Science.gov

Sample records for strongyloides stercoralis infections

  1. Human infection with Strongyloides stercoralis and other related Strongyloides species.

    PubMed

    Nutman, Thomas B

    2017-03-01

    The majority of the 30-100 million people infected with Strongyloides stercoralis, a soil transmitted intestinal nematode, have subclinical (or asymptomatic) infections. These infections are commonly chronic and longstanding because of the autoinfective process associated with its unique life cycle. A change in immune status can increase parasite numbers, leading to hyperinfection syndrome, dissemination, and death if unrecognized. Corticosteroid use and HTLV-1 infection are most commonly associated with the hyperinfection syndrome. Strongyloides adult parasites reside in the small intestine and induce immune responses both local and systemic that remain poorly characterized. Definitive diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection is based on stool examinations for larvae, but newer diagnostics - including new immunoassays and molecular tests - will assume primacy in the next few years. Although good treatment options exist for infection and control of this infection might be possible, S. stercoralis remains largely neglected.

  2. Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a Finnish kennel

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Kati J; Saari, Seppo AM; Anttila, Marjukka

    2007-01-01

    Background Intestinal threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasite of dog, cat and primates that occurs worldwide being most prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries. The adult parasitic worm is about 2 mm long and slender. It possesses both parasitic and free-living lifecycles. The parasitic worms are females. Strongyloides stercoralis infects the host via percutaneous, peroral or transmammary transmission in addition to autoinfection. Clinical disease varies from inapparent to severe enteritis and pneumonia. The diagnosis is based on demonstration of larvae in fresh faeces, which is best made by Baermann technique. Case presentation Strongyloides stercoralis infection was diagnosed in autopsy in a 10-week-old puppy born and raised in a Finnish kennel. Prior to its sudden death, the puppy had suffered from gastrointestinal disturbance for three weeks. Subsequent sampling of the dogs in the kennel revealed that three adult dogs in the kennel were also infected. Conclusion The present case shows that S. stercoralis can complete its life cycle and cause disease in dogs also in Northern Europe. Infection can be maintained also in a temperate climate and may become a chronic problem in a kennel environment. Infection may be underdiagnosed as Baermann technique is not routinely performed in small animal practice. PMID:18076758

  3. Intestinal immune cells in Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Trajman, A; MacDonald, T T; Elia, C C

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strongyloides stercoralis can cause a wide spectrum of disease in man, ranging from a chronic asymptomatic infection to a hyperinfective, often fatal syndrome. In rodents, spontaneous expulsion of Strongyloides spp occurs after experimental infection. Mast cells, goblet cells, and eosinophils have been identified as possible effectors of this expulsion. AIMS: To investigate intestinal histopathology and mucosal immunity in immunocompetent patients with chronic S stercoralis infection. METHODS: Jejunal biopsies were performed in 19 immunocompetent patients with a positive stool examination for S stercoralis and few or no symptoms, and in seven healthy controls. Specimens were processed for histopathological analysis and stained by the immunoperoxidase technique, using the following monoclonal antibodies: CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, anti-T cell receptor (TcR) gamma/delta, RFD1 and RFD7 (two different macrophage markers), Ki67+ (proliferating) cells, antihuman leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, and anticollagen IV. In addition, CD25+ cells, mast cells, IgE expressing cells, calprotectin containing cells, and neutrophil elastase positive cells were stained by the alkaline phosphatase method. RESULTS: Jejunal morphology and the numbers of different T cell subsets, mast cells, IgE expressing cells, eosinophils, and goblet cells were unaffected by S stercoralis infection. Conversely, the numbers of mature macrophages and dividing enterocytes in the crypts were reduced significantly. Crypt enterocytes did not express HLA-DR in both groups. The expression of HLA-DR by villus enterocytes was also comparable in patients and controls. There were no activated (CD25+) cells in the mucosa of either patients or controls. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with seven healthy uninfected volunteers, a group of 19 Brazilians with clinically mild strongyloides infection showed no abnormality of mucosal structure and no increase in non-specific inflammatory cells. Likewise, there was no increase in

  4. Strongyloides stercoralis Infection in the Immunocompromised Host

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Roshan; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode acquired in the tropics or subtropics. Most often, it causes chronic, asymptomatic infection, but a change in immune status can increase parasite numbers, leading to hyperinfection syndrome, dissemination, and death if unrecognized. Corticosteroid use is most commonly associated with hyperinfection syndrome. Diagnosis of Strongyloides infection is based on serology and serial stool examinations for larvae. The treatment of choice for chronic, asymptomatic infection is oral ivermectin. Alternative pharmacologic agents include albendazole and thiabendazole. For hyperinfection syndrome, ivermectin remains the drug of choice, though therapy duration must be individualized with the end point being complete parasite eradication. Recurrent strongyloidiasis should prompt an evaluation for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 coinfection. No test of cure is currently available, although immunoglobulin G antibody levels have been shown to decline within 6 months of successful treatment. PMID:18462583

  5. Strongyloides stercoralis Infection in Alcoholic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Flavia T. F.; Souza, Joelma N.; Silva, Mônica L. S.; Inês, Elizabete J.; Soares, Neci M.

    2016-01-01

    The course of Strongyloides stercoralis infection is usually asymptomatic with a low discharge of rhabditoid larva in feces. However, the deleterious effects of alcohol consumption seem to enhance the susceptibility to infection, as shown by a fivefold higher strongyloidiasis frequency in alcoholics than in nonalcoholics. Moreover, the association between S. stercoralis infection and alcoholism presents a risk for hyperinfection and severe strongyloidiasis. There are several possible mechanisms for the disruption of the host-parasite equilibrium in ethanol-addicted patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. One explanation is that chronic ethanol intake stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to produce excessive levels of endogenous cortisol, which in turn can lead to a deficiency in type 2 T helper cells (Th2) protective response, and also to mimic the parasite hormone ecdysone, which promotes the transformation of rhabditiform larvae to filariform larvae, leading to autoinfection. Therefore, when untreated, alcoholic patients are continuously infected by this autoinfection mechanism. Thus, the early diagnosis of strongyloidiasis and treatment can prevent serious forms of hyperinfection in ethanol abusers. PMID:28105424

  6. Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection

    PubMed Central

    Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Echevarria, Juan; White, A Clinton; Terashima, Angelica; Samalvides, Frine; Pérez-Molina, José A; Plana, Maria N

    2016-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis is a gut infection with Strongyloides stercoralis which is common world wide. Chronic infection usually causes a skin rash, vomiting, diarrhoea or constipation, and respiratory problems, and it can be fatal in people with immune deficiency. It may be treated with ivermectin or albendazole or thiabendazole. Objectives To assess the effects of ivermectin versus benzimidazoles (albendazole and thiabendazole) for treating chronic strongyloides infection. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (24 August 2015); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (January 1966 to August 2015); EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2015); LILACS (August 2015); and reference lists of articles. We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) using 'strongyloid*' as a search term, reference lists, and conference abstracts. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials of ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for treating chronic strongyloides infection. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias in the included trials. We used risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and fixed- or random-effects models. We pooled adverse event data if the trials were sufficiently similar in their adverse event definitions. Main results We included seven trials, enrolling 1147 participants, conducted between 1994 and 2011 in different locations (Africa, Southeast Asia, America and Europe). In trials comparing ivermectin with albendazole, parasitological cure was higher with ivermectin (RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.08; 478 participants, four trials, moderate quality evidence). There were no statistically significant differences in adverse events (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.09; 518 participants, four trials, low quality evidence). In trials comparing ivermectin with thiabendazole

  7. Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    PubMed

    Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Echevarria, Juan; White, A Clinton; Terashima, Angelica; Samalvides, Frine; Pérez-Molina, José A; Plana, Maria N

    2016-01-18

    Strongyloidiasis is a gut infection with Strongyloides stercoralis which is common world wide. Chronic infection usually causes a skin rash, vomiting, diarrhoea or constipation, and respiratory problems, and it can be fatal in people with immune deficiency. It may be treated with ivermectin or albendazole or thiabendazole. To assess the effects of ivermectin versus benzimidazoles (albendazole and thiabendazole) for treating chronic strongyloides infection. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (24 August 2015); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (January 1966 to August 2015); EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2015); LILACS (August 2015); and reference lists of articles. We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) using 'strongyloid*' as a search term, reference lists, and conference abstracts. Randomized controlled trials of ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for treating chronic strongyloides infection. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias in the included trials. We used risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and fixed- or random-effects models. We pooled adverse event data if the trials were sufficiently similar in their adverse event definitions. We included seven trials, enrolling 1147 participants, conducted between 1994 and 2011 in different locations (Africa, Southeast Asia, America and Europe).In trials comparing ivermectin with albendazole, parasitological cure was higher with ivermectin (RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.08; 478 participants, four trials, moderate quality evidence). There were no statistically significant differences in adverse events (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.09; 518 participants, four trials, low quality evidence).In trials comparing ivermectin with thiabendazole, there was little or no difference in parasitological cure (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.20; 467

  8. Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Tetsuo; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Kinjo, Nagisa; Hokama, Akira; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Fujita, Jiro

    2007-11-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Ryukyu University Hospital, Okinawa, Japan, between January 2004 and November 2006. Stool samples collected from 3,292 patients were examined by the direct smear method, formalin-ether sedimentation method, and agar plate culture method. The prevalence rate of B. hominis and S. stercoralis infection was 1.0 and 3.4%, respectively. The prevalence rate of B. hominis infection in patients aged >80 years old was significantly higher than that in patients <80 years old (P < 0.001). The prevalence rate of S. stercoralis infection was significantly higher in patients with B. hominis infection compared with those without (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated a prevalence rate for B. hominis and S. stercoralis infection and an association between B. hominis and S. stercoralis infection in Okinawa, Japan.

  9. Hyperinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Villagroy Gómez, Javier; Hernández González, Mercedes; Romero Feregrino, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is caused by Strongyloides stercoralis, which commonly produces gastrointestinal problems. If immune systems are compromised, the nematode larvae may spread and produce Strongyloides hyperinfection. Diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is based on the observation of larvae in coproparasitological studies. We present a case of a 49-year-oldman, VIH, who developed Strongyloides hyperinfection, diagnosed postmortem. Our patient reached the dissemination stage, which resulted in severe damage to the stomach and intestine, perforation of the intestinal wall, as well as sepsis due to the dissemination of bacteria. The diagnosis is difficult because of the low larvae excretion in stools. It is usually performed by the microscopic examination of fresh and fixed enriched stool samples. Serology was reported to be useful for screening and follow-up after treatment. This case reaffirms that HIV immunosuppression favours the dissemination of S stercoralis larvae. Thus, a search for intestinal parasites should be considered in similar cases. PMID:23203176

  10. Association between Strongyloides stercoralis infection and cortisol secretion in alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mônica L S; Inês, Elizabete de J; Souza, Alex Bruno da S; Dias, Victória Maria dos S; Guimarães, Cléa M; Menezes, Edimacia R; Barbosa, Larissa G; Alves, Maria Del Carmen M; Teixeira, Márcia Cristina A; Soares, Neci M

    2016-02-01

    A higher prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infections has been reported in alcoholic patients compared to nonalcoholic patients living in the same area. Excessive alcohol consumption increases the levels of endogenous corticosteroids that subsequently enhance the fecundity of S. stercoralis parthenogenetic females. These corticosteroids also enhance the transformation of rhabditiform larvae into infective filariform larvae by mimicking the effect of the ecdysteroid hormones produced by the parasite, thus leading to autoinfection. In addition, alterations in the intestinal barrier and host immune response contribute to the development of hyperinfection and severe strongyloidiasis in alcoholic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of S. stercoralis infections in alcoholic patients and to determine the association between S. stercoralis infection and endogenous cortisol levels. The frequency of infection was evaluated in 332 alcoholic and 92 nonalcoholic patients. The parasitological diagnosis was carried out by agar plate culture, the modified Baermann-Moraes method and spontaneous sedimentation. The immunological diagnosis was performed using an ELISA with anti-S. stercoralis IgG. The cortisol levels were measured in serum samples by ELISA. The frequency of S. stercoralis infection in alcoholic patients was 23.5% (78/332), while in nonalcoholic patients, it was 5.4% (5/92) (p<0.05). The cortisol levels were higher in alcoholic than in nonalcoholic patients (p<0.05). However, among the alcoholic patients, the cortisol levels did not differ between S. stercoralis-infected and uninfected patients (p>0.05). As demonstrated in this work, 81.3% (26/32) of patients with a high parasite load, considered as more than 11 larvae per gram of feces, presented serum cortisol levels above the normal reference value (24 mg/dL). High endogenous cortisol levels in alcoholic patients were not associated to susceptibility to S. stercoralis infection

