Science.gov

Sample records for strongly delays pre-rrna

  1. The Strong Lensing Time Delay Challenge (2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Kai; Dobler, G.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Treu, T.; Marshall, P. J.; Rumbaugh, N.; Linder, E.; Hojjati, A.

    2014-01-01

    Time delays between multiple images in strong lensing systems are a powerful probe of cosmology. At the moment the application of this technique is limited by the number of lensed quasars with measured time delays. However, the number of such systems is expected to increase dramatically in the next few years. Hundred such systems are expected within this decade, while the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is expected to deliver of order 1000 time delays in the 2020 decade. In order to exploit this bounty of lenses we needed to make sure the time delay determination algorithms have sufficiently high precision and accuracy. As a first step to test current algorithms and identify potential areas for improvement we have started a "Time Delay Challenge" (TDC). An "evil" team has created realistic simulated light curves, to be analyzed blindly by "good" teams. The challenge is open to all interested parties. The initial challenge consists of two steps (TDC0 and TDC1). TDC0 consists of a small number of datasets to be used as a training template. The non-mandatory deadline is December 1 2013. The "good" teams that complete TDC0 will be given access to TDC1. TDC1 consists of thousands of lightcurves, a number sufficient to test precision and accuracy at the subpercent level, necessary for time-delay cosmography. The deadline for responding to TDC1 is July 1 2014. Submissions will be analyzed and compared in terms of predefined metrics to establish the goodness-of-fit, efficiency, precision and accuracy of current algorithms. This poster describes the challenge in detail and gives instructions for participation.

  2. Strong Lens Time Delay Challenge. I. Experimental Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobler, Gregory; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Phil; Liao, Kai; Hojjati, Alireza; Linder, Eric; Rumbaugh, Nicholas

    2015-02-01

    The time delays between point-like images in gravitational lens systems can be used to measure cosmological parameters. The number of lenses with measured time delays is growing rapidly; the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will monitor ~103 strongly lensed quasars. In an effort to assess the present capabilities of the community, to accurately measure the time delays, and to provide input to dedicated monitoring campaigns and future LSST cosmology feasibility studies, we have invited the community to take part in a "Time Delay Challenge" (TDC). The challenge is organized as a set of "ladders," each containing a group of simulated data sets to be analyzed blindly by participating teams. Each rung on a ladder consists of a set of realistic mock observed lensed quasar light curves, with the rungs' data sets increasing in complexity and realism. The initial challenge described here has two ladders, TDC0 and TDC1. TDC0 has a small number of data sets, and is designed to be used as a practice set by the participating teams. The (non-mandatory) deadline for completion of TDC0 was the TDC1 launch date, 2013 December 1. The TDC1 deadline was 2014 July 1. Here we give an overview of the challenge, we introduce a set of metrics that will be used to quantify the goodness of fit, efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the algorithms, and we present the results of TDC0. Thirteen teams participated in TDC0 using 47 different methods. Seven of those teams qualified for TDC1, which is described in the companion paper.

  3. STRONG LENS TIME DELAY CHALLENGE. I. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Dobler, Gregory; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Rumbaugh, Nicholas; Treu, Tommaso; Liao, Kai; Marshall, Phil; Hojjati, Alireza; Linder, Eric

    2015-02-01

    The time delays between point-like images in gravitational lens systems can be used to measure cosmological parameters. The number of lenses with measured time delays is growing rapidly; the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will monitor ∼10{sup 3} strongly lensed quasars. In an effort to assess the present capabilities of the community, to accurately measure the time delays, and to provide input to dedicated monitoring campaigns and future LSST cosmology feasibility studies, we have invited the community to take part in a ''Time Delay Challenge'' (TDC). The challenge is organized as a set of ''ladders'', each containing a group of simulated data sets to be analyzed blindly by participating teams. Each rung on a ladder consists of a set of realistic mock observed lensed quasar light curves, with the rungs' data sets increasing in complexity and realism. The initial challenge described here has two ladders, TDC0 and TDC1. TDC0 has a small number of data sets, and is designed to be used as a practice set by the participating teams. The (non-mandatory) deadline for completion of TDC0 was the TDC1 launch date, 2013 December 1. The TDC1 deadline was 2014 July 1. Here we give an overview of the challenge, we introduce a set of metrics that will be used to quantify the goodness of fit, efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the algorithms, and we present the results of TDC0. Thirteen teams participated in TDC0 using 47 different methods. Seven of those teams qualified for TDC1, which is described in the companion paper.

  4. STRONG LENS TIME DELAY CHALLENGE. II. RESULTS OF TDC1

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Kai; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Phil; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Rumbaugh, Nick; Dobler, Gregory; Aghamousa, Amir; Bonvin, Vivien; Courbin, Frederic; Meylan, Georges; Hojjati, Alireza; Jackson, Neal; Kashyap, Vinay; Mandel, Kaisey; Rathna Kumar, S.; Prabhu, Tushar P.; Linder, Eric; Meng, Xiao-Li; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Romero-Wolf, Andrew [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, M and others

    2015-02-10

    We present the results of the first strong lens time delay challenge. The motivation, experimental design, and entry level challenge are described in a companion paper. This paper presents the main challenge, TDC1, which consisted of analyzing thousands of simulated light curves blindly. The observational properties of the light curves cover the range in quality obtained for current targeted efforts (e.g., COSMOGRAIL) and expected from future synoptic surveys (e.g., LSST), and include simulated systematic errors. Seven teams participated in TDC1, submitting results from 78 different method variants. After describing each method, we compute and analyze basic statistics measuring accuracy (or bias) A, goodness of fit χ{sup 2}, precision P, and success rate f. For some methods we identify outliers as an important issue. Other methods show that outliers can be controlled via visual inspection or conservative quality control. Several methods are competitive, i.e., give |A| < 0.03, P < 0.03, and χ{sup 2} < 1.5, with some of the methods already reaching sub-percent accuracy. The fraction of light curves yielding a time delay measurement is typically in the range f = 20%-40%. It depends strongly on the quality of the data: COSMOGRAIL-quality cadence and light curve lengths yield significantly higher f than does sparser sampling. Taking the results of TDC1 at face value, we estimate that LSST should provide around 400 robust time-delay measurements, each with P < 0.03 and |A| < 0.01, comparable to current lens modeling uncertainties. In terms of observing strategies, we find that A and f depend mostly on season length, while P depends mostly on cadence and campaign duration.

  5. The time delay in strong gravitational lensing with Gauss-Bonnet correction

    SciTech Connect

    Man, Jingyun; Cheng, Hongbo E-mail: hbcheng@ecust.edu.cn

    2014-11-01

    The time delay between two relativistic images in the strong gravitational lensing governed by Gauss-Bonnet gravity is studied. We make a complete analytical derivation of the expression of time delay in presence of Gauss-Bonnet coupling. With respect to Schwarzschild, the time delay decreases as a consequence of the shrinking of the photon sphere. As the coupling increases, the second term in the time delay expansion becomes more relevant. Thus time delay in strong limit encodes some new information about geometry in five-dimensional spacetime with Gauss-Bonnet correction.

  6. Strong gravitational field time delay for photons coupled to Weyl tensor in a Schwarzschild black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xu; Yang, Feng-Wei; Xie, Yi

    2016-07-01

    We analyze strong gravitational field time delay for photons coupled to the Weyl tensor in a Schwarzschild black hole. By making use of the method of strong deflection limit, we find that these time delays between relativistic images are significantly affected by polarization directions of such a coupling. A practical problem about determination of the polarization direction by observations is investigated. It is found that if the first and second relativistic images can be resolved, the measurement of time delay can more effectively improve detectability of the polarization direction.

  7. The transition between strong and weak chaos in delay systems: Stochastic modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jüngling, Thomas; D'Huys, Otti; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the scaling behavior of the maximal Lyapunov exponent in chaotic systems with time delay. In the large-delay limit, it is known that one can distinguish between strong and weak chaos depending on the delay scaling, analogously to strong and weak instabilities for steady states and periodic orbits. Here we show that the Lyapunov exponent of chaotic systems shows significant differences in its scaling behavior compared to constant or periodic dynamics due to fluctuations in the linearized equations of motion. We reproduce the chaotic scaling properties with a linear delay system with multiplicative noise. We further derive analytic limit cases for the stochastic model illustrating the mechanisms of the emerging scaling laws.

  8. Strongly Lensed Jets, Time Delays, and the Value of H 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnacka, Anna; Geller, Margaret J.; Dell'Antonio, Ian P.; Benbow, Wystan

    2015-01-01

    In principle, the most straightforward method of estimating the Hubble constant relies on time delays between mirage images of strongly lensed sources. It is a puzzle, then, that the values of H 0 obtained with this method span a range from ~50-100 km s-1Mpc-1. Quasars monitored to measure these time delays are multi-component objects. The variability may arise from different components of the quasar or may even originate from a jet. Misidentifying a variable-emitting region in a jet with emission from the core region may introduce an error in the Hubble constant derived from a time delay. Here, we investigate the complex structure of the sources as the underlying physical explanation of the wide spread in values of the Hubble constant based on gravitational lensing. Our Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the derived value of the Hubble constant is very sensitive to the offset between the center of the emission and the center of the variable emitting region. Therefore, we propose using the value of H 0 known from other techniques to spatially resolve the origin of the variable emission once the time delay is measured. We particularly advocate this method for gamma-ray astronomy, where the angular resolution of detectors reaches approximately 0.°1 lensed blazars offer the only route for identify the origin of gamma-ray flares. Large future samples of gravitationally lensed sources identified with Euclid, SKA, and LSST will enable a statistical determination of H 0.

  9. STRONGLY LENSED JETS, TIME DELAYS, AND THE VALUE OF H {sub 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Barnacka, Anna; Geller, Margaret J.; Benbow, Wystan; Dell'Antonio, Ian P.

    2015-01-20

    In principle, the most straightforward method of estimating the Hubble constant relies on time delays between mirage images of strongly lensed sources. It is a puzzle, then, that the values of H {sub 0} obtained with this method span a range from ∼50-100 km s{sup –1}Mpc{sup –1}. Quasars monitored to measure these time delays are multi-component objects. The variability may arise from different components of the quasar or may even originate from a jet. Misidentifying a variable-emitting region in a jet with emission from the core region may introduce an error in the Hubble constant derived from a time delay. Here, we investigate the complex structure of the sources as the underlying physical explanation of the wide spread in values of the Hubble constant based on gravitational lensing. Our Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the derived value of the Hubble constant is very sensitive to the offset between the center of the emission and the center of the variable emitting region. Therefore, we propose using the value of H {sub 0} known from other techniques to spatially resolve the origin of the variable emission once the time delay is measured. We particularly advocate this method for gamma-ray astronomy, where the angular resolution of detectors reaches approximately 0.°1; lensed blazars offer the only route for identify the origin of gamma-ray flares. Large future samples of gravitationally lensed sources identified with Euclid, SKA, and LSST will enable a statistical determination of H {sub 0}.

  10. Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, E. R.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, A.; Austin, D. R.; Diveki, Z.; Hutchinson, S. E. E.; Siegel, T.; Ruberti, M.; Averbukh, V.; Miseikis, L.; Strüber, C. S.; Chipperfield, L.; Marangos, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    We present the first measurement of the vectorial response of strongly dressed helium atoms probed by an attosecond pulse train (APT) polarised either parallel or perpendicular to the dressing field polarisation. The transient absorption is probed as a function of delay between the APT and the linearly polarised 800 nm field of peak intensity 1.3× {10}14 {{W}} {{cm}}-2. The APT spans the photon energy range 16-42 eV, covering the first ionisation energy of helium (24.59 eV). With parallel polarised dressing and probing fields, we observe modulations with periods of one half and one quarter of the dressing field period. When the polarisation of the dressing field is altered from parallel to perpendicular with respect to the APT polarisation we observe a large suppression in the modulation depth of the above ionisation threshold absorption. In addition to this we present the intensity dependence of the harmonic modulation depth as a function of delay between the dressing and probe fields, with dressing field peak intensities ranging from 2 × 1012 to 2 × 1014 {{W}} {{cm}}-2. We compare our experimental results with a full-dimensional solution of the single-atom time-dependent (TD) Schrödinger equation obtained using the recently developed abinitio TD B-spline ADC method and find good qualitative agreement for the above threshold harmonics.

  11. Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, E. R.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, A.; Austin, D. R.; Diveki, Z.; Hutchinson, S. E. E.; Siegel, T.; Ruberti, M.; Averbukh, V.; Miseikis, L.; Strüber, C. S.; Chipperfield, L.; Marangos, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    We present the first measurement of the vectorial response of strongly dressed helium atoms probed by an attosecond pulse train (APT) polarised either parallel or perpendicular to the dressing field polarisation. The transient absorption is probed as a function of delay between the APT and the linearly polarised 800 nm field of peak intensity 1.3× {10}14 {{W}} {{cm}}-2. The APT spans the photon energy range 16–42 eV, covering the first ionisation energy of helium (24.59 eV). With parallel polarised dressing and probing fields, we observe modulations with periods of one half and one quarter of the dressing field period. When the polarisation of the dressing field is altered from parallel to perpendicular with respect to the APT polarisation we observe a large suppression in the modulation depth of the above ionisation threshold absorption. In addition to this we present the intensity dependence of the harmonic modulation depth as a function of delay between the dressing and probe fields, with dressing field peak intensities ranging from 2 × 1012 to 2 × 1014 {{W}} {{cm}}-2. We compare our experimental results with a full-dimensional solution of the single-atom time-dependent (TD) Schrödinger equation obtained using the recently developed abinitio TD B-spline ADC method and find good qualitative agreement for the above threshold harmonics.

  12. Observational selection biases in time-delay strong lensing and their impact on cosmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, Thomas E.; Cunnington, Steven D.

    2016-11-01

    Inferring cosmological parameters from time-delay strong lenses requires a significant investment of telescope time; it is therefore tempting to focus on the systems with the brightest sources, the highest image multiplicities and the widest image separations. We investigate if this selection bias can influence the properties of the lenses studied and the cosmological parameters inferred. Using an ellipsoidal power-law deflector population, we build a sample of double- and quadruple-image systems. Assuming reasonable thresholds on image separation and flux, based on current lens monitoring campaigns, we find that the typical density profile slopes of monitorable lenses are significantly shallower than the input ensemble. From a sample of quads, we find that this selection function can introduce a 3.5 per cent bias on the inferred time-delay distances if the properties of the input ensemble are (incorrectly) used as priors on the lens model. This bias remains at the 2.4 per cent level when high-resolution imaging of the quasar host is used to precisely infer the properties of individual lenses. We also investigate if the lines of sight for monitorable strong lenses are biased. The expectation value for the line-of-sight convergence is increased by 0.009 (0.004) for quads (doubles) implying a 0.9 per cent (0.4 per cent) bias on H0. We therefore conclude that whilst the properties of typical quasar lenses and their lines of sight do deviate from the global population, the total magnitude of this effect is likely to be a subdominant effect for current analyses, but has the potential to be a major systematic for samples of ˜25 or more lenses.

  13. TWO ACCURATE TIME-DELAY DISTANCES FROM STRONG LENSING: IMPLICATIONS FOR COSMOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Suyu, S. H.; Treu, T.; Auger, M. W.; Hilbert, S.; Blandford, R. D.; Marshall, P. J.; Tewes, M.; Courbin, F.; Meylan, G.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Sluse, D.

    2013-04-01

    Strong gravitational lenses with measured time delays between the multiple images and models of the lens mass distribution allow a one-step determination of the time-delay distance, and thus a measure of cosmological parameters. We present a blind analysis of the gravitational lens RXJ1131-1231 incorporating (1) the newly measured time delays from COSMOGRAIL, the COSmological MOnitoring of GRAvItational Lenses, (2) archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the lens system, (3) a new velocity-dispersion measurement of the lens galaxy of 323 {+-} 20 km s{sup -1} based on Keck spectroscopy, and (4) a characterization of the line-of-sight structures via observations of the lens' environment and ray tracing through the Millennium Simulation. Our blind analysis is designed to prevent experimenter bias. The joint analysis of the data sets allows a time-delay distance measurement to 6% precision that takes into account all known systematic uncertainties. In combination with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe seven-year (WMAP7) data set in flat wCDM cosmology, our unblinded cosmological constraints for RXJ1131-1231 are H{sub 0}=80.0{sup +5.8}{sub -5.7} km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}, {Omega}{sub de} = 0.79 {+-} 0.03, and w=-1.25{sup +0.17}{sub -0.21}. We find the results to be statistically consistent with those from the analysis of the gravitational lens B1608+656, permitting us to combine the inferences from these two lenses. The joint constraints from the two lenses and WMAP7 are H{sub 0}=75.2{sup +4.4}{sub -4.2} km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}, {Omega}{sub de}=0.76{sup +0.02}{sub -0.03}, and w = -1.14{sup +0.17}{sub -0.20} in flat wCDM, and H{sub 0}=73.1{sup +2.4}{sub -3.6} km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}, {Omega}{sub {Lambda}}=0.75{sup +0.01}{sub -0.02}, and {Omega}{sub k}=0.003{sup +0.005}{sub -0.006} in open {Lambda}CDM. Time-delay lenses constrain especially tightly the Hubble constant H{sub 0} (5.7% and 4.0% respectively in wCDM and open {Lambda}CDM) and curvature of the

  14. Attosecond time delays in the nuclear dynamics of strong-field molecular dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Greg; Ultrafast Molecular Physics Group Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The relative time delay in the photoemission from neighboring atomic valence sub-shells has become an area of considerable recent interest, with delays of tens of attoseconds reported in pump-probe experiments for a number of atomic targets. Such delays may be extracted, for example, from phase differences in the photoelectron energy spectra for the different sub-shells as a function of delay between pump and probe pulses. The focus of such experiments has, to date, been atomic targets, on the assumption that only electronic motion can lead to delays on the attosecond scale.We investigate the molecular analogue of such studies by calculating the kinetic-energy release (KER) spectrum for neighboring vibrational states as a function of pump-probe delay time. In particular, we focus on molecular targets where electronic excitation is negligible, and show that attosecond time delays are also possible for purely nuclear motion. We will present evidence of these attosecond delays derived from both numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and experiment. We analyze and understand the observed shifts using the photon-phase formalism. G.S.J. Armstrong, J. McKenna, B. Gaire, M. Zohrabi, B. Berry, B. Jochim, Kanaka Raju, P., P. Feizollah, K.D. Carnes, Ben-Itzhak, B.D. Esry.

  15. From inverse to delayed magnetic catalysis in a strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Shijun

    2016-08-01

    We study the magnetic field effect on chiral phase transition in a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In comparison with a mean-field approximation containing only quarks, including mesons as quantum fluctuations in the model leads to a transition from inverse to delayed magnetic catalysis at finite temperature and delays the transition at finite baryon chemical potential. The location of the critical end point depends nonmonotonically on the magnetic field.

  16. Delay discounting rates: A strong prognostic indicator of relapse to smoking

    PubMed Central

    Sheffer, Christine E.; Christensen, Darren R; Landes, Reid; Carter, Larry P.; Jackson, Lisa; Bickel, Warren K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that several dimensions of impulsivity and locus of control are likely to be significant prognostic indicators of relapse. We compared the relative strengths of associations among delay discounting rates, dimensions of trait impulsiveness from the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - 11, locus of control, nicotine dependence, and stress level with days to relapse among smokers after an intensive multicomponent cognitive-behavioral treatment for tobacco dependence. We used Cox proportional hazard regressions to model days to relapse with each of the following: delay discounting of $100, delay discounting of $1,000, six subscales of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), Rotter’s Locus of Control (RLOC), Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Standardized regression coefficients and hazard ratios (HRs) were used to assess the relative strength and direction of the associations along with a bootstrap method to determine 95% confidence intervals. We then examined the extent to which the measures retained associations with days to relapse while accounting for nicotine dependence and stress level. Our findings indicate that the $100 delay discounting rate had the strongest association with days to relapse, but was only significantly stronger than nicotine dependence. Discounting rates maintained significant associations with days to relapse when combined with the FTND and the PSS, but the BIS subscales and the RLOC did not. These findings indicate that delay discounting is independently associated with relapse and adds to what is already accounted for by nicotine dependence and stress level. These findings signify that delay discounting is a productive new target for enhancing treatment for tobacco dependence. Adding an intervention designed to decrease discounting rates to a comprehensive treatment for tobacco dependence has the potential to decrease relapse rates. PMID:24878037

  17. Control of Stimulated Raman Scattering in the Strongly Nonlinear and Kinetic Regime Using Spike Trains of Uneven Duration and Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, B. J.; Yin, L.; Afeyan, B.

    2014-07-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in its strongly nonlinear, kinetic regime is controlled by a technique of deterministic, strong temporal modulation and spatial scrambling of laser speckle patterns, called spike trains of uneven duration and delay (STUD) pulses [B. Afeyan and S. Hüller (unpublished)]. Kinetic simulations show that the proper use of STUD pulses decreases SRS reflectivity by more than an order of magnitude over random-phase-plate or induced-spatial-incoherence beams of the same average intensity and comparable bandwidth.

  18. The mass-sheet degeneracy and time-delay cosmography: analysis of the strong lens RXJ1131-1231

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrer, Simon; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre

    2016-08-01

    We present extended modelling of the strong lens system RXJ1131-1231 with archival data in two HST bands in combination with existing line-of-sight contribution and velocity dispersion estimates. Our focus is on source size and its influence on time-delay cosmography. We therefore examine the impact of mass-sheet degeneracy and especially the degeneracy pointed out by Schneider & Sluse (2013) [1] using the source reconstruction scale. We also extend on previous work by further exploring the effects of priors on the kinematics of the lens and the external convergence in the environment of the lensing system. Our results coming from RXJ1131-1231 are given in a simple analytic form so that they can be easily combined with constraints coming from other cosmological probes. We find that the choice of priors on lens model parameters and source size are subdominant for the statistical errors for H0 measurements of this systems. The choice of prior for the source is sub-dominant at present (2% uncertainty on H0) but may be relevant for future studies. More importantly, we find that the priors on the kinematic anisotropy of the lens galaxy have a significant impact on our cosmological inference. When incorporating all the above modeling uncertainties, we find H0 = 86.6+6.8-6.9 km s-1 Mpc-1, when using kinematic priors similar to other studies. When we use a different kinematic prior motivated by Barnabè et al. (2012) [2] but covering the same anisotropic range, we find H0 = 74.5+8.0-7.8 km s-1 Mpc-1. This means that the choice of kinematic modeling and priors have a significant impact on cosmographic inferences. The way forward is either to get better velocity dispersion measures which would down weight the impact of the priors or to construct physically motivated priors for the velocity dispersion model.

  19. The mass-sheet degeneracy and time-delay cosmography: analysis of the strong lens RXJ1131-1231

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrer, Simon; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre

    2016-08-01

    We present extended modelling of the strong lens system RXJ1131-1231 with archival data in two HST bands in combination with existing line-of-sight contribution and velocity dispersion estimates. Our focus is on source size and its influence on time-delay cosmography. We therefore examine the impact of mass-sheet degeneracy and especially the degeneracy pointed out by Schneider & Sluse (2013) [1] using the source reconstruction scale. We also extend on previous work by further exploring the effects of priors on the kinematics of the lens and the external convergence in the environment of the lensing system. Our results coming from RXJ1131-1231 are given in a simple analytic form so that they can be easily combined with constraints coming from other cosmological probes. We find that the choice of priors on lens model parameters and source size are subdominant for the statistical errors for H0 measurements of this systems. The choice of prior for the source is sub-dominant at present (2% uncertainty on H0) but may be relevant for future studies. More importantly, we find that the priors on the kinematic anisotropy of the lens galaxy have a significant impact on our cosmological inference. When incorporating all the above modeling uncertainties, we find H0 = 86.6+6.8‑6.9 km s‑1 Mpc‑1, when using kinematic priors similar to other studies. When we use a different kinematic prior motivated by Barnabè et al. (2012) [2] but covering the same anisotropic range, we find H0 = 74.5+8.0‑7.8 km s‑1 Mpc‑1. This means that the choice of kinematic modeling and priors have a significant impact on cosmographic inferences. The way forward is either to get better velocity dispersion measures which would down weight the impact of the priors or to construct physically motivated priors for the velocity dispersion model.

  20. Delayed electron emission in strong-field driven tunnelling from a metallic nanotip in the multi-electron regime

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Hirofumi; Schnepp, Sascha; Hafner, Christian; Hengsberger, Matthias; Kim, Dong Eon; Kling, Matthias F.; Landsman, Alexandra; Gallmann, Lukas; Osterwalder, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Illuminating a nano-sized metallic tip with ultrashort laser pulses leads to the emission of electrons due to multiphoton excitations. As optical fields become stronger, tunnelling emission directly from the Fermi level becomes prevalent. This can generate coherent electron waves in vacuum leading to a variety of attosecond phenomena. Working at high emission currents where multi-electron effects are significant, we were able to characterize the transition from one regime to the other. Specifically, we found that the onset of laser-driven tunnelling emission is heralded by the appearance of a peculiar delayed emission channel. In this channel, the electrons emitted via laser-driven tunnelling emission are driven back into the metal, and some of the electrons reappear in the vacuum with some delay time after undergoing inelastic scattering and cascading processes inside the metal. Our understanding of these processes gives insights on attosecond tunnelling emission from solids and should prove useful in designing new types of pulsed electron sources. PMID:27786287

  1. HIV-1 epitope-specific CD8+ T cell responses strongly associated with delayed disease progression cross-recognize epitope variants efficiently.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Emma L; Lopes, A Ross; Jones, Nicola A; Cornforth, David; Newton, Phillipa; Aldam, Diana; Pellegrino, Pierre; Turner, Jo; Williams, Ian; Wilson, Craig M; Goepfert, Paul A; Maini, Mala K; Borrow, Persephone

    2006-05-15

    The ability of HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cell responses to recognize epitope variants resulting from viral sequence variation in vivo may affect the ease with which HIV-1 can escape T cell control and impact on the rate of disease progression in HIV-1-infected humans. Here, we studied the functional cross-reactivity of CD8 responses to HIV-1 epitopes restricted by HLA class I alleles associated with differential prognosis of infection. We show that the epitope-specific responses exhibiting the most efficient cross-recognition of amino acid-substituted variants were those strongly associated with delayed progression to disease. Not all epitopes restricted by the same HLA class I allele showed similar variant cross-recognition efficiency, consistent with the hypothesis that the reported associations between particular HLA class I alleles and rate of disease progression may be due to the quality of responses to certain "critical" epitopes. Irrespective of their efficiency of functional cross-recognition, CD8(+) T cells of all HIV-1 epitope specificities examined showed focused TCR usage. Furthermore, interpatient variability in variant cross-reactivity correlated well with use of different dominant TCR Vbeta families, suggesting that flexibility is not conferred by the overall clonal breadth of the response but instead by properties of the dominant TCR(s) used for epitope recognition. A better understanding of the features of T cell responses associated with long-term control of viral replication should facilitate rational vaccine design.

  2. HIV-1 epitope-specific CD8+ T cell responses strongly associated with delayed disease progression cross-recognize epitope variants efficiently.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Emma L; Lopes, A Ross; Jones, Nicola A; Cornforth, David; Newton, Phillipa; Aldam, Diana; Pellegrino, Pierre; Turner, Jo; Williams, Ian; Wilson, Craig M; Goepfert, Paul A; Maini, Mala K; Borrow, Persephone

    2006-05-15

    The ability of HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cell responses to recognize epitope variants resulting from viral sequence variation in vivo may affect the ease with which HIV-1 can escape T cell control and impact on the rate of disease progression in HIV-1-infected humans. Here, we studied the functional cross-reactivity of CD8 responses to HIV-1 epitopes restricted by HLA class I alleles associated with differential prognosis of infection. We show that the epitope-specific responses exhibiting the most efficient cross-recognition of amino acid-substituted variants were those strongly associated with delayed progression to disease. Not all epitopes restricted by the same HLA class I allele showed similar variant cross-recognition efficiency, consistent with the hypothesis that the reported associations between particular HLA class I alleles and rate of disease progression may be due to the quality of responses to certain "critical" epitopes. Irrespective of their efficiency of functional cross-recognition, CD8(+) T cells of all HIV-1 epitope specificities examined showed focused TCR usage. Furthermore, interpatient variability in variant cross-reactivity correlated well with use of different dominant TCR Vbeta families, suggesting that flexibility is not conferred by the overall clonal breadth of the response but instead by properties of the dominant TCR(s) used for epitope recognition. A better understanding of the features of T cell responses associated with long-term control of viral replication should facilitate rational vaccine design. PMID:16670322

  3. Equivalent Stimuli Are More Strongly Related after Training with Delayed Matching than after Simultaneous Matching: A Study Using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortoloti, Renato; de Rose, Julio C.

    2012-01-01

    Bortoloti and de Rose (2009) found evidence that the level of functional transfer is higher in equivalence classes generated by delayed matching to sample (DMTS) than in classes generated by simultaneous matching (SMTS). We attempted to replicate these findings with the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). Two experimental groups…

  4. A strongly greenish-blue-emitting Cu4Cl4 cluster with an efficient spin-orbit coupling (SOC): fast phosphorescence versus thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-Lin; Yu, Rongmin; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Liang, Dong; Jia, Ji-Hui; Lu, Can-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    In this communication, we report a new greenish-blue-emitting Cu(i) complex, Cu4Cl4(NP)2, a with high photoluminescence quantum yield of 90% and a short decay time of 9.9 μs. Due to the strong SOC combined with the small activation energy ΔEST, the emission at room temperature consists of approximately equivalent fast phosphorescence and TADF. PMID:27086679

  5. Delayed ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    Ejaculatory incompetence; Sex - delayed ejaculation; Retarded ejaculation; Anejaculation; Infertility - delayed ejaculation ... include: Religious background that makes the person view sex as sinful Lack of attraction for a partner ...

  6. [Delayed puberty].

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, F; Zamboni, G; Tatò, L

    1996-01-01

    Delayed puberty can be defined as the absence of any signs of puberty in subjects that have attained an age at the upper limit (+2DS) for the onset of puberty, that means 13 years in girls and 14 years in boys. The causes of delayed puberty can be classified into three groups, functional temporary impairment in gonadotropin and sex steroid secretion (most frequently constitutional delay of puberty), hypothalamo-pituitary failure with deficiency in gonadotropin secretion, primary gonadal failure with increased gonadotropin levels. The Authors discuss about etiology, diagnostic testing and therapeutic approach in these conditions. The majority of children with delayed puberty are males that have only a constitutional delay of growth and puberty. It is difficult, in teenage years, to distinguish this common and benign condition from true gonadotropin deficiency, in spite of the variety of endocrine tests developed for this purpose. Individuals with constitutional delayed puberty with a bone age greater than 11.5 years, show after triptorelin stimulation an increase in LH capable of distinguishing them from patients with gonadotropin deficiency. In our opinion this could be an important screening test to exclude gonadotropin deficiency in boys with delayed puberty.

  7. Strong Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Karsch, F.; Vogelsang, V.

    2009-09-29

    We will give here an overview of our theory of the strong interactions, Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and its properties. We will also briefly review the history of the study of the strong interactions, and the discoveries that ultimately led to the formulation of QCD. The strong force is one of the four known fundamental forces in nature, the others being the electromagnetic, the weak and the gravitational force. The strong force, usually referred to by scientists as the 'strong interaction', is relevant at the subatomic level, where it is responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei. To do this, it must overcome the electric repulsion between the protons in an atomic nucleus and be the most powerful force over distances of a few fm (1fm=1 femtometer=1 fermi=10{sup -15}m), the typical size of a nucleus. This property gave the strong force its name.

  8. Delaying obsolescence.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Rob

    2015-04-01

    This paper argues that those who emphasise that designers and engineers need to plan for obsolescence are too conservative. Rather, in addition to planning for obsolescence, designers and engineers should also think carefully about what they could do in order delay obsolescence. They should so this by thinking about the design itself, thinking of ways in which products could be useful and appealing for longer before becoming obsolete, as well thinking about the wider context in terms of the marketing of products, and also the social and legal. The paper also considers objections that these suggestions are unrealistically idealistic, failing to recognise the economic realities. I respond to these objections appealing to research in advertising, psychology, cognitive linguistics, philosophy, history, and economics, as well as drawing on the Statement of Ethical Principles developed by the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Engineering Council. PMID:24792878

  9. On Strong Anticipation

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, N.; Turvey, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    We examine Dubois's (2003) distinction between weak anticipation and strong anticipation. Anticipation is weak if it arises from a model of the system via internal simulations. Anticipation is strong if it arises from the system itself via lawful regularities embedded in the system's ordinary mode of functioning. The assumption of weak anticipation dominates cognitive science and neuroscience and in particular the study of perception and action. The assumption of strong anticipation, however, seems to be required by anticipation's ubiquity. It is, for example, characteristic of homeostatic processes at the level of the organism, organs, and cells. We develop the formal distinction between strong and weak anticipation by elaboration of anticipating synchronization, a phenomenon arising from time delays in appropriately coupled dynamical systems. The elaboration is conducted in respect to (a) strictly physical systems, (b) the defining features of circadian rhythms, often viewed as paradigmatic of biological behavior based in internal models, (c) Pavlovian learning, and (d) forward models in motor control. We identify the common thread of strongly anticipatory systems and argue for its significance in furthering understanding of notions such as “internal”, “model” and “prediction”. PMID:20191086

  10. Hamlet's delay.

    PubMed

    Dendy, E B

    2001-01-01

    This paper raises a question about Freud's understanding of Hamlet and offers a fresh psychoanalytic perspective on the play, emphasizing the psychological use made of Hamlet by the audience. It suggests Hamlet and Claudius both serve as sacrificial objects, scapegoats, for the audience, embodying, through a mechanism of both identification and disidentification, the fulfillment, punishment, and renunciation of the audience's forbidden (i.e. Oedipal) wishes. The play is thus seen to represent unconsciously a rite of sacrifice in which both Claudius and Hamlet, both the father and the son, are led, albeit circuitously, to the slaughter. The need for delay on the part of Hamlet is thus seen to arise not merely from Hamlet's psychology, whatever the audience may project onto it, but ultimately from the function (both sadistic and defensive) that the sacrificial spectacle, the play as a whole, serves for the audience. The paper also speculates somewhat on the role of tragic heroes and heroines in general, and points to the unconscious collusion that permits author and audience to make use of them. Finally, in an addendum, the paper discusses the work of René Girard, a nonpsychoanalytic thinker whose ideas nonetheless are somewhat similar to those presented here. PMID:12102022

  11. Early identification of motor delay

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the Harris Infant Neuromotor Test (HINT), an infant neuromotor test using Canadian norms published in 2010 that could be used to screen for motor delay during the first year of life. Quality of evidence Extensive research has been published on the intrarater, interrater, and test-retest reliability and the content, concurrent, predictive, and known-groups validity of the HINT, as well as on the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of parental concerns, as assessed by the HINT. Most evidence is level II. Main message Diagnosing motor delays during the first year of life is important because these often indicate more generalized developmental delays or specific disabilities, such as cerebral palsy. Parental concerns about their children’s motor development are strongly predictive of subsequent diagnoses involving motor delay. Conclusion Only through early identification of developmental motor delays, initially with screening tools such as the HINT, is it possible to provide referrals for early intervention that could benefit both the infant and the family. PMID:27521388

  12. Relativistic calculations of angle-dependent photoemission time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheifets, Anatoli; Mandal, Ankur; Deshmukh, Pranawa C.; Dolmatov, Valeriy K.; Keating, David A.; Manson, Steven T.

    2016-07-01

    Angular dependence of photoemission time delay for the valence n p3 /2 and n p1 /2 subshells of Ar, Kr, and Xe is studied in the dipole relativistic random phase approximation. Strong angular anisotropy of the time delay is reproduced near respective Cooper minima while the spin-orbit splitting affects the time delay near threshold.

  13. Speech and Language Delay

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Speech and Language Delay Overview How do I know if my child has speech delay? Every child develops at his or her ... of the same age, the problem may be speech delay. Your doctor may think your child has ...

  14. Delay Discounting and Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Gregory J.; Francisco, Monica T.; Brewer, Adam T.; Stein, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Delay discounting describes the decline in the value of a reinforcer as the delay to that reinforcer increases. A review of the available studies revealed that steep delay discounting is positively correlated with problem or pathological gambling. One hypothesis regarding this correlation derives from the discounting equation proposed by Mazur (1989). According to the equation, steeper discounting renders the difference between fixed-delayed rewards and gambling-like variable-delayed rewards larger; with the latter being more valuable. The present study was designed to test this prediction by first assessing rats’ impulsive choices across four delays to a larger-later reinforcer. A second condition quantified strength of preference for mixed- over fixed-delays, with the duration of the latter adjusted between sessions to achieve indifference. Strength of preference for the mixed-delay alternative is given by the fixed delay at indifference (lower fixed-delay values reflect stronger preferences). Percent impulsive choice was not correlated with the value of the fixed delay at indifference and, therefore, the prediction of the hyperbolic model of gambling was not supported. A follow-up assessment revealed a significant decrease in impulsive choice after the second condition. This shift in impulsive choice could underlie the failure to observe the predicted correlation between impulsive choice and degree of preference for mixed- over fixed delays. PMID:21352902

  15. Delayed Geodynamo in Hadean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, J.

    2014-12-01

    Paleointensity measurements of Archean rocks reveal a strong geodynamo at ~3.45 Ga, while excess nitrogen content of lunar soil samples implies no geodynamo at ~3.9 Ga. Here I propose that initiation of a strong geodynamo is delayed due to accretion style of Earth, involving collision and merging of a few dozen Moon to Mars size planetary embryos. Two accretion scenarios consisting of 25 and 50 embryos are investigated. The collision of an embryo heats the proto-Earth's core differentially and the rotating low-viscosity core stably stratifies, creating a spherically symmetric and radially increasing temperature distribution. Convection starts in the outer core after each impact but is destroyed by the next impact. The iron core of an impacting embryo descends in the mantle and merges to the proto-Earth's core. Both adiabatic and non-adiabatic merging cases are studied. A major part of the gravitational energy released due to core merging is used to lift up the upper portion of the core to emplace the impactor core material at the neutrally buoyant level in the proto-Earth's core. The remaining energy is converted to heat. In the adiabatic case the merging embryo's core retains all of the remaining energy, while in the non-adiabatic merging 50% of the remaining energy is shared with the outer part of the proto-Earth's core where the embryo's core descends. The two merging models result in significantly different temperature distributions in the core at the end of accretion. After the accretion, the convecting shell in the outer core grows monotonically and generates geodynamo gradually. It takes about 50-100 Myr for the convecting shell to generate a strong dipole field at the surface, 50,000 to 100,000 nT, in the presence of a large stably stratified liquid inner core when the convecting outer core thickness exceeds about one half the radius of the Earth's core.

  16. Angular dependence of Wigner time delay: Relativistic Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, A.; Deshmukh, P. C.; Manson, S. T.; Kkeifets, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Laser assisted photoionization time delay mainly consists of two parts: Wigner time delay, and time delay in continuum-continuum transition. Wigner time delay results from the energy derivative of the phase of the photoionization amplitude (matrix element). In general, the photoionization time delay is not the same in all directions relative to the incident photon polarization, although when a single transition dominates the amplitude, the resultant time delay is essentially isotropic. The relativistic-random-phase approximation is employed to determine the Wigner time delay in photoionization from the outer np subshells of the noble gas atoms, Ne through Xe. The time delay is found to significantly depend on angle, as well as energy. The angular dependence of the time delay is found to be quite sensitive to atomic dynamics and relativistic effects, and exhibit strong energy and angular variation in the neighborhood of Cooper minima. Work supported by DOE, Office of Chemical Sciences and DST (India).

  17. CGI delay compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-generated graphics in real-time helicopter simulation produces objectionable scene-presentation time delays. In the flight simulation laboratory at Ames Research Center, it has been determined that these delays have an adverse influence on pilot performance during aggressive tasks such as nap-of-the-earth (NOE) maneuvers. Using contemporary equipment, computer-generated image (CGI) time delays are an unavoidable consequence of the operations required for scene generation. However, providing that magnitide distortions at higher frequencies are tolerable, delay compensation is possible over a restricted frequency range. This range, assumed to have an upper limit of perhaps 10 or 15 rad/sec, conforms approximately to the bandwidth associated with helicopter handling qualities research. A compensation algorithm is introduced here and evaluated in terms of tradeoffs in frequency responses. The algorithm has a discrete basis and accommodates both a large, constant transport delay interval and a periodic delay interval, as associated with asynchronous operations.

  18. VARIABLE TIME DELAY MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Clemensen, R.E.

    1959-11-01

    An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.

  19. Digital time delay

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.

  20. Strain differences in delay discounting using inbred rats

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, C. J.; Mitchell, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    A heightened aversion to delayed rewards is associated with substance abuse and numerous other neuropsychiatric disorders. Many of these disorders are heritable, raising the possibility that delay aversion may also have a significant genetic or heritable component. To examine this possibility, we compared delay discounting in six inbred strains of rats (Brown Norway, Copenhagen, Lewis, Fischer, Noble and Wistar Furth) using the adjusting amount procedure, which provides a measure of the subjective value of delayed rewards. The subjective value of rewards decreased as the delay to receipt increased for all strains. However, a main effect of strain and a strain × delay interaction indicated that some strains were more sensitive to the imposition of delays than others. Fitting a hyperbolic discount equation showed significant strain differences in sensitivity to delay (k). These data indicate that there are significant strain differences in delay discounting. All strains strongly preferred the 10% sucrose solution (the reinforcer in the delay discounting task) over water and the amount of sucrose consumed was correlated with sensitivity to delay. Locomotor activity was not correlated with delay discounting behavior. Additional research will be required to disentangle genetic influences from maternal effects and to determine how these factors influence the underlying association between heightened delay discounting and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19243451

  1. Delayed flowering and global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B. I.; Wolkovich, E. M.; Parmesan, C.

    2011-12-01

    Within general trends toward earlier spring, observed cases of species and ecosystems that have not advanced their phenology, or have even delayed it, appear paradoxical, especially when made in temperate regions experiencing significant warming. The typical interpretation of this pattern has been that non-responders are insensitive to relatively small levels of warming over the past 40 years, while species showing delays are often viewed as statistical noise or evidence for unknown confounding factors at play. However, plant physiology studies suggest that when winter chilling (vernalization) is required to initiate spring development, winter warming may retard spring events, masking expected advances caused by spring warming. Here, we analyzed long-term data on phenology and seasonal temperatures from 490 species on two continents and demonstrate that 1) apparent non-responders are indeed responding to warming, but their responses to winter and spring warming are opposite in sign, 2) observed trends in first flowering date depend strongly on the magnitude of a given species' response to autumn/winter versus spring warming, and 3) inclusion of these effects strongly improves hindcast predictions of long-term flowering trends. With a few notable exceptions, climate change research has focused on the overall mean trend towards phenological advance, minimizing discussion of apparently non-responding species. Our results illuminate an under-studied source of complexity in wild species responses and support the need for models incorporating diverse environmental cues in order to improve predictability of species responses to anthropogenic climate change.

  2. Delayed neutrons in fission of polonium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Ramazanov, R.; Urikbaev, Z.S.; Maksyutenko, B.P.; Ignat'ev, S.V.

    1988-06-01

    A strong difference is found in the relative yields of delayed neutrons in the production of compound nuclei of polonium isotopes in reactions in which bismuth and lead are bombarded by various charged particles. The effect can be partially explained by the different lengths of the ..beta..-decay chains of the light and heavy fission products.

  3. Delayed emergence after anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Tzabazis, Alexander; Miller, Christopher; Dobrow, Marc F; Zheng, Karl; Brock-Utne, John G

    2015-06-01

    In most instances, delayed emergence from anesthesia is attributed to residual anesthetic or analgesic medications. However, delayed emergence can be secondary to unusual causes and present diagnostic dilemmas. Data from clinical studies is scarce and most available published material is comprised of case reports. In this review, we summarize and discuss less common and difficult to diagnose reasons for delayed emergence and present cases from our own experience or reference published case reports/case series. The goal is to draw attention to less common reasons for delayed emergence, identify patient populations that are potentially at risk and to help anesthesiologists identifying a possible cause why their patient is slow to wake up. PMID:25912729

  4. Time delay spectrum conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Norman R.

    1980-01-01

    A device for delaying specified frequencies of a multiple frequency laser beam. The device separates the multiple frequency beam into a series of spatially separated single frequency beams. The propagation distance of the single frequency beam is subsequently altered to provide the desired delay for each specific frequency. Focusing reflectors can be utilized to provide a simple but nonadjustable system or, flat reflectors with collimating and focusing optics can be utilized to provide an adjustable system.

  5. Swept group delay measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trowbridge, D. L. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Direct recording of group delay measurements on a system under temperature and stress tests employs modulated carrier frequency sweep over an S or X band. Reference path and test paths to separate detectors utilize a power divider e.g., a directional coupler or a hybrid T junction. An initially balanced phase comparator is swept in frequency by modulated carrier over the band of interest for different conditions of temperature and/or mechanical stress to obtain characteristic group delay curves.

  6. Delayed voice communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Reagan, Marcum L.

    2013-10-01

    We present results from simulated deep-space exploration missions that investigated voice communication with significant time delays. The simulations identified many challenges: confusion of sequence, blocked calls, wasted crew time, impaired ability to provide relevant information to the other party, losing track of which messages have reached the other party, weakened rapport between crew and ground, slow response to rapidly changing situations, and reduced situational awareness. These challenges were met in part with additional training; greater attention and foresight; longer, less frequent transmissions; meticulous recordkeeping and timekeeping; and specific alerting and acknowledging calls. Several simulations used both delayed voice and text messaging. Text messaging provided a valuable record of transmissions and allowed messages to be targeted to subsets of the flight and ground crew, but it was a poor choice for high-workload operators such as vehicle drivers and spacewalkers. Even with the foregoing countermeasures, delayed voice communication is difficult. Additional aids such as automatic delay timers and voice-to-text transcription would help. Tests comparing delays of 50 and 300 s unexpectedly revealed that communicating with the shorter delay was just as challenging as with the longer one.

  7. Delay of Transition Using Forced Damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exton, Reginald J.

    2014-01-01

    Several experiments which have reported a delay of transition are analyzed in terms of the frequencies of the induced disturbances generated by different flow control elements. Two of the experiments employed passive stabilizers in the boundary layer, one leading-edge bluntness, and one employed an active spark discharge in the boundary layer. It is found that the frequencies generated by the various elements lie in the damping region of the associated stability curve. It is concluded that the creation of strong disturbances in the damping region stabilizes the boundary-layer and delays the transition from laminar to turbulent flow.

  8. Downhole delay assembly for blasting with series delay

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1982-01-01

    A downhole delay assembly is provided which can be placed into a blasthole for initiation of explosive in the blasthole. The downhole delay assembly includes at least two detonating time delay devices in series in order to effect a time delay of longer than about 200 milliseconds in a round of explosions. The downhole delay assembly provides a protective housing to prevent detonation of explosive in the blasthole in response to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device. There is further provided a connection between the first and second time delay devices. The connection is responsive to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device and initiates the second detonating time delay device. A plurality of such downhole delay assemblies are placed downhole in unfragmented formation and are initiated simultaneously for providing a round of explosive expansions. The explosive expansions can be used to form an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles.

  9. Delayed stochastic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, Tadaaki; Ohira, Toru; Lucian, Christian; Milton, John

    2005-03-01

    Time-delayed feedback control becomes problematic in situations in which the time constant of the system is fast compared to the feedback reaction time. In particular, when perturbations are unpredictable, traditional feedback or feed-forward control schemes can be insufficient. Nonethless a human can balance a stick at their fingertip in the presence of fluctuations that occur on time scales shorter than their neural reaction times. Here we study a simple model of a repulsive delayed random walk and demonstrate that the interplay between noise and delay can transiently stabilize an unstable fixed-point. This observation leads to the concept of ``delayed stochastic control,'' i.e. stabilization of tasks, such as stick balancing at the fingertip, by optimally tuning the noise level with respect to the feedback delay time. References:(1)J.L.Cabrera and J.G.Milton, PRL 89 158702 (2002);(2) T. Ohira and J.G.Milton, PRE 52 3277 (1995);(3)T.Hosaka, T.Ohira, C.Lucian, J.L.Cabrera, and J.G.Milton, Prog. Theor. Phys. (to appear).

