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  1. Strongyloides stercoralis seroprevalence in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Diep, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Thai, Pham Quang; Trang, Nghiem Nguyen Minh; Jäger, Julia; Fox, Annette; Horby, Peter; Phuong, Hoang Vu Mai; Anh, Dang Duc; Mai, LE Thi Quynh; VAN Doorn, H Rogier; Nadjm, Behzad

    2017-11-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the roundworm Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30-100 million people worldwide. Many Southeast-Asian countries report a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection, but there are little data from Vietnam. Here, we evaluated the seroprevalence of S. stercoralis related to geography, sex and age in Vietnam through serological testing of anonymized sera. Sera (n = 1710, 1340 adults and 270 children) from an anonymized age-stratified serum bank from four regions in Vietnam between 2012 and 2013 were tested using a commercial Strongyloides ratti immunoglobulin G ELISA. Seroreactivity was found in 29·1% (390/1340) of adults and 5·5% (15/270) of children. Male adults were more frequently seroreactive than females (33·3% vs. 24·9%, P = 0·001). The rural central highlands had the highest seroprevalence (42·4% of adults). Seroreactivity in the other regions was 29·9% (Hue) and 26·0% and 18·2% in the large urban centres of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, respectively. We conclude that seroprevalence of S. stercoralis was high in the Vietnamese adult population, especially in rural areas.

  2. Intestinal immune cells in Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Trajman, A; MacDonald, T T; Elia, C C

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strongyloides stercoralis can cause a wide spectrum of disease in man, ranging from a chronic asymptomatic infection to a hyperinfective, often fatal syndrome. In rodents, spontaneous expulsion of Strongyloides spp occurs after experimental infection. Mast cells, goblet cells, and eosinophils have been identified as possible effectors of this expulsion. AIMS: To investigate intestinal histopathology and mucosal immunity in immunocompetent patients with chronic S stercoralis infection. METHODS: Jejunal biopsies were performed in 19 immunocompetent patients with a positive stool examination for S stercoralis and few or no symptoms, and in seven healthy controls. Specimens were processed for histopathological analysis and stained by the immunoperoxidase technique, using the following monoclonal antibodies: CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, anti-T cell receptor (TcR) gamma/delta, RFD1 and RFD7 (two different macrophage markers), Ki67+ (proliferating) cells, antihuman leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, and anticollagen IV. In addition, CD25+ cells, mast cells, IgE expressing cells, calprotectin containing cells, and neutrophil elastase positive cells were stained by the alkaline phosphatase method. RESULTS: Jejunal morphology and the numbers of different T cell subsets, mast cells, IgE expressing cells, eosinophils, and goblet cells were unaffected by S stercoralis infection. Conversely, the numbers of mature macrophages and dividing enterocytes in the crypts were reduced significantly. Crypt enterocytes did not express HLA-DR in both groups. The expression of HLA-DR by villus enterocytes was also comparable in patients and controls. There were no activated (CD25+) cells in the mucosa of either patients or controls. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with seven healthy uninfected volunteers, a group of 19 Brazilians with clinically mild strongyloides infection showed no abnormality of mucosal structure and no increase in non-specific inflammatory cells. Likewise, there was no increase in

  3. Strongyloides stercoralis Infection in Alcoholic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Flavia T. F.; Souza, Joelma N.; Silva, Mônica L. S.; Inês, Elizabete J.; Soares, Neci M.

    2016-01-01

    The course of Strongyloides stercoralis infection is usually asymptomatic with a low discharge of rhabditoid larva in feces. However, the deleterious effects of alcohol consumption seem to enhance the susceptibility to infection, as shown by a fivefold higher strongyloidiasis frequency in alcoholics than in nonalcoholics. Moreover, the association between S. stercoralis infection and alcoholism presents a risk for hyperinfection and severe strongyloidiasis. There are several possible mechanisms for the disruption of the host-parasite equilibrium in ethanol-addicted patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. One explanation is that chronic ethanol intake stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to produce excessive levels of endogenous cortisol, which in turn can lead to a deficiency in type 2 T helper cells (Th2) protective response, and also to mimic the parasite hormone ecdysone, which promotes the transformation of rhabditiform larvae to filariform larvae, leading to autoinfection. Therefore, when untreated, alcoholic patients are continuously infected by this autoinfection mechanism. Thus, the early diagnosis of strongyloidiasis and treatment can prevent serious forms of hyperinfection in ethanol abusers. PMID:28105424

  4. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection associated with impaired intestinal motility disorder

    PubMed Central

    Figueira, Cláudia Frangioia; Cos, Lynda Dorene; Ussami, Edson Yassushi; Otoch, José Pinhata; Felipe-Silva, Aloisio

    2015-01-01

    Infection by Strongyloides stercoralis is a highly prevalent helminthiasis, which is mostly distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Although a substantial number of cases are asymptomatic or paucisymtomatic, severe and life-threatening forms of this infection still occur and not infrequently is lately diagnosed. Gram-negative bacteria septicemia, which frequently accompanies the severe helminthiasis, contributes to the high mortality rate. Severe infection is invariably triggered by any imbalance in the host's immunity, favoring the auto-infective cycle, which increases the intraluminal parasite burden enormously. Clinical presentation of severe cases is varied, and diagnosis requires a high suspicion index. Acute abdomen has been reported in association with S. stercoralis infection, but intestinal necrosis is rarely found during the surgical approach. The authors report the case of a man who sought the emergency unit with recent onset abdominal pain. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with obstructive acute abdomen. Scattered adhesions and a necrotic ileal segment with a tiny perforation represented the surgical findings. The patient outcome was unfavorable and respiratory distress required an open lung biopsy. Both surgical specimens showed S. stercoralis infection. Unfortunately the patient underwent multiple organ failure and septicemia, and subsequently died. The authors call attention to the finding of intestinal necrosis and impaired intestinal motility disorder as possibilities for the diagnosis and risk factor, respectively, for a severe infection of S. stercoralis. PMID:26484331

  5. Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection

    PubMed Central

    Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Echevarria, Juan; White, A Clinton; Terashima, Angelica; Samalvides, Frine; Pérez-Molina, José A; Plana, Maria N

    2016-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis is a gut infection with Strongyloides stercoralis which is common world wide. Chronic infection usually causes a skin rash, vomiting, diarrhoea or constipation, and respiratory problems, and it can be fatal in people with immune deficiency. It may be treated with ivermectin or albendazole or thiabendazole. Objectives To assess the effects of ivermectin versus benzimidazoles (albendazole and thiabendazole) for treating chronic strongyloides infection. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (24 August 2015); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (January 1966 to August 2015); EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2015); LILACS (August 2015); and reference lists of articles. We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) using 'strongyloid*' as a search term, reference lists, and conference abstracts. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials of ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for treating chronic strongyloides infection. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias in the included trials. We used risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and fixed- or random-effects models. We pooled adverse event data if the trials were sufficiently similar in their adverse event definitions. Main results We included seven trials, enrolling 1147 participants, conducted between 1994 and 2011 in different locations (Africa, Southeast Asia, America and Europe). In trials comparing ivermectin with albendazole, parasitological cure was higher with ivermectin (RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.08; 478 participants, four trials, moderate quality evidence). There were no statistically significant differences in adverse events (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.09; 518 participants, four trials, low quality evidence). In trials comparing ivermectin with thiabendazole

  6. Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    PubMed

    Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Echevarria, Juan; White, A Clinton; Terashima, Angelica; Samalvides, Frine; Pérez-Molina, José A; Plana, Maria N

    2016-01-18

    Strongyloidiasis is a gut infection with Strongyloides stercoralis which is common world wide. Chronic infection usually causes a skin rash, vomiting, diarrhoea or constipation, and respiratory problems, and it can be fatal in people with immune deficiency. It may be treated with ivermectin or albendazole or thiabendazole. To assess the effects of ivermectin versus benzimidazoles (albendazole and thiabendazole) for treating chronic strongyloides infection. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (24 August 2015); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (January 1966 to August 2015); EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2015); LILACS (August 2015); and reference lists of articles. We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) using 'strongyloid*' as a search term, reference lists, and conference abstracts. Randomized controlled trials of ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for treating chronic strongyloides infection. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias in the included trials. We used risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and fixed- or random-effects models. We pooled adverse event data if the trials were sufficiently similar in their adverse event definitions. We included seven trials, enrolling 1147 participants, conducted between 1994 and 2011 in different locations (Africa, Southeast Asia, America and Europe).In trials comparing ivermectin with albendazole, parasitological cure was higher with ivermectin (RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.08; 478 participants, four trials, moderate quality evidence). There were no statistically significant differences in adverse events (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.09; 518 participants, four trials, low quality evidence).In trials comparing ivermectin with thiabendazole, there was little or no difference in parasitological cure (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.20; 467

  7. Corticosteroid-induced asthma: a manifestation of limited hyperinfection syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis.

    PubMed

    Sen, P; Gil, C; Estrellas, B; Middleton, J R

    1995-09-01

    Inadequate therapeutic response to parenteral corticosteroids in patients with acute bronchial asthma is infrequent. We report four patients whose bronchial asthma symptoms worsened after treatment with parenteral corticosteroids. All had larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis in the stool. The new attack or the exacerbation of asthma appeared to be precipitated by systemic corticosteroid administration. The paradoxic therapeutic response of asthma to glucocorticoides was the major pulmonary manifestation of Strongyloides superinfection; there was no evidence of other organ involvement. Individuals with new onset of bronchial asthma or worsening of asthmatic episodes concurrent with the use of systemic corticosteroids should have thorough investigation for possible superinfection due to Strongyloides stercoralis. This is particularly important for patients who have resided in areas where intestinal helminthic infections are endemic. Discontinuance of steroid therapy or reduction in dosage of parenteral steroids appears necessary. Treatment with thiabendazole appears to be effective in patients with limited hyperinfection syndrome.

  8. Status and Risk Factors of Strongyloides stercoralis Infection in Rural Communities of Xayaburi Province, Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Senephansiri, Phasouk; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Laymanivong, Sakorn; Boonmar, Thidarut

    2017-10-01

    The present study was performed to reveal the current status and risk factors of Strongyloides stercoralis infections in the villages of Kenethao district, Xayaburi Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected and examined for S. stercoralis using Koga-agar plate culture technique. Among 516 individuals, the prevalence of S. stercoralis and hookworm infection was 44.2% and 17.1%, respectively. Co-infection was detected in 13.2% of the cases. The prevalence did not significantly differ between males and females (P=0.193). However, the prevalence of S. stercoralis infection increased significantly with age (P=0.041). Of the risk factors examined, both performing farming activities (P=0.001) and walking barefoot when going outside of the house (P=0.003) showed significant correlations with S. stercoralis infections. Our results suggest that S. stercoralis is highly endemic in this area. The National Helminth Control Program of Lao PDR should take actions to control S. stercoralis infection. In addition, provision of health education about the benefits of wearing shoes would be important for reducing infection in the study area. Moreover, the application of high-sensitivity diagnostic approaches is needed to obtain the true impact of S. stercoralis infections in all rural communities in order to provide surveillance activities in Lao PDR.

  9. A possible origin population of pathogenic intestinal nematodes, Strongyloides stercoralis, unveiled by molecular phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Nagayasu, Eiji; Aung, Myo Pa Pa Thet Hnin Htwe; Hortiwakul, Thanaporn; Hino, Akina; Tanaka, Teruhisa; Higashiarakawa, Miwa; Olia, Alex; Taniguchi, Tomoyo; Win, Soe Moe Thu; Ohashi, Isao; Odongo-Aginya, Emmanuel Igwaro; Aye, Khin Myo; Mon, Mon; Win, Kyu Kyu; Ota, Kei; Torisu, Yukari; Panthuwong, Siripen; Kimura, Eisaku; Palacpac, Nirianne M Q; Kikuchi, Taisei; Hirata, Tetsuo; Torisu, Shidow; Hisaeda, Hajime; Horii, Toshihiro; Fujita, Jiro; Htike, Wah Win; Maruyama, Haruhiko

    2017-07-07

    Humans and dogs are the two major hosts of Strongyloides stercoralis, an intestinal parasitic nematode. To better understand the phylogenetic relationships among S. stercoralis isolates infecting humans and dogs and to assess the zoonotic potential of this parasite, we analyzed mitochondrial Cox1, nuclear 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, and a major sperm protein domain-containing protein genes. Overall, our analyses indicated the presence of two distinct lineages of S. stercoralis (referred to as type A and type B). While type A parasites were isolated both from humans and dogs in different countries, type B parasites were found exclusively in dogs, indicating that the type B has not adapted to infect humans. These epidemiological data, together with the close phylogenetic relationship of S. stercoralis with S. procyonis, a Strongyloides parasite of raccoons, possibly indicates that S. stercoralis originally evolved as a canid parasite, and later spread into humans. The inability to infect humans might be an ancestral character of this species and the type B might be surmised to be an origin population from which human-infecting strains are derived.

  10. Occurrence of and risk factors for Strongyloides stercoralis infection in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Schär, Fabian; Giardina, Federica; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Vounatsou, Penelope; Marti, Hanspeter; Odermatt, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The soil-transmitted nematode, Strongyloides stercoralis is one of the most-neglected of all neglected tropical diseases. It is globally distributed, favouring the humid, wet climates of the tropics and subtropics. Inadequate sanitary conditions promote the spread of S. stercoralis infection. In South-East Asia, many countries provide the ideal ecological and economic setting for high S. stercoralis infection rates. Yet, in most of these countries, little is known about the actual prevalence and distribution of S. stercoralis. One reason for this lack of knowledge pertains to the time- and resource-intensive diagnostic methods used to detect S. stercoralis infection. The Koga Agar culture method and the Baermann method are considered to be the best coprological diagnostic methods for field settings today. Both detect the parasite with high sensitivity. This sensitivity can be increased further by examining stool samples for several consecutive days, thereby increasing the chances of detecting low-intensity chronic infections. Diagnostic challenges, however, lead to the omission of S. stercoralis in studies of soil-transmitted helminths and few studies focus on S. stercoralis, specifically. These factors lead to an underreporting of the nematode's prevalence, not only in South-East Asia but worldwide. We have reviewed the scientific literature of the last 25 years and estimated country-wide prevalence rates for South-East Asia. We aim to summarise what is known today about the prevalence of S. stercoralis in South-East Asia, as well as to ascertain the risk factors and diagnostic methods most commonly applied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Strongyloides stercoralis is associated with significant morbidity in rural Cambodia, including stunting in children

    PubMed Central

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Neumayr, Andreas; Char, Meng Chuor; Hatz, Christoph; Muth, Sinuon

    2017-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted nematode that can replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and highly prevalent in Cambodia. The extent of morbidity associated with S. stercoralis infection is difficult to assess due to the broad spectrum of symptoms and, thus, remains uncertain. Methodology/Principal findings Clinical signs were compared among S. stercoralis infected vs. non-infected participants in a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2012 in eight villages of Northern Cambodia, and before and after treatment with a single oral dose of ivermectin (200μg/kg BW) among participants harboring S. stercoralis. Growth retardation among schoolchildren and adolescents was assessed using height-for-age and thinness using body mass index-for-age. S. stercoralis prevalence was 31.1% among 2,744 participants. Urticaria (55% vs. 47%, OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1–1.6) and itching (52% vs. 48%, OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0–1.4) were more frequently reported by infected participants. Gastrointestinal, dermatological, and respiratory symptoms were less prevalent in 103 mono-infected participants after treatment. Urticaria (66% vs. 11%, OR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01–0.1) and abdominal pain (81 vs. 27%, OR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.02–0.2) mostly resolved by treatment. S. stercoralis infection was associated with stunting, with 2.5-fold higher odds in case of heavy infection. Conclusions/Significance The morbidity associated with S. stercoralis confirmed the importance of gastrointestinal and dermatological symptoms unrelated to parasite load, and long-term chronic effects when associated with malnutrition. The combination of high prevalence and morbidity calls for the integration of S. stercoralis into ongoing STH control measures in Cambodia. PMID:29059195

  12. Methylprednisolone acetate induces, and Δ7-dafachronic acid suppresses, Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in NSG mice.

    PubMed

    Patton, John B; Bonne-Année, Sandra; Deckman, Jessica; Hess, Jessica A; Torigian, April; Nolan, Thomas J; Wang, Zhu; Kliewer, Steven A; Durham, Amy C; Lee, James J; Eberhard, Mark L; Mangelsdorf, David J; Lok, James B; Abraham, David

    2018-01-02

    Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection causes high mortality rates in humans, and, while hyperinfection can be induced by immunosuppressive glucocorticoids, the pathogenesis remains unknown. Since immunocompetent mice are resistant to infection with S. stercoralis , we hypothesized that NSG mice, which have a reduced innate immune response and lack adaptive immunity, would be susceptible to the infection and develop hyperinfection. Interestingly, despite the presence of large numbers of adult and first-stage larvae in S. stercoralis -infected NSG mice, no hyperinfection was observed even when the mice were treated with a monoclonal antibody to eliminate residual granulocyte activity. NSG mice were then infected with third-stage larvae and treated for 6 wk with methylprednisolone acetate (MPA), a synthetic glucocorticoid. MPA treatment of infected mice resulted in 50% mortality and caused a significant >10-fold increase in the number of parasitic female worms compared with infected untreated mice. In addition, autoinfective third-stage larvae, which initiate hyperinfection, were found in high numbers in MPA-treated, but not untreated, mice. Remarkably, treatment with Δ7-dafachronic acid, an agonist of the parasite nuclear receptor Ss -DAF-12, significantly reduced the worm burden in MPA-treated mice undergoing hyperinfection with S. stercoralis Overall, this study provides a useful mouse model for S. stercoralis autoinfection and suggests a therapeutic strategy for treating lethal hyperinfection.

  13. Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm co-infection: spatial distribution and determinants in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Vounatsou, Penelope; Chammartin, Frédérique; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2018-01-12

    Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm are two soil-transmitted helminths (STH) that are highly prevalent in Cambodia. Strongyloides stercoralis causes long-lasting infections and significant morbidity but is largely neglected, while hookworm causes the highest public health burden among STH. The two parasites have the same infection route, i.e. skin penetration. The extent of co-distribution, which could result in potential high co-morbidities, is unknown in highly endemic settings like Cambodia. The aim of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of S. stercoralis-hookworm co-infection risk and to investigate determinants of co-infection in Preah Vihear Province, North Cambodia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2010 in 60 villages of Preah Vihear Province. Diagnosis was performed on two stool samples, using combined Baermann technique and Koga agar culture plate for S. stercoralis and Kato-Katz technique for hookworm. Bayesian multinomial geostatistical models were used to assess demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioural determinants of S. stercoralis-hookworm co-infection and to predict co-infection risk at non-surveyed locations. Of the 2576 participants included in the study, 48.6% and 49.0% were infected with S. stercoralis and hookworm, respectively; 43.8% of the cases were co-infections. Females, preschool aged children, adults aged 19-49 years, and participants who reported regularly defecating in toilets, systematically boiling drinking water and having been treated with anthelmintic drugs had lower odds of co-infection. While S. stercoralis infection risk did not appear to be spatially structured, hookworm mono-infection and co-infection exhibited spatial correlation at about 20 km. Co-infection risk was positively associated with longer walking distances to a health centre and exhibited a small clustering tendency. The association was only partly explained by climatic variables, suggesting a role for underlying factors, such as

  14. Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis by morphological characteristics combine with molecular biological methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Fu; Xu, Lian; Luo, Shi-Qi; Xie, Hui; Chen, Wei; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Sun, Xi

    2017-04-01

    Strongyloidiasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases caused by infection with the nematode Strongyloides genus and distributed worldwide. Strongyloidiasis can be fatal in immunosuppressed patients induced hyperinfection or disseminated strongyloidiasis. Unfortunately, until now, due to the unspecific clinical symptom in infected individuals and the low sensitivity diagnosis of strongyloidiasis, many patients were misdiagnosed every year. Furthermore, the larvae of the Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) is similar to other nematodes such as hookworm, Trichostrongylus increased the difficulty of diagnosis. In this case, the patient is a 63-year-old male person, who had a nearly 30 years medical history of asthma and emphysema, and 4-5-year medical history of diabetes. The sputum examination found some parasite larvae, then we identify the larvae using clinical observation and morphological characteristics combine with examined cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) and 18S rRNA genes by PCR, sequence analysis and finally classified by phylogenetic analysis, the larvae were diagnosed as S. stercoralis. Our results showed that diagnosis with strongyloidiasis by morphological characteristics combine with molecular biological methods can improve the sensitive of diagnosis and provide a final diagnosis for the disease in the clinics.

  15. E. coli Meningitis Presenting in a Patient with Disseminated Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Juliana B.; Maque, Yvan; Moquillaza, Manuel A.; Anicama, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Spontaneous Escherichia coli meningitis is an infrequent condition in adults and is associated with some predisposing factors, including severe Strongyloides stercoralis (SS) infections. Case Presentation. A 43-year-old Hispanic man, with history of travelling to the jungle regions of Peru and Brazil two decades ago, and who received prednisone due to Bell's palsy for three weeks before admission, presented to the Emergency Department with diarrhea, fever, and hematochezia. A week after admission he developed drowsiness, meningeal signs, abdominal distension, and constipation. A cerebrospinal fluid culture showed extended spectrum β-lactamase producing E. coli. A colonoscopy was performed and showed pancolitis. Three days after the procedure the patient became unstable and developed peritoneal signs. He underwent a laparotomy, which ended up in a total colectomy and partial proctectomy due to toxic megacolon. Three days later the patient died in the intensive care unit due to septic shock. Autopsy was performed and microscopic examination revealed the presence of multiple Strongyloides larvae throughout the body. Conclusion. Strongyloides stercoralis infection should be excluded in adults with spontaneous E. coli meningitis, especially, if gastrointestinal symptoms and history of travelling to an endemic area are present. Even with a proper diagnosis and management, disseminated strongyloidiasis has a poor prognosis. PMID:24324900

  16. E. coli Meningitis Presenting in a Patient with Disseminated Strongyloides stercoralis.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Juliana B; Maque, Yvan; Moquillaza, Manuel A; Anicama, William E

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Spontaneous Escherichia coli meningitis is an infrequent condition in adults and is associated with some predisposing factors, including severe Strongyloides stercoralis (SS) infections. Case Presentation. A 43-year-old Hispanic man, with history of travelling to the jungle regions of Peru and Brazil two decades ago, and who received prednisone due to Bell's palsy for three weeks before admission, presented to the Emergency Department with diarrhea, fever, and hematochezia. A week after admission he developed drowsiness, meningeal signs, abdominal distension, and constipation. A cerebrospinal fluid culture showed extended spectrum β -lactamase producing E. coli. A colonoscopy was performed and showed pancolitis. Three days after the procedure the patient became unstable and developed peritoneal signs. He underwent a laparotomy, which ended up in a total colectomy and partial proctectomy due to toxic megacolon. Three days later the patient died in the intensive care unit due to septic shock. Autopsy was performed and microscopic examination revealed the presence of multiple Strongyloides larvae throughout the body. Conclusion. Strongyloides stercoralis infection should be excluded in adults with spontaneous E. coli meningitis, especially, if gastrointestinal symptoms and history of travelling to an endemic area are present. Even with a proper diagnosis and management, disseminated strongyloidiasis has a poor prognosis.

  17. Patterns of detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in stool specimens: implications for diagnosis and clinical trials.

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, G; Fernandes-Silva, E; Alves, S; Rocha, A; Albuquerque, R; Addiss, D

    1996-01-01

    Reported efficacies of drugs used to treat Strongyloides stercoralis infection vary widely. Because diagnostic methods are insensitive, therapeutic trials generally require multiple negative posttreatment stool specimens as evidence of drug efficacy. However, only a single positive stool specimen is usually required for study enrollment. To determine the reproducibility of detection of S. stercoralis larvae in the stool, 108 asymptomatic infected men submitted 25 g of fresh stool once a week for eight consecutive weeks for examination by the Baermann technique. During the 8-week study, 239 (27.7%) of 864 stool specimens were positive for S. stercoralis. Rates of detection of larvae in the stool specimens ranged from eight of eight specimens in 3 (2.8%) men to none of eight specimens in 36 (33.3%) men. Of 43 men for whom S. stercoralis was detected in at least two of the first four stool specimens, only 1 (2.3%) man tested negative on all of the next four specimens. In comparison, of 29 men who had detectable larvae in only one of the first four specimens, 22 (75.9%) tested negative on all of the next four samples. Thus, if these 29 men had been enrolled in a therapeutic trial between the first and second sets of four specimens, the efficacy of a drug with no activity against this parasite would have been estimated to be 76%. These data suggest that patterns of S. stercoralis detection vary widely among infected persons and that intermittent larval shedding can lead to inflated estimates of drug efficacy. Before a patient is entered in a clinical trial of drug efficacy, four consecutive stool specimens should be examined for S. stercoralis; only persons with two or more positive specimens should be enrolled. PMID:8880521

  18. Strongyloides stercoralis and relatives: recent advances in general and molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Lok, James B

    2014-12-01

    Human strongyloidiasis is a threat to global health, presenting significant challenges in diagnosis and clinical management. The imperative to incorporate strongyoidiasis more fully into control programs for soil-transmitted helminths is increasingly recognized. The unique life cycles of S. stercoralis and congeneric species contain both free-living and parasitic generations, and transcriptomic methods have recently identified genes of potential importance to parasitism in these parasites. Proteomics recently revealed stage-specific secreted proteins that appear crucial to the host-parasite interaction. A comprehensive genome sequencing project for Strongyloides spp. is now nearing completion. Recent technical advances in transgenesis for S. stercoralis and S. ratti , including the first establishment of stable transgenic lines, promise to advance functional evaluations of genes expressed in conjunction with crucial life cycle events. Studies employing these methods recently bolstered the hypothesis that S. stercoralis uses cellular signaling pathways homologous to three that regulate dauer larval development in Caenorhabditis elegans to regulate morphogenesis and development of its infective third-stage larva. The free-living generation of Strongyloides makes classical genetics formally possible. Recent advances, such as a genetic map of S. ratti and a molecular genetic and karyotypic analysis of sex determination in S. papillosus , will greatly facilitate this approach. Advanced methods for study of chemosensation in C. elegans were recently applied to discover numerous host attractant molecules that mediate host finding and contact by infective third-stage larvae of Strongyloides spp. Finally, nucleic acid-based diagnostic methods have recently come to the fore as alternatives to parasitological and immunodiagnostic techniques.

  19. Eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis in an HIV-positive patient

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Dennis Baroni; Friedrisch, Bruno Kras; Fontanive Junior, Vilmar; da Rocha, Vívian Wünderlich

    2012-01-01

    A 29 year old female HIV-positive patient presented in emergency with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, tenderness and positive Blumberg sign. Laboratorial tests revealed eosinophilia, anaemia and leukocytosis. She underwent exploratory laparotomy followed by appendectomy. The pathological analysis of the appendix revealed acute appendicitis, accentuated eosinophilia and infestation by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis. She did well after surgery and adequate treatment. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by these two parasitic worms reported in the medical literature. PMID:22605801

  20. Eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis in an HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Dennis Baroni; Friedrisch, Bruno Kras; Fontanive Junior, Vilmar; da Rocha, Vívian Wünderlich

    2012-03-27

    A 29 year old female HIV-positive patient presented in emergency with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, tenderness and positive Blumberg sign. Laboratorial tests revealed eosinophilia, anaemia and leukocytosis. She underwent exploratory laparotomy followed by appendectomy. The pathological analysis of the appendix revealed acute appendicitis, accentuated eosinophilia and infestation by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis. She did well after surgery and adequate treatment. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by these two parasitic worms reported in the medical literature.

  1. Occurrence of Strongyloides stercoralis in Yunnan Province, China, and Comparison of Diagnostic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Wang, Li-Bo; Wang, Xue-Zhong; Li, Lan-Hua; Marti, Hanspeter; Utzinger, Jürg

    2007-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis is a neglected soil-transmitted helminth species, and there is a lack of parasitologic and epidemiologic data pertaining to this parasite in China and elsewhere. We studied the local occurrence of S. stercoralis in a village in Yunnan province, China, and comparatively assessed the performance of different diagnostic methods. Methodology/Principal Findings Multiple stool samples from a random population sample were subjected to the Kato-Katz method, an ether-concentration technique, the Koga agar plate method, and the Baermann technique. Among 180 participants who submitted at least 2 stool samples, we found a S. stercoralis prevalence of 11.7%. Males had a significantly higher prevalence than females (18.3% versus 6.1%, p = 0.011), and infections were absent in individuals <15 years of age. Infections were only detected by the Baermann (highest sensitivity) and the Koga agar plate method, but neither with the Kato-Katz nor an ether-concentration technique. The examination of 3 stool samples rather than a single one resulted in the detection of 62% and 100% more infections when employing the Koga agar plate and the Baermann technique, respectively. The use of a mathematical model revealed a ‘true’ S. stercoralis prevalence in the current setting of up to 16.3%. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that S. stercoralis is endemic in the southern part of Yunnan province and that differential diagnosis and integrated control of intestinal helminth infections needs more pointed emphasis in rural China. PMID:17989788

  2. RNAseq Analysis of the Parasitic Nematode Strongyloides stercoralis Reveals Divergent Regulation of Canonical Dauer Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Stoltzfus, Jonathan D.; Minot, Samuel; Berriman, Matthew; Nolan, Thomas J.; Lok, James B.

    2012-01-01

    The infectious form of many parasitic nematodes, which afflict over one billion people globally, is a developmentally arrested third-stage larva (L3i). The parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis differs from other nematode species that infect humans, in that its life cycle includes both parasitic and free-living forms, which can be leveraged to investigate the mechanisms of L3i arrest and activation. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has a similar developmentally arrested larval form, the dauer, whose formation is controlled by four pathways: cyclic GMP (cGMP) signaling, insulin/IGF-1-like signaling (IIS), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling, and biosynthesis of dafachronic acid (DA) ligands that regulate a nuclear hormone receptor. We hypothesized that homologous pathways are present in S. stercoralis, have similar developmental regulation, and are involved in L3i arrest and activation. To test this, we undertook a deep-sequencing study of the polyadenylated transcriptome, generating over 2.3 billion paired-end reads from seven developmental stages. We constructed developmental expression profiles for S. stercoralis homologs of C. elegans dauer genes identified by BLAST searches of the S. stercoralis genome as well as de novo assembled transcripts. Intriguingly, genes encoding cGMP pathway components were coordinately up-regulated in L3i. In comparison to C. elegans, S. stercoralis has a paucity of genes encoding IIS ligands, several of which have abundance profiles suggesting involvement in L3i development. We also identified seven S. stercoralis genes encoding homologs of the single C. elegans dauer regulatory TGFβ ligand, three of which are only expressed in L3i. Putative DA biosynthetic genes did not appear to be coordinately regulated in L3i development. Our data suggest that while dauer pathway genes are present in S. stercoralis and may play a role in L3i development, there are significant differences between the two species

  3. RNAseq analysis of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis reveals divergent regulation of canonical dauer pathways.

    PubMed

    Stoltzfus, Jonathan D; Minot, Samuel; Berriman, Matthew; Nolan, Thomas J; Lok, James B

    2012-01-01

    The infectious form of many parasitic nematodes, which afflict over one billion people globally, is a developmentally arrested third-stage larva (L3i). The parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis differs from other nematode species that infect humans, in that its life cycle includes both parasitic and free-living forms, which can be leveraged to investigate the mechanisms of L3i arrest and activation. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has a similar developmentally arrested larval form, the dauer, whose formation is controlled by four pathways: cyclic GMP (cGMP) signaling, insulin/IGF-1-like signaling (IIS), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling, and biosynthesis of dafachronic acid (DA) ligands that regulate a nuclear hormone receptor. We hypothesized that homologous pathways are present in S. stercoralis, have similar developmental regulation, and are involved in L3i arrest and activation. To test this, we undertook a deep-sequencing study of the polyadenylated transcriptome, generating over 2.3 billion paired-end reads from seven developmental stages. We constructed developmental expression profiles for S. stercoralis homologs of C. elegans dauer genes identified by BLAST searches of the S. stercoralis genome as well as de novo assembled transcripts. Intriguingly, genes encoding cGMP pathway components were coordinately up-regulated in L3i. In comparison to C. elegans, S. stercoralis has a paucity of genes encoding IIS ligands, several of which have abundance profiles suggesting involvement in L3i development. We also identified seven S. stercoralis genes encoding homologs of the single C. elegans dauer regulatory TGFβ ligand, three of which are only expressed in L3i. Putative DA biosynthetic genes did not appear to be coordinately regulated in L3i development. Our data suggest that while dauer pathway genes are present in S. stercoralis and may play a role in L3i development, there are significant differences between the two species

  4. Histopathology of gastric and duodenal Strongyloides stercoralis locations in fifteen immunocompromised subjects.

    PubMed

    Rivasi, Francesco; Pampiglione, Silvio; Boldorini, Renzo; Cardinale, Loredana

    2006-12-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a worldwide parasitic infection affecting approximately 75 million people. In Italy, it was more prevalent in the past among rural populations of irrigated areas. To determine the histopathologic alterations of the gastric and duodenal mucosa associated with the presence of Strongyloides stercoralis parasites. Fifteen cases of strongyloidiasis were observed in immunocompromised patients during a recent 6-year period in Italy. S. stercoralis was found histologically in gastric biopsies (10 cases), in a gastrectomy (1 case), and in duodenal biopsies (9 cases). In 5 cases the parasite was present both in gastric and duodenal biopsies. Four patients were affected by lymphoma, 2 by multiple myeloma, 2 by gastric carcinoma, 1 by chronic myeloid leukemia, 1 by sideroblastic anemia, 1 by colorectal adenocarcinoma, 1 by chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis, 1 by chronic gastritis, 1 by gastric ulcers, and 1 by rheumatoid arthritis in corticosteroid therapy. No patient was affected by human immunodeficiency virus infection. Strongyloidiasis was not clinically diagnosed. Histologic examination revealed several sections of S. stercoralis larvae, many eggs, and some adult forms. All the parasites were located in the gastric and/or the duodenal crypts. Eosinophils infiltrating into the lamina propria were found in all cases; their intensity was correlated with the intensity of the infection. Histologic diagnosis of strongyloidiasis must be taken into consideration when examining both gastric and duodenal biopsies in immunocompromised patients, to avoid the development of an overwhelming infection of the parasite, which is dangerous for the life of the patient.

  5. Spatial distribution of soil-transmitted helminths, including Strongyloides stercoralis, among children in Zanzibar.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Stefanie; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Simba Khamis, I; Mgeni, Ali F; Stothard, J Russell; Rollinson, David; Marti, Hanspeter; Utzinger, Jürg

    2008-11-01

    A programme periodically distributing anthelminthic drugs to school-aged children for the control of soiltransmitted helminthiasis was launched in Zanzibar in the early 1990s. We investigated the spatial distribution of soiltransmitted helminth infections, including Strongyloides stercoralis, in 336 children from six districts in Unguja, Zanzibar, in 2007. One stool sample per child was examined with the Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate and Baermann methods. The point prevalence of the different helminth infections was compared to the geological characteristics of the study sites. The observed prevalences for Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and S. stercoralis were 35.5%, 12.2%, 11.9% and 2.2%, respectively, with considerable spatial heterogeneity. Whilst T. trichiura and hookworm infections were found in all six districts, no A. lumbricoides infections were recorded in the urban setting and only a low prevalence (2.2%) was observed in the South district. S. stercoralis infections were found in four districts with the highest prevalence (4.0%) in the West district. The prevalence of infection with any soil-transmitted helminth was highest in the North A district (69.6%) and lowest in the urban setting (22.4%). A. lumbricoides, hookworm and, with the exception of the North B district, S. stercoralis infections were observed to be more prevalent in the settings north of Zanzibar Town, which are characterized by alluvial clayey soils, moist forest regions and a higher precipitation. After a decade of large-scale administration of anthelminthic drugs, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections across Unguja is still considerable. Hence, additional measures, such as improving access to adequate sanitation and clean water and continued health education, are warranted to successfully control soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Zanzibar.

  6. Different but overlapping populations of Strongyloides stercoralis in dogs and humans-Dogs as a possible source for zoonotic strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Jaleta, Tegegn G; Zhou, Siyu; Bemm, Felix M; Schär, Fabian; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Lok, James B; Streit, Adrian

    2017-08-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a much-neglected soil born helminthiasis caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Human derived S. stercoralis can be maintained in dogs in the laboratory and this parasite has been reported to also occur in dogs in the wild. Some authors have considered strongyloidiasis a zoonotic disease while others have argued that the two hosts carry host specialized populations of S. stercoralis and that dogs play a minor role, if any, as a reservoir for zoonotic S. stercoralis infections of humans. We isolated S. stercoralis from humans and their dogs in rural villages in northern Cambodia, a region with a high incidence of strongyloidiasis, and compared the worms derived from these two host species using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms. We found that in dogs there exist two populations of S. stercoralis, which are clearly separated from each other genetically based on the nuclear 18S rDNA, the mitochondrial cox1 locus and whole genome sequence. One population, to which the majority of the worms belong, appears to be restricted to dogs. The other population is indistinguishable from the population of S. stercoralis isolated from humans. Consistent with earlier studies, we found multiple sequence variants of the hypervariable region I of the 18 S rDNA in S. stercoralis from humans. However, comparison of mitochondrial sequences and whole genome analysis suggest that these different 18S variants do not represent multiple genetically isolated subpopulations among the worms isolated from humans. We also investigated the mode of reproduction of the free-living generations of laboratory and wild isolates of S. stercoralis. Contrary to earlier literature on S. stercoralis but similar to other species of Strongyloides, we found clear evidence of sexual reproduction. Overall, our results show that dogs carry two populations, possibly different species of Strongyloides. One population appears to be dog specific but the other one is

  7. Survival in a case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage due to Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection.

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Daniel A; Gainor, Justin F; Vernovsky, Inna; Winsett, Julie; Beer, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode endemic to tropical and sub-tropical regions. Although infection is typically asymptomatic or self-limited, immunocompromised individuals can develop a severe form of disease marked by hyperinfection. Pulmonary involvement accompanies hyperinfection in a majority of cases, though manifestations range from asymptomatic infiltrates to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) and respiratory failure. When complicated by DAH, the hyperinfection syndrome is usually fatal. We report a case of a 65-year-old Guatemalan woman with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) treated with chronic steroids who presented with Escherichia coli urosepsis. She was initially treated with antibiotics and corticosteroids. She subsequently developed DAH due to disseminated strongyloidiasis. She was treated with oral and subcutaneous ivermectin and had complete recovery.

  8. Strongyloides stercoralis age-1: a potential regulator of infective larval development in a parasitic nematode.

    PubMed

    Stoltzfus, Jonathan D; Massey, Holman C; Nolan, Thomas J; Griffith, Sandra D; Lok, James B

    2012-01-01

    Infective third-stage larvae (L3i) of the human parasite Strongyloides stercoralis share many morphological, developmental, and behavioral attributes with Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larvae. The 'dauer hypothesis' predicts that the same molecular genetic mechanisms control both dauer larval development in C. elegans and L3i morphogenesis in S. stercoralis. In C. elegans, the phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI3) kinase catalytic subunit AGE-1 functions in the insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway to regulate formation of dauer larvae. Here we identify and characterize Ss-age-1, the S. stercoralis homolog of the gene encoding C. elegans AGE-1. Our analysis of the Ss-age-1 genomic region revealed three exons encoding a predicted protein of 1,209 amino acids, which clustered with C. elegans AGE-1 in phylogenetic analysis. We examined temporal patterns of expression in the S. stercoralis life cycle by reverse transcription quantitative PCR and observed low levels of Ss-age-1 transcripts in all stages. To compare anatomical patterns of expression between the two species, we used Ss-age-1 or Ce-age-1 promoter::enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter constructs expressed in transgenic animals for each species. We observed conservation of expression in amphidial neurons, which play a critical role in developmental regulation of both dauer larvae and L3i. Application of the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 suppressed L3i in vitro activation in a dose-dependent fashion, with 100 µM resulting in a 90% decrease (odds ratio: 0.10, 95% confidence interval: 0.08-0.13) in the odds of resumption of feeding for treated L3i in comparison to the control. Together, these data support the hypothesis that Ss-age-1 regulates the development of S. stercoralis L3i via an IIS pathway in a manner similar to that observed in C. elegans dauer larvae. Understanding the mechanisms by which infective larvae are formed and activated may lead to novel control measures and treatments for strongyloidiasis

  9. Strongyloides stercoralis age-1: A Potential Regulator of Infective Larval Development in a Parasitic Nematode

    PubMed Central

    Stoltzfus, Jonathan D.; Massey, Holman C.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Griffith, Sandra D.; Lok, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Infective third-stage larvae (L3i) of the human parasite Strongyloides stercoralis share many morphological, developmental, and behavioral attributes with Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larvae. The ‘dauer hypothesis’ predicts that the same molecular genetic mechanisms control both dauer larval development in C. elegans and L3i morphogenesis in S. stercoralis. In C. elegans, the phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI3) kinase catalytic subunit AGE-1 functions in the insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway to regulate formation of dauer larvae. Here we identify and characterize Ss-age-1, the S. stercoralis homolog of the gene encoding C. elegans AGE-1. Our analysis of the Ss-age-1 genomic region revealed three exons encoding a predicted protein of 1,209 amino acids, which clustered with C. elegans AGE-1 in phylogenetic analysis. We examined temporal patterns of expression in the S. stercoralis life cycle by reverse transcription quantitative PCR and observed low levels of Ss-age-1 transcripts in all stages. To compare anatomical patterns of expression between the two species, we used Ss-age-1 or Ce-age-1 promoter::enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter constructs expressed in transgenic animals for each species. We observed conservation of expression in amphidial neurons, which play a critical role in developmental regulation of both dauer larvae and L3i. Application of the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 suppressed L3i in vitro activation in a dose-dependent fashion, with 100 µM resulting in a 90% decrease (odds ratio: 0.10, 95% confidence interval: 0.08–0.13) in the odds of resumption of feeding for treated L3i in comparison to the control. Together, these data support the hypothesis that Ss-age-1 regulates the development of S. stercoralis L3i via an IIS pathway in a manner similar to that observed in C. elegans dauer larvae. Understanding the mechanisms by which infective larvae are formed and activated may lead to novel control measures and treatments for

  10. Strongyloides stercoralis infection increases the likelihood to detect Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in peripheral blood in Chagas disease patients.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Piron, Maria; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Sauleda, Silvia; Molina-Morant, Daniel; Moure, Zaira; Molina, Israel

    2017-11-01

    In a previous study performed by our group, Strongyloides stercoralis infection in patients with Chagas disease was associated with higher proportion of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA detection in peripheral blood. The aim of the study was to confirm this association in a larger cohort of patients. Cross-sectional study of all patients with Chagas disease diagnosed from 2005 to 2015 during blood donation at the Catalan Blood Bank. Demographic data and T. cruzi RT-PCR were collected. S. stercoralis infection diagnosis was based on a serological test. Two hundred and two blood donors were included. T. cruzi RT-PCR was positive in 72 (35.6%) patients, and S. stercoralis serology was positive in 22 (10.9%) patients. Patients with positive S. stercoralis serology had higher proportion of positive T. cruzi RT-PCR than those with negative serology (54.5% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.050), and the difference increased when taking a serological index cut-off of 2.5, which increases the specificity of the test to detect a confirmed strongyloidiasis (60% vs. 33%, P = 0.017). Patients with Chagas disease with positive S. stercoralis serology had higher proportion of positive T. cruzi RT-PCR in peripheral blood than those with negative serology, which reflects the potential immunomodulatory effects of S. stercoralis in T. cruzi co-infected patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Detrimental Effect of Water Submersion of Stools on Development of Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Anamnart, Witthaya; Pattanawongsa, Attarat; Intapan, Pewpan Maleewong; Morakote, Nimit; Janwan, Penchom; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is prevalent in Thailand, yet its prevalence in the south is lower than in other parts of the country. This might be due to the long rainy season in the south resulting in stool submersion in water inhibiting worm development. In this study, the effect of water submersion of fecal samples on development of Strongyloides stercoralis was investigated. Ten ml of a 1∶5 fecal suspension were placed in 15-ml tubes, 35-mm dishes, and 90-mm dishes producing the depths of 80 mm, 11 mm and 2 mm-suspensions, respectively. The worm development was followed at 1/6, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 24, and 36 h, by determining the number of filariform larva (FL) generated from agar-plate cultures (APC). Fecal suspensions kept in tubes and 35-mm dishes showed a decline in FL yield relative to incubation time and reached zero production 14 h after incubation. In contrast, the number of FL generated from the suspension kept in 90-mm dishes remained stable up to 36 h. Cumulatively, all tubes and 35-mm dishes became negative in APC after 14 h while 90-mm dishes remained APC-positive up to 36 h. Adding more water or stool suspension to dishes resulted in a decreased number of FL. Mechanical aeration of the suspensions in tubes restored an almost normal FL yield. It appears that the atmospheric air plays a significant role in growth and development of S. stercoralis in the environment and may be one of factors which contribute to a lower prevalence of human strongyloidiasis in the south of Thailand. PMID:24358173

  12. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome: a case series and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Geri, Guillaume; Rabbat, Antoine; Mayaux, Julien; Zafrani, Lara; Chalumeau-Lemoine, Ludivine; Guidet, Bertrand; Azoulay, Elie; Pène, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis may lead to overwhelming infestation [Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome (SHS)]. We aimed at describing a case series of patients admitted in intensive care unit (ICU) with SHS and report a literature review of such cases. Retrospective multicenter study of 11 patients admitted to the ICU of tertiary hospitals with SHS between 2000 and 2013. Literature review with Pubmed retrieved 122 cases. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictive factors of ICU mortality and shock occurrence. 133 patients [median age 53 (39, 64), 72.2 % males] were included. Underlying immunosuppression was present in 127 patients, mostly long-term corticosteroid treatment in 111 (83.5 %) patients. Fever (80.8 %), respiratory (88.6 %), and gastrointestinal (71.2 %) symptoms were common clinical manifestations. Shock occurred in 75 (57.3 %) patients and mechanical ventilation was required in 89 (67.9 %) patients. Hypereosinophilia and a concomitant bacterial infection were observed in 34 (34.3 %) and 51 (38.4 %) patients, respectively. The in-ICU mortality rate was 60.3 %. Predictive factors of ICU mortality were shock occurrence [Odds ratio (OR) 18.1, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 3.03-107.6, p < 0.01] and mechanical ventilation (OR 28.1, 95 % CI 3.6-217, p < 0.01). Hypereosinophilia (OR 0.21, 95 % CI 0.06-0.7, p = 0.01) and a concomitant bacterial infection (OR 4.68, 95 % CI 1.3-16.8, p = 0.02) were independent predictors of shock occurrence. SHS remains associated with a poor outcome, especially when associated with shock and mechanical ventilation. Deterioration to shock is often related to concomitant bacterial infection. The poor outcome of established SHS pleads for a large application of antiparasitic primary prophylaxis in at-risk patients.

  13. Strongyloides Stercoralis Infection Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Patients in the United States of America: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Vazquez Guillamet, Laia Jimena; Saul, Zane; Miljkovich, Goran; Vilchez, Gabriel Alejandro; Mendonca, Nikolai; Gourineni, Venkata; Lillo, Nicholas; Pinto, Marguerite; Baig, Aurengzaib; Gangcuangco, Louie Mar

    2017-04-03

    BACKGROUND Strongyloides stercoralis infection is endemic in subtropical and tropical regions but is reported rather sporadically in temperate countries. In the USA, the highest rates of infection are from the southeastern states, predominantly among immigrants. There is paucity of case reports on S. stercoralis infection among HIV-infected patients who were born and raised in the USA. CASE REPORT A 61-year-old male with known HIV infection (CD4 count: 235 cells/uL, undetectable HIV RNA, on antiretroviral therapy) presented with a 3-month history of diarrhea. He was initially diagnosed to have diarrhea secondary to norovirus and later with Escherichia coli. He was treated with levofloxacin but the diarrhea persisted. Stool PCR, Clostridium difficile enzyme-linked immunoassay, cryptosporidium and giardia antigen, cyclospora and isospora smear, and fecal microscopy were all negative. Peripheral blood eosinophil count was 1,000 eosinophils/mcL. Colonic biopsies revealed fragments of S. stercoralis larvae within the crypts. The patient was treated with ivermectin with improvement of symptoms. Social history revealed that he was born and raised in the northeastern USA. He was a daily methamphetamine user and engaged in anal sex with men. He denied travel to endemic areas, except for a visit to Japan more than 30 years ago. CONCLUSIONS Our case highlights that S. stercoralis may be an underdiagnosed/under-reported cause of chronic diarrhea among HIV-infected patients. What makes this case peculiar is that the patient was born and raised in the continental USA, absence of recent travel to endemic areas, and relatively high CD4 counts. Parasitic infections, such as S. stercoralis, should be considered among HIV-infected patients with persistent diarrhea and eosinophilia regardless of ethnicity or recent travel history.

  14. Strongyloides stercoralis-infected dogs as a model for human disseminated strongyloidiasis

    SciTech Connect

    Aikens, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The route of migration of Strongyloides stercoralis third-stage infective larvae was explored in primary and autogenous infections in the dog. Larvae was radiolabeled by one of two means: (1) by culture of the free-living L3 stage in a nutrient medium, deficient in methionine, supplemented with ({sup 75}Se)Selenomethionine, and (2) by feeding of ({sup 75}Se)Selenomethionine-labeled bacteria to microbiverous L1 and L2 stages. Third-stage labeled larvae were then injected into 10-day-old pups either subcutaneously, to study primary migration, or into the distal ileum, to study autogenous migration. At intervals after infection pups were killed and whole body compressed organ autoradiography done onmore » individual tissues to determine organ-specific larval transit sites. Autoradiographic recoveries were analyzed in the context of a series of mathematical models designed to test migratory route hypotheses. Postulated routes of migration for primary infections included (1) the Null Hypothesis or Scramble Route in which larvae migrate to the intestines by any available route, (2) the Classical Pulmonary Route in which larvae migrate sequentially from skin, to blood, to lungs, to the trachea, esophagus and intestines, and (3) the Head Migration Route in which larvae move from caudal to cranial sites within the skin and muscle before entering the intestines. Postulated routes for autoinfective migration reiterated 1 and 2 above. Least squares comparisons, of calculated models to observed autoradiographic distributions, led us to conclude that there was no reason to reject the simplest assumption that larvae move by any available route to the definitive site in both forms of migration. Sampling through tracheostomy sites in 14 pups for larval migrants confirmed this conclusion.« less

  15. Genome-Wide Analyses of Individual Strongyloides stercoralis (Nematoda: Rhabditoidea) Provide Insights into Population Structure and Reproductive Life Cycles.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Taisei; Hino, Akina; Tanaka, Teruhisa; Aung, Myo Pa Pa Thet Hnin Htwe; Afrin, Tanzila; Nagayasu, Eiji; Tanaka, Ryusei; Higashiarakawa, Miwa; Win, Kyu Kyu; Hirata, Tetsuo; Htike, Wah Win; Fujita, Jiro; Maruyama, Haruhiko

    2016-12-01

    The helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, which is transmitted through soil, infects 30-100 million people worldwide. S. stercoralis reproduces sexually outside the host as well as asexually within the host, which causes a life-long infection. To understand the population structure and transmission patterns of this parasite, we re-sequenced the genomes of 33 individual S. stercoralis nematodes collected in Myanmar (prevalent region) and Japan (non-prevalent region). We utilised a method combining whole genome amplification and next-generation sequencing techniques to detect 298,202 variant positions (0.6% of the genome) compared with the reference genome. Phylogenetic analyses of SNP data revealed an unambiguous geographical separation and sub-populations that correlated with the host geographical origin, particularly for the Myanmar samples. The relatively higher heterozygosity in the genomes of the Japanese samples can possibly be explained by the independent evolution of two haplotypes of diploid genomes through asexual reproduction during the auto-infection cycle, suggesting that analysing heterozygosity is useful and necessary to infer infection history and geographical prevalence.

  16. Extracellular traps are associated with human and mouse neutrophil and macrophage mediated killing of larval Strongyloides stercoralis.

    PubMed

    Bonne-Année, Sandra; Kerepesi, Laura A; Hess, Jessica A; Wesolowski, Jordan; Paumet, Fabienne; Lok, James B; Nolan, Thomas J; Abraham, David

    2014-06-01

    Neutrophils are multifaceted cells that are often the immune system's first line of defense. Human and murine cells release extracellular DNA traps (ETs) in response to several pathogens and diseases. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is crucial to trapping and killing extracellular pathogens. Aside from neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils also release ETs. We hypothesized that ETs serve as a mechanism of ensnaring the large and highly motile helminth parasite Strongyloides stercoralis thereby providing a static target for the immune response. We demonstrated that S. stercoralis larvae trigger the release of ETs by human neutrophils and macrophages. Analysis of NETs revealed that NETs trapped but did not kill larvae. Induction of NETs was essential for larval killing by human but not murine neutrophils and macrophages in vitro. In mice, extracellular traps were induced following infection with S. stercoralis larvae and were present in the microenvironment of worms being killed in vivo. These findings demonstrate that NETs ensnare the parasite facilitating larval killing by cells of the immune system. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Extracellular traps are associated with human and mouse neutrophil and macrophage mediated killing of larval Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Bonne-Année, Sandra; Kerepesi, Laura A.; Hess, Jessica A.; Wesolowski, Jordan; Paumet, Fabienne; Lok, James B.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Abraham, David

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are multifaceted cells that are often the immune system’s first line of defense. Human and murine cells release extracellular DNA traps (ETs) in response to several pathogens and diseases. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is crucial to trapping and killing extracellular pathogens. Aside from neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils also release ETs. We hypothesized that ETs serve as a mechanism of ensnaring the large and highly motile helminth parasite Strongyloides stercoralis thereby providing a static target for the immune response. We demonstrated that S. stercoralis larvae trigger the release of ETs by human neutrophils and macrophages. Analysis of NETs revealed that NETs trapped but did not kill larvae. Induction of NETs was essential for larval killing by human but not murine neutrophils and macrophages in vitro. In mice, extracellular traps were induced following infection with S. stercoralis larvae and were present in the microenvironment of worms being killed in vivo. These findings demonstrate that NETs ensnare the parasite facilitating larval killing by cells of the immune system. PMID:24642003

  18. The Transcriptome Analysis of Strongyloides stercoralis L3i Larvae Reveals Targets for Intervention in a Neglected Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marcilla, Antonio; Garg, Gagan; Bernal, Dolores; Ranganathan, Shoba; Forment, Javier; Ortiz, Javier; Muñoz-Antolí, Carla; Dominguez, M. Victoria; Pedrola, Laia; Martinez-Blanch, Juan; Sotillo, Javier; Trelis, Maria; Toledo, Rafael; Esteban, J. Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis is one of the most neglected diseases distributed worldwide with endemic areas in developed countries, where chronic infections are life threatening. Despite its impact, very little is known about the molecular biology of the parasite involved and its interplay with its hosts. Next generation sequencing technologies now provide unique opportunities to rapidly address these questions. Principal Findings Here we present the first transcriptome of the third larval stage of S. stercoralis using 454 sequencing coupled with semi-automated bioinformatic analyses. 253,266 raw sequence reads were assembled into 11,250 contiguous sequences, most of which were novel. 8037 putative proteins were characterized based on homology, gene ontology and/or biochemical pathways. Comparison of the transcriptome of S. strongyloides with those of other nematodes, including S. ratti, revealed similarities in transcription of molecules inferred to have key roles in parasite-host interactions. Enzymatic proteins, like kinases and proteases, were abundant. 1213 putative excretory/secretory proteins were compiled using a new pipeline which included non-classical secretory proteins. Potential drug targets were also identified. Conclusions Overall, the present dataset should provide a solid foundation for future fundamental genomic, proteomic and metabolomic explorations of S. stercoralis, as well as a basis for applied outcomes, such as the development of novel methods of intervention against this neglected parasite. PMID:22389732

  19. Immunization with the recombinant antigen Ss-IR induces protective immunity to infection with Strongyloides stercoralis in mice.

    PubMed

    Abraham, David; Hess, Jessica A; Mejia, Rojelio; Nolan, Thomas J; Lok, James B; Lustigman, Sara; Nutman, Thomas B

    2011-10-19

    Human intestinal infections with the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis remain a significant problem worldwide and a vaccine would be a useful addition to the tools available to prevent and control this infection. The goal of this study was to test single antigens for their efficacy in a vaccine against S. stercoralis larvae in mice. Alum was used as the adjuvant in these studies and antigens selected for analysis were either recognized by protective human IgG (Ss-TMY-1, Ss-EAT-6, and Ss-LEC-5) or were known to be highly immunogenic in humans (Ss-NIE-1 and Ss-IR). Only mice immunized with the Ss-IR antigen demonstrated a significant decrease of approximately 80% in the survival of larval parasites in the challenge infection. Antibodies, recovered from mice with protective immunity to S. stercoralis after immunization with Ss-IR, were used to locate the antigen in the larvae. Confocal microscopy revealed that IgG from mice immunized with Ss-IR bound to the surface of the parasites and observations by electron microscopy indicated that IgG bound to granules in the glandular esophagus. Serum collected from mice immunized with Ss-IR passively transferred immunity to naïve mice. These studies demonstrate that Ss-IR, in combination with alum, induces high levels of protective immunity through an antibody dependent mechanism and may therefore be suitable for further development as a vaccine against human strongyloidiasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tribendimidine and albendazole for treating soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis and Taenia spp.: open-label randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Xiao, Shu-Hua; Wu, Zhong-Xing; Zhou, Hui; Utzinger, Jürg

    2008-01-01

    Tribendimidine is an anthelminthic drug with a broad spectrum of activity. In 2004 the drug was approved by Chinese authorities for human use. The efficacy of tribendimidine against soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura) has been established, and new laboratory investigations point to activity against cestodes and Strongyloides ratti. In an open-label randomized trial, the safety and efficacy of a single oral dose of albendazole or tribendimidine (both drugs administered at 200 mg for 5- to 14-year-old children, and 400 mg for individuals > or = 15 years) against soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Taenia spp. were assessed in a village in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. The analysis was on a per-protocol basis and the trial is registered with controlled-trials.com (number ISRCTN01779485). Both albendazole and tribendimidine were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides and, moderately, against hookworm. The efficacy against T. trichiura was low. Among 57 individuals who received tribendimidine, the prevalence of S. stercoralis was reduced from 19.3% to 8.8% (observed cure rate 54.5%, p = 0.107), and that of Taenia spp. from 26.3% to 8.8% (observed cure rate 66.7%, p = 0.014). Similar prevalence reductions were noted among the 66 albendazole recipients. Taking into account "new" infections discovered at treatment evaluation, which were most likely missed pre-treatment due to the lack of sensitivity of available diagnostic approaches, the difference between the drug-specific net Taenia spp. cure rates was highly significant in favor of tribendimidine (p = 0.001). No significant adverse events of either drug were observed. Our results suggest that single-dose oral tribendimidine can be employed in settings with extensive intestinal polyparasitism, and its efficacy against A. lumbricoides and hookworm was confirmed. The promising results obtained with tribendimidine against S

  1. Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and Other Intestinal Parasites among Institutionalized Mentally Disabled Individuals in Rasht, Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    SAEIDINIA, Amin; TAVAKOLI, Ilnaz; NAGHIPOUR, Mohammad Reza; RAHMATI, Behnaz; GHAVAMI LAHIJI, Hossein; SALKHORI, Omid; ASHRAFI, Keyhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: We aimed to determine the status of strongyloidiasis in mentally disabled population in the institutional places in Rasht City, the capital of Guilan Province, northern Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 institutions for mentally retarded population in Rasht in 2013. Before collecting the samples, a questionnaire was filled out for each participant by an expert person. A single stool sample was obtained from each of the 173 subjects and examined using direct wet mount, formalin-ether concentration technique and agar plate culture method. Results: A total of 173 mentally disabled individuals aged 2–57 (25.69±11.56) yr old were studied. Stool examination showed that 51 (29.5%) cases were infected with at least one parasite. Of 173 studied cases only 10 (5.8%) individuals were infected with pathogenic parasites, of which 2 (1.2%) cases were infected with Strongyloides stercoralis and 8 (4.6%) with Giardia lamblia. On the other hand, 42 (24.3%) of the studied population were infected with non-pathogenic intestinal protozoa such as Blastocystis hominis (n=29, 16.8%), Entamoeba coli (n=16, 9.2%) and Endolimax nana (n=4, 2.3%). Mixed protozoal infections were observed in 8 (4.6%) individuals. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of S. stercoralis in mentally disabled individuals in Rasht was somewhat higher than those of normal population of the province. The same picture was seen when the prevalence of G. lamblia and non-pathogenic protozoa in normal and mentally disabled populations were compared. PMID:28127364

  2. Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and Other Intestinal Parasite Infections in School Children in a Rural Area of Angola: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    de Alegría, María Luisa Aznar Ruiz; Colmenares, Karen; Espasa, Mateu; Amor, Arancha; Lopez, Isabel; Nindia, Arlette; Kanjala, Joaquina; Guilherme, Domingas; Sulleiro, Elena; Barriga, Begoña; Gil, Eva; Salvador, Fernando; Bocanegra, Cristina; López, Teresa; Moreno, Milagros; Molina, Israel

    2017-10-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. stercoralis and other intestinal parasites and identify the risk factors for infection with S. stercoralis in a rural area of Angola. A cross-sectional study was conducted in school-age children (SAC) in Cubal, Angola. A questionnaire collecting clinical and epidemiological variables was used, and two stool samples were collected. A concentration technique (Ritchie) and a technique for detection of larvae migration (Baermann) were performed. Of 230 SAC, 56.1% were female and the mean age was 9.3 years (SD 2.45). Severe malnutrition, according to body mass index (BMI)-for-age, was observed in 20.4% of the SAC, and anemia was found in 59.6%. Strongyloides stercoralis was observed in 28 of the 230 (12.8%) SAC. Eggs of other helminths were observed in 51 (22.2%) students: Hymenolepis spp. in 27 students (11.7%), hookworm in 14 (6.1%), Schistosoma haematobium in four (1.7%), Enterobius vermicularis in four (1.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides in three (1.3%), Taenia spp. in two (0.9%), and Fasciola hepatica in one (0.4%). Protozoa were observed in 17 (7.4%) students. Detection of S. stercoralis was higher using the Baermann technique versus using formol-ether (11.3 vs. 3%). Overall prevalence of S. stercoralis in the school population of 16 studied schools in the municipal area of Cubal was greater than 10%. This fact must be considered when designing deworming mass campaigns. The use of specific tests in larvae detection is needed to avoid overlooking this parasite.