  11. Peripheral blood CD4(+)/CD25(+) regulatory T cells in alcoholic patients with Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Steveen Rios; Covre, Luciana Polaco; Stringari, Lorenzzo Lyrio; da Penha Zago-Gomes, Maria; Gomes, Daniel Cláudio Oliveira; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima

    2017-03-01

    An increased number of regulatory T (Treg) cells has been reported in patients with HTLV-1 and Strongyloides stercoralis co-infection, suggesting the contribution of these cells to worm survival. As Strongyloides infections have been found to be highly prevalent in chronic alcoholics, we investigated the effect of abusive ethanol ingestion on the induction of Treg cells in alcoholic patients with Strongyloides infection. Treg cells were assessed by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 12 healthy non-alcoholic (control) and 14 alcoholic patients (alcoholic) without Strongyloides infection and five non-alcoholics (controlSs) and five chronic alcoholics (alcoholSs) with Strongyloides infection. The results showed significantly higher frequencies of Treg cells in the alcoholic, controlSs and alcoholSs group patients than in the control group patients. However, the frequencies of Treg cells did not differ between the alcoholSs and controlSs groups. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that ethanol consumption induced an increase in the number of circulating Treg cells in chronic alcoholics in this study but was unable to potentiate the induction of these cells in alcoholics with Strongyloides infection.

  12. Strongyloides stercoralis infection in an HIV positive patient--a case report from RIMS, Imphal, Manipur.

    PubMed

    Pukhrambam, Pratita Devi; Rebachandra, H; Singh, Ng Brajachand; Singh, Th Nabakumar

    2010-09-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis, a nematode parasite in human with free living and autoinfective cycles, is often an asymptomatic infection of the upper small intestine. If the host becomes immunocompromised, autoinfection may increase the intestinal worm burden and lead to disseminated strongyloidiasis. We report a case of a 33 year old male HIV positive patient admitted on 2/6/08 in male medical ward, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, Manipur with complaints of loose stools, pain abdomen, nausea, vomiting, generalized weakness, loss of appetite and loss of weight for past one month with fever off and on. Stool examination reveals larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. The patient was successfully treated with Ivermectin 200 microgm/kg daily for 2 days.

  13. DIAGNOSIS OF Strongyloides stercoralis INFECTION IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PATIENTS BY SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS.

    PubMed

    Paula, Fabiana Martins de; Malta, Fernanda Mello; Corral, Marcelo Andreetta; Marques, Priscilla Duarte; Gottardi, Maiara; Meisel, Dirce Mary Correia Lima; Yamashiro, Juliana; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Castilho, Vera Lucia Pagliusi; Gonçalves, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; Gryschek, Ronaldo César Borges; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2016-09-22

    Strongyloidiasis is a potentially serious infection in immunocompromised patients. Thus, the availability of sensitive and specific diagnostic methods is desirable, especially in the context of immunosuppressed patients in whom the diagnosis and treatment of strongyloidiasis is of utmost importance. In this study, serological and molecular tools were used to diagnose Strongyloides stercoralis infections in immunosuppressed patients. Serum and stool samples were obtained from 52 patients. Stool samples were first analyzed by Lutz, Rugai, and Agar plate culture methods, and then by a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Serum samples were evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a soluble (AS) or a membrane fractions antigen (AM) obtained from alkaline solutions of the filariform larvae of Strongyloides venezuelensis. Of the 52 immunosuppressed patients, three (5.8%) were positive for S. stercoralis by parasitological methods, compared to two patients (3.8%) and one patient (1.9%) who were detected by ELISA using the AS and the AM antigens, respectively. S. stercoralis DNA was amplified in seven (13.5%) stool samples by qPCR. These results suggest the utility of qPCR as an alternative diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection in immunocompromised patients, considering the possible severity of this helminthiasis in this group of patients.

  14. DIAGNOSIS OF Strongyloides stercoralis INFECTION IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PATIENTS BY SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS

    PubMed Central

    de PAULA, Fabiana Martins; MALTA, Fernanda Mello; CORRAL, Marcelo Andreetta; MARQUES, Priscilla Duarte; GOTTARDI, Maiara; MEISEL, Dirce Mary Correia Lima; YAMASHIRO, Juliana; PINHO, João Renato Rebello; CASTILHO, Vera Lucia Pagliusi; GONÇALVES, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; GRYSCHEK, Ronaldo César Borges; CHIEFFI, Pedro Paulo

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Strongyloidiasis is a potentially serious infection in immunocompromised patients. Thus, the availability of sensitive and specific diagnostic methods is desirable, especially in the context of immunosuppressed patients in whom the diagnosis and treatment of strongyloidiasis is of utmost importance. In this study, serological and molecular tools were used to diagnose Strongyloides stercoralis infections in immunosuppressed patients. Serum and stool samples were obtained from 52 patients. Stool samples were first analyzed by Lutz, Rugai, and Agar plate culture methods, and then by a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Serum samples were evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a soluble (AS) or a membrane fractions antigen (AM) obtained from alkaline solutions of the filariform larvae of Strongyloides venezuelensis. Of the 52 immunosuppressed patients, three (5.8%) were positive for S. stercoralis by parasitological methods, compared to two patients (3.8%) and one patient (1.9%) who were detected by ELISA using the AS and the AM antigens, respectively. S. stercoralis DNA was amplified in seven (13.5%) stool samples by qPCR. These results suggest the utility of qPCR as an alternative diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection in immunocompromised patients, considering the possible severity of this helminthiasis in this group of patients. PMID:27680168

  15. Recurrence of strongyloides stercoralis infection in a patient with Hansen's disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Joelma Nascimento; Machado, Paulo Roberto Lima; Teixeira, Márcia Cristina Aquino; Soares, Neci Matos

    2014-03-01

    In patients with immunosuppressive disorders, S. stercoralis infection may develop into a hyperinfection syndrome which, on rare occasions, may be a life-threatening condition. Therapy of S. stercoralis infection with thiabendazole has been limited, due to its numerous side effects, and has been replaced by albendazole and ivermectin. The present case report describes a case of Strongyloides Hyperinfection Syndrome (SHS) in a patient with Hansen's disease and lack of response to first-line anthelmintic treatment. A 38 year-old man was diagnosed as having borderline lepromatous leprosy. He developed Erythema Nodosum Leprosum and was treated with thalidomide and prednisone. In May 2010 he was diagnosed with S. stercoralis infection and was treated with albendazole. One year later, the stool examination showed continued presence of S. stercoralis larvae. He was treated with ivermectin (6 mg) in a double dose (given 1 month apart) which resulted in larvae excretion clearance. The absence of infection was confirmed three times during a 1 year followup period by stool examination and non-detection of anti-S. stercoralis IgG levels.

  16. Molecular Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis Infection by PCR Detection of Specific DNA in Human Stool Samples

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddassani, H; Mirhendi, H; Hosseini, M; Rokni, MB; Mowlavi, Gh; Kia, Eb

    2011-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis is mostly an asymptomatic infection and diagnosis of latent infections is difficult due to limitations of current parasitological and serological methods. This study was conducted to set up a PCR-based method for molecular diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection by detection of copro-DNA in stool samples. Methods A total of 782 fresh stool samples were collected and examined by agar plate culture. Among those sixteen stool samples, which confirmed to be infected with S. stercoralis were examined as positive control to set up each single and nested PCR, using two primer sets designing to amplify partial ribosomal DNA of S. stercoralis genome. Since, single PCR method yielded higher efficacy in detecting positive samples, in the second step, 30 stool samples, which found negative for S. stercoralis by agar plate culture of single stool sample, were examined by single PCR. Data analysis was performed using McNemar's χ2 test, with consideration of a P-value of <0.05 as indication of significant difference. Results In amplification of DNA extracted from stool samples, single PCR detected S. stercoralis DNA target in all 16 positive samples, while nested PCR amplified DNA in only 75% of samples. In the second step, single PCR amplified S. stercoralis extracted DNA in 5 out of 30 samples which were negative by coproculture. Conclusion Single PCR method amplifying a short (100bp) target represented more efficacies for detection of S. stercoralis in faecal examination compared to agar plate culture and nested PCR, which amplified longer target. PMID:22347284

  17. Should we look for Strongyloides stercoralis in foreign-born HIV-infected persons?

    PubMed

    Llenas-García, Jara; Fiorante, Silvana; Salto, Efrén; Maseda, Diego; Rodríguez, Violeta; Matarranz, Mariano; Hernando, Asunción; Rubio, Rafael; Pulido, Federico

    2013-08-01

    The objective was to evaluate the implementation of a systematic Strongyloides stercoralis screening programme in HIV infected immigrants attending an HIV Unit in Spain. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to assess the presence of Strongyloides IgG. Patients with a positive serology were treated with ivermectin; serologic follow-up testing was performed. 237 patients were screened (65.4 % men). Origin: 64.1 % came from Latin America, 16.5 % from Sub-Saharan Africa, 9.7 % from the Caribbean, 9.7 % from other areas. Strongyloides stercolaris IgG was positive in 13 cases (5.5 %). In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with a positive Strongyloides serology were illiteracy (OR: 23.31; p = 0.009) and eosinophilia (OR: 15.44; p < 0.0001). Nine of the 13 patients positive for S. stercoralis IgG and treated with ivermectin had a follow up serologic test: 77.8 % achieved a serologic response (55.5 % seroreversion). Screening of HIV-positive immigrants may be desirable, at least in those with higher risk of hyperinfection syndrome. Serologic testing seems a useful tool in both diagnosis and follow-up of these patients.

  18. [Duodenal Linphoma asociated to Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Two types of HTLV-1 infection].

    PubMed

    Guevara Miranda, Julissa; Guzmán Rojas, Patricia; Espinoza-Ríos, Jorge; Mejía Cordero, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Infection by the Human T- Lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-1) causes Adult T cell Leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL), being the duodenal involvement rare. Commonly, patients co-infected with HTLV-1 and Strongyloides stercoralis are seen due to the lack of TH2 response found on these patients. We describe a 48-year- old woman, from the jungle of Peru, with a family history of HTLV-1 infection, who presented with a History of chronic diarrhea and weight loss. HTLV-1 infection with ATLL and strongyloidiasis were diagnosed. Ivermectin treatment and chemotherapy were initiated, being stabilized, and discharged. We report this case because of the unusual coexistence in the duodenum of ATLL and strongyloidiasis.

  19. Ivermectin Treatment and Sanitation Effectively Reduce Strongyloides stercoralis Infection Risk in Rural Communities in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schindler, Christian; Schär, Fabian; Marti, Hanspeter; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis is the only soil-transmitted helminth with the ability to replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and its worldwide prevalence has recently been estimated to be at least half that of hookworm. Information on the epidemiology of S. stercoralis remains scarce and modalities for its large-scale control are yet to be determined. Methodology/Principal Findings A community-based two-year cohort study was conducted among the general population in a rural province in North Cambodia. At each survey, participants infected with S. stercoralis were treated with a single oral dose of ivermectin (200μg/kg BW). Diagnosis was performed using a combination of the Baermann method and Koga agar plate culture on two stool samples. The cohort included participants from eight villages who were either positive or negative for S. stercoralis at baseline. Mixed logistic regression models were employed to assess risk factors for S. stercoralis infection at baseline and re-infection at follow-up. A total of 3,096 participants were examined at baseline, revealing a S. stercoralis prevalence of 33.1%. Of these participants, 1,269 were followed-up over two years. Re-infection and infection rates among positive and negative participants at baseline were 14.4% and 9.6% at the first and 11.0% and 11.5% at the second follow-up, respectively. At follow-up, all age groups were at similar risk of acquiring an infection, while infection risk significantly decreased with increasing village sanitation coverage. Conclusions/Significance Chemotherapy-based control of S. stercoralis is feasible and highly beneficial, particularly in combination with improved sanitation. The impact of community-based ivermectin treatment on S. stercoralis was high, with over 85% of villagers remaining negative one year after treatment. The integration of S. stercoralis into existing STH control programs should be considered

  20. Disseminated Strongyloides stercoralis Infection in HTLV-1-Associated Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Donn M.; Ramanathan, Roshan; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Fedorko, Daniel P.; Janik, John E.; Morris, John C.

