared with those without SHS exposure, exposed participants were more likely to be female, white, younger, and reside with a smoker (all p<0.001). A total of 428 incident strokes were observed from April 2003 to March 2012 during a mean follow-up of 5.6 years. The risk of overall stroke was increased 30% among those with SHS exposure after adjustment for other stroke risk factors (95% CI=2%, 67%). This relationship appeared to be driven by ischemic strokes. Conclusions SHS exposure is independently associated with an increased risk of stroke. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and examine the role of long-term effects of SHS exposure on stroke outcomes. PMID:26117341

  9. Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn als Biomarker in 1-Hydroxymethylpyren-exponierten Ratten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lan

    2002-01-01

    1-Methylpyren (MP) ist hepatokanzerogen in neugeborenen männlichen Mäusen. Durch Hydroxylierung an der benzylischen Stelle und anschließende Sulfonierung wird MP zu DNA-reaktivem 1-Sulfooxymethylpyren (SMP) aktiviert. In der Ratte führt die Exposition des benzylischen Alkohols, 1-Hydroxymethylpyren (HMP), zur DNA-Adduktbildung in verschiedenen Geweben. Eventuelle Konsequenz der Toxifizierung ist die Ausscheidung entsprechender Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn, welche aufgrund ihrer Herkunft als Biomarker eignen könnten. In dieser Arbeit wird die Ausscheidung der Mercaptursäure und des N2-Desoxyguanosinadduktes in HMP-exponierten Ratten untersucht. Nach der Applikation von HMP bzw. MP wurden weniger als 1 % der Dosis als MPMA über Urin und Faeces ausgeschieden (0 - 48 h). Die Ausscheidung erfolgt hauptsächlich in den ersten 24 h nach der Applikation. MPdG konnte weder in Urin noch in Faeces der HMP-behandelten Tieren identifiziert werden. Nach direkter SMP-Applikation wurde MPdG nur in sehr geringe Menge (weniger als 0,9 ppm in 12 h) im Urin gefunden. Aufgrund der geringen Menge eignet sich MPdG nicht als Biomarker. MPMA dagegen, lässt sich analytisch gut erfassen. Es sollte daher untersucht werden, ob MPMA die Toxifizierung des HMP wiederspiegelt. Die Voraussetzung dafür ist die Kenntnisse über das Metabolismusmuster von HMP. Es wurde daher umfassende Untersuchungen zum Metabolismus des HMP durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass mehr als 80 % der Metaboiten in ihrer oxidierten Form (PCS, deren Glucuronsäure-Konjugate sowie phenolische Sulfatester der PCS) ausgeschieden wurden. Demnach spielt die Oxidation des HMP zu PCS eine sehr wichtige Rolle bei der Detoxifizierung und Ausscheidung von HMP. Ferne konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die Enzyme Alkohol- und Aldehyd-Dehydrogenase an der Oxidation von HMP beteiligt waren. Die Inhibitoren Disulfiram und Ethanol der o. g. Enzyme wurde daher zur Modulation der Detoxifizierung in vivo eingesetzt

  10. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la r

  11. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2007-06-05

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  12. DRESS and Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Cahyanur, Rahmat; Oktavia, Dina; Koesno, Sukamto

    2012-07-01

    DRESS (drug rash eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) is a life threatening condition characterized by skin rash, fever, leucocytosis with eosinophilia or atypical lymphocytosis, lymphadenopathy, and internal organ involvement. This case report would like to describe an interesting case of DRESS coincidence with ischemic stroke. A 38 year old woman had been admitted with skin rash and fever since four days before. Four weeks before admission she received antibiotic and multivitamin for one week. The patient looked ill, with body temperature 38.0°C. Marked physical findings were cervical lymphadenopathy and hepatomegaly. Dermatological examination finding was generalized exanthema. Laboratory evaluation showed leucocytosis, eosinophilia, and increased level of ALT and AST. During hospitalization the patient also suffered from ischemic stroke. Treatments administered in this patient were oxygen, adequate intravenous fluid, parenteral nutrition, methyl prednisolone, cethirizin bid, ranitidin bid, and antibiotic. The antibiotic treatment in this case was performed with graded challenge or test dosing.

  13. Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen (Babelsberg).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen, an institution of higher education for the study of film and television production in Babelsberg, Germany (formerly the German Democratic Republic). Discusses the major reorientations in the school caused by Germany's reunification. (SR)

  14. Satellitenbewegung, band III: Natiirliche und gesteuerte bewegung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochim, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Im dritten Band der Satellitenbewegung werden in fortlaufender Nummerierung einige für Untersuchungen der Bewegung der künstlichen Satelliten wichtige Grundlagen der Astrodynamik mit ausführlichen mathematischen Formelsystemen behandelt. Dazu zählen die unterschiedlichen Aspekte der Bewegung der natürlichen Himmelskörper, die Steuerung und Kontrolle von künstlichen Objekten, und insbesondere die für eine Satellitenbahnanalyse wichtigen physikalischen Beeinflussungen einer Satellitenbewegung. Mathematisch entscheidend ist die Wahl geeigneter Bahnparameter, die ein bestimmtes Bewegungsproblem widerspruchsfrei und singularitätenfrei zu behandeln gestatten. Für die Behandlung routinemäßiger Aufgabenstellungen der Satellitenbewegung, in erster Linie einer präzisen Bahnbestimmung und Bahnverbesserung, kann auf eine Fülle von lehrbuchartigen Monographien verwiesen werden, so dass diese Problematik in der vorliegenden Arbeit nur angedeutet werden soll.

  15. Kosmische Katastrophen und der Ursprung der Religion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, F.

    This book is a German translation, by V. Delavre, from the English original "The origin of the Universe and the origin of religion", published in 1993. Contents: E. Sens: Die unterbrochene Musikstunde. Einleitung zur deutschen Ausgabe. C. Ryskamp: Einführung. R. N. Anshen: Vorwort. F. Hoyle: Kosmische Katastrophen und der Ursprung der Religion - Die Folgen der Respektabilität; Eiszeiten und Kometen; Die allgemeine Situation in den Nacheiszeiten; Kometen und der Ursprung der Religionen; Der Übergang zu Mittelalter und Neuzeit. Diskussionsbeiträge: Ruth Nanda Anshen, Freeman Dyson, Paul Oscar Kristeller, John Archibald Wheeler, James Schwartz, Roger Shinn, Milton Gatch, Philip Solomon, Norman Newell. F. Hoyle: Schlußwort. A. Tollmann: Nachwort zur deutschen Ausgabe.

  16. Uniform National Discharge Standards (UNDS): Outreach

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the Federalism and Tribal consultation efforts related to the Uniform National Discharge Standards (UNDS) and links to copies of each presentation, both to state and local representatives, as well as federally-recognized tribes.

  17. Long stroke pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Gerald S. (Inventor); Moore, Nicholas R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A very high pressure pump apparatus which minimizes wear on the seals thereof and on valves connected thereto, by utilizing a very long stroke piston rod whose opposite ends are received in long cylinders. An electric motor which drives the rod, includes a rotor with a threaded aperture that receives a long threaded middle portion of the rod, so that as the rotor turns it advances the rod.

  18. Danger signals in stroke.

    PubMed

    Gelderblom, Mathias; Sobey, Christopher G; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Magnus, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Danger molecules are the first signals released from dying tissue after stroke. These danger signals bind to receptors on immune cells that will result in their activation and the release of inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators, resulting in amplification of the immune response and subsequent enlargement of the damaged brain volume. The release of danger signals is a central event that leads to a multitude of signals and cascades in the affected and neighbouring tissue, therefore providing a potential target for therapy.

  19. Calorie restriction and stroke

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Stroke, a major cause of disability and mortality in the elderly, occurs when a cerebral blood vessel is occluded or ruptured, resulting in ischemic damage and death of brain cells. The injury mechanism involves metabolic and oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, apoptosis and inflammatory processes, including activation of glial cells and infiltration of leukocytes. In animal models, dietary energy restriction, by daily calorie reduction (CR) or intermittent fasting (IF), extends lifespan and decreases the development of age-related diseases. Dietary energy restriction may also benefit neurons, as suggested by experimental evidence showing that CR and IF protect neurons against degeneration in animal models. Recent findings by our group and others suggest the possibility that dietary energy restriction may protect against stroke induced brain injury, in part by inducing the expression of neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF); protein chaperones, including heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78); antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases (SOD) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1), uncoupling proteins and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This article discusses the protective mechanisms activated by dietary energy restriction in ischemic stroke. PMID:21910904

  20. Vergleich von rekombinanten Vaccinia- und DNA-Vektoren zur Tumorimmuntherapie im C57BL/6-Mausmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnen, Heiko

    2002-10-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Tumorimpfstoffe auf der Basis des Plasmid-Vektors pCI, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) und MVA-infizierten dendritischen Zellen entwickelt und durch Sequenzierung, Western blotting und durchflußzytometrische Analyse überprüft. Die in vivo Wirksamkeit der Vakzinen wurde in verschiedenen Tumormodellen in C57BL/6 Mäusen verglichen. Die auf dem eukaryotischen Expressionsvektor pCI basierende DNA-Vakzinierung induzierte einen sehr wirksamen, antigenspezifischen und langfristigen Schutz vor Muzin, CEA oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Eine MVA-Vakzinierung bietet in den in dieser Arbeit durchgeführten Tumormodellen keinen signifikanten Schutz vor Muzin oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Sowohl humane, als auch murine in vitro generierte dendritische Zellen lassen sich mit MVA – im Vergleich zu anderen viralen Vektoren – sehr gut infizieren. Die Expressionsrate der eingefügten Gene ist aber gering im Vergleich zur Expression in permissiven Wirtszellen des Virus (embryonale Hühnerfibroblasten). Es konnte gezeigt werden, daß eine MVA-Infektion dendritischer Zellen ähnliche Auswirkungen auf den Reifezustand humaner und muriner dendritischer Zellen hat, wie eine Infektion mit replikationskompetenten Vakzinia-Stämmen, und außerdem die Hochregulation von CD40 während der terminalen Reifung von murinen dendritischen Zellen inhibiert wird. Die während der langfristigen in vitro Kultur auf CEF-Zellen entstandenen Deletionen im MVA Genom führten zu einer starken Attenuierung und dem Verlust einiger Gene, die immunmodulatorische Proteine kodieren, jedoch nicht zu einer Verminderung des zytopathischen Effekts in dendritischen Zellen. Die geringe Expressionsrate und die beobachtete Inhibition der Expression kostimulatorischer Moleküle auf dendritischen Zellen kann für eine wenig effektive Induktion einer Immunantwort in MVA vakzinierten Tieren durch cross priming oder die direkte Infektion

  1. Connector Mechanism Has Smaller Stroke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, M. Bruce

    1992-01-01

    System for connecting electrical and/or fluid lines includes mechanism reducing length of stroke necessary to make or break connections. Feature enables connection and disconnection in confined space, and compensates for misalignment between connectors. Connector in active member moves upward at twice the speed of downward stroke of passive member. Stroke amplified within connector system. Applications include connections between modular electronic units, coupled vehicles, and hydraulic systems.

  2. Recovery After Stroke: Coping with Emotions

    MedlinePlus

    Recovery After Stroke: Coping with Emotions Dealing with a flood of emotions can be hard for stroke ... not be considered a normal part of stroke recovery. If you suffer from depression, anxiety or emotions ...

  3. Cost and Outcome in Pediatric Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, William; Huang, Haijuan; Seiber, Eric; Lo, Warren

    2015-10-01

    The cost of childhood stroke receives little notice. The authors examined potential drivers of cost and outcome to test whether (1) neonatal strokes cost less than childhood strokes, (2) associated diseases influence cost, (3) arterial ischemic stroke is more costly than sinovenous thrombosis, and (4) cost correlates with outcome. The authors reviewed records of 111 children who sustained arterial ischemic stroke or sinovenous thrombosis between 2005 and 2010 to identify costs for the following year. They assessed outcomes in 46 with the Recovery and Recurrence Questionnaire and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Neonatal strokes cost less than childhood stroke. Strokes associated with congenital heart disease or vasculopathy cost the most, while perinatal or idiopathic strokes cost the least. Higher costs are correlated with worse impairment and poorer quality of life. Stroke etiology significantly influences the cost of pediatric stroke. Future cost-benefit studies must consider etiology when estimating the incremental costs associated with stroke.

  4. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  5. What Are the Warning Signs of Stroke?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cardiovascular Conditions What Are the Warning Signs of Stroke? Brain tissue affected by blockage Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in ... over 55 years old have more chance of stroke, and the risk gets greater as you get ...

  6. Promoting recovery from ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Antje; Minnerup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Over recent decades, experimental and clinical stroke studies have identified a number of neurorestorative treatments that stimulate neural plasticity and promote functional recovery. In contrast to the acute stroke treatments thrombolysis and endovascular thrombectomy, neurorestorative treatments are still effective when initiated days after stroke onset, which makes them applicable to virtually all stroke patients. In this article, selected physical, pharmacological and cell-based neurorestorative therapies are discussed, with special emphasis on interventions that have already been transferred from the laboratory to the clinical setting. We explain molecular and structural processes that promote neural plasticity, discuss potential limitations of neurorestorative treatments, and offer a speculative viewpoint on how neurorestorative treatments will evolve.

  7. Electronic Stroke CarePath: Integrated Approach to Stroke Care.

    PubMed

    Katzan, Irene L; Fan, Youran; Speck, Micheal; Morton, Johanna; Fromwiller, Lauren; Urchek, John; Uchino, Ken; Griffith, Sandra D; Modic, Michael

    2015-10-01

    We describe the development, implementation, and outcomes of the first 2 years of the Electronic Stroke CarePath, an initiative developed for management of ischemic stroke patients in an effort to improve efficiency and quality of care for patients. The CarePath consists of care pathways for ischemic stroke that are integrated within the electronic health record. Patient-reported outcomes are collected using an external software platform. Documentation tools, order sets, and clinical decision support were designed to improve efficiency, optimize process measure adherence, and produce clinical data as a byproduct of care that are available for future analyses. Inpatient mortality and length of stay were compared before and after CarePath implementation in ischemic stroke patients after adjustment for case-mix. Postdischarge functional outcomes of patients with ischemic stroke were compared between the first 3 months of rollout and remainder of the study period. From January 2011 to December 2012, there were 1106 patients with ischemic stroke on the CarePath. There was a decline in inpatient mortality in patients with ischemic stroke, but not in control patients with intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Completion rate of patient-reported questionnaires at postdischarge stroke follow-up was 72.9%. There was a trend toward improved functional outcomes at follow-up with CarePath implementation. Implementation of the Electronic Stroke CarePath is feasible and may be associated with a benefit in multiple different outcomes after ischemic stroke. This approach may be an important strategy for optimizing stroke care in the future.

  8. Stroke: advances in medical therapy and acute stroke intervention.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Kevin M; Lal, Brajesh K; Meschia, James F

    2015-10-01

    Evidence-based therapeutic options for stroke continue to emerge based on results from well-designed clinical studies. Ischemic stroke far exceeds hemorrhagic stroke in terms of prevalence and incidence, both in the USA and worldwide. The public health effect of reducing death and disability related to ischemic stroke justifies the resources that have been invested in identifying safe and effective treatments. The emergence of novel oral anticoagulants for ischemic stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation has introduced complexity to clinical decision making for patients with this common cardiac arrhythmia. Some accepted ischemic stroke preventative strategies, such as carotid revascularization for asymptomatic carotid stenosis, require reassessment, given advances in risk factor management, antithrombotic therapy, and surgical techniques. Intra-arterial therapy, particularly with stent retrievers after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, has recently been demonstrated to improve functional outcomes and will require investment in system-based care models to ensure that effective treatments are received by patients in a timely fashion. The purpose of this review is to describe recent advances in medical and surgical approaches to ischemic stroke prevention and acute treatment. Results from recently published clinical trials will be highlighted along with ongoing clinical trials addressing key questions in ischemic stroke management and prevention where equipoise remains.

  9. Assessment of serum and urine ghrelin levels in patients with acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Seyhanli, Eyyup Sabri; Lok, Ugur; Gulacti, Umut; Buyukaslan, Hasan; Atescelik, Metin; Yildiz, Mustafa; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Goktekin, Mehmet Cagri; Aydın, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ghrelin is a novel brain-gut peptide hormone consisted of 28 amino-acid. In the plasma, it exists in two major molecular forms, acylated and des-acyled ghrelin, filtered in glomeruli or secreted by nephrons. Primary biological effects of hormones are regulating appetite, foods intake and energy metabolism. We investigated the changing and relationships between serum and urine ghrelin levels in acute stroke patients to provide more information whether diagnostic parameter. Methods: Thirty acute stroke patients and thirty consecutive volunteers included in study prospectively. To analyze serum and urine ghrelin levels, at the time of diagnose, all of participant blood and fresh urine (1 ml serum, 2 ml urine respectively) samples were obtained. Serum ghrelin levels analyzed ELISA technique, and urine ghrelin levels studied by validation technique. To compare quantitative data student’s t test, and for qualitative data chi-square and Fisher’s Exact Chi-square test was used. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Urine acyl ghrelin levels found statistically significant between patient and control groups (P=0.001), but there were no statistically significant differences between both groups (P>0.05) in serum acyl gherelin, des-acyl ghrelin and urine des-acyle ghrelin levels. Conclusions: The results indicate that urine acyl ghrelin levels may be considered as a diagnostic parameter in acute ischemic stroke patients. Further studies delineating the mechanism of these observed results are warranted. PMID:25785049

  10. [Stroke and Cancer: Are Cryptogenic Strokes a Paraneoplastic Syndrome?].

    PubMed

    Eschle, Daniel

    2015-07-22

    Cancer is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, and stroke can precede tumour diagnosis by many months. A paraneoplastic hypercoagulability has been implicated. Overall, cancer is a rare cause, but should be suspected in cases of cryptogenic stroke. In patients with cryptogenic stroke, two criteria – ischemic lesions in multiple vascular territories and D-dimer values >2,15 µg/ml – predict cancer with 100% specificity according to one relevant study. An adenocarcinoma at an advanced stage is identified in many cases, the risk of stroke-recurrence is high. There is a lack of evidence-based recommendations regarding secondary prevention in these cases. In analogy to the guidelines for venous thromboembolism in cancer patients, low molecular weight heparins might be more efficient compared to other anti-clotting agents.

  11. Die Welt des Herrn Kuhn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Daniela

    Eines Morgens erwachte Herr Kuhn fröstelnd und staunte darüber, dass es in seinerWohnung eiskalt war. Dennoch quälte er sich aus seiner kuscheligen Bettdecke heraus und schlurfte ins Bad. "Hoffentlich wird wenigstens das Wasser warm", dachte er sich, als er den Wasserhahn betätigte - aber es kam nicht nur kein warmesWasser, außer einem unheilvollen Gluckser kam gar nichts aus der Leitung. "Dann werde ich wohl mal den Klempner anrufen", sprach er sich leise in den Bart und griff zu seinem Handy - doch das Netz war tot! Herr Kuhn begann nun, sich ernsthaft Sorgen zu machen, "Oje, was ist denn heute nur los? Ist irgendetwas Schlimmes passiert?" Um einen besseren Überblick über die Lage zu bekommen und sich austauschen zu können, brannte er nun förmlich darauf, rauszugehen und zur Arbeit zu fahren. An anderen Tagen, die er frisch geduscht und mit Kaffee und Marmeladen-Brot begann, war er selten so motiviert. So ging er also nun mit leerem Magen aus dem Haus. Hätte er den Versuch unternommen, sein tägliches Marmeladenbrot zuzubereiten, und dafür den Kühlschrank geöffnet, um das Marmeladenglas herauszunehmen, wäre ihm aufgefallen, dass auch die Stromversorgung Störungen unterworfen war, unschön zu erkennen an den ersten grünen, felligen Inseln auf seinem Lieblingskäse.

  12. Brain Edema After Ischaemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Dostovic, Zikrija; Dostovic, Ernestina; Smajlovic, Dzevdet; Ibrahimagic, Omer C.; Avdic, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the incidence of brain edema after ischaemic stroke and its impact on the outcome of patients in the acute phase of ischaemic stroke. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 114 patients. Ischaemic stroke and brain edema are verified by computed tomography. The severity of stroke was determined by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Laboratory findings were made during the first four days of hospitalization, and complications were verified by clinical examination and additional tests. Results: In 9 (7.9%) patients developed brain edema. Pneumonia was the most common complication (12.3%). Brain edema had a higher incidence in women, patients with hypertension and elevated serum creatinine values, and patients who are suffering from diabetes. There was no significant correlation between brain edema and survival in patients after acute ischaemic stroke. Patients with brain edema had a significantly higher degree of neurological deficit as at admission, and at discharge (p = 0.04, p = 0.004). Conclusion: The cerebral edema is common after acute ischaemic stroke and no effect on survival in the acute phase. The existence of brain edema in acute ischaemic stroke significantly influence the degree of neurological deficit. PMID:27994292

  13. [Professionalizing the management of strokes].

    PubMed

    Jonniaux, Sandrine; Simon, Josette; Haouisée, Jocelyne

    2016-01-01

    A stroke is a life threatening emergency requiring fast access to medical care and to a technical support centre. Health professionals are trained in the complexity of this care. Preventive care and educational activities are developed in emergency departments, notably in neurovascular units, thereby contributing to the prevention of complications and the risk of repeat strokes.

  14. Burden of stroke in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kusuma, Y; Venketasubramanian, N; Kiemas, L S; Misbach, J

    2009-10-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of death among Indonesians above five years of age, comprising 15.4% of all deaths, age-gender-standardised death rate 99/100 000, and age-gender-standardised disability-adjusted life years lost 685/100 000. Stroke prevalence is 0.0017% in rural Indonesia, 0.022% in urban Indonesia, 0.5% among urban Jakarta adults, and 0.8% overall. Frequent risk factors include hypertension, smoking and hypercholesterolaemia. The mean age of stroke patients is 58.8 years. Subarachnoid haemorrhage is found in 1.4% of patients, intracerebral haemorrhage in 18.5%, and ischaemic stroke in 42.9%. Only city hospitals have neurology, neurosurgery and neuroimaging services. Indonesia has 40 stroke units. Commonly used medications for stroke are easily available. Hospital-based rehabilitative services are available in large hospitals. Traditional medicine is widely practiced. Efforts to combat stroke include education, more stroke units and rehabilitative services especially in the rural areas.

  15. Stroke and episodic memory disorders.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P

    2009-12-01

    Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there are several important facets of memory impairment after stroke: (1) Every node of the limbic system implicated in memory may be damaged by stroke but very rarely in isolation and the combination of amnesia with the associated deficits often illuminates additional aspects of memory functions. (2) Stroke produces amnesia by damage to critical convergence white matter connections of the limbic system, and stroke is the only etiology of amnesia that can delineate the entire pathway of memory and critical convergence points. (3) Stroke also impairs memory, without causing classical amnesia, by damaging brain regions responsible for cognitive processes, some modality specific and some more generally strategic, that are essential for normal learning and recall.

  16. One Stroke at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollibaugh, Molly

    2012-01-01

    At first glance, a Zentangle creation can seem intricate and complicated. But, when you learn how it is done, you realize how simple it is. Zentangles are patterns, or "tangles," that have been reduced to a simple sequence of elemental strokes. When you learn to focus on each stroke you find yourself capable of things that you may have once…

  17. Stroke-Related Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Louis R.; Arenillas, Juan; Cramer, Steven C.; Joutel, Anne; Lo, Eng H.; Meschia, James; Savitz, Sean; Tournier-Lasserve, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Stroke-related translational research is multifaceted. Herein, we highlight genome-wide association studies and genetic studies of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, COL4A1 mutations, and cerebral cavernous malformations; advances in molecular biology and biomarkers; newer brain imaging research; and recovery from stroke emphasizing cell-based and other rehabilitative modalities. PMID:21555605

  18. Strokes in Thai children : etiology and outcome.

    PubMed

    Visudhiphan, P; Chiemchanya, S; Wattanasirichaigoon, D

    1996-12-01

    In Asian countries, specific etiology and outcome of stroke in children are rarely reported. During January 1979 to December 1997, 68 children with stroke, admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok were reviewed for etiology and outcome; 38 patients (22 males) had ischemic stroke and 30 (20 males) had hemorrhagic stroke. Severe headache, vomiting, disturbance of consciousness and papilledema were prominent presentations of hemorrhagic stroke. Bleeding from vascular anomalies of the brain (AVM) was the most common etiology of hemorrhagic stroke while septic and non-septic emboli from congenital and acquired heart diseases were the most common cause of ischemic stroke. The mortality rate was 7% and 9% in hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes, respectively. Complete recovery was observed in 52% of cases of hemorrhagic stroke but in only 26% of ischemic stroke. Hemiparesis was the most common residual neurological deficit with higher occurrence in ischemic stroke.

  19. Analyse und Entwurf von hochbitratigen Clock-and-Data-Recovery Schaltungen in CMOS-Technologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremer, J.-K.; Zemko, C.; Schmackers, J.; Mathis, W.

    2007-06-01

    In dieser Arbeit wird ein neuartiges Schaltungskonzept für die Realisierung eines Phasendetektors einer Clock-and-Data-Recovery Schaltung vorgestellt. Es handelt sich hierbei um eine nichtlineare Phasendetektorarchitektur, die nach dem Verfahren von Alexander arbeitet. Um die Funktionalität des Phasendetektors im Hochfrequenzbereich zu gewährleisten, wurden in dem Design sehr schnell schaltende HLO-Flip-Flops (high-speed latching operation flip-flop) verwendet. Ein wesentliches Entwurfsziel war die Begrenzung des selbstgenerierten Jitters des Phasendetektors. Der Schaltungsentwurf wurde mit der Simulationsumgebung Cadence Spectre durchgeführt und die Funktionalität der Schaltung im GHz-Bereich anhand von ausgewählten Simulationen verifiziert. This paper presents a novel realization concept for Clock-and-Data-Recovery circuits. Our Design uses a nonlinear phase detector architecture, which is based on the Alexander phase detection method. In order to ensure circuit functionality in the RF region, we use very fast switching HLO-Flip-Flops (high-speed latching operation flip-flop) in our design. The primal goal in our design was the minimization of self induced jitter of the phase detector. The accuracy of our circuit design and the functionality in the GHz regime is confirmed by various circuit simulations executed with the SPECTRE Simulator.

  20. Stroke education in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Jose C; Baroque, Alejandro C; Lokin, Johnny K

    2013-10-01

    Education is paramount in effectively reducing the significant burden of stroke in the Philippines. Dedicated academic institutions and dynamic professional organizations in the Philippines have collaborated to involve themselves in the plight against stroke through systematic curriculum development for undergraduates, continuous regulation of quality residency and fellowship training program, hosting up-to-date Continuing Medical Education (CME) activities for local and international audience, and active participation in clinical stroke trials. Most recently, the University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Medicine & Surgery and the Department of Neurology & Psychiatry offered a 72-hour Certification Course in Stroke Medicine that commenced in 2011 in anticipation of the Master on Health Sciences in Stroke Medicine course being prepared for 2013.

  1. Acute Stroke Imaging Research Roadmap

    PubMed Central

    Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Bammer, Roland; Baron, Jean-Claude; Davis, Stephen; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Eastwood, James D.; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fisher, Marc; Furie, Karen L.; Goldmakher, Gregory V.; Hacke, Werner; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Kloska, Stephan P.; Köhrmann, Martin; Koroshetz, Walter; Lee, Ting-Yim; Lees, Kennedy R.; Lev, Michael H.; Liebeskind, David S.; Ostergaard, Leif; Powers, William J.; Provenzale, James; Schellinger, Peter; Silbergleit, Robert; Sorensen, Alma Gregory; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wu, Ona; Warach, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The recent “Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment” meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), industry representatives, and members of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to discuss the role of advanced neuroimaging in acute stroke treatment. The goals of the meeting were to assess state-of-the-art practice in terms of acute stroke imaging research and to propose specific recommendations regarding: (1) the standardization of perfusion and penumbral imaging techniques, (2) the validation of the accuracy and clinical utility of imaging markers of the ischemic penumbra, (3) the validation of imaging biomarkers relevant to clinical outcomes, and (4) the creation of a central repository to achieve these goals. The present article summarizes these recommendations and examines practical steps to achieve them. PMID:18477656

  2. Multimodal MRI of experimental stroke

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Timothy Q

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death and the leading cause of long-term disability in the United States. Brain imaging data from experimental stroke models and stroke patients have shown that there is often a gradual progression of potentially reversible ischemic injury toward infarction. Reestablishing tissue perfusion and/or treating with neuroprotective drugs in a timely fashion are expected to salvage some ischemic tissues. Diffusion-weighted imaging based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in which contrast is based on water motion can detect ischemic injury within minutes after onsets, whereas computed tomography and other imaging modalities fail to detect stroke injury for at least a few hours. Along with quantitative perfusion imaging, the perfusion-diffusion mismatch which approximates the ischemic penumbra could be imaged non-invasively. This review describes recent progresses in the development and application of multimodal MRI and image analysis techniques to study ischemic tissue at risk in experimental stroke in rats. PMID:24323751

  3. Assessing cognitive impairment following stroke.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Michelle N; Bryan, Janet; Smith, Ashleigh E; Esterman, Adrian J

    2011-11-01

    The assessment of cognitive function is often neglected following stroke, with no consensus on the optimal method to assess poststroke cognition. We evaluated the ability of a brief protocol to detect cognitive impairment in community-dwelling people with chronic stroke compared to healthy controls and its ability to detect changes in cognition in stroke participants undergoing an exercise intervention. Four tests of cognition were able to detect differences between the groups in the domains of executive function, memory, and information-processing speed. Stroke survivors undergoing exercise over a 5-month period showed significantly improved memory and speed of information processing. Results suggest that exercise may have the potential to improve cognition in long-term stroke survivors and that these tests are sensitive measures of poststroke cognition.

  4. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  5. Stroke at a younger age.

    PubMed

    Delilović-Vranić, Jasminka; Alajbegović, Azra; Tirić-Campara, Merita; Todorović, Ljubica

    2011-06-01

    Stroke is a suddenly developing disorder, caused by focal disturbance of cerebral circulation, followed by neurologic deficits of varying intensity with duration longer than 1 hour; it mostly occurs in old and middle age, and rarely at a younger age. The aim of the study was to analyze the occurrence of stroke at a younger age (18-49 years). We analyzed all stroke patients aged 18-49 treated at University Department of Neurology in Sarajevo during 2009, including analysis of their risk factors. During the one-year period, there were 820 stroke patients in total, 132 (18.5%) of them aged 18-49, male to female ratio 51.35%:48.65%. The majority of strokes were of ischemic type (94.59%), with only 5.41% of hemorrhagic stroke. The following risk factors were confirmed in study patients: hypertension (64.86%), smoking (57.76%), dyslipidemia (48.65%), ischemic heart disease (43.32%), psychological stress (29.73%), diabetes mellitus type 2 (24.43%), previous stroke including transient ischemic attack (21.62%), and others. During the one-month follow-up, 27.03% of patients achieved complete recovery, whereas mild neurologic signs were retained in 54.05%, signs of severe deficit requiring assistance in 13.51%, and 5.41% of patients died. In conclusion, stroke occurs even at a younger age in certain percentage. Along with smoking, diabetes, dyslipidemia and stress, hypertension is one of the leading risk factors for stroke also at a younger age. Timely and appropriate treatment contributes to faster recovery and shorter hospital stay, while reducing overall stroke sequels. The best prevention is primary, i.e. fighting risk factors and healthy lifestyle.

  6. Aspirin resistance is more common in lacunar strokes than embolic strokes and is related to stroke severity.

    PubMed

    Englyst, Nicola A; Horsfield, Gill; Kwan, Joseph; Byrne, Christopher D

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between aspirin resistance, ischaemic stroke subtype, stroke severity, and inflammatory cytokines. Aspirin resistance was assessed by thrombelastography in 45 people with ischaemic stroke and 25 controls. Plasma interleukin (IL)-6 was measured. Stroke severity was assessed using the modified Rankin scale and National Institute of Health Stroke Score within 72 h of stroke. Aspirin resistance was more common in the stroke than the control group (67% versus 40%, P=0.028), and within the stroke group the aspirin-resistant group had a higher Rankin score (4.0 versus 2.0, P=0.013). Aspirin resistance was greater in lacunar than embolic strokes (platelet activation 79% versus 59%, P=0.020). The stroke aspirin-resistant group had higher levels of IL-6 than the stroke aspirin-sensitive group (2.4+/-1 versus 1.8+/-0.9 ng/mL, P=0.037). Using multivariate analysis, we examined the interrelationships between aspirin resistance, IL-6, and stroke severity. These analyses showed that IL-6 was independently associated with stroke severity as the outcome (B=3.738, P=0.036), and aspirin resistance was independently associated with IL-6 (B=0.765, P=0.005) as the outcome. In conclusion, aspirin resistance is related to stroke severity and aspirin resistance is more common in lacunar strokes than embolic strokes.

  7. Stroke bricks - spatial brain regions to assess ischemic stroke localization.

    PubMed

    Ciszek, Bogdan; Jóźwiak, Rafał; Sobieszczuk, Ewa; Przelaskowski, Artur; Skadorwa, Tymon

    2017-03-29

    Computer-aided analysis of non-contrast CT (NCCT) images for rapid diagnosis of ischemic stroke is based on the augmented visualization of evolving ischemic lesions. Computerized support of NCCT often leads to overinterpretation of ischemic areas, thus it is of great interest to provide neurologically verified regions in order to improve accuracy of subsequent radiological assessment. We propose Stroke Bricks (StBr) as an arbitrary spatial division of brain tissue into the regions associated with specific clinical symptoms of ischemic stroke. Neurological stroke deficit is formally translated into respective areas of possible ischemic lesions. StBr were designed according to formalized mapping of neurological symptoms and were attributed to the uniquely defined areas of impaired blood supply. StBr concept may be useful for an integrated radiological CT-based assessment of suspected stroke cases or can be included into computer-aided tools to optimize the evaluation of stroke site and its extent. These data in turn are appropriable for further diagnosis, predicting the therapeutic outcome as well as for patients' qualification for an appropriate form of reperfusion therapy. The usefulness of Stroke Bricks was illustrated in the case studies.