  3. Accuracy of five serologic tests for the follow up of Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    PubMed

    Buonfrate, Dora; Sequi, Marco; Mejia, Rojelio; Cimino, Ruben O; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J; Albonico, Marco; Degani, Monica; Tais, Stefano; Angheben, Andrea; Requena-Mendez, Ana; Muñoz, José; Nutman, Thomas B; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2015-02-01

    Traditional faecal-based methods have poor sensitivity for the detection of S. stercoralis, therefore are inadequate for post-treatment evaluation of infected patients who should be carefully monitored to exclude the persistence of the infection. In a previous study, we demonstrated high accuracy of five serology tests for the screening and diagnosis of strongyloidiasis. Aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of the same five tests for the follow up of patients infected with S. stercoralis. Retrospective study on anonymized, cryo-preserved samples available at the Centre for Tropical Diseases (Negrar, Verona, Italy). Samples were collected before and from 3 to 12 months after treatment. The samples were tested with two commercially-available ELISA tests (IVD, Bordier), two techniques based on a recombinant antigen (NIE-ELISA and NIE-LIPS) and one in-house IFAT. The results of each test were evaluated both in relation to the results of fecal examination and to those of a composite reference standard (classifying as positive a sample with positive stools and/or at least three positive serology tests). The associations between the independent variables age and time and the dependent variable value of serological test (for all five tests), were analyzed by linear mixed-effects regression model. A high proportion of samples demonstrated for each test a seroreversion or a relevant decline (optical density/relative light units halved or decrease of at least two titers for IFAT) at follow up, results confirmed by the linear mixed effects model that showed a trend to seroreversion over time for all tests. In particular, IVD-ELISA (almost 90% samples demonstrated relevant decline) and IFAT (almost 87%) had the best performance. Considering only samples with a complete negativization, NIE-ELISA showed the best performance (72.5% seroreversion). Serology is useful for the follow up of patients infected with S. stercoralis and determining test of cure.

  4. Albendazole Stimulates the Excretion of Strongyloides stercoralis Larvae in Stool Specimens and Enhances Sensitivity for Diagnosis of Strongyloidiasis▿

    PubMed Central

    Anamnart, Witthaya; Pattanawongsa, Attarat; Intapan, Pewpan Maleewong; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2010-01-01

    We succeeded in stimulation of excretion of Strongyloides stercoralis larvae in stool by oral administration of a single dose of 400 mg albendazole to strongyloidiasis patients. This result overcame the false-negative results of stool examination due to low larval numbers. Stool samples were collected from 152 asymptomatic strongyloidiasis patients in the morning, prior to eating. After breakfast, they were given a dose of 400 mg albendazole, and stool samples were collected the following morning. Agar plate culture (APC), modified formalin-ether concentration technique (MFECT), and direct-smear (DS) methods were used to examine stool specimens within 3 h after defecation. The results before and after albendazole was taken were compared. All APCs that were positive became negative after albendazole administration, while MFECT showed a 1.4- to 18.0-fold increase in larval numbers in 97.4% (148/152) of the samples. The DSs were positive in 3 out of 3 smears at a larval number of ≥45 larvae per g (lpg) of stool, and in 1or 2 out of 3 smears at a larval number between 35 and 44 lpg. At a larval number of <35 lpg, the DS became negative. Interestingly 90.5% (19/21) of the samples that were negative by all methods before albendazole administration became positive by MFECT after the treatment. Thus, MFECT can be effectively used for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis with prior administration of albendazole to the subject. PMID:20844212

  5. Elevated Systemic Levels of Eosinophil, Neutrophil, and Mast Cell Granular Proteins in Strongyloides Stercoralis Infection that Diminish following Treatment.

    PubMed

    Rajamanickam, Anuradha; Munisankar, Saravanan; Bhootra, Yukthi; Dolla, Chandra Kumar; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2018-01-01

    Infection with the helminth parasite Strongyloides stercoralis ( Ss ) is commonly clinically asymptomatic that is often accompanied by peripheral eosinophilia. Granulocytes are activated during helminth infection and can act as immune effector cells. Plasma levels of eosinophil and neutrophil granular proteins convey an indirect measure of granulocyte degranulation and are prominently augmented in numerous helminth-infected patients. In this study, we sought to examine the levels of eosinophil, neutrophil, and mast cell activation-associated granule proteins in asymptomatic Ss infection and to understand their kinetics following anthelmintic therapy. To this end, we measured the plasma levels of eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil major basic protein, neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase, neutrophil proteinase-3, mast cell tryptase, leukotriene C4, and mast cell carboxypeptidase-A3 in individuals with asymptomatic Ss infection or without Ss infection [uninfected (UN)]. We also estimated the levels of all of these analytes in infected individuals following definitive treatment of Ss infection. We demonstrated that those infected individuals have significantly enhanced plasma levels of eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil major basic protein, elastase, myeloperoxidase, mast cell tryptase, leukotriene C4, and carboxypeptidase-A3 compared to UN individuals. Following the treatment of Ss infection, each of these granulocyte-associated proteins drops significantly. Our data suggest that eosinophil, neutrophil, and mast cell activation may play a role in the response to Ss infection.

  6. Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection and other soil-transmitted helminths by cross-sectional survey in a rural community in Gisagara District, Southern Province, Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Tuyizere, Aloys; Ndayambaje, Alphonse; Bayingana, Claude; Ntirenganya, Cyprien; Dusabejambo, Vincent; Hale, DeVon C

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Strongyloides stercoralis is one of the most neglected tropical diseases. Sparse, dated central African and Rwandan data on seroprevalence are available to guide public health efforts and clinical care. Methods In February 2016 we conducted a community-based cross-sectional study among 539 asymptomatic participants in a rural area in the Gisagara District, Southern Province, Rwanda. Direct faecal smear (DFS) and modified Koga agar plate culture (APC) were used to detect S. stercoralis infection in a single stool sample. Data on other soil-transmitted helminths diagnosed by DFS were also recorded. Results Four intestinal helminth infections were diagnosed, with S. stercoralis (17.4%) and hookworms (8.2%) seen most often. APC, compared with DFS, increased the diagnosis rate for S. stercoralis from 1.9% to 17.4% (p<0.01). The prevalence was higher in farmers and those with lower socio-economic status. Females were less often infected than males (odds ratio 0.6 [95% confidence interval 0.3 to 0.9], p=0.02). Conclusions S. stercoralis is highly prevalent among the general population in a rural area of Gisagara District, Southern Province, Rwanda. Access to effective diagnosis and treatment is needed for this neglected disease. PMID:29726969

  7. Organ donor screening practices for Strongyloides stercoralis infection among US organ procurement organizations.

    PubMed

    Abanyie, Francisca A; Valice, Emily; Delli Carpini, Kristin W; Gray, Elizabeth B; McAuliffe, Isabel; Chin-Hong, Peter V; Handali, Sukwan; Montgomery, Susan P; Huprikar, Shirish

    2018-03-07

    Targeted donor screening for strongyloidiasis performed at the time of organ procurement can prevent this life-threatening donor-derived infection. The Association of Organ Procurement Organizations surveyed members to determine the number of US organ procurement organizations (OPOs) performing donor screening for Strongyloides infection and their screening practices. All 58 OPOs responded to the survey. Only 6 (10%) currently screen donors for strongyloidiasis; most OPOs started 6-36 months before the survey and one started 6 years prior. All used risk-based criteria to determine which donors to screen, though the criteria varied among OPOs. A median of 56 donors have been screened at each OPO since initiating their screening programs, with a median of 2 infected donors (range 0-13) identified. Overall, 53 organs have been transplanted from 22 infected donors, including hearts, lungs, kidneys, and livers. Of 52 OPOs not currently screening, 20 had considered screening and one plans to start screening in the near future. Of those considering risk-based screening, most had not decided on the criteria. Uncertainty about the benefits of and guidelines for screening and misconceptions about the interpretation of test results were concerns shared by non-screening OPOs. Continued education and advocacy on the importance of targeted donor screening are needed. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. High prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in school-aged children in a rural highland of north-western Ethiopia: the role of intensive diagnostic work-up.

    PubMed

    Amor, Aranzazu; Rodriguez, Esperanza; Saugar, José M; Arroyo, Ana; López-Quintana, Beatriz; Abera, Bayeh; Yimer, Mulat; Yizengaw, Endalew; Zewdie, Derejew; Ayehubizu, Zimman; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Echazú, Adriana; Krolewieki, Alejandro J; Aparicio, Pilar; Herrador, Zaida; Anegagrie, Melaku; Benito, Agustín

    2016-12-01

    Soil-transmitted helminthiases (hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura) are extremely prevalent in school-aged children living in poor sanitary conditions. Recent epidemiological data suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis is highly unreported. However, accurate data are essential for conducting interventions aimed at introducing control and elimination programmes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 396 randomly selected school-aged children in Amhara region in rural area in north-western Ethiopia, to assess the prevalence of S. stercoralis and other intestinal helminths. We examined stools using three techniques: conventional stool concentration; and two S. stercoralis-specific methods, i.e. the Baermann technique and polymerase chain reaction. The diagnostic accuracy of these three methods was then compared. There was an overall prevalence of helminths of 77.5%, with distribution differing according to school setting. Soil-transmitted helminths were recorded in 69.2%. Prevalence of S. stercoralis and hookworm infection was 20.7 and 54.5%, respectively, and co-infection was detected in 16.3% of cases. Schistosoma mansoni had a prevalence of 15.7%. Prevalence of S. stercoralis was shown 3.5% by the conventional method, 12.1% by the Baermann method, and 13.4% by PCR, which thus proved to be the most sensitive. Our results suggest that S. stercoralis could be overlooked and neglected in Ethiopia, if studies of soil-transmitted helminths rely on conventional diagnostic techniques alone. A combination of molecular and stool microscopy techniques yields a significantly higher prevalence. In view of the fact that current control policies for triggering drug administration are based on parasite prevalence levels, a comprehensive diagnostic approach should instead be applied to ensure comprehensive control of helminth infections.

  9. Comparison of Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction with Parasitological Methods for Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in Human Fecal Samples

    PubMed Central

    Sharifdini, Meysam; Mirhendi, Hossein; Ashrafi, Keyhan; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khodadadi, Hossein; Kia, Eshrat Beigom

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR methods for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in fecal samples compared with parasitological methods. A total of 466 stool samples were examined by conventional parasitological methods (formalin ether concentration [FEC] and agar plate culture [APC]). DNA was extracted using an in-house method, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 18S ribosomal genes were amplified by nested PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. Among 466 samples, 12.7% and 18.2% were found infected with S. stercoralis by FEC and APC, respectively. DNA of S. stercoralis was detected in 18.9% and 25.1% of samples by real-time PCR and nested PCR, respectively. Considering parasitological methods as the diagnostic gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of nested PCR were 100% and 91.6%, respectively, and that of real-time PCR were 84.7% and 95.8%, respectively. However, considering sequence analyzes of the selected nested PCR products, the specificity of nested PCR is increased. In general, molecular methods were superior to parasitological methods. They were more sensitive and more reliable in detection of S. stercoralis in comparison with parasitological methods. Between the two molecular methods, the sensitivity of nested PCR was higher than real-time PCR. PMID:26350449

  10. Rapid detection of Opisthorchis viverrini and Strongyloides stercoralis in human fecal samples using a duplex real-time PCR and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Janwan, Penchom; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Anamnart, Witthaya; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2011-12-01

    Human opisthorchiasis caused by the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is an endemic disease in Southeast Asian countries including the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Thailand. Infection with the soil-transmitted roundworm Strongyloides stercoralis is an important problem worldwide. In some areas, both parasitic infections are reported as co-infections. A duplex real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) PCR merged with melting curve analysis was developed for the rapid detection of O. viverrini and S. stercoralis in human fecal samples. Duplex real-time FRET PCR is based on fluorescence melting curve analysis of a hybrid of amplicons generated from two genera of DNA elements: the 162 bp pOV-A6 DNA sequence specific to O. viverrini and the 244 bp 18S rRNA sequence specific to S. stercoralis, and two pairs of specific fluorophore-labeled probes. Both O. viverrini and S. stercoralis can be differentially detected in infected human fecal samples by this process through their different fluorescence channels and melting temperatures. Detection limit of the method was as little as two O. viverrini eggs and four S. stercoralis larvae in 100 mg of fecal sample. The assay could distinguish the DNA of both parasites from the DNA of negative fecal samples and fecal samples with other parasite materials, as well as from the DNA of human leukocytes and other control parasites. The technique showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. The introduced duplex real-time FRET PCR can reduce labor time and reagent costs and is not prone to carry over contamination. The method is important for simultaneous detection especially in areas where both parasites overlap incidence and is useful as the screening tool in the returning travelers and immigrants to industrialized countries where number of samples in the diagnostic units will become increasing.

  11. Modulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Function and Cytokine Responses in Strongyloides stercoralis Infection by Interleukin-27 (IL-27) and IL-37.

    PubMed

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Munisankar, Saravanan; Bhootra, Yukthi; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2017-11-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis infection is associated with diminished antigen-specific Th1- and Th17-associated responses and enhanced Th2-associated responses. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) and IL-37 are two known anti-inflammatory cytokines that are highly expressed in S. stercoralis infection. We therefore wanted to examine the role of IL-27 and IL-37 in regulating CD4 + and CD8 + T cell responses in S. stercoralis infection. To this end, we examined the frequency of Th1/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, Th9/Tc9, Th17/Tc17, and Th22/Tc22 cells in 15 S. stercoralis -infected individuals and 10 uninfected individuals stimulated with parasite antigen following IL-27 or IL-37 neutralization. We also examined the production of prototypical type 1, type 2, type 9, type 17, and type 22 cytokines in the whole-blood supernatants. Our data reveal that IL-27 or IL-37 neutralization resulted in significantly enhanced frequencies of Th1/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, Th17/Tc17, Th9, and Th22 cells with parasite antigen stimulation. There was no induction of any T cell response in uninfected individuals following parasite antigen stimulation and IL-27 or IL-37 neutralization. Moreover, we also observed increased production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-5, IL-9, IL-17, and IL-22 and decreased production of IL-10 following IL-27 and IL-37 neutralization and parasite antigen stimulation in whole-blood cultures. Thus, we demonstrate that IL-27 and IL-37 limit the induction of particular T cell subsets along with cytokine responses in S. stercoralis infections, which suggest the importance of IL-27 and IL-37 in immune modulation in a chronic helminth infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Importance of a Rapid and Accurate Diagnosis in Strongyloides Stercoralis and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 Co-infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Olga; Berini, Carolina A; Waldbaum, Carlos; Avagnina, Alejandra; Juarez, María; Repetto, Silvia; Sorda, Juan; Biglione, Mirna

    2017-01-01

    Strongyloides (S.) stercoralis and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 (HTLV-1) share some endemic regions such as Japan, Jamaica, and South America and are mostly diagnosed elsewhere in immigrants from endemic areas. This co-infection has not been documented in Argentina although both pathogens are endemic in the Northwest. We present a case of S. stercoralis and HTLV-1 co-infection with an initial presentation due to gastrointestinal symptoms which presented neither eosinophilia nor the presence of larvae in stool samples in a non-endemic area for these infections. A young Peruvian woman living in Buenos Aires attended several emergency rooms and finally ended up admitted in a gastroenterology ward due to incoercible vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss. Gastrointestinal symptoms started 3 months before she returned to Argentina from a trip to Peru. She presented malnutrition and abdominal distension parameters. HIV-1 and other immunodeficiencies were discarded. The serial coproparasitological test was negative. Computed tomography showed diffuse thickening of duodenal and jejunal walls. At the beginning, vasculitis was suspected and corticosteroid therapy was initiated. The patient worsened rapidly. Skin, new enteral biopsies, and a new set of coproparasitological samples revealed S. stercoralis . Then, HTLV-1 was suspected and infection was confirmed. Ivermectin and albendazole were administrated, until the stool sample remained negative for 2 weeks. Larvae were not observed in fresh stool, Ritchie method, and agar culture 1 week post-treatment. Although she required initial support with parenteral nutrition due to oral intolerance she slowly progressed favorably. It has been highly recommended to include a rapid and sensitive PCR strategy in the algorithm to confirm Strongyloides infection, which has demonstrated to improve early diagnosis in patients at-risk of disseminated strongyloidiasis.

  13. Importance of a Rapid and Accurate Diagnosis in Strongyloides Stercoralis and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 Co-infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Olga; Berini, Carolina A.; Waldbaum, Carlos; Avagnina, Alejandra; Juarez, María; Repetto, Silvia; Sorda, Juan; Biglione, Mirna

    2017-01-01

    Strongyloides (S.) stercoralis and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 (HTLV-1) share some endemic regions such as Japan, Jamaica, and South America and are mostly diagnosed elsewhere in immigrants from endemic areas. This co-infection has not been documented in Argentina although both pathogens are endemic in the Northwest. We present a case of S. stercoralis and HTLV-1 co-infection with an initial presentation due to gastrointestinal symptoms which presented neither eosinophilia nor the presence of larvae in stool samples in a non-endemic area for these infections. A young Peruvian woman living in Buenos Aires attended several emergency rooms and finally ended up admitted in a gastroenterology ward due to incoercible vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss. Gastrointestinal symptoms started 3 months before she returned to Argentina from a trip to Peru. She presented malnutrition and abdominal distension parameters. HIV-1 and other immunodeficiencies were discarded. The serial coproparasitological test was negative. Computed tomography showed diffuse thickening of duodenal and jejunal walls. At the beginning, vasculitis was suspected and corticosteroid therapy was initiated. The patient worsened rapidly. Skin, new enteral biopsies, and a new set of coproparasitological samples revealed S. stercoralis. Then, HTLV-1 was suspected and infection was confirmed. Ivermectin and albendazole were administrated, until the stool sample remained negative for 2 weeks. Larvae were not observed in fresh stool, Ritchie method, and agar culture 1 week post-treatment. Although she required initial support with parenteral nutrition due to oral intolerance she slowly progressed favorably. It has been highly recommended to include a rapid and sensitive PCR strategy in the algorithm to confirm Strongyloides infection, which has demonstrated to improve early diagnosis in patients at-risk of disseminated strongyloidiasis. PMID:29270152

  14. Radiolabeling of infective third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis by feeding ( sup 75 Se)selenomethionine-labeled Escherichia coli to first- and second-stage larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Aikens, L.M.; Schad, G.A.

    1989-10-01

    A technique is described for radiolabeling Strongyloides stercoralis larvae with ({sup 75}Se)selenomethionine. Cultures of an auxotrophic methionine-dependent stain of Escherichia coli were grown in a medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 5% nutrient broth, amino acids, and ({sup 75}Se)selenomethionine. When the {sup 75}Se-labeled bacterial populations were in the stationary phase of growth, cultures were harvested and the bacteria dispersed on agar plates to serve as food for S. stercoralis larvae. Use of nondividing bacteria is important for successful labeling because the isotope is not diluted by cell division and death of larvae attributable to overgrowth by bacteria ismore » prevented. First-stage S. stercoralis larvae were recovered from feces of infected dogs and reared in humid air at 30 C on agar plates seeded with bacteria. After 7 days, infective third-stage larvae were harvested. The mean specific activity of 6 different batches of larvae ranged from 75 to 330 counts per min/larva with 91.8 +/- 9.5% of the population labeled sufficiently to produce an autoradiographic focus during a practicable, 6-wk period of exposure. Labeled infective larvae penetrated the skin of 10-day-old puppies and migrated to the small intestine, where the developed to adulthood.« less

  15. First molecular identification and report of genetic diversity of Strongyloides stercoralis, a current major soil-transmitted helminth in humans from Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Laymanivong, Sakhone; Hangvanthong, Bouasy; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Vanisaveth, Viengxay; Laxachack, Pinnakhone; Jongthawin, Jurairat; Sanpool, Oranuch; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Phosuk, Issarapong; Rodpai, Rutchanee; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M

    2016-08-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a major soil-transmitted helminth (STH) disease that affects people worldwide. We present updated data on prevalence in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) in 2015, arising from a community cross-sectional helminthiasis survey. Fecal samples were collected from 327 individuals across three provinces in Lao PDR (Luang Prabang in the north, Khammouane in the center, and Champasack in the south). Agar plate culture and Kato-Katz methods were used to examine duplicate stool samples from each participant to detect Strongyloides stercoralis and co-infecting helminths. Overall prevalences of S. strercoralis human hookworm, Taenia spp., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Enterobius vermicularis were 41.0, 28.1, 4.9, 4.0, 1.5, and 0.9 %, respectively. The prevalence of miscellaneous trematodiases (including opisthorchiasis) was 37.9 % and of Schistosoma mekongi infection was 0.3 %. Strongyloidiasis is a current major STH disease in Lao PDR. We also report the molecular-phylogenetic identification of S. stercoralis adult males collected from 40 representative human strongyliodiasis fecal samples. DNA was extracted, amplified, and sequenced from a portion of the mitochondrial cox1 gene and the nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that all specimens sequenced belonged to S. stercoralis (Bavay, 1876) Stiles and Hassall, 1902. The cox1 sequences exhibited great diversity (24 haplotypes) in Lao PDR. This is the first molecular identification and report of genetic diversity of S. stercoralis in humans from Lao PDR. An effective parasite control program is needed to reduce the serious health impacts.

  16. Albendazole and ivermectin for the control of soil-transmitted helminths in an area with high prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in northwestern Argentina: A community-based pragmatic study.

    PubMed

    Echazú, Adriana; Juarez, Marisa; Vargas, Paola A; Cajal, Silvana P; Cimino, Ruben O; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Paredes, Gladys; Arias, Luis M; Abril, Marcelo; Gold, Silvia; Lammie, Patrick; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

    2017-10-01

    Recommendations for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control give a key role to deworming of school and pre-school age children with albendazole or mebendazole; which might be insufficient to achieve adequate control, particularly against Strongyloides stercoralis. The impact of preventive chemotherapy (PC) against STH morbidity is still incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a community-based program with albendazole and ivermectin in a high transmission setting for S. stercoralis and hookworm. Community-based pragmatic trial conducted in Tartagal, Argentina; from 2012 to 2015. Six communities (5070 people) were enrolled for community-based PC with albendazole and ivermectin. Two communities (2721 people) were re-treated for second and third rounds. STH prevalence, anemia and malnutrition were explored through consecutive surveys. Anthropometric assessment of children, stool analysis, complete blood count and NIE-ELISA serology for S. stercoralis were performed. STH infection was associated with anemia and stunting in the baseline survey that included all communities and showed a STH prevalence of 47.6% (almost exclusively hookworm and S. stercoralis). Among communities with multiple interventions, STH prevalence decreased from 62% to 23% (p<0.001) after the first PC; anemia also diminished from 52% to 12% (p<0.001). After two interventions S. stercoralis seroprevalence declined, from 51% to 14% (p<0.001) and stunting prevalence decreased, from 19% to 12% (p = 0.009). Hookworm' infections are associated with anemia in the general population and nutritional impairment in children. S. stercoralis is also associated with anemia. Community-based deworming with albendazole and ivermectin is effective for the reduction of STH prevalence and morbidity in communities with high prevalence of hookworm and S. stercoralis.

  17. Albendazole and ivermectin for the control of soil-transmitted helminths in an area with high prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in northwestern Argentina: A community-based pragmatic study

    PubMed Central

    Juarez, Marisa; Vargas, Paola A.; Cajal, Silvana P.; Cimino, Ruben O.; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Paredes, Gladys; Arias, Luis M.; Abril, Marcelo; Gold, Silvia; Lammie, Patrick; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Recommendations for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control give a key role to deworming of school and pre-school age children with albendazole or mebendazole; which might be insufficient to achieve adequate control, particularly against Strongyloides stercoralis. The impact of preventive chemotherapy (PC) against STH morbidity is still incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a community-based program with albendazole and ivermectin in a high transmission setting for S. stercoralis and hookworm. Methodology Community-based pragmatic trial conducted in Tartagal, Argentina; from 2012 to 2015. Six communities (5070 people) were enrolled for community-based PC with albendazole and ivermectin. Two communities (2721 people) were re-treated for second and third rounds. STH prevalence, anemia and malnutrition were explored through consecutive surveys. Anthropometric assessment of children, stool analysis, complete blood count and NIE-ELISA serology for S. stercoralis were performed. Principal findings STH infection was associated with anemia and stunting in the baseline survey that included all communities and showed a STH prevalence of 47.6% (almost exclusively hookworm and S. stercoralis). Among communities with multiple interventions, STH prevalence decreased from 62% to 23% (p<0.001) after the first PC; anemia also diminished from 52% to 12% (p<0.001). After two interventions S. stercoralis seroprevalence declined, from 51% to 14% (p<0.001) and stunting prevalence decreased, from 19% to 12% (p = 0.009). Conclusions Hookworm’ infections are associated with anemia in the general population and nutritional impairment in children. S. stercoralis is also associated with anemia. Community-based deworming with albendazole and ivermectin is effective for the reduction of STH prevalence and morbidity in communities with high prevalence of hookworm and S. stercoralis. PMID:28991899

  18. Transrenal DNA-based diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis (Grassi, 1879) infection: Bayesian latent class modeling of test accuracy.

    PubMed

    Krolewiecki, Alejandro J; Koukounari, Artemis; Romano, Miryam; Caro, Reynaldo N; Scott, Alan L; Fleitas, Pedro; Cimino, Ruben; Shiff, Clive J

    2018-06-01

    For epidemiological work with soil transmitted helminths the recommended diagnostic approaches are to examine fecal samples for microscopic evidence of the parasite. In addition to several logistical and processing issues, traditional diagnostic approaches have been shown to lack the sensitivity required to reliably identify patients harboring low-level infections such as those associated with effective mass drug intervention programs. In this context, there is a need to rethink the approaches used for helminth diagnostics. Serological methods are now in use, however these tests are indirect and depend on individual immune responses, exposure patterns and the nature of the antigen. However, it has been demonstrated that cell-free DNA from pathogens and cancers can be readily detected in patient's urine which can be collected in the field, filtered in situ and processed later for analysis. In the work presented here, we employ three diagnostic procedures-stool examination, serology (NIE-ELISA) and PCR-based amplification of parasite transrenal DNA from urine-to determine their relative utility in the diagnosis of S. stercoralis infections from 359 field samples from an endemic area of Argentina. Bayesian Latent Class analysis was used to assess the relative performance of the three diagnostic procedures. The results underscore the low sensitivity of stool examination and support the idea that the use of serology combined with parasite transrenal DNA detection may be a useful strategy for sensitive and specific detection of low-level strongyloidiasis.

  19. Chemoattraction and chemorepulsion of Strongyloides stercoralis infective larvae on a sodium chloride gradient is mediated by amphidial neuron pairs ASE and ASH, respectively.

    PubMed

    Forbes, W M; Ashton, F T; Boston, R; Zhu, X; Schad, G A

    2004-03-25

    Depending on its concentration, sodium chloride acts as either an attractant or a repellant to the infective larvae (L3i) of Strongyloides stercoralis. On a concentration gradient, L3i are attracted to 0.05 M NaCl, but repelled by 2.8M. To test the hypothesis that amphidial neurons ASE and ASH might mediate attraction and repulsion, respectively, these neurons, and control neurons as well, were ablated in hatchling larvae with a laser microbeam. After the larvae attained infectivity (L3i), they were tested on a NaCl gradient. When placed at low salinity, 73.5% of normal controls migrated "up" the gradient, while 26.4% crawled randomly. In contrast, only 20.6% of ASE-ablated L3i migrated "up" the gradient, while 79.4% migrated randomly. Ablation-control ASK-ablated L3i (58.8%) migrated "up" the gradient while 41.1% crawled randomly. When placed at a region of high salinity, 100% of normal control L3i migrated "down" the gradient, whereas 62.5% of ASH-ablated L3i migrated randomly, the remaining 37.5% migrating "down" the gradient. In sharp contrast with ASH-ablated L3i, 94.1% of ablation-control larvae, i.e. ASK-ablated L3i, migrated "down" the gradient. Migration behavior of ASE- and ASH-ablated L3i was significantly different (P < 0.001) from that of ASK-ablated L3i and normal controls. It is noteworthy that 87.5% of ASE-ablated L3i that failed to exhibit chemoattractive behavior were actively chemorepelled from high salinity. Also, 70.0% of ASH-ablated L3i that failed to be chemorepelled from high salinity were capable of chemoattractive behavior, indicating that the worms had retained their behavioral responses except for those associated with the targeted neurons.

  20. Altered levels of memory T cell subsets and common γc cytokines in Strongyloides stercoralis infection and partial reversal following anthelmintic treatment.

    PubMed

    Rajamanickam, Anuradha; Munisankar, Saravanan; Bhootra, Yukti; Dolla, Chandra Kumar; Thiruvengadam, Kannan; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2018-05-01

    CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are central players in immunity to helminth infections. However, the role of T cell subsets in human helminth infections is not well understood. In addition, the common γc cytokines, IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9 and IL-15 play an important role in the maintenance of these CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets. To examine the major T cell subsets and their association with the common γc cytokines, the absolute numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ naïve, central memory, effector memory and effector cells and the plasma levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9 and IL-15 were measured in Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss) infected (INF, n = 60), helminth-uninfected (UN, n = 58) and in post treatment INF individuals. Ss infection is characterized by significantly increased absolute numbers of naïve and decreased absolute numbers of central and effector memory CD4+ T cells in comparison to UN individuals. No significant difference in the numbers of CD8+ T cell subsets was observed between the groups. The numbers of naïve cells and central memory CD4+ T cells were significantly reversed after anthelmintic treatment. Circulating levels of IL-2, IL-7 and IL-15 were significantly diminished, whereas the levels of IL-4 and IL-9 were significantly increased in INF compared to UN individuals. Following anthelminthic treatment, IL-2, IL-7 and IL-15 levels were significantly increased, while IL-4 and IL-9 levels were significantly decreased. Our data also showed a significant positive correlation between the levels of IL-7 and the numbers of central and effector memory CD4+ T cells. Ss infection is characterized by alterations in the absolute numbers of CD4+ T cell subsets and altered levels of common γc cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9 and IL-15; alterations which are partially reversed after anthelmintic treatment.

  1. Hyperinfection with Strongyloides in a HIV-negative elderly male

    PubMed Central

    Girija, S; Kannan, Suresh; Jeyakumari, D; Gopal, R

    2012-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode producing mild infection in the immunocompetent and fatal hyperinfection syndrome in the immunocompromised. An elderly HIV-negative male presented with symptoms of chronic respiratory disease and vague abdominal symptoms. Examination of sputum and stools showed larvae of S. stercoralis. Bacterial and fungal causes of respiratory infections were ruled out. The patient responded to oral ivermectin. PMID:23508878

  2. A Coproantigen Diagnostic Test for Strongyloides Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, Alex M.; McCarthy, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of infection with the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis is hampered by the low concentration of larvae in stool, rendering parasitological diagnosis insensitive. Even if the more sensitive agar plate culture method is used repeated stool sampling is necessary to achieve satisfactory sensitivity. In this manuscript we describe the development of a coproantigen ELISA for diagnosis of infection. Polyclonal rabbit antiserum was raised against Strongyloides ratti excretory/secretory (E/S) antigen and utilized to develop an antigen capture ELISA. The assay enabled detection of subpatent rodent S. ratti and human S. stercoralis infection. No cross-reactivity was observed with purified E/S from Schistosoma japonicum, the hookworms Ancylostoma caninum, A. ceylanicum, nor with fecal samples collected from rodents harboring Trichuris muris or S. mansoni infection. Strongyloides coproantigens that appear stable when frozen as formalin-extracted fecal supernatants stored at −20°C remained positive up to 270 days of storage, whereas supernatants stored at 4°C tested negative. These results indicate that diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis by detection of coproantigen is an approach worthy of further development. PMID:21347447

  3. The Genomic Basis of Parasitism in the Strongyloides Clade of Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Vicky L.; Tsai, Isheng J.; Coghlan, Avril; Reid, Adam J.; Holroyd, Nancy; Foth, Bernardo J.; Tracey, Alan; Cotton, James A.; Stanley, Eleanor J.; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M.; Brooks, Karen; Harsha, Bhavana; Kajitani, Rei; Kulkarni, Arpita; Harbecke, Dorothee; Nagayasu, Eiji; Nichol, Sarah; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Quail, Michael A.; Randle, Nadine; Xia, Dong; Brattig, Norbert W.; Soblik, Hanns; Ribeiro, Diogo M.; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Itoh, Takehiko; Denver, Dee R.; Grant, Warwick; Stoltzfus, Jonathan D.; Lok, James B.; Murayama, Haruhiko; Wastling, Jonathan; Streit, Adrian; Kikuchi, Taisei; Viney, Mark; Berriman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Soil transmitted nematodes, including Strongyloides, cause one of the most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases. Here we compare the genomes of four Strongyloides spp., including the human pathogen S. stercoralis, and their close relatives that are facultatively parasitic (Parastrongyloides trichosuri) and free-living (Rhabditophanes sp). A significant paralogous expansion of key gene families – astacin-like and SCP/TAPS coding gene families – is associated with the evolution of parasitism in this clade. Exploiting the unique Strongyloides life cycle we compare the transcriptome of its parasitic and free-living stages and find that these same genes are upregulated in the parasitic stages, underscoring their role in nematode parasitism. PMID:26829753

  4. Discordances Between Serology and Culture for Strongyloides in an Ethiopian Adopted Child With Multiple Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Sulleiro, Elena; Zarzuela, Francesc; Ruiz, Edurne; Clavería, Isabel; Espasa, Mateu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: infectious diseases screening of international adoptees is complex because of the concurrence of different pathogens in a child at same time. We describe an international adopted child born at Ethiopia infected by 5 different pathogens (Hymenolepis nana, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura), 2 of them S. stercoralis and E. histolytica with a capacity to develop severe clinical complications if not detected promptly with appropriate diagnosis tests. Concerns of the patient: according to the screening protocol a stool sample is always processed for culture addressed to find out protozoan and helminthic pathogens but not specifically for S. stercoralis. Only, when eosinophilia is detected 3 serial stool samples are collected to rule out intestinal parasitic infection including S. stercoralis. Interventions: in our case, S. stercoralis would not have been detected if we had followed the protocol because eosinophilia was absent and its specific serology was negative. Fortunately, the initial inclusion of the feces charcoal culture for S. stercoralis allowed us to detect this infection. Outcomes: discordances between direct methods such as culture and indirect as serology or antigen test forces us to be very cautious before ruling out S. stercoralis or E. histolytica infection, respectively. Also, if a child from tropical areas has persistent symptoms (such as diarrhea or fever) that have not been treated we have to rule out other infections that have not been detected yet. Main lessons: The introduction of different sequencing tests and the insistence to find out pathogens such as S. stercoralis or E. histolytica was determinant to be able to cure this symptomatic child and to prevent potential severe clinical forms in case of immunosuppression. PMID:26962825

  5. Strongyloides hyperinfection following hematopoietic stem cell transplant in a patient with HTLV-1-associated T-cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Alpern, Jonathan D; Arbefeville, Sophie S; Vercellotti, Gregory; Ferrieri, Patricia; Green, Jaime S

    2017-02-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis has the potential to cause accelerated autoinfection in immunocompromised hosts. Screening tests for strongyloidiasis may be falsely negative in the setting of immunosuppression. We report a case of Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome in a patient with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated T-cell leukemia early after hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The diagnosis was made by stool ova and parasite examination, despite a negative screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Because of anticipated prolonged neutropenia, an extended course of treatment was utilized. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Discordances Between Serology and Culture for Strongyloides in an Ethiopian Adopted Child With Multiple Parasitic Infections: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Sulleiro, Elena; Zarzuela, Francesc; Ruiz, Edurne; Clavería, Isabel; Espasa, Mateu

    2016-03-01

    infectious diseases screening of international adoptees is complex because of the concurrence of different pathogens in a child at same time. We describe an international adopted child born at Ethiopia infected by 5 different pathogens (Hymenolepis nana, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura), 2 of them S. stercoralis and E. histolytica with a capacity to develop severe clinical complications if not detected promptly with appropriate diagnosis tests.Concerns of the patient: according to the screening protocol a stool sample is always processed for culture addressed to find out protozoan and helminthic pathogens but not specifically for S. stercoralis. Only, when eosinophilia is detected 3 serial stool samples are collected to rule out intestinal parasitic infection including S. stercoralis. in our case, S. stercoralis would not have been detected if we had followed the protocol because eosinophilia was absent and its specific serology was negative. Fortunately, the initial inclusion of the feces charcoal culture for S. stercoralis allowed us to detect this infection. discordances between direct methods such as culture and indirect as serology or antigen test forces us to be very cautious before ruling out S. stercoralis or E. histolytica infection, respectively. Also, if a child from tropical areas has persistent symptoms (such as diarrhea or fever) that have not been treated we have to rule out other infections that have not been detected yet.Main lessons: The introduction of different sequencing tests and the insistence to find out pathogens such as S. stercoralis or E. histolytica was determinant to be able to cure this symptomatic child and to prevent potential severe clinical forms in case of immunosuppression.

  7. Studies on prevalence of Strongyloides infection in Holambra and Maceió, Brazil, by the agar plate faecal culture method.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, J; Hasegawa, H; Soares, E C; Toma, H; Dacal, A R; Brito, M C; Yamanaka, A; Foli, A A; Sato, Y

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in three areas of Brazil was surveyed by a recently developed faecal culture method (an agar plate culture). The Strongyloides infection was confirmed in 11.3% of 432 subjects examined. The diagnostic efficacy of the agar plate culture was as high as 93.9% compared to only 28.5% and 26.5% by the Harada-Mori filter paper culture and faecal concentration methods, when faecal samples were examined simultaneously by these three methods. Among the 49 positive samples, about 60% were confirmed to be positive only by the agar plate culture. These results indicate that the agar plate culture is a sensitive new tool for the correct diagnosis of chronic Strongyloides infection.

  8. Shiga toxin producing E coli bloodstream infection secondary to Strongyloides penetration through intestinal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Cyr, Sancta; Nagpal, Avish; Sohail, Muhammad Rizwan

    2013-01-01

    A 51-year-old woman with diabetes, who immigrated to the USA 22 years ago from Laos, was admitted to the hospital for evaluation of fever, abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. A workup for acute gastroenteritis revealed a positive stool PCR for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Two sets of blood cultures drawn at admission were positive for E coli. A review of her previous medical records revealed the presence of eosinophilia, up to 20%, 14 years prior to that was never investigated. Therefore, stool samples were examined and two of three specimens were positive for Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, confirming the diagnosis of Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome. PMID:24022903

  9. Strong-LAMP: A LAMP Assay for Strongyloides spp. Detection in Stool and Urine Samples. Towards the Diagnosis of Human Strongyloidiasis Starting from a Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Gandasegui, Javier; Bajo Santos, Cristina; López-Abán, Julio; Saugar, José María; Rodríguez, Esperanza; Vicente, Belén; Muro, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis, the chief causative agent of human strongyloidiasis, is a nematode globally distributed but mainly endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. Chronic infection is often clinically asymptomatic but it can result in severe hyperinfection syndrome or disseminated strongyloidiasis in immunocompromised patients. There is a great diversity of techniques used in diagnosing the disease, but definitive diagnosis is accomplished by parasitological examination of stool samples for morphological identification of parasite. Until now, no molecular method has been tested in urine samples as an alternative to stool samples for diagnosing strongyloidiasis. This study aimed to evaluate the use of a new molecular LAMP assay in a well-established Wistar rat experimental infection model using both stool and, for the first time, urine samples. The LAMP assay was also clinically evaluated in patients´ stool samples. Methodology/Principal Findings Stool and urine samples were obtained daily during a 28-day period from rats infected subcutaneously with different infective third-stage larvae doses of S. venezuelensis. The dynamics of parasite infection was determined by daily counting the number of eggs per gram of feces from day 1 to 28 post-infection. A set of primers for LAMP assay based on a DNA partial sequence in the 18S rRNA gene from S. venezuelensis was designed. The set up LAMP assay (namely, Strong-LAMP) allowed the sensitive detection of S. venezuelensis DNA in both stool and urine samples obtained from each infection group of rats and was also effective in S. stercoralis DNA amplification in patients´ stool samples with previously confirmed strongyloidiasis by parasitological and real-time PCR tests. Conclusions/Significance Our Strong-LAMP assay is an useful molecular tool in research of a strongyloidiasis experimental infection model in both stool and urine samples. After further validation, the Strong-LAMP could also be potentially

  10. Strong-LAMP: A LAMP Assay for Strongyloides spp. Detection in Stool and Urine Samples. Towards the Diagnosis of Human Strongyloidiasis Starting from a Rodent Model.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Sánchez-Hernández, Alicia; Gandasegui, Javier; Bajo Santos, Cristina; López-Abán, Julio; Saugar, José María; Rodríguez, Esperanza; Vicente, Belén; Muro, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis, the chief causative agent of human strongyloidiasis, is a nematode globally distributed but mainly endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. Chronic infection is often clinically asymptomatic but it can result in severe hyperinfection syndrome or disseminated strongyloidiasis in immunocompromised patients. There is a great diversity of techniques used in diagnosing the disease, but definitive diagnosis is accomplished by parasitological examination of stool samples for morphological identification of parasite. Until now, no molecular method has been tested in urine samples as an alternative to stool samples for diagnosing strongyloidiasis. This study aimed to evaluate the use of a new molecular LAMP assay in a well-established Wistar rat experimental infection model using both stool and, for the first time, urine samples. The LAMP assay was also clinically evaluated in patients´ stool samples. Stool and urine samples were obtained daily during a 28-day period from rats infected subcutaneously with different infective third-stage larvae doses of S. venezuelensis. The dynamics of parasite infection was determined by daily counting the number of eggs per gram of feces from day 1 to 28 post-infection. A set of primers for LAMP assay based on a DNA partial sequence in the 18S rRNA gene from S. venezuelensis was designed. The set up LAMP assay (namely, Strong-LAMP) allowed the sensitive detection of S. venezuelensis DNA in both stool and urine samples obtained from each infection group of rats and was also effective in S. stercoralis DNA amplification in patients´ stool samples with previously confirmed strongyloidiasis by parasitological and real-time PCR tests. Our Strong-LAMP assay is an useful molecular tool in research of a strongyloidiasis experimental infection model in both stool and urine samples. After further validation, the Strong-LAMP could also be potentially applied for effective diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in a clinical

  11. Validation of DESS as a DNA Preservation Method for the Detection of Strongyloides spp. in Canine Feces.

    PubMed

    Beknazarova, Meruyert; Millsteed, Shelby; Robertson, Gemma; Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2017-06-09

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a gastrointestinal parasitic nematode with a life cycle that includes free-living and parasitic forms. For both clinical (diagnostic) and environmental evaluation, it is important that we can detect Strongyloides spp. in both human and non-human fecal samples. Real-time PCR is the most feasible method for detecting the parasite in both clinical and environmental samples that have been preserved. However, one of the biggest challenges with PCR detection is DNA degradation during the postage time from rural and remote areas to the laboratory. This study included a laboratory assessment and field validation of DESS (dimethyl sulfoxide, disodium EDTA, and saturated NaCl) preservation of Strongyloides spp. DNA in fecal samples. The laboratory study investigated the capacity of 1:1 and 1:3 sample to DESS ratios to preserve Strongyloides ratti in spike canine feces. It was found that both ratios of DESS significantly prevented DNA degradation compared to the untreated sample. This method was then validated by applying it to the field-collected canine feces and detecting Strongyloides DNA using PCR. A total of 37 canine feces samples were collected and preserved in the 1:3 ratio (sample: DESS) and of these, 17 were positive for Strongyloides spp. The study shows that both 1:1 and 1:3 sample to DESS ratios were able to preserve the Strongyloides spp. DNA in canine feces samples stored at room temperature for up to 56 days. This DESS preservation method presents the most applicable and feasible method for the Strongyloides DNA preservation in field-collected feces.

  12. Immunocytochemistry of mucosal changes in patients infected with the intestinal nematode Strongyloides stercoralis.

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, H B; Robalinho, T I; Coutinho, V B; Almeida, J R; Filho, J T; King, G; Jenkins, D; Mahida, Y; Sewell, H F; Wakelin, D

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the immunopathological changes in duodenal tissues induced by strongyloidiasis and to relate these to degrees of clinical severity. METHODS: Tissues taken from 21 patients showing mild, moderate or severe symptoms of strongyloidiasis, and from non-infected controls, were sectioned and stained immunocytochemically for IgA, secretory component (SC) and HLA-DR. Immunopathology was assessed by changes in numbers, intensity and distribution of stained cells. RESULTS: Parasitised individuals showed villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia. There was notable infiltration of the lamina propria by IgA positive plasma cells and of the epithelium by intraepithelial lymphocytes. Infection was also associated with increased expression of SC and decreased expression of HLA-DR in epithelial cells. Changes in all parameters correlated with degree of clinical severity. CONCLUSIONS: Profound mucosal changes are induced by strongyloidiasis. Some are analogous to those seen in coeliac disease, but others seem quite unusual. It is likely that these changes are functionally related to the immunopathophysiological consequences of infection seen in patients with severe disease. Images PMID:9038754

  13. Development of a Sensitive and Specific Antigen-Detection System for Strongyloides Stercoralis and Hookworm Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    deficiency. Treatment usually includes blood transfusions and a three day course of mebendazole and iron substitution and/or single dose albendazole ...1983 Treatment of hookworm, ascariasis and trichuriasis with albendazole or mebendazole. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo 25:294

  14. Genetic characterization of Strongyloides spp. from captive, semi-captive and wild Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in Central and East Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Labes, E M; Nurcahyo, W; Wijayanti, N; Deplazes, P; Mathis, A

    2011-09-01

    Orangutans (Pongo spp.), Asia's only great apes, are threatened in their survival due to habitat loss, hunting and infections. Nematodes of the genus Strongyloides may represent a severe cause of death in wild and captive individuals. In order to better understand which Strongyloides species/subspecies infect orangutans under different conditions, larvae were isolated from fecal material collected in Indonesia from 9 captive, 2 semi-captive and 9 wild individuals, 18 captive groups of Bornean orangutans and from 1 human working with wild orangutans. Genotyping was done at the genomic rDNA locus (part of the 18S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 1, ITS1) by sequencing amplicons. Thirty isolates, including the one from the human, could be identified as S. fuelleborni fuelleborni with 18S rRNA gene identities of 98·5-100%, with a corresponding published sequence. The ITS1 sequences could be determined for 17 of these isolates revealing a huge variability and 2 main clusters without obvious pattern with regard to attributes of the hosts. The ITS1 amplicons of 2 isolates were cloned and sequenced, revealing considerable variability indicative of mixed infections. One isolate from a captive individual was identified as S. stercoralis (18S rRNA) and showed 99% identity (ITS1) with S. stercoralis sequences from geographically distinct locations and host species. The findings are significant with regard to the zoonotic nature of these parasites and might contribute to the conservation of remaining orangutan populations.

  15. Maltreatment of Strongyloides infection: case series and worldwide physicians-in-training survey.

    PubMed

    Boulware, David R; Stauffer, William M; Hendel-Paterson, Brett R; Rocha, Jaime Luís Lopes; Seet, Raymond Chee-Seong; Summer, Andrea P; Nield, Linda S; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Walker, Patricia F

    2007-06-01

    Strongyloidiasis infects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is an important cause of mortality from intestinal helminth infection in developed countries. The persistence of infection, increasing international travel, lack of familiarity by health care providers, and potential for iatrogenic hyperinfection all make strongyloidiasis an important emerging infection. Two studies were performed. A retrospective chart review of Strongyloides stercoralis cases identified through microbiology laboratory records from 1993-2002 was conducted. Subsequently, 363 resident physicians in 15 training programs worldwide were queried with a case scenario of strongyloidiasis, presenting an immigrant with wheezing and eosinophilia. The evaluation focused on resident recognition and diagnostic recommendations. In 151 strongyloidiasis cases, stool ova and parasite sensitivity is poor (51%), and eosinophilia (>5% or >400 cells/microL) commonly present (84%). Diagnosis averaged 56 months (intra-quartile range: 4-72 months) after immigration. Presenting complaints were nonspecific, although 10% presented with wheezing. Hyperinfection occurred in 5 patients prescribed corticosteroids, with 2 deaths. Treatment errors occurred more often among providers unfamiliar with immigrant health (relative risk of error: 8.4; 95% confidence interval, 3.4-21.0; P <.001). When presented with a hypothetical case scenario, US physicians-in-training had poor recognition (9%) of the need for parasite screening and frequently advocated empiric corticosteroids (23%). International trainees had superior recognition at 56% (P <.001). Among US trainees, 41% were unable to choose any parasite causing pulmonary symptoms. Strongyloidiasis is present in US patients. Diagnostic consideration should occur with appropriate exposure, nonspecific symptoms including wheezing, or eosinophilia (>5% relative or >400 eosinophils/microL). US residents' helminth knowledge is limited and places immigrants in iatrogenic

  16. Maltreatment of Strongyloides infection: Case series and worldwide physicians-in-training survey

    PubMed Central

    Boulware, David R.; Stauffer, William M.; Hendel-Paterson, Brett R.; Rocha, Jaime Luís Lopes; Seet, Raymond Chee-Seong; Summer, Andrea P.; Nield, Linda S.; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Walker, Patricia F.

    2007-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis infects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is an important cause of mortality from intestinal helminth infection in developed countries. The persistence of infection, increasing international travel, lack of familiarity by healthcare providers, and potential for iatrogenic hyperinfection, all make strongyloidiasis an important emerging infection. Design & Methods Two studies were performed. A retrospective chart review of Strongyloides stercoralis cases identified through microbiology laboratory records from 1993–2002 was conducted. Subsequently, 363 resident physicians in 15 training programs worldwide were queried with a case scenario of strongyloidiasis presenting an immigrant with wheezing and eosinophilia. The evaluation focused on resident recognition and diagnostic recommendations. Results In 151 strongyloidiasis cases, stool ova and parasite sensitivity is poor (51%), and eosinophilia (>5% or >400 cells/μL) commonly present (84%). Diagnosis averaged 56 months (Intra-quartile range: 4 to 72 months) after immigration. Presenting complaints were non-specific, although 10% presented with wheezing. Hyperinfection occurred in five patients prescribed corticosteroids with two deaths. Treatment errors occurred more often among providers unfamiliar with immigrant health (Relative Risk of Error: 8.4; 95% CI: 3.4 to 21.0; P<0.001). When presented a hypothetical case scenario, U.S. physicians-in-training had poor recognition (9%) of the need for parasite screening and frequently advocated empiric corticosteroids (23%). International trainees had superior recognition at 56% (P<0.001). Among U.S. trainees, 41% were unable to choose any parasite causing pulmonary symptoms. Conclusions Strongyloidiasis is present in U.S. patients. Diagnostic consideration should occur with appropriate exposure, non-specific symptoms including wheezing, or eosinophilia (>5% relative or >400 eosinophils/μL). U.S. residents’ helminth knowledge is

  17. [Strongyloides infections in former prisoners of war in South-East Asia in the second World War; additional information from serological diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Polderman, A M; Verweij, J J; Vetter, J C; Verburg, G P; de Geus, A

    1994-06-04

    To analyse the efficacy of ELISA serology in patients with Strongyloides infection acquired during World War II and maintained through repeated autoinfection. Descriptive. Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Leiden, the Netherlands. Parasitological and clinical data on 193 ex-prisoners of war (South-east Asia) were presented previously (1990) by Verburg and De Geus. ELISA using L-3 S. ratti antigen was carried out with sera of these patients and the results were compared with those of repeated stool examinations using Baermann's method. All subjects harbouring larvae in repeated stool examinations (26) were positive in serology. In 21 out of 167 patients in whom no larvae could be demonstrated, specific antibodies were detected. Anamnestic information together with data on eosinophilia and IgE levels suggested that the majority of these subjects were actually infected. The serological prevalence of infection with Strongyloides stercoralis was 33% for those imprisoned in Burma and 4% for those who were prisoners of war in the former Netherlands East Indies. In the group of subjects studied, in whom Strongyloides infection was apparently maintained through a process of autoinfection for a period of over 40 years, serology appears a sensitive and specific diagnostic tool. Larvae could be detected in no more than 26 out of 47 serologically positive subjects.

  18. Dexamethasone Effects in the Strongyloides venezuelensis Infection in A Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Eleuza R.; Carlos, Daniela; Sorgi, Carlos A.; Ramos, Simone G.; Souza, Daniela I.; Soares, Edson G.; Costa-Cruz, Julia M.; Ueta, Marlene T.; Aronoff, David M.; Faccioli, Lúcia H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of glucocorticoids on the immune response to Strongyloides venezuelensis in mice. Balb/c mice were infected with S. venezuelensis and treated with Dexamethasone (Dexa) or vehicle. Dexa treatment increased circulating blood neutrophil numbers and inhibited eosinophil and mononuclear cell accumulation in the blood, bronchoalveolar, and peritoneal fluid compared with control animals. Moreover, Dexa decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-12 production in the lungs and circulating immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, and IgE antibody levels while increasing the overall parasite burden in the feces and intestine. Dexa treatment enhanced the fertility of female nematodes relative to untreated and infected mice. In summary, the alterations in the immune response induced by Dexa resulted in a blunted, aberrant immune response associated with increased parasite burden. This phenomenon is similar to that observed in S. stercoralis-infected humans who are taking immunosuppressive or antiinflammatory drugs, including corticosteroids. PMID:21633034

  19. A protocol for chemical mutagenesis in Strongyloides ratti.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Chang, Zisong; Dieterich, Christoph; Streit, Adrian

    2015-11-01

    Genetic analysis using experimentally induced mutations has been a most valuable tool in the analysis of various organisms. However, genetic analysis of endoparasitic organisms tends to be difficult because of the limited accessibility of the sexually reproducing adults, which are normally located within the host. Nematodes of the genera Strogyloides and Parastrongyloides represent an exception to this because they can form facultative free-living sexually reproducing generations in between parasitic generations. Here we present a protocol for the chemical mutagenesis of Strongyloides ratti. Further we evaluate the feasibility of identifying the induced mutations by whole genome re-sequencing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Stage-specific excretory/secretory small heat shock proteins from the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti: putative links to host’s intestinal mucosal defense system

    PubMed Central

    Younis, Abuelhassan Elshazly; Geisinger, Frank; Ajonina-Ekoti, Irene; Soblik, Hanns; Steen, Hanno; Mitreva, Makedonka; Erttmann, Klaus D.; Perbandt, Markus; Liebau, Eva; Brattig, Norbert W.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In search of molecules involved in the interaction of intestinal nematodes and mammalian mucosal host cells, we performed mass spectrometry to identify excretory/secretory proteins (ESP) from Strongyloides ratti. In addition to other peptides, we detected in the ESP of parasitic female stage peptides homologous to the Caenorhabditis elegans heat shock protein-17, named Sra-HSP-17.1 (~19 kDa) and Sra-HSP-17.2 (~ 18 kDa) with 49% amino acid identity. The full-length cDNAs (483 bp and 474 bp, respectively) were identified and the genomic organization analyzed. To allow further characterization, the proteins were recombinantly expressed and purified. Profiling of transcription by qRT-PCR and of protein by ELISA in various developmental stages revealed parasitic female-specific expression. The sequence analysis of both DNA and amino acid sequence showed two genes share a conserved alpha-crystallin domain and variable N-terminals. The Sra-HSP-17 proteins showed the highest homology to the deduced small heat-shock protein sequence of the human pathogen S. stercoralis. We observed strong immunogenicity of both proteins, leading to high IgG responses following infection of rats. Flow cytometric analysis indicated the binding of Sra-HSP-17s to the monocytes/macrophage lineage but not to peripheral lymphocytes or neutrophils. A rat intestinal epithelial cell line showed dose dependent binding to Sra-HSP-17.1, but not to Sra-HSP-17.2. Exposed monocytes released IL-10 but not TNF-alpha in response to Sra-HSP-17s, suggesting a possible involvement of secreted female proteins in host immune responses. PMID:21762402

  1. Strongyloides seroprevalence before and after an ivermectin mass drug administration in a remote Australian Aboriginal community

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Bart J.; Cheng, Allen C.; McCarthy, James; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Holt, Deborah C.; Page, Wendy; Shield, Jennifer; Gundjirryirr, Roslyn; Mulholland, Eddie; Ward, Linda; Andrews, Ross M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Strongyloides seroprevalence is hyper-endemic in many Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, ranging from 35–60%. We report the impact on Strongyloides seroprevalence after two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs) delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community. Methods Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured Strongyloides seroprevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined changes in serostatus. Serodiagnosis was undertaken by ELISA that used sonicated Strongyloides ratti antigen to detect anti-Strongyloides IgG. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 10–42 days if Strongyloides and/or scabies was diagnosed; others followed a standard alternative algorithm. A questionnaire on clinical symptoms was administered to identify adverse events from treatment and self-reported symptoms associated with serostatus. Findings We surveyed 1013 participants at the baseline population census and 1060 (n = 700 from baseline cohort and 360 new entrants) at month 12. Strongyloides seroprevalence fell from 21% (175/818) at baseline to 5% at month 6. For participants from the baseline cohort this reduction was sustained at month 12 (34/618, 6%), falling to 2% at month 18 after the second MDA. For new entrants to the cohort at month 12, seroprevalence reduced from 25% (75/297) to 7% at month 18. Strongyloides positive seroconversions for the baseline cohort six months after each MDA were 2.5% (4/157) at month 6 and 1% at month 18, whilst failure to serorevert remained unchanged at 18%. At 12 months, eosinophilia was identified in 59% of baseline seropositive participants and 89% of seropositive new entrants, compared with 47%baseline seronegative participants and 51% seronegative new entrants. Seropositivity was not correlated with haemoglobin or any

  2. Failure of Ivermectin per Rectum to Achieve Clinically Meaningful Serum Levels in Two Cases of Strongyloides Hyperinfection

    PubMed Central

    Bogoch, Isaac I.; Khan, Kamran; Abrams, Howard; Nott, Caroline; Leung, Elizabeth; Fleckenstein, Lawrence; Keystone, Jay S.

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of Strongyloides hyperinfection are presented. Ivermectin was initially administered orally and per rectum pending the availability of subcutaneous (SC) preparations. In neither case did rectal suppositories of ivermectin achieve clinically meaningful serum values. Clinicians should use SC preparations of ivermectin as early as possible in Strongyloides hyperinfection and dissemination. PMID:25918215

  3. Strongyloides fuelleborni kellyi and other intestinal helminths in children from Papua New Guinea: associations with nutritional status and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    King, Sarah E; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This survey examined the prevalence and intensity of Strongyloides fuelleborni kellyi and other intestinal helminths in children 5 years of age or under living near Kanabea, Papua New Guinea. Of 179 samples, 27% of the children tested positive for Strongyloides, with 81% of these children being a year or less in age. Overall, 68% of the children had one or more infections including Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm (Necator americanus) as well as Strongyloides. Egg counts in the stools ranged from 100 to 98,300 eggs/ml for Strongyloides, 100 to 59,200 eggs/ml for Ascaris and 100 to 3400 eggs/ml for hookworm. There were significant associations between Strongyloides intensity and weight for age and weight for height such that children with higher intensities had, on average, lower z-scores. Relationships between the prevalence of helminth infections and socioeconomic factors were also observed. Logistic regression models showed that children living farther away from Kanabea (more than 2 hours' walking distance), in smaller households (5 or less people) and with uneducated mothers best predict children with Strongyloides. Two of these variables also predicted the presence of hookworm: maternal education and household size. However, in contrast to Strongyloides, a larger household size (6 or more people) was significantly associated with the presence of hookworm. House type was associated with the prevalence of Ascaris, with children living in houses with tin roofs being less likely to have Ascaris than those living in traditional houses. In addition, maternal education was associated with Ascaris intensity in those children with infection, such that the mean intensities were greater in children of uneducated mothers.

  4. Structural and functional characterization of a novel scFv anti-HSP60 of Strongyloides sp.

    PubMed Central

    Levenhagen, Marcelo Arantes; de Almeida Araújo Santos, Fabiana; Fujimura, Patrícia Tiemi; Caneiro, Ana Paula; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Phage display is a powerful technology that selects specific proteins or peptides to a target. We have used Phage Display to select scFv (single-chain variable fragment) clones from a combinatorial library against total proteins of Strongyloides venezuelensis. After scFv characterization, further analysis demonstrated that this recombinant fragment of antibody was able to bind to an S. venezuelensis antigenic fraction of ~65 kDa, present in the body periphery and digestive system of infective larvae (L3), as demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Mass spectrometry results followed by bioinformatics analysis showed that this antigenic fraction was a heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) of Strongyloides sp. The selected scFv was applied in serodiagnosis by immune complexes detection in serum samples from individuals with strongyloidiasis using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), showing sensitivity of 97.5% (86.84–99.94), specificity of 98.81 (93.54–99.97), positive likelihood ratio of 81.60 and an area under the curve of 0.9993 (0.9973–1.000). Our study provided a novel monoclonal scFv antibody fragment which specifically bound to HSP60 of Strongyloides sp. and was applied in the development of an innovative serodiagnosis method for the human strongyloidiasis. PMID:25994608

  5. Previous contact with Strongyloides venezuelensis contributed to prevent insulitis in MLD-STZ diabetes.

    PubMed

    Peres, Raphael Sanches; Chiuso-Minicucci, Fernanda; da Rosa, Larissa Camargo; Domingues, Alexandre; Zorzella-Pezavento, Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves; França, Thais Graziela Donegá; Ishikawa, Larissa Lumi Watanabe; do Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini; Sartori, Alexandrina

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies support the idea that helminth infections can induce a protective effect against the development of autoimmune and allergic diseases. In this study we characterized the immune response induced by Strongyloides venezuelensis infection in C57BL/6 mice and then evaluated the effect of a previous contact with this helminth in the outcome of type 1 diabetes. Animals were initially infected with 2000 L3 larvae from S. venezuelensis and euthanized 22 days later. An acute phase, identified by a high amount of eggs per gram of feces, was established between days 7 and 9 post-infection. Recovery from infection was associated with a Th2 polarized response characterized by a significant level of serum IgG1 specific antibodies and also a significant production of IL-5 and IL-10 by spleen cells stimulated with S. venezuelensis soluble antigen. Immunization with soluble S. venezuelensis antigen associated with complete Freund's adjuvant followed by infection with S. venezuelensis protected mice from diabetes development induced by streptozotocin. Protection was characterized by a higher body weight gain, lower glycemic levels, much less severe insulitis and preserved insulin production. Together, these results indicate that S. venezuelensis contributed to protect C57BL/6 mice against experimental diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemokinetic behavior of the infective third-stage larvae of Strongyloides ratti on a sodium chloride gradient.

    PubMed

    Tobata-Kudo, H; Higo, H; Koga, M; Tada, I

    2000-09-01

    The movements of the infective third-stage larvae (L3) of a rodent parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti were examined on a sodium chloride (NaCl) gradient set up on agarose plates. The movements of larvae were followed by observing their tracks on the surface of the agarose. The direction of movement depended on the NaCl concentration at the point of their initial placement on the gradient. Larvae placed at between 230 and 370 mM NaCl tended to migrate towards areas of lower concentration. On the other hand, when placed at concentrations less than 20 mM NaCl, larvae tended to migrate initially towards higher concentrations but did not linger in areas where the concentration was over approximately 80 mM NaCl. It seems that S. ratti L3, tested in vitro, prefer regions with a concentration of NaCl below 80 mM NaCl. Two typical chemokinetic behaviors are seen; a unidirectional avoidance movement when initially placed in unfavorable environmental conditions and a random dispersal movement when placed within an area of favorable conditions. Track patterns were straight in the avoidance movement but included multiple changes of direction and loops in the dispersal movement. This study introduces an assay system suitable for studying chemokinetic behavior of larvae of Strongyloides ratti.

  7. Pilot Study to Assess the Efficacy of Ivermectin and Fenbendazole for Treating Captive-Born Olive Baboons (Papio anubis) Coinfected with Strongyloides fülleborni and Trichuris trichiura.