    2011-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)-associated adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and a history of previously treated Strongyloides stercoralis infection received anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody therapy with alemtuzumab on a clinical trial. After an initial response, she developed ocular involvement by ATL. Alemtuzumab was stopped and high-dose corticosteroid therapy was started to palliate her ocular symptoms. Ten days later, the patient developed diarrhea, vomiting, fever, cough, skin rash, and a deteriorating mental status. She was diagnosed with disseminated S. stercoralis. Corticosteroids were discontinued and the patient received anthelmintic therapy with ivermectin and albendazole with complete clinical recovery. PMID:21474923

  1. Disseminated Strongyloides stercoralis infection in HTLV-1-associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Donn M; Ramanathan, Roshan; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Fedorko, Daniel P; Janik, John E; Morris, John C

    2011-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)-associated adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and a history of previously treated Strongyloides stercoralis infection received anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody therapy with alemtuzumab on a clinical trial. After an initial response, she developed ocular involvement by ATL. Alemtuzumab was stopped and high-dose corticosteroid therapy was started to palliate her ocular symptoms. Ten days later, the patient developed diarrhea, vomiting, fever, cough, skin rash, and a deteriorating mental status. She was diagnosed with disseminated S. stercoralis. Corticosteroids were discontinued and the patient received anthelmintic therapy with ivermectin and albendazole with complete clinical recovery. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a patient with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Takeshi; Nabeya, Daijiro; Nakamura, Hideta; Haranaga, Shusaku; Hirata, Tetsuo; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Atsumi, Eriko; Fuchigami, Tatsuya; Aoki, Yoichi; Fujita, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman complained of diarrhea and vomiting after receiving chemotherapy for cervical cancer in association with high doses of corticosteroids. Two months later, the patient developed acute respiratory distress syndrome, and numerous Strongyloides stercoralis parasites were found in the intrabronchial discharge. Ivermectin was administered daily until nematodes were no longer detected in the sputum, and the patient's condition was successfully rescued. Antibodies for human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1) were positive. HTLV-1 infection and the administration of corticosteroids are known risk factors for strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome. Therefore, physicians should consider this disease in the differential diagnosis of patients from endemic areas who present with gastrointestinal symptoms under these risk factors.

  3. Microarray-Based Analysis of Differential Gene Expression between Infective and Noninfective Larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Roshan; Varma, Sudhir; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Myers, Timothy G.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Abraham, David; Lok, James B.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences between noninfective first-stage (L1) and infective third-stage (L3i) larvae of parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis at the molecular level are relatively uncharacterized. DNA microarrays were developed and utilized for this purpose. Methods and Findings Oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the array were designed to bind 3,571 putative mRNA transcripts predicted by analysis of 11,335 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) obtained as part of the Nematode EST project. RNA obtained from S. stercoralis L3i and L1 was co-hybridized to each array after labeling the individual samples with different fluorescent tags. Bioinformatic predictions of gene function were developed using a novel cDNA Annotation System software. We identified 935 differentially expressed genes (469 L3i-biased; 466 L1-biased) having two-fold expression differences or greater and microarray signals with a p value<0.01. Based on a functional analysis, L1 larvae have a larger number of genes putatively involved in transcription (p = 0.004), and L3i larvae have biased expression of putative heat shock proteins (such as hsp-90). Genes with products known to be immunoreactive in S. stercoralis-infected humans (such as SsIR and NIE) had L3i biased expression. Abundantly expressed L3i contigs of interest included S. stercoralis orthologs of cytochrome oxidase ucr 2.1 and hsp-90, which may be potential chemotherapeutic targets. The S. stercoralis ortholog of fatty acid and retinol binding protein-1, successfully used in a vaccine against Ancylostoma ceylanicum, was identified among the 25 most highly expressed L3i genes. The sperm-containing glycoprotein domain, utilized in a vaccine against the nematode Cooperia punctata, was exclusively found in L3i biased genes and may be a valuable S. stercoralis target of interest. Conclusions A new DNA microarray tool for the examination of S. stercoralis biology has been developed and provides new and valuable insights regarding

  4. Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among cancer patients in a major hospital in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zueter, AbdelRahman Mohammad; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Abdullah, Abu Dzarr; Mohamad, Norsarwany; Arifin, Norsyahida; Othman, Nurulhasanah; Noordin, Rahmah

    2014-07-01

    Strongyloidiasis is one of the most commonly neglected but clinically important parasitic infections worldwide, especially among immunocompromised patients. Evidence of infection among immunocompromised patients in Malaysia is, however, lacking. In this study, microscopy, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to detect Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) infection among cancer patients in a Malaysian hospital. A total of 192 stool and serum samples were collected from cancer patients who were receiving chemotherapy with or without steroid treatment at a hospital in northeastern Malaysia. Stool samples were examined for S. stercoralis using parasitological methods and real-time PCR. Serology by ELISA was performed to detect parasite-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG4 and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. For comparison, IgG4- and IgG-ELISAs were also performed on the sera of 150 healthy individuals from the same area. Of the 192 samples examined, 1 (0.5%) sample was positive for S. stercoralis by microscopy, 3 (1.6%) by real-time PCR, 8 (4.2%) by IgG-ELISA, 6 (3.1%) by IgG4-ELISA, and none was positive by IgE-ELISA. In comparison, healthy blood donors had significantly lower prevalence of parasite-specific IgG (2.67%, p < 0.05) and IgG4 (2.67%, p < 0.05) responses. This study showed that laboratory testing may be considered as a diagnostic investigation for S. stercoralis among immunocompromised cancer patients.

  5. Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among cancer patients in a major hospital in Kelantan, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Zueter, AbdelRahman Mohammad; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Abdullah, Abu Dzarr; Mohamad, Norsarwany; Arifin, Norsyahida; Othman, Nurulhasanah; Noordin, Rahmah

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Strongyloidiasis is one of the most commonly neglected but clinically important parasitic infections worldwide, especially among immunocompromised patients. Evidence of infection among immunocompromised patients in Malaysia is, however, lacking. In this study, microscopy, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to detect Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) infection among cancer patients in a Malaysian hospital. METHODS A total of 192 stool and serum samples were collected from cancer patients who were receiving chemotherapy with or without steroid treatment at a hospital in northeastern Malaysia. Stool samples were examined for S. stercoralis using parasitological methods and real-time PCR. Serology by ELISA was performed to detect parasite-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG4 and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. For comparison, IgG4- and IgG-ELISAs were also performed on the sera of 150 healthy individuals from the same area. RESULTS Of the 192 samples examined, 1 (0.5%) sample was positive for S. stercoralis by microscopy, 3 (1.6%) by real-time PCR, 8 (4.2%) by IgG-ELISA, 6 (3.1%) by IgG4-ELISA, and none was positive by IgE-ELISA. In comparison, healthy blood donors had significantly lower prevalence of parasite-specific IgG (2.67%, p < 0.05) and IgG4 (2.67%, p < 0.05) responses. CONCLUSION This study showed that laboratory testing may be considered as a diagnostic investigation for S. stercoralis among immunocompromised cancer patients. PMID:25091885

  6. Strongyloides stercoralis, Eosinophilia, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Predictive Value of Eosinophilia in the Diagnosis of S stercoralis Infection in an Endemic Community

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Russell; Thompson, Fintan; Esterman, Adrian; McDermott, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study examines the predictive value of eosinophilia for Strongyloides stercoralis infection, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing, in an endemic community. In remote communities, eosinophilia is frequently used as a proxy test for the presence of helminth infections. Past studies of eosinophilia and Strongyloides infection have been conducted in specific groups such as immigrants and refugees, or in subpopulations of nonendemic communities, rather than in endemic communities. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the relationship between eosinophilia and Strongyloides ELISA serology, as part of a study into the relationship between S stercoralis infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in an Indigenous community in northern Australia. Results. Two hundred thirty-nine adults had their eosinophil count and S stercoralis ELISA serology measured in 2012 and 2013, along with other biometric and metabolic data. Eosinophilia was found to have a relatively poor sensitivity (60.9%), specificity (71.1%), positive predictive value (54.6%), and negative predictive value (76.1%) for S stercoralis ELISA positivity in this group. However, there was a more constant relationship between eosinophilia and S Stercoralis ELISA positivity in patients with T2DM (negative predictive value 87.5%). Conclusion. This study suggests that the presence or absence of eosinophilia is not an adequate proxy test for S stercoralis infection in a community where the infection is prevalent, and that the association between eosinophilia and S stercoralis ELISA positivity is more constant in patients with T2DM. PMID:26989753

  7. HIGH PREVALENCE OF Strongyloides stercoralis INFECTION AMONG THE ELDERLY IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Naves, Maria Margarida; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Little is known about the frequency of intestinal parasites in the elderly due to a lack of attention given to the occurrence of these infections among older adults. This study compares the frequency of Strongyloides stercoralis and other enteroparasites between elderly living in nursing homes (n = 100) and those noninstitutionalized (n = 100) from Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, associated with data of epidemiological and socio-demographic conditions. Through coproparasitological examination of both groups, enteroparasites were detected in 15 of 200 individuals examined (7.5%; CI: 5.1- 9.9). S. stercoralis was the most frequent parasite 10/200 (5%; CI: 4.2-5.8), being significantly higher in males and in individuals with autonomy for daily living activities. There were no statistical differences in the prevalence of parasites between the two groups compared. In conclusion, S. stercoralis infection was highly prevalent in elderly patients and it does not depend on whether the individual was institutionalized or not. PMID:24037284

  8. [Factors associated with strongyloides stercoralis infection in an endemic area in Peru].

    PubMed

    Herrera, Julio; Marcos, Luis; Terashima, Angélica; Alvarez, Héctor; Samalvides, Frine; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine the epidemiological factors and clinical symptoms associated with Strongyloides stercoralis infection, we carried out a descriptive study with a control group in the District of Chanchamayo, Province of Chanchamayo, Junin, Peru. Group I (n = 50) represented those individuals with strongyloidosis and group II (n = 50) were those who tested negative for S. stercoralis by parasitological methods. Epidemiological variables significantly associated with group I were: bathing in the river 3-4 times per week, consuming non-drinking water, defecating in the field; and with group II: drinking boiled water, wearing sneakers and living in houses with cement floor. The clinical symptoms of epigastric pain, daily abdominal pain, semi liquid feces, liquid feces, daily defecation frequency, urticaria and nausea were significantly associated with group 1; whereas more solid feces and defecating every other day were significantly associated with group II. Among individuals under the age of 20 there was a higher percentage of malnutrition according to the weight-age index in group I (p = 0.045). We conclude that infection by S. stercoralis should be suspected in persons from tropical areas who are in frequent contact with rivers or streams or live close to watercourses, who have gastroenterological or dermatological symptoms or who are malnourished, especially if they are children or adolescents.

  9. Possible Strongyloides stercoralis infection diagnosed by videocapsule endoscopy in an immunocompetent patient with devastating diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Xouris, Dimitrios; Vafiadis-Zoumbulis, Irene; Papaxoinis, Kostis; Bamias, Giorgos; Karamanolis, George; Vlachogiannakos, Janis; Ladas, Spiros D.