  10. Consensus networks with time-delays over finite fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuxian; Su, Housheng; Chen, Michael Z. Q.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the consensus problem in networks with time-delays over finite fields. The delays are categorised into three cases: single constant delay, multiple constant delays, and time-varying bounded delays. For all cases, some sufficient and necessary conditions for consensus are derived. Furthermore, assuming that the communication graph is strongly connected, some of the obtained necessary conditions reveal that the conditions for consensus with time-delays over finite fields depend not only on the diagonal entries but also on the off-diagonal entries, something that is intrinsically distinct from the case over real numbers (where having at least one nonzero diagonal entry is a sufficient and necessary condition to guarantee consensus). In addition, it is shown that delayed networks cannot achieve consensus when the interaction graph is a tree if the corresponding delay-free networks cannot reach consensus, which is consistent with the result over real numbers. As for average consensus, we show that it can never be achieved for delayed networks over finite fields, although it indeed can be reached under several conditions for delay-free networks over finite fields. Finally, networks with time-varying delays are discussed and one sufficient condition for consensus is presented by graph-theoretic method.

  11. Further results on delay-range-dependent stability with additive time-varying delay systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pin-Lin

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, new conditions for the delay-range-dependent stability analysis of time-varying delay systems are proposed in a Lyapunov-Krasovskii framework. Time delay is considered to be time-varying and has lower and upper bounds. A new method is first presented for a system with two time delays, integral inequality approach (IIA) used to express relationships among terms of Leibniz-Newton formula. Constructing a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional includes information belonging to a given range; new delay-range-dependent criterion is established in term of linear matrix inequality (LMI). The advantage of that criterion lies in its simplicity and less conservative. This paper also presents a new result of stability analysis for continuous systems with two additive time-variant components representing a general class of delay with strong application background in network-based control systems. Resulting criteria are then expressed in terms of convex optimization with LMI constraints, allowing for use of efficient solvers. Finally, three numerical examples show these methods reducing conservatism and improving maximal allowable delay.

  12. Delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernia

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Bo; Che, Xiangming; Li, Xuqi; Qiu, Guanglin; He, Shicai; Fan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (TDHs) are sometimes difficult to identify at an early stage and can consequently result in diagnostic delays with life-threatening outcomes. It is the aim of this case study to highlight the difficulties encountered with the earlier detection of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias. Methods: Clinical data of patients who received treatment for delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernias in registers of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University from 1998 to 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Six patients were included in this study. Left hemidiaphragm was affected in all of them. Most of the patients had a history of traffic accident and 1 a stab-penetrating injury. The interval from injury to developing symptoms ranged from 2 to 11 years (median 5 years). The hernial contents included the stomach, omentum, small intestine, and colon. Diaphragmatic injury was missed in all of them during the initial managements. All patients received operations once the diagnosis of delayed TDH was confirmed, and no postoperative mortality was detected. Conclusions: Delayed TDHs are not common, but can lead to serious consequences once occurred. Early detection of diaphragmatic injuries is crucial. Surgeons should maintain a high suspicion for injuries of the diaphragm in cases with abdominal or lower chest traumas, especially in the initial surgical explorations. We emphasize the need for radiographical follow-up to detect diaphragmatic injuries at an earlier stage. PMID:27512848

  13. Contingencies promote delay tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ghaemmaghami, Mahshid; Hanley, Gregory P; Jessel, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    The effectiveness of functional communication training as treatment for problem behavior depends on the extent to which treatment can be extended to typical environments that include unavoidable and unpredictable reinforcement delays. Time-based progressive delay (TBPD) often results in the loss of acquired communication responses and the resurgence of problem behavior, whereas contingency-based progressive delay (CBPD) appears to be effective for increasing tolerance for delayed reinforcement. No direct comparison of TBPD and CBPD has, however, been conducted. We used single-subject designs to compare the relative efficacy of TBPD and CBPD. Four individuals who engaged in problem behavior (e.g., aggression, vocal and motor disruptions, self-injury) participated. Results were consistent across all participants, and showed lower rates of problem behavior and collateral responses during CBPD than during TBPD. The generality of CBPD treatment effects, including optimal rates of communication and compliance with demands, was demonstrated across a small but heterogeneous group of participants, reinforcement contingencies, and contexts. PMID:27449401

  14. Strong Navajo marriages.

    PubMed

    Skogrand, Linda; Mueller, Mary Lou; Arrington, Rachel; LeBlanc, Heidi; Spotted Elk, Davina; Dayzie, Irene; Rosenband, Reva

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study, conducted in two Navajo Nation chapters, was to learn what makes Navajo marriages strong because no research has been done on this topic. Twenty-one Navajo couples (42 individuals) who felt they had strong marriages volunteered to participate in the study. Couples identified the following marital strengths: (1) maintain communication, (2) nurture your relationship, (3) learn about marriage, (4) be prepared for marriage, and (5) have a strong foundation.

  15. Strong Navajo marriages.

    PubMed

    Skogrand, Linda; Mueller, Mary Lou; Arrington, Rachel; LeBlanc, Heidi; Spotted Elk, Davina; Dayzie, Irene; Rosenband, Reva

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study, conducted in two Navajo Nation chapters, was to learn what makes Navajo marriages strong because no research has been done on this topic. Twenty-one Navajo couples (42 individuals) who felt they had strong marriages volunteered to participate in the study. Couples identified the following marital strengths: (1) maintain communication, (2) nurture your relationship, (3) learn about marriage, (4) be prepared for marriage, and (5) have a strong foundation. PMID:19085828

  16. Strong Navajo Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skogrand, Linda; Mueller, Mary Lou; Arrington, Rachel; LeBlanc, Heidi; Spotted Elk, Davina; Dayzie, Irene; Rosenbrand, Reva

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study, conducted in two Navajo Nation chapters, was to learn what makes Navajo marriages strong because no research has been done on this topic. Twenty-one Navajo couples (42 individuals) who felt they had strong marriages volunteered to participate in the study. Couples identified the following marital strengths:…

  17. What Is Strong Correlation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Marcin

    2009-01-01

    Interpretation of correlation is often based on rules of thumb in which some boundary values are given to help decide whether correlation is non-important, weak, strong or very strong. This article shows that such rules of thumb may do more harm than good, and instead of supporting interpretation of correlation--which is their aim--they teach a…

  18. [Diagnosis of delayed puberty].

    PubMed

    Busiah, K; Belien, V; Dallot, N; Fila, M; Guilbert, J; Harroche, A; Leger, J

    2007-09-01

    Puberty is the phenomenon that conducts once to reproductive maturation. Delayed puberty (DP) is defined by the absence of testicular development in boys beyond 14 years old (or a testicular volume lower than 4 ml) and by the absence of breast development in girls beyond 13 years old. DP occurs in approximatively 3% of cases. Most cases are functional DP, with a large amount of constitutional delay of puberty. Others etiologies are hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism like Kallmann syndrome, or hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. Turner syndrome is a diagnostic one should not forget by its frequency. Treatment is hormonal replacement therapy and of the etiology. During the last decade, many genes have been identified and elucidated the etiological diagnosis of some hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism syndrome. Further studies are required in collaboration with molecular biologists to better understand the mechanism of hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis abnormalities and of the neuroendocrine physiology of the onset of puberty.

  19. Delayed coking process

    SciTech Connect

    Dabkowski, M.J.; Malladi, M.

    1987-04-28

    This patent describes a delayed cooking process in which a heavy oil coker feedstock is heated to an elevated coking temperature in a furnace and the heated feedstock is subsequently subjected to delayed coking in a coker drum under superatmospheric pressure and the vaporous coking products are removed from the drum and passed to a coker fractionator from which a bottoms fraction is removed. The improvement comprises coking a feed without the addition of the bottoms fraction from the fractionator and adding to the feed to the coker drum a lower boiling hydrocarbon diluent having an end boiling point of not more than 450/sup 0/C, the lower boiling hydrocarbon diluent being added to the heated feedstock after the feedstock has passed through the furnace.

  20. Delayed skin grafting.

    PubMed

    Ceilley, R I; Bumsted, R M; Panje, W R

    1983-04-01

    The use of skin grafts on granulating wounds is an established practice. Delaying the application of a full- or split-thickness skin graft may be an advantageous alternative method of surgical reconstruction in selected cases. Partial healing by secondary intention is useful for filling in deeper defects and usually produces a wound that is much smaller and of more normal contour than the original defect. Contraction of the graft bed is markedly influenced by location, tissue laxity, surface tension lines, motion, and wound geometry. Proper wound care, correct surgical preparation of the defect, and timing of the graft procedure are all important considerations in maximizing the overall result. Through-and-through defects and wounds produced over areas with little underlying support (eyelids and lip) often need flap reconstruction or immediate grafting to prevent undesirable functional and cosmetic results. By combining delayed healing and conventional reconstructive techniques, major tissue loss can often be restored while minimizing patient morbidity.

  1. [Acromegaly: reducing diagnostic delay].

    PubMed

    Giustina, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic delay of acromegaly is still very relevant (6-8 years on average) without substantial changes in last twenty years. Clinical impact of this diagnostic delay is significant: tumor growth (2/3 of the patients at diagnosis bear a pituitary macroadenoma), development of irreversible complications (arthropathy, sleep apnea) and in all increased mortality. Reasons for this delay are related to the disease itself (facial and acral changes are very slow and subtle) but also to medical unawareness. Simple tools based on a few sufficiently sensitive and specific signs and symptoms which can trigger the diagnostic suspect would be useful in clinical practice. Global evaluation during follow-up (tumor volume, signs and symptoms, complications, circulating levels of growth hormone and its peripheral mediator IGF-I) has become crucial for the therapeutic decision making. In this regard, tools like SAGIT are now under validation and are expected to improve management of acromegaly. In fact, in the last 30 years there has been a relevant growth of the medical options to treat acromegaly and in the near future there will be an expansion of the medical options. This will greatly help the needed personalization of treatment which necessarily should consider patient convenience and preference and control of complications such as diabetes mellitus. PMID:27571562

  2. Delay-correlation landscape reveals characteristic time delays of brain rhythms and heart interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Aijing; Liu, Kang K. L.; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2016-05-01

    Within the framework of `Network Physiology', we ask a fundamental question of how modulations in cardiac dynamics emerge from networked brain-heart interactions. We propose a generalized time-delay approach to identify and quantify dynamical interactions between physiologically relevant brain rhythms and the heart rate. We perform empirical analysis of synchronized continuous EEG and ECG recordings from 34 healthy subjects during night-time sleep. For each pair of brain rhythm and heart interaction, we construct a delay-correlation landscape (DCL) that characterizes how individual brain rhythms are coupled to the heart rate, and how modulations in brain and cardiac dynamics are coordinated in time. We uncover characteristic time delays and an ensemble of specific profiles for the probability distribution of time delays that underly brain-heart interactions. These profiles are consistently observed in all subjects, indicating a universal pattern. Tracking the evolution of DCL across different sleep stages, we find that the ensemble of time-delay profiles changes from one physiologic state to another, indicating a strong association with physiologic state and function. The reported observations provide new insights on neurophysiological regulation of cardiac dynamics, with potential for broad clinical applications. The presented approach allows one to simultaneously capture key elements of dynamic interactions, including characteristic time delays and their time evolution, and can be applied to a range of coupled dynamical systems.

  3. Delay-correlation landscape reveals characteristic time delays of brain rhythms and heart interactions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Aijing; Liu, Kang K L; Bartsch, Ronny P; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2016-05-13

    Within the framework of 'Network Physiology', we ask a fundamental question of how modulations in cardiac dynamics emerge from networked brain-heart interactions. We propose a generalized time-delay approach to identify and quantify dynamical interactions between physiologically relevant brain rhythms and the heart rate. We perform empirical analysis of synchronized continuous EEG and ECG recordings from 34 healthy subjects during night-time sleep. For each pair of brain rhythm and heart interaction, we construct a delay-correlation landscape (DCL) that characterizes how individual brain rhythms are coupled to the heart rate, and how modulations in brain and cardiac dynamics are coordinated in time. We uncover characteristic time delays and an ensemble of specific profiles for the probability distribution of time delays that underly brain-heart interactions. These profiles are consistently observed in all subjects, indicating a universal pattern. Tracking the evolution of DCL across different sleep stages, we find that the ensemble of time-delay profiles changes from one physiologic state to another, indicating a strong association with physiologic state and function. The reported observations provide new insights on neurophysiological regulation of cardiac dynamics, with potential for broad clinical applications. The presented approach allows one to simultaneously capture key elements of dynamic interactions, including characteristic time delays and their time evolution, and can be applied to a range of coupled dynamical systems. PMID:27044991

  4. Delay-correlation landscape reveals characteristic time delays of brain rhythms and heart interactions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Aijing; Liu, Kang K L; Bartsch, Ronny P; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2016-05-13

    Within the framework of 'Network Physiology', we ask a fundamental question of how modulations in cardiac dynamics emerge from networked brain-heart interactions. We propose a generalized time-delay approach to identify and quantify dynamical interactions between physiologically relevant brain rhythms and the heart rate. We perform empirical analysis of synchronized continuous EEG and ECG recordings from 34 healthy subjects during night-time sleep. For each pair of brain rhythm and heart interaction, we construct a delay-correlation landscape (DCL) that characterizes how individual brain rhythms are coupled to the heart rate, and how modulations in brain and cardiac dynamics are coordinated in time. We uncover characteristic time delays and an ensemble of specific profiles for the probability distribution of time delays that underly brain-heart interactions. These profiles are consistently observed in all subjects, indicating a universal pattern. Tracking the evolution of DCL across different sleep stages, we find that the ensemble of time-delay profiles changes from one physiologic state to another, indicating a strong association with physiologic state and function. The reported observations provide new insights on neurophysiological regulation of cardiac dynamics, with potential for broad clinical applications. The presented approach allows one to simultaneously capture key elements of dynamic interactions, including characteristic time delays and their time evolution, and can be applied to a range of coupled dynamical systems.

  5. Assessing delay discounting in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Suzanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Delay discounting (also intertemporal choice or impulsive choice) is the process by which delayed outcomes, such as delayed food delivery, are valued less than the same outcomes delivered immediately or with a shorter delay. This process is of interest because many psychopathologies, including substance dependence, pathological gambling, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder, are characterized by heightened levels of delay discounting. Some of these disorders are heritable, and data indicate that delay discounting also has a genetic component. To identify the genes underlying the delay discounting decision-making process and genetic correlates of heightened discounting, researchers have used mouse models. This unit describes a protocol for generating delay discounting behavior in mice and discusses analysis techniques for such behavior. PMID:24510779

  6. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Delayed Speech or Language Development KidsHealth > For Parents > Delayed Speech or Language ... your child is right on schedule. Normal Speech & Language Development It's important to discuss early speech and ...

  7. Tooth formation - delayed or absent

    MedlinePlus

    Delayed or absent tooth formation; Teeth - delayed or absent formation ... The age at which a tooth comes in varies. Most infants get their first tooth between 6 and 9 months, but it may be earlier or later. ...

  8. Living Bones, Strong Bones

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this classroom activity, engineering, nutrition, and physical activity collide when students design and build a healthy bone model of a space explorer which is strong enough to withstand increas...

  9. Programmable Differential Delay Circuit With Fine Delay Adjustment

    DOEpatents

    DeRyckere, John F.; Jenkins, Philip Nord; Cornett, Frank Nolan

    2002-07-09

    Circuitry that provides additional delay to early arriving signals such that all data signals arrive at a receiving latch with same path delay. The delay of a forwarded clock reference is also controlled such that the capturing clock edge will be optimally positioned near quadrature (depending on latch setup/hold requirements). The circuitry continuously adapts to data and clock path delay changes and digital filtering of phase measurements reduce errors brought on by jittering data edges. The circuitry utilizes only the minimum amount of delay necessary to achieve objective thereby limiting any unintended jitter. Particularly, this programmable differential delay circuit with fine delay adjustment is designed to allow the skew between ASICS to be minimized. This includes skew between data bits, between data bits and clocks as well as minimizing the overall skew in a channel between ASICS.

  10. Delay Choice vs. Delay Maintenance: Different Measures of Delayed Gratification in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Macchitella, Luigi; De Petrillo, Francesca; Focaroli, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Delaying gratification involves two components: (i) delay choice (selecting a delayed reward over an immediate one), and (ii) delay maintenance (sustaining the decision to delay gratification even if the immediate reward is available during the delay). In primates, two tasks most commonly have explored these components, the Intertemporal choice task and the Accumulation task. It is unclear whether these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. Here, we compared the performance of the same capuchin monkeys, belonging to two study populations, between these tasks. We found only limited evidence of a significant correlation in performance. Consequently, in contrast to what is often assumed, our data provide only partial support to the hypothesis that these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. PMID:23544770

  11. In-flight evaluation of pure time delays in pitch and roll

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, D. T.

    1985-01-01

    An in-flight investigation of the effect of pure time delays in pitch and roll was undertaken. The evaluation tasks consisted of low lift-to-drag-ratio landings of various levels of difficulty and formation flying. The results indicate that the effect of time delay is strongly dependent on the task. In the pitch axis, in calm air, spot landings from a lateral offset were most strongly influenced by time delay. In the roll axis, in calm air, formation flying was most strongly influenced by time delay. However, when landings were made in turbulence, flying qualities in pitch were only slightly degraded, whereas in roll they were severely degraded.

  12. Adaptive Phase Delay Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    There are several experimental setups involving rotating machinery that require some form of synchronization. The adaptive phase delay generator (APDG) the Bencic-1000 is a flexible instrument that allows the user to generate pulses synchronized to the rising edge of a tachometer signal from any piece of rotating machinery. These synchronized pulses can vary by the delay angle, pulse width, number of pulses per period, number of skipped pulses, and total number of pulses. Due to the design of the pulse generator, any and all of these parameters can be changed independently, yielding an unparalleled level of versatility. There are two user interfaces to the APDG. The first is a LabVIEW program that has the advantage of displaying all of the pulse parameters and input signal data within one neatly organized window on the PC monitor. Furthermore, the LabVIEW interface plots the rpm of the two input signal channels in real time. The second user interface is a handheld portable device that goes anywhere a computer is not accessible. It consists of a liquid-crystal display and keypad, which enable the user to control the unit by scrolling through a host of command menus and parameter listings. The APDG combines all of the desired synchronization control into one unit. The experimenter can adjust the delay, pulse width, pulse count, number of skipped pulses, and produce a specified number of pulses per revolution. Each of these parameters can be changed independently, providing an unparalleled level of versatility when synchronizing hardware to a host of rotating machinery. The APDG allows experimenters to set up quickly and generate a host of synchronizing configurations using a simple user interface, which hopefully leads to faster results.

  13. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    DOEpatents

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  14. Delay reduction: current status.

    PubMed

    Fantino, E; Preston, R A; Dunn, R

    1993-07-01

    Delay-reduction theory states that the effectiveness of a stimulus as a conditioned reinforcer may be predicted most accurately by the reduction in time to primary reinforcement correlated with its onset. We review support for the theory and then discuss two new types of experiments that assess it. One compares models of choice in situations wherein the less preferred outcome is made more accessible; the other investigates whether frequency of conditioned reinforcement affects choice beyond the effect exerted by frequency of primary reinforcement.

  15. Clustering in delay-coupled smooth and relaxational chemical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaha, Karen; Lehnert, Judith; Keane, Andrew; Dahms, Thomas; Hövel, Philipp; Schöll, Eckehard; Hudson, John L.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate cluster synchronization in networks of nonlinear systems with time-delayed coupling. Using a generic model for a system close to the Hopf bifurcation, we predict the order of appearance of different cluster states and their corresponding common frequencies depending upon coupling delay. We may tune the delay time in order to ensure the existence and stability of a specific cluster state. We qualitatively and quantitatively confirm these results in experiments with chemical oscillators. The experiments also exhibit strongly nonlinear relaxation oscillations as we increase the voltage, i.e., go further away from the Hopf bifurcation. In this regime, we find secondary cluster states with delay-dependent phase lags. These cluster states appear in addition to primary states with delay-independent phase lags observed near the Hopf bifurcation. Extending the theory on Hopf normal-form oscillators, we are able to account for realistic interaction functions, yielding good agreement with experimental findings.

  16. Strongly correlated Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevy, F.; Salomon, C.

    2016-10-01

    The strongly interacting Bose gas is one of the most fundamental paradigms of quantum many-body physics and the subject of many experimental and theoretical investigations. We review recent progress on strongly correlated Bose gases, starting with a description of beyond mean-field corrections. We show that the Efimov effect leads to non universal phenomena and to a metastability of the low temperature Bose gas through three-body recombination to deeply bound molecular states. We outline differences and similarities with ultracold Fermi gases, discuss recent experiments on the unitary Bose gas, and finally present a few perspectives for future research.

  17. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency. PMID:27652226

  18. Delayed rule following

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects. PMID:22478363

  19. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency.

  20. Strong Little Magnets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloney, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Did you know that some strong little cylindrical magnets available in local hardware stores can have an effective circumferential current of 2500 A? This intriguing information can be obtained by hanging a pair of magnets at the center of a coil, as shown in Fig. 1, and measuring the oscillation frequency as a function of coil current.

  1. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.

  2. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.

  3. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity. PMID:27586618

  4. Do the adjusting-delay and increasing-delay tasks measure the same construct: delay discounting?

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew R; Maxfield, Adam D; Stein, Jeffrey S; Renda, C Renee; Madden, Gregory J

    2014-08-01

    Delay discounting describes the subjective devaluation of a reward when it is delayed. In animals, the adjusting-delay (AD) and increasing-delay (ID) tasks often are used to assess individual differences in, and drug effects on, delay discounting. No study to date, however, has compared systematically the measures of discounting produced in these tasks. The current study examined the correlation between measures of delay discounting derived from AD and ID procedures. Twenty rats completed 30 sessions under each task (order counterbalanced across rats). Quantitative measures of delay discounting produced by the two tasks were positively correlated, suggesting that the AD and ID tasks measure the same underlying facet of impulsive choice (i.e. individual or conjoint sensitivities to reward delay and magnitude). The measures derived from either task, however, depended on the sequences in which the tasks were experienced. That is, pre-exposure to one task decreased discounting of delayed rewards in the second task. Consistent with other published findings, exposure to delayed consequences during the initial discounting assessment might explain this effect. Despite the observed correlation between ID and AD indifference delays, we suggest that the ID procedure might be a more appropriate procedure for pharmacological studies.

  5. Doubling strong lensing as a cosmological probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2016-10-01

    Strong gravitational lensing provides a geometric probe of cosmology in a unique manner through distance ratios involving the source and lens. This is well-known for the time delay distance derived from measured delays between lightcurves of the images of variable sources such as quasars. Recently, double source plane lens systems involving two constant sources lensed by the same foreground lens have been proposed as another probe, involving a different ratio of distances measured from the image positions and fairly insensitive to the lens modeling. Here we demonstrate that these two different sets of strong lensing distance ratios have strong complementarity in cosmological leverage. Unlike other probes, the double source distance ratio is actually more sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameters w0 and wa than to the matter density Ωm, for low redshift lenses. Adding double source distance ratio measurements can improve the dark energy figure of merit by 40% for a sample of fewer than 100 low redshift systems, or even better for the optimal redshift distribution we derive.

  6. Cosmological test using strong gravitational lensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, C. C.; Wang, F. Y.

    2015-09-01

    As one of the probes of universe, strong gravitational lensing systems allow us to compare different cosmological models and constrain vital cosmological parameters. This purpose can be reached from the dynamic and geometry properties of strong gravitational lensing systems, for instance, time-delay Δτ of images, the velocity dispersion σ of the lensing galaxies and the combination of these two effects, Δτ/σ2. In this paper, in order to carry out one-on-one comparisons between ΛCDM universe and Rh = ct universe, we use a sample containing 36 strong lensing systems with the measurement of velocity dispersion from the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys (SLACS) and Lens Structure and Dynamic survey (LSD) survey. Concerning the time-delay effect, 12 two-image lensing systems with Δτ are also used. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations are used to compare the efficiency of the three methods as mentioned above. From simulations, we estimate the number of lenses required to rule out one model at the 99.7 per cent confidence level. Comparing with constraints from Δτ and the velocity dispersion σ, we find that using Δτ/σ2 can improve the discrimination between cosmological models. Despite the independence tests of these methods reveal a correlation between Δτ/σ2 and σ, Δτ/σ2 could be considered as an improved method of σ if more data samples are available.

  7. The pathophysiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Delayed ejaculation (DE) is probably least studied, and least understood of male sexual dysfunctions, with an estimated prevalence of 1–4% of the male population. Pathophysiology of DE is multifactorial and including psychosexual-behavioral and cultural factors, disruption of ejaculatory apparatus, central and peripheral neurotransmitters, hormonal or neurochemical ejaculatory control and psychosocial factors. Although knowledge of the physiology of the DE has increased in the last two decade, our understanding of the different pathophysiological process of the causes of DE remains limited. To provide a systematic update on the pathophysiology of DE. A systematic review of Medline and PubMed for relevant publications on ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD), DE, retarded ejaculation, inhibited ejaculation, and climax was performed. The search was limited to the articles published between the January 1960 and December 2015 in English. Of 178 articles, 105 were selected for this review. Only those publications relevant to the pathophysiology, epidemiology and prevalence of DE were included. The pathophysiology of DE involves cerebral sensory areas, motor centers, and several spinal nuclei that are tightly interconnected. The biogenic, psychogenic and other factors strongly affect the pathophysiology of DE. Despite the many publications on this disorder, there still is a paucity of publications dedicated to the subject. PMID:27652227

  8. The pathophysiology of delayed ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juza

    2016-08-01

    Delayed ejaculation (DE) is probably least studied, and least understood of male sexual dysfunctions, with an estimated prevalence of 1-4% of the male population. Pathophysiology of DE is multifactorial and including psychosexual-behavioral and cultural factors, disruption of ejaculatory apparatus, central and peripheral neurotransmitters, hormonal or neurochemical ejaculatory control and psychosocial factors. Although knowledge of the physiology of the DE has increased in the last two decade, our understanding of the different pathophysiological process of the causes of DE remains limited. To provide a systematic update on the pathophysiology of DE. A systematic review of Medline and PubMed for relevant publications on ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD), DE, retarded ejaculation, inhibited ejaculation, and climax was performed. The search was limited to the articles published between the January 1960 and December 2015 in English. Of 178 articles, 105 were selected for this review. Only those publications relevant to the pathophysiology, epidemiology and prevalence of DE were included. The pathophysiology of DE involves cerebral sensory areas, motor centers, and several spinal nuclei that are tightly interconnected. The biogenic, psychogenic and other factors strongly affect the pathophysiology of DE. Despite the many publications on this disorder, there still is a paucity of publications dedicated to the subject. PMID:27652227

  9. The pathophysiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Delayed ejaculation (DE) is probably least studied, and least understood of male sexual dysfunctions, with an estimated prevalence of 1–4% of the male population. Pathophysiology of DE is multifactorial and including psychosexual-behavioral and cultural factors, disruption of ejaculatory apparatus, central and peripheral neurotransmitters, hormonal or neurochemical ejaculatory control and psychosocial factors. Although knowledge of the physiology of the DE has increased in the last two decade, our understanding of the different pathophysiological process of the causes of DE remains limited. To provide a systematic update on the pathophysiology of DE. A systematic review of Medline and PubMed for relevant publications on ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD), DE, retarded ejaculation, inhibited ejaculation, and climax was performed. The search was limited to the articles published between the January 1960 and December 2015 in English. Of 178 articles, 105 were selected for this review. Only those publications relevant to the pathophysiology, epidemiology and prevalence of DE were included. The pathophysiology of DE involves cerebral sensory areas, motor centers, and several spinal nuclei that are tightly interconnected. The biogenic, psychogenic and other factors strongly affect the pathophysiology of DE. Despite the many publications on this disorder, there still is a paucity of publications dedicated to the subject.

  10. Strong stellar winds.

    PubMed

    Conti, P S; McCray, R

    1980-04-01

    The hottest and most luminous stars lose a substantial fraction of their mass in strong stellar winds. These winds not only affect the evolution of the star, they also carve huge expanding cavities in the surrounding interstellar medium, possibly affecting star formation. The winds are probably driven by radiation pressure, but uncertainties persist in their theoretical description. Strong x-ray sources associated with a few of these hot stars may be used to probe the stellar winds. The nature of the weak x-ray sources recently observed to be associated with many of these stars is uncertain. It is suggested that roughly 10 percent of the luminous hot stars may have as companions neutron stars or black holes orbiting within the stellar winds.

  11. Soviet delays raise prices

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.

    1992-01-15

    The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

  12. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1984-08-07

    Polybismaleimides prepared by delayed curing of bis-imides having the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the --(CH.sub.2).sub.n -- group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine.

  13. Open Flavor Strong Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Tecocoatzi, H.; Bijker, R.; Ferretti, J.; Galatà, G.; Santopinto, E.

    2016-10-01

    In this contribution, we discuss the results of a QM calculation of the open-flavor strong decays of **** light nucleon resonances. These are the results of a recent calculation, where we used a modified ^3P_0 model for the amplitudes and the U(7) algebraic model and the hypercentral quark model to predict the baryon spectrum. The decay amplitudes are compared with the existing experimental data.

  14. Development of a strong electromagnet wiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, M.J.; Deis, G.A.; Holmes, R.H.; Van Maren, R.D.; Halbach, K.

    1987-01-01

    The Strong Electromagnet (SEM) wiggler is a permanent magnet-assisted electromagnet under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Induction Linac Free-Electron-Laser (IFEL) program. This concept uses permanent magnets within the wiggler to provide a reverse bias flux in the iron and thus delay the onset of magnetic saturation. The electromagnet coils determine the wiggler field and operate at low current densities by virtue of their placement away from the midplane. We describe here the design approach used and test data from a 7-period wiggler prototype that includes curved pole tips to provide wiggle-plane focusing. 7 refs.

  15. Demographic determinants of delayed divorce.

    PubMed

    Chan, L Y; Heaton, T B

    1989-01-01

    This study identifies factors that predict delayed divorce in the US. The findings show that factors which influence marital stability in general also correlate with delayed divorce in the same direction. Wife's age at marriage, age of the youngest child, wife's religion, region of residence, and metropolitan residence have substantial effects of delayed divorce, but the effects of race, parental divorce, premarital pregnancy, and socioeconomic status are small.

  16. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josić, Krešimir

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  17. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josić, Krešimir; Ott, William

    2014-05-01

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  18. Modeling delay in genetic networks: from delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Bennett, Matthew R; Josić, Krešimir; Ott, William

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  19. PRECISION TIME-DELAY CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Creveling, R.

    1959-03-17

    A tine-delay circuit which produces a delay time in d. The circuit a capacitor, an te back resistance, connected serially with the anode of the diode going to ground. At the start of the time delay a negative stepfunction is applied to the series circuit and initiates a half-cycle transient oscillatory voltage terminated by a transient oscillatory voltage of substantially higher frequency. The output of the delay circuit is taken at the junction of the inductor and diode where a sudden voltage rise appears after the initiation of the higher frequency transient oscillations.

  20. A programmable-delay line.

    PubMed

    Schiano, J L; Trahiotis, C

    1987-01-01

    A relatively simple circuit is described which delays audio signals in 5 microseconds steps from 0 microsecond to 4000 microseconds. Delays are programmed via twelve TTL-level data lines. The magnitude response is flat and the phase response is linear from DC to 5 kHz. The gain of the circuit is fixed and independent of the selected delay. Delays are accurate to within 1 microsecond of the programmed value. The device is a nice alternative to other methods which have diverse shortcomings.

  1. Time Delay of CGM Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz; del Re, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a powerful tool to support the optimization of glucose control of patients with diabetes. However, CGM systems measure glucose in interstitial fluid but not in blood. Rapid changes in one compartment are not accompanied by similar changes in the other, but follow with some delay. Such time delays hamper detection of, for example, hypoglycemic events. Our aim is to discuss the causes and extent of time delays and approaches to compensate for these. Methods: CGM data were obtained in a clinical study with 37 patients with a prototype glucose sensor. The study was divided into 5 phases over 2 years. In all, 8 patients participated in 2 phases separated by 8 months. A total number of 108 CGM data sets including raw signals were used for data analysis and were processed by statistical methods to obtain estimates of the time delay. Results: Overall mean (SD) time delay of the raw signals with respect to blood glucose was 9.5 (3.7) min, median was 9 min (interquartile range 4 min). Analysis of time delays observed in the same patients separated by 8 months suggests a patient dependent delay. No significant correlation was observed between delay and anamnestic or anthropometric data. The use of a prediction algorithm reduced the delay by 4 minutes on average. Conclusions: Prediction algorithms should be used to provide real-time CGM readings more consistent with simultaneous measurements by SMBG. Patient specificity may play an important role in improving prediction quality. PMID:26243773

  2. Strongly intensive quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-07-15

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  3. When good pigeons make bad decisions: Choice with probabilistic delays and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pisklak, Jeffrey M; McDevitt, Margaret A; Dunn, Roger M; Spetch, Marcia L

    2015-11-01

    Pigeons chose between an (optimal) alternative that sometimes provided food after a 10-s delay and other times after a 40-s delay and another (suboptimal) alternative that sometimes provided food after 10 s but other times no food after 40 s. When outcomes were not signaled during the delays, pigeons strongly preferred the optimal alternative. When outcomes were signaled, choices of the suboptimal alternative increased and most pigeons preferred the alternative that provided no food after the long delay despite the cost in terms of obtained food. The pattern of results was similar whether the short delays occurred on 25% or 50% of the trials. Shortening the 40-s delay to food sharply reduced suboptimal choices, but shortening the delay to no food had little effect. The results suggest that a signaled delay to no food does not punish responding in probabilistic choice procedures. The findings are discussed in terms of conditioned reinforcement by signals for good news.

  4. Parameter identification in periodic delay differential equations with distributed delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkamani, Shahab; Butcher, Eric A.; Khasawneh, Firas A.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, a parameter identification approach for identifying the parameters of a periodic delayed system with distributed delay is introduced based on time series analysis and spectral element analysis. Using this approach the parameters of the distributed delayed system can be identified from the time series of the response of the system. The experimental or numerical data of the response is examined with Floquet theory and time series analysis techniques to estimate a reduced order dynamics, or truncated state space to identify the Floquet multipliers. Parameter identification is then completed using a dynamic map developed for the assumed model of the system which can relate the Floquet multipliers to the unknown parameters in the model. The parameter identification technique is validated numerically for first and second order delay differential equations with distributed delay.

  5. Amplitude death in networks of delay-coupled delay oscillators.

    PubMed

    Höfener, Johannes M; Sethia, Gautam C; Gross, Thilo

    2013-09-28

    Amplitude death is a dynamical phenomenon in which a network of oscillators settles to a stable state as a result of coupling. Here, we study amplitude death in a generalized model of delay-coupled delay oscillators. We derive analytical results for degree homogeneous networks which show that amplitude death is governed by certain eigenvalues of the network's adjacency matrix. In particular, these results demonstrate that in delay-coupled delay oscillators amplitude death can occur for arbitrarily large coupling strength k. In this limit, we find a region of amplitude death which already occurs at small coupling delays that scale with 1/k. We show numerically that these results remain valid in random networks with heterogeneous degree distribution.

  6. Geometric time delay interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallisneri, Michele

    2005-08-01

    The space-based gravitational-wave observatory LISA, a NASA-ESA mission to be launched after 2012, will achieve its optimal sensitivity using time delay interferometry (TDI), a LISA-specific technique needed to cancel the otherwise overwhelming laser noise in the interspacecraft phase measurements. The TDI observables of the Michelson and Sagnac types have been interpreted physically as the virtual measurements of a synthesized interferometer. In this paper, I present Geometric TDI, a new and intuitive approach to extend this interpretation to all TDI observables. Unlike the standard algebraic formalism, Geometric TDI provides a combinatorial algorithm to explore exhaustively the space of second-generation TDI observables (i.e., those that cancel laser noise in LISA-like interferometers with time-dependent arm lengths). Using this algorithm, I survey the space of second-generation TDI observables of length (i.e., number of component phase measurements) up to 24, and I identify alternative, improved forms of the standard second-generation TDI observables. The alternative forms have improved high-frequency gravitational-wave sensitivity in realistic noise conditions (because they have fewer nulls in the gravitational-wave and noise response functions), and are less susceptible to instrumental gaps and glitches (because their component phase measurements span shorter time periods).

  7. Delayed traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Baratham, Gopal; Dennyson, William G.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-one out of 7,866 head injuries were complicated by the development of delayed intracerebral haematomata. The age distribution of patients with this condition closely resembled that of patients with subdural haematomata and differed sharply from patients with extradural haemorrhage. This finding, combined with the fact that the two conditions often coexisted, suggests the possibility of similar aetiological factors operating in their production. The injury producing the lesion was often minor and the larger haematomata appeared to be associated with longer `asymptomatic' intervals. The neurological deterioration was in most instances clearly the result of an increase in intracranial pressure. When possible, angiography followed by definitive craniotomy was the most satisfactory method of management and multiple burr holes even when combined with needling of the hemisphere yielded unsatisfactory results. The distribution of lesions tended to confirm their traumatic origin. On no occasion was there a vascular abnormality to account for the haemorrhage and, despite the fact that the ages of most patients were in the seventh and eighth decades, the incidence of degenerative vascular disease was small. Contusional injury causes a local failure of the mechanisms that regulate cerebral blood flow. Hypoxia, hypercapnia, and venous congestion produce cerebral hyperaemia which encourages gradual haematoma formation particularly at the sites of injury. This explains not only the situation of the lesions but also the latency between the trauma and their development. PMID:5084138

  8. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  9. Delayed unlatching mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2015-05-19

    In various embodiments an apparatus is presented for securing a structure such as a door, window, hatch, or gate that moves between an open and a closed position relative to a fixed structure to provide or deny access to a compartment, a room, an outdoor area, or a facility. Various embodiments provide a delay in opening the closure of sufficient duration to frustrate a rapid activation that might be desired by a person who is attempting to pass through the closure for some illicit purpose. Typically, hydraulics are used to activate the apparatus and no electrical energy or electronic signals are employed. In one embodiment, a plurality of actuations of a hand lever operates a hydraulic pump that moves a locking bolt from a first position in which a locking bolt is engaged with a recess in the fixed structure (preventing opening of a gate) to a second position in which the locking bolt is disengaged from the recess to permit opening of the gate.

  10. [Delays in diagnosing and treating tuberculosis in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Jurčev-Savičević, Anamarija; Popović-Grle, Sanja; Mulić, Rosanda; Smoljanović, Mladen; Miše, Kornelija

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine factors causing delay in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment in Croatia. It included 240 adults with pulmonary tuberculosis, who were interviewed for demographics, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and personal health data. Total delay was defined as a number of days from the onset of symptoms to the initiation of therapy. The median and the 75th percentile of the total delay were 68 and 120 days, respectively: 16.7 % of the patients initiated treatment within the first month, 23.8 % within the second month, 23.3 % within the third month, 12.9 % within the fourth month, and 23.3 % more than four months after the symptoms appeared. Long delay (exceeding median delay) was strongly associated with drug abuse (p=0.021). Extreme delay (75th percentile of delay) was significantly associated with the lowest level of education (p=0.021), below minimal income (p=0.039), minimal to average income (p=0.020), current smoking (p=0.050), and co-morbidity (p=0.048). In the multivariate model, long delay remained associated with drug abuse, while extreme delay was associated with the lowest level of education (p=0.033) and current (p=0.017) and ex-smoking (p=0.045).In a setting with decreasing TB incidence, the reported delay can be reduced by increasing health education, not only about tuberculosis per se, but about health in general and attitudes towards prevention and early care. It is also important to increase tuberculosis knowledge among healthcare workers as well as their diagnostic skills.

  11. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  12. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  13. Delayed Reinforcement of Operant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement but also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between…

  14. Strong, Lightweight, Porous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Johnston, James C.; Fabrizio, Eve F.; Ilhan, Ulvi

    2007-01-01

    A new class of strong, lightweight, porous materials has been invented as an outgrowth of an effort to develop reinforced silica aerogels. The new material, called X-Aerogel is less hygroscopic, but no less porous and of similar density to the corresponding unmodified aerogels. However, the property that sets X-Aerogels apart is their mechanical strength, which can be as much as two and a half orders of magnitude stronger that the unmodified aerogels. X-Aerogels are envisioned to be useful for making extremely lightweight, thermally insulating, structural components, but they may also have applications as electrical insulators, components of laminates, catalyst supports, templates for electrode materials, fuel-cell components, and filter membranes.

  15. Strongly anisotropic polymer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Stephan; Zippelius, Annette; Benetatos, Panayotis

    2011-03-01

    We investigate a network of worm-like chains, which are strongly oriented along a preferred direction due to an external field, boundary conditions, or a nematic environment. We discuss the effects of random permanent cross-links, whose density may follow an arbitrary distribution along the alignment direction. We show that the tilt modulus is unaffected by cross-links. As the cross-link density is increased beyond the gel point, the network develops a stiffness to in-plane shear deformations. Results for the shear elasticity and fluctuations of the polymer chains are presented. The case of cross-linking the chains on one end only is highlighted, it constitutes a simple model for polymer brushes. Moreover force-extension curves are presented for a toy model that consists of two cross-linked chains.

  16. Fragmentation of long-lived hydrocarbons after strong field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larimian, Seyedreza; Erattupuzha, Sonia; Lötstedt, Erik; Szidarovszky, Tamás; Maurer, Raffael; Roither, Stefan; Schöffler, Markus; Kartashov, Daniil; Baltuška, Andrius; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Kitzler, Markus; Xie, Xinhua

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally and theoretically investigated the deprotonation process on nanosecond to microsecond timescales in ethylene and acetylene molecules following their double ionization by a strong femtosecond laser field. In our experiments we utilized coincidence detection with the reaction microscope technique. We found that both the lifetime of the long-lived ethylene dication leading to the delayed deprotonation and the relative channel strength of the delayed deprotonation compared to the prompt one have no evident dependence on the laser pulse duration and the laser peak intensity. Quantum chemical simulations suggest that the observed delayed fragmentation process originates from the tunneling from near-dissociation-threshold C-H stretch vibrational states on a dicationic electronic state. These vibrational states can be populated through strong field double-ionization-induced vibrational excitation on an electronically excited state in the case of ethylene, and through a spin-flip transition from electronically excited singlet states to the triplet ground state in the case of acetylene.

  17. Finding Strong Bridges and Strong Articulation Points in Linear Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Italiano, Giuseppe F.; Laura, Luigi; Santaroni, Federico

    Given a directed graph G, an edge is a strong bridge if its removal increases the number of strongly connected components of G. Similarly, we say that a vertex is a strong articulation point if its removal increases the number of strongly connected components of G. In this paper, we present linear-time algorithms for computing all the strong bridges and all the strong articulation points of directed graphs, solving an open problem posed in [2].

  18. Delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Werner J

    2003-10-21

    Immune reactions to small molecular compounds, such as drugs, can cause a variety of diseases involving the skin, liver, kidney, and lungs. In many drug hypersensitivity reactions, drug-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells recognize drugs through their alphabeta T-cell receptors in an MHC-dependent way. Drugs stimulate T cells if they act as haptens and bind covalently to peptides or if they have structural features that allow them to interact with certain T-cell receptors directly. Immunohistochemical and functional studies of drug-reactive T cells in patients with distinct forms of exanthema reveal that distinct T-cell functions lead to different clinical phenotypes. In maculopapular exanthema, perforin-positive and granzyme B-positive CD4+ T cells kill activated keratinocytes, while a large number of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells in the epidermis is associated with formation of vesicles and bullae. Drug-specific T cells also orchestrate inflammatory skin reactions through the release of various cytokines (for example, interleukin-5, interferon) and chemokines (such as interleukin-8). Activation of T cells with a particular function seems to lead to a specific clinical picture (for example, bullous or pustular exanthema). Taken together, these data allow delayed hypersensitivity reactions (type IV) to be further subclassified into T-cell reactions, which through the release of certain cytokines and chemokines preferentially activate and recruit monocytes (type IVa), eosinophils (type IVb), or neutrophils (type IVd). Moreover, cytotoxic functions by either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells (type IVc) seem to participate in all type IV reactions.

  19. Strongly correlated surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Victor A.

    Everything has an edge. However trivial, this phrase has dominated theoretical condensed matter in the past half a decade. Prior to that, questions involving the edge considered to be more of an engineering problem rather than a one of fundamental science: it seemed self-evident that every edge is different. However, recent advances proved that many surface properties enjoy a certain universality, and moreover, are 'topologically' protected. In this thesis I discuss a selected range of problems that bring together topological properties of surface states and strong interactions. Strong interactions alone can lead to a wide spectrum of emergent phenomena: from high temperature superconductivity to unconventional magnetic ordering; interactions can change the properties of particles, from heavy electrons to fractional charges. It is a unique challenge to bring these two topics together. The thesis begins by describing a family of methods and models with interactions so high that electrons effectively disappear as particles and new bound states arise. By invoking the AdS/CFT correspondence we can mimic the physical systems of interest as living on the surface of a higher dimensional universe with a black hole. In a specific example we investigate the properties of the surface states and find helical spin structure of emerged particles. The thesis proceeds from helical particles on the surface of black hole to a surface of samarium hexaboride: an f-electron material with localized magnetic moments at every site. Interactions between electrons in the bulk lead to insulating behavior, but the surfaces found to be conducting. This observation motivated an extensive research: weather the origin of conduction is of a topological nature. Among our main results, we confirm theoretically the topological properties of SmB6; introduce a new framework to address similar questions for this type of insulators, called Kondo insulators. Most notably we introduce the idea of Kondo

  20. Delay of Gratification and Delay Discounting: A Unifying Feedback Model of Delay-Related Impulsive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Brady; Schiffbauer, Ryan

    2005-01-01

    Delay of Gratification (DG) and Delay Discounting (DD) represent two indices of impulsive behavior often treated as though they represent equivalent or the same underlying processes. However, there are key differences between DG and DD procedures, and between certain research findings with each procedure, that suggest they are not equivalent. In…

  1. Foreshocks of strong earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, A. V.; Sobisevich, L. E.; Sobisevich, A. L.; Lavrov, I. P.

    2014-07-01

    The specific enhancement of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) electromagnetic oscillations a few hours prior to the strong earthquakes, which was previously mentioned in the literature, motivated us to search for the distinctive features of the mechanical (foreshock) activity of the Earth's crust in the epicentral zones of the future earthquakes. Activation of the foreshocks three hours before the main shock is revealed, which is roughly similar to the enhancement of the specific electromagnetic ULF emission. It is hypothesized that the round-the-world seismic echo signals from the earthquakes, which form the peak of energy release 2 h 50 min before the main events, act as the triggers of the main shocks due to the cumulative action of the surface waves converging to the epicenter. It is established that the frequency of the fluctuations in the foreshock activity decreases at the final stages of the preparation of the main shocks, which probably testifies to the so-called mode softening at the approach of the failure point according to the catastrophe theory.

  2. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    SciTech Connect

    Volkas, R. R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G. C.

    1989-07-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3)/sub 1//direct product/SU(3)/sub 2//direct product/SU(3)/sub 3/ gauge theory, where quarks of the /ital i/th generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub /ital i// and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements.

  3. Kinematics of Strong Discontinuities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, K.; Nguyen, G.; Sulsky, D.

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) provides a detailed view of the Arctic ice cover. When processed with the RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS), it provides estimates of sea ice motion and deformation over large regions of the Arctic for extended periods of time. The deformation is dominated by the appearance of linear kinematic features that have been associated with the presence of leads. The RGPS deformation products are based on the assumption that the displacement and velocity are smooth functions of the spatial coordinates. However, if the dominant deformation of multiyear ice results from the opening, closing and shearing of leads, then the displacement and velocity can be discontinuous. This presentation discusses the kinematics associated with strong discontinuities that describe possible jumps in displacement or velocity. Ice motion from SAR data are analyzed using this framework. It is assumed that RGPS cells deform due to the presence of a lead. The lead orientation is calculated to optimally account for the observed deformation. It is shown that almost all observed deformation can be represented by lead opening and shearing. The procedure used to reprocess motion data to account for leads will be described and applied to regions of the Beaufort Sea. The procedure not only provides a new view of ice deformation, it can be used to obtain information about the presence of leads for initialization and/or validation of numerical simulations.

  4. Attosecond Delays in Molecular Photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppert, Martin; Jordan, Inga; Baykusheva, Denitsa; von Conta, Aaron; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2016-08-01

    We report measurements of energy-dependent photoionization delays between the two outermost valence shells of N2O and H2O . The combination of single-shot signal referencing with the use of different metal foils to filter the attosecond pulse train enables us to extract delays from congested spectra. Remarkably large delays up to 160 as are observed in N2O , whereas the delays in H2O are all smaller than 50 as in the photon-energy range of 20-40 eV. These results are interpreted by developing a theory of molecular photoionization delays. The long delays measured in N2O are shown to reflect the population of molecular shape resonances that trap the photoelectron for a duration of up to ˜110 as. The unstructured continua of H2O result in much smaller delays at the same photon energies. Our experimental and theoretical methods make the study of molecular attosecond photoionization dynamics accessible.