  8. Strategies for stroke rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, Bruce H

    2014-01-01

    Rehabilitation after hemiplegic stroke has typically relied on the training of patients in compensatory strategies. The translation of neuroscientific research into care has led to new approaches and renewed promise for better outcomes. Improved motor control can progress with task-specific training incorporating increased use of proximal and distal movements during intensive practice of real-world activities. Functional gains are incorrectly said to plateau by 3–6 months. Many patients retain latent sensorimotor function that can be realised any time after stroke with a pulse of goal-directed therapy. The amount of practice probably best determines gains for a given level of residual movement ability. Clinicians should encourage patients to build greater strength, speed, endurance, and precision of multijoint movements on tasks that increase independence and enrich daily activity. Imaging tools may help clinicians determine the capacity of residual networks to respond to a therapeutic approach and help establish optimal dose-response curves for training. Promising adjunct approaches include practice with robotic devices or in a virtual environment, electrical stimulation to increase cortical excitability during training, and drugs to optimise molecular mechanisms for learning. Biological strategies for neural repair may augment rehabilitation in the next decade. PMID:15324721

  9. [Neurorehabilitation after stroke].

    PubMed

    Freimüller, Manfred; Fheodoroff, Klemens

    2003-01-01

    After stroke most patients need to undergo extensive neurological and neuropsychological rehabilitation (neurorehabilitation). It is important to have an individual treatment programme that takes into account that the stroke patient is impaired in terms of his receptive skills, his capacity to act and his personal integrity. Based on the "phase model" of the Austrian Society for Neurological Rehabilitation (OGNR) individual goals have to be agreed and measures have to be taken. After maintaining the vital functions and a stable vegetative state, the remaining abilities have to be stimulated, functions have to be regained and deficits have to be compensated. An interdisciplinary neurological rehabilitation team has, for example, the following responsibilities: treatment of impaired motor skills and balance, treatment of swallowing and breathing impairments, training of activities of daily living, and special concepts for the treatment of cognitive deficits and impaired behaviour. A decisive factor for rehabilitation success is the relationship between therapists and patients and their relatives/carers. Preparation for independent or care-managed life after inpatient rehabilitation is of paramount importance, this means organization of continuing out-patient treatment, out-patient care management, as well as measurement and documentation of rehabilitation success. Regaining quality of life is an active process of analysing and working on the remaining activity limitations and participation restrictions in society. The work of the interdisciplinary neurological rehabilitation team contributes decisively to this process.

  10. Basic Land Drills for Swimming Stroke Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Teaching swimming strokes can be a challenging task in physical education. The purpose of the article is to introduce 12 on land drills that can be utilized to facilitate the learning of swimming strokes, including elementary back stroke, sidestroke, front crawl, back stroke, breaststroke, and butterfly. Each drill consists of four components…

  11. Periodisches Hitzdrahtverfahren zur Messung von Wärme- und Temperaturleitfähigkeit von geringen Stoffmengen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesinger, A.; Spindler, K.; Hahne, E.

    Zusammenfassung Es wird ein Meßverfahren zur gleichzeitigen Bestimmung der Wärme- und der Temperaturleitfähigkeit von geringen Stoffmengen beschrieben. Neben Messungen an hochviskosen Flüssigkeiten eignet sich das Verfahren besonders für Messungen an Pulver-Schüttungen. Das Meßverfahren basiert auf dem transienten Hitzdraht-Verfahren. In einem dünnen Platindraht fließt ein sinusförmiger Wechselstrom, der den Draht periodisch erwärmt. Es entstehen thermische Wellen, die in die umgebende Probe eindringen. Die Amplitude und die Phasenlage der thermischen Wellen in der Probe hängen von der Temperaturleitfähigkeit a und der Wärmeleitfähigkeit λ der Probe ab. Die Temperaturschwingung in der Probe wird mit Hilfe des Platindrahtes gemessen, der gleichzeitig als Widerstandsthermometer eingesetzt wird. Meßwerte von Wasser und Glycerin zeigen eine gute Übereinstimmung mit Literaturwerten. Das Meßverfahren zeichnet sich dadurch aus, daß zur Bestimmung der Wärme- und Temperaturleitfähigkeit nur 13 ml einer Probe benötigt werden. Es werden Meßwerte einer Zeolith-Schüttung unter Wasserstoffbeladung dargestellt. A measuring procedure for the simultaneous determination of the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of small quantities is described. The procedure is suited for high-viscous fluids and for powdery material. The measuring principle is based on the transient hot-wire method. A sinusoidal alternating current flows through a thin platinum wire and heats up the wire periodically. This results in thermal waves, which penetrate into the surrounding sample. The amplitude and the phase shift of the thermal waves depend on the thermal diffusivity ``a'' and the thermal conductivity ``λ'' of the sample. The temperature oscillation in the sample is measured by means of the platinum wire, which is simultaneously applied as a resistance thermometer. The values measured for water and glycerine correspond well to those given in literature. Results of the

  12. Stroke rehabilitation: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Teasell, Robert; Meyer, Matthew J; McClure, Andrew; Pan, Cheng; Murie-Fernandez, Manuel; Foley, Norine; Salter, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    There is a revolution underway in stroke rehabilitation. International comparative studies coupled with an impressive evidence base have provided a platform from which an ideal system for stroke rehabilitation can be envisioned. Using the concepts of structure and process of care, different systems of stroke rehabilitation can be compared and evaluated against best evidence. Two structures of care are examined: specialized interdisciplinary stroke rehabilitation units and outpatient programs. Although specialized interdisciplinary stroke rehabilitation units remain the "gold standard" of care, access to them is often limited. Outpatient programs are essential to stroke rehabilitation systems of care; however, while some countries are investing in outpatient programs, others are scaling back. Even though structures of care have been shown to affect processes of care, it is the processes of care that have proven to be more influential in altering patient outcomes. Four key processes of care are examined: time to admission, intensity of therapy, task-specific therapy, and discharge planning. Within international stroke rehabilitation systems, differences in these processes have resulted in significant differences in outcomes. This allows for "real-world" comparisons of how differing processes affect patient outcomes. Those systems whose structures and processes of care best reflect current best evidence appear to achieve better outcomes.

  13. Editorial for the Third Pangu Stroke Conference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Chen, Jun; Ji, Xunming; Xi, Guohua; Zhang, John

    2015-10-01

    The Pangu Stroke Conference has been held annually in China since 2012 and is based on the successful templates of the Princeton Stroke Conference in the United States and the Marburg Conference on Cerebral Ischemia in Germany. All participants in the Pangu Stroke Conference are expert stroke clinicians or stroke basic science researchers of Chinese origin. This conference promotes collaboration between clinicians and basic science researchers and between stroke researchers in mainland China and other parts of the world. The Pangu Stroke Conference fosters translational stroke research, discussions of stroke research milestones, and proposals for future directions. Some of the keynote presentations in the third Pangu Stroke Conference are included in this special issue.

  14. Lichtkurve und Periode des RR-Lyrae-Sterns TV Trianguli und GSC 02297-00060, ein neuer Veraenderlicher im Feld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groebel, Rainer

    2014-03-01

    Based on data from the SWASP database and on recent observations 21 maxima and 12 minima timings of the little studied star TV Tri could be derived. It is shown that since the discovery the period remains essentially constant. The light curve shows only slight variations with a hump in the ascending branch. An improved ephemeris HJD (max.) = 2447385.354(5) + 0.7057324(5) x E is given. It turned out that the nearby suspected variable NSV 15327 (GSC 2.3 NBXY006220, 1:33:24.96 +32:27:39.10) remained constant in the observation period. It could be shown that the star GSC 02297-00060 (1:32:54.08 +32:29:34.85) also present in the field, is a short period eclipsing variable with shallow eclipses of 0.1 mag amplitude with the ephemeris HJD (min.) = 2456220.5180(16) + 0.2556919(14) x E. Rainer Groebel is a member of the BAV.

  15. Imaging of prehospital stroke therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Michelle P; Sanossian, Nerses; Liebeskind, David S

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant quality improvement efforts to streamline in-hospital acute stroke care in the conventional model, there remain inherent layers of treatment delays, which could be eliminated with prehospital diagnostics and therapeutics administered in a mobile stroke unit. Early diagnosis using Telestroke and neuroimaging while in the ambulance may enable targeted routing to hospitals with specialized care, which will likely improve patient outcomes. Key clinical trials in Telestroke, mobile stroke units with prehospital neuroimaging capability, prehospital ultrasound and co-administration of various classes of neuroprotectives, antiplatelets and antithrombin agents with intravenous thrombolysis are discussed in this article. PMID:26308602

  16. [Cerebrolysin for acute ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    iganshina, L E; Abakumova, T R

    2013-01-01

    The review discusses existing evidence of benefits and risks of cerebrolysin--a mixture of low-molecular-weight peptides and amino acids derived from pigs' brain tissue with proposed neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties, for acute ischemic stroke. The review presents results of systematic search and analysis of randomised clinical trials comparing cerebrolysin with placebo in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Only one trial was selected as meeting quality criteria. No difference in death and adverse events between cerebrolysin and placebo was established. The authors conclude about insufficiency of evidence to evaluate the effect of cerebrolysin on survival and dependency in people with acute ischemic stroke.

  17. Stroke Rehabilitation using Virtual Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Michael J.; Knutson, Jayme; Chae, John

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis This review covers the rationale, mechanisms, and availability of commercially available virtual environment-based interventions for stroke rehabilitation. It describes interventions for motor, speech, cognitive, and sensory dysfunction. Also discussed are the important features and mechanisms that allow virtual environments to facilitate motor relearning. A common challenge facing the field is inability to translate success in small trials to efficacy in larger populations. The heterogeneity of stroke pathophysiology has been blamed and experts advocate for the study of multimodal approaches. Therefore, this article also introduces a framework to help define new therapy combinations that may be necessary to address stroke heterogeneity. PMID:26522910

  18. Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention.

    PubMed

    Smajlović, Dževdet

    2015-01-01

    Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%-15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more precise epidemiologic data. Given the increasing incidence of stroke in the young, there is an objective need for more research in order to reduce this burden.

  19. [Post-stroke apathy].

    PubMed

    López-Dóriga Bonnardeaux, Pedro; Andrino Díaz, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Apathy is a motivational disturbance that can be defined as a quantitative reduction of goal-directed behaviour. Patients present with loss of motivation, concern, interest, and emotional response, resulting in a loss of initiative, decreased interaction with their environment, and a reduced interest in social life. Apathy not only appears to be common in stroke patients, but it has also been related to a wide range of negative consequences for the patients and their caregivers, including poor functional recovery, loss of social independence, and caregiver distress. Clear definition and consensus diagnostic criteria for apathy are needed to accomplish an accurate assessment and an individualised treatment plan. Although there have been reports of successful behavioural therapy treatment of apathetic states, there is a paucity of controlled clinical trials on the efficacy of apathetic behaviours using pharmacotherapy.

  20. Stroke Code Improves Intravenous Thrombolysis Administration in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Hao; Tang, Sung-Chun; Tsai, Li-Kai; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Yeh, Shin-Joe; Huang, Kuang-Yu; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Timely intravenous (IV) thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke is associated with better clinical outcomes. Acute stroke care implemented with “Stroke Code” (SC) may increase IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of SC on thrombolysis. Methods The study period was divided into the “pre-SC era” (January 2006 to July 2010) and “SC era” (August 2010 to July 2013). Demographics, critical times (stroke symptom onset, presentation to the emergency department, neuroimaging, thrombolysis), stroke severity, and clinical outcomes were recorded and compared between the two eras. Results During the study period, 5957 patients with acute ischemic stroke were admitted; of these, 1301 (21.8%) arrived at the emergency department within 3 h of stroke onset and 307 (5.2%) received IV-tPA. The number and frequency of IV-tPA treatments for patients with an onset-to-door time of <3 h increased from the pre-SC era (n = 91, 13.9%) to the SC era (n = 216, 33.3%) (P<0.001). SC also improved the efficiency of IV-tPA administration; the median door-to-needle time decreased (88 to 51 min, P<0.001) and the percentage of door-to-needle times ≤60 min increased (14.3% to 71.3%, P<0.001). The SC era group tended to have more patients with good outcome (modified Rankin Scale ≤2) at discharge (49.5 vs. 39.6%, P = 0.11), with no difference in symptomatic hemorrhage events or in-hospital mortality. Conclusion The SC protocol increases the percentage of acute ischemic stroke patients receiving IV-tPA and decreases door-to-needle time. PMID:25111200

  1. Arterial ischemic stroke in HIV

    PubMed Central

    Bryer, Alan; Lucas, Sebastian; Stanley, Alan; Allain, Theresa J.; Joekes, Elizabeth; Emsley, Hedley; Turnbull, Ian; Downey, Colin; Toh, Cheng-Hock; Brown, Kevin; Brown, David; Ison, Catherine; Smith, Colin; Corbett, Elizabeth L.; Nath, Avindra; Heyderman, Robert S.; Connor, Myles D.; Solomon, Tom

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection, and potentially its treatment, increases the risk of an arterial ischemic stroke. Multiple etiologies and lack of clear case definitions inhibit progress in this field. Several etiologies, many treatable, are relevant to HIV-related stroke. To fully understand the mechanisms and the terminology used, a robust classification algorithm to help ascribe the various etiologies is needed. This consensus paper considers the strengths and limitations of current case definitions in the context of HIV infection. The case definitions for the major etiologies in HIV-related strokes were refined (e.g., varicella zoster vasculopathy and antiphospholipid syndrome) and in some instances new case definitions were described (e.g., HIV-associated vasculopathy). These case definitions provided a framework for an algorithm to help assign a final diagnosis, and help classify the subtypes of HIV etiology in ischemic stroke. PMID:27386505

  2. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Dec 2,2016 ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  3. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Association Cardiology Patient Page Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Christian T. Ruff Download PDF https://doi.org/ ... an irregular and fast heartbeat. What Causes Atrial Fibrillation? Several factors and medical conditions make it more ...

  4. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  5. Role of prediabetes in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mijajlović, Milija D; Aleksić, Vuk M; Šternić, Nadežda M; Mirković, Mihailo M; Bornstein, Natan M

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and probably the greatest cause of adult disability worldwide. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a state of accelerated aging of blood vessels. Patients with diabetes have increased risk of stroke. Hyperglycemia represents a risk factor for poor outcome following stroke, and probably is just a marker of poor outcome rather than a cause. Lowering of blood glucose levels has not been shown to improve prognosis. Also, prevention of stroke risk among patients with DM is not improved with therapy for reduction of glucose levels. On the other hand, prediabetes, a metabolic state between normal glucose metabolism and diabetes, is a risk factor for the development of DM type 2 and subsequently for stroke. Several methods are known to identify prediabetes patients, including fasting plasma glucose levels, 2-hour post load glucose levels, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels. In this text, we tried to summarize known data about diagnosis, epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, and prevention of prediabetes in relation to DM and stroke. PMID:28203079

  6. Memantine enhances recovery from stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Yan; Charles, Andrew C.; Carmichael, S. Thomas; Sofroniew, Michael V.; Brennan, K.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Stroke treatment is constrained by limited treatment windows, and the clinical inefficacy of agents that showed preclinical promise. Yet animal and clinical data suggest considerable post-stroke plasticity, which could allow for treatment with recovery-modulating agents. Memantine (MEM) is a well-tolerated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist in common use for Alzheimer's disease. Methods MEM, 30mg/kg/day, or vehicle, was delivered chronically in drinking water beginning >2 hours after photothrombotic stroke. Results Though there was no difference in infarct size, behavior, or optical intrinsic signal (OIS) maps in the first seven days after stroke, mice treated chronically with MEM showed significant improvements in motor control, measured by cylinder test and grid walking performance, compared to vehicle treated animals. OIS revealed an increased area of forepaw sensory maps at 28 days after stroke. There was decreased reactive astrogliosis and increased vascular density around the infarcted cortex. Peri-infarct Western blots revealed increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated-Tropomyosin-related-kinase-B receptor (p-TrkB) expression. Conclusions Our results suggest that MEM improves stroke outcome in an apparently non-neuroprotective manner involving increased BDNF signaling, reduced reactive astrogliosis and improved vascularization, associated with improved recovery of sensory and motor cortical function. The clinical availability and tolerability of MEM make it an attractive candidate for clinical translation. PMID:24938836

  7. La diffraction des neutrons et des rayons X pour l'étude structurale des liquides et des verres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, H. E.; Salmon, P. S.; Barnes, A. C.

    2003-02-01

    La compréhension de mainte propriété physique d'un verre ou d'un liquide nécessite la connaissance des facteurs de structure partiels (PSFs) qui décrivent chacun la distribution d'une espèce atomique autour d'une autre. La technique de diffraction des neutrons avec substitution isotopique (NDIS) [1,2,3], ayant bien réussi a déterminer les PSFs de certains composés [4,5], est pourtant restreinte aux isotopes présentant un contraste suffisant en longueur de diffusion. D'un autre cote, la technique de diffusion anomale des rayons X (AXS ou AXD) [6] permet de faire varier la longueur de diffusion d'une espèce atomique pourvu que son énergie d'absorption soit à la fois accessible et suffisamment élevée pour donner un assez grand transfert du moment. La combinaison des techniques de diffraction des neutrons (avec ou sans substitution isotopique) et de diffraction des rayons X (avec ou sans diffusion anomale) peut donc permettre d'obtenir un meilleur contraste en longueurs de diffusion pour un système donné, mais exige une analyse de données plus soignée pour pouvoir bien tenir compte des erreurs systématiques qui sont différentes pour les 2 techniques [7]. Pour les atomes ayant des distributions électroniques quasi-sphériques, e.g. dans le cas d'un alliage liquide, la combinaison des techniques de NDIS et de diffraction des rayons X s'est déjà montrée très avantageuse pour la détermination des PSFs [8,9]. Dans le cas des verres ayant d'importantes liaisons covalentes, l'effective combinaison des 2 techniques peut être moins directe mais facilitée lorsqu'il s'agit des atomes de grand Z [10,11]. Nous présentons ici un sommaire du méthode et quelques exemples des résultats.

  8. Fatigue after Stroke: The Patient's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Victoria Louise; Mead, Gillian Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Background. Fatigue after stroke is common and distressing to patients. Aims. Our aims were to explore patients' perceptions of post-stroke fatigue, including the causes of fatigue and the factors that alleviate fatigue, in a mixed methods study. Results. We interviewed 15 patients who had had a stroke and were inpatients on stroke rehabilitation wards. A substantial proportion of patients reported that their fatigue started at the time of their stroke. Various different factors were reported to improve fatigue, including exercise, good sleep, rehabilitation and rest. Fatigue influences patients' sense of "control" after their stroke. Conclusion. Our results are consistent with the possibility that poststroke fatigue might be triggered by factors that occur at the time of the stroke (e.g., the stroke lesion itself, or admission to hospital) and then exacerbated by poor sleep and boredom. These factors should be considered when developing complex interventions to improve post-stroke fatigue.

  9. Stroke injury, cognitive impairment and vascular dementia☆

    PubMed Central

    Kalaria, Raj N.; Akinyemi, Rufus; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of ischaemic strokes is almost 4-fold greater than haemorrhagic strokes. Current evidence suggests that 25–30% of ischaemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD). Dementia after stroke injury may encompass all types of cognitive disorders. States of cognitive dysfunction before the index stroke are described under the umbrella of pre-stroke dementia, which may entail vascular changes as well as insidious neurodegenerative processes. Risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia after stroke are multifactorial including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischaemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke comprise silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Until recently, the neuropathology of dementia after stroke was poorly defined. Most of post-stroke dementia is consistent with VaD involving multiple substrates. Microinfarction, microvascular changes related to blood–brain barrier damage, focal neuronal atrophy and low burden of co-existing neurodegenerative pathology appear key substrates of dementia after stroke injury. The elucidation of mechanisms of dementia after stroke injury will enable establishment of effective strategy for symptomatic relief and prevention. Controlling vascular disease risk factors is essential to reduce the burden of cognitive dysfunction after stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26806700

  10. Missile Aerodynamics (Aerodynamique des Missiles)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-11-01

    guerre froide la production des missiles a baisse’, avec pour consequence une diminution des budgets de d6veloppement. Les nouveaux types de conflits ...Roma) Directeur - Gestion de l’information LUXEMBOURG (Recherche et developpement) - DRDGI 3 Voir Belgique Ministbre de la Difense nationale NORVEGE

  11. Suicide in stroke survivors: epidemiology and prevention.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Venturini, Paola; Lamis, Dorian A; Giordano, Gloria; Serafini, Gianluca; Belvederi Murri, Martino; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a dramatic event and is associated with potentially severe consequences, including disability, mortality, and social costs. Stroke may occur at any age; however, most strokes occur in individuals aged 65 years and older. Previous research has found that stroke increases suicide risk, especially among women and younger patients. The aim of the current review is to investigate the relationship between suicide and stroke in order to determine which stroke patients are at elevated risk for suicide. Moreover, we review the literature in order to provide pharmacological treatment strategies for stroke patients at high risk of suicide. We performed a careful search to identify articles and book chapters focused on this issue, selecting only English-language articles published from 1990 to 2014 that addressed the issue of suicide after stroke and its pharmacological management. We found 12 clinical trials that explored the relationship between stroke and suicidal ideation and/or suicidal plans and 11 investigating suicide as the cause of death after stroke. We identified stroke as a significant risk factor for both suicide and suicidal ideation, especially among younger adult depressed patients in all articles, providing further support for the association between post-stroke and suicidality. Suicide risk is particularly high in the first 5 years following stroke. Depression, previous mood disorder, prior history of stroke, and cognitive impairment were found to be the most important risk factors for suicide. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) represent the treatment of choice for stroke survivors with suicide risk, and studies in rats have suggested that carbolithium is a promising treatment in these patients. Early identification and treatment of post-stroke depression may significantly reduce suicide risk in stroke patients.

  12. Management of eclampsia and stroke during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yasumasa; Kawai, Michiyasu; Morikawa, Shigehiko; Sakakibara, Katsumi; Tanaka, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kaoru; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2013-01-01

    To establish the etiologies and therapeutic strategies for the treatment of eclampsia and stroke during pregnancy, we performed a questionnaire-based study of stroke during pregnancy in Aichi prefecture (2005-2009). This study revealed the following findings: 66% of deliveries were managed in primary medical institutions, 40% of eclampsia episodes and 31% of strokes occurred at primary medical institutions, and 19% of strokes occurred at home. Home-onset strokes displayed a mortality rate of 40%. Using the results of this questionnaire, we investigated cases of eclampsia and/or stroke during pregnancy and revealed important issues regarding their management. In pregnant women with eclampsia or stroke, accurate antihypertensive and anticonvulsive treatment are necessary. Discriminating between eclampsia and stroke during labor is difficult. However, when facial or arm muscle weakness or a facial deficit is detected, stroke should be strongly suspected. Brain computed tomography can usually detect most cases of hemorrhagic stroke. When a stroke is detected, collaborative treatment with a neurosurgeon should be started as soon as possible. If stroke is suspected at a primary medical institution, rapid maternal transport to an intensive medical institution is necessary. In patients whose blood pressure is greater than 180/120 mmHg, the use of MgSO4 to decrease the risk of convulsions and reduce blood pressure is recommended. These findings might aid the development of therapeutic strategies for pregnant women with eclampsia or stroke.

  13. Relevance of stroke code, stroke unit and stroke networks in organization of acute stroke care--the Madrid acute stroke care program.

    PubMed

    Alonso de Leciñana-Cases, María; Gil-Núñez, Antonio; Díez-Tejedor, Exuperio

    2009-01-01

    Stroke is a neurological emergency. The early administration of specific treatment improves the prognosis of the patients. Emergency care systems with early warning for the hospital regarding patients who are candidates for this treatment (stroke code) increases the number of patients treated. Currently, reperfusion via thrombolysis for ischemic stroke and attention in stroke units are the bases of treatment. Healthcare professionals and health provision authorities need to work together to organize systems that ensure continuous quality care for the patients during the whole process of their disease. To implement this, there needs to be an appropriate analysis of the requirements and resources with the objective of their adjustment for efficient use. It is necessary to provide adequate information and continuous training for all professionals who are involved in stroke care, including primary care physicians, extrahospital emergency teams and all physicians involved in the care of stroke patients within the hospital. The neurologist has the function of coordinating the protocols of intrahospital care. These organizational plans should also take into account the process beyond the acute phase, to ensure the appropriate application of measures of secondary prevention, rehabilitation, and chronic care of the patients that remain in a dependent state. We describe here the stroke care program in the Community of Madrid (Spain).

  14. Stroke biomarkers: Can they help us to guide stroke thrombolysis?

    PubMed

    Montaner, Joan

    2006-11-01

    The use of blood biomarkers is getting increasingly popular in the field of cerebrovascular diseases, since biomarkers might aid physicians in several steps of stroke evaluation. We will discuss whether stroke diagnosis might be possible using some specific brain biomarkers and if this approach will permit rapid referral of stroke patients to hospitals with acute treatments such as tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) available. Although thrombolytic therapy in acute stroke is effective since it accelerates clot lyses and earlier restoration of blood flow, up to 40-50% of treated patients do not recanalize or do it too late, and between 6 and 15% suffer hemorrhagic transformations with high death rates. In the context of the neurovascular unit, t-PA may degrade extracellular matrix integrity and increase risks of neurovascular cell death, blood-brain barrier leakage, edema and hemorrhage. In humans, biomarkers such as matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) or fibronectin, which might be used to select patients at higher risk of hemorrhagic transformation, and high plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) interfering with tPA-induced recanalization, thus predicting clot-lyses resistance and poor outcome, have been recently identified. Moreover, high levels of MMP-9 and MMP-13 are involved in DWI lesion growth in spite of thrombolytic therapy suggesting its ultra-early role in brain injury. Other biomarkers such as C-reactive protein may accurately predict stroke mortality following reperfusion therapies. Finally, we will also show that genetic background of stroke patients may condition plasma levels of some of these biomarkers and influence therapeutic response in t-PA-treated patients.

  15. Therapeutic interventions in acute stroke.

    PubMed Central

    Lees, K R

    1992-01-01

    1. Potential therapies for ischaemic stroke include agents to reduce oedema, to improve cerebral perfusion, to reduce excitotoxic damage, to minimise free-radical induced injury and to reduce complications such as deep venous thrombosis. 2. Of the anti-oedema drugs, steroids are ineffective and possibly dangerous; intravenous glycerol is unproven. 3. Haemodilution to reduce whole blood viscosity and improve perfusion is ineffective. Thrombolytic drugs have not been adequately tested but several randomised multicentre trials are now commencing. Early treatment and CT scanning are essential. 4. Anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs may have wide applicability but have not been tested in the acute phase of stroke. A multi-centre trial will address this issue. 5. Neuronal cytoprotection offers exciting prospects for acute stroke treatment. Antagonists of glutamate at the NMDA receptor, calcium and sodium channel blocking agents and free radical scavenging drugs have potent effects experimentally. Several agents are now reaching clinical trials. The calcium antagonist nimodipine has been disappointing in large scale trials but some studies were flawed by late treatment. 6. Successful treatment of acute stroke is likely to combine several approaches. 7. Therapeutic trials in stroke must include CT scanning, early treatment and a multicentre approach to achieve large numbers of patients. PMID:1493080

  16. Modellgestützte Hybrid Systementwicklung - Modellierung und Optimierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Thomas

    Im Bereich der Hybridfahrzeugentwicklung wird nach wie vor intensiv an Konzepten zur Verbrauchseinsparung und Reduzierung von Emissionen gearbeitet. Gleichzeitig sollen "Fahrspaß" und Komfort solcher Fahrzeuge verbessert werden. Für verschiedene Anwendungen sind unterschiedlichste Hybridkonzepte denkbar und sinnvoll. Trotz dieser Variantenvielfalt und den daraus resultierenden technischen Anforderungen sind die Kosten eines Hybridfahrzeugs zu minimieren, wobei ein wesentlicher Aspekt bei der Kostenreduzierung die Stückzahl ist. Bei der Entwicklung von Komponenten steht daher, neben den technischen Anforderungen, deren vielseitige Einsetzbarkeit im Vordergrund.

  17. Adapting the Home After a Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... the stroke patient. CONTINUE TO HOME ASSESSMENT PROFILE→ Credits This section was developed by the Internet Stroke ... of Medicine Patients & Families Warning Signs Reducing Your Risk Information for Caregivers Find a Trial Professionals Assessment ...

  18. Cardioembolic Stroke Diagnosis Using Blood Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Llombart, VÍctor; GarcÍa-Berrocoso, Teresa; Bustamante, Alejandro; Fernández-Cadenas, Israel; Montaner, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is one of the main causes of death and disability in the world. Cardioembolic etiology accounts for approximately one fifth of all ischemic strokes whereas 25-30% remains undetermined even after an advanced diagnostic workup. Despite there is not any biomarker currently approved to distinguish cardioembolic stroke among other etiologies in clinical practice the use of biomarkers represents a promising valuable complement to determine stroke etiology reducing the number of cryptogenic strokes and aiding in the prescription of the most appropriated primary and secondary treatments in order to minimize therapeutic risks and to avoid recurrences. In this review we present an update about specific cardioembolic stroke-related biomarkers at a protein, transcriptomic and genetic level. Finally, we also focused on reported biomarkers associated with atrial fibrillation (a cardiac illness strongly related with cardioembolic stroke subtype) thus with a potential to become biomarkers to detect cardioembolic stroke in the future. PMID:24527683

  19. Prevention and management of stroke in women.

    PubMed

    Howe, Matthew D; McCullough, Louise D

    2015-04-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of acquired disability and the third leading cause of death in women worldwide. Sex differences in risk factors, treatment response and quality of life after stroke complicate stroke management in women. Women have an increased lifetime incidence of stroke compared to men, largely due to a sharp increase in stroke risk in older postmenopausal women. Women also have an increased lifetime prevalence of stroke risk factors, including hypertension and atrial fibrillation in postmenopausal women, as well as abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged women. Controversy continues over the risks of oral contraceptives, hormone therapy and surgical intervention for carotid stenosis in women. Pregnancy and the postpartum period represent a time of increased risk, presenting challenges to stroke management. Recognition of these issues is critical to improving acute care and functional recovery after stroke in women.

  20. Could Parkinson's Disease Raise Stroke Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163751.html Could Parkinson's Disease Raise Stroke Risk? Or is the link the other way ... link between Parkinson's disease and the risk for stroke. However, the study can't prove that one ...

  1. Sleep Apnea and Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More Sleep Apnea and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Mar 14,2017 Plain old snoring can ... and is associated with high blood pressure , arrhythmia , stroke and heart failure . Heart disease is the leading ...

  2. What Are Heart Disease and Stroke?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More What Are Heart Disease and Stroke? Updated:Dec 8,2015 There are many types ... build-up in the lungs, called “pulmonary congestion”. STROKE and TIA happen when a blood vessel that ...

  3. Stroke Rehabilitation: What Research is Being Done?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Stroke Rehabilitation What Research is Being Done? Past Issues / ... Table of Contents To Find Out More MedlinePlus: Stroke Rehabilitation medlineplus.gov/strokerehabilitation.html National Institute of ...

  4. More Younger Americans Are Suffering Strokes: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... strokes for men and blacks in that age group, the study showed. The researchers think an increase in stroke risk factors, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, obesity and smoking, are behind ...

  5. Multimodal CT in stroke imaging: new concepts.

    PubMed

    Ledezma, Carlos J; Wintermark, Max

    2009-01-01

    A multimodal CT protocol provides a comprehensive noninvasive survey of acute stroke patients with accurate demonstration of the site of arterial occlusion and its hemodynamic tissue status. It combines widespread availability with the ability to provide functional characterization of cerebral ischemia, and could potentially allow more accurate selection of candidates for acute stroke reperfusion therapy. This article discusses the individual components of multimodal CT and addresses the potential role of a combined multimodal CT stroke protocol in acute stroke therapy.

  6. Recovery Potential After Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Rüdiger J.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    In acute stroke, the major factor for recovery is the early use of thrombolysis aimed at arterial recanalization and reperfusion of ischemic brain tissue. Subsequently, neurorehabilitative training critically improves clinical recovery due to augmention of postlesional plasticity. Neuroimaging and electrophysiology studies have revealed that the location and volume of the stroke lesion, the affection of nerve fiber tracts, as well as functional and structural changes in the perilesional tissue and in large-scale bihemispheric networks are relevant biomarkers of post-stroke recovery. However, associated disorders, such as mood disorders, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases, may induce secondary cerebral changes or aggravate the functional deficits and, thereby, compromise the potential for recovery. PMID:26617568

  7. Multisensory Stimulation in Stroke Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Barbro Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    The brain has a large capacity for automatic simultaneous processing and integration of sensory information. Combining information from different sensory modalities facilitates our ability to detect, discriminate, and recognize sensory stimuli, and learning is often optimal in a multisensory environment. Currently used multisensory stimulation methods in stroke rehabilitation include motor imagery, action observation, training with a mirror or in a virtual environment, and various kinds of music therapy. Non-invasive brain stimulation has showed promising preliminary results in aphasia and neglect. Patient heterogeneity and the interaction of age, gender, genes, and environment are discussed. Randomized controlled longitudinal trials starting earlier post-stroke are needed. The advance in brain network science and neuroimaging enabling longitudinal studies of structural and functional networks are likely to have an important impact on patient selection for specific interventions in future stroke rehabilitation. It is proposed that we should pay more attention to age, gender, and laterality in clinical studies. PMID:22509159

  8. Multisensory stimulation in stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Barbro Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    The brain has a large capacity for automatic simultaneous processing and integration of sensory information. Combining information from different sensory modalities facilitates our ability to detect, discriminate, and recognize sensory stimuli, and learning is often optimal in a multisensory environment. Currently used multisensory stimulation methods in stroke rehabilitation include motor imagery, action observation, training with a mirror or in a virtual environment, and various kinds of music therapy. Non-invasive brain stimulation has showed promising preliminary results in aphasia and neglect. Patient heterogeneity and the interaction of age, gender, genes, and environment are discussed. Randomized controlled longitudinal trials starting earlier post-stroke are needed. The advance in brain network science and neuroimaging enabling longitudinal studies of structural and functional networks are likely to have an important impact on patient selection for specific interventions in future stroke rehabilitation. It is proposed that we should pay more attention to age, gender, and laterality in clinical studies.

  9. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  10. Maintaining oral health after stroke.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Hazel

    Oral care is essential to maintain oral health and prevent complications such as tooth loss, gingivitis and periodontitis. Poor oral hygiene in dependent, hospitalised patients could lead to serious complications such as chest infection, pneumonia, poor nutritional intake and increased length of hospital stay. Patients who have had a stroke may have physical and cognitive problems that make them dependent on others for their personal care, including oral care. It is essential that nurses and carers understand why maintaining oral hygiene is important following stroke and the consequences of poor oral care.