    2012-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is an endemic parasitic infection of tropical areas, but it is rare in Europe. Most infected immunocompetent patients are asymptomatic, but may present with abdominal pain and diarrhea even several years after acquiring the infection. However, in immunocompromized patients, hyperinfection syndrome has a high mortality rate. Risk factors for the hyperinfection syndrome are corticosteroids and infection with human T lymphotropic virus type 1. Diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is usually made by identifying the larvae in the stool or in duodenal biopsies. There are only four published cases of strongyloidiasis in Greek patients, three of them were immunocompromized. In our patient videocapsule endoscopy identified rhabditiform larvae suggestive of strongyloidiasis. This case report illustrates the difficulty in establishing a diagnosis of the disease in immunocompetent patients. PMID:24713813

  10. Seroprevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among HTLV-I infected blood donors in Barcelona, Spain: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Piron, Maria; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Sauleda, Silvia; Molina, Israel

    2017-09-20

    Strongyloides stercoralis infection in patients with HTLV-I infection may lead to severe clinical manifestations. The aim of the present study is to determine the seroprevalence of S. stercoralis infection among blood donors who tested positive for HTLV-I infection. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain) in 2016. Serum samples from HTLV-I positive patients diagnosed from 2008 to 2015 were retrieved from the Blood Bank, and S. stercoralis serology was performed. Thirty six serum samples from HTLV-I positive patients were retrieved from the Blood Bank. The blood samples came from 36 blood donors, and most of them were born in Latin America (75%), being Peru the most frequent country (11 participants). S. stercoralis serology was positive in one patient, corresponding to a prevalence of 2.8% (3.4% if we exclude donors coming from European countries, where the risk of S. stercoralis infection is highly unlikely). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Strongyloides stercoralis infection increases the likelihood to detect Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in peripheral blood in Chagas disease patients.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Piron, Maria; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Sauleda, Silvia; Molina-Morant, Daniel; Moure, Zaira; Molina, Israel

    2017-09-04

    In a previous study performed by our group, Strongyloides stercoralis infection in patients with Chagas disease was associated with higher proportion of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA detection in peripheral blood. The aim of the study was to confirm this association in a larger cohort of patients. Cross-sectional study of all patients with Chagas disease diagnosed from 2005 to 2015 during blood donation at the Catalan Blood Bank. Demographic data and T. cruzi RT-PCR were collected. S. stercoralis infection diagnosis was based on a serological test. Two hundred and two blood donors were included. T. cruzi RT-PCR was positive in 72 (35.6%) patients, and S. stercoralis serology was positive in 22 (10.9%) patients. Patients with positive S. stercoralis serology had higher proportion of positive T. cruzi RT-PCR than those with negative serology (54.5% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.050), and the difference increased when taking a serological index cut-off of 2.5, which increases the specificity of the test to detect a confirmed strongyloidiasis (60% vs. 33%, P = 0.017). Patients with Chagas disease with positive S. stercoralis serology had higher proportion of positive T. cruzi RT-PCR in peripheral blood than those with negative serology, which reflects the potential immunomodulatory effects of S. stercoralis in T. cruzi co-infected patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of acquiring Strongyloides stercoralis infection among patients attending a tertiary hospital in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Jongwutiwes, Ubonvan; Waywa, Duangdao; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk; Wanachiwanawin, Darawan; Suputtamongkol, Yupin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for Strongyloides stercoralis infection in adult patients attending Siriraj Hospital, a tertiary hospital in Thailand. Methods A case–control study was carried out between July 2008 and April 2010. Case and control were identified from 6022 patients for whom results of faecal examination were available. A case was a patient who had S. stercoralis larva detected from faecal examination. Control was randomly selected from patients without S. stercoralis larvae detected in three consecutive faecal examinations. The proportion of control to case was 2 : 1. Demographic and clinical data for the day of diagnosis and retrospectively up to 15 days preceding the date of faecal examination were reviewed from their medical records. Results Overall, 149 (2.47%) patients had S. stercoralis larvae positive. There were 105 males (70.5%), with the mean (SD) age of 53.9 (17.2) years. A total of 300 controls were selected. Male gender (odds ratio (OR)  =  2.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.78–4.27)), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (OR  =  3.23, 95% CI 1.43–7.29), and eosinophilia (OR  =  1.81, 95% CI 1.33–2.47) were found to be independent risk factors associated with S. stercoralis infection in this setting. Corticosteroid or other immunosuppressive treatment, and other concomitant illnesses were not associated with increased risk of S. stercoralis infection. Conclusion In this setting, strongyloidiasis was seen more often in male patients with eosinophilia and with HIV infection. Prevention of fatal complication caused by S. stercoralis by regular faecal examination, or serology for early detection and treatment of undiagnosed S. stercoralis infection, is warranted in these high-risk patients. PMID:24766337

  13. [Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a Spanish regional hospital: Not just an imported disease].

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Tenza, María Isabel; Ruiz-Maciá, José Antonio; Navarro-Cots, María; Gregori-Colomé, Joan; Cepeda-Rodrigo, José María; Llenas-García, Jara

    2016-10-12

    Strongyloides stercoralis infection is more prevalent in tropical regions but autochthonous cases have been reported in Spain, mainly in La Safor (Valencia). The objective is to describe the strongyloidiasis cases registered in a regional hospital of Alicante province (Spain) and to determine if they were autochthonous cases. Retrospective study of all diagnosed cases of strongyloidiasis in Vega Baja Hospital (Orihuela, Alicante) between January 1999 and March 2016. A total of 10 cases were found, four of which were autochthonous cases. Two of them presented with a hyper-infection syndrome, with a fatal outcome. All autochthonous cases were in patients ≥69years old with gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and/or respiratory symptoms. Serology was positive in the 8 cases studied. Larvae were found in histopathological samples of the gastrointestinal tract of three patients. We communicate the first autochthonous cases of strongyloidiasis in the region of Vega Baja. Screening programs should be implemented, especially in immunosuppressed patients or patients under chronic corticosteroid treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. Strongyloides stercoralis: Global Distribution and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Schär, Fabian; Trostdorf, Ulf; Giardina, Federica; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Vounatsou, Penelope; Odermatt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background The soil-transmitted threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, is one of the most neglected among the so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). We reviewed studies of the last 20 years on S. stercoralis's global prevalence in general populations and risk groups. Methods/Principal Findings A literature search was performed in PubMed for articles published between January 1989 and October 2011. Articles presenting information on infection prevalence were included. A Bayesian meta-analysis was carried out to obtain country-specific prevalence estimates and to compare disease odds ratios in different risk groups taking into account the sensitivities of the diagnostic methods applied. A total of 354 studies from 78 countries were included for the prevalence calculations, 194 (62.4%) were community-based studies, 121 (34.2%) were hospital-based studies and 39 (11.0%) were studies on refugees and immigrants. World maps with country data are provided. In numerous African, Asian and South-American resource-poor countries, information on S. stercoralis is lacking. The meta-analysis showed an association between HIV-infection/alcoholism and S. stercoralis infection (OR: 2.17 BCI: 1.18–4.01; OR: 6.69; BCI: 1.47–33.8), respectively. Conclusions Our findings show high infection prevalence rates in the general population in selected countries and geographical regions. S. stercoralis infection is prominent in several risk groups. Adequate information on the prevalence is still lacking from many countries. However, current information underscore that S. stercoralis must not be neglected. Further assessments in socio-economic and ecological settings are needed and integration into global helminth control is warranted. PMID:23875033

  15. Strongyloides stercoralis-infected dogs as a model for human disseminated strongyloidiasis

    SciTech Connect

    Aikens, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The route of migration of Strongyloides stercoralis third-stage infective larvae was explored in primary and autogenous infections in the dog. Larvae was radiolabeled by one of two means: (1) by culture of the free-living L3 stage in a nutrient medium, deficient in methionine, supplemented with ({sup 75}Se)Selenomethionine, and (2) by feeding of ({sup 75}Se)Selenomethionine-labeled bacteria to microbiverous L1 and L2 stages. Third-stage labeled larvae were then injected into 10-day-old pups either subcutaneously, to study primary migration, or into the distal ileum, to study autogenous migration. At intervals after infection pups were killed and whole body compressed organ autoradiography done on individual tissues to determine organ-specific larval transit sites. Autoradiographic recoveries were analyzed in the context of a series of mathematical models designed to test migratory route hypotheses. Postulated routes of migration for primary infections included (1) the Null Hypothesis or Scramble Route in which larvae migrate to the intestines by any available route, (2) the Classical Pulmonary Route in which larvae migrate sequentially from skin, to blood, to lungs, to the trachea, esophagus and intestines, and (3) the Head Migration Route in which larvae move from caudal to cranial sites within the skin and muscle before entering the intestines. Postulated routes for autoinfective migration reiterated 1 and 2 above. Least squares comparisons, of calculated models to observed autoradiographic distributions, led us to conclude that there was no reason to reject the simplest assumption that larvae move by any available route to the definitive site in both forms of migration. Sampling through tracheostomy sites in 14 pups for larval migrants confirmed this conclusion.

  16. Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis on Mekong islands in southern Laos.

    PubMed

    Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Sayasone, Somphou; Bouakhasith, Dalouny; Taisayavong, Keoka; Akkavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a neglected helminth infection potentially that can lead to systemic infection in immunocompromised individuals. In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Laos), information on S. stercoralis infection is scarce. We assessed S. stercoralis infection and associated risk factors and symptoms on the Mekong islands in Southern Laos. Baermann and Kato-Katz techniques were performed on two stool samples from each individual to detect S. stercoralis larvae and concomitant helminth infections. Among 729 individuals, 41.0% were infected with S. stercoralis. Men were at higher risk than women (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.45-2.67). Urticaria and body itching was associated with S. stercoralis infection (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.42-4.05). Infection with Opisthorchis viverrini (72.2%), Schistosoma mekongi (12.8%), and hookworm (56.1%) were very common. Few infections with Trichuris trichiura (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.3%) and Taenia spp. (0.3%) were detected. The majority of helminth infections were of light intensity, with prevalences of 80.4%, 92.9%, 64.5%, 100% and 100%, for O. viverrini, hookworm, S. mekongi, T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides, respectively. Nevertheless, heavy infection intensities were observed for O. viverrini (1.0%), S. mekongi (14.0%) and hookworm (2.9%). S. stercoralis is highly endemic on the islands of Khong district, Champasack province, Southern Laos. The national helminth control programme should take action to control this helminth infection.

  17. Strongyloides Stercoralis Infection Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Patients in the United States of America: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Guillamet, Laia Jimena Vazquez; Saul, Zane; Miljkovic, Goran; Vilchez, Gabriel Alejandro; Mendonca, Nikolai; Gourineni, Venkata; Lillo, Nicholas; Pinto, Marguerite; Baig, Aurangzaib; Gangcuangco, Louie Mar

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 61 Final Diagnosis: Strongyloides stercolaris-associated diarrhea Symptoms: Diarrhea • epigastric pain • nausea • weight loss Medication: Ivermectin Clinical Procedure: Colonic biopsies Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Strongyloides stercoralis infection is endemic in subtropical and tropical regions but is reported rather sporadically in temperate countries. In the USA, the highest rates of infection are from the southeastern states, predominantly among immigrants. There is paucity of case reports on S. stercoralis infection among HIV-infected patients who were born and raised in the USA. Case Report: A 61-year-old male with known HIV infection (CD4 count: 235 cells/uL, undetectable HIV RNA, on antiretroviral therapy) presented with a 3-month history of diarrhea. He was initially diagnosed to have diarrhea secondary to norovirus and later with Escherichia coli. He was treated with levofloxacin but the diarrhea persisted. Stool PCR, Clostridium difficile enzyme-linked immunoassay, cryptosporidium and giardia antigen, cyclospora and isospora smear, and fecal microscopy were all negative. Peripheral blood eosinophil count was 1,000 eosinophils/mcL. Colonic biopsies revealed fragments of S. stercoralis larvae within the crypts. The patient was treated with ivermectin with improvement of symptoms. Social history revealed that he was born and raised in the northeastern USA. He was a daily methamphetamine user and engaged in anal sex with men. He denied travel to endemic areas, except for a visit to Japan more than 30 years ago. Conclusions: Our case highlights that S. stercoralis may be an underdiagnosed/under-reported cause of chronic diarrhea among HIV-infected patients. What makes this case peculiar is that the patient was born and raised in the continental USA, absence of recent travel to endemic areas, and relatively high CD4 counts. Parasitic infections, such as S. stercoralis, should be considered among HIV-infected