  5. Attosecond Delays in Molecular Photoionization.

    PubMed

    Huppert, Martin; Jordan, Inga; Baykusheva, Denitsa; von Conta, Aaron; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2016-08-26

    We report measurements of energy-dependent photoionization delays between the two outermost valence shells of N_{2}O and H_{2}O. The combination of single-shot signal referencing with the use of different metal foils to filter the attosecond pulse train enables us to extract delays from congested spectra. Remarkably large delays up to 160 as are observed in N_{2}O, whereas the delays in H_{2}O are all smaller than 50 as in the photon-energy range of 20-40 eV. These results are interpreted by developing a theory of molecular photoionization delays. The long delays measured in N_{2}O are shown to reflect the population of molecular shape resonances that trap the photoelectron for a duration of up to ∼110 as. The unstructured continua of H_{2}O result in much smaller delays at the same photon energies. Our experimental and theoretical methods make the study of molecular attosecond photoionization dynamics accessible. PMID:27610849

  6. Earth system commitments due to delayed mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, Patrik L.; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    As long as global CO2 emissions continue to increase annually, long-term committed Earth system changes grow much faster than current observations. A novel metric linking this future growth to policy decisions today is the mitigation delay sensitivity (MDS), but MDS estimates for Earth system variables other than peak temperature (ΔT max) are missing. Using an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity, we show that the current emission increase rate causes a ΔT max increase roughly 3-7.5 times as fast as observed warming, and a millenial steric sea level rise (SSLR) 7-25 times as fast as observed SSLR, depending on the achievable rate of emission reductions after the peak of emissions. These ranges are only slightly affected by the uncertainty range in equilibrium climate sensitivity, which is included in the above values. The extent of ocean acidification at the end of the century is also strongly dependent on the starting time and rate of emission reductions. The preservable surface ocean area with sufficient aragonite supersaturation for coral reef growth is diminished globally at an MDS of roughly 25%-80% per decade. A near-complete loss of this area becomes unavoidable if mitigation is delayed for a few years to decades. Also with respect to aragonite, 12%-18% of the Southern Ocean surface become undersaturated per decade, if emission reductions are delayed beyond 2015-2040. We conclude that the consequences of delaying global emission reductions are much better captured if the MDS of relevant Earth system variables is communicated in addition to current trends and total projected future changes.

  7. Compact all-pass filters in photonic crystals as the building block for high-capacity optical delay lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Fan, Shanhui

    2003-12-01

    Optical all-pass filters, which generate strong on-resonance optical delay while maintaining a unity transmission coefficient throughout the entire resonant bandwidth, are of great importance for constructing delay lines in optical buffer applications. We provide an analysis of optical delay lines based upon cascading multiple stages of all-pass filter structures. We show that the maximum capacity of such delay lines is determined primarily by the dimensions of each stage. Motivated by this analysis, we describe compact optical all-pass filters in two-dimensional photonic crystals. The accidental degeneracy of the cavity modes introduces a strong group delay and dispersion while maintaining total transmission. PMID:14754345

  8. 78 FR 59422 - Delayed Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Delayed Applications AGENCY: Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of... Paquet, Director, Office of Hazardous Materials Special Permits and Approvals, Pipeline and...

  9. Time delays in gated radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Wendy L; Becker, Nathan

    2009-07-28

    In gated radiotherapy, the accuracy of treatment delivery is determined by the accuracy with which both the imaging and treatment beams are gated. If the time delays (the time between the target entering/leaving the gated region and the first/last image acquired or treatment beam on/off) for the imaging and treatment systems are in the opposite directions, they may increase the required internal target volume (ITV) margin, above that indicated by the tolerance for either system measured individually. We measured a gating system's time delay on 3 fluoroscopy systems, and 3 linear accelerator treatment beams, using a motion phantom of known geometry, varying gating type (amplitude vs. phase), beam energy, dose rate, and period. The average beam on imaging time delays were -0.04 +/- 0.05 s (amplitude, 1 SD), -0.11 +/- 0.04 s (phase); while the average beam off imaging time delays were -0.18 +/- 0.08 s (amplitude) and -0.15 +/- 0.04 s (phase). The average beam on treatment time delays were 0.09 +/- 0.02 s (amplitude, 1 SD), 0.10 +/- 0.03 s (phase); while the average beam off time delays for treatment beams were 0.08 +/- 0.02 s (amplitude) and 0.07 +/- 0.02 s (phase). The negative value indicates the images were acquired early, and the positive values show the treatment beam was triggered late. We present a technique for calculating the margin necessary to account for time delays and found that the difference between the imaging and treatment time delays required a significant increase in the ITV margin in the direction of tumor motion at the gated level.

  10. Measuring Information-Transfer Delays

    PubMed Central

    Wibral, Michael; Pampu, Nicolae; Priesemann, Viola; Siebenhühner, Felix; Seiwert, Hannes; Lindner, Michael; Lizier, Joseph T.; Vicente, Raul

    2013-01-01

    In complex networks such as gene networks, traffic systems or brain circuits it is important to understand how long it takes for the different parts of the network to effectively influence one another. In the brain, for example, axonal delays between brain areas can amount to several tens of milliseconds, adding an intrinsic component to any timing-based processing of information. Inferring neural interaction delays is thus needed to interpret the information transfer revealed by any analysis of directed interactions across brain structures. However, a robust estimation of interaction delays from neural activity faces several challenges if modeling assumptions on interaction mechanisms are wrong or cannot be made. Here, we propose a robust estimator for neuronal interaction delays rooted in an information-theoretic framework, which allows a model-free exploration of interactions. In particular, we extend transfer entropy to account for delayed source-target interactions, while crucially retaining the conditioning on the embedded target state at the immediately previous time step. We prove that this particular extension is indeed guaranteed to identify interaction delays between two coupled systems and is the only relevant option in keeping with Wiener’s principle of causality. We demonstrate the performance of our approach in detecting interaction delays on finite data by numerical simulations of stochastic and deterministic processes, as well as on local field potential recordings. We also show the ability of the extended transfer entropy to detect the presence of multiple delays, as well as feedback loops. While evaluated on neuroscience data, we expect the estimator to be useful in other fields dealing with network dynamics. PMID:23468850

  11. Delay in cutaneous melanoma diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Marcus H.S.B.; Drummond-Lage, Ana P.; Baeta, Cyntia; Rocha, Lorena; Almeida, Alessandra M.; Wainstein, Alberto J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Advanced melanoma is an incurable disease with complex and expensive treatments. The best approach to prevent melanoma at advanced stages is an early diagnosis. A knowledge of factors associated with the process of detecting cutaneous melanomas and the reasons for delays in diagnosis is essential for the improvement of the secondary prevention of the disease. Identify sociodemographic, individual, and medical aspects related to cutaneous melanoma diagnosis delay. Interviews evaluated the knowledge of melanoma, signals, symptoms, persons who were suspected, delays in seeking medical attention, physician's deferrals, and related factors of 211 patients. Melanomas were self-discovered in 41.7% of the patients; healthcare providers detected 29.9% of patients and others detected 27%. The main component in delay was patient-related. Only 31.3% of the patients knew that melanoma was a serious skin cancer, and most thought that the pigmented lesion was not important, causing a delay in seeking medical assistance. Patients (36.4%) reported a wait interval of more than 6 months from the onset of an observed change in a pigmented lesion to the first visit to a physician. The delay interval from the first physician visit to a histopathological diagnosis was shorter (<1 month) in 55.5% of patients. Improper treatments without a histopathological confirmation occurred in 14.7% of patients. A professional delay was related to both inappropriate treatments performed without histopathological confirmation (P = 0.003) and long requirements for medical referrals (P < 0.001). A deficient knowledge in the population regarding melanoma and physicians’ misdiagnoses regarding suspicious lesions contributed to delays in diagnosis. PMID:27495055

  12. Basin stability in delayed dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics. PMID:26907568

  13. Basin stability in delayed dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics.

  14. Prediction of Weather Related Center Delays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, Kulkarni; Banavar, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results of an initial study of relations between national delay, center level delays and weather. The results presented in the paper indicate: (a) the methodology used for estimating the delay at the national level can be extended to estimate delays caused by a center and delays experienced by a center, (b)delays caused by a center can be predicted using that center's Weather Impacted Traffic Index (WITI) whereas delays experienced by a center are best predicted using WITI of that center and that of a few prominent centers (c) there is differential impact of weather of different centers on center delays.

  15. On the linearity of cross-correlation delay times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercerat, E. D.; Nolet, G.

    2012-12-01

    major contributor to deviation from linearity. The strong velocity contrast of 10% and the regularity of the anomalous structure generate strong reverberations. The test thus provides a worst-case scenario. The results scale up to regional (upper mantle) seismology if times and distances are multiplied by 10(4) . We conclude that in all but the most extreme cases, P-wave delay times depend quasi-linearly on the model perturbations.

  16. UWB delay and multiply receiver

    DOEpatents

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-09-10

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

  17. Adaptation to delayed auditory feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, D. I.; Lackner, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Delayed auditory feedback disrupts the production of speech, causing an increase in speech duration as well as many articulatory errors. To determine whether prolonged exposure to delayed auditory feedback (DAF) leads to adaptive compensations in speech production, 10 subjects were exposed in separate experimental sessions to both incremental and constant-delay exposure conditions. Significant adaptation occurred for syntactically structured stimuli in the form of increased speaking rates. After DAF was removed, aftereffects were apparent for all stimulus types in terms of increased speech rates. A carry-over effect from the first to the second experimental session was evident as long as 29 days after the first session. The use of strategies to overcome DAF and the differences between adaptation to DAF and adaptation to visual rearrangement are discussed.

  18. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  19. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  20. Delaying vortex breakdown by waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, M. F.; Jiang, L. B.; Wu, J. Z.; Ma, H. Y.; Pan, J. Y.

    1989-03-01

    The effect of spiral waves on delaying vortex breakdown in a tube is studied experimentally and theoretically. When a harmonic oscillation was imposed on one of guiding vanes in the tube, the breakdown was observed to be postponed appreciately. According to the generalized Lagrangian mean theory, proper forcing spiral waves may produce an additional streaming momentum, of which the effect is favorable and similar to an axial suction at downstream end. The delayed breakdown position is further predicted by using nonlinear wave theory. Qualitative agreement between theory and experiment is obtained, and experimental comparison of the effects due to forcing spiral wave and axial suction is made.

  1. Variable Delay Testing Using ONE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishac, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of long and changing propagation delays on the performance of TCP file transfers. Tests are performed with machines that emulate communication from a low/medium-earth satellite to Earth by way of a geosynchronous satellite. As a result of these tests, we find that TCP is fairly robust to varying delays given a high enough TCP timer granularity. However, performance degrades noticeably for larger file transfers when a finer timer granularity is used. Such results have also been observed in previous simulations by other researchers, and thus, this work serves as an extension of those results.

  2. Delayed neutron alignment in sup 117 I

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.S.; Waring, M.P.; Clark, R.M.; Forbes, S.A.; Fossan, D.B.; Hughes, J.R.; LaFosse, D.R.; Liang, Y.; Ma, R.; Vaska, P.; Wadsworth, R. Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO1 5DD Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 )

    1992-06-01

    The rotational alignment of {ital h}{sub 11/2} neutrons is considerably delayed ({Delta}{h bar}{omega}{similar to}0.11 MeV) in the {pi}{ital h}{sub 11/2}(550)1/2{sup {minus}} intruder band in {sup 117}I when compared to bands built on normal-parity states. Comparison with cranked shell-model calculations suggests that this effect may indicate a larger quadrupole deformation for the intruder orbital. A strong neutron-proton interaction between the aligning {ital h}{sub 11/2} neutrons and the {ital h}{sub 11/2} proton intruder may also play a role. In addition, noncollective oblate states at {ital I}{sup {pi}}=39/2{sup {minus}},43/2{sup {minus}}, and 45/2{sup {minus}} compete energetically with rotational states of the intruder band which may also perturb the neutron alignment.

  3. Persistence in nonautonomous predator-prey systems with infinite delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Zhidong; Rehim, Mehbuba

    2006-12-01

    This paper studies the general nonautonomous predator-prey Lotka-Volterra systems with infinite delays. The sufficient and necessary conditions of integrable form on the permanence and persistence of species are established. A very interesting and important property of two-species predator-prey systems is discovered, that is, the permanence of species and the existence of a persistent solution are each other equivalent. Particularly, for the periodic system with delays, applying these results, the sufficient and necessary conditions on the permanence and the existence of positive periodic solutions are obtained. Some well-known results on the nondelayed periodic predator-prey Lotka-Volterra systems are strongly improved and extended to the delayed case.

  4. Delayed School Entry in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997 Uganda has seen a large increase in school enrolment. Despite this increased enrolment, universal education has remained elusive. Many children enrol in school, but not at the recommended age, and they drop out before completing school. This article focuses on one of these problems--delayed school entry. What household factors are…

  5. Attosecond Delays in Resonant Photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maquet, Alfred

    2015-05-01

    Attosecond delays in the photoionization of atomic states have been evidenced in recent experiments performed in the 2010's. The delays were associated to the emission of photoelectron wave packets ejected from different atomic states, in the combined presence of attosecond pulses of XUV radiation and of a synchronized IR laser pulse, the latter being used as a reference ``clock''. These experiments were performed at XUV frequencies connecting the ground state to a ``flat'' continuum. Theoretical treatments were able to relate the measured delays to Wigner's definition of time delays in terms of the energy derivative of the phase-shift attached to the continuum wave functions of the photoelectrons. Attention has recently shifted towards the case of resonant photoionization in the course of which the XUV frequency is tuned close to a resonance of the target system. The case of a transition towards an autoionizing states of the target is particularly interesting as it makes evident the role of electronic correlations. Here, we shall present recent advances realized in the theoretical interpretation of this new class of experiments.

  6. Local Effects of Delayed Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Five pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven concurrent variable-interval schedules arranged seven different food-rate ratios in random sequence in each session. Each of these components lasted for 10 response-produced food deliveries, and components were separated by 10-s blackouts. We varied delays to food (signaled by blackout)…

  7. Delaying mitotic exit downregulates FLIP expression and strongly sensitizes tumor cells to TRAIL.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, T; Medema, R H; López-Rivas, A

    2015-01-29

    Many of the current antitumor therapeutic strategies are based on the perturbation of the cell cycle, especially during mitosis. Antimitotic drugs trigger mitotic checkpoint activation, mitotic arrest and eventually cell death. However, mitotic slippage represents a major mechanism of resistance to these treatments. In an attempt to circumvent the process of slippage, targeting mitotic exit has been proposed as a better strategy to kill tumor cells. In this study, we show that treatments that induce mitotic checkpoint activation and mitotic arrest downregulate FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP) levels and sensitize several tumor cell lines to TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand)-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, we also demonstrate that in absence of mitotic checkpoint activation, mitotic arrest induced either by Cdc20 knockdown or overexpression of nondegradable cyclin B is sufficient to induce both FLIP downregulation and sensitivity to TRAIL. In summary, our data suggest that a combination of antimitotic drugs targeting cyclin B degradation and TRAIL might prevent mitotic slippage and allow tumor cells to reach the threshold for apoptosis induction, thereby facilitating tumor suppression. PMID:24488010

  8. Measurement of Gravitational Lens Time Delays with LSST (SULI Paper)

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkby, Lowry Anna; /Oxford U. /SLAC

    2006-01-04

    The proposed Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will be the first to explore multiple dark energy probes simultaneously, including baryon acoustic oscillations, weak lensing, and strong gravitational lensing. The large data sample, covering the entire visible sky every few nights, will allow an unprecedented survey of deep supernova sources and their lensed images. The latter have not yet been observed. Notably, LSST will measure the time delays between different strong-lensed images of the same supernova. This will provide a unique probe of dark matter, dark energy, and the expansion rate of the Universe. By simulating LSST observations under realistic conditions, we determined the time delay precision of multiple images from a representative strong-lensed Type Ia supernova. The output of the simulation was a set of light curves according to field and filter, which were subsequently analyzed to determine the experimental time delays. We find that a time delay precision of better then 10% can be achieved under suitable conditions. Firstly, a minimum observed peak-magnitude of 22 is required for the lensed image, corresponding to an intrinsic source magnitude of about 24. The number of such supernova sources expected for LSST is under investigation, but it could amount to several thousand. Secondly, a minimum of about 50 visits per field is required, and, moreover, these visits must be evenly distributed over the duration of the event. The visit frequency should be approximately once per week, or better. Thirdly, the sky brightness should be below 21 magnitude arcsec{sup -2} to allow sufficient sensitivity to distance sources. Under the nominal LSST visiting schedule and field conditions, 15% of all fields satisfy these criteria, and allow time delay measurements of better than 10% precision. This performance can be further improved by fitting the predicted supernova light curves to the observations, rather than using the simple weighted mean as in the present study

  9. Spherical Strong-Shock Inferences on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nora, R.; Lafon, M.; Betti, R.; Theobald, W.; Seka, W.; Delettrez, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    A milestone for shock ignition is to experimentally verify the generation of several hundred Mbar shocks at shock-ignition-relevant laser intensities. This paper presents the first experimental evidence of strong shocks generated in a spherical geometry. Using the temporal delay between the launch of the strong shock at the outer surface of the spherical target and the time when the shock converges at the center, the shock properties can be inferred using radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. Peak ablation pressures exceeding 200 Mbar are inferred at laser intensities of ~ 3 ×1015 W/cm2. The shock strength is significantly enhanced by the coupling of copius amounts of hot electrons, up to 2 kJ with Thot ~ 50 to 100 keV. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944 and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Number DE-FG02-04ER54786.

  10. Daily physical activity patterns of children with delayed eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Annette R; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Lundgren, Jennifer D; Allison, Kelly; Tremblay, Angelo; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Drapeau, Vicky

    2013-10-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is a delayed pattern of energy intake. It is unknown if symptoms associated with this syndrome are accompanied by a delayed pattern of physical activity. This study examines the relationship between physical activity patterns and delayed eating behaviors in children. Children from the QUALITY cohort (n = 269, 45% female, aged 8-11 y) completed the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), which measures NES symptoms on a continuous scale and identifies single NES symptoms. Daily accelerometer data were transformed into mean counts per wear-time minute for each hour of the day. Children with high NEQ scores had higher levels of daily (p < 0.001) and evening physical activity (p = 0.05) and reached 75% of their total daily physical activity 20 minutes later than children with low NEQ scores (p < 0.05). Excessive evening snacking and a strong urge to eat in the evening or at night were the symptoms most related to these physical activity patterns. Children with delayed eating behaviors had higher levels of physical activity in the late morning and evening and a delayed physical activity pattern compared to children with no or fewer symptoms. Future research is needed to determine if physical activity plays a role in the onset or maintenance of night eating.

  11. Time-delay cosmography: increased leverage with angular diameter distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jee, I.; Komatsu, E.; Suyu, S. H.; Huterer, D.

    2016-04-01

    Strong lensing time-delay systems constrain cosmological parameters via the so-called time-delay distance and the angular diameter distance to the lens. In previous studies, only the former information was used in forecasting cosmographic constraints. In this paper, we show that the cosmological constraints improve significantly when the latter information is also included. Specifically, the angular diameter distance plays a crucial role in breaking the degeneracy between the curvature of the Universe and the time-varying equation of state of dark energy. Using a mock sample of 55 bright quadruple lens systems based on expectations for ongoing/future imaging surveys, we find that adding the angular diameter distance information to the time-delay distance information and the Planck's measurements of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies improves the constraint on the constant equation of state by 30%, on the time variation in the equation of state by a factor of two, and on the Hubble constant in the flat ΛCDM model by a factor of two. Therefore, previous forecasts for the statistical power of time-delay systems were overly pessimistic, i.e., time-delay systems are more powerful than previously appreciated.

  12. Delayed Neutron and Delayed Photon Characteristics from Photofission of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Dore, D.; Berthoumieux, E.; Leprince, A.; Ridikas, D.

    2011-12-13

    Delayed neutron (DN) and delayed photon (DP) emissions from photofission reactions play an important role for applications involving nuclear material detection and characterization. To provide new, accurate, basic nuclear data for evaluations and data libraries, an experimental programme of DN and DP measurements has been undertaken for actinides with bremsstrahlung endpoint energy in the giant resonance region ({approx}15 MeV). In this paper, the experimental setup and the data analysis method will be described. Experimental results for DN and DP characteristics will be presented for {sup 232}Th, {sup 235,238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu. Finally, an example of an application to study the contents of nuclear waste packages will be briefly discussed.

  13. Delay discounting of cocaine by rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Woolverton, William L; Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard

    2007-06-01

    The present, subjective value of a reinforcer typically decreases as a function of the delay to its receipt, a phenomenon termed delay discounting. Delay discounting, which is assumed to reflect impulsivity, is hypothesized to play an important role in drug abuse. The present study examined delay discounting of cocaine injections by rhesus monkeys. Subjects were studied on a discrete-trials task in which they chose between 2 doses of cocaine: a smaller, immediate dose and a larger, delayed dose. The immediate dose varied between 0.012 and 0.4 mg/kg/injection, whereas the delayed dose was always 0.2 mg/kg/injection and was delivered after a delay that varied between 0 and 300 s in different conditions. At each delay, the point at which a monkey chose the immediate and delayed doses equally often (i.e., the ED50) provided a measure of the present, subjective value of the delayed dose. Dose-response functions for the immediate dose shifted to the left as delay increased. The amount of the immediate dose predicted to be equal in subjective value to the delayed dose decreased as a function of the delay, and hyperbolic discounting functions provided good fits to the data (median R(2)=.86). The current approach may provide the basis for an animal model of the effect of delay on the subjective value of drugs of abuse. PMID:17563210

  14. Strong-back safety latch

    SciTech Connect

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  15. Synchronization by small time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruessner, G.; Cheang, S.; Jensen, H. J.

    2015-02-01

    Synchronization is a phenomenon observed in all of the living and in much of the non-living world, for example in the heart beat, Huygens' clocks, the flashing of fireflies and the clapping of audiences. Depending on the number of degrees of freedom involved, different mathematical approaches have been used to describe it, most prominently integrate-and-fire oscillators and the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators. In the present work, we study a very simple and general system of smoothly evolving oscillators, which continue to interact even in the synchronized state. We find that under very general circumstances, synchronization generically occurs in the presence of a (small) time delay. Strikingly, the synchronization time is inversely proportional to the time delay.

  16. Time delay and distance measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B. (Inventor); Sun, Xiaoli (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for measuring time delay and distance may include providing an electromagnetic radiation carrier frequency and modulating one or more of amplitude, phase, frequency, polarization, and pointing angle of the carrier frequency with a return to zero (RZ) pseudo random noise (PN) code. The RZ PN code may have a constant bit period and a pulse duration that is less than the bit period. A receiver may detect the electromagnetic radiation and calculate the scattering profile versus time (or range) by computing a cross correlation function between the recorded received signal and a three-state RZ PN code kernel in the receiver. The method also may be used for pulse delay time (i.e., PPM) communications.

  17. Delay locked loop integrated circuit.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2007-10-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) integrated circuit (IC). The DLL was developed and tested as a stand-alone IC test chip to be integrated into a larger application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the Quadrature Digital Waveform Synthesizer (QDWS). The purpose of the DLL is to provide a digitally programmable delay to enable synchronization between an internal system clock and external peripherals with unknown clock skew. The DLL was designed and fabricated in the IBM 8RF process, a 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process. It was designed to operate with a 300MHz clock and has been tested up to 500MHz.

  18. Recent advances of strong-strong beam-beam simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Furman, Miguel A.; Ryne, Robert D.; Fischer, Wolfram; Ohmi,Kazuhito

    2004-09-15

    In this paper, we report on recent advances in strong-strong beam-beam simulation. Numerical methods used in the calculation of the beam-beam forces are reviewed. A new computational method to solve the Poisson equation on nonuniform grid is presented. This method reduces the computational cost by a half compared with the standard FFT based method on uniform grid. It is also more accurate than the standard method for a colliding beam with low transverse aspect ratio. In applications, we present the study of coherent modes with multi-bunch, multi-collision beam-beam interactions at RHIC. We also present the strong-strong simulation of the luminosity evolution at KEKB with and without finite crossing angle.

  19. Method for calcining delayed coke

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.

    1981-02-17

    Delayed petroleum coke is calcined in an internally-fired vertical shaft kiln. A downwardly-moving bed of green coke is preheated in the top of the kiln by rising combustion gases, then heat soaked at calcining temperatures in the intermediate section of the kiln, and finally cooled by recycle gas moving upwardly from the lower part of the kiln. Partially cooled calcined coke is recovered from the bottom of the kiln.

  20. Delayed recombination and standard rulers

    SciTech Connect

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Galli, Silvia; Silk, Joseph I.; Verde, Licia

    2009-02-15

    Measurements of baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs) in galaxy surveys have been recognized as a powerful tool for constraining dark energy. However, this method relies on the knowledge of the size of the acoustic horizon at recombination derived from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements. This estimate is typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme; additional radiation sources can delay recombination altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from CMB and BAO data. In this paper we quantify the effect of delayed recombination on the determination of dark energy parameters from future BAO surveys such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and the Wide-Field Multi-Object Spectrograph. We find the impact to be small but still not negligible. In particular, if recombination is nonstandard (to a level still allowed by CMB data), but this is ignored, future surveys may incorrectly suggest the presence of a redshift-dependent dark energy component. On the other hand, in the case of delayed recombination, adding to the analysis one extra parameter describing deviations from standard recombination does not significantly degrade the error bars on dark energy parameters and yields unbiased estimates. This is due to the CMB-BAO complementarity.

  1. Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children > Ages & Stages > Toddler > Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents Page Content Article Body Your baby ...

  2. 78 FR 43270 - List of Applications Delayed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration List of Applications Delayed AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of applications delayed more than 180... Hazardous Materials Special Permits ] and Approvals, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  3. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  4. Creating and Nurturing Strong Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kaye M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses ways to create and sustain strong teaching teams, including matching curriculum goals, complementary professional strengths, and exercise of autonomy. Elaborates the administrator's role in nurturing and supporting teamwork. (JPB)

  5. Contingency Tracking during Unsignaled Delayed Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keely, Josue; Feola, Tyler; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted with rats in which responses on one lever (labeled the functional lever) produced reinforcers after an unsignaled delay period that reset with each response during the delay. Responses on a second, nonfunctional, lever did not initiate delays, but, in the first and third experiments, such responses during the last…

  6. Academic Delay of Gratification and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2011-01-01

    The ability to delay gratification is the cornerstone of all academic achievement and education. It is by delaying gratification that learners can pursue long-term academic and career goals. In general, "delay of gratification" refers to an individual's ability to forgo immediate rewards for the sake of more valuable ones later (Mischel, 1996).…

  7. Direct-reading group-delay measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trowbridge, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technique for measuring modulation signal retardation in microwave components gives direct plot of dependence of delay time on carrier frequency. Recorder sensitivity can be adjusted to give convenient scale factor for group delay. From family of such recordings, it is possible to observe changes in group delay due to temperature, mechanical stress, and other factors.

  8. Children's Delay of Gratification and Preschool Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoville, Satsuki; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study investigated the relationship between delay of gratification and preschool performance in 20 students aged 4 and 5 years old, and enrolled in a Head Start program. Gratification delay was measured through an experiment that allowed the students to choose between a smaller immediate reward or a larger delayed reward. Preschool…

  9. 40 CFR 1500.5 - Reducing delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reducing delay. 1500.5 Section 1500.5 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PURPOSE, POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.5 Reducing delay. Agencies shall reduce delay by: (a) Integrating the NEPA process into early planning (§...

  10. Nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra Systems with Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Zhidong

    2002-03-01

    The paper studies the general nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra multispecies systems with finite delays. The ultimate boundedness, permanence, global attractivity, and existence and uniqueness of strictly positive solutions, positive periodic solutions, and almost periodic solutions are obtained. These results are basically an extension of the known results for nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra multispecies systems without delay to systems with delay.

  11. Simulating strongly correlated electrons with a strongly interacting Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John E.

    2013-05-28

    The quantum many-body physics of strongly-correlated fermions is studied in a degenerate, strongly- interacting atomic Fermi gas, first realized by our group with DOE support in 2002. This system, which exhibits strong spin pairing, is now widely studied and provides an important paradigm for testing predictions based on state-of-the-art many-body theory in fields ranging from nuclear matter to high temperature superfluidity and superconductivity. As the system is strongly interacting, both the superfluid and the normal fluid are nontrivial and of great interest. A central part of our program on Fermi gases is the connection between the study of thermodynamics, supported by DOE and the study of hydrodynamic transport, supported by NSF. This connection is especially interesting in view of a recent conjecture from the string theory community on the concept of nearly perfect normal fluids, which exhibit a minimum ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density in strongly-interacting, scale-invariant systems.

  12. BOLD delay times using group delay in sickle cell disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coloigner, Julie; Vu, Chau; Bush, Adam; Borzage, Matt; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Lepore, Natasha; Wood, John

    2016-03-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder that effects red blood cells, which can lead to vasoocclusion, ischemia and infarct. This disease often results in neurological damage and strokes, leading to morbidity and mortality. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique for measuring and mapping the brain activity. Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) signals contain also information about the neurovascular coupling, vascular reactivity, oxygenation and blood propagation. Temporal relationship between BOLD fluctuations in different parts of the brain provides also a mean to investigate the blood delay information. We used the induced desaturation as a label to profile transit times through different brain areas, reflecting oxygen utilization of tissue. In this study, we aimed to compare blood flow propagation delay times between these patients and healthy subjects in areas vascularized by anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries. In a group comparison analysis with control subjects, BOLD changes in these areas were found to be almost simultaneous and shorter in the SCD patients, because of their increased brain blood flow. Secondly, the analysis of a patient with a stenosis on the anterior cerebral artery indicated that signal of the area vascularized by this artery lagged the MCA signal. These findings suggest that sickle cell disease causes blood propagation modifications, and that these changes could be used as a biomarker of vascular damage.

  13. Radio monitoring campaigns of six strongly lensed quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumbaugh, N.; Fassnacht, C. D.; McKean, J. P.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Auger, M. W.; Suyu, S. H.

    2015-06-01

    We observed six strongly lensed, radio-loud quasars (MG 0414+0534, CLASS B0712+472, JVAS B1030+074, CLASS B1127+385, CLASS B1152+199, and JVAS B1938+666) in order to identify systems suitable for measuring cosmological parameters using time delays between their multiple images. These systems are in standard two- and four-image configurations, with B1938 having a faint secondary pair of images. Two separate monitoring campaigns were carried out using the Very Large Array (VLA) and upgraded VLA. Light curves were extracted for each individual lensed image and analysed for signs of intrinsic variability. While it was not possible to measure time delays from these data, χ2-based and structure function tests found evidence for variability in a majority of the light curves. B0712 and B1030 had particularly strong variations, exhibiting linear flux trends. These results suggest that most of these systems should be targeted with follow-up monitoring campaigns, especially B0712 and B1030. We estimate that we can measure time delays for these systems with precisions of 0.5-3.5 d using two more seasons of monitoring.

  14. ADHD and Delay Aversion: The Influence of Non-Temporal Stimulation on Choice for Delayed Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antrop, Inge; Stock, Pieter; Verte, Sylvie; Wiersema, Jan Roelt; Baeyens, Dieter; Roeyers, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    Background: Delay aversion, the motivation to escape or avoid delay, results in preference for small immediate over large delayed rewards. Delay aversion has been proposed as one distinctive psychological process that may underlie the behavioural symptoms and cognitive deficits of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, the…

  15. Reactor shutdown delays medical procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A longer-than-expected maintenance shutdown of the Canadian nuclear reactor that produces North America's entire supply of molybdenum-99 - from which the radioactive isotopes technetium-99 and iodine-131 are made - caused delays to the diagnosis and treatment of thousands of seriously ill patients last month. Technetium-99 is a key component of nuclear-medicine scans, while iodine-131 is used to treat cancer and other diseases of the thyroid. Production eventually resumed, but only after the Canadian government had overruled the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), which was still concerned about the reactor's safety.

  16. Delayed onset arterial gas embolism.

    PubMed

    Moloff, A L

    1993-11-01

    Numerous civilian and military personnel are involved in SCUBA diving activities. In this day of rapid air travel it is important that all physicians, not just those living near the coast or dive centers, be familiar with the basics of diagnosing and treating diving-related injuries. One of the more serious complications of dysbarism is Arterial Gas Embolism (AGE). This case history involves an atypical presentation of delayed onset AGE in a military diver trainee, and its treatment. This article then reviews the incidence, etiology, pathophysiology, "classic" presentation and current treatment of this disease. Systemic pathophysiology secondary to the effects of intravascular air of AGE is also discussed.

  17. Delayed diagnosis of Pendred syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Natalie; U-King-Im, Jean-Marie; Karalliedde, Janaka

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a delayed diagnosis of Pendred syndrome. The patient had a history of hearing loss from childhood and presented to the endocrine clinic when aged 32 with an enlarging goitre. The characteristic Mondini deformity was noted on auditory canal MRI scan. Genetic tests confirmed the diagnosis. Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterised by congenital sensorineural hearing loss, goitre and impaired iodide organification and can present at any age. We highlight to the general physician the classical features of this syndrome that would aid early diagnosis. PMID:27620717

  18. The Multiply Imaged Strongly Lensed Supernova Refsdal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In 1964, Sjur Refsdal first considered the possibility that the light from a background supernova could traverse multiple paths around a strong gravitational lens towards us. He showed that the arrival times of the supernova's light would depend on the cosmic expansion rate, as well as the distribution of matter in the lens. I will discuss the discovery of the first such multiply imaged supernova, which exploded behind the MACS J1149.6+2223 galaxy cluster. We have obtained Hubble Space Telescope grism and ground-based spectra of the four images of the supernova, which form an Einstein Cross configuration around an elliptical cluster member. These spectra as well as rest-frame optical light curves have allowed us to learn about the properties of the peculiar core-collapse supernova explosion, and contain information about the lenses' matter distribution as well as their stellar populations. A delayed image of the supernova is expected close to the galaxy cluster center as early as Fall 2015, and will serve as an unprecedented probe of the potential of a massive galaxy cluster.

  19. The influences of delay time on the stability of a market model with stochastic volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiang-Cheng; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2013-02-01

    The effects of the delay time on the stability of a market model are investigated, by using a modified Heston model with a cubic nonlinearity and cross-correlated noise sources. These results indicate that: (i) There is an optimal delay time τo which maximally enhances the stability of the stock price under strong demand elasticity of stock price, and maximally reduces the stability of the stock price under weak demand elasticity of stock price; (ii) The cross correlation coefficient of noises and the delay time play an opposite role on the stability for the case of the delay time <τo and the same role for the case of the delay time >τo. Moreover, the probability density function of the escape time of stock price returns, the probability density function of the returns and the correlation function of the returns are compared with other literatures.

  20. Precise delay measurement through combinatorial logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary R. (Inventor); Chen, Yuan (Inventor); Sheldon, Douglas J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A high resolution circuit and method for facilitating precise measurement of on-chip delays for FPGAs for reliability studies. The circuit embeds a pulse generator on an FPGA chip having one or more groups of LUTS (the "LUT delay chain"), also on-chip. The circuit also embeds a pulse width measurement circuit on-chip, and measures the duration of the generated pulse through the delay chain. The pulse width of the output pulse represents the delay through the delay chain without any I/O delay. The pulse width measurement circuit uses an additional asynchronous clock autonomous from the main clock and the FPGA propagation delay can be displayed on a hex display continuously for testing purposes.

  1. Time delay and magnification centroid due to gravitational lensing by black holes and naked singularities

    SciTech Connect

    Virbhadra, K. S.; Keeton, C. R.

    2008-06-15

    We model the massive dark object at the center of the Galaxy as a Schwarzschild black hole as well as Janis-Newman-Winicour naked singularities, characterized by the mass and scalar charge parameters, and study gravitational lensing (particularly time delay, magnification centroid, and total magnification) by them. We find that the lensing features are qualitatively similar (though quantitatively different) for Schwarzschild black holes, weakly naked, and marginally strongly naked singularities. However, the lensing characteristics of strongly naked singularities are qualitatively very different from those due to Schwarzschild black holes. The images produced by Schwarzschild black hole lenses and weakly naked and marginally strongly naked singularity lenses always have positive time delays. On the other hand, strongly naked singularity lenses can give rise to images with positive, zero, or negative time delays. In particular, for a large angular source position the direct image (the outermost image on the same side as the source) due to strongly naked singularity lensing always has a negative time delay. We also found that the scalar field decreases the time delay and increases the total magnification of images; this result could have important implications for cosmology. As the Janis-Newman-Winicour metric also describes the exterior gravitational field of a scalar star, naked singularities as well as scalar star lenses, if these exist in nature, will serve as more efficient cosmic telescopes than regular gravitational lenses.

  2. Strongly interacting ultracold polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadway, Bryce; Yan, Bo

    2016-08-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the study of strongly interacting systems of dipolar molecules. Heteronuclear molecules feature large and tunable electric dipole moments, which give rise to long-range and anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions. Ultracold samples of dipolar molecules with long-range interactions offer a unique platform for quantum simulations and the study of correlated many-body physics. We provide an introduction to the physics of dipolar quantum gases, both electric and magnetic, and summarize the multipronged efforts to bring dipolar molecules into the quantum regime. We discuss in detail the recent experimental progress in realizing and studying strongly interacting systems of polar molecules trapped in optical lattices, with particular emphasis on the study of interacting spin systems and non-equilibrium quantum magnetism. Finally, we conclude with a brief discussion of the future prospects for studies of strongly interacting dipolar molecules.

  3. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  4. Strongly interacting ultracold polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadway, Bryce; Yan, Bo

    2016-08-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the study of strongly interacting systems of dipolar molecules. Heteronuclear molecules feature large and tunable electric dipole moments, which give rise to long-range and anisotropic dipole–dipole interactions. Ultracold samples of dipolar molecules with long-range interactions offer a unique platform for quantum simulations and the study of correlated many-body physics. We provide an introduction to the physics of dipolar quantum gases, both electric and magnetic, and summarize the multipronged efforts to bring dipolar molecules into the quantum regime. We discuss in detail the recent experimental progress in realizing and studying strongly interacting systems of polar molecules trapped in optical lattices, with particular emphasis on the study of interacting spin systems and non-equilibrium quantum magnetism. Finally, we conclude with a brief discussion of the future prospects for studies of strongly interacting dipolar molecules.

  5. Simulation of the strong interaction.

    PubMed

    Kenway, Richard

    2002-06-15

    In the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics, quarks are permanently confined by the strong interaction into bound states called hadrons. The values of some parameters, such as the quark masses and the strengths of the decays of one quark flavour into another, cannot be measured directly and must be deduced from experiments on hadrons. This requires calculations of the strong-interaction effects within the bound states, which are only possible using numerical simulations of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the quantum field theory of the strong interaction. In conjunction with experimental data from B factories over the next few years, QCD simulations may provide clues to physics beyond the SM. The simulations are computationally intensive and, for the past 20 years, have exploited leading-edge computing technology. This continues today, with a project to develop a 10 Tflops computer for QCD costing less than 1 US dollar per Mflops.

  6. Strong Photoassociation in Ultracold Fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Li; Jamison, Alan; Rvachov, Timur; Ebadi, Sepher; Son, Hyungmok; Jiang, Yijun; Zwierlein, Martin; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Despite many studies there are still open questions about strong photoassociation in ultracold gases. Photoassociation occurs only at short range and thus can be used as a tool to probe and control the two-body correlation function in an interacting many-body system and to engineer Hamiltonians using dissipation. We propose the possibility to slow down decoherence by photoassociation through the quantum Zeno effect. This can realized by shining strong photoassociation light on the superposition of the lowest two hyperfine states of Lithium 6. NSF, ARO-MURI, Samsung, NSERC.

  7. Cross delay line sensor characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, Israel J; Remelius, Dennis K; Tiee, Joe J; Buck, Steven E; Whittemore, Stephen R; Thompson, David C; Shirey, Robert

    2010-01-01

    There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recording space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 10{sup 6}) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.

  8. PRECISION TIME-DELAY GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Carr, B.J.; Peckham, V.D.

    1959-06-16

    A precision time-delay generator circuit with low jitter is described. The first thyratron has a series resonant circuit and a diode which is connected to the second thyratron. The first thyratron is triggered at the begin-ning of a time delay and a capacitor is discharged through the first thyratron and the diode, thereby, triggering the second thyratron. (T.R.H.) l6l9O The instrument described can measure pressures between sea level and 300,000 ft. The pressure- sensing transducer of the instrument is a small cylindrical tube with a thin foil of titanium-tritium fastened around the inside of the tube. Output is a digital signal which can be used for storage or telemetering more conveniently than an analog signal. (W.D.M.) l6l9l An experimental study was made on rolling contacts in the temperature range of 550 to 1000 deg F. Variables such as material composition, hardness, and operating conditions were investigated in a rolling test stand. Ball bearing tests were run to determine the effect of design parameters, bearing materials, lubricants, and operating conditions. (auth)

  9. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Silk, Joseph

    2008-09-15

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n{sub s}, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z{sub *}=1078{+-}11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1{sigma} to R=1.734{+-}0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: {epsilon}{sub {alpha}}<0.39 and {epsilon}{sub i}<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  10. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Silvia; Bean, Rachel; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2008-09-01

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, ns, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z*=1078±11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1σ to R=1.734±0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: γα<0.39 and γi<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  11. Delayed coker fractionator advanced control

    SciTech Connect

    Jaisinghani, R.; Minter, B. ); Tica, A.; Puglesi, A.; Ojeda, R. )

    1993-08-01

    In a delayed coking process, as coke drum switches are made, rapid changes occur in both the fractionator feed rate and composition. With conventional control, it is not unusual to see long transient behavior of large swings in both quality and flowrates of coker gas oils. This can extract a heavy economic toll, not only in coker operation, but in the operation of downstream units as the upset is propagated. An advanced process control application (APC) was recently implemented on the coker fractionator at the Yacimentos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF), Lujan de Cuyo Refinery, in Mendoza, Argentina. This coker fractionator control design was unique as it handled two different operating objectives: control of product qualities via tower temperature profile during normal operation and control of gas oil product flow ratio during drum switch. This combination of control objectives in one multivariable predictive control program was achieved by including special logic to decouple the individual tuning requirements. Also, additional logic was included to unambiguously detect and identify drum switch and drum steam out as discrete events within 30 seconds of their actual occurrence. These discrete events were then used as disturbance variables to minimize fractionator transient behavior. As a performance measure, the overhead temperature was controlled within 2 C to 2.5 C of its target, gas oil flows were stabilized during drum switches and steam generation via pump around was maximized. Overall, implementing advanced control for the delayed coker fractionator resulted in substantial benefits from product quality control, product flow control and minimized energy consumption.

  12. Strong localization of photonics in symmetric Fibonacci superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y. H.; Tsao, C. W.; Chen, C. H.; Hsueh, W. J.

    2015-07-01

    Strong localization from the Fabry-Pérot-like resonances that occur in symmetric Fibonacci superlattices is presented in this study. When compared with traditional Fabry-Pérot resonators, in symmetric Fibonacci superlattices, the middle space is a variant rather than an invariant half-wavelength thickness for each resonance with different orders. In addition, the electric fields of the resonances may be located on both sides of the space layer in the superlattice, which is in contrast to those in a traditional Fabry-Pérot resonator. The electric field of the resonances is strongly localized as the generation order increases. Moreover, the group delays of these peaks increase with generation order. More strongly localized modes can be found from the symmetric Fibonacci superlattices than from the traditional Fabry-Pérot resonators, which makes the proposed structure an attractive alternative to a wide variety of optoelectronic devices.

  13. Imitation of contrastive lexical stress in children with speech delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vick, Jennell C.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2005-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between acoustic correlates of stress in trochaic (strong-weak), spondaic (strong-strong), and iambic (weak-strong) nonword bisyllables produced by children (30-50) with normal speech acquisition and children with speech delay. Ratios comparing the acoustic measures (vowel duration, rms, and f0) of the first syllable to the second syllable were calculated to evaluate the extent to which each phonetic parameter was used to mark stress. In addition, a calculation of the variability of jaw movement in each bisyllable was made. Finally, perceptual judgments of accuracy of stress production were made. Analysis of perceptual judgments indicated a robust difference between groups: While both groups of children produced errors in imitating the contrastive lexical stress models (~40%), the children with normal speech acquisition tended to produce trochaic forms in substitution for other stress types, whereas children with speech delay showed no preference for trochees. The relationship between segmental acoustic parameters, kinematic variability, and the ratings of stress by trained listeners will be presented.

  14. Flexible pulse delay control up to picosecond for high-intensity twin electron bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Ding, Yuantao; Emma, Paul; Huang, Zhirong; Marinelli, Agostino; Tang, Chuanxiang

    2015-09-01

    Two closely spaced electron bunches have attracted strong interest due to their applications in two color X-ray free-electron lasers as well as witness bunch acceleration in plasmas and dielectric structures. In this paper, we propose a new scheme of delay system to vary the time delay up to several picoseconds while not affecting the bunch compression. Numerical simulations based on the Linac Coherent Light Source are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of this method.

  15. Phagocytosis executes delayed neuronal death after focal brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Neher, Jonas J; Emmrich, Julius V; Fricker, Michael; Mander, Palwinder K; Théry, Clotilde; Brown, Guy C

    2013-10-22

    Delayed neuronal loss and brain atrophy after cerebral ischemia contribute to stroke and dementia pathology, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Phagocytic removal of neurons is generally assumed to be beneficial and to occur only after neuronal death. However, we report herein that inhibition of phagocytosis can prevent delayed loss and death of functional neurons after transient brain ischemia. Two phagocytic proteins, Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (MerTK) and Milk fat globule EGF-like factor 8 (MFG-E8), were transiently up-regulated by macrophages/microglia after focal brain ischemia in vivo. Strikingly, deficiency in either protein completely prevented long-term functional motor deficits after cerebral ischemia and strongly reduced brain atrophy as a result of inhibiting phagocytosis of neurons. Correspondingly, in vitro glutamate-stressed neurons reversibly exposed the "eat-me" signal phosphatidylserine, leading to their phagocytosis by microglia; this neuronal loss was prevented in the absence of microglia and reduced if microglia were genetically deficient in MerTK or MFG-E8, both of which mediate phosphatidylserine-recognition. Thus, phagocytosis of viable neurons contributes to brain pathology and, surprisingly, blocking this process is strongly beneficial. Therefore, inhibition of specific phagocytic pathways may present therapeutic targets for preventing delayed neuronal loss after transient cerebral ischemia.

  16. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilson, David; Senatore, Gaetano

    2009-05-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS), held from 29 July-2 August 2008 at the University of Camerino. Camerino is an ancient hill-top town located in the Apennine mountains of Italy, 200 kilometres northeast of Rome, with a university dating back to 1336. The Camerino conference was the 11th in a series which started in 1977: 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (hosted by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (hosted by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, New York, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) 2005: Moscow, Russia (hosted by Vladimir E Fortov and Vladimir Vorob'ev). The name of the series was changed in 1996 from Strongly Coupled Plasmas to Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems to reflect a wider range of topics. 'Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems' encompasses diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. The purpose of the conferences is to provide a regular international forum for the presentation and discussion of research achievements and ideas relating to a variety of plasma, liquid and condensed matter systems that are dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphases that have followed new discoveries and new techniques. The field has continued to see new experimental tools and access to new strongly coupled conditions, most recently in the areas of warm matter, dusty plasmas

  17. Non-autonomous lattice systems with switching effects and delayed recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaoying; Kloeden, Peter E.

    2016-09-01

    The long term behavior of a type of non-autonomous lattice dynamical systems is investigated, where these have a diffusive nearest neighborhood interaction and discontinuous reaction terms with recoverable delays. This problem is of both biological and mathematical interests, due to its application in systems of excitable cells as well as general biological systems involving delayed recovery. The problem is formulated as an evolution inclusion with delays and the existence of weak and strong solutions is established. It is then shown that the solutions generate a set-valued non-autonomous dynamical system and that this non-autonomous dynamical system possesses a non-autonomous global pullback attractor.

  18. Relativistic effects in photoionization time delay near the Cooper minimum of noble-gas atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Soumyajit; Mandal, Ankur; Jose, Jobin; Varma, Hari R.; Deshmukh, P. C.; Kheifets, A. S.; Dolmatov, V. K.; Manson, S. T.

    2014-11-01

    Time delay of photoemission from valence n s , n p3 /2 , and n p1 /2 subshells of noble-gas atoms is theoretically scrutinized within the framework of the dipole relativistic random phase approximation. The focus is on the variation of time delay in the vicinity of the Cooper minima in photoionization of the outer subshells of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon, where the corresponding dipole matrix element changes its sign while passing through a node. It is revealed that the presence of the Cooper minimum in one photoionization channel has a strong effect on time delay in other channels. This is shown to be due to interchannel coupling.