  11. Definition and Implications of the Preventable Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Mark; Moores, Lisa; Alsharif, Mohamad N.; Paganini-Hill, Annlia

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Although patients with acute stroke are routinely evaluated for potential treatment (ie, treatability of the stroke), preventability of the presenting stroke is generally not seriously considered. OBJECTIVE To systematically analyze stroke preventability. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We evaluated medical records of 274 consecutive patients discharged with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke between December 2, 2010, and June 11, 2012, at the University of California Irvine Medical Center. Mean (SE) patient age was 67.2 (0.8) years. Data analysis was conducted from July 3, 2014, to August 4, 2015. EXPOSURES Medical records were systematically examined for demographic information, stroke risk factors, stroke severity, and acute stroke treatment. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We defined stroke preventability as the degree to which the patient’s presenting stroke was preventable. Using variables easily determined at onset of stroke, we developed a 10-point scale (0, not preventable; 10, most preventable) to classify the degree of stroke preventability. Our focus was effectiveness of treatment of hypertension (0–2 points), hyperlipidemia (0–2 points), and atrial fibrillation (0–4 points), as well as use of antithrombotic treatment for known prior cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease (0–2 points). RESULTS Total risk scores ranged from 0 to 8 (mean [SE], 2.2 [0.1]), with 207 patients (75.5%) exhibiting some degree of preventability (score of 1 or higher). Seventy-one patients (25.9%) had scores of 4 or higher, indicating that the stroke was highly preventable. Severity of stroke as determined by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was not related to preventability of stroke. However, 21 of 71 patients (29.6%) whose stroke was highly preventable were treated with intravenous or intra-arterial acute stroke therapy while these treatments were provided for only 13 of 67 patients (19.4%) with scores of 0 (no preventability) and 19 of

  12. [Competence Network Stroke. A successful model for stroke research].

    PubMed

    Lachmann, Ulrike; Villringer, Arno

    2016-04-01

    In 1999 the German Ministry of Education and Research initiated a funding initiative for competence networks in health research in order to improve research and health care for major diseases with high morbidity and relevance to public health. All major players in a given field were invited to cooperate. The aims were to improve horizontal as well as vertical networking in order to improve research quality and the transfer of new results into general clinical practice. Another aim was to establish sustainable structures for lasting cooperation. After a highly competitive application round, the Competence Network Stroke was among the very first to be funded. The incidence of stroke in Germany is about 250,000 new patients per year, it is the leading cause of adult impairment and its societal impact is dramatic.This article describes how the Competence Network Stroke managed to meet the above-mentioned goals and how cooperation among stroke researchers and caregivers in Germany has improved. Furthermore it provides examples of researcher achievements in the network, which have advanced research and benefited patients.

  13. Left Atrial Septal Pouch in Cryptogenic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jonathan M.; Lombardo, Dawn M.; Barseghian, Ailin; Dhoot, Jashdeep; Hundal, Harkawal S.; Salcedo, Jonathan; Paganini-Hill, Annlia; Wong, Nathan D.; Fisher, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background: The left atrial septal pouch (LASP), an anatomic variant of the interatrial septum, has uncertain clinical significance. We examined the association between LASP and ischemic stroke subtypes in patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Methods: We determined the prevalence of LASP among consecutive patients who underwent TEE at our institution. Patients identified with ischemic strokes were further evaluated for stroke subtype using standard and modified criteria from the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST). We compared the prevalence of LASP in ischemic stroke, cryptogenic stroke, and non-stroke patients using prevalence ratios (PR). Results: The mean age of all 212 patients (including stroke and non-stroke patients) was 57 years. The overall prevalence of LASP was 17% (n = 35). Of the 75 patients who were worked-up for stroke at our institution during study period, we classified 31 as cryptogenic using standard TOAST criteria. The prevalence of LASP among cryptogenic stroke patients (using standard and modified TOAST criteria) was increased compared to the prevalence among other ischemic stroke patients (26 vs. 9%, p = 0.06; PR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1–3.1, and 30 vs. 10%, p = 0.04; PR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2–4.1, respectively). Conclusion: In this population of relatively young patients, prevalence of LASP was increased in cryptogenic stroke compared to stroke patients of other subtypes. These findings suggest LASP is associated with cryptogenic stroke, which should be verified by future large-scale studies. PMID:25852636

  14. Towards a Dynamic DES model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbareddy, Pramod; Candler, Graham

    2009-11-01

    Hybrid RANS/LES methods are being increasingly used for turbulent flow simulations in complex geometries. Spalart's detached eddy simulation (DES) model is one of the more popular ones. We are interested in examining the behavior of the Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) model in its ``LES mode.'' The role of the near-wall functions present in the equations is analyzed and an explicit analogy between the S-A and a one-equation LES model based on the sub-grid kinetic energy is presented. A dynamic version of the S-A DES model is proposed based on this connection. Validation studies and results from DES and LES applications will be presented and the effect of the proposed modification will be discussed.

  15. Radionuclide imaging in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2014-11-01

    Ischemic stroke is caused by interruption or significant impairment of blood supply to the brain, which leads to a cascade of metabolic and molecular alterations resulting in functional disturbance and morphologic damage. The changes in regional cerebral blood flow and regional metabolism can be assessed by radionuclide imaging, especially SPECT and PET. SPECT and PET have broadened our understanding of flow and metabolic thresholds critical for maintenance of brain function and morphology: PET was essential in the transfer of the concept of the penumbra to clinical stroke and thereby had a great impact on developing treatment strategies. Receptor ligands can be applied as early markers of irreversible neuronal damage and can predict the size of the final infarcts, which is important for decisions on invasive therapy in large ("malignant") infarction. With SPECT and PET, the reserve capacity of the blood supply can be tested in obstructive arteriosclerosis, which is essential for planning interventions. The effect of a stroke on surrounding and contralateral primarily unaffected tissue can be investigated, helping to understand symptoms caused by disturbance in functional networks. Activation studies are useful to demonstrate alternative pathways to compensate for lesions and to test the effect of rehabilitative therapy. Radioisotope studies help to detect neuroinflammation and its effect on extension of tissue damage. Despite the limitations of broad clinical application of radionuclide imaging, this technology has a great impact on research in cerebrovascular diseases and still has various applications in the management of stroke.

  16. Acupuncture therapy for stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wang, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is one of the most important parts of Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been used for more than 3000 years as prevention and treatment for various diseases in China as well as in adjacent regions, and is widely accepted in western countries in recent years. More and more clinical trials revealed that acupuncture shows positive effect in stroke, not only as a complementary and alternative medicine for poststroke rehabilitation but also as a preventive strategy which could induce cerebral ischemic tolerance, especially when combined with modern electrotherapy. Acupuncture has some unique characteristics, which include acupoint specificity and parameter-dependent effect. It also involves complicated mechanism to exert the beneficial effect on stroke. Series of clinical trials have shown that acupuncture primarily regulates the release of neurochemicals, hemorheology, cerebral microcirculation, metabolism, neuronal activity, and the function of specific brain region. Animal studies showed that the effects of acupuncture therapy on stroke were possibly via inhibition of postischemic inflammatory reaction, stimulation of neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and influence on neural plasticity. Mechanisms for its preconditioning effect include activity enhancement of antioxidant, regulation of the endocannabinoid system, and inhibition of apoptosis. Although being controversial, acupuncture is a promising preventive and treatment strategy for stroke, but further high-quality clinical trials would be needed to provide more confirmative evidence.

  17. Two-stroke engine diagnostics and design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This paper focuses on research and development efforts on two-stroke cycle engines for automotive applications. Partial contents include: Velocity Field Characteristics in Motored Two-Stroke Ported Engines; Flow Vector Measurements at the Scavenging Ports in a Fired Two-Stroke Engine; A Study on Exhaust Dynamic Effect of Two-Stroke Motorcycle Petrol Engine; Characterization of Ignition and Parametric Study of a Two-Stroke-Cycle Direct-Injected Gasoline Engine; LDV Measurements of Intake Port Flow in a Two-Stroke Engine with and without Combustion; Appraisal of Regenerative Blowers for Scavenging of Small 2T S.I. Powerplants; and Development Experience of a Poppet-Valved Two-Stroke Flagship Engine.

  18. [Experience with the prognosis of strokes].

    PubMed

    Misiuk, N S; Mastykin, A S; Semak, A E; Dovnar, I N; Riabtseva, T D

    1979-01-01

    Results of using discriminant analysis for forecasting ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes are presented. Use was made of clinical data obtained from groups consisting of 400 patients with a history of ischemic strokes, 50 patients with a history of hemorrhagic strokes and 100 healthy individuals. Each observation in these groups was analyzed from 120 parameters and features. As a result of mathematical processing of these data 15 risk factors found to be the most informative for forecasting ischemic strokes, and 16 factors for forecasting hemorrhagic strokes were selected. The reliability of the identification capacity of the prognostic system was evaluated from generalized Machalanobis distance. The correctness of forecasting ischemic strokes was confirmed in 83% and of hemorrhagic strokes in 94.7% of the cases.

  19. [Nutritional support in stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Segurola Gurrutxaga, Hegoi; Bretón Lesmes, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a public health problem of the first order. In developed countries is one of the leading causes of death, along with cardiovascular disease and cancer. In addition, stroke is the leading cause of permanent disability in adulthood. Many of the patients who survive do so with significant sequelae that limit them in their activities of daily living. Most strokes (80-85%) are due to ischemia, while the rest are hemorrhagic. We have identified many modifiable risk factors, some with an important relationship with dietary factors or comorbidities in wich the diet has a significant impact. The incidence of malnutrition in stroke patients is not well known, but most likely impacts on patient prognosis. Furthermore, the nutritional status of patients admitted for stroke often deteriorates during hospitalization. It is necessary to perform a nutritional assessment of the patient in the early hours of admission, to determine both the nutritional status and the presence of dysphagia. Dysphagia, through alteration of the safety and efficacy of swallowing, is a complication that has an implication for nutritional support, and must be treated to prevent aspiration pneumonia, which is the leading cause of mortality in the stroke patient. Nutritional support should begin in the early hours. In patients with no or mild dysphagia that can be controlled by modifying the texture of the diet, they will start oral diet and oral nutritional supplementation will be used if the patient does not meet their nutritional requirements. There is no evidence to support the use of nutritional supplements routinely. Patients with severe dysphagia, or decreased level of consciousness will require enteral nutrition. Current evidence indicates that early nutrition should be initiated through a nasogastric tube, with any advantages of early feeding gastrostomy. Gastrostomy will be planned when the enteral nutrition support will be expected for long-term (4 weeks). Much evidence points to the

  20. Haemodilution for acute ischaemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Timothy S; Jensen, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    Background Ischaemic stroke interrupts the flow of blood to part of the brain. Haemodilution is thought to improve the flow of blood to the affected areas of the brain and thus reduce infarct size. Objectives To assess the effects of haemodilution in acute ischaemic stroke. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (February 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 1, 2014), MEDLINE (January 2008 to October 2013) and EMBASE (January 2008 to October 2013). We also searched trials registers, scanned reference lists and contacted authors. For the previous version of the review, the authors contacted manufacturers and investigators in the field. Selection criteria Randomised trials of haemodilution treatment in people with acute ischaemic stroke. We included only trials in which treatment was started within 72 hours of stroke onset. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed trial quality and one review author extracted the data. Main results We included 21 trials involving 4174 participants. Nine trials used a combination of venesection and plasma volume expander. Twelve trials used plasma volume expander alone. The plasma volume expander was plasma alone in one trial, dextran 40 in 12 trials, hydroxyethyl starch (HES) in five trials and albumin in three trials. Two trials tested haemodilution in combination with another therapy. Evaluation was blinded in 14 trials. Five trials probably included some participants with intracerebral haemorrhage. Haemodilution did not significantly reduce deaths within the first four weeks (risk ratio (RR) 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90 to 1.34). Similarly, haemodilution did not influence deaths within three to six months (RR 1.05; 95% CI 0.93 to 1.20), or death and dependency or institutionalisation (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.07). The results were similar in confounded and unconfounded trials, and in trials of isovolaemic and hypervolaemic haemodilution. No

  1. Impact of Materials Defects on Engine Structures Integrity (L’Impact des Defauts des Materiaux sur l’Integrite des Structures des Moteurs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    participants ont fait le point des aspects traitement et contr6le des mat~riaux. en mettant I’accent sur les materiaux constitutifs des disques moteur en...adapte. Pour le physicien. un -d~faur’" peut tres bien se resumer A une imperfection de Ia structure rericulaire d’un materiau. En science des materiaux ... materiaux sur l~integrite des structures des moteurs Defence Research Ag~ency Matenials & Structures Department Farnborough. Hants GUt 14 fITD Rovaume-Uni

  2. Thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wardlaw, Joanna M; Murray, Veronica; Berge, Eivind; del Zoppo, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    Background Most strokes are due to blockage of an artery in the brain by a blood clot. Prompt treatment with thrombolytic drugs can restore blood flow before major brain damage has occurred and improve recovery after stroke in some people. Thrombolytic drugs, however, can also cause serious bleeding in the brain, which can be fatal. One drug, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), is licensed for use in selected patients within 4.5 hours of stroke in Europe and within three hours in the USA. There is an upper age limit of 80 years in some countries, and a limitation to mainly non-severe stroke in others. Forty per cent more data are available since this review was last updated in 2009. Objectives To determine whether, and in what circumstances, thrombolytic therapy might be an effective and safe treatment for acute ischaemic stroke. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched November 2013), MEDLINE (1966 to November 2013) and EMBASE (1980 to November 2013).We also handsearched conference proceedings and journals, searched reference lists and contacted pharmaceutical companies and trialists. Selection criteria Randomised trials of any thrombolytic agent compared with control in people with definite ischaemic stroke. Data collection and analysis Two review authors applied the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We verified the extracted data with investigators of all major trials, obtaining additional unpublished data if available. Main results We included 27 trials, involving 10,187 participants, testing urokinase, streptokinase, rt-PA, recombinant pro-urokinase or desmoteplase. Four trials used intra-arterial administration, while the rest used the intravenous route. Most data come from trials that started treatment up to six hours after stroke. About 44% of the trials (about 70% of the participants) were testing intravenous rt-PA. In earlier studies very few of the participants (0

  3. Stroke: New Developments and Their Application in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Peter J; Kavanagh, Eoin; Murphy, Sean

    2016-08-01

    Significant advances have been made in recent years in primary stroke prevention, improved stroke outcomes in high-income populations, emergency stroke therapy, and stroke prevention. In this article, we review recent trends in stroke epidemiology, improvements in delivery of intravenous thrombolysis (via stroke system-wide approaches, application of 'Lean Principles' to improve workflow processes, and re-evaluation of exclusion criteria), recent stroke thrombectomy trials, and new developments in stroke prevention, with emphasis on risk prediction in transient ischemic attack, choice and timing of anticoagulation therapy for secondary stroke prevention, and emerging concepts in risk stratification for management of symptomatic carotid stenosis.

  4. Characteristics of delayed admission to stroke unit.

    PubMed

    Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Parnetti, Lucilla; Tambasco, Nicola; Corea, Francesco; Capocchi, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Early admission to stroke unit (SU) and factors that may cause admission delay represent relevant issues to obtain an optimal management of acute stroke. This study was aimed at recording timing from clinical onset to admission to our SU and to identify the reasons for delay. We prospectively examined acute stroke patients consecutively admitted to the Perugia SU. Baseline characteristics of stroke patients, stroke type and etiology, time from symptom onset to arrival in the SU were obtained from the Hospital-Based Perugia Stroke Registry. 60.8% of 2,213 consecutive stroke patients admitted to the SU arrived within 6 hrs and 39.2% after 6 hrs. Underestimation of symptoms was the cause of delay in 48.7% of cases. Younger age, especially for females, ischemic stroke, mild and/or unspecific symptoms and the underestimation of symptoms seem to be the main reasons for delayed arrival in the SU. To increase the proportion of stroke patients arriving in the SU within 3 hr of symptom onset, it is necessary to improve public and general practitioner awareness of stroke through educational programs.

  5. What MONICA told us about stroke.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Kjell

    2005-01-01

    The WHO MONICA (Multinational Monitoring of Determinants and Trends in Cardiovascular Disease) Project is the world's largest prospective study on cardiovascular disorders. In the stroke component, 34,715 individually validated stroke events were recorded; these happened during 21.7 million years of observation in 14 populations in Europe, Siberia, and China. Two important questions were addressed. What is driving stroke mortality trends-changes in stroke incidence (risk of stroke) or changes in survival? To what extent do changes in the population burden of classic cardiovascular risk factors affect stroke risk in the population? The seven lessons that I learnt from the MONICA study are described; some were about the limitations of an ecological study for testing of hypotheses and evaluation of community-based intervention programmes. Socioeconomic factors seem more important than classic risk factors for the establishment of stroke trends in the population, best shown by the development of stroke mortality in eastern Europe during the 10 years of the WHO MONICA Project. The simplest, most important, and, for clinicians, the most encouraging of the lessons is that quality of stroke care makes a profound difference, not only to the patient and his or her family but also to the burden of stroke in the population at large.

  6. Stroke Knowledge in Spanish-speaking populations

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Maximiliano A; Ameriso, Sebastián F; Willey, Joshua Z

    2015-01-01

    Background Spanish is the second most spoken language in the world. Spanish-speaking populations (SSP) have heterogeneous cultural backgrounds, racial and ethnical origins, economic status, and access to health care systems. There are no published reviews about stroke knowledge in SSP. We reviewed the existing literature addressing stroke knowledge among SSP and propose future directions for research. Summary We identified 18 suitable studies by searching PubMed, Lilacs, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane and Scielo databases, and looking at reference lists of eligible articles. We also included 2 conference abstracts. Data related to stroke knowledge from studies of Spanish-speakers was analyzed. Key messages Little is known about stroke knowledge in SSP, especially in Latin America. Information is poor even among subjects at risk, stroke patients, stroke survivors, and health care providers. “Ictus”, the word used for stroke in Spanish, is largely unrecognized among subjects at risk. Furthermore, access to medical care and presence of neurologists are suboptimal in many regions. There are several potential issues to solve regarding stroke knowledge and stroke care in SSP. Programs to educate the general population and non-neurologists medical providers in stroke and telemedicine may be suitable options to improve the present situation. PMID:25871697

  7. Reaktive Tracer zur Bestimmung der sedimentären Aquifer-Oxidationskapazität im Labor- und Feldversuch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethlefsen, Frank; Bliss, Fabian; Wachter, Thorsten; Dahmke, Andreas

    Kurzfassung Mikrobiell reduzierbares Eisen(III) im Aquifer kann als Elektronenakzeptor von großer Bedeutung für Natural Attenuation (NA) von aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen sein und bildet den Hauptbestandteil der sedimentären Oxidationskapazität (OXC) des Aquifers. Untersuchungsgegenstand war der Vergleich traditioneller, nasschemischer Methoden mit neuentwickelten, reaktiven Tracerverfahren zur Bestimmung der sedimentären OXC. Die innovativen Tracermethoden haben gegenüber nasschemischen Extraktionsverfahren den prinzipiellen Vorteil, dass sie einen integralen Ansatz zur Bestimmung der sedimentären OXC bilden, weil geochemische und hydraulische Heterogenitäten des Aquifers berücksichtigt werden. Daher wurden am RETZINA-Standort Zeitz einerseits herkömmliche Säure-Extraktionsmethoden (bestimmter Eisen(III)-Gehalt: 0,43 +/- 0,07 mg/g Aquifermaterial) und andererseits reaktive Tracertests mit Phosphat-(Eisen(III): 1,0 mg/g) und Sulfidtracern (Eisen(III): 0,31 +/- 0,02 mg/g) in Laborversuchen sowie Bioabbauversuche mit Toluol als Kohlenstoffquelle undGeobacter metallireducensals Eisen(III)-Reduzierer (Eisen(III): 1,0 mg/g) durchgeführt. Sulfid als reaktiver Tracer wurde in Form eines 〝Push-Pull-Tests`` im Feldversuch eingesetzt (Eisen(III): 1,1 mg/g). Zudem bedeutet die Anwendung des Feld-Tracerverfahrens deutlich weniger Zeitaufwand in der Durchführung als die Anwendung traditioneller Extraktionsmethoden. Microbially reducible iron(III) is important as a terminal electron acceptor for the Natural Attenuation (NA) of aromatic hydrocarbons and forms the balance of the aquifer's sedimentary oxidation capacity (OXC). It was the aim of this investigation to compare traditional acid extraction methods to reactive tracer methods in quantifying the sedimentary OXC. The sedimentary OXC at the RETZINA test site in Zeitz was therefore determined through traditional acid extraction methods (determined Iron(III)-content: 0.43 +/- 0.07 mg/g aquifer material) and

  8. Hip Hop Stroke: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Stroke Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Olajide; Leighton-Herrmann, Ellyn; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Hecht, Mindy; Hedmann, Monique; Huq, Saima; Gerin, William; Chinchilli, Vernon; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Noble, James

    2015-01-01

    Objective Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death and the leading cause of serious long-term adult disability in the US. Acute stroke treatments with intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy are proven to reduce disability, however a critical limitation on their effectiveness is the narrow time window for administration, which is 4.5 hours and 6 hours respectively from the onset of symptoms. Our overarching goal is to reduce pre-hospital delays to acute stroke treatments in economically disadvantaged minority communities where the greatest delays exist, using Hip Hop Stroke. Methods Hip Hop Stroke (HHS) is a school-based, child-mediated, culturally-tailored stroke communication multimedia intervention developed using validated models of behavior change and designed to improve stroke literacy (knowledge of stroke symptoms, the urgent need to call 911, and prevention measures) of 4th, 5th and 6th grade students and their parents residing in poor urban communities. Children in the intervention arm will receive the HHS intervention, while those in the attentional control arm will receive standardized nutrition education based on the USDA's MyPyramid program. Children will be trained and motivated to share stroke information with their parents or other adult caregiver. Both children and parents will complete a stroke knowledge assessment at baseline, immediately following the program, and at 3-months post-program. The primary outcome is the effect of the child mediation on parental stroke literacy. Conclusion Stroke literate children, a captive audience in school systems, may represent a viable channel for spreading stroke information into households of poor urban communities where mass media stroke campaigns have shown the lowest penetration. These children may also call 911 when witnessing a stroke in their homes or communities. The HHS program may highlight the potential role of children in the chain of stroke recovery as a strategy for reducing

  9. Risk factor assessment of stroke and its awareness among stroke survivors: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Shravani, K.; Parmar, Mihir Y.; Macharla, Ramyasri; Mateti, Uday Venkat; Martha, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke is the second most common cause of death and major cause of disability worldwide. The objective of this study is to identify the major risk factors and assess the awareness among the stroke survivors. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted at super specialty hospital, from December 2010 to July 2011. All the stroke patients of the age >25 years with either sex admitted in the hospital were included in the study. In order to assess the awareness among the stroke survivors, questionnaire established on the risk factors for stroke from the previously published studies. Results: A total of 100 patients with stroke or cerebrovascular accident were included in the study. Of 100 patients, 73% patients had ischemic stroke and 26% patients had hemorrhagic stroke. The mean age of the patients was 50 years and the incidence of stroke was predominant in males 73%, followed by females 27. It was observed that 70% of patients were hypertensives, 28% were diabetics, 27% were alcoholics, and 24% of patients had a habit of smoking, followed by others. The knowledge of the risk factors for stroke in stroke survivors was also very low, and the knowledge was varied among the subjects according to their level of educational status. Conclusion: This study reveals that hypertension is the most common risk factor for stroke followed by diabetes, smoking, and dyslipidemia. The awareness of risk factor among stroke survivors was poor. PMID:26605226

  10. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  11. Peste des petits ruminants.

    PubMed

    Parida, S; Muniraju, M; Mahapatra, M; Muthuchelvan, D; Buczkowski, H; Banyard, A C

    2015-12-14

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants.

  12. Solving the Issue of Restenosis After Stenting of Intracranial Stenoses: Experience with Two Thin-Strut Drug-Eluting Stents (DES)—Taxus Element™ and Resolute Integrity™

    SciTech Connect

    Kurre, Wiebke Aguilar-Pérez, Marta; Fischer, Sebastian; Arnold, Guy; Schmid, Elisabeth; Bäzner, Hansjörg; Henkes, Hans

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThin-strut, flexible DES are suitable for intracranial stenting and may improve long-term vessel patency. The purpose of this study was to report our experience with two new-generation DES for the treatment of intracranial atherosclerotic disease.Patients and MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed all patients treated with Taxus Element™ or Resolute Integrity™ stent for an intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis between March 2011 and August 2013. Technical success was defined as the ability to deploy the device at the desired location and reduce the degree of stenosis below 50 %. All procedure-related strokes were recorded. Control angiography was scheduled after 6 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months and yearly thereafter. A luminal narrowing ≥50 % was regarded as a restenosis. Stroke recurrence in the territory of the treated artery was reported.ResultsIn the defined period we treated 101 patients harboring 117 intracranial stenoses. The procedure was successful in 100 (85.5 %) lesions. Procedure-related strokes occurred in 10 (9.9 %) patients with a permanent morbidity in 3 (3.0 %). Follow-up angiography was available for 83 of 100 (83.0 %) successfully treated lesions with an average of 355 days (IQR 153–482 days). Three (3.6 %) asymptomatic restenoses were detected. All occurred after treatment with Resolute Integrity™, none after Taxus Element™ (p = 0.059). New strokes in the territory of the treated artery were encountered in 2 (2.6 %) occasions.ConclusionThin-strut DES improve long-term patency and reduce the risk of subsequent stroke. Differences between devices may exist. Feasibility is comparable to bare-metal balloon-mounted stents and procedure-related strokes occurred within the expected range.

  13. Neue Erkenntnisse auf dem Gebiete der Parasitologie und der parasitären Erkrankungen des Menschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarski, G.

    1980-01-01

    The increasing interest in the parasites of man in the Federal Republic of Germany is connected with the unbounded keenness of German people to travel. They favor southern regions with warm climates which are usually infested with parasites. Thus the general practitioner is nowadays confronted in his daily routine with “imported” pathogenic organisms and diseases as yet unknown to him or with which he need not have reckoned in the past. Furthermore, new information now exists on the development of well-known parasites of our regions, which can be pathogenic to man. Fortunately, new reliable drugs have come on the market, rendering some parasitic diseases harmless.

  14. Statusanalyse von Meerwasserintrusionen und Grundwasserhaushaltsmodellierung des oberen Küstenaquifers in Agadir, Marokko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görlich, Isa; Weigand, Susanne; Beuel, Sonja; Bouchaou, Lhoussaine; Reichert, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    In Agadir, a coastal town situated in the semi-arid south-western part of Morocco, irrigated agriculture and tourism are the primary economic activities. Both sectors require high volumes of fresh water. Over the last few decades, this constantly increasing demand has resulted in a significant drawdown of the water table, accompanied by seawater intrusion leading to a decrease in water quality. A groundwater storage model has verified the extensive drawdown. Positive terms in the flow balance equation are represented by groundwater recharge from bankfiltration, and by irrigation return flow. The negative terms are dominated by groundwater removal for irrigation. A sensitivity analysis reveals parameters which require further investigation. A spatially and temporally variable seawater intrusion front was identified using specific ion ratios, chloride concentrations and groundwater salinity. The intrusion front extends roughly from the northwest to the southeast, following the coast. Compared to 2005, the intrusion front had advanced further inland by 2010. In 2011 and 2012, the effects of seawater intrusion have tended to diminish.

  15. Stroke etiology is associated with outcome in posterior circulation stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chih-Ping; Yong, Chin-Sern; Chang, Feng-Chi; Sheng, Wen-Yung; Huang, Hui-Chi; Tsai, Jui-Yao; Hsu, Hung-Yi; Hu, Han-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Stroke research and clinical trials have focused mainly on anterior circulation stroke (ACS). Since clinical characteristics, mechanisms, and outcomes of posterior circulation stroke (PCS) have been reported different from ACS, more PCS studies are required, particularly researching the etiologies, to help establish an optimal management strategy. Methods The present study analyzed patients of PCS who were consecutively admitted and registered in Taipei Veterans General Hospital Stroke Registry between 1 January 2012 to 28 February 2014. We demonstrated the distribution of etiologies, compared the clinical characteristics/outcomes among different etiology groups, and used univariate/multivariate analyses to identify the predictors for poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale ≥5) at discharge and 3 month. Results About 286 patients of PCS were included for analyses. Basilar artery atheromatous branch occlusive disease (BABO, 28.0%) and large artery dissection (25.9%) were the two most common etiologies, followed by large artery atherosclerotic stenosis/occlusion (LAA, 20.6%), cardioembolism (CE, 18.5%) and small vessel disease (7.0%). Age, vascular risk factors, infarct locations and patterns, and outcomes were different among these five etiology groups. Multivariate analyses showed that age >70 y/o (discharge/3 month, OR, 95% CI: 3.05, 1.23–7.56/8.39, 2.32–30.33), admission NIH Stroke Scale >9 (19.50, 8.69–43.75/13.45, 5.59–32.39), and etiology (LAA versus BABO: 5.00, 1.58–15.83/4.00, 1.19–13.4; CE versus BABO: 3.36, 1.02–11.09/4.66, 1.40–15.46) were independently associated with poor functional outcome. Interpretation The etiologies of PCS are heterogeneous and shown to be associated with functional outcomes. Our results have shed lights on future pathophysiological research and designs of clinical trials for PCS. PMID:26000323

  16. Post-stroke language disorders.

    PubMed

    Sinanović, Osman; Mrkonjić, Zamir; Zukić, Sanela; Vidović, Mirjana; Imamović, Kata

    2011-03-01

    Post-stroke language disorders are frequent and include aphasia, alexia, agraphia and acalculia. There are different definitions of aphasias, but the most widely accepted neurologic and/or neuropsychological definition is that aphasia is a loss or impairment of verbal communication, which occurs as a consequence of brain dysfunction. It manifests as impairment of almost all verbal abilities, e.g., abnormal verbal expression, difficulties in understanding spoken or written language, repetition, naming, reading and writing. During the history, many classifications of aphasia syndromes were established. For practical use, classification of aphasias according to fluency, comprehension and abilities of naming it seems to be most suitable (nonfluent aphasias: Broca's, transcortical motor, global and mixed transcortical aphasia; fluent aphasias: anomic, conduction, Wernicke's, transcortical sensory, subcortical aphasia). Aphasia is a common consequence of left hemispheric lesion and most common neuropsychological consequence of stroke, with a prevalence of one-third of all stroke patients in acute phase, although there are reports on even higher figures. Many speech impairments have a tendency of spontaneous recovery. Spontaneous recovery is most remarkable in the first three months after stroke onset. Recovery of aphasias caused by ischemic stroke occurs earlier and it is most intensive in the first two weeks. In aphasias caused by hemorrhagic stroke, spontaneous recovery is slower and occurs from the fourth to the eighth week after stroke. The course and outcome of aphasia depend greatly on the type of aphasia. Regardless of the fact that a significant number of aphasias spontaneously improve, it is necessary to start treatment as soon as possible. The writing and reading disorders in stroke patients (alexias and agraphias) are more frequent than verified on routine examination, not only in less developed but also in large neurologic departments. Alexia is an acquired

  17. Cognitive dysfunction and physical activity after stroke: the Gothenburg cognitive stroke study in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Påhlman, Ulrika; Sävborg, Marianne; Tarkowski, Elisabeth

    2012-11-01

    This study explored the association between cognitive and executive dysfunction and level of physical activity 1 year after stroke. Cognition before stroke and cognitive and executive function in the acute phase and at 1 year after stroke were assessed in 74 subjects. Physical activity was assessed at 1 year after stroke. Factors that appeared to predict low level of physical activity at 1 year after stroke were impaired global cognition before stroke, visual neglect and impaired logical deductive ability in the acute phase, and impaired global cognition, executive function, and visual memory 1 year after stroke. Our findings underscore the importance of identifying stroke patients with impaired cognitive and executive function who are at risk for developing inactivity.

  18. Die Anfaenge der Melker Bibliothek - Neue Erkenntnisse zu Handschriften und Fragmenten aus der Zeit vor 1200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaßner, Christine; Haidinger, Alois

    1996-04-01

    Shortly after Benedictine monks started monastic life in Melk in 1089 the scriptorium was flourishing under abbot Erchenfried (1121-1164). Noteworthy is Cod. 391, a manuscript written in its main part in 1123, but used by the monks as a yearbook with handwritten entries up to the 16th century. This manuscript was also an important source for the publication which dealt with the history of the scriptorium in 12th century. By examining the entries in this book the period of the activity of at least three unknwon writers in this era could be identified. It was the first time that not only the intact volumes but also the manuscripts preserved as fragments in the binding were examined. At the beginning of th 13th century the number of books held in the collection according to the result of this examination was 68. Another remarkable point of the exhibition and of the publication refering to the exhibition was Cod. 412, the oldest manuscript of the monastery, written in early 9th century and containing texts on natural sciences and astronomy by Venerable Bede. Three copies of this manuscript were done during 12th century, one of them probably in Melk, all of them with nearly identical consistency except the catalogue of signs of the zodiac which was ascribed erroneously to Venerable Bede in the Middle Ages: Vatican, Cod. Vat. lat. 643, Zwettl, Cod. 296 (copy of the Vatican manuscript), Klosterneuburg, Cod. 685 (copy of the Zwettl manuscript done in Klosterneuburg). Kurz nach Einführung der Benediktiner in Melk im Jahr 1089 erlebte das Melker Skriptorium unter Abt Erchenfried (1121-1163) seine erste Blüte. Hervorzuheben ist eine im Jahr 1123 angelegte Chronik, die bis in das 16. Jahrhundert durch Annaleneintragungen und andere wichtige Texte zur Geschichte des Klosters ergänzt wurde (Cod. 391). Diese Handschrift ist zugleich eine der wichtigsten Quellen zur Geschichte des Melker Skriptoriums im 12. Jahrhundert, dem sich die Publikation widmet. Mit Hilfe einer genaueren

  19. Saving Strokes with Space Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Inventor Dave Pelz developed a space spinoff Teacher Alignment Computer for Sunmark Preceptor Golf Ltd. which helps golfers learn proper putting aim. The light beam, reflected into the computer, measures putter alignment and lights atop the box tell the golfer he is on target or off to either side and how much. A related putting aid idea is to stroke the ball at the putter's "sweet spot," which is bracketed by metal prongs. Regular practice develops solid impacts for better putting.