    PubMed

    Reichard, Mason V; Thomas, Jennifer E; Chavez-Suarez, Maria; Cullin, Cassandra O; White, Gary L; Wydysh, Emily C; Wolf, Roman F

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of combined treatment with ivermectin and fenbendazole (IVM-FBZ) for treating captive olive baboons (Papio anubis) infected with Strongyloides fülleborni and Trichuris trichiura, 2 common nematode parasites of these NHP. Infected baboons were treated for a total of 9 wk with ivermectin (400 μg/kg IM twice weekly) and fenbendazole (50 mg/kg PO once daily for 3 d; 3 rounds of treatment, 21 d apart). Five baboons naturally infected with both S. fülleborni and T. trichiura (n = 4) or S. fülleborni alone (n = 1) received the combination therapy; an additional baboon infected with both parasites served as a nontreated control. The efficacy of IVM-FBZ was measured as the reduction in fecal egg counts of S. fülleborni and T. trichiura as determined by quantitative fecal flotation examination after treatment of baboons with IVM-FBZ. All baboons treated with IVM-FBZ stopped shedding S. fülleborni and T. trichiura eggs by 8 d after treatment and remained negative for at least 161 d. The nontreated control baboon shed S. fülleborni and T. trichiura eggs throughout the study period. Our results indicate that the IVM-FBZ regimen was efficacious for treating olive baboons infected with S. fülleborni and T. trichiura.

  8. Pilot Study to Assess the Efficacy of Ivermectin and Fenbendazole for Treating Captive-Born Olive Baboons (Papio anubis) Coinfected with Strongyloides fülleborni and Trichuris trichiura

    PubMed Central

    Reichard, Mason V; Thomas, Jennifer E; Chavez-Suarez, Maria; Cullin, Cassandra O; White, Gary L; Wydysh, Emily C; Wolf, Roman F

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of combined treatment with ivermectin and fenbendazole (IVM–FBZ) for treating captive olive baboons (Papio anubis) infected with Strongyloides fülleborni and Trichuris trichiura, 2 common nematode parasites of these NHP. Infected baboons were treated for a total of 9 wk with ivermectin (400 μg/kg IM twice weekly) and fenbendazole (50 mg/kg PO once daily for 3 d; 3 rounds of treatment, 21 d apart). Five baboons naturally infected with both S. fülleborni and T. trichiura (n = 4) or S. fülleborni alone (n = 1) received the combination therapy; an additional baboon infected with both parasites served as a nontreated control. The efficacy of IVM–FBZ was measured as the reduction in fecal egg counts of S. fülleborni and T. trichiura as determined by quantitative fecal flotation examination after treatment of baboons with IVM–FBZ. All baboons treated with IVM–FBZ stopped shedding S. fülleborni and T. trichiura eggs by 8 d after treatment and remained negative for at least 161 d. The nontreated control baboon shed S. fülleborni and T. trichiura eggs throughout the study period. Our results indicate that the IVM–FBZ regimen was efficacious for treating olive baboons infected with S. fülleborni and T. trichiura. PMID:28905715

  9. Loss of surface coat by Strongyloides ratti infective larvae during skin penetration: evidence using larvae radiolabelled with /sup 67/gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, D.I.; Northern, C.; Warwick, A.

    1984-10-01

    The optimal conditions for labelling infective larvae of Strongyloides ratti with /sup 67/Ga citrate were determined. Radiolabelled larvae were injected s.c. into normal and previously infected rats. The distribution of radioactivity in these animals was compared with that in rats infected subcutaneously with a similar dose of free /sup 67/Ga by using a gamma camera linked to a computer system. Whereas free /sup 67/Ga was distributed throughout the body and excreted via the hepatobiliary system, the bulk of radioactivity in rats injected with radiolabelled larvae remained at the injection sites. Direct microscopical examination of these sites, however, revealed only minimalmore » numbers of worms. When rats were infected percutaneously with radiolabelled larvae, it was found that most radioactivity remained at the surface, despite penetration of worms. When infective larvae were exposed to CO/sub 2/ in vitro and examined carefully by light microscopy, loss of an outer coat was observed. It was concluded that infective larvae lose an outer coat on skin penetration.« less

  10. Multifunctional Thioredoxin-Like Protein from the Gastrointestinal Parasitic Nematodes Strongyloides ratti and Trichuris suis Affects Mucosal Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hansmann, Jan; Winter, Dominic; Schramm, Guido; Erttmann, Klaus D.; Liebau, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The cellular redox state is important for the regulation of multiple functions and is essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and antioxidant defense. In the excretory/secretory (E/S) products of Strongyloides ratti and Trichuris suis sequences for thioredoxin (Trx) and Trx-like protein (Trx-lp) were identified. To characterize the antioxidant Trx-lp and its interaction with the parasite's mucosal habitat, S. ratti and T. suis Trx-lps were cloned and recombinantly expressed. The primary antioxidative activity was assured by reduction of insulin and IgM. Further analysis applying an in vitro mucosal 3D-cell culture model revealed that the secreted Trx-lps were able to bind to monocytic and intestinal epithelial cells and induce the time-dependent release of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-22, and TSLP. In addition, the redox proteins also possessed chemotactic activity for monocytic THP-1 cells and fostered epithelial wound healing activity. These results confirm that the parasite-secreted Trx-lps are multifunctional proteins that can affect the host intestinal mucosa. PMID:27872753

  11. In vitro efficacy of latex and purified papain from Carica papaya against Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs and larvae.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Dayane; Levenhagen, Marcelo Arantes; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria; Costa, Antônio Paulino da; Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria

    2017-04-03

    Latex from Carica papaya is rich in bioactive compounds, especially papain, which may help to control parasitic diseases. This study evaluated the efficacy of latex from C. papaya and purified papain against Strongyloides venezuelensis. The Egg Hatching Test (EHT) and the Larval Motility Test (LMT) using fresh and frozen latex (250mg/mL), lyophilized latex (34mg/mL), and purified papain (2.8 mg/mL) were performed. Albendazole (0.025 mg/mL) and ivermectin (316 ppm) were used as positive controls. EHT and LMT were carried out through the incubation of each solution with S. venezuelensis eggs or larvae (± 100 specimens), and results were analyzed after 48h (EHT) or 24, 48, and 72h (LMT). EHT showed that latex preparations at higher concentrations (1:10 to 1:100) resulted in partial or complete destruction of eggs and larvae inside the eggs. The result from the 1:1,000 dilution was similar to the positive control. LMT showed effectiveness in all the tested dilutions compared to negative controls. Purified papain showed a dose-dependent response in the EHT. Purified papain (2.8 mg/ mL) showed similar results to lyophilized latex at 1:1,000 in the EHT. Latex and purified papain from C. papaya were effective against S. venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vitro, suggesting their potential use as an alternative treatment for strongyloidiasis.

  12. In vitro efficacy of latex and purified papain from Carica papaya against Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs and larvae

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Dayane; Levenhagen, Marcelo Arantes; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria; da Costa, Antônio Paulino; Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Latex from Carica papaya is rich in bioactive compounds, especially papain, which may help to control parasitic diseases. This study evaluated the efficacy of latex from C. papaya and purified papain against Strongyloides venezuelensis. The Egg Hatching Test (EHT) and the Larval Motility Test (LMT) using fresh and frozen latex (250mg/mL), lyophilized latex (34mg/mL), and purified papain (2.8 mg/mL) were performed. Albendazole (0.025 mg/mL) and ivermectin (316 ppm) were used as positive controls. EHT and LMT were carried out through the incubation of each solution with S. venezuelensis eggs or larvae (± 100 specimens), and results were analyzed after 48h (EHT) or 24, 48, and 72h (LMT). EHT showed that latex preparations at higher concentrations (1:10 to 1:100) resulted in partial or complete destruction of eggs and larvae inside the eggs. The result from the 1:1,000 dilution was similar to the positive control. LMT showed effectiveness in all the tested dilutions compared to negative controls. Purified papain showed a dose-dependent response in the EHT. Purified papain (2.8 mg/ mL) showed similar results to lyophilized latex at 1:1,000 in the EHT. Latex and purified papain from C. papaya were effective against S. venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vitro, suggesting their potential use as an alternative treatment for strongyloidiasis. PMID:28380118

  13. The potential role of strongyloides robustus on parasite-mediated competition between two species of flying squirrels (Glaucomys).

    PubMed

    Krichbaum, Kristle; Mahan, Carolyn G; Steele, Michael A; Turner, Gregory; Hudson, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence that populations of the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) are declining in the eastern United States, perhaps due to competition with the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans). Potential causes include parasite-mediated or apparent competition from the shared intestinal nematode, Strongyloides robustus, which has been shown to detrimentally affect the northern flying squirrel but not the southern flying squirrel. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a preliminary study on the parasite community of both flying squirrel species from sites in Pennsylvania where the two species occur sympatrically and where G. sabrinus is now considered endangered at the state level. We compared these parasite communities with those from northern flying squirrels from northern New York where the southern flying squirrel is absent. We found eight species of gastrointestinal parasites (Pterygodermatites peromysci, Lemuricola sciuri, Syphacia thompsoni, Syphacia spp., Capillaria spp., Citellinema bifurcatum, Strogyloides robustus, and an unidentifiable cestode species) in both species of flying squirrels examined for our study. The parasite-mediated competition hypothesis was partially supported. For example, in Pennsylvania, S. robustus was overdispersed in southern flying squirrels, such that a small proportion of the hosts carried a large proportion of the worm population. In addition, we found S. robustus to be present in northern flying squirrels when the species were sympatric, but not where southern flying squirrels were absent in New York. However, there was no association between S. robustus and the body condition of flying squirrels. We detected a potential parasite community interaction, as S. robustus abundance was positively associated with P. peromysci.

  14. Effects of various treatments on the chemokinetic behavior of third-stage larvae of Strongyloides ratti on a sodium chloride gradient.

    PubMed

    Tobata-Kudo, H; Higo, H; Koga, M; Tada, I

    2000-11-01

    In observations of the movements of the infective third-stage larvae of a rodent parasitic nematode, Strongyloides ratti, on a sodium chloride gradient set up on agarose plates, two types of chemokinetic behavior were seen: a unidirectional avoidance movement on initial placement of the larvae in unfavorable environmental conditions and a random dispersal movement on their placement within an area of favorable conditions. Track patterns were straight in the avoidance movement but included multiple changes of direction and loops in the dispersal movement. In the present study we examined the interventional activity of treatment with various enzymes, lectins, and chemicals by analyzing the unidirectional avoidance movements of the larvae. We observed that beta-glucosidase, hyaluronidase, beta-galactosidase, trypsin, protease, lipase, phospholipase C, soybean agglutinin, wheat germ agglutinin, and spermidine exerted inhibitory actions on those movements, which may be guided by the chemosensory function of this nematode.

  15. Chronic Daily Headaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... headache New daily persistent headache Hemicrania continua Chronic migraine This type typically occurs in people with a history of episodic migraines. Chronic migraines tend to: Affect one side or ...

  16. Daily Living Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... PPMD. Click here to review PPMD’s policy on corporate support . Daily Living Resources PPMD Resource Fair Participants ... About PPMD ❯ Mission & Impact Staff & Board News History Finance & Operations Partners Media Contact us Get Involved ❯ Donate ...

  17. Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

  18. New daily persistent headache.

    PubMed

    Evans, Randolph W

    2003-08-01

    New daily persistent headache (NDPH), which is the acute onset of headache within 3 days and is persistent for 15 days or more each month for at least 3 months, is a predominantly female heterogeneous subtype of chronic daily headache, typically with migraine features of unknown etiology. NDPH may be a presentation of other primary headaches such as new onset migraine, tension, or benign thunderclap headache. The headaches can be difficult to treat. The diagnosis is one of excluding the many secondary types or NDPH mimics, which is especially critical early in the course of the disease when a secondary etiology is more likely. NDPH mimics include postmeningitis headache, NDPH with medication rebound, neoplasms, temporal arteritis, chronic meningitis, chronic subdural hematoma, post-traumatic headaches, sphenoid sinusitis, hypertension, subarachnoid hemorrhage, low cerebrospinal fluid pressure syndrome, cervical artery dissections, pseudotumor cerebri without papilledema, and cerebral venous thrombosis.

  19. New daily persistent headache.

    PubMed

    Rozen, Todd D

    2010-01-01

    New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a unique form of chronic daily headache (CDH) which is marked by a daily headache from onset, typically occurring in individuals without a significant prior history of headaches. There are two subforms of NDPH: one which is self-limited and normally goes away without therapy, and a more chronic refractory form which is unresponsive to typical headache treatment strategies. The pathogenesis of NDPH is unknown but recent observations suggest a connection with cervical spine hypermobility and elevation of proinflammatory cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recognized triggers for NDPH include infection, stressful life events, and surgical procedures. Clinically, NDPH is characterized by continuous head pain of mild to severe intensity. Migrainous symptoms are common. The syndrome appears to affect women in their teens and 20s, while males develop NDPH later in life in their 50s or 60s. There are no recognized treatments for this condition, although treatment options will be discussed. Secondary mimics of NDPH will also be touched upon in this chapter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Occurrence of strongyloidiasis in privately owned and sheltered dogs: clinical presentation and treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Paradies, Paola; Iarussi, Fabrizio; Sasanelli, Mariateresa; Capogna, Antonio; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Zucca, Daniele; Greco, Beatrice; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Otranto, Domenico

    2017-07-20

    The increasing number of reports of human infections by Strongyloides stercoralis from a range of European countries over the last 20 years has spurred the interest of the scientific community towards this parasite and, in particular, towards the role that infections of canine hosts may play in the epidemiology of human disease. Data on the epidemiology of canine strongyloidiasis is currently limited, most likely because of the inherent limitations of current diagnostic methods. Faecal samples were collected directly from the rectal ampulla of 272 animals of varying age and both genders living in Apulia, southern Italy. Dogs included were either privately owned (n = 210), living in an urban area but with unrestricted outdoor access (Group 1), or shelter dogs (n = 62 out of ~400) hosted in a single shelter in the province of Bari in which a history of diarrhoea, weight loss, reduced appetite and respiratory symptoms had been reported (Group 2). Strongyloides stercoralis infection was diagnosed by coproscopy on direct faecal smear and via the Baermann method. Six of 272 dogs were positive for S. stercoralis at the Baermann examination; all but one were from the shelter (Group 2) and displayed gastrointestinal clinical signs. The only owned dog (Group 1) infected with S. stercoralis, but clinically healthy, had been adopted from a shelter 1 year prior to sampling. Five infected dogs were treated with fenbendazole (Panacur®, Intervet, Animal Health, 50 mg/kg, PO daily for 5 days), or with a combination of fenbendazole and moxidectin plus imidacloprid spot-on (Im/Mox; Advocate® spot-on, Bayer). Post-treatment clearance of infection was confirmed in three dogs by Baermann examination, whereas treatment failure was documented in two dogs by Baermann and/or post-mortem detection of adult parasites. This study describes, for the first time, the presence of S. stercoralis infection in sheltered dogs from southern Italy. Data indicate that S. stercoralis infection

  1. New daily persistent headache.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Alok

    2012-08-01

    New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.

  2. New daily persistent headache

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Alok

    2012-01-01

    New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. PMID:23024565

  3. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  4. Measuring Daily Stress in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfenoff, Sheila H.; Jose, Paul E.

    A study of school-age children was designed to: (1) identify hassles that children experience in their families, among peers, and at school; (2) determine the ability of hassles to predict unhealthy psychological and physical functioning; and (3) explore the effect of daily hassles on school behavior. A measure of children's daily stress that used…

  5. Strongyloidiasis in an institution for mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Braun, T I; Fekete, T; Lynch, A

    1988-03-01

    A serologic and epidemiologic survey was undertaken to explain the high incidence of eosinophilia (14.1%) in nine of 64 residents of a facility for mentally retarded adults in Pennsylvania. Seven residents had antibodies to Strongyloides stercoralis as determined by an IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system (10.9%) and five (71.4%) of this subset had persistent eosinophilia, suggesting a strong association. Sex, race, age, ward, degree of retardation, and medication were not associated with eosinophilia. Stool examination revealed S stercoralis larvae in two residents with S stercoralis antibodies and eosinophilia. Follow-up studies after thiabendazole treatment of the residents with S stercoralis antibodies showed resolution of eosinophilia and disappearance of S stercoralis antibodies in most. Eosinophilia in an adult institutional setting may be associated with strongyloidiasis, even in a nonendemic area. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibody to S stercoralis may be useful in diagnosing or monitoring therapy of strongyloidiasis.

  6. [Social phobia in daily life].

    PubMed

    Morschitzky, Hans

    2009-12-01

    Based on present diagnostic criteria daily routine of patients with social phobia is described in detail with all its social, educational and occupational impacts. Suffering of affected people is classified as a disease and in need of treatment.

  7. Unravelling daily human mobility motifs

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Christian M.; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C.

    2013-01-01

    Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These networks, called here motifs, are sufficient to capture up to 90 per cent of the population in surveys and mobile phone datasets for different countries. Each individual exhibits a characteristic motif, which seems to be stable over several months. Consequently, daily human mobility can be reproduced by an analytically tractable framework for Markov chains by modelling periods of high-frequency trips followed by periods of lower activity as the key ingredient. PMID:23658117

  8. Relationships Among Nightly Sleep Quality, Daily Stress, and Daily Affect.

    PubMed

    Blaxton, Jessica M; Bergeman, Cindy S; Whitehead, Brenda R; Braun, Marcia E; Payne, Jessic D

    2017-05-01

    We explored the prospective, microlevel relationship between nightly sleep quality (SQ) and the subsequent day's stress on positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) as well as the moderating relationships between nightly SQ, subsequent stress, and subsequent PA on NA. We investigated whether age moderated these relationships. We collected 56 days of sleep, stress, and affect data using daily diary questionnaires (N = 552). We used multilevel modeling to assess relationships at the between- and within-person levels. Daily increases in SQ and decreases in stress interacted to predict higher daily PA and lower daily NA. Better SQ in older adults enhanced the benefits of PA on the stress-NA relationship more during times of low stress, whereas better sleep in younger adults enhanced the benefits of PA more during times of high stress. Between-person effects were stronger predictors of well-being outcomes than within-person variability. The combination of good SQ and higher PA buffered the impact of stress on NA. The moderating impact of age suggests that sleep and stress play different roles across adulthood. Targeting intervention and prevention strategies to improve SQ and enhance PA could disrupt the detrimental relationship between daily stress and NA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Relationships Among Nightly Sleep Quality, Daily Stress, and Daily Affect

    PubMed Central

    Bergeman, Cindy S.; Whitehead, Brenda R.; Braun, Marcia E.; Payne, Jessic D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. We explored the prospective, microlevel relationship between nightly sleep quality (SQ) and the subsequent day’s stress on positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) as well as the moderating relationships between nightly SQ, subsequent stress, and subsequent PA on NA. We investigated whether age moderated these relationships. Method. We collected 56 days of sleep, stress, and affect data using daily diary questionnaires (N = 552). We used multilevel modeling to assess relationships at the between- and within-person levels. Results. Daily increases in SQ and decreases in stress interacted to predict higher daily PA and lower daily NA. Better SQ in older adults enhanced the benefits of PA on the stress–NA relationship more during times of low stress, whereas better sleep in younger adults enhanced the benefits of PA more during times of high stress. Between-person effects were stronger predictors of well-being outcomes than within-person variability. Discussion. The combination of good SQ and higher PA buffered the impact of stress on NA. The moderating impact of age suggests that sleep and stress play different roles across adulthood. Targeting intervention and prevention strategies to improve SQ and enhance PA could disrupt the detrimental relationship between daily stress and NA. PMID:26307483

  10. [Chronic daily headache: clinical presentation].

    PubMed

    Krymchantowski, A V; Moreira Filho, P F

    2000-06-01

    Chronic daily headache (CDH) represents a group of any headache disorder that occurs on a daily or near daily basis, for longer than 6 months. Even though it is a common problem, it is not a well defined disorder, resulting in controversies regarding its identification, description and approach. Three hundred patients, 232 women and 68 men, ages 16 to 86 (mean 38 years old for the women and 42 for the men), attending a headache center and fulfilling the proposed criteria for CDH (Silberstein et al.) and presenting headache 28 days per month were retrospectively studied. The clinical features allowed the primary headache diagnosis, before the transformation into daily presentation as: transformed migraine (TM ) in 271 patients (90,3%), chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) in 26 patients (8,7%) and new daily persistent headache (NDPH) in 3 patients (1%). Among the TM patients, the most observed presentation was pressure or tightening, bilateral fronto-temporal, moderate non-continuous headache, with a progressive onset. The association with nausea and phonophobia was demonstrated in 60% and 32% of the patients respectively. The association with photophobia and sleep disturbances, as well as the occurrence of intermittent headache attacks, was different among male and female patients. With regard to the CTTH patients, pressure or tightening, bilateral fronto-temporal, moderate non-continuous headache, with sleep disturbances and no associated symptoms, was the predominant presentation.

  11. Design of landfill daily cells.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakopoulos, D; Dokas, I

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the behaviour of the landfill soil-to-refuse (S/R) ratio when size, geometry and operating parameters of the daily cell vary over realistic ranges. A simple procedure is presented (1) for calculating the cell parameters values which minimise the S/R ratio and (2) for studying the sensitivity of this minimum S/R ratio to variations in cell size, final refuse density, working face length, lift height and cover thickness. In countries where daily soil cover is required, savings in landfill space could be realised following this procedure. The sensitivity of minimum S/R to variations in cell dimensions decreases with cell size. Working face length and lift height affect the S/R ratio significantly. This procedure also offers the engineer an additional tool for comparing one large daily cell with two or more smaller ones, at two different working faces within the same landfill.

  12. Southern California Daily Energy Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    EIA has updated its Southern California Daily Energy Report to provide additional information on key energy market indicators for the winter season. The dashboard includes information that EIA regularly compiles about energy operations and the management of natural gas and electricity systems in Southern California in the aftermath of a leak at the Aliso Canyon natural gas storage facility outside of Los Angeles

  13. Daily Physical Activity Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the Daily Physical Activity (DPA) Survey was to gather school-level information from teachers and principals regarding their perceptions of DPA, thus providing a greater understanding of DPA implementation in grades 1 to 9. This study aimed to help identify the many variables that influence the attainment of the DPA outcomes and…

  14. Daily Food and Activity Diary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Department of Health & Human Services Health Topics The Science Grants and Training News and Events About NHLBI Home » Health Information for the Public » Educational Campaigns & Programs » Aim for a Healthy Weight » Eat Right » Daily Food and Activity Diary Home Assessing Your Weight ...

  15. Epidemiology of chronic daily headache.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; Colás, R; Castillo, J

    2001-12-01

    Daily or near-daily headache is a widespread problem in clinical practice. The general term of chronic daily headache (CDH) encompasses those primary headaches presenting more than 15 days per month and lasting more than 4 hours per day. CDH includes transformed migraine (TM), chronic tension-type headache (CTTH), new daily persistent headache (NDPH), and hemicrania continua (HC). Around 40% of patients attending a specialized headache clinic meet CDH diagnostic criteria, of which 80% are women. In these clinics about 60% of patients suffer from TM, 20% from CTTH, and 20% meet NDPH criteria. Most, some 80%, overuse symptomatic medications. One should be very cautious on extrapolating these numbers to the general population. CDH prevalence in the general population seems to be around 4% to 5% (up to 8% to 9% for women). Regarding the prevalence of CDH subtypes, NDPH is rare (0.1%), whereas the prevalence of TM (1.5% to 2%) and CTTH (2.5% to 3%) is clearly higher. In contrast to data from specialized clinics, only around a quarter of CDH subjects in the general population overuse analgesics; the prevalence of CDH subjects with analgesic overuse being 1.1% to 1.9% of the general population. Most of these patients with analgesic overuse are TM patients.

  16. Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Lehmann, Sune; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-10-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness) to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.

  17. Observability of market daily volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  18. Chronic and Daily Stressors Along With Negative Affect Interact to Predict Daily Tiredness.

    PubMed

    Hartsell, Elizabeth N; Neupert, Shevaun D

    2017-11-01

    The present study examines the within-person relationship of daily stressors and tiredness and whether this depends on daily negative affect and individual differences in chronic stress. One hundred sixteen older adult participants were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk for a 9-day daily diary study. Daily tiredness, daily stressors, and negative affect were measured each day, and chronic stress was measured at baseline. Daily stressors, daily negative affect, and chronic stress interacted to predict daily tiredness. People with high chronic stress who experienced an increase in daily negative affect were the most reactive to daily stressors in terms of experiencing an increase in daily tiredness. We also found that people with low levels of chronic stress were the most reactive to daily stressors when they experienced low levels of daily negative affect. Our results highlight the need for individualized and contextualized approaches to combating daily tiredness in older adults.

  19. Occurrence of strongyloidiasis among patients with HTLV-1/2 seen at the outpatient clinic of the Núcleo de Medicina Tropical, Belém, State of Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Karen Cristini Yumi Ogawa; Costa, Carlos Araújo da; Ferreira, Louise de Souza Canto; Martins, Luisa Carício; Linhares, Alexandre da Costa; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Yassui; Batista, Evander de Jesus Oliveira; Sousa, Maisa Silva de

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of Strongyloides stercoralis infestation and coinfection with HTLV-1/2 in Belém, Brazil. S. stercoralis was investigated in stool samples obtained from individuals infected with HTLV-1/2 and their uninfected relatives. The frequency of S. stercoralis was 9% (9/100), including six patients infected with HTLV-1 (14.3%), two patients infected with HTLV-2 (11.1%), and one uninfected relative. Two cases of hyperinfestation by S. stercoralis were characterized as HTLV-1. These results support the need for the routine investigation of S. stercoralis in patients with HTLV-1, in an attempt to prevent the development of severe forms of strongyloidiasis.

  20. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  1. ONCE DAILY RISPERIDONE IN TREATMENT OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Vivek; Chadda, Rakesh K.

    2001-01-01

    Forty four schizophrenic patients were randomly assigned to receive risperidone in 4-8 mg doses either once daily or twice daily for 8 weeks. An open trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of once daily administration of risperidone as compared to twice daily administration. Assessment were done on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale Eighty two percent of the once daily patients and 79% of the twice daily patients showed a significant treatment response. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in response pattern and adverse effects at the end point. Risperidone given once daily was as effective as twice daily administration. PMID:21407835

  2. The Daily Practices of Successful Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.

    2011-01-01

    While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in daily practice. "The Daily Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of daily practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…

  3. Patrol Officer Daily Noise Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, Lynn R; Vosburgh, Donna J H

    2015-01-01

    established by the OSHA or ACGIH occupational exposure levels from the daily occupational tasks that were monitored.

  4. Daily Medicine Record for Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) Time Problem ...

  5. Children's Daily Routines during Kindergarten Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildenger, Leah K.; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Fiese, Barbara H.; Eckert, Tanya L.

    2008-01-01

    Routines are an important feature of family life and functioning in families with young children. Common daily routines such as dinnertime, bedtime, and waking activities are powerful organizers of family behavior and may be instrumental to children and families during times of transition, such as elementary school entry. Daily routines were…

  6. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day...

  7. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day...

  8. Techniques for Daily Living: Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldridge, Lillian; And Others

    Presented are specific guides concerning techniques for daily living which were developed by the child care staff at the Illinois Braille and Sight Saving School. The guides are designed for cottage parents of the children, who may have both visual and other handicaps, and show what daily living skills are necessary and appropriate for the…

  9. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day...

  10. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day...

  11. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day...

  12. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6 and 13…

  13. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einolf, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that daily spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.…

  14. Differences in the Importance of Mast Cells, Basophils, IgE, and IgG versus That of CD4+ T Cells and ILC2 Cells in Primary and Secondary Immunity to Strongyloides venezuelensis.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kaori; Karasuyama, Hajime; Kabashima, Kenji; Kubo, Masato; Galli, Stephen J

    2017-05-01

    There is evidence that mast cells, basophils, and IgE can contribute to immune responses to parasites; however, the relative levels of importance of these effector elements in parasite immunity are not fully understood. Previous work in Il3 -deficient and c- kit mutant Kit W / W-v mice indicated that interleukin-3 and c-Kit contribute to expulsion of the intestinal nematode Strongyloides venezuelensis during primary infection. Our findings in mast cell-deficient Kit W-sh / W-sh mice and two types of mast cell-deficient mice that have normal c- kit ("Hello Kit ty" and MasTRECK mice) confirmed prior work in Kit W / W-v mice that suggested that mast cells play an important role in S. venezuelensis egg clearance in primary infections. We also assessed a possible contribution of basophils in immune responses to S. venezuelensis By immunohistochemistry, we found that numbers of basophils and mast cells were markedly increased in the jejunal mucosa during primary infections with S. venezuelensis Studies in basophil-deficient Mcpt8 DTR mice revealed a small but significant contribution of basophils to S. venezuelensis egg clearance in primary infections. Studies in mice deficient in various components of immune responses showed that CD4 + T cells and ILC2 cells, IgG, FcRγ, and, to a lesser extent, IgE and FcεRI contribute to effective immunity in primary S. venezuelensis infections. These findings support the conclusion that the hierarchy of importance of immune effector mechanisms in primary S. venezuelensis infection is as follows: CD4 + T cells/ILC2 cells, IgG, and FcRγ>mast cells>IgE and FcεRI>basophils. In contrast, in secondary S. venezuelensis infection, our evidence indicates that the presence of CD4 + T cells is of critical importance but mast cells, antibodies, and basophils have few or no nonredundant roles. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Adolescent daily and general maladjustment: is there reactivity to daily repeated measures methodologies?

    PubMed

    Nishina, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether repeated exposure to daily surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' daily and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 daily reports tapping experienced or experienced and witnessed negative events, or they completed no daily reports. General maladjustment was measured in 2-week intervals before, at the end of, and 2 weeks after the daily report study. Daily maladjustment either decreased or did not change across the 5 daily report exposures. General maladjustment decreased across the three 2-week intervals. Combined, results indicate that short-term daily report studies do not place youth at risk for increased maladjustment. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Adolescent Daily and General Maladjustment: Is There Reactivity to Daily Repeated Measures Methodologies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishina, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether repeated exposure to daily surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' daily and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 daily reports tapping experienced or…

  17. Reporter Turnover on Texas Daily Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Marquita

    1978-01-01

    A survey of Texas daily newspapers yielded a picture of newspaper reporters as relatively young men who do not stay in one place very long, suggesting that the stereotype of the itinerant reporter may have its basis in fact. (GW)

  18. New daily persistent headache: An evolving entity.

    PubMed

    Uniyal, Ravi; Paliwal, Vimal Kumar; Anand, Sucharita; Ambesh, Paurush

    2018-01-01

    New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is characterized by an abrupt onset of headache that becomes a daily entity, is unremitting and continuous from the onset, and lasts for more than 3 months. Dr Walter Vanast first described NDPH in the year 1986. Originally, it was proposed as a chronic daily headache but it was placed under "other primary headaches" in the International Classification of Headache Disorder Second Edition (ICHD 2nd edition). However, with evolving literature and better understanding of its clinical characteristics, it was classified as a "chronic daily headache" in the ICHD 3 rd edition beta. There are still many knowledge-gaps regarding the underlying cause, pathophysiology, natural history and treatment of NDPH. This review tries to revisit the entity and discusses the current status of understanding regarding NDPH.

  19. Downscaler Model for predicting daily air pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This model combines daily ozone and particulate matter monitoring and modeling data from across the U.S. to provide improved fine-scale estimates of air quality in communities and other specific locales.

  20. Associations among Daily Stressors and Salivary Cortisol: Findings from the National Study of Daily Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Robert S.; Cichy, Kelly E.; Piazza, Jennifer R.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally-occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1,694 adults (Age=57, Range=33–84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5,995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally-occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. PMID:23856186

  1. Associations among daily stressors and salivary cortisol: findings from the National Study of Daily Experiences.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Robert S; Cichy, Kelly E; Piazza, Jennifer R; Almeida, David M

    2013-11-01

    While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1694 adults (age=57, range=33-84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30min post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Twice-Daily versus Once-Daily Pramipexole Extended Release Dosage Regimens in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Young Eun; Yang, Hui-Jun; Kim, Han-Joon; Jeon, Beomseok

    2017-01-01

    This open-label study aimed to compare once-daily and twice-daily pramipexole extended release (PER) treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients on dopamine agonist therapy, but with unsatisfactory control, were enrolled. Existing agonist doses were switched into equivalent PER doses. Subjects were consecutively enrolled into either once-daily-first or twice-daily-first groups and received the prescribed amount in one or two, respectively, daily doses for 8 weeks. For the second period, subjects switched regimens in a crossover manner. The forty-four patients completed a questionnaire requesting preference during their last visit. We measured the UPDRS-III, Hoehn and Yahr stages (H&Y) in medication-on state, Parkinson's disease sleep scale (PDSS), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Eighteen patients preferred a twice-daily regimen, 12 preferred a once-daily regimen, and 14 had no preference. After the trial, 14 subjects wanted to be on a once-daily regimen, 25 chose a twice-daily regimen, and 5 wanted to maintain the prestudy regimen. Main reasons for choosing the twice-daily regimen were decreased off-duration, more tolerable off-symptoms, and psychological stability. The mean UPDRS-III, H&Y, and PDSS were not different. Daytime sleepiness was significantly high in the once-daily regimen, whereas nocturnal hallucinations were more common in the twice-daily. Multiple dosing should be considered if once-daily dosing is unsatisfactory. This study is registered as NCT01515774 at ClinicalTrials.gov.

  3. Efficacy and Safety of Single and Double Doses of Ivermectin versus 7-Day High Dose Albendazole for Chronic Strongyloidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Premasathian, Nalinee; Bhumimuang, Kid; Waywa, Duangdao; Nilganuwong, Surasak; Karuphong, Ekkapun; Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Wanachiwanawin, Darawan; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk

    2011-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis, caused by an intestinal helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, is common throughout the tropics. It remains an important health problem due to autoinfection, which may result in hyperinfection and disseminated infection in immunosuppressed patients, especially patients receiving chemotherapy or corticosteroid treatment. Ivermectin and albendazole are effective against strongyloidiasis. However, the efficacy and the most effective dosing regimen are to be determined. Methods A prospective, randomized, open study was conducted in which a 7-day course of oral albendazole 800 mg daily was compared with a single dose (200 microgram/kilogram body weight), or double doses, given 2 weeks apart, of ivermectin in Thai patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. Patients were followed-up with 2 weeks after initiation of treatment, then 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 1 year after treatment. Combination of direct microscopic examination of fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method, and modified Koga agar plate culture were used to detect strongyloides larvae in two consecutive fecal samples in each follow-up visit. The primary endpoint was clearance of strongyloides larvae from feces after treatment and at one year follow-up. Results Ninety patients were included in the analysis (30, 31 and 29 patients in albendazole, single dose, and double doses ivermectin group, respectively). All except one patient in this study had at least one concomitant disease. Diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythrematosus, nephrotic syndrome, hematologic malignancy, solid tumor and human immunodeficiency virus infection were common concomitant diseases in these patients. The median (range) duration of follow-up were 19 (2–76) weeks in albendazole group, 39 (2–74) weeks in single dose ivermectin group, and 26 (2–74) weeks in double doses ivermectin group. Parasitological cure rate were 63.3%, 96.8% and 93.1% in albendazole, single dose oral ivermectin

  4. Daily insufficient sleep and active duty status.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Daniel P; Liu, Yong; McKnight-Eily, Lela R; Croft, Janet B; Holt, James B; Balkin, Thomas J; Giles, Wayne H

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between active duty status and daily insufficient sleep in a telephone survey. U.S. military service status (recent defined as past 12 months and past defined as >12 months ago) and daily insufficient sleep in the past 30 days were assessed among 566,861 adults aged 18 to 64 years and 271,202 adults aged ≥ 65 years in the 2009 to 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Among ages 18 to 64 years, 1.1% reported recent active duty and 7.1% had past service; among ages ≥ 65 years, 0.6% reported recent and 24.6% had past service. Among ages 18 to 64 years, prevalence of daily insufficient sleep was 13.7% among those reporting recent duty, 12.6% for those with past service, and 11.2% for those with no service. Insufficient sleep did not vary significantly with active duty status among ages ≥ 65 years. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and frequent mental distress in multivariate logistic regression models, respondents aged 18 to 64 years with recent active duty were 34% more likely and those with past service were 23% more likely to report daily insufficient sleep than those with no service (p < 0.05, both). Adults with either recent or past active duty have a greater risk for daily insufficient sleep. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. Mesalamine once daily is more effective than twice daily in patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Dignass, Axel U; Bokemeyer, Bernd; Adamek, Henning; Mross, Michael; Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Börner, Norbert; Silvennoinen, Jouni; Tan, Gie; Pool, Marco Oudkerk; Stijnen, Theo; Dietel, Peter; Klugmann, Tobias; Vermeire, Severine; Bhatt, Aomesh; Veerman, Henri

    2009-07-01

    Oral mesalamine (5-aminosalicylate) is the current standard of care for mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis. We investigated the efficacy and safety of once daily administration of prolonged-release mesalamine granules in maintenance of remission in patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis, compared with the well established twice daily dosing regimen. In this multicenter, randomized, single blind, noninferiority trial, 362 patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis were randomly assigned (1:1) to groups that were given oral mesalamine 2 g, once daily, or 1 g, twice daily, for 12 months. The primary objective was to compare remission rates at 1 year, based on the ulcerative colitis disease activity index score, using Kaplan-Meier methodology. At 1 year, 70.9% of the group given 2 g mesalamine once daily remained in remission vs 58.9% of the group given 1 g mesalamine twice daily; this difference was statistically significant (P = .024), indicating the increased efficacy of once daily, compared with twice daily, dosing. Self-reported adherence to therapy, measured by visual analog scale score after 4, 8, and 12 months, was significantly greater in the group given 2 g mesalamine once daily, compared with twice daily, at all but 1 study visit (P < .05). Compliance measured by medication taken was not significantly different between the groups. The difference between the 2 groups in overall incidence of adverse events was not statistically significant (P = .23). Patients with ulcerative colitis given prolonged-release oral mesalamine 2 g once daily had better remission rates, acceptability, and self-reported adherence to therapy compared with patients given oral mesalamine 1 g twice daily.

  6. Drawbacks of proactivity: Effects of daily proactivity on daily salivary cortisol and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Fay, Doris; Hüttges, Annett

    2017-10-01

    The benefit of proactive work behaviors for performance-related outcomes has been well established. However, this approach to studying proactivity has not yet acknowledged its potential implications for the actor's well-being. Drawing on the fact that resources at work are limited and that the workplace is a social system characterized by interdependencies, we proposed that daily proactivity could have a negative effect on daily well-being. We furthermore proposed that this effect should be mediated by work overload and negative affect. We conducted a daily diary study (N = 72) to test the potential negative effects of proactivity on daily well-being. Data was collected across 3 consecutive work days. During several daily measurement occasions, participants reported proactivity, work overload, negative affect, and fatigue. They also provided 4 saliva samples per day, from which cortisol was assayed. Based on the 4 samples, a measure of daily cortisol output was produced. Multilevel analyses showed that daily proactivity was positively associated with higher daily cortisol output. The positive association of daily proactivity with bedtime fatigue was marginally significant. There was no support for a mediating effect of work overload and negative affect. Implications for theory-building on the proactivity-well-being link are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Effects of daily food processing on allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Cabanillas, Beatriz; Novak, Natalija

    2017-08-11

    Daily food processing has the potential to alter the allergenicity of foods due to modification of the physico-chemical properties of proteins. The degree of such modifications depends on factors such as processing conditions, type of food considered, allergenic content, etc. The impact of daily food processing like boiling, roasting, frying or baking on food allergenicity have been extensively studied. The influence of other thermal treatments such as microwave heating or pressure cooking on allergenicity has also been analyzed. Non-thermal treatment such as peeling impacts on the allergenic content of certain foods such as fruits. In this review, we give an updated overview of the effects of daily processing treatments on the allergenicity of a wide variety of foods. The different variables that contribute to the modification of food allergenicity due to processing are also reviewed and discussed.

  8. Intergenerational Support in a Daily Context

    PubMed Central

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Kim, Kyungmin; Tennant, Patrick S.; Birditt, Kira S.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Using retrospective global reports, studies have found that middle-aged adults in the United States provide intermittent support to their aging parents and more frequent support to grown children. To date, studies have not examined support middle-aged adults provide to different generations on a daily basis. Daily support may include mundane everyday exchanges that may (or may not) affect well-being. Design and Methods: Middle-aged adults (N = 191, mean age 55.93) completed a general interview regarding family ties, followed by interviews each day for 7 days (N = 1,261 days). Daily interviews assessed support (e.g., advice, emotional, practical help) participants provided each grown child (n = 454) and aging parent (n = 253). Participants also reported daily mood. Results: Most participants provided emotional support (80%), advice (87%), and practical help (69%) to a grown child and also provided emotional support (61%) and advice (61%) or practical help (43%) to a parent that week. Multilevel models confirmed generational differences; grown children were more likely to receive everyday support than parents. Providing support to grown children was associated with positive mood, whereas providing support to parents was associated with more negative mood. Implications: Daily intergenerational support was more common than studies using global reports of support have found. Some daily support may be fleeting and not stand out in memory. The findings were consistent with the intergenerational stake hypothesis, which suggests middle-aged adults are more invested in their grown children than in their parents. Nonetheless, middle-aged adults were highly involved with aging parents. PMID:26035892

  9. Intergenerational Support in a Daily Context.

    PubMed

    Fingerman, Karen L; Kim, Kyungmin; Tennant, Patrick S; Birditt, Kira S; Zarit, Steven H

    2016-10-01

    Using retrospective global reports, studies have found that middle-aged adults in the United States provide intermittent support to their aging parents and more frequent support to grown children. To date, studies have not examined support middle-aged adults provide to different generations on a daily basis. Daily support may include mundane everyday exchanges that may (or may not) affect well-being. Middle-aged adults (N = 191, mean age 55.93) completed a general interview regarding family ties, followed by interviews each day for 7 days (N = 1,261 days). Daily interviews assessed support (e.g., advice, emotional, practical help) participants provided each grown child (n = 454) and aging parent (n = 253). Participants also reported daily mood. Most participants provided emotional support (80%), advice (87%), and practical help (69%) to a grown child and also provided emotional support (61%) and advice (61%) or practical help (43%) to a parent that week. Multilevel models confirmed generational differences; grown children were more likely to receive everyday support than parents. Providing support to grown children was associated with positive mood, whereas providing support to parents was associated with more negative mood. Daily intergenerational support was more common than studies using global reports of support have found. Some daily support may be fleeting and not stand out in memory. The findings were consistent with the intergenerational stake hypothesis, which suggests middle-aged adults are more invested in their grown children than in their parents. Nonetheless, middle-aged adults were highly involved with aging parents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Daily estimates of soil ingestion in children.

    PubMed Central

    Stanek, E J; Calabrese, E J

    1995-01-01

    Soil ingestion estimates play an important role in risk assessment of contaminated sites, and estimates of soil ingestion in children are of special interest. Current estimates of soil ingestion are trace-element specific and vary widely among elements. Although expressed as daily estimates, the actual estimates have been constructed by averaging soil ingestion over a study period of several days. The wide variability has resulted in uncertainty as to which method of estimation of soil ingestion is best. We developed a methodology for calculating a single estimate of soil ingestion for each subject for each day. Because the daily soil ingestion estimate represents the median estimate of eligible daily trace-element-specific soil ingestion estimates for each child, this median estimate is not trace-element specific. Summary estimates for individuals and weeks are calculated using these daily estimates. Using this methodology, the median daily soil ingestion estimate for 64 children participating in the 1989 Amherst soil ingestion study is 13 mg/day or less for 50% of the children and 138 mg/day or less for 95% of the children. Mean soil ingestion estimates (for up to an 8-day period) were 45 mg/day or less for 50% of the children, whereas 95% of the children reported a mean soil ingestion of 208 mg/day or less. Daily soil ingestion estimates were used subsequently to estimate the mean and variance in soil ingestion for each child and to extrapolate a soil ingestion distribution over a year, assuming that soil ingestion followed a log-normal distribution. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:7768230

  11. New daily persistent headache and panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Peres, Mario F P; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Mercante, Juliane P P; Young, William B

    2011-01-01

    New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a primary chronic daily headache that is generally considered to be difficult to treat. Migraine has been linked to comorbid psychiatric conditions, mainly mood and anxiety disorders, but NDPH has never been linked to psychiatric conditions, and never studied extensively for such an association. We report nine cases (six women and three men) of patients diagnosed with NDPH and panic disorder who were treated for both conditions. Six of them (66%) had good or excellent responses. The spectrum of anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder, should be considered in NDPH patients. Simultaneous treatment of both disorders may lead to good outcomes.

  12. Azelaic acid 15% gel once daily versus twice daily in papulopustular rosacea.

    PubMed

    Thiboutot, Diane M; Fleischer, Alan B; Del Rosso, James Q; Graupe, Klaus

    2008-06-01

    Twice-daily azelaic acid (AzA) is the conventional regimen for papulopustular rosacea, but once-daily AzA may be equally effective, with greater convenience and dosing flexibility. In order to test this hypothesis, an exploratory study was conducted. The evaluable efficacy population of this 12-week double-blind, parallel-group study included 72 patients and the population that was used to report safety results included 92 patients. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the once-daily and twice-daily study groups. Evaluations were performed at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. No significant difference was found between the once-daily and twice-daily groups at the end of study therapy in mean investigator global assessment (IGA) scores, treatment success, or treatment response. The mean number of inflammatory lesions, the intensity of erythema intensity, and the intensity of telangiectasia at treatment end were likewise not significantly different (P>.205 for all). More than 90% of subjects in each group rated cosmetic acceptability of this AzA gel as satisfactory or better. Based on these findings and those of prior studies, once-daily AzA 15% gel can therefore be utilized as a safe, effective, and economical dosing option for the treatment of mild-to-moderate papulopustular rosacea. Once-daily dosing of AzA 15% gel was well accepted by patients and can offer considerable dosing flexibility and convenience for the patient as well as for the dermatologist.

  13. The Case for Daily Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Susan

    2007-01-01

    According to a recent study, only 56 percent of high school students participate in physical education, and the percentage of schools requiring physical education has progressively dropped. The goal of providing daily physical education to all K-12 students in the United States presents challenges such as budgetary issues, less time for other…

  14. INTERPOLATING VANCOUVER'S DAILY AMBIENT PM 10 FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this article we develop a spatial predictive distribution for the ambient space- time response field of daily ambient PM10 in Vancouver, Canada. Observed responses have a consistent temporal pattern from one monitoring site to the next. We exploit this feature of the field b...

  15. Big Ideas behind Daily 5 and CAFE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boushey, Gail; Moser, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The Daily 5 and CAFE were born out of The Sister's research and observations of instructional mentors, their intense desire to be able to deliver highly intentional, focused instruction to small groups and individuals while the rest of the class was engaged in truly authentic reading and writing, and their understanding that a one size fits all…

  16. 27 CFR 19.829 - Daily records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily records. 19.829 Section 19.829 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process...

  17. Using Your Daily Newspaper for Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukens, Chris

    One of a series prepared by the Hawaii Newspaper Agency, this teaching guide offers suggestions on using the daily newspaper for consumer education and provides ideas on how to make students consumer conscious through experience gained in the classroom. It sets up problems relevant to students (adult or younger) in their lives outside the…

  18. Using Daily Horoscopes To Demonstrate Expectancy Confirmation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Geoffrey D.; Munro, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a classroom demonstration that uses daily horoscopes to show the effect that expectation can have on judgment. Addresses the preparation, procedure, and results of the demonstration, and student evaluations. States that the demonstration appears to be effective for teaching students about expectancy confirmation. (CMK)

  19. Intent to quit among daily and non-daily college student smokers

    PubMed Central

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking category as it relates to readiness to quit among current smokers. Of the 4438 students at six Southeast colleges who completed an online survey, 69.7% (n = 3094) were non-smokers, 6.6% (n = 293) were quitters, 7.1% (n = 317) were native non-daily smokers, 6.4% (n = 283) were converted non-daily smokers and 10.2% (n = 451) were daily smokers. There were differences in sociodemographics, substance use (alcohol, marijuana, other tobacco products) in the past 30 days and psychosocial factors among these subgroups of students (P < 0.001). Among current smokers, there were differences in cigarettes smoked per day, recent quit attempts, self-identification as a smoker, self-efficacy and motivation to quit (P < 0.001). After controlling for important factors, converted non-daily smokers were more likely to be ready to quit in the next month versus native non-daily smokers (OR = 2.15, CI 1.32–3.49, P = 0.002). Understanding differences among young adults with different smoking patterns and histories is critical in developing interventions targeting psychosocial factors impacting cessation among this population. PMID:23197630

  20. Disaggregating from daily to sub-daily rainfall under a future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westra, S.; Evans, J.; Mehrotra, R.; Sharma, A.

    2012-04-01

    We describe an algorithm for disaggregating daily rainfall into sub-daily rainfall 'fragments' (continuous fine-resolution rainfall sequences whose total depth sums to the daily rainfall amount) under a future, warmer climate. The basis of the algorithm is re-sample sub-daily fragments from the historical record conditional on the total daily rainfall amount and a range of atmospheric predictors representative of the future climate. The logic is that as the atmosphere warms, future rainfall patterns will be more reflective of historical rainfall patterns which occurred on warmer days at the same location, or at locations which have an atmospheric profile more reflective of expected future conditions. When looking at the scaling from daily to sub-daily rainfall over the historical record, it was found that the relationship varied significantly by season and by location, with rainfall patterns on warmer seasons or at warmer locations typically showing more intense rain falling over shorter periods compared with cooler seasons and stations. Importantly, by regressing against atmospheric covariates such as temperature this effect was almost entirely eliminated, providing a basis for suggesting the approach may be valid when extrapolating sub-daily sequences to a future climate. The method of fragments algorithm was then applied to nine stations around Australia, and showed that when holding the total daily rainfall constant, the maximum intensity of a short duration (6 minute) rainfall increased by between 4.1% and 13.4% per degree change in temperature for the maximum six minute burst, between 3.1% and 6.8% for the maximum one hour burst, and between 1.5% and 3.5% for the fraction of the day with no rainfall. This highlights that a large proportion of the change to the distribution of precipitation in the future is likely to occur at sub-daily timescales, with significant implications for many hydrological systems.

  1. Daily antecedents and consequences of nightly sleep.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soomi; Crain, Tori L; McHale, Susan M; Almeida, David M; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2017-08-01

    Sleep can serve as both cause and consequence of individuals' everyday experiences. We built upon prior studies of the correlates of sleep, which have relied primarily on cross-sectional data, to examine the antecedents and consequences of sleep using a daily diary design. Specifically, we assessed the temporal sequence between nightly sleep and daily psychosocial stressors. Parents employed in a US information technology company (n = 102) completed eight consecutive daily diaries at both baseline and 1 year later. In telephone interviews each evening, participants reported on the previous night's sleep hours, sleep quality and sleep latency. They also reported daily work-to-family conflict and time inadequacy (i.e. perceptions of not having enough time) for their child and for themselves to engage in exercise. Multi-level models testing lagged and non-lagged effects simultaneously revealed that sleep hours and sleep quality were associated with next-day consequences of work-to-family conflict and time inadequacy, whereas psychosocial stressors as antecedents did not predict sleep hours or quality that night. For sleep latency, the opposite temporal order emerged: on days with more work-to-family conflict or time inadequacy for child and self than usual, participants reported longer sleep latencies than usual. An exception to this otherwise consistent pattern was that time inadequacy for child also preceded shorter sleep hours and poorer sleep quality that night. The results highlight the utility of a daily diary design for capturing the temporal sequences linking sleep and psychosocial stressors. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. Combination of radar and daily precipitation data to estimate meaningful sub-daily point precipitation extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárdossy, András; Pegram, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    The use of radar measurements for the space time estimation of precipitation has for many decades been a central topic in hydro-meteorology. In this paper we are interested specifically in daily and sub-daily extreme values of precipitation at gauged or ungauged locations which are important for design. The purpose of the paper is to develop a methodology to combine daily precipitation observations and radar measurements to estimate sub-daily extremes at point locations. Radar data corrected using precipitation-reflectivity relationships lead to biased estimations of extremes. Different possibilities of correcting systematic errors using the daily observations are investigated. Observed gauged daily amounts are interpolated to unsampled points and subsequently disaggregated using the sub-daily values obtained by the radar. Different corrections based on the spatial variability and the subdaily entropy of scaled rainfall distributions are used to provide unbiased corrections of short duration extremes. Additionally a statistical procedure not based on a matching day by day correction is tested. In this last procedure as we are only interested in rare extremes, low to medium values of rainfall depth were neglected leaving a small number of L days of ranked daily maxima in each set per year, whose sum typically comprises about 50% of each annual rainfall total. The sum of these L day maxima is first iterpolated using a Kriging procedure. Subsequently this sum is disaggregated to daily values using a nearest neighbour procedure. The daily sums are then disaggregated by using the relative values of the biggest L radar based days. Of course, the timings of radar and gauge maxima can be different, so the method presented here uses radar for disaggregating daily gauge totals down to 15 min intervals in order to extract the maxima of sub-hourly through to daily rainfall. The methodologies were tested in South Africa, where an S-band radar operated relatively continuously at

  3. An introduction to quiet daily geomagnetic fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    On days that are quiet with respect to solar-terrestrial activity phenomena, the geomagnetic field has variations, tens of gamma in size, with major spectral components at about 24, 12, 8, and 6 hr in period. These quiet daily field variations are primarily due to the dynamo currents flowing in the E region of the earth's ionosphere, are driven by the global thermotidal wind systems, and are dependent upon the local tensor conductivity and main geomagnetic field vector. The highlights of the behavior and interpretation of these quiet field changes, from their discovery in 1634 until the present, are discussed as an introduction to the special journal issue on Quiet Daily Geomagnetic Fields. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.

  4. Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring in Daily Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Guillaume; Shuzo, Masaki; Ushida, Hiroyuki; Hidaka, Keita; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Imai, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akio; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

    Continuous monitoring of blood pressure in daily life could improve early detection of cardiovascular disorders, as well as promoting healthcare. Conventional ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) equipment can measure blood pressure at regular intervals for 24 hours, but is limited by long measuring time, low sampling rate, and constrained measuring posture. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for continuous real-time measurement of blood pressure during daily activities. Our method is based on blood pressure estimation from pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculation, which formula we improved to take into account changes in the inner diameter of blood vessels. Blood pressure estimation results using our new method showed a greater precision of measured data during exercise, and a better accuracy than the conventional PWV method.

  5. Interracial roommate relationships: negotiating daily interactions.

    PubMed

    Trail, Thomas E; Shelton, J Nicole; West, Tessa V

    2009-06-01

    Jobs, social group memberships, or living arrangements lead many people to interact every day with another person from a different racial background. Given that research has shown that interracial interactions are often stressful, it is important to know how these daily interactions unfold across time and what factors contribute to the success or failure of these interactions. Both members of same-race and mixed-race college roommate pairs completed daily questionnaires measuring their emotional experiences and their perceptions of their roommate. Results revealed that roommates in mixed-race dyads experienced less positive emotions and intimacy toward their roommates than did roommates in same-race dyads and that the experience of positive emotions declined over time for ethnic minority students with White roommates. Mediation analyses showed that the negative effects of roommate race were mediated by the level of intimacy-building behaviors performed by the roommate. Implications for future research and university policies are discussed.

  6. Daily occupational stressors and marital behavior.

    PubMed

    Story, Lisa B; Repetti, Rena

    2006-12-01

    This study examined daily fluctuations in marital behavior (anger and withdrawal) as a function of same-day job stressors, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). Forty-three couples provided daily diary reports of their workload and negative social interactions at work on 5 consecutive days. Within-subject analyses demonstrate that husbands and wives reported greater marital anger and withdrawal following negative social interactions at work, and wives reported greater marital anger and withdrawal following days of heavy workload. Mediation analyses provide support for the negative mood spillover hypothesis (e.g., workload no longer predicted wives' marital anger when controlling for negative mood). Between-subjects analyses suggest that spouses in high-conflict families may be especially vulnerable to the effects of job stressors on marital interaction. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Disseminated strongyloidiasis in a immunocompromised host.

    PubMed

    Mundkur, Suneel C; Aroor, Shrikiran; Jayashree, K

    2011-12-01

    Strongyloidiasis in an immunocompromised patient has the potential to be life threatening. We describe a boy who was on steroids for acute demyelinating myelitis and receiving antibiotics for E. coli UTI and meningitis. He developed anasarca, malabsorption, malnutrition and left ventricular failure. Duodenal biopsy revealed abundant rhabditiform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. The diagnosis went unsuspected and proved fatal. This emphasizes the need to have a high index of suspicion and early intervention for S. stercoralis in immunosuppressed persons who present with refractory gastrointestinal symptoms.

  8. Sex in Its Daily Relational Context.

    PubMed

    Dewitte, Marieke; Van Lankveld, Jacques; Vandenberghe, Sjouke; Loeys, Tom

    2015-12-01

    The present study measured the daily correlates of sexual behavior in an ecologically valid context by relying on a daily diary approach. Examining the dyadic and multicomponent nature of sexual behavior is essential to create valid models of sexual responding that are better aligned with the day-to-day context of having sex in a relationship. During 3 weeks, heterosexual couples completed, two times a day, an electronic diary to report on mood, own and perceived partner behavior, relational feelings (in the evening), sexual activity, physical intimacy, and masturbation (in the morning). This design allowed testing bidirectional temporal associations between daily context and different types of sexual behavior. Positive mood, displays of positive partner behavior, perceived positive partner behavior, and positive relational feelings predicted more sexual activity and intimacy in men, which then further increased their positive mood, perceived positive partner behavior, and positive feelings about the relationship on the following day. Women showed a similar pattern of predictors regarding sexual activity as men, though the effect of sexual behavior on next-day feelings and behavior was more relationship-oriented rather than affecting personal mood. Intimacy was related to almost all daily variables in women, but related only to own and perceived positive partner behavior and positive relational feelings the next day. Several partner effects also reached significance, and these were more influential in predicting male than female intimacy. Solitary sexual activity showed a different pattern of results than dyadic sexual activity, with men experiencing masturbation as negatively in the context of their relationship. These results confirm the regulatory function of sex and intimacy in maintaining a positive relational climate and indicate that the quality of the everyday relational context is important to get partners in the mood to act in a sexual way. © 2015

  9. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

    2013-08-20

    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes.

  10. Physiological responses to daily light exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Yang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Jinming

    2016-04-01

    Long daylength artificial light exposure associates with disorders, and a potential physiological mechanism has been proposed. However, previous studies have examined no more than three artificial light treatments and limited metabolic parameters, which have been insufficient to demonstrate mechanical responses. Here, comprehensive physiological response curves were established and the physiological mechanism was strengthened. Chicks were illuminated for 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, or 22 h periods each day. A quadratic relationship between abdominal adipose weight (AAW) and light period suggested that long-term or short-term light exposure could decrease the amount of AAW. Quantitative relationships between physiological parameters and daily light period were also established in this study. The relationships between triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU), phosphorus (P) levels and daily light period could be described by quadratic regression models. TG levels, AAW, and BW positively correlated with each other, suggesting long-term light exposure significantly increased AAW by increasing TG thus resulting in greater BW. A positive correlation between blood triiodothyronine (T3) levels and BW suggested that daily long-term light exposure increased BW by thyroid hormone secretion. Though the molecular pathway remains unknown, these results suggest a comprehensive physiological mechanism through which light exposure affects growth.

  11. Progress towards daily "swath" solutions from GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Save, H.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Sakumura, C.

    2015-12-01

    The GRACE mission has provided invaluable and the only data of its kind that measures the total water column in the Earth System over the past 13 years. The GRACE solutions available from the project have been monthly average solutions. There have been attempts by several groups to produce shorter time-window solutions with different techniques. There is also an experimental quick-look GRACE solution available from CSR that implements a sliding window approach while applying variable daily data weights. All of these GRACE solutions require special handling for data assimilation. This study explores the possibility of generating a true daily GRACE solution by computing a daily "swath" total water storage (TWS) estimate from GRACE using the Tikhonov regularization and high resolution monthly mascon estimation implemented at CSR. This paper discusses the techniques for computing such a solution and discusses the error and uncertainty characterization. We perform comparisons with official RL05 GRACE solutions and with alternate mascon solutions from CSR to understand the impact on the science results. We evaluate these solutions with emphasis on the temporal characteristics of the signal content and validate them against multiple models and in-situ data sets.

  12. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W.; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters’ bounded nature. An individual’s encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of “familiar strangers” in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or “structure of co-presence” across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and—particularly—disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes. PMID:23918373

  13. Combining Radar and Daily Precipitation Data to Estimate Meaningful Sub-daily Precipitation Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegram, G. G. S.; Bardossy, A.