  19. A strongly coupled anyon material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brattan, Daniel K.

    2015-11-01

    We use alternative quantisation of the D3-D5 system to explore properties of a strongly coupled anyon material at finite density and temperature. We study the transport properties of the material and find both diffusion and massive holographic zero sound modes. By studying the anyon number conductivity we also find evidence for the anyonic analogue of the metal-insulator transition.

  20. Strong covalent hydration of terephthalaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Baymak, Melek S; Vercoe, Kellie L; Zuman, Petr

    2005-11-24

    Spectrophotometric and electroanalytical studies indicate that one of the formyl groups of terephthalaldehyde in aqueous solution is present in about 23% as a geminal diol. Stronger covalent hydration of CHO in terephthalaldehyde than in p-nitrobenzaldehyde is attributed to a strong resonance interaction between the two formyl groups.

  1. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  2. Dynamics of Strongly Compressible Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towery, Colin; Poludnenko, Alexei; Hamlington, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Strongly compressible turbulence, wherein the turbulent velocity fluctuations directly generate compression effects, plays a critical role in many important scientific and engineering problems of interest today, for instance in the processes of stellar formation and also hypersonic vehicle design. This turbulence is very unusual in comparison to ``normal,'' weakly compressible and incompressible turbulence, which is relatively well understood. Strongly compressible turbulence is characterized by large variations in the thermodynamic state of the fluid in space and time, including excited acoustic modes, strong, localized shock and rarefaction structures, and rapid heating due to viscous dissipation. The exact nature of these thermo-fluid dynamics has yet to be discerned, which greatly limits the ability of current computational engineering models to successfully treat these problems. New direct numerical simulation (DNS) results of strongly compressible isotropic turbulence will be presented along with a framework for characterizing and evaluating compressible turbulence dynamics and a connection will be made between the present diagnostic analysis and the validation of engineering turbulence models.

  3. Strongly Coupled Nanotube Electromechanical Resonators.

    PubMed

    Deng, Guang-Wei; Zhu, Dong; Wang, Xin-He; Zou, Chang-Ling; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Liu, Di; Li, Yan; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Kai-Li; Dai, Xing-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2016-09-14

    Coupling an electromechanical resonator with carbon-nanotube quantum dots is a significant method to control both the electronic charge and the spin quantum states. By exploiting a novel microtransfer technique, we fabricate two separate strongly coupled and electrically tunable mechanical resonators for the first time. The frequency of the two resonators can be individually tuned by the bottom gates, and in each resonator, the electron transport through the quantum dot can be strongly affected by the phonon mode and vice versa. Furthermore, the conductance of either resonator can be nonlocally modulated by the other resonator through phonon-phonon interaction between the two resonators. Strong coupling is observed between the phonon modes of the two resonators, where the coupling strength larger than 200 kHz can be reached. This strongly coupled nanotube electromechanical resonator array provides an experimental platform for future studies of the coherent electron-phonon interaction, the phonon-mediated long-distance electron interaction, and entanglement state generation.

  4. Delayed Visual Feedback of One’s Own Action Promotes Sense of Control for Auditory Events

    PubMed Central

    Kawabe, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Sense of control refers to one’s feelings to control environmental events through one’s own action. A prevailing view is that the sense of control is strong (or is not diminished) when predicted sensory signals, which are generated in motor control mechanisms, are consistent with afferent sensory signals. Such intact sense of control often leads to the misjudgment of temporal relation between timings of one’s action and its effect (so-called, intentional binding). The present study showed that the intentional binding could be enhanced by the delayed visual feedback of an agent’s action. We asked participants to press a button to produce a tone as action outcome. In some conditions, they were given the delayed visual feedback of their button press. Participants judged whether the onset of the auditory outcome was delayed from the timing of their button press. Consequently, delay detection thresholds were significantly higher when the feedback was given 0.2 and 0.4 s delays than when no feedback was displayed to the participants. The results indicate that action agents misjudge the timing of their action (button press) in the presence of the delayed visual feedback of their action. Interestingly, delay detection thresholds were strongly correlated with the subjective magnitude of the sense of control. Thus, the sense of control is possibly determined by cross-modal processing for action-related and outcome-related sensory signals. PMID:26635552

  5. Delayed Visual Feedback of One's Own Action Promotes Sense of Control for Auditory Events.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Sense of control refers to one's feelings to control environmental events through one's own action. A prevailing view is that the sense of control is strong (or is not diminished) when predicted sensory signals, which are generated in motor control mechanisms, are consistent with afferent sensory signals. Such intact sense of control often leads to the misjudgment of temporal relation between timings of one's action and its effect (so-called, intentional binding). The present study showed that the intentional binding could be enhanced by the delayed visual feedback of an agent's action. We asked participants to press a button to produce a tone as action outcome. In some conditions, they were given the delayed visual feedback of their button press. Participants judged whether the onset of the auditory outcome was delayed from the timing of their button press. Consequently, delay detection thresholds were significantly higher when the feedback was given 0.2 and 0.4 s delays than when no feedback was displayed to the participants. The results indicate that action agents misjudge the timing of their action (button press) in the presence of the delayed visual feedback of their action. Interestingly, delay detection thresholds were strongly correlated with the subjective magnitude of the sense of control. Thus, the sense of control is possibly determined by cross-modal processing for action-related and outcome-related sensory signals. PMID:26635552

  6. Strong cosmic censorship and the strong curvature singularities

    SciTech Connect

    Kro-dotlak, A.

    1987-11-01

    Conditions are given under which any asymptotically simple and empty space-time that has a partial Cauchy surface with an asymptotically simple past is globally hyperbolic. It is shown that this result suggests that the Cauchy horizons of the type occurring in Reissner--Nordstroem and Kerr space-times are unstable. This in turn gives support for the validity of the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis.

  7. Conversion of linear time-invariant time-delay feedback systems into delay-differential equations with commensurate delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Tomomichi

    2014-08-01

    A new stability analysis method of time-delay systems (TDSs) called the monodromy operator approach has been studied under the assumption that a TDS is represented as a time-delay feedback system consisting of a finite-dimensional linear time-invariant (LTI) system and a pure delay. For applying this approach to TDSs described by delay-differential equations (DDEs), the problem of converting DDEs into representation as time-delay feedback systems has been studied. With regard to such a problem, it was shown that, under discontinuous initial functions, it is natural to define the solutions of DDEs in two different ways, and the above conversion problem was solved for each of these two definitions. More precisely, the solution of a DDE was represented as either the state of the finite-dimensional part of a time-delay feedback system or a part of the output of another time-delay feedback system, depending on which definition of the DDE solution one is talking about. Motivated by the importance in establishing a thorough relationship between time-delay feedback systems and DDEs, this paper discusses the opposite problem of converting time-delay feedback systems into representation as DDEs, including the discussions about the conversion of the initial conditions. We show that the state of (the finite-dimensional part of) a time-delay feedback system can be represented as the solution of a DDE in the sense of one of the two definitions, while its 'essential' output can be represented as that of another DDE in the sense of the other type of definition. Rigorously speaking, however, it is also shown that the latter representation is possible regardless of the initial conditions, while some initial condition could prevent the conversion into the former representation. This study hence establishes that the representation of TDSs as time-delay feedback systems possesses higher ability than that with DDEs, as description methods for LTI TDSs with commensurate delays.

  8. Quality control by <strong>HyperS>pectral <strong>I>maging (HSI) in solid waste recycling: logics, algorithms and procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2014-03-01

    In secondary raw materials and recycling sectors, the products quality represents, more and more, the key issue to pursuit in order to be competitive in a more and more demanding market, where quality standards and products certification play a preheminent role. These goals assume particular importance when recycling actions are applied. Recovered products, resulting from waste materials, and/or dismissed products processing, are, in fact, always seen with a certain suspect. An adequate response of the industry to the market can only be given through the utilization of equipment and procedures ensuring pure, high-quality production, and efficient work and cost. All these goals can be reached adopting not only more efficient equipment and layouts, but also introducing new processing logics able to realize a full control of the handled material flow streams fulfilling, at the same time, i) an easy management of the procedures, ii) an efficient use of the energy, iii) the definition and set up of reliable and robust procedures, iv) the possibility to implement network connectivity capabilities finalized to a remote monitoring and control of the processes and v) a full data storage, analysis and retrieving. Furthermore the ongoing legislation and regulation require the implementation of recycling infrastructure characterised by high resources efficiency and low environmental impacts, both aspects being strongly linked to the waste materials and/or dismissed products original characteristics. For these reasons an optimal recycling infrastructure design primarily requires a full knowledge of the characteristics of the input waste. What previously outlined requires the introduction of a new important concept to apply in solid waste recycling, the recycling-oriented characterization, that is the set of actions addressed to strategically determine selected attributes, in order to get goaloriented data on waste for the development, implementation or improvement of recycling

  9. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  10. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  11. Delayed signatures of underground nuclear explosions.

    PubMed

    Carrigan, Charles R; Sun, Yunwei; Hunter, Steven L; Ruddle, David G; Wagoner, Jeffrey L; Myers, Katherine B L; Emer, Dudley F; Drellack, Sigmund L; Chipman, Veraun D

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide signals from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are strongly influenced by the surrounding hydrogeologic regime. One effect of containment is delay of detonation-produced radioxenon reaching the surface as well as lengthening of its period of detectability compared to uncontained explosions. Using a field-scale tracer experiment, we evaluate important transport properties of a former UNE site. We observe the character of signals at the surface due to the migration of gases from the post-detonation chimney under realistic transport conditions. Background radon signals are found to be highly responsive to cavity pressurization suggesting that large local radon anomalies may be an indicator of a clandestine UNE. Computer simulations, using transport properties obtained from the experiment, track radioxenon isotopes in the chimney and their migration to the surface. They show that the chimney surrounded by a fractured containment regime behaves as a leaky chemical reactor regarding its effect on isotopic evolution introducing a dependence on nuclear yield not previously considered. This evolutionary model for radioxenon isotopes is validated by atmospheric observations of radioxenon from a 2013 UNE in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). Our model produces results similar to isotopic observations with nuclear yields being comparable to seismic estimates. PMID:26979288

  12. Delayed signatures of underground nuclear explosions

    PubMed Central

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei; Hunter, Steven L.; Ruddle, David G.; Wagoner, Jeffrey L.; Myers, Katherine B. L.; Emer, Dudley F.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Chipman, Veraun D.

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide signals from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are strongly influenced by the surrounding hydrogeologic regime. One effect of containment is delay of detonation-produced radioxenon reaching the surface as well as lengthening of its period of detectability compared to uncontained explosions. Using a field-scale tracer experiment, we evaluate important transport properties of a former UNE site. We observe the character of signals at the surface due to the migration of gases from the post-detonation chimney under realistic transport conditions. Background radon signals are found to be highly responsive to cavity pressurization suggesting that large local radon anomalies may be an indicator of a clandestine UNE. Computer simulations, using transport properties obtained from the experiment, track radioxenon isotopes in the chimney and their migration to the surface. They show that the chimney surrounded by a fractured containment regime behaves as a leaky chemical reactor regarding its effect on isotopic evolution introducing a dependence on nuclear yield not previously considered. This evolutionary model for radioxenon isotopes is validated by atmospheric observations of radioxenon from a 2013 UNE in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). Our model produces results similar to isotopic observations with nuclear yields being comparable to seismic estimates. PMID:26979288

  13. Delayed signatures of underground nuclear explosions

    DOE PAGES

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei; Hunter, Steven L.; Ruddle, David G.; Wagoner, Jeffrey L.; Myers, Katherine B. L.; Emer, Dudley F.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Chipman, Veraun D.

    2016-03-16

    Radionuclide signals from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are strongly influenced by the surrounding hydrogeologic regime. One effect of containment is delay of detonation-produced radioxenon reaching the surface as well as lengthening of its period of detectability compared to uncontained explosions. Using a field-scale tracer experiment, we evaluate important transport properties of a former UNE site. Here, we observe the character of signals at the surface due to the migration of gases from the post-detonation chimney under realistic transport conditions. Background radon signals are found to be highly responsive to cavity pressurization suggesting that large local radon anomalies may be anmore » indicator of a clandestine UNE. Computer simulations, using transport properties obtained from the experiment, track radioxenon isotopes in the chimney and their migration to the surface. They show that the chimney surrounded by a fractured containment regime behaves as a leaky chemical reactor regarding its effect on isotopic evolution introducing a dependence on nuclear yield not previously considered. This evolutionary model for radioxenon isotopes is validated by atmospheric observations of radioxenon from a 2013 UNE in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). In conclusion, our model produces results similar to isotopic observations with nuclear yields being comparable to seismic estimates.« less

  14. Delayed feedback control of unstable steady states with high-frequency modulation of the delay.

    PubMed

    Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Jüngling, Thomas; Urumov, Viktor; Schöll, Eckehard

    2013-09-01

    We analyze the stabilization of unstable steady states by delayed feedback control with a periodic time-varying delay in the regime of a high-frequency modulation of the delay. The average effect of the delayed feedback term in the control force is equivalent to a distributed delay in the interval of the modulation, and the obtained distribution depends on the type of the modulation. In our analysis we use a simple generic normal form of an unstable focus, and investigate the effects of phase-dependent coupling and the influence of the control loop latency on the controllability. In addition, we have explored the influence of the modulation of the delays in multiple delay feedback schemes consisting of two independent delay lines of Pyragas type. A main advantage of the variable delay is the considerably larger domain of stabilization in parameter space.

  15. Extreme fluctuations in stochastic network coordination with time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, D.; Molnár, F.; Szymanski, B. K.; Korniss, G.

    2015-12-01

    We study the effects of uniform time delays on the extreme fluctuations in stochastic synchronization and coordination problems with linear couplings in complex networks. We obtain the average size of the fluctuations at the nodes from the behavior of the underlying modes of the network. We then obtain the scaling behavior of the extreme fluctuations with system size, as well as the distribution of the extremes on complex networks, and compare them to those on regular one-dimensional lattices. For large complex networks, when the delay is not too close to the critical one, fluctuations at the nodes effectively decouple, and the limit distributions converge to the Fisher-Tippett-Gumbel density. In contrast, fluctuations in low-dimensional spatial graphs are strongly correlated, and the limit distribution of the extremes is the Airy density. Finally, we also explore the effects of nonlinear couplings on the stability and on the extremes of the synchronization landscapes.

  16. Uncertainties drive arsenic rule delay

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, F.W.

    1995-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is under court order to sign a proposed rule for arsenic by Nov. 30, 1995. The agency recently announced that it will not meet this deadline, citing the need to gather additional information. Development of a National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulation for arsenic has been delayed several times over the past 10 years because of uncertainties regarding health issues and costs associated with compliance. The early history of development of the arsenic rule has been reviewed. Only recent developments are reviewed here. The current maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic in drinking water is 0.05 mg/L. This MCL was set in 1975, based on the 1962 US Public Health Standards. The current Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) requires that the revised arsenic MCL be set as close to the MCL goal (MCLG) as is feasible using best technology, treatment techniques, or other means and taking cost into consideration.

  17. Cell probing by delayed luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musumeci, Francesco; Ballerini, Monica; Baroni, Giuliana; Costato, Michele; Ferraro, Lorenzo; Milani, Marziale; Scordino, Agata; Triglia, Antonio

    1999-05-01

    Delayed luminescence (D.L.) is a measure that provides important information on biological systems fields, structures and activities, by counting impinging and emitted photons. Many recent experimental works have shown the existence of a close connection, sometimes analytically expressed between the biological state of the system and D.L. parameters. Our investigations aim to show that D.L. is a workable analytical technique covering a large number of disciplinary fields, from agriculture to pollution control and from medical diagnostics to food quality control. The authors have conducted systematic research about D.L. from unicellular alga Acetabularia acetabulum to Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cultures and about more complex systems such as Soya seed (Glycine max, L.) and its dependence on sample preparation, history, intracellular signaling, metabolism and pollutant presence. We will discuss the most relevant results together with theoretical considerations on the basic interaction at work between biological systems and electromagnetic fields.

  18. Improved outcomes for emergency department patients whose ambulance off-stretcher time is not delayed

    PubMed Central

    Crilly, Julia; Keijzers, Gerben; Tippett, Vivienne; O’Dwyer, John; Lind, James; Bost, Nerolie; O’Dwyer, Marilla; Shiels, Sue; Wallis, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe and compare characteristics and outcomes of patients who arrive by ambulance to the ED. We aimed to (i) compare patients with a delayed ambulance offload time (AOT) >30 min with those who were not delayed; and (ii) identify predictors of an ED length of stay (LOS) of >4 h for ambulance-arriving patients. Methods A retrospective, multi-site cohort study was undertaken in Australia using 12 months of linked health data (September 2007–2008). Outcomes of AOT delayed and non-delayed presentations were compared. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to identify predictors of an ED LOS of >4 h. Results Of the 40 783 linked, analysable ambulance presentations, AOT delay of >30 min was experienced by 15%, and 63% had an ED LOS of >4 h. Patients with an AOT <30 min had better outcomes for: time to triage; ambulance time at hospital; time to see healthcare professional; proportion seen within recommended triage time frame; and ED LOS for both admitted and non-admitted patients. In-hospital mortality did not differ. Strong predictors of an ED LOS >4 h included: hospital admission, older age, triage category, and offload delay >30 min. Conclusion Patients arriving to the ED via ambulance and offloaded within 30 min experience better outcomes than those delayed. Given that offload delay is a modifiable predictor of an ED LOS of >4 h, targeted improvements in the ED arrival process for ambulance patients might be useful. PMID:25940975

  19. Does it pay to delay? Flesh flies show adaptive plasticity in reproductive timing.

    PubMed

    Wessels, Frank J; Kristal, Ross; Netter, Fleta; Hatle, John D; Hahn, Daniel A

    2011-02-01

    Life-history plasticity is widespread among organisms. However, an important question is whether it is adaptive. Most models for plasticity in life-history timing predict that animals, once they have reached the minimal nutritional threshold under poor conditions, will accelerate development or time to reproduction. Adaptive delays in reproduction are not common, especially in short-lived species. Examples of adaptive reproductive delays exist in mammalian populations experiencing strong interspecific (e.g., predation) and intraspecific (e.g., infanticide) competition. But are there other environmental factors that may trigger an adaptive delay in reproductive timing? We show that the short-lived flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis will delay reproduction under nutrient-poor conditions, even though it has already met the minimal nutritional threshold for reproduction. We test whether this delay strategy is an adaptive response allowing the scavenger time to locate more resources by experimentally providing supplemental protein pulses (early, mid and late) throughout the reproductive delay period. Flies receiving additional protein produced more and larger eggs, demonstrating a benefit of the delay. In addition, by tracking the allocation of carbon from the pulses using stable isotopes, we show that flies receiving earlier pulses incorporated more carbon into eggs and somatic tissue than those given a later pulse. These results indicate that the reproductive delay in S. crassipalpis is consistent with adaptive post-threshold plasticity, a nutritionally linked reproductive strategy that has not been reported previously in an invertebrate species.

  20. Strong Gravitational Lensing with SNAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandford, R. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2001-12-01

    As currently configured, SNAP should cover an area of sky to sufficient depth to observe tens of thousands of strong (ie multiple-imaging) gravitational lenses. This could provide an unprecedented database for performing cosmography, studies of large scale structure and galactic structure.and should complement the weak lensing program which will concentrate on larger scales. The challenge will be to recognize multiple imaging efficiently in an unbiased way and to organize effective follow up so as to obtain spectroscopic redshifts and monitor variable sources, when appropriate. Experience with the CLASS radio survey and the CASTLES program will be invaluable as we transition from the detailed study of a few tens of strong lenses through the ACS ultra-deep, deep and wide surveys (which should yield hundreds of examples of multiple imaging) to the larger samples envisaged from SNAP. New approaches to data analysis will be needed and coordinated planning with other proposed large survey instruments, like SKA, will be essential.

  1. New delay-interval stability condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Fernando O.; Palhares, Reinaldo M.

    2014-03-01

    The delay-dependent stability problem for systems with time-delay varying in an interval is addressed in this article. The new idea in this article is to connect two very efficient approaches: the discretised Lyapunov functional for systems with pointwise delay and the convex analysis for systems with time-varying delay. The proposed method is able to check the stability interval when the time-varying delay d(t) belongs to an interval [r, τ]. The case of unstable delayed systems for r = 0 is also treatable. The resulting criterion, expressed in terms of a convex optimisation problem, outperforms the existing ones in the literature, as illustrated by the numerical examples.

  2. Modeling delayed processes in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jingchen; Sevier, Stuart A.; Huang, Bin; Jia, Dongya; Levine, Herbert

    2016-09-01

    Delayed processes are ubiquitous in biological systems and are often characterized by delay differential equations (DDEs) and their extension to include stochastic effects. DDEs do not explicitly incorporate intermediate states associated with a delayed process but instead use an estimated average delay time. In an effort to examine the validity of this approach, we study systems with significant delays by explicitly incorporating intermediate steps. We show that such explicit models often yield significantly different equilibrium distributions and transition times as compared to DDEs with deterministic delay values. Additionally, different explicit models with qualitatively different dynamics can give rise to the same DDEs revealing important ambiguities. We also show that DDE-based predictions of oscillatory behavior may fail for the corresponding explicit model.

  3. Stochastic switching in delay-coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    D'Huys, Otti; Jüngling, Thomas; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    A delay is known to induce multistability in periodic systems. Under influence of noise, coupled oscillators can switch between coexistent orbits with different frequencies and different oscillation patterns. For coupled phase oscillators we reduce the delay system to a nondelayed Langevin equation, which allows us to analytically compute the distribution of frequencies and their corresponding residence times. The number of stable periodic orbits scales with the roundtrip delay time and coupling strength, but the noisy system visits only a fraction of the orbits, which scales with the square root of the delay time and is independent of the coupling strength. In contrast, the residence time in the different orbits is mainly determined by the coupling strength and the number of oscillators, and only weakly dependent on the coupling delay. Finally we investigate the effect of a detuning between the oscillators. We demonstrate the generality of our results with delay-coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators.

  4. Delay banking for air traffic management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method and associated system for time delay banking for aircraft arrival time, aircraft departure time and/or en route flight position. The delay credit value for a given flight may decrease with passage of time and may be transferred to or traded with other flights having the same or a different user (airline owner or operator). The delay credit value for a given aircraft flight depends upon an initial delay credit value, which is determined by a central system and depends upon one or more other flight characteristics. Optionally, the delay credit value decreases with passage of time. Optionally, a transaction cost is assessed against a delay credit value that is used on behalf of another flight with the same user or is traded with a different user.

  5. Comparing strengths of directional selection: how strong is strong?

    PubMed

    Hereford, Joe; Hansen, Thomas F; Houle, David

    2004-10-01

    The fundamental equation in evolutionary quantitative genetics, the Lande equation, describes the response to directional selection as a product of the additive genetic variance and the selection gradient of trait value on relative fitness. Comparisons of both genetic variances and selection gradients across traits or populations require standardization, as both are scale dependent. The Lande equation can be standardized in two ways. Standardizing by the variance of the selected trait yields the response in units of standard deviation as the product of the heritability and the variance-standardized selection gradient. This standardization conflates selection and variation because the phenotypic variance is a function of the genetic variance. Alternatively, one can standardize the Lande equation using the trait mean, yielding the proportional response to selection as the product of the squared coefficient of additive genetic variance and the mean-standardized selection gradient. Mean-standardized selection gradients are particularly useful for summarizing the strength of selection because the mean-standardized gradient for fitness itself is one, a convenient benchmark for strong selection. We review published estimates of directional selection in natural populations using mean-standardized selection gradients. Only 38 published studies provided all the necessary information for calculation of mean-standardized gradients. The median absolute value of multivariate mean-standardized gradients shows that selection is on average 54% as strong as selection on fitness. Correcting for the upward bias introduced by taking absolute values lowers the median to 31%, still very strong selection. Such large estimates clearly cannot be representative of selection on all traits. Some possible sources of overestimation of the strength of selection include confounding environmental and genotypic effects on fitness, the use of fitness components as proxies for fitness, and biases in

  6. Strongly interacting parton matter equilibration

    SciTech Connect

    Ozvenchuk, V.; Linnyk, O.; Bratkovskaya, E.; Gorenstein, M.; Cassing, W.

    2012-07-15

    We study the kinetic and chemical equilibration in 'infinite' parton matter within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics transport approach. The 'infinite' matter is simulated within a cubic box with periodic boundary conditions initialized at different energy densities. Particle abundances, kinetic energy distributions, and the detailed balance of the off-shell quarks and gluons in the strongly-interacting quarkgluon plasma are addressed and discussed.

  7. Tilts in strong ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graizer, V.

    2006-01-01

    Most instruments used in seismological practice to record ground motion are pendulum seismographs, velocigraphs, or accelerographs. In most cases it is assumed that seismic instruments are only sensitive to the translational motion of the instrument's base. In this study the full equation of pendulum motion, including the inputs of rotations and tilts, is considered. It is shown that tilting the accelerograph's base can severely impact its response to the ground motion. The method of tilt evaluation using uncorrected strong-motion accelerograms was first suggested by Graizer (1989), and later tested in several laboratory experiments with different strong-motion instruments. The method is based on the difference in the tilt sensitivity of the horizontal and vertical pendulums. The method was applied to many of the strongest records of the Mw 6.7 Northridge earthquake of 1994. Examples are shown when relatively large tilts of up to a few degrees occurred during strong earthquake ground motion. Residual tilt extracted from the strong-motion record at the Pacoima Dam-Upper Left Abutment reached 3.1?? in N45??E direction, and was a result of local earthquake-induced tilting due to high-amplitude shaking. This value is in agreement with the residual tilt measured by using electronic level a few days after the earthquake. The method was applied to the building records from the Northridge earthquake. According to the estimates, residual tilt reached 2.6?? on the ground floor of the 12-story Hotel in Ventura. Processing of most of the strongest records of the Northridge earthquake shows that tilts, if happened, were within the error of the method, or less than about 0.5??.

  8. Strongly magnetized classical plasma models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D.; Peyraud, J.; Dewitt, C.

    1974-01-01

    Discrete particle processes in the presence of a strong external magnetic field were investigated. These processes include equations of state and other equilibrium thermodynamic relations, thermal relaxation phenomena, transport properties, and microscopic statistical fluctuations in such quantities as the electric field and the charge density. Results from the equilibrium statistical mechanics of two-dimensional plasmas are discussed, along with nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of the electrostatic guiding-center plasma (a two-dimensional plasma model).

  9. Strong CP and SUZ2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albaid, Abdelhamid; Dine, Michael; Draper, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Solutions to the strong CP problem typically introduce new scales associated with the spontaneous breaking of symmetries. Absent any anthropic argument for small overline{θ} , these scales require stabilization against ultraviolet corrections. Supersymmetry offers a tempting stabilization mechanism, since it can solve the "big" electroweak hierarchy problem at the same time. One family of solutions to strong CP, including generalized parity models, heavy axion models, and heavy η' models, introduces {Z}_2 copies of (part of) the Standard Model and an associated scale of {Z}_2 -breaking. We review why, without additional structure such as supersymmetry, the {Z}_2 -breaking scale is unacceptably tuned. We then study "SUZ2" models, supersymmetric theories with {Z}_2 copies of the MSSM. We find that the addition of SUSY typically destroys the {Z}_2 protection of overline{θ}=0 , even at tree level, once SUSY and {Z}_2 are broken. In theories like supersymmetric completions of the twin Higgs, where {Z}_2 addresses the little hierarchy problem but not strong CP, two axions can be used to relax overline{θ}.

  10. Noise in Strong Lensing Cosmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, Neal; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Bode, Paul

    2005-03-01

    Giant arcs in strong lensing galaxy clusters can provide a purely geometric determination of cosmological parameters, such as the dark energy density and equation of state. We investigate sources of noise in cosmography with giant arcs, focusing in particular on errors induced by density fluctuations along the line of sight and errors caused by modeling uncertainties. We estimate parameter errors in two independent ways, first by developing a Fisher matrix formalism for strong lensing parameters and next by directly ray-tracing through N-body simulations using a multiplane lensing code. We show that for reasonable power spectra, density fluctuations from large-scale structures produce >100% errors in cosmological parameters derived from any single sight line, precluding the use of individual clusters or ``golden lenses'' to derive accurate cosmological constraints. Modeling uncertainties can similarly lead to large errors, and we show that the use of parameterized mass models in fitting strong lensing clusters can significantly bias the inferred cosmological parameters. We lastly speculate on the means by which these errors may be corrected.

  11. Compact programmable photonic variable delay devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. Steve (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Optical variable delay devices for providing variable true time delay to multiple optical beams simultaneously. A ladder-structured variable delay device comprises multiple basic building blocks stacked on top of each other resembling a ladder. Each basic building block has two polarization beamsplitters and a polarization rotator array arranged to form a trihedron; Controlling an array element of the polarization rotator array causes a beam passing through the array element either going up to a basic building block above it or reflect back towards a block below it. The beams going higher on the ladder experience longer optical path delay. An index-switched optical variable delay device comprises of many birefringent crystal segments connected with one another, with a polarization rotator array sandwiched between any two adjacent crystal segments. An array element in the polarization rotator array controls the polarization state of a beam passing through the element, causing the beam experience different refractive indices or path delays in the following crystal segment. By independently control each element in each polarization rotator array, variable optical path delays of each beam can be achieved. Finally, an index-switched variable delay device and a ladder-structured variable device are cascaded to form a new device which combines the advantages of the two individual devices. This programmable optic device has the properties of high packing density, low loss, easy fabrication, and virtually infinite bandwidth. The device is inherently two dimensional and has a packing density exceeding 25 lines/cm.sup.2. The delay resolution of the device is on the order of a femtosecond (one micron in space) and the total delay exceeds 10 nanosecond. In addition, the delay is reversible so that the same delay device can be used for both antenna transmitting and receiving.

  12. Delays in the human heartbeat dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Echeverría, Juan Carlos

    2009-06-01

    This paper explores the possibility of applying statistical nonlinear physics methods to elucidate the underlying mechanisms controlling the heart rate. In particular, the presence of delays in RR interval dynamics is studied by using a lagged detrended fluctuation analysis. The results indicate that patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) have a prolonged time delay in the baroreflex response. Some implications of large delays for the functioning of autonomic control in subjects with CHF are discussed.

  13. Terrestrial Planet Finder cryogenic delay line development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert F.; Swain, Mark R.; Alvarez-Salazar, Oscar; Moore, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Delay lines provide the path-length compensation that makes the measurement of interference fringes possible. When used for nulling interferometry, the delay line must control path-lengths so that the null is stable and controlled throughout the measurement. We report on a low noise, low disturbance, and high bandwidth optical delay line capable of meeting the TPF interferometer optical path length control requirements at cryogenic temperatures.

  14. Oscillation onset in neural delayed feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Longtin, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper studies dynamical aspects of neural systems with delayed negative feedback modelled by nonlinear delay-differential equations. These systems undergo a Hopf bifurcation from a stable fixed point to a limit cycle oscillation as certain parameters are varied. We show that their frequency of oscillation is robust to parameter variations and noisy fluctuations, a property that makes these systems good candidates for pacemakers. The onset of oscillation is postponed by both additive and parametric noise in the sense that the state variable spends more time near the fixed point. Finally, we show that a distributed delay (rather than a fixed delay) also stabilizes the fixed point solution. 40 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Intron Delays and Transcriptional Timing during Development

    PubMed Central

    Swinburne, Ian A.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2010-01-01

    The time taken to transcribe most metazoan genes is significant because of the substantial length of introns. Developmentally regulated gene networks, where timing and dynamic patterns of expression are critical, may be particularly sensitive to intron delays. We revisit and comment on a perspective last presented by Thummel 16 years ago: transcriptional delays may contribute to timing mechanisms during development. We discuss the presence of intron delays in genetic networks. We consider how delays can impact particular moments during development, which mechanistic attributes of transcription can influence them, how they can be modeled, and how they can be studied using recent technological advances as well as classical genetics. PMID:18331713

  16. Disordered strongly correlated electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javan Mard, Hossein

    Disorder can have a vast variety of consequences for the physics of phase transitions. Some transitions remain unchanged in the presence of disorder while others are completely destroyed. In this dissertation we study the effects of quenched disorder on electronic systmens at zero temperature. First, we perform variational studies of the interaction-localization problem to describe the interaction-induced renormalizations of the effective (screened) random potential seen by quasiparticles. Here we present results of careful finite-size scaling studies for the conductance of disordered Hubbard chains at half-filling and zero temperature. While our results indicate that quasiparticle wave functions remain exponentially localized even in the presence of moderate to strong repulsive interactions, we show that interactions produce a strong decrease of the characteristic conductance scale g* signaling the crossover to strong localization. This effect, which cannot be captured by a simple renormalization of the disorder strength, instead reflects a peculiar non-Gaussian form of the spatial correlations of the screened disordered potential, a hitherto neglected mechanism to dramatically reduce the impact of Anderson localization (interference) effects. Second, we formulate a strong-disorder renormalization-group (SDRG) approach to study the beta function of the tight-binding model in one dimension with both diagonal and off-diagonal disorder for states at the band center. We show that the SDRG method, when used to compute transport properties, yields exact results since it is identical to the transfer matrix method. The beta function is shown to be universal when only off-diagonal disorder is present even though single-parameter scaling is known to be violated. A different single-parameter scaling theory is formulated for this particular (particle-hole symmetric) case. Upon breaking particle-hole symmetry (by adding diagonal disorder), the beta function is shown to

  17. Strong interactive massive particles from a strong coupled theory

    SciTech Connect

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu.; Kouvaris, Chris

    2008-03-15

    Minimal walking technicolor models can provide a nontrivial solution for cosmological dark matter, if the lightest technibaryon is doubly charged. Technibaryon asymmetry generated in the early Universe is related to baryon asymmetry, and it is possible to create an excess of techniparticles with charge (-2). These excessive techniparticles are all captured by {sup 4}He, creating techni-O-helium tOHe atoms, as soon as {sup 4}He is formed in big bang nucleosynthesis. The interaction of techni-O-helium with nuclei opens new paths to the creation of heavy nuclei in big bang nucleosynthesis. Because of the large mass of technibaryons, the tOHe ''atomic'' gas decouples from the baryonic matter and plays the role of dark matter in large scale structure formation, while structures in small scales are suppressed. Nuclear interactions with matter slow down cosmic techni-O-helium in the Earth below the threshold of underground dark matter detectors, thus escaping severe cryogenic dark matter search constraints. On the other hand, these nuclear interactions are not sufficiently strong to exclude this form of strongly interactive massive particles by constraints from the XQC experiment. Experimental tests of this hypothesis are possible in the search for tOHe in balloon-borne experiments (or on the ground) and for its charged techniparticle constituents in cosmic rays and accelerators. The tOHe atoms can cause cold nuclear transformations in matter and might form anomalous isotopes, offering possible ways to exclude (or prove?) their existence.

  18. Delay-range-dependent chaos synchronization approach under varying time-lags and delayed nonlinear coupling.

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Muhammad Hamad; Rehan, Muhammad; Mustafa, Ghulam; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel state feedback delay-range-dependent control approach for chaos synchronization in coupled nonlinear time-delay systems. The coupling between two systems is esteemed to be nonlinear subject to time-lags. Time-varying nature of both the intrinsic and the coupling delays is incorporated to broad scope of the present study for a better-quality synchronization controller synthesis. Lyapunov-Krasovskii (LK) functional is employed to derive delay-range-dependent conditions that can be solved by means of the conventional linear matrix inequality (LMI)-tools. The resultant control approach for chaos synchronization of the master-slave time-delay systems considers non-zero lower bound of the intrinsic as well as the coupling time-delays. Further, the delay-dependent synchronization condition has been established as a special case of the proposed LK functional treatment. Furthermore, a delay-range-dependent condition, independent of the delay-rate, has been provided to address the situation when upper bound of the delay-derivative is unknown. A robust state feedback control methodology is formulated for synchronization of the time-delay chaotic networks against the L2 norm bounded perturbations by minimizing the L2 gain from the disturbance to the synchronization error. Numerical simulation results are provided for the time-delay chaotic networks to show effectiveness of the proposed delay-range-dependent chaos synchronization methodologies.

  19. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  20. Space Shuttle Propulsion Finishing Strong

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James W.; Singer, Jody

    2011-01-01

    Numerous lessons have been documented from the Space Shuttle Propulsion elements. Major events include loss of the SRB's on STS-4 and shutdown of an SSME during ascent on STS- 51F. On STS-112 only half the pyrotechnics fired to release the vehicle from the launch pad, a testament for redundancy. STS-91 exhibited freezing of a main combustion chamber pressure measurement and on STS-93 nozzle tube ruptures necessitated a low liquid level oxygen cut off of the main engines. A number of on pad aborts were experienced during the early program resulting in delays. And the two accidents, STS-51L and STS-107, had unique heritage in history from early Program decisions and vehicle configuration. Following STS-51L significant resources were invested in developing fundamental physical understanding of solid rocket motor environments and material system behavior. Human rating of solid rocket motors was truly achieved. And following STS-107, the risk of ascent debris was better characterized and controlled. Situational awareness during all mission phases improved, and the management team instituted effective risk assessment practices. These major events and lessons for the future are discussed. The last 22 flights of the Space Shuttle, following the Columbia accident, were characterized by remarkable improvement in safety and reliability. Numerous problems were solved in addition to reduction of the ascent debris hazard. The propulsion system elements evolved to high reliability and heavy lift capability. The Shuttle system, though not a operable as envisioned in the 1970's, successfully assembled the International Space Station (ISS) and provided significant logistics and down mass for ISS operations. By the end of the Program, the remarkable Space Shuttle Propulsion system achieved very high performance, was largely reusable, exhibited high reliability, and is a heavy lift earth to orbit propulsion system. The story of this amazing system is discussed in detail in the paper.

  1. Constraints on interacting dark energy from time delay lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yu; Cao, Shuo; Li, Li

    2016-10-01

    We use the time delay measurements between multiple images of lensed sources in 18 strongly gravitationally lensed (SGL) systems to put additional constraints on three phenomenological interaction models for dark energy (DE) and dark matter (DM). The compatibility among the fits on the three models seems to imply that the coupling between DE and DM is a small value close to zero, which is compatible with the previous results for constraining interacting DE parameters. We find that, among the three interacting DE models, the γmIDE model with the interaction term Q proportional to the energy density of DM provides relatively better fits to recent observations. However, the coincidence problem is still very severe in the framework of three interacting DE models, since the fitting results do not show any preference for a nonzero coupling between DE and DM. More importantly, we have studied the significance of the current strong lensing data in deriving the interacting information between dark sectors, which highlights the importance of strong lensing time delay measurements to provide additional observational fits on alternative cosmological models.

  2. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortov, Vladimir E.; Golden, Kenneth I.; Norman, Genri E.

    2006-04-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS) which was held during the week of 20 24 June 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The Moscow conference was the tenth in a series of conferences. The previous conferences were organized as follows. 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (organized by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (organized by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, NY, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) After 1995 the name of the series was changed from `Strongly Coupled Plasmas' to the present name in order to extend the topics of the conferences. The planned frequency for the future is once every three years. The purpose of these conferences is to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion of research accomplishments and ideas relating to a variety of plasma liquid and condensed matter systems, dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Strongly coupled Coulomb systems encompass diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphasis as new discoveries and new methods appear. This year, sessions were organized for invited presentations and posters on dense plasmas and warm matter, astrophysics and dense hydrogen, non-neutral and ultracold plasmas, dusty plasmas, condensed matter 2D and layered charged-particle systems, Coulomb liquids, and statistical theory of SCCS. Within

  3. Topics in strongly correlated electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnikov, Ilya

    The thesis is a collection of three topics connected together by the common themes of strong interactions, magnetism and quantum phases, such as the Aharonov-Bohm or Berry phase. The first part of the present dissertation discusses the possibility of examining microscopic origins of magnetism in strongly interacting systems by exploiting the setting of ultra-cold atomic gases in optical lattices. We discuss signatures of correlation in the trap, and propose an experiment to measure the phase diagram of itinerant magnetism directly. The second part focuses on the exotic phase of matter exhibiting the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect, which emerges when interacting particles are placed in a very strong magnetic field. We propose a trial ground state wave-function and prove that it is the unique highest density ground state of a well-motivated pseudo-potential Hamiltonian. The exchange statistics of quasiparticles are shown to be exotic, and overlaps with results of exact diagonalization are also discussed. The final part of the thesis studies frustrated magnetic systems, in which competing forces cannot not be satisfied simultaneously, doped with electrons. The interplay of frustration and itinerant behavior generates Berry phases associated with charge transport. We study the effects of these phases on electronic behavior, as well as the effect electrons have on the underlying magnetic textures. In the quasi-classical limit, we conjecture a field-driven metal-insulator transition, and discuss persistent currents arising in ground states selected by the presence of charge. In the quantum regime we derive the full Hamiltonian and discuss small fluctuations about the classical results.

  4. Dynamics of strongly correlated and strongly inhomogeneous plasmas.

    PubMed

    Kählert, Hanno; Kalman, Gabor J; Bonitz, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Kinetic and fluid equations are derived for the dynamics of classical inhomogeneous trapped plasmas in the strong coupling regime. The starting point is an extended Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjölander (STLS) ansatz for the dynamic correlation function, which is allowed to depend on time and both particle coordinates separately. The time evolution of the correlation function is determined from the second equation of the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy. We study the equations in the linear limit and derive a nonlocal equation for the fluid displacement field. Comparisons to first-principles molecular dynamics simulations reveal an excellent quality of our approach thereby overcoming the limitations of the broadly used STLS scheme.

  5. Spike phase synchronization in delayed-coupled neural networks: Uniform vs. non-uniform transmission delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we investigated phase synchronization in delayed dynamical networks. Non-identical spiking Hindmarsh-Rose neurons were considered as individual dynamical systems and coupled through a number of network structures such as scale-free, Erdős-Rényi, and modular. The individual neurons were coupled through excitatory chemical synapses with uniform or distributed time delays. The profile of spike phase synchrony was different when the delay was uniform across the edges as compared to the case when it was distributed, i.e., different delays for the edges. When an identical transmission delay was considered, a quasi-periodic pattern was observed in the spike phase synchrony. There were specific values of delay where the phase synchronization reached to its peaks. The behavior of the phase synchronization in the networks with non-uniform delays was different with the former case, where the phase synchrony decreased as distributed delays introduced to the networks.

  6. New delay dependent stability criteria for recurrent neural networks with interval time-varying delay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiongfen; Ren, Quanhong; Xie, Xuemei

    2014-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the delay dependent stability criteria for a class of static recurrent neural networks with interval time-varying delay. By choosing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and employing a delay partitioning method, the less conservative condition is obtained. Furthermore, the LMIs-based condition depend on the lower and upper bounds of time delay. Finally, a numerical example is also designated to verify the reduced conservatism of developed criteria. PMID:24908560

  7. Strong dynamics at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ittisamai, Pawin

    The limitations of the Standard Model of particle physics, despite its being a well-established theory, have prompted various proposals for new physics capable of addressing its shortcomings. The particular issue to be explored here is the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, the probing of which lies within the TeV-scale physics accessible to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This thesis focuses on the phenomenology of a class of models featuring a dynamical breaking of the electroweak symmetry via strong dynamics. Consequences of recent experiments and aspects of near-future experiments are presented. We study the implications of the LHC Higgs searches available at the time the related journal article was written for technicolor models that feature colored technifermions. Then we discuss the properties of a technicolor model featuring strong-top dynamics that is viable for explaining the recently discovered boson of mass 126 GeV. We introduce a novel method of characterizing the color structure of a new massive vector boson, often predicted in various new physics models, using information that will be promptly available if it is discovered in the near-future experiments at the LHC. We generalize the idea for more realistic models where a vector boson has flavor non-universal couplings to quarks. Finally, we discuss the possibilities of probing the chiral structure of a new color-octet vector boson.

  8. Delay Banking for Managing Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Delay banking has been invented to enhance air-traffic management in a way that would increase the degree of fairness in assigning arrival, departure, and en-route delays and trajectory deviations to aircraft impacted by congestion in the national airspace system. In delay banking, an aircraft operator (airline, military, general aviation, etc.) would be assigned a numerical credit when any of their flights are delayed because of an air-traffic flow restriction. The operator could subsequently bid against other operators competing for access to congested airspace to utilize part or all of its accumulated credit. Operators utilize credits to obtain higher priority for the same flight, or other flights operating at the same time, or later, in the same airspace, or elsewhere. Operators could also trade delay credits, according to market rules that would be determined by stakeholders in the national airspace system. Delay banking would be administered by an independent third party who would use delay banking automation to continually monitor flights, allocate delay credits, maintain accounts of delay credits for participating airlines, mediate bidding and the consumption of credits of winning bidders, analyze potential transfers of credits within and between operators, implement accepted transfers, and ensure fair treatment of all participating operators. A flow restriction can manifest itself in the form of a delay in assigned takeoff time, a reduction in assigned airspeed, a change in the position for the aircraft in a queue of all aircraft in a common stream of traffic (e.g., similar route), a change in the planned altitude profile for an aircraft, or change in the planned route for the aircraft. Flow restrictions are typically imposed to mitigate traffic congestion at an airport or in a region of airspace, particularly congestion due to inclement weather, or the unavailability of a runway or region of airspace. A delay credit would be allocated to an operator of a

  9. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  10. Telepresence, time delay, and adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Held, Richard; Durlach, Nathaniel

    1989-01-01

    Displays are now being used extensively throughout the society. More and more time is spent watching television, movies, computer screens, etc. Furthermore, in an increasing number of cases, the observer interacts with the display and plays the role of operator as well as observer. To a large extent, the normal behavior in the normal environment can also be thought of in these same terms. Taking liberties with Shakespeare, it might be said, all the world's a display and all the individuals in it are operators in and on the display. Within this general context of interactive display systems, a discussion is began with a conceptual overview of a particular class of such systems, namely, teleoperator systems. The notion is considered of telepresence and the factors that limit telepresence, including decorrelation between the: (1) motor output of the teleoperator as sensed directly via the kinesthetic/tactual system, and (2) the motor output of the teleoperator as sensed indirectly via feedback from the slave robot, i.e., via a visual display of the motor actions of the slave robot. Finally, the deleterious effect of time delay (a particular decorrelation) on sensory-motor adaptation (an important phenomenon related to telepresence) is examined.

  11. Do the Adjusting- and Increasing-Delay Tasks Measure the Same Construct – Delay Discounting?

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Andrew R.; Maxfield, Adam D.; Stein, Jeffrey S.; Renda, C. Renee; Madden, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Delay discounting describes the subjective devaluation of a reward when it is delayed. In animals, the adjusting- and increasing-delay tasks often are used to assess individual differences in, and drug effects on, delay discounting. No study to date, however, has compared systematically the measures of discounting produced in these tasks. The current study examined the correlation between measures of delay discounting derived from adjusting- and increasing-delay procedures. Twenty rats completed 30 sessions under each task (order counterbalanced across rats). Quantitative measures of delay discounting produced by the two tasks were positively correlated, suggesting that the adjusting-and increasing-delay tasks measure the same underlying facet of impulsive choice (i.e., individual or conjoint sensitivities to reward delay and magnitude). The measures derived from either task, however, depended on the sequences in which the tasks were experienced. That is, pre-exposure to one task decreased discounting of delayed rewards in the second task. Consistent with other published findings, exposure to delayed consequences during the initial discounting assessment might explain this effect. Despite the observed correlation between ID and AD indifference delays, we suggest that the ID procedure might be a more appropriate procedure for pharmacological studies. PMID:24978484

  12. 48 CFR 3442.7003 - Delays clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delays clause. 3442.7003 Section 3442.7003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Contract Monitoring 3442.7003 Delays clause. The...

  13. Discounting of Delayed Rewards Is Not Hyperbolic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luhmann, Christian C.