  20. Fifty years of stroke researches in India

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Tapas Kumar; Das, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the stroke incidence in India is much higher than Western industrialized countries. Large vessel intracranial atherosclerosis is the commonest cause of ischemic stroke in India. The common risk factors, that is, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and dyslipidemia are quite prevalent and inadequately controlled; mainly because of poor public awareness and inadequate infrastructure. Only a small number of ischemic stroke cases are able to have the benefit of thrombolytic therapy. Benefits from stem cell therapy in established stroke cases are under evaluation. Presently, prevention of stroke is the best option considering the Indian scenario through control and/or avoiding risk factors of stroke. Interventional studies are an important need for this scenario. PMID:27011621

  1. Stroke assessment in the perioperative orthopaedic patient.

    PubMed

    Weinhardt, Janice; Jacobson, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    A growing elderly population with an increasing number of comorbidities is presenting for orthopaedic procedures and interventions, lending themselves to greater risk for complications, including stroke. Prior stroke or transient ischemic attack, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, carotid stenosis, and advanced age are the most common risk factors for perioperative stroke. A comprehensive neurologic assessment should include a thorough history including identification of risk factors, pertinent medications, and a physical examination. This assessment is important to establish a baseline for subsequent neurologic evaluations in the postoperative period. Neurologic physical assessment can be an intimidating task, especially for the orthopaedic nurse who lacks experience in caring for the neurologic patient. Patients who are found with a focal neurologic deficit that is suspicious for stroke require urgent assessment, exclusion of stroke mimics, and activation of the institution's stroke team to allow for brain saving interventions. Time is brain.

  2. Translational MR Neuroimaging of Stroke and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mandeville, Emiri T; Ayata, Cenk; Zheng, Yi; Mandeville, Joseph B

    2017-02-01

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a critical clinical tool for diagnosing focal ischemic stroke severity, staging treatment, and predicting outcome. Imaging during the acute phase focuses on tissue viability in the stroke vicinity, while imaging during recovery requires the evaluation of distributed structural and functional connectivity. Preclinical MRI of experimental stroke models provides validation of non-invasive biomarkers in terms of cellular and molecular mechanisms, while also providing a translational platform for evaluation of prospective therapies. This brief review of translational stroke imaging discusses the acute to chronic imaging transition, the principles underlying common MRI methods employed in stroke research, and the experimental results obtained by clinical and preclinical imaging to determine tissue viability, vascular remodeling, structural connectivity of major white matter tracts, and functional connectivity using task-based and resting-state fMRI during the stroke recovery process.

  3. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  4. Direct Thrombus Imaging in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongseong; Park, Jung E.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Kim, Dong-Eog

    2016-01-01

    There is an emergent need for imaging methods to better triage patients with acute stroke for tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA)-mediated thrombolysis or endovascular clot retrieval by directly visualizing the size and distribution of cerebral thromboemboli. Currently, magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography (CT) angiography visualizes the obstruction of blood flow within the vessel lumen rather than the thrombus itself. The present visualization method, which relies on observation of the dense artery sign (the appearance of cerebral thrombi on a non-enhanced CT), suffers from low sensitivity. When translated into the clinical setting, direct thrombus imaging is likely to enable individualized acute stroke therapy by allowing clinicians to detect the thrombus with high sensitivity, assess the size and nature of the thrombus more precisely, serially monitor the therapeutic effects of thrombolysis, and detect post-treatment recurrence. This review is intended to provide recent updates on stroke-related direct thrombus imaging using MR imaging, positron emission tomography, or CT. PMID:27733029

  5. PREDICTORS FOR POST- STROKE DELIRIUM OUTCOME

    PubMed Central

    Dostovic, Zikrija; Dostovic, Ernestina; Smajlovic, Dzevdet; Ibrahimagic, Omer C.; Avdic, Leila; Becirovic, Elvir

    2016-01-01

    Background: There have been only a small number of studies that have evaluated the outcome of post-stroke delirium. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of gender, age, stroke localization, delirium severity, previous illnesses, associated medical complications on delirium outcome as well as, to determine effects of delirium on cognitive functioning one year after stroke. Patients and Methods: Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments were performed within the first week of stroke onset, at hospital discharge, and followed-up for 3, 6 and 12 months after stroke. We used diagnostic tools such as Glazgow Coma Scale, Delirium Rating Scale, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Mini-Mental State. Results: Patients who developed post-stroke delirium had significantly more complications (p = 0.0005). Direct logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of several factors on the likelihood that patients will die. The strongest predictor of outcome was age, mean age ≥ 65 years with a odds ratio (OR) 4.9. Cox’s regression survival was conducted to assess the impact of multiple factors on survival. The accompanying medical complications were the strongest predictor of respondents poore outcome with Hazard-risk 3.3. Cognitive assessments including Mini Mental State score have showen that post-stroke delirium patients had significant cognitive impairment, three (p = 0.0005), six months (p = 0.0005) and one year (p = 0.0005) after stroke, compared to patients without delirium. Conclusion: Patient gender, age, localization of stroke, severity of delirium, chronic diseases and emerging complications significantly affect the outcome of post- stroke delirium. Delirium significantly reduced cognitive functioning of after stroke patients. PMID:27999490

  6. Recurrent ischaemic stroke unveils polycythaemia vera

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Rahman, Islam; Murphy, Christie

    2015-01-01

    Polycythaemia vera is a recognised cause of ischaemic stroke. If not treated, this condition may result in recurrent strokes. This is a case of a 61-year-old Caucasian man presenting with the inability to ambulate for 3 days. Brain imaging revealed acute and chronic infarctions in the brain stem and the cerebrum. Polycythaemia vera was diagnosed and treated during the admission. The unique mechanisms and management issues of ischaemic stroke associated with polycythaemia vera are discussed. PMID:25754163

  7. Lightning channel current persists between strokes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-09-01

    The usual cloud-to-ground lightning occurs when a large negative charge contained in a "stepped leader" travels down toward the Earth's surface. It then meets a positive charge that comes up tens of meters from the ground, resulting in a powerful neutralizing explosion that begins the first return stroke of the lightning flash. The entire flash lasts only a few hundred milliseconds, but during that time, multiple subsequent stroke-return stroke sequences usually occur.

  8. Grundlagen und Vollzug der amtlichen Lebensmittelkontrolle in der Schweiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Philipp; Spinner, Christoph

    In der Schweiz wird die Mehrheit der hoheitlichen Aufgaben von den 26 Kantonen, die zusammen die schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft bilden, autonom vollzogen. So liegt zum Beispiel die Kompetenz in den Bereichen Steuern, Gesundheit, Schulen oder Polizei grundsätzlich bei den Kantonen. Im Gegensatz dazu ist die Lebensmittelgesetzgebung national durch eidgenössische Erlasse harmonisiert. Die Vollzugsaufgaben liegen aber auch in diesem Bereich, abgesehen vom Vollzug an der Grenze und von einer nationalen Vollzugsaufsicht und Weisungsberechtigung, in kantonaler Kompetenz. Die Kantone können anhand kantonaler Erlasse das Bundesrecht präzisieren - insbesondere die organisatorischen Aspekte - und Regelungen im nicht harmonisierten Bereich treffen.

  9. Lenin und Kuhn zum Verhältnis von Krise und Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engler, Fynn Ole

    In seinem Exil im schweizerischen Gebirgsdörfchen Sörenberg verfasste Lenin, der intellektuelle Kopf der Sozialdemokratischen Arbeiterpartei Russlands (Bolschewiki), im Mai/Juni 1915 seine wohl umfangreichste theoretische Abhandlung über die Ursachen des Zusammenbruchs der Zweiten Internationale. Den konkreten Anlass dafür lieferten die Ansichten führender sozialdemokratischer Arbeiterparteien seit dem Ausbruch des Ersten Weltkriegs im August 1914.

  10. Stroke in Children With Cardiac Disease: Report From the International Pediatric Stroke Study Group Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Adriane J.; Fox, Christine K.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Almond, Christopher S.; Bernard, Timothy J.; Beslow, Lauren A.; Chan, Anthony K.C.; Cheung, Michael; deVeber, Gabrielle; Dowling, Michael M.; Friedman, Neil; Giglia, Therese M.; Guilliams, Kristin P.; Humpl, Tilman; Licht, Daniel J.; Mackay, Mark T.; Jordan, Lori C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiac disease is a leading cause of stroke in children, yet limited data support the current stroke prevention and treatment recommendations. A multidisciplinary panel of clinicians was convened in February 2014 by the International Pediatric Stroke Study group to identify knowledge gaps and prioritize clinical research efforts for children with cardiac disease and stroke. RESULTS Significant knowledge gaps exist, including a lack of data on stroke incidence, predictors, primary and secondary stroke prevention, hyperacute treatment, and outcome in children with cardiac disease. Commonly used diagnostic techniques including brain computed tomography and ultrasound have low rates of stroke detection, and diagnosis is frequently delayed. The challenges of research studies in this population include epidemiologic barriers to research such as small patient numbers, heterogeneity of cardiac disease, and coexistence of multiple risk factors. Based on stroke burden and study feasibility, studies involving mechanical circulatory support, single ventricle patients, early stroke detection strategies, and understanding secondary stroke risk factors and prevention are the highest research priorities over the next 5-10 years. The development of large-scale multicenter and multispecialty collaborative research is a critical next step. The designation of centers of expertise will assist in clinical care and research. CONCLUSIONS There is an urgent need for additional research to improve the quality of evidence in guideline recommendations for cardiogenic stroke in children. Although significant barriers to clinical research exist, multicenter and multispecialty collaboration is an important step toward advancing clinical care and research for children with cardiac disease and stroke. PMID:25532775

  11. "To All Stroke Survivors - Never, Ever Give Up"

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Stroke Rehabilitation "To All Stroke Survivors – Never, Ever Give Up." Past Issues / ... of stroke, to remember that it is not all over. You can get much better. Even though ...

  12. Racial disparities in stroke awareness: African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Alkadry, Mohamad G; Bhandari, Ruchi; Wilson, Christina S; Blessett, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    Considerable evidence supports the existence of racial disparities in incidence, mortality, and morbidity related to stroke. Awareness of risk factors could substantially lower the probability of stroke incidence. Awareness of stroke warning signs and treatment options could significantly alter the outcome of a stroke if patients immediately seek emergency help. This article examines the disparities in awareness of stroke risk factors, stroke signs, and action to be taken when stroke occurs. Survey results from 422 Caucasian Americans and 368 African Americans in West Virginia were analyzed. Significant disparities in recognition of cholesterol, smoking, prior stroke, and race as stroke risk factors were observed. The study also found a significant and substantial difference in awareness of stroke signs. There was also a significant difference in the way African Americans and Caucasians would respond to a stroke. The study found no evidence of disparities in recognition of stroke risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, obesity, alcoholism, and family history.

  13. Fitness, Not Fat, Is Key to Post-Stroke Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164476.html Fitness, Not Fat, Is Key to Post-Stroke Recovery ... tied to post-stroke disability, the study found. Fitness was key, though. "Being physically inactive before stroke ...

  14. Warning Signs of Heart Attack, Stroke and Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Heart Attack WARNING SIGNS OF HEART ATTACK, STROKE & CARDIAC ARREST HEART ATTACK WARNING SIGNS CHEST DISCOMFORT ... nausea or lightheadedness. Learn more about heart attack STROKE WARNING SIGNS Spot a stroke F.A.S.T.: - ...

  15. Anesthetic management of pregnant women with stroke.

    PubMed

    Yoshitani, Kenji; Inatomi, Yuzuru; Kuwajima, Ken; Ohnishi, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Stroke during pregnancy is rare, but after occurring, most patients develop serious neurological conditions. Hemorrhagic stroke, including intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, often requires emergency surgical intervention. In addition to significant maternal physiological changes, the potential for fetal harm should be considered during anesthetic management of these patients. Whether cesarean section or neurosurgical intervention should be prioritized or performed simultaneously in pregnant women with stroke is an important issue. Whether the patients receive general or spinal and epidural anesthesia is another clinically significant issue. Finally neurosurgeons, anesthesiologists, and obstetricians should cooperate to manage pregnant women with stroke.

  16. The Epidemiology of Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke.

    PubMed

    Pistoia, Francesca; Sacco, Simona; Tiseo, Cindy; Degan, Diana; Ornello, Raffaele; Carolei, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    The burden of stroke is increasing due to aging population and unhealthy lifestyle habits. The considerable rise in atrial fibrillation (AF) is due to greater diffusion of risk factors and screening programs. The link between AF and ischemic stroke is strong. The subtype most commonly associated with AF is cardioembolic stroke, which is particularly severe and shows the highest rates of mortality and permanent disability. A trend toward a higher prevalence of cardioembolic stroke in high-income countries is probably due to the greater diffusion of AF and the control of atherosclerotic of risk factors.

  17. The Christchurch earthquake stroke incidence study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Teddy Y; Cheung, Jeanette; Cole, David; Fink, John N

    2014-03-01

    We examined the impact of major earthquakes on acute stroke admissions by a retrospective review of stroke admissions in the 6 weeks following the 4 September 2010 and 22 February 2011 earthquakes. The control period was the corresponding 6 weeks in the previous year. In the 6 weeks following the September 2010 earthquake there were 97 acute stroke admissions, with 79 (81.4%) ischaemic infarctions. This was similar to the 2009 control period which had 104 acute stroke admissions, of whom 80 (76.9%) had ischaemic infarction. In the 6 weeks following the February 2011 earthquake, there were 71 stroke admissions, and 61 (79.2%) were ischaemic infarction. This was less than the 96 strokes (72 [75%] ischaemic infarction) in the corresponding control period. None of the comparisons were statistically significant. There was also no difference in the rate of cardioembolic infarction from atrial fibrillation between the study periods. Patients admitted during the February 2011 earthquake period were less likely to be discharged directly home when compared to the control period (31.2% versus 46.9%, p=0.036). There was no observable trend in the number of weekly stroke admissions between the 2 weeks leading to and 6 weeks following the earthquakes. Our results suggest that severe psychological stress from earthquakes did not influence the subsequent short term risk of acute stroke, but the severity of the earthquake in February 2011 and associated civil structural damages may have influenced the pattern of discharge for stroke patients.

  18. Anesthetic management of patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Flexman, Alana M; Donovan, Anne L; Gelb, Adrian W

    2012-06-01

    Stroke is a major cause of death and disability. Anesthesiologists are likely to encounter patients with stroke and must be aware of the anesthetic considerations for these patients. Intravenous thrombolysis and intra-arterial thrombolysis are effective treatments for acuteischemic stroke as well as evolving endovascular techniques such as mechanical clot retrieval. Recent retrospective studies have found an association between general anesthesia and poor clinical outcome. The results of these studies have several limitations, and current evidence is inadequate to guide the choice of anesthesia in patients with acute stroke. The choice of anesthesia must be based on individual patient factors until further research is completed.

  19. Recognition and Management of Threatened Stroke

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, C. W.

    1983-01-01

    Completed stroke may often be prevented by early recognition and appropriate management of the stroke-threatened patient. About 80% of strokes are ischemic, the remainder hemorrhagic. Roughly half of ischemic strokes are heralded by transient ischemic attacks (TIA). The clinical picture of TIA depends upon which part of the brain is involved. The investigation of such patients is outlined, together with current approaches to medical and surgical therapy. Intracerebral hemorrhage rarely provides any advanced warning, but occasionally subarachnoid hemorrhage may be preceded by a warning leak, the clinical picture of which is described. PMID:21286581

  20. Optical flow based finger stroke detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhongdi; Li, Bin; Wang, Kongqiao

    2010-07-01

    Finger stroke detection is an important topic in hand based Human Computer Interaction (HCI) system. Few research studies have carried out effective solutions to this problem. In this paper, we present a novel approach for stroke detection based on mono vision. Via analyzing the optical flow field within the finger area, our method is able to detect finger stroke under various camera position and visual angles. We present a thorough evaluation for each component of the algorithm, and show its efficiency and effectiveness on solving difficult stroke detection problems.

  1. Stroke: Working Toward a Prioritized World Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Hachinski, Vladimir; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Gorelick, Philip B.; Hacke, Werner; Cramer, Steven C.; Kaste, Markku; Fisher, Marc; Brainin, Michael; Buchan, Alastair M.; Lo, Eng H.; Skolnick, Brett E.; Furie, Karen L.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Kivipelto, Miia; Morris, John; Rothwell, Peter M.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Smith, Sidney C.; Wang, Yulun; Bryer, Alan; Ford, Gary A.; Iadecola, Costantino; Martins, Sheila C.O.; Saver, Jeff; Skvortsova, Veronika; Bayley, Mark; Bednar, Martin M.; Duncan, Pamela; Enney, Lori; Finklestein, Seth; Jones, Theresa A.; Kalra, Lalit; Kleim, Jeff; Nitkin, Ralph; Teasell, Robert; Weiller, Cornelius; Desai, Bhupat; Goldberg, Mark P.; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Saarelma, Osmo; Schwamm, Lee H.; Shinohara, Yukito; Trivedi, Bhargava; Wahlgren, Nils; Wong, Lawrence K.; Hakim, Antoine; Norrving, Bo; Prudhomme, Stephen; Bornstein, Natan M.; Davis, Stephen M.; Edin, FRCP; Goldstein, Larry B.; Leys, Didier; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The aim of the Synergium was to devise and prioritize new ways of accelerating progress in reducing the risks, effects, and consequences of stroke. Methods Preliminary work was performed by 7 working groups of stroke leaders followed by a synergium (a forum for working synergistically together) with approximately 100 additional participants. The resulting draft document had further input from contributors outside the synergium. Results Recommendations of the Synergium are: Basic Science, Drug Development and Technology: There is a need to develop: (1) New systems of working together to break down the prevalent “silo” mentality; (2) New models of vertically integrated basic, clinical, and epidemiological disciplines; and (3) Efficient methods of identifying other relevant areas of science. Stroke Prevention: (1) Establish a global chronic disease prevention initiative with stroke as a major focus. (2) Recognize not only abrupt clinical stroke, but subtle subclinical stroke, the commonest type of cerebrovascular disease, leading to impairments of executive function. (3) Develop, implement and evaluate a population approach for stroke prevention. (4) Develop public health communication strategies using traditional and novel (eg, social media/marketing) techniques. Acute Stroke Management: Continue the establishment of stroke centers, stroke units, regional systems of emergency stroke care and telestroke networks. Brain Recovery and Rehabilitation: (1) Translate best neuroscience, including animal and human studies, into poststroke recovery research and clinical care. (2) Standardize poststroke rehabilitation based on best evidence. (3) Develop consensus on, then implementation of, standardized clinical and surrogate assessments. (4) Carry out rigorous clinical research to advance stroke recovery. Into the 21st Century: Web, Technology and Communications: (1) Work toward global unrestricted access to stroke-related information. (2) Build

  2. Determining Optimal Post-Stroke Exercise (DOSE)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-11

    Cerebrovascular Accident; Stroke; Cerebral Infarction; Brain Infarction; Brain Ischemia; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Brain Diseases; Central Nervous System Diseases; Nervous System Diseases; Vascular Diseases

  3. Predictors of Functional Outcome Following Stroke.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Richard L

    2015-11-01

    Predicting functional outcome in stroke is challenging to most clinicians, partly because of the complexity of the condition and also because of the lack of validated prognostic models. The strongest predictors of functional outcome are age and motor function at stroke onset. There is a growing literature on predicting recovery of upper limb after stroke; however, literature on prediction of language recovery remains sparse. This review covers the current status of predicting functional outcome after stroke focusing on recovery of activities of daily living, ambulation, upper limb use, and aphasia. Use of clinical factors, imaging, and neurophysiological measures are discussed.

  4. Stroke: Working toward a Prioritized World Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Hachinski, Vladimir; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Gorelick, Philip B.; Hacke, Werner; Cramer, Steven C.; Kaste, Markku; Fisher, Marc; Brainin, Michael; Buchan, Alastair M.; Lo, Eng H.; Skolnick, Brett E.; Furie, Karen L.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Kivipelto, Miia; Morris, John; Rothwell, Peter M.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Smith, Sidney C.; Wang, Yulun; Bryer, Alan; Ford, Gary A.; Iadecola, Costantino; Martins, Sheila C.O.; Saver, Jeff; Skvortsova, Veronika; Bayley, Mark; Bednar, Martin M.; Duncan, Pamela; Enney, Lori; Finklestein, Seth; Jones, Theresa A.; Kalra, Lalit; Kleim, Jeff; Nitkin, Ralph; Teasell, Robert; Weiller, Cornelius; Desai, Bhupat; Goldberg, Mark P.; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Saarelma, Osmo; Schwamm, Lee H.; Shinohara, Yukito; Trivedi, Bhargava; Wahlgren, Nils; Wong, Lawrence K.; Hakim, Antoine; Norrving, Bo; Prudhomme, Stephen; Bornstein, Natan M.; Davis, Stephen M.; Goldstein, Larry B.; Leys, Didier; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The aim of the Synergium was to devise and prioritize new ways of accelerating progress in reducing the risks, effects, and consequences of stroke. Methods Preliminary work was performed by 7 working groups of stroke leaders followed by a synergium (a forum for working synergistically together) with approximately 100 additional participants. The resulting draft document had further input from contributors outside the synergium. Results Recommendations of the Synergium are: Basic Science, Drug Development and Technology: There is a need to develop: (1) New systems of working together to break down the prevalent ‘silo’ mentality; (2) New models of vertically integrated basic, clinical, and epidemiological disciplines; and (3) Efficient methods of identifying other relevant areas of science. Stroke Prevention: (1) Establish a global chronic disease prevention initiative with stroke as a major focus. (2) Recognize not only abrupt clinical stroke, but subtle subclinical stroke, the commonest type of cerebrovascular disease, leading to impairments of executive function. (3) Develop, implement and evaluate a population approach for stroke prevention. (4) Develop public health communication strategies using traditional and novel (e.g., social media/marketing) techniques. Acute Stroke Management: Continue the establishment of stroke centers, stroke units, regional systems of emergency stroke care and telestroke networks. Brain Recovery and Rehabilitation: (1) Translate best neuroscience, including animal and human studies, into poststroke recovery research and clinical care. (2) Standardize poststroke rehabilitation based on best evidence. (3) Develop consensus on, then implementation of, standardized clinical and surrogate assessments. (4) Carry out rigorous clinical research to advance stroke recovery. Into the 21st Century: Web, Technology and Communications: (1) Work toward global unrestricted access to stroke-related information. (2) Build

  5. Stroke: Working toward a Prioritized World Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Hachinski, Vladimir; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Gorelick, Philip B.; Hacke, Werner; Cramer, Steven C.; Kaste, Markku; Fisher, Marc; Brainin, Michael; Buchan, Alastair M.; Lo, Eng H.; Skolnick, Brett E.; Furie, Karen L.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Kivipelto, Miia; Morris, John; Rothwell, Peter M.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Smith, Jr., Sidney C.; Wang, Yulun; Bryer, Alan; Ford, Gary A.; Iadecola, Costantino; Martins, Sheila C.O.; Saver, Jeff; Skvortsova, Veronika; Bayley, Mark; Bednar, Martin M.; Duncan, Pamela; Enney, Lori; Finklestein, Seth; Jones, Theresa A.; Kalra, Lalit; Kleim, Jeff; Nitkin, Ralph; Teasell, Robert; Weiller, Cornelius; Desai, Bhupat; Goldberg, Mark P.; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Saarelma, Osmo; Schwamm, Lee H.; Shinohara, Yukito; Trivedi, Bhargava; Wahlgren, Nils; Wong, Lawrence K.; Hakim, Antoine; Norrving, Bo; Prudhomme, Stephen; Bornstein, Natan M.; Davis, Stephen M.; Goldstein, Larry B.; Leys, Didier; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose The aim of the Synergium was to devise and prioritize new ways of accelerating progress in reducing the risks, effects, and consequences of stroke. Methods Preliminary work was performed by 7 working groups of stroke leaders followed by a synergium (a forum for working synergistically together) with approximately 100 additional participants. The resulting draft document had further input from contributors outside the synergium. Results Recommendations of the Synergium are: Basic Science, Drug Development and Technology: There is a need to develop: (1) New systems of working together to break down the prevalent ‘silo’ mentality; (2) New models of vertically integrated basic, clinical, and epidemiological disciplines; and (3) Efficient methods of identifying other relevant areas of science. Stroke Prevention: (1) Establish a global chronic disease prevention initiative with stroke as a major focus. (2) Recognize not only abrupt clinical stroke, but subtle subclinical stroke, the commonest type of cerebrovascular disease, leading to impairments of executive function. (3) Develop, implement and evaluate a population approach for stroke prevention. (4) Develop public health communication strategies using traditional and novel (e.g., social media/marketing) techniques. Acute Stroke Management: Continue the establishment of stroke centers, stroke units, regional systems of emergency stroke care and telestroke networks. Brain Recovery and Rehabilitation: (1) Translate best neuroscience, including animal and human studies, into poststroke recovery research and clinical care. (2) Standardize poststroke rehabilitation based on best evidence. (3) Develop consensus on, then implementation of, standardized clinical and surrogate assessments. (4) Carry out rigorous clinical research to advance stroke recovery. Into the 21st Century: Web, Technology and Communications: (1) Work toward global unrestricted access to stroke-related information. (2) Build

  6. Guidelines for the Primary Prevention of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Meschia, James F.; Bushnell, Cheryl; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Braun, Lynne T.; Bravata, Dawn M.; Chaturvedi, Seemant; Creager, Mark A.; Eckel, Robert H.; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Fornage, Myriam; Goldstein, Larry B.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Horvath, Susanna E.; Iadecola, Costantino; Jauch, Edward C.; Moore, Wesley S.; Wilson, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this updated statement is to provide comprehensive and timely evidence-based recommendations on the prevention of stroke among individuals who have not previously experienced a stroke or transient ischemic attack. Evidence-based recommendations are included for the control of risk factors, interventional approaches to atherosclerotic disease of the cervicocephalic circulation, and antithrombotic treatments for preventing thrombotic and thromboembolic stroke. Further recommendations are provided for genetic and pharmacogenetic testing and for the prevention of stroke in a variety of other specific circumstances, including sickle cell disease and patent foramen ovale. PMID:25355838

  7. Etude des Abondances de MG et de fe dans la Composante Stellaire des Disques des Galaxies Spirales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, Dominique

    Je presente ici une technique d'observation par imagerie des disques stellaires des galaxies spirales. Je tente, a l'aide d'un modele evolutif multiphase, de determiner les abondances de fer et de magnesium dans les disques. Dans ce but, je mesure les indices Mg2 et Fe5270 du systeme de Lick. Ces elements representent un choix judicieux d'indicateurs car ils sont formes par des supernovae de deux types differents ayant des durees de vie differentes. Le rapport d'abondances de ces deux elements est un indicateur du taux de formation des populations stellaires. Je decris, en premier lieu, les observations, la technique de mesure, ainsi que son application. J'analyse ensuite les indices mesures. A partir du modele multiphase, j'explore differents parametres physiques des spirales comme le taux de formation stellaire, l'evolution des abondances, les effets possibles de la presence de la barre, etc.

  8. Classification of 8 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, A.; Moller, A.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Childress, M. J.; Lewis, G. F.; Lidman, C.; OâNeill, C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.

    2016-09-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  9. Classification of 17 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoormann, J. K.; Asorey, J.; Carollo, D.; Moller, A.; Sharp, R.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Zhang, B.; Lidman, C.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Childress, M.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Yuan, F.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Muthukrishna, D.; Parkinson, D.; Lewis, G. F.; Uddin, S.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  10. Classification of 13 DES supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, N.; Tucker, B. E.; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Gshwend, J.; Martini, P.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.

    2016-09-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  11. Classification of 11 DES supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, R.; Zhang, B.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Asorey, J.; Mould, J.; Smith, M.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Childress, M.; Prajs, S.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Carollo, D.; Moller, A.; Yuan, F.; Hinton, S.; Muthukrishna, D.; Parkinson, D.; Lewis, G. F.; Uddin, S.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2017-01-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  12. Classification of 2 DES supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, C. R.; Moller, A.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Childress, M. J.; Lewis, G. F.; Lidman, C.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Gupta, R.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.

    2016-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  13. Classification of 3 DES Supernovae with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  14. Classification of 20 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. M.; Kim, A. G.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Sharp, R.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lewis, G. F.; Sommer, N. E.; Martini, P.; Mould, J.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  15. Classification of 14 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Mould, J.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  16. Classification of 4 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazebrook, K.; Amon, A.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  17. Classification of 6 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, G. F.; Mould, J.; Lidman, C.; Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Martini, P.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  18. Classification of 15 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F.; Tucker, B. E.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Gshwend, Julia; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  19. Classification of 17 DES supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudd, D.; Martini, P.; Lewis, G. F.; Moller, A.; Sharp, R. G.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Asorey, J.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Muthukrishna, D.; Parkinson, D.; Carnero, A.; King, A.; Lidman, C.; Webb, S.; Uddin, S.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Childress, M.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.

    2016-11-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  20. Stroke in Asia: a global disaster.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong S

    2014-10-01

    Although stroke is a world-wide problem, the burden of stroke is particularly serious in Asia; its mortality is higher than in Europe or North America. The situation in Asia is dichotomized. Stroke mortality and case fatality has been declining in northern-eastern countries such as Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and urbanized areas of China. This is attributed to both the risk factor control and stroke care improvement. However, declining stroke incidence is rarely observed, which is in part due to rapidly aging population. As a result, there is an increase in the number of stroke survivors who require long-term, costly care. The extremely low birth rate and relatively insecure social health system markedly increases the caregiver burden. The problem in southern Asian countries, such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Indonesia is more fundamental. With the improving control of infectious diseases, life expectancy is prolonged. However, risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cigarette smoking become prevalent, and are poorly controlled. Stroke neurologists, organized stroke centers, and diagnostic tools are insufficient, which has resulted in high stroke fatality and mortality. Throughout Asia, the most urgent priority should be the primary stroke prevention through promoting a healthy lifestyle, e.g. low salt intake, regular physical exercise, stopping smoking, government sectors should take a stronger initiative to accomplish this. The rapidly aging populations and stroke burden will shrink the economy and destabilize the society, not only in Asia but also globally unless appropriate efforts are promptly initiated, this may result in a global disaster.

  1. Konstruieren von Pkw-Karosserien: Grundlagen, Elemente und Baugruppen, Vorschriftenübersicht, Beispiele mit CATIA V4 und V5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabner, Jörg; Nothhaft, Richard

    Die Faszination, die vom Auto ausgeht, ist und bleibt ungebrochen. Entsprechend interessant ist es, sich vor dem Hintergrund konventioneller Konstruktionstechniken über die virtuelle Produktentwicklung von Pkw-Karosserien an modernen CAD-Arbeitsplätzen informieren zu können. Die Autoren führen in die Grundlagen ein und zeigen anhand von Beispielen und zahlreichen Abbildungen, wie mit dem System CATIA der Rohbau sowie die Ausstattung innen und au=C3=9Fen konstruiert werden. Darüber hinaus wird das so genannte "Package" an Beispielen beschrieben, also das Management und die Harmonisierung der Anforderungen an die Bauräume (z.

  2. Latina Voices of Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, P. Dawn

    This dissertation examines the lives of Hispanic women living in Des Moines and includes their views of problems and opportunities involved in living in that city. Interviews were conducted with 24 Latino women over the age of 17 who had been in the area for over 2 years. Findings indicate that learning to speak English was the single most…

  3. Power and energy dissipation in subsequent return strokes as predicted by a new return stroke model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooray, Vernon

    1991-01-01

    Recently, Cooray introduced a new return stroke model which is capable of predicting the temporal behavior of the return stroke current and the return stroke velocity as a function of the height along the return stroke channel. The authors employed this model to calculate the power and energy dissipation in subsequent return strokes. The results of these calculations are presented here. It was concluded that a large fraction of the total energy available for the dart leader-subsequent stroke process is dissipated in the dart leader stage. The peak power per unit length dissipated in a subsequent stroke channel element decreases with increasing height of that channel element from ground level. For a given channel element, the peak power dissipation increases with increasing current in that channel element. The peak electrical power dissipation in a typical subsequent return stroke is about 1.5 times 10(exp 11) W. The energy dissipation in a subsequent stroke increases with increasing current in the return stroke channel, and for a typical subsequent stroke, the energy dissipation per unit length is about 5.0 times 10(exp 3) J/m.

  4. Long Sleep Duration and Risk of Ischemic Stroke and Hemorrhagic Stroke: the Kailuan Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qiaofeng; Liu, Xiaoxue; Zhou, Wenhua; Wang, Ling; Zheng, Xiang; Wang, Xizhu; Wu, Shouling

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in a community-based cohort. The current analysis included 95,023 Chinese participants who were free of stroke at the baseline survey (2006–2007). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and their confidence intervals (CIs) for stroke, according to sleep duration. After a mean follow-up period of 7.9 years, 3,135 participants developed stroke (2,504 ischemic stroke and 631 hemorrhagic stroke). The full adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) of total stroke (with 6–8 hours of night sleep being considered for the reference group) for individuals reporting greater than 8 hours was 1.29 (1.01–1.64). More significant association between long sleep duration and total stroke was found in the elderly (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.05–2.07). Compared with participants getting 6–8 hours of sleep, only women who reported sleeping more than 8 hours per night were associated with hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.28–10.06). This study suggested that long sleep duration might be a potential predictor/ marker for total stroke, especially in the elderly. And long sleep duration increased the risk of hemorrhagic stroke only in women. PMID:27633270

  5. L'astronomie des Anciens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2009-04-01

    Quelle que soit la civilisation à laquelle il appartient, l'être humain cherche dans le ciel des réponses aux questions qu'il se pose sur son origine, son avenir et sa finalité. Le premier mérite de ce livre est de nous rappeler que l'astronomie a commencé ainsi à travers les mythes célestes imaginés par les Anciens pour expliquer l'ordre du monde et la place qu'ils y occupaient. Mais les savoirs astronomiques passés étaient loin d'être négligeables et certainement pas limités aux seuls travaux des Grecs : c'est ce que l'auteur montre à travers une passionnante enquête, de Stonehenge à Gizeh en passant par Pékin et Mexico, fondée sur l'étude des monuments anciens et des sources écrites encore accessibles. Les tablettes mésopotamiennes, les annales chinoises, les chroniques médiévales, etc. sont en outre d'une singulière utilité pour les astronomes modernes : comment sinon remonter aux variations de la durée du jour au cours des siècles, ou percer la nature de l'explosion qui a frappé tant d'observateurs en 1054 ? Ce livre offre un voyage magnifiquement illustré à travers les âges, entre astronomie et archéologie.