    2016-12-01

    Short duration extreme rainfalls are important for design. The purpose of this presentation is not to improve the day by day estimation of precipitation, but to obtain reasonable statistics for the subdaily extremes at gauge locations. We are interested specifically in daily and sub-daily extreme values of precipitation at gauge locations. We do not employ the common procedure of using time series of control station to determine the missing data values in a target. We are interested in individual rare events, not sequences. The idea is to use radar to disaggregate daily totals to sub-daily amounts. In South Arica, an S-band radar operated relatively continuously at Bethlehem from 1998 to 2003, whose scan at 1.5 km above ground [CAPPI] overlapped a dense (10 km spacing) set of 45 pluviometers recording in the same 6-year period. Using this valuable set of data, we are only interested in rare extremes, therefore small to medium values of rainfall depth were neglected, leaving 12 days of ranked daily maxima in each set per year, whose sum typically comprised about 50% of each annual rainfall total. The method presented here uses radar for disaggregating daily gauge totals in subdaily intervals down to 15 minutes in order to extract the maxima of sub-hourly through to daily rainfall at each of 37 selected radar pixels [1 km square in plan] which contained one of the 45 pluviometers not masked out by the radar foot-print. The pluviometer data were aggregated to daily totals, to act as if they were daily read gauges; their only other task was to help in the cross-validation exercise. The extrema were obtained as quantiles by ordering the 12 daily maxima of each interval per year. The unusual and novel goal was not to obtain the reproduction of the precipitation matching in space and time, but to obtain frequency distributions of the gauge and radar extremes, by matching their ranks, which we found to be stable and meaningful in cross-validation tests. We provide and

  14. Global daily reference evapotranspiration modeling and evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.; Lietzow, R.; Melesse, Assefa M.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and reliable evapotranspiration (ET) datasets are crucial in regional water and energy balance studies. Due to the complex instrumentation requirements, actual ET values are generally estimated from reference ET values by adjustment factors using coefficients for water stress and vegetation conditions, commonly referred to as crop coefficients. Until recently, the modeling of reference ET has been solely based on important weather variables collected from weather stations that are generally located in selected agro-climatic locations. Since 2001, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) has been producing six-hourly climate parameter datasets that are used to calculate daily reference ET for the whole globe at 1-degree spatial resolution. The U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science has been producing daily reference ET (ETo) since 2001, and it has been used on a variety of operational hydrological models for drought and streamflow monitoring all over the world. With the increasing availability of local station-based reference ET estimates, we evaluated the GDAS-based reference ET estimates using data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS). Daily CIMIS reference ET estimates from 85 stations were compared with GDAS-based reference ET at different spatial and temporal scales using five-year daily data from 2002 through 2006. Despite the large difference in spatial scale (point vs. ∼100 km grid cell) between the two datasets, the correlations between station-based ET and GDAS-ET were very high, exceeding 0.97 on a daily basis to more than 0.99 on time scales of more than 10 days. Both the temporal and spatial correspondences in trend/pattern and magnitudes between the two datasets were satisfactory, suggesting the reliability of using GDAS parameter-based reference ET for regional water and energy balance studies in many parts of the world

  15. Parameterization of daily solar global ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed

    Feister, U; Jäkel, E; Gericke, K

    2002-09-01

    Daily values of solar global ultraviolet (UV) B and UVA irradiation as well as erythemal irradiation have been parameterized to be estimated from pyranometer measurements of daily global and diffuse irradiation as well as from atmospheric column ozone. Data recorded at the Meteorological Observatory Potsdam (52 degrees N, 107 m asl) in Germany over the time period 1997-2000 have been used to derive sets of regression coefficients. The validation of the method against independent data sets of measured UV irradiation shows that the parameterization provides a gain of information for UVB, UVA and erythemal irradiation referring to their averages. A comparison between parameterized daily UV irradiation and independent values of UV irradiation measured at a mountain station in southern Germany (Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg at 48 degrees N, 977 m asl) indicates that the parameterization also holds even under completely different climatic conditions. On a long-term average (1953-2000), parameterized annual UV irradiation values are 15% and 21% higher for UVA and UVB, respectively, at Hohenpeissenberg than they are at Potsdam. Daily global and diffuse irradiation measured at 28 weather stations of the Deutscher Wetterdienst German Radiation Network and grid values of column ozone from the EPTOMS satellite experiment served as inputs to calculate the estimates of the spatial distribution of daily and annual values of UV irradiation across Germany. Using daily values of global and diffuse irradiation recorded at Potsdam since 1937 as well as atmospheric column ozone measured since 1964 at the same site, estimates of daily and annual UV irradiation have been derived for this site over the period from 1937 through 2000, which include the effects of changes in cloudiness, in aerosols and, at least for the period of ozone measurements from 1964 to 2000, in atmospheric ozone. It is shown that the extremely low ozone values observed mainly after the eruption of Mt

  16. Combination of radar and daily precipitation data to estimate meaningful sub-daily point precipitation extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegram, Geoff; Bardossy, Andras; Sinclair, Scott

    2017-04-01

    The use of radar measurements for the space time estimation of precipitation has for many decades been a central topic in hydro-meteorology. In this presentation we are interested specifically in daily and sub-daily extreme values of precipitation at gauged or ungauged locations which are important for design. The purpose of the presentation is to develop a methodology to combine daily precipitation observations and radar measurements to estimate sub-daily extremes at point locations. Radar data corrected using precipitation-reflectivity relationships lead to biased estimations of extremes. Different possibilities of correcting systematic errors using the daily observations are investigated. Observed gauged daily amounts are interpolated to un-sampled points and subsequently disaggregated using the sub-daily values obtained by the radar. Different corrections based on the spatial variability and the sub-daily entropy of scaled rainfall distributions are used to provide unbiased corrections of short duration extremes. In addition, a statistical procedure not based on a matching day by day correction is tested. In this last procedure, as we are only interested in rare extremes, low to medium values of rainfall depth were neglected leaving 12 days of ranked daily maxima in each set per year, whose sum typically comprises about 50% of each annual rainfall total. The sum of these 12 day maxima is first interpolated using a Kriging procedure. Subsequently this sum is disaggregated to daily values using a nearest neighbour procedure. The daily sums are then disaggregated by using the relative values of the biggest 12 radar based days in each year. Of course, the timings of radar and gauge maxima can be different, so the new method presented here uses radar for disaggregating daily gauge totals down to 15 min intervals in order to extract the maxima of sub-hourly through to daily rainfall. The methodologies were tested in South Africa, where an S-band radar operated

  17. Can We Predict Daily Adherence to Warfarin?

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Alec B.; Localio, A. Russell; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Cruess, Dean G.; Christie, Jason D.; Gross, Robert; Parker, Catherine S.; Price, Maureen; Metlay, Joshua P.; Cohen, Abigail; Newcomb, Craig W.; Strom, Brian L.; Laskin, Mitchell S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Warfarin is the primary therapy to prevent stroke and venous thromboembolism. Significant periods of nonadherence frequently go unreported by patients and undetected by providers. Currently, no comprehensive screening tool exists to help providers assess the risk of nonadherence at the time of initiation of warfarin therapy. Methods: This article reports on a prospective cohort study of adults initiating warfarin therapy at two anticoagulation clinics (university- and Veterans Affairs-affiliated). Nonadherence, defined by failure to record a correct daily pill bottle opening, was measured daily by electronic pill cap monitoring. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to develop a point system to predict daily nonadherence to warfarin. Results: We followed 114 subjects for a median of 141 days. Median nonadherence of the participants was 14.4% (interquartile range [IQR], 5.8-33.8). A point system, based on nine demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors, distinguished those demonstrating low vs high levels of nonadherence: four points or fewer, median nonadherence 5.8% (IQR, 2.3-14.1); five points, 9.1% (IQR, 5.9-28.6); six points, 14.5% (IQR, 7.1-24.1); seven points, 14.7% (IQR, 7.0-34.7); and eight points or more, 29.3% (IQR, 15.5-41.9). The model produces a c-statistic of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.61-0.71), suggesting modest discriminating ability to predict day-level warfarin nonadherence. Conclusions: Poor adherence to warfarin is common. A screening tool based on nine demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors, if further validated in other patient populations, may help to identify groups of patients at lower risk for nonadherence so that intensified efforts at increased monitoring and intervention can be focused on higher-risk patients. PMID:19903973

  18. Daily Weather and Children's Physical Activity Patterns.

    PubMed

    Remmers, Teun; Thijs, Carel; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, J O; Veitch, Jenny; Kremers, Stef P J; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2017-05-01

    Understanding how the weather affects physical activity (PA) may help in the design, analysis, and interpretation of future studies, especially when investigating PA across diverse meteorological settings and with long follow-up periods. The present longitudinal study first aims to examine the influence of daily weather elements on intraindividual PA patterns among primary school children across four seasons, reflecting day-to-day variation within each season. Second, we investigate whether the influence of weather elements differs by day of the week (weekdays vs weekends), gender, age, and body mass index. PA data were collected by ActiGraph accelerometers for 1 wk in each of four school terms that reflect each season in southeast Australia. PA data from 307 children (age range 8.7-12.8 yr) were matched to daily meteorological variables obtained from the Australian Government's Bureau of Meteorology (maximum temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, day length, and rainfall). Daily PA patterns and their association with weather elements were analyzed using multilevel linear mixed models. Temperature was the strongest predictor of moderate and vigorous PA, followed by solar radiation and humidity. The relation with temperature was curvilinear, showing optimum PA levels at temperatures between 20°C and 22°C. Associations between weather elements on PA did not differ by gender, child's age, or body mass index. This novel study focused on the influence of weather elements on intraindividual PA patterns in children. As weather influences cannot be controlled, knowledge of its effect on individual PA patterns may help in the design of future studies, interpretation of their results, and translation into PA promotion.

  19. Daily affect and female sexual function.

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek

    2014-12-01

    The specific affective experiences related to changes in various aspects of female sexual function have received little attention as most prior studies have focused instead on the role of clinical mood and anxiety disorders and their influence on sexual dysfunction. We sought to understand the transaction between daily affect and female sexual function in effort to provide a more nuanced understanding of the interplay between affective and sexual experiences. The present study used a 2-week daily diary approach to examine same-day and temporal relations between positive and negative affect states and sexual function in young women. We examined the unique relations between positive (i.e., joviality, serenity, self-assurance) and negative (i.e., fear, sadness, hostility) affects and female sexual response (i.e., desire, subjective arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasmic function, and sexual pain) while controlling for higher order sexual distress, depression, and anxiety, as well as age effects and daily menstruation. Analyses revealed different aspects of both positive and negative affects to be independently related to sexual response indices. Specifically, results indicated that joviality was related to same-day sexual desire and predicted increased desire the following day. This latter relation was partially mediated by sexual activity. Further, greater sexual desire predicted next-day calmness, which was partially mediated by sexual activity. Notably, fear was related to same-day subjective arousal, lubrication, orgasmic function, and vaginal pain, whereas poorer orgasmic function predicted greater next-day sadness. These findings describe the manner in which changes in affect correspond to variations in female sexual function, thus highlighting the inextricability of mental and sexual health. Further, these findings may offer insight into the progression of normative levels of affect and sexual function as they develop into comorbid depression, anxiety, and

  20. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Adolescent Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    LEE, MATTHEW T.; VETA, PAIGE S.; JOHNSON, BYRON R.; PAGANO, MARIA E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore changes in belief orientation during treatment and the impact of increased daily spiritual experiences (DSE) on adolescent treatment response. One-hundred ninety-five adolescents court-referred to a 2-month residential treatment program were assessed at intake and discharge. Forty percent of youth who entered treatment as agnostic or atheist identified themselves as spiritual or religious at discharge. Increased DSE was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence, increased prosocial behaviors, and reduced narcissistic behaviors. Results indicate a shift in DSE that improves youth self-care and care for others that may inform intervention approaches for adolescents with addiction. PMID:25525291

  1. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Adolescent Treatment Response.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew T; Veta, Paige S; Johnson, Byron R; Pagano, Maria E

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore changes in belief orientation during treatment and the impact of increased daily spiritual experiences (DSE) on adolescent treatment response. One-hundred ninety-five adolescents court-referred to a 2-month residential treatment program were assessed at intake and discharge. Forty percent of youth who entered treatment as agnostic or atheist identified themselves as spiritual or religious at discharge. Increased DSE was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence, increased prosocial behaviors, and reduced narcissistic behaviors. Results indicate a shift in DSE that improves youth self-care and care for others that may inform intervention approaches for adolescents with addiction.

  2. BOREAS TE-21 Daily Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimball, John; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-21 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the meteorology of boreal forest areas. Daily meteorological data were derived from half-hourly BOREAS tower flux (TF) and Automatic Meteorological Station (AMS) mesonet measurements collected in the Southern and Northern Study Areas (SSA and NSA) for the period of 01 Jan 1994 until 31 Dec 1994. The data were stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  3. Do contrails significantly reduce daily temperature range?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Gang; Yang, Ping; Minnis, Patrick; Hu, Yong X.; North, Gerald

    2008-12-01

    One of the most visible anthropogenic phenomena in the atmosphere is the occurrence of contrails. The direct effects of contrails on surface temperature are investigated on the basis of the data sets for the cloud cover and surface temperature over the conterminous United States for the period 1971-2001. It is shown that the increase of the average daily temperature range (DTR) over the United States during the three-day grounding period of 11-14 September 2001 cannot be attributed to the absence of contrails, a subject was debated in several previous studies. The present analysis suggests that the DTR is attributed to the change of low cloudiness.

  4. Daily cost of glaucoma medications in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Wu, Lingling; Li, Aijun

    2007-01-01

    To determine and compare the daily cost of various glaucoma medications in China. The majority of glaucoma medications commercially available in China were included in this research. The total number of drops in 1 bottle of each medication was counted drop by drop. The mean volume per bottle of each medication was calculated. The cost per drop, number of days for both eyes usage per bottle, and daily cost was calculated. (1) The volume per drop ranged from 0.03 mL (brinzolamide 1%, travoprost 0.004%, bimatoprost 0.03%, and latanoprost 0.005%) to 0.05 mL (timolol 0.5%-Chengrui and pilocarpine 0.5% and 2%-Zhenrui). (2) The cost per bottle ranged from $0.69 (US dollar) (timolol 0.5%-Malaisuan Saimaluo'er) to $40.78 (latanoprost 0.005%). (3) The number of days for both eyes usage per bottle ranged from 52 days (bimatoprost 0.03%) to 11 days (pilocarpine nitrate 0.5%-Zhenrui). (4) The daily cost for both eyes usage from expensive to cheap were latanoprost 0.005%-$0.91, travoprost 0.004%-$0.77, brimonidine 0.2%-$0.61, bimatoprost 0.03%-$0.46, D-timolol 1%-$0.36, brinzolamide 1%-$0.34, pilocarpine 2%-Zhenrui-$0.28, levobunolol 0.5%-$0.25, betaxolol 0.25%-$0.24, pilocarpine 0.5%-Zhenrui-$0.18, pilocarpine 2%-Huming-$0.16, carteolol 1%-Mikelan-$0.15, carteolol 2%-Mikelan-$0.15, pilocarpine 1%-Huming-$0.10, timolol 0.5%-Chengrui-$0.08, timolol 0.5%-Malaisuan Saimaluo'er-$0.03. The daily cost of glaucoma medications in China ranged much more wildly than developed countries. These data may be useful in selecting medications for glaucoma therapy. The ophthalmic solution of prostaglandins is powerful in reducing intraocular pressure. However, its high price should be considered when selecting glaucoma medications in China.

  5. [The sense of smell in daily life].

    PubMed

    Steinbach, S; Hundt, W; Zahnert, T

    2008-09-01

    An intact olfactory system affects all areas of life including the creation of new life, partner selection, daily hygiene, food intake, and the perception of danger from gas and smoke. The olfactory system is most effective from adolescence to middle age. With advancing age the regeneration of olfactory receptor cells decreases, often resulting in an increasing loss of smell. Functional anosmia affects 5% of the general population and 10% of those over 65. Therefore, olfactory dysfunctions are not uncommon. The following provides an overview of the physiology of smell, olfactory testing, special olfactory dysfunctions as well as treatment and general recommendations.

  6. The Combined Effects of Daily Stressors and Major Life Events on Daily Subjective Ages.

    PubMed

    Bellingtier, Jennifer A; Neupert, Shevaun D; Kotter-Grühn, Dana

    2017-07-01

    Stressors may be a contributing factor in determining how old an individual feels, looks, or would like to be. Currently, little research has been devoted to understanding the relationship between stressors and subjective age in older adults. We focus on the combined impact of major life-event stressors and daily stressors on multiple indicators of subjective age: felt age, ideal age, and look age. Furthermore, we examine the process by which daily stressors relate to subjective ages by testing whether positive affect, control, and negative affect mediate this relationship. Using a daily-diary design, the current study measured older adults' (60-96 years old) stressors, subjective ages, personal control, and affect. Felt, ideal, and look ages each demonstrated a unique pattern of interactions between daily stressors and major life-event stressors. Furthermore, our findings suggest that on the daily level, the relationship between stressors and felt age is mediated by negative affect but not by control and positive affect. Findings indicate the need to consider the broader contextual picture of stressors, as well as their differential impact on multiple indicators of subjective age. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Self-critical perfectionism, daily stress, and disclosure of daily emotional events.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Clarissa M E; Rice, Kenneth G

    2015-10-01

    Although disclosure of stressful events can alleviate distress, self-critical perfectionism may pose an especially strong impediment to disclosure during stress, likely contributing to poorer psychological well-being. In the current study, after completing a measure of self-critical perfectionism (the Discrepancy subscale of the Almost Perfect Scale--Revised; Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, & Ashby, 2001), 396 undergraduates completed measures of stress and disclosure at the end of each day for 1 week. Consistent with hypotheses and previous research, multilevel modeling results indicated significant intraindividual coupling of daily stress and daily disclosure where disclosure was more likely when experiencing high stress than low stress. As hypothesized, Discrepancy moderated the relationship between daily stress and daily disclosure. Individuals higher in self-critical perfectionism (Discrepancy) were less likely to engage in disclosure under high stress, when disclosure is often most beneficial, than those with lower Discrepancy scores. These results have implications for understanding the role of stress and coping in the daily lives of self-critical perfectionists. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The impact of irritable bowel syndrome on daily functioning: Characterizing and understanding daily consequences of IBS.

    PubMed

    Ballou, S; Keefer, L

    2017-04-01

    Despite the well-documented economic and psychosocial burden of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), few studies have focused on the impact of IBS on daily activities. This study aims to quantitate impairment in daily activities among IBS patients and to evaluate the relationship between impairment, IBS, quality of life, and psychiatric symptoms. A total of 179 participants meeting ROME-III criteria for IBS completed an online research survey evaluating the following variables: (i) the impact of IBS on daily activities, (ii) comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, (iii) symptom severity, (iv) quality of life, and (v) symptom-specific cognitive affective factors related to IBS. This sample reported a high degree of impairment due to IBS, with 76% of the sample reporting some degree of IBS-related impairment in at least five different domains of daily life. Rates of impairment were significantly higher for participants who met criteria for anxiety, depression, and/or panic disorder. This study contributes to existing literature by demonstrating a high level of daily impairment among patients with IBS, particularly those who meet criteria for anxiety, depression, and panic disorder. These findings support the importance of integrated psychosocial and medical care for IBS patients, and highlight the utility of evaluation and intervention for behavioral avoidance/impairment especially among those who exhibit signs or symptoms of psychiatric diagnoses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Daily Rhythms in Mobile Telephone Communication

    PubMed Central

    Aledavood, Talayeh; López, Eduardo; Roberts, Sam G. B.; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Moro, Esteban; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are known to be important drivers of human activity and the recent availability of electronic records of human behaviour has provided fine-grained data of temporal patterns of activity on a large scale. Further, questionnaire studies have identified important individual differences in circadian rhythms, with people broadly categorised into morning-like or evening-like individuals. However, little is known about the social aspects of these circadian rhythms, or how they vary across individuals. In this study we use a unique 18-month dataset that combines mobile phone calls and questionnaire data to examine individual differences in the daily rhythms of mobile phone activity. We demonstrate clear individual differences in daily patterns of phone calls, and show that these individual differences are persistent despite a high degree of turnover in the individuals’ social networks. Further, women’s calls were longer than men’s calls, especially during the evening and at night, and these calls were typically focused on a small number of emotionally intense relationships. These results demonstrate that individual differences in circadian rhythms are not just related to broad patterns of morningness and eveningness, but have a strong social component, in directing phone calls to specific individuals at specific times of day. PMID:26390215

  10. Daily Rhythms in Mobile Telephone Communication.

    PubMed

    Aledavood, Talayeh; López, Eduardo; Roberts, Sam G B; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Moro, Esteban; Dunbar, Robin I M; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are known to be important drivers of human activity and the recent availability of electronic records of human behaviour has provided fine-grained data of temporal patterns of activity on a large scale. Further, questionnaire studies have identified important individual differences in circadian rhythms, with people broadly categorised into morning-like or evening-like individuals. However, little is known about the social aspects of these circadian rhythms, or how they vary across individuals. In this study we use a unique 18-month dataset that combines mobile phone calls and questionnaire data to examine individual differences in the daily rhythms of mobile phone activity. We demonstrate clear individual differences in daily patterns of phone calls, and show that these individual differences are persistent despite a high degree of turnover in the individuals' social networks. Further, women's calls were longer than men's calls, especially during the evening and at night, and these calls were typically focused on a small number of emotionally intense relationships. These results demonstrate that individual differences in circadian rhythms are not just related to broad patterns of morningness and eveningness, but have a strong social component, in directing phone calls to specific individuals at specific times of day.

  11. Chronic daily headache in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Özge, Aynur

    2013-12-01

    Disabling headache disorders are ubiquitous in all age groups, including the elderly, yet they are under-recognized, underdiagnosed and undertreated worldwide. Surveys and clinic-based research reports on headache disorders in elderly populations are extremely limited in number. Chronic daily headache (CDH) is an important and growing subtype of primary headache disorders, associated with increased burden and disruption to quality of life. CDH can be divided into two forms, based on headache duration. Common forms of primary headache disorders of long duration (>4 hours) were comprehensively defined in the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta). These include chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache, and hemicrania continua. Rarer short-duration (<4 hours) forms of CDH are chronic cluster headache, chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT, and hypnic headache. Accurate diagnosis, management, and relief of the burden of CDH in the elderly population present numerous unique challenges as the "aging world" continues to grow. In order to implement appropriate coping strategies for the elderly, it is essential to establish the correct diagnosis at each step and to exercise caution in differentiating from secondary causes, while always taking into consideration the unique needs and limitations of the aged body.

  12. Conserved Daily Transcriptional Programs in Carica papaya

    PubMed Central

    Zdepski, Anna; Wang, Wenqin; Priest, Henry D.; Ali, Faraz; Alam, Maqsudul; Mockler, Todd C.

    2008-01-01

    Most organisms have internal circadian clocks that mediate responses to daily environmental changes in order to synchronize biological functions to the correct times of the day. Previous studies have focused on plants found in temperate and sub-tropical climates, and little is known about the circadian transcriptional networks of plants that typically grow under conditions with relatively constant day lengths and temperatures over the year. In this study we conducted a genomic and computational analysis of the circadian biology of Carica papaya, a tropical tree. We found that predicted papaya circadian clock genes cycle with the same phase as Arabidopsis genes. The patterns of time-of-day overrepresentation of circadian-associated promoter elements were nearly identical across papaya, Arabidopsis, rice, and poplar. Evolution of promoter structure predicts the observed morning- and evening-specific expression profiles of the papaya PRR5 paralogs. The strong conservation of previously identified circadian transcriptional networks in papaya, despite its tropical habitat and distinct life-style, suggest that circadian timing has played a major role in the evolution of plant genomes, consistent with the selective pressure of anticipating daily environmental changes. Further studies could exploit this conservation to elucidate general design principles that will facilitate engineering plant growth pathways for specific environments. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12042-008-9020-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20671772

  13. Choline magnesium trisalicylate: comparative pharmacokinetic study of once-daily and twice-daily dosages.

    PubMed

    Levitt, M J; Kann, J

    1984-07-01

    This randomized crossover study compared the pharmacokinetics of choline magnesium trisalicylate tablets administered once daily (3000 mg of salicylate) or twice daily (1500 mg of salicylate) for six d. Serum salicylate levels were measured by HPLC. Mean "trough" concentrations fell within the therapeutic range (5-30 mg/dL) with either regimen and were relatively constant, indicating that the steady state had been reached. The 24-h area under the salicylate curve (AUC0-24 h) after the final 3000-mg salicylate dose averaged about twice the mean 12-h AUC after the last 1500-mg dose, indicating that the two dosing regimens were equally bioavailable. Clinical observations and results of laboratory safety studies indicate that both dosage schedules of the drug are well tolerated. The present findings support the once-daily therapeutic use of choline magnesium trisalicylate.

  14. Epidemiology of human toxocariasis in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Genchi, C; Di Sacco, B; Gatti, S; Sangalli, G; Scaglia, M

    1990-12-01

    Sera from both clinically healthy adults (2112) and adult patients (471) were tested to assess the main risk factors for Toxocara infection in humans in Northern Italy. The patient group included 257 adult epileptics, 76 Strongyloides stercoralis-infected adult patients and 142 institutionalized mentally retarded adult patients. The overall seroprevalence in healthy population was 3.98%. No significant differences in seroprevalence were observed for sex, residence (urban or rural) or dog ownership, while seroprevalence significantly increased with age (18- greater than 51 years). Highest seroprevalence values were found in outdoor or soil-related workers. The seroprevalence was 4.35% in adult epileptics, 9.21% in Strongyloides stercoralis-infected patients and 14.47%-10.61% among institutionalized mentally retarded patients. These findings suggest that the prevalent source of human toxocariasis is the environmental contamination by infectious eggs of the parasite.

  15. Productive and counterproductive job crafting: A daily diary study.

    PubMed

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B; Halbesleben, Jonathon R B

    2015-10-01

    The present study aims to uncover the way daily job crafting influences daily job performance (i.e., task performance, altruism, and counterproductive work behavior). Job crafting was conceptualized as "seeking resources," "seeking challenges," and "reducing demands" and viewed as strategies individuals use to optimize their job characteristics. We hypothesized that daily job crafting relates to daily job demands and resources (work pressure and autonomy), which consequently relate to daily work engagement and exhaustion and ultimately to job performance. A sample of 95 employees filled in a quantitative diary for 5 consecutive working days (n occasions = 475). We predicted and found that daily seeking resources was positively associated with daily task performance because daily autonomy and work engagement increased. In contrast, daily reducing demands was detrimental for daily task performance and altruism, because employees lower their daily workload and consequently their engagement and exhaustion, respectively. Only daily seeking challenges was positively (rather than negatively) associated with daily counterproductive behavior. We conclude that employee job crafting can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on job performance. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron and folic acid supplementation has been the preferred intervention to improve iron stores and prevent anaemia among pregnant women, and it may also improve other maternal and birth outcomes. Objectives To assess the effects of daily oral iron supplements for pregnant women, either alone or in conjunction with folic acid, or with other vitamins and minerals as a public health intervention. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (2 July 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (2 July 2012) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effects of oral preventive supplementation with daily iron, iron + folic acid or iron + other vitamins and minerals during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results We included 60 trials. Forty-three trials, involving more than 27,402 women, contributed data and compared the effects of daily oral supplements containing iron versus no iron or placebo. Overall, women taking iron supplements were less likely to have low birthweight newborns (below 2500 g) compared with controls (8.4% versus 10.2%, average risk ratio (RR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 0.97, 11 trials, 8480 women) and mean birthweight was 30.81 g greater for those infants whose mothers received iron during pregnancy (average mean difference (MD) 30.81; 95% CI 5.94 to 55.68, 14 trials, 9385 women). Preventive iron supplementation reduced the risk of maternal anaemia at term by 70% (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.46, 14 trials, 2199 women) and iron deficiency at term by 57% (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.66, seven trials, 1256 women

  17. Cultural differences in daily support experiences.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-wen; Shih, Josephine H; Hu, Alison W; Louie, Jennifer Y; Lau, Anna S

    2010-07-01

    Previous research has suggested that Asian Americans (AAs) are less likely to mobilize social support, and find support to be less helpful, when compared with European Americans (EAs). In a 10-day daily diary study of AA and EA college students, we hypothesized that AAs would activate support less frequently than EAs for both stressful and positive events, a cultural difference that would be mediated by group harmony values. We also predicted that AAs would find support to be less helpful, and we explored differences in the sources of support used. Results confirmed that cultural differences in support use were partially mediated by the value of maintaining group harmony through emotional restraint. AAs also perceived received support to be less helpful and more frequently used discretionary rather than kinship support sources. Findings suggest that naturalistic support experiences differ markedly for these groups, with implications for help-seeking behavior and mental health services.

  18. Accounting for the richness of daily activities.

    PubMed

    White, Mathew P; Dolan, Paul

    2009-08-01

    Serious consideration is being given to the impact of private behavior and public policies on people's subjective well-being (SWB). A new approach to measuring well-being, the day reconstruction method (DRM), weights the affective component of daily activities by their duration in order to construct temporal aggregates. However, the DRM neglects the potentially important role of thoughts. By adapting this method to include thoughts as well as feelings, we provide perhaps the most comprehensive measure of SWB to date. We show that some activities relatively low in pleasure (e.g., work and time with children) are nonetheless thought of as rewarding and therefore contribute to overall SWB. Such information may be important to policymakers wishing to promote behaviors that are conducive to a broader conception of SWB.

  19. Daily variation characteristics at polar geomagnetic observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepidi, S.; Cafarella, L.; Pietrolungo, M.; Di Mauro, D.

    2011-08-01

    This paper is based on the statistical analysis of the diurnal variation as observed at six polar geomagnetic observatories, three in the Northern and three in the Southern hemisphere. Data are for 2006, a year of low geomagnetic activity. We compared the Italian observatory Mario Zucchelli Station (TNB; corrected geomagnetic latitude: 80.0°S), the French-Italian observatory Dome C (DMC; 88.9°S), the French observatory Dumont D'Urville (DRV; 80.4°S) and the three Canadian observatories, Resolute Bay (RES; 83.0°N), Cambridge Bay (CBB; 77.0°N) and Alert (ALE, 87.2°N). The aim of this work was to highlight analogies and differences in daily variation as observed at the different observatories during low geomagnetic activity year, also considering Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions and geomagnetic indices.

  20. Daily Rhythm in Plasma N-Acetyltryptamine

    PubMed Central

    Backlund, Peter S.; Urbanski, Henryk F.; Doll, Mark A.; Hein, David W.; Bozinoski, Marjan; Mason, Christopher E.; Coon, Steven L.; Klein, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Normal physiology undergoes 24-hour changes in function, that include daily rhythms in circulating/hormones, most notably melatonin and cortical steroids. This study focuses on N-acetyltryptamine, a little-studied melatonin receptor mixed agonist/antagonist and the likely evolutionary precursor of melatonin. The central issue addressed was whether N-acetyltryptamine is physiologically present in the circulation. N-Acetyltrypamine was detected by LC-MS/MS in daytime plasma of three different mammals in subnanomolar levels (mean ± SEM: rat, 0.29 ± 0.05 nM, N=5; rhesus macaque, 0.54 ± 0.24 nM, N=4; human, 0.03 ± 0.01 nM, N=32). Twenty four hour blood collections from rhesus macaques revealed a nocturnal increase in plasma N-acetyltryptamine (P < 0.001), which varied from 2- to 15- fold over daytime levels among the four animals studied. Related RNA sequencing studies indicated that the transcript encoding the tryptamine acetylating enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is expressed at similar levels in the rhesus pineal gland and retina, thereby indicating that either tissue could contribute to circulating N-acetyltryptamine. The evidence that N-acetyltryptamine is a physiological component of mammalian blood and exhibits a daily rhythm, together with known effects as a melatonin receptor ligand shifts the status of N-acetyltryptamine from pharmacological tool to that of a candidate for a physiological role. This provides a new opportunity to extend our understanding of 24-hour biology. PMID:28466676

  1. Factors associated with daily walking of dogs.

    PubMed

    Westgarth, Carri; Christian, Hayley E; Christley, Robert M

    2015-05-19

    Regular physical activity is beneficial to the health of both people and animals. The role of regular exercise undertaken together, such as dog walking, is a public health interest of mutual benefit. Exploration of barriers and incentives to regular dog walking by owners is now required so that effective interventions to promote it can be designed. This study explored a well-characterised cross-sectional dataset of 276 dogs and owners from Cheshire, UK, for evidence of factors associated with the dog being walked once or more per day. Factors independently associated with daily walking included: number of dogs owned (multiple (vs. single) dogs negatively associated); size (medium and possibly large dogs (vs. small) positively associated); and number of people in the household (more people negatively associated). Furthermore, a number of factors related to the dog-owner relationship and the dog's behaviour were associated with daily walking, including: having acquired the dog for a hobby (positively associated); dog lying on furniture (positively associated); dog lying on laps (negatively associated); growling at household members (negatively associated); and playing chase games with the dog (negatively associated). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the strength and nature of the human-dog relationship incentivises dog walking, and that behavioural and demographic factors may affect dog walking via this mechanism. Future studies need to investigate how dog demographic and behavioural factors, plus owner behavioural factors and perceptions of the dog, influence the dog-human relationship in respect to the perceived support and motivation a dog can provide for walking.

  2. Daily job demands and employee work engagement: The role of daily transformational leadership behavior.

    PubMed

    Breevaart, Kimberley; Bakker, Arnold B

    2018-07-01

    Using job demands-resources (JD-R) theory, the present study integrates the challenge stressor-hindrance stressor framework and leadership theory to investigate the relationship between daily transformational leadership behavior and employee work engagement. We hypothesized that daily transformational leadership behavior (a) sustains employee work engagement on days characterized by high challenge job demands, and (b) protects work engagement on days characterized by high hindrance job demands. Teachers filled out a short online questionnaire at the end of each workday during a 2-week period (N = 271 × 5.68 days = 1539). Results of latent moderated structural equation modeling showed that teachers' daily challenge demands (workload and cognitive demands) had a positive relationship with work engagement on the days transformational leadership was high (vs. low). In addition, teachers' daily hindrance demands (role-conflict, but not family to work conflict) had a negative relationship with work engagement on the days transformational leadership was low (vs. high). These findings show that the function of transformational leadership behavior changes from day to day, and depends on the type of job demand. We discuss the practical and theoretical implications of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Chronic daily headache in children and adolescents: science and conjecture.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Mark; Bickel, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Chronic daily headache comprises a group of headache disorders in which headaches occur almost daily or continuously over several months. Although chronic daily headache is one of the most common chronic pain disorders in pediatrics, data on pathophysiological mechanisms and relative efficacy of treatments remain sparse. In this review, we aim to provide contemporary information on classification, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of pediatric chronic daily headache based on extant empirical data when available, or general consensus in the field when not.

  4. A Daily Diary Approach to the Examination of Chronic Stress, Daily Hassles and Safety Perceptions in Hospital Nursing.

    PubMed

    Louch, Gemma; O'Hara, Jane; Gardner, Peter; O'Connor, Daryl B

    2017-12-01

    Stress is a significant concern for individuals and organisations. Few studies have explored stress, burnout and patient safety in hospital nursing on a daily basis at the individual level. This study aimed to examine the effects of chronic stress and daily hassles on safety perceptions, the effect of chronic stress on daily hassles experienced and chronic stress as a potential moderator. Utilising a daily diary design, 83 UK hospital nurses completed three end-of-shift diaries, yielding 324 person days. Hassles, safety perceptions and workplace cognitive failure were measured daily, and a baseline questionnaire included a measure of chronic stress. Hierarchical multivariate linear modelling was used to analyse the data. Higher chronic stress was associated with more daily hassles, poorer perceptions of safety and being less able to practise safely, but not more workplace cognitive failure. Reporting more daily hassles was associated with poorer perceptions of safety, being less able to practise safely and more workplace cognitive failure. Chronic stress did not moderate daily associations. The hassles reported illustrate the wide-ranging hassles nurses experienced. The findings demonstrate, in addition to chronic stress, the importance of daily hassles for nurses' perceptions of safety and the hassles experienced by hospital nurses on a daily basis. Nurses perceive chronic stress and daily hassles to contribute to their perceptions of safety. Measuring the number of daily hassles experienced could proactively highlight when patient safety threats may arise, and as a result, interventions could usefully focus on the management of daily hassles.

  5. Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to Daily Family Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the National Study of Daily Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of daily interviews during which they reported on daily…

  6. 27 CFR 19.740 - Daily storage records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily storage records. 19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Storage Account § 19.740 Daily storage records. (a) General. Proprietors shall maintain daily records in the storage account...

  7. 1 CFR 6.3 - Daily lists of parts affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Daily lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 Daily lists of parts affected. (a) Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall carry a...

  8. 1 CFR 6.1 - Index to daily issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Index to daily issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.1 Index to daily issues. Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed. ...

  9. 1 CFR 6.1 - Index to daily issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Index to daily issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.1 Index to daily issues. Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed. ...

  10. 1 CFR 6.3 - Daily lists of parts affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Daily lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 Daily lists of parts affected. (a) Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall carry a...

  11. 1 CFR 6.1 - Index to daily issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Index to daily issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.1 Index to daily issues. Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed. ...

  12. 1 CFR 6.3 - Daily lists of parts affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Daily lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 Daily lists of parts affected. (a) Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall carry a...

  13. 1 CFR 6.1 - Index to daily issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Index to daily issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.1 Index to daily issues. Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed. ...

  14. 1 CFR 6.3 - Daily lists of parts affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Daily lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 Daily lists of parts affected. (a) Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall carry a...

  15. 1 CFR 6.3 - Daily lists of parts affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Daily lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 Daily lists of parts affected. (a) Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall carry a...

  16. 1 CFR 6.1 - Index to daily issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Index to daily issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.1 Index to daily issues. Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed. ...

  17. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 2, Number 5, May 1996

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    Medical Surveillance Activity, Directorate of Epidemiology and Dis- ease Surveillance, United States Army Cen- ter for Health Promotion and Preventive...Microbiologic and Epidemiologic Investigation. JAMA. 1992; 267:2047. 3. Schuchat A, Deaver KA, Wenger JD, et al. Role of Foods in Sporadic Listeriosis Case...Editorial Comment:Strongyloides stercoralis is a nematode parasite that is found in most tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world and is highly prevalent

  18. Pathogenic micro-organisms and helminths in sewage products, Arabian Gulf, country of Bahrain.

    PubMed Central

    Amin, O M

    1988-01-01

    Fecal and sludge samples from the Arabian Gulf country of Bahrain contained poliomyelitis and coxackie viruses, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella sonni, fecal streptococci, Balantidium coli, Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis nana eggs, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Sludge produced in the central sewage treatment plant is used for agricultural purposes and poses a threat to public health. Recommendations to reduce the potential health hazards are made. PMID:3341504

  19. [Enteroparasite determination in Lactuca sativa from farms dedicated to its production in Pasto, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Polo, Giovanni Andrés; Benavides, Carmenza Janneth; Astaiza, Juan Manuel; Vallejo, Dario Antonio; Betancourt, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    Currently, vegetables like lettuce are widely recommended as part of the daily diet given their high nutritional value; however, while consumers feel attracted to the benefits provided by the vegetable, they may also be exposed to parasitic intestinal infections. To determine the presence or absence of enteroparasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) grown in the rural area in the municipality of Pasto, and to analyze associated factors based on the characterization of the lands. We conducted a descriptive double blind cross-sectional study. We took a total of 105 samples from 21 properties from June to December, 2013, and we processed them by sedimentation and flotation tests. Additionally, the owners were surveyed in order to obtain information about the possible variables influencing the occurrence of enteroparasites. We detected contamination in 100% of the lettuce samples and we found parasite eggs and larvae as follows: 95.25% with Entamoeba spp. cysts; 71.43% with Isospora spp. oocysts; 61.90% with Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (L3); 28.57% with Toxocara spp. eggs, and 4.76% with Eimeria spp. oocysts. Using the chi-square test we found association between Entamoeba spp. and ditches (p=0.008), dogs (p=0.008) and septic tanks (p=0.029); between Isospora spp. and compost (p=0.0001), dogs (p=0.0001) and slugs (p=0.002); between S. stercoralis and handling (p=0.003), and between Toxocara spp. and no use of biodigesters (p= 0.002). We found contamination with enteroparasites in lettuce samples from growing areas in the municipality of Pasto with animal and human sources as their main reservoirs, although others were present in the environment.

  20. Molecular insights into human daily behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Steven A.; Kunz, Dieter; Dumas, Amelie; Westermark, Pål O.; Vanselow, Katja; Tilmann-Wahnschaffe, Amely; Herzel, Hanspeter; Kramer, Achim

    2008-01-01

    Human beings exhibit wide variation in their timing of daily behavior. We and others have suggested previously that such differences might arise because of alterations in the period length of the endogenous human circadian oscillator. Using dermal fibroblast cells from skin biopsies of 28 subjects of early and late chronotype (11 “larks” and 17 “owls”), we have studied the circadian period lengths of these two groups, as well as their ability to phase-shift and entrain to environmental and chemical signals. We find not only period length differences between the two classes, but also significant changes in the amplitude and phase-shifting properties of the circadian oscillator among individuals with identical “normal” period lengths. Mathematical modeling shows that these alterations could also account for the extreme behavioral phenotypes of these subjects. We conclude that human chronotype may be influenced not only by the period length of the circadian oscillator, but also by cellular components that affect its amplitude and phase. In many instances, these changes can be studied at the molecular level in primary dermal cells. PMID:18227513

  1. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy matters in daily life

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2008-01-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is a neuro-cognitive dysfunction which occurs in an epidemic proportion of cirrhotic patients, estimated as high as 80% of the population tested. It is characterized by a specific, complex cognitive dysfunction which is independent of sleep dysfunction or problems with overall intelligence. Although named “minimal”, minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) can have a far-reaching impact on quality of life, ability to function in daily life and progression to overt hepatic encephalopathy. Importantly, MHE has a profound negative impact on the ability to drive a car and may be a significant factor behind motor vehicle accidents. A crucial aspect of the clinical care of MHE patients is their driving history, which is often ignored in routine care and can add a vital dimension to the overall disease assessment. Driving history should be an integral part of care in patients with MHE. The lack of specific signs and symptoms, the preserved communication skills and lack of insight make MHE a difficult condition to diagnose. Diagnostic strategies for MHE abound, but are usually limited by financial, normative or time constraints. Recent studies into the inhibitory control and critical flicker frequency tests are encouraging since these tests can increase the rates of MHE diagnosis without requiring a psychologist. Although testing for MHE and subsequent therapy is not standard of care at this time, it is important to consider this in cirrhotics in order to improve their ability to live their life to the fullest. PMID:18595126

  2. Egocentric daily activity recognition via multitask clustering.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Ricci, Elisa; Liu, Gaowen; Sebe, Nicu

    2015-10-01

    Recognizing human activities from videos is a fundamental research problem in computer vision. Recently, there has been a growing interest in analyzing human behavior from data collected with wearable cameras. First-person cameras continuously record several hours of their wearers' life. To cope with this vast amount of unlabeled and heterogeneous data, novel algorithmic solutions are required. In this paper, we propose a multitask clustering framework for activity of daily living analysis from visual data gathered from wearable cameras. Our intuition is that, even if the data are not annotated, it is possible to exploit the fact that the tasks of recognizing everyday activities of multiple individuals are related, since typically people perform the same actions in similar environments, e.g., people working in an office often read and write documents). In our framework, rather than clustering data from different users separately, we propose to look for clustering partitions which are coherent among related tasks. In particular, two novel multitask clustering algorithms, derived from a common optimization problem, are introduced. Our experimental evaluation, conducted both on synthetic data and on publicly available first-person vision data sets, shows that the proposed approach outperforms several single-task and multitask learning methods.

  3. Sarcopenia in daily practice: assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Beaudart, Charlotte; McCloskey, Eugène; Bruyère, Olivier; Cesari, Matteo; Rolland, Yves; Rizzoli, René; Araujo de Carvalho, Islène; Amuthavalli Thiyagarajan, Jotheeswaran; Bautmans, Ivan; Bertière, Marie-Claude; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Burlet, Nansa; Cavalier, Etienne; Cerreta, Francesca; Cherubini, Antonio; Fielding, Roger; Gielen, Evelien; Landi, Francesco; Petermans, Jean; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Visser, Marjolein; Kanis, John; Cooper, Cyrus

    2016-10-05

    Sarcopenia is increasingly recognized as a correlate of ageing and is associated with increased likelihood of adverse outcomes including falls, fractures, frailty and mortality. Several tools have been recommended to assess muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance in clinical trials. Whilst these tools have proven to be accurate and reliable in investigational settings, many are not easily applied to daily practice. This paper is based on literature reviews performed by members of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) working group on frailty and sarcopenia. Face-to-face meetings were afterwards organized for the whole group to make amendments and discuss further recommendations. This paper proposes some user-friendly and inexpensive methods that can be used to assess sarcopenia in real-life settings. Healthcare providers, particularly in primary care, should consider an assessment of sarcopenia in individuals at increased risk; suggested tools for assessing risk include the Red Flag Method, the SARC-F questionnaire, the SMI method or different prediction equations. Management of sarcopenia should primarily be patient centered and involve the combination of both resistance and endurance based activity programmes with or without dietary interventions. Development of a number of pharmacological interventions is also in progress. Assessment of sarcopenia in individuals with risk factors, symptoms and/or conditions exposing them to the risk of disability will become particularly important in the near future.

  4. Estimating missing daily temperature extremes in Jaffna, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevakaran, A.; Sonnadara, D. U. J.

    2018-04-01

    The accuracy of reconstructing missing daily temperature extremes in the Jaffna climatological station, situated in the northern part of the dry zone of Sri Lanka, is presented. The adopted method utilizes standard departures of daily maximum and minimum temperature values at four neighbouring stations, Mannar, Anuradhapura, Puttalam and Trincomalee to estimate the standard departures of daily maximum and minimum temperatures at the target station, Jaffna. The daily maximum and minimum temperatures from 1966 to 1980 (15 years) were used to test the validity of the method. The accuracy of the estimation is higher for daily maximum temperature compared to daily minimum temperature. About 95% of the estimated daily maximum temperatures are within ±1.5 °C of the observed values. For daily minimum temperature, the percentage is about 92. By calculating the standard deviation of the difference in estimated and observed values, we have shown that the error in estimating the daily maximum and minimum temperatures is ±0.7 and ±0.9 °C, respectively. To obtain the best accuracy when estimating the missing daily temperature extremes, it is important to include Mannar which is the nearest station to the target station, Jaffna. We conclude from the analysis that the method can be applied successfully to reconstruct the missing daily temperature extremes in Jaffna where no data is available due to frequent disruptions caused by civil unrests and hostilities in the region during the period, 1984 to 2000.

  5. Daily Autonomy Support and Sexual Identity Disclosure Predicts Daily Mental and Physical Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Legate, Nicole; Ryan, Richard M; Rogge, Ronald D

    2017-06-01

    Using a daily diary methodology, we examined how social environments support or fail to support sexual identity disclosure, and associated mental and physical health outcomes. Results showed that variability in disclosure across the diary period related to greater psychological well-being and fewer physical symptoms, suggesting potential adaptive benefits to selectively disclosing. A multilevel path model indicated that perceiving autonomy support in conversations predicted more disclosure, which in turn predicted more need satisfaction, greater well-being, and fewer physical symptoms that day. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that disclosure and need satisfaction explained why perceiving autonomy support in a conversation predicted greater well-being and fewer physical symptoms. That is, perceiving autonomy support in conversations indirectly predicted greater wellness through sexual orientation disclosure, along with feeling authentic and connected in daily interactions with others. Discussion highlights the role of supportive social contexts and everyday opportunities to disclose in affecting sexual minority mental and physical health.

  6. Daily computer usage correlated with undergraduate students' musculoskeletal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Chang, Che-Hsu Joe; Amick, Benjamin C; Menendez, Cammie Chaumont; Katz, Jeffrey N; Johnson, Peter W; Robertson, Michelle; Dennerlein, Jack Tigh

    2007-06-01

    A pilot prospective study was performed to examine the relationships between daily computer usage time and musculoskeletal symptoms on undergraduate students. For three separate 1-week study periods distributed over a semester, 27 students reported body part-specific musculoskeletal symptoms three to five times daily. Daily computer usage time for the 24-hr period preceding each symptom report was calculated from computer input device activities measured directly by software loaded on each participant's primary computer. General Estimating Equation models tested the relationships between daily computer usage and symptom reporting. Daily computer usage longer than 3 hr was significantly associated with an odds ratio 1.50 (1.01-2.25) of reporting symptoms. Odds of reporting symptoms also increased with quartiles of daily exposure. These data suggest a potential dose-response relationship between daily computer usage time and musculoskeletal symptoms.

  7. Update on New Daily Persistent Headache.

    PubMed

    Nierenburg, Hida; Newman, Lawrence C

    2016-06-01

    New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is an uncommon and under-recognized primary headache disorder. Clinically, NDPH may resemble migraine or tension-type headache. Unlike migraine or tension-type headaches, however, a distinguishing feature of NDPH is that the majority of patients with NDPH can pinpoint the exact date of onset of symptoms. While cases can arise de novo, in multiple reports, a viral illness precedes the onset of headache. NDPH has two temporal profiles: a self-limited form that resolves spontaneously without treatment and a refractory, persistent form in which headaches continue unabated for years. Diagnosis is predicated on first eliminating secondary mimics via diagnostic imaging and hematological studies. Lumbar puncture should be considered in patients who are refractory to treatment to search for alterations in CSF pressure or for an infectious process. There have been no randomized clinical trials utilizing acute or preventive therapies for NDPH. In clinical practice, treatment is aimed at matching the predominant headache phenotype; nonetheless, most therapies are generally ineffective or only partially effective. Not surprisingly, medication overuse is very common among patients with this disorder and should be identified, although in most patients, eliminating medication overuse does not alter the course of the illness. There have been reports of successful treatment combining doxycycline 100 mg and montelukast 10 mg, dosed BID for 3 months. Anecdotally, in our practice, this combination has occasionally provided good results. Onabotulinum toxin injections are currently under investigation and may provide a potential new effective treatment regimen.

  8. Incidence of deep vein thrombosis is increased with 30 mg twice daily dosing of enoxaparin compared with 40 mg daily.

    PubMed

    Riha, Gordon M; Van, Philbert Y; Differding, Jerome A; Schreiber, Martin A

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze whether 2 standard dosing regimens of enoxaparin (30 mg twice daily vs 40 mg once daily) would result in different deep vein thrombosis (DVT) rates and anti-factor Xa activity (anti-Xa) in surgical patients. Patients who required enoxaparin for prophylaxis were followed prospectively. Demographics were recorded. Patients underwent standardized duplex screening. Peak anti-Xa levels were drawn on 4 consecutive days. Sixty-three patients were followed up (28 patients on 30 mg twice daily, 35 patients on 40 mg once daily). There was no significant difference in demographics between groups. Twenty-five percent of patients on 30 mg twice daily developed a DVT, whereas 2.9% of patients on 40 mg once daily developed a DVT. Patients on 30 mg twice daily had significantly lower anti-Xa levels. The incidence of DVT is increased in surgical patients who receive 30 mg twice daily dosing of enoxaparin compared with 40 mg daily. Dosing of 40 mg once daily results in significantly higher peak anti-Xa levels compared with 30 mg twice daily. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. On the impacts of computing daily temperatures as the average of the daily minimum and maximum temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarini, Gabriele; Khouakhi, Abdou; Cunningham, Evan

    2017-12-01

    Daily temperature values are generally computed as the average of the daily minimum and maximum observations, which can lead to biases in the estimation of daily averaged values. This study examines the impacts of these biases on the calculation of climatology and trends in temperature extremes at 409 sites in North America with at least 25 years of complete hourly records. Our results show that the calculation of daily temperature based on the average of minimum and maximum daily readings leads to an overestimation of the daily values of 10+ % when focusing on extremes and values above (below) high (low) thresholds. Moreover, the effects of the data processing method on trend estimation are generally small, even though the use of the daily minimum and maximum readings reduces the power of trend detection ( 5-10% fewer trends detected in comparison with the reference data).

  10. Gender, Emotion Work, and Relationship Quality: A Daily Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Melissa A.; McDaniel, Brandon T.; Pollitt, Amanda M.; Totenhagen, Casey J.

    2015-01-01

    We use the gender relations perspective from feminist theorizing to investigate how gender and daily emotion work predict daily relationship quality in 74 couples (148 individuals in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships) primarily from the southwest U.S. Emotion work is characterized by activities that enhance others’ emotional well-being. We examined emotion work two ways: trait (individuals’ average levels) and state (individuals’ daily fluctuations). We examined actor and partner effects of emotion work and tested for gender differences. As outcome variables, we included six types of daily relationship quality: love, commitment, satisfaction, closeness, ambivalence, and conflict. This approach allowed us to predict three aspects of relationship quality: average levels, daily fluctuations, and volatility (overall daily variability across a week). Three patterns emerged. First, emotion work predicted relationship quality in this diverse set of couples. Second, gender differences were minimal for fixed effects: Trait and state emotion work predicted higher average scores on, and positive daily increases in, individuals’ own positive relationship quality and lower average ambivalence. Third, gender differences were more robust for volatility: For partner effects, having a partner who reported higher average emotion work predicted lower volatility in love, satisfaction, and closeness for women versus greater volatility in love and commitment for men. Neither gender nor emotion work predicted average levels, daily fluctuations, or volatility in conflict. We discuss implications and future directions pertaining to the unique role of gender in understanding the associations between daily emotion work and volatility in daily relationship quality for relational partners. PMID:26508808

  11. Gender, Emotion Work, and Relationship Quality: A Daily Diary Study.

    PubMed

    Curran, Melissa A; McDaniel, Brandon T; Pollitt, Amanda M; Totenhagen, Casey J

    2015-08-01

    We use the gender relations perspective from feminist theorizing to investigate how gender and daily emotion work predict daily relationship quality in 74 couples (148 individuals in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships) primarily from the southwest U.S. Emotion work is characterized by activities that enhance others' emotional well-being. We examined emotion work two ways: trait (individuals' average levels) and state (individuals' daily fluctuations). We examined actor and partner effects of emotion work and tested for gender differences. As outcome variables, we included six types of daily relationship quality: love, commitment, satisfaction, closeness, ambivalence, and conflict. This approach allowed us to predict three aspects of relationship quality: average levels, daily fluctuations, and volatility (overall daily variability across a week). Three patterns emerged. First, emotion work predicted relationship quality in this diverse set of couples. Second, gender differences were minimal for fixed effects: Trait and state emotion work predicted higher average scores on, and positive daily increases in, individuals' own positive relationship quality and lower average ambivalence. Third, gender differences were more robust for volatility: For partner effects, having a partner who reported higher average emotion work predicted lower volatility in love, satisfaction, and closeness for women versus greater volatility in love and commitment for men. Neither gender nor emotion work predicted average levels, daily fluctuations, or volatility in conflict. We discuss implications and future directions pertaining to the unique role of gender in understanding the associations between daily emotion work and volatility in daily relationship quality for relational partners.

  12. Seroepidemiological trend of strongyloidiasis in the Bolivian Chaco (1987-2013) in the absence of disease-specific control measures.

    PubMed

    Spinicci, Michele; Macchioni, Fabio; Mantella, Antonia; Gabrielli, Simona; Roselli, Mimmo; Rojo Mayaregua, David; Monasterio Pinckert, Joaquín; Gamboa Barahona, Herlan; Paredes, Grover Adolfo; Halkyer, Percy; Cancrini, Gabriella; Olliaro, Piero; Montresor, Antonio; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infections is grossly underestimated because infections go mostly undetected, although they can persist for a lifetime due to the auto-infective cycle. In the Bolivian Chaco, the prevalence of soil-transmitted nematodes dropped dramatically in the past 25 years, but the mebendazole used for preventive chemotherapy has no effect on S. stercoralis. Meanwhile, the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections remains unchanged. We compared S. stercoralis seroprevalence in rural communities of the Bolivian Chaco from 1987 to 2013. Sera collected during two previous serosurveys, conducted in the Chaco region in 1987 and 2013, were tested for S. stercoralis using a commercial assay (Bordier-ELISA, Bordier Affinity Products, Switzerland). Overall, 355 sera were analysed, 122 from the 1987 survey and 233 from the 2013 survey. Seropositivity for S. stercoralis was significantly more prevalent in 1987 (19/122, 16% in 1987 vs. 15/233, 6% in 2013, P = 0.006), accounted for by a drop from 17% to 3% in people under 26 years of age. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between seropositivity for S. stercoralis and age in the 2013 population (OR 1.03 for each one-year increase, 95%CI 1.00-1.05, P = 0.04), but none in 1987. The significant reduction in S. stercoralis seroprevalence in Bolivian Chaco cannot be explained by preventive chemotherapy or improved social-sanitary conditions. As the drop is seen in younger generations, it is consistent with little transmission occurring. However, the risk of transmission still exists, as prevalence is persistently high in older individuals, who present a potential reservoir due to the lifelong nature of S. stercoralis infections. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Daily stressors, war experiences, and mental health in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kenneth E; Omidian, Patricia; Rasmussen, Andrew; Yaqubi, Aziz; Daudzai, Haqmal

    2008-12-01

    Working in Afghanistan's capital city of Kabul, the authors assessed the relative contribution of daily stressors and war-related experiences of violence and loss to levels of depression, PTSD, impaired functioning, and a culturally specific measure of general psychological distress. For women, daily stressors were a better predictor than war experiences of all mental health outcomes except for PTSD; for men, daily stressors were a better predictor of depression and functional impairment, while war experiences and daily stressors were similarly predictive of general distress. For men, daily stressors moderated the relationship between war experiences and PTSD, which was significant only under conditions of low daily stress. The study's implications for research and intervention in conflict and post-conflict settings are considered.

  14. Daily disposable contact lens prescribing around the world.

    PubMed

    Efron, Nathan; Morgan, Philip B; Helland, Magne; Itoi, Motozumi; Jones, Deborah; Nichols, Jason J; van der Worp, Eef; Woods, Craig A

    2010-10-01

    Daily disposable contact lenses were introduced into the market 16 years ago. Data that we have gathered from annual contact lens fitting surveys conducted in Australia, Canada, Japan, The Netherlands, Norway, the UK and the USA between 2000 and 2008 indicates an overall increase in daily disposable lens fitting during this period. Daily disposable lenses are especially popular in Japan, Norway and the UK. There is a trend for these lenses to be fitted on a part-time basis. Males are over-represented in daily disposable lens fitting-a trend that is especially evident in Canada. Daily disposable lens wearers are about two years younger than wearers of reusable lenses in Japan and The Netherlands. The convenience and health benefits of daily disposable lenses are expected to fuel continued growth in this sector. Copyright (c) 2010 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Daily Interpersonal and Affective Dynamics in Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Simms, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    In this naturalistic study we adopt the lens of interpersonal theory to examine between-and within-person differences in dynamic processes of daily affect and interpersonal behaviors among individuals (N = 101) previously diagnosed with personality disorders who completed daily diaries over the course of 100 days. Dispositional ratings of interpersonal problems and measures of daily stress were used as predictors of daily shifts in interpersonal behavior and affect in multilevel models. Results indicate that ~40%–50% of the variance in interpersonal behavior and affect is due to daily fluctuations, which are modestly related to dispositional measures of interpersonal problems but strongly related to daily stress. The findings support conceptions of personality disorders as a dynamic form of psychopathology involving the individuals interacting with and regulating in response to the contextual features of their environment. PMID:26200849

  16. Weak associations between the daily number of suicide cases and amount of daily sunlight.

    PubMed

    Seregi, Bernadett; Kapitány, Balázs; Maróti-Agóts, Ákos; Rihmer, Zoltán; Gonda, Xénia; Döme, Péter

    2017-02-06

    Several environmental factors with periodic changes in intensity during the calendar year have been put forward to explain the increase in suicide frequency during spring and summer. In the current study we investigated the effect of averaged daily sunshine duration of periods with different lengths and 'lags' (i.e. the number of days between the last day of the period for which the averaged sunshine duration was calculated and the day of suicide) on suicide risk. We obtained data on daily numbers of suicide cases and daily sunshine duration in Hungary from 1979 to 2013. In order to remove the seasonal components from the two time series (i.e. numbers of suicide and sunshine hours) we used the differencing method. Pearson correlations (n=22,950) were calculated to reveal associations between sunshine duration and suicide risk. The final sample consisted of 122,116 suicide cases. Regarding the entire investigated period, after differencing, sunshine duration and number of suicides on the same days showed a distinctly weak, but highly significant positive correlation in the total sample (r=0.067; p=1.17*10 -13 ). Positive significant correlations (p˂0.0001) between suicide risk on the index day and averaged sunshine duration in the previous days (up to 11days) were also found in the total sample. Our results from a large sample strongly support the hypothesis that sunshine has a prompt, but very weak increasing effect on the risk of suicide (especially violent cases among males). The main limitation is that possible confounding factors were not controlled for. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and Validation of a Daily Pain Catastrophizing Scale.

    PubMed

    Darnall, Beth D; Sturgeon, John A; Cook, Karon F; Taub, Chloe J; Roy, Anuradha; Burns, John W; Sullivan, Michael; Mackey, Sean C

    2017-09-01

    To date, there is no validated measure for pain catastrophizing at the daily level. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) is widely used to measure trait pain catastrophizing. We sought to develop and validate a brief, daily version of the PCS for use in daily diary studies to facilitate research on mechanisms of catastrophizing treatment, individual differences in self-regulation, and to reveal the nuanced relationships between catastrophizing, correlates, and pain outcomes. After adapting the PCS for daily use, we evaluated the resulting 14 items using 3 rounds of cognitive interviews with 30 adults with chronic pain. We refined and tested the final daily PCS in 3 independent, prospective, cross-sectional, observational validation studies conducted in a combined total of 519 adults with chronic pain who completed online measures daily for 14 consecutive days. For study 1 (N = 131), exploratory factor analysis revealed adequate fit and-unexpectedly-unidimensionality for item responses to the daily PCS. Study 2 (N = 177) correlations indicated adequate association with related constructs (anger, anxiety, pain intensity, depression). Similarly, results for study 3 (N = 211) revealed expected correlations for daily PCS and measures of daily constructs including physical activity, sleep, energy level, and positive affect. Results from complex/multilevel confirmatory factor analysis confirmed good fit to a unidimensional model. Scores on the daily PCS were statistically comparable with and more parsimonious than the full 14-item version. Next steps include evaluation of score validity in populations with medical diagnoses, greater demographic diversity, and in patients with acute pain. This article describes the development and validation of a daily PCS. This daily measure may facilitate research that aims to characterize pain mechanisms, individual differences in self-regulation, adaptation, and nuanced relationships between catastrophizing, correlates, and pain

  18. Daily haemodialysis improves indices of protein glycation.

    PubMed

    Floridi, Ardesio; Antolini, Francesco; Galli, Francesco; Fagugli, Riccardo Maria; Floridi, Emanuela; Buoncristiani, Umberto

    2002-05-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) accumulate in uraemia, regardless of hyperglycaemic conditions, and may contribute to the onset of some long-term complications, such as atherosclerosis, amyloidosis, and neurodegenerative processes. In this study, we compare a daily with a standard 3 times/week dialysis rhythm (DHD and SHD, respectively) in correcting some protein glycation indices in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Twenty-one normoglycaemic and 11 diabetic patients on chronic haemodialysis (HD) with low-flux dialysers were studied in a prospective protocol to compare two different dialysis schedules, namely: 4 h, 3 times/week (SHD) and 2 h, 6 times/week (DHD). The patients were studied before and after 6 months of DHD. To further check the effect of DHD on glycation parameters, 4 normoglycaemic HD patients were studied in a third step in which they returned for 3 months to the SHD rhythm. Also, 11 chronic renal failure (CRF) patients not yet on HD and 11 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied. A new HPLC method was used to measure the following glycation indexes on plasma: the early product furosine and the advanced products protein-bound and free pentosidine, and two heterogeneous classes of low molecular mass (LMM) AGE peptides. All the parameters studied showed an accumulation that worsened with the progression of renal failure (controls

  19. Solving Tomorrow's Problems Today? Daily Anticipatory Coping and Reactivity to Daily Stressors.

    PubMed

    Neupert, Shevaun D; Ennis, Gilda E; Ramsey, Jennifer L; Gall, Agnes A

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined the day-to-day fluctuation of state-like anticipatory coping (coping employed prior to stressors) and how these coping processes relate to important outcomes for older adults (i.e., physical health, affect, memory failures). Forty-three older adults aged 60-96 (M = 74.65, SD = 8.19) participated in an 8-day daily diary study of anticipatory coping, stressors, health, affect, and memory failures. Participants reported anticipatory coping behaviors on one day with respect to 6 distinct stressor domains that could occur the following day. Multilevel models indicated that anticipatory coping changes from day to day and within stressor domains. Lagged associations suggested that yesterday's anticipatory coping for potential upcoming arguments is related to today's physical health and affect. Increased stagnant deliberation is associated with reduced cognitive reactivity (i.e., fewer memory failures) to arguments the next day. Taken together, these findings suggest that anticipatory coping is dynamic and associated with important daily outcomes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Daily physical activity in stable heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Dontje, Manon L; van der Wal, Martje H L; Stolk, Ronald P; Brügemann, Johan; Jaarsma, Tiny; Wijtvliet, Petra E P J; van der Schans, Cees P; de Greef, Mathieu H G

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is the only nonpharmacological therapy that is proven to be effective in heart failure (HF) patients in reducing morbidity. To date, little is known about the levels of daily physical activity in HF patients and about related factors. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe performance-based daily physical activity in HF patients, (b) compare it with physical activity guidelines, and (c) identify related factors of daily physical activity. The daily physical activity of 68 HF patients was measured using an accelerometer (SenseWear) for 48 hours. Psychological characteristics (self-efficacy, motivation, and depression) were measured using questionnaires. To have an indication how to interpret daily physical activity levels of the study sample, time spent on moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activities was compared with the 30-minute activity guideline. Steps per day was compared with the criteria for healthy adults, in the absence of HF-specific criteria. Linear regression analyses were used to identify related factors of daily physical activity. Forty-four percent were active for less than 30 min/d, whereas 56% were active for more than 30 min/d. Fifty percent took fewer than 5000 steps per day, 35% took 5000 to 10 000 steps per day, and 15% took more than 10 000 steps per day. Linear regression models showed that New York Heart Association classification and self-efficacy were the most important factors explaining variance in daily physical activity. The variance in daily physical activity in HF patients is considerable. Approximately half of the patients had a sedentary lifestyle. Higher New York Heart Association classification and lower self-efficacy are associated with less daily physical activity. These findings contribute to the understanding of daily physical activity behavior of HF patients and can help healthcare providers to promote daily physical activity in sedentary HF patients.