    2013-01-01

    Delay discounting refers to decision-makers' tendency to value immediately available goods more than identical goods available only after some delay. In violation of standard economic theory, decision-makers frequently exhibit dynamic inconsistency; their preferences change simply due to the passage of time. The standard explanation for this…

  14. Delaying Developmental Mathematics: The Characteristics and Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marianne; Kuennen, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates which students delay taking a required developmental mathematics course and the impact of delay on student performance in introductory microeconomics. Analysis of a sample of 1462 students at a large Midwestern university revealed that, although developmental-level mathematics students did not reach the same level of…

  15. Delaying gratification depends on social trust

    PubMed Central

    Michaelson, Laura; de la Vega, Alejandro; Chatham, Christopher H.; Munakata, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    Delaying gratification is hard, yet predictive of important life outcomes, such as academic achievement and physical health. Prominent theories focus on the role of self-control, hypersensitivity to immediate rewards, and the cost of time spent waiting. However, delaying gratification may also require trust in people delivering future rewards as promised. To test the role of social trust, participants were presented with character vignettes and faces that varied in trustworthiness, and then choose between hypothetical smaller immediate or larger delayed rewards from those characters. Across two experiments, participants were less willing to wait for delayed rewards from less trustworthy characters, and perceived trustworthiness predicted willingness to delay gratification. These findings provide the first demonstration of a causal role for social trust in willingness to delay gratification, independent of other relevant factors, such as self-control or reward history. Thus, delaying gratification requires choosing not only a later reward, but a reward that is potentially less likely to be delivered, when there is doubt about the person promising it. Implications of this work include the need to revise prominent theories of delay of gratification, and new directions for interventions with populations characterized by impulsivity. PMID:23801977

  16. 78 FR 51819 - List of Applications Delayed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration List of Applications Delayed AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of applications delayed more than 180... following list of special permit applications that have been in process for 180 days or more. The...

  17. 78 FR 36820 - List of Applications Delayed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration List of Applications Delayed AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of applications delayed more than 180... following list of special permit applications that have been in process for 180 days or more. The...

  18. Facilitation of Discrimination Learning with Delayed Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sondra Blevins; Siegel, Alexander W.

    Eighty-four nine year old children, twelve in each of seven experimental groups, learned a two-choice successive discrimination problem. The parameters that were systematically manipulated included: (1) immediate versus delayed reinforcement; and (2) forced preresponse stimulus exposure versus stimulus exposure during the delay interval,…

  19. Clinical implications of delayed orthostatic hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To define the long-term outcome of delayed orthostatic hypotension (OH). Hypothesis: Delayed OH is an early and milder form of OH that progresses over time. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 230 previously reported patients who completed autonomic testing at our center from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2003. All available information on clinical diagnosis, mortality, medication use, and autonomic testing were extracted and included in the reported outcomes. Standard criteria were used to define OH and delayed OH. Results: Forty-eight individuals with delayed OH, 42 individuals with OH, and 75 controls had complete follow-up data. Fifty-four percent of individuals with delayed OH progressed to OH. Thirty-one percent of individuals with delayed OH developed an α-synucleinopathy. The 10-year mortality rate in individuals with delayed OH was 29%, in individuals with baseline OH was 64%, and in controls was 9%. The 10-year mortality of individuals who progressed to OH was 50%. Progression to OH was associated with developing an α-synucleinopathy, baseline diabetes, and abnormal baseline autonomic test results. Conclusion: Delayed OH frequently progresses to OH with a high associated mortality. PMID:26400576

  20. 49 CFR 236.831 - Time, delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time, delay. 236.831 Section 236.831 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Time, delay. As applied to an automatic train stop or train control system, the time which...

  1. Control of Telerobots with Variable Communication Delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oboe, R.; Fiorini, P.

    1998-01-01

    Ths paper proposes two solutions for the control of telerobots, in which master and slave are connected through a communication system that introduces a variable delay. This is the typical case of packet-switched networks (e.g. Internet), in which the delay varies in an unpredictible way.

  2. Test Anxiety and Academic Delay of Gratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between college students' willingness to delay gratification, motivation, self-regulation of learning, and their level of test anxiety (N = 364). Academic delay of gratification refers to students' postponement of immediately available opportunities to satisfy impulses in favor of pursuing academic…

  3. On Delay and Security in Network Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikaliotis, Theodoros K.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, delay and security issues in network coding are considered. First, we study the delay incurred in the transmission of a fixed number of packets through acyclic networks comprised of erasure links. The two transmission schemes studied are routing with hop-by-hop retransmissions, where every node in the network simply stores and…

  4. Delayed gastric emptying in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Marrinan, Sarah; Emmanuel, Anton V; Burn, David J

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are evident in all stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Most of the gastrointestinal abnormalities associated with PD are attributable to impaired motility. At the level of the stomach, this results in delayed gastric emptying. The etiology of delayed gastric emptying in PD is probably multifactorial but is at least partly related to Lewy pathology in the enteric nervous system and discrete brainstem nuclei. Delayed gastric emptying occurs in both early and advanced PD but is underdetected in routine clinical practice. Recognition of delayed gastric emptying is important because it can cause an array of upper gastrointestinal symptoms, but additionally it has important implications for the absorption and action of levodopa. Delayed gastric emptying contributes significantly to response fluctuations seen in people on long-term l-dopa therapy. Neurohormonal aspects of the brain-gut axis are pertinent to discussions regarding the pathophysiology of delayed gastric emptying in PD and are also hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of PD itself. Ghrelin is a gastric-derived hormone with potential as a therapeutic agent for delayed gastric emptying and also as a novel neuroprotective agent in PD. Recent findings relating to ghrelin in the context of PD and gastric emptying are considered. This article highlights the pathological abnormalities that may account for delayed gastric emptying in PD. It also considers the wider relevance of abnormal gastric pathology to our current understanding of the etiology of PD. PMID:24151126

  5. Minimizing the Delay at Traffic Lights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hecke, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Vehicles holding at traffic lights is a typical queuing problem. At crossings the vehicles experience delay in both directions. Longer periods with green lights in one direction are disadvantageous for the vehicles coming from the other direction. The total delay for getting through the traffic point is what counts. This article presents an…

  6. Government delays release of medical marijuana supply.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Liz

    2002-07-01

    The federal government's initiative to make marijuana available for medical use continues to run into problems and delays. In a recent development, the first crop produced by the government's designated grower turned out to be too impure to use. The delays have led to the launch of a lawsuit against the federal government. PMID:14765485

  7. Analyzing delay causes in Egyptian construction projects.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Mohamed M; El-Rasas, Tarek I

    2014-01-01

    Construction delays are common problems in civil engineering projects in Egypt. These problems occur frequently during project life-time leading to disputes and litigation. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of construction delays. This research presents a list of construction delay causes retrieved from literature. The feedback of construction experts was obtained through interviews. Subsequently, a questionnaire survey was prepared. The questionnaire survey was distributed to thirty-three construction experts who represent owners, consultants, and contractor's organizations. Frequency Index, Severity Index, and Importance Index are calculated and according to the highest values of them the top ten delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the research. Statistical analysis is carried out using analysis of variance ANOVA method to test delay causes, obtained from the survey. The test results reveal good correlation between groups while there is significant difference between them for some delay causes and finally roadmap for prioritizing delay causes groups is presented.

  8. Delay synchronization of temporal Boolean networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qiang; Xie, Cheng-jun; Liang, Yi; Niu, Yu-jun; Lin, Da

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the delay synchronization between two temporal Boolean networks base on semi-tensor product method, which improve complete synchronization. Necessary and sufficient conditions for delay synchronization are drawn base on algebraic expression of temporal Boolean networks. A example is presented to show the effectiveness of theoretical analysis.

  9. 34 CFR 303.10 - Developmental delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Developmental delay. 303.10 Section 303.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES General Purpose, Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.10 Developmental delay. As...

  10. Discounting of Delayed Rewards: (A)theoretical Interpretation of the Kirby Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Myerson, Joel; Baumann, Ana A.; Green, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    111 participants, recruited from Amazon’s MTurk worker pool, completed Kirby’s (2009) monetary choice questionnaire, which involves choosing between immediate, but smaller rewards and delayed, but larger rewards. Individual participants’ responses were scored in three ways: first, by calculating the proportion of choices of the delayed rewards; second; using the scoring procedure described by Kirby, Petry, and Bickel (1999) to estimate discounting rate (i.e., the value of the k-parameter in a hyperbolic discounting function); and third, using logistic regression to estimate discounting rate (Wileyto, Audrain-McGovern, Epstein, & Lerman, 2004). Individuals’ scores calculated using the proportion measure and the logarithms of their estimated k values were very strongly correlated (rs > .97). In addition, the proportions of choices of small, medium, and large amounts of the delayed rewards were strongly correlated (rs > .80). Taken together, these results suggest that the relative ease of calculating the proportion measure does not require sacrificing reliability. Moreover, the proportion measure is atheoretical and very easy to calculate whereas estimating an individual’s discounting rate requires assuming a theoretical model that may not be appropriate. Significant differences in the proportion of delayed reward choices were observed between the small, medium, and large delayed reward amounts, with smaller rewards being discounted more steeply than larger ones, replicating previous findings of magnitude effects. These results provide further validation of the proportion of delayed reward choices on the Kirby questionnaire as a measure of individual and group differences in discounting. PMID:25139835

  11. Experimental study of high-energy fractures delayed operation in promote bone healing

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhi-Jun; Li, Zhong; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate role of delayed operation to stimulate growth of strong external callus in high-energy fractures, and explore a new way for bone healing. Twenty adult dogs were employed, and randomly divided into four groups, including group A-D. The dogs underwent osteotomy by wire saw in middle of femur, electric coagulation damaged surrounding periosteum, forming a 1 cm defect. Group A were internal fixed 14 days after osteotomy (higher-energy fractures delayed operation), Group B and C were internal fixed immediately (no delayed operation), Group D were internal fixed 14 days after osteotomy (delayed operation, but resected granulations around extremities). The results showed that groups of early fixed have no external callus growth and almost no growth in internal callus, these conditions leads to atrophy nonunion. On contrary, the porosis was strong and callus union was steady in group A and D, which have a delayed operation. In conclusion, early surgical fixation of high-energy fracture restrains external callus growth, easily lead to poor callus healing phenomenon of low-quality. Delayed surgical fixation can begin to repair soft tissues injury, stimulate external callus growth and improve fracture healing, so a small incision open reduction produce more robust growth effect than closed reduction. PMID:26379852

  12. Breathers in strongly anharmonic lattices.

    PubMed

    Rosenau, Philip; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2014-02-01

    We present and study a family of finite amplitude breathers on a genuinely anharmonic Klein-Gordon lattice embedded in a nonlinear site potential. The direct numerical simulations are supported by a quasilinear Schrodinger equation (QLS) derived by averaging out the fast oscillations assuming small, albeit finite, amplitude vibrations. The genuinely anharmonic interlattice forces induce breathers which are strongly localized with tails evanescing at a doubly exponential rate and are either close to a continuum, with discrete effects being suppressed, or close to an anticontinuum state, with discrete effects being enhanced. Whereas the D-QLS breathers appear to be always stable, in general there is a stability threshold which improves with spareness of the lattice.

  13. Strong Langmuir turbulence at Jupiter?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    Langmuir wave packets with short scale lengths less than an approximately equal to 100 lambda e have been observed in Jupiter's foreshock. Theoretical constraints on the electric fields and scale sizes of collapsing wave packets are summarized, extended and placed in a form suitable for easy comparison with Voyager and Ulysses data. The published data are reviewed and possible instrumental underestimation of fields discussed. New upper limits for the fields of the published wave packets are estimated. Wave packets formed at the nucleation scale from the observed large-scale fields cannot collapse because they are disrupted before collapse occurs. The published wave packets are quantitatively inconsistent with strong turbulence collapse. Strict constraints exist for more intense wave packets to be able to collapse: E greater than or approximately equals to 1-8 mV/m for scales less than or approximately equal to 100 lambda e. Means for testing these conclusions using Voyager and Ulysses data are suggested.

  14. Mitochondrial respiratory complex I probed by delayed luminescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Baran, Irina; Ionescu, Diana; Privitera, Simona; Scordino, Agata; Mocanu, Maria Magdalena; Musumeci, Francesco; Grasso, Rosaria; Gulino, Marisa; Iftime, Adrian; Tofolean, Ioana Teodora; Garaiman, Alexandru; Goicea, Alexandru; Irimia, Ruxandra; Dimancea, Alexandru; Ganea, Constanta

    2013-12-01

    The role of mitochondrial complex I in ultraweak photon-induced delayed photon emission [delayed luminescence (DL)] of human leukemia Jurkat T cells was probed by using complex I targeting agents like rotenone, menadione, and quercetin. Rotenone, a complex I-specific inhibitor, dose-dependently increased the mitochondrial level of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), decreased clonogenic survival, and induced apoptosis. A strong correlation was found between the mitochondrial levels of NADH and oxidized flavin mononucleotide (FMNox) in rotenone-, menadione- and quercetin-treated cells. Rotenone enhanced DL dose-dependently, whereas quercetin and menadione inhibited DL as well as NADH or FMNox. Collectively, the data suggest that DL of Jurkat cells originates mainly from mitochondrial complex I, which functions predominantly as a dimer and less frequently as a tetramer. In individual monomers, both pairs of pyridine nucleotide (NADH/reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) sites and flavin (FMN-a/FMN-b) sites appear to bind cooperatively their specific ligands. Enhancement of delayed red-light emission by rotenone suggests that the mean time for one-electron reduction of ubiquinone or FMN-a by the terminal Fe/S center (N2) is 20 or 284 μs, respectively. All these findings suggest that DL spectroscopy could be used as a reliable, sensitive, and robust technique to probe electron flow within complex I in situ.

  15. Advanced access: reducing waiting and delays in primary care.

    PubMed

    Murray, Mark; Berwick, Donald M

    2003-02-26

    Delay of care is a persistent and undesirable feature of current health care systems. Although delay seems to be inevitable and linked to resource limitations, it often is neither. Rather, it is usually the result of unplanned, irrational scheduling and resource allocation. Application of queuing theory and principles of industrial engineering, adapted appropriately to clinical settings, can reduce delay substantially, even in small practices, without requiring additional resources. One model, sometimes referred to as advanced access, has increasingly been shown to reduce waiting times in primary care. The core principle of advanced access is that patients calling to schedule a physician visit are offered an appointment the same day. Advanced access is not sustainable if patient demand for appointments is permanently greater than physician capacity to offer appointments. Six elements of advanced access are important in its application balancing supply and demand, reducing backlog, reducing the variety of appointment types, developing contingency plans for unusual circumstances, working to adjust demand profiles, and increasing the availability of bottleneck resources. Although these principles are powerful, they are counter to deeply held beliefs and established practices in health care organizations. Adopting these principles requires strong leadership investment and support.

  16. Advanced access: reducing waiting and delays in primary care.

    PubMed

    Murray, Mark; Berwick, Donald M

    2003-02-26

    Delay of care is a persistent and undesirable feature of current health care systems. Although delay seems to be inevitable and linked to resource limitations, it often is neither. Rather, it is usually the result of unplanned, irrational scheduling and resource allocation. Application of queuing theory and principles of industrial engineering, adapted appropriately to clinical settings, can reduce delay substantially, even in small practices, without requiring additional resources. One model, sometimes referred to as advanced access, has increasingly been shown to reduce waiting times in primary care. The core principle of advanced access is that patients calling to schedule a physician visit are offered an appointment the same day. Advanced access is not sustainable if patient demand for appointments is permanently greater than physician capacity to offer appointments. Six elements of advanced access are important in its application balancing supply and demand, reducing backlog, reducing the variety of appointment types, developing contingency plans for unusual circumstances, working to adjust demand profiles, and increasing the availability of bottleneck resources. Although these principles are powerful, they are counter to deeply held beliefs and established practices in health care organizations. Adopting these principles requires strong leadership investment and support. PMID:12597760

  17. Measuring angular diameter distances of strong gravitational lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jee, I.; Komatsu, E.; Suyu, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    The distance-redshift relation plays a fundamental role in constraining cosmological models. In this paper, we show that measurements of positions and time delays of strongly lensed images of a background galaxy, as well as those of the velocity dispersion and mass profile of a lens galaxy, can be combined to extract the angular diameter distance of the lens galaxy. Physically, as the velocity dispersion and the time delay give a gravitational potential (GM/r) and a mass (GM) of the lens, respectively, dividing them gives a physical size (r) of the lens. Comparing the physical size with the image positions of a lensed galaxy gives the angular diameter distance to the lens. A mismatch between the exact locations at which these measurements are made can be corrected by measuring a local slope of the mass profile. We expand on the original idea put forward by Paraficz and Hjorth, who analyzed singular isothermal lenses, by allowing for an arbitrary slope of a power-law spherical mass density profile, an external convergence, and an anisotropic velocity dispersion. We find that the effect of external convergence cancels out when dividing the time delays and velocity dispersion measurements. We derive a formula for the uncertainty in the angular diameter distance in terms of the uncertainties in the observables. As an application, we use two existing strong lens systems, B1608+656 (zL=0.6304) and RXJ1131-1231 (zL=0.295), to show that the uncertainty in the inferred angular diameter distances is dominated by that in the velocity dispersion, σ2, and its anisotropy. We find that the current data on these systems should yield about 16% uncertainty in DA per object. This improves to 13% when we measure σ2 at the so-called sweet-spot radius. Achieving 7% is possible if we can determine σ2 with 5% precision.

  18. Measuring angular diameter distances of strong gravitational lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Jee, I.; Komatsu, E.; Suyu, S.H. E-mail: komatsu@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2015-11-01

    The distance-redshift relation plays a fundamental role in constraining cosmological models. In this paper, we show that measurements of positions and time delays of strongly lensed images of a background galaxy, as well as those of the velocity dispersion and mass profile of a lens galaxy, can be combined to extract the angular diameter distance of the lens galaxy. Physically, as the velocity dispersion and the time delay give a gravitational potential (GM/r) and a mass (GM) of the lens, respectively, dividing them gives a physical size (r) of the lens. Comparing the physical size with the image positions of a lensed galaxy gives the angular diameter distance to the lens. A mismatch between the exact locations at which these measurements are made can be corrected by measuring a local slope of the mass profile. We expand on the original idea put forward by Paraficz and Hjorth, who analyzed singular isothermal lenses, by allowing for an arbitrary slope of a power-law spherical mass density profile, an external convergence, and an anisotropic velocity dispersion. We find that the effect of external convergence cancels out when dividing the time delays and velocity dispersion measurements. We derive a formula for the uncertainty in the angular diameter distance in terms of the uncertainties in the observables. As an application, we use two existing strong lens systems, B1608+656 (z{sub L}=0.6304) and RXJ1131−1231 (z{sub L}=0.295), to show that the uncertainty in the inferred angular diameter distances is dominated by that in the velocity dispersion, σ{sup 2}, and its anisotropy. We find that the current data on these systems should yield about 16% uncertainty in D{sub A} per object. This improves to 13% when we measure σ{sup 2} at the so-called sweet-spot radius. Achieving 7% is possible if we can determine σ{sup 2} with 5% precision.

  19. Strong field gravitational lensing by a charged Galileon black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shan-Shan; Xie, Yi

    2016-07-01

    Strong field gravitational lensings are dramatically disparate from those in the weak field by representing relativistic images due to light winds one to infinity loops around a lens before escaping. We study such a lensing caused by a charged Galileon black hole, which is expected to have possibility to evade no-hair theorem. We calculate the angular separations and time delays between different relativistic images of the charged Galileon black hole. All these observables can potentially be used to discriminate a charged Galileon black hole from others. We estimate the magnitudes of these observables for the closest supermassive black hole Sgr A*. The strong field lensing observables of the charged Galileon black hole can be close to those of a tidal Reissner-Nordström black hole or those of a Reissner-Nordström black hole. It will be helpful to distinguish these black holes if we can separate the outermost relativistic images and determine their angular separation, brightness difference and time delay, although it requires techniques beyond the current limit.

  20. Syneresis and delayed detachment in agar plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divoux, Thibaut; Mao, Bosi; Snabre, Patrick

    Biogels made of crosslinked polymers such as proteins or polysaccharides behave as porous soft solids and store large amount of solvent. These gels undergo spontaneous aging, called syneresis that consists in the shrinkage of the gel matrix and the progressive expulsion of the solvent. As a result, a biogel originally casted in a container often lose contact with the container sidewalls, and the detachment time is a priori difficult to anticipate since it may occur over variable time spans (from hours to days). Here we report on the syneresis phenomena in agar plates that consist in Petri dishes filled with a gel mainly composed of agar. Direct observations and speckle pattern correlation analysis allow us to rationalize the delayed detachment of the gel from the sidewall of the Petri dish. The detachment time $t^*$ is surprisingly not controlled by the mass loss as one would intuitively expect. Instead, $t^*$ is strongly correlated to the gel minimum thickness $e_{min}$ measured along the sidewall of the plate, and increases as a robust function of $e_{min}$ independently of the prior mass-loss history. Time-resolved correlation spectroscopy atypically applied to such weakly diffusive media gives access to the local thinning rate of the gel. This technique also allows us to detect the gel micro-displacements that are triggered by the water evaporation prior to the detachment, and even to anticipate the latter from a few hours. Our work provides observables to predict the detachment time of agar gels in dishes, and highlights the relevance of speckle pattern correlation analysis for the quantitative investigation of the syneresis dynamics in biopolymer gels.

  1. Syneresis and delayed detachment in agar plates.

    PubMed

    Divoux, Thibaut; Mao, Bosi; Snabre, Patrick

    2015-05-14

    Biogels made of crosslinked polymers such as proteins or polysaccharides behave as porous soft solids and store large amounts of solvent. These gels undergo spontaneous aging, called syneresis, which consists of the shrinkage of the gel matrix and the progressive expulsion of solvent. As a result, a biogel originally casted in a container often loses contact with the container sidewalls, and the detachment time is difficult to anticipate a priori, since it may occur over variable time spans (from hours to days). Here we report on syneresis phenomena in agar plates, which consist of Petri dishes filled with a gel mainly composed of agar. Direct observations and speckle pattern correlation analysis allow us to rationalize the delayed detachment of the gel from the sidewall of the Petri dish. The detachment time t* is surprisingly not controlled by the mass loss as one would intuitively expect. Instead, t* is strongly correlated to the gel minimum thickness emin measured along the sidewall of the plate, and increases as a robust function of emin, independently of the prior mass-loss history. Time-resolved correlation spectroscopy atypically applied to such weakly diffusive media gives access to the local thinning rate of the gel. This technique also allows us to detect the gel micro-displacements that are triggered by water evaporation prior to the detachment, and even to anticipate the latter from a few hours. Our work provides observables to predict the detachment time of agar gels in dishes, and highlights the relevance of speckle pattern correlation analysis for the quantitative investigation of the syneresis dynamics in biopolymer gels.

  2. Syneresis and delayed detachment in agar plates.

    PubMed

    Divoux, Thibaut; Mao, Bosi; Snabre, Patrick

    2015-05-14

    Biogels made of crosslinked polymers such as proteins or polysaccharides behave as porous soft solids and store large amounts of solvent. These gels undergo spontaneous aging, called syneresis, which consists of the shrinkage of the gel matrix and the progressive expulsion of solvent. As a result, a biogel originally casted in a container often loses contact with the container sidewalls, and the detachment time is difficult to anticipate a priori, since it may occur over variable time spans (from hours to days). Here we report on syneresis phenomena in agar plates, which consist of Petri dishes filled with a gel mainly composed of agar. Direct observations and speckle pattern correlation analysis allow us to rationalize the delayed detachment of the gel from the sidewall of the Petri dish. The detachment time t* is surprisingly not controlled by the mass loss as one would intuitively expect. Instead, t* is strongly correlated to the gel minimum thickness emin measured along the sidewall of the plate, and increases as a robust function of emin, independently of the prior mass-loss history. Time-resolved correlation spectroscopy atypically applied to such weakly diffusive media gives access to the local thinning rate of the gel. This technique also allows us to detect the gel micro-displacements that are triggered by water evaporation prior to the detachment, and even to anticipate the latter from a few hours. Our work provides observables to predict the detachment time of agar gels in dishes, and highlights the relevance of speckle pattern correlation analysis for the quantitative investigation of the syneresis dynamics in biopolymer gels. PMID:25812667

  3. Trading Later Rewards for Current Pleasure: Pornography Consumption and Delay Discounting.

    PubMed

    Negash, Sesen; Sheppard, Nicole Van Ness; Lambert, Nathaniel M; Fincham, Frank D

    2016-01-01

    Internet pornography is a multi-billion-dollar industry that has grown increasingly accessible. Delay discounting involves devaluing larger, later rewards in favor of smaller, more immediate rewards. The constant novelty and primacy of sexual stimuli as particularly strong natural rewards make Internet pornography a unique activator of the brain's reward system, thereby having implications for decision-making processes. Based on theoretical studies of evolutionary psychology and neuroeconomics, two studies tested the hypothesis that consuming Internet pornography would relate to higher rates of delay discounting. Study 1 used a longitudinal design. Participants completed a pornography use questionnaire and a delay discounting task at Time 1 and then again four weeks later. Participants reporting higher initial pornography use demonstrated a higher delay discounting rate at Time 2, controlling for initial delay discounting. Study 2 tested for causality with an experimental design. Participants were randomly assigned to abstain from either their favorite food or pornography for three weeks. Participants who abstained from pornography use demonstrated lower delay discounting than participants who abstained from their favorite food. The finding suggests that Internet pornography is a sexual reward that contributes to delay discounting differently than other natural rewards. Theoretical and clinical implications of these studies are highlighted. PMID:26305628

  4. Persistent Language Delay Versus Late Language Emergence in Children With Early Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Johanna; Tobey, Emily; Davidson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present investigation is to differentiate children using cochlear implants (CIs) who did or did not achieve age-appropriate language scores by midelementary grades and to identify risk factors for persistent language delay following early cochlear implantation. Materials and Method Children receiving unilateral CIs at young ages (12–38 months) were tested longitudinally and classified with normal language emergence (n = 19), late language emergence (n = 22), or persistent language delay (n = 19) on the basis of their test scores at 4.5 and 10.5 years of age. Relative effects of demographic, audiological, linguistic, and academic characteristics on language emergence were determined. Results Age at CI was associated with normal language emergence but did not differentiate late emergence from persistent delay. Children with persistent delay were more likely to use left-ear implants and older speech processor technology. They experienced higher aided thresholds and lower speech perception scores. Persistent delay was foreshadowed by low morphosyntactic and phonological diversity in preschool. Logistic regression analysis predicted normal language emergence with 84% accuracy and persistent language delay with 74% accuracy. Conclusion CI characteristics had a strong effect on persistent versus resolving language delay, suggesting that right-ear (or bilateral) devices, technology upgrades, and improved audibility may positively influence long-term language outcomes. PMID:26501740

  5. Rats bred for high alcohol drinking are more sensitive to delayed and probabilistic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Clare J.; Mitchell, Suzanne H.

    2009-01-01

    Alcoholics and heavy drinkers score higher on measures of impulsivity than nonalcoholics and light drinkers. This may be due to factors that predate drug exposure (e.g., genetics). This study examined the role of genetics by comparing impulsivity measures in ethanol naïve rats selectively bred based on their high (HAD) or low (LAD) consumption of ethanol. Replicates 1 and 2 of the HAD and LAD rats, developed by the University of Indiana Alcohol Research Center, completed two different discounting tasks. Delay discounting examines sensitivity to rewards that are delayed in time and is commonly used to assess “choice” impulsivity. Probability discounting examines sensitivity to the uncertain delivery of rewards and has been used to assess risk taking and risk assessment. HAD rats discounted delayed and probabilistic rewards more steeply than LAD rats. Discount rates associated with probabilistic and delayed rewards were weakly correlated, while bias was strongly correlated with discount rate in both delay and probability discounting. The results suggest that selective breeding for high alcohol consumption selects for animals that are more sensitive to delayed and probabilistic outcomes. Sensitivity to delayed or probabilistic outcomes may be predictive of future drinking in genetically-predisposed individuals. PMID:18518928

  6. Complexity in electro-optic delay dynamics: modelling, design and applications.

    PubMed

    Larger, Laurent

    2013-09-28

    Nonlinear delay dynamics have found during the last 30 years a particularly prolific exploration area in the field of photonic systems. Besides the popular external cavity laser diode set-ups, we focus in this article on another experimental realization involving electro-optic (EO) feedback loops, with delay. This approach has strongly evolved with the important technological progress made on broadband photonic and optoelectronic devices dedicated to high-speed optical telecommunications. The complex dynamical systems performed by nonlinear delayed EO feedback loop architectures were designed and explored within a huge range of operating parameters. Thanks to the availability of high-performance photonic devices, these EO delay dynamics led also to many successful, efficient and diverse applications, beyond the many fundamental questions raised from the observation of experimental behaviours. Their chaotic motion allowed for a physical layer encryption method to secure optical data, with a demonstrated capability to operate at the typical speed of modern optical telecommunications. Microwave limit cycles generated in similar EO delay oscillators showed significantly improved spectral purity thanks to the use of a very long fibre delay line. Last but not least, a novel brain inspired computational principle has been recently implemented physically in photonics for the first time, again on the basis of an EO delay dynamical system. In this latter emerging application, the computed result is obtained by a proper 'read-out' of the complex nonlinear transients emerging from a fixed point, the transient being issued by the injection of the information signal to be processed.

  7. Trading Later Rewards for Current Pleasure: Pornography Consumption and Delay Discounting.

    PubMed

    Negash, Sesen; Sheppard, Nicole Van Ness; Lambert, Nathaniel M; Fincham, Frank D

    2016-01-01

    Internet pornography is a multi-billion-dollar industry that has grown increasingly accessible. Delay discounting involves devaluing larger, later rewards in favor of smaller, more immediate rewards. The constant novelty and primacy of sexual stimuli as particularly strong natural rewards make Internet pornography a unique activator of the brain's reward system, thereby having implications for decision-making processes. Based on theoretical studies of evolutionary psychology and neuroeconomics, two studies tested the hypothesis that consuming Internet pornography would relate to higher rates of delay discounting. Study 1 used a longitudinal design. Participants completed a pornography use questionnaire and a delay discounting task at Time 1 and then again four weeks later. Participants reporting higher initial pornography use demonstrated a higher delay discounting rate at Time 2, controlling for initial delay discounting. Study 2 tested for causality with an experimental design. Participants were randomly assigned to abstain from either their favorite food or pornography for three weeks. Participants who abstained from pornography use demonstrated lower delay discounting than participants who abstained from their favorite food. The finding suggests that Internet pornography is a sexual reward that contributes to delay discounting differently than other natural rewards. Theoretical and clinical implications of these studies are highlighted.

  8. Influence of the circadian rhythm in cell division on radiation-induced mitotic delay in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, N.H.

    1982-01-01

    Mitotic delay is described as a classical response to radiation; however, circadian rhythmicity in cell division in vivo has not been considered by many authors. The present study investigated the relation between fluctuations reported as mitotic delay and recovery in vivo and circadian oscillations in mitotic index in mouse corneal epithelium. One aspect involved single doses (approximately 600 rad) given to mice at different circadian stages. The normal circadian rhythm in cell division was never obliterated. Inhibition of mitosis was evident but unpredictable, ranging from 6 to 15 hr after irradiation. Recovery was evident only during the daily increase in mitotic index of controls. The classical interpretation of recovery from mitotic delay may be in an in vitro phenomenon not reflecting in vivo responses, which are apparently strongly circadian stage dependent. The second portion of the study demonstrated a dose-response effect on length of mitotic delay and, to a lesser extent, degree of recovery.

  9. Testing the bed-blocking hypothesis: does nursing and care home supply reduce delayed hospital discharges?

    PubMed

    Gaughan, James; Gravelle, Hugh; Siciliani, Luigi

    2015-03-01

    Hospital bed-blocking occurs when hospital patients are ready to be discharged to a nursing home, but no place is available, so that hospital care acts as a more costly substitute for long-term care. We investigate the extent to which greater supply of nursing home beds or lower prices can reduce hospital bed-blocking using a new Local Authority (LA) level administrative data from England on hospital delayed discharges in 2009-2013. The results suggest that delayed discharges respond to the availability of care home beds, but the effect is modest: an increase in care home beds by 10% (250 additional beds per LA) would reduce social care delayed discharges by about 6-9%. We also find strong evidence of spillover effects across LAs: more care home beds or fewer patients aged over 65 years in nearby LAs are associated with fewer delayed discharges.

  10. Anomalous delayed loss of trapped D-D fusion products in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Mynick, H.E.

    1993-02-01

    A new anomalous delayed loss of D-D fusion products has been measured at the bottom of the TFRR vessel. This loss is delayed by {approximately} 0.2 sec with respect to the usual prompt first-orbit loss, and has a correspondingly lower energy, i.e. about half the fusion product birth energy. This loss process dominates the total fusion product loss measured 90{degrees} below the midplane for plasma currents. I{ge} 1.8 MA and major radii near R=2.45 m, e.g. for recent TFTR supershots. This delayed feature can occur without large coherent MED activity, although it can be strongly modulated by such activity. Several possible causes for this phenomenon are discussed, but no clear explanation for this delayed loss has yet been found.

  11. Anomalous delayed loss of trapped D-D fusion products in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Mynick, H.E.

    1993-02-01

    A new anomalous delayed loss of D-D fusion products has been measured at the bottom of the TFRR vessel. This loss is delayed by [approximately] 0.2 sec with respect to the usual prompt first-orbit loss, and has a correspondingly lower energy, i.e. about half the fusion product birth energy. This loss process dominates the total fusion product loss measured 90[degrees] below the midplane for plasma currents. I[ge] 1.8 MA and major radii near R=2.45 m, e.g. for recent TFTR supershots. This delayed feature can occur without large coherent MED activity, although it can be strongly modulated by such activity. Several possible causes for this phenomenon are discussed, but no clear explanation for this delayed loss has yet been found.

  12. Strong anti-ice ability of nanohairs over micro-ratchet structures.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng; Wen, Mengxi; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Yongmei

    2014-04-21

    A strong anti-ice property of nanohairs over micro-ratchet surfaces is observed. A long freezing delay of more than 185 min is achieved for a droplet on the nanohairs over ratchet structure with a period of ∼290 μm under -10 °C, which is attributed to the effective cooperation of the nano- and microstructures.

  13. Rrsm: The European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauzzi, C.; Clinton, J. F.; Sleeman, R.; Domingo Ballesta, J.; Kaestli, P.; Galanis, O.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion database (RRSM), a Europe-wide system that provides parameterised strong motion information, as well as access to waveform data, within minutes of the occurrence of strong earthquakes. The RRSM significantly differs from traditional earthquake strong motion dissemination in Europe, which has focused on providing reviewed, processed strong motion parameters, typically with significant delays. As the RRSM provides rapid open access to raw waveform data and metadata and does not rely on external manual waveform processing, RRSM information is tailored to seismologists and strong-motion data analysts, earthquake and geotechnical engineers, international earthquake response agencies and the educated general public. Access to the RRSM database is via a portal at http://www.orfeus-eu.org/rrsm/ that allows users to query earthquake information, peak ground motion parameters and amplitudes of spectral response; and to select and download earthquake waveforms. All information is available within minutes of any earthquake with magnitude ≥ 3.5 occurring in the Euro-Mediterranean region. Waveform processing and database population are performed using the waveform processing module scwfparam, which is integrated in SeisComP3 (SC3; http://www.seiscomp3.org/). Earthquake information is provided by the EMSC (http://www.emsc-csem.org/) and all the seismic waveform data is accessed at the European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) at ORFEUS (http://www.orfeus-eu.org/index.html), where all on-scale data is used in the fully automated processing. As the EIDA community is continually growing, the already significant number of strong motion stations is also increasing and the importance of this product is expected to also increase. Real-time RRSM processing started in June 2014, while past events have been processed in order to provide a complete database back to 2005.

  14. Temporal-contextual processing in working memory: evidence from delayed cued recall and delayed free recall tests.

    PubMed

    Loaiza, Vanessa M; McCabe, David P

    2012-02-01

    Three experiments are reported that addressed the nature of processing in working memory by investigating patterns of delayed cued recall and free recall of items initially studied during complex and simple span tasks. In Experiment 1, items initially studied during a complex span task (i.e., operation span) were more likely to be recalled after a delay in response to temporal-contextual cues, relative to items from subspan and supraspan list lengths in a simple span task (i.e., word span). In Experiment 2, items initially studied during operation span were more likely to be recalled from neighboring serial positions during delayed free recall than were items studied during word span trials. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the number of attentional refreshing opportunities strongly predicts episodic memory performance, regardless of whether the information is presented in a spaced or massed format in a modified operation span task. The results indicate that the content-context bindings created during complex span trials reflect attentional refreshing opportunities that are used to maintain items in working memory. PMID:21948350

  15. Delayed feedback applied to breathing in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janson, N. B.; Pototsky, A.; Parkes, C.

    2013-10-01

    We studied the response of healthy volunteers to the delayed feedback generated from the breathing signals. Namely, in the freely-breathing volunteers the breathing signal was recorded, delayed by τ seconds and fed back to the same volunteer in real time in the form of a visual and auditory stimulus of low intensity, i.e. the stimulus was crucially non-intrusive. In each case volunteers were instructed to breathe in the way which was most comfortable for them, and no explanation about the kind of applied stimulus was provided to them. Each volunteer experienced 10 different delay times ranging between 10% and 100% of the average breathing period without external stimulus. It was observed that in a significant proportion of subjects (11 out of 24) breathing was slowed down in the presence of delayed feedback with moderate delay. Also, in 6 objects out of 24 the delayed feedback was able to induce transition from nearly periodic to irregular breathing. These observations are consistent with the phenomena observed in numerical simulation of the models of periodic and chaotic self-oscillations with delays, and also in experiments with simpler self-oscillating systems.

  16. Development and validation of the Delaying Gratification Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Hoerger, Michael; Quirk, Stuart W.; Weed, Nathan C.

    2011-01-01

    Deficits in gratification delay are associated with a broad range of public health problems, such as obesity, risky sexual behavior, and substance abuse. However, six decades of research on the construct has progressed less quickly than might be hoped, largely due to measurement issues. Although past research implicates five domains of delay behavior, involving food, physical pleasures, social interactions, money, and achievement, no published measure to date has tapped all five components of the content domain. Existing measures have been criticized for limitations related to efficiency, reliability, and construct validity. Using an innovative Internet-mediated approach to survey construction, we developed the 35-item five-factor Delaying Gratification Inventory (DGI). Evidence from four studies and a large, diverse sample of respondents (N = 10,741) provided support for the psychometric properties of the measure. Specifically, scores on the DGI demonstrated strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the 35-item composite, each of the five domains, and a 10-item short-form. The five-factor structure fit the data well and had good measurement invariance across subgroups. Construct validity was supported by correlations with scores on closely-related self-control measures, behavioral ratings, Big Five personality trait measures, and measures of adjustment and psychopathology, including those on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). DGI scores also showed incremental validity in accounting for well-being and health-related variables. The present investigation holds implications for improving public health, accelerating future research on gratification delay, and facilitating survey construction research more generally by demonstrating the suitability of an Internet-mediated strategy. PMID:21480721

  17. Properties of strong coupled superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulaevskii, L. N.; Dolgov, O. V.; Ptitsyn, M. O.

    1987-07-01

    By use of Eliashberg equations the system of electrons and phonons with the Einstein spectrum alpha (sub 2) (omega) F(omega) = lambda x omega/2 delta (omega - OMEGA) is studied. The orbital and paramagnetic upper critical magnetic fields are obtained in the case of strong electron-phonon coupling lambda including lambda is much greater than 1. For lambda much greater than 1 superconducting parameters at very low temperatures differ remarkably from that near T(sub c), the crossover takes place at a temperature corresponding to the phonon frequency omega. For lambda is greater than or approximately 4 at temperatures below about omega/3 the superconducting correlation length decreases giving the positive curvature in the temperature dependence of upper critical field. The obtained results favor the ratio delta(O)/T (sub c) to be proportional to the square root of lambda at lambda is greater than or approximately 4/6. The coefficients of GL functional are calculated. The absolute value of specific heat jump grows with lambda while its relative value drops. At lambda is greater than or approximately 4 the resistivity above T(sub c) increases linearly with temperature.

  18. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  19. Strong majorization entropic uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnicki, Łukasz; Puchała, Zbigniew; Życzkowski, Karol

    2014-05-01

    We analyze entropic uncertainty relations in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space and derive several strong bounds for the sum of two entropies obtained in projective measurements with respect to any two orthogonal bases. We improve the recent bounds by Coles and Piani [P. Coles and M. Piani, Phys. Rev. A 89, 022112 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.022112], which are known to be stronger than the well-known result of Maassen and Uffink [H. Maassen and J. B. M. Uffink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1103 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.60.1103]. Furthermore, we find a bound based on majorization techniques, which also happens to be stronger than the recent results involving the largest singular values of submatrices of the unitary matrix connecting both bases. The first set of bounds gives better results for unitary matrices close to the Fourier matrix, while the second one provides a significant improvement in the opposite sectors. Some results derived admit generalization to arbitrary mixed states, so that corresponding bounds are increased by the von Neumann entropy of the measured state. The majorization approach is finally extended to the case of several measurements.

  20. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-05-16

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  1. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations. PMID:27279218

  2. Prolactin and delayed pseudopregnancy in the rat.

    PubMed

    De Greef, W J; Zeilmaker, G H

    1976-02-01

    In (RXU)F1 hybrid rats delayed pseudopregnancy was induced in three different ways: 1) by removal of all recent corporl lutea on day 2 of pseudopregnancy, 2) by removal of the in situ ovaries from ovarian graft-bearing animals on day 0 of pseudopregnancy, 3) by administration of 1 mg of ergocornine hydrogenmaleinate (ECO) on day 1 of pseudopregnancy. These procedures ended pseudopregnancy and in 50-60% of the animals a delayed pseudopregnancy with a duration of 6-15 days was observed after the experimental cycle. After sterile copulation two daily prolactin peaks were observed. Removal of the ovaries in situ (from ovarian graft-bearing animals) or of recently formed corpora lutea (from non-grafted animals) caused the disappearance of the prolactin peak at 19.00 h, without affecting the occurrence of the 03.00 h peak. The administration of ECO caused the disappearance of both prolactin peaks. Until the day of estrus prior to delayed pseudopregnancy there were no differences in prolactin concentrations at 03.00 or 19.00 h between animals which became delayed pseudopregnant and those which remained cyclic. In the latter animals the 03.00 h surges decreased slowly in the luteectomized and the ovariectomized animals and were no longer present 7-9 days after copulation. In animals becoming delayed pseudopregnant both prolactin peaks were present from day 0 of delayed pseudopregnancy onwards. Progesterone cencentrations during delayed pseudopregnancy were relatively low when delayed pseudopregnancy had a duration of 6-9 days. When delayed pseudopregnancy lasted 10 days or more normal progesterone values were found.

  3. Gravitational lens time delays and gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    Frieman, J.A. Department of Astronomy Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 ); Harari, D.D.; Surpi, G.C. )

    1994-10-15

    Using Fermat's principle, we analyze the effects of very long wavelength gravitational waves upon the images of a gravitationally lensed quasar. We show that the lens equation in the presence of gravity waves is equivalent to that of a lens with a different alignment between source, deflector, and observer in the absence of gravity waves. Contrary to a recent claim, we conclude that measurements of time delays in gravitational lenses cannot serve as a method to detect or constrain a stochastic background of gravitational waves of cosmological wavelengths, because the wave-induced time delay is observationally indistinguishable from an intrinsic time delay due to the lens geometry.

  4. Strong Expectations Cancel Locality Effects: Evidence from Hindi

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Samar; Vasishth, Shravan; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Expectation-driven facilitation (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008) and locality-driven retrieval difficulty (Gibson, 1998, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005) are widely recognized to be two critical factors in incremental sentence processing; there is accumulating evidence that both can influence processing difficulty. However, it is unclear whether and how expectations and memory interact. We first confirm a key prediction of the expectation account: a Hindi self-paced reading study shows that when an expectation for an upcoming part of speech is dashed, building a rarer structure consumes more processing time than building a less rare structure. This is a strong validation of the expectation-based account. In a second study, we show that when expectation is strong, i.e., when a particular verb is predicted, strong facilitation effects are seen when the appearance of the verb is delayed; however, when expectation is weak, i.e., when only the part of speech “verb” is predicted but a particular verb is not predicted, the facilitation disappears and a tendency towards a locality effect is seen. The interaction seen between expectation strength and distance shows that strong expectations cancel locality effects, and that weak expectations allow locality effects to emerge. PMID:25010700

  5. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  6. Delay differential models in multimode laser dynamics: taking chromatic dispersion into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, A. G.; Huyet, G.; Pimenov, A.

    2016-04-01

    A set of differential equations with distributed delay is derived for modeling of multimode ring lasers with intracavity chromatic dispersion. Analytical stability analysis of continuous wave regimes is performed and it is demonstrated that sufficiently strong anomalous dispersion can destabilize these regimes.

  7. Concurrent-schedule performance in transition: changeover delays and signaled reinforcer ratios.

    PubMed Central

    Krägeloh, Christian U; Davison, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Six pigeons were trained in experimental sessions that arranged six or seven components with various concurrent-schedule reinforcer ratios associated with each. The order of the components was determined randomly without replacement. Components lasted until the pigeons had received 10 reinforcers, and were separated by 10-s blackout periods. The component reinforcer ratios arranged in most conditions were 27:1, 9:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 1:9 and 1:27; in others, there were only six components, three of 27:1 and three of 1:27. In some conditions, each reinforcement ratio was signaled by a different red-yellow flash frequency, with the frequency perfectly correlated with the reinforcer ratio. Additionally, a changeover delay was arranged in some conditions, and no changeover delay in others. When component reinforcer ratios were signaled, sensitivity to reinforcement values increased from around 0.40 before the first reinforcer in a component to around 0.80 before the 10th reinforcer. When reinforcer ratios were not signaled, sensitivities typically increased from zero to around 0.40. Sensitivity to reinforcement was around 0.20 lower in no-changeover-delay conditions than in changeover-delay conditions, but increased in the former after exposure to changeover delays. Local analyses showed that preference was extreme towards the reinforced alternative for the first 25 s after reinforcement in changeover-delay conditions regardless of whether components were signaled or not. In no-changeover-delay conditions, preference following reinforcers was either absent, or, following exposure to changeover delays, small. Reinforcers have both local and long-term effects on preference. The former, but not the latter, is strongly affected by the presence of a changeover delay. Stimulus control may be more closely associated with longer-term, more molar, reinforcer effects. PMID:12696743

  8. Delayed feedback control of cavity solitons in a broad area vertical cavity surface emitting laser with saturable absorbtion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurevich, S. V.; Schelte, C.; Tlidi, M.; Panajotov, K.

    2016-04-01

    We are interested in spatio-temporal dynamics of cavity solitons (CSs) in a transverse section of a broad area vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) with saturable absorbtion subjected to time-delayed optical feedback. In the absence of delayed feedback, a single branch of localized solutions appears in the parameter space. However, in the presence of the delayed feedback, multistability of CS solutions emerges; The branches of CSs fill the surface of the "solution tube" in the parameter space, which is filled densely with increasing delay time. Further, our study reveals that the multistability of stationary solutions is caused by a delayed-induced phase bifurcation of CSs. Furthermore, it was shown that stability properties of CSs strongly depend on the delayed feedback parameters. In particular, the thresholds of the drift and phase bifurcations as well as corresponding bifurcation diagrams are obtained by a combination of analytical and numerical continuation methods. It turns out that both thresholds tend to zero in the limit of large delay times. In addition, we demonstrate that the presence of the delayed optical feedback can induce Andronov-Hopf bifurcation and a period doubling route to chaos. Moreover, a coupling between this bifurcation scenario with aforementioned delay-induced multistability leads to a complex spatio-temporal behavior of the system in question. The results of analytical bifurcation analysis are in agreement with those obtained by direct numerical integration of the model equation.

  9. Piloted simulator study of allowable time delay in pitch flight control system of a transport airplane with negative static stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William D.; Smith, Paul M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Meyer, Robert T.; Tingas, Stephen A.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted to determine the permissible time delay in the flight control system of a 10-percent statically unstable transport airplane during cruise flight conditions. The math model used for the simulation was a derivative Lockheed L-1011 wide-body jet transport. Data were collected and analyzed from a total of 137 cruising flights in both calm- and turbulent-air conditions. Results of this piloted simulation study verify previous findings that show present military specifications for allowable control-system time delay may be too stringent when applied to transport-size airplanes. Also, the degree of handling-qualities degradation due to time delay is shown to be strongly dependent on the source of the time delay in an advanced flight control system. Maximum allowable time delay for each source of time delay in the control system, in addition to a less stringent overall maximum level of time delay, should be considered for large aircraft. Preliminary results also suggest that adverse effects of control-system time delay may be at least partially offset by variations in control gearing. It is recommended that the data base include different airplane baselines, control systems, and piloting tasks with many pilots participating, so that a reasonable set of limits for control-system time delay can be established to replace the military specification limits currently being used.

  10. The SAS-3 delayed command system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    To meet the requirements arising from the increased complexity of the power, attitude control and telemetry systems, a full redundant high-performance control section with delayed command capability was designed for the Small Astronomy Satellite-3 (SAS-3). The relay command system of SAS-3 is characterized by 56 bystate relay commands, with capability for handling up to 64 commands in future versions. The 'short' data command service of SAS-1 and SAS-2 consisting of shifting 24-bit words to two users was expanded to five users and augmented with a 'long load' data command service (up to 4080 bits) used to program the telemetry system and the delayed command subsystem. The inclusion of a delayed command service ensures a program of up to 30 relay or short data commands to be loaded for execution at designated times. The design and system operation of the SAS-3 command section are analyzed, with special attention given to the delayed command subsystem.