  6. Stroke - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chinese Community Health Resource Center French (français) Stroke AVC - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi ( ... Information Translations Portuguese (português) Stroke Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC ou derrame) - português (Portuguese) Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

  7. The role of hydrogen sulfide in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Yang; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a kind of acute cerebrovascular disease characterized by the focal lack of neurological function, including ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. As society ages rapidly, stroke has become the second leading cause of disability and death, and also become the main threat to human health and life. In recent years, findings from increasing animal and clinical trials have supplied scientific evidences for the treatment of stroke. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which has always been seen as a toxic gas, now has been thought to be the third gaseous signaling molecule following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. Accumulating evidences indicate that H2S plays an important role in stroke. Given that its neuroprotective effect is dose-dependent, only when its concentration is relatively low, H2S can yield the neuroprotection, while high dose may lead to neurotoxicity. All these study results suggest that H2S may offer a new promising application for the therapy of stroke. Here, our review will present the role of H2S in stroke from its mechanism to animal and clinical studies. PMID:27867473

  8. Intracranial haematoma resulting from lightning stroke.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M; Pillai, M; Krishna Das, K V

    1991-05-01

    Intra-cerebral haemorrhage due to lightning stroke is extremely rare. We report a 45 year old woman who developed intracranial haemorrhage due to a direct lightning stroke. This was proved by CT scan. The haematoma was evacuated surgically, resulting in full neurological recovery of the patient.

  9. Effect of Antibiotic Class on Stroke Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Zierath, Dannielle; Kunze, Allison; Fecteau, Leia; Becker, Kyra

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Infections are common following stroke and associated with worse outcome. Clinical trials evaluating the benefit of prophylactic antibiotics have produced mixed results. This study explores the possibility that antibiotics of different classes may differentially affect stroke outcome. Methods Lewis rats were subjected to transient cerebral ischemia (2 hrs) and survived for 1 month. The day after stroke they were randomized to therapy with ceftiofur (a β-lactam antibiotic), enrofloxacin (a fluoroquinolone antibiotic) or vehicle (as controls) and underwent the equivalent of 7 days of treatment. Behavioral tests were performed weekly until sacrifice. In a subset of animals, histology was done. Results There were no differences in outcomes at 24 hours or 1 week after stroke among the different groups. At 1 month after stroke, however, performance on the rotarod was worse in enrofloxacin treated animals when compared to control animals. Conclusions Independent of infection, the antibiotic enrofloxacin was associated with worse stroke outcome. These data echo the clinical observations to date and suggest that the secondary effects of antibiotics on stroke outcome should be considered when treating infection in subjects with stroke. The mechanism by which this antibiotic affects outcome needs to be elucidated. PMID:26138122

  10. Principles of precision medicine in stroke.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Jason D; Rost, Natalia S; Leung, Thomas W; Montaner, Joan; Muir, Keith W; Brown, Scott; Arenillas, Juan F; Feldmann, Edward; Liebeskind, David S

    2017-01-01

    The era of precision medicine has arrived and conveys tremendous potential, particularly for stroke neurology. The diagnosis of stroke, its underlying aetiology, theranostic strategies, recurrence risk and path to recovery are populated by a series of highly individualised questions. Moreover, the phenotypic complexity of a clinical diagnosis of stroke makes a simple genetic risk assessment only partially informative on an individual basis. The guiding principles of precision medicine in stroke underscore the need to identify, value, organise and analyse the multitude of variables obtained from each individual to generate a precise approach to optimise cerebrovascular health. Existing data may be leveraged with novel technologies, informatics and practical clinical paradigms to apply these principles in stroke and realise the promise of precision medicine. Importantly, precision medicine in stroke will only be realised once efforts to collect, value and synthesise the wealth of data collected in clinical trials and routine care starts. Stroke theranostics, the ultimate vision of synchronising tailored therapeutic strategies based on specific diagnostic data, demand cerebrovascular expertise on big data approaches to clinically relevant paradigms. This review considers such challenges and delineates the principles on a roadmap for rational application of precision medicine to stroke and cerebrovascular health.

  11. Defining and Measuring Dysphagia Following Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Schroeder, Mae Fern; DeGeorge, Pamela C.; Corey, David M.; Foundas, Anne L.; Rosenbek, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To continue the development of a quantified, standard method to differentiate individuals with stroke and dysphagia from individuals without dysphagia. Method: Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS) were completed on a group of participants with acute stroke (n = 42) and healthy age-matched individuals (n = 25). Calibrated liquid…

  12. Yawning in acute anterior circulation stroke.

    PubMed

    Singer, Oliver C; Humpich, Marek C; Lanfermann, Heiner; Neumann-Haefelin, Tobias

    2007-11-01

    Pathological yawning can be a clinical sign in disorders affecting the brainstem. Here we describe seven patients with pathological yawning caused by acute middle cerebral artery stroke, indicating that pathological yawning also occurs in supratentorial stroke. We hypothesise that excessive yawning is a consequence of lesions in cortical or subcortical areas, which physiologically control diencephalic yawning centres.

  13. Painting as Language for a Stroke Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmi, Shulamit; Mashiah, Tonni

    1996-01-01

    Painting may provide an outlet for self-expression for stroke patients experiencing physical, emotional, and social difficulties during rehabilitation. A case study of a stroke patient demonstrates the value of the artistic process as a vehicle for integration and communication. (LSR)

  14. National data on stroke outcomes in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kongbunkiat, Kannikar; Kasemsap, Narongrit; Thepsuthammarat, Kaewjai; Tiamkao, Somsak; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-03-01

    Stroke is a major public health problem worldwide. There are limited data on national stroke prevalence and outcomes after the beginning of the thrombolytic therapy era in Thailand. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with mortality in stroke patients in Thailand using the national reimbursement databases. Clinical data retrieved included individuals under the universal coverage, social security, and civil servant benefit systems between 1 October 2009 and 30 September 2010. The stroke diagnosis code was based on the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision system including G45 (transient cerebral ischemic attacks and related syndromes), I61 (intracerebral hemorrhage), and I63 (cerebral infarction). The prevalence and stroke outcomes were calculated from these coded data. Factors associated with death were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression analysis. We found that the most frequent stroke subtype was cerebral infarction with a prevalence of 122 patients per 100,000 of population, an average length of hospital stay of 6.8 days, an average hospital charge of 20,740 baht (∼$USD 691), a mortality rate of 7%, and thrombolytic prescriptions of 1%. The significant factors associated with stroke mortality were septicemia, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, myocardial infarction, status epilepticus, and heart failure. In conclusion, the prevalence and outcomes of stroke in Thailand were comparable with other countries. The era of thrombolytic therapy has just begun in Thailand.

  15. [Ischemic stroke in the young adult].

    PubMed

    Calvet, D

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is not rare in young adults since one in ten stroke patients are less than 50 years old. This incidence increased over the past last years, mainly due to the rise in the prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in this sub-group of age but also of illegal drug use. Even though both survival and functional outcome of young stroke patients are better than those observed in older patients, socio-economic and quality of life consequences make this disease a main objective in terms of primary and secondary prevention. Identifying the cause of ischemic stroke in young adults is of major importance to prevent stroke recurrence. However, given the wide variety of potential underlying causes, the etiologic work-up of stroke in young adults requires a different approach from that in the elderly. In this context, a sequential diagnostic work-up is needed in order to optimize the yield of diagnostic tests, to reduce their cost and risks for the patient. Arterial dissection is the most frequent cause of stroke in young adults but other less frequent causes are numerous. Despite a comprehensive work-up, about one third of cases remains unexplained leading to the diagnosis of cryptogenic ischemic stroke.

  16. Silent Atrial Fibrillation and Cryptogenic Strokes.

    PubMed

    Dalen, James E; Alpert, Joseph S

    2017-03-01

    A new suspected cause of cryptic strokes is "silent atrial fibrillation." Pacemakers and other implanted devices allow continuous recording of cardiac rhythm for months or years. They have discovered that short periods of atrial fibrillation lasting minutes or hours are frequent and usually are asymptomatic. A meta-analysis of 50 studies involving more than 10,000 patients with a recent stroke found that 7.7% had new atrial fibrillation on their admitting electrocardiogram. In 3 weeks during and after hospitalization, another 16.9% were diagnosed. A total of 23.7% of these stroke patients had silent atrial fibrillation; that is, atrial fibrillation diagnosed after hospital admission. Silent atrial fibrillation is also frequent in patients with pacemakers who do not have a recent stroke. In a pooled analysis of 3 studies involving more than 10,000 patients monitored for 24 months, 43% had at least 1 day with atrial fibrillation lasting more than 5 minutes. Ten percent had atrial fibrillation lasting at least 12 hours. Despite the frequency of silent atrial fibrillation in these patients with multiple risk factors for stroke, the annual incidence of stroke was only 0.23%. When silent atrial fibrillation is detected in patients with recent cryptogenic stroke, anticoagulation is indicated. In patients without stroke, silent atrial fibrillation should lead to further monitoring for clinical atrial fibrillation rather than immediate anticoagulation, as some have advocated.

  17. Stroke Mortality Among Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Ronnie D.; Day, Gretchen M.; Lanier, Anne P.; Provost, Ellen M.; Hamel, Rebecca D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of stroke among Alaska Natives, which is essential for designing effective stroke prevention and intervention efforts for this population. Methods. We conducted an analysis of death certificate data for the state of Alaska for the period 1984 to 2003, comparing age-standardized stroke mortality rates among Alaska Natives residing in Alaska vs US Whites by age category, gender, stroke type, and time. Results. Compared with US Whites, Alaska Natives had significantly elevated stroke mortality from 1994 to 2003 but not from 1984 to 1993. Alaska Native women of all age groups and Alaska Native men younger than 45 years of age had the highest risk, although the rates for those younger than 65 years were statistically imprecise. Over the 20-year study period, the stroke mortality rate was stable for Alaska Natives but declined for US Whites. Conclusions. Stroke mortality is higher among Alaska Natives, especially women, than among US Whites. Over the past 20 years, there has not been a significant decline in stroke mortality among Alaska Natives. PMID:19762671

  18. Stroke disease management--a framework for comprehensive stroke care.

    PubMed

    Venketasubramanian, N; Chan, B P L; Lim, E; Hafizah, Noor; Goh, K T; Lew, Y J; Loo, L; Yin, A; Widjaja, L; Loke, W C; Kuick, G; Lee, N L; Ong, B S; Koh, S F; Heng, B H; Cheah, J

    2002-07-01

    Disease management is an approach to patient care that coordinates medical resources for the patient across the entire healthcare delivery system throughout the lifetime of the patient with the disease. Stroke is suitable for disease management as it is a well-known disease with a high prevalence, high cost, variable practice pattern, poor clinical outcome, and managed by a non-integrated healthcare system. It has measurable and actionable outcomes, with available local expertise and support of the Ministry of Health. Developing the programme requires a multidisciplinary team, baseline data on target populations and healthcare services, identification of core components, collaboration with key stakeholders, development of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and carepaths, institution of care coordinators, use of information technology and continuous quality improvement to produce an effective plan. Core components include public education, risk factor screening and management, primary care and specialist clinics, acute stroke units, inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation facilities, and supportive community services including medical, nursing, therapy, home help and support groups for patients and carers. The family physician plays a key role. Coordination of services is best done by a network of hospital and community-based care managers, and is enhanced by a coordinating call centre. Continuous quality improvement is required, with audit of processes and outcomes, facilitated by a disease registry. Pitfalls include inappropriate exclusion of deserving patients, misuse, loss of physician and patient independence, over-estimation of benefits, and care fragmentation. Collaboration and cooperative among all parties will help ensure a successful and sustainable programme.

  19. [Antioxidant therapy in ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Suslina, Z A; Federova, T N; Maksimova, M Iu; Riasina, T V; Stvolinskiĭ, S L; Khrapova, E V; Boldyrev, A A

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of emoxipin, an antioxidant synthetic drug, for treatment of patients with ischemic disorders of cerebral circulation. The drug produced a beneficial clinical effect in patients with lacunar and cardioembolic strokes of moderate severity. Therapy with emoxipin increased endogenic antioxidant activity and improved a clinical status of the patients. The protective effect of carnosine was demonstrated in experimental acute hypobaric hypoxia and cerebral ischemia in rats. The results obtained permit to recommend an inclusion of both emoxipin and carnosine in a combined treatment of ischemic disorders of cerebral circulation.

  20. Modifications of und rbcS in und Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 resulted in high CO sub 2 requiring mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.; Liehman-Hurwitz, J.; Martinez, F.; Reinhold, L.; Kaplan, A. )

    1990-05-01

    High CO{sub 2} requiring mutants (HCR), capable of growing in the presence of kanamycin, were obtained following transformation with a construct containing {und nptII} in the coding region of rbcS (encoding for the small subunit (SS) of Rubisco). The apparent photosynthetic affinity for inorganic carbon was very low in mutant EK6 whereas in mutant JR12 it was only slightly lower than in high-CO{sub 2}-grown wild type. Southern analysis indicated double crossing over in the case of EK6. In mutant JR12 Southern analysis revealed some rearrangement and a deletion of a region downstream fro {und rbcS}. Western analysis demonstrated normal SS in JR12 but a larger (by about 3 kD) SS in EK6. Sequence analysis indicated that the latter was the result of fusion between {und rbcS} and the flanking region of {und nptII}.

  1. Multistatic Surveillance and Reconnaissance: Sensor, Signals and Data Fusion (Surveillance et Reconnaissance Multistatiques : Fusion des capteurs, des signaux et des donnees)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    capteurs , des signaux et des données) Research and Technology Organisation (NATO) BP 25, F-92201 Neuilly-sur-Seine Cedex, France RTO-EN-SET-133...Multistatiques : Fusion des capteurs , des signaux et des données) The material in this publication was assembled to support a Lecture Series under the...Surveillance et Reconnaissance Multistatiques : Fusion des capteurs , des signaux et des données (RTO-EN-SET-133) Synthèse Les systèmes radar

  2. Severe stroke: which medicine for which results?

    PubMed

    Woimant, F; Biteye, Y; Chaine, P; Crozier, S

    2014-02-01

    In face of any severe stroke, the questions for health professionals in charge of the patient are: will the handicap be acceptable for the patient? But can we predict an acceptable handicap for the patient? For his family? When we know that the cognitive disorders, consequences of severe stroke often modify, in a major way, the behaviour of these patients? Given these difficulties for estimate vital and functional prognosis and even more the quality of life of patients with severe stroke, collective reflexions between physicians and nurses are essential, reflexions taking into account preferences and values of patients. Use of resuscitation resources for severe stroke patients implies to offer them the best rehabilitation. So, questions about health pathways for severe stroke are essential: which structures for these patients, which technologies, which medical, medico-social and social supports, which human accompaniment the society can propose to the patients and to their family, so that they have an acceptable quality of life.

  3. Galanin's implications for post-stroke improvement

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juhyun

    2016-01-01

    Stroke leads to a variety of pathophysiological conditions such as ischemic infarct, cerebral inflammation, neuronal damage, cognitive decline, and depression. Many endeavors have been tried to find the therapeutic solutions to attenuate severe neuropathogenesis after stroke. Several studies have reported that a decrease in the neuropeptide regulator ‘galanin’ is associated with neuronal loss, learning and memory dysfunctions, and depression following a stroke. The present review summarized recent evidences on the function and the therapeutic potential of galanin in post-ischemic stroke to provide a further understanding of galanin's role. Hence, we suggest that galanin needs to be considered as a therapeutic factor in the alleviation of post-stroke pathologies. PMID:28127496

  4. Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Melatonin in Hemorrhagic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-Jian; Wu, Cheng; Niu, Huan-Jiang; Wang, Kun; Mo, Lian-Jie; Shao, An-Wen; Dixon, Brandon J; Zhang, Jian-Min; Yang, Shu-Xu; Wang, Yi-Rong

    2017-01-28

    Hemorrhagic stroke which consists of subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage is a dominant cause of death and disability worldwide. Although great efforts have been made, the physiological mechanisms of these diseases are not fully understood and effective pharmacological interventions are still lacking. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a neurohormone produced by the pineal gland, is a broad-spectrum antioxidant and potent free radical scavenger. More importantly, there is extensive evidence demonstrating that melatonin confers neuroprotective effects in experimental models of hemorrhagic stroke. Multiple molecular mechanisms such as antioxidant, anti-apoptosis, and anti-inflammation, contribute to melatonin-mediated neuroprotection against brain injury after hemorrhagic stroke. This review article aims to summarize current knowledge regarding the beneficial effects of melatonin in experimental models of hemorrhagic stroke and explores the underlying mechanisms. We propose that melatonin is a promising neuroprotective candidate that is worthy of further evaluation for its potential therapeutic applications in hemorrhagic stroke.

  5. Advances in stroke treatment are within reach.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Allan; Le Feuvre, David; Mngomezulu, Victor; Royston, Duncan; Harrichandparsard, Rohen; De Vries, Coert; Winter, Arthur; Potgieter, Francois

    2016-03-30

    Five recent trials have shown that mechanical removal of clot from cerebral arteries after a stroke can achieve a functional independent outcome in up to 60% of patients. This was an absolute benefit of between 13.5% and 31% for patients who had clot removal initiated within 6 hours of symptoms over those who had best medical treatment. Coupled with this, there is a strong drive to develop stroke units internationally and in South Africa. As a starting point, more primary stroke care centres that can administer intravenous thrombolysis are needed. Comprehensive stroke centres that can offer mechanical thrombectomy are available, but more will be required as referral of patients increases. Collaboration of all roleplayers will ensure that we can deliver training and care at the best level for stroke patients.

  6. Neuroprotection in Stroke: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Arshad

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a devastating medical condition, killing millions of people each year and causing serious injury to many more. Despite advances in treatment, there is still little that can be done to prevent stroke-related brain damage. The concept of neuroprotection is a source of considerable interest in the search for novel therapies that have the potential to preserve brain tissue and improve overall outcome. Key points of intervention have been identified in many of the processes that are the source of damage to the brain after stroke, and numerous treatment strategies designed to exploit them have been developed. In this review, potential targets of neuroprotection in stroke are discussed, as well as the various treatments that have been targeted against them. In addition, a summary of recent progress in clinical trials of neuroprotective agents in stroke is provided. PMID:24579051

  7. Thrombin Generation in Acute Ischaemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lara N.; Patel, Raj; Pathansali, Rohan; Kalra, Lalit; Arya, Roopen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Stroke remains a global leading cause of death and disability. Traditional description of plasma biology in the aftermath of acute ischaemic stroke favours development of hypercoagulability, resulting from complex interplay between plasma and endothelial factors. However, no single assay measures the overall global coagulation process. We postulate that thrombin generation would assist in identifying coagulation abnormalities after acute stroke. Aim. To investigate the coagulation abnormalities after acute ischaemic stroke using thrombin generation. Methods. We evaluated thrombin generation, measured with calibrated automated thrombography in stroke of different aetiological types (n = 170) within 48 hours of symptoms onset (baseline) and in the second week (time 2) and in normal healthy volunteers (n = 71). Results. Two-point thrombin generation assays showed prolonged lag time and time to peak at baseline (3.3 (2.9, 4.0) versus 3.6 (3.2, 4.7); p = 0.005) and (3.3 (2.9, 4.0) versus 3.6 (3.2, 4.7); p = 0.002), respectively, and at time 2 (3.5 (2.9, 4.2) versus 4.0 (3.1, 4.9); p = 0.004) and (5.9 (5.3, 6.6) versus 6.8 (5.8, 7.7) p = 0.05), respectively, in cardioembolic stroke (n = 39), when compared to noncardioembolic stroke (n = 117). The result was reproduced in multiple comparisons between acute ischaemic stroke subgroups and normal healthy volunteers. Endogenous thrombin potential and peak thrombin did not indicate hypercoagulability after acute ischaemic stroke, and thrombolytic therapy did not affect thrombin generation assays. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that thrombin generation in platelet poor plasma is not useful in defining hypercoagulability in acute ischaemic stroke. This is similar to observed trend in coronary artery disease and contrary to other hypercoagulable states. PMID:28116215

  8. Regelungen im Verkehr mit Lebensmitteln und Bedarfsgegenständen in Deutschland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gundula; Freund, Astrid; Gründig, Friedrich

    Im Zuge der Globalisierung von Produktion und Handel ändert sich auch der Charakter der Vorschriften im Lebensmittelrecht. Zunehmend treten internationale Rechtsbestimmungen, Abkommen, Standards und andere Normen an die Stelle nationaler Regelungen.

  9. VDI-Richtlinien - mit Technischen Regeln Wirtschaftlichkeit erhöhen und Standards setzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelartz, Johannes

    Der Verein Deutscher Ingenieure e.V. (VDI) ist ein gemeinnütziger, wirtschaftlich und politisch unabhängiger, technisch-wissenschaftlicher Verein von Ingenieuren und Naturwissenschaftlern. Mit über 137 000 persönlich zugeordneten Mitgliedern ist er eine der größten Ingenieur-Vereinigungen Europas und gilt in Deutschland als führender Sprecher der Technik und der Ingenieure. 1856 gegründet, hat er viele für die Technik wesentliche Entwicklungen in Gang gesetzt, so im Bereich der technischen Überwachung, der technischen Regelsetzung und Normung, der Arbeitsstudien, im gewerblichen Rechtsschutz und im Patentwesen. Seit seiner Gründung sieht es der VDI als seine Aufgabe, "das Zusammenwirken aller geistiger Kräfte der Technik im Bewusstsein ethischer Verantwortung zu fördern“ und die Lebensmöglichkeiten aller Menschen durch Entwicklung und sinnvoller Anwendung technischer Mittel zu verbessern.

  10. Active Control Technology for Enhanced Performance Operational Capabilities of Military Aircraft, Land Vehicles and Sea Vehicles (Technologies des systemes a commandes actives pour l’amelioration des performances operationnelles des aeronefs militaires, des vehicules terrestres et des vehicules maritimes)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    d’améliorer le comportement global des systèmes et des sous- systèmes. Il s’agit de matériaux intelligents, de technologies informatiques, de capteurs ...des servocommandes rapides et fiables, ainsi que des capteurs de fonctionnement fiable même dans des environnements défavorables, et en particulier...des sous-systèmes. Il s’agit de matériaux intelligents, de technologies de fabrication novatrices, de technologies informatiques, de capteurs et de

  11. The CHAT classification of stroke.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, E F; Browse, N L

    1989-02-01

    Current terminology for clinical episodes relating to stroke is inconsistent and unclear, does not permit inclusion of data regarding the location and magnitude of extracranial and intracerebral arterial disease, does not coincide with existing classifications in Europe, and characterizes a hemispheric entity only, as opposed to a global description including prior symptoms in both hemispheres. A new classification system (CHAT) has been designed to deal with these problems, including the current clinical presentation, historical clinical episodes, the site and pathologic type of arterial disease, and information regarding abnormalities of the brain. Using this system, a retrospective review of 480 consecutive carotid endarterectomies is presented, demonstrating the advantages of the CHAT classification. Data include a significant difference in the probability of survival after carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic stenosis in patients with prior symptoms on the opposite side, as well as a significant difference in the probability of stroke-free survival between patients with amaurosis fugax and those with prior carotid cortical symptoms (TIAs) as the presenting clinical condition. The CHAT classification is suggested as a significant advance in the reporting of all surgical cerebrovascular disease experience, and has particular implications for the current randomized trials between medical and surgical therapy for carotid artery disease.

  12. Role of sleep-disordered breathing and sleep-wake disturbances for stroke and stroke recovery

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and sleep-wake disturbances (SWD) are highly prevalent in stroke patients. Recent studies suggest that they represent both a risk factor and a consequence of stroke and affect stroke recovery, outcome, and recurrence. Methods: Review of literature. Results: Several studies have proven SDB to represent an independent risk factor for stroke. Sleep studies in TIA and stroke patients are recommended in view of the very high prevalence (>50%) of SDB (Class IIb, level of evidence B). Treatment of obstructive SDB with continuous positive airway pressure is recommended given the strength of the increasing evidence in support of a positive effect on outcome (Class IIb, level of evidence B). Oxygen, biphasic positive airway pressure, and adaptive servoventilation may be considered in patients with central SDB. Recently, both reduced and increased sleep duration, as well as hypersomnia, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome (RLS), were also suggested to increase stroke risk. Mainly experimental studies found that SWD may in addition impair neuroplasticity processes and functional stroke recovery. Treatment of SWD with hypnotics and sedative antidepressants (insomnia), activating antidepressants or stimulants (hypersomnia), dopaminergic drugs (RLS), and clonazepam (parasomnias) are based on single case observations and should be used with caution. Conclusions: SDB and SWD increase the risk of stroke in the general population and affect short- and long-term stroke recovery and outcome. Current knowledge supports the systematic implementation of clinical procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of poststroke SDB and SWD on stroke units. PMID:27488603

  13. Large Animal Stroke Models vs. Rodent Stroke Models, Pros and Cons, and Combination?

    PubMed

    Cai, Bin; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability worldwide and the second leading cause of death in many countries. Long-time attempts to salvage dying neurons via various neuroprotective agents have failed in stroke translational research, owing in part to the huge gap between animal stroke models and stroke patients, which also suggests that rodent models have limited predictive value and that alternate large animal models are likely to become important in future translational research. The genetic background, physiological characteristics, behavioral characteristics, and brain structure of large animals, especially nonhuman primates, are analogous to humans, and resemble humans in stroke. Moreover, relatively new regional imaging techniques, measurements of regional cerebral blood flow, and sophisticated physiological monitoring can be more easily performed on the same animal at multiple time points. As a result, we can use large animal stroke models to decrease the gap and promote translation of basic science stroke research. At the same time, we should not neglect the disadvantages of the large animal stroke model such as the significant expense and ethical considerations, which can be overcome by rodent models. Rodents should be selected as stroke models for initial testing and primates or cats are desirable as a second species, which was recommended by the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) group in 2009.

  14. Stroke Risk After Non-Stroke ED Dizziness Presentations: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Kevin A.; Zahuranec, Darin B.; Brown, Devin L.; Meurer, William J.; Burke, James F.; Smith, Melinda A.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Fendrick, A. Mark; McLaughlin, Thomas; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Acute stroke is a serious concern in Emergency Department (ED) dizziness presentations. Prior studies, however, suggest that stroke is actually an unlikely cause of these presentations. Lacking are data on short- and long-term follow-up from population-based studies to establish stroke risk after presumed non-stroke ED dizziness presentations. Methods From 5/8/2011 to 5/7/2012, patients ≥ 45 years of age presenting to EDs in Nueces County, Texas, with dizziness, vertigo, or imbalance were identified, excluding those with stroke as the initial diagnosis. Stroke events after the ED presentation up to 10/2/2012 were determined using the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) study, which uses rigorous surveillance and neurologist validation. Cumulative stroke risk was calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Results 1,245 patients were followed for a median of 347 days (IQR 230- 436 days). Median age was 61.9 years (IQR, 53.8-74.0 years). After the ED visit, fifteen patients (1.2%) had a stroke. Stroke risk was 0.48% (95% CI, 0.22%-1.07%) at 2 days; 0.48% (95% CI, 0.22%-1.07%) at 7 days; 0.56% (95% CI, 0.27%-1.18%) at 30 days; 0.56% (95% CI, 0.27%-1.18%) at 90 days; and 1.42% (95% CI, 0.85%-2.36%) at 12 months. Interpretation Using rigorous case ascertainment and outcome assessment in a population-based design, we found that the risk of stroke after presumed non-stroke ED dizziness presentations is very low, supporting a non-stroke etiology to the overwhelming majority of original events. High-risk subgroups likely exist, however, because most of the 90-day stroke risk occurred within 2-days. Vascular risk stratification was insufficient to identify these cases. PMID:24788511

  15. Versuche zur Gewinnung von katalytischen Antikörpern zur Hydrolyse von Arylcarbamaten und Arylharnstoffen. (English Title: Attempts to produce catalytic antibodies for hydrolysis of arylcarbamates and arylureas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Deljana

    2002-05-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit gelang es, katalytische Antikörper zur Hydrolyse von Benzylphenylcarbamaten sowie zahlreiche monoklonale Antikörper gegen Haptene herzustellen. Es wurden verschiedene Hapten-Protein-Konjugate unter Verwendung unterschiedlicher Kopplungsmethoden hergestellt und charakterisiert. Zur Generierung der hydrolytisch aktiven Antikörper wurden Inzuchtmäuse mit KLH-Konjugaten von 4 Übergangszustandsanaloga (ÜZA) immunisiert. Mit Hilfe der Hybridomtechnik wurden verschiedene monoklonale Antikörper gegen diese ÜZA gewonnen. Dabei wurden sowohl verschiedene Immunisierungsschemata als auch verschiedene Inzuchtmausstämme und Fusionstechniken verwendet. Insgesamt wurden 32 monoklonale Antikörper gegen die verwendeten ÜZA selektiert. Diese Antikörper wurden in groen Mengen hergestellt und gereinigt. Zum Nachweis der Antikörper-vermittelten Katalyse wurden verschiedene Methoden entwickelt und eingesetzt, darunter immunologische Nachweismethoden mit Anti-Substrat- und Anti-Produkt-Antikörpern und eine photometrische Methode mit Dimethylaminozimtaldehyd. Der Nachweis der hydrolytischen Aktivität gelang mit Hilfe eines Enzymsensors, basierend auf immobilisierter Tyrosinase. Die Antikörper N1-BC1-D11, N1-FA7-C4, N1-FA7-D12 und R3-LG2-F9 hydrolysierten die Benzylphenylcarbamate POCc18, POCc19 und Substanz 27. Der Nachweis der hydrolytischen Aktivität dieser Antikörper gelang auch mit Hilfe der HPLC. Der katalytische Antikörper N1-BC1-D11 wurde kinetisch und thermodynamisch untersucht. Es wurde eine Michaelis-Menten-Kinetik mit Km von 210 µM, vmax von 3 mM/min und kcat von 222 min-1 beobachtet. Diese Werte korrelieren mit den Werten der wenigen bekannten Diphenylcarbamat-spaltenden Abzyme. Die Beschleunigungsrate des Antikörpers N1-BC1-D11 betrug 10. Das ÜZA Hei3 hemmte die hydrolytische Aktivität. Dies beweist, dass die Hydrolyse in der Antigenbindungsstelle stattfindet. Weiter wurde zwischen der Antikörperkonzentration und der

  16. Acoustic Analysis of Voice in Dysarthria following Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Tsai; Kent, Ray D.; Kent, Jane Finley; Duffy, Joseph R.; Thomas, Jack E.

    2009-01-01

    Although perceptual studies indicate the likelihood of voice disorders in persons with stroke, there have been few objective instrumental studies of voice dysfunction in dysarthria following stroke. This study reports automatic analysis of sustained vowel phonation for 61 speakers with stroke. The results show: (1) men with stroke and healthy…

  17. Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

    2012-10-23

    A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

  18. Amplituden der Kernphasen im Bereich der Kaustik B und Untersuchung der Struktur der Übergangszone zum inneren Erdkern mit spektralen Amplituden der diffraktierten Phase PKP(BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Michael D. C.

    2002-04-01

    Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, die Strukturen im äueren Erdkern zu untersuchen und Rückschlüsse auf die sich daraus ergebenden Konsequenzen für geodynamische Modellvorstellungen zu ziehen. Die Untersuchung der Kernphasenkaustik B mit Hilfe einer kumulierten Amplituden-Entfernungskurve ist Gegenstand des ersten Teils. Dazu werden die absoluten Amplituden der PKP-Phasen im Entfernungsbereich von 142 ° bis 147 ° bestimmt und mit den Amplituden synthetischer Seismogramme verglichen. Als Datenmaterial dienen die Breitbandregistrierungen des Deutschen Seismologischen Re-gionalnetzes (GRSN 1 ) und des Arrays Gräfenberg (GRF). Die verwendeten Wellen-formen werden im WWSSN-SP-Frequenzbereich gefiltert. Als Datenbasis dienen vier Tiefherdbeben der Subduktionszone der Neuen Hebriden (Vanuatu Island) und vier Nuklearexplosionen, die auf dem Mururoa und Fangataufa Atoll im Südpazifik stattgefunden haben. Beide Regionen befinden sich vom Regionalnetz aus gesehen in einer Epizentraldistanz von ungefähr 145 °. Die Verwendung eines homogen instrumentierten Netzes von Detektoren und die Anwendung von Stations- und Magnitudenkorrekturen verringern den Hauptteil der Streuung bei den Amplitudenwerten. Dies gilt auch im Vergleich zu Untersuchungen von langperiodischen Amplituden im Bereich der Kernphasenkaustik (Häge, 1981). Ein weiterer Grund für die geringe Streuung ist die ausschlieliche Verwendung von Ereignissen mit kurzer impulsiver Herdzeitfunktion. Erst die geringe Streuung der Amplitudenwerte ermöglicht eine Interpretation der Daten. Die theoretischen Amplitudenkurven der untersuchten Erdmodelle zeigen im Bereich der Kaustik B einen gleichartigen Kurvenverlauf. Bei allen Berechnungen wird ein einheitliches Modell für die Güte der P- und S-Wellen verwendet, das sich aus den Q-Werten der Modelle CIT112 und PREM 2 zusammensetzt. Die mit diesem Q-Modell berechneten Amplituden liegen in geringem Mae oberhalb der gemessenen Amplituden. Dies braucht nicht ber

  19. Nicolaus Copernicus Gesamtausgabe. Band VI/1. Documenta Copernicana: Briefe (Texte und Übersetzungen).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühne, A.

    Im Auftrage der Kommission für die Copernicus-Gesamtausgabe, herausgegeben von H. M. Nobis und M. Folkerts. Band VI/1 wurde bearbeitet von A. Kühne unter Mitarbeit von F. Boockmann und S. Kirschner und Verwendung der Vorarbeiten von H. M. Nobis.