  1. Modeling Cortisol Daily Rhythms of Family Caregivers of Individuals With Dementia: Daily Stressors and Adult Day Services Use.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yin; Almeida, David M; Rovine, Michael J; Zarit, Steven H

    2018-03-02

    The study examined the typical diurnal cortisol trajectory and its differential associations with an intervention, the adult day services (ADS) use, among a sample of family caregivers who experienced high levels of daily stress. On hundred and sixty-five caregivers of individuals with dementia completed an 8-day diary on daily stressors, positive events, sleep quality, and ADS use. The caregivers also provided five saliva samples on each diary day. Daily cortisol trajectories were modeled as a function of time elapsed since awakening, and three spline growth curve models were fit to the cortisol data. Based on the best-fitting linear spline model, the effect of daily ADS use was examined at both daily and person levels. Covariates included daily experiences and other caregiving characteristics. On ADS days, caregivers had a steeper cortisol awakening response (CAR) slope and a steeper morning decline. ADS use remained significant after controlling for covariates at both daily and person levels. The findings suggested potential biophysiological benefits of daily ADS use for a sample that was under chronic stress and high levels of daily stress.

  2. Rich News: Metropolitan Dailies and the Urban Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Mary Jo

    The migration of people from cities to suburbs, new patterns of advertising, a less homogeneous and unified readership, and increasing competition from other media have produced tremendous pressures on daily newspapers. In responding to these pressures, metropolitan dailies are turning from "hard" to "soft" news, away from their poorer urban…

  3. 7 CFR 59.301 - Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs. 59.301 Section 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.301 Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs. (a) In... prices for lambs (per hundredweight) established on that day as F.O.B. feedlot or delivered at the plant...

  4. Changes in Daily Newspapers: Implications for Community Political Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael V.

    A decline in the daily reading of newspapers has been observed in the United States since World War II. In the decade from the late 1960s to the late 1970s, most daily newspapers employed market research to document and diagnose trends in readership, to estimate their present and future audiences' composition, and to assess the audiences'…

  5. Which metric of ambient ozone to predict daily mortality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Kundi, Michael

    2013-02-01

    It is well known that ozone concentration is associated with daily cause specific mortality. But which ozone metric is the best predictor of the daily variability in mortality? We performed a time series analysis on daily deaths (all causes, respiratory and cardiovascular causes as well as death in elderly 65+) in Vienna for the years 1991-2009. We controlled for seasonal and long term trend, day of the week, temperature and humidity using the same basic model for all pollutant metrics. We found model fit was best for same day variability of ozone concentration (calculated as the difference between daily hourly maximum and minimum) and hourly maximum. Of these the variability displayed a more linear dose-response function. Maximum 8 h moving average and daily mean value performed not so well. Nitrogen dioxide (daily mean) in comparison performed better when previous day values were assessed. Same day ozone and previous day nitrogen dioxide effect estimates did not confound each other. Variability in daily ozone levels or peak ozone levels seem to be a better proxy of a complex reactive secondary pollutant mixture than daily average ozone levels in the Middle European setting. If this finding is confirmed this would have implications for the setting of legally binding limit values.

  6. The Daily Curriculum Guide, Year II, Weeks 1-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Spanning two years, the program set forth in the Daily Curriculum Guide for preschool Spanish-speaking children is essentially a language maintenance model in which Spanish is used as a means to develop basic concepts, skills and attitudes. This guide gives daily lesson plans for the first ten weeks of the second year. Each lesson, written in…

  7. 27 CFR 555.127 - Daily summary of magazine transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... each magazine. Not later than the close of the next business day, each licensee and permittee shall... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily summary of magazine....127 Daily summary of magazine transactions. In taking the inventory required by §§ 555.122, 555.123...

  8. 27 CFR 555.127 - Daily summary of magazine transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... each magazine. Not later than the close of the next business day, each licensee and permittee shall... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Daily summary of magazine....127 Daily summary of magazine transactions. In taking the inventory required by §§ 555.122, 555.123...

  9. 27 CFR 555.127 - Daily summary of magazine transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... each magazine. Not later than the close of the next business day, each licensee and permittee shall... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Daily summary of magazine....127 Daily summary of magazine transactions. In taking the inventory required by §§ 555.122, 555.123...

  10. 27 CFR 555.127 - Daily summary of magazine transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... each magazine. Not later than the close of the next business day, each licensee and permittee shall... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Daily summary of magazine....127 Daily summary of magazine transactions. In taking the inventory required by §§ 555.122, 555.123...

  11. 27 CFR 555.127 - Daily summary of magazine transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... each magazine. Not later than the close of the next business day, each licensee and permittee shall... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Daily summary of magazine....127 Daily summary of magazine transactions. In taking the inventory required by §§ 555.122, 555.123...

  12. The Flying Newsboy: A Small Daily Attempts Air Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Elizabeth A.

    For 10 months in 1929-30, subscribers to "The McCook (Nebraska) Daily Gazette" (a daily newspaper serving 33 towns in southwestern Nebraska and northwestern Kansas) received their newspapers via air delivery with "The Newsboy," a Curtis Robin cabin monoplane. In an age when over-the-road travel was difficult and air travel was…

  13. The Role of Religion in Coping with Daily Hassles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belavich, Timothy G.

    This study examined the role of religion in coping with daily stressors. Specifically, daily hassles, religious and nonreligious coping, Positive and Negative Affect, and Depression were assessed in a sample of college students (n=222). It was expected that religious coping would predict adjustment over and above the effects of nonreligious coping…

  14. 20 CFR 330.3 - Daily rate of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... employee's daily rate of compensation is his or her straight-time rate of pay, including any cost-of-living allowance provided in any applicable working agreement. It does not include any overtime pay, penalty... mileage basis, the employee's daily rate of compensation is his or her rate of pay for the number of miles...

  15. 20 CFR 330.3 - Daily rate of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employee's daily rate of compensation is his or her straight-time rate of pay, including any cost-of-living allowance provided in any applicable working agreement. It does not include any overtime pay, penalty... mileage basis, the employee's daily rate of compensation is his or her rate of pay for the number of miles...

  16. 19 CFR 159.35 - Certified daily rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.35 Certified daily rate. The daily buying rate of foreign currency which is determined by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and certified to the Secretary of the Treasury in accordance with 31 U.S.C. 5151(e) shall be used for...

  17. Family and School Spillover in Adolescents' Daily Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flook, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined spillover between daily family stressors and school problems among 589 ninth-grade students (mean age = 14.9 years) from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds. Spillover was examined using a daily diary methodology in which adolescents reported on their school and family experiences each day for 2 weeks. Analyses using…

  18. New daily persistent headache in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Mack, Kenneth J

    2009-02-01

    New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is frequently seen in young patients with chronic daily headache. NDPH begins with a sudden onset, often associated with an infection or other physical stress. This headache syndrome is difficult to treat and may persist for years. This review discusses the epidemiology, comorbid symptoms, evaluation, and treatment of this disorder.

  19. When Opportunity Knocks: Integrating Language Arts and the Daily Calendar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    With daily classroom schedules jammed with many concepts and skills to cover, integrating subjects whenever possible offers some relief. Primary classrooms can use their daily calendar time to integrate language arts and math. This teaching approach includes the use of word walls, interactive writing, journaling, and other effective teaching…

  20. The Determinants of Daily Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Mei-Hui; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Huang, Chien-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify determinants of daily function in a population-based sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The study took into consideration factors from the entire scope of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Furthermore, the determinants of daily function were examined from…

  1. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily activity...

  2. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily activity...

  3. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily activity...

  4. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily activity...

  5. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily activity...

  6. Long daily movements of wolves (Canis lupus) during pup raising

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2009-01-01

    Wolves, Canis lupus, on Ellesmere Island traveled a daily round-trip distance of 40.2 km from their den to a landfill during July 2008, plus an undetermined distance hunting after leaving the landfill. Although long travels by Wolves are well known, this appears to be the first documentation of long daily movements by Wolves rearing pups.

  7. The Association of Daily Physical Symptoms with Future Health

    PubMed Central

    Leger, Kate A.; Charles, Susan T.; Ayanian, John Z.; Almeida, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Daily physical symptoms play a critical role in health and illness experiences. Despite their daily prevalence, the ability of these symptoms to predict future health status is debated. Objective The current study examined whether physical symptom reports predict future health outcomes independent of trait measures of emotion. Methods Participants (N = 1189) who completed both Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) Surveys I and II as well as the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE) reported their daily physical symptoms at baseline and number of reported chronic conditions and functional disability nearly 10 years later. Results Physical symptoms at baseline significantly predicted the occurrence of chronic conditions and functional impairment at long-term follow-up, even after adjusting for self-reported affect, self-reported health, and previous health status. Conclusion Findings suggest that daily physical symptoms are unique indicators of future health status. PMID:26364011

  8. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis and visceral leishmaniasis in an adult HIV negative patient.

    PubMed

    Toledo, A C; de Castro, M R

    2001-06-01

    This is a case report of a 29 year old male with pneumocystis pneumonia and tuberculosis, and who was initially suspected of having HIV infection, based on risk factor analyses, but was subsequently shown to be HIV negative. The patient arrived at the hospital with fever, cough, weight loss, loss of appetite, pallor, and arthralgia. In addition, he was jaundiced and had cervical lymphadenopathy and mild heptosplenomegaly. He had interstitial infiltrates of the lung, sputum smears positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Pneumocystis carinii, and stool tests were positive for Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma mansoni. He was diagnosed as having AIDS, and was treated for tuberculosis, pneumocystosis, and strongyloidiasis with a good response. The patient did not receive anti-retroviral therapy, pending outcome of the HIV tests. A month later, he was re-examined and found to have worsening hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, fever, and continued weight loss. At this time, it was determined that his HIV ELISA antibody tests were negative. A bone marrow aspirate was done and revealed amastigotes of leishmania, and a bone marrow culture was positive for Leishmania species. He was treated with pentavalent antimony, 20 mg daily for 20 days, with complete remission of symptoms and weight gain. This case demonstrates that immunosuppression from leishmaniasis and tuberculosis may lead to pneumocystosis, and be misdiagnosed as HIV infection. The occurrence of opportunistic infections in severely ill patients without HIV must always be considered and alternate causes of immunosuppression sought.

  9. [Once-daily gentamicin dosing versus thrice-daily dosing in infants with acute pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Calvo Rey, C; García Díaz, B; Nebreda Pérez, V; García García, M L; Maderuelo Sánchez, A I; Cilleruelo Pascual, M L; García Lacalle, C

    2003-03-01

    Once-daily dosing (ODD) of gentamicin is advocated as an effective and safe treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections in adults. There are insufficient data in the literature to justify its use in infants. To compare the efficacy of ODD of gentamicin with that of classical thrice-daily (t.i.d.) administration in infants with acute pyelonephritis. We performed a quasi-experimental study comparing 33 infants who received ODD of gentamicin with a historical control group of 25 infants treated with gentamicin t.i.d. Leukocytosis, C-reactive protein, creatinine, gentamicin dose, peak and trough values, time required for disappearance of fever, and outcome were analyzed. The mean doses of gentamicin (mg/kg/day) were higher in the t.i.d. group (6.4 1.14) than in the ODD group (5.06 0.22; p < 0.001). Peak serum gentamicin concentrations (micro g/ml) were significantly higher in the ODD group (9.32 1.4) than in the t.i.d. group (5.09 1.15; p < 0.001). Mean trough gentamicin concentrations (micro g/ml) were lower in the ODD group than in the t.i.d. group (0.23 0.26 vs 0.78 0.45; p 0.001). There were no significant differences in the duration of fever between the groups (30.64 32 hours in the t.i.d. group vs. 28.57 32 hours in the ODD group). Serum creatinine levels were normal during treatment in both groups. In all patients outcome was good and no adverse effects were noted. Treatment with ODD of gentamicin in our population of infants with acute pyelonephritis was as effective as traditional administration t.i.d. and possibly was equally safe or safer.

  10. Correlation between prescribed daily dose, seizure freedom and defined daily dose in antiepileptic drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Horváth, László; Fekete, Klára; Márton, Sándor; Fekete, István

    2017-04-01

    Background Although defined daily doses (DDD) for antiepileptic drugs (AED) have been assigned only in combination therapy, based on the literature, most patients take them in monotherapy. Furthermore, discrepancies between DDD and prescribed daily dose (PDD) were observed. Objective First, to determine PDDs of AEDs and to reveal PDD/DDD ratio among seizure free versus not seizure free patients in everyday clinical practice. Second, to test the applicability of 75% cut-off of DDD to achieve seizure freedom. Furthermore, to find out what factors might influence PDD. Setting Outpatient data files at a Hungarian university hospital were studied. Methods A retrospective, 20-year cross-sectional database was compiled from 1282 epileptic outpatients' files. Main outcome measure Seizure freedom and PDD were used as outcome measures. Results The mean DDD% of all prescribed AEDs increased steadily from monotherapy, through bitherapy towards polytherapy (p < 0.0001). Most seizure free patients took AEDs in doses in the range of ≤75% of DDDs in monotherapy and bitherapy. Older AEDs (carbamazepine and valproate) were given in a significantly higher mean dose in bitherapy in the seizure free group. Among the newer types, only levetiracetam and lamotrigine had a significantly higher DDD% in mono-, bi-, and polytherapy. Confirmed by logistic regression analysis, gender, age, type of epilepsy, and number of AEDs had a significant impact on the value of 75% DDD. Conclusion No significant unfavourable impact of the lower ratio of PDD/DDD on the outcome of achieving seizure freedom has been confirmed. As a measure of seizure freedom, 75% of DDD may be used, although individual therapy must be emphasised. Precisely quantified DDD would provide a more accurate calculation of other derived values.

  11. Monitoring daily and sub-daily variations in crustal strain with seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, S.; Campillo, M.; van der Hilst, R. D.; Brenguier, F.; Hillers, G.

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate that we can monitor deformation of the shallow crust (with hourly temporal resolution) directly with seismic waves, by measuring relative seismic wave speed changes (dv/v) due to relatively known periodical forcing (tides and changes in atmospheric temperature) at Piton de la Fournaise Volcano (PdF), La Réunion. We use ambient seismic noise recorded (for one month) at VolcArray, an experiment with three arrays of 49 vertical-component geophones deployed on a 7x7 grid of approximately 80 m spacing. Through noise-based coda wave interferometry we infer for each array the average relative changes in propagation speed of seismic waves (dv/v) as a function of time, which relate to temporal changes in medium properties within 100m depth. The variations in dv/v ( 0.05%) on time-scales longer than a day are best explained by effects of precipitation on pore pressure. In contrast, the (weaker) daily and sub-daily fluctuations of dv/v ( 0.01%) are likely to be caused by tidal and thermal effects. We verify that the inferred variations of dv/v are unrelated to spatiotemporal changes of noise wavefields. We further compare the power spectrum of dv/v with spectra of simulated tide-induced volumetric strain, temperature records, very broadband (VBB) seismograms, and borehole tilt records. In all five types of data, dominant peaks are found at around diurnal, semi-diurnal, and ter-diurnal frequencies. A comparison of phase and spectra of the data suggests that the tidal and thermal effects on dv/v are of similar magnitude but vary with frequency. Theoretical modeling of tide- and temperature-induced strain in different frequency bands agrees with the relative magnitude of the two effects on dv/v from passive monitoring.

  12. Comparing daily drivers of problem drinking among older and younger adults: An electronic daily diary study using smartphones.

    PubMed

    Kuerbis, Alexis; Treloar Padovano, Hayley; Shao, Sijing; Houser, Jessica; Muench, Frederick J; Morgenstern, Jon

    2018-02-01

    By 2030, numbers and proportions of older adults with substance-use problems are expected to increase. While risk factors for problem drinking in late life have been identified, it remains unknown whether these factors drive daily drinking among older problem drinkers. This study examined the daily drivers of drinking among problem drinkers, moderated by age, utilizing ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Participants (N = 139), ages 20-73, received daily EMA online surveys completed via a smartphone prior to initiation of treatment. Multilevel modeling tested the moderating impact of age on within- and between-person relationships between drinking and focal predictors (mood, loneliness, boredom, stress, poor sleep, social factors, alcohol salience, commitment and confidence not to drink heavily). Older adults reported greater alcohol consumption when daily boredom levels were higher. Heavier drinking among younger adults was associated with poorer sleep quality. Greater daily confidence, daily commitment and daily alcohol salience did not impact drinking to the same extent for older adults as for younger adults. Greater person-level commitment predicted reduced drinking equivalently across age, but low person-level commitment predicted greater drinking among older adults compared to their younger counterparts. Older adults may have unique daily drivers of drinking that are not fully realized in current research and intervention efforts. Addressing the growing substance-use treatment needs among this population will require identifying the unique drivers of drinking among older adults, such as boredom, when compared to younger adults. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of once-daily versus twice-daily combination of ropinirole prolonged release in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Han-Joon; Lee, Jee-Young; Kim, Young Eun; Kim, Ji Seon; Kim, Jong-Min; Jeon, Beom S

    2013-09-02

    Ropinirole prolonged release (RPR) is a once-daily formulation. However, there may be individual pharmacokinetic differences so that multiple dosing may be preferred in some individuals. This study compares once-daily and twice-daily RPR in patients with Parkinson's disease. This study was an open-label crossover study. We enrolled Parkinson's disease patients on dopamine agonist therapy with unsatisfactory control such as motor fluctuation, dyskinesia and sleep-related problems. Agonists were switched into equivalent dose of RPR. Subjects were consecutively enrolled into either once-daily first or twice-daily first groups, and received the same amount of RPR in a single and two divided dosing for 8 weeks respectively in a crossover manner without a washout period.The primary outcome was a questionnaire of the preference completed by patients in the last visit. The secondary outcome measures included the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part 3 (mUPDRS), Hoehn and Yahr stage (H&Y); sleep questionnaire including overall quality of sleep, nocturnal off symptoms and early morning symptoms; Epworth Sleep Scale (ESS); compliances and patient global impression (PGI). A total of 82 patients were enrolled and 61 completed the study. 31 patients preferred twice-daily regimen, 17 preferred the once-daily regimen, and 13 had no preference. Their mean mUPDRS, H&Y, ESS, sleep quality, compliance and adverse events were not statistically different in both regimens. PGI-improvement on wearing off defined was better in twice-daily dosing regimen. RPR is a once-daily formulation, but multiple dosing was preferred in many patients. Multiple dosing of RPR might be a therapeutic option if once-daily dosing is unsatisfactory.

  14. Intrinsic Emotional Fluctuation in Daily Negative Affect across Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yin; Bangerter, Lauren R; Rovine, Michael J; Zarit, Steven H; Almeida, David M

    2017-12-15

    The study explored daily negative affect (NA) fluctuation, its associations with age, and its developmental characteristics. The sample (n = 790) was drawn from the Midlife Development in the United States; participants completed two 8-day daily diaries 10 years apart. Multilevel models were estimated within each diary component, where two single daily NA (depression and nervousness) and daily NA diversity were predicted separately by daily stressor exposures, physical health symptoms, age, gender, education, and neuroticism. The variances of within-person residual were output for single NA and NA diversity as intrinsic emotion fluctuation (IEF) within each diary component (i.e., controlled for within- and between-person contextual factors). Then multilevel growth models were fit to explore the developmental characteristics of day-to-day IEF across 10 years. At the daily level, older age was associated with less IEF in depression and nervousness. Over time, IEF in depression decreased. Additionally, IEF in NA diversity increased for older participants longitudinally. IEF represents a new conceptualization of midlife individuals' daily emotional ups and downs, specifically, the intrinsic within-person volatility of emotions. The magnitude of IEF and its longitudinal dynamics may have implications for health and well-being of middle-aged adults. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Extreme daily precipitation: the case of Serbia in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tošić, Ivana; Unkašević, Miroslava; Putniković, Suzana

    2017-05-01

    The extreme daily precipitation in Serbia was examined at 16 stations during the period 1961-2014. Two synoptic situations in May and September of 2014 were analysed, when extreme precipitation was recorded in western and eastern Serbia, respectively. The synoptic situation from 14 to 16 May 2014 remained nearly stationary over the western and central Serbia for the entire period. On 15 May 2014, the daily rainfall broke previous historical records in Belgrade (109.8 mm), Valjevo (108.2 mm) and Loznica (110 mm). Precipitation exceeded 200 mm in 72 h, producing the most catastrophic floods in the recent history of Serbia. In Negotin (eastern Serbia), daily precipitation of 161.3 mm was registered on 16 September 2014, which was the maximum value recorded during the period 1961-2014. The daily maximum in 2014 was registered at 6 out of 16 stations. The total annual precipitation for 2014 was the highest for the period 1961-2014 at almost all stations in Serbia. A non-significant positive trend was found for all precipitation indices: annual daily maximum precipitation, the total precipitation in consecutive 3 and 5 days, the total annual precipitation, and number of days with at least 10 and 20 mm of precipitation. The generalised extreme value distribution was fitted to the annual daily maximum precipitation. The estimated 100-year return levels were 123.4 and 147.4 mm for the annual daily maximum precipitation in Belgrade and Negotin, respectively.

  16. A statistical analysis of the daily streamflow hydrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavvas, M. L.; Delleur, J. W.

    1984-03-01

    In this study a periodic statistical analysis of daily streamflow data in Indiana, U.S.A., was performed to gain some new insight into the stochastic structure which describes the daily streamflow process. This analysis was performed by the periodic mean and covariance functions of the daily streamflows, by the time and peak discharge -dependent recession limb of the daily streamflow hydrograph, by the time and discharge exceedance level (DEL) -dependent probability distribution of the hydrograph peak interarrival time, and by the time-dependent probability distribution of the time to peak discharge. Some new statistical estimators were developed and used in this study. In general features, this study has shown that: (a) the persistence properties of daily flows depend on the storage state of the basin at the specified time origin of the flow process; (b) the daily streamflow process is time irreversible; (c) the probability distribution of the daily hydrograph peak interarrival time depends both on the occurrence time of the peak from which the inter-arrival time originates and on the discharge exceedance level; and (d) if the daily streamflow process is modeled as the release from a linear watershed storage, this release should depend on the state of the storage and on the time of the release as the persistence properties and the recession limb decay rates were observed to change with the state of the watershed storage and time. Therefore, a time-varying reservoir system needs to be considered if the daily streamflow process is to be modeled as the release from a linear watershed storage.

  17. Trapped in a Daydream: Daily Elevations in Maladaptive Daydreaming Are Associated With Daily Psychopathological Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Somer, Eli

    2018-01-01

    Background: Maladaptive Daydreaming (MD) characterizes individuals who engage in vivid, fanciful daydreaming for hours on end, neglecting real-life relationships and responsibilities, resulting in clinical distress and functional impairment. Sufferers have embraced the term MD in cyber-communities devoted to this problem because it seemed to uniquely fit their experience and since existing diagnostic labels and their therapies seemed inadequate. However, scientific research in the field has been scarce, relying on cross-sectional or case study designs. Existing knowledge on MD suggests the involvement of dissociative and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, as well as positive reinforcement comparable to processes in addiction disorders. The present study aimed to rigorously explore factors that accompany MD employing a longitudinal daily-diary design, hypothesizing that temporal increases in MD will associate concurrently with, and will temporally precede, other symptoms and emotional changes. In addition, we aimed to explore which symptoms may act as precursors to increases in MD, in order to identify possible mechanisms bringing about daydreaming in these individuals. Methods: In a sample of 77 self-diagnosed individuals with MD we assessed relevant daily symptoms for 14 days, including MD, depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and dissociation, as well as positive and negative emotion. Results: Increases in MD were strongly related to concurrent increases in all other symptoms and negative emotion, and to decreased positive emotion. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, dissociation, and negative emotion also temporally followed MD. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were the only consistent temporal antecedent of MD. Conclusions: MD and obsessive-compulsive symptoms coincided in what seems to be a vicious cycle; understanding possible shared mechanisms between these symptoms may inform our understanding of the etiology of MD. For example

  18. Daily rhythmicity of body temperature in the dog.

    PubMed

    Refinetti, R; Piccione, G

    2003-08-01

    Research over the past 50 years has demonstrated the existence of circadian or daily rhythmicity in the body core temperature of a large number of mammalian species. However, previous studies have failed to identify daily rhythmicity of body temperature in dogs. We report here the successful recording of daily rhythms of rectal temperature in female Beagle dogs. The low robustness of the rhythms (41% of maximal robustness) and the small range of excursion (0.5 degrees C) are probably responsible for previous failures in detecting rhythmicity in dogs.

  19. Contribution of daily and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and daily rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and daily rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal daily rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.

  20. Time series ARIMA models for daily price of palm oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd; Zamhawari, Nor Hashimah; Bakar, Mohd Aftar Abu

    2015-02-01

    Palm oil is deemed as one of the most important commodity that forms the economic backbone of Malaysia. Modeling and forecasting the daily price of palm oil is of great interest for Malaysia's economic growth. In this study, time series ARIMA models are used to fit the daily price of palm oil. The Akaike Infromation Criterion (AIC), Akaike Infromation Criterion with a correction for finite sample sizes (AICc) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used to compare between different ARIMA models being considered. It is found that ARIMA(1,2,1) model is suitable for daily price of crude palm oil in Malaysia for the year 2010 to 2012.

  1. Daily Patterns of Life Stressors and Their Relation to Health.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Daily Life Experience Mood Somatic Symptomatol ogy Z0. AIS3 PACT (Continue on veceree od*e If necessar and ident ify by block num~ber) This is the final...it was used in a 90 prospective study of daily experiences, mood, and somatic symptomatology. DD 1473 EDITION Of I NOV GS IS OBSOLETE ~4 ~ L S/N...Both contracts supported our studies exploring the effects of daily life experiences on mood and somatic symptomatology. Our work was divided into two

  2. New daily-persistent headache versus tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Matthew S; Crystal, Sara C

    2010-12-01

    New daily-persistent headache (NDPH) and chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) are two forms of primary chronic daily headache of long duration that often are similar in their headache manifestations. NDPH distinguishes itself from CTTH and the other forms of chronic daily headache by its continuous head pain from onset. However, despite formalized criteria that specify NDPH must resemble the acute onset of a headache identical to that of CTTH, NDPH commonly has migraine features. Here, we review the available literature on NDPH and compare its clinical features, epidemiology, prognosis, inciting factors, and treatment to CTTH.

  3. Diverse Host-Seeking Behaviors of Skin-Penetrating Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Castelletto, Michelle L.; Gang, Spencer S.; Okubo, Ryo P.; Tselikova, Anastassia A.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Platzer, Edward G.; Lok, James B.; Hallem, Elissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Skin-penetrating parasitic nematodes infect approximately one billion people worldwide and are responsible for some of the most common neglected tropical diseases. The infective larvae of skin-penetrating nematodes are thought to search for hosts using sensory cues, yet their host-seeking behavior is poorly understood. We conducted an in-depth analysis of host seeking in the skin-penetrating human parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, and compared its behavior to that of other parasitic nematodes. We found that Str. stercoralis is highly mobile relative to other parasitic nematodes and uses a cruising strategy for finding hosts. Str. stercoralis shows robust attraction to a diverse array of human skin and sweat odorants, most of which are known mosquito attractants. Olfactory preferences of Str. stercoralis vary across life stages, suggesting a mechanism by which host seeking is limited to infective larvae. A comparison of odor-driven behavior in Str. stercoralis and six other nematode species revealed that parasite olfactory preferences reflect host specificity rather than phylogeny, suggesting an important role for olfaction in host selection. Our results may enable the development of new strategies for combating harmful nematode infections. PMID:25121736

  4. Cost analysis of once-daily ISMN versus twice-daily ISMN or transdermal patch for nitrate prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Brown, R E; Kendall, M J; Halpern, M T

    1997-02-01

    To compare the costs and outcomes of treating exercise-induced angina with once- or twice-daily isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) or transdermal patch. A decision-analytic model was designed based on published literature showing compliance and increasing symptoms and estimates from physicians on treatment patterns and worsening symptoms. Data show that patients are more compliant with once-daily ISMN (Imdur, Astra Hässle, Mölndal, Sweden) and patch regimens than with twice-daily dose. Based upon the assumption that more compliant patients are better controlled, the model found that fewer medical care resources were consumed by patients treated with the once-daily and the patch regimens. The unit cost of the twice-daily ISMN regimen is 40% of the unit cost of the once-daily. Annual costs of treating an exercise-induced angina patient are 248 pounds for Imdur compared to 250 pounds for the twice-daily ISMN and 299 pounds for the transdermal patch. Unit prices alone are not good indicators for estimating medical management costs.

  5. Conversion from twice-daily tacrolimus to once-daily extended release tacrolimus (LCPT): the phase III randomized MELT trial.

    PubMed

    Bunnapradist, S; Ciechanowski, K; West-Thielke, P; Mulgaonkar, S; Rostaing, L; Vasudev, B; Budde, K

    2013-03-01

    Phase III noninferiority trial examining efficacy and safety of converting stable renal transplant recipients from twice-daily tacrolimus to a novel extended-release once-daily tacrolimus formulation (LCPT) with a controlled agglomeration technology. Controls maintained tacrolimus twice daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was proportion of patients with efficacy failures (death, graft failure, locally read biopsy-proven acute rejection [BPAR], or loss to follow-up) within 12 months. Starting LCPT dose was 30% lower (15% for blacks) than preconversion tacrolimus dose; target trough levels were 4-15 ng/mL. A total of 326 patients were randomized; the mITT population (n = 162 each group) was similar demographically in the two groups. Mean daily dose of LCPT was significantly (p < 0.0001) lower than preconversion tacrolimus dose at each visit; mean trough levels between groups were similar. There were four efficacy failures in each group; safety outcomes were similar between groups. Frequency of premature study drug discontinuation was LCPT: 12% versus tacrolimus twice daily: 5% (p = 0.028). LCPT demonstrated noninferiority to tacrolimus twice daily in efficacy failure rates. LCPT may offer a safe and effective alternative for converting patients to a once-daily formulation. Compared to currently available tacrolimus formulation, LCPT requires lower doses to achieve target trough levels. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Unsupervised daily routine and activity discovery in smart homes.

    PubMed

    Jie Yin; Qing Zhang; Karunanithi, Mohan

    2015-08-01

    The ability to accurately recognize daily activities of residents is a core premise of smart homes to assist with remote health monitoring. Most of the existing methods rely on a supervised model trained from a preselected and manually labeled set of activities, which are often time-consuming and costly to obtain in practice. In contrast, this paper presents an unsupervised method for discovering daily routines and activities for smart home residents. Our proposed method first uses a Markov chain to model a resident's locomotion patterns at different times of day and discover clusters of daily routines at the macro level. For each routine cluster, it then drills down to further discover room-level activities at the micro level. The automatic identification of daily routines and activities is useful for understanding indicators of functional decline of elderly people and suggesting timely interventions.

  7. GIS Tools to Estimate Average Annual Daily Traffic

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-06-01

    This project presents five tools that were created for a geographical information system to estimate Annual Average Daily : Traffic using linear regression. Three of the tools can be used to prepare spatial data for linear regression. One tool can be...

  8. Control of hypertension with single daily doses of sotalol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, R

    A study was carried out in 12 previously untreated hypertensive patients to assess the efficacy of sotalol given in a once-daily dosage regimen. After an initial dosage titration period (mean 3 weeks) during which diastolic pressure was stabilized at less than 100 mmHg, all patients were satisfactorily maintained on a constant once-daily dose of sotalol for 3 months. Eight of the 12 patients required 320 mg or less daily (mean dose 190 mg). Whilst blood pressure remained controlled for at least 26 hours after daily doses the pulse rate, counted at the same time, showed escape from beta-blockade. Side-effects (vivid dreams) were reported in only 1 patient.

  9. Diabetes Management: How Lifestyle, Daily Routine Affect Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes management: How lifestyle, daily routine affect blood sugar Diabetes management requires awareness. Know what makes your blood sugar ... and portion sizes. A key to many diabetes management plans is learning how to count carbohydrates. Carbohydrates ...

  10. Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes (CFRD): Daily Management

    MedlinePlus

    Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes (CFRD): Daily Management September 20, 2011 This Web cast is supported by an unrestricted educational grant from Genentech, Inc. Antoinette, Moran, MD Professor, Pediatric Endocrinology ...

  11. Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to Daily Family Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE), this study examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults aged 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of daily interviews where they reported on daily stressors, affect, and physical health symptoms. Results revealed racial similarities in family stressor exposure. Both races were also emotionally reactive to family arguments and family network events (i.e., events that happen to a family member), whereas African Americans were more physically reactive to family arguments. For African Americans, reactivity to family arguments endured; the increased negative affect and physical symptoms associated with family arguments lasted into the next day. Findings provide evidence for racial similarities and differences, suggesting that family relationships are universally stressful, whereas the negative effects of family stressors are more enduring among African Americans. PMID:23543937

  12. Anorexia Nervosa in the Context of Daily Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Reed; Johnson, Craig

    1981-01-01

    This study investigated the anorectic's experience in daily living using the Experience Sampling Method. Results suggest that anorectics spend more time alone and experience lower average affect than other young single women. (Author/GK)

  13. Daily Fluctuations in Everyday Cognition: Is It Meaningful?

    PubMed

    Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Allaire, Jason C

    2016-08-01

    This study examined whether there are daily fluctuations in everyday cognition that are consistent with daily fluctuations often observed in traditional measures of basic cognitive abilities. Two hundred six independently living older adults (age range = 60-91 years) were asked to complete a computerized cognitive battery over eight occasions within a 2- to 3-week period. Using multilevel model, significant within-person variability was observed across the Daily Everyday Cognition Assessment (DECA; 46%), with 54% between-person variability. At each occasion, better performance on the DECA was significantly associated with better performance on simple reaction time ( p < .01) and memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Task, p < .01) even after accounting for time, age, education, and performance on other cognitive measures. These findings demonstrate that within-person performance fluctuations can be observed for everyday cognition tasks, and these fluctuations are consistent with daily changes in basic cognitive abilities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Estimation of average daily traffic on local roads in Kentucky.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-07-01

    Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) officials use annual average daily traffic (AADT) to estimate intersection : performance across the state maintained highway system. KYTC currently collects AADTs for state maintained : roads but frequently lack...

  15. Daily Physical Activity and Cognitive Function Variability in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Christine B; Edwards, Jerri D; Andel, Ross; Kilpatrick, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) is believed to preserve cognitive function in older adulthood, though little is known about these relationships within the context of daily life. The present microlongitudinal pilot study explored within- and between-person relationships between daily PA and cognitive function and also examined within-person effect sizes in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Fifty-one healthy participants (mean age = 70.1 years) wore an accelerometer and completed a cognitive assessment battery for five days. There were no significant associations between cognitive task performance and participants' daily or average PA over the study period. Effect size estimates indicated that PA explained 0-24% of within-person variability in cognitive function, depending on cognitive task and PA dose. Results indicate that PA may have near-term cognitive effects and should be explored as a possible strategy to enhance older adults' ability to perform cognitively complex activities within the context of daily living.

  16. 26 CFR 44.4403-1 - Daily record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accepted on a horse race, the daily record shall show separately the gross amount of each class or type of wagers (straight bets, parlays, “if” bets, etc.) accepted on each horse in the race. Similarly, in the...

  17. 26 CFR 44.4403-1 - Daily record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accepted on a horse race, the daily record shall show separately the gross amount of each class or type of wagers (straight bets, parlays, “if” bets, etc.) accepted on each horse in the race. Similarly, in the...

  18. Twice-daily cimetidine does not increase gastric bacterial flora.

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, J. T.; Mountford, R. A.; Barry, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty patients with peptic ulcer (20 duodenal, 10 gastric) underwent glucose-hydrogen (H2) breath tests before and after 6 weeks treatment with cimetidine, 400 mg twice daily. For the group as a whole, basal breath H2 and integrated H2 output over a 2.5 hr test period was unchanged by cimetidine treatment. We conclude that there was no evidence of significant gastric bacterial colonization following twice daily cimetidine treatment. PMID:6462995

  19. Treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis with once-daily compared with twice-daily amoxicillin: a noninferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Herbert W; Ryan, Amy G; Dallas, Steven D; Kaplan, Edward L; Johnson, Dwight R; Norton, H James; Roddey, Oliver F; Martin, Edward S; Swetenburg, Raymond L; Koonce, Elizabeth W; Felkner, Mary M; Giftos, P Michael

    2006-09-01

    Two relatively small previous studies comparing once-daily amoxicillin with conventional therapy for group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis reported similar rates of bacteriologic success for each treatment group. The purpose of this study was to further evaluate once-daily amoxicillin for GAS pharyngitis in a larger study. In a single pediatric practice, from October through May for 2 consecutive years (2001-2003), we recruited children 3 to 18 years of age who had symptoms and signs suggestive of GAS pharyngitis. Patients with a positive rapid test for GAS were stratified by weight (<40 kg or >or=40 kg) and then randomly assigned to receive once-daily (750 mg or 1000 mg) or twice-daily (2 doses of 375 mg or 500 mg) amoxicillin for 10 days. We determined bacteriologic failure rates for GAS in the pharynx from subsequent swabs taken at 14 to 21 (visit 2) and 28 to 35 (visit 3) days after treatment initiation. We conducted a randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, noninferiority trial to evaluate whether amoxicillin given once daily would have a bacteriologic failure rate no worse than that of amoxicillin given twice daily within a prespecified margin of 10%. GAS isolates were characterized to distinguish bacteriologic failures from new acquisitions. Adverse events were described and adherence was evaluated by review of returned daily logs and dosage bottles. Of 2139 potential study patients during the 2-year period, we enrolled 652 patients, 326 into each treatment group. Children in the 2 groups were comparable with respect to all demographic and clinical characteristics except that children <40 kg more often presented with rash in each treatment group. At visit 2, failure rates were 20.1% (59 of 294) for the once-daily group and 15.5% (46 of 296) for the twice-daily group (difference, 4.53%; 90% confidence interval [CI], -0.6 to 9.7). At visit 3, failure rates were 2.8% (6 of 216) for the once-daily group and 7.1% (16 of 225) for the twice-daily group

  20. Modelling of Sub-daily Hydrological Processes Using Daily Time-Step Models: A Distribution Function Approach to Temporal Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, D. D.; Western, A. W.; Grayson, R. B.

    2004-12-01

    Mismatches in scale between the fundamental processes, the model and supporting data are a major limitation in hydrologic modelling. Surface runoff generation via infiltration excess and the process of soil erosion are fundamentally short time-scale phenomena and their average behaviour is mostly determined by the short time-scale peak intensities of rainfall. Ideally, these processes should be simulated using time-steps of the order of minutes to appropriately resolve the effect of rainfall intensity variations. However, sub-daily data support is often inadequate and the processes are usually simulated by calibrating daily (or even coarser) time-step models. Generally process descriptions are not modified but rather effective parameter values are used to account for the effect of temporal lumping, assuming that the effect of the scale mismatch can be counterbalanced by tuning the parameter values at the model time-step of interest. Often this results in parameter values that are difficult to interpret physically. A similar approach is often taken spatially. This is problematic as these processes generally operate or interact non-linearly. This indicates a need for better techniques to simulate sub-daily processes using daily time-step models while still using widely available daily information. A new method applicable to many rainfall-runoff-erosion models is presented. The method is based on temporal scaling using statistical distributions of rainfall intensity to represent sub-daily intensity variations in a daily time-step model. This allows the effect of short time-scale nonlinear processes to be captured while modelling at a daily time-step, which is often attractive due to the wide availability of daily forcing data. The approach relies on characterising the rainfall intensity variation within a day using a cumulative distribution function (cdf). This cdf is then modified by various linear and nonlinear processes typically represented in hydrological and

  1. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Twice Daily and Once Daily Regimens of Empagliflozin in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Macha, Sreeraj; Brand, Tobias; Meinicke, Thomas; Link, Jasmin; Broedl, Uli C

    2015-08-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the steady-state pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of empagliflozin 5 mg twice daily (BID) and 10 mg once daily (QD) in healthy subjects. In an open-label, 2-way crossover study, subjects (n = 16) received empagliflozin 5 mg BID for 5 days and empagliflozin 10 mg QD for 5 days in a randomized order, with a washout period of ≥6 days between each treatment. The primary objective was the comparison of the overall exposure during a 24-hour period at steady state (AUC0-24,ss) for empagliflozin, based on standard bioequivalence criteria, with BID and QD dose regimens. The study population comprised 7 (43.8%) men and 9 (56.3%) women with a baseline median age of 38.0 years (range, 23-47 years) and a median body mass index of 23.3 kg/m(2) (range, 19.8-27.8 kg/m(2)). Based on standard bioequivalence criteria, there was no difference in the overall exposure of empagliflozin between BID and QD dose regimens (geometric mean ratio of AUC0-24,ss for empagliflozin 5 mg BID compared with empagliflozin 10 mg QD = 99.36%; 90% CI, 94.29-104.71). For empagliflozin 10 mg QD, mean (%CV) AUC during the dosing interval was 1900 nmol · h/L (20.6%), mean (%CV) Cmax,ss was 330 nmol/L (25.3%), and median (range) Tmax,ss was 1.0 hour (0.7-2.0 hours). For empagliflozin 5 mg BID, mean (%CV) AUC during the dosing interval was 1010 nmol · h/L (15.1%) and 867 nmol · h/L (18.6%) after the morning and evening dose, respectively, mean (%CV) Cmax,ss was 193 nmol/L (16.5%) and 120 nmol/L (21.0%), respectively, and median Tmax,ss was 1.0 hour (range, 0.7-2.0 hours) and 2.0 hours (range, 1.0-4.0 hours), respectively. The mean (%CV) cumulative amount of glucose excreted in urine during 24 hours was 52.1 g (32.1%) with empagliflozin 5 mg BID and 43.9 g (30.3%) with empagliflozin 10 mg QD. Adverse events were reported in six subjects (37.5%) receiving empagliflozin 5 mg BID and four (25.0%) receiving empagliflozin 10 mg QD. Headache was the most frequent

  2. Causes of decreased activity of daily life in elderly patients who need daily living care.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Yokono, Koichi

    2011-07-01

    The causes of decreased activity of daily life (ADL) in elderly patients include cerebrovascular diseases, bone fracture by falls, and dementia. The present study was conducted among elderly patients with decreased ADL who were hospitalized in nursing wards in order to investigate the causes of becoming early bedridden and to determine precautionary measures against decreased ADL. The study subjects were 224 elderly patients with decreased ADL (mean age: 83.3 ± 8.0 years) and 49 outpatients without decreased ADL (mean age: 76.8 ± 5.3 years). Current age, age at the start of ADL decrease, medical history and history of smoking were investigated. In the groups with decreased ADL, current age and the age of becoming bedridden in non-diabetic versus diabetic groups were 84.7 ± 7.9 versus 80.3 ± 7.5 and 82.7 ± 8.3 versus 77.6 ± 8.0 years, respectively, both showing significantly lower values in the diabetic group (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis revealed that sex difference and diabetes were the factors determining the age of becoming early bedridden. Diabetic patients with smoking habit were significantly younger than diabetic and non-diabetic patients without smoking habit. Sex difference, smoking habit and presence of diabetes mellitus are independent risk factors of becoming early bedridden. Therefore, the major targets of medical care among elderly should be diabetic men with a smoking habit to lower the risks of decreased ADL. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. Enhancement of the MODIS Daily Snow Albedo Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Wang, Zhuosen; Riggs, George A.

    2009-01-01

    The MODIS daily snow albedo product is a data layer in the MOD10A1 snow-cover product that includes snow-covered area and fractional snow cover as well as quality information and other metadata. It was developed to augment the MODIS BRDF/Albedo algorithm (MCD43) that provides 16-day maps of albedo globally at 500-m resolution. But many modelers require daily snow albedo, especially during the snowmelt season when the snow albedo is changing rapidly. Many models have an unrealistic snow albedo feedback in both estimated albedo and change in albedo over the seasonal cycle context, Rapid changes in snow cover extent or brightness challenge the MCD43 algorithm; over a 16-day period, MCD43 determines whether the majority of clear observations was snow-covered or snow-free then only calculates albedo for the majority condition. Thus changes in snow albedo and snow cover are not portrayed accurately during times of rapid change, therefore the current MCD43 product is not ideal for snow work. The MODIS daily snow albedo from the MOD10 product provides more frequent, though less robust maps for pixels defined as "snow" by the MODIS snow-cover algorithm. Though useful, the daily snow albedo product can be improved using a daily version of the MCD43 product as described in this paper. There are important limitations to the MOD10A1 daily snow albedo product, some of which can be mitigated. Utilizing the appropriate per-pixel Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) can be problematic, and correction for anisotropic scattering must be included. The BRDF describes how the reflectance varies with view and illumination geometry. Also, narrow-to-broadband conversion specific for snow on different surfaces must be calculated and this can be difficult. In consideration of these limitations of MOD10A1, we are planning to improve the daily snow albedo algorithm by coupling the periodic per-pixel snow albedo from MCD43, with daily surface ref|outanoom, In this paper, we

  4. An alternative method for determining daily bladder perception.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Erim; Karazindiyanoglu, Sinan; Ulger, Suleyman

    2010-01-01

    To avoid the unphysiologic nature of cystometry, we searched a new tool for evaluating bladder perceptions. The study group consisted of 25 (14 girls and 11 boys) primary monosymptomatic enuretic children with a mean age of 11 (range 8-16). Four children were excluded due to neuromuscular dysfunctions of the bladder, which was demonstrated with the help of cystometry. All children filled a voiding chart 3 times daily to record the duration elapsed till normal desire (ND(daily)) and strong desire (SD(daily)). During cystometry, the amounts of infused medium (cystometric ND(ml) and cystometric SD(ml)) and the duration (cystometric ND(sec) and cystometric SD(sec)), till ND and SD were perceived and recorded. Mean cystometric ND(ml) was 209.9 +/- 107.2 and ND(sec), 318.1 +/- 135.5, whereas mean cystometric SD(ml) was 273.0 +/- 103.1 and SD(sec), 415.7 +/- 136.8. To evaluate the reliability of elapsed time instead of milliliters, as a parameter, cystometric ND/SD values were calculated and a strong correlation was found between the 2 (ND/SD(sec) = 0.77 +/- 0.19 and ND/SD(ml) = 0.77 +/- 0.19, r = 0.9795, P = .000). Although there was a strong correlation between 3 ND(daily) (r = 0.9576, P = .000), between 3 SD(daily) (r = 0.9706, P = .000), and 3 ND/SD(daily) (r = 0.8706, P = .000), no significant correlation was determined between mean ND(daily) and cystometric ND(sec) (r = 0.3410, P = .2032), and also between mean SD(daily) and cystometric SD(sec) (r = 0.2740, P = .2402). Daily durations of sensations do not correlate with those perceived during cystometry. However, as the results of 3 consecutive daily recordings have a strong correlation, comparison of the reliability of these methods is still needed. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Models for estimating daily rainfall erosivity in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yun; Yin, Shui-qing; Liu, Bao-yuan; Nearing, Mark A.; Zhao, Ying

    2016-04-01

    The rainfall erosivity factor (R) represents the multiplication of rainfall energy and maximum 30 min intensity by event (EI30) and year. This rainfall erosivity index is widely used for empirical soil loss prediction. Its calculation, however, requires high temporal resolution rainfall data that are not readily available in many parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to parameterize models suitable for estimating erosivity from daily rainfall data, which are more widely available. One-minute resolution rainfall data recorded in sixteen stations over the eastern water erosion impacted regions of China were analyzed. The R-factor ranged from 781.9 to 8258.5 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 y-1. A total of 5942 erosive events from one-minute resolution rainfall data of ten stations were used to parameterize three models, and 4949 erosive events from the other six stations were used for validation. A threshold of daily rainfall between days classified as erosive and non-erosive was suggested to be 9.7 mm based on these data. Two of the models (I and II) used power law functions that required only daily rainfall totals. Model I used different model coefficients in the cool season (Oct.-Apr.) and warm season (May-Sept.), and Model II was fitted with a sinusoidal curve of seasonal variation. Both Model I and Model II estimated the erosivity index for average annual, yearly, and half-month temporal scales reasonably well, with the symmetric mean absolute percentage error MAPEsym ranging from 10.8% to 32.1%. Model II predicted slightly better than Model I. However, the prediction efficiency for the daily erosivity index was limited, with the symmetric mean absolute percentage error being 68.0% (Model I) and 65.7% (Model II) and Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency being 0.55 (Model I) and 0.57 (Model II). Model III, which used the combination of daily rainfall amount and daily maximum 60-min rainfall, improved predictions significantly, and produced a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency

  6. Daily torpor and hibernation in birds and mammals.

    PubMed

    Ruf, Thomas; Geiser, Fritz

    2015-08-01

    Many birds and mammals drastically reduce their energy expenditure during times of cold exposure, food shortage, or drought, by temporarily abandoning euthermia, i.e. the maintenance of high body temperatures. Traditionally, two different types of heterothermy, i.e. hypometabolic states associated with low body temperature (torpor), have been distinguished: daily torpor, which lasts less than 24 h and is accompanied by continued foraging, versus hibernation, with torpor bouts lasting consecutive days to several weeks in animals that usually do not forage but rely on energy stores, either food caches or body energy reserves. This classification of torpor types has been challenged, suggesting that these phenotypes may merely represent extremes in a continuum of traits. Here, we investigate whether variables of torpor in 214 species (43 birds and 171 mammals) form a continuum or a bimodal distribution. We use Gaussian-mixture cluster analysis as well as phylogenetically informed regressions to quantitatively assess the distinction between hibernation and daily torpor and to evaluate the impact of body mass and geographical distribution of species on torpor traits. Cluster analysis clearly confirmed the classical distinction between daily torpor and hibernation. Overall, heterothermic endotherms tend to be small; hibernators are significantly heavier than daily heterotherms and also are distributed at higher average latitudes (∼35°) than daily heterotherms (∼25°). Variables of torpor for an average 30 g heterotherm differed significantly between daily heterotherms and hibernators. Average maximum torpor bout duration was >30-fold longer, and mean torpor bout duration >25-fold longer in hibernators. Mean minimum body temperature differed by ∼13°C, and the mean minimum torpor metabolic rate was ∼35% of the basal metabolic rate (BMR) in daily heterotherms but only 6% of BMR in hibernators. Consequently, our analysis strongly supports the view that hibernators

  7. Daily torpor and hibernation in birds and mammals

    PubMed Central

    RUF, THOMAS; GEISER, FRITZ

    2014-01-01

    Many birds and mammals drastically reduce their energy expenditure during times of cold exposure, food shortage, or drought, by temporarily abandoning euthermia, i.e., the maintenance of high body temperatures. Traditionally, two different types of heterothermy, i.e., hypometabolic states associated with low body temperatures (torpor), have been distinguished: Daily torpor, which lasts less than 24 h and is accompanied by continued foraging, versus hibernation, with torpor bouts lasting consecutive days to several weeks in animals that usually do not forage but rely on energy stores, either food caches or body energy reserves. This classification of torpor types has been challenged however, suggesting that these phenotypes may merely represent the extremes in a continuum of traits. Here, we investigate whether variables of torpor in 214 species, 43 birds and 171 mammals form a continuum or a bimodal distribution. We use Gaussian-mixture cluster analysis as well as phylogenetically informed regressions to quantitatively assess the distinction between hibernation and daily torpor and to evaluate the impact of body mass and geographical distribution of species on torpor traits. Cluster analysis clearly confirmed the classical distinction between daily torpor and hibernation. Overall, heterothermic endotherms are small on average, but hibernators are significantly heavier than daily heterotherms and also are distributed at higher average latitudes (~35°) than daily heterotherms (~25°). Variables of torpor for an average 30-g heterotherm differed significantly between daily heterotherms and hibernators. Average maximum torpor bout duration was >30-fold longer, and mean torpor bout duration >25-fold longer in hibernators. Mean minimum body temperature differed by ~13°C, and the mean minimum torpor metabolic rate was ~35% of the BMR in daily heterotherms but only 6% of basal metabolic rate in hibernators. Consequently, our analysis strongly supports the view that

  8. Comparison of twice-daily vs once-daily deferasirox dosing in a gerbil model of iron cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Otto-Duessel, Maya; Aguilar, Michelle; Nick, Hanspeter; Moats, Rex; Wood, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Despite the availability of deferoxamine chelation therapy for more than 20 years, iron cardiomyopathy remains the leading cause of death in thalassemia major patients. Effective chelation of cardiac iron is difficult; cardiac iron stores respond more slowly to chelation therapy and require a constant gradient of labile iron species between serum and myocytes. We have previously demonstrated the efficacy of once-daily deferasirox in removing previously stored cardiac iron in the gerbil, but changes in cardiac iron were relatively modest compared with hepatic iron. We postulated that daily divided dosing, by sustaining a longer labile iron gradient from myocytes to serum, would produce better cardiac iron chelation than a comparable daily dose. Methods Twenty-four 8- to 10-week-old female gerbils underwent iron dextran—loading for 10 weeks, followed by a 1-week iron equilibration period. Animals were divided into three treatment groups of eight animals each and were treated with deferasirox 100 mg/kg/day as a single dose, deferasirox 100 mg/kg/day daily divided dose, or sham chelation for a total of 12 weeks. Following euthanasia, organs were harvested for quantitative iron and tissue histology. Results Hepatic and cardiac iron contents were not statistically different between the daily single-dose and daily divided-dose groups. However, the ratio of cardiac to hepatic iron content was lower in the divided-dose group (0.78% vs 1.11%, p = 0.0007). Conclusion Daily divided dosing of deferasirox changes the relative cardiac and liver iron chelation profile compared with daily single dosing, trading improvements in cardiac iron elimination for less-effective hepatic chelation. PMID:17588475

  9. Daily stress, presleep arousal, and sleep in healthy young women: a daily life computerized sleep diary and actigraphy study.

    PubMed

    Winzeler, Katja; Voellmin, Annette; Schäfer, Valérie; Meyer, Andrea H; Cajochen, Christian; Wilhelm, Frank H; Bader, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    Our study aimed to further elucidate the mediating role of presleep arousal in the relationship between daily stress and sleep by investigating subjective sleep quality and actigraphy-assessed sleep efficiency (SE) on both within- and between-participant levels in a sample of healthy young women. Multilevel modeling was applied on electronically assessed data comprising 14 consecutive nights in 145 healthy young women to assess the relationship between daily stress, presleep (somatic and cognitive) arousal, and sleep on both levels between participants and within participants across days. Higher levels of daily stress were consistently and significantly associated with higher levels of somatic and cognitive arousal. Somatic arousal mediated the relationship between daily stress and worsened subjective sleep quality on the between-participant level, while cognitive arousal mediated the relationship between daily stress and worsened subjective sleep quality on the within-participants level. Unexpectedly, healthy young women showed higher SE following days with above-average stress with somatic arousal mediating this relationship. Our data corroborate the role of presleep arousal mediating the relationship between daily stress and subjective sleep quality. Interestingly this effect was restricted to somatic arousal being relevant on interindividual levels and cognitive arousal on intraindividual levels. For young and healthy individuals who experience high stress and arousal, well-established cognitive-behavioral techniques could be useful to regulate arousal and prevent worse subjective sleep quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. College students' daily-level reasons for not drinking.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2014-07-01

    Motivational models of alcohol use posit opposing approach and avoidance motives related to drinking, yet no micro-longitudinal study of college students has examined avoidance motives [i.e. reasons for not drinking (RND)]. This exploratory study examined daily- and person-level correlates of students' RNDs to identify factors that may inhibit alcohol use. College students (n = 1631; 54% female) participated in a 30-day daily diary study in which they reported RNDs for non-drinking evenings, as well as daily moods, global drinking motives and alcohol expectancies. Daily sadness was positively associated with not drinking due to having nobody with whom to drink but negatively associated with not drinking due to school work. Daily anxiety was negatively associated with not drinking due to lack of desire and positively associated with not drinking due to habit or having school or job responsibilities. At the person level, multiple RNDs were associated with both coping and conformity motives (but not social or enhancement motives), as well as positive (but not negative) alcohol expectancies. Results demonstrate the complexity of modelling mood-drinking contingencies proposed by motivational theories of alcohol use. Distinct moods may promote or inhibit drinking through various pathways, which could help explain the weak associations between daily mood and drinking level observed in previous studies. Measuring reasons both for and against drinking in micro-longitudinal studies (e.g. daily diaries) is recommended to better understand the processes underlying alcohol use and to inform future prevention efforts. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Daily Self-Disclosure and Sleep in Couples

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Heidi S.; Slatcher, Richard B.; Reynolds, Bridget M.; Repetti, Rena L.; Robles, Theodore F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective An emerging literature provides evidence for the association between romantic relationship quality and sleep, an important factor in health and well-being. However, we still know very little about the specific relationship processes that affect sleep behavior. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine how self-disclosure, an important relational process linked to intimacy, relationship satisfaction and health, is associated with sleep behavior. Method As part of a larger study of family processes, wives (n=46) and husbands (n=38) from 46 cohabiting families completed 56 days of daily diaries. Spouses completed evening diaries assessing daily self-disclosure, relationship satisfaction, and mood and morning diaries assessing the prior night's sleep. Multilevel modeling was used to explore the effects of both daily variation in and average levels across the 56 days of self-disclosure on sleep. Results Daily variation in self-disclosure predicted sleep outcomes for wives, but not for husbands. On days when wives self-disclosed more to their spouses than their average level, their subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency that night improved. Furthermore, daily self-disclosure buffered the negative effect of daily negative mood on sleep latency for wives, but not husbands. In contrast, higher average levels of self-disclosure predicted less waking during the night for husbands, but not for wives. Conclusion The association between self-disclosure and sleep is one mechanism by which daily relationship functioning may influence health and well-being. Gender may play a role in how self-disclosure is associated with sleep. PMID:25068453

  12. Never, non-daily, and daily smoking status and progression to daily cigarette smoking as correlates of major depressive episode in a national sample of youth: Results from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health 2013 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Amy M

    2018-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with depression, and new initiates who progress more quickly to daily smoking may be at enhanced risk. In a nationally representative sample of youth, this study examined the association between daily, non-daily, and never smoking with past-year and lifetime major depressive episode (MDE) and, among daily smokers, whether faster progression to daily smoking was associated with increased MDE risk. Data were from n = 44,921 youth aged 12-17 in the 2013-2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Weighted adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association of smoking status (daily, non-daily, never) with lifetime and past-year MDE, and the association between progression from cigarette trial to daily smoking with MDE outcomes among daily smokers. Daily and non-daily smokers had similar rates of lifetime and past-year MDE; rates of MDE were approximately 50% lower among never smokers. Compared to never smokers, adjusted models showed that non-daily smokers had a higher risk of past-year and lifetime MDE, while daily smokers had a higher risk of past-year but not lifetime MDE. Daily smoking youth who progressed more quickly from cigarette trial to daily use had an increased risk of both lifetime and past-year MDE. Prevention programs should target factors associated with the shift from cigarette experimentation to regular use to curb deleterious consequences of use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Weekly Cycles in Daily Report Data: An Overlooked Issue.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; West, Stephen G

    2016-10-01

    Daily diaries and other everyday experience methods are increasingly used to study relationships between two time-varying variables X and Y. Although daily data potentially often have weekly cyclical patterns (e.g., stress may be higher on weekdays and lower on weekends), the majority of daily diary studies have ignored this possibility. In this study, we investigated the effect of ignoring existing weekly cycles. We reanalyzed an empirical dataset (stress and alcohol consumption) and performed Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the impact of omitting weekly cycles. In the empirical dataset, ignoring cycles led to the inference of a significant within-person X-Y relation whereas modeling cycles suggested that this relationship did not exist. Simulation results indicated that ignoring cycles that existed in both X and Y led to bias in the estimated within-person X-Y relationship. The amount and direction of bias depended on the magnitude of the cycles, magnitude of the true within-person X-Y relation, and synchronization of the cycles. We encourage researchers conducting daily diary studies to address potential weekly cycles in their data. We provide guidelines for detecting and modeling cycles to remove their influence and discuss challenges of causal inference in daily experience studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Efficacy of alternate day versus daily dosing of rosuvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Dulay, Daisy; LaHaye, Stephen A; Lahey, Karen A; Day, Andrew G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compared with other statins, rosuvastatin has a relatively long half-life, which may allow for the administration of this medication on an alternate day basis. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of administering rosuvastatin on a daily basis versus on an alternate day basis for the treatment of dyslipidemia. METHODS: In the present crossover study, 45 patients with documented hypercholesterolemia requiring pharmacotherapy were administered either 20 mg of rosuvastatin on alternate days or 10 mg of rosuvastatin daily for six weeks. After a four-week washout period, patients were then switched to the other regimen for another six weeks. The primary end point was the percentage reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). RESULTS: LDL-C decreased by 48.5% versus 40.9% with daily and alternate day dosing, respectively. This represented an additional absolute reduction of LDL-C of 7.6% (95% CI 1.8% to 13.4%, P=0.012) with the daily dosing regimen. Both dosing regimens provided similar improvements in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with alternate day dosing, daily dosing of rosuvastatin provides a statistically significant advantage in LDL-C reduction. However, the alternate day regimen may be a viable option for those patients in whom cost is a limitation to compliance. PMID:19214297

  15. Satisfaction with daily occupations amongst asylum seekers in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe asylum seekers' satisfaction with daily occupations and activity level while in a Danish asylum centre, and whether this changed over time. Another aim was to describe whether exposure to torture, self-rated health measures, and ADL ability were related to their satisfaction with daily occupations and activity level. A total of 43 asylum seekers at baseline and 17 at follow-up were included. The questionnaires Satisfaction with Daily Occupations, Major Depression Inventory, WHO-5 Wellbeing, Pain Detect, a questionnaire covering torture, and basic social information were used as well as Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. The results showed a low level of satisfaction with daily occupations at both baseline and follow-up. There was no statistically significant change in satisfaction or activity level between baseline and the follow-up. Associations between AMPS process skills--education, worst pain and activity level--were present at baseline, as was a relationship between AMPS process skills and satisfaction. At follow-up, associations between WHO-5 and satisfaction and activity level and between MDI scores and activity level were found. Asylum seekers experience a low level of satisfaction with daily occupations, both at arrival and after 10 months in an asylum centre. There is a need for further research and development of occupation-focused rehabilitation methods for the asylum seeker population.

  16. Validation of daily increments periodicity in otoliths of spotted gar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, Richard A.; Long, James M.; Frenette, Bryan D.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate age and growth information is essential in successful management of fish populations and for understanding early life history. We validated daily increment deposition, including the timing of first ring formation, for spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) through 127 days post hatch. Fry were produced from hatchery-spawned specimens, and up to 10 individuals per week were sacrificed and their otoliths (sagitta, lapillus, and asteriscus) removed for daily age estimation. Daily age estimates for all three otolith pairs were significantly related to known age. The strongest relationships existed for measurements from the sagitta (r2 = 0.98) and the lapillus (r2 = 0.99) with asteriscus (r2 = 0.95) the lowest. All age prediction models resulted in a slope near unity, indicating that ring deposition occurred approximately daily. Initiation of ring formation varied among otolith types, with deposition beginning 3, 7, and 9 days for the sagitta, lapillus, and asteriscus, respectively. Results of this study suggested that otoliths are useful to estimate daily age of spotted gar juveniles; these data may be used to back calculate hatch dates, estimate early growth rates, and correlate with environmental factor that influence spawning in wild populations. is early life history information will be valuable in better understanding the ecology of this species. 