  11. Isolation Effect in Immediate and Delayed Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellezza, Francis S.; Cheney, Terry L.

    1973-01-01

    If the hypothesis of selective rehearsal is used to account for the isolation effect, then the recall of isolated items will depend both on the serial position of the isolated item and on whether recall is immediate or delayed. (Author)

  12. Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays.

    PubMed

    Sabbar, M; Heuser, S; Boge, R; Lucchini, M; Carette, T; Lindroth, E; Gallmann, L; Cirelli, C; Keller, U

    2015-09-25

    We present measurements of single-photon ionization time delays between the outermost valence electrons of argon and neon using a coincidence detection technique that allows for the simultaneous measurement of both species under identical conditions. The analysis of the measured traces reveals energy-dependent time delays of a few tens of attoseconds with high energy resolution. In contrast to photoelectrons ejected through tunneling, single-photon ionization can be well described in the framework of Wigner time delays. Accordingly, the overall trend of our data is reproduced by recent Wigner time delay calculations. However, besides the general trend we observe resonance features occurring at specific photon energies. These features have been qualitatively reproduced and identified by a calculation using the multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock method, including the influence of doubly excited states and ionization thresholds.

  13. Speed and delay on signalized arterials

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, D.M.

    1998-05-01

    This paper presents a model to predict the influence of traffic flow on the running speed of signalized arterials in Montgomery County, Maryland, while controlling for link length, the number of lanes, and route type. The model separates the changes to link running speed due to same-direction traffic and intersection approach delay from cross-traffic. It is found that flow has a small impact on link speed, each 1,000 v/l/h reduces speed by 4--8 k/h. Longer links have higher speeds, indicating that they more closely approximate free-flow conditions. Measures of intersection and link travel times are also compared. Although link running times exceed intersection stopped delay in general, total intersection delay (stopped and approach) exceeds the delay caused by same-direction traffic. This information can inform investment decision makers about roadway and intersection improvements.

  14. How Can Atherosclerosis Be Prevented or Delayed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Atherosclerosis Be Prevented or Delayed? Taking action to control ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  15. Phase synchronization in time-delay systems.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, D V; Lakshmanan, M; Kurths, J

    2006-09-01

    Though the notion of phase synchronization has been well studied in chaotic dynamical systems without delay, it has not been realized yet in chaotic time-delay systems exhibiting non-phase-coherent hyperchaotic attractors. In this paper we report identification of phase synchronization in coupled time-delay systems exhibiting hyperchaotic attractor. We show that there is a transition from nonsynchronized behavior to phase and then to generalized synchronization as a function of coupling strength. These transitions are characterized by recurrence quantification analysis, by phase differences based on a transformation of the attractors, and also by the changes in the Lyapunov exponents. We have found these transitions in coupled piecewise linear and in Mackey-Glass time-delay systems.

  16. SBASI: Actuated pyrotechnic time delay initiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salter, S. J.; Lundberg, R. E.; Mcdougal, G. L.

    1975-01-01

    A precision pyrotechnic time delay initiator for missile staging was developed and tested. Incorporated in the assembly is a single bridgewire Apollo standard initiator (SBASI) for initiation, a through-bulkhead-initiator to provide isolation of the SBASI output from the delay, the pyrotechnic delay, and an output charge. An attempt was made to control both primary and secondary variables affecting functional performance of the delay initiator. Design and functional limit exploration was performed to establish tolerance levels on manufacturing and assembling operations. The test results demonstrate a 2% coefficient of variation at any one temperature and an overall 2.7% coefficient of variation throughout the temperature range of 30 to 120 F. Tests were conducted at simulated operational altitude from sea level to 200,000 feet.

  17. Tropospheric Delay Raytracing Applied in VLBI Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, D. S.; Eriksson, D.; Gipson, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric delay modeling error continues to be one of the largest sources of error in VLBI analysis. For standard operational solutions, we use the VMF1 elevation-dependent mapping functions derived from ECMWF data. These mapping functions assume that tropospheric delay at a site is azimuthally symmetric. As this assumption does not reflect reality, we have determined the raytrace delay along the signal path through the troposphere for each VLBI quasar observation. We determined the troposphere refractivity fields from the pressure, temperature, specific humidity and geopotential height fields of the NASA GSFC GEOS-5 numerical weather model. We discuss results from analysis of the CONT11 R&D and the weekly operational R1+R4 experiment sessions. When applied in VLBI analysis, baseline length repeatabilities were better for 66-72% of baselines with raytraced delays than with VMF1 mapping functions. Vertical repeatabilities were better for 65% of sites.

  18. The evolution of seasonal delayed implantation.

    PubMed

    Sandell, M

    1990-03-01

    Seasonal delayed implantation has been described in 47 mammalian species in ten families, and has evolved independently at least 17 times. After reviewing earlier explanations for the phenomenon I present a hypothesis to explain the evolution of seasonal delay. I have assumed that females can increase their fitness by choosing their mates. Consequently, mating should take place during that time of year when the possibilities for female choice or male competition are greatest. Time of birth is determined by ecological factors promoting survival of the young, thereby setting certain constraints on the scheduling of the mating season. In certain situations, however, the possibilities for female choice or male competition can be increased by mating earlier; delay will increase female fitness, and will thereby evolve. The hypothesis has been applied to all cases of seasonal delayed implantation. PMID:2186428

  19. Dry Mouth? Don't Delay Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Dry Mouth? Don't Delay Treatment Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... saliva, cavities may occur. back to top Dry Mouth Treatments Your doctor or dentist may recommend oral ...

  20. Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays.

    PubMed

    Sabbar, M; Heuser, S; Boge, R; Lucchini, M; Carette, T; Lindroth, E; Gallmann, L; Cirelli, C; Keller, U

    2015-09-25

    We present measurements of single-photon ionization time delays between the outermost valence electrons of argon and neon using a coincidence detection technique that allows for the simultaneous measurement of both species under identical conditions. The analysis of the measured traces reveals energy-dependent time delays of a few tens of attoseconds with high energy resolution. In contrast to photoelectrons ejected through tunneling, single-photon ionization can be well described in the framework of Wigner time delays. Accordingly, the overall trend of our data is reproduced by recent Wigner time delay calculations. However, besides the general trend we observe resonance features occurring at specific photon energies. These features have been qualitatively reproduced and identified by a calculation using the multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock method, including the influence of doubly excited states and ionization thresholds. PMID:26451550

  1. Time to implement delayed cord clamping.

    PubMed

    McAdams, Ryan M

    2014-03-01

    Immediate umbilical cord clamping after delivery is routine in the United States despite little evidence to support this practice. Numerous trials in both term and preterm neonates have demonstrated the safety and benefit of delayed cord clamping. In premature neonates, delayed cord clamping has been shown to stabilize transitional circulation, lessening needs for inotropic medications and reducing blood transfusions, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intraventricular hemorrhage. In term neonates, delayed cord clamping has been associated with decreased iron-deficient anemia and increased iron stores with potential valuable effects that extend beyond the newborn period, including improvements in long-term neurodevelopment. The failure to more broadly implement delayed cord clamping in neonates ignores published benefits of increased placental blood transfusion at birth and may represent an unnecessary harm for vulnerable neonates.

  2. Tunneling in strongly correlated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltseva, Marianna

    Tunneling studies of strongly correlated materials provide information about the nature of electronic correlations, which is vital for investigation of emergent materials at the microscopic level. In particular, scanning tunneling spectroscopy/microscopy (STS/STM) studies have made major contributions to understanding cuprate superconductors (66), yet there is a sense that huge STM data arrays contain much more precious information to be extracted and analyzed. One of the most pressing questions in the field is how to improve the data analysis, so as to extract more information from STM data. A dominant trend in STM data analysis has been to interpret the data within a particular microscopic model, while using only basic data analysis tools. To decrease the reliance of the STM data interpretation on particular microscopic models, further advances in data analysis methods are necessary. In Chapter 2 of this Thesis, we discuss how one can extract information about the phase of the order parameter from STM data. We show that symmetrized and anti-symmetrized correlators of local density of states give rise to observable coherence factor effects. In Chapter 3, we apply this framework to analyze the recent scanning tunneling experiments on an underdoped cuprate superconductor Ca2-xNaxCuO2Cl2 by T. Hanaguri et al. (60). In Chapter 4, we propose a model for nodal quasiparticle scattering in a disordered vortex lattice. Recently, scanning tunneling studies of a Kondo lattice material URu2Si2 became possible (117). If it proves possible to apply scanning tunneling spectroscopy to Kondo lattice materials, then remarkable new opportunities in the ongoing investigation may emerge. In Chapter 5, we examine the effect of co-tunneling to develop a theory of tunneling into a Kondo lattice. We find that the interference between the direct tunneling and the co-tunneling channels leads to a novel asymmetric lineshape, which has two peaks and a gap. The presence of the peaks suggests

  3. Delayed stoma formation in Fournier's gangrene.

    PubMed

    Bronder, C S; Cowey, A; Hill, J

    2004-11-01

    Fournier's gangrene is traditionally treated with prompt surgical debridement and in many cases a diverting colostomy is also fashioned during the same procedure. We present four cases where stoma formation was delayed until the second look procedure. The physiological states at the time of either procedure were compared using POSSUM. The results showed an improvement in the physiological condition in all patients at the time of the second operation, suggesting that a delay can potentially improve prognosis in such cases. PMID:15521946

  4. Speech and language delay in children.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Maura R

    2011-05-15

    Speech and language delay in children is associated with increased difficulty with reading, writing, attention, and socialization. Although physicians should be alert to parental concerns and to whether children are meeting expected developmental milestones, there currently is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine use of formal screening instruments in primary care to detect speech and language delay. In children not meeting the expected milestones for speech and language, a comprehensive developmental evaluation is essential, because atypical language development can be a secondary characteristic of other physical and developmental problems that may first manifest as language problems. Types of primary speech and language delay include developmental speech and language delay, expressive language disorder, and receptive language disorder. Secondary speech and language delays are attributable to another condition such as hearing loss, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, physical speech problems, or selective mutism. When speech and language delay is suspected, the primary care physician should discuss this concern with the parents and recommend referral to a speech-language pathologist and an audiologist. There is good evidence that speech-language therapy is helpful, particularly for children with expressive language disorder. PMID:21568252

  5. Time delay control of hysteretic composite plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long-Xiang; Li, Shi-Hong; Liu, Kun; Cai, Guo-Ping; Li, Hong-Guang

    2015-04-01

    Due to boosting usage of flexible and damping materials, it is of great significance for both science and engineering to explore active control methods for vibration within time-delayed hysteretic structures. This paper conducts theoretical and experimental research on a time-delayed controller for a flexible plate with a single-layer rubber glued on its back. First of all, the dynamic equation for a composite plate is given on the base of the Kirchhoff-Love assumption, where damping-restoring force is described by the Bouc-Wen hysteresis model. Then, the influence of time delay is taken into account and the state equation of the plate with time delay is obtained. Next, a standard state equation, with implicit time delay, is derived using one specific form of integral transformation and vector augmentation. Finally, an instantaneous optimal control method is used to design an active controller. This controller does not only involve state feedback of the current step, but also a linear addition of former state feedbacks within several steps. In order to verify this method, experimental work is conducted. Problems encountered like differential computation and lifting of displacement signal are also handled. According to a comparison between simulations and experiments, the control method given in this paper is feasible and valid, and it is available for both small and large time delay.

  6. Ladder-structured photonic variable delay device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. Steve (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An ladder-structured variable delay device for providing variable true time delay to multiple optical beams simultaneously. The device comprises multiple basic units stacked on top of each other resembling a ladder. Each basic unit comprises a polarization sensitive corner reflector formed by two polarization beamsplitters and a polarization rotator array placed parallel to the hypotenuse of the corner reflector. Controlling an array element of the polarization rotator array causes an optical beam passing through the array element to either go up to a basic unit above it or reflect back towards output. The beams going higher on the ladder experience longer optical path delay. Finally, the ladder-structured variable device can be cascaded with another multi-channel delay device to form a new device which combines the advantages of the two individual devices. This programmable optic device has the properties of high packing density, low loss, easy fabrication, and virtually infinite bandwidth. In addition, the delay is reversible so that the same delay device can be used for both antenna transmitting and receiving.

  7. Estimating ionospheric delay using kriging: 1. Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Lawrence; Blanch, Juan; Pandya, Nitin

    2011-12-01

    The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) is an augmentation of the Global Positioning System (GPS) that provides safe and reliable use of GPS signals for airline navigation over much of North America. Ever since WAAS was first commissioned in July of 2003, the vertical delay estimate at each node in the WAAS ionospheric grid has been determined from a planar fit of slant delay measurements, projected to vertical using an obliquity factor specified by the standard thin shell model of the ionosphere. In a future WAAS upgrade (WAAS Follow-On Release 3), however, the vertical delay will be estimated by an established, geo-statistical technique known as kriging. When compared to the planar fit model, the kriging model is generally found to match better the observed random structure of the vertical delay. This paper presents the kriging methodology to be used to estimate the vertical delay and its uncertainty at each ionospheric grid point. In addition, it provides examples of the improvement in delay accuracy achieved. Under disturbed conditions, the implementation of kriging reduces the magnitude of the root mean square fit residual by up to 15%.

  8. Controlling dynamical systems using multiple delay feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlborn, Alexander; Parlitz, Ulrich

    2005-07-01

    Multiple delay feedback control (MDFC) with two, three, or four different and independent delay times is used to stabilize steady states of various chaotic dynamical systems. A comparison with delayed feedback control methods that are based on a single (fundamental) delay time [Pyragas’ time delay auto synchronization (TDAS) and extended TDAS] shows that MDFC is more effective for fixed point stabilization in terms of stability and flexibility, in particular for large delay times.

  9. A delay decomposition approach to robust stability analysis of uncertain systems with time-varying delay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pin-Lin

    2012-11-01

    This paper is concerned with delay-dependent robust stability for uncertain systems with time-varying delays. The proposed method employs a suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii's functional for new augmented system. Then, based on the Lyapunov method, a delay-dependent robust criterion is devised by taking the relationship between the terms in the Leibniz-Newton formula into account. By developing a delay decomposition approach, the information of the delayed plant states can be taken into full consideration, and new delay-dependent sufficient stability criteria are obtained in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) which can be easily solved by various optimization algorithms. Numerical examples are included to show that the proposed method is effective and can provide less conservative results.

  10. Tropospheric delays from GNSS for application in coastal altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, M. Joana; Pires, Nelson; Lázaro, Clara; Nunes, Alexandra L.

    2013-04-01

    of the hydrostatic component of the tropospheric delay with an accuracy of 1 to 3 mm at global scale, provided an adequate model for the height dependence of atmospheric pressure is adopted. In comparison, for VMF1 grids provided at 2.5° spacing, although the overall accuracy of ZHD estimation is 2-4 mm in most sites, in regions with high variability and strong seasonal signal in the surface pressure, VMF1 can reveal errors with a clear annual pattern and epochs for which the error exceeds the centimetre level. When used to estimate the wet component of the tropospheric delay (zenith wet delay, ZWD) for coastal altimetry, these errors can translate into errors of similar magnitude in sea level studies.

  11. Apparatus and Method for Compensating for Process, Voltage, and Temperature Variation of the Time Delay of a Digital Delay Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seefeldt, James (Inventor); Feng, Xiaoxin (Inventor); Roper, Weston (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) compensation circuit and a method of continuously generating a delay measure are provided. The compensation circuit includes two delay lines, each delay line providing a delay output. The two delay lines may each include a number of delay elements, which in turn may include one or more current-starved inverters. The number of delay lines may differ between the two delay lines. The delay outputs are provided to a combining circuit that determines an offset pulse based on the two delay outputs and then averages the voltage of the offset pulse to determine a delay measure. The delay measure may be one or more currents or voltages indicating an amount of PVT compensation to apply to input or output signals of an application circuit, such as a memory-bus driver, dynamic random access memory (DRAM), a synchronous DRAM, a processor or other clocked circuit.

  12. Spatiotemporal Control of Light Transmission through a Multimode Fiber with Strong Mode Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wen; Ambichl, Philipp; Bromberg, Yaron; Redding, Brandon; Rotter, Stefan; Cao, Hui

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally generate and characterize eigenstates of the Wigner-Smith time-delay matrix, called principal modes, in a multimode fiber with strong mode coupling. The unique spectral and temporal properties of principal modes enable global control of temporal dynamics of optical pulses transmitted through the fiber, despite random mode mixing. Our analysis reveals that well-defined delay times of the eigenstates are formed by multipath interference, which can be effectively manipulated by spatial degrees of freedom of input wave fronts. This study is essential to controlling dynamics of wave scattering, paving the way for coherent control of pulse propagation through complex media.

  13. Improved delay-dependent asymptotic stability criteria for delayed neural networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wu-Hua; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2008-12-01

    This brief is concerned with asymptotic stability of neural networks with uncertain delays. Two types of uncertain delays are considered: one is constant while the other is time varying. The discretized Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) method is integrated with the technique of introducing the free-weighting matrix between the terms of the Leibniz-Newton formula. The integrated method leads to the establishment of new delay-dependent sufficient conditions in form of linear matrix inequalities for asymptotic stability of delayed neural networks (DNNs). A numerical simulation study is conducted to demonstrate the obtained theoretical results, which shows their less conservatism than the existing stability criteria.

  14. Multivariate Markov processes for stochastic systems with delays: application to the stochastic Gompertz model with delay.

    PubMed

    Frank, T D

    2002-07-01

    Using the method of steps, we describe stochastic processes with delays in terms of Markov diffusion processes. Thus, multivariate Langevin equations and Fokker-Planck equations are derived for stochastic delay differential equations. Natural, periodic, and reflective boundary conditions are discussed. Both Ito and Stratonovich calculus are used. In particular, our Fokker-Planck approach recovers the generalized delay Fokker-Planck equation proposed by Guillouzic et al. The results obtained are applied to a model for population growth: the Gompertz model with delay and multiplicative white noise.

  15. RATES AND DELAY TIMES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiter, Ashley J.; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Fryer, Chris E-mail: kbelczyn@nmsu.edu

    2009-07-10

    We analyze the evolution of binary stars to calculate synthetic rates and delay times of the most promising Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) progenitors. We present and discuss evolutionary scenarios in which a white dwarf (WD) reaches the Chandrasekhar mass and potentially explodes in a SNe Ia. We consider Double Degenerate (DDS; merger of two WDs), Single Degenerate (SDS; WD accreting from H-rich companion), and AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn; WD accreting from He-rich companion) scenarios. The results are presented for two different star formation histories: burst (elliptical-like galaxies) and continuous (spiral-like galaxies). It is found that delay times for the DDS in our standard model (with common envelope efficiency {alpha}{sub CE} = 1) follow a power-law distribution. For the SDS we note a wide range of delay times, while AM CVn progenitors produce a short burst of SNe Ia at early times. The DDS median delay time falls between {approx}0.5 and 1 Gyr; the SDS between {approx}2 and 3 Gyr; and the AM CVn between {approx}0.8 and 0.6 Gyr depending on the assumed {alpha}{sub CE}. For a Milky-Way-like (MW-like) galaxy, we estimate the rates of SNe Ia arising from different progenitors as: {approx}10{sup -4} yr{sup -1} for the SDS and AM CVn, and {approx}10{sup -3} yr{sup -1} for the DDS. We point out that only the rates for two merging carbon-oxygen WDs, the only systems found in the DDS, are consistent with the observed rates for typical MW-like spirals. We also note that DDS progenitors are the dominant population in elliptical galaxies. The fact that the delay time distribution for the DDS follows a power law implies more SNe Ia (per unit mass) in young rather than in aged populations. Our results do not exclude other scenarios, but strongly indicate that the DDS is the dominant channel generating SNe Ia in spiral galaxies, at least in the framework of our adopted evolutionary models. Since it is believed that WD mergers cannot produce a thermonuclear explosion

  16. Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility Delivery Delayed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-12-01

    TRW Space and Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA, has notified NASA that it will be unable to deliver the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) to NASA's Kennedy Space Center, FL, on June 1, 1998, as required by contract, because it has experienced delays in assembly and testing of the facility. TRW is NASA's prime contractor for the observatory. NASA and contractor officials met at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC, this week to discuss the issue. While no new delivery date was agreed upon, the agency has directed TRW to develop a plan of action that would show how the contractor can minimize impact to the June 1 delivery. Although a delay in delivery could delay the launch, currently scheduled for August 1998 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia's STS-93 mission, and could result in additional program costs, the exact impact is not yet known. "The delay in delivery of the observatory is unfortunate," said Fred Wojtalik, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center observatory projects office manager in Huntsville, AL. "However, our first priority is to launch a world-class observatory which has been thoroughly tested and meets all requirements. We will work closely with TRW to ensure that happens." The delay is primarily due to TRW's difficulty in configuring and programming its Integrated Spacecraft Automated Test System to test the observatory before it is delivered to NASA. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility is expected to play a vital role in answering fundamental questions about the universe, including its age and size, and will probe the nature and amounts of so-called "dark matter," providing unique insight into one of nature's great puzzles. The observatory also will allow scientists to see and measure the details of hot gas clouds in clusters of galaxies; observe X-rays generated when stars are torn apart by the incredibly strong gravity around massive black holes in the centers of galaxies; and provide images that will help understand how exploding stars

  17. Interaction of depressive symptoms and smoking abstinence on delay discounting rates.

    PubMed

    Weidberg, Sara; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Yoon, Jin H; Secades-Villa, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Delay discounting and depressive symptomatology have strong connections with smoking. However, few studies have examined interactions across delay discounting, depressive symptoms, and smoking status. The primary goal of this secondary analysis was to assess the interrelations across these 3 variables among treatment-seeking smokers. Delay discounting and depressive symptoms were assessed in 95 smokers enrolled in a clinical trial for smoking cessation at intake and 6-month follow-up. Participants with and without depressive symptoms did not differ in their discounting rates neither at intake nor at 6-month follow-up. However, delay discounting was significantly lower among abstainers at 6-month follow-up, and changes in discounting associated with smoking status were more pronounced among participants with depressive symptoms. These results clarify the relationship between delay discounting and depressive symptoms among current and former smokers and suggest that the association between smoking abstinence and lower delay discounting is significantly greater among individuals with depressive symptoms versus those who do not have depressive symptomatology.

  18. Effects of delay and noise in a negative feedback regulatory motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palassini, Matteo; Dies, Marta

    2009-03-01

    The small copy number of the molecules involved in gene regulation can induce nontrivial stochastic phenomena such as noise-induced oscillations. An often neglected aspect of regulation dynamics are the delays involved in transcription and translation. Delays introduce analytical and computational complications because the dynamics is non-Markovian. We study the interplay of noise and delays in a negative feedback model of the p53 core regulatory network. Recent experiments have found pronounced oscillations in the concentrations of proteins p53 and Mdm2 in individual cells subjected to DNA damage. Similar oscillations occur in the Hes-1 and NK-kB systems, and in circadian rhythms. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this oscillatory behaviour, such as deterministic limit cycles, with and without delay, or noise-induced excursions in excitable models. We consider a generic delayed Master Equation incorporating the activation of Mdm2 by p53 and the Mdm2-promoted degradation of p53. In the deterministic limit and for large delays, the model shows a Hopf bifurcation. Via exact stochastic simulations, we find strong noise-induced oscillations well outside the limit-cycle region. We propose that this may be a generic mechanism for oscillations in gene regulatory systems.

  19. Preferences for fixed and variable food sources: variability in amount and delay.

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, M; Kacelnik, A

    1995-01-01

    Much research has focused on the effects of environmental variability on foraging decisions. However, the general pattern of preference for variability in delay to reward and aversion to variability in amount of reward remains unexplained a either a mechanistic or a functional level. Starlings' preferences between a fixed and a variable option were studied in two treatments, A and D. The fixed option was the same in both treatments (20-s fixed-interval delay, five units food). In Treatment A the variable option gave two equiprobable amounts of food (20-s delay, three or seven units) and in D it gave two equiprobable delays to food (2.5-s or 60.5-s delays, five units). In both treatments the programmed ratio [amount/(intertrial interval+latency+delay)] in the fixed option equaled the arithmetic mean of the two possible ratios in the variable option (ITI = 40 s, latency = 1 s). The variable option was strongly preferred in Treatment D and was weakly avoided in Treatment A. These results are discussed in the light of two theoretical models, a form of constrained rate maximization and a version of scalar expectancy theory. The latter accommodates more of the data and is based on independently verifiable assumptions, including Weber's law. PMID:7751835

  20. Facilitating tolerance of delayed reinforcement during functional communication training.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W W; Thompson, R H; Hagopian, L P; Bowman, L G; Krug, A

    2000-01-01

    Few clinical investigations have addressed the problem of delayed reinforcement. In this investigation, three individuals whose destructive behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement were treated using functional communication training (FCT) with extinction (EXT). Next, procedures used in the basic literature on delayed reinforcement and self-control (reinforcer delay fading, punishment of impulsive responding, and provision of an alternative activity during reinforcer delay) were used to teach participants to tolerate delayed reinforcement. With the first case, reinforcer delay fading alone was effective at maintaining low rates of destructive behavior while introducing delayed reinforcement. In the second case, the addition of a punishment component reduced destructive behavior to near-zero levels and facilitated reinforcer delay fading. With the third case, reinforcer delay fading was associated with increases in masturbation and head rolling, but prompting and praising the individual for completing work during the delay interval reduced all problem behaviors and facilitated reinforcer delay fading.

  1. Facilitating tolerance of delayed reinforcement during functional communication training.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W W; Thompson, R H; Hagopian, L P; Bowman, L G; Krug, A

    2000-01-01

    Few clinical investigations have addressed the problem of delayed reinforcement. In this investigation, three individuals whose destructive behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement were treated using functional communication training (FCT) with extinction (EXT). Next, procedures used in the basic literature on delayed reinforcement and self-control (reinforcer delay fading, punishment of impulsive responding, and provision of an alternative activity during reinforcer delay) were used to teach participants to tolerate delayed reinforcement. With the first case, reinforcer delay fading alone was effective at maintaining low rates of destructive behavior while introducing delayed reinforcement. In the second case, the addition of a punishment component reduced destructive behavior to near-zero levels and facilitated reinforcer delay fading. With the third case, reinforcer delay fading was associated with increases in masturbation and head rolling, but prompting and praising the individual for completing work during the delay interval reduced all problem behaviors and facilitated reinforcer delay fading. PMID:10641365

  2. How to Measure Dark Energy with LSST's Strong Gravitational Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Philip J.; Treu, T.; Brunner, R. J.; Strong Lensing, LSST; Dark Energy Science Collaborations

    2013-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing is sensitive to dark energy (DE) via the combinations of angular diameter distances that appear in model predictions of the lens strength. Lenses with variable sources offer the most promise: the corresponding time delay distance has recently been shown to be measurable to 5% precision. Large samples of lensed quasars and supernovae will allow internal degeneracy-breaking and so enable the most direct access to the DE parameters, while multiple source-plane, compound lens systems may provide an alternative, complementary, H0-free probe. Its wide field survey and high cadence will enable LSST to provide a sample of several thousand measured time delays, two orders of magnitude larger than the current sample, and allow an independent, competitive Stage IV DE parameter measurement to be made. However, practical problems to be solved include: lens detection (which may be very sensitive to image quality and deblender performance); image and lightcurve modelling (which could be both CPU and manual labor-intensive); obtaining and analyzing high resolution spectro-imaging follow-up data; and interpreting the whole sample of lenses in the context of the well-studied subset.

  3. Strong electronic correlation effects in coherent multidimensional nonlinear optical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Karadimitriou, M E; Kavousanaki, E G; Dani, K M; Fromer, N A; Perakis, I E

    2011-05-12

    We discuss a many-body theory of the coherent ultrafast nonlinear optical response of systems with a strongly correlated electronic ground state that responds unadiabatically to photoexcitation. We introduce a truncation of quantum kinetic density matrix equations of motion that does not rely on an expansion in terms of the interactions and thus applies to strongly correlated systems. For this we expand in terms of the optical field, separate out contributions to the time-evolved many-body state due to correlated and uncorrelated multiple optical transitions, and use "Hubbard operator" density matrices to describe the exact dynamics of the individual contributions within a subspace of strongly coupled states, including "pure dephasing". Our purpose is to develop a quantum mechanical tool capable of exploring how, by coherently photoexciting selected modes, one can trigger nonlinear dynamics of strongly coupled degrees of freedom. Such dynamics could lead to photoinduced phase transitions. We apply our theory to the nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a magnetic field. We coherently photoexcite the two lowest Landau level (LL) excitations using three time-delayed optical pulses. We identify some striking temporal and spectral features due to dynamical coupling of the two LLs facilitated by inter-Landau-level magnetoplasmon and magnetoroton excitations and compare to three-pulse four-wave-mixing (FWM) experiments. We show that these features depend sensitively on the dynamics of four-particle correlations between an electron-hole pair and a magnetoplasmon/magnetoroton, reminiscent of exciton-exciton correlations in undoped semiconductors. Our results shed light into unexplored coherent dynamics and relaxation of the quantum Hall system (QHS) and can provide new insight into non-equilibrium co-operative phenomena in strongly correlated systems.

  4. Strong-Field Control of Laser Filamentation Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levis, Robert; Romanov, Dmitri; Filin, Aleskey; Compton, Ryan

    2008-05-01

    The propagation of short strong-file laser pulses in gas and solution phases often result in formation of filaments. This phenomenon involves many nonlinear processes including Kerr lensing, group velocity dispersion, multi-photon ionization, plasma defocusing, intensity clamping, and self-steepening. Of these, formation and dynamics of pencil-shape plasma areas plays a crucial role. The fundamental understanding of these laser-induced plasmas requires additional effort, because the process is highly nonlinear and complex. We studied the ultrafast laser-generated plasma dynamics both experimentally and theoretically. Ultrafast plasma dynamics was probed using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering. The measurements were made in a room temperature gas maintained at 1 atm in a flowing cell. The time dependent scattering was measured by delaying the CARS probe with respect to the intense laser excitation pulse. A general trend is observed between the spacing of the ground state and the first allowed excited state with the rise time for the noble gas series and the molecular gases. This trend is consistent with our theoretical model, which considers the ultrafast dynamics of the strong field generated plasma as a three-step process; (i) strong-field ionization followed by the electron gaining considerable kinetic energy during the pulse; (ii) immediate post-pulse dynamics: fast thermalization, impact-ionization-driven electron multiplication and cooling; (iii) ensuing relaxation: evolution to electron-ion equilibrium and eventual recombination.

  5. Single photon delayed feedback: a way to stabilize intrinsic quantum cavity electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Carmele, Alexander; Kabuss, Julia; Schulze, Franz; Reitzenstein, Stephan; Knorr, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    We propose a scheme to control cavity quantum electrodynamics in the single photon limit by delayed feedback. In our approach a single emitter-cavity system, operating in the weak coupling limit, can be driven into the strong coupling-type regime by an external mirror: The external loop produces Rabi oscillations directly connected to the electron-photon coupling strength. As an expansion of typical cavity quantum electrodynamics, we treat the quantum correlation of external and internal light modes dynamically and demonstrate a possible way to implement a fully quantum mechanical time-delayed feedback. Our theoretical approach proposes a way to experimentally feedback control quantum correlations in the single photon limit.

  6. Delayed electroluminescence of doped fluorescent aingle layer organic light-emitting devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfei; Zhao, Suling; Xu, Zheng; Kong, Chao

    2014-05-01

    Doped single-layer polymer OLEDs consisting of PVK: (TPB, C545T, Rubrene or DCJTB) were prepared. By applying high-frequency electric pulse of 0.5 micros pulse width to each device, we observed various delayed electroluminescence after withdrawing the forward bias. The order of magnitude of fitting life time ranges from hundreds of nanoseconds to several milliseconds. Current density-voltage and brightness-voltage characteristics reveals charge trapped on guest sites initially before released. Subsequently, the recombination of these trapped charges is strongly involved in the origin of delayed electroluminescence. PMID:24734573

  7. Intrinsic delay of permeable base transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wenchao; Guo, Jing; So, Franky

    2014-07-28

    Permeable base transistors (PBTs) fabricated by vacuum deposition or solution process have the advantages of easy fabrication and low power operation and are a promising device structure for flexible electronics. Intrinsic delay of PBT, which characterizes the speed of the transistor, is investigated by solving the three-dimensional Poisson equation and drift-diffusion equation self-consistently using finite element method. Decreasing the emitter thickness lowers the intrinsic delay by improving on-current, and a thinner base is also preferred for low intrinsic delay because of fewer carriers in the base region at off-state. The intrinsic delay exponentially decreases as the emitter contact Schottky barrier height decreases, and it linearly depends on the carrier mobility. With an optimized emitter contact barrier height and device geometry, a sub-nano-second intrinsic delay can be achieved with a carrier mobility of ∼10 cm{sup 2}/V/s obtainable in solution processed indium gallium zinc oxide, which indicates the potential of solution processed PBTs for GHz operations.

  8. Data Assimilation by delay-coordinate nudging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazo, Diego; Lopez, Juan Manuel; Carrassi, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    A new nudging method for data assimilation, delay-coordinate nudging, is presented. Delay-coordinate nudging makes explicit use of present and past observations in the formulation of the forcing driving the model evolution at each time-step. Numerical experiments with a low order chaotic system show that the new method systematically outperforms standard nudging in different model and observational scenarios, also when using an un-optimized formulation of the delay-nudging coefficients. A connection between the optimal delay and the dominant Lyapunov exponent of the dynamics is found based on heuristic arguments and is confirmed by the numerical results, providing a guideline for the practical implementation of the algorithm. Delay-coordinate nudging preserves the easiness of implementation, the intuitive functioning and the reduced computational cost of the standard nudging, making it a potential alternative especially in the field of seasonal-to-decadal predictions with large Earth system models that limit the use of more sophisticated data assimilation procedures.

  9. [Diagnosis delay of pleural and pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Cherif, J; Mjid, M; Ladhar, A; Toujani, S; Mokadem, S; Louzir, B; Mehiri, N; Béji, M

    2014-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still being endemic in our country. Time until management determines both evolution and prognosis of this condition. The aim of this work is to evaluate the delay in diagnosis of TB in a respiratory unit from a university hospital series. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study including patients with pulmonary TBC and/or pleural. An evaluation of time management was conducted from the beginning of symptoms and various consultations with reference to the date of hospitalization and treatment set up. One hundred patients were included (pulmonary TB: 68 cases, pleural TB 23 cases, miliary pulmonary TB: 4 cases, pulmonary TB associated with other extrathoracic locations: 5 cases). The mean time of patient delay and total delay institution were respectively 43.6, 25.7 and 69.3 days. Variables responsible for long delays were: number of consultations more than 3 before hospitalization, empirical antibiotic therapy, of a regional hospital first consultation and the presence of extra-respiratory impairment. The patient delay was considered long. A reorganization of the TB control program, in particular by partial decentralization of care and health education is imperative in order to improve the quality of tuberculosis management in our country.

  10. Time Delay for the Dirac Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumkin, Ivan; Weder, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    We consider time delay for the Dirac equation. A new method to calculate the asymptotics of the expectation values of the operator {intlimits0 ^{∞}e^{iH0t}ζ(\\vert x\\vert /R) e^{-iH0t}dt}, as {R → ∞}, is presented. Here, H 0 is the free Dirac operator and {ζ(t)} is such that {ζ(t) = 1} for {0 ≤ t ≤ 1} and {ζ(t) = 0} for {t > 1}. This approach allows us to obtain the time delay operator {δ {T}(f)} for initial states f in {{H} 2^{3/2+ɛ}({R}3;{C}4)}, {ɛ > 0}, the Sobolev space of order {3/2+ɛ} and weight 2. The relation between the time delay operator {δ{T}(f)} and the Eisenbud-Wigner time delay operator is given. In addition, the relation between the averaged time delay and the spectral shift function is presented.

  11. DELAYED HYPERSENSITIVITY TO HAPTEN-PROTEIN CONJUGATES

    PubMed Central

    Cell, P. G. H.; Silverstein, Arthur M.

    1962-01-01

    Further data have been presented showing that the specificity of the delayed hypersensitivity reaction in the guinea pig to hapten-protein conjugates involves to a considerable degree a contribution by the protein carrier. The carrier contribution is such that sensitization to guinea pig albumin-m-azobenzenesulfonate, for example, does not result in cross-reaction with conjugates of the same hapten with unrelated proteins such as ovalbumin or human gamma globulin, nor were cross-reactions observed between conjugates prepared with the same hapten, coupled to the same protein, but by two different chemical routes, such that the point of attachment of the hapten to the protein differed. It thus appears that in this system both hapten and carrier protein are necessary, but that neither alone is in general sufficient to stimulate the delayed sensitive cell. Desensitization experiments with cross-reacting hapten-protein conjugates have suggested the presence of a multiplicity of antigenic determinants participating in the elicitation of the delayed lesion, and of a concomitant development of a heterogeneity of specificities in the population of delayed sensitive cells in the sensitized animal. The data are discussed in terms of the apparent requirement of the delayed sensitivity mechanism for a larger functional antigenic determinant than that required for interaction with circulating antibodies. Some possible explanations for this difference, and some of its consequences, are discussed. PMID:13897619

  12. Wigner photoemission time delay from endohedral anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashish; Varma, Hari R.; Deshmukh, Pranawa C.; Manson, Steven T.; Dolmatov, Valeriy K.; Kheifets, Anatoli

    2016-10-01

    Characteristic features of Wigner photoemission time delay from endohedral anions A@C60q along with their dependence on the anion charge q are unraveled. Specifically, significant enhancement of the time delay in the innermost dipole photoionization channels near threshold is found, owing to the presence of the Coulomb confined resonances (CRs). Moreover, it is shown that interchannel coupling of the inner-shell Coulomb CRs with outer-shell photoionization channels results in resonantly enhanced time delay in the release of the outer-shell photoelectron well above, several hundreds eV, the outer-shell thresholds. It is also demonstrated that, and explained why, photoionization cross sections of the innermost subshells as well as outer subshells (near the inner-subshell threshold) depends only very weakly on the anion charge q , but the dependence of the corresponding time delays on q can be significant. Furthermore, Coulomb CRs are found to emerge in the innermost quadrupole photoionization channels as well, thereby causing considerable time delay in the quadrupole photoemission. These findings are illustrated in calculations of the photoionization of inner and outer subshells of the endohedral anions Ne@C60-1 and Ne@C60-5 that were chosen as case studies.

  13. Time Delay for the Dirac Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumkin, Ivan; Weder, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    We consider time delay for the Dirac equation. A new method to calculate the asymptotics of the expectation values of the operator {intlimits0 ^{∞}e^{iH0t}ζ(\\vert x\\vert /R) e^{-iH0t}dt} , as {R → ∞} , is presented. Here, H 0 is the free Dirac operator and {ζ(t)} is such that {ζ(t) = 1} for {0 ≤ t ≤ 1} and {ζ(t) = 0} for {t > 1} . This approach allows us to obtain the time delay operator {δ {T}(f)} for initial states f in {{H} 2^{3/2+ɛ}({R}3;{C}4)} , {ɛ > 0} , the Sobolev space of order {3/2+ɛ} and weight 2. The relation between the time delay operator {δ{T}(f)} and the Eisenbud-Wigner time delay operator is given. In addition, the relation between the averaged time delay and the spectral shift function is presented.

  14. Effect of Delay on Children's Delay-Execute Prospective Memory Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendell, Peter G.; Vella, Melissa J.; Kliegel, Matthias; Terrett, Gill

    2009-01-01

    To date, little work has been done investigating prospective memory in children, particularly using a delay-execute paradigm. Two experiments were conducted to investigate this issue with children aged 5-11 years. While playing a computer driving game, children's ability to carry out a delayed intention either immediately a target cue appeared or…

  15. A Comparison of Motor Delays in Young Children: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Developmental Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provost, Beth; Lopez, Brian R.; Heimerl, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed motor delay in young children 21-41 months of age with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and compared motor scores in children with ASD to those of children without ASD. Fifty-six children (42 boys, 14 girls) were in three groups: children with ASD, children with developmental delay (DD), and children with developmental concerns…

  16. Robust delay-dependent feedforward control of neutral time-delay systems via dynamic IQCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucun, L.; Küçükdemiral, I. B.

    2014-05-01

    This paper studies the design problem of delay-dependent ? based robust and optimal feedforward controller design for a class of time-delay control systems having state, control and neutral type delays which are subject to norm-bounded uncertainties and ? type measurable or observable disturbance signals. Two independent loops which include state-feedback and dynamic feedforward controller form the basis of the proposed control scheme in this study. State-feedback controller is generally used in stabilisation of the nominal delay-free system, whereas the feedforward controller is used for improving disturbance attenuation performance of the overall system. In order to obtain less conservative results, the delay and parametric uncertainty effects are treated in operator view point and represented by frequency-dependent (dynamic) integral quadratic constraints (IQCs). Moreover, sufficient delay-dependent criterion is developed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) such that the time-delay system having parametric uncertainties is guaranteed to be asymptotically stable with minimum achievable disturbance attenuation level. Plenty of numerical examples are provided at the end, in order to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed technique. The achieved results on minimum achievable disturbance attenuation level and maximum allowable delay bounds are exhibited to be less conservative in comparison to those of controllers having only feedback loop.

  17. Advanced Transport Delay Compensation Algorithms: Results of Delay Measurement and Piloted Performance Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Liwen; Cardullo, Frank M.; Kelly, Lon C.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of delay measurement and piloted performance tests that were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the adaptive compensator and the state space compensator for alleviating the phase distortion of transport delay in the visual system in the VMS at the NASA Langley Research Center. Piloted simulation tests were conducted to assess the effectiveness of two novel compensators in comparison to the McFarland predictor and the baseline system with no compensation. Thirteen pilots with heterogeneous flight experience executed straight-in and offset approaches, at various delay configurations, on a flight simulator where different predictors were applied to compensate for transport delay. The glideslope and touchdown errors, power spectral density of the pilot control inputs, NASA Task Load Index, and Cooper-Harper rating of the handling qualities were employed for the analyses. The overall analyses show that the adaptive predictor results in slightly poorer compensation for short added delay (up to 48 ms) and better compensation for long added delay (up to 192 ms) than the McFarland compensator. The analyses also show that the state space predictor is fairly superior for short delay and significantly superior for long delay than the McFarland compensator.

  18. Hydroxycitric acid delays intestinal glucose absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Wielinga, Peter Y; Wachters-Hagedoorn, Renate E; Bouter, Brenda; van Dijk, Theo H; Stellaard, Frans; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G; Verkade, Henkjan J; Scheurink, Anton J W

    2005-06-01

    In this study, we investigated in rats if hydroxycitric acid (HCA) reduces the postprandial glucose response by affecting gastric emptying or intestinal glucose absorption. We compared the effect of regulator HCA (310 mg/kg) and vehicle (control) on the glucose response after an intragastric or intraduodenal glucose load to investigate the role of altered gastric emptying. Steele's one-compartment model was used to investigate the effect of HCA on systemic glucose appearance after an intraduodenal glucose load, using [U-(13)C]-labeled glucose and d-[6,6-(2)H(2)]-labeled glucose. Because an effect on postabsorptive glucose clearance could not be excluded, the effect of HCA on the appearance of enterally administered glucose in small intestinal tissue, liver, and portal and systemic circulation was determined by [U-(14)C]glucose infusion. Data show that HCA treatment delays the intestinal absorption of enterally administered glucose at the level of the small intestinal mucosa in rats. HCA strongly attenuated postprandial blood glucose levels after both intragastric (P < 0.01) and intraduodenal (P < 0.001) glucose administration, excluding a major effect of HCA on gastric emptying. HCA delayed the systemic appearance of exogenous glucose but did not affect the total fraction of glucose absorbed over the study period of 150 min. HCA treatment decreased concentrations of [U-(14)C]glucose in small intestinal tissue at 15 min after [U-(14)C]glucose administration (P < 0.05), in accordance with the concept that HCA delays the enteral absorption of glucose. These data support a possible role for HCA as food supplement in lowering postprandial glucose profiles. PMID:15604199

  19. Analysis of Atmospheric Delays and Asymmetric Positioning Errors in GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materna, K.; Herring, T.

    2014-12-01

    Error in accounting for atmospheric delay is one of the most significant limiting factors in the accuracy of GPS position determination. Delay due to tropospheric water vapor is especially difficult to model, as it depends in part on local atmospheric dynamics. Currently, the delay models used in GPS data analysis produce millimeter-level position estimates for most of the stations in the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS network. However, certain stations in the network often show large position errors of 10 millimeters or more, and the key characteristic of these errors is that they occur in a particular direction. By analyzing the PBO network for these asymmetric outliers, we found that all affected stations are located in mountainous regions of the United States, and that many are located in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Furthermore, we found that the direction in which the asymmetric outliers occur is related to the direction of local topographic increase, suggesting that topography plays a role in creating asymmetric outliers. We compared the GPS time series data with several forms of weather data, including radiosonde balloon measurements, numerical weather models, and MODIS satellite imagery. The results suggest that GPS position errors in the Sierra Nevada occur when there is strong atmospheric turbulence, including variations in pressure and humidity, downwind of the mountain crest. Specifically, when GPS position errors occur in the Sierra Nevada, lee waves are likely to be observed over the ridge; however, not all lee wave events produce position errors. Our results suggest that GPS measurements in mountainous regions may be more prone to systematic errors than previously thought due to the formation of lee waves.

  20. Discounting of delayed rewards is not hyperbolic.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Christian C

    2013-07-01

    Delay discounting refers to decision-makers' tendency to value immediately available goods more than identical goods available only after some delay. In violation of standard economic theory, decision-makers frequently exhibit dynamic inconsistency; their preferences change simply due to the passage of time. The standard explanation for this behavior has appealed to the nature of decision-makers' discount functions, specifically positing a hyperbolic discount function. Though this explanation has been largely accepted, there has been surprisingly little work examining whether preference reversals are actually consistent with hyperbolic discounting. The current study holds hyperbolic discounting to the same empirical standard that exponential discounting has been held to and finds that choice behavior is not consistent with hyperbolic discounting. Despite the overwhelming focus placed on hyperbolic discounting, the current findings cast doubt on hyperbolic discounting as an explanation of decision-makers' undesirable preference reversals and as an explanation of delay discounting behavior in general.

  1. Time delay in Swiss cheese gravitational lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.; Kantowski, R.; Dai, X.

    2010-08-15

    We compute time delays for gravitational lensing in a flat {Lambda} dominated cold dark matter Swiss cheese universe. We assume a primary and secondary pair of light rays are deflected by a single point mass condensation described by a Kottler metric (Schwarzschild with {Lambda}) embedded in an otherwise homogeneous cosmology. We find that the cosmological constant's effect on the difference in arrival times is nonlinear and at most around 0.002% for a large cluster lens; however, we find differences from time delays predicted by conventional linear lensing theory that can reach {approx}4% for these large lenses. The differences in predicted delay times are due to the failure of conventional lensing to incorporate the lensing mass into the mean mass density of the universe.

  2. Delayed reconstruction of a quadriceps tendon.

    PubMed

    Pocock, C A J; Trikha, S P; Bell, J S P

    2008-01-01

    Rupture of the quadriceps tendon is an uncommon injury and rapid diagnosis is important because delay in surgical repair generally is believed to adversely affect outcome. One study of 20 patients suggests repair should be done during the first 48 to 72 hours postinjury to achieve a successful outcome and late repair led to unsatisfactory recovery. Cases of delayed tendon repair have been reported, the longest to our knowledge being 11 months before surgical intervention. We present a case of successful outcome of a quadriceps tendon rupture reconstructed at least 8 years after occurrence and a review of the literature of delayed reconstructions. We show that successful restoration of extensor mechanism function can be achieved several years after tendon rupture.

  3. Time-delayed autosynchronous swarm control.

    PubMed

    Biggs, James D; Bennet, Derek J; Dadzie, S Kokou

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a general Morse potential model of self-propelling particles is considered in the presence of a time-delayed term and a spring potential. It is shown that the emergent swarm behavior is dependent on the delay term and weights of the time-delayed function, which can be set to induce a stationary swarm, a rotating swarm with uniform translation, and a rotating swarm with a stationary center of mass. An analysis of the mean field equations shows that without a spring potential the motion of the center of mass is determined explicitly by a multivalued function. For a nonzero spring potential the swarm converges to a vortex formation about a stationary center of mass, except at discrete bifurcation points where the center of mass will periodically trace an ellipse. The analytical results defining the behavior of the center of mass are shown to correspond with the numerical swarm simulations. PMID:22400623

  4. Time-delayed autosynchronous swarm control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, James D.; Bennet, Derek J.; Dadzie, S. Kokou

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a general Morse potential model of self-propelling particles is considered in the presence of a time-delayed term and a spring potential. It is shown that the emergent swarm behavior is dependent on the delay term and weights of the time-delayed function, which can be set to induce a stationary swarm, a rotating swarm with uniform translation, and a rotating swarm with a stationary center of mass. An analysis of the mean field equations shows that without a spring potential the motion of the center of mass is determined explicitly by a multivalued function. For a nonzero spring potential the swarm converges to a vortex formation about a stationary center of mass, except at discrete bifurcation points where the center of mass will periodically trace an ellipse. The analytical results defining the behavior of the center of mass are shown to correspond with the numerical swarm simulations.