  18. Relationship Among Strongyloides stercoralis Infection, Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection, and Cancer: A 24-Year Cohort Inpatient Study in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Teruhisa; Hirata, Tetsuo; Parrott, Gretchen; Higashiarakawa, Miwa; Kinjo, Takeshi; Kinjo, Tetsu; Hokama, Akira; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection in the population. In addition, this study investigated the relationship between S. stercoralis infection or HTLV-1 infection and a patient's risk of developing related cancers. This is a retrospective cohort study of 5,209 patients. The prevalence of S. stercoralis infection was 5.2% among all patients. The prevalence among men (6.3%) was significantly higher than among women (3.6%, P < 0.001). The prevalence of HTLV-1 infection among this population was 13.6% and the prevalence among women (15.5%) was significantly higher than that of men (12.3%, P < 0.001). HTLV-1 seroprevalence was higher in patients with liver cancer (P = 0.003, odds ratio [OR]: 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24, 2.95) and in those with lymphoma other than adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) (P = 0.005, adjusted OR: 2.76, 95% CI: 1.36, 5.62) if compared with patients without any neoplasm. The prevalence of both S. stercoralis and HTLV-1 in the Okinawan population has been steadily decreasing over the past 24 years. HTLV-1 infection significantly increases the odds of developing liver cancer and lymphomas other than ATLL. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of Kato-Katz, FLOTAC, Baermann, and PCR methods for the detection of light-intensity hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis infections in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Stefanie; Salim, Nahya; Schindler, Tobias; Karagiannis Voules, Dimitrios A; Rothen, Julian; Lweno, Omar; Mohammed, Alisa S; Singo, Raymond; Benninghoff, Myrna; Nsojo, Anthony A; Genton, Blaise; Daubenberger, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    Sensitive diagnostic tools are crucial for an accurate assessment of helminth infections in low-endemicity areas. We examined stool samples from Tanzanian individuals and compared the diagnostic accuracy of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the FLOTAC technique and the Kato-Katz method for hookworm and the Baermann method for Strongyloides stercoralis detection. Only FLOTAC had a higher sensitivity than the Kato-Katz method for hookworm diagnosis; the sensitivities of PCR and the Kato-Katz method were equal. PCR had a very low sensitivity for S. stercoralis detection. The cycle threshold values of the PCR were negatively correlated with the logarithm of hookworm egg and S. stercoralis larvae counts. The median larvae count was significantly lower in PCR false negatives than true positives. All methods failed to detect very low-intensity infections. New diagnostic approaches are needed for monitoring of progressing helminth control programs, confirmation of elimination, or surveillance of disease recrudescence.

  20. Diagnostic Accuracy of Kato–Katz, FLOTAC, Baermann, and PCR Methods for the Detection of Light-Intensity Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis Infections in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Knopp, Stefanie; Salim, Nahya; Schindler, Tobias; Karagiannis Voules, Dimitrios A.; Rothen, Julian; Lweno, Omar; Mohammed, Alisa S.; Singo, Raymond; Benninghoff, Myrna; Nsojo, Anthony A.; Genton, Blaise; Daubenberger, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Sensitive diagnostic tools are crucial for an accurate assessment of helminth infections in low-endemicity areas. We examined stool samples from Tanzanian individuals and compared the diagnostic accuracy of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the FLOTAC technique and the Kato–Katz method for hookworm and the Baermann method for Strongyloides stercoralis detection. Only FLOTAC had a higher sensitivity than the Kato–Katz method for hookworm diagnosis; the sensitivities of PCR and the Kato–Katz method were equal. PCR had a very low sensitivity for S. stercoralis detection. The cycle threshold values of the PCR were negatively correlated with the logarithm of hookworm egg and S. stercoralis larvae counts. The median larvae count was significantly lower in PCR false negatives than true positives. All methods failed to detect very low-intensity infections. New diagnostic approaches are needed for monitoring of progressing helminth control programs, confirmation of elimination, or surveillance of disease recrudescence. PMID:24445211

  1. Modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in active and latent tuberculosis by coexistent Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    PubMed

    George, Parakkal Jovvian; Pavan Kumar, Nathella; Jaganathan, Jeeva; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Nair, Dina; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V; Shen, Kui; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2015-12-01

    Helminth infections are known to induce modulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses in active and latent tuberculosis (TB). However, the role of helminth infections in modulating systemic cytokine responses in active and latent tuberculosis (LTB) is not known. To define the systemic cytokine levels in helminth-TB coinfection, we measured the circulating plasma levels of Type 1, Type 2, Type 17, other pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines in individuals with active TB (ATB) with or without coexistent Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss) infection by multiplex ELISA. Similarly, we also measured the same cytokine levels in individuals with LTB with or without concomitant Ss infection in a cross-sectional study. Our data reveal that individuals with ATB or LTB and coexistent Ss infection have significantly lower levels of Type 1 (IFNγ, TNFα and IL-2) and Type 17 (IL-17A and IL-17F) cytokines compared to those without Ss infection. In contrast, those with ATB and LTB with Ss infection have significantly higher levels of the regulatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGFβ), and those with LTB and Ss infection also have significantly higher levels of Type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13) as well. Finally, those with LTB (but not ATB) exhibit significantly lower levels of other pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNα, IFNβ, IL-6, IL-12 and GM-CSF). Our data therefore reveal a profound effect of Ss infection on the systemic cytokine responses in ATB and LTB and indicate that coincident helminth infections might influence pathogenesis of TB infection and disease. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection associated with impaired intestinal motility disorder

    PubMed Central

    Figueira, Cláudia Frangioia; Cos, Lynda Dorene; Ussami, Edson Yassushi; Otoch, José Pinhata; Felipe-Silva, Aloisio

    2015-01-01

    Infection by Strongyloides stercoralis is a highly prevalent helminthiasis, which is mostly distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Although a substantial number of cases are asymptomatic or paucisymtomatic, severe and life-threatening forms of this infection still occur and not infrequently is lately diagnosed. Gram-negative bacteria septicemia, which frequently accompanies the severe helminthiasis, contributes to the high mortality rate. Severe infection is invariably triggered by any imbalance in the host's immunity, favoring the auto-infective cycle, which increases the intraluminal parasite burden enormously. Clinical presentation of severe cases is varied, and diagnosis requires a high suspicion index. Acute abdomen has been reported in association with S. stercoralis infection, but intestinal necrosis is rarely found during the surgical approach. The authors report the case of a man who sought the emergency unit with recent onset abdominal pain. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with obstructive acute abdomen. Scattered adhesions and a necrotic ileal segment with a tiny perforation represented the surgical findings. The patient outcome was unfavorable and respiratory distress required an open lung biopsy. Both surgical specimens showed S. stercoralis infection. Unfortunately the patient underwent multiple organ failure and septicemia, and subsequently died. The authors call attention to the finding of intestinal necrosis and impaired intestinal motility disorder as possibilities for the diagnosis and risk factor, respectively, for a severe infection of S. stercoralis. PMID:26484331

  3. Real-time PCR for Strongyloides stercoralis-associated meningitis.

    PubMed

    Nadir, Eyal; Grossman, Tamar; Ciobotaro, Pnina; Attali, Malka; Barkan, Daniel; Bardenstein, Rita; Zimhony, Oren

    2016-03-01

    Four immunocompromised patients, immigrants from Ethiopia, presented with diverse clinical manifestations of meningitis associated with Strongyloides stercoralis dissemination as determined by identification of intestinal larvae. The cerebrospinal fluid of 3 patients was tested by a validated (for stool) real-time PCR for S. stercoralis and was found positive, establishing this association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiolabeling of infective third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis by feeding ( sup 75 Se)selenomethionine-labeled Escherichia coli to first- and second-stage larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Aikens, L.M.; Schad, G.A. )

    1989-10-01

    A technique is described for radiolabeling Strongyloides stercoralis larvae with ({sup 75}Se)selenomethionine. Cultures of an auxotrophic methionine-dependent stain of Escherichia coli were grown in a medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 5% nutrient broth, amino acids, and ({sup 75}Se)selenomethionine. When the {sup 75}Se-labeled bacterial populations were in the stationary phase of growth, cultures were harvested and the bacteria dispersed on agar plates to serve as food for S. stercoralis larvae. Use of nondividing bacteria is important for successful labeling because the isotope is not diluted by cell division and death of larvae attributable to overgrowth by bacteria is prevented. First-stage S. stercoralis larvae were recovered from feces of infected dogs and reared in humid air at 30 C on agar plates seeded with bacteria. After 7 days, infective third-stage larvae were harvested. The mean specific activity of 6 different batches of larvae ranged from 75 to 330 counts per min/larva with 91.8 +/- 9.5% of the population labeled sufficiently to produce an autoradiographic focus during a practicable, 6-wk period of exposure. Labeled infective larvae penetrated the skin of 10-day-old puppies and migrated to the small intestine, where the developed to adulthood.

  5. Strongyloides spp. infections of veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Thamsborg, Stig M; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro; Matthews, Jacqueline B

    2017-03-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and impact of threadworms, Strongyloides spp., in companion animals and large livestock, the potential zoonotic implications and future research. Strongyloides spp. infect a range of domestic animal species worldwide and clinical disease is most often encountered in young animals. Dogs are infected with Strongyloides stercoralis while cats are infected with different species according to geographical location (Strongyloides felis, Strongyloides tumefaciens, Strongyloides planiceps and perhaps S. stercoralis). In contrast to the other species, lactogenic transmission is not a primary means of infection in dogs, and S. stercoralis is the only species considered zoonotic. Strongyloides papillosus in calves has been linked to heavy fatalities under conditions of high stocking density. Strongyloides westeri and Strongyloides ransomi of horses and pigs, respectively, cause only sporadic clinical disease. In conclusion, these infections are generally of low relative importance in livestock and equines, most likely due to extensive use of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics and/or improved hygiene. Future prevalence studies need to include molecular typing of Strongyloides species in relation to different hosts. More research is urgently needed on the potential zoonotic capacity of Strongyloides from dogs and cats based on molecular typing, information on risk factors and mapping of transmission routes.

  6. Regulation of Life Cycle Checkpoints and Developmental Activation of Infective Larvae in Strongyloides stercoralis by Dafachronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Adeiye A.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Wang, Zhu; Kliewer, Steven A.; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Lok, James B.

    2016-01-01

    The complex life cycle of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis leads to either developmental arrest of infectious third-stage larvae (iL3) or growth to reproductive adults. In the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, analogous determination between dauer arrest and reproductive growth is governed by dafachronic acids (DAs), a class of steroid hormones that are ligands for the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12. Biosynthesis of DAs requires the cytochrome P450 (CYP) DAF-9. We tested the hypothesis that DAs also regulate S. stercoralis development via DAF-12 signaling at three points. First, we found that 1 μM Δ7-DA stimulated 100% of post-parasitic first-stage larvae (L1s) to develop to free-living adults instead of iL3 at 37°C, while 69.4±12.0% (SD) of post-parasitic L1s developed to iL3 in controls. Second, we found that 1 μM Δ7-DA prevented post-free-living iL3 arrest and stimulated 85.2±16.9% of larvae to develop to free-living rhabditiform third- and fourth-stages, compared to 0% in the control. This induction required 24–48 hours of Δ7-DA exposure. Third, we found that the CYP inhibitor ketoconazole prevented iL3 feeding in host-like conditions, with only 5.6±2.9% of iL3 feeding in 40 μM ketoconazole, compared to 98.8±0.4% in the positive control. This inhibition was partially rescued by Δ7-DA, with 71.2±16.4% of iL3 feeding in 400 nM Δ7-DA and 35 μM ketoconazole, providing the first evidence of endogenous DA production in S. stercoralis. We then characterized the 26 CYP-encoding genes in S. stercoralis and identified a homolog with sequence and developmental regulation similar to DAF-9. Overall, these data demonstrate that DAF-12 signaling regulates S. stercoralis development, showing that in the post-parasitic generation, loss of DAF-12 signaling favors iL3 arrest, while increased DAF-12 signaling favors reproductive development; that in the post-free-living generation, absence of DAF-12 signaling is crucial for iL3 arrest

  7. Effective diagnostic tests and anthelmintic treatment for Strongyloides stercoralis make community control feasible.

    PubMed

    Shield, Jennifer M; Page, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is endemic in tropical and subtropical countries, and is prevalent particularly in economically impoverished people. Although an estimated 30 to 100 million people world-wide suffer from S. stercoralis infection and it is a life-long disease, it remains a neglected tropical disease. Faecal testing for S. stercoralis is very insensitive. The prevalence of S. stercoralis in Indigenous Australians (up to 60%) is much higher than previously thought, and its prevalence in Papua New Guinea is likely to be much higher than currently believed. When S. stercoralis and the HTLV-1 virus coexist in the one person, both diseases progress more quickly than when either infection is on its own. When people become infected with S. stercoralis, they develop acute strongyloidiasis which may be life threatening. At any time during the course of the disease, if the immune system is suppressed, most often by corticosteroid drugs, infected people may develop hyperinfective strongyloidiasis and they will die unless the underlying S. stercoralis infection is effectively treated. The use of serology for diagnosis, together with ivermectin treatment, has revealed that it is possible to eradicate S. stercoralis from the patient, and serology can also define the effectiveness of treatment. The reservoir of infection is humans; the free-living stages are short-lived. Mass treatment may be effective at eliminating S. stercoralis from a community. Safe water and effective sanitation alone do not lead to elimination of S. stercoralis. Up-to-date knowledge of S. stercoralis has been revealed through the workshops of the National Strongyloides Working Group in Australia and is summarized here. Much of this information is now available on the world wide web, and the addresses of relevant web sites are given.