  17. The stress of food allergy issues in daily life.

    PubMed

    Peniamina, Rana L; Mirosa, Miranda; Bremer, Philip; Conner, Tamlin S

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies are a growing health concern, but their implications for daily psychological functioning are unknown. This micro-longitudinal study investigated the daily frequency of food allergy issues and how this related to experiences of stress, mood and physical energy. One hundred and eight adults with physician-diagnosed food allergies completed an initial Internet survey followed by a 2-week Internet daily diary survey. The initial survey collected socio-demographic and food allergy information. The daily survey collected information about the participants' experiences of stress, mood, physical energy and food allergy issues during that day. Commonly experienced allergy issues included negative physical symptoms, higher food prices, anxiety about safety of food, trouble maintaining a healthy diet and anxiety/stress at social occasions. Furthermore, multilevel modelling analyses showed that stress and negative mood were significantly higher on days with more allergy issues. Older adults experienced lower positive mood and physical energy on days with more issues. This is the first study to incorporate near to real-time tracking to examine the frequency of food allergy issues and the implications for daily psychological functioning. Targeting the issues we identified could reduce stress in patients with food allergies and improve their overall quality of life.

  18. The effects of conscientiousness on the appraisals of daily stressors.

    PubMed

    Gartland, Nicola; O'Connor, Daryl B; Lawton, Rebecca

    2012-02-01

    Conscientiousness (C) is positively associated with health and longevity although the mechanisms underlying this relationship are not fully understood. Stress may play a role in explaining the C-longevity relationship. This study investigated whether C predicted the cognitive appraisals of daily stressors/hassles. Participants (N=102) completed measures of C and cognitive appraisal in relation to the most stressful hassle they had experienced in the last 7 days. Correlational analysis revealed that Total C, Order and Industriousness were positively correlated with primary appraisals, and Responsibility was positively correlated with secondary appraisals. The facets of C were then entered into hierarchical regression models, controlling for age and gender. This demonstrated that Order (β=0.27, p<0.05) and Industriousness (β=0.28, p<0.05) significantly predicted primary appraisals, accounting for 15.8% of the variance. Responsibility significantly predicted secondary appraisals (β=0.44, p<0.01), accounting for 16.3% of the variance. These findings indicate that higher Order and Industriousness are related to having a greater stake in daily stressors, whereas higher Responsibility is related to greater confidence in one's ability to deal with daily stressors. These results are the first demonstration that C is related to the appraisals of daily hassles and suggest that C may moderate the experience of stress in daily life. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. "Self-critical perfectionism, daily stress, and disclosure of daily emotional events": Correction to Richardson and Rice (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Reports an error in "Self-critical perfectionism, daily stress, and disclosure of daily emotional events" by Clarissa M. E. Richardson and Kenneth G. Rice (Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2015[Oct], Vol 62[4], 694-702). In the article, the labels of the two lines in Figure 1 were inadvertently transposed. The dotted line should be labeled High SCP and the solid line should be labeled Low SCP. The correct version is present in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-30890-001.) Although disclosure of stressful events can alleviate distress, self-critical perfectionism may pose an especially strong impediment to disclosure during stress, likely contributing to poorer psychological well-being. In the current study, after completing a measure of self-critical perfectionism (the Discrepancy subscale of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised; Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, & Ashby, 2001), 396 undergraduates completed measures of stress and disclosure at the end of each day for 1 week. Consistent with hypotheses and previous research, multilevel modeling results indicated significant intraindividual coupling of daily stress and daily disclosure where disclosure was more likely when experiencing high stress than low stress. As hypothesized, Discrepancy moderated the relationship between daily stress and daily disclosure. Individuals higher in self-critical perfectionism (Discrepancy) were less likely to engage in disclosure under high stress, when disclosure is often most beneficial, than those with lower Discrepancy scores. These results have implications for understanding the role of stress and coping in the daily lives of self-critical perfectionists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. On estimating total daily evapotranspiration from remote surface temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Toby N.; Buffum, Martha J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for calculating daily evapotranspiration from the daily surface energy budget using remotely sensed surface temperature and several meteorological variables is presented. Vaules of the coefficients are determined from simulations with a one-dimensional boundary layer model with vegetation cover. Model constants are obtained for vegetation and bare soil at two air temperature and wind speed levels over a range of surface roughness and wind speeds. A different means of estimating the daily evapotranspiration based on the time rate of increase of surface temperature during the morning is also considered. Both the equations using our model-derived constants and field measurements are evaluated, and a discussion of sources of error in the use of the formulation is given.

  1. Military mental health: the role of daily hassles while deployed.

    PubMed

    Heron, Elizabeth A; Bryan, Craig J; Dougherty, Craig A; Chapman, William G

    2013-12-01

    This study sought to identify factors contributing to symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in recently deployed combat veterans. A sample of 168 active duty military personnel completed measures of combat exposure, deployment-related daily hassles, depression symptoms, and PTSD symptoms at six time points across their deployment: predeployment and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postdeployment. Mixed-effects linear modeling with repeated measures was used to identify factors associated with depression and PTSD severity over time. Postdeployment depression severity did not change over time, but PTSD severity decreased slightly over time after returning home. Postdeployment depression severity was predicted by past (but not recent) combat exposure, daily hassles, and concurrent PTSD symptoms. Postdeployment PTSD severity was predicted by past and recent combat exposure, concurrent depression symptoms, and male sex. Depression severity mediated the relationship between daily hassles and postdeployment PTSD severity.

  2. Exercise and sleep predict personal resources in employees' daily lives.

    PubMed

    Nägel, Inga J; Sonnentag, Sabine

    2013-11-01

    The present study investigates the interaction of exercise and sleep on state-like personal resources in employees' daily lives. Further, the study examines the association between state-like personal resources and emotional exhaustion. We conducted a diary study over five consecutive working days (total of 443 days) with 144 employees who answered daily online surveys after work and before bedtime. Multilevel modeling showed that exercise after work was positively related to the next day's personal resources when sleep duration during the night time was longer compared to other nights. Furthermore, personal resources positively related to lower emotional exhaustion after work on the next day. This study demonstrates that exercise and sleep may help to renew personal resources. Results stress the importance of balancing exercise and sleep in daily life. © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  3. Research on Daily Objects Detection Based on Deep Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Sheng; Zhao, Kun

    2018-03-01

    With the rapid development of deep learning, great breakthroughs have been made in the field of object detection. In this article, the deep learning algorithm is applied to the detection of daily objects, and some progress has been made in this direction. Compared with traditional object detection methods, the daily objects detection method based on deep learning is faster and more accurate. The main research work of this article: 1. collect a small data set of daily objects; 2. in the TensorFlow framework to build different models of object detection, and use this data set training model; 3. the training process and effect of the model are improved by fine-tuning the model parameters.

  4. New daily persistent headache in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baron, Eric P; Rothner, A David

    2010-03-01

    New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a form of chronic daily headache (CDH) that may have features of both migraine and tension-type headache. In contrast with other types of CDH, NDPH is characterized by patients recalling the specific date their unremitting daily headache began. In comparison, chronic tension-type headache and chronic migraine are preceded by a gradually increasing frequency of headache. After several months, all three of these CDH forms often have a similar phenotype, making early history a key to diagnosing NDPH. Evaluations to exclude secondary causes are necessary but usually negative. NDPH is difficult to treat and requires a multimodal approach. Questions regarding NDPH remain unanswered. Additional prospective studies are necessary to further understand, characterize, diagnose, and treat NDPH.

  5. Perceived health status and daily activity participation of older Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sor Tho; Tengku-Aizan, Hamid; Tey, Nai Peng

    2011-07-01

    This article investigates the influence of perceived health status on the daily activity participation of older Malaysians. Data from the Survey on Perceptions of Needs and Problems of the Elderly, which was conducted in 1999, were used. The negative binomial regression results show that older persons with good perceived health status reported more varieties of daily activity participation, especially among the uneducated and those with below-average self-esteem. The multinomial logistic regression model suggests that older persons with good perceived health status tended to engage daily in paid work only or with leisure activities, whereas those perceived to have poor health were more likely to engage in leisure activities only or leisure and family role activities. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle at a younger age encourages every person to monitor and take responsibility for their own health, which is a necessary strategy to ensure active participation at an older age, and thus improve their well-being.

  6. Family and school spillover in adolescents' daily lives.

    PubMed

    Flook, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    This study examined spillover between daily family stressors and school problems among 589 ninth-grade students (mean age = 14.9 years) from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds. Spillover was examined using a daily diary methodology in which adolescents reported on their school and family experiences each day for 2 weeks. Analyses using hierarchical linear modeling revealed reciprocal spillover effects between adolescents' daily functioning in the family and school domains that spanned several days. Longitudinal analyses indicated that spillover between family stressors and school problems also occurs across the high school years, from 9th to 12th grade, and that both are predictive of poorer academic performance in 12th grade. These findings have practical implications for adolescents' academic achievement trajectories and general well-being.

  7. Attentional demands and daily functioning among community-dwelling elders.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Debra A

    2006-01-01

    Everyday life is full of numerous demands for attention that can affect the ability to function. For elders, examples of these attentional demands include negotiating public transportation and driving, sensory losses, and physical discomforts and worries that make it harder to concentrate and complete tasks. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between attentional demands and the ability to manage daily activities requiring concentration for 54 community-dwelling elders (34 women, 20 men). As theorized, attentional demands correlated (r = -.58) significantly with daily functioning: Elders with more attentional demands perceived themselves as having greater difficulty managing tasks requiring concentration. Attentional demands accounted for a significant proportion of variance in functioning (12%), even after partialling out the effects of depressive symptoms and health. Findings support the theorized relation between attentional demands and daily functioning, as well as nursing interventions aimed at decreasing attentional demands to promote effective functioning for elders.

  8. Does daily folic acid supplementation reduce methotrexate efficacy?

    PubMed

    Cline, A; Jorizzo, J L

    2017-11-15

    Methotrexate is a mainstay treatment for autoimmune and inflammatory conditions in the field of Dermatology. However, in some patients, its use is associated with significant side effects and toxicity. Folate supplementation with either folic acid or folinic acid often mitigates side effects and reduces the incidence of systemic toxicity related to methotrexate. Although the value of methotrexate is clear, debate remains about folate supplementation. There is little agreement about the proper dosing or frequency of folate supplementation as many believe that daily folate supplementation can reduce methotrexate efficacy. Although daily use of folic acid does not appear to affect methotrexate efficacy, dosing of folinic acid close to methotrexate administration may hinder methotrexate efficacy. Therefore, folic acid should be used daily with methotrexate to ameliorate side effects, whereas folinic acid should only be used for methotrexate toxicity.

  9. Daily self-disclosure and sleep in couples.

    PubMed

    Kane, Heidi S; Slatcher, Richard B; Reynolds, Bridget M; Repetti, Rena L; Robles, Theodore F

    2014-08-01

    An emerging literature provides evidence for the association between romantic relationship quality and sleep, an important factor in health and well-being. However, we still know very little about the specific relationship processes that affect sleep behavior. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine how self-disclosure, an important relational process linked to intimacy, relationship satisfaction, and health, is associated with sleep behavior. As part of a larger study of family processes, wives (n = 46) and husbands (n = 38) from 46 cohabiting families completed 56 days of daily diaries. Spouses completed evening diaries assessing daily self-disclosure, relationship satisfaction, and mood and morning diaries assessing the prior night's sleep. Multilevel modeling was used to explore the effects of both daily variation in and average levels across the 56 days of self-disclosure on sleep. Daily variation in self-disclosure predicted sleep outcomes for wives, but not for husbands. On days when wives self-disclosed more to their spouses than their average level, their subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency that night improved. Furthermore, daily self-disclosure buffered the effect of high negative mood on sleep latency for wives, but not husbands. In contrast, higher average levels of self-disclosure predicted less waking during the night for husbands, but not for wives. The association between self-disclosure and sleep is one mechanism by which daily relationship functioning may influence health and well-being. Gender may play a role in how self-disclosure is associated with sleep.

  10. Single Daily Icodextrin Exchange as Initial and Solitary Therapy.

    PubMed

    Agar, Baris U; Sloand, James A

    2018-01-01

    Incremental dialysis utilizes gradually increasing dialysis doses in response to declines in residual kidney function, and it is the preferred renal replacement therapy for patients who have just transitioned to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Incremental peritoneal dialysis (PD) may impose fewer restrictions on patients' lifestyle, help attenuate lifetime peritoneal and systemic exposure to glucose and its degradation products, and minimize connections that could compromise the sterile fluid path. In this study, we utilized a 3-pore kinetic model to assess fluid and solute removal during single daily icodextrin treatments for patients with varying glomerular filtration rates (GFR). Single icodextrin exchanges of 8 to 16 hours using 2- and 2.5-L bag volumes were simulated for different patient transport types (i.e., high to low) to predict daily peritoneal ultrafiltration (UF), daily peritoneal sodium removal, and weekly total (peritoneal + residual kidney) Kt/V (Kt/V Total ) for patients with residual renal GFRs ranging from 0 to 15 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Daily peritoneal UF varied from 359 to 607 mL, and daily peritoneal Na removal varied from 52 to 87 mEq depending on length of icodextrin exchange and bag volume. Both were effectively independent of patient transport type. All but very large patients (total body water [TBW] > 60 L) were predicted to achieve adequate dialysis (Kt/V Total ≥ 1.7) with a GFR of 10 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , and small patients (TBW: 30 L) were predicted to achieve adequate dialysis with a GFR of 6 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . A single daily icodextrin exchange can be tailored to augment urea, UF, and Na removal in patients with sufficient residual kidney function (RKF). A solitary icodextrin exchange may therefore be reasonable initial therapy for some incident ESRD patients. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  11. Statistical procedures for evaluating daily and monthly hydrologic model predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffey, M.E.; Workman, S.R.; Taraba, J.L.; Fogle, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    The overall study objective was to evaluate the applicability of different qualitative and quantitative methods for comparing daily and monthly SWAT computer model hydrologic streamflow predictions to observed data, and to recommend statistical methods for use in future model evaluations. Statistical methods were tested using daily streamflows and monthly equivalent runoff depths. The statistical techniques included linear regression, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, nonparametric tests, t-test, objective functions, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation. None of the methods specifically applied to the non-normal distribution and dependence between data points for the daily predicted and observed data. Of the tested methods, median objective functions, sign test, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation were most applicable for the daily data. The robust coefficient of determination (CD*) and robust modeling efficiency (EF*) objective functions were the preferred methods for daily model results due to the ease of comparing these values with a fixed ideal reference value of one. Predicted and observed monthly totals were more normally distributed, and there was less dependence between individual monthly totals than was observed for the corresponding predicted and observed daily values. More statistical methods were available for comparing SWAT model-predicted and observed monthly totals. The 1995 monthly SWAT model predictions and observed data had a regression Rr2 of 0.70, a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.41, and the t-test failed to reject the equal data means hypothesis. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient and the R r2 coefficient were the preferred methods for monthly results due to the ability to compare these coefficients to a set ideal value of one.

  12. Two daily smoke maxima in eighteenth century London air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. Giles

    Varied electrostatics experiments followed Benjamin Franklin's pioneering atmospheric investigations. In Knightsbridge, Central London, John Read (1726-1814) installed a sensing rod in the upper part of his house and, using a pith ball electrometer and Franklin chimes, monitored atmospheric electricity from 1789 to 1791. Atmospheric electricity is sensitive to weather and smoke pollution. In calm weather conditions, Read observed two daily electrification maxima in moderate weather, around 9 am and 7 pm. This is likely to represent a double diurnal cycle in urban smoke. Before the motor car and steam railways, one source of the double maximum smoke pattern was the daily routine of fire lighting for domestic heating.

  13. Daily Life Experience and Somatic Symptoms: A Preliminary Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    AAO7 9 859 STATE UNIV OF NEW YORK AT STONY BROOK FG 5/10 DAILY LIFE EXPERIENCE AND SOMATIC SYMPTOMS: A PRELIMINARY REPOR--ETC(U) MAR 8I A A STONE. J...Experience and Somatic Symptoms: A Preliminary Report Arthur A. Stone Long Island Research Institute and Department of Psychiatry arnd Behavioral...TITLE (and S..,til.) s. ALF - , rlA9OQ COVERED Daily Life Experience and Somatic Symptoms: A Technical p " Preliminary Report, EL..... S. PERFORMING

  14. Fish Consumption, Sleep, Daily Functioning, and Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Anita L.; Dahl, Lisbeth; Olson, Gina; Thornton, David; Graff, Ingvild E.; Frøyland, Livar; Thayer, Julian F.; Pallesen, Staale

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study investigated the effects of fatty fish on sleep, daily functioning and biomarkers such as heart rate variability (HRV), vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in red blood cells. Moreover the relationship among sleep, daily functioning, HRV, vitamin D status, and levels of EPA+DHA was investigated. Methods: Ninety-five male forensic patients from a secure forensic inpatient facility in the USA were randomly assigned into a Fish or a Control group. The Fish group received Atlantic salmon three times per week from September to February, and the Control group was provided an alternative meal (e.g., chicken, pork, beef), but with the same nutritional value as their habitual diet, three times per week during the same period. Sleep (sleep latency, sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, and actual wake time), self-perceived sleep quality and daily functioning, as well as vitamin D status, EPA+DHA, and HRV, were assessed pre- and post-intervention period. Results: There was a significant increase in sleep latency from pre- to post-test in the Control group. The Fish group reported better daily functioning than the Control group during post-test. Fish consumption throughout the wintertime had also an effect on resting HRV and EPA+DHA, but not on vitamin D status. However, at post-test, the vitamin D status in the Fish group was still closer to the level regarded as optimal compared to the Control group. Vitamin D status correlated negatively with actual wake time and positively with sleep efficiency during pre-test, as well as positively with daily functioning and sleep quality during post-test. Finally, HRV correlated negatively with sleep latency and positively with daily functioning. Conclusions: Fish consumption seemed to have a positive impact on sleep in general and also on daily functioning, which may be related to vitamin D status and HRV. Citation

  15. Demographic, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants of daily versus non-daily sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption.

    PubMed

    Mullie, P; Aerenhouts, D; Clarys, P

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of demographic, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants on daily versus non-daily sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption. Cross-sectional design in 1852 military men. Using mailed questionnaires, sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption was recorded. Principal component analysis was used for dietary pattern analysis. Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages were consumed daily by 36.3% and 33.2% of the participants, respectively. Age, body mass index (BMI), non-smoking and income were negatively related to sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. High BMI and trying to lose weight were related to artificially sweetened beverages consumption. Three major patterns were obtained from principal component analysis: first, the 'meat pattern', was loaded for red meats and processed meats; second, the 'healthy pattern', was loaded for tomatoes, fruit, whole grain, vegetables, fruit, fish, tea and nuts; finally, the 'sweet pattern' was loaded for sweets, desserts, snacks, high-energy drinks, high-fat dairy products and refined grains. The sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was strongly related with both the meat and sweet dietary patterns and inversely related to the healthy dietary pattern. The artificially sweetened beverage consumption was strongly related with the sweet and healthy dietary pattern. Daily consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was inversely associated with a healthy dietary pattern. Daily consumption of artificially sweetened beverages was clearly associated with weight-loss intention.

  16. Adaptation to daily stress among mothers of children with an autism spectrum disorder: the role of daily positive affect.

    PubMed

    Ekas, Naomi V; Whitman, Thomas L

    2011-09-01

    Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder is a challenging experience that can impact maternal well-being. Using a daily diary methodology, this study investigates (1) the relationship between stress and negative affect, and (2) the role of daily positive affect as a protective factor in the stress and negative affect relationship. Results from hierarchical linear models revealed that higher levels of stress were associated with decreased negative affect, both within and across days. Daily positive affect buffered the immediate and longer-lasting negative impact of stress on days of low to moderate levels of stress. Implications of the present study are discussed with regard to theoretical models of positive affect, the development of intervention programs, and directions for future research.

  17. Daily Life in Japanese High Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcia L.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.

    This ERIC Digest asserts that the Japanese education system is one of the most influential agents molding Japanese youth. This influence is especially great due to the large amount of time students spend in schools. Six topics examine aspects of daily high school life: (1) Getting to School; (2) At School; (3) Extracurricular Activities; (4)…

  18. Alternatives to Conservatorship: The Role of Daily Money Management Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilber, Kathleen H.

    1991-01-01

    Tested hypothesis that daily money management services divert vulnerable elders from conservatorship. Assigned community-residing elders (n=63) to money management service or screening by Office of the Public Guardian or Adult Protective Services. Found no difference in rates of conservatorship for those offered money management service.…

  19. Daily Management of Work and Family Goals in Employed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Klumb, Petra L.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses one-week time-sampling information from 104 employed parents with pre-school children to examine the association between daily workloads, control strategies, and goal progress. In addition, it examines relationships between work- and family-goal progress and important stress indices such as positive/negative affect and cortisol…

  20. Supporting Classroom Transitions between Daily Routines: Strategies and Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Rashida; Horn, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide tools for preschool professionals to plan for transitions between daily routines, to identify challenging transitions during the day, and to offer strategies to support transitions in classrooms to prevent challenging behaviors from occurring due to frequent changes. Specifically, the authors answer three…

  1. The Lay Assessment of Subclinical Depression in Daily Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehl, Matthias R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how laypersons assess subclinical depression in others on the basis of information about their daily lives. For 2 days, 96 participants were tracked with the Electronically Activated Recorder, a naturalistic observation method that samples ambient sounds from participants' momentary environments. Judges rated participants'…

  2. Rethinking the Hidden Curriculum: Daily Routine in Slovene Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorec, Marcela Batistic; Došler, Anita Jug

    2016-01-01

    In Slovenia there is a unitary system of early education for all preschool-aged children. Since the vast majority of children attend full-day programmes, the daily routine represents a significant part of life for children in kindergarten. When systemic and curricular reform of preschools was introduced at the end of the twentieth century, lot of…

  3. Using Your Daily Newspaper to Turn On the Resistant Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Newspaper Agency, Inc., Honolulu.

    One of a series prepared by the Hawaii Newspaper Agency, this teaching guide offers suggestions on using the daily newspaper to "turn on" the resistant reader. Sample materials describe how to use the 5 w's (who, what, where, when, why) and a H (how) to answer questions, read without words, play beginner's bridge, use comics for learning, watch…

  4. Daily Stressors in School-Age Children: A Multilevel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar, Milagros; Alarcón, Rafael; Blanca, María J.; Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Rosel, Jesús F.; Trianes, María Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical or multilevel modeling to identify variables that contribute to daily stressors in a population of schoolchildren. Four hierarchical levels with several predictive variables were considered: student (age, sex, social adaptation of the student, number of life events and chronic stressors experienced, and educational…

  5. Update of Inpatient Treatment for Refractory Chronic Daily Headache.

    PubMed

    Lai, Tzu-Hsien; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2016-01-01

    Chronic daily headache (CDH) is a group of headache disorders, in which headaches occur daily or near-daily (>15 days per month) and last for more than 3 months. Important CDH subtypes include chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, hemicrania continua, and new daily persistent headache. Other headaches with shorter durations (<4 h/day) are usually not included in CDH. Common comorbidities of CDH are medication overuse headache and various psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Indications of inpatient treatment for CDH patients include poor responses to outpatient management, need for detoxification for overuse of specific medications (particularly opioids and barbiturates), and severe psychiatric comorbidities. Inpatient treatment usually involves stopping acute pain, preventing future attacks, and detoxifying medication overuse if present. Multidisciplinary integrated care that includes medical staff from different disciplines (e.g., psychiatry, clinical psychology, and physical therapy) has been recommended. The outcomes of inpatient treatment are satisfactory in terms of decreasing headache intensity or frequency, withdrawal from medication overuse, reducing disability, and improving life quality, although long-term relapse is not uncommon. In conclusion, inpatient treatment may be useful for select patients with refractory CDH and should be incorporated in a holistic headache care program.

  6. Improving Your Daily Practice: A Guide for Effective School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Timothy B.

    2009-01-01

    This book will show principals how they can change daily practices to invest more time in the improvement of teaching and learning. It redirects leadership to effective practices in instructional leadership. Contents include an Introduction and the following chapters: (1) Why Change the Way I Lead?; (2) The Path to Effective School Leadership; (3)…

  7. Daily Living Skills: A Manual for Educating Visually Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Gail, Ed.

    The manual contains rationales, general approaches, and specific procedures for educators and parents to use in teaching daily living skills to visually impaired students. Detailed suggestions are given with regard to learning objectives for blind or partially sighted children, age levels, and instructional adaptations for developing competency in…

  8. The Strategic Attitude: Integrating Strategic Planning into Daily University Worklife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmeyer, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    Chief financial officers in today's universities are so busy with the challenges of day-to-day management that strategic thinking often takes a back seat. Planning for strategic change can go a long way toward streamlining the very daily tasks that obscure the "big picture." Learning how to integrate strategic thinking into day-to-day management…

  9. 17 CFR 23.202 - Daily trading records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., instant messaging, chat rooms, electronic mail, mobile device, or other digital or electronic media. Such...; (ii) Moneys borrowed and moneys loaned; (iii) The daily calculation of the value of each outstanding... rooms, electronic mail, mobile device, or other digital or electronic media; (2) Reliable timing data...

  10. 17 CFR 23.202 - Daily trading records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., instant messaging, chat rooms, electronic mail, mobile device, or other digital or electronic media. Such...; (ii) Moneys borrowed and moneys loaned; (iii) The daily calculation of the value of each outstanding... rooms, electronic mail, mobile device, or other digital or electronic media; (2) Reliable timing data...

  11. Daily rhythm of salivary and serum urea concentration in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Piccione, Giuseppe; Foà, Augusto; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Caola, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Background In domestic animals many biochemical and physiological processes exhibit daily rhythmicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rhythmic pattern of salivary and serum urea concentrations in sheep. Methods Six 3-year-old female sheep kept in the same environmental conditions were used. Sheep were sampled at 4 hour intervals for 48 consecutive hours starting at 08:00 of the first day and finishing at 04:00 of the second day. Blood samples were collected via intravenous cannulae inserted into the jugular vein; saliva samples were collected through a specific tube, the "Salivette". Salivary and serum urea concentrations were assayed by means of UV spectrophotometer. ANOVA was used to determine significant differences. The single Cosinor procedure was applied to the results showing significant differences over time. Results ANOVA showed a significant effect of time on salivary and serum urea concentrations. Serum and salivary urea peaked during the light phase. In the dark phase serum and salivary urea concentrations decreased, and the diurnal trough occurred at midnight. Cosinor analysis showed diurnal acrophases for salivary and serum urea concentrations. Daily mean levels were significantly higher in the serum than in the saliva. Conclusion In sheep both salivary and serum urea concentrations showed daily fluctuations. Urea is synthesized in the liver and its production is strongly influenced by food intake. Future investigation should clarify whether daily urea rhythms in sheep are endogenous or are simply the result of the temporal administration of food. PMID:17123442

  12. Daily personal exposure to black carbon: A pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ryan D.; Knibbs, Luke D.

    2016-05-01

    Continuous personal monitoring is the benchmark for air pollution exposure assessment. Black carbon (BC) is a strong marker of primary combustion like vehicle and biomass emissions. There have been few studies that quantified daily personal BC exposure and the contribution that different microenvironments make to it. In this pilot study, we used a portable aethalometer to measure BC concentrations in an individual's breathing zone at 30-s intervals while he performed his usual daily activities. We used a GPS and time-activity diary to track where he spent his time. We performed twenty 24-h measurements, and observed an arithmetic mean daily exposure concentration of 603 ng/m3. We estimated that changing commute modes from bus to train reduced the 24-h mean BC exposure concentration by 29%. Switching from open windows to closed windows and recirculated air in a car led to a reduction of 32%. Living in a home without a wood-fired heater caused a reduction of 50% compared with a wood-heated home. Our preliminary findings highlight the potential utility of simple approaches to reduce a person's daily BC exposure.

  13. Estimating autotrophic respiration in streams using daily metabolism data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowing the fraction of gross primary production (GPP) that is immediately respired by autotrophs and their closely associated heterotrophs (ARf) is necessary to understand the trophic base and carbon spiraling in streams. We show a means to estimate ARf from daily metabolism da...

  14. Tracking the PhD Students' Daily Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Kwong Nui; van der Meer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated PhD students' computer activities in their daily research practice. Software that tracks computer usage (Manic Time) was installed on the computers of nine PhD students, who were at their early, mid and final stage in doing their doctoral research in four different discipline areas (Commerce, Humanities, Health Sciences and…

  15. 49 CFR 236.586 - Daily or after trip test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.586 Daily or after trip test..., each locomotive equipped with an automatic cab signal or train stop or train control device operating...

  16. 49 CFR 236.586 - Daily or after trip test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.586 Daily or after trip test..., each locomotive equipped with an automatic cab signal or train stop or train control device operating...

  17. Daily Reality on the Streets of Campinas, Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diversi, Marcelo; Moraes filho, Ney; Morelli, Margareth

    1999-01-01

    Notes that Brazilian street children are socially branded as criminals, limiting their opportunities to improve themselves and believe they can change their lives for the better. Draws on interviews with street children to provide a true picture of daily struggles and demonstrates ability and creativity in many situations. (LBT)

  18. High resolution power spectra of daily Zurich sunspot numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Euler, H. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    High resolution power spectra of 77 years of Zurich daily sunspot numbers were computed using various lags and data point intervals. Major harmonic peaks of the approximately 124-month period showed up strongly as well as the 27-day solar rotational period.

  19. Predictors of Daily Blood Glucose Monitoring in Appalachian Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffle, Holly; Ware, Lezlee J.; Ruhil, Anirudh V. S.; Hamel-Lambert, Jane; Denham, Sharon A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine factors contributing to successful diabetes self-management in Appalachia, as evidenced by daily blood glucose monitoring. Methods: A telephone survey (N = 3841) was conducted to assess health status and health care access. The current investigation is limited to the subset of this sample who report having diabetes (N =…

  20. Aging Parents' Daily Support Exchanges With Adult Children Suffering Problems.

    PubMed

    Huo, Meng; Graham, Jamie L; Kim, Kyungmin; Birditt, Kira S; Fingerman, Karen L

    2017-06-17

    When adult children incur life problems (e.g., divorce, job loss, health problems), aging parents generally report providing more frequent support and experiencing poorer well-being. Yet, it is unclear how adult children's problems may influence aging parents' daily support exchanges with these children or the parents' daily mood. Aging parents from the Family Exchanges Study Wave 2 (N = 207, Mage = 79.86) reported providing and receiving emotional support, practical support, and advice from each adult child each day for 7 days. Parents also rated daily positive and negative mood. Multilevel models showed that aging parents were more likely to provide emotional and practical support to adult children incurring life problems than children not suffering problems. Parents were also more likely to receive emotional support and advice from these children with problems. Further, parents reported less negative mood on days when providing practical support to children with problems. Examining daily support exchanges adds to our understanding of how children's problems influence parent-child ties in late life. Prior research suggests that children's problems upset parents. In this study, however, it appears that supporting adult children who suffer problems may alleviate aging parents' distress regarding such children. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Development of daily "swath" mascon solutions from GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Save, Himanshu; Bettadpur, Srinivas

    2016-04-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission has provided invaluable and the only data of its kind over the past 14 years that measures the total water column in the Earth System. The GRACE project provides monthly average solutions and there are experimental quick-look solutions and regularized sliding window solutions available from Center for Space Research (CSR) that implement a sliding window approach and variable daily weights. The need for special handling of these solutions in data assimilation and the possibility of capturing the total water storage (TWS) signal at sub-monthly time scales motivated this study. This study discusses the progress of the development of true daily high resolution "swath" mascon total water storage estimate from GRACE using Tikhonov regularization. These solutions include the estimates of daily total water storage (TWS) for the mascon elements that were "observed" by the GRACE satellites on a given day. This paper discusses the computation techniques, signal, error and uncertainty characterization of these daily solutions. We discuss the comparisons with the official GRACE RL05 solutions and with CSR mascon solution to characterize the impact on science results especially at the sub-monthly time scales. The evaluation is done with emphasis on the temporal signal characteristics and validated against in-situ data set and multiple models.

  2. Daily travel feedback to encourage eco-routing.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how individuals responded to a robust and interactive daily travel feedback : program. Fifty individuals from the Moscow, Idaho area participated in a before-and-after study using an android-based : device tha...

  3. Circulation Price Elasticity in the Daily Newspaper Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotta, Gerald L.; Taylor, Michael Lee

    Pricing of subscriptions and single copies has historically been arbitrary. Evidence indicates that the newspaper industry has tended to overestimate the elasticity of demand for newspaper circulation. This study analyzed price changes, circulation changes, and population changes for all daily newspapers in the United States between 1970 and 1975.…

  4. The clinical characteristics of new daily persistent headache.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Rozen, T D

    2002-02-01

    New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a subtype of chronic daily headache. The literature on NDPH is scant and its true aetiology is unknown. A retrospective chart review was carried out from a computerized database at the Jefferson Headache Centre from August 1997 to May 2000 to identify patients with NDPH using the Silberstein et al. criteria. Forty women and 16 men were identified. Age of onset ranged from 12 to 78 years. The peak age of onset was the second and third decade in women and the fifth decade in men. Eighty-two per cent of patients were able to pinpoint the exact day their headache started. Onset occurred in relation to an infection or flu-like illness in 30%. A prior headache history was found in 38% of patients. A family history of headache was documented in 29%. The duration of daily headache ranged from 1.5 h to 24 h; 79% were continuous. Nausea occurred in 68% of patients, photophobia in 66%, phonophobia in 61%, and lightheadedness in 55%. Laboratory testing and neuroimaging in all patients was normal except for Epstein-Barr virus antibody titres, which were positive in 71% of seven patients tested, representing past infection. NDPH appears to be a female-predominant disorder, marked by a continuous daily headache with associated migrainous symptoms. Over 80% of patients could state the exact date their headache began. One-third of patients developed NDPH with a flu-like illness.

  5. Predicting daily use of urban forest recreation sites

    Treesearch

    John F. Dwyer

    1988-01-01

    A multiple linear regression model explains 90% of the variance in daily use of an urban recreation site. Explanatory variables include season, day of the week, and weather. The results offer guides for recreation site planning and management as well as suggestions for improving the model.

  6. Modeling maximum daily temperature using a varying coefficient regression model

    Treesearch

    Han Li; Xinwei Deng; Dong-Yum Kim; Eric P. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between stream water and air temperatures are often modeled using linear or nonlinear regression methods. Despite a strong relationship between water and air temperatures and a variety of models that are effective for data summarized on a weekly basis, such models did not yield consistently good predictions for summaries such as daily maximum temperature...

  7. Daily time series evapotranspiration maps for Oklahoma and Texas panhandle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important process in ecosystems’ water budget and closely linked to its productivity. Therefore, regional scale daily time series ET maps developed at high and medium resolutions have large utility in studying the carbon-energy-water nexus and managing water resources. ...

  8. An empirical model of the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yamazaki, Y.; Yumoto, K.; Cardinal, M.G.; Fraser, B.J.; Hattori, P.; Kakinami, Y.; Liu, J.Y.; Lynn, K.J.W.; Marshall, R.; McNamara, D.; Nagatsuma, T.; Nikiforov, V.M.; Otadoy, R.E.; Ruhimat, M.; Shevtsov, B.M.; Shiokawa, K.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2011-01-01

    An empirical model of the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation has been constructed based on geomagnetic data obtained from 21 stations along the 210 Magnetic Meridian of the Circum-pan Pacific Magnetometer Network (CPMN) from 1996 to 2007. Using the least squares fitting method for geomagnetically quiet days (Kp ??? 2+), the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation at each station was described as a function of solar activity SA, day of year DOY, lunar age LA, and local time LT. After interpolation in latitude, the model can describe solar-activity dependence and seasonal dependence of solar quiet daily variations (S) and lunar quiet daily variations (L). We performed a spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) on these S and L variations to examine average characteristics of the equivalent external current systems. We found three particularly noteworthy results. First, the total current intensity of the S current system is largely controlled by solar activity while its focus position is not significantly affected by solar activity. Second, we found that seasonal variations of the S current intensity exhibit north-south asymmetry; the current intensity of the northern vortex shows a prominent annual variation while the southern vortex shows a clear semi-annual variation as well as annual variation. Thirdly, we found that the total intensity of the L current system changes depending on solar activity and season; seasonal variations of the L current intensity show an enhancement during the December solstice, independent of the level of solar activity. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. 40 CFR 1066.275 - Daily dynamometer readiness verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Dynamometer Specifications § 1066.275 Daily... automated process for this verification procedure, perform this evaluation by setting the initial speed and... your dynamometer does not perform this verification with an automated process: (1) With the dynamometer...

  10. Daily Concordance between Parent and Adolescent Sleep Habits

    PubMed Central

    Fuligni, Andrew J.; Tsai, Kim M.; Krull, Jennifer L.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the daily concordance between parent and adolescent daily sleep habits, how that concordance compares to other predictors of sleep, and whether the degree of concordance varies across families. Methods A total of 421 adolescents (Mage = 15.03 years) and their primary caregivers (Mage = 41.93 years) reported their sleep, bed, and wake times on a daily basis for a two-week period. Approximately 80% of the sample repeated the same protocol one year later. Results Multi-level modeling indicated a significant concordance between parent and adolescent sleep, bed, and wake times on a daily basis. Concordance existed independent of other predictors of sleep such as day of the week and adolescent study time. Larger families and those with higher levels of parent-adolescent support exhibited greater concordance. Conclusions Adolescent sleep is connected to the sleep habits of their parents, above and beyond commonly-known structural and experiential factors that can shape teenage sleep. Efforts to improve teenage sleep should pay greater attention to the sleep patterns of parents and potentially other family members. PMID:25620309

  11. Daily concordance between parent and adolescent sleep habits.

    PubMed

    Fuligni, Andrew J; Tsai, Kim M; Krull, Jennifer L; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2015-02-01

    To assess the daily concordance between parent and adolescent daily sleep habits, how that concordance compares to other predictors of sleep, and whether the degree of concordance varies across families. A total of 421 adolescents (Mage = 15.03 years) and their primary caregivers (Mage = 41.93 years) reported their sleep, bed, and wake times on a daily basis for a 2-week period. Approximately 80% of the sample repeated the same protocol 1 year later. Multilevel modeling indicated a significant concordance between parent and adolescent sleep, bed, and wake times on a daily basis. Concordance existed independent of other predictors of sleep such as day of the week and adolescent study time. Larger families and those with higher levels of parent-adolescent support exhibited greater concordance. Adolescent sleep is connected to the sleep habits of their parents, above and beyond commonly known structural and experiential factors that can shape teenage sleep. Efforts to improve teenage sleep should pay greater attention to the sleep patterns of parents and potentially other family members. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cultural Orientations, Daily Activities, and Adjustment in Mexican American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Cansler, Emily

    2009-01-01

    The links between youth's daily activities and adjustment and the role of cultural practices and values in these links were studied in 469 youth from 237 Mexican American families. In home interviews, data on mothers', fathers', and two adolescent-age siblings' cultural practices (language use, social contacts) and values (for familism, for…

  13. Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables—namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature—influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.

  14. Daily Routines and Sleep Disorders in Visually Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troster, Heinrich; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Assessed sleep disorders in 265 visually impaired and 67 non-disabled 10- to 72-month olds. Found that infants with visual impairments had more difficulties in falling asleep and in sleeping through the night than nonhandicapped children. Also found a relationship between sleep disorders and the regularity of children's daily routine and…

  15. Incorporating a Quality and Innovation Culture in Daily Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibañez, Francisco; Plaza, Inmaculada; Igual, Raul; Medrano, Carlos; Arcega, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Quality and excellence are requirements that Society demands from universities. However, several questions arise in the real-world application of these concepts: How can they be incorporated into the classrooms or laboratories? What is the proper way to create a quality and innovation culture in daily teaching? In order to answer to these…

  16. Class Produces Daily Newscast. Broadcast Journalism Course Outline. Video Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Celia; Pickel, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    Offers an overview of the first two years of a broadcast journalism class where students produce a daily school news show. Offers a broadcast journalism course outline with course description and course objectives from the Southfield Michigan Public Schools. Offers team activities to prepare students for work on their own video projects, and…

  17. Daily hemofiltration with a simplified method of delivery.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Deborah L; Swedko, Peter J; Posen, Gerald A; Burns, Kevin D

    2003-01-01

    Observational studies of daily hemodialysis (HD) and intermittent hemofiltration (HF) therapy have been associated with improved outcomes for patients with endstage renal disease. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the feasibility of daily HF as an alternative to intermittent HD using a simplified HF system (NxStage Medical). Each patient received 1 week of intermittent HD followed by 4 weeks of daily HF. Ringers lactate was used as the initial replacement solution; however, Hemosol LG2/L0 was used subsequently to simplify patient management. Changes in quality of life, nutrition, and laboratory values were assessed. Seven patients have completed 168 HF treatments with Hemosol. Their treatment time on HD was 232 minutes 3 days per week, and 132 minutes on HF 6 days per week. Single pool Kt/V per treatment for HD was 1.69 compared with 0.44 for HF (standard Kt/V 2.38 vs 1.93). Despite these weekly differences in urea clearance, potassium, calcium, phosphate, and nutrition remained stable. Beta-2 microglobulin tended to decline. All parameters of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Instrument Short Form (KDQOL-SF) either remained stable or improved. In addition, blood pressure declined, allowing for a reduction in the number of antihypertensive medications. In summary, these preliminary data suggest that daily HF with this system is safe, simple, efficacious, and could potentially be used as a home based renal replacement therapy.

  18. Skeletal Adaptation to Daily Activity: A Biochemical Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert T.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Musculoskeletal forces generated by normal daily activity on Earth maintain the functional and structural properties of muscle and bone throughout most of one's adult life. A reduction in the level of cumulative daily loading caused by space flight, bed rest or spinal cord injury induces rapid muscle atrophy, functional changes in muscle, and bone resorption in regions subjected to the reduced loading. Bone cells in culture and bone tissue reportedly respond to a wide variety of non-mechanical and mechanical stimuli ranging, from electromagnetic fields, and hormones to small amplitude, high frequency vibrations, fluid flow, strain rate, and stress/strain magnitude. However, neither the transduction mechanism that transforms the mechanical input into a muscle or bone metabolic response nor the characteristics, of the loading history that directly or indirectly stimulates the cell is known. Identifying the factors contributing to the input stimulus will have a major impact on the design of effective countermeasures for long duration space flight. This talk will present a brief overview of current theories of bone remodeling and functional adaptation to mechanical loading. Work from our lab will be presented from the perspective of daily cumulative loading on Earth and its relationship to bone density and structure. Our objective is to use the tibia and calcaneus as model bone sites of cortical and cancellous bone adaptation, loaded daily by musculoskeletal forces in equilibrium with the ground reaction force. All materials that will be discussed are in the open scientific literature.

  19. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  20. Using "The Daily Show" to Promote Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, H. James; Schmeichel, Mardi

    2012-01-01

    Social studies teachers are tasked with aiding their students' abilities to engage in public debate and make politically sound decisions. One way the authors have found to help facilitate this is to draw connections between content knowledge and current political conversations through the use of clips from "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart." While…

  1. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  2. A Comparison of Graduate and Professional Students: Their Daily Stressors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Shelton; And Others

    The stressful effects of advanced academic training were examined in a comparison of six graduate and professional programs at Vanderbilt University. The focus was on the nonacademic, daily stressors and negative mood states of 152 students in medicine, business, divinity, graduate department of religion, and two graduate psychology departments.…

  3. Forecasting daily patient volumes in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Jones, Spencer S; Thomas, Alun; Evans, R Scott; Welch, Shari J; Haug, Peter J; Snow, Gregory L

    2008-02-01

    Shifts in the supply of and demand for emergency department (ED) resources make the efficient allocation of ED resources increasingly important. Forecasting is a vital activity that guides decision-making in many areas of economic, industrial, and scientific planning, but has gained little traction in the health care industry. There are few studies that explore the use of forecasting methods to predict patient volumes in the ED. The goals of this study are to explore and evaluate the use of several statistical forecasting methods to predict daily ED patient volumes at three diverse hospital EDs and to compare the accuracy of these methods to the accuracy of a previously proposed forecasting method. Daily patient arrivals at three hospital EDs were collected for the period January 1, 2005, through March 31, 2007. The authors evaluated the use of seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average, time series regression, exponential smoothing, and artificial neural network models to forecast daily patient volumes at each facility. Forecasts were made for horizons ranging from 1 to 30 days in advance. The forecast accuracy achieved by the various forecasting methods was compared to the forecast accuracy achieved when using a benchmark forecasting method already available in the emergency medicine literature. All time series methods considered in this analysis provided improved in-sample model goodness of fit. However, post-sample analysis revealed that time series regression models that augment linear regression models by accounting for serial autocorrelation offered only small improvements in terms of post-sample forecast accuracy, relative to multiple linear regression models, while seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average, exponential smoothing, and artificial neural network forecasting models did not provide consistently accurate forecasts of daily ED volumes. This study confirms the widely held belief that daily demand for ED services is characterized by

  4. Bacteriophage-Fused Peptides for Serodiagnosis of Human Strongyloidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, Nágilla Daliane; Ribeiro, Vanessa da Silva; Santos, Fabiana de Almeida Araújo; Fujimura, Patricia Tiemi; Gonzaga, Henrique Tomaz; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis, a human intestinal infection caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis, is frequently underdiagnosed and although its high prevalence is still a neglected parasitic disease because conventional diagnostic tests based on parasitological examination (presence of Strongyloides larvae in stool) are not sufficiently sensitive due to the low parasitic load and to the irregular larval output. There is an urgent need to improve diagnostic assays, especially for immunocompromised patients with high parasitic load as consequence of self-infection cycle, which can disseminate throughout the body, resulting in a potentially fatal hyperinfection syndrome often accompanied by sepsis or meningitis. Methods/Principal Findings We have performed Phage Display technology to select peptides that mimic S. stercoralis antigens, capable of detecting a humoral response in patients with strongyloidiasis. The peptides reactivity was investigated by Phage-ELISA through different panels of serum samples. We have successfully selected five peptides with significant immunoreactivity to circulating IgG from patients' sera with strongyloidiasis. The phage displayed peptides C9 and C10 presented the highest diagnostic potential (AUC>0.87) with excellent sensitivity (>85%) and good specificity (>77.5%), suggesting that some S. stercoralis antigens trigger systemic immune response. Conclusions/Significance These novel antigens are interesting serum biomarkers for routine strongyloidiasis screenings due to the easy production and simple assay using Phage-ELISA. Such markers may also present a promising application for therapeutic monitoring. PMID:24874206

  5. Bacteriophage-fused peptides for serodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Nágilla Daliane; Ribeiro, Vanessa da Silva; Santos, Fabiana de Almeida Araújo; Fujimura, Patricia Tiemi; Gonzaga, Henrique Tomaz; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis, a human intestinal infection caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis, is frequently underdiagnosed and although its high prevalence is still a neglected parasitic disease because conventional diagnostic tests based on parasitological examination (presence of Strongyloides larvae in stool) are not sufficiently sensitive due to the low parasitic load and to the irregular larval output. There is an urgent need to improve diagnostic assays, especially for immunocompromised patients with high parasitic load as consequence of self-infection cycle, which can disseminate throughout the body, resulting in a potentially fatal hyperinfection syndrome often accompanied by sepsis or meningitis. We have performed Phage Display technology to select peptides that mimic S. stercoralis antigens, capable of detecting a humoral response in patients with strongyloidiasis. The peptides reactivity was investigated by Phage-ELISA through different panels of serum samples. We have successfully selected five peptides with significant immunoreactivity to circulating IgG from patients' sera with strongyloidiasis. The phage displayed peptides C9 and C10 presented the highest diagnostic potential (AUC>0.87) with excellent sensitivity (>85%) and good specificity (>77.5%), suggesting that some S. stercoralis antigens trigger systemic immune response. These novel antigens are interesting serum biomarkers for routine strongyloidiasis screenings due to the easy production and simple assay using Phage-ELISA. Such markers may also present a promising application for therapeutic monitoring.

  6. Comparing 3-month recall to daily reporting of sexual behaviours.

    PubMed

    Mark, Kristen P; Smith, Rachel V; Young, April M; Crosby, Richard

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to examine discrepancies between self-report methods and methodological issues related to sexual risk taking. We examined sexual behaviour assessed via 3-month electronic recall and by daily electronic reporting among a large cohort of patients attending STI clinics. STI clinic attenders (N= 628) aged 15 to 60 years reported on demographic information (at baseline), penile-vaginal sex acts, condom-unprotected penile-vaginal sex and STI history using 3-month recall and daily reports. Additionally, interviewer-participant match related to race and gender, as well as study site were considered as covariates. Concordance between recall and daily reports on penile-vaginal sex was moderately strong (Spearman's r (rs)=0.62; p<0.001). Comparison for reports for condom-unprotected penile-vaginal sex resulted in a correlation coefficient of 0.61 (p<0.001), also indicating moderately strong agreement between the two methods. Two generalised logit models were conducted to explain lack of strong concordance in penile-vaginal sex acts and condom-unprotected penile-vaginal sex. The odds of a female reporting higher frequency of sex in daily reports compared with recall were more than two times that of a male. Every five person increase in the number of lifetime sexual partners was associated with five times the odds of a discrepancy in reporting methods. Age was also significantly associated with unequal daily versus recall sex frequency reporting. Shifting focus to methodological considerations of technological reports can help ensure better investment of resources into sexual health research due to greater understanding of the methodological properties of data collection methods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. The influence of daily stress and resilience on successful ageing.

    PubMed

    Byun, J; Jung, D

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of daily stress and resilience on successful ageing among community-dwelling older adults. Ageing can be a positive experience if there is good adaptation to ageing processes. Positive ageing needs to be a basis of nursing care, health promotion and education within community settings. Data were collected in March and April of 2014 from 262 older adults living in Seoul and Jeju, South Korea. We used a four-part survey consisting of demographic data, daily stress, resilience and successful ageing scales, in total 91 items. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and hierarchical multiple regression analysis to identify the influence of variables on successful ageing. Successful ageing had a significant negative correlation with daily stress and a positive correlation with resilience. Daily stress had a negative correlation with resilience. Findings of hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that resilience and subjective economic status had an effect on successful ageing. Furthermore, these variables accounted for 41.6% of the variance in successful ageing. Data were collected in only two cities of Korea based on convenience sampling. The findings of the study suggest that daily stress and resilience have a statistically significant relationship with successful ageing. Furthermore, resilience is an important influential factor and a much-needed personal characteristic for one's successful ageing. Nurses can advocate joining with health and social policy makers to implement policies on healthy ageing, including evaluation of stress, education programmes and implementation of self-help groups to enhance resilience in older people. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  8. Non-daily pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Peter L.; García-Lerma, J. Gerardo; Heneine, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss non-daily pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) modalities that may provide advantages compared with daily PrEP in cost and cumulative toxicity, but may have lower adherence forgiveness. Recent Findings Animal models have informed our understanding of early viral transmission events, which help guide event-driven PrEP dosing strategies. These models indicate early establishment of viral replication in rectal or cervicovaginal tissues, so event-driven PrEP should rapidly deliver high mucosal drug concentrations within hours of the potential exposure event. Macaque models have demonstrated the high biological efficacy for event-driven dosing of oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) against both vaginal and rectal virus transmission. In humans, the IPERGAY study demonstrated 86% efficacy for event-driven oral TDF/FTC dosing among men who have sex with men (MSM), while no similar efficacy data are available on women or heterosexual men. The HPTN 067 study showed that certain MSM populations adhere well to non-daily PrEP while other populations of women adhere more poorly to non-daily versus daily regimens. Pharmacokinetic studies following oral TDF/FTC dosing in humans, indicate that TFV-diphosphate (the active form of TFV) accumulates to higher concentrations in rectal versus cervicovaginal tissue but non-adherence in trials complicates the interpretation of differential mucosal drug concentrations. Summary Event-driven dosing for TFV-based PrEP has promise for HIV prevention in MSM. Future research of event-driven PrEP in women and heterosexual men should be guided by a better understanding of the importance of mucosal drug concentrations for PrEP efficacy and its sensitivity to adherence. PMID:26633641

  9. Daily participation in sports and students' sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Habel, Melissa A; Dittus, Patricia J; De Rosa, Christine J; Chung, Emily Q; Kerndt, Peter R

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that student athletes may be less likely than nonathletes to engage in sexual behavior. However, few have explored sexual risk behavior among athletes in early adolescence. In 2005, a sample of 10,487 students in 26 Los Angeles public middle and high schools completed a self-administered survey that asked about their demographic characteristics, sports participation, sexual behaviors and expectations, and parental relationships. Chi-square analyses compared reported levels of daily participation in sports, experience with intercourse, experience with oral sex and condom use at last intercourse by selected characteristics. Predictors of sexual experience and condom use were assessed in multivariate logistic regression analyses. One-third of students reported daily participation in sports. This group had higher odds of ever having had intercourse and ever having had oral sex than their peers who did not play a sport daily (odds ratios, 1.2 and 1.1, respectively). The increases in risk were greater for middle school sports participants than for their high school counterparts (1.5 and 1.6, respectively). Among sexually experienced students, daily sports participants also had elevated odds of reporting condom use at last intercourse (1.4). Students as young as middle school age who participate in sports daily may have an elevated risk for STDs and pregnancy. Health professionals should counsel middle school athletes about sexual risk reduction, given that young students may find it particularly difficult to obtain contraceptives, STD testing and prevention counseling. Copyright © 2010 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  10. Affective reactivity to daily stressors is associated with elevated inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Nancy L.; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E.; Ong, Anthony D.; Almeida, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Inflammation increases the risk of chronic diseases, but the links between emotional responses to daily events and inflammation are unknown. We examined individual differences in affective reactivity to daily stressors (i.e., changes in positive and negative affect in response to stressors) as predictors of inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods A cross-sectional sample of 872 adults from the National Study of Daily Experiences (sub-study of Midlife in the United States II) reported daily stressors and affect during telephone interviews for 8 days. Blood samples were obtained at a separate clinic visit and assayed for inflammatory markers. Multilevel models estimated trait affective reactivity slopes for each participant, which were inputted into regression models to predict inflammation. Results People who experienced greater decreases in positive affect on days when stressors occurred (i.e, positive affect reactivity) had elevated log IL-6, independent of demographic, physical, psychological, and behavioral factors (B = 1.12, SE = 0.45, p = 0.01). Heightened negative affect reactivity was associated with higher log CRP among women (p = 0.03) but not men (p = 0.57); health behaviors accounted for this association in women. Conclusions Adults who fail to maintain positive affect when faced with minor stressors in everyday life appear to have elevated levels of IL-6, a marker of inflammation. Women who experience increased negative affect when faced with minor stressors may be at particular risk of elevated inflammation. These findings add to growing evidence regarding the health implications of affective reactivity to daily stressors. PMID:26030309

  11. Artificial Intelligence Can Predict Daily Trauma Volume and Average Acuity.

    PubMed

    Stonko, David P; Dennis, Bradley M; Betzold, Richard D; Peetz, Allan B; Gunter, Oliver L; Guillamondegui, Oscar D

    2018-04-19

    The goal of this study was to integrate temporal and weather data in order to create an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict trauma volume, the number of emergent operative cases, and average daily acuity at a level 1 trauma center. Trauma admission data from TRACS and weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) was collected for all adult trauma patients from July 2013-June 2016. The ANN was constructed using temporal (time, day of week), and weather factors (daily high, active precipitation) to predict four points of daily trauma activity: number of traumas, number of penetrating traumas, average ISS, and number of immediate OR cases per day. We trained a two-layer feed-forward network with 10 sigmoid hidden neurons via the Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm, and performed k-fold cross validation and accuracy calculations on 100 randomly generated partitions. 10,612 patients over 1,096 days were identified. The ANN accurately predicted the daily trauma distribution in terms of number of traumas, number of penetrating traumas, number of OR cases, and average daily ISS (combined training correlation coefficient r = 0.9018+/-0.002; validation r = 0.8899+/- 0.005; testing r = 0.8940+/-0.006). We were able to successfully predict trauma and emergent operative volume, and acuity using an ANN by integrating local weather and trauma admission data from a level 1 center. As an example, for June 30, 2016, it predicted 9.93 traumas (actual: 10), and a mean ISS score of 15.99 (actual: 13.12); see figure 3. This may prove useful for predicting trauma needs across the system and hospital administration when allocating limited resources. Level III STUDY TYPE: Prognostic/Epidemiological.

  12. In vitro power profiles of daily disposable contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Belda-Salmerón, Lurdes; Madrid-Costa, David; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; García-Lázaro, Santiago; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate and compare the distribution of refractive power within the optic zone of different soft contact lenses and to investigate the effect of lens decentration on the power profiles. The Nimo TR1504 instrument was used to measure the optical power across different aperture diameters (from 1.5mm to 5.5mm in steps of 0.5mm) of four daily disposable contact lenses: DAILIES TOTAL1, Proclear 1-Day, SofLens daily disposable and 1-DAY ACUVUE MOIST. Measurements were performed using a wet cell. Power data were evaluated when contact lenses were in its centered position and after inducing different amounts of lens decentration (from 0.2mm to 1.0mm in steps of 0.2mm). All contact lenses showed an increase - more negative - in lens power with distance from the lens center. The amount of change varied depending on the lens. It was about 10% of lens power for DAILIES TOTAL1 (-0.29diopters (D)), SofLens daily disposable (-0.36D), and Proclear 1-Day (-0.32D) whereas 1-DAY ACUVUE MOIST showed a percentage variation of 3.3% (-0.10D). After inducing a lens decentration up to 1mm, the power curves were shifted in the negative direction. However, the change obtained in lens power compared with well-centered position was always lower than a quarter of diopter both for all the lenses and aperture diameters. Our results showed a variation of the refractive power from the lens center, becoming more negative toward the periphery, with a negligible effect of the decentration for all disposable contact lenses studied. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Once-Daily Radiation Therapy for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Lindsay; Harmsen, William; Blanchard, Miran

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive breast cancer variant treated with multimodality therapy. A variety of approaches intended to escalate the intensity and efficacy of radiation therapy have been reported, including twice-daily radiation therapy, dose escalation, and aggressive use of bolus. Herein, we examine our outcomes for patients treated with once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive bolus utilization, focusing on treatment technique. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of patients with nonmetastatic IBC treated from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and predictors thereof weremore » assessed. Results: Fifty-two women with IBC were identified, 49 (94%) of whom were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All underwent mastectomy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. Radiation was delivered in once-daily fractions of 1.8 to 2.25 Gy (median, 2 Gy). Patients were typically treated with daily 1-cm bolus throughout treatment, and 33 (63%) received a subsequent boost to the mastectomy scar. Five-year Kaplan Meier survival estimates for LRC, DFS, and OS were 81%, 56%, and 64%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence was associated with poorer OS (P<.001; hazard ratio [HR], 4.1). Extracapsular extension was associated with worse LRC (P=.02), DFS (P=.007), and OS (P=.002). Age greater than 50 years was associated with better DFS (P=.03). Pathologic complete response was associated with a trend toward improved LRC (P=.06). Conclusions: Once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive use of bolus for IBC results in outcomes consistent with previous reports using various intensified radiation therapy regimens. LRC remains a challenge despite modern systemic therapy. Extracapsular extension, age ≤50 years, and lack of complete response to chemotherapy appear to be associated with worse outcomes. Novel strategies are

  14. Daily quality assurance phantom for ultrasound image guided radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Drever, Laura

    2007-01-01

    A simple phantom was designed, constructed, tested, and clinically implemented for daily quality assurance (QA) of an ultrasound‐image‐guided radiation therapy (US‐IGRT) system, the Restitu Ultrasound system (Resonant Medical, Montreal, QC). The phantom consists of a high signal echogenic background gel surrounding a low signal hypoechoic egg‐shaped target. Daily QA checks involve ultrasound imaging of the phantom and segmenting of the embedded target using the automated tools available on the US‐IGRT system. This process serves to confirm system hardware and software functions and, in particular, accurate determination of the target position. Experiments were conducted to test the stability of the phantom at room temperature, its tissue‐mimicking properties, the reproducibility of target position measurements, and the usefulness of the phantom as a daily QA device. The phantom proved stable at room temperature, exhibited no evidence of bacterial or fungal invasion in 9 months, and showed limited desiccation (resulting in a monthly reduction in ultrasound‐measured volume of approximately 0.2 cm3). Furthermore, the phantom was shown to be nearly tissue‐mimicking, with speed of sound in the phantom estimated to be 0.8% higher than that assumed by the scanner calibration. The phantom performs well in a clinical setting, owing to its light weight and ease of operation. It provides reproducible measures of target position even with multiple users. At our center, the phantom is being used for daily QA of the US‐IGRT system with clinically acceptable tolerances of ±1 cm3 on target volume and ±2 mm on target position. For routine daily QA, this phantom is a good alternative to the manufacturer‐supplied calibration phantom, and we recommended that that larger phantom be reserved for less frequent, more detailed QA checks and system calibration. PACS numbers: 87.66.Xa, 87.63.Df

  15. Daily affect variability and context-specific alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Cynthia D; Arpin, Sarah; McCabe, Cameron T

    2015-11-01

    Research explored the effects of variability in negative and positive affect on alcohol consumption, specifying daily fluctuation in affect as a critical form of emotion dysregulation. Using daily process methodology allows for a more objective calculation of affect variability relative to traditional self-reports. The present study models within-person negative and positive affect variabilities as predictors of context-specific consumption (i.e. solitary vs. social drinking), controlling for mean levels of affect. A community sample of moderate-to-heavy drinkers (n = 47; 49% women) from a US metropolitan area reported on affect and alcohol consumption thrice daily for 30 days via a handheld electronic interviewer. Within-person affect variability was calculated using daily standard deviations in positive and negative affect. Within person, greater negative and positive variabilities are related to greater daily solitary and social consumption. Across study days, mean levels of negative and positive affect variabilities related to greater social consumption between persons; yet, aggregated negative affect variability was related to less solitary consumption. Results affirm affect variability as a unique predictor of alcohol consumption, independent of mean affect levels. Yet, it is important to differentiate social context of consumption, as well as type of affect variability, particularly at the between-person level. These distinctions help clarify inconsistencies in the self-medication literature regarding associations between average levels of affect and consumption. Importantly, consistent within-person relationships for both variabilities support arguments that both negative and positive affect variabilities are detrimental and reflect an inability to regulate emotional experience. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. Swallowing frequency in elderly people during daily life.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, N; Nohara, K; Kotani, Y; Matsumura, M; Sakai, T

    2013-10-01

    Disuse atrophy of swallowing-related organs due to an excessive decrease in swallowing frequency is suspected to occur in patients with poor oral intake, especially elderly people. However, swallowing frequency in daily life has not previously been examined in the elderly. This study examined swallowing frequency in elderly people and compared these findings to those in a younger population and differences in the degree of activity in daily life. (i) We compared swallowing frequency in 20 elderly people (82·0 ± 8·3 year) and 15 healthy young people (26·5 ± 3·5 year). (ii) 20 elderly people were divided into two groups according to the degree of activity in daily life: a semi-bedridden group and bedridden group; the swallowing frequency was compared between these groups. (i) The swallowing frequency in the elderly people was 2-19 times per hour and the mean was 9·4 ± 4·9, and that in the healthy young people was 16-76 times per hour and the mean was 40·7 ± 19·5. Swallowing frequency in elderly people was significantly lower than that in young healthy people (P < 0·0001). (ii) The swallowing frequency in bedridden group was 2-11 times per hour and the mean was 6·8 ± 3·3, and that in semi-bedridden group was 3-19 times per hour and the mean was 11·9 ± 5·1. Swallowing frequency in bedridden group was significantly lower than that in semi-bedridden group (P < 0·05). These results indicate that in daily life, elderly people tend to swallow less frequently than young people. In addition, swallowing frequency was lower in elderly subjects with a low degree of activity in daily life. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Affective reactivity to daily stressors is associated with elevated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sin, Nancy L; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E; Ong, Anthony D; Almeida, David M

    2015-12-01

    Inflammation increases the risk of chronic diseases, but the links between emotional responses to daily events and inflammation are unknown. We examined individual differences in affective reactivity to daily stressors (i.e., changes in positive and negative affect in response to stressors) as predictors of inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). A cross-sectional sample of 872 adults from the National Study of Daily Experiences (substudy of Midlife in the United States II) reported daily stressors and affect during telephone interviews for 8 days. Blood samples were obtained at a separate clinic visit and assayed for inflammatory markers. Multilevel models estimated trait affective reactivity slopes for each participant, which were inputted into regression models to predict inflammation. People who experienced greater decreases in positive affect on days when stressors occurred (i.e., positive affect reactivity) had elevated log IL-6, independent of demographic, physical, psychological, and behavioral factors (B = 1.12, SE = 0.45, p = .01). Heightened negative affect reactivity was associated with higher log CRP among women (p = .03) but not men (p = .57); health behaviors accounted for this association in women. Adults who fail to maintain positive affect when faced with minor stressors in everyday life appear to have elevated levels of IL-6, a marker of inflammation. Women who experience increased negative affect when faced with minor stressors may be at particular risk of elevated inflammation. These findings add to growing evidence regarding the health implications of affective reactivity to daily stressors. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Clinical and prognostic subforms of new daily-persistent headache.