  5. Time delay in Swiss cheese gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Kantowski, R.; Dai, X.

    2010-08-01

    We compute time delays for gravitational lensing in a flat Λ dominated cold dark matter Swiss cheese universe. We assume a primary and secondary pair of light rays are deflected by a single point mass condensation described by a Kottler metric (Schwarzschild with Λ) embedded in an otherwise homogeneous cosmology. We find that the cosmological constant’s effect on the difference in arrival times is nonlinear and at most around 0.002% for a large cluster lens; however, we find differences from time delays predicted by conventional linear lensing theory that can reach ˜4% for these large lenses. The differences in predicted delay times are due to the failure of conventional lensing to incorporate the lensing mass into the mean mass density of the universe.

  6. Delayed switching applied to memristor neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Frank Z.; Yang Xiao; Lim Guan; Helian Na; Wu Sining; Guo Yike; Rashid, Md Mamunur

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic flux and electric charge are linked in a memristor. We reported recently that a memristor has a peculiar effect in which the switching takes place with a time delay because a memristor possesses a certain inertia. This effect was named the ''delayed switching effect.'' In this work, we elaborate on the importance of delayed switching in a brain-like computer using memristor neural networks. The effect is used to control the switching of a memristor synapse between two neurons that fire together (the Hebbian rule). A theoretical formula is found, and the design is verified by a simulation. We have also built an experimental setup consisting of electronic memristive synapses and electronic neurons.

  7. Delayed gamma technique for fissile material assay

    SciTech Connect

    Mozin, Vladimir; Tobin, Stephen; Vujie, Jasmina; Hunt, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Research sponsored by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative are investigating several non-destructive assay techniques for the quantification of fissile plutonium mass in spent nuclear fuel assemblies. AppHcation of the delayed gamma signatures is investigated in this context. The objective of the research is to assess whether the delayed gamma assay instrument can provide sufficient sensitivity, isotope specificity and accuracy as required in nuclear material safeguards. This effort includes theoretical and experimental components for the optimal combination of interrogation parameters. A new modeling algorithm offering a high level of detail was developed specifically for this purpose and was validated in series of benchmark experiments. Preliminary modeling of the delayed gamma response from spent fuel assemblies was accomplished offering a future direction for the design process.

  8. Altamont gas pipeline project delayed 1 year

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-03

    Altamont Gas Transmission Co. will delay laying a 30 in., 620 mile pipeline to deliver Canadian gas to California until markets become more responsive. This paper reports that the decision will delay until November 1994 completion of the proposed 719 MMcfd, $612 million line. The original schedule called for construction to begin in spring 1993 with an in-service date of late 1993. Altamont pipeline is to transport gas from the US-Canadian border at Port of Wild Horse, Mont., to Opal, Wyo., where it will interconnect with the Kern River Transmission Co. pipeline to California. Altamont has obtained all regulatory approvals for its project. Altamont the project sponsors Tenneco Gas, Amoco Corp., and Entech Inc. support the decision to delay the start of construction.

  9. Flight Simulator Visual-Display Delay Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, D. Francis

    1981-01-01

    A piloted aircraft can be viewed as a closed-loop man-machine control system. When a simulator pilot is performing a precision maneuver, a delay in the visual display of aircraft response to pilot-control input decreases the stability of the pilot-aircraft system. The less stable system is more difficult to control precisely. Pilot dynamic response and performance change as the pilot attempts to compensate for the decrease in system stability. The changes in pilot dynamic response and performance bias the simulation results by influencing the pilot's rating of the handling qualities of the simulated aircraft. The study reported here evaluated an approach to visual-display delay compensation. The objective of the compensation was to minimize delay-induced change in pilot performance and workload, The compensation was effective. Because the compensation design approach is based on well-established control-system design principles, prospects are favorable for successful application of the approach in other simulations.

  10. Delay-dependent stability and stabilisation of continuous 2D delayed systems with saturating control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmamed, Abdelaziz; Kririm, Said; Benzaouia, Abdellah; Tadeo, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with the stabilisation problem of continuous two-dimensional (2D) delayed systems, in the presence of saturations on the control signals. For this, a new delay decomposition approach is proposed to deal with the stability and stabilisation issues. The idea is that the range of variation of each delay is divided into segments, and a specific Lyapunov- Krasovskii functional is used that contains different weight matrices in each segment. Then, based on this approach, new delay-dependent stability and stabilisation criteria for continuous 2D delayed systems are derived. These criteria are less conservative and include some existing results as special cases. Some numerical examples are provided to show that a significant improvement is achieved using the proposed approach.

  11. A comparison of motor delays in young children: autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, and developmental concerns.

    PubMed

    Provost, Beth; Lopez, Brian R; Heimerl, Sandra

    2007-02-01

    This study assessed motor delay in young children 21-41 months of age with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and compared motor scores in children with ASD to those of children without ASD. Fifty-six children (42 boys, 14 girls) were in three groups: children with ASD, children with developmental delay (DD), and children with developmental concerns without motor delay. Descriptive analysis showed all children with ASD had delays in gross motor skills, fine motor skills, or both. Children with ASD and children with DD showed significant impairments in motor development compared to children who had developmental concerns without motor delay. Motor scores of young children with ASD did not differ significantly on motor skill measures when compared to young children with DD.

  12. Relation between delayed feedback and delay-coupled systems and its application to chaotic lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Soriano, Miguel C. Flunkert, Valentin; Fischer, Ingo

    2013-12-15

    We present a systematic approach to identify the similarities and differences between a chaotic system with delayed feedback and two mutually delay-coupled systems. We consider the general case in which the coupled systems are either unsynchronized or in a generally synchronized state, in contrast to the mostly studied case of identical synchronization. We construct a new time-series for each of the two coupling schemes, respectively, and present analytic evidence and numerical confirmation that these two constructed time-series are statistically equivalent. From the construction, it then follows that the distribution of time-series segments that are small compared to the overall delay in the system is independent of the value of the delay and of the coupling scheme. By focusing on numerical simulations of delay-coupled chaotic lasers, we present a practical example of our findings.

  13. Modeling of delays in PKPD: classical approaches and a tutorial for delay differential equations.

    PubMed

    Koch, Gilbert; Krzyzanski, Wojciech; Pérez-Ruixo, Juan Jose; Schropp, Johannes

    2014-08-01

    In pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PKPD) the measured response is often delayed relative to drug administration, individuals in a population have a certain lifespan until they maturate or the change of biomarkers does not immediately affects the primary endpoint. The classical approach in PKPD is to apply transit compartment models (TCM) based on ordinary differential equations to handle such delays. However, an alternative approach to deal with delays are delay differential equations (DDE). DDEs feature additional flexibility and properties, realize more complex dynamics and can complementary be used together with TCMs. We introduce several delay based PKPD models and investigate mathematical properties of general DDE based models, which serve as subunits in order to build larger PKPD models. Finally, we review current PKPD software with respect to the implementation of DDEs for PKPD analysis.

  14. 14 CFR 244.3 - Reporting of tarmac delay data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reporting of tarmac delay data. 244.3... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS REPORTING TARMAC DELAY DATA § 244.3 Reporting of tarmac delay data. (a) Each... for each of its covered flights that experienced a tarmac delay of three hours or more,...

  15. 14 CFR 244.3 - Reporting of tarmac delay data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reporting of tarmac delay data. 244.3... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS REPORTING TARMAC DELAY DATA § 244.3 Reporting of tarmac delay data. (a) Each... for each of its covered flights that experienced a tarmac delay of three hours or more,...

  16. 14 CFR 244.3 - Reporting of tarmac delay data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reporting of tarmac delay data. 244.3... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS REPORTING TARMAC DELAY DATA § 244.3 Reporting of tarmac delay data. (a) Each... for each of its covered flights that experienced a tarmac delay of three hours or more,...

  17. 48 CFR 42.1304 - Government delay of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Government delay of work... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1304 Government delay of work. (a) The clause at 52.242-17, Government Delay...

  18. 48 CFR 42.1304 - Government delay of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government delay of work... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1304 Government delay of work. (a) The clause at 52.242-17, Government Delay...

  19. 48 CFR 42.1304 - Government delay of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Government delay of work. 42.1304 Section 42.1304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Government Delay of Work 42.1304 Government delay of work. (a) The clause at 52.242-17, Government Delay...

  20. 48 CFR 42.1304 - Government delay of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Government delay of work... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1304 Government delay of work. (a) The clause at 52.242-17, Government Delay...

  1. Circadian photoentrainment: parameters of phase delaying.

    PubMed

    DeCoursey, P J

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were carried out using simulated den cages to delineate specific characteristics of phase delaying in circadian photoentrainment of a nocturnal rodent, the flying squirrel. The principal experiments entailed presentation of one to five consecutive 15-min white-light pulses per activity cycle at activity onset to animals free-running in darkness, in order to determine the immediate and final phase-shifting effect. Auxiliary experiments recorded entrainment patterns on light-dark (LD) schedules in the den cages. Phase response curves (PRCs) based on 15-min white-light pulses in standard wheel cages were also constructed for these animals as background information for interpreting the phase-delaying experiments. Exposure of a den animal to light by light sampling at the time of initial arousal from the rest state at circadian time (CT) 12, either by an LD schedule or by a 15-min light pulse, resulted in a return to the nest box for a short rest period. The phase delay occurring after a single light exposure at activity onset was equal to the induced rest, thus suggesting an immediate phase shift. The maximum delay was about 1 1/2 hr/cycle, with the amount of delay related to the number of light exposures. During the photoentrained state on an LD schedule, the activity rhythm of a den-housed animal was essentially free-running on the days following a phase delay. The data are used to expand current models for photoentrainment of circadian activity rhythms in nocturnal rodents. PMID:2979583

  2. Strong curvature singularities and causal simplicity

    SciTech Connect

    Krolak, A. )

    1992-02-01

    Techniques of differential topology in Lorentzian manifolds developed by Geroch, Hawking, and Penrose are used to rule out a class of locally naked strong curvature singularities in strongly causal space-times. This result yields some support to the validity of Penrose's strong cosmic censorship hypothesis.

  3. Pg-pPg Time Delays from Sparse Networks Using the Time-Frequency Correlation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, F.; Lu, R.; Toksoz, M. N.

    2008-12-01

    The arrival times of primary phases generally produce poor estimates of focal depth, particularly for shallow events. While depth phases may be detected at teleseismic distances, no reliable methods currently exist for identifying regional depth phase time delays, such as Pg-pPg. Scattering from crustal heterogeneities obscures the Pg-pPg time delay by producing multiplicative noise within the Pg time window. The theory of Time Reversed Acoustics (TRA) states that the autocorrelation of Pg time windows produces a clear sidelobe at the Pg-pPg time delay. Using large Pg time windows (i.e. including more scattering) and stacking the autocorrelations from an array of receivers improves the reconstruction of the sidelobe at the Pg-pPg time delay. In this paper, we expand the TRA concept to develop the Time-Frequency Correlation (TFC) method for measuring Pg-pPg time delays, which incorporates signal-processing techniques used in Sonar and Radar applications. The TFC method applies a 2D correlation function in time delay and frequency delay to the analytic representation of each Pg time window. Stacking the 2D correlation functions better identifies the sidelobe at the Pg-pPg time delay. Tests of the TFC method on synthetic Pg time windows provide guidance in detecting the Pg-pPg time delays for events with different source time functions, focal depths, and scattering distributions. We apply the TFC method to measure Pg-pPg time delays for 33 local earthquakes from the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) catalog. We include only catalog events with the most accurate locations ('A'), catalog depths between 2 and 16 km (±2 km), and magnitudes between 3.0 and 6.0. For each event, the TFC method uses a station array that is sparse (N < 20), narrow aperture (Δθ < 90°), and located greater than 300 km from the catalog epicenter. The Pg-pPg time delays are converted to focal depths assuming vertical propagation within the SCEDC 3D model at each event

  4. Delay correlation analysis and representation for vital complaint VHDL models

    DOEpatents

    Rich, Marvin J.; Misra, Ashutosh

    2004-11-09

    A method and system unbind a rise/fall tuple of a VHDL generic variable and create rise time and fall time generics of each generic variable that are independent of each other. Then, according to a predetermined correlation policy, the method and system collect delay values in a VHDL standard delay file, sort the delay values, remove duplicate delay values, group the delay values into correlation sets, and output an analysis file. The correlation policy may include collecting all generic variables in a VHDL standard delay file, selecting each generic variable, and performing reductions on the set of delay values associated with each selected generic variable.

  5. Uncertain destination dynamics of delay coupled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Santinath; Poria, Swarup

    2015-03-01

    Certain dynamical systems exhibit sensitivity to initial conditions in which the asymptotic state is selected from multiple possible states. The associated uncertain destination dynamics can be analyzed by an appropriate reduction of the full system to a subsystem that explicitly yields the dynamics [1]. These types of systems are known as multistable systems. In this paper, a scheme for designing delay coupled multistable systems is proposed. The scheme considers delay coupled Lorenz-Stenflo systems. The scheme is based on Lyapunov's stability theorem. Numerical simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  6. Functional characterization of linear delay Langevin equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budini, Adrián A.; Cáceres, Manuel O.

    2004-10-01

    We present an exact functional characterization of linear delay Langevin equations driven by any noise structure defined through its characteristic functional. This method relies on the possibility of finding an explicitly analytical expression for each realization of the delayed stochastic process in terms of those of the driving noise. General properties of the transient dissipative dynamics are analyzed. The corresponding interplay with a color Gaussian noise is presented. As a full application of our functional method we study a model for population growth with non-Gaussian fluctuations: the Gompertz model driven by multiplicative white shot noise.

  7. Delayed stochastic differential model for quiet standing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, W.; Yu, P.; Essex, C.

    2001-02-01

    A physiological quiet standing model, described by a delayed differential equation, subject to a white noise perturbation, is proposed to study the postural control system of human beings. It has been found that the white noise destabilizes the equilibrium state, and inertia accelerates the destabilizing process, and that the position of a person is detected and processed by the person's nervous system with a delay. This paper focuses on the analysis of Hopf bifurcation and its stability in this context. Based on the analytical predictions confirmed by numerical simulations, it has been shown that the posture of a person is controlled in such a way that possible amplitude oscillations are minimized.

  8. Acoustic emission characterization using AE (parameter) delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lee, S. S.

    1983-01-01

    The acoustic emission (AE) parameter delay concept is defined as that particular measured value of a parameter at which a specified baseline level of cumulative AE activity is reached. The parameter can be from any of a broad range of elastic, plastic, viscoelastic, and fracture mechanics parameters, as well as their combinations. Such parameters include stress, load, strain, displacement, time, temperature, loading cycle, unloading stress, stress intensity factor, strain energy release rate, and crack tip plasticity zone size, while the AE activity may be AE event counts, ringdown counts, energy, event duration, etc., as well as their combinations. Attention is given to examples for the AE parameter delay concept, together with various correlations.

  9. Quantitative assessment of meteorological and tropospheric Zenith Hydrostatic Delay models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Di; Guo, Jiming; Chen, Ming; Shi, Junbo; Zhou, Lv

    2016-09-01

    Tropospheric delay has always been an important issue in GNSS/DORIS/VLBI/InSAR processing. Most commonly used empirical models for the determination of tropospheric Zenith Hydrostatic Delay (ZHD), including three meteorological models and two empirical ZHD models, are carefully analyzed in this paper. Meteorological models refer to UNB3m, GPT2 and GPT2w, while ZHD models include Hopfield and Saastamoinen. By reference to in-situ meteorological measurements and ray-traced ZHD values of 91 globally distributed radiosonde sites, over a four-years period from 2010 to 2013, it is found that there is strong correlation between errors of model-derived values and latitudes. Specifically, the Saastamoinen model shows a systematic error of about -3 mm. Therefore a modified Saastamoinen model is developed based on the "best average" refractivity constant, and is validated by radiosonde data. Among different models, the GPT2w and the modified Saastamoinen model perform the best. ZHD values derived from their combination have a mean bias of -0.1 mm and a mean RMS of 13.9 mm. Limitations of the present models are discussed and suggestions for further improvements are given.

  10. Relating Hippocampus to Relational Memory Processing across Domains and Delays

    PubMed Central

    Monti, Jim M.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Watson, Patrick D.; Voss, Michelle W.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus has been implicated in a diverse set of cognitive domains and paradigms, including cognitive mapping, long-term memory, and relational memory, at long or short study–test intervals. Despite the diversity of these areas, their association with the hippocampus may rely on an underlying commonality of relational memory processing shared among them. Most studies assess hippocampal memory within just one of these domains, making it difficult to know whether these paradigms all assess a similar underlying cognitive construct tied to the hippocampus. Here we directly tested the commonality among disparate tasks linked to the hippocampus by using PCA on performance from a battery of 12 cognitive tasks that included two traditional, long-delay neuropsychological tests of memory and two laboratory tests of relational memory (one of spatial and one of visual object associations) that imposed only short delays between study and test. Also included were different tests of memory, executive function, and processing speed. Structural MRI scans from a subset of participants were used to quantify the volume of the hippocampus and other subcortical regions. Results revealed that the 12 tasks clustered into four components; critically, the two neuropsychological tasks of long-term verbal memory and the two laboratory tests of relational memory loaded onto one component. Moreover, bilateral hippocampal volume was strongly tied to performance on this component. Taken together, these data emphasize the important contribution the hippocampus makes to relational memory processing across a broad range of tasks that span multiple domains. PMID:25203273

  11. Microwave delay characteristics of Cassegrainian antennas. [signal distortion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cha, A. G.; Otoshi, T. Y.; Rusch, W. V. T.

    1978-01-01

    A technique is presented in which the time an RF signal is delayed in propagating through a Cassegrain antenna is determined. The technique utilizes the group delay time and the envelope delay time as found from the antenna transfer function. The calculations show that a focused antenna is basically a nondispersive device whose delay time may be found from an optics formula. Small subreflector displacements result in significant delay changes requiring calibrations for many applications.

  12. Bifurcation Analysis of Fractional Order Single Cell with Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çelik, Vedat

    This paper presents the bifurcation analysis of fractional order model of delayed single cell which is proposed for delayed cellular neural networks with respect to the time delay τ. The bifurcation points, time delay τc, are determined by modified Mikhailov stability criterion for a range of fractional delayed cell order 0.3 ≤ q < 1. Numerical results obtained from Adams-Bashforth-Moulton method demonstrate that the supercritical Hopf bifurcation occurs in the system.

  13. Coherence versus reliability of stochastic oscillators with delayed feedback.

    PubMed

    Goldobin, Denis S

    2008-12-01

    For noisy self-sustained oscillators, both reliability, the stability of a response to a noisy driving, and coherence, understood in the sense of constancy of oscillation frequency, are important characteristics. Although both characteristics and techniques for controlling them have received great attention from researchers, owing to their importance for neurons, lasers, clocks, electric generators, etc., these characteristics were previously considered separately. In this paper, a strong quantitative relation between coherence and reliability is revealed for a limit cycle oscillator subject to a weak noisy driving and a linear delayed feedback, a convection control tool. The analytical findings are verified and enriched with a numerical simulation for the Van der Pol-Duffing oscillator. PMID:19256787

  14. Time delay in the Einstein ring PKS 1830-211

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Ommen, T. D.; Jones, D. L.; Preston, R. A.; Jauncey, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    We present radio observations of the gravitational lens PKS 1830-211 at 8.4 and 15 GHz acquired using the Very Large Array. The observations were made over a 13 month period. Significant flux density changes over this period provide strong constraints on the time delay between the two lensed images and suffest a value of 44 +/- 9 days. This offers new direct evidence that this source is indeed a gravitational lens. The lens distance is dependent upon the model chosen, but reasonable limits on the mass of the lensing galaxy suggest that it is unlikely to be at a redshift less than a few tenths, and may well be significantly more distant.

  15. Distinguishing time-delayed causal interactions using convergent cross mapping.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan R; Gilarranz, Luis J; Sugihara, George

    2015-01-01

    An important problem across many scientific fields is the identification of causal effects from observational data alone. Recent methods (convergent cross mapping, CCM) have made substantial progress on this problem by applying the idea of nonlinear attractor reconstruction to time series data. Here, we expand upon the technique of CCM by explicitly considering time lags. Applying this extended method to representative examples (model simulations, a laboratory predator-prey experiment, temperature and greenhouse gas reconstructions from the Vostok ice core, and long-term ecological time series collected in the Southern California Bight), we demonstrate the ability to identify different time-delayed interactions, distinguish between synchrony induced by strong unidirectional-forcing and true bidirectional causality, and resolve transitive causal chains. PMID:26435402

  16. Distinguishing time-delayed causal interactions using convergent cross mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan R.; Gilarranz, Luis J.; Sugihara, George

    2015-10-01

    An important problem across many scientific fields is the identification of causal effects from observational data alone. Recent methods (convergent cross mapping, CCM) have made substantial progress on this problem by applying the idea of nonlinear attractor reconstruction to time series data. Here, we expand upon the technique of CCM by explicitly considering time lags. Applying this extended method to representative examples (model simulations, a laboratory predator-prey experiment, temperature and greenhouse gas reconstructions from the Vostok ice core, and long-term ecological time series collected in the Southern California Bight), we demonstrate the ability to identify different time-delayed interactions, distinguish between synchrony induced by strong unidirectional-forcing and true bidirectional causality, and resolve transitive causal chains.

  17. Posterior sternoclavicular epiphyseal fracture-dislocation with delayed diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Kelly D; Longo, Anthony; Lick, Scott; Swischuk, Leonard

    2006-08-01

    Posterior sternoclavicular joint dislocations and epiphyseal fractures are relatively rare injuries. We present a case report of a 16-year-old male who presented with a 10-day delay in diagnosis. The medial clavicular fragment was widely displaced and rested against the cervical vertebral body. Despite the degree of displacement, the patient had very few symptoms, and the diagnosis was not appreciated in the emergency department and became apparent at 10-day clinic follow-up. Treatment consisted of attempts at closed reduction, which were not successful. Open reduction was performed and the repair done with strong sutures. At 1-year follow-up the patient is doing well without any symptoms. A literature review consisting of anatomy, ossification patterns, classification systems, diagnosis and associated symptoms, imaging recommendations, treatment recommendations, outcomes, and complications is included.

  18. Bursting frequency versus phase synchronization in time-delayed neuron networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordenfelt, Anders; Used, Javier; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the dependence of the average bursting frequency on time delay for neuron networks with randomly distributed time-delayed chemical synapses. The result is compared with the corresponding curve for the phase synchronization and it turns out that, in some intervals, these have a very similar shape and appear as almost mirror images of each other. We have analyzed both the map-based chaotic Rulkov model and the continuous Hindmarsh-Rose model, yielding the same conclusions. In order to gain further insight, we also analyzed time-delayed Kuramoto models displaying an overall behavior similar to that observed on the neuron network models. For the Kuramoto models, we were able to derive analytical formulas providing an implicit functional relationship between the mean frequency and the phase synchronization. These formulas suggest a strong dependence between those two measures, which could explain the similarities in shape between the curves.

  19. Type Ia supernovae: Pulsating delayed detonation models, IR light curves, and the formation of molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoflich, Peter; Khokhlov, A.; Wheeler, C.

    1995-01-01

    We computed optical and infrared light curves of the pulsating class of delayed detonation models for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). It is demonstrated that observations of the IR light curves can be used to identify subluminous SNe Ia by testing whether secondary maxima occur in the IR. Our pulsating delayed detonation models are in agreement with current observations both for subluminous and normal bright SN Ia, namely SN1991bg, SN1992bo, and SN1992bc. Observations of molecular bands provide a test to distinguish whether strongly subluminous supernovae are a consequence of the pulsating mechanism occurring in a high-mass white dwarf (WD) or, alternatively, are formed by the helium detonation in a low-mass WD as was suggested by Woosley. In the latter case, no carbon is left after the explosion of low-mass WDs whereas a log of C/O-rich material is present in pulsating delayed detonation models.

  20. Attosecond delay of xenon 4 d photoionization at the giant resonance and Cooper minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrakvelidze, Maia; Madjet, Mohamed El-Amine; Chakraborty, Himadri S.

    2016-07-01

    A Kohn-Sham time-dependent local-density-functional scheme is utilized to predict attosecond time delays of xenon 4 d photoionization that involves the 4 d giant dipole resonance and Cooper minimum. The fundamental effect of electron correlations to uniquely determine the delay at both regions is demonstrated. In particular, for the giant dipole resonance, the delay underpins strong collective effect, emulating the recent prediction at C60 giant plasmon resonance [T. Barillot et al., Phys. Rev. A 91, 033413 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.033413]. For the Cooper minimum, a qualitative similarity with a photorecombination experiment near argon 3 p minimum [S. B. Schoun et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 153001 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.153001] is found. The result should encourage attosecond measurements of Xe 4 d photoemission.

  1. Extracting Independent Local Oscillatory Geophysical Signals by Geodetic Tropospheric Delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botai, O. J.; Combrinck, L.; Sivakumar, V.; Schuh, H.; Bohm, J.

    2010-01-01

    Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) due to water vapor derived from space geodetic techniques and numerical weather prediction simulated-reanalysis data exhibits non-linear and non-stationary properties akin to those in the crucial geophysical signals of interest to the research community. These time series, once decomposed into additive (and stochastic) components, have information about the long term global change (the trend) and other interpretable (quasi-) periodic components such as seasonal cycles and noise. Such stochastic component(s) could be a function that exhibits at most one extremum within a data span or a monotonic function within a certain temporal span. In this contribution, we examine the use of the combined Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA): the EEMD-ICA algorithm to extract the independent local oscillatory stochastic components in the tropospheric delay derived from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) over six geodetic sites (HartRAO, Hobart26, Wettzell, Gilcreek, Westford, and Tsukub32). The proposed methodology allows independent geophysical processes to be extracted and assessed. Analysis of the quality index of the Independent Components (ICs) derived for each cluster of local oscillatory components (also called the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs)) for all the geodetic stations considered in the study demonstrate that they are strongly site dependent. Such strong dependency seems to suggest that the localized geophysical signals embedded in the ZTD over the geodetic sites are not correlated. Further, from the viewpoint of non-linear dynamical systems, four geophysical signals the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) index derived from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) anomaly from NCEP, the SIDC monthly Sun Spot Number (SSN), and the Length of Day (LoD) are linked to the extracted signal components from ZTD. Results from the synchronization

  2. Delay-distribution-dependent state estimation for discrete-time stochastic neural networks with random delay.

    PubMed

    Bao, Haibo; Cao, Jinde

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the state estimation problem for a class of discrete-time stochastic neural networks (DSNNs) with random delays. The effect of both variation range and distribution probability of the time delay are taken into account in the proposed approach. The stochastic disturbances are described in terms of a Brownian motion and the time-varying delay is characterized by introducing a Bernoulli stochastic variable. By employing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, sufficient delay-distribution-dependent conditions are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) that guarantee the existence of the state estimator which can be checked readily by the Matlab toolbox. The main feature of the results obtained in this paper is that they are dependent on not only the bound but also the distribution probability of the time delay, and we obtain a larger allowance variation range of the delay, hence our results are less conservative than the traditional delay-independent ones. One example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed result. PMID:20950998

  3. Teaching Speech to Your Language Delayed Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Roger J.; Pryor, Jan, Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Intended for parents, the booklet focuses on the speech and language development of children with language delays. The following topics are among those considered: the parent's role in the initial diagnosis of deafness, intellectual handicap, and neurological difficulties; diagnoses and single causes of difficultiy with speech; what to say to…

  4. 14 CFR 1214.106 - Minor delays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor delays. 1214.106 Section 1214.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government, Reimbursable Customers § 1214.106...

  5. 14 CFR 1214.106 - Minor delays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minor delays. 1214.106 Section 1214.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government, Reimbursable Customers § 1214.106...

  6. 14 CFR 1214.106 - Minor delays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minor delays. 1214.106 Section 1214.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government, Reimbursable Customers § 1214.106...

  7. 14 CFR 1214.106 - Minor delays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Minor delays. 1214.106 Section 1214.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government, Reimbursable Customers § 1214.106...

  8. Rising Publication Delays Inflate Journal Impact Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tort, Adriano B. L.; Targino, Zé H.; Amaral, Olavo B.

    2012-01-01

    Journal impact factors have become an important criterion to judge the quality of scientific publications over the years, influencing the evaluation of institutions and individual researchers worldwide. However, they are also subject to a number of criticisms. Here we point out that the calculation of a journal’s impact factor is mainly based on the date of publication of its articles in print form, despite the fact that most journals now make their articles available online before that date. We analyze 61 neuroscience journals and show that delays between online and print publication of articles increased steadily over the last decade. Importantly, such a practice varies widely among journals, as some of them have no delays, while for others this period is longer than a year. Using a modified impact factor based on online rather than print publication dates, we demonstrate that online-to-print delays can artificially raise a journal’s impact factor, and that this inflation is greater for longer publication lags. We also show that correcting the effect of publication delay on impact factors changes journal rankings based on this metric. We thus suggest that indexing of articles in citation databases and calculation of citation metrics should be based on the date of an article’s online appearance, rather than on that of its publication in print. PMID:23300920

  9. 34 CFR 303.10 - Developmental delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental delay. 303.10 Section 303.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  10. Time delay in photoionization near Cooper minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Jobin; Kannur, Sindhu; Kumar, Ashish; Varma, Hari R.; Deshmukh, Pranawa C.; Manson, Steven T.

    2012-06-01

    The connection between the energy dependence of the scattering phase shift and time delay is known [1]. With the developments of techniques in attosecond physics, it has become possible to measure the time delay between photoemission from different subshells [2, 3]. There have been several nonrelativistic calculations of the time delay between photoelectrons from different subshells [4, 5] that confirmed the need to include many-electron correlations. In the present work, the RRPA [6], which includes both relativity and many of the important electron correlation effects, is employed to calculate the time delay between photoelectrons from the valance ns, np3/2 and np1/2 subshells of noble gas atoms in the dipole approximation, and particularly dramatic variations occur in the vicinity of Cooper minimum [7] owing to the rapid variation of the scattering phase shift in the vicinity of Cooper minima, including effects that occur only due to relativistic splittings. These effects appear to be amenable to experimental investigation.[4pt] [1] E. P. Wigner, Phys. Rev. 98, 145 (1955). [2] M. Schultze et al, Science 328, 1658 (2010). [3] K. Klunder et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 143002 (2011). [4] A. S. Kheifets and I. A. Ivanov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 233002 (2010). [5] C. H. Zhang and U. Thumm, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043405 (2010). [6] W. R. Johnson and C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 20, 964 (1979). [7] J. W. Cooper, Phys. Rev. 128, 681 (1962).

  11. Delay Discounting and Social Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Plumm, Karyn M.; Derenne, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The present study used a delay discounting framework to study decisions about six social policy issues and one monetary outcome. For outcomes that nearly all participants discounted, social policies were discounted significantly more than money. A similar result was observed when analyzing all outcomes using data only from participants who…

  12. Joint moments of proper delay times

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-Argüello, Angel M.; Martínez-Mares, Moisés; García, Julio C.

    2014-08-15

    We calculate negative moments of the N-dimensional Laguerre distribution for the orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic symmetries. These moments correspond to those of the proper delay times, which are needed to determine the statistical fluctuations of several transport properties through classically chaotic cavities, like quantum dots and microwave cavities with ideal coupling.

  13. Helping Young Children to Delay Gratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Wang, Chiao-Li; Chiu, Hsiu-Yueh

    2008-01-01

    The ability to delay gratification (DG) in young children is vital to their later development. Such ability should be taught as early as possible. One hundred kindergartners (Mean age = 6.11), randomly assigned to three groups; (a) labeling: received the treatment of being labeled as "patient" kids; (b) story-telling: were read a story about the…

  14. Delayed Attentional Engagement in the Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwenstein, Mark R.; Chun, Marvin M.; van der Lubbe, Rob H. J.; Hooge, Ignace T. C.

    2005-01-01

    Observers often miss the 2nd of 2 visual targets (first target [T1] and second target [T2]) when these targets are presented closely in time; the attentional blink (AB). The authors hypothesized that the AB occurs because the attentional response to T2 is delayed by T1 processing, causing T2 to lose a competition for attention to the item that…

  15. Response Acquisition by Humans with Delayed Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okouchi, Hiroto

    2009-01-01

    The present experiment examined whether a response class was acquired by humans with delayed reinforcement. Eight white circles were presented on a computer touch screen. If the undergraduates touched two of the eight circles in a specified sequence (i.e., touching first the upper-left circle then the bottom-left circle), then the touches…

  16. TIME DELAY SYSTEMS WITH DISTRIBUTION DEPENDENT DYNAMICS

    PubMed Central

    Banks, H. T.; Dediu, Sava; Nguyen, Hoan K.

    2009-01-01

    General delay dynamical systems in which uncertainty is present in the form of probability measure dependent dynamics are considered. Several motivating examples arising in biology are discussed. A functional analytic framework for investigating well–posedness (existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence of solutions), inverse problems, sensitivity analysis and approximations of the measures for computational purposes is surveyed. PMID:19865602

  17. TIME DELAY SYSTEMS WITH DISTRIBUTION DEPENDENT DYNAMICS.

    PubMed

    Banks, H T; Dediu, Sava; Nguyen, Hoan K

    2007-01-01

    General delay dynamical systems in which uncertainty is present in the form of probability measure dependent dynamics are considered. Several motivating examples arising in biology are discussed. A functional analytic framework for investigating well-posedness (existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence of solutions), inverse problems, sensitivity analysis and approximations of the measures for computational purposes is surveyed.

  18. Assessing Visual Delays using Pupil Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    Stark (1962) demonstrated vigorous pupil oscillations by illuminating the retina with a beam of light focussed to a small spot near the edge of the pupil. Small constrictions of the pupil then are sufficient to completely block the beam, amplifying the normal relationship between pupil area and retinal illuminance. In addition to this simple and elegant method, Stark also investigated more complex feedback systems using an electronic "clamping box" which provided arbitrary gain and phase delay between a measurement of pupil area and an electronically controlled light source. We have replicated Stark's results using a video-based pupillometer to control the luminance of a display monitor. Pupil oscillations were induced by imposing a linear relationship between pupil area and display luminance, with a variable delay. Slopes of the period-vs-delay function for 3 subjects are close to the predicted value of 2 (1.96-2.39), and the implied delays range from 254 to 376 508 to 652 milliseconds. Our setup allows us to extend Stark's work by investigating a broader class of stimuli.

  19. Delay discounting of saccharin in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Kevin B; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Woolverton, William L

    2009-10-01

    The value of a reinforcer decreases as the time until its receipt increases, a phenomenon referred to as delay discounting. Although delay discounting of non-drug reinforcers has been studied extensively in a number of species, our knowledge of discounting in non-human primates is limited. In the present study, rhesus monkeys were allowed to choose in discrete trials between 0.05% saccharin delivered in different amounts and with different delays. Indifference points were calculated and discounting functions were established. Discounting functions for saccharin were well described by a hyperbolic function. Moreover, the discounting rates for saccharin in all six monkeys were comparable to those of other non-human animals responding for non-drug reinforcers. Also consistent with other studies of non-human animals, changing the amount of a saccharin reinforcer available after a 10-s delay did not affect its relative subjective value. Discounting functions for saccharin were steeper than we found in a previous study with cocaine, raising the possibility that drugs such as cocaine may be discounted less steeply than non-drug reinforcers. PMID:19540317

  20. 40 CFR 1500.5 - Reducing delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment (§ 1508.4) and... on the human environment (§ 1508.13) and is therefore exempt from requirements to prepare an... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reducing delay. 1500.5 Section...

  1. 40 CFR 1500.5 - Reducing delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment (§ 1508.4) and... on the human environment (§ 1508.13) and is therefore exempt from requirements to prepare an... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reducing delay. 1500.5 Section...

  2. Delay discounting of saccharin in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Kevin B; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Woolverton, William L

    2009-10-01

    The value of a reinforcer decreases as the time until its receipt increases, a phenomenon referred to as delay discounting. Although delay discounting of non-drug reinforcers has been studied extensively in a number of species, our knowledge of discounting in non-human primates is limited. In the present study, rhesus monkeys were allowed to choose in discrete trials between 0.05% saccharin delivered in different amounts and with different delays. Indifference points were calculated and discounting functions were established. Discounting functions for saccharin were well described by a hyperbolic function. Moreover, the discounting rates for saccharin in all six monkeys were comparable to those of other non-human animals responding for non-drug reinforcers. Also consistent with other studies of non-human animals, changing the amount of a saccharin reinforcer available after a 10-s delay did not affect its relative subjective value. Discounting functions for saccharin were steeper than we found in a previous study with cocaine, raising the possibility that drugs such as cocaine may be discounted less steeply than non-drug reinforcers.

  3. A Delay Discounting Model of Psychotherapy Termination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Joshua K.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Delay discounting (DD) procedures are emerging as an important new method for psychotherapy researchers. In this paper a framework for conceptualizing existing, seemingly discrepant, research findings on termination is introduced and new directions for research are described. To illustrate the value of a DD framework, the common psychotherapy…

  4. Pigeons' Discounting of Probabilistic and Delayed Reinforcers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Calvert, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    Pigeons' discounting of probabilistic and delayed food reinforcers was studied using adjusting-amount procedures. In the probability discounting conditions, pigeons chose between an adjusting number of food pellets contingent on a single key peck and a larger, fixed number of pellets contingent on completion of a variable-ratio schedule. In the…

  5. Processes Operative During Delay of Gratification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, J. Frank; Revelle, Glenda L.

    This study focused on the processes occurring during the waiting period in delay of gratification situations. Sixty-four middle class preschool children chose between waiting for a preferred item and receiving a less desired item immediately. The items were of different classes, i. e., one food and one toy, and subjects waited with one, both, or…

  6. Child obesity and motor development delays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood obesity has been associated with delays in motor development using weight-for-length z-scores and subcutaneous fat. To study this further, percent body fat and motor development were assessed in children ages 3 to 24 months. Included were 455 children with a total of 1882 longitudinal obse...

  7. Impulsivity relates to striatal gray matter volumes in humans: evidence from a delay discounting paradigm.

    PubMed

    Tschernegg, Melanie; Pletzer, Belinda; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Hoffmann, Uta; Kronbichler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Time-stable personality traits, such as impulsivity and its relationship with functional and structural brain alterations, have gained much attention in the recent literature. Evidence from functional neuroimaging data implies an association between impulsivity and cortical as well as subcortical areas of the reward system. Discounting future rewards during impulsive decisions can be related to activation in the orbitofrontal cortex and striatum. Cortical structural changes in prefrontal regions have been found for introspective impulsivity measures. The present study focuses on brain regions associated with delay discounting to investigate structural manifestations of trait impulsivity. To test this, seventy subjects underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) followed by a behavioral delay discounting task outside of the scanner to measure impulsivity with questions like: "Would you like to have 3€ immediately or 10€ in 5 days?". The amount of smaller-but-sooner decisions was calculated and used as a measure of behavioral impulsivity. Furthermore, we estimated subject's individual delay discounting parameter K reflecting the tendency to discount future rewards. Behaviorally, we found strong evidence in favor of a discounting utility model compared to a standard hyperbolic model of choice valuation. Neuronally, we focused on cortical and subcortical brain structure and investigated the association of behavioral impulsivity with delay discounting tendencies and gray matter volume. Voxel-based morphometric analyses showed positive correlations between delay discounting and gray matter volume in the striatum. Additional analyses using Freesurfer provided evidence for a positive correlation between delay discounting and gray matter volume of the caudate. Taken together, our study provides strong evidence for a structural manifestation of time-stable trait impulsivity in the human brain.

  8. Information transfer via implicit encoding with delay time modulation in a time-delay system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kye, Won-Ho

    2012-08-01

    A new encoding scheme for information transfer with modulated delay time in a time-delay system is proposed. In the scheme, the message is implicitly encoded into the modulated delay time. The information transfer rate as a function of encoding redundancy in various noise scales is presented and it is analyzed that the implicit encoding scheme (IES) has stronger resistance against channel noise than the explicit encoding scheme (EES). In addition, its advantages in terms of secure communication and feasible applications are discussed.

  9. Nonlinear Control of Delay and PDE Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekiaris-Liberis, Nikolaos

    In this dissertation we develop systematic procedures for the control and analysis of general nonlinear systems with delays and of nonlinear PDE systems. We design predictor feedback laws (i.e., feedback laws that use the future, rather than the current state of the system) for the compensation of delays (i.e., after the control signal reaches the system for the first time, the system behaves as there were no delay at all) that can be time-varying or state-dependent, on the input and on the state of nonlinear systems. We also provide designs of predic- tor feedback laws for linear systems with constant distributed delays and known or unknown plant parameters, and for linear systems with simultaneous known or unknown constant delays on the input and the state. Moreover, we intro- duce infinite-dimensional backstepping transformations for each particular prob-lem, which enables us to construct Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals. With the available Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals we study stability, as well as, robust- ness of our control laws to plant uncertainties. We deal with coupled PDE-ODE systems. We consider nonlinear systems with wave actuator dynamics, for which we design a predictor inspired feedback law. We study stability of the closed-loop system either by constructing Lyapunov functionals, or using arguments of explicit solutions. We also consider linear sys- tems with distributed actuator and sensor dynamics governed by diffusion or wave PDEs, for which we design stabilizing feedback laws. We study stability of the closed-loop systems using Lyapunov functionals that we construct with the intro- duction of infinite-dimensional transformations of forwarding type. Finally, we develop a control design methodology for coupled nonlinear first-order hyperbolic PDEs through an application to automotive catalysts.

  10. SHARP - iii. First Use of Adaptive Optics Imaging to Constrain Cosmology with Gravitational Lens Time Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Geoff C. F.; Suyu, Sherry H.; Wong, Kenneth C.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Chiueh, Tzihong; Halkola, Aleksi; Hu, I. Shing; Auger, Matthew W.; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Lagattuta, David J.; McKean, John P.; Vegetti, Simona

    2016-08-01

    Accurate and precise measurements of the Hubble constant are critical for testing our current standard cosmological model and revealing possibly new physics. With Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging, each strong gravitational lens system with measured time delays can allow one to determine the Hubble constant with an uncertainty of ˜7%. Since HST will not last forever, we explore adaptive-optics (AO) imaging as an alternative that can provide higher angular resolution than HST imaging but has a less stable point spread function (PSF) due to atmospheric distortion. To make AO imaging useful for time-delay-lens cosmography, we develop a method to extract the unknown PSF directly from the imaging of strongly lensed quasars. In a blind test with two mock data sets created with different PSFs, we are able to recover the important cosmological parameters (time-delay distance, external shear, lens mass profile slope, and total Einstein radius). Our analysis of the Keck AO image of the strong lens system RXJ 1131-1231 shows that the important parameters for cosmography agree with those based on HST imaging and modeling within 1-σ uncertainties. Most importantly, the constraint on the model time-delay distance by using AO imaging with 0.045″ resolution is tighter by ˜50% than the constraint of time-delay distance by using HST imaging with 0.09″ when a power-law mass distribution for the lens system is adopted. Our PSF reconstruction technique is generic and applicable to data sets that have multiple nearby point sources, enabling scientific studies that require high-precision models of the PSF.

  11. Failure of delayed feedback deep brain stimulation for intermittent pathological synchronization in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dovzhenok, Andrey; Park, Choongseok; Worth, Robert M; Rubchinsky, Leonid L

    2013-01-01

    Suppression of excessively synchronous beta-band oscillatory activity in the brain is believed to suppress hypokinetic motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Recently, a lot of interest has been devoted to desynchronizing delayed feedback deep brain stimulation (DBS). This type of synchrony control was shown to destabilize the synchronized state in networks of simple model oscillators as well as in networks of coupled model neurons. However, the dynamics of the neural activity in Parkinson's disease exhibits complex intermittent synchronous patterns, far from the idealized synchronous dynamics used to study the delayed feedback stimulation. This study explores the action of delayed feedback stimulation on partially synchronized oscillatory dynamics, similar to what one observes experimentally in parkinsonian patients. We employ a computational model of the basal ganglia networks which reproduces experimentally observed fine temporal structure of the synchronous dynamics. When the parameters of our model are such that the synchrony is unphysiologically strong, the feedback exerts a desynchronizing action. However, when the network is tuned to reproduce the highly variable temporal patterns observed experimentally, the same kind of delayed feedback may actually increase the synchrony. As network parameters are changed from the range which produces complete synchrony to those favoring less synchronous dynamics, desynchronizing delayed feedback may gradually turn into synchronizing stimulation. This suggests that delayed feedback DBS in Parkinson's disease may boost rather than suppress synchronization and is unlikely to be clinically successful. The study also indicates that delayed feedback stimulation may not necessarily exhibit a desynchronization effect when acting on a physiologically realistic partially synchronous dynamics, and provides an example of how to estimate the stimulation effect.

  12. Ensemble codes involving hippocampal neurons are at risk during delayed performance tests.

    PubMed

    Hampson, R E; Deadwyler, S A

    1996-11-26

    Multielectrode recording techniques were used to record ensemble activity from 10 to 16 simultaneously active CA1 and CA3 neurons in the rat hippocampus during performance of a spatial delayed-nonmatch-to-sample task. Extracted sources of variance were used to assess the nature of two different types of errors that accounted for 30% of total trials. The two types of errors included ensemble "miscodes" of sample phase information and errors associated with delay-dependent corruption or disappearance of sample information at the time of the nonmatch response. Statistical assessment of trial sequences and associated "strength" of hippocampal ensemble codes revealed that miscoded error trials always followed delay-dependent error trials in which encoding was "weak," indicating that the two types of errors were "linked." It was determined that the occurrence of weakly encoded, delay-dependent error trials initiated an ensemble encoding "strategy" that increased the chances of being correct on the next trial and avoided the occurrence of further delay-dependent errors. Unexpectedly, the strategy involved "strongly" encoding response position information from the prior (delay-dependent) error trial and carrying it forward to the sample phase of the next trial. This produced a miscode type error on trials in which the "carried over" information obliterated encoding of the sample phase response on the next trial. Application of this strategy, irrespective of outcome, was sufficient to reorient the animal to the proper between trial sequence of response contingencies (nonmatch-to-sample) and boost performance to 73% correct on subsequent trials. The capacity for ensemble analyses of strength of information encoding combined with statistical assessment of trial sequences therefore provided unique insight into the "dynamic" nature of the role hippocampus plays in delay type memory tasks.

  13. The role of delay times in subcycle-resolved probe retardation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reislöhner, Jan; Pfeiffer, Adrian N.

    2016-02-01

    The delay in the nonlinear response of matter to intense laser pulses has been studied since a long time regarding its nuclear contribution. In contrast, the electronic part of the nonlinear response in wide-band-gap dielectrics, which is usually dominant, is not well explored regarding its delay, and previous studies have revealed that the timescale is below 1 fs. Here, the influence of delay times on the recently introduced method of subcycle-resolved probe retardation measurements is investigated using a simulation. In the model assumed, the electronic nonlinearity is divided into the third order Kerr effect and the plasma contribution due to conduction band population in the strong laser field. In the regime of close-to-collinear pump-probe geometries, the probe retardation shows both π- and 2π-oscillations in the pump-probe delay. Sub-femtosecond delay times influence the phase of the oscillations significantly, but it remains difficult to distinguish the influence of the Kerr response from the plasma contribution.

  14. Reprint of: The role of delay times in subcycle-resolved probe retardation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reislöhner, Jan; Pfeiffer, Adrian N.

    2016-08-01

    The delay in the nonlinear response of matter to intense laser pulses has been studied since a long time regarding its nuclear contribution. In contrast, the electronic part of the nonlinear response in wide-band-gap dielectrics, which is usually dominant, is not well explored regarding its delay, and previous studies have revealed that the timescale is below 1 fs. Here, the influence of delay times on the recently introduced method of subcycle-resolved probe retardation measurements is investigated using a simulation. In the model assumed, the electronic nonlinearity is divided into the third order Kerr effect and the plasma contribution due to conduction band population in the strong laser field. In the regime of close-to-collinear pump-probe geometries, the probe retardation shows both π- and 2π-oscillations in the pump-probe delay. Sub-femtosecond delay times influence the phase of the oscillations significantly, but it remains difficult to distinguish the influence of the Kerr response from the plasma contribution.