  20. Strokes are possible complications of cannabinoids use.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Valérie; Jouanjus, Emilie

    2017-02-23

    It is critically important to identify all factors that may play a role in the recent increase of the incidence of stroke among the young population. Considering the worldwide use of cannabinoids (cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids), the recent legalization of their consumption in some countries, and their supposed involvement in cardiovascular events, we evaluated their role in the occurrence of neurovascular complications among the young. Ninety-eight patients were described in the literature as having a cannabinoids-related stroke (85 after cannabis use and 13 after synthetic cannabinoids). The distribution by type of stroke was as follows: 4 patients with an undetermined type of stroke, 85 with an ischemic stroke and/or a transient ischemic attack, and 9 with a hemorrhagic stroke. The mean age of patients was 32.3±11.8years (range 15-63), and the majority of them were male with a sex ratio of 3.7:1. Cannabis was often smoked with tobacco in 66% of cases. Most of the patients with cannabinoids-related strokes were chronic cannabis users in 81% of cases, and for 18% of them, there was a recent increase of the amount of cannabis consumption during the days before the occurrence of stroke. Even if the prognosis of stroke was globally favorable in 46% of cases, with no or few sequelae, 5 patients died after the neurovascular event. One striking element reported in the majority of the reports was a temporal relationship between cannabinoids use, whether natural or synthetic, and the occurrence of stroke. However, a temporal correlation does not mean causation, and other factors may be involved. Cannabis may be considered as a risk factor of stroke until research shows evidence of an underlying mechanism that, alone or in association with others, contributes to the development of stroke. As of today, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction triggered by cannabinoids use may be a convincing mechanism of stroke in 27% of cases. Indeed, despite the widespread use of

  1. Current status of endovascular stroke treatment.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Philip M; Schumacher, H Christian; Connolly, E Sander; Heyer, Eric J; Gray, William A; Higashida, Randall T

    2011-06-07

    The management of acute ischemic stroke is rapidly developing.Although acute ischemic stroke is a major cause of adult disability and death, the number of patients requiring emergency endovascular intervention remains unknown, but is a fraction of the overall stroke population. Public health initiatives endeavor to raise public awareness about acute stroke to improve triage for emergency treatment, and the medical community is working to develop stroke services at community and academic medical centers throughout the United States. There is an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education–approved pathway for training in endovascular surgical neuroradiology, the specialty designed to train physicians specifically to treat cerebrovascular diseases. Primary and comprehensive stroke center designations have been defined, yet questions remain about the best delivery model. Telemedicine is available to help community medical centers cope with the complexity of stroke triage and treatment. Should comprehensive care be provided at every community center, or should patients with complex medical needs be triaged to major stroke centers with high-level surgical,intensive care, and endovascular capabilities? Although the answers to these and other questions about stroke care delivery remain unanswered owing to the paucity of empirical data, we are convinced that stroke care regionalization is crucial for delivery of high-quality comprehensive ischemic stroke treatment. A stroke team available 24 hours per day, 7 days per week requires specialty skills in stroke neurology, endovascular surgical neuroradiology, neurosurgery, neurointensive care, anesthesiology, nursing, and technical support for optimal success. Several physician groups with divergent training backgrounds (i.e., interventional neuroradiology, neurosurgery,neurology, peripheral interventional radiology, and cardiology) lay claim to the treatment of stroke patients,particularly the endovascular or

  2. Signature spectrale des grains interstellaires.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léger, A.

    Notre connaissance de la nature des grains interstellaires reposait sur un nombre très restreint de signatures spectrales dans la courbe d'extinction du milieu interstellaire. Une information considérable est contenue dans les 40 bandes interstellaires diffuses dans le visible, mais reste inexploitée. L'interprétation récente des cinq bandes IR en émission, en terme de molécules d'hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques, est développée. Elle permet l'utilisation d'une information spectroscopique comparable, à elle seule, à ce sur quoi était basée jusqu'alors notre connaissance de la matière interstellaire condensée. Différentes implications de cette mise en évidence sont proposées.

  3. White matter injury in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Liu, Gang; Hong, Dandan; Chen, Fenghua; Ji, Xunming; Cao, Guodong

    2016-06-01

    Stroke is one of the major causes of disability and mortality worldwide. It is well known that ischemic stroke can cause gray matter injury. However, stroke also elicits profound white matter injury, a risk factor for higher stroke incidence and poor neurological outcomes. The majority of damage caused by stroke is located in subcortical regions and, remarkably, white matter occupies nearly half of the average infarct volume. Indeed, white matter is exquisitely vulnerable to ischemia and is often injured more severely than gray matter. Clinical symptoms related to white matter injury include cognitive dysfunction, emotional disorders, sensorimotor impairments, as well as urinary incontinence and pain, all of which are closely associated with destruction and remodeling of white matter connectivity. White matter injury can be noninvasively detected by MRI, which provides a three-dimensional assessment of its morphology, metabolism, and function. There is an urgent need for novel white matter therapies, as currently available strategies are limited to preclinical animal studies. Optimal protection against ischemic stroke will need to encompass the fortification of both gray and white matter. In this review, we discuss white matter injury after ischemic stroke, focusing on clinical features and tools, such as imaging, manifestation, and potential treatments. We also briefly discuss the pathophysiology of WMI and future research directions.

  4. Therapeutic benefits of nanoparticles in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotou, Stavros; Saha, Sikha

    2015-01-01

    Stroke represents one of the major causes of death and disability worldwide, for which no effective treatments are available. The thrombolytic drug alteplase (tissue plasminogen activator or tPA) is the only treatment for acute ischemic stroke but its use is limited by several factors including short therapeutic window, selective efficacy, and subsequent haemorrhagic complications. Numerous preclinical studies have reported very promising results using neuroprotective agents but they have failed at clinical trials because of either safety issues or lack of efficacy. The delivery of many potentially therapeutic neuroprotectants and diagnostic compounds to the brain is restricted by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Nanoparticles (NPs), which can readily cross the BBB without compromising its integrity, have immense applications in the treatment of ischemic stroke. In this review, potential uses of NPs will be summarized for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Additionally, an overview of targeted NPs will be provided, which could be used in the diagnosis of stroke. Finally, the potential limitations of using NPs in medical applications will be mentioned. Since the use of NPs in stroke therapy is now emerging and is still in development, this review is far from comprehensive or conclusive. Instead, examples of NPs and their current use will be provided, as well as the potentials of NPs in an effort to meet the high demand of new therapies in stroke. PMID:26041986

  5. Drugs to Enhance Motor Recovery After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Among the therapeutic strategies under study to improve long-term outcome after stroke are drugs targeting events that underlie recovery. Drugs that enhance recovery are separate from those that promote neuroprotection or reperfusion in patients with stroke. Recovery-based drugs have distinct therapeutic targets that are related to plasticity and growth following stroke, and in general, improvements in behavioral outcome are not accompanied by a reduction in infarct volume. Interventions targeting recovery have a time window measured in days or sometimes weeks-months, suggesting potential utility for a large percentage of patients with stroke. Currently, among drugs that enhance motor recovery after stroke in humans, the strongest evidence exists for serotonergic and dopaminergic agents. Restorative therapies generally target the brain directly, in contrast to approved stroke therapeutics that target arteries, clots, platelets, glucose, or cholesterol. Targeting the brain has wide-ranging implications, for example, in relation to drug delivery. In addition, because restorative drugs aim to change brain structure and function, their effects are influenced by concomitant behavioral experience, a finding that informs selection of entry criteria, outcome measures, and biomarkers in a clinical trial setting. These points underscore the importance of a neural systems approach in studying stroke recovery. PMID:26265126

  6. Prevention of stroke: a strategic global imperative.

    PubMed

    Feigin, Valery L; Norrving, Bo; George, Mary G; Foltz, Jennifer L; Roth, Gregory A; Mensah, George A

    2016-09-01

    The increasing global stroke burden strongly suggests that currently implemented primary stroke prevention strategies are not sufficiently effective, and new primary prevention strategies with larger effect sizes are needed. Here, we review the latest stroke epidemiology literature, with an emphasis on the recently published Global Burden of Disease 2013 Study estimates; highlight the problems with current primary stroke and cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention strategies; and outline new developments in primary stroke and CVD prevention. We also suggest key priorities for the future, including comprehensive prevention strategies that target people at all levels of CVD risk; implementation of an integrated approach to promote healthy behaviours and reduce health disparities; capitalizing on information technology to advance prevention approaches and techniques; and incorporation of culturally appropriate education about healthy lifestyles into standard education curricula early in life. Given the already immense and fast-increasing burden of stroke and other major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), which threatens worldwide sustainability, governments of all countries should develop and implement an emergency action plan addressing the primary prevention of NCDs, possibly including taxation strategies to tackle unhealthy behaviours that increase the risk of stroke and other NCDs.

  7. Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... pubmed/26123479 . Read More Arrhythmias Aspiration Blood clots Brain aneurysm repair Carotid artery disease Carotid artery surgery Concussion ... discharge Being active when you have heart disease Brain aneurysm repair - discharge Butter, margarine, and cooking oils Caring ...

  8. Stroke

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... body and lodges within an artery in the brain. When an internal arterial wall becomes damaged, various ... internal carotid artery, breaks loose, travels towards the brain and lodges in a cerebral artery. The blocked ...

  9. Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... 400;font-style:normal;font-size:14px;}h1,.impact-text,.impact-text-large{font-family:"Source Sans Pro";line- ... information applies to you and to get more information on this subject. ... head scan uses special X-ray technology to give your doctor a close-up view ...

  10. Stroke risk stratification in acute dizziness presentations

    PubMed Central

    Meurer, William J.; Brown, Devin L.; Burke, James F.; Hofer, Timothy P.; Tsodikov, Alexander; Hoeffner, Ellen G.; Fendrick, A.M.; Adelman, Eric E.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the ability of bedside information to risk stratify stroke in acute dizziness presentations. Methods: Surveillance methods were used to identify patients with acute dizziness and nystagmus or imbalance, excluding those with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, medical causes, or moderate to severe neurologic deficits. Stroke was defined as acute infarction or intracerebral hemorrhage on a clinical or research MRI performed within 14 days of dizziness onset. Bedside information comprised history of stroke, the ABCD2 score (age, blood pressure, clinical features, duration, and diabetes), an ocular motor (OM)-based assessment (head impulse test, nystagmus pattern [central vs other], test of skew), and a general neurologic examination for other CNS features. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association of the bedside information with stroke. Model calibration was assessed using low (<5%), intermediate (5% to <10%), and high (≥10%) predicted probability risk categories. Results: Acute stroke was identified in 29 of 272 patients (10.7%). Associations with stroke were as follows: ABCD2 score (continuous) (odds ratio [OR] 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–2.51), any other CNS features (OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.06–6.08), OM assessment (OR 2.82; 95% CI 0.96–8.30), and prior stroke (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.05–4.57). No stroke cases were in the model's low-risk probability category (0/86, 0%), whereas 9 were in the moderate-risk category (9/94, 9.6%) and 20 were in the high-risk category (20/92, 21.7%). Conclusion: In acute dizziness presentations, the combination of ABCD2 score, general neurologic examination, and a specialized OM examination has the capacity to risk-stratify acute stroke on MRI. PMID:26511453

  11. Stroke: the increasing complexity of carer needs.

    PubMed

    Ski, Chantal; O'Connell, Bev

    2007-06-01

    In Australia, more than 346,000 individuals who experience a stroke return to living in their homes with varying degrees of disability. They rely on emotional and physical support from informal carers, typically family members. Informal carers have an indispensable role in patient care poststroke, and the ability of carers to manage this role effectively is crucial for stroke survivors to be able to return home. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of the caring role on carers of stroke survivors, particularly the services provided and the levels of depression and well-being experienced. The study used a longitudinal design incorporating survey methods. Stroke survivors were assessed for functional ability, quality of life, and depression using three assessment tools: the Stroke Impact Scale, World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF scale, and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. A total of 26 people were surveyed: 13 stroke survivors and their 13 carers. Carer knowledge of stroke support services was also explored. Information was collected by using survey methods and structured interviews at 3 weeks and at 3 months postdischarge. The main finding was that depression scores for carers and stroke survivors were below Australian norms at both assessment time points. The major concern identified by carers was poor follow-up procedures for initiating rehabilitation in the home. This study highlighted that a lack of appropriate discharge planning, in conjunction with early discharge of stroke survivors, can have an impact on the rehabilitation process and place increased and unrealistic demands on carers.

  12. Robot-assisted Therapy in Stroke Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Won Hyuk; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2013-09-01

    Research into rehabilitation robotics has grown rapidly and the number of therapeutic rehabilitation robots has expanded dramatically during the last two decades. Robotic rehabilitation therapy can deliver high-dosage and high-intensity training, making it useful for patients with motor disorders caused by stroke or spinal cord disease. Robotic devices used for motor rehabilitation include end-effector and exoskeleton types; herein, we review the clinical use of both types. One application of robot-assisted therapy is improvement of gait function in patients with stroke. Both end-effector and the exoskeleton devices have proven to be effective complements to conventional physiotherapy in patients with subacute stroke, but there is no clear evidence that robotic gait training is superior to conventional physiotherapy in patients with chronic stroke or when delivered alone. In another application, upper limb motor function training in patients recovering from stroke, robot-assisted therapy was comparable or superior to conventional therapy in patients with subacute stroke. With end-effector devices, the intensity of therapy was the most important determinant of upper limb motor recovery. However, there is insufficient evidence for the use of exoskeleton devices for upper limb motor function in patients with stroke. For rehabilitation of hand motor function, either end-effector and exoskeleton devices showed similar or additive effects relative to conventional therapy in patients with chronic stroke. The present evidence supports the use of robot-assisted therapy for improving motor function in stroke patients as an additional therapeutic intervention in combination with the conventional rehabilitation therapies. Nevertheless, there will be substantial opportunities for technical development in near future.

  13. Fast Food and Neighborhood Stroke Risk

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Escobar, James D.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Hughes, Rebecca; Zuniga, Belinda G.; Garcia, Nelda; Lisabeth, Lynda D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between the number of fast food restaurants and ischemic stroke in neighborhoods. Methods This work was a pre-specified part of the Brain Attack in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project. Ischemic stroke cases were prospectively ascertained in Nueces County, Texas. Home addresses were geocoded and used to establish the census tract for each stroke case. Census tracts were used as proxies for neighborhoods (n=64). Using a standard definition, fast food restaurants were identified from a commercial list. Poisson regression was used to study the association between the number of fast food restaurants in the neighborhood, using a 1-mile buffer around each census tract, and the risk of stroke in the neighborhood. Models were adjusted for demographics and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). Results There were 1,247 completed ischemic strokes from January 2000 through June 2003 and 262 fast food restaurants. The median number of fast food restaurants per census tract including buffer was 22 (IQR 12–33). Adjusting for neighborhood demographics and SES, the association of fast food restaurants with stroke was significant (p=0.02). The association suggested that the risk of stroke in a neighborhood increased by 1% for every fast food restaurant (RR 1.01 95% CI: 1.00–1.01). The relative risk of stroke comparing neighborhoods in the 75th to the 25th percentile of the distribution of fast food restaurants was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.02–1.25). Interpretation Controlling for demographic and SES factors, there was a significant association between fast food restaurants and stroke risk in neighborhoods in this community-based study. PMID:19743456

  14. Management of depression in elderly stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Lökk, Johan; Delbari, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Poststroke depression (PSD) in elderly patients has been considered the most common neuropsychiatric consequence of stroke up to 6–24 months after stroke onset. When depression appears within days after stroke onset, it is likely to remit, whereas depression at 3 months is likely to be sustained for 1 year. One of the major problems posed by elderly stroke patients is how to identify and optimally manage PSD. This review provides insight to identification and management of depression in elderly stroke patients. Depression following stroke is less likely to include dysphoria and more likely characterized by vegetative signs and symptoms compared with other forms of late-life depression, and clinicians should rely more on nonsomatic symptoms rather than somatic symptoms. Evaluation and diagnosis of depression among elderly stroke patients are more complex due to vague symptoms of depression, overlapping signs and symptoms of stroke and depression, lack of properly trained health care personnel, and insufficient assessment tools for proper diagnosis. Major goals of treatment are to reduce depressive symptoms, improve mood and quality of life, and reduce the risk of medical complications including relapse. Antidepressants (ADs) are generally not indicated in mild forms because the balance of benefit and risk is not satisfactory in elderly stroke patients. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first choice of PSD treatment in elderly patients due to their lower potential for drug interaction and side effects, which are more common with tricyclic ADs. Recently, stimulant medications have emerged as promising new therapeutic interventions for PSD and are now the subject of rigorous clinical trials. Cognitive behavioral therapy can also be useful, and electroconvulsive therapy is available for patients with severe refractory PSD. PMID:20856917

  15. The real stroke burden in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Jose C; Baroque, Alejandro C; Lokin, Johnny K; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy

    2014-07-01

    Stroke is the Philippines' second leading cause of death. It has a prevalence of 0·9%; ischemic stroke comprises 70% while hemorrhagic stroke comprises 30%. Age-adjusted hypertension prevalence is 20·6%, diabetes 6·0%, dyslipidemia 72·0%, smoking 31%, and obesity 4·9%. The neurologist-to-patient ratio is 1:330·000, with 67% of neurologists practicing in urban centers. Health care is largely private and the cost is borne out-of-pocket by patients and their families. Challenges include delivering adequate support to the rural communities and to the underprivileged sectors.

  16. Stem Cells for Neurovascular Repair in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Dailey, Travis; Tajiri, Naoki; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kim, Dae Won; Pabon, Mibel; Acosta, Sandra; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells exert therapeutic effects against ischemic stroke via transplantation of exogenous stem cells or stimulation of endogenous stem cells within the neurogenic niches of subventricular zone and subgranular zone, or recruited from the bone marrow through peripheral circulation. In this paper, we review the different sources of stem cells that have been tested in animal models of stroke. In addition, we discuss specific mechanisms of action, in particular neurovascular repair by endothelial progenitor cells, as key translational research for advancing the clinical applications of stem cells for ischemic stroke. PMID:24077523

  17. Imaging Approaches to Stroke and Neurovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Dehkharghani, Seena; Andre, Jalal

    2017-01-28

    Imaging is paramount to the diagnosis and management of ischemic stroke, offering a battery of structural and functional probes of cerebrovascular physiology. The technical underpinnings of stroke imaging continue to evolve, bringing the neuroscience community increasingly closer to high-resolution, tissue-level biomarkers of brain perfusion, metabolism, and viability. The rapid expansion of neuroimaging in this domain has met with controversies, and in many respects, a lack of generalizable conclusions regarding optimized use in cerebrovascular disease. This review aims to provide the reader with the depth and scope of both established and emerging techniques, and an overview of prevailing viewpoints regarding neuroimaging in acute ischemic stroke.

  18. Determining Polarities Of Distant Lightning Strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Brook, Marx

    1990-01-01

    Method for determining polarities of lightning strokes more than 400 km away. Two features of signal from each stroke correlated. New method based on fact each stroke observed thus far for which polarity determined unambiguously, initial polarity of tail same as polarity of initial deflection before initial-deflection signal altered by propagation effects. Receiving station equipped with electric-field-change antenna coupled to charge amplifier having time constant of order of 1 to 10 seconds. Output of amplifier fed to signal-processing circuitry, which determines initial polarity of tail.

  19. Airborne pollutants and lacunar stroke: a case cross-over analysis on stroke unit admissions.

    PubMed

    Corea, Francesco; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Baccarelli, Andrea; Giua, Alessandra; Previdi, Paolo; Siliprandi, Giorgio; Murgia, Nicola

    2012-06-14

    Particulate air pollution is known to be associated with cardiovascular disease. The relation of particulate air pollution with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) has not been extensively studied, particularly in relation to different subtypes of stroke. A time-series study was conducted to evaluate the association between daily air pollution and acute stroke unit hospitalizations in Mantua, Italy. We analyzed 781 CVD consecutive patients living in Mantua county admitted between 2006-08. Data on stroke types, demographic variables, risk factors were available from the Lombardia Stroke Registry. Daily mean value of particulate matter with a diameter <10 µm (PM(10)), carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, benzene and ozone were used in the analysis. The association between CVD, ischemic strokes subtypes and pollutants was investigated with a case-crossover design, using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusting for temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and holidays. Among the 781 subjects admitted 75.7% had ischemic stroke, 11.7% haemorrhagic stroke 12.6% transient ischemic attack. In men admission for stroke was associated with PM(10) [odds ratio (OR) 1.01, 95%; confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.02; P<0.05]. According to the clinical classification, lacunar anterior circulation syndrome stroke type was related to PM(10) level registered on the day of admission for both genders (OR: 1.01, 95%; CI: 1.00-1.02; P<0.05) while for total anterior circulation syndrome stroke only in men (OR: 1.04, 95%; CI 1.01-1.07; P<0.05).In conclusion, our study confirms that air pollution peaks may contribute to increase the risk of hospitalization for stroke and particulate matter seems to be a significant risk factor, especially for lacunar stroke.

  20. Phenotyping Stroke in sub-Saharan Africa: Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) Phenomics Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Akpalu, Albert; Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Akinyemi, Rufus; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Obiako, Reginald; Owolabi, Lukman; Sagoe, Kwamena; Jenkins, Carolyn; Arulogun, Oyedunni; Adamu, Sheila; Appiah, Lambert T.; Adadey, Martin A.; Agyekum, Francis; Quansah, Joseph A.; Mensah, Yaw B.; Adeoye, Abiodun M.; Singh, Arti; Tosin, Aridegbe O.; Ohifemen, Osimhiarherhuo; Sani, Abubakar A.; Tabi-Ajayi, Eric; Phillip, Ibinaiye O.; Isah, Suleiman Y.; Tabari, Nasir A.; Mande, Aliyu; Agunloye, Atinuke M.; Ogbole, Godwin I.; Akinyemi, Joshua O.; Akpa, Onoja M.; Laryea, Ruth; Melikam, Sylvia Ezinne; Adinku, Dorcas; Uvere, Ezinne; Burkett, Nina-Serena; Adekunle, Gregory F.; Kehinde, Salaam I.; Azuh, Paschal C.; Dambatta, Abdu H.; Ishaq, Naser A.; Arnett, Donna; Tiwari, Hemant; Lackland, Dan; Owolabi, Mayowa

    2015-01-01

    Background As the second leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult-onset disability, stroke is a major public health concern particularly pertinent in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where nearly 80% of all global stroke mortalities occur, and stroke burden is projected to increase in the coming decades. However, the traditional and emerging risk factors for stroke in SSA have not been well characterized thus limiting efforts at curbing its devastating toll. The Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) project is aimed at comprehensively evaluating the key environmental and genomic risk factors for stroke (and its subtypes) in SSA while simultaneously building capacities in phenomics, biobanking, genomics, biostatistics and bioinformatics for brain research. Methods SIREN is a transnational, multicentre, hospital and community-based study involving 3000 cases and 3000 controls recruited from 8 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Cases will be hospital-based patients with first stroke within 10 days of onset in whom neurovascular imaging will be performed. Etiological and topographical stroke subtypes will be documented for all cases. Controls will be hospital- and community-based participants, matched for gender, ethnicity and age (± 5 years) to cases. Information will be collected on known and proposed emerging risk factors for stroke. Study Significance SIREN is the largest study of stroke in Africa to date. It is anticipated that it will shed light on the phenotypic characteristics and risk factors of stroke and ultimately provide evidence base for strategic interventions to curtail the burgeoning burden of stroke on the sub-continent. PMID:26304844

  1. Short telomere length in blood leucocytes contributes to the presence of atherothrombotic stroke and haemorrhagic stroke and risk of post-stroke death.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weili; Chen, Yu; Wang, Yuyao; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Channa; Hu, Frank B; Hui, Rutai

    2013-03-13

    Inter-individual differences in biological aging could affect susceptibility to stroke. To date, the relationship between stroke and telomere shortening remain inconclusive; and sparse data are available for haemorrhagic stroke. A Chinese case-control study was conducted, comprising 1756 cases (767 atherothrombosis, 503 lacunar infarction and 486 haemorrhagic strokes) and 1801 controls. Stroke patients were prospectively followed up for a median of 4.5 (range, 0.1-6.0) years. Individuals with shorter telomere length had a higher presence of atherothrombotic stroke {multivariate OR (odds ratio) 1.37 [95% CI (confidence interval), 1.06-1.77]; P=0.015} or haemorrhagic stroke [multivariate OR 1.48 (95% CI, 1.08-2.02); P=0.016] in comparison of the lowest to highest tertile of telomere length. Particularly, in subjects with a family history of stroke, there was a significant 2.55-fold increased presence of atherothrombotic stroke (95% CI, 1.87-3.48; Ptrend<0.0001) and a 2.33-fold increased presence of haemorrhagic stroke (95% CI, 1.62-3.36; Ptrend<0.0001). During the follow-up, 338 recurrent strokes and 312 deaths (181 from stroke or coronary heart disease and 131 from other causes) were documented. Associations with stroke recurrence were not observed in the follow-up patients, whereas atherothrombotic stroke cases with shorter telomeres had 69% increased risk of post-stroke death [relative risk, 1.69 (95% CI, 1.07-2.67); P=0.02]. Finally, we compared telomere lengths in 12 paired samples of circulating leucocytes and carotid atherosclerotic plaques from patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy; there was a positive correlation between vessel wall tissue and leucocyte telomere length. In conclusion, shorter telomere length may serve as a potential marker for the presence of atherothrombotic and haemorrhagic stroke and for the risk of post-stroke death.

  2. The Stroke Riskometer™ App: Validation of a data collection tool and stroke risk predictor

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Priya; Krishnamurthi, Rita; Ikram, M Arfan; Hofman, Albert; Mirza, Saira S; Varakin, Yury; Kravchenko, Michael; Piradov, Michael; Thrift, Amanda G; Norrving, Bo; Wang, Wenzhi; Mandal, Dipes Kumar; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Davis, Stephen; Saposnik, Gustavo; Kivipelto, Miia; Sindi, Shireen; Bornstein, Natan M; Giroud, Maurice; Béjot, Yannick; Brainin, Michael; Poulton, Richie; Narayan, K M Venkat; Correia, Manuel; Freire, António; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Wiebers, David; Mensah, George; BinDhim, Nasser F; Barber, P Alan; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Hankey, Graeme J; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Azhagammal, Shobhana; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohd; Abbott, Max; Rush, Elaine; Hume, Patria; Hussein, Tasleem; Bhattacharjee, Rohit; Purohit, Mitali; Feigin, Valery L

    2015-01-01

    Background The greatest potential to reduce the burden of stroke is by primary prevention of first-ever stroke, which constitutes three quarters of all stroke. In addition to population-wide prevention strategies (the ‘mass’ approach), the ‘high risk’ approach aims to identify individuals at risk of stroke and to modify their risk factors, and risk, accordingly. Current methods of assessing and modifying stroke risk are difficult to access and implement by the general population, amongst whom most future strokes will arise. To help reduce the burden of stroke on individuals and the population a new app, the Stroke Riskometer™, has been developed. We aim to explore the validity of the app for predicting the risk of stroke compared with current best methods. Methods 752 stroke outcomes from a sample of 9501 individuals across three countries (New Zealand, Russia and the Netherlands) were utilized to investigate the performance of a novel stroke risk prediction tool algorithm (Stroke Riskometer™) compared with two established stroke risk score prediction algorithms (Framingham Stroke Risk Score [FSRS] and QStroke). We calculated the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and area under the ROC curve (AUROC) with 95% confidence intervals, Harrels C-statistic and D-statistics for measure of discrimination, R2 statistics to indicate level of variability accounted for by each prediction algorithm, the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic for calibration, and the sensitivity and specificity of each algorithm. Results The Stroke Riskometer™ performed well against the FSRS five-year AUROC for both males (FSRS = 75·0% (95% CI 72·3%–77·6%), Stroke Riskometer™ = 74·0(95% CI 71·3%–76·7%) and females [FSRS = 70·3% (95% CI 67·9%–72·8%, Stroke Riskometer™ = 71·5% (95% CI 69·0%–73·9%)], and better than QStroke [males – 59·7% (95% CI 57·3%–62·0%) and comparable to females = 71·1% (95% CI 69·0%–73·1%)]. Discriminative

  3. Transport quantique dans des nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, C.

    2002-09-01

    structure des oscillations de conductance en fonction du flux du champ magnétique de période h/e dont l'amplitude est beaucoup plus importante que celle mesurée sur un réseau carré de même dimension. Cette différence constitue une signature d'un effet de localisation induit par le champ magnétique sur la topologie mathcal{T}3. Pour des valeurs spécifiques du champ magnétique, du fait des interférences destructives Aharonov-Bohm, la propagation des fonctions d'ondes est limitée à un ensemble fini de cellule du réseau appelé cage. De la dépendance en température des oscillations de période h/e mesurées sur le réseau mathcal{T}3 nous avons tiré une longueur caractéristique qui peut être rattachée au périmètre des cages. Un phénomène inattendu fut l'observation, pour des champs magnétiques plus importants, d'un doublement de fréquence des oscillations. Ces oscillations de période h/2e pouvant avoir une amplitude supérieure aux oscillations de période h/e, une interprétation en terme d'harmonique n'est pas possible. Enfin, l'influence de la largeur électrique des fils constituant le réseau et donc celle du nombre de canaux par brin a été étudiée en réalisant des grilles électrostatique. Les variations de l'amplitude des signaux en h/e et h/2e en fonction de la tension de grille ont été mesurés.

  4. tDCS and Robotics on Upper Limb Stroke Rehabilitation: Effect Modification by Stroke Duration and Type of Stroke.

    PubMed

    Straudi, Sofia; Fregni, Felipe; Martinuzzi, Carlotta; Pavarelli, Claudia; Salvioli, Stefano; Basaglia, Nino

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this exploratory pilot study is to test the effects of bilateral tDCS combined with upper extremity robot-assisted therapy (RAT) on stroke survivors. Methods. We enrolled 23 subjects who were allocated to 2 groups: RAT + real tDCS and RAT + sham-tDCS. Each patient underwent 10 sessions (5 sessions/week) over two weeks. Outcome measures were collected before and after treatment: (i) Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity (FMA-UE), (ii) Box and Block Test (BBT), and (iii) Motor Activity Log (MAL). Results. Both groups reported a significant improvement in FMA-UE score after treatment (p < 0.01). No significant between-groups differences were found in motor function. However, when the analysis was adjusted for stroke type and duration, a significant interaction effect (p < 0.05) was detected, showing that stroke duration (acute versus chronic) and type (cortical versus subcortical) modify the effect of tDCS and robotics on motor function. Patients with chronic and subcortical stroke benefited more from the treatments than patients with acute and cortical stroke, who presented very small changes. Conclusion. The additional use of bilateral tDCS to RAT seems to have a significant beneficial effect depending on the duration and type of stroke. These results should be verified by additional confirmatory studies.

  5. Impact de la preparation des anodes crues et des conditions de cuisson sur la fissuration dans des anodes denses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrani, Salah

    La fabrication de l'aluminium est realisee dans une cellule d'electrolyse, et cette operation utilise des anodes en carbone. L'evaluation de la qualite de ces anodes reste indispensable avant leur utilisation. La presence des fissures dans les anodes provoque une perturbation du procede l'electrolyse et une diminution de sa performance. Ce projet a ete entrepris pour determiner l'impact des differents parametres de procedes de fabrication des anodes sur la fissuration des anodes denses. Ces parametres incluent ceux de la fabrication des anodes crues, des proprietes des matieres premieres et de la cuisson. Une recherche bibliographique a ete effectuee sur tous les aspects de la fissuration des anodes en carbone pour compiler les travaux anterieurs. Une methodologie detaillee a ete mise au point pour faciliter le deroulement des travaux et atteindre les objectifs vises. La majorite de ce document est reservee pour la discussion des resultats obtenus au laboratoire de l'UQAC et au niveau industriel. Concernant les etudes realisees a l'UQAC, une partie des travaux experimentaux est reservee a la recherche des differents mecanismes de fissuration dans les anodes denses utilisees dans l'industrie d'aluminium. L'approche etait d'abord basee sur la caracterisation qualitative du mecanisme de la fissuration en surface et en profondeur. Puis, une caracterisation quantitative a ete realisee pour la determination de la distribution de la largeur de la fissure sur toute sa longueur, ainsi que le pourcentage de sa surface par rapport a la surface totale de l'echantillon. Cette etude a ete realisee par le biais de la technique d'analyse d'image utilisee pour caracteriser la fissuration d'un echantillon d'anode cuite. L'analyse surfacique et en profondeur de cet echantillon a permis de voir clairement la formation des fissures sur une grande partie de la surface analysee. L'autre partie des travaux est basee sur la caracterisation des defauts dans des echantillons d'anodes crues

  6. Electromagnetic induction holography imaging for stroke detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lulu

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the application of the electromagnetic induction holography (EMIH) approach to imaging the electromagnetic activity of the brain, with a particular focus on stroke detection. An integral equation formulation is presented to describe the scattered magnetic field from the distribution of optically small dielectric and magnetic objects of arbitrary shapes adsorbed onto a planar electromagnetic substrate. A numerical computer model was developed in a MATLAB environment to validate the theory. Several realistic human head models were developed to investigate the detectability of strokes with the multi-channel EMIH system. Small strokes can be clearly identified with the correct location and size in the reconstructed head images. The simulation results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting and imaging small strokes using the approach.

  7. Retinal fractals and acute lacunar stroke.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ning; Liew, Gerald; Lindley, Richard I; Liu, Erica Y; Wang, Jie Jin; Hand, Peter; Baker, Michelle; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Y

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to determine whether retinal fractal dimension, a quantitative measure of microvascular branching complexity and density, is associated with lacunar stroke. A total of 392 patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke had retinal fractal dimension measured from digital photographs, and lacunar infarct ascertained from brain imaging. After adjusting for age, gender, and vascular risk factors, higher retinal fractal dimension (highest vs lowest quartile and per standard deviation increase) was independently and positively associated with lacunar stroke (odds ratio [OR], 4.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-12.17 and OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.20-2.84, respectively). Increased retinal microvascular complexity and density is associated with lacunar stroke.

  8. Flu and Heart Disease and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Toolkits Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Flu and Heart Disease & Stroke Language: English Español ...

  9. New approaches to bedside monitoring in stroke.

    PubMed

    Cyrous, Alma; O'Neal, Brandon; Freeman, W David

    2012-08-01

    Stroke is a common, potentially devastating disease with potential high morbidity and mortality. Recognition at the onset of acute ischemic stroke is pivotal to changing outcomes such as intravenous thrombolysis. Stroke monitoring is a burgeoning field with various methods described and newer devices that aid in detecting acute or worsening ischemia that can lead to improved bedside and intensive care unit management. This article describes various methods of bedside stroke monitoring including newer techniques of intracranial pressure monitoring using the pressure reactivity index and compensatory reserve index to detect changes in autoregulatory states, noninvasive intracranial pressure monitoring, quantitative EEG with alpha-delta ratio, transcranial Doppler, methods of arteriovenous brain oxygen monitoring such as jugular venous oxygen and near-infrared spectroscopy, invasive brain oxygen probes such as Licox™ (brain tissue O₂), cerebral blood flow probe (CBF Hemedex™) and cerebral microdialysis.