    PubMed

    Robbins, M S; Grosberg, B M; Napchan, U; Crystal, S C; Lipton, R B

    2010-04-27

    According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-2, primary daily headaches unremitting from onset are classified as new daily-persistent headache (NDPH) only if migraine features are absent. When migraine features are present, classification is problematic. We developed a revised NDPH definition not excluding migraine features (NDPH-R), and applied it to consecutive patients seen at the Montefiore Headache Center. We divided this group into patients meeting ICHD-2 criteria (NDPH-ICHD) and those with too many migraine features for ICHD-2 (NDPH-mf). We compared clinical and demographic features in these groups, identifying 3 prognostic subgroups: persisting, remitting, and relapsing-remitting. Remitting and relapsing-remitting patients were combined into a nonpersisting group. Of 71 NDPH-R patients, 31 (43.7%) also met NDPH-ICHD-2 criteria. The NDPH-mf and the NDPH-ICHD-2 groups were similar in most clinical features though the NDPH-mf group was younger, included more women, and had a higher frequency of depression. The groups were similar in the prevalence of allodynia, triptan responsiveness, and prognosis. NDPH-R prognostic subforms were also very similar, although the persisting subform was more likely to be of white race, to have anxiety or depression, and to have a younger onset age. Current International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-2 criteria exclude the majority of patients with primary headache unremitting from onset. The proposed criteria for revised new daily-persistent headache definition not excluding migraine features (NDPH-R) classify these patients into a relatively homogeneous group based on demographics, clinical features, and prognosis. Both new daily-persistent headache with too many migraine features for ICHD-2 and new daily-persistent headache meeting ICHD-2 criteria include patients in equal proportions that fall into the persisting, remitting, and relapsing-remitting subgroups. Our criteria for NDPH

  19. Daily Magnesium Intake and Serum Magnesium Concentration among Japanese People

    PubMed Central

    Akizawa, Yoriko; Koizumi, Sadayuki; Itokawa, Yoshinori; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Tamura, Tarou; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2008-01-01

    Background The vitamins and minerals that are deficient in the daily diet of a normal adult remain unknown. To answer this question, we conducted a population survey focusing on the relationship between dietary magnesium intake and serum magnesium level. Methods The subjects were 62 individuals from Fukui Prefecture who participated in the 1998 National Nutrition Survey. The survey investigated the physical status, nutritional status, and dietary data of the subjects. Holidays and special occasions were avoided, and a day when people are most likely to be on an ordinary diet was selected as the survey date. Results The mean (±standard deviation) daily magnesium intake was 322 (±132), 323 (±163), and 322 (±147) mg/day for men, women, and the entire group, respectively. The mean (±standard deviation) serum magnesium concentration was 20.69 (±2.83), 20.69 (±2.88), and 20.69 (±2.83) ppm for men, women, and the entire group, respectively. The distribution of serum magnesium concentration was normal. Dietary magnesium intake showed a log-normal distribution, which was then transformed by logarithmic conversion for examining the regression coefficients. The slope of the regression line between the serum magnesium concentration (Y ppm) and daily magnesium intake (X mg) was determined using the formula Y = 4.93 (log10X) + 8.49. The coefficient of correlation (r) was 0.29. A regression line (Y = 14.65X + 19.31) was observed between the daily intake of magnesium (Y mg) and serum magnesium concentration (X ppm). The coefficient of correlation was 0.28. Conclusion The daily magnesium intake correlated with serum magnesium concentration, and a linear regression model between them was proposed. PMID:18635902

  20. Daily magnesium intake and serum magnesium concentration among Japanese people.

    PubMed

    Akizawa, Yoriko; Koizumi, Sadayuki; Itokawa, Yoshinori; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Tamura, Tarou; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2008-01-01

    The vitamins and minerals that are deficient in the daily diet of a normal adult remain unknown. To answer this question, we conducted a population survey focusing on the relationship between dietary magnesium intake and serum magnesium level. The subjects were 62 individuals from Fukui Prefecture who participated in the 1998 National Nutrition Survey. The survey investigated the physical status, nutritional status, and dietary data of the subjects. Holidays and special occasions were avoided, and a day when people are most likely to be on an ordinary diet was selected as the survey date. The mean (+/-standard deviation) daily magnesium intake was 322 (+/-132), 323 (+/-163), and 322 (+/-147) mg/day for men, women, and the entire group, respectively. The mean (+/-standard deviation) serum magnesium concentration was 20.69 (+/-2.83), 20.69 (+/-2.88), and 20.69 (+/-2.83) ppm for men, women, and the entire group, respectively. The distribution of serum magnesium concentration was normal. Dietary magnesium intake showed a log-normal distribution, which was then transformed by logarithmic conversion for examining the regression coefficients. The slope of the regression line between the serum magnesium concentration (Y ppm) and daily magnesium intake (X mg) was determined using the formula Y = 4.93 (log(10)X) + 8.49. The coefficient of correlation (r) was 0.29. A regression line (Y = 14.65X + 19.31) was observed between the daily intake of magnesium (Y mg) and serum magnesium concentration (X ppm). The coefficient of correlation was 0.28. The daily magnesium intake correlated with serum magnesium concentration, and a linear regression model between them was proposed.

  1. Factors Affecting Daily Cochlear Implant Use in Children: Datalogging Evidence.

    PubMed

    Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Sanfilippo, Joseph; Papsin, Blake; Gordon, Karen

    Children with profound hearing loss can gain access to sound through cochlear implants (CIs), but these devices must be worn consistently to promote auditory development. Although subjective parent reports have identified several factors limiting long-term CI use in children, it is also important to understand the day-to-day issues which may preclude consistent device use. In the present study, objective measures gathered through datalogging software were used to quantify the following in children: (1) number of hours of CI use per day, (2) practical concerns including repeated disconnections between the external transmission coil and the internal device (termed "coil-offs"), and (3) listening environments experienced during daily use. This study aimed to (1) objectively measure daily CI use and factors influencing consistent device use in children using one or two CIs and (2) evaluate the intensity levels and types of listening environments children are exposed to during daily CI use. Retrospective analysis. Measures of daily CI use were obtained from 146 pediatric users of Cochlear Nucleus 6 speech processors. The sample included 5 unilateral, 40 bimodal, and 101 bilateral CI users (77 simultaneously and 24 sequentially implanted). Daily CI use, duration, and frequency of coil-offs per day, and the time spent in multiple intensity ranges and environment types were extracted from the datalog saved during clinic appointments. Multiple regression analyses were completed to predict daily CI use based on child-related demographic variables, and to evaluate the effects of age on coil-offs and environment acoustics. Children used their CIs for 9.86 ± 3.43 hr on average on a daily basis, with use exceeding 9 hr per day in ∼64% of the children. Daily CI use reduced significantly with increasing durations of coil-off (p = 0.027) and increased significantly with longer CI experience (p < 0.001) and pre-CI acoustic experience (p < 0.001), when controlled for the child

  2. Strongyloidiasis Current Status with Emphasis in Diagnosis and Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Minori, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic neglected disease caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30 to 100 million people worldwide. Complications, strongly associated with alcoholism, organ transplants, and HTLV-1 virus, often arise due to late diagnosis, frequently leading to patient death. Lack of preemptive diagnosis is not the only difficulty when dealing with this parasite, since there are no gold standard diagnostic techniques, and the ones used have problems associated with sensitivity, resulting in false negatives. Treatment is also an issue as ivermectin and benzimidazoles administration leads to inconsistent cure rates and several side effects. Researching new anti-Strongyloides drugs is a difficult task since S. stercoralis does not develop until the adult stages in Mus musculus (with the exception of SCID mice), the main experimental host model. Fortunately, alternative parasite models can be used, namely, Strongyloides ratti and S. venezuelensis. However, even with these models, there are other complications in finding new drugs, which are associated with specific in vitro assay protocol steps, such as larvae decontamination. In this review, we highlight the challenges associated with new drug search, the compounds tested, and a list of published in vitro assay methodologies. We also point out advances being made in strongyloidiasis diagnosis so far. PMID:28210503

  3. Association between Daily Hospital Outpatient Visits for Accidents and Daily Ambient Air Temperatures in an Industrial City.

    PubMed

    Chau, Tang-Tat; Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    An accident is an unwanted hazard to a person. However, accidents occur. In this work, we search for correlations between daily accident rates and environmental factors. To study daily hospital outpatients who were admitted for accidents during a 5-year period, 2007-2011, we analyzed data regarding 168,366 outpatients using univariate regression models; we also used multivariable regression models to account for confounding factors. Our analysis indicates that the number of male outpatients admitted for accidents was approximately 1.31 to 1.47 times the number of female outpatients (P < 0.0001). Of the 12 parameters (regarding air pollution and meteorology) considered, only daily temperature exhibited consistent and significant correlations with the daily number of hospital outpatient visits for accidents throughout the 5-year analysis period. The univariate regression models indicate that older people (greater than 66 years old) had the fewest accidents per 1-degree increase in temperature, followed by young people (0-15 years old). Middle-aged people (16-65 years old) were the group of outpatients that were more prone to accidents, with an increase in accident rates of 0.8-1.2 accidents per degree increase in temperature. The multivariable regression models also reveal that the temperature variation was the dominant factor in determining the daily number of outpatient visits for accidents. Our further multivariable model analysis of temperature with respect to air pollution variables show that, through the increases in emissions and concentrations of CO, photochemical O3 production and NO2 loss in the ambient air, increases in vehicular emissions are associated with increases in temperatures. As such, increases in hospital visits for accidents are related to vehicular emissions and usage. This finding is consistent with clinical experience which shows about 60% to 80% of accidents are related to traffic, followed by accidents occurred in work place.

  4. Associations between daily chronic pain intensity, daily anger expression, and trait anger expressiveness: An ecological momentary assessment study

    PubMed Central

    Bruehl, Stephen; Liu, Xiaoxia; Burns, John W.; Chont, Melissa; Jamison, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Links between elevated trait anger expressiveness (anger-out) and greater chronic pain intensity are well documented, but pain-related effects of expressive behaviors actually used to regulate anger when it is experienced have been little explored. This study used ecological momentary assessment methods to explore prospective associations between daily behavioral anger expression and daily chronic pain intensity. Forty-eight chronic low back pain (LBP) patients and 36 healthy controls completed electronic diary ratings of momentary pain and behavioral anger expression in response to random prompts 4 times daily for 7 days. Across groups, greater trait anger-out was associated with greater daily behavioral anger expression (P < 0.001). LBP participants showed higher levels of daily anger expression than controls (P < 0.001). Generalized estimating equation analyses in the LBP group revealed a lagged main effect of greater behavioral anger expression on increased chronic pain intensity in the subsequent assessment period (P < 0.05). Examination of a trait × situation model for anger-out revealed prospective associations between elevated chronic pain intensity and later increases in behavioral anger expression that were restricted largely to individuals low in trait anger-out (P < 0.001). Trait × situation interactions for trait anger suppression (anger-in) indicated similar influences of pain intensity on subsequent behavioral anger expression occurring among low anger-in persons (P < 0.001). Overlap with trait and state negative affect did not account for study findings. This study for the first time documents lagged within-day influences of behavioral anger expression on subsequent chronic pain intensity. Trait anger regulation style may moderate associations between behavioral anger expression and chronic pain intensity. PMID:22940462

  5. Association between Daily Hospital Outpatient Visits for Accidents and Daily Ambient Air Temperatures in an Industrial City

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Tang-Tat; Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    An accident is an unwanted hazard to a person. However, accidents occur. In this work, we search for correlations between daily accident rates and environmental factors. To study daily hospital outpatients who were admitted for accidents during a 5-year period, 2007–2011, we analyzed data regarding 168,366 outpatients using univariate regression models; we also used multivariable regression models to account for confounding factors. Our analysis indicates that the number of male outpatients admitted for accidents was approximately 1.31 to 1.47 times the number of female outpatients (P < 0.0001). Of the 12 parameters (regarding air pollution and meteorology) considered, only daily temperature exhibited consistent and significant correlations with the daily number of hospital outpatient visits for accidents throughout the 5-year analysis period. The univariate regression models indicate that older people (greater than 66 years old) had the fewest accidents per 1-degree increase in temperature, followed by young people (0–15 years old). Middle-aged people (16–65 years old) were the group of outpatients that were more prone to accidents, with an increase in accident rates of 0.8–1.2 accidents per degree increase in temperature. The multivariable regression models also reveal that the temperature variation was the dominant factor in determining the daily number of outpatient visits for accidents. Our further multivariable model analysis of temperature with respect to air pollution variables show that, through the increases in emissions and concentrations of CO, photochemical O3 production and NO2 loss in the ambient air, increases in vehicular emissions are associated with increases in temperatures. As such, increases in hospital visits for accidents are related to vehicular emissions and usage. This finding is consistent with clinical experience which shows about 60% to 80% of accidents are related to traffic, followed by accidents occurred in work place. PMID

  6. SDCLIREF - A sub-daily gridded reference dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Raul R.; Willkofer, Florian; Schmid, Franz-Josef; Trentini, Fabian; Komischke, Holger; Ludwig, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is expected to impact the intensity and frequency of hydrometeorological extreme events. In order to adequately capture and analyze extreme rainfall events, in particular when assessing flood and flash flood situations, data is required at high spatial and sub-daily resolution which is often not available in sufficient density and over extended time periods. The ClimEx project (Climate Change and Hydrological Extreme Events) addresses the alteration of hydrological extreme events under climate change conditions. In order to differentiate between a clear climate change signal and the limits of natural variability, unique Single-Model Regional Climate Model Ensembles (CRCM5 driven by CanESM2, RCP8.5) were created for a European and North-American domain, each comprising 50 members of 150 years (1951-2100). In combination with the CORDEX-Database, this newly created ClimEx-Ensemble is a one-of-a-kind model dataset to analyze changes of sub-daily extreme events. For the purpose of bias-correcting the regional climate model ensembles as well as for the baseline calibration and validation of hydrological catchment models, a new sub-daily (3h) high-resolution (500m) gridded reference dataset (SDCLIREF) was created for a domain covering the Upper Danube and Main watersheds ( 100.000km2). As the sub-daily observations lack a continuous time series for the reference period 1980-2010, the need for a suitable method to bridge the gap of the discontinuous time series arouse. The Method of Fragments (Sharma and Srikanthan (2006); Westra et al. (2012)) was applied to transform daily observations to sub-daily rainfall events to extend the time series and densify the station network. Prior to applying the Method of Fragments and creating the gridded dataset using rigorous interpolation routines, data collection of observations, operated by several institutions in three countries (Germany, Austria, Switzerland), and the subsequent quality control of the observations

  7. Efficacy and safety of empagliflozin twice daily versus once daily in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin: a 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ross, S; Thamer, C; Cescutti, J; Meinicke, T; Woerle, H J; Broedl, U C

    2015-07-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7 and ≤10% were randomized to receive empagliflozin 12.5 mg twice daily (n = 219), 25 mg once daily (n = 218), 5 mg twice daily (n = 219) or 10 mg once daily (n = 220), or placebo (n = 107) as add-on to stable-dose metformin immediate release (IR) twice daily for 16 weeks. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in HbA1c at week 16. At week 16, change from baseline in HbA1c with empagliflozin twice daily was non-inferior to empagliflozin once daily and vice versa. The adjusted mean (95% confidence interval) difference in change from baseline in HbA1c with empagliflozin 12.5 mg twice daily versus 25 mg once daily was -0.11% (-0.26, 0.03), and with empagliflozin 5 mg twice daily versus 10 mg once daily it was -0.02% (-0.16, 0.13). All empagliflozin regimens were well tolerated; thus, when used as add-on to metformin IR in patients with T2DM, the therapeutic effect of empagliflozin twice-daily and once-daily regimens can be considered equivalent. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The daily timing of gene expression and physiology in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Schibler, Ueli

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian behavior and physiology undergo daily rhythms that are coordinated by an endogenous circadian timing system. This system has a hierarchical structure, in that a master pacemaker, residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the ventral hypothalamus, synchronizes peripheral oscillators in virtually all body cells. While the basic molecular mechanisms generating the daily rhythms are similar in aIl cells, most clock out-puts are cell-specific. This conclusion is based on genomewide transcriptome profiling studies in several tissues that have revealed hundreds of rhythmically expressed genes. Cyclic gene expression in the various organs governs overt rhythms in behavior and physiology, encompassing sleep-wake cycles, metabolism, xenobiotic detoxification, and cellularproliferation. As a consequence, chronic perturbation of this temporal organization may lead to increased morbidity and reduced lifespan. PMID:17969863

  9. Daily happiness and stock returns: Some international evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Xiao; Shen, Dehua; Teglio, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we examine the relations between the daily happiness sentiment extracted from Twitter and the stock market performance in 11 international stock markets. By partitioning this happiness sentiment into quintiles from the least to the happiest days, we first show that the contemporary correlation coefficients between happiness sentiment and index return in the 4 and most-happiness subgroups are higher than that in least, 2 and 3-happiness subgroups. Secondly, the happiness sentiment can provide additional explanatory power for index return in the most-happiness subgroup. Thirdly, the daily happiness can granger-cause the changes in index return for the majority of stock markets. Fourthly, we find that the index return and the range-based volatility of the most-happiness subgroup are larger than those of other subgroups. These results highlight the important role of social media in stock market.

  10. On the adaptive daily forecasting of seismic aftershock hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimian, Hossein; Jalayer, Fatemeh; Asprone, Domenico; Lombardi, Anna Maria; Marzocchi, Warner; Prota, Andrea; Manfredi, Gaetano

    2013-04-01

    Post-earthquake ground motion hazard assessment is a fundamental initial step towards time-dependent seismic risk assessment for buildings in a post main-shock environment. Therefore, operative forecasting of seismic aftershock hazard forms a viable support basis for decision-making regarding search and rescue, inspection, repair, and re-occupation in a post main-shock environment. Arguably, an adaptive procedure for integrating the aftershock occurrence rate together with suitable ground motion prediction relations is key to Probabilistic Seismic Aftershock Hazard Assessment (PSAHA). In the short-term, the seismic hazard may vary significantly (Jordan et al., 2011), particularly after the occurrence of a high magnitude earthquake. Hence, PSAHA requires a reliable model that is able to track the time evolution of the earthquake occurrence rates together with suitable ground motion prediction relations. This work focuses on providing adaptive daily forecasts of the mean daily rate of exceeding various spectral acceleration values (the aftershock hazard). Two well-established earthquake occurrence models suitable for daily seismicity forecasts associated with the evolution of an aftershock sequence, namely, the modified Omori's aftershock model and the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) are adopted. The parameters of the modified Omori model are updated on a daily basis using Bayesian updating and based on the data provided by the ongoing aftershock sequence based on the methodology originally proposed by Jalayer et al. (2011). The Bayesian updating is used also to provide sequence-based parameter estimates for a given ground motion prediction model, i.e. the aftershock events in an ongoing sequence are exploited in order to update in an adaptive manner the parameters of an existing ground motion prediction model. As a numerical example, the mean daily rates of exceeding specific spectral acceleration values are estimated adaptively for the L'Aquila 2009

  11. Validation of daily increments in otoliths of northern squawfish larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wertheimer, R.H.; Barfoot, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Otoliths from laboratory-reared northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, larvae were examined to determine the periodicity of increment deposition. Increment deposition began in both sagittae and lapilli after hatching. Reader counts indicated that increment formation was daily in sagittae of 1-29-day-old larvae. However, increment counts from lapilli were significantly less than the known ages of northern squawfish larvae, possibly because some increments were not detectable. Otolith readability and age agreement among readers were greatest for young (<11 days) northern squawfish larvae. This was primarily because a transitional zone of low-contrast material began forming in otoliths of 8-11-day-old larvae and persisted until approximately 20 days after hatching. Formation of the transition zone appeared to coincide with the onset of exogenous feeding and continued through yolk sac absorption. Our results indicate that aging wild-caught northern squawfish larvae using daily otolith increment counts is possible.

  12. Daily tornado frequency distributions in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, J. B.; Jagger, T. H.; Widen, H. M.; Chavas, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examine daily tornado counts in the United States over the period 1994-2012 and find strong evidence for a power-law relationship in the distribution frequency. The scaling exponent is estimated at 1.64 (0.019 s.e.) giving a per tornado-day probability of 0.014% (return period of 71 years) that a tornado day produces 145 tornadoes as was observed on 27 April 2011. They also find that the total number of tornadoes by damage category on days with at least one violent tornado follows an exponential rule. On average, the daily number of tornadoes in the next lowest damage category is approximately twice the number in the current category. These findings are important and timely for tornado hazard models and for seasonal and sub-seasonal forecasts of tornado activity.

  13. Daily School Context of Adolescents' Single Best Friendship and Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Witkow, Melissa R; Rickert, Nicolette P; Cullen, Laura E

    2017-01-01

    Research on adolescent best friendships typically focuses on school-based friendships, ignoring important differences between classroom-based and out-of-school friendships. With data from 156 ninth-grade students, many of whom named more than 1 best friend across the 14-day period, the authors examined associations between the daily school context of one's best friendship and adjustment. Benefits of in-grade best friendships were found in academic engagement when a composite was assessed across the 2-week period. Daily findings were more complex and were different between weekends and school days. Out-of-grade best friends were named more frequently on weekends, and on weekend days in which they named an out-of-school best friend participants spent more time with that friend but felt like less of a good student. Implications for our understanding of friendship context and for the measurement of friendship itself are discussed.

  14. Once-daily mesalamine granules for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Garrett; Ahmed, Awais; Moss, Alan C

    2010-07-01

    Mesalamine extended-release capsules (Apriso [Salix Pharmaceuticals, Raleigh, NC, USA]) are the first once-daily mesalamine preparation approved by the US FDA for the maintenance of remission of ulcerative colitis (UC). Each mesalamine extended-release capsule contains granules of a mesalamine-polymer matrix that are coated with a pH-sensitive resin. This design begins releasing mesalamine (0.375 g) once the pH is more than 6 in the ileum and colon. Two clinical trials have reported that mesalamine extended-release capsules (1.5 g/day) maintained remission in 79% of patients with UC who were in clinical remission. Reported adherence with mesalamine extended-release capsules once daily was high (>90%) in these studies. This article examines the efficacy and safety of mesalamine extended-release capsules in the maintenance of remission in patients with UC.

  15. Management of chronic daily headache: challenges in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Saper, Joel R; Dodick, David; Gladstone, Jonathan P

    2005-04-01

    Chronic daily headache (CHD) refers to a category of headache disorders that are characterized by headaches occurring on more than 15 days per month. This category is subdivided into long- and short-duration (>4 or <4 hours) CDH disorders based on the duration of individual headache attacks. Examples of long-duration CDH include transformed migraine (TM), chronic migraine (CM), new daily persistent headache (NDPH), acute medication overuse headache, and hemicrania continua (HC). The goal of this review is to enable clinicians to accurately diagnose and effectively manage patients with long-duration CDH. Patients with CDH often require an aggressive and comprehensive treatment approach that includes a combination of acute and preventive medications, as well as nondrug therapies.

  16. Chronic Daily Headache: Mechanisms and Principles of Management.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Amy W; Gould, Harry J

    2016-02-01

    Primary headache is a common malady that is often under-recognized and frequently inadequately managed in spite of the fact that it affects up to 95 % of the population in a lifetime. Many forms of headache, including episodic tension and migraine headaches, if properly diagnosed, are reasonably amenable to treatment, but a smaller, though not insignificant, percent of the population suffer daily from a chronic, intractable form of headache that destroys one's productivity and quality of life. These patients are frequently seen in neurological practices at a point when treatment options are limited and largely ineffective. In the following review, we will discuss mechanisms drawn from recent studies that address the transition from acute to chronic pain that may apply to the transformation from episodic to chronic daily headaches which may offer opportunities for preempting headache transformation.

  17. Single-accelerometer-based daily physical activity classification.

    PubMed

    Long, Xi; Yin, Bin; Aarts, Ronald M

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a single tri-axial accelerometer placed on the waist was used to record the acceleration data for human physical activity classification. The data collection involved 24 subjects performing daily real-life activities in a naturalistic environment without researchers' intervention. For the purpose of assessing customers' daily energy expenditure, walking, running, cycling, driving, and sports were chosen as target activities for classification. This study compared a Bayesian classification with that of a Decision Tree based approach. A Bayes classifier has the advantage to be more extensible, requiring little effort in classifier retraining and software update upon further expansion or modification of the target activities. Principal components analysis was applied to remove the correlation among features and to reduce the feature vector dimension. Experiments using leave-one-subject-out and 10-fold cross validation protocols revealed a classification accuracy of approximately 80%, which was comparable with that obtained by a Decision Tree classifier.

  18. Daily and estrous rhythmicity of body temperature in domestic cattle

    PubMed Central

    Piccione, Giuseppe; Caola, Giovanni; Refinetti, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Background Rhythmicity in core body temperature has been extensively studied in humans and laboratory animals but much less in farm animals. Extending the study of rhythmicity of body temperature to farm animals is important not only from a comparative perspective but also from an economic perspective, as greater knowledge of this process can lead to improvements in livestock production practices. In this study in cattle, we investigated the maturation of the daily rhythm of body temperature in newborn calves, characterized the parameters of the daily rhythm in young cows, and studied the oscillation in body temperature associated with the estrous cycle in adult cows. Results We found that the daily rhythm of body temperature is absent at birth but matures fully during the first two months of life. The mature rhythm had a mean level of 38.3°C, a range of excursion of 1.4°C, and was more robust than that of any mammalian species previously studied (90% of maximal robustness). Sexually mature cows also exhibited a robust estrous rhythm of body temperature. An elevation of about 1.3°C was observed every 21 days on the day of estrus. Small seasonal variations in this pattern were observed. Conclusion In conclusion, calves exhibit a very robust daily rhythm of body temperature, although this rhythm is absent at birth and develops during the first two months of life. Adult cows exhibit also 21-day rhythmicity in body temperature reflecting the duration of the estrous cycle. PMID:12882649

  19. Nicotine Metabolism in Young Adult Daily Menthol and Nonmenthol Smokers.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Pebbles; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Pagano, Ian S; Franke, Adrian A; Clanton, Mark S; Alexander, Linda A; Trinidad, Dennis R; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K; Johnson, Carl A; Moolchan, Eric T

    2016-04-01

    Menthol cigarette smoking may increase the risk for tobacco smoke exposure and inhibit nicotine metabolism in the liver. Nicotine metabolism is primarily mediated by the enzyme CYP2A6 and the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR = trans 3' hydroxycotinine/cotinine) is a phenotypic proxy for CYP2A6 activity. No studies have examined differences in this biomarker among young adult daily menthol and nonmenthol smokers. This study compares biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure among young adult daily menthol and nonmenthol smokers. Saliva cotinine and carbon monoxide were measured in a multiethnic sample of daily smokers aged 18-35 (n = 186). Nicotine, cotinine, the cotinine/cigarette per day ratio, trans 3' hydroxycotinine, the NMR, and expired carbon monoxide were compared. The geometric means for nicotine, cotinine, and the cotinine/cigarette per day ratio did not significantly differ between menthol and nonmenthol smokers. The NMR was significantly lower among menthol compared with nonmenthol smokers after adjusting for race/ethnicity, gender, body mass index, and cigarette smoked per day (0.19 vs. 0.24, P = .03). White menthol smokers had significantly higher cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio than white nonmenthol smokers in the adjusted model. White menthol smokers had a lower NMR in the unadjusted model (0.24 vs. 0.31, P = .05) and the differences remained marginally significant in the adjusted model (0.28 vs. 0.34, P = .06). We did not observe these differences in Native Hawaiians and Filipinos. Young adult daily menthol smokers have slower rates of nicotine metabolism than nonmenthol smokers. Studies are needed to determine the utility of this biomarker for smoking cessation treatment assignments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Daily interpersonal conflict predicts masked hypertension in an urban sample.

    PubMed

    Schoenthaler, Antoinette M; Schwartz, Joseph; Cassells, Andrea; Tobin, Jonathan N; Brondolo, Elizabeth

    2010-10-01

    Masked hypertension (MH) is a risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, little is known about the effect of psychosocial stressors on MH. Daily interpersonal conflict was examined as a predictor of elevated ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in a community sample of 240 unmedicated black and Latino(a) adults (63% women; mean age 36 years) who had optimal office blood pressure (BP) readings (≤120/80 mm Hg). Electronic diaries were used to assess daily interpersonal conflict (i.e., perceptions of being treated unfairly/harassed during social interactions). Participants rated the degree to which they experienced each interaction as unfair or harassing on a scale of 1-100. Systolic and diastolic ABP (SysABP and DiaABP, respectively) were collected using a validated 24-h ABP monitor. Participants were classified as having marked MH (MMH) if the average of all readings obtained yielded SysABP: ≥135 mm Hg or DiaABP: ≥85 mm Hg. Logistic regression was used to examine whether daily interpersonal conflict is an independent predictor of MMH. This form of MMH (i.e., optimal office BP plus elevated ABP) was present in 21% of participants (n = 50). Those with MMH (vs. without) were significantly more likely to be men (P < 0.001). Daily harassment and unfair treatment scores were significant predictors of MMH group status (P < 0.05). Participants with harassment scores >30 were significantly more likely to be in the MMH group. MH may be a concern, even for patients with optimal office BP. Evaluating exposure to psychosocial stressors, including routine levels of interpersonal conflict may help to identify those patients who might benefit from further clinical follow-up.

  1. Daily rhythms of radiosensitivity of animals and several determining causes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druzhinin, Y. P.; Malyutina, T. S.; Seraya, V. M.; Rodina, G. P.; Vatsek, A.; Rakova, A.

    1974-01-01

    Daily rhythms of radiosensitivity in rats and mice were determined by survival rates after acute total radiation at the same dosage at different times of the day. Radiosensitivity differed in animals of different species and varieties. Inbred mice exhibited one or two increases in radiosensitivity during the dark, active period of the day. These effects were attributed to periodic changes in the state of stem hematopoietic cells.

  2. Weather, season, and daily stroke admissions in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goggins, William B.; Woo, Jean; Ho, Suzanne; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Chau, P. H.

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies examining daily temperature and stroke incidence have given conflicting results. We undertook this retrospective study of all stroke admissions in those aged 35 years old and above to Hong Kong public hospitals from 1999 through 2006 in order to better understand the effects of meteorological conditions on stroke risk in a subtropical setting. We used Poisson Generalized Additive Models with daily hemorrhagic (HS) and ischemic stroke (IS) counts separately as outcomes, and daily mean temperature, humidity, solar radiation, rainfall, air pressure, pollutants, flu consultation rates, day of week, holidays, time trend and seasonality as predictors. Lagged effects of temperature, humidity and pollutants were also considered. A total of 23,457 HS and 107,505 IS admissions were analyzed. Mean daily temperature had a strong, consistent, negative linear association with HS admissions over the range (8.2-31.8°C) observed. A 1°C lower average temperature over the same day and previous 4 days (lags 0-4) being associated with a 2.7% (95% CI: 2.0-3.4%, P < .0.0001) higher admission rate after controlling for other variables. This association was stronger among older subjects and females. Higher lag 0-4 average change in air pressure from previous day was modestly associated with higher HS risk. The association between IS and temperature was weaker and apparent only below 22°C, with a 1°C lower average temperature (lags 0-13) below this threshold being associated with a 1.6% (95% CI:1.0-2.2%, P < 0.0001) higher IS admission rate. Pollutant levels were not associated with HS or IS. Future studies should examine HS and IS risk separately.

  3. Clinical Guidelines and Implementation into Daily Dental Practice.

    PubMed

    Guncu, Guliz Nigar; Nemli, Secil Karakoca; Carrilho, Eunice; Yamalık, Nermin; Volodina, Elena; Melo, Paulo; Margvelashvili, Vladimer; Rossi, Alessandra

    2018-01-31

    The purpose of this study is to assess the extent of the familiarity, attitude and perceptions of dental professionals regarding clinical dental guidelines and their implementation into daily dental practice. For this purpose, a questionnaire which was developed by the members of the World Dental Federation, European Regional Organization Working Group - 'Relation Between Dental Practitioner and Universities', was implemented by the National Dental Associations of six European Regional Organization-zone countries (Georgian Stomatological Association - Georgia, Associazione Nazionale Dentisti Italiani - Italy, Portuguese Dental Association - Portugal, Russian Dental Association - Russia, Swiss Dental Association - Switzerland, and Turkish Dental Association - Turkey. The questionnaire was filled by a total of 910 dental professionals who are members of one of these national dental associations and who voluntarily wanted to participate to this survey. Most of the survey participants were familiar with clinical dental guidelines (68%), claimed that they implemented them into daily practice (61.7%), and generally acknowledged their benefits (81.8%). Many participants believed that clinical dental guidelines could help to improve the clinical treatment plan (50.6 %) and the accuracy of diagnosis (39.4%); which increased with age and years of practice (p < 0.05). The most frequently perceived barrier to the effective implementation of clinical dental guidelines was expressed as 'lack of awareness', while participants suggested a role for national dental associations in spreading clinical dental guidelines. A better understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of dentists towards clinical dental guidelines and the potential impact of factors affecting such perceptions and attitudes may be of particular importance for attempts aiming at overcoming the barriers for effective implementation of clinical dental guidelines into daily practice. Despite a significant

  4. Corneal inflammatory events with daily silicone hydrogel lens wear.

    PubMed

    Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta; Jiang, Ying; Raghupathy, Sangeetha; Bielefeld, Roger A; Garvey, Matthew T; Jacobs, Michael R; Kern, Jami; Debanne, Sara M

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the probability and risk factors for developing a corneal inflammatory event (CIE) during daily wear of lotrafilcon A silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Eligible participants (n = 218) were fit with lotrafilcon A lenses for daily wear and followed up for 12 months. Participants were randomized to either a polyhexamethylene biguanide-preserved multipurpose solution or a one-step peroxide disinfection system. The main exposures of interest were bacterial contamination of lenses, cases, lid margins, and ocular surface. Kaplan-Meier (KM) plots were used to estimate the cumulative unadjusted probability of remaining free from a CIE, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the hazard of experiencing a CIE. The KM unadjusted cumulative probability of remaining free from a CIE for both lens care groups combined was 92.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88.1 to 96.5%). There was one participant with microbial keratitis, five participants with asymptomatic infiltrates, and seven participants with contact lens peripheral ulcers, providing KM survival estimates of 92.8% (95% CI, 88.6 to 96.9%) and 98.1% (95% CI, 95.8 to 100.0%) for remaining free from noninfectious and symptomatic CIEs, respectively. The presence of substantial (>100 colony-forming units) coagulase-negative staphylococci bioburden on lid margins was associated with about a five-fold increased risk for the development of a CIE (p = 0.04). The probability of experiencing a CIE during daily wear of lotrafilcon A contact lenses is low, and symptomatic CIEs are rare. Patient factors, such as high levels of bacterial bioburden on lid margins, contribute to the development of noninfectious CIEs during daily wear of silicone hydrogel lenses.

  5. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China✩

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. PMID:26441296

  6. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-01

    China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation analyses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking-related variables affected making a quit attempt. An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15-24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clean Water Act Approved Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information from Approved and Established TMDL Documents as well as TMDLs that have been Withdrawn. This includes the pollutants identified in the TMDL Document, the 303(d) Listed Water(s) that the TMDL Document addresses and the associated Cause(s) of Impairment. The National Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Tracking System (NTTS) contains information on waters that are Not Supporting their designated uses. These waters are listed by the state as impaired under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act.

  8. The effect of insoles on foot pain and daily activities.

    PubMed

    Amer, Ahmed O; Jarl, Gustav M; Hermansson, Liselotte N

    2014-12-01

    Foot pain decreases individuals' ability to perform daily activities. Insoles are often prescribed to reduce the pain which, in turn, may promote return to normal activities. To evaluate the effects of insoles on foot pain and daily activities, and to investigate the relationship between individuals' satisfaction with insoles and actual use of them. A 4-week pre-post intervention follow-up. Brief Pain Inventory, International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Lower Extremities Functional Status were used as outcome measures. Client Satisfaction with Device was used in the follow-up. A total of 67 participants answered the questionnaires (81% women). Overall, a reduction in Pain Severity (p = 0.002) and Pain Interference (p = 0.008) was shown. Secondary analyses revealed a significant effect only in women. No changes in daily activities (Walking, p = 0.867; Total Physical Activity, p = 0.842; Lower Extremities Functional Status, p = 0.939) could be seen. There was no relation between Client Satisfaction with Device measures and duration of insole use. A difference in sex was shown; women scored higher than men on Pain Severity. Insoles reduce pain and pain interference with daily activities for women with foot pain. Satisfaction with the insoles is not a predictor of actual insole use. The effect of insoles on activity performance needs further study. This study provides evidence for prescribing insoles to people with foot pain. Nonetheless, insoles are not enough to increase their physical activity level in the short term. Satisfaction with insoles and duration of use are not correlated and cannot be inferred from each other. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.

  9. Forecasting daily passenger traffic volumes in the Moscow metro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Osetrov, E. S.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we have developed a methodology for the medium-term prediction of daily volumes of passenger traffic in the Moscow metro. It includes three options for the forecast: (1) based on artificial neural networks (ANNs), (2) singular-spectral analysis implemented in the Caterpillar-SSA package, and (3) a combination of the ANN and Caterpillar-SSA approaches. The methods and algorithms allow the mediumterm forecasting of passenger traffic flows in the Moscow metro with reasonable accuracy.

  10. Identification of anomalous motion of thunderstorms using daily rainfall fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Moral, Anna; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Rigo, Tomeu

    2016-04-01

    Adverse weather phenomena in Catalonia (NE of the Iberian Peninsula) is commonly associated to heavy rains, large hail, strong winds, and/or tornados, all of them caused by thunderstorms. In most of the cases with adverse weather, thunderstorms vary sharply their trajectories in a concrete moment, changing completely the motion directions that have previously followed. Furthermore, it is possible that a breaking into several cells may be produced, or, in the opposite, it can be observed a joining of different thunderstorms into a bigger system. In order to identify the main features of the developing process of thunderstorms and the anomalous motions that these may follow in some cases, this contribution presents a classification of the events using daily rainfall fields, with the purpose of distinguishing quickly anomalous motion of thunderstorms. The methodology implemented allows classifying the daily rainfall fields in three categories by applying some thresholds related with the daily precipitation accumulated values and their extension: days with "no rain", days with "potentially convective" rain and days with "non-potentially convective" rain. Finally, for those "potentially convective" daily rainfall charts, it also allows a geometrical identification and classification of all the convective structures into "ellipse" and "non-ellipse", obtaining then the structures with "normal" or "anomalous" motion pattern, respectively. The work is focused on the period 2008-2015, and presents some characteristics of the rainfall behaviour in terms of the seasonal distribution of convective rainfall or the geographic variability. It shows that convective structures are mainly found during late spring and summer, even though they can be recorded in any time of the year. Consequently, the maximum number of convective structures with anomalous motion is recorded between July and November. Furthermore, the contribution shows the role of the orography of Catalonia in the

  11. Nicotine Metabolism in Young Adult Daily Menthol and Nonmenthol Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Pagano, Ian S.; Franke, Adrian A.; Clanton, Mark S.; Alexander, Linda A.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.; Johnson, Carl A.; Moolchan, Eric T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Menthol cigarette smoking may increase the risk for tobacco smoke exposure and inhibit nicotine metabolism in the liver. Nicotine metabolism is primarily mediated by the enzyme CYP2A6 and the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR = trans 3′ hydroxycotinine/cotinine) is a phenotypic proxy for CYP2A6 activity. No studies have examined differences in this biomarker among young adult daily menthol and nonmenthol smokers. This study compares biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure among young adult daily menthol and nonmenthol smokers. Methods: Saliva cotinine and carbon monoxide were measured in a multiethnic sample of daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 186). Nicotine, cotinine, the cotinine/cigarette per day ratio, trans 3′ hydroxycotinine, the NMR, and expired carbon monoxide were compared. Results: The geometric means for nicotine, cotinine, and the cotinine/cigarette per day ratio did not significantly differ between menthol and nonmenthol smokers. The NMR was significantly lower among menthol compared with nonmenthol smokers after adjusting for race/ethnicity, gender, body mass index, and cigarette smoked per day (0.19 vs. 0.24, P = .03). White menthol smokers had significantly higher cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio than white nonmenthol smokers in the adjusted model. White menthol smokers had a lower NMR in the unadjusted model (0.24 vs. 0.31, P = .05) and the differences remained marginally significant in the adjusted model (0.28 vs. 0.34, P = .06). We did not observe these differences in Native Hawaiians and Filipinos. Conclusions: Young adult daily menthol smokers have slower rates of nicotine metabolism than nonmenthol smokers. Studies are needed to determine the utility of this biomarker for smoking cessation treatment assignments. PMID:25995160

  12. Daily Mood Patterns and Bulimic Behaviors in the Natural Environment

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Ross D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Engel, Scott G.; Simonich, Heather; Smyth, Joshua; Mitchell, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Negative affect has been purported to play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of bulimic behaviors. The objective of this study was to identify daily mood patterns in the natural environment exhibited by individuals with bulimia nervosa and to examine the relationship between these patterns and bulimic behaviors. Method One hundred thirty-three women aged 18–55 meeting DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa were recruited through clinical referrals and community advertisements. Ecological momentary assessment was used to collect multiple ratings of negative affect, binge eating and purging each day for a two-week period using palmtop computers. Latent growth mixture modeling was used to identify daily mood patterns. Results Nine distinct daily mood patterns were identified. The highest rates of binge eating and purging episodes occurred on days characterized by stable high negative affect or increasing negative affect over the course of the day. Conclusions These findings support the conclusion that negative mood states are intimately tied to bulimic behaviors and may in fact precipitate such behavior. PMID:19152874

  13. Reward and punishment learning in daily life: A replication study

    PubMed Central

    van Roekel, Eeske; Wichers, Marieke; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2017-01-01

    Day-to-day experiences are accompanied by feelings of Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA). Implicitly, without conscious processing, individuals learn about the reward and punishment value of each context and activity. These associative learning processes, in turn, affect the probability that individuals will re-engage in such activities or seek out that context. So far, implicit learning processes are almost exclusively investigated in controlled laboratory settings and not in daily life. Here we aimed to replicate the first study that investigated implicit learning processes in real life, by means of the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). That is, using an experience-sampling study with 90 time points (three measurements over 30 days), we prospectively measured time spent in social company and amount of physical activity as well as PA and NA in the daily lives of 18-24-year-old young adults (n = 69 with anhedonia, n = 69 without anhedonia). Multilevel analyses showed a punishment learning effect with regard to time spent in company of friends, but not a reward learning effect. Neither reward nor punishment learning effects were found with regard to physical activity. Our study shows promising results for future research on implicit learning processes in daily life, with the proviso of careful consideration of the timescale used. Short-term retrospective ESM design with beeps approximately six hours apart may suffer from mismatch noise that hampers accurate detection of associative learning effects over time. PMID:28976985

  14. Induction of testicular damage by daily methamphetamine administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ji-Fan; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Liao, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Chia; Tsai, Te-Fu; Chou, Kuang-Yu; Chen, Hung-En; Tsai, Shiow-Chwen; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2014-02-28

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced brain damage and apoptosis within the central nervous system are well documented. This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of daily METH administration on the testes in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (5 weeks old, ~100 g, n = 64) were divided into two groups and treated with vehicle (saline, control) or METH (10 mg/kg) for 15, 30, 60 and 90 days. The results showed that daily administration of METH decreased the body, testicular and epididymis weights as well as the serum levels of total testosterone. The increased apoptotic index (Bad/Bcl2 expression ratio) and levels of cleaved caspase-3 indicated that apoptosis had occurred in the testes of the METH-treated rats. The oxidative stress levels increased as the reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio decreased. The overall sperm counts decreased at 15 and 90 days, where- as morphologically abnormal sperm counts increased at 30, 60 and 90 days in the METH-treated rats. This study demonstrates that daily exposure to METH significantly reduced the number and quality of sperm in rats. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms likely include the reduction of serum testosterone levels and the increase of oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat testes.

  15. Emotional reactivity to daily events in major and minor depression.

    PubMed

    Bylsma, Lauren M; Taylor-Clift, April; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    Although emotional dysfunction is an important aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD), it has rarely been studied in daily life. Peeters, Nicolson, Berkhof, Delespaul, and deVries (2003) observed a surprising mood-brightening effect when individuals with MDD reported greater reactivity to positive events. To better understand this phenomenon, we conducted a multimethod assessment of emotional reactivity to daily life events, obtaining detailed reports of appraisals and event characteristics using the experience-sampling method and the Day Reconstruction Method (Kahneman, Krueger, Schkade, Schwarz, & Stone, 2004) in 35 individuals currently experiencing a major depressive episode, 26 in a minor depressive (mD) episode, and 38 never-depressed healthy controls. Relative to healthy controls, both mood-disordered groups reported greater daily negative affect and lower positive affect and reported events as less pleasant, more unpleasant, and more stressful. Importantly, MDD and mD individuals reported greater reductions in negative affect following positive events, an effect that converged across assessment methods and was not explained by differences in prevailing affect, event appraisals, or medications. Implications of this curious mood-brightening effect are discussed. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Detroit.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J

    1991-12-01

    Particulate air pollution has been associated with increased mortality during episodes of high pollution concentrations. The relationship at lower concentrations has been more controversial, as has the relative role of particles and sulfur dioxide. Replication has been difficult because suspended particle concentrations are usually measured only every sixth day in the U.S. This study used concurrent measurements of total suspended particulates (TSP) and airport visibility from every sixth day sampling for 10 years to fit a predictive model for TSP. Predicted daily TSP concentrations were then correlated with daily mortality counts in Poisson regression models controlling for season, weather, time trends, overdispersion, and serial correlation. A significant correlation (P less than 0.0001) was found between predicted TSP and daily mortality. This correlation was independent of sulfur dioxide, but not vice versa. The magnitude of the effect was very similar to results recently reported from Steubenville, Ohio (using actual TSP measurements), with each 100 micrograms/m3 increase in TSP resulting in a 6% increase in mortality. Graphical analysis indicated a dose-response relationship with no evidence of a threshold down to concentrations below half of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter.

  17. Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Predicting and Mapping Daily Pan Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunkumar, R.; Jothiprakash, V.; Sharma, Kirty

    2017-09-01

    In this study, Artificial Intelligence techniques such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Model Tree (MT) and Genetic Programming (GP) are used to develop daily pan evaporation time-series (TS) prediction and cause-effect (CE) mapping models. Ten years of observed daily meteorological data such as maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, dew point temperature and pan evaporation are used for developing the models. For each technique, several models are developed by changing the number of inputs and other model parameters. The performance of each model is evaluated using standard statistical measures such as Mean Square Error, Mean Absolute Error, Normalized Mean Square Error and correlation coefficient (R). The results showed that daily TS-GP (4) model predicted better with a correlation coefficient of 0.959 than other TS models. Among various CE models, CE-ANN (6-10-1) resulted better than MT and GP models with a correlation coefficient of 0.881. Because of the complex non-linear inter-relationship among various meteorological variables, CE mapping models could not achieve the performance of TS models. From this study, it was found that GP performs better for recognizing single pattern (time series modelling), whereas ANN is better for modelling multiple patterns (cause-effect modelling) in the data.

  18. Relevance of human anatomy in daily clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Sánchez-Montesinos, Indalecio; Mirapeix, Rosa-M; Mompeo-Corredera, Blanca; Sañudo-Tejero, Jose-Ramón

    2010-12-20

    the aim of this study has been to evaluate the relevance of gross human anatomy in daily clinical practice and to compare it to that of other basic sciences (biochemistry, bioethics, cytohistology, microbiology, pharmacology, physiology, psychology). a total of 1250 questionnaires were distributed among 38 different medical speciality professionals. Answers were analyzed taking into account speciality (medical, surgery and others), professional status (training physician or staff member) and professional experience. the response rate was 42.9% (n=536). Gross human anatomy was considered the most relevant basic discipline for surgical specialists, while pharmacology and physiology were most relevant for medical specialists. Knowledge of anatomy was also considered fundamental for understanding neurological or musculoskeletal disorders. In undergraduate programmes, the most important focuses in teaching anatomy were radiological, topographical and functional anatomy followed by systematic anatomy. In daily medical practice anatomy was considered basic for physical examination, symptom interpretation and interpretation of radiological images. When professional status or professional experience was considered, small variations were shown and there were no significant differences related to gender or community. our results underline the relevance of basic sciences (gross anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology) in daily professional activity. Evidence-based studies such as ours, lend greater credibility and objectivity to the role of gross anatomy in the undergraduate training of health professionals and should help to establish a more appropriate curriculum for future professionals. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Seasonal variations in daily rhythms of activity in athletic horses.

    PubMed

    Bertolucci, C; Giannetto, C; Fazio, F; Piccione, G

    2008-07-01

    Circadian rhythms reflect extensive programming of biological activity that meets and exploits the challenges and opportunities offered by the periodic nature of the environment. In the present investigation, we recorded the total activity of athletic horses kept at four different times of the year (vernal equinox, summer solstice, autumn equinox and winter solstice), to evaluate the presence of seasonal variations of daily activity rhythms. Athletic Thoroughbred horses were kept in individual boxes with paddock. Digitally integrated measure of total activity of each mare was continuously recorded by actigraphy-based data loggers. Horse total activities were not evenly distributed over the day, but they were mainly diurnal during the year. Daily activity rhythms showed clear seasonal variations, with the highest daily amount of activity during the vernal equinox and the lowest during the winter solstice. Interestingly, the amount of activity during either photophase or scotophase changed significantly throughout the year. Circadian analysis of horse activities showed that the acrophase, the estimated time at which the peak of the rhythm occurs, did not change during the year, it always occurred in the middle of the photoperiod. Analysing the time structure of long-term and continuously measured activity and feeding could be a useful method to critically evaluate athletic horse management systems in which spontaneous locomotor activity and feeding are severely limited. Circadian rhythms are present in several elements of sensory motor and psychomotor functions and these would be taken into consideration to plan the training schedules and competitions in athletic horses.

  20. A Defense of The-Risks-of-Daily-Life

    PubMed Central

    Binik, Ariella

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research examining the safe and effective treatment of diseases and disorders affecting children offers one of the best prospects for improving the medical treatment of children. But the inclusion of children in research raises difficult ethical questions, among them: To how much risk is it permissible to expose children in research? Various thresholds have been proposed to constrain research risks that do not offer children the prospect of direct medical benefit. These proposals include limiting research risks to (1) the risks of routine medical examinations, (2) the risks of participation in charitable activities, (3) the risks of family life, and (4) the risks-of-daily-life. I examine which, if any, of these proposals is defensible. I argue that only the risks-of-daily-life threshold is defensible and I offer a new justification for this risk threshold. I argue that the risks of daily life are justifiable because they are part of a reasonable trade-off between personal safety and our ability to pursue meaningful lives. PMID:28989167

  1. Computation of rainfall erosivity from daily precipitation amounts.

    PubMed

    Beguería, Santiago; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Tomas-Burguera, Miquel

    2018-10-01

    Rainfall erosivity is an important parameter in many erosion models, and the EI30 defined by the Universal Soil Loss Equation is one of the best known erosivity indices. One issue with this and other erosivity indices is that they require continuous breakpoint, or high frequency time interval, precipitation data. These data are rare, in comparison to more common medium-frequency data, such as daily precipitation data commonly recorded by many national and regional weather services. Devising methods for computing estimates of rainfall erosivity from daily precipitation data that are comparable to those obtained by using high-frequency data is, therefore, highly desired. Here we present a method for producing such estimates, based on optimal regression tools such as the Gamma Generalised Linear Model and universal kriging. Unlike other methods, this approach produces unbiased and very close to observed EI30, especially when these are aggregated at the annual level. We illustrate the method with a case study comprising more than 1500 high-frequency precipitation records across Spain. Although the original records have a short span (the mean length is around 10 years), computation of spatially-distributed upscaling parameters offers the possibility to compute high-resolution climatologies of the EI30 index based on currently available, long-span, daily precipitation databases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Smoking patterns and stimulus control in intermittent and daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah M; Tindle, Hilary A; Anderson, Stewart J; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent smokers (ITS) - who smoke less than daily - comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4-27 days per month) compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5-30 cigarettes daily) who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n=21,539 smoking episodes); parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n=26,930 non-smoking occasions). Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or "indulgent" smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS.

  3. Performance of activities of daily living among hospitalized cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Line; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen; la Cour, Karen; Søndergaard, Jens

    2015-03-01

    Many cancer patients report unmet rehabilitation needs. Rehabilitation may include activities of daily living (ADL) tasks, but little is known about how cancer patients perform these tasks and how they prioritize their daily activities. Hence, this study aims to identify and characterize ADL task performance problems among a group of adult disabled hospitalized cancer patients using interview and questionnaire data. Cross-sectional study on prevalence of ADL task performance problems experienced by disabled hospitalized cancer patients using the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADL-Q) (n = 118) and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) (n = 55). All 118 patients reported problems with ADL task performance. Based on the ADL-Q patients reported more problems within instrumental (I-)ADL than personal (P-)ADL. In both I-ADL and P-ADL the results differed between women and men. There was significant overlap between problems identified using the COPM and the ADL-Q instruments. RESULTS from the COPM showed that 65% of problems were related to self-care, 25% to leisure, and 19% to productivity. Using both instruments identified more ADL problems than when using only one of the instruments. Adult hospitalized disabled cancer patients experience a high degree and variation in difficulties performing ADL, illustrating the need for a comprehensively planned assessment of problems and needs.

  4. Bayesian multinomial probit modeling of daily windows of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Past epidemiologic studies suggest maternal ambient air pollution exposure during critical periods of the pregnancy is associated with fetal development. We introduce a multinomial probit model that allows for the joint identification of susceptible daily periods during the pregnancy for 12 individual types of CHDs with respect to maternal PM2.5 exposure. We apply the model to a dataset of mothers from the National Birth Defect Prevention Study where daily PM2.5 exposures from weeks 2-8 of pregnancy are assigned (specific to each location and pregnancy date) using predictions from the downscaler pollution model. Results are compared to an aggregated exposure model which defines exposure as the average value over pregnancy weeks 2-8. Increased PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy days 53 and 50-51 for pulmonary valve stenosis and tetralogy of Fallot, respectively, are associated with an increased probability of development of each CHD. The largest estimated effect is seen for atrioventricular septal defects on pregnancy day 14. The aggregated exposure model fails to identify any significant windows of susceptibility during pregnancy weeks 2-8 for the considered CHDs. Considering daily PM2.5 exposures in a new modeling framework revealed positive associations for defects that the standard aggregated exposure model was unable to identify. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views or policie

  5. Fertility of the male alpaca: effect of daily consecutive breeding.

    PubMed

    Bravo, P W; Solis, P; Ordoñez, C; Alarcon, V

    1997-04-01

    The fertility of the male alpaca under different frequencies of daily consecutive matings was evaluated. Fifteen adult male Huacaya alpacas were divided randomly into three groups of five each to breed lactating female alpacas. The schedule of daily matings was two, four and six consecutive breeding per group and for nine consecutive days. Ovulation was determined by progesterone at seven days after breeding. Pregnancy was determined by ultrasonography at 15 and 30 days after breeding. Two hundred and eighty females were bred with some males not fulfilling their schedule of breeding. There were differences (P < 0.05) in the fertility rate of males breeding two and four times daily (76%) in contrast to 59% for males breeding six times. There were also differences (P < 0.05) in the fertility of individual males. Length of copulation was affected (P < 0.05) by schedule of matings, day of breeding and male. Ovulation was independent of length of copulation. Overall, it seems the fertility of the male alpaca is affected significantly when consecutive matings are over four times a day and for nine consecutive days.

  6. Identification of anomalous motion of thunderstorms using daily rainfall fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moral, Anna del; Llasat, María del Carmen; Rigo, Tomeu

    2017-03-01

    Most of the adverse weather phenomena in Catalonia (northeast Iberian Peninsula) are caused by convective events, which can produce heavy rains, large hailstones, strong winds, lightning and/or tornadoes. These thunderstorms usually have marked paths. However, their trajectories can vary sharply at any given time, completely changing direction from the path they have previously followed. Furthermore, some thunderstorms split or merge with each other, creating new formations with different behaviour. In order to identify the potentially anomalous movements that some thunderstorms make, this paper presents a two-step methodology using a database with 8 years of daily rainfall fields data for the Catalonia region (2008-2015). First, it classifies daily rainfall fields between days with "no rain", "non-potentially convective rain" and "potentially convective rain", based on daily accumulated precipitation and extension thresholds. Second, it categorises convective structures within rainfall fields and briefly identifies their main features, distinguishing whether there were any anomalous thunderstorm movements in each case. This methodology has been applied to the 2008-2015 period, and the main climatic features of convective and non-convective days were obtained. The methodology can be exported to other regions that do not have the necessary radar-based algorithms to detect convective cells, but where there is a good rain gauge network in place.

  7. Smoking Patterns and Stimulus Control in Intermittent and Daily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S.; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah M.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Ferguson, Stuart G.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent smokers (ITS) – who smoke less than daily – comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4–27 days per month) compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5–30 cigarettes daily) who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n = 21,539 smoking episodes); parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n = 26,930 non-smoking occasions). Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or “indulgent” smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS. PMID:24599056

  8. Caffeine daily intake from dietary sources in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camargo, M C; Toledo, M C; Farah, H G

    1999-02-01

    A survey on the potential intake of caffeine was carried out in Campinas, SP, Brazil, in the summer of 1993. The survey was based on a representative sample of 600 individuals, 9-80 years old, who were asked about their habitual usage of coffee, tea, chocolate products and carbonated beverages. Caffeine levels in the products were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with a UV-visible detector at 254 nm. Individual daily intakes (mg/kg b.w.) of caffeine were calculated from the consumption data generated by the survey and the caffeine content of the analysed products. Of all those interviewed, 81% consumed soft drinks regularly, 75% coffee, 65% chocolate products and 37% tea. Of the analysed products, coffee showed the highest amount of caffeine. The average and median potential daily intake of caffeine by the studied population were, respectively, 2.74 and 1.85 mg/kg b.w. Coffee, tea, chocolate products and carbonated beverages accounted for median individual daily intakes of 1.90, 0.32, 0.19, and 0.19 mg/kg b.w., respectively. These data show that coffee is the most important vehicle for caffeine intake within the studied population.

  9. Reconstruction of missing daily streamflow data using dynamic regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tencaliec, Patricia; Favre, Anne-Catherine; Prieur, Clémentine; Mathevet, Thibault

    2015-12-01

    River discharge is one of the most important quantities in hydrology. It provides fundamental records for water resources management and climate change monitoring. Even very short data-gaps in this information can cause extremely different analysis outputs. Therefore, reconstructing missing data of incomplete data sets is an important step regarding the performance of the environmental models, engineering, and research applications, thus it presents a great challenge. The objective of this paper is to introduce an effective technique for reconstructing missing daily discharge data when one has access to only daily streamflow data. The proposed procedure uses a combination of regression and autoregressive integrated moving average models (ARIMA) called dynamic regression model. This model uses the linear relationship between neighbor and correlated stations and then adjusts the residual term by fitting an ARIMA structure. Application of the model to eight daily streamflow data for the Durance river watershed showed that the model yields reliable estimates for the missing data in the time series. Simulation studies were also conducted to evaluate the performance of the procedure.

  10. Creating a global sub-daily precipitation dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley

    2017-04-01

    Extremes of precipitation can cause flooding and droughts which can lead to substantial damages to infrastructure and ecosystems and can result in loss of life. It is still uncertain how hydrological extremes will change with global warming as we do not fully understand the processes that cause extreme precipitation under current climate variability. The INTENSE project is using a novel and fully-integrated data-modelling approach to provide a step-change in our understanding of the nature and drivers of global precipitation extremes and change on societally relevant timescales, leading to improved high-resolution climate model representation of extreme rainfall processes. The INTENSE project is in conjunction with the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)'s Grand Challenge on 'Understanding and Predicting Weather and Climate Extremes' and the Global Water and Energy Exchanges Project (GEWEX) Science questions. The first step towards achieving this is to construct a new global sub-daily precipitation dataset. Data collection is ongoing and already covers North America, Europe, Asia and Australasia. Comprehensive, open source quality control software is being developed to set a new standard for verifying sub-daily precipitation data and a set of global hydroclimatic indices will be produced based upon stakeholder recommendations. This will provide a unique global data resource on sub-daily precipitation whose derived indices, e.g. monthly/annual maxima, will be freely available to the wider scientific community.

  11. Reward and punishment learning in daily life: A replication study.

    PubMed

    Heininga, Vera E; van Roekel, Eeske; Wichers, Marieke; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2017-01-01

    Day-to-day experiences are accompanied by feelings of Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA). Implicitly, without conscious processing, individuals learn about the reward and punishment value of each context and activity. These associative learning processes, in turn, affect the probability that individuals will re-engage in such activities or seek out that context. So far, implicit learning processes are almost exclusively investigated in controlled laboratory settings and not in daily life. Here we aimed to replicate the first study that investigated implicit learning processes in real life, by means of the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). That is, using an experience-sampling study with 90 time points (three measurements over 30 days), we prospectively measured time spent in social company and amount of physical activity as well as PA and NA in the daily lives of 18-24-year-old young adults (n = 69 with anhedonia, n = 69 without anhedonia). Multilevel analyses showed a punishment learning effect with regard to time spent in company of friends, but not a reward learning effect. Neither reward nor punishment learning effects were found with regard to physical activity. Our study shows promising results for future research on implicit learning processes in daily life, with the proviso of careful consideration of the timescale used. Short-term retrospective ESM design with beeps approximately six hours apart may suffer from mismatch noise that hampers accurate detection of associative learning effects over time.