  8. Real-time PCR for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in human stool samples from Côte d'Ivoire: diagnostic accuracy, inter-laboratory comparison and patterns of hookworm co-infection.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sören L; Piraisoody, Nivetha; Kramme, Stefanie; Marti, Hanspeter; Silué, Kigbafori D; Panning, Marcus; Nickel, Beatrice; Kern, Winfried V; Herrmann, Mathias; Hatz, Christoph F; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; von Müller, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Human infections with the helminth species Strongyloides stercoralis encompass a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening disease. The diagnosis of S. stercoralis is cumbersome and the sensitivity of conventional stool microscopy is low. New molecular tools have been developed to increase sensitivity. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of real-time PCR with microscopy for the detection of S. stercoralis and hookworm in human stool samples, and investigated the inter-laboratory agreement of S. stercoralis-specific real-time PCR in two European laboratories. Stool specimens from 256 randomly selected individuals in rural Côte d'Ivoire were examined using three microscopic techniques (i.e. Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate (KAP) and Baermann (BM)). Additionally, ethanol-fixed stool aliquots were subjected to molecular diagnosis. The prevalence of S. stercoralis and hookworm infection was 21.9% and 52.0%, respectively, whilst co-infections were detected in 35 (13.7%) participants. The diagnostic agreement between real-time PCR and microscopy was excellent when both KAP and BM tested positive for S. stercoralis, but was considerably lower when only one microscopic technique was positive. The sensitivity of KAP, BM and real-time PCR for detection of S. stercoralis as compared to a combination of all diagnostic techniques was 21.4%, 37.5% and 76.8%, respectively. The inter-laboratory agreement of S. stercoralis-specific PCR was substantial (κ=0.63, p<0.001). We conclude that a combination of real-time PCR and stool microscopy shows high accuracy for S. stercoralis diagnosis. Besides high sensitivity, PCR may also enhance specificity by reducing microscopic misdiagnosis of morphologically similar helminth larvae (i.e. hookworm and S. stercoralis) in settings where both helminth species co-exist.

  9. Parasitological and immunological diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Machado, Eleuza R; Teixeira, Eliane M; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria Do Rosario F; Loureiro, Zaira M; Araújo, Rogério A; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in patients with gastrointestinal cancer through parasitological and immunological tests. A total of 77 patients were evaluated, 33 with gastrointestinal cancer and 44 controls with other types of cancers. All the patients were undergoing chemotherapy and 14 (18.2%) were receiving concomitant radiotherapy. For a parasitological diagnosis, we applied the Baermann and Lutz methods. The immunological diagnosis involved the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect IgG antibodies using Strongyloides ratti antigens. The frequency of positive S. stercoralis in gastrointestinal cancer diagnosed by parasitological methods was 3 cases (9.1%), by serology it was 8 cases (24.2%). In the control group 1 case (2.3%) of S. stercoralis was diagnosed by parasitological methods and 2 cases (4.5%) by immunological tests (p<0.05). Patients with gastrointestinal cancer had a 6.7-fold greater chance of testing positive for S. stercoralis infection. Our data highlight the importance of parasitological and immunological diagnosis for S. stercoralis in patients with gastrointestinal cancer living in endemic areas of strongyloidiasis, since they have a higher risk of becoming infected with S. stercoralis than patients with other types of cancer.

  10. Corticosteroid-induced asthma: a manifestation of limited hyperinfection syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis.

    PubMed

    Sen, P; Gil, C; Estrellas, B; Middleton, J R

    1995-09-01

    Inadequate therapeutic response to parenteral corticosteroids in patients with acute bronchial asthma is infrequent. We report four patients whose bronchial asthma symptoms worsened after treatment with parenteral corticosteroids. All had larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis in the stool. The new attack or the exacerbation of asthma appeared to be precipitated by systemic corticosteroid administration. The paradoxic therapeutic response of asthma to glucocorticoides was the major pulmonary manifestation of Strongyloides superinfection; there was no evidence of other organ involvement. Individuals with new onset of bronchial asthma or worsening of asthmatic episodes concurrent with the use of systemic corticosteroids should have thorough investigation for possible superinfection due to Strongyloides stercoralis. This is particularly important for patients who have resided in areas where intestinal helminthic infections are endemic. Discontinuance of steroid therapy or reduction in dosage of parenteral steroids appears necessary. Treatment with thiabendazole appears to be effective in patients with limited hyperinfection syndrome.

  11. Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH) in Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Deepshikha Nag; Dhadham, Gautamy Chitiki; Shah, Anish; Baddoura, Walid

    2014-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) is a soil transmitted intestinal roundworm that has a unique ability to multiply within the human host and reinfect the human carrier by a process of autoinfection. By this property, S. stercoralis can persist as an occult infection for many decades. In situations of immunosuppression or other permissive gastrointestinal conditions, there occurs a massive increase in parasite multiplication. The parasites penetrate through the intestinal mucosa and are carried in circulation and can cause multisystem involvement. We report a case of a 76-year-old Columbian male who presented with intractable vomiting and hyponatremia who was then diagnosed to have syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). The patient's symptoms improved after treatment with two doses of ivermectin and his serum sodium levels returned to normal. S. stercoralis infection should be suspected in patients from endemic regions who present with gastrointestinal symptoms and unexplained hyponatremia.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of Strongyloides stercoralis in Takeo Province, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis, the most neglected helminth, affects an estimated 30-100 million people worldwide. Information on S. stercoralis infection is scarce in tropical and sub-tropical resource poor countries, including Cambodia. We determined S. stercoralis infection prevalence and risk factors for infection in the general population in Southern Cambodia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and April 2011 among 2,861 participants living in 60 villages of Takeo province, using Koga-agar plate culture, the Baermann technique and the Kato-Katz technique on a single stool sample. Results Eight intestinal helminth species were diagnosed. Hookworm (31.4%) and S. stercoralis (21.0%) occurred most frequently. Prevalence of S. stercoralis infection increased with age. In all age groups a higher prevalence was found among males than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4 – 2.0; P < 0.001). Participants who had a latrine at home were significantly less frequently infected with S. stercoralis than those who did not (OR: 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4 – 0.8; P = 0.003). Muscle pain (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0 – 1.6; P = 0.028) and urticaria (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1 – 1.8; P = 0.001) were significantly associated with S. stercoralis infection. Conclusions S. stercoralis is highly prevalent among the general Cambodian population and should no longer be neglected. Access to adequate diagnosis and treatment is urgently needed. PMID:24886763

  13. First molecular identification and genetic diversity of Strongyloides stercoralis and Strongyloides fuelleborni in human communities having contact with long-tailed macaques in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Rodpai, Rutchanee; Tourtip, Somjintana; Yahom, Sujitra; Kullawat, Jitsuda; Radomyos, Prayong; Thammasiri, Chalida; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2017-07-01

    The parasitic nematodes, Strongyloides stercoralis and Strongyloides fuelleborni, can infect humans and non-human primates. We amplified and sequenced a portion of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) and of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of Strongyloides from humans in the study area in Thailand, where people have frequent contact with long-tailed macaques. Fresh stool samples were obtained from 213 people and were examined using the agar plate culture method. The overall prevalence of Strongyloides infection was 8.92% (19/213). From a total of 19 worms (one per infected person), 18 adult males had 18S rRNA sequences identical with that of S. stercoralis and one adult female had a sequence almost identical with that of S. fuelleborni. A median-joining network of cox1 sequences revealed nine new haplotypes from S. stercoralis, and an overall haplotype diversity (Hd) of 0.9309. The single haplotype of S. fuelleborni was also new and contributed to an overall haplotype diversity for that species of 0.9842. This is the first molecular identification of S. stercoralis and S. fuelleborni in a human community having contact with long-tailed macaques in Thailand. It is also the first report of S. fuelleborni infecting a human in Thailand.

  14. Increased sensitivity of routine laboratory detection of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm by agar-plate culture.

    PubMed

    Jongwutiwes, S; Charoenkorn, M; Sitthichareonchai, P; Akaraborvorn, P; Putaporntip, C

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of agar-plate culture has been evaluated for the detection of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm, compared with direct smear, the formalin-ether sedimentation technique and the filter-paper method. Of 1085 stool samples from the routine laboratory service at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital in Bangkok, 241 samples harboured S. stercoralis, 153 hookworm and 2 Rhabditis hominis. The recovery rate of S. stercoralis by agar-plate culture is significantly superior to the other methods (P < 0.005). The ratios of positive results from the methods used to the total number of S. stercoralis-positive cases were as follows: 1:1.03 by agar-plate culture, 1:1.85 by the filter-paper method, 1:1.98 by the sedimentation technique and 1:10.48 by direct stool smear. A similar trend of the efficacy ratio of each method was obtained for hookworm detection. The characteristic furrows left by hookworm larvae, and larvae and adults of S. stercoralis could be used for preliminary species identification. Daily search for furrows on agar plates for up to 6 consecutive days resulted in an increased sensitivity for diagnosis of both S. stercoralis and hookworm infections.

  15. Duodenal obstruction - an unusual presentation of Strongyloides stercoralis enteritis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Intestinal obstruction is a poorly recognized and probably underreported complication of strongyloidiasis. We present herein an unusual case, of complete duodenal obstruction caused by S. stercoralis. Methods A systematic review of the literature examining the clinical course, diagnostic methods, and outcome of this rare complication of strongyloidiasis was performed. Results A 42-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of abdominal pain, vomit, and weight loss. An abdominal CT scan showed an obstruction of the third part of the duodenum. Segmental intestinal resection was carried out and histopathology examination revealed heavy Strongyloides stercoralis infestation. Duodenal obstruction is a rare complication of S. stercoralis infection, with only 8 cases described in the literature since 1970. Most of the patients are males, middle-aged, and the diagnosis was made by duodenal aspirate/biopsy, or analysis of surgical specimen. Conclusions Duodenal obstruction is an unusual, but potential fatal, complication of S. stercoralis infection. The large spectrum of clinical manifestation and lack of classic clinical syndrome make the final diagnosis of strongyloidiasis extremely difficult. A high index of suspicion, mainly in patients from endemic areas, is needed for correct and early diagnosis of this uncommon presentation of Strogyloides stercoralis enteritis. PMID:20698992

  16. [Strongyloides stercoralis in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis: case report].