  10. Aspirin resistant patients with recent ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Guerra, L; Navas-Alcántara, M S; Fernández-Moreno, M C

    2014-04-01

    Some patients with a recent ischemic stroke who are being treated with aspirin as an antiaggregant suffer a new ischemic stroke. These patients (15-25%) have been called unresponsive to aspirin or aspirin resistant. The aspirin-resistant patients have a four-time greater risk of suffering a stroke. Furthermore, these strokes are generally more severe, with increased infarct volume and greater risk of recurrence. There is currently no ideal laboratory test to detect the resistance to the antiaggregant effect of aspirin. The study of resistance to aspirin would only be indicated in selected cases. In these patients, one should first rule out any "pseudo-resistance" to aspirin (lack of compliance, concomitant treatments that interfere with the action of the aspirin).

  11. Cell-based therapy in ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Cell-based therapy for stroke represents a third wave of therapeutics for stroke and one focused on restorative processes with a longer time window of opportunity than neuroprotective therapies. An early time window, within the first week after stroke, is an opportunity for intravenously delivered bone-marrow and perinatally-derived cells that can home to areas of tissue injury and target brain remodeling. Allogeneic cells will likely be the most scalable and commercially viable product. Later time windows, months after stroke, may be opportunities for intracerebral transplantation of neuronally-differentiated cell types. An integrated approach of cell-based therapy with early phase clinical trials and continued pre-clinical work with focus on mechanisms of action is needed. PMID:18671663

  12. Management of blood pressure in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, John A; Dawson, Jesse; Quinn, Terence J

    2013-08-01

    The importance of elevated or low arterial blood pressure (BP) early after stroke, and the need for pharmacological intervention to control BP, remains controversial. Debate surrounds if, when and how to intervene. This debate is informed by conflicting results from observational data and underpowered clinical trials and substantive outcome data are lacking. Accordingly, management decisions have largely been left up to the individual treating physician and guidelines are based on 'good practice' and theory rather than level 1, grade A evidence. Substantial progress has been made in recent years, particularly in the field of hemorrhagic stroke, where recently presented and soon to completed large-scale trials may finally give us a firm evidence base. For ischemic stroke, many important studies have informed our understanding of the basic pathophysiology, epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of BP management in acute stroke and, although not yet constituting a solid 'evidence base', are helping us from the 'cognitive quick-sand' of small studies and personal experiences.

  13. Let's Talk about Stroke and Aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... the effects of aphasia? Aphasia does not affect intelligence. Stroke survivors remain mentally alert, even though their ... sender plissen.” Thousands of alert, intelligent men and women are suddenly plunged into a world of jumbled ...

  14. Dysphagia in Stroke: A New Solution

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, Claire; Blacker, David

    2010-01-01

    Dysphagia is extremely common following stroke, affecting 13%–94% of acute stroke sufferers. It is associated with respiratory complications, increased risk of aspiration pneumonia, nutritional compromise and dehydration, and detracts from quality of life. While many stroke survivors experience a rapid return to normal swallowing function, this does not always happen. Current dysphagia treatment in Australia focuses upon prevention of aspiration via diet and fluid modifications, compensatory manoeuvres and positional changes, and exercises to rehabilitate paretic muscles. This article discusses a newer adjunctive treatment modality, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), and reviews the available literature on its efficacy as a therapy for dysphagia with particular emphasis on its use as a treatment for dysphagia in stroke. There is a good theoretical basis to support the use of NMES as an adjunctive therapy in dysphagia and there would appear to be a great need for further well-designed studies to accurately determine the safety and efficacy of this technique. PMID:20721336

  15. Intensive risk factor control in stroke prevention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Stroke prevention is an urgent priority because of the aging of the population and the steep association of age and risk of stroke. Direct costs of stroke are expected to more than double in the US between 2012 and 2030. By getting everything right, patients can reduce the risk of stroke by 80% or more; however, getting everything right is a tall order. Roughly in order of importance, this requires smoking cessation, maintenance of a healthy weight, a Cretan Mediterranean diet, blood pressure control, lipid-lowering drugs, appropriate use of antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants, and appropriate carotid endarterectomy and stenting. A new approach called “treating arteries instead of targeting risk factors” appears promising but requires validation in randomized trials. PMID:24167723

  16. Guide to Choosing Stroke Rehabilitation Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the following: Physiatrist Specializes in rehabilitation following injuries, accidents or illness Neurologist Specializes in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of stroke and other diseases of the brain and spinal cord Rehabilitation Specializes in helping people ...

  17. Emerging Treatments for Motor Rehabilitation After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Chandramouli; Khot, Sandeep P.

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous treatments are available to improve cerebral perfusion after acute stroke and prevent recurrent stroke, few rehabilitation treatments have been conclusively shown to improve neurologic recovery. The majority of stroke survivors with motor impairment do not recover to their functional baseline, and there remains a need for novel neurorehabilitation treatments to minimize long-term disability, maximize quality of life, and optimize psychosocial outcomes. In recent years, several novel therapies have emerged to restore motor function after stroke, and additional investigational treatments have also shown promise. Here, we familiarize the neurohospitalist with emerging treatments for poststroke motor rehabilitation. The rehabilitation treatments covered in this review will include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications, constraint-induced movement therapy, noninvasive brain stimulation, mirror therapy, and motor imagery or mental practice. PMID:25829989

  18. Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes complications - heart; Coronary artery disease - diabetes; CAD - diabetes; Cerebrovascular disease - diabetes ... People with diabetes have a higher chance of having heart attacks and strokes. Smoking and having high blood pressure and high ...

  19. Vascular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of stroke.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Cristina; Coca, Antonio; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2011-06-01

    Stroke is one of the most devastating manifestations of two common diseases, atherosclerosis and hypertension. It represents the second leading cause of death and a major cause of disability worldwide. Besides age (a nonmodifiable risk factor), hypertension is the most important cardiovascular risk factor for developing both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, as well as small vessel disease predisposing to lacunar infarction, white matter lesions, and cerebral microbleeds. In addition, hypertension predisposes to atherosclerosis and cardiac diseases (notably atrial fibrillation), thereby promoting cerebral embolism. Inflammatory mechanisms play a central role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis, plaque rupture, thrombosis, and stroke. Endothelial dysfunction, in part resulting from excessive production of reactive oxygen species, is an important mechanism of cerebrovascular damage. This article reviews recent data on vascular mechanisms that participate in the pathogenesis of stroke.

  20. Malnutrition in Patients with Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bouziana, Stella D.; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is a devastating event that carries a potential for long-term disability. Malnutrition is frequently observed in patients with stroke, and dysphagia contributes to malnutrition risk. During both the acute phase of stroke and rehabilitation, specific nutritional interventions in the context of a multidisciplinary team effort can enhance the recovery of neurocognitive function. Early identification and management of malnutrition with dietary modifications or specific therapeutic strategies to ensure adequate nutritional intake should receive more attention, since poor nutritional status appears to exacerbate brain damage and to contribute to adverse outcome. The main purpose of nutritional intervention should be the prevention or treatment of complications resulting from energy-protein deficit. This paper reviews the evaluation and management of malnutrition and the use of specialized nutrition support in patients with stroke. Emphasis is given to enteral tube and oral feeding and to strategies to wean from tube feeding. PMID:22254136

  1. Study Links Psychiatric Disorders to Stroke Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... psychiatric illness, depression or post-stroke psychosis," said study lead author Jonah Zuflacht. He's a fourth-year medical student at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City. " ...

  2. Variables That Best Differentiate In-Patient Acute Stroke from Stroke-Mimics with Acute Neurological Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Natteru, P.; Mohebbi, M. R.; George, P.; Wisco, D.; Gebel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Strokes and stroke-mimics have been extensively studied in the emergency department setting. Although in-hospital strokes are less studied in comparison to strokes in the emergency department, they are a source of significant direct and indirect costs. Differentiating in-hospital strokes from stroke-mimics is important. Thus, our study aimed to identify variables that can differentiate in-hospital strokes from stroke-mimics. Methods. We present here a retrospective analysis of 93 patients over a one-year period (2009 to 2010), who were evaluated for a concern of in-hospital strokes. Results. About two-thirds (57) of these patients were determined to have a stroke, and the remaining (36) were stroke-mimics. Patients with in-hospital strokes were more likely to be obese (p = 0.03), have been admitted to the cardiology service (p = 0.01), have atrial fibrillation (p = 0.03), have a weak hand or hemiparesis (p = 0.03), and have a prior history of stroke (p = 0.05), whereas, when the consults were called for “altered mental status” but no other deficits (p < 0.0001), it is likely a stroke-mimic. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that in-hospital strokes are a common occurrence, and knowing the variables can aid in their timely diagnosis and treatment. PMID:28050311

  3. National stroke audit: a tool for change?

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, A; Lowe, D; Irwin, P; Rutledge, Z; Pearson, M

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To describe the standards of care for stroke patients in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and to determine the power of national audit, coupled with an active dissemination strategy to effect change. Design—A national audit of organisational structure and retrospective case note audit, repeated within 18 months. Separate postal questionnaires were used to identify the types of change made between the first and second round and to compare the representativeness of the samples. Setting—157 trusts (64% of eligible trusts in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland) participated in both rounds. Participants—5589 consecutive patients admitted with stroke between 1 January 1998 and 31 March 1998 (up to 40 per trust) and 5375 patients admitted between 1 August 1999 and 31 October 1999 (up to 40 per trust). Audit tool—Royal College of Physicians Intercollegiate Working Party stroke audit. Results—The proportion of patients managed on stroke units rose between the two audits from 19% to 26% with the proportion managed on general wards falling from 60% to 55% and those managed on general rehabilitation wards falling from 14% to 11%. Standards of assessment, rehabilitation, and discharge planning improved equally on stroke units and general wards, but in many aspects remained poor (41% formal cognitive assessment, 46% weighed once during admission, 67% physiotherapy assessment within 72 hours, 24% plan documented for mood disturbance, 36% carers' needs assessed separately). Conclusions—Nationally conducted audit linked to a comprehensive dissemination programme was effective in stimulating improvements in the quality of care for patients with stroke. More patients are being managed on stroke units and multidisciplinary care is becoming more widespread. There remain, however, many areas where standards of care are low, indicating a need for investment of skills and resources to achieve acceptable levels. Key Words: stroke; clinical audit PMID:11533421

  4. Brain and vascular imaging of acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Amar, Arun Paul

    2011-12-01

    Contemporary imaging technologies permit the rapid and accurate assessment of the acute stroke patient. These studies form the underpinning of all therapeutic approaches. Although unenhanced computed tomography remains the principal diagnostic examination to exclude hemorrhagic stroke, multimodal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can be use to assess cerebral perfusion and may reveal the ischemic penumbra, thus leading to better patient selection for intravenous or intra-arterial reperfusion strategies.

  5. Walking through Apertures in Individuals with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Objective Walking through a narrow aperture requires unique postural configurations, i.e., body rotation in the yaw dimension. Stroke individuals may have difficulty performing the body rotations due to motor paralysis on one side of their body. The present study was therefore designed to investigate how successfully such individuals walk through apertures and how they perform body rotation behavior. Method Stroke fallers (n = 10), stroke non-fallers (n = 13), and healthy controls (n = 23) participated. In the main task, participants walked for 4 m and passed through apertures of various widths (0.9–1.3 times the participant’s shoulder width). Accidental contact with the frame of an aperture and kinematic characteristics at the moment of aperture crossing were measured. Participants also performed a perceptual judgment task to measure the accuracy of their perceived aperture passability. Results and Discussion Stroke fallers made frequent contacts on their paretic side; however, the contacts were not frequent when they penetrated apertures from their paretic side. Stroke fallers and non-fallers rotated their body with multiple steps, rather than a single step, to deal with their motor paralysis. Although the minimum passable width was greater for stroke fallers, the body rotation angle was comparable among groups. This suggests that frequent contact in stroke fallers was due to insufficient body rotation. The fact that there was no significant group difference in the perceived aperture passability suggested that contact occurred mainly due to locomotor factors rather than perceptual factors. Two possible explanations (availability of vision and/or attention) were provided as to why accidental contact on the paretic side did not occur frequently when stroke fallers penetrated the apertures from their paretic side. PMID:28103299

  6. Dietary fiber consumption and risk of stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhizhong; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Dezhi; Zhu, Wusheng; Fan, Xinying; Liu, Xinfeng

    2013-02-01

    Observational studies suggest an association between dietary fiber consumption and risk of stroke, but the results are inconclusive. The authors conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate the relation between dietary fiber consumption and stroke risk and mortality. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Science through February 2013. We included prospective studies that reported relative risks (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between dietary fiber consumption and stroke risk and mortality. Both fixed- and random-effects models were used to calculate the summary risk estimates. Eleven prospective studies involving 325,627 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RR of stroke for the highest compared with the lowest dietary fiber consumption was 0.83 (95 % CI 0.74, 0.93). In addition, the increment in dietary fiber consumption was associated with decreased stroke risk in a dose-response manner. Sensitivity analysis restricted to studies with control for conventional risk factors yielded similar results, and omission of any single study had little effect on the combined risk estimate. Moreover, there was a trend toward an inverse association between higher fiber consumption and stroke mortality (RR 0.85; 95 % CI 0.60, 1.20), although it is not significant. This meta-analysis indicated that dietary fiber consumption is inversely associated with stroke risk, and the effect is probably independent of conventional risk factors. Our results support recommendations for higher consumption of fiber-rich foods to prevent stroke.

  7. [Strokes and hemoglobinopathies in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Napon, C; Kaboré, A; Ouédraogo, M; Dravé, A; Lompo, L; Kaboré, J

    2012-01-01

    S and C hemoglobinopathies are a group of inherited blood disorders including sickle cell disease, characterized by the presence of abnormal S and C hemoglobins. They are common in tropical Africa. Stroke is a common complication of sickle cell disease. Studies of the relation between these two diseases are virtually nonexistent in sub-saharan Africa. Our work aimed to study the influence of these hemoglobinopathies on the onset of strokes in adults. This cross-sectional study took place from 1st December 2009 to 31st May 2010 at University Hospital Yalgado Ouedraogo. Out of 142 patients admitted to our neurology department during this period, 74 patients had had strokes. Their mean age was 55.9 years and their sex ratio 1.53. Ischemic strokes accounted for 57% of the total, followed by cerebral hemorrhage (39%). Forty-six patients (62%) were AA genotype, 27 (36%) patients had sickle cell trait (16 AC and 11 AS) and three patients were homozygous CC. This study showed a higher prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in patients with stroke than in the general population. Unlike heterozygous SC and homozygous SS forms, the existence of sickle cell trait in this population does not appear to increase the risk of onset of ischemic stroke but may reduce the age at onset of cerebral hemorrhage.

  8. Strength Training in Individuals with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Janice J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper reviews the mechanisms underlying the inability to generate force in individuals with stroke and summarizes the effects of strength training in these individuals. In addition, a systematic review of studies that have incorporated progressive strengthening interventions in individuals with stroke is presented. Summary of Key Points Central (e.g., motor recruitment) and peripheral (e.g., muscle atrophy) sources may alter muscle strength in individuals with stroke and further investigations are needed to partition and quantify their effects. As to the effect of strength training interventions in individuals with stroke, the majority of studies (albeit with small samples) that evaluated muscle strength as an outcome demonstrated improvements. With regard to the effect of strength training on functional outcomes in individuals with stroke, positive outcomes were found in less rigorous pre-test/post-test studies, but more conflicting results with controlled trials. Conclusions Although there is some suggestion that strength training alone can improve muscle strength, further research is required to optimize strength training and the transfer of these strength gains to functional tasks in individuals with stroke. PMID:23255839

  9. Impaired Hyperemic Response to Exercise Post Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Matthew J.; Murphy, Spencer A.; Schaefer, Kathleen K.; Hunter, Sandra K.; Schmit, Brian D.; Gutterman, David D.; Hyngstrom, Allison S.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with chronic stroke have reduced perfusion of the paretic lower limb at rest; however, the hyperemic response to graded muscle contractions in this patient population has not been examined. This study quantified blood flow to the paretic and non-paretic lower limbs of subjects with chronic stroke after submaximal contractions of the knee extensor muscles and correlated those measures with limb function and activity. Ten subjects with chronic stroke and ten controls had blood flow through the superficial femoral artery quantified with ultrasonography before and immediately after 10 second contractions of the knee extensor muscles at 20, 40, 60, and 80% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the test limb. Blood flow to the paretic and non-paretic limb of stroke subjects was significantly reduced at all load levels compared to control subjects even after normalization to lean muscle mass. Of variables measured, increased blood flow after an 80% MVC was the single best predictor of paretic limb strength, the symmetry of strength between the paretic and non-paretic limbs, coordination of the paretic limb, and physical activity. The impaired hemodynamic response to high intensity contractions was a better predictor of lower limb function than resting perfusion measures. Stroke-dependent weakness and atrophy of the paretic limb do not explain the reduced hyperemic response to muscle contraction alone as the response is similarly reduced in the non-paretic limb when compared to controls. These data may suggest a role for perfusion therapies to optimize rehabilitation post stroke. PMID:26630380

  10. Genetics of ischaemic stroke in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Terni, Eva; Giannini, Nicola; Brondi, Marco; Montano, Vincenzo; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Mancuso, Michelangelo

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke may be a clinical expression of several inherited disorders in humans. Recognition of the underlined genetic disorders causing stroke is important for a correct diagnosis, for genetic counselling and, even if rarely, for a correct therapeutic management. Moreover, the genetics of complex diseases such the stroke, in which multiple genes interact with environmental risk factors to increase risk, has been revolutionized by the Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach. Scope of review Here we review the single-gene causes of ischemic stroke, bringing the reader from the candidate gene method toward the exciting new horizons of genetic technology. Major conclusions The aetiological diagnosis of ischemic stroke in young adults is more complex than in the elderly. The identification of a genetic cause is important to provide appropriate counseling and to start a correct therapy, when available. The advent of GWAS technology, such as for other complex pathological conditions, has contributed enormously to the understanding of many of these genetic bases. For success large, well phenotyped case cohorts are required, and international collaborations are essential. General significance This review focuses on the main causes of genetically-based ischemic stroke in young adults, often classified as indeterminate, investigating also the recent findings of the GWAS, in order to improve diagnostic and therapeutic management. PMID:26672892

  11. Cognitive impairment and stroke in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Lo Coco, Daniele; Lopez, Gianluca; Corrao, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed current knowledge about the interaction between stroke and vascular risk factors and the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Stroke is increasingly recognized as an important cause of cognitive problems and has been implicated in the development of both Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. The prevalence of cognitive impairment after stroke is high, and their combined effects significantly increase the cost of care and health resource utilization, with reflections on hospital readmissions and increased mortality rates. There is also substantial evidence that vascular risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and tobacco smoking) are independently associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Thus, a successful management of these factors, as well as optimal acute stroke management, might have a great impact on the development of cognitive impairment. Notwithstanding, the pathological link between cognitive impairment, stroke, and vascular risk factors is complex and still partially unclear so that further studies are needed to better elucidate the boundaries of this relationship. Many specific pharmacological treatments, including anticholinergic drugs and antihypertensive medications, and nonpharmacological approaches, such as diet, cognitive rehabilitation, and physical activity, have been studied for patients with vascular cognitive impairment, but the optimal care is still far away. Meanwhile, according to the most recent knowledge, optimal stroke care should also include cognitive assessment in the short and long term, and great efforts should be oriented toward a multidisciplinary approach, including quality-of-life assessment and support of caregivers. PMID:27069366

  12. Secondary prevention of stroke--results from the Southern Africa Stroke Prevention Initiative (SASPI) study.

    PubMed Central

    Thorogood, M.; Connor, M. D.; Lewando-Hundt, G.; Tollman, S.; Ngoma, B.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of risk factors and experience of preventive interventions in stroke survivors, and identilfy barriers to secondary prevention in rural South Africa. METHODS: A clinician visited individuals in the Agincourt field site (in South Africa's rural north east) who were identified in a census as possible stroke victims to confirm the diagnosis of stroke. We explored the impact of stroke on the individual's family, and health-seeking behaviour following stroke by conducting in-depth interviews in the households of 35 stroke survivors. We held two workshops to understand the knowledge, experience, and views of primary care nurses, who provide the bulk of professional health care. FINDINGS :We identified 103 stroke survivors (37 men), 73 (71%) of whom had hypertension, but only 8 (8%) were taking anti-hypertensive treatment. Smoking was uncommon; 8 men and 1 woman smoked a maximum of ten cigarettes daily. 94 (91%) stroke survivors had sought help, which involved allopathic health care for most of them (81; 79%). 42 had also sought help from traditional healers and churches, while another 13 people had sought help only from those sources. Of the 35 survivors who were interviewed, 29 reported having been prescribed anti-hypertensive pills after their stroke. Barriers to secondary prevention included cost of treatment, reluctance to use pills, difficulties with access to drugs, and lack of equipment to measure blood pressure. A negative attitude to allopathic care was not an important factor. CONCLUSION: In this rural area hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor in stroke survivors. Effective secondary prevention may reduce the incidence of recurrent strokes, but there is no system to deliver such care. New strategies for care are needed involving both allopathic and non-allopathic-health care providers. PMID:15500283

  13. Post-stroke depression therapy: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Turner, Alyna; Dean, Olivia; Sureda, Antoni; Mohammad, Seyed

    2014-01-01

    Post-stroke depression is an important psychological consequence of ischemic stroke, and affects around one third of stroke patients at any time post-stroke. It has a negative impact on patient morbidity and mortality, and as such development of effective post-stroke recognition and treatment strategies are very important. There are several therapeutic strategies for post-stroke depression, including both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. In this review, we present evidence regarding the underlying biology of post-stroke depression, commonalities between post-stroke depression and Major Depressive Disorder and explore several treatment approaches, including antidepressant therapy, psychotherapy, surgical therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, acupuncture, music therapy and natural products. Further experimental and clinical studies are required, particularly in emerging fields such as the role of nutraceuticals in the treatment of stroke.

  14. Treatment of hyperglycaemia in patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Guerra, L; Fernández-Moreno, M C; Hewitt, J

    2016-03-01

    The proportion of diabetic patients who are hospitalised for stroke has been increasing in recent years, currently reaching almost a third of all cases of stroke. In addition, about half of patients with acute stroke present hyperglycaemia in the first hours of the stroke. Although hyperglycaemia in the acute phase of stroke is associated with a poor prognosis, its treatment is currently a topic of debate. There is no evidence that the adminstration of intravenous insulin to these patients offers benefits in terms of the evolution of the stroke. New studies in development, such as the SHINE study (Stroke Hyperglycemia Insulin Network Effort), may contribute to clarifying the role of intensive control of glycaemia during the acute phase of the stroke. Ultimately, patients who have presented with stroke should be screened for diabetes.

  15. Novel preventive and therapuetic strategy for post-stroke pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Shinji

    2009-08-01

    Pneumonia is a significant complication of ischemic stroke that increases mortality. Post-stroke pneumonia is defined as newly developed pneumonia following stroke onset. Clinically and chronologically, post-stroke pneumonia is divided into two types of aspiration pneumonia. First, acute-onset post-stroke pneumonia occurs within 1 month after stroke. Second, insidious or chronic-onset post-stroke pneumonia occurs 1 month after the stroke. The mechanisms of pneumonia are apparent aspiration and dysphagia-associated microaspiration. Stroke and the post-stroke state are the most significant risk factors for aspiration pneumonia. The preventive and therapeutic strategies have been developed thoroughly and appropriate antibiotic use, and both pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches for the treatment of post-stroke pneumonia have been studied rigorously. Increases in substance P levels, oral care, and swallowing rehabilitation are necessary to improve swallowing function in post-stroke patients, resulting in a reduction in the incidence of post-stroke pneumonia in a chronic stage. The stroke must be a cause of aspiration pneumonia.

  16. Terror mit Atomwaffen: reale Gefahr? Nukleare und Radiologische Waffen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigel, Gert G.

    2006-01-01

    Können Terroristen sich nukleare Massenvernichtungswaffen beschaffen? Dazu müssten sie ausreichende Mengen an waffenfähigem, spaltbarem Material stehlen. Selbst der Bau einer primitiven Atombombe erfordert einen hohen technischen Aufwand und Spezialisten. Wahrscheinlicher ist deshalb der Diebstahl einer kleinen taktischen Kernwaffe. Alternativ könnten Terroristen sich radioaktives Material aus zivilen Quellen beschaffen und daraus eine Schmutzige Bombe bauen. Eine solche radiologische Waffe wäre keine echte Massenvernichtungswaffe, doch ihre psychologische Wirkung könnte stark sein. Das macht sie für Terroristen attraktiv, weswegen diese Gefahr ernst genommen werden muss.

  17. Wake-Up Stroke and Stroke of Unknown Onset: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Anke; Lemmens, Robin; Dupont, Patrick; Thijs, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Patients, who wake up with an ischemic stroke, account for a large number of the total stroke population, due to circadian morning predominance of stroke. Currently, this subset of patients is excluded from revascularization-therapy since no exact time of onset is known. A large group of these patients might be eligible for therapy. In this review, we assessed the current literature about the hypothesis that wake-up-strokes occur just prior on awakening and if this subgroup differs in characteristics compared to the overall stroke population. We looked at the safety and efficacy of thrombolysis and interventional techniques in the group of patients with unknown stroke-onset. We performed a meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of the diffusion-FLAIR mismatch in identifying stroke within 3 and 4.5 h. The different imaging-selection criteria that can be used to treat these patients are discussed. Additional research on imaging findings associated with recent stroke and penumbral imaging will eventually lead to a shift from a rigid time-frame based therapy to a tissue-based individualized treatment approach. PMID:25161646

  18. Perception of Kinematic Characteristics of Tennis Strokes for Anticipating Stroke Type and Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Jaeho; Carlton, Les G.; Kwon, Young-Hoo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sources of visual information used by highly skilled tennis players in anticipating their opponent's shots. In Experiment 1, motion analysis of the strokes showed that the relative motion between the racquet and forearm was different between the ground strokes and lobs, but there were no reliable…

  19. Acute Stroke Care at Rural Hospitals in Idaho: Challenges in Expediting Stroke Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebhardt, James G.; Norris, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Thrombolytics are currently the most effective treatment for stroke. However, the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke criteria for initiation of thrombolytic therapy, most notably the 3-hour time limit from symptom onset, have proven challenging for many rural hospitals to achieve. Purpose: To provide a snapshot of…

  20. What Are Some Common Outcomes of Stroke and Some Common Treatments for These Outcomes?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Publications What are some common outcomes of stroke & some common treatments for these outcomes? Skip sharing ... and temperature changes Depression Types of Treatment for Stroke Stroke treatment includes: Emergency treatment Preventing another stroke ...

  1. Association between pneumonia in acute stroke stage and 3-year mortality in patients with acute first-ever ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yi-Jing; Weng, Wei-Chieh; Su, Feng-Chieh; Peng, Tsung-I; Chien, Yu-Yi; Wu, Chia-Lun; Lee, Kuang-Yung; Wei, Yi-Chia; Lin, Shun-Wen; Zhu, Jun-Xiao; Huang, Wen-Yi

    2016-11-01

    The influence of pneumonia in acute stroke stage on the clinical presentation and long-term outcomes of patients with acute ischemic stroke is still controversial. We investigate the influence of pneumonia in acute stroke stage on the 3-year outcomes of patients with acute first-ever ischemic stroke. Nine-hundred and thirty-four patients with acute first-ever ischemic stroke were enrolled and had been followed for 3years. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether pneumonia occurred during acute stroke stage or not. Clinical presentations, risk factors for stroke, laboratory data, co-morbidities, and outcomes were recorded. The result showed that a total of 100 patients (10.7%) had pneumonia in acute stroke stage. The prevalence of older age, atrial fibrillation was significantly higher in patients with pneumonia in acute stroke stage. Total anterior circulation syndrome and posterior circulation syndrome occurred more frequently among patients with pneumonia in acute stroke stage (P<0.001 and P=0.009, respectively). Multivariate Cox regression revealed that pneumonia in acute stroke stage is a significant predictor of 3-year mortality (hazard ratio=6.39, 95% confidence interval=4.03-10.11, P<0.001). In conclusion, pneumonia during the acute stroke stage is associated with increased risk of 3-year mortality. Interventions to prevent pneumonia in acute stroke stage might improve ischemic stroke outcome.

  2. Clinical Neuroprotective Drugs for Treatment and Prevention of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Uchikado, Hisaaki; Morioka, Motohiro; Murai, Yoshinaka; Tanaka, Eiichiro

    2012-01-01

    Stroke is an enormous public health problem with an imperative need for more effective therapies. In therapies for ischemic stroke, tissue plasminogen activators, antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants are used mainly for their antithrombotic effects. However, free radical scavengers, minocycline and growth factors have shown neuroprotective effects in the treatment of stroke, while antihypertensive drugs, lipid-lowering drugs and hypoglycemic drugs have shown beneficial effects for the prevention of stroke. In the present review, we evaluate the treatment and prevention of stroke in light of clinical studies and discuss new anti-stroke effects other than the main effects of drugs, focusing on optimal pharmacotherapy. PMID:22837724

  3. Clinical study of 222 patients with pure motor stroke

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, A; Padilla, I; Massons, J; Garcia-Eroles, L; Comes, E; Targa, C

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to assess the frequency of pure motor stroke caused by different stroke subtypes and to compare demographic, clinical, neuroimaging, and outcome data of pure motor stroke with those of patients with other lacunar stroke as well as with those of patients with non-lacunar stroke.
Data from 2000 patients with acute stroke (n=1761) or transient ischaemic attack (n=239) admitted consecutively to the department of neurology of an acute care 350 bed teaching hospital were prospectively collected in the Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona stroke registry over a 10 year period. For the purpose of the study 222 (12.7%) patients with pure motor stroke were selected. The other study groups included 218 (12.3%) patients with other lacunar strokes and 1321 (75%) patients with non-lacunar stroke.
In relation to stroke subtype, lacunar infarcts were found in 189 (85%) patients, whereas ischaemic lacunar syndromes not due to lacunar infarcts occurred in 23 (10.4%) patients (atherothrombotic stroke in 12, cardioembolic stroke in seven, infarction of undetermined origin in three, and infarction of unusual aetiology in one) and haemorrhagic lacunar syndromes in 10 (4.5%). Patients with pure motor stroke showed a better outcome than patients with non-lacunar stroke with a significantly lower number of complications and in hospital mortality rate, shorter duration of hospital stay, and a higher number of symptom free patients at hospital discharge. After multivariate analysis, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidaemia, non-sudden stroke onset, internal capsule involvement, and pons topography seemed to be independent factors of pure motor stroke in patients with acute stroke.
In conclusion, about one of every 10 patients with acute stroke had a pure motor stroke. Pure motor stroke was caused by a lacunar infarct in 85% of patients and by other stroke subtypes in 15%. Several clinical features are more frequent in patients with pure motor stroke than in

  4. Stroke navigator--a clinical decision support system for acute stroke.

    PubMed

    van Zon, Kees; Lord, William P; Lagor, Charles; Theiss, Stephan; Brosig, Torge; Siebler, Mario

    2008-11-06

    The Stroke Navigator is a clinical decision support system aimed at improving the diagnosis and treatment of acute stroke. It combines an audit trail, a differential diagnosis window, an interactive stroke protocol map, and a list of recommendations for hospital staff. It provides a patient-specific overview of the workflow status and of the available clinical findings, with the goal of improving the continuity of care. For this purpose, it uses a workflow engine that was specifically designed to meet the demands of clinical practice. The Stroke Navigator furthermore calculates and displays the probabilities of various stroke differential diagnoses. The demonstration will introduce these and other features by means of a hypothetical patient case. It will also summarize the status of alpha-testing the first prototype.

  5. Development of an emergency department response to acute stroke ("Code Stroke").

    PubMed

    Leira, Enrique C; Ahmed, Azeemuddin

    2009-01-01

    Minimizing delays is a crucial step in improving outcomes with acute stroke therapies whose efficacy is clearly time dependent. Logistic and human barriers to rapid stroke care can be overcome with a systematic "Code Stroke" approach provided by a structured multidisciplinary acute stroke response team. Such teams should include Emergency Medical Services providers, neurologists, neurosurgeons, diagnostic radiologists, nurses, radiology technicians, laboratory personnel, hospital administrators, and emergency medicine, intensive care, and neurointerventional physicians. An acute stroke team improves treatment practices and provides a gratifying experience for patients, families, and referring physicians. On the other hand, maintaining proficiency of the team's operation is time consuming and personally onerous for team responders. Successful maintenance requires strong departmental and institutional commitment.

  6. Novel Stroke Therapeutics: Unraveling Stroke Pathophysiology and Its Impact on Clinical Treatments

    PubMed Central

    George, Paul M.; Steinberg, Gary K.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of death and disability in the world. Over the past few decades our understanding of the pathophysiology of stroke has increased, but greater insight is required to advance the field of stroke recovery. Clinical treatments have improved in the acute time window, but long-term therapeutics remain limited. Complex neural circuits damaged by ischemia make restoration of function after stroke difficult. New therapeutic approaches, including cell transplantation or stimulation, focus on reestablishing these circuits through multiple mechanisms to improve circuit plasticity and remodeling. Other research targets intact networks to compensate for damaged regions. This review highlights several important mechanisms of stroke injury and describes emerging therapies aimed at improving clinical outcomes. PMID:26182415

  7. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-01-01

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients. PMID:25984516

  8. Risk Factors and Treatment at Recurrent Stroke Onset: Results from the Recurrent Stroke Quality and Epidemiology (RESQUE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Leoo, T.; Lindgren, A.; Petersson, J.; von Arbin, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Much effort has been made to study first-ever stroke patients. However, recurrent stroke has not been investigated as extensively. It is unclear which risk factors dominate, and whether adequate secondary prevention has been provided to patients who suffer from recurrent stroke. Also, the different types of recurrent stroke need further evaluation. Methods The study included patients with recurrent stroke admitted to twenty-three Swedish stroke centers. The type of previous and recurrent stroke was determined, as well as evaluation (when applicable) of recurrent ischemic stroke according to the TOAST classification. Presence of vascular risk factors was registered and compared to the type of stroke. Also assessed was ongoing secondary prevention treatment at recurrent stroke onset. Results A total of 889 patients with recurrent stroke (mean age 77) were included in the study. Of these, 805 (91%) had ischemic stroke, 78 (9%) had intracerebral hemorrhage and 6 (<1%) stroke of unknown origin. The most frequent vascular risk factors were hypertension (75%) and hyperlipidemia (56%). Among the 889 patients, 29% had atrial fibrillation. Of the patients in the ischemic group with cardiac embolism, only 21% were on anticoagulation treatment. The majority of the patients (75%) had their most recent previous stroke >12 months before admission. Conclusions Few patients had a recurrent stroke shortly after the previous stroke in this study. This indicates that it is meaningful to prevent a second event with an adequate long-term treatment strategy for secondary prevention after first-ever stroke. There also seems to be a clear potential for improving secondary prevention after stroke. PMID:18216468

  9. Oro-facial impairment in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, M; Ono, T; Lam, O L T; Müller, F

    2017-01-27

    Stroke is considered one of the leading causes of death and acquired disability with a peak prevalence over the age of 80 years. Stroke may cause debilitating neurological deficiencies that frequently result in sensory deficits, motor impairment, muscular atrophy, cognitive deficits and psychosocial impairment. Oro-facial impairment may occur due to the frequent involvement of the cranial nerves' cortical representation areas, central nervous system pathways or motoneuron pools. The aim of this narrative, non-systematic review was to discuss the implications of stroke on oro-facial functions and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Stroke patients demonstrate an impaired masticatory performance, possibly due to reduced tongue forces and disturbed oral sensitivity. Furthermore, facial asymmetry is common, but mostly discrete and lip restraining forces are reduced. Bite force is not different between the ipsi- and contra-lesional side. In contrast, the contra-lesional handgrip strength and tongue-palate contact during swallowing are significantly impaired. OHRQoL is significantly reduced mainly because of the functional impairment. It can be concluded that impaired chewing efficiency, dysphagia, facial asymmetry, reduced lip force and OHRQoL are quantifiable symptoms of oro-facial impairment following a stroke. In the absence of functional rehabilitation, these symptoms seem not to improve. Furthermore, stroke affects the upper limb and the masseter muscle differently, both, at a functional and a morphological level. The rehabilitation of stroke survivors should, therefore, also seek to improve the strength and co-ordination of the oro-facial musculature. This would in turn help improve OHRQoL and the masticatory function, subsequently preventing weight loss and malnutrition.