  12. Effects of daily maladaptive coping on nightly sleep in mothers.

    PubMed

    Felder, Jennifer N; Epel, Elissa S; Coccia, Michael; Puterman, Eli; Prather, Aric A

    2018-01-01

    We examined effects of daily rumination and suppression in response to stressors on objective and subjective sleep among mothers. Participants were 183 mothers, including chronically stressed mothers of children with an autism spectrum disorder (M-ASD; n = 92) and age-matched mothers of neurotypical children (M-NT; n = 91). In an intensive longitudinal design, participants provided reports of daily rumination and suppression, nightly objective actigraphy-defined sleep and nightly subjective sleep quality for seven consecutive days at baseline, 9 months and 18 months. Total sleep time, sleep fragmentation, sleep onset latency, and subjective sleep quality. Among M-NT with above average depressive symptoms, higher daily rumination was associated with shorter total sleep time. Rumination was associated with more sleep fragmentation among M-NT at the trend level. Rumination was not associated with sleep onset latency among M-NT, or with any sleep outcomes among M-ASD. Suppression was not associated with any sleep outcomes. We provide novel evidence of the effect of rumination on objectively measured sleep duration among M-NT. Coping was not related to sleep among M-ASD. Given the prevalence of poor sleep among mothers, future work should examine modifiable factors perpetuating sleep disturbance.

  13. Dissociation between the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of once-daily rivaroxaban and twice-daily apixaban: a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Kreutz, R; Persson, P B; Kubitza, D; Thelen, K; Heitmeier, S; Schwers, S; Becka, M; Hemmrich, M

    2017-10-01

    Essentials In this crossover study the anticoagulant effects of rivaroxaban and apixaban were compared. Healthy volunteers received rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily or apixaban 5 mg twice daily. Rivaroxaban was associated with more prolonged inhibition of thrombin generation than apixaban. Rivaroxaban induced a clear prolongation of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. Background The anticoagulant actions of the oral direct activated factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban and apixaban, have not previously been directly compared. Objectives To compare directly the steady-state pharmacokinetics and anticoagulant effects of rivaroxaban and apixaban at doses approved for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Methods Twenty-four healthy Caucasian male volunteers were included in this open-label, two-period crossover, phase 1 study (EudraCT number: 2015-002612-32). Volunteers were randomized to receive rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily or apixaban 5 mg twice daily for 7 days, followed by a washout period of at least 7 days before they received the other treatment. Plasma concentrations and anticoagulant effects were measured at steady state and after drug discontinuation. Results Overall exposure was similar for both drugs: the geometric mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve for the 0-24-h interval was 1830 μg h L -1 for rivaroxaban and 1860 μg h L -1 for apixaban. Rivaroxaban was associated with greater inhibition of endogenous thrombin potential (geometric mean area under the curve relative to baseline during the 0-24-h interval: 15.5 h versus 17.5 h) and a more pronounced maximal prolongation relative to baseline of prothrombin time (PT) (1.66-fold versus 1.14-fold) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (1.43-fold versus 1.16-fold) at steady state than apixaban. Conclusions Despite similar exposure to both drugs, rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily was associated with greater and more

  14. The Effects of Employment Status and Daily Stressors on Time Spent on Daily Household Chores in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Jen D.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study: This study examines how employment status (worker vs. retiree) and life course influences (age, gender, and marital status) are associated with time spent on daily household chores. Second, this study assesses whether the associations between daily stressors and time spent on daily household chores differ as a function of…

  15. Multi-centre evaluation of two daily disposable contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jon; Young, Graeme; Hunt, Chris; Henderson, Terri

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate the clinical performance of two daily disposable contact lenses: 1-DAY ACUVUE (1DA) (etafilcon A, Johnson & Johnson Vision Care) and FOCUS DAILIES with AquaComfort (FD) (nelfilcon A, CIBA Vision, Inc.), which contains a quickly released moisture enhancing agent, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). This was a 1-week, daily wear, subject-masked, bilateral, parallel group study with subjects randomly assigned to one of two daily disposable soft contact lenses. Subjects were existing soft contact lens wearers in the age range 18-39 years with a spherical refraction between -0.50 and -6.00 D. Subjects were assessed at baseline and after 1 week. Assessments included both subjective (symptoms, wearing time, vision) and objective (lens fit and ocular health) outcomes. Twenty clinical sites enrolled 282 subjects (74% female) of whom 276 (98%) successfully completed the study. Significantly more 1DA wearers reported higher mean comfort scores than with FD (3.95 versus 3.41, respectively, P<0.0001). End-of-day comfort means were also significantly higher with the 1DA group compared to the FD group (3.3 versus 3.0, P=0.03). The 1DA group reported significantly longer mean overall wearing time (1DA was worn on average 0.66+/-0.30 h longer than FD, P=0.03) and longer mean comfortable wearing time (1DA was worn on average 1.73+/-0.35 h longer than FD, P<0.0001). The 1DA lens generally showed significantly better on-eye fitting in terms of movement in primary (P<0.0001) and upgaze (P<0.0001) and ease of removal from the eye (92% versus 63%, P<0.0001) compared to FD. There was significantly less corneal staining observed with the 1DA wearing eyes compared with the FD wearing eyes (23% versus 45%, respectively, P<0.0001). Finally, there was a weak correlation between corneal staining and comfort for FD (r=0.27, P=0.002, n=136), but not for 1DA (r=-0.11, P=0.18, n=140). Subjective and objective clinical performance differences between two commonly used daily disposable lenses

  16. Estimating wheat and maize daily evapotranspiration using artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrishami, Nazanin; Sepaskhah, Ali Reza; Shahrokhnia, Mohammad Hossein

    2018-02-01

    In this research, artificial neural network (ANN) is used for estimating wheat and maize daily standard evapotranspiration. Ten ANN models with different structures were designed for each crop. Daily climatic data [maximum temperature (T max), minimum temperature (T min), average temperature (T ave), maximum relative humidity (RHmax), minimum relative humidity (RHmin), average relative humidity (RHave), wind speed (U 2), sunshine hours (n), net radiation (Rn)], leaf area index (LAI), and plant height (h) were used as inputs. For five structures of ten, the evapotranspiration (ETC) values calculated by ETC = ET0 × K C equation (ET0 from Penman-Monteith equation and K C from FAO-56, ANNC) were used as outputs, and for the other five structures, the ETC values measured by weighing lysimeter (ANNM) were used as outputs. In all structures, a feed forward multiple-layer network with one or two hidden layers and sigmoid transfer function and BR or LM training algorithm was used. Favorite network was selected based on various statistical criteria. The results showed the suitable capability and acceptable accuracy of ANNs, particularly those having two hidden layers in their structure in estimating the daily evapotranspiration. Best model for estimation of maize daily evapotranspiration is «M»ANN1 C (8-4-2-1), with T max, T min, RHmax, RHmin, U 2, n, LAI, and h as input data and LM training rule and its statistical parameters (NRMSE, d, and R2) are 0.178, 0.980, and 0.982, respectively. Best model for estimation of wheat daily evapotranspiration is «W»ANN5 C (5-2-3-1), with T max, T min, Rn, LAI, and h as input data and LM training rule, its statistical parameters (NRMSE, d, and R 2) are 0.108, 0.987, and 0.981 respectively. In addition, if the calculated ETC used as the output of the network for both wheat and maize, higher accurate estimation was obtained. Therefore, ANN is suitable method for estimating evapotranspiration of wheat and maize.

  17. Clinical and prognostic subforms of new daily-persistent headache

    PubMed Central

    Grosberg, B.M.; Napchan, U.; Crystal, S.C.; Lipton, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)–2, primary daily headaches unremitting from onset are classified as new daily-persistent headache (NDPH) only if migraine features are absent. When migraine features are present, classification is problematic. Methods: We developed a revised NDPH definition not excluding migraine features (NDPH-R), and applied it to consecutive patients seen at the Montefiore Headache Center. We divided this group into patients meeting ICHD-2 criteria (NDPH-ICHD) and those with too many migraine features for ICHD-2 (NDPH-mf). We compared clinical and demographic features in these groups, identifying 3 prognostic subgroups: persisting, remitting, and relapsing-remitting. Remitting and relapsing-remitting patients were combined into a nonpersisting group. Results: Of 71 NDPH-R patients, 31 (43.7%) also met NDPH-ICHD-2 criteria. The NDPH-mf and the NDPH-ICHD-2 groups were similar in most clinical features though the NDPH-mf group was younger, included more women, and had a higher frequency of depression. The groups were similar in the prevalence of allodynia, triptan responsiveness, and prognosis. NDPH-R prognostic subforms were also very similar, although the persisting subform was more likely to be of white race, to have anxiety or depression, and to have a younger onset age. Conclusions: Current International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)–2 criteria exclude the majority of patients with primary headache unremitting from onset. The proposed criteria for revised new daily-persistent headache definition not excluding migraine features (NDPH-R) classify these patients into a relatively homogeneous group based on demographics, clinical features, and prognosis. Both new daily-persistent headache with too many migraine features for ICHD-2 and new daily-persistent headache meeting ICHD-2 criteria include patients in equal proportions that fall into the persisting, remitting, and

  18. Daily QA of linear accelerators using only EPID and OBI

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Baozhou, E-mail: bsun@radonc.wustl.edu; Goddu, S. Murty; Yaddanapudi, Sridhar

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: As treatment delivery becomes more complex, there is a pressing need for robust quality assurance (QA) tools to improve efficiency and comprehensiveness while simultaneously maintaining high accuracy and sensitivity. This work aims to present the hardware and software tools developed for comprehensive QA of linear accelerator (LINAC) using only electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) and kV flat panel detectors. Methods: A daily QA phantom, which includes two orthogonally positioned phantoms for QA of MV-beams and kV onboard imaging (OBI) is suspended from the gantry accessory holder to test both geometric and dosimetric components of a LINAC and an OBI.more » The MV component consists of a 0.5 cm water-equivalent plastic sheet incorporating 11 circular steel plugs for transmission measurements through multiple thicknesses and one resolution plug for MV-image quality testing. The kV-phantom consists of a Leeds phantom (TOR-18 FG phantom supplied by Varian) for testing low and high contrast resolutions. In the developed process, the existing LINAC tools were used to automate daily acquisition of MV and kV images and software tools were developed for simultaneous analysis of these images. A method was developed to derive and evaluate traditional QA parameters from these images [output, flatness, symmetry, uniformity, TPR{sub 20/10}, and positional accuracy of the jaws and multileaf collimators (MLCs)]. The EPID-based daily QA tools were validated by performing measurements on a detuned 6 MV beam to test its effectiveness in detecting errors in output, symmetry, energy, and MLC positions. The developed QA process was clinically commissioned, implemented, and evaluated on a Varian TrueBeam LINAC (Varian Medical System, Palo Alto, CA) over a period of three months. Results: Machine output constancy measured with an EPID (as compared against a calibrated ion-chamber) is shown to be within ±0.5%. Beam symmetry and flatness deviations measured using an EPID

  19. Depression Among Non-Daily Smokers Compared to Daily Smokers and Never-Smokers in the United States: An Emerging Problem.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Gbedemah, Misato; Wall, Melanie M; Hasin, Deborah S; Zvolensky, Michael J; Chaiton, Michael; Goodwin, Renee D

    2017-09-01

    Depression is strongly associated with daily smoking. Yet, little is known about the association between depression and non-daily smoking. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of past-year depression and changes in past-year depression over time among non-daily smokers, compared to daily smokers and never-smokers, overall and stratified by age, gender, income, nicotine dependence, and cigarettes per day. Data were drawn from the National Household Survey on Drug Use (NSDUH), an annual cross-sectional study of persons aged 12 and over (total study population N = 496 805). The prevalence of past-year depression was examined annually among non-daily smokers, daily smokers, and never-smokers from 2005 to 2013 using linear trend analyses. Past-year depression was common among 10.10% of non-daily smokers, common among 10.78% of daily smokers, and 5.51% of never-smokers in 2013. The prevalence of depression increased from 2005 to 2013 among non-daily smokers (9.06% vs. 10.10%; p = .034) while there was no significant change in depression over time among daily smokers. Increases in depression among non-daily smokers occurred for both men and women and appear most pronounced youth, those smoking fewer cigarettes, and those without nicotine dependence. The prevalence of depression among non-daily smokers was equivalent to daily smokers and nearly twice that among nonsmokers. Depression appears to be increasing over time in non-daily smokers especially among youth, those who smoke less, and those without nicotine dependence. More work on the mental health of non-daily smokers is needed as this is an increasing and understudied group. This is the first study to investigate changes in the prevalence of depression among non-daily smokers compared to daily smokers and never-smokers over the past decade in a nationally representative sample of the United States. The results suggest an increase in depression among non-daily smokers over time that did not

  20. Once or twice daily versus three times daily amoxicillin with or without clavulanate for the treatment of acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Vatanasapt, Patravoot

    2013-12-13

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common problem in children, for which amoxicillin, with or without clavulanate, is frequently prescribed as a treatment of choice. The conventional recommendation is either three or four daily doses. However, nowadays it is frequently prescribed as once or twice daily doses. If once or twice daily amoxicillin, with or without clavulanate, is as effective for acute otitis media as three or four times a day, it may be more convenient to give the medication once or twice a day to children and hence improve compliance. To compare the effectiveness of one or two daily doses with three or four daily doses of amoxicillin, with or without clavulanate, for the treatment of AOM in children; and to compare complication rates and adverse reactions. We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 2, MEDLINE (January 1950 to March week 1, 2013), EMBASE (1974 to March 2013) and the Science Citation Index (2001 to March 2013). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of children aged 12 years or younger with AOM, diagnosed by acute ear pain (otalgia) and inflamed ear drum (confirmed by positive tympanocentesis or tympanogram of type B or C). Two review authors independently extracted data on treatment outcomes from individual trials and assessed trial quality based on selection bias, performance bias and detection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias and other biases. We defined the quality grading as low risk of bias, high risk of bias or unclear risk of bias. We summarised the results as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included five studies with 1601 children in the review. Pooled analysis demonstrated that the following outcomes were comparable between the two groups: clinical cure at the end of therapy (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.07); during therapy (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.33) and at follow-up (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.09); recurrent AOM (RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.52 to 2.81); compliance rate (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.10) and overall

  1. Ethnic Identity and the Daily Psychological Well-Being of Adolescents from Mexican and Chinese Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Yip, Tiffany; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Witkow, Melissa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    Protective effects of ethnic identity on daily psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 415 ninth graders from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. Utilizing daily diary assessments and multilevel modeling, adolescents with a greater regard for their ethnic group exhibited greater levels of daily happiness and less daily anxiety averaged…

  2. Comparative long-term trend analysis of daily weather conditions with daily pollen concentrations in Brussels, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruffaerts, Nicolas; De Smedt, Tom; Delcloo, Andy; Simons, Koen; Hoebeke, Lucie; Verstraeten, Caroline; Van Nieuwenhuyse, An; Packeu, Ann; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2018-03-01

    A clear rise in seasonal and annual temperatures, a gradual increase of total radiation, and a relative trend of change in seasonal precipitation have been observed for the last four decades in Brussels (Belgium). These local modifications may have a direct and indirect public health impact by altering the timing and intensity of allergenic pollen seasons. In this study, we assessed the statistical correlations (Spearman's test) between pollen concentration and meteorological conditions by using long-term daily datasets of 11 pollen types (8 trees and 3 herbaceous plants) and 10 meteorological parameters observed in Brussels between 1982 and 2015. Furthermore, we analyzed the rate of change in the annual cycle of the same selected pollen types by the Mann-Kendall test. We revealed an overall trend of increase in daily airborne tree pollen (except for the European beech tree) and an overall trend of decrease in daily airborne pollen from herbaceous plants (except for Urticaceae). These results revealed an earlier onset of the flowering period for birch, oak, ash, plane, grasses, and Urticaceae. Finally, the rates of change in pollen annual cycles were shown to be associated with the rates of change in the annual cycles of several meteorological parameters such as temperature, radiation, humidity, and rainfall.

  3. Comparative long-term trend analysis of daily weather conditions with daily pollen concentrations in Brussels, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Bruffaerts, Nicolas; De Smedt, Tom; Delcloo, Andy; Simons, Koen; Hoebeke, Lucie; Verstraeten, Caroline; Van Nieuwenhuyse, An; Packeu, Ann; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2018-03-01

    A clear rise in seasonal and annual temperatures, a gradual increase of total radiation, and a relative trend of change in seasonal precipitation have been observed for the last four decades in Brussels (Belgium). These local modifications may have a direct and indirect public health impact by altering the timing and intensity of allergenic pollen seasons. In this study, we assessed the statistical correlations (Spearman's test) between pollen concentration and meteorological conditions by using long-term daily datasets of 11 pollen types (8 trees and 3 herbaceous plants) and 10 meteorological parameters observed in Brussels between 1982 and 2015. Furthermore, we analyzed the rate of change in the annual cycle of the same selected pollen types by the Mann-Kendall test. We revealed an overall trend of increase in daily airborne tree pollen (except for the European beech tree) and an overall trend of decrease in daily airborne pollen from herbaceous plants (except for Urticaceae). These results revealed an earlier onset of the flowering period for birch, oak, ash, plane, grasses, and Urticaceae. Finally, the rates of change in pollen annual cycles were shown to be associated with the rates of change in the annual cycles of several meteorological parameters such as temperature, radiation, humidity, and rainfall.

  4. The effects of employment status and daily stressors on time spent on daily household chores in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jen D; Almeida, David M

    2013-02-01

    This study examines how employment status (worker vs. retiree) and life course influences (age, gender, and marital status) are associated with time spent on daily household chores. Second, this study assesses whether the associations between daily stressors and time spent on daily household chores differ as a function of employment status and life course influences. Men and women aged 55-74 from the National Study of Daily Experiences (N = 268; 133 workers and 135 retirees), a part of the National Survey of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS), completed telephone interviews regarding their daily experiences across 8 consecutive evenings. Working women spent more than double the amount of time on daily household chores than working men. Unmarried retirees spent the most time on daily household chores in comparison to their counterparts. There was a trend toward significance for the association between home stressors from the previous day and time spent on daily household chores as a function of employment and marital status. These findings highlight the importance of gender and marital status in the associations between employment status and time spent on daily household chores and the role that daily stressors, in particular home stressful events, have on daily household chore participation.

  5. New developments on the homogenization of Canadian daily temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Lucie A.; Wang, Xiaolan L.

    2010-05-01

    Long-term and homogenized surface air temperature datasets had been prepared for the analysis of climate trends in Canada (Vincent and Gullett 1999). Non-climatic steps due to instruments relocation/changes and changes in observing procedures were identified in the annual mean of the daily maximum and minimum temperatures using a technique based on regression models (Vincent 1998). Monthly adjustments were derived from the regression models and daily adjustments were obtained from an interpolation procedure using the monthly adjustments (Vincent et al. 2002). Recently, new statistical tests have been developed to improve the power of detecting changepoints in climatological data time series. The penalized maximal t (PMT) test (Wang et al. 2007) and the penalized maximal F (PMF) test (Wang 2008b) were developed to take into account the position of each changepoint in order to minimize the effect of unequal and small sample size. A software package RHtestsV3 (Wang and Feng 2009) has also been developed to implement these tests to homogenize climate data series. A recursive procedure was developed to estimate the annual cycle, linear trend, and lag-1 autocorrelation of the base series in tandem, so that the effect of lag-1 autocorrelation is accounted for in the tests. A Quantile Matching (QM) algorithm (Wang 2009) was also developed for adjusting Gaussian daily data so that the empirical distributions of all segments of the detrended series match each other. The RHtestsV3 package was used to prepare a second generation of homogenized temperatures in Canada. Both the PMT test and the PMF test were applied to detect shifts in monthly mean temperature series. Reference series was used in conducting a PMT test. Whenever possible, the main causes of the shifts were retrieved through historical evidence such as the station inspection reports. Finally, the QM algorithm was used to adjust the daily temperature series for the artificial shifts identified from the respective

  6. Daily Air Temperature and Electricity Load in Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valor, Enric; Meneu, Vicente; Caselles, Vicente

    2001-08-01

    Weather has a significant impact on different sectors of the economy. One of the most sensitive is the electricity market, because power demand is linked to several weather variables, mainly the air temperature. This work analyzes the relationship between electricity load and daily air temperature in Spain, using a population-weighted temperature index. The electricity demand shows a significant trend due to socioeconomic factors, in addition to daily and monthly seasonal effects that have been taken into account to isolate the weather influence on electricity load. The results indicate that the relationship is nonlinear, showing a `comfort interval' of ±3°C around 18°C and two saturation points beyond which the electricity load no longer increases. The analysis has also revealed that the sensitivity of electricity load to daily air temperature has increased along time, in a higher degree for summer than for winter, although the sensitivity in the cold season is always more significant than in the warm season. Two different temperature-derived variables that allow a better characterization of the observed relationship have been used: the heating and cooling degree-days. The regression of electricity data on them defines the heating and cooling demand functions, which show correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.87, and predicts electricity load with standard errors of estimate of ±4% and ±2%, respectively. The maximum elasticity of electricity demand is observed at 7 cooling degree-days and 9 heating degree-days, and the saturation points are reached at 11 cooling degree-days and 13 heating degree-days, respectively. These results are helpful in modeling electricity load behavior for predictive purposes.

  7. Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seed, T. M.

    The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). In our laboratory we have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3-26.3 cGy d^-1). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific (three major responding subgroups identified) and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup 1), the failure to augment basic repair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments (particularly marked within erythroid compartments) that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccommodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3) appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high-tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity. The kinetics of these repair-mediated, regenerative hematopoietic

  8. Daily activity patterns in remitted first-episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fervaha, Gagan; Agid, Ofer; McDonald, Krysta; Foussias, George; Remington, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Impairment in community functioning is characteristic of many individuals with schizophrenia. Despite a wealth of literature documenting such functional impairments, how patients spend their time on a daily basis and the types of activities they engage in remains less clear. The present investigation set out to examine the daily activity patterns of remitted first-episode patients with schizophrenia. Twenty-eight first-episode schizophrenia patients in symptomatic remission and twenty-eight age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy comparison subjects participated in the present study. The Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) was employed to evaluate daily life activities, while the Social and Occupational Functional Assessment Scale was used to for assessment of community functioning. Psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, depressed mood using the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, and clinical insight using the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight. Neurocognition was also evaluated with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia. First-episode schizophrenia patients experienced marked impairment in functioning, despite being in symptomatic remission. Patients and controls did not differ in the number of activities reported throughout their day. However, first-episode schizophrenia patients had significantly shorter days than comparison subjects and spent significantly less time engaged in non-passive (i.e., effortful) activities, which was related to poorer functional status. Individuals with first-episode schizophrenia and in symptomatic remission demonstrate decreased levels of non-passive activities and poorer functional outcomes. A better understanding of the underlying factors is very likely critical to the development of strategies aimed at enhancing functional recovery in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Physical activity and negative affective reactivity in daily life.

    PubMed

    Puterman, Eli; Weiss, Jordan; Beauchamp, Mark R; Mogle, Jacqueline; Almeida, David M

    2017-12-01

    The results from experimental studies indicate that physically active individuals remain calmer and report less anxiety after the induction of a standardized stressor. The current study extends this research to real life, and examines whether daily physical activity attenuates negative affect that occurs in response to naturally occurring daily stressors. The current study used data from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences, a sub-study of the second wave of the Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS-II) of 2,022 individuals aged 33-84 questioned nightly for eight consecutive days about their general affect and affective responses to stressful events and their engagement in physical activity. Results indicated that while negative affect is significantly elevated on days with stressful events compared to days free of events in all individuals, these effects are attenuated in those who remain physically active when compared to those who were underactive. This was also true for any day participants were physically active. Importantly, negative affect in response to any specific stressor was reduced the closer in time that the stressor occurred to the bout of exercise in underactive participants, while, in active participants, negative affect in response to any stressor remained low throughout the entire day that participants reported that they were active. Given the significant mental and physical health implications of elevated affective reactivity observed in previous studies, the current study sheds further light on the importance of remaining physically active in times of stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Daily life negative mood and exhaled nitric oxide in asthma.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Thomas; Kullowatz, Antje; Bill, Michelle N; Rosenfield, David

    2016-07-01

    Psychosocial stress and negative affect have been linked to asthma exacerbations, but longitudinal studies demonstrating a daily life association between negative affect and airway nitric oxide are missing. The longitudinal association between negative mood fluctuations, exhaled nitric oxide, and lung function in asthma was examined. Self-assessments of the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), spirometry (forced expiratory volume in the first second, FEV1), negative mood, and daily activities were obtained from 20 patients with asthma for 2 months, resulting in 1108 assessments for the analyses (approximately 55 per patient). Concurrent and prospective associations between FeNO, FEV1, and negative mood were analyzed using mixed effects regression models for longitudinal data. Negative mood was positively associated with changes in FeNO during the same day, and to a stronger extent when prior day negative mood was included in the prediction. FeNO and negative mood were positively associated with same-day FEV1, with the latter relation being partially mediated by changes in FeNO. Associations between FeNO and FEV1 were stronger in younger patients, with earlier onset of asthma, or with lower asthma control. Findings were not changed when controlling for physical activity, medication, cold symptoms, air pollution, and hours spent outside. Daily life changes of negative mood in asthma are positively associated with FeNO changes and FeNO increases are associated with a mild bronchodilation. These findings indicate that psychological influences need to be considered when using FeNO as indicator of airway inflammation and guide for treatment decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Emotional reactivity to daily events in youth with anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Herres, Joanna; Caporino, Nicole E; Cummings, Colleen M; Kendall, Philip C

    2018-05-07

    Although research supports associations between anxiety and emotional reactivity in adults (Cisler, J. M., Olatunji, B. O., Feldner, M. T., & Forsyth, J. P. (2010). Emotion regulation and the anxiety disorders: an integrative review. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32(1), 68-82.), few studies have examined emotional reactivity in anxious youth (e.g., Carthy et al., 2010; Tan, P. Z., Forbes, E. E., Dahl, R. E., Ryan, N. D., Siegle, G. J., Ladouceur, C. D., & Silk, J. S. (2012). Emotional reactivity and regulation in anxious and nonanxious youth: a cell-phone ecological momentary assessment study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(2), 197-206.). Using daily diary methodology, this study examined both negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) reactivity to daily events in youth diagnosed with anxiety (N = 68; 60% female; 78% non-Hispanic White; M age = 11.18 years, SD = 3.17). We also examined whether parent-reported emotion regulation would predict emotional reactivity. Participants reported more NA on days they experienced more negative parent and teacher events and less PA on days that they experienced more negative peer events. Additionally, better emotion regulation was associated with less NA reactivity to negative teacher events and to both negative and positive academic events. Interpersonal events have a salient effect on daily affect for anxious youth. Youth anxiety therapists should target emotion regulation associated with negative events involving adults and address barriers to developing and maintaining positive peer relationships.

  12. Statistical Modeling of Daily Stream Temperature for Mitigating Fish Mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, R. J.; Rajagopalan, B.

    2011-12-01

    Water allocations in the Central Valley Project (CVP) of California require the consideration of short- and long-term needs of many socioeconomic factors including, but not limited to, agriculture, urban use, flood mitigation/control, and environmental concerns. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) ensures that the decision-making process provides sufficient water to limit the impact on protected species, such as salmon, in the Sacramento River Valley. Current decision support tools in the CVP were deemed inadequate by the National Marine Fisheries Service due to the limited temporal resolution of forecasts for monthly stream temperature and fish mortality. Finer scale temporal resolution is necessary to account for the stream temperature variations critical to salmon survival and reproduction. In addition, complementary, long-range tools are needed for monthly and seasonal management of water resources. We will present a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) framework of maximum daily stream temperatures and related attributes, such as: daily stream temperature range, exceedance/non-exceedance of critical threshold temperatures, and the number of hours of exceedance. A suite of predictors that impact stream temperatures are included in the models, including current and prior day values of streamflow, water temperatures of upstream releases from Shasta Dam, air temperature, and precipitation. Monthly models are developed for each stream temperature attribute at the Balls Ferry gauge, an EPA compliance point for meeting temperature criteria. The statistical framework is also coupled with seasonal climate forecasts using a stochastic weather generator to provide ensembles of stream temperature scenarios that can be used for seasonal scale water allocation planning and decisions. Short-term weather forecasts can also be used in the framework to provide near-term scenarios useful for making water release decisions on a daily basis. The framework can be easily translated to other

  13. Atmospheric circulation types and daily mortality in Athens, Greece.

    PubMed Central

    Kassomenos, P; Gryparis, A; Samoli, E; Katsouyanni, K; Lykoudis, S; Flocas, H A

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the short-term effects of synoptic and mesoscale atmospheric circulation types on mortality in Athens, Greece. The synoptic patterns in the lower troposphere were classified in 8 a priori defined categories. The mesoscale weather types were classified into 11 categories, using meteorologic parameters from the Athens area surface monitoring network; the daily number of deaths was available for 1987-1991. We applied generalized additive models (GAM), extending Poisson regression, using a LOESS smoother to control for the confounding effects of seasonal patterns. We adjusted for long-term trends, day of the week, ambient particle concentrations, and additional temperature effects. Both classifications, synoptic and mesoscale, explain the daily variation of mortality to a statistically significant degree. The highest daily mortality was observed on days characterized by southeasterly flow [increase 10%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.1-13.9% compared to the high-low pressure system), followed by zonal flow (5.8%; 95% CI, 1.8-10%). The high-low pressure system and the northwesterly flow are associated with the lowest mortality. The seasonal patterns are consistent with the annual pattern. For mesoscale categories, in the cold period the highest mortality is observed during days characterized by the easterly flow category (increase 9.4%; 95% CI, 1.0-18.5% compared to flow without the main component). In the warm period, the highest mortality occurs during the strong southerly flow category (8.5% increase; 95% CI, 2.0-15.4% compared again to flow without the main component). Adjusting for ambient particle levels leaves the estimated associations unchanged for the synoptic categories and slightly increases the effects of mesoscale categories. In conclusion, synoptic and mesoscale weather classification is a useful tool for studying the weather-health associations in a warm Mediterranean climate situation. PMID:11445513

  14. Parents' daily time with their children: a workplace intervention.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly D; Lawson, Katie M; Almeida, David M; Kelly, Erin L; King, Rosalind B; Hammer, Leslie; Casper, Lynne M; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Hanson, Ginger; McHale, Susan M

    2015-05-01

    In the context of a group randomized field trial, we evaluated whether parents who participated in a workplace intervention, designed to increase supervisor support for personal and family life and schedule control, reported significantly more daily time with their children at the 12-month follow-up compared with parents assigned to the Usual Practice group. We also tested whether the intervention effect was moderated by parent gender, child gender, or child age. The Support-Transform-Achieve-Results Intervention was delivered in an information technology division of a US Fortune 500 company. Participants included 93 parents (45% mothers) of a randomly selected focal child aged 9 to 17 years (49% daughters) who completed daily telephone diaries at baseline and 12 months after intervention. During evening telephone calls on 8 consecutive days, parents reported how much time they spent with their child that day. Parents in the intervention group exhibited a significant increase in parent-child shared time, 39 minutes per day on average, between baseline and the 12-month follow-up. By contrast, parents in the Usual Practice group averaged 24 fewer minutes with their child per day at the 12-month follow-up. Intervention effects were evident for mothers but not for fathers and for daughters but not sons. The hypothesis that the intervention would improve parents' daily time with their children was supported. Future studies should examine how redesigning work can change the quality of parent-child interactions and activities known to be important for youth health and development. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Spatial interpolation schemes of daily precipitation for hydrologic modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hwang, Y.; Clark, M.R.; Rajagopalan, B.; Leavesley, G.

    2012-01-01

    Distributed hydrologic models typically require spatial estimates of precipitation interpolated from sparsely located observational points to the specific grid points. We compare and contrast the performance of regression-based statistical methods for the spatial estimation of precipitation in two hydrologically different basins and confirmed that widely used regression-based estimation schemes fail to describe the realistic spatial variability of daily precipitation field. The methods assessed are: (1) inverse distance weighted average; (2) multiple linear regression (MLR); (3) climatological MLR; and (4) locally weighted polynomial regression (LWP). In order to improve the performance of the interpolations, the authors propose a two-step regression technique for effective daily precipitation estimation. In this simple two-step estimation process, precipitation occurrence is first generated via a logistic regression model before estimate the amount of precipitation separately on wet days. This process generated the precipitation occurrence, amount, and spatial correlation effectively. A distributed hydrologic model (PRMS) was used for the impact analysis in daily time step simulation. Multiple simulations suggested noticeable differences between the input alternatives generated by three different interpolation schemes. Differences are shown in overall simulation error against the observations, degree of explained variability, and seasonal volumes. Simulated streamflows also showed different characteristics in mean, maximum, minimum, and peak flows. Given the same parameter optimization technique, LWP input showed least streamflow error in Alapaha basin and CMLR input showed least error (still very close to LWP) in Animas basin. All of the two-step interpolation inputs resulted in lower streamflow error compared to the directly interpolated inputs. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Circadian Role in Daily Pattern of Cardiovascular Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Hu, Kun; Chen, Zhi; Hilton, Michael F.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Shea, Steven A.

    2004-03-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies demonstrate that sudden cardiac death, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke have a 24-hour daily pattern with a broad peak between 9-11am. Such a daily pattern in cardiovascular risk could be attributable to external factors, such as the daily behavior patterns, including sleep-wake cycles and activity levels, or internal factors, such as the endogenous circadian pacemaker. Findings of significant alternations in the temporal organization and nonlinear properties of heartbeat fluctuations with disease and with sleep-wake transitions raise the intriguing possibility that changes in the mechanism of control associated with behavioral sleep-wake transition may be responsible for the increased cardiac instability observed in particular circadian phases. Alternatively, we hypothesize that there is a circadian clock, independent of the sleep-wake cycle, which affects the cardiac dynamics leading to increased cardiovascular risk. We analyzed continuous recordings from healthy subjects during 7 cycles of forced desynchrony routine wherein subjects' sleep-wake cycles are adjusted to 28 hours so that their behaviors occur across all circadian phases. Heartbeat data were divided into one-hour segments. For each segment, we estimated the correlations and the nonlinear properties of the heartbeat fluctuations at the corresponding circadian phase. Since the sleep and wake contributions are equally weighted in our experiment, a change of the properties of the heartbeat dynamics with circadian phase suggest a circadian rhythm. We show significant circadian-mediated alterations in the correlation and nonlinear properties of the heartbeat resembling those observed in patients with heart failure. Remarkably, these dynamical alterations are centered at 60 degrees circadian phase, coinciding with the 9-11am window of cardiac risk.

  17. Parents’ Daily Time With Their Children: A Workplace Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Katie M.; Almeida, David M.; King, Rosalind B.; Hammer, Leslie; Casper, Lynne M.; Okechukwu, Cassandra A.; Hanson, Ginger; McHale, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the context of a group randomized field trial, we evaluated whether parents who participated in a workplace intervention, designed to increase supervisor support for personal and family life and schedule control, reported significantly more daily time with their children at the 12-month follow-up compared with parents assigned to the Usual Practice group. We also tested whether the intervention effect was moderated by parent gender, child gender, or child age. METHODS: The Support-Transform-Achieve-Results Intervention was delivered in an information technology division of a US Fortune 500 company. Participants included 93 parents (45% mothers) of a randomly selected focal child aged 9 to 17 years (49% daughters) who completed daily telephone diaries at baseline and 12 months after intervention. During evening telephone calls on 8 consecutive days, parents reported how much time they spent with their child that day. RESULTS: Parents in the intervention group exhibited a significant increase in parent-child shared time, 39 minutes per day on average, between baseline and the 12-month follow-up. By contrast, parents in the Usual Practice group averaged 24 fewer minutes with their child per day at the 12-month follow-up. Intervention effects were evident for mothers but not for fathers and for daughters but not sons. CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis that the intervention would improve parents’ daily time with their children was supported. Future studies should examine how redesigning work can change the quality of parent-child interactions and activities known to be important for youth health and development. PMID:25869371

  18. Passive wireless sensor systems can recognize activites of daily living.

    PubMed

    Urwyler, Prabitha; Stucki, Reto; Muri, Rene; Mosimann, Urs P; Nef, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    The ability to determine what activity of daily living a person performs is of interest in many application domains. It is possible to determine the physical and cognitive capabilities of the elderly by inferring what activities they perform in their houses. Our primary aim was to establish a proof of concept that a wireless sensor system can monitor and record physical activity and these data can be modeled to predict activities of daily living. The secondary aim was to determine the optimal placement of the sensor boxes for detecting activities in a room. A wireless sensor system was set up in a laboratory kitchen. The ten healthy participants were requested to make tea following a defined sequence of tasks. Data were collected from the eight wireless sensor boxes placed in specific places in the test kitchen and analyzed to detect the sequences of tasks performed by the participants. These sequence of tasks were trained and tested using the Markov Model. Data analysis focused on the reliability of the system and the integrity of the collected data. The sequence of tasks were successfully recognized for all subjects and the averaged data pattern of tasks sequences between the subjects had a high correlation. Analysis of the data collected indicates that sensors placed in different locations are capable of recognizing activities, with the movement detection sensor contributing the most to detection of tasks. The central top of the room with no obstruction of view was considered to be the best location to record data for activity detection. Wireless sensor systems show much promise as easily deployable to monitor and recognize activities of daily living.

  19. Fasting-induced daily torpor in desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii).

    PubMed

    Chi, Qing-Sheng; Wan, Xin-Rong; Geiser, Fritz; Wang, De-Hua

    2016-09-01

    Daily torpor is frequently expressed in small rodents when facing energetically unfavorable ambient conditions. Desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii, ~20g) appear to be an exception as they have been described as homeothermic. However, we hypothesized that they can use torpor because we observed reversible decreases of body temperature (Tb) in fasted hamsters. To test this hypothesis we (i) randomly exposed fasted summer-acclimated hamsters to ambient temperatures (Tas) ranging from 5 to 30°C or (ii) supplied them with different rations of food at Ta 23°C. All desert hamsters showed heterothermy with the lowest mean Tb of 31.4±1.9°C (minimum, 29.0°C) and 31.8±2.0°C (minimum, 29.0°C) when fasted at Ta of 23°C and 19°C, respectively. Below Ta 19°C, the lowest Tb and metabolic rate increased and the proportion of hamsters using heterothermy declined. At Ta 5°C, nearly all hamsters remained normothermic by increasing heat production, suggesting that the heterothermy only occurs in moderately cold conditions, perhaps to avoid freezing at extremely low Tas. During heterothermy, Tbs below 31°C with metabolic rates below 25% of those during normothermia were detected in four individuals at Ta of 19°C and 23°C. Consequently, by definition, our observations confirm that fasted desert hamsters are capable of shallow daily torpor. The negative correlation between the lowest Tbs and amount of food supply shows that heterothermy was mainly triggered by food shortage. Our data indicate that summer-acclimated desert hamsters can express fasting-induced shallow daily torpor, which may be of significance for energy conservation and survival in the wild. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intermittent and daily smokers' subjective responses to smoking.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Saul; Terhorst, Lauren

    2017-10-01

    One third of US smokers are intermittent smokers (ITS) who do not smoke daily. Unlike daily smokers (DS), whose smoking is negatively reinforced by withdrawal relief, ITS may be motivated by immediate positive reinforcement. In contrast, incentive salience theory posits hypothesis that "liking" of drug effects fades in established users, such as DS. This study aims to compare ITS' and DS' hedonic responses to smoking. Participants were 109 ITS (smoking 4-27 days/month) and 52 DS (smoking daily 5-25 cigarettes/day), aged ≥21, smoking ≥3 years, and not quitting smoking. For 3 weeks, participants engaged in ecological momentary assessment, carrying an electronic diary that asked them to rate their most recent smoking experience on 0-100 visual analog scales (satisfaction, enjoyment [averaged as "pleasure"], feeling sick, feeling a "rush," enjoying upper respiratory sensations, and immediate craving relief). Hierarchical random effect regression analyzed 4476 ratings. ITS found smoking pleasurable (mean = 69.7 ± 1.7 [SE]) but significantly less so than DS did (77.6 ± 2.3; p < 0.006). ITS also reported more aversive response (ITS 18.2 ± 1.4, DS 11.6 ± 2.0; p < 0.007). Even though ITS are more likely to smoke at bars/restaurants, when drinking alcohol, or when others were present, they did not report more pleasure in these settings (compared to DS). More extensive smoking experience was unrelated to craving or smoking effects among DS, but predicted greater craving, greater pleasure, and less aversion among ITS. The findings were largely inconsistent with incentive-salience models of drug use.

  1. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Aerobraking Daily Operations and Collision Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Stacia M.; You, Tung-Han; Halsell, C. Allen; Bhat, Ramachand S.; Demcak, Stuart W.; Graat, Eric J.; Higa, Earl S.; Highsmith, Dolan E.; Mottinger, Neil A.; Jah, Moriba K.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reached Mars on March 10, 2006 and performed a Mars orbit insertion maneuver of 1 km/s to enter into a large elliptical orbit. Three weeks later, aerobraking operations began and lasted about five months. Aerobraking utilized the atmospheric drag to reduce the large elliptical orbit into a smaller, near circular orbit. At the time of MRO aerobraking, there were three other operational spacecraft orbiting Mars and the navigation team had to minimize the possibility of a collision. This paper describes the daily operations of the MRO navigation team during this time as well as the collision avoidance strategy development and implementation.

  2. Can Diastat Grafts Meet the Challenges of Daily Punctures?

    PubMed

    Chandran, Prem K G; Messer, Diane; Sidwell, Richard A; Stubbs, David H; Nish, Andrew D

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether Diastat grafts can meet the challenges of daily needle punctures required for home hemodialysis (HD), a retrospective analysis was performed on the experience with 47 grafts placed in 44 patients receiving HD three times a week. The control group consisted of 17 patients who received 17 stretch polytetrafluoroethylene (s-PTFE) grafts. Apart from their ability to better contain bleeding after needle withdrawal, in all measures of longevity the Diastat grafts were outperformed by the s-PTFE grafts. No more direct data exist to address the original challenge.

  3. Migrating songbirds recalibrate their magnetic compass daily from twilight cues.

    PubMed

    Cochran, William W; Mouritsen, Henrik; Wikelski, Martin

    2004-04-16

    Night migratory songbirds can use stars, sun, geomagnetic field, and polarized light for orientation when tested in captivity. We studied the interaction of magnetic, stellar, and twilight orientation cues in free-flying songbirds. We exposed Catharus thrushes to eastward-turned magnetic fields during the twilight period before takeoff and then followed them for up to 1100 kilometers. Instead of heading north, experimental birds flew westward. On subsequent nights, the same individuals migrated northward again. We suggest that birds orient with a magnetic compass calibrated daily from twilight cues. This could explain how birds cross the magnetic equator and deal with declination.

  4. Neighbourhood walkability, daily steps and utilitarian walking in Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Hajna, Samantha; Ross, Nancy A; Joseph, Lawrence; Harper, Sam; Dasgupta, Kaberi

    2015-11-24

    To estimate the associations of neighbourhood walkability (based on Geographic Information System (GIS)-derived measures of street connectivity, land use mix, and population density and the Walk Score) with self-reported utilitarian walking and accelerometer-assessed daily steps in Canadian adults. A cross-sectional analysis of data collected as part of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009). Home neighbourhoods (500 m polygonal street network buffers around the centroid of the participant's postal code) located in Atlantic Canada, Québec, Ontario, the Prairies and British Columbia. 5605 individuals participated in the survey. 3727 adults (≥18 years) completed a computer-assisted interview and attended a mobile clinic assessment. Analyses were based on those who had complete exposure, outcome and covariate data (n=2949). GIS-derived walkability (based on land use mix, street connectivity and population density); Walk Score. Self-reported utilitarian walking; accelerometer-assessed daily steps. No important relationship was observed between neighbourhood walkability and daily steps. Participants who reported more utilitarian walking, however, accumulated more steps (<1 h/week: 6613 steps/day, 95% CI 6251 to 6975; 1 to 5 h/week: 6768 steps/day, 95% CI 6420 to 7117; ≥6 h/week: 7391 steps/day, 95% CI 6972 to 7811). There was a positive graded association between walkability and odds of walking ≥1 h/week for utilitarian purposes (eg, Q4 vs Q1 of GIS-derived walkability: OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.11; Q3 vs Q1: OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.76; Q2 vs Q1: OR=1.13, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.39) independent of age, sex, body mass index, married/common law status, annual household income, having children in the household, immigrant status, mood disorder, perceived health, ever smoker and season. Contrary to expectations, living in more walkable Canadian neighbourhoods was not associated with more total walking. Utilitarian walking and daily steps were, however

  5. Neighbourhood walkability, daily steps and utilitarian walking in Canadian adults

    PubMed Central

    Hajna, Samantha; Ross, Nancy A; Joseph, Lawrence; Harper, Sam; Dasgupta, Kaberi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the associations of neighbourhood walkability (based on Geographic Information System (GIS)-derived measures of street connectivity, land use mix, and population density and the Walk Score) with self-reported utilitarian walking and accelerometer-assessed daily steps in Canadian adults. Design A cross-sectional analysis of data collected as part of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007–2009). Setting Home neighbourhoods (500 m polygonal street network buffers around the centroid of the participant's postal code) located in Atlantic Canada, Québec, Ontario, the Prairies and British Columbia. Participants 5605 individuals participated in the survey. 3727 adults (≥18 years) completed a computer-assisted interview and attended a mobile clinic assessment. Analyses were based on those who had complete exposure, outcome and covariate data (n=2949). Main exposure measures GIS-derived walkability (based on land use mix, street connectivity and population density); Walk Score. Main outcome measures Self-reported utilitarian walking; accelerometer-assessed daily steps. Results No important relationship was observed between neighbourhood walkability and daily steps. Participants who reported more utilitarian walking, however, accumulated more steps (<1 h/week: 6613 steps/day, 95% CI 6251 to 6975; 1 to 5 h/week: 6768 steps/day, 95% CI 6420 to 7117; ≥6 h/week: 7391 steps/day, 95% CI 6972 to 7811). There was a positive graded association between walkability and odds of walking ≥1 h/week for utilitarian purposes (eg, Q4 vs Q1 of GIS-derived walkability: OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.11; Q3 vs Q1: OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.76; Q2 vs Q1: OR=1.13, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.39) independent of age, sex, body mass index, married/common law status, annual household income, having children in the household, immigrant status, mood disorder, perceived health, ever smoker and season. Conclusions Contrary to expectations, living in more walkable Canadian

  6. Reflective practice and daily ward reality: a covert power game.

    PubMed

    Mantzoukas, Stefanos; Jasper, Melanie A

    2004-11-01

    The concept of reflection is propounded in the literature as an epistemology for practice that enables practitioners to solve their daily problematic situations through conscious thought processes which eventually leads to practice-based knowledge. Hence, reflection became a central tenet of both theory development and educational provision in nursing. Furthermore, this centrality of reflection was reinforced by statutory nursing bodies and service providers by adopting it as the means for carrying out adequate professional practice. Although this may be the case, issues of implementation of reflection within the daily reality of practitioners are frequently overlooked within the literature. Moreover, little consideration appears to be given on the impact that the organizational culture and the politics of power may exert on the implementation of reflective practices within daily ward reality. This paper explores how reflection is viewed by nurses within their daily reality in the medical wards, examines the relationships between the organizational culture of these wards and the practitioners and investigates whether reflective methods of practice were being implemented when the study was conducted. An interpretative ethnographical methodology was implemented and the data collecting methods used were observation, interviews and qualitative content analysis with a group of 16 practising nurses from four medical wards of one NHS Trust in England. Two interviews were conducted with each nurse within 3-week intervals. The content of these interviews evolved from the analysis of episodes of practice observed when the nurses were giving nursing care. These data were supplemented by narratives from the nurses' in the form of written reflective accounts that were analysed via qualitative content analysis techniques. Four themes were generated: (i) relationships between nurses and doctors; (ii) relationships between nurses and managers; (iii) nursing practice; and (iv

  7. Forecasting daily meteorological time series using ARIMA and regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murat, Małgorzata; Malinowska, Iwona; Gos, Magdalena; Krzyszczak, Jaromir

    2018-04-01

    The daily air temperature and precipitation time series recorded between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2010 in four European sites (Jokioinen, Dikopshof, Lleida and Lublin) from different climatic zones were modeled and forecasted. In our forecasting we used the methods of the Box-Jenkins and Holt- Winters seasonal auto regressive integrated moving-average, the autoregressive integrated moving-average with external regressors in the form of Fourier terms and the time series regression, including trend and seasonality components methodology with R software. It was demonstrated that obtained models are able to capture the dynamics of the time series data and to produce sensible forecasts.

  8. Molecular diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in a population of an endemic area through nested-PCR.

    PubMed

    Sharifdini, Meysam; Keyhani, Amir; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Beigom Kia, Eshrat

    2018-01-01

    This study is aimed to diagnose and analyze strongyloidiasis in a population of an endemic area of Iran using nested-PCR, coupled with parasitological methods. Screening of strongyloidiasis infected people using reliable diagnostic techniques are essential to decrease the mortality and morbidity associated with this infection. Molecular methods have been proved to be highly sensitive and specific for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in stool samples. A total of 155 fresh single stool samples were randomly collected from residents of north and northwest of Khouzestan Province, Iran. All samples were examined by parasitological methods including formalin-ether concentration and nutrient agar plate culture, and molecular method of nested-PCR. Infections with S. stercoralis were analyzed according to demographic criteria. Based on the results of nested-PCR method 15 cases (9.7%) were strongyloidiasis positive. Nested-PCR was more sensitive than parasitological techniques on single stool sampling. Elderly was the most important population index for higher infectivity with S. stercoralis . In endemic areas of S. stercoralis , old age should be considered as one of the most important risk factors of infection, especially among the immunosuppressed individuals.

  9. SEROEPIDEMIOLOGY OF STRONGYLOIDIASIS IN THE PERUVIAN AMAZON

    PubMed Central

    YORI, PABLO P.; KOSEK, MARGARET; GILMAN, ROBERT H.; CORDOVA, JULIANNA; BERN, CARYN; CHAVEZ, CESAR BANDA; OLORTEGUI, MARIBEL PAREDES; MONTALVAN, CARMEN; SANCHEZ, GRACIELA MEZA; WORTHEN, BEVELLE; WORTHEN, JAMES; LEUNG, FAY; ORÉ, CARLOS VIDAL

    2006-01-01

    A stool and serosurvey for Strongyloides stercoralis was conducted in a community in the Peruvian Amazon region. Strongyloidiasis stercoralis was identified in the stool of 69 (8.7%) of 792 participants. Six hundred nine sera were tested using by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 94%; 442 (72%) were positive. In multivariable logistic regression models, having S. stercoralis in stool was associated with hookworm in the same specimen (odds ratio [OR] = 4.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.02-9.79), occasionally or never wearing shoes (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.10-3.27), and increasing age (OR = 1.012 for each one-year increase, 95% CI = 1.00-1.03). Similarly, occasionally or never wearing shoes (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.01-2.37) and increasing age (OR = 1.04 for each one-year increase, 95% CI = 1.02-1.06) were associated with an increased risk of a positive S. stercoralis ELISA result. The ELISA had a negative predictive value of 98% and is an excellent screening test for strongyloidiasis. PMID:16407351

  10. Cultural orientations, daily activities, and adjustment in Mexican American youth.

    PubMed

    McHale, Susan M; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Cansler, Emily

    2009-05-01

    The links between youth's daily activities and adjustment and the role of cultural practices and values in these links were studied in 469 youth from 237 Mexican American families. In home interviews, data on mothers', fathers', and two adolescent-age siblings' cultural practices (language use, social contacts) and values (for familism, for education achievement) were collected, along with data on youth risky behavior and depressive symptoms. In 7 nightly phone calls, youth reported on their day's free time activities (i.e., sports, academics, religious activities, television viewing, and hanging out). Analyses revealed that youth who spent more time in unsupervised hanging out reported more depressive symptoms and risky behavior, and those who spent more time in academic activities reported less risky behavior. Results also indicated that more Anglo-oriented youth spent more time in sports, that more Mexican-oriented youth spent more time watching television, that fathers' familism values were related to youth's time in religious activities, and that parents' educational values were linked to youth's time in academic activities. Some evidence indicated that parents' cultural practices and values, particularly fathers', moderated the links between daily activities and youth adjustment.

  11. Retrospective forecast of ETAS model with daily parameters estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcone, Giuseppe; Murru, Maura; Console, Rodolfo; Marzocchi, Warner; Zhuang, Jiancang

    2016-04-01

    We present a retrospective ETAS (Epidemic Type of Aftershock Sequence) model based on the daily updating of free parameters during the background, the learning and the test phase of a seismic sequence. The idea was born after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. The CSEP (Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability) Center in Japan provided an appropriate testing benchmark for the five 1-day submitted models. Of all the models, only one was able to successfully predict the number of events that really happened. This result was verified using both the real time and the revised catalogs. The main cause of the failure was in the underestimation of the forecasted events, due to model parameters maintained fixed during the test. Moreover, the absence in the learning catalog of an event similar to the magnitude of the mainshock (M9.0), which drastically changed the seismicity in the area, made the learning parameters not suitable to describe the real seismicity. As an example of this methodological development we show the evolution of the model parameters during the last two strong seismic sequences in Italy: the 2009 L'Aquila and the 2012 Reggio Emilia episodes. The achievement of the model with daily updated parameters is compared with that of same model where the parameters remain fixed during the test time.

  12. Systems Health Care: daily measurement and lifestyle change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Naoki; Shiga, Toshikazu; Hata, Yutaka

    2012-06-01

    Health is quite important to be realized in our daily life. However, its idea covers wide area and has individual dependency. Activities in health care have been widely developed by medical, drag, insurance, food, and other types of industries mainly centering diseases. In this article, systems approach named Systems Health Care is introduced and discussed to generate new and precious values based on measurements in daily life to change lifestyle habits for realizing each health. Firstly, issues related to health such as its definitions are introduced and discussed by centering health rather than disease. In response to the discussions on health, Home and Medical Care is continuously introduced to point out the important role causality between life style and vital signal such as exercise and blood pressure based on detailed sampling time. Systems approaches of Systems Health Care are discussed from various points of views. Real applications of devices and services are used to make the studies and discussions deeper on the subjects of the article.

  13. Neural predictors of emotional inertia in daily life.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Christian E; Shing, Elaine Z; Avery, Bradley M; Jung, Youngkyoo; Whitlow, Christopher T; Maldjian, Joseph A

    2017-09-01

    Assessing emotional dynamics in the brain offers insight into the fundamental neural and psychological mechanisms underlying emotion. One such dynamic is emotional inertia-the influence of one's emotional state at one time point on one's emotional state at a subsequent time point. Emotion inertia reflects emotional rigidity and poor emotion regulation as evidenced by its relationship to depression and neuroticism. In this study, we assessed changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) from before to after an emotional task and used these changes to predict stress, positive and negative emotional inertia in daily life events. Cerebral blood flow changes in the lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) predicted decreased non-specific emotional inertia, suggesting that the lPFC may feature a general inhibitory mechanism responsible for limiting the impact that an emotional state from one event has on the emotional state of a subsequent event. CBF changes in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and lateral occipital cortex were associated with positive emotional inertia and negative/stress inertia, respectively. These data advance the blossoming literature on the temporal dynamics of emotion in the brain and on the use of neural indices to predict mental health-relevant behavior in daily life. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Neural predictors of emotional inertia in daily life

    PubMed Central

    Shing, Elaine Z.; Avery, Bradley M.; Jung, Youngkyoo; Whitlow, Christopher T.; Maldjian, Joseph A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Assessing emotional dynamics in the brain offers insight into the fundamental neural and psychological mechanisms underlying emotion. One such dynamic is emotional inertia—the influence of one’s emotional state at one time point on one’s emotional state at a subsequent time point. Emotion inertia reflects emotional rigidity and poor emotion regulation as evidenced by its relationship to depression and neuroticism. In this study, we assessed changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) from before to after an emotional task and used these changes to predict stress, positive and negative emotional inertia in daily life events. Cerebral blood flow changes in the lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) predicted decreased non-specific emotional inertia, suggesting that the lPFC may feature a general inhibitory mechanism responsible for limiting the impact that an emotional state from one event has on the emotional state of a subsequent event. CBF changes in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and lateral occipital cortex were associated with positive emotional inertia and negative/stress inertia, respectively. These data advance the blossoming literature on the temporal dynamics of emotion in the brain and on the use of neural indices to predict mental health-relevant behavior in daily life. PMID:28992272

  15. Evidence of Skill and Strategy in Daily Fantasy Basketball.

    PubMed

    Evans, Brent A; Roush, Justin; Pitts, Joshua D; Hornby, Adam

    2018-03-27

    Using hand-collected data from DraftKings.com, a major daily fantasy sports website, we analyze draft selections of thousands of participants in daily fantasy basketball (DFB). In our study, the first thorough examination of DFB, we show that DFB is a game in which skill is necessary for success. Using econometric analysis, we find that winning participants utilize different strategies than losing participants; for example, winning participants more frequently select NBA rookies and international players. We also find that participants paying to enter more lineups in a given contest earn profits far more often than those entering few lineups, indicating that the number of lineups entered can serve as a proxy for skill. Additionally, we provide a thorough discussion of industry characteristics, prior literature, and gameplay, which should help readers familiarize themselves with this burgeoning fantasy sports variant. This study should further the literature on the contentious activity, which has been outlawed in many U.S. states and continues to elicit controversy.

  16. A global dataset of sub-daily rainfall indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, H. J.; Lewis, E.; Blenkinsop, S.; Guerreiro, S.; Li, X.; Barbero, R.; Chan, S.; Lenderink, G.; Westra, S.

    2017-12-01

    It is still uncertain how hydrological extremes will change with global warming as we do not fully understand the processes that cause extreme precipitation under current climate variability. The INTENSE project is using a novel and fully-integrated data-modelling approach to provide a step-change in our understanding of the nature and drivers of global precipitation extremes and change on societally relevant timescales, leading to improved high-resolution climate model representation of extreme rainfall processes. The INTENSE project is in conjunction with the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)'s Grand Challenge on 'Understanding and Predicting Weather and Climate Extremes' and the Global Water and Energy Exchanges Project (GEWEX) Science questions. A new global sub-daily precipitation dataset has been constructed (data collection is ongoing). Metadata for each station has been calculated, detailing record lengths, missing data, station locations. A set of global hydroclimatic indices have been produced based upon stakeholder recommendations including indices that describe maximum rainfall totals and timing, the intensity, duration and frequency of storms, frequency of storms above specific thresholds and information about the diurnal cycle. This will provide a unique global data resource on sub-daily precipitation whose derived indices will be freely available to the wider scientific community.

  17. Examination of Daily Weather in the NCAR CCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocke, S. D.

    2006-05-01

    The NCAR CCM is one of the most extensively studied climate models in the scientific community. However, most studies focus primarily on the long term mean behavior, typically monthly or longer time scales. In this study we examine the daily weather in the GCM by performing a series of daily or weekly 10 day forecasts for one year at moderate (T63) and high (T126) resolution. The model is initialized with operational "AVN" and ECMWF analyses, and model performance is compared to that of major operational centers, using conventional skill scores used by the major centers. Such a detailed look at the CCM at shorter time scales may lead to improvements in physical parameterizations, which may in turn lead to improved climate simulations. One finding from this study is that the CCM has a significant drying tendency in the lower troposphere compared to the operational analyses. Another is that the large scale predictability of the GCM is competitive with most of the operational models, particularly in the southern hemisphere.

  18. Variability in daily, zonal mean lower-stratospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Drouilhet, S. James, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Satellite data from the microwave sounding unit (MSU) channel 4, when carefully merged, provide daily zonal anomalies of lower-stratosphere temperature with a level of precision between 0.01 and 0.08 C per 2.5 deg latitude band. Global averages of these daily zonal anomalies reveal the prominent warming events due to volcanic aerosol in 1982 (El Chichon) and 1991 (Mt. Pinatubo), which are on the order of 1 C. The quasibiennial oscillation (QBO) may be extracted from these zonal data by applying a spatial filter between 15 deg N and 15 deg S latitude, which resembles the meridional curvature. Previously published relationships between the QBO and the north polar stratospheric temperatures during northern winter are examined but were not found to be reproduced in the MSU4 data. Sudden stratospheric warmings in the north polar region are represented in the MSU4 data for latitudes poleward of 70 deg N. In the Southern Hemisphere, there appears to be a moderate relationship between total ozone concentration and MSU4 temperatures, though it has been less apparent in 1991 and 1992. In terms of empirical modes of variability, the authors find a strong tendency in EOF 1 (39.2% of the variance) for anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere polar regions to be counterbalanced by anomalies equatorward of 40 deg N and 40 deg S latitudes. In addition, most of the modes revealed significant power in the 15-20 day period band.

  19. Undergraduate Students' Pro-Environmental Behavior in Daily Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewi, Widiaswati; Sawitri, Dian R.

    2018-02-01

    Pro-environmental behavior is an individual action as a manifestation of one's responsibility to create a sustainable environment. University students as one of the agent of change can adopt pro-environmental behaviors concept, even through simple things to do on daily activities such as ride a bicycle or walk for short distance, reuse the shopping bags, separate waste, learn about environmental issues etc. Many studies have examined pro-environmental behavior from various approaches. However, the study about university students' pro-environmental behavior is lacking. The aim of this paper is to examine the undergraduate students' pro-environmental behaviors level. We surveyed 364 first year undergraduate students from a state university in Semarang. The survey included six aspects of pro-environmental behavior in daily practice which include energy conservation, mobility and transportation, waste avoidance, recycling, consumerism, and vicarious behaviors toward conservation. Findings of this study showed the level of pro-environmental behavior of first year undergraduate students is medium. Recommendations for undergraduate students and future researchers are discussed.

  20. Daily movements of female mallards wintering in Southwestern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, Paul T.; Afton, Alan D.; Cox, Robert R.; Davis, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding daily movements of waterfowl is crucial to management of winter habitats, especially along the Gulf Coast where hunting pressure is high. Radio-telemetry was used to investigate movements of female Mallards (Anas platyrchychos) wintering in southwestern Louisiana. Movement distances were analyzed from 2,455 paired locations (diurnal and nocturnal) of 126 Mallards during winters 2004–2005 and 2005–2006 to assess effects of winter, female age, areas closed (Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge [LAC], Cameron Prairie National Wildlife Refuge [CAM], Amoco Pool [AMOCO] or open to hunting [OPEN]), and habitat type, including all interactions. Movement distances from the various land management categories were not consistent by age, date, or by winter. Flight distances from LAC increased with date, whereas those from CAM and OPEN did not vary significantly by date. Female Mallards moved short distances between diurnal and nocturnal sites (ranging from 3.1 to 15.0 km by land management category), suggesting that they are able to meet their daily energy requirements within a smaller area than Northern Pintails (Anas acuta, hereafter Pintails), and thus minimize transit energy costs.