  15. Effects of stomatal delays on the economics of leaf gas exchange under intermittent light regimes.

    PubMed

    Vico, Giulia; Manzoni, Stefano; Palmroth, Sari; Katul, Gabriel

    2011-11-01

    • Understory plants are subjected to highly intermittent light availability and their leaf gas exchanges are mediated by delayed responses of stomata and leaf biochemistry to light fluctuations. In this article, the patterns in stomatal delays across biomes and plant functional types were studied and their effects on leaf carbon gains and water losses were quantified. • A database of more than 60 published datasets on stomatal responses to light fluctuations was assembled. To interpret these experimental observations, a leaf gas exchange model was developed and coupled to a novel formulation of stomatal movement energetics. The model was used to test whether stomatal delays optimize light capture for photosynthesis, whilst limiting transpiration and carbon costs for stomatal movement. • The data analysis showed that stomatal opening and closing delays occurred over a limited range of values and were strongly correlated. Plant functional type and climate were the most important drivers of stomatal delays, with faster responses in graminoids and species from dry climates. • Although perfectly tracking stomata would maximize photosynthesis and minimize transpiration at the expense of large opening costs, the observed combinations of opening and closure times appeared to be consistent with a near-optimal balance of carbon gain, water loss and movement costs. PMID:21851359

  16. A New Channel for Detecting Dark Matter Substructure in Galaxies: Gravitational Lens Time Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeton, Charles R.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2009-07-01

    We show that dark matter substructure in galaxy-scale halos perturbs the time delays between images in strong gravitational lens systems. The variance of the effect depends on the subhalo mass function, scaling as the product of the substructure mass fraction, and a characteristic mass of subhalos (namely langm 2rang/langmrang). Time delay perturbations therefore complement gravitational lens flux ratio anomalies and astrometric perturbations by measuring a different moment of the subhalo mass function. Unlike flux ratio anomalies, "time delay millilensing" is unaffected by dust extinction or stellar microlensing in the lens galaxy. Furthermore, we show that time delay ratios are immune to the radial profile degeneracy that usually plagues lens modeling. We lay out a mathematical theory of time delay perturbations and find it to be tractable and attractive. We predict that in "cusp" lenses with close triplets of images, substructure may change the arrival-time order of the images (compared with smooth models). We discuss the possibility that this effect has already been observed in RX J1131-1231.

  17. Effects of additional food in a delayed predator-prey model.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Banshidhar; Poria, Swarup

    2015-03-01

    We examine the effects of supplying additional food to predator in a gestation delay induced predator-prey system with habitat complexity. Additional food works in favor of predator growth in our model. Presence of additional food reduces the predatory attack rate to prey in the model. Supplying additional food we can control predator population. Taking time delay as bifurcation parameter the stability of the coexisting equilibrium point is analyzed. Hopf bifurcation analysis is done with respect to time delay in presence of additional food. The direction of Hopf bifurcations and the stability of bifurcated periodic solutions are determined by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. The qualitative dynamical behavior of the model is simulated using experimental parameter values. It is observed that fluctuations of the population size can be controlled either by supplying additional food suitably or by increasing the degree of habitat complexity. It is pointed out that Hopf bifurcation occurs in the system when the delay crosses some critical value. This critical value of delay strongly depends on quality and quantity of supplied additional food. Therefore, the variation of predator population significantly effects the dynamics of the model. Model results are compared with experimental results and biological implications of the analytical findings are discussed in the conclusion section.

  18. A Modern Cohort of Duodenal Obstruction Patients: Predictors of Delayed Transition to Full Enteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Yu, David C.; Khan, Faraz Ali; Pathak, Bhavana; Grabowski, Matthew J.; Zurakowski, David; Linden, Bradley C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. A common site for neonatal intestinal obstruction is the duodenum. Delayed establishment of enteral nutritional autonomy continues to challenge surgeons and, since early institution of nutritional support is critical in postoperative newborns, identification of patients likely to require alternative nutritional support may improve their outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate risk factors leading to delayed establishment of full enteral nutrition in these patients. Methods. 87 patients who were surgically treated for intrinsic duodenal obstructions from 1998 to 2012 were reviewed. Variables were tested as potential risk factors. Median time to full enteral nutrition was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Independent risk factors of delayed transition were identified using the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results. Median time to transition to full enteral nutrition was 12 days (interquartile range: 9–17 days). Multivariate Cox analysis identified three significant risk factors for delayed enteral nutrition: gestational age (GA) ≤ 35 weeks (P < .001), congenital heart disease (CHD) (P = .02), and malrotation (P = .03). Conclusions. CHD and Prematurity are most commonly associated with delayed transition to full enteral nutrition. Thus, in these patients, supportive nutrition should strongly be considered pending enteral nutritional autonomy. PMID:25210625

  19. Robust optimization for nonlinear time-delay dynamical system of dha regulon with cost sensitivity constraint in batch culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jinlong; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Chongyang; Chang, Liang; Xie, Jun; Feng, Enmin; Yin, Hongchao; Xiu, Zhilong

    2016-09-01

    Time-delay dynamical systems, which depend on both the current state of the system and the state at delayed times, have been an active area of research in many real-world applications. In this paper, we consider a nonlinear time-delay dynamical system of dha-regulonwith unknown time-delays in batch culture of glycerol bioconversion to 1,3-propanediol induced by Klebsiella pneumonia. Some important properties and strong positive invariance are discussed. Because of the difficulty in accurately measuring the concentrations of intracellular substances and the absence of equilibrium points for the time-delay system, a quantitative biological robustness for the concentrations of intracellular substances is defined by penalizing a weighted sum of the expectation and variance of the relative deviation between system outputs before and after the time-delays are perturbed. Our goal is to determine optimal values of the time-delays. To this end, we formulate an optimization problem in which the time delays are decision variables and the cost function is to minimize the biological robustness. This optimization problem is subject to the time-delay system, parameter constraints, continuous state inequality constraints for ensuring that the concentrations of extracellular and intracellular substances lie within specified limits, a quality constraint to reflect operational requirements and a cost sensitivity constraint for ensuring that an acceptable level of the system performance is achieved. It is approximated as a sequence of nonlinear programming sub-problems through the application of constraint transcription and local smoothing approximation techniques. Due to the highly complex nature of this optimization problem, the computational cost is high. Thus, a parallel algorithm is proposed to solve these nonlinear programming sub-problems based on the filled function method. Finally, it is observed that the obtained optimal estimates for the time-delays are highly satisfactory

  20. Tunneling Time and Weak Measurement in Strong Field Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Tomáš; Mishra, Siddhartha; Doran, Brent R.; Gordon, Daniel F.; Landsman, Alexandra S.

    2016-06-01

    Tunneling delays represent a hotly debated topic, with many conflicting definitions and little consensus on when and if such definitions accurately describe the physical observables. Here, we relate these different definitions to distinct experimental observables in strong field ionization, finding that two definitions, Larmor time and Bohmian time, are compatible with the attoclock observable and the resonance lifetime of a bound state, respectively. Both of these definitions are closely connected to the theory of weak measurement, with Larmor time being the weak measurement value of tunneling time and Bohmian trajectory corresponding to the average particle trajectory, which has been recently reconstructed using weak measurement in a two-slit experiment [S. Kocsis, B. Braverman, S. Ravets, M. J. Stevens, R. P. Mirin, L. K. Shalm, and A. M. Steinberg, Science 332, 1170 (2011)]. We demonstrate a big discrepancy in strong field ionization between the Bohmian and weak measurement values of tunneling time, and we suggest this arises because the tunneling time is calculated for a small probability postselected ensemble of electrons. Our results have important implications for the interpretation of experiments in attosecond science, suggesting that tunneling is unlikely to be an instantaneous process.

  1. Tunneling Time and Weak Measurement in Strong Field Ionization.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Tomáš; Mishra, Siddhartha; Doran, Brent R; Gordon, Daniel F; Landsman, Alexandra S

    2016-06-10

    Tunneling delays represent a hotly debated topic, with many conflicting definitions and little consensus on when and if such definitions accurately describe the physical observables. Here, we relate these different definitions to distinct experimental observables in strong field ionization, finding that two definitions, Larmor time and Bohmian time, are compatible with the attoclock observable and the resonance lifetime of a bound state, respectively. Both of these definitions are closely connected to the theory of weak measurement, with Larmor time being the weak measurement value of tunneling time and Bohmian trajectory corresponding to the average particle trajectory, which has been recently reconstructed using weak measurement in a two-slit experiment [S. Kocsis, B. Braverman, S. Ravets, M. J. Stevens, R. P. Mirin, L. K. Shalm, and A. M. Steinberg, Science 332, 1170 (2011)]. We demonstrate a big discrepancy in strong field ionization between the Bohmian and weak measurement values of tunneling time, and we suggest this arises because the tunneling time is calculated for a small probability postselected ensemble of electrons. Our results have important implications for the interpretation of experiments in attosecond science, suggesting that tunneling is unlikely to be an instantaneous process. PMID:27341232

  2. Functional delay of myelination of auditory delay lines in the nucleus laminaris of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shih-Min; Carr, Catherine E

    2007-12-01

    In the barn owl, maps of interaural time difference (ITD) are created in the nucleus laminaris (NL) by interdigitating axons that act as delay lines. Adult delay line axons are myelinated, and this myelination is timely, coinciding with the attainment of adult head size, and stable ITD cues. The proximal portions of the axons become myelinated in late embryonic life, but the delay line portions of the axon in NL remain unmyelinated until the first postnatal week. Myelination of the delay lines peaks at the third week posthatch, and myelinating oligodendrocyte density approaches adult levels by one month, when the head reaches its adult width. Migration of oligodendrocyte progenitors into NL and the subsequent onset of myelination may be restricted by a glial barrier in late embryonic stages and the first posthatch week, since the loss of tenascin-C immunoreactivity in NL is correlated with oligodendrocyte progenitor migration into NL.

  3. Stability domains of the delay and PID coefficients for general time-delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almodaresi, Elham; Bozorg, Mohammad; Taghirad, Hamid D.

    2016-04-01

    Time delays are encountered in many physical systems, and they usually threaten the stability and performance of closed-loop systems. The problem of determining all stabilising proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers for systems with perturbed delays is less investigated in the literature. In this study, the Rekasius substitution is employed to transform the system parameters to a new space. Then, the singular frequency (SF) method is revised for the Rekasius transformed system. A novel technique is presented to compute the ranges of time delay for which stable PID controller exists. This stability range cannot be readily computed from the previous methods. Finally, it is shown that similar to the original SF method, finite numbers of singular frequencies are sufficient to compute the stable regions in the space of time delay and controller coefficients.

  4. Delay discounting and self-reported impulsivity in adolescent smokers and nonsmokers living in rural Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Russell; Harris, Millie; Slone, Stacey A; Shelton, Brent J; Reynolds, Brady

    2015-09-01

    Background and Objectives This study evaluated whether impulsivity (delay discounting and BIS-11-A) is associated with adolescent smoking status in a region with strong environmental risk factors for smoking. Methods Forty-two adolescent smokers and nonsmokers from rural Appalachia completed discounting and self-reported impulsivity assessments. Results The BIS-11-A, but not the measure of discounting, was associated with smoking status; however, neither assessment predicted smoking status once parent/best-friend smoking variables were statistically accounted for. Discussion and Conclusions In regions with strong environmental risk factors for smoking, delay discounting may play a more limited role in risk of initiation. Scientific Significance Helps to better define impulsivity as risk factors for smoking in relation to familial and broader cultural variables.

  5. Using Ultrafast Pulse Shaping to Probe Electronic Interference in Strong Field Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Arthur; Sándor, Péter; Rozgonyi, Tamás; Weinacht, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    We make use of shaped ultrafast laser pulses, velocity map imaging and coincidence detection to study electron dynamics in Strong Field Ionization (SFI) of small molecules. In particular, we consider the role of interference between different pathways during ionization. In one experiment, the molecule is ionized with a phase locked pulse pair. We study the ionization yield as a function of the delay and the relative phase between pulses, and interpret its variation in terms of strong field laser molecule phase matching. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation under award number 1205397 and the Hungarian National Development Agency under grant number KTIA AIK 12-1-2012-0014.

  6. Anomalous decay of photon echo in a quantum dot ensemble in the strong excitation regime

    SciTech Connect

    Suemori, Ryosuke; Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu

    2013-12-04

    We investigated the coherent dynamics of exciton ground-state transitions in an 150-layer-stacked strain-compensated InAs quantum dot ensemble using photon echo (PE) technique in the strong excitation regime. The time delay dependence of PE signal intensity shows a drastic change depending on the excitation intensity and the aperture position placed in front of a detector. Our results suggest that the excitation-intensity-dependent spatial distribution of PE signal intensity plays an important role in observing PE signal decay in the strong excitation regime.

  7. Keeping Marriages Strong in Challenging Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ober, Marci Wolff

    2009-01-01

    What makes a strong marriage anyway...? There are definite qualities that exist in healthy marriages, that is, a marriage that is defined by both partners to be "mostly" or "usually" very satisfying. This article explores these qualities and looks at what really works to make and keep marriages strong, healthy, and satisfying for a lifetime. It…

  8. On the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Jason

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, our aim is the study the Vanishing of Maps of Tor Conjecture of Hochster and Huneke. We mainly focus on an equivalent characterization called the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture, due to N. Ranganathan. Our results are separated into three chapters. In Chapter 3, we prove special cases of the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture in…

  9. LHC Phenomenology and Lattice Strong Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, G. T.

    2013-03-01

    While the LHC experimentalists work to find evidence of physics beyond the standard model, lattice gauge theorists are working as well to characterize the range of possible phenomena in strongly-coupled models of electroweak symmetry breaking. I will summarize the current progress of the Lattice Strong Dynamics (LSD) collaboration on the flavor dependence of SU(3) gauge theories.

  10. A practical functional observer scheme for interconnected time-delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, W. Y.; Trinh, H.; Fernando, T.

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a partially distributed functional observer scheme for a class of interconnected linear systems with very strong non-instantaneous subsystems interaction and with time delays in the local states and in the transmission of output information from the remote subsystems. A set of easily verifiable existence conditions is established and upon its satisfaction, simple distributed observers are designed using a straightforward design procedure. Simulation results of a numerical example are given to substantiate the feasibility of the approach.

  11. Learning Delayed Influences of Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Tony; Magnin, Morgan; Inoue, Katsumi; Sakama, Chiaki

    2015-01-01

    Boolean networks are widely used model to represent gene interactions and global dynamical behavior of gene regulatory networks. To understand the memory effect involved in some interactions between biological components, it is necessary to include delayed influences in the model. In this paper, we present a logical method to learn such models from sequences of gene expression data. This method analyzes each sequence one by one to iteratively construct a Boolean network that captures the dynamics of these observations. To illustrate the merits of this approach, we apply it to learning real data from bioinformatic literature. Using data from the yeast cell cycle, we give experimental results and show the scalability of the method. We show empirically that using this method we can handle millions of observations and successfully capture delayed influences of Boolean networks. PMID:25642421

  12. [Human clone or a delayed twin?].

    PubMed

    Szybalski, W

    2001-01-01

    Cloning is a natural mode of asexual reproduction for many organisms, which results in nearly identical copies of cells or organisms. In animals, including humans, identical twins are an example of natural cloning. In the case of sheep, scientists succeeded to produce the "delayed" identical twin. Dolly, of a mature animal by a rather complex and inefficient procedure. However, if this procedure is perfected, it will be useful to clone beloved pets and important laboratory animals. It will be much less suited for making (cloning) "delayed twin" of mature persons because of high costs together with present experimental uncertainties. The only required regulation for human cloning is that somebody must be legally, including financially, responsible for the results of such novel reproductive technique.

  13. Wheeler thought experiment with delayed choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Jeffrey

    2012-02-01

    This is an alternative interpretation of Jacques, et. al. (2007), Wheeler's thought experiment with delayed choice. The researchers find that the choice of observables changes the previous behavior of the photon inside the interferometer. Stepping outside the QM box, we propose that elementary waves from the detectors travel backwards through the interferometer, and the photon is following such a ray in the reverse direction. Thus a change in observables changes the behavior of the photon for the simple reason that the observable is transmitting information to the photon and the photon is able to change its polarization mid-stream in response to a change in that information. According to this explanation there is no delayed choice. It is an illusion.

  14. [Medical criteria of delaying or stopping imprisonment].

    PubMed

    Engelgardt, Piotr; Sliwka, Karol

    2006-01-01

    Estimating the subject's ability to undergo imprisonment and determining whether there are any reasons for delaying or stopping imprisonment, has become a serious problem. Currently the Polish system lacks clear and homogenous opinionating criteria, and the available sources provide only general guidelines. This results in a great deal of discrepancy between opinions and evaluations made in similar cases. This work attempts to define and illustrate the criteria of the Executive Penal Code that are used in evaluating whether imprisonment is to be delayed or stopped. The authors have also provided examples of illnesses that would illustrate those definitions/criteria and came up with a suggested procedure of decision-making to be applied to such cases.

  15. Time delay measurement in the frequency domain

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, Stephen M.; Liu, Shih -Chieh; Dufresne, Eric M.; Li, Yuelin; Wen, Haidan

    2015-08-06

    Pump–probe studies at synchrotrons using X-ray and laser pulses require accurate determination of the time delay between pulses. This becomes especially important when observing ultrafast responses with lifetimes approaching or even less than the X-ray pulse duration (~100 ps). The standard approach of inspecting the time response of a detector sensitive to both types of pulses can have limitations due to dissimilar pulse profiles and other experimental factors. Here, a simple alternative is presented, where the frequency response of the detector is monitored versus time delay. Measurements readily demonstrate a time resolution of ~1 ps. Improved precision is possible by simply extending the data acquisition time.

  16. Time delay measurement in the frequency domain

    DOE PAGES

    Durbin, Stephen M.; Liu, Shih -Chieh; Dufresne, Eric M.; Li, Yuelin; Wen, Haidan

    2015-08-06

    Pump–probe studies at synchrotrons using X-ray and laser pulses require accurate determination of the time delay between pulses. This becomes especially important when observing ultrafast responses with lifetimes approaching or even less than the X-ray pulse duration (~100 ps). The standard approach of inspecting the time response of a detector sensitive to both types of pulses can have limitations due to dissimilar pulse profiles and other experimental factors. Here, a simple alternative is presented, where the frequency response of the detector is monitored versus time delay. Measurements readily demonstrate a time resolution of ~1 ps. Improved precision is possible bymore » simply extending the data acquisition time.« less

  17. Schedule segmentation and delay-reduction theory.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M

    1996-06-01

    In order to explain the data obtained from studies which examined effects of schedule segmentation on choice, the present study proposed five quantitative models stemming from delay-reduction theory. A total of 108 choice proportions reported in the schedule segmentation literature were plotted against choice proportions predicted by the models. Linear regression equations and their correlation coefficients were then obtained by the method of least squares, in order to examine which of the five equations was the best in explaining the obtained data. The best model determined the values of the alternatives by multiplying the values of conditioned stimuli associated with them, each of which was obtained by subtracting a non-reinforcement interval after its offset from an amount of delay reduction informed by its onset.

  18. Neutron fluctuations: The importance of being delayed.

    PubMed

    Houchmandzadeh, B; Dumonteil, E; Mazzolo, A; Zoia, A

    2015-11-01

    The neutron population in a nuclear reactor is subject to fluctuations in time and in space due to the competition of diffusion by scattering, births by fission events, and deaths by absorptions. As such, fission chains provide a prototype model for the study of spatial clustering phenomena. In order for the reactor to be operated in stationary conditions at the critical point, the population of prompt neutrons instantaneously emitted at fission must be in equilibrium with the much smaller population of delayed neutrons, emitted after a Poissonian time by nuclear decay of the fissioned nuclei. In this work, we will show that the delayed neutrons, although representing a tiny fraction of the total number of neutrons in the reactor, actually have a key impact on the fluctuations, and their contribution is very effective in quenching the spatial clustering. PMID:26651654

  19. A hypothesis for delayed dynamic earthquake triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    2005-01-01

    It's uncertain whether more near-field earthquakes are triggered by static or dynamic stress changes. This ratio matters because static earthquake interactions are increasingly incorporated into probabilistic forecasts. Recent studies were unable to demonstrate all predictions from the static-stress-change hypothesis, particularly seismicity rate reductions. However, current dynamic stress change hypotheses do not explain delayed earthquake triggering and Omori's law. Here I show numerically that if seismic waves can alter some frictional contacts in neighboring fault zones, then dynamic triggering might cause delayed triggering and an Omori-law response. The hypothesis depends on faults following a rate/state friction law, and on seismic waves changing the mean critical slip distance (Dc) at nucleation zones.

  20. Neutron fluctuations: The importance of being delayed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houchmandzadeh, B.; Dumonteil, E.; Mazzolo, A.; Zoia, A.

    2015-11-01

    The neutron population in a nuclear reactor is subject to fluctuations in time and in space due to the competition of diffusion by scattering, births by fission events, and deaths by absorptions. As such, fission chains provide a prototype model for the study of spatial clustering phenomena. In order for the reactor to be operated in stationary conditions at the critical point, the population of prompt neutrons instantaneously emitted at fission must be in equilibrium with the much smaller population of delayed neutrons, emitted after a Poissonian time by nuclear decay of the fissioned nuclei. In this work, we will show that the delayed neutrons, although representing a tiny fraction of the total number of neutrons in the reactor, actually have a key impact on the fluctuations, and their contribution is very effective in quenching the spatial clustering.

  1. Prioritization of delayed vaccination for pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Shim, Eunha

    2011-01-01

    Limited production capacity and delays in vaccine development are major obstacles to vaccination programs that are designed to mitigate a pandemic influenza. In order to evaluate and compare the impact of various vaccination strategies during a pandemic influenza, we developed an age/risk-structured model of influenza transmission, and parameterized it with epidemiological data from the 2009 H1N1 influenza A pandemic. Our model predicts that the impact of vaccination would be considerably diminished by delays in vaccination and staggered vaccine supply. Nonetheless, prioritizing limited H1N1 vaccine to individuals with a high risk of complications, followed by school-age children, and then preschool-age children, would minimize an overall attack rate as well as hospitalizations and deaths. This vaccination scheme would maximize the benefits of vaccination by protecting the high-risk people directly, and generating indirect protection by vaccinating children who are most likely to transmit the disease. PMID:21361402

  2. Delayed Diagnosis of Adult Indolent Systemic Mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer; Nybo, Andrew; Arvesen, Kristian Bakke; Holk-Poulsen, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a rare, heterogeneous disorder characterized by infiltration and accumulation of mast cells within multiple organs, most commonly the skin. Given the rarity of the disease and the fact that many of its symptoms are shared by more common disorders, a diagnosis may be delayed or hindered. These patients have an elevated risk of developing potentially life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions, thus underscoring the importance of keeping SM in mind as a differential diagnosis when a patient presents with chronic, itchy skin lesions and a history of multiple allergic reactions to bites, drugs, and anesthesia. We present a case illustrating that features of SM common to many disorders may hinder or delay its diagnosis. PMID:25386326

  3. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  4. Modeling Weather Impact on Ground Delay Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yao; Kulkarni, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Scheduled arriving aircraft demand may exceed airport arrival capacity when there is abnormal weather at an airport. In such situations, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) institutes ground-delay programs (GDP) to delay flights before they depart from their originating airports. Efficient GDP planning depends on the accuracy of prediction of airport capacity and demand in the presence of uncertainties in weather forecast. This paper presents a study of the impact of dynamic airport surface weather on GDPs. Using the National Traffic Management Log, effect of weather conditions on the characteristics of GDP events at selected busy airports is investigated. Two machine learning methods are used to generate models that map the airport operational conditions and weather information to issued GDP parameters and results of validation tests are described.

  5. Supervising Remote Humanoids Across Intermediate Time Delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambuchen, Kimberly; Bluethmann, William; Goza, Michael; Ambrose, Robert; Rabe, Kenneth; Allan, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The President's Vision for Space Exploration, laid out in 2004, relies heavily upon robotic exploration of the lunar surface in early phases of the program. Prior to the arrival of astronauts on the lunar surface, these robots will be required to be controlled across space and time, posing a considerable challenge for traditional telepresence techniques. Because time delays will be measured in seconds, not minutes as is the case for Mars Exploration, uploading the plan for a day seems excessive. An approach for controlling humanoids under intermediate time delay is presented. This approach uses software running within a ground control cockpit to predict an immersed robot supervisor's motions which the remote humanoid autonomously executes. Initial results are presented.

  6. Reconceptualizing Family Adaptation to Developmental Delay.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Anita L; Crnic, Keith A; Baker, Bruce L; Blacher, Jan

    2015-07-01

    This study explores accurate conceptualization of the adaptation construct in families of children with developmental delay aged 3 to 8 years. Parents' self-reported measures of adaptation and observed dyadic relationship variables were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis and longitudinal growth modeling were used to evaluate the nature of adaptational processes. Results indicate that adaptational processes vary across adaptation index, child developmental level, and parent gender. Adaptation indices did not load onto a single construct at any time point. Several adaptational processes remained stable across time, although others showed linear or quadratic change. The findings of the current study indicate that it is time for a change in how adaptation is conceived for families of children with developmental delay.

  7. Delayed auditory feedback in polyglot simultaneous interpreters.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, F; Darò, V

    1995-03-01

    Twelve polyglot students of simultaneous interpretation and 12 controls (students of the faculty of Medicine) were submitted to a task of verbal fluency under amplified normal auditory feedback (NAF) and under three delayed auditory feedback (DAF) conditions with three different delay intervals (150, 200, and 250 msec). The control group showed a significant reduction in verbal fluency and a significant increase in the number of mistakes in all three DAF conditions. The interpreters' group, however, did not show any significant speech disruption neither in the subjects' mother tongue (L1) nor in their second language (L2) across all DAF conditions. Interpreters' general high verbal fluency along with their ability to pay less attention to their own verbal output make them more resistant to the interfering effects of DAF on speech. PMID:7757448

  8. Time delay measurement in the frequency domain

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Stephen M.; Liu, Shih-Chieh; Dufresne, Eric M.; Li, Yuelin; Wen, Haidan

    2015-01-01

    Pump–probe studies at synchrotrons using X-ray and laser pulses require accurate determination of the time delay between pulses. This becomes especially important when observing ultrafast responses with lifetimes approaching or even less than the X-ray pulse duration (∼100 ps). The standard approach of inspecting the time response of a detector sensitive to both types of pulses can have limitations due to dissimilar pulse profiles and other experimental factors. Here, a simple alternative is presented, where the frequency response of the detector is monitored versus time delay. Measurements readily demonstrate a time resolution of ∼1 ps. Improved precision is possible by simply extending the data acquisition time. PMID:26289282

  9. Twins' reactions to delayed auditory feedback.

    PubMed

    Timmons, B A

    1985-10-01

    10 pairs of identical and 10 pairs of fraternal twins, matched by age, spoke under conditions of 0.0-, 100-, 200-, 300-, 400-, and 500-msec. delayed auditory feedback. Length of spoken passages was controlled. Product-moment and intraclass correlations were calculated for speaking times and disfluencies. Significant Pearson rs for times were noted at 0.0 and 300 msec. for both groups and at 100, 200, and 400 msec. for identical twins, while fraternal twins' times were significantly correlated at 500 msec. Difference scores were significantly correlated at 100, 200, 300, and 400 msec. for identical twins. Disfluencies were significantly correlated for identical twins at 400 msec. Data were combined with those of Timmons' (1969) study, increasing subjects to 21 pairs per group. Intraclass correlations supported the contention that responses of identical twin pairs to delayed auditory feedback were more highly correlated than those for fraternal twin pairs.

  10. [Human clone or a delayed twin?].

    PubMed

    Szybalski, W

    2001-01-01

    Cloning is a natural mode of asexual reproduction for many organisms, which results in nearly identical copies of cells or organisms. In animals, including humans, identical twins are an example of natural cloning. In the case of sheep, scientists succeeded to produce the "delayed" identical twin. Dolly, of a mature animal by a rather complex and inefficient procedure. However, if this procedure is perfected, it will be useful to clone beloved pets and important laboratory animals. It will be much less suited for making (cloning) "delayed twin" of mature persons because of high costs together with present experimental uncertainties. The only required regulation for human cloning is that somebody must be legally, including financially, responsible for the results of such novel reproductive technique. PMID:11684762

  11. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2004-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  12. Strongly correlated quantum spin liquid in herbertsmithite

    SciTech Connect

    Shaginyan, V. R.; Popov, K. G.; Khodel, V. A.

    2013-05-15

    Strongly correlated Fermi systems are among the most intriguing and fundamental systems in physics. We show that the herbertsmithite ZnCu{sub 3}(OH){sub 6}Cl{sub 2} can be regarded as a new type of strongly correlated electrical insulator that possesses properties of heavy-fermion metals with one exception: it resists the flow of electric charge. We demonstrate that herbertsmithite's low-temperature properties are defined by a strongly correlated quantum spin liquid made with hypothetic particles such as fermionic spinons that carry spin 1/2 and no charge. Our calculations of its thermodynamic and relaxation properties are in good agreement with recent experimental facts and allow us to reveal their scaling behavior, which strongly resembles that observed in heavy-fermion metals. Analysis of the dynamic magnetic susceptibility of strongly correlated Fermi systems suggests that there exist at least two types of its scaling.

  13. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    DOEpatents

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  14. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    DOEpatents

    Harben, Philip E.; Rodgers, Peter W.; Ewert, Daniel W.

    1995-01-01

    A seismic switching device that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period.

  15. Limbic corticostriatal systems and delayed reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, Rudolf N; Winstanley, Catharine A; Robbins, Trevor W; Everitt, Barry J

    2004-06-01

    Impulsive choice, one aspect of impulsivity, is characterized by an abnormally high preference for small, immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards, and can be a feature of adolescence, but also attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Both the serotonin and dopamine neuromodulator systems are implicated in impulsivity; manipulations of these systems affect animal models of impulsive choice, though these effects may depend on the receptor subtype and whether or not the reward is signaled. These systems project to limbic cortical and striatal structures shown to be abnormal in animal models of ADHD. Damage to the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) causes rats to exhibit impulsive choice. These rats are also hyperactive, but are unimpaired in tests of visuospatial attention; they may therefore represent an animal model of the hyperactive-impulsive subtype of ADHD. Lesions to the anterior cingulate or medial prefrontal cortex, two afferents to the AcbC, do not induce impulsive choice, but lesions of the basolateral amygdala do, while lesions to the orbitofrontal cortex have had opposite effects in different tasks measuring impulsive choice. In theory, impulsive choice may emerge as a result of abnormal processing of the magnitude of rewards, or as a result of a deficit in the effects of delayed reinforcement. Recent evidence suggests that AcbC-lesioned rats perceive reward magnitude normally, but exhibit a selective deficit in learning instrumental responses using delayed reinforcement, suggesting that the AcbC is a reinforcement learning system that mediates the effects of delayed rewards.

  16. Coherence delay augmented laser beam homogenizer

    DOEpatents

    Rasmussen, P.; Bernhardt, A.

    1993-06-29

    The geometrical restrictions on a laser beam homogenizer are relaxed by ug a coherence delay line to separate a coherent input beam into several components each having a path length difference equal to a multiple of the coherence length with respect to the other components. The components recombine incoherently at the output of the homogenizer, and the resultant beam has a more uniform spatial intensity suitable for microlithography and laser pantogography. Also disclosed is a variable aperture homogenizer, and a liquid filled homogenizer.

  17. Coherence delay augmented laser beam homogenizer

    DOEpatents

    Rasmussen, Paul; Bernhardt, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    The geometrical restrictions on a laser beam homogenizer are relaxed by ug a coherence delay line to separate a coherent input beam into several components each having a path length difference equal to a multiple of the coherence length with respect to the other components. The components recombine incoherently at the output of the homogenizer, and the resultant beam has a more uniform spatial intensity suitable for microlithography and laser pantogography. Also disclosed is a variable aperture homogenizer, and a liquid filled homogenizer.

  18. Delayed homicides and the proximate cause.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peter; Gill, James R

    2009-12-01

    Delayed homicides result from complications of remote injuries inflicted by "the hands of another." The investigation of delayed homicides may be a challenge due to a number of factors including: failure to report the death to the proper authorities, lack of ready and adequate documentation of the original injury and circumstances, and jurisdictional differences between the places of injury and death. The certification of these deaths also requires the demonstration of a pathophysiologic link between the remote injury and death. In sorting through these issues, it is helpful to rely upon the definition of the proximate cause of death. Over a 2-year period in New York City, there were 1211 deaths certified as homicide of which 42 were due to injuries sustained greater than 1 year before death. The survival interval ranged from 1.3 to 43.2 years. The most common immediate causes of death were: infections (22), seizures (7), and intestinal obstructions/hernias (6). Common patterns of complications included infection following a gunshot wound of the spinal cord, seizure disorder due to blunt head trauma, and intestinal obstruction/hernia due to adhesions from an abdominal stab wound. Spinal cord injuries resulted in paraplegia in 14 instances and quadriplegia in 8. The mean survival interval for paraplegics was 20.3 years and 14.8 years for quadriplegics; infections were a frequent immediate cause of death in both groups, particularly infections due to chronic bladder catheterization. The definition of proximate cause originated with civil law cases and was later applied to death certification as the proximate cause of death. The gradual extinction of the "year and a day rule" for the limitation of bringing homicide charges in delayed deaths may result in more of these deaths going to trial. Medical examiners/coroners must be able to explain the reasoning behind these death certifications and maintain consistent standards for the certification of all delayed deaths due

  19. [Delayed infection after Bio-alcamid implantation].

    PubMed

    Serrano, C; Serrano, S

    2006-09-01

    Bio-alcamid (Polymekon) is a gelatinous endoprothesis constituted of poly-alkyl-imide and water that is used for correction of aesthetic alterations. It presents very good tolerance with few adverse effects. We present a case of localized infection in one of the sites of injection, three months after the implant was placed in the nasolabial furrows and lips. It would be the first case of a delayed infection following injection of this material, although there are few references in this field.

  20. Exponential Synchronization of Coupled Stochastic Memristor-Based Neural Networks With Time-Varying Probabilistic Delay Coupling and Impulsive Delay.

    PubMed

    Bao, Haibo; Park, Ju H; Cao, Jinde

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the exponential synchronization of coupled stochastic memristor-based neural networks with probabilistic time-varying delay coupling and time-varying impulsive delay. There is one probabilistic transmittal delay in the delayed coupling that is translated by a Bernoulli stochastic variable satisfying a conditional probability distribution. The disturbance is described by a Wiener process. Based on Lyapunov functions, Halanay inequality, and linear matrix inequalities, sufficient conditions that depend on the probability distribution of the delay coupling and the impulsive delay were obtained. Numerical simulations are used to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  1. Delayed shear enhancement in mesoscale atmospheric dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, M.D.; Pielke, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Mesoscale atmospheric dispersion (MAD) is more complicated than smaller-scale dispersion because the mean wind field can no longer be considered steady or horizontally homogeneous over mesoscale time and space scales. Wind shear also plays a much more important role on the mesoscale: horizontal dispersion can be enhanced and often dominated by vertical wind shear on these scales through the interaction of horizontal differential advection and vertical mixing. Just over 30 years ago, Pasquill suggested that this interaction need not be simultaneous and that the combination of differential horizontal advection with delayed or subsequent vertical mixing could maintain effective horizontal diffusion in spite of temporal or spatial reductions in boundary-layer turbulence intensity. This two-step mechanism has not received much attention since then, but a recent analysis of observations from and numerical simulations of two mesoscale tracer experiments suggests that delayed shear enhancement can play an important role in MAD. This paper presents an overview of this analysis, with particular emphasis on the influence of resolvable vertical shear on MAD in these two case studies and the contributions made by delayed shear enhancement.

  2. Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Gradisar, Michael; Crowley, Stephanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review For over 30 years, Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder (DSPD) has been defined as a debilitating sleep condition. Recently there is more awareness of DSPD in young people, yet considerable information is needed to understand its etiology and treatment. This review describes the latest research findings describing the clinical features, etiology and treatment of DSPD. Recent findings The prevalence of DSPD in adolescents and young adults ranges from 1 to 16%. The impact on the individual is significant, particularly in the domains of school/work performance and mental health. We propose contributing factors include reduced homeostatic sleep pressure, a lengthened and delayed circadian rhythm, insensitivity to clock-resetting morning light, and heightened cognitive activity. Evening melatonin administration as a sole treatment appears promising, as is a combination of cognitive-behavior therapy plus morning bright light. Summary Recent findings suggest clinicians should be aware of the clinical features (i.e., significant daytime sleepiness, anxiety and depression symptoms, potential for school drop out) of DSPD, as several biological features underpinning this disorder are unseen in clinical settings. We advise clinicians to become familiar with exogenous evening melatonin administration, and cognitive and behavioral techniques to simultaneously treat the delayed circadian rhythm and associated sleep-onset insomnia. PMID:24060912

  3. β-delayed neutron emission studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Rissanen, J.; Taín, J. L.; Algora, A.; Kratz, K. L.; Lhersonneau, G.; Pfeiffer, B.; Agramunt, J.; Cano-Ott, D.; Gorlychev, V.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Martínez, T.; Achouri, L.; Calvino, F.; Cortés, G.; Eronen, T.; García, A.; Parlog, M.; Podolyak, Z.; Pretel, C.; Valencia, E.

    2014-01-01

    The study of β-delayed neutron emission plays a major role in different fields such as nuclear technology, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure. However the quality of the existing experimental data nowadays is not sufficient for the various technical and scientific applications and new high precision measurements are necessary to improve the data bases. One key aspect to the success of these high precission measurements is the use of a very pure ion beam that ensures that only the ion of interest is produced. The combination of the IGISOL mass separator with the JYFLTRAP Penning trap is an excellent tool for this type of measurement because of the ability to deliver isobarically and even isomerically clean beams. Another key feature of the installation is the non-chemical selectivity of the IGISOL ion source which allows measurements in the important region of refractory elements. This paper summarises the β-delayed neutron emission studies that have been carried out at the IGISOL facility with two different neutron detectors based on 3He counters in a polyethylene moderator: the Mainz neutron detector and the BEta deLayEd Neutron detector.

  4. Delays to the diagnosis of cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Kelly L; Williams, David R

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of cervical dystonia (CD) is based on physical examination and is therefore reliant on clinician experience. Due to variability of presenting symptoms it may be misdiagnosed, thus delaying the provision of effective treatment. We sought to determine the average time taken to make a diagnosis of CD in our clinical cohort and explore contributing factors to diagnostic delay. Forty-nine patients with a diagnosis of CD attending a movement disorder specialist for treatment completed a questionnaire regarding symptoms and clinical interactions at onset and diagnosis. The mean time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 6.8 years (range 0-53 years). More than 50% of patients sought physical therapies initially, prior to consulting their general practitioner. Only 40% of patients sought medical advice within the first 6 months of symptom onset and only 10% were given an initial diagnosis of CD. The first referral from the general practitioner was to a specialist other than a neurologist in 31% of patients. Patients were seen by a mean of three doctors (range one to nine) before being given the correct diagnosis of CD. Delay to diagnosis of CD may in part be due to lack of awareness of the condition amongst health care professionals. Improved diagnostic skill appears likely to have had a substantial impact on the delivery of appropriate treatment in this population.

  5. Learning problems, delayed perceptual development, and puberty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Beverly A.; Zecker, Steven G.; Reid, Miriam D.

    2003-04-01

    Language-based learning problems affect approximately one person in twelve with no other obvious signs of disorder. Many of these individuals have accompanying deficits in nonlinguistic perception. To determine whether age influences the magnitude of these deficits, thresholds on a set of auditory masking tasks were measured in individuals with learning problems and controls ranging in age from 6 years to adult. Performance improved with increasing age in both groups. However, the thresholds of the individuals with learning problems were most similar to those of controls approximately 2-4 years younger on every task, suggesting that the perceptual development of the affected individuals was delayed by a constant amount. Further, on the subset of conditions on which controls reached adult levels of performance after 10 years of age, the improvement of affected individuals halted at 10 years of age, suggesting that puberty may play a critical role in human perceptual development. Taken together, these data support the idea that some learning problems result from a neuromaturational delay, of unknown breadth, and indicate that neurological changes associated with puberty prevent the complete resolution of delayed perceptual development. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD.

  6. Estimating magnitude and duration of incident delays

    SciTech Connect

    Garib, A.; Radwan, A.E.; Al-Deek, H.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic congestion is a major operational problem on urban freeways. In the case of recurring congestion, travelers can plan their trips according to the expected occurrence and severity of recurring congestion. However, nonrecurring congestion cannot be managed without real-time prediction. Evaluating the efficiency of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies in reducing incident effects requires developing models that can accurately predict incident duration along with the magnitude of nonrecurring congestion. This paper provides two statistical models for estimating incident delay and a model for predicting incident duration. The incident delay models showed that up to 85% of variation in incident delay can be explained by incident duration, number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, and traffic demand before the incident. The incident duration prediction model showed that 81% of variation in incident duration can be predicted by number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, truck involvement, time of day, police response time, and weather condition. These findings have implications for on-line applications within the context of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS).

  7. Microwave photonic delay line signal processing.

    PubMed

    Diehl, John F; Singley, Joseph M; Sunderman, Christopher E; Urick, Vincent J

    2015-11-01

    This paper provides a path for the design of state-of-the-art fiber-optic delay lines for signal processing. The theoretical forms for various radio-frequency system performance metrics are derived for four modulation types: X- and Z-cut Mach-Zehnder modulators, a phase modulator with asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and a polarization modulator with control waveplate and polarizing beam splitter. Each modulation type is considered to cover the current and future needs for ideal system designs. System gain, compression point, and third-order output intercept point are derived from the transfer matrices for each modulation type. A discussion of optical amplifier placement and fiber-effect mitigation is offered. The paper concludes by detailing two high-performance delay lines, built for unique applications, that exhibit performance levels an order of magnitude better than commercial delay lines. This paper should serve as a guide to maximizing the performance of future systems and offer a look into current and future research being done to further improve photonics technologies.

  8. 40 CFR 264.1059 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1059 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of...

  9. 40 CFR 264.1059 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1059 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of...

  10. 40 CFR 264.1059 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1059 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of...

  11. 40 CFR 264.1059 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1059 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of...

  12. 40 CFR 264.1059 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1059 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of...

  13. Phase and Complete Synchronizations in Time-Delay Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, D. V.; Manju Shrii, M.; Kurths, J.

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization is a fundamental nonlinear phenomenon that has been intensively investigated during a couple of decades. Recently, synchronization of time-delay systems with or without delay coupling and even synchronization of low-dimensional dynamical systems described by ordinary differential equations and maps with delay coupling have become an active area of research in view of its potential applications. In this article, we provide an overview of our recent results on phase synchronization in time-delay systems, which usually exhibits hyperchaotic attractors with complex topological properties, noise-enhanced phase and noise-induced complete synchronizations in time-delay systems. Further, we demonstrate the phenomena of delay-enhanced and delay-induced stable synchronous chaos in a delay coupled network of time continuous dynamical system using the framework of master stability formalism (MSF) for the first time.

  14. Couples Living in Zika Areas Should Delay Pregnancy, WHO Advises

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159310.html Couples Living in Zika Areas Should Delay Pregnancy, WHO Advises Agency acknowledges ... are trying to have children and live in Zika-affected areas should consider delaying pregnancy to avoid ...

  15. 78 FR 30390 - Applications Delayed More Than 180 Days

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Applications Delayed More Than 180 Days AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of Applications Delayed... of Hazardous Materials Special Permits and Approvals, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

  16. Temporal Delay and Lexical Retrieval in Narratives: Aphasiological Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Jussi; Koivuselka-Sallinen, Paivi

    1987-01-01

    The study analyzed the temporal delays and pauses associated with neologisms produced by Finnish posterior aphasics. Delays and pauses appeared to correlate with the type of neology they preceded. (Author)

  17. Applications of microlaser arrays to tapped delay line systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walge, Ernst K.; Turbyfill, Michael E.

    1995-06-01

    We present an overview of continuing research on a dynamic optical system for producing variable delays of radio frequency (RF) signals. Our approach utilizes both a 16 & 64 tap programmable delay line. The approach uses a microlaser diode array to tap an acousto-optic (AO) cell at various spatial positions along the acoustic channel. This generates multiple delayed versions of the input signal to the AO cell. The use of the laser diode array allows for a programmable time delay, programmable weighting of each delay, a large number of delays equal to the number of elements in the diode array, and multiple delays at one time. This architecture, upon completion of future compatibility testing will replace an existing multi AO cell tap delay line as part of an adaptive optical processor for side lobe jamming cancellation.

  18. Carbon monoxide-induced delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and change in acetylcholine concentration in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nabeshima, T.; Katoh, A.; Ishimaru, H.; Yoneda, Y.; Ogita, K.; Murase, K.; Ohtsuka, H.; Inari, K.; Fukuta, T.; Kameyama, T. )

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the interrelationship of delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and changes in acetylcholine concentration induced by carbon monoxide (CO)-exposure in mice. In the test for retention of the passive avoidance task, amnesia was observed 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure when the mice were exposed to CO 1 day after training; in the case when the mice were exposed to CO 5 and 7 days before training, amnesia was also observed in a retention test given 1 day after training. The number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 subfield was lower than that of the control 3, 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure. But the neurodegeneration in the parietal cortex, area 1, was not observed until 7 days after CO-exposure. The findings indicated that the amnesia and the neuronal death were produced after a delay when the mice were exposed to CO. In addition, the delayed amnesia was closely related to the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. Moreover, (3H)glutamate and (3H)glycine binding sites did not change after CO-exposure but, 7 days after CO-exposure, the concentration of acetylcholine and the binding of (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in the frontal cortex and the striatum were found to have significantly changed, but those in the hippocampus did not show significant change. Therefore, we suggest that delayed amnesia induced by CO-exposure may result from delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and dysfunction in the acetylcholinergic neurons, in the frontal cortex, the striatum and/or the hippocampus.

  19. Puerto Rico Strong Motion Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martínez-Cruzado, J. A.; Martínez-Pagan, J.; Santana-Torres, E. X.; Torres-O, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Puerto Rico Strong Motion Seismic Network is currently in charge of the operation of: (i) free-field (ff) strong motion stations, (ii) instrumented structures (STR) (Dams, Bridges, Buildings), and (iii) the data acquisition/monitoring and analysis of earthquakes considered strong from the point of view of their intensity and magnitude. All these instruments are deployed in the Puerto Rico Island (PRI), US-, and British-Virgin Islands (BVI), and Dominican Republic (DR). The Puerto Rico Island and the Caribbean region have high potential to be affected by earthquakes that could be catastrophic for the area. The Puerto Rico Strong Motion Seismic Network (actually Puerto Rico Strong Motion Program, PRSMP) has grown since 1970's from 7 ff strong motion stations and one instrumented building with analog accelerographs to 111 ff strong motion stations and 16 instrumented buildings with digital accelerographs: PRI: 88 ff, 16 STR., DR: 13 ff, BVI: 5 ff, 2 STR collecting data via IP (internet), DU (telephone), and stand alone stations The current stage of the PRSMP seismic network, the analysis of moderate earthquakes that were recorded and/or occurred on the island, results of the intensity distribution of selected earthquakes, as well as results of dynamic parameter identification of some of the instrumented structures are here presented.

  20. Effects of amphetamine on delay discounting in rats depend upon the manner in which delay is varied.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David R; Henson, Cedric; France, Charles P

    2014-12-01

    Whether stimulant drugs like amphetamine increase or decrease choice of larger delayed reinforcers over smaller immediately available reinforcers under delay discounting procedures can depend on several factors, including the order in which delay is presented. This study examined whether the order of delay presentation impacts drug effects on discounting in rats (n = 8) trained and tested under an ascending order, a descending order, as well as under a fixed delay condition. Responses on one lever delivered 1 food pellet immediately and responses on the other lever delivered 3 food pellets immediately or after a delay (4-32 s). In Experiment 1, the delay to the larger reinforcer varied within session and the order of delay presentation (ascending or descending) varied across conditions. In Experiment 2, the same delay value was presented in all blocks of the session (i.e., delay was fixed), and delay varied across conditions. Under the ascending order of delay, amphetamine (0.32-1.78 mg/kg) increased choice of the larger reinforcer in some rats and decreased choice in others. In the same rats responding under the descending and fixed delay conditions, amphetamine markedly decreased choice of the larger reinforcer even in the component associated with no delay. In some subjects, the effects of amphetamine differed depending on the manner in which delay was presented, indicating that drug-induced changes in performance were due, in part, to mechanisms other than altered sensitivity to reinforcer delay. These results also suggest that a history of responding under both orders of delay presentation can modulate drug effects. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'.