  10. Heart Failure in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrado-Godia, Elisa; Ois, Angel; Roquer, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the ventricle to fill with or eject blood. Due to the aging of the population it has become a growing public health problem in recent decades. Diagnosis of HF is clinical and there is no diagnostic test, although some basic complementary testing should be performed in all patients. Depending on the ejection fraction (EF), the syndrome is classified as HF with low EF or HF with normal EF (HFNEF). Although prognosis in HF is poor, HFNEF seems to be more benign. HF and ischemic stroke (IS) share vascular risk factors such as age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation. Persons with HF have higher incidence of IS, varying from 1.7% to 10.4% per year across various cohort studies. The stroke rate increases with length of follow-up. Reduced EF, independent of severity, is associated with higher risk of stroke. Left ventricular mass and geometry are also related with stroke incidence, with concentric hypertrophy carrying the greatest risk. In HF with low EF, the stroke mechanism may be embolism, cerebral hypoperfusion or both, whereas in HFNEF the mechanism is more typically associated with chronic endothelial damage of the small vessels. Stroke in patients with HF is more severe and is associated with a higher rate of recurrence, dependency, and short term and long term mortality. Cardiac morbidity and mortality is also high in these patients. Acute stroke treatment in HF includes all the current therapeutic options to more carefully control blood pressure. For secondary prevention, optimal control of all vascular risk factors is essential. Antithrombotic therapy is mandatory, although the choice of a platelet inhibitor or anticoagulant drug depends on the cardiac disease. Trials are ongoing to evaluate anticoagulant therapy for prevention of embolism in patients with low EF who are at

  11. Developing the Stroke Exercise Preference Inventory (SEPI)

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Nicholas S.; O’Halloran, Paul D.; Bernhardt, Julie; Cumming, Toby B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is highly prevalent after stroke, increasing the risk of poor health outcomes including recurrent stroke. Tailoring of exercise programs to individual preferences can improve adherence, but no tools exist for this purpose in stroke. Methods We identified potential questionnaire items for establishing exercise preferences via: (i) our preliminary Exercise Preference Questionnaire in stroke, (ii) similar tools used in other conditions, and (iii) expert panel consultations. The resulting 35-item questionnaire (SEPI-35) was administered to stroke survivors, along with measures of disability, depression, anxiety, fatigue and self-reported physical activity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify a factor structure in exercise preferences, providing a framework for item reduction. Associations between exercise preferences and personal characteristics were analysed using multivariable regression. Results A group of 134 community-dwelling stroke survivors (mean age 64.0, SD 13.3) participated. Analysis of the SEPI-35 identified 7 exercise preference factors (Supervision-support, Confidence-challenge, Health-wellbeing, Exercise context, Home-alone, Similar others, Music-TV). Item reduction processes yielded a 13-item version (SEPI-13); in analysis of this version, the original factor structure was maintained. Lower scores on Confidence-challenge were significantly associated with disability (p = 0.002), depression (p = 0.001) and fatigue (p = 0.001). Self-reported barriers to exercise were particularly prevalent in those experiencing fatigue and anxiety. Conclusions The SEPI-13 is a brief instrument that allows assessment of exercise preferences and barriers in the stroke population. This new tool can be employed by health professionals to inform the development of individually tailored exercise interventions. PMID:27711242

  12. Orthostatic haemodynamic responses in acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Panayiotou, B; Reid, J; Fotherby, M; Crome, P

    1999-01-01

    Little is known about orthostatic blood pressure regulation in acute stroke. We determined postural haemodynamic responses in 40 patients with acute stroke (mild or moderate severity) and 40 non-stroke control in-patients, at two days (`Day 1') and one week (`Week 1') post-admission. Following a 10-minute supine rest and baseline readings, subjects sat up and blood pressure and heart rate were taken for 5 minutes. The procedure was repeated with subjects moving from supine to the standing posture. Haemodynamic changes from supine data were analysed. On standing up, the control group had a transient significant fall in mean arterial blood pressure on Day 1 but not Week 1. No significant changes were seen on either day when sitting up. In contrast to controls, the stroke group showed increases in mean arterial blood pressure on moving from supine to the sitting and standing positions on both days. Persistent postural hypotension defined as ⩾20 mmHg systolic fall occurred in <10% of either of the study groups on both days. Sitting and standing heart rates in both groups were significantly faster than supine heart rate on both days. The orthostatic blood pressure elevation is consistent with sympathetic nervous system overactivity which has been reported in acute stroke. Upright positioning as part of early rehabilitation and mobilisation following mild-to-moderate stroke would, therefore, not predispose to detrimental postural reductions in blood pressure.


Keywords: stroke; orthostatic hypotension; hypotension PMID:10715760

  13. Haemostasis in ischaemic stroke and vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Stott, D J; Spilg, E; Campbell, A M; Rumley, A; Mansoor, M A; Lowe, G D

    2001-12-01

    Abnormalities of coagulation and fibrinolysis may play an important role in the pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke and vascular dementia. We aimed to determine whether haemostatic function is altered in acute recent-onset or chronic ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. We studied consecutive patients with ischaemic stroke (n = 74) and vascular dementia (n = 42) compared with healthy controls (n = 40) in a case-control study. The ischaemic stroke group was assessed twice, 3-10 days after the acute stroke and at 1-3 months. Fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer (marker of fibrin turnover) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) (marker of endothelial disturbance) were elevated acutely (P < 0.0001) and in the convalescent phase after ischaemic stroke (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, and P < 0.01 respectively, compared with controls). Similar results were seen in the vascular dementia group. Stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that cerebrovascular disease correlated independently with fibrinogen (P < 0.001) and fibrin D-dimer levels (P < 0.001), while vWF correlated independently with electrocardiograph evidence of ischaemic heart disease (P = 0.004). Changes between acute and convalescent phases in ischaemic stroke were slightly inconsistent. However, in the acute stage there were tendencies for fibrinogen, D-dimer and vWF to be increased, and factor VIII was significantly higher. Abnormalities of haemostasis, including increased fibrin turnover and endothelial disturbance, are found in both acute and chronic cerebral ischaemia. Many of these patients have co-existent ischaemic heart disease and this may contribute to some of these changes. Acute ischaemic stroke is associated with transient changes in haemostatic factors; however, most abnormalities persist into the convalescent phase, and are also demonstrable in subjects with vascular dementia.

  14. Persistent post-stroke depression in mice following unilateral medial prefrontal cortical stroke

    PubMed Central

    Vahid-Ansari, F; Lagace, D C; Albert, P R

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common outcome following stroke that is associated with poor recovery. To develop a preclinical model of PSD, we targeted a key node of the depression–anxiety circuitry by inducing a unilateral ischemic lesion to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) stroke. Microinjection of male C57/BL6 mice with endothelin-1 (ET-1, 1600 pmol) induced a small (1 mm3) stroke consistently localized within the left mPFC. Compared with sham control mice, the stroke mice displayed a robust behavioral phenotype in four validated tests of anxiety including the elevated plus maze, light–dark, open-field and novelty-suppressed feeding tests. In addition, the stroke mice displayed depression-like behaviors in both the forced swim and tail suspension test. In contrast, there was no effect on locomotor activity or sensorimotor function in the horizontal ladder, or cylinder and home cage activity tests, indicating a silent stroke due to the absence of motor abnormalities. When re-tested at 6 weeks post stroke, the stroke mice retained both anxiety and depression phenotypes. Surprisingly, at 6 weeks post stroke the lesion site was infiltrated by neurons, suggesting that the ET-1-induced neuronal loss in the mPFC was reversible over time, but was insufficient to promote behavioral recovery. In summary, unilateral ischemic lesion of the mPFC results in a pronounced and persistent anxiety and depression phenotype with no evident sensorimotor deficits. This precise lesion of the depression circuitry provides a reproducible model to study adaptive cellular changes and preclinical efficacy of novel interventions to alleviate PSD symptoms. PMID:27483381

  15. Picturing the Size and Site of Stroke With an Expanded National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale

    PubMed Central

    Agis, Daniel; Goggins, Maria B.; Oishi, Kumiko; Oishi, Kenichi; Davis, Cameron; Wright, Amy; Kim, Eun Hye; Sebastian, Rajani; Tippett, Donna C.; Faria, Andreia

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) includes minimal assessment of cognitive function, particularly in right hemisphere (RH) stroke. Descriptions of the Cookie Theft picture from the NIHSS allow analyses that (1) correlate with aphasia severity and (2) identify communication deficits in RH stroke. We hypothesized that analysis of the picture description contributes valuable information about volume and location of acute stroke. Methods— We evaluated 67 patients with acute ischemic stroke (34 left hemisphere [LH]; 33 RH) with the NIHSS, analysis of the Cookie Theft picture, and magnetic resonance imaging, compared with 35 sex- and age-matched controls. We evaluated descriptions for total content units (CU), syllables, ratio of left:right CU, CU/minute, and percent interpretive CU, based on previous studies. Lesion volume and percent damage to regions of interest were measured on diffusion-weighted imaging. Multivariable linear regression identified variables associated with infarct volume, independently of NIHSS score, age and sex. Results— Patients with RH and LH stroke differed from controls, but not from each other, on CU, syllables/CU, and CU/minute. Left:right CU was lower in RH compared with LH stroke. CU, syllables/CU, and NIHSS each correlated with lesion volume in LH and RH stroke. Lesion volume was best accounted by a model that included CU, syllables/CU, NIHSS, left:right CU, percent interpretive CU, and age, in LH and RH stroke. Each discourse variable and NIHSS score were associated with percent damage to different regions of interest, independently of lesion volume and age. Conclusions— Brief picture description analysis complements NIHSS scores in predicting stroke volume and location. PMID:27217502

  16. Primary and Comprehensive Stroke Centers: History, Value and Certification Criteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the United States (US) stroke care has undergone a remarkable transformation in the past decades at several levels. At the clinical level, randomized trials have paved the way for many new stroke preventives, and recently, several new mechanical clot retrieval devices for acute stroke treatment have been cleared for use in practice by the US Federal Drug Administration. Furthermore, in the mid 1990s we witnessed regulatory approval of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for administration in acute ischemic stroke. In the domain of organization of medical care and delivery of health services, stroke has transitioned from a disease dominated by neurologic consultation services only to one managed by vascular neurologists in geographical stroke units, stroke teams and care pathways, primary stroke center certification according to The Joint Commission, and most recently comprehensive stroke center designation under the aegis of The Joint Commission. Many organizations in the US have been involved to enhance stroke care. To name a few, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association, Brain Attack Coalition, and National Stroke Association have been on the forefront of this movement. Additionally, governmental initiatives by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and legislative initiatives such as the Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Registry program have paved the way to focus on stroke prevention, acute treatment and quality improvement. In this invited review, we discuss a brief history of organized stroke care in the United States, evidence to support the value of primary and comprehensive stroke centers, and the certification criteria and process to become a primary or comprehensive stroke center. PMID:24324943

  17. Delay time between onset of ischemic stroke and hospital arrival.

    PubMed

    Biller, J; Patrick, J T; Shepard, A; Adams, H P

    1993-01-01

    Some current experimental protocols for acute ischemic stroke require the initiation of treatment within hours of the onset of stroke symptoms. We prospectively evaluated 30 patients with acute ischemic stroke based on clinical and computed tomography findings. The time between the onset of stroke symptoms and arrival in the emergency room and subsequently on the stroke service was determined. Within 3, 6,12, and 24 h of the onset of stroke symptoms, 16 (53%), 19 (63%), 22 (73%), and 25 (83%) patients had arrived at the emergency room and 0 (0%), 4 (13%), 14 (47%), and 22 (73%) of them on the stroke service, respectively. From the onset of stroke symptoms, the mean arrival time to the emergency room was 24 h (range, 30 min to 144 h) and to the stroke service was 61 h (range, 4-150 h). The mean time between arrival in the emergency room and stroke service was 8.6 h (range, 0-47 h). Even though 53% and 63% of our patients arrived at the emergency room within 3 and 6 h of the onset of stroke symptoms, only 0% and 13% of them arrived on the stroke service within the same time period for the initiation of treatment, respectively. Thus, in order for more patients to qualify for current experimental protocols, they must arrive on the stroke service more quickly or treatment must be initiated in the emergency room.

  18. Stroke rehabilitation in Canada: a work in progress.

    PubMed

    Teasell, Robert; Meyer, Matthew J; Foley, Norine; Salter, Katherine; Willems, Deb

    2009-01-01

    Stroke rehabilitation in Canada continues to function under models and practices that have changed little in the last four decades and struggles to implement new evidence-based or best practices. Ontario, Canada's largest province, has had a coordinated stroke strategy since 2000. The Ontario Stroke System has developed an extensive infrastructure of research syntheses, consensus panel recommendations, practice guidelines, standards of care, and centralized data collection across the continuum of stroke care. This has produced a solid foundation upon which an evidence-based stroke rehabilitation system can be developed. However, failure to invest in stroke rehabilitation or provide incentives to implement change has resulted in the stroke rehabilitation system and critical outcomes remaining largely unchanged. Improvements in time to admission have been countered by rising admission FIM scores such that severe stroke patients often cannot access the stroke rehabilitation system. Many stroke patients are still rehabilitated on general rehabilitation units, therapy intensities remain unacceptably low, and many outpatient programs are being reduced or even closed. Although there are pockets of innovation, the stroke rehabilitation system continues to function more according to traditional ways of practicing. The hope is that with appropriate investments and incentives, Canadians and Ontarians can build upon the existing infrastructure to ensure stroke patients receive optimal rehabilitative care based on best evidence. In the meantime, stroke rehabilitation in Canada remains a work in progress.

  19. Etude des effets du martelage repetitif sur les contraintes residuelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacini, Lyes

    L'assemblage par soudage peut engendrer des contraintes residuelles. Ces contraintes provoquent des fissurations prematurees et un raccourcissement de la duree de vie des composants. Dans ce contexte, le martelage robotise est utilise pour relaxer ces contraintes residuelles. Trois volets sont presentes: le premier est l'evaluation des effets des impacts unitaires repetes sur le champ de contraintes developpe dans des plaques d'acier inoxydable austenitique 304L vierges ou contenant des contraintes residuelles initiales. Dans la deuxieme partie de ce projet, le martelage est applique grace au robot SCOMPI. Les contraintes residuelles induites et relaxees par martelage sont ensuite mesurees par la methode des contours, qui a ete adaptee a cet effet. Dans la troisieme partie, le martelage est modelise par la methode des elements finis. Un modele axisymetrique developpe grace au logiciel ANSYS permet de simuler des impacts repetes d'un marteau elastique sur une plaque ayant un comportement elastoplastique.

  20. Trajectory of Cognitive Decline after Incident Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Deborah A.; Galecki, Andrzej T.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Kabeto, Mohammed U.; Giordani, Bruno; Wadley, Virginia G.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Cognitive decline is a major cause of disability in stroke survivors. The magnitude of survivors’ cognitive changes after stroke is uncertain. Objective To measure changes in cognitive function among survivors of incident stroke, controlling for their prestroke cognitive trajectories. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective study of 23,572 participants aged ≥45 years without baseline cognitive impairment from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort, residing in the continental United States, enrolled 2003–2007 and followed through March 31, 2013. Over a median follow-up of 6.1 years (25th–75th percentile: 5.0–7.1 years), 515 participants survived expert-adjudicated incident stroke and 23,057 remained stroke-free. Exposure Time-dependent incident stroke. Outcome Measures The primary outcome was change in global cognition (Six-Item Screener, SIS; range 0–6). Secondary outcomes were change in new learning (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Word List Learning; range 0–30), verbal memory (Word List Delayed Recall; range 0–10), and executive function (Animal Fluency Test; range ≥0), and cognitive impairment (SIS<5/impaired vs. ≥5/unimpaired). For all tests, higher scores indicate better performance. Results Stroke was associated with acute decline in global cognition (0.10 points; 95% CI, 0.04–0.17), new learning (1.80 points; 95% CI, 0.73–2.86), and verbal memory (0.60 points; 95% CI, 0.13–1.07). Participants with stroke, compared to those without stroke, demonstrated faster declines in global cognition (0.06 points per year faster; 95% CI, 0.03–0.08) and executive function (0.63 points per year faster; 95% CI, 0.12–1.15), but not in new learning and verbal memory, compared to prestroke slopes. Among survivors, the difference in risk of cognitive impairment acutely after stroke was not statistically significant (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.95–1.83; P=0

  1. Association of Gallbladder Polyp and Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Hua; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gallbladder polyp (GP) and stroke share several metabolic disorders as risk factors. We assessed the association between GP and subsequent stroke risk. From 2000 to 2011, patients with GP aged >20 years were identified from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. Of the 15,975 examined patients, 12,780 and 3195 were categorized into the non-GP and GP cohorts, respectively. The relative risks of stroke were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities. The overall incidence of stroke was higher in the GP cohort than in the non-GP cohort (6.66 vs 5.20/1000 person-yr), with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15–1.42). The risk of stroke was 1.32-fold (95% CI = 1.06–1.63) in patients with GP compared with patients without GP after adjusting for age, sex, income level, urbanization level, occupation and comorbidities of gallstone, alcohol-related illness, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obesity, COPD, coronary heart disease, and asthma. Furthermore, the stroke risk was higher among elderly patients (with 1-yr intervals; adjusted HR [aHR] = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.05–1.07), the male sex (aHR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.35–1.96), lower income level (aHR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.02–1.85 for level I; aHR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.25–2.10 for level II), living in second urbanized areas (aHR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.00–1.63), alcohol-related illness (aHR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.07–2.28), diabetes (aHR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.41–2.24), and hypertension (aHR = 2.74, 95% CI = 2.19–3.42). GP is associated with stroke; however, GP may be less influential than other risk factors are, such as male sex, lower income level, alcohol-related illness, diabetes, and hypertension, on stroke development. Additional studies are required to clarify whether GP is a risk factor for or an epiphenomenon of stroke development. PMID

  2. Development of sensors to monitor stroke patients

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, S.A.; Glass, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    In the United States, approximately 550,000 new cases of stroke are reported annually, resulting in 150,000 deaths and leaving 300,000 survivors disabled. Thromboembolic strokes account for an estimated 300,000-400,000 of the 550,000 reported new cases of stroke each year. These thromboembolic strokes may be treatable by thrombolytic therapy which involves injecting a thrombolytic agent directly into the thrombus. As the clot dissolves, it breaks into fragments. One particular diagnostic fragment is the D dimer fragment which has antigenic properties. At LLNL, the authors are developing various catheter-based microtools to treat stroke. As part of the package, fiber optic pH sensors and D dimer biosensors are being developed for novel applications, in that they will be coaxially threaded through a catheter to the damaged area of the brain. The pH sensor would allow local measurements of tissue viability, providing an assessment on the patient`s status and indicating the optimal treatment plan. The D dimer biosensor would allow local measurements of the products of thrombolysis, i.e., D dimer, assisting in the identification of clot type and providing feedback on the dosage and infusion rate of the thrombocytic agent.

  3. Vertigo due to posterior circulation stroke.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Soo; Lee, Hyung

    2013-07-01

    Stroke in the distribution of the posterior circulation may present as acute onset spontaneous vertigo and imbalance. Although vertigo due to posterior circulation stroke is usually associated with other neurologic symptoms or signs, small infarcts in the cerebellum or brainstem can present with vertigo without other localizing symptoms. Approximately 17% of patients with isolated posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory infarction presented with isolated vertigo, nystagmus, and postural unsteadiness. A head impulse test can differentiate acute isolated vertigo associated with cerebellar stroke from more benign disorders involving the inner ear. Sometimes acute isolated audiovestibular loss can be the initial symptom of impending posterior circulation ischemic stroke (particularly within the territory of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery). In this case, evaluation of isolated audiovestibular loss may prevent the progression of acute vertigo and hearing loss into more widespread areas of infarction in the posterior circulation. In this article, the clinical syndromes and signs of acute vestibular syndrome due to posterior circulation stroke involving the brainstem and cerebellum are summarized.

  4. Newer Oral Anticoagulants: Stroke Prevention and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Anand; Goddeau Jr, Richard P.; Henninger, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Warfarin is very effective in preventing stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, its use is limited due to fear of hemorrhagic complications, unpredictable anticoagulant effects related to multiple drug interactions and dietary restrictions, a narrow therapeutic window, frequent difficulty maintaining the anticoagulant effect within a narrow therapeutic window, and the need for inconvenient monitoring. Several newer oral anticoagulants have been approved for primary and secondary prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. These agents have several advantages relative to warfarin therapy. As a group, these direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC), which include the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran, and the factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban), are more effective than dose adjusted warfarin for prevention of all-cause stroke (including both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke), and have an overall more favorable safety profile. Nevertheless, an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (with the exception of apixaban), increased risk for thrombotic complication with sudden discontinuation, and inability to accurately assess and reverse anticoagulant effect require consideration prior to therapy initiation, and pose a challenge for decision making in acute stroke therapy. PMID:27347226

  5. Human Data Supporting Glyburide in Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Kevin N.; Simard, J. Marc; Elm, Jordan; Kronenberg, Golo; Kunte, Hagen; Kimberly, W. Taylor

    2016-01-01

    The SUR1-TRPM4 channel is a critical determinant of edema and hemorrhagic transformation after focal ischemia. Blockade of this channel by the small molecule glyburide results in improved survival and neurological outcome in multiple preclinical models of ischemic stroke. A robust, compelling body of evidence suggests that an intravenous (IV) formulation of glyburide, RP-1127, can prevent swelling and improve outcome in patients with stroke. Retrospective studies of diabetic stroke patients show improved outcomes in patients who are continued on sulfonylureas after stroke onset. Early phase II study of MRI and plasma biomarkers support the conclusion that RP-1127 may decrease swelling and hemorrhagic transformation. Finally, the ongoing phase II RP-1127 development program has demonstrated continued safety as well as feasibility of enrollment and tolerability of the intervention. Continued efforts to complete the ongoing phase IIb study and definitive efficacy studies are urgently needed to bring a candidate pharmacotherapy to a population of severe stroke patients that currently have no alternative. PMID:26463916

  6. Ischaemic stroke: a thrombo-inflammatory disease?

    PubMed Central

    Nieswandt, Bernhard; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Stoll, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Ischaemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The complex cellular interactions leading from thromboembolic vessel occlusion to infarct development within the brain parenchyma in acute stroke are poorly understood, which translates into only one approved effective treatment, thrombolysis. Importantly, however, patients can develop progressive stroke despite reperfusion of previously occluded major intracranial arteries, a process referred to as ‘reperfusion injury’ which can be reproduced in the mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Although pathological platelet and coagulant activity have long been recognized to be involved in the initiation of ischaemic stroke, their contribution to infarct maturation remained elusive. Experimental evidence now suggests that early platelet adhesion/activation mechanisms involving the von Willebrand factor (vWF) receptor glycoprotein (GP) Ib, its ligand vWF, and the collagen receptor GPVI are critical pathogenic factors in infarct development following tMCAO, whereas platelet aggregation through GPIIb/IIIa is not. Further experimental work indicates that these pathways in conjunction with coagulation factor XII (FXII)-driven processes orchestrate a ‘thrombo-inflammatory’ cascade in acute stroke that results in infarct growth. This review summarizes these recent developments and briefly discusses their potential clinical impact. PMID:21768262

  7. Potential markers of oxidative stress in stroke.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Antonio; Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Polidori, M Cristina; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2005-10-01

    Free radical production is increased in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, leading to oxidative stress that contributes to brain damage. The measurement of oxidative stress in stroke would be extremely important for a better understanding of its pathophysiology and for identifying subgroups of patients that might receive targeted therapeutic intervention. Since direct measurement of free radicals and oxidized molecules in the brain is difficult in humans, several biological substances have been investigated as potential peripheral markers. Among lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde, despite its relevant methodological limitations, is correlated with the size of ischemic stroke and clinical outcome, while F2-isoprostanes appear to be promising, but they have not been adequately evaluated. 8-Hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine has been extensively investigated as markers of oxidative DNA damage but no study has been done in stroke patients. Also enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants have been proposed as indirect markers. Among them ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, uric acid, and superoxide dismutase are related to brain damage and clinical outcome. After a critical evaluation of the literature, we conclude that, while an ideal biomarker is not yet available, the balance between antioxidants and by-products of oxidative stress in the organism might be the best approach for the evaluation of oxidative stress in stroke patients.

  8. Emotions, behaviours and mood changes in stroke.

    PubMed

    Carota, Antonio; Staub, Fabienne; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2002-02-01

    The brain mediates and integrates all cognitive activities, emotional experiences and finally behaviours. Stroke is undoubtedly a privileged disease for human behavioural studies, because of its high incidence. Recent advances in high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging techniques and functional neuroimaging allow both the precise localization of lesions and on-line visualization of the activity of cerebral areas and networks. Nevertheless, the neuropsychiatry of stroke remains uncertain in its relationship with brain dysfunction. Clinical studies on registry populations, single case studies, and functional neuroimaging data provide interesting findings, but differences in methods and great individual intervariability still prevent a complete understanding of emotional perception and behavioural responses in stroke. We adopted an anatomical-functional model as an operational framework in order to systematize the recent literature on emotional, behavioural and mood changes after stroke. The dysfunction of the areas subserving fundamental and executive functions induces behavioural and affective changes (such as depression, anxiety, apathy) that reflect the dysfunction of the whole system. Conversely, lesions in the system of instrumental functions induce signature syndromes (aphasia, anosognosia). At any delay from stroke, the diagnosis and treatment of mood and behavioural changes are a priority for clinicians and healthcare professionals to improve the quality of life of patients.

  9. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring of stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneipp, Moritz; Turner, Jake; Hambauer, Sebastian; Krieg, Sandro M.; Lehmberg, Jens; Lindauer, Ute; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Characterizing disease progression and identifying possible therapeutic interventions in stroke is greatly aided by the use of longitudinal function imaging studies. In this study, we investigate the applicability of real-time multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) as a tool for non-invasive monitoring of the progression of stroke in the whole brain. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method was used to induce stroke. Mice were imaged under isoflurane anesthesia preoperatively and at several time points during and after the 60-minute occlusion. The animals were sacrificed after 24 hours and their excised brains frozen at -80°C for sectioning. The cryosection were stained using H&E staining to identify the ischemic lesion. Major vessels are readily identifiable in the whole mouse head in the in vivo optoacoustic scans. During ischemia, a reduction in cerebral blood volume is detectable in the cortex. Post ischemia, spectral unmixing of the optoacoustic signals shows an asymmetry of the deoxygenated hemoglobin in the hemisphere affected by MCAO. This hypoxic area was mainly located around the boundary of the ischemic lesion and was therefore identified as the ischemic penumbra. Non-invasive functional MSOT imaging is able to visualize the hypoxic penumbra in brains affected by stroke. Stopping the spread of the infarct area and revitalizing the penumbra is central in stroke research, this new imaging technique may therefore prove to be a valuable tool in the monitoring and developing new treatments.

  10. Zum Problem der Korrektur und Bewertung des commentaire de texte als Arbeits - und Pruefungsform (On the Problem of Correcting and Grading Text Commentary in Graduation Exams in French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornung, Walter

    1976-01-01

    Discusses two conflicting concepts of correcting and grading high school graduation examinations in French: "mathematical" grading of complex exercises versus objective grading of reduced segments. Recommends higher valuation on goal-orientation as against extreme objectivity. Students' performance must be evaluated individually. Various concrete…

  11. Diorganostyrylzinndiorganophosphine und Ihre Tricarbonylnickelkomplexe (Diorganostyryltin Phosphines and its Tricarbonylnickel Complexes).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-03

    Umkristallisieren aus Pentan/Benzol/Toluol gereinigt werden konnen; IVb zeigt bereits ab 0°C Polym erisationserschei- nungen. Vb und VIb werden als heligelbe...einem Rar.ger Engeneering M6ssbauer Spectrometer benutzt wurde. in C 6 D 6c) die Ha lbwertsbreiten wurden als glei~h vorausgesetzt , um dos Si gnal als

  12. Increasing Pragmatic Awareness: Die Vagheit der Sprache "und so"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overstreet, Maryann; Tran, Jennie; Zietze, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a description of some pragmatic expressions ("oder so," "und so," "oder wie") rarely found in textbooks, but common in everyday conversation. Though often treated as vague or superfluous, these expressions perform important functions in interpersonal communication. Focusing on these easily identifiable phrases can help…

  13. Stroke Stories | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Stroke Rehabilitation Stroke Stories Past Issues / Spring 2013 ... speech impediment. Through rehabilitation, she returned to her film and television roles without hindrance. Kirk Douglas: After ...

  14. Presumed Perinatal Stroke: Risk Factors, Clinical and Radiological Findings.

    PubMed

    Ilves, Pilvi; Laugesaar, Rael; Loorits, Dagmar; Kolk, Anneli; Tomberg, Tiiu; Lõo, Silva; Talvik, Inga; Kahre, Tiina; Talvik, Tiina

    2016-04-01

    It is unknown why some infants with perinatal stroke present clinical symptoms late during infancy and will be identified as infants with presumed perinatal stroke. The risk factors and clinical and radiological data of 42 infants with presumed perinatal stroke (69% with periventricular venous infarction and 31% with arterial ischemic stroke) from the Estonian Pediatric Stroke Database were reviewed. Children with presumed perinatal stroke were born at term in 95% of the cases and had had no risk factors during pregnancy in 43% of the cases. Children with periventricular venous infarction were born significantly more often (82%) vaginally (P = .0213) compared to children with arterial stroke (42%); nor did they require resuscitation (P = .0212) or had any neurological symptoms after birth (P = .0249). Periventricular venous infarction is the most common type of lesion among infants with the presumed perinatal stroke. Data suggest that the disease is of prenatal origin.

  15. What to do With Wake-Up Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Wake-up stroke, defined as the situation where a patient awakens with stroke symptoms that were not present prior to falling asleep, represents roughly 1 in 5 acute ischemic strokes and remains a therapeutic dilemma. Patients with wake-up stroke were excluded from most ischemic stroke treatment trials and are often not eligible for acute reperfusion therapy in clinical practice, leading to poor outcomes. Studies of neuroimaging with standard noncontrast computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and multimodal perfusion-based CT and MRI suggest wake-up stroke may occur shortly before awakening and may assist in selecting patients for acute reperfusion therapies. Pilot studies of wake-up stroke treatment based on these neuroimaging features are promising but have limited generalizability. Ongoing randomized treatment trials using neuroimaging-based patient selection may identify a subset of patients with wake-up stroke that can safely benefit from acute reperfusion therapies. PMID:26288674

  16. Air pollution and stroke - an overview of the evidence base.

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, Ravi

    2016-08-01

    Air pollution is being increasingly recognized as a significant risk factor for stroke. There are numerous sources of air pollution including industry, road transport and domestic use of biomass and solid fuels. Early reports of the association between air pollution and stroke come from studies investigating health effects of severe pollution episodes. Several daily time series and case-crossover studies have reported associations with stroke. There is also evidence linking chronic air pollution exposure with stroke and with reduced survival after stroke. A conceptual framework linking air pollution exposure and stroke is proposed. It links acute and chronic exposure to air pollution with pathways to acute and chronic effects on stroke risk. Current evidence regarding potential mechanisms mainly relate to particulate air pollution. Whilst further evidence would be useful, there is already sufficient evidence to support consideration of reduction in air pollution as a preventative measure to reduce the stroke burden globally.

  17. [Epidemiology of stroke in Japan and comparison with the world].

    PubMed

    Furuta, Yoshihiko; Ninomiya, Toshiharu

    2016-04-01

    Stroke was the leading cause of death in Japan until 1980s. The results from the Hisayama study, which is a population-based study in Japan, showed that incidence and mortality of stroke decreased with time owing to the improved management of hypertension. Although the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke decreased markedly, the proportion of hemorrhagic stroke among the incident cases of stroke in Japan is higher than in European countries. Among the incident cases of ischemic stroke, the proportion of lacunar infarction decreased significantly, whereas the proportion of atherothrombotic and cardioembolic stroke increased. These changes may be caused by elevating prevalence of metabolic disorders-namely, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Effective prevention and management of the metabolic disorder are necessary for further prevention of stroke.

  18. American Indian and Alaska Native Heart Disease and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

  19. For Stroke Survivors, Exercise Is Good for The Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163721.html For Stroke Survivors, Exercise Is Good for the Brain: Review Along with ... WEDNESDAY, Feb. 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A structured exercise program can help stroke survivors recover not only ...

  20. More Evidence Ties Gum Health to Stroke Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163755.html More Evidence Ties Gum Health to Stroke Risk Study shows increasing risk of brain blockage ... as people with healthy gums to suffer a stroke, new research suggests. It's not the first study ...