    PubMed

    Yanık, Keramettin; Karadağ, Adil; Odabaşı, Hakan; Unal, Nevzat; Altıntop, Levent; Hökelek, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a nematode-borne disease caused by several Strongyloides species. This case was presented in order to indicate Strongyloidosis in immunocompromised patients with several clinical findings. A fifty-five year old male patient on corticosteroid medication for a long time because of ankylosing spondylitis was on infliximab medication for 5 years. He presented with swelling of his right foot for ten days, right shoulder stiffness and low back pain. The presence of anaemia was remarkable. S. stercoralis was reported in histological examination of endoscopic duodenal biopsy specimen. Peripheral blood smear showed 68.4% neutrophils, 17% lymphocytes, 7.5% monocytes, and 6.7% (normal range 2%-6.2) eosinophils. The level of IgE was raised: 285IU/mL (normal range 5-120IU/mL). A large number of S. stercoralis larvae were detected upon stool examination with saline and iodine mounts and the formaldehyde ether concentration method. After treatment with two cure albendazole 400 mg/day for 7 days, S. stercoralis larvae were not detected in stool examination. It is interesting that response to treatment was not observed on the first cure and the recovery was seen on the second cure. We suggest that hyperinfections should be taken into consideration in the diagnosis and treatment of immunocompromised patients with several complaints so that life-threatening effects of the nematode may be prevented.

  17. Urocanic acid is a major chemoattractant for the skin-penetrating parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Daniel; Brenes, Mario; Dunipace, Seth; Schad, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Host-seeking behavior by parasitic nematodes relies heavily on chemical cues emanating from potential hosts. Nonspecific cues for Strongyloides stercoralis, a nematode that infects humans and a few other mammals, include carbon dioxide and sodium chloride; however, the characteristic species specificity of this parasite suggested the existence of other, more specific cues. Here we show that the infective larva of S. stercoralis is strongly attracted to an extract of mammalian skin and that the active component in this skin extract is urocanic acid. Urocanic acid, a histidine metabolite, is particularly abundant in mammalian skin and skin secretions, suggesting that it serves as an attractant specific to mammalian hosts. The attractant activity of urocanic acid is suppressed by divalent metal ions, suggesting a possible strategy for preventing infection. PMID:17234810

  18. cGMP and NHR Signaling Co-regulate Expression of Insulin-Like Peptides and Developmental Activation of Infective Larvae in Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Stoltzfus, Jonathan D.; Bart, Stephen M.; Lok, James B.

    2014-01-01

    The infectious form of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis is a developmentally arrested third-stage larva (L3i), which is morphologically similar to the developmentally arrested dauer larva in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We hypothesize that the molecular pathways regulating C. elegans dauer development also control L3i arrest and activation in S. stercoralis. This study aimed to determine the factors that regulate L3i activation, with a focus on G protein-coupled receptor-mediated regulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway signaling, including its modulation of the insulin/IGF-1-like signaling (IIS) pathway. We found that application of the membrane-permeable cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP potently activated development of S. stercoralis L3i, as measured by resumption of feeding, with 85.1±2.2% of L3i feeding in 200 µM 8-bromo-cGMP in comparison to 0.6±0.3% in the buffer diluent. Utilizing RNAseq, we examined L3i stimulated with DMEM, 8-bromo-cGMP, or the DAF-12 nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) ligand Δ7-dafachronic acid (DA)—a signaling pathway downstream of IIS in C. elegans. L3i stimulated with 8-bromo-cGMP up-regulated transcripts of the putative agonistic insulin-like peptide (ILP) -encoding genes Ss-ilp-1 (20-fold) and Ss-ilp-6 (11-fold) in comparison to controls without stimulation. Surprisingly, we found that Δ7-DA similarly modulated transcript levels of ILP-encoding genes. Using the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, we demonstrated that 400 nM Δ7-DA-mediated activation (93.3±1.1% L3i feeding) can be blocked using this IIS inhibitor at 100 µM (7.6±1.6% L3i feeding). To determine the tissues where promoters of ILP-encoding genes are active, we expressed promoter::egfp reporter constructs in transgenic S. stercoralis post-free-living larvae. Ss-ilp-1 and Ss-ilp-6 promoters are active in the hypodermis and neurons and the Ss-ilp-7 promoter is active in the intestine and a

  19. E. coli Meningitis Presenting in a Patient with Disseminated Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Juliana B.; Maque, Yvan; Moquillaza, Manuel A.; Anicama, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Spontaneous Escherichia coli meningitis is an infrequent condition in adults and is associated with some predisposing factors, including severe Strongyloides stercoralis (SS) infections. Case Presentation. A 43-year-old Hispanic man, with history of travelling to the jungle regions of Peru and Brazil two decades ago, and who received prednisone due to Bell's palsy for three weeks before admission, presented to the Emergency Department with diarrhea, fever, and hematochezia. A week after admission he developed drowsiness, meningeal signs, abdominal distension, and constipation. A cerebrospinal fluid culture showed extended spectrum β-lactamase producing E. coli. A colonoscopy was performed and showed pancolitis. Three days after the procedure the patient became unstable and developed peritoneal signs. He underwent a laparotomy, which ended up in a total colectomy and partial proctectomy due to toxic megacolon. Three days later the patient died in the intensive care unit due to septic shock. Autopsy was performed and microscopic examination revealed the presence of multiple Strongyloides larvae throughout the body. Conclusion. Strongyloides stercoralis infection should be excluded in adults with spontaneous E. coli meningitis, especially, if gastrointestinal symptoms and history of travelling to an endemic area are present. Even with a proper diagnosis and management, disseminated strongyloidiasis has a poor prognosis. PMID:24324900

  20. Characterization of a recombinant immunodiagnostic antigen (NIE) from Strongyloides stercoralis L3-stage larvae.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Varatharajalu; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Thompson, Robert W; Andersen, John F; Neva, Franklin A

    2002-01-01

    Due to the process of internal autoinfection, even chronic asymptomatic infections with Strongyloides stercoralis have the potential to become severe disseminated disease with fatal outcome. Intermittent and scanty larval excretion makes parasitologic diagnosis difficult. Serodiagnosis is helpful, but antigen preparation from infective larvae requires access to patients or immunosuppressed experimental animals. For these reasons, attention has turned to recombinant antigens for immunodiagnosis. A 31-kDa candidate antigen (NIE) derived from an L3 cDNA library is described in this report. Multiple alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence of NIE showed approximately 12-18% identity with various other organisms, including 17.9% of Asp1 of Ancylostoma caninum, 12.6% of Hemonchus contortus, and 17.6% of insect venom allergen 5 of yellow jacket. By ELISA, antibodies to the purified recombinant NIE antigen were demonstrated in 87.5% of 48 sera from strongyloides-infected patients and in only 6.5% of sera from presumed normal controls. Immunoreactivity of purified NIE antigen with parasite-specific IgE from sera of strongyloides-infected patients indicated its potential use as an immediate sensitivity skin test antigen. This application of the NIE antigen was supported by its capacity to trigger release of histamine upon in vitro exposure to blood from strongyloides-infected patients and its failure to produce histamine release from blood of normal controls.

  1. Different but overlapping populations of Strongyloides stercoralis in dogs and humans—Dogs as a possible source for zoonotic strongyloidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Bemm, Felix M.; Schär, Fabian; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Lok, James B.

    2017-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a much-neglected soil born helminthiasis caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Human derived S. stercoralis can be maintained in dogs in the laboratory and this parasite has been reported to also occur in dogs in the wild. Some authors have considered strongyloidiasis a zoonotic disease while others have argued that the two hosts carry host specialized populations of S. stercoralis and that dogs play a minor role, if any, as a reservoir for zoonotic S. stercoralis infections of humans. We isolated S. stercoralis from humans and their dogs in rural villages in northern Cambodia, a region with a high incidence of strongyloidiasis, and compared the worms derived from these two host species using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms. We found that in dogs there exist two populations of S. stercoralis, which are clearly separated from each other genetically based on the nuclear 18S rDNA, the mitochondrial cox1 locus and whole genome sequence. One population, to which the majority of the worms belong, appears to be restricted to dogs. The other population is indistinguishable from the population of S. stercoralis isolated from humans. Consistent with earlier studies, we found multiple sequence variants of the hypervariable region I of the 18 S rDNA in S. stercoralis from humans. However, comparison of mitochondrial sequences and whole genome analysis suggest that these different 18S variants do not represent multiple genetically isolated subpopulations among the worms isolated from humans. We also investigated the mode of reproduction of the free-living generations of laboratory and wild isolates of S. stercoralis. Contrary to earlier literature on S. stercoralis but similar to other species of Strongyloides, we found clear evidence of sexual reproduction. Overall, our results show that dogs carry two populations, possibly different species of Strongyloides. One population appears to be dog specific but the other one is

  2. Different but overlapping populations of Strongyloides stercoralis in dogs and humans-Dogs as a possible source for zoonotic strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Jaleta, Tegegn G; Zhou, Siyu; Bemm, Felix M; Schär, Fabian; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Lok, James B; Streit, Adrian

    2017-08-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a much-neglected soil born helminthiasis caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Human derived S. stercoralis can be maintained in dogs in the laboratory and this parasite has been reported to also occur in dogs in the wild. Some authors have considered strongyloidiasis a zoonotic disease while others have argued that the two hosts carry host specialized populations of S. stercoralis and that dogs play a minor role, if any, as a reservoir for zoonotic S. stercoralis infections of humans. We isolated S. stercoralis from humans and their dogs in rural villages in northern Cambodia, a region with a high incidence of strongyloidiasis, and compared the worms derived from these two host species using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms. We found that in dogs there exist two populations of S. stercoralis, which are clearly separated from each other genetically based on the nuclear 18S rDNA, the mitochondrial cox1 locus and whole genome sequence. One population, to which the majority of the worms belong, appears to be restricted to dogs. The other population is indistinguishable from the population of S. stercoralis isolated from humans. Consistent with earlier studies, we found multiple sequence variants of the hypervariable region I of the 18 S rDNA in S. stercoralis from humans. However, comparison of mitochondrial sequences and whole genome analysis suggest that these different 18S variants do not represent multiple genetically isolated subpopulations among the worms isolated from humans. We also investigated the mode of reproduction of the free-living generations of laboratory and wild isolates of S. stercoralis. Contrary to earlier literature on S. stercoralis but similar to other species of Strongyloides, we found clear evidence of sexual reproduction. Overall, our results show that dogs carry two populations, possibly different species of Strongyloides. One population appears to be dog specific but the other one is

  3. Strongyloides Hyperinfection Syndrome Combined with Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Alsaeed, Mohammed; Ballool, Sulafa; Attia, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    The mortality in Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome (SHS) is alarmingly high. This is particularly common in bone marrow, renal, and other solid organ transplant (SOT) patients, where figures may reach up to 50–85%. Immunosuppressives, principally corticosteroids, are the primary triggering factor. In general, the clinical features of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection are nonspecific; therefore, a high index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and starting appropriate therapy. Although recurrent Gram-negative sepsis and meningitis have been previously reported, the combination of both cytomegalovirus (CMV) and strongyloidiasis had rarely been associated. We here describe a patient who survived SHS with recurrent Escherichia coli (E. coli) urosepsis and CMV infection. PMID:27703835

  4. Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis: Detection of parasite-derived DNA in urine.

    PubMed

    Lodh, Nilanjan; Caro, Reynaldo; Sofer, Shterna; Scott, Alan; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Shiff, Clive

    2016-11-01

    Detecting infections of Strongyloides stercoralis is arduous and has low sensitivity. Clinically this is a major problem because chronic infections may disseminate in the host and lead to a life threatening condition. Epidemiologically, S. stercoralis is often missed in surveys as it is difficult to identify by standard stool examination procedures. We present, for the first time, evidence that the infection can be detected in filtered urine samples collected and processed in the field and subsequently assayed for the presence of parasite DNA. Urine specimens (∼40mL) were collected from 125 test and control individuals living in rural and peri-urban regions of Northern Argentina. From the same individuals, fresh stool specimens were processed using three different copropological methods. Urine specimens were filtered in the field through a 12.5cm Whatman No. 3 filter. The filters were dried and packed individually in sealable plastic bags with desiccant and shipped to a laboratory where DNA was recovered from the filter and PCR-amplified with primers specific to a dispersed repetitive sequence. Prevalence of S. stercoralis infection by stool culture and direct examination was 35/125 (28%), In contrast, PCR-based detection of parasite-specific trans-renal DNA in urine indicated that 56/125 (44.8%) carried the parasite. Of the patients that tested positive for urine-based parasite DNA, approximately half also tested positive in their stool specimens. There were 6.4% of cases where parasite larvae were seen in the stool but no DNA was amplified from the urine. As proof of principle, DNA amplification from urine residue reveals significantly more cases of S. stercoralis infection than the current standard stool examination techniques. Additional work is required to establish the relative utility, sensitivity and specificity of urine-based analysis compared to parasitological and nucleic acid detection from stool for clinical and epidemiological detection for S

  5. Parasitological and serological diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis in domesticated dogs from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Júnior, A Ferreira; Gonçalves-Pires, M R F; Silva, D A O; Gonçalves, A L R; Costa-Cruz, J M

    2006-03-15

    Canine strongyloidiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis and presents a great zoonotic potential. Its confirmation, using coproparasitological methods, is difficult. The detection of serum specific antibodies, however, may facilitate the diagnosis. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of S. stercoralis through the use of parasitological methods and to detect specific antibodies to the parasite in serum samples from domestic dogs by using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) on slides and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 215 dogs of various breeds, from the cities of Uberlândia, Araxá and Campo Belo in the State of Minas Gerais, were examined and distributed according to age into the following groups: (I) 19 males and 20 females of 1-2 months old; (II) 11 males and 20 females of 2-month- to 1-year-old and (III) 41 males and 104 females, from 1 to 7 years old. Coproparasitological results showed that 63/215 (29.3%) of the dogs presented some kind of parasite, with two (0.9%) dogs (one from Araxá and the other from Uberlândia) passing S. stercoralis larvae in the feces. Serological results revealed antibodies to S. stercoralis in 45/215 (20.9%) of the dogs, with seropositivity rates of 0% (0/39) in Group I, 22.6% (7/31) in Group II, and 26.2% (38/145) in Group III. No serological cross-reactivity between S. stercoralis and hookworms or Ascaridae was found. Hookworm infections were seen in 31 dogs, but only one of these dogs (infected with both hookworm and Cystoisospora spp.) was S. stercoralis seropositive by IFAT. The present study demonstrated, for the first time, natural S. stercoralis infections in dogs diagnosed by coproparasitological and serological methods. It was concluded that the detection of specific antibodies to S. stercoralis by IFAT and ELISA may contribute to the diagnosis of canine strongyloidiasis.

  6. High Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Strongyloides stercoralis in Rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Forrer, Armelle; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Duong, Socheat; Vounatsou, Penelope; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background The threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, endemic in tropical and temperate climates, is a neglected tropical disease. Its diagnosis requires specific methods, and accurate information on its geographic distribution and global burden are lacking. We predicted prevalence, using Bayesian geostatistical modeling, and determined risk factors in northern Cambodia. Methods From February to June 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study among 2,396 participants from 60 villages in Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Two stool specimens per participant were examined using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method for detecting S. stercoralis infection. Environmental data was linked to parasitological and questionnaire data by location. Bayesian mixed logistic models were used to explore the spatial correlation of S. stercoralis infection risk. Bayesian Kriging was employed to predict risk at non-surveyed locations. Principal Findings Of the 2,396 participants, 44.7% were infected with S. stercoralis. Of 1,071 strongyloidiasis cases, 339 (31.6%) were among schoolchildren and 425 (39.7%) were found in individuals under 16 years. The incidence of S. stercoralis infection statistically increased with age. Infection among male participants was significantly higher than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4–2.0; P<0.001). Participants who defecated in latrines were infected significantly less than those who did not (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4–0.8; P = 0.001). Strongyloidiasis cases would be reduced by 39% if all participants defecated in latrines. Incidence of S. stercoralis infections did not show a strong tendency toward spatial clustering in this province. The risk of infection significantly decreased with increasing rainfall and soil organic carbon content, and increased in areas with rice fields. Conclusions/Significance Prevalence of S. stercoralis in rural Cambodia is very high and school-aged children and adults over 45 years were the most at

  7. High prevalence and spatial distribution of Strongyloides stercoralis in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Forrer, Armelle; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Duong, Socheat; Vounatsou, Penelope; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, endemic in tropical and temperate climates, is a neglected tropical disease. Its diagnosis requires specific methods, and accurate information on its geographic distribution and global burden are lacking. We predicted prevalence, using Bayesian geostatistical modeling, and determined risk factors in northern Cambodia. From February to June 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study among 2,396 participants from 60 villages in Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Two stool specimens per participant were examined using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method for detecting S. stercoralis infection. Environmental data was linked to parasitological and questionnaire data by location. Bayesian mixed logistic models were used to explore the spatial correlation of S. stercoralis infection risk. Bayesian Kriging was employed to predict risk at non-surveyed locations. Of the 2,396 participants, 44.7% were infected with S. stercoralis. Of 1,071 strongyloidiasis cases, 339 (31.6%) were among schoolchildren and 425 (39.7%) were found in individuals under 16 years. The incidence of S. stercoralis infection statistically increased with age. Infection among male participants was significantly higher than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4-2.0; P<0.001). Participants who defecated in latrines were infected significantly less than those who did not (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.8; P=0.001). Strongyloidiasis cases would be reduced by 39% if all participants defecated in latrines. Incidence of S. stercoralis infections did not show a strong tendency toward spatial clustering in this province. The risk of infection significantly decreased with increasing rainfall and soil organic carbon content, and increased in areas with rice fields. Prevalence of S. stercoralis in rural Cambodia is very high and school-aged children and adults over 45 years were the most at risk for infection. Lack of access to adequate treatment for chronic

  8. Strongyloides stercoralis in common vegetables and herbs in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zeehaida, M; Zairi, N Z; Rahmah, N; Maimunah, A; Madihah, B

    2011-04-01

    Transmission of soil-transmitted helminthes infection is by faecal oral route, and is influenced by food preference. Kelantanese love to consume ulam which are raw vegetables and herbs. Some of the herbs grow on grounds with high humidity and are abundant near drainage areas, these are also places with higher likelihood of harbouring viable parasite ova. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of soiltransmitted helminthes in vegetables, herbs and fruits found in our local setting. The results by microscopy showed that there was no helminthes ovum or protozoan parasite in the samples. However, Strongyloides stercoralis rhabdatiform larvae were identified in water samples used to wash pegaga, kesum and water spinach, and the number of larvae observed were 152, 9 and 16 respectively. Analysis by real-time PCR confirmed the microscopic observation of this helminth. This study highlighted that vegetables and herbs are likely sources of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Thus vegetable sellers as well as the food handlers are the two important groups who are at high risk of acquiring the infection.

  9. Spatial distribution of soil-transmitted helminths, including Strongyloides stercoralis, among children in Zanzibar.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Stefanie; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Simba Khamis, I; Mgeni, Ali F; Stothard, J Russell; Rollinson, David; Marti, Hanspeter; Utzinger, Jürg

    2008-11-01

    A programme periodically distributing anthelminthic drugs to school-aged children for the control of soiltransmitted helminthiasis was launched in Zanzibar in the early 1990s. We investigated the spatial distribution of soiltransmitted helminth infections, including Strongyloides stercoralis, in 336 children from six districts in Unguja, Zanzibar, in 2007. One stool sample per child was examined with the Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate and Baermann methods. The point prevalence of the different helminth infections was compared to the geological characteristics of the study sites. The observed prevalences for Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and S. stercoralis were 35.5%, 12.2%, 11.9% and 2.2%, respectively, with considerable spatial heterogeneity. Whilst T. trichiura and hookworm infections were found in all six districts, no A. lumbricoides infections were recorded in the urban setting and only a low prevalence (2.2%) was observed in the South district. S. stercoralis infections were found in four districts with the highest prevalence (4.0%) in the West district. The prevalence of infection with any soil-transmitted helminth was highest in the North A district (69.6%) and lowest in the urban setting (22.4%). A. lumbricoides, hookworm and, with the exception of the North B district, S. stercoralis infections were observed to be more prevalent in the settings north of Zanzibar Town, which are characterized by alluvial clayey soils, moist forest regions and a higher precipitation. After a decade of large-scale administration of anthelminthic drugs, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections across Unguja is still considerable. Hence, additional measures, such as improving access to adequate sanitation and clean water and continued health education, are warranted to successfully control soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Zanzibar.

  10. Comparative Genomics of Gene Expression in the Parasitic and Free-Living Nematodes Strongyloides stercoralis and Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Mitreva, Makedonka; McCarter, James P.; Martin, John; Dante, Mike; Wylie, Todd; Chiapelli, Brandi; Pape, Deana; Clifton, Sandra W.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Waterston, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    Although developmental timing of gene expression is used to infer potential gene function, studies have yet to correlate this information between species. We analyzed 10,921 ESTs in 3311 clusters from first- and infective third-stage larva (L1, L3i) of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis and compared the results to Caenorhabditis elegans, a species that has an L3i-like dauer stage. In the comparison of S. stercoralis clusters with stage-specific expression to C. elegans homologs expressed in either dauer or nondauer stages, matches between S. stercoralis L1 and C. elegans nondauer-expressed genes dominated, suggesting conservation in the repertoire of genes expressed during growth in nutrient-rich conditions. For example, S. stercoralis collagen transcripts were abundant in L1 but not L3i, a pattern consistent with C. elegans collagens. Although a greater proportion of S. stercoralis L3i than L1 genes have homologs among the C. elegans dauer-specific transcripts, we did not uncover evidence of a robust conserved L3i/dauer `expression signature.' Strikingly, in comparisons of S. stercoralis clusters to C. elegans homologs with RNAi knockouts, those with significant L1-specific expression were more than twice as likely as L3i-specific clusters to match genes with phenotypes. We also provide functional classifications of S. stercoralis clusters. PMID:14762059

  11. Improved Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in Modified Agar Plate Cultures.

    PubMed

    Pocaterra, Leonor A; Ferrara, Giuseppe; Peñaranda, Rosaura; Rojas, Elsy; Pérez-Chacón, Gladymar; Hernán, Aurora; Certad, Gabriela; Goldstein, Carlos; Núñez, Luz

    2017-04-01

    AbstractA modification of Koga agar plate culture was performed, consisting of a 2 × 2-cm cellophane paper centered on the agar plate to prevent bacterial contamination of the agar and daily dish examinations (days 2-5). Between January 2000 and July 2005, we examined 1,708 infection-suspected patients, of which 147 (8.6%) harbored S. stercoralis. Single modified agar plate cultures exhibited superior sensitivity (93.2%), compared with different three-sample screening methods (sensitivity-Baermann: 76.6%, formalin-ethyl acetate: 22%, and direct smear: 15.3%). Agar plate cultures stand out as helpful alternatives for improved detection and therapy monitoring in poor countries and endemic areas. Combined with Baermann methods, they provide increased probability for S. stercoralis detection.

  12. Effect of dilution of stool soluble component on growth and development of Strongyloides stercoralis.

    PubMed

    Anamnart, Witthaya; Intapan, Pewpan Maleewong; Pattanawongsa, Attarat; Chamavit, Pennapa; Kaewsawat, Supreecha; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-06-02

    Dispersion or dilution of stool by water from heavy rainfall may affect Strongyloides stercoralis free-living development producing infective filariform larvae (FL). This study examined effect of water dilution of stool on survival of S. stercoralis free-living development. One g of stool was prepared in water so that its soluble component was diluted sequentially from 1:2 to 1:480. Three dishes were used to compare FL production in three culture conditions: stool suspension, stool sediment deposited in soil, and isolated rhabditiform larvae (RhL) deposited in soil. The fourth dish was for developmental observation of RhL into free-living stages. Numerous FL were generated from undiluted or 1:2 diluted stool and stool sediment placed on soil. However, starting from dilution 1:5, FL production continuously decreased in both stool suspensions and stool sediments placed on soil. RhL isolated from stool dilutions placed on soil gave rise to few FL. Worm mating were seen at 24-30 hours in dilutions 1:20-1:120 only. Highest numbers of FL from indirect free-living cycle were 1/3 of those from control. FL production decreased as stool dilution increased, and reached zero production at 1:160 dilution. Rainfall may disperse or dilute stool so that nutritional supplement for S. stercoralis free-living development is insufficient.

  13. Effect of dilution of stool soluble component on growth and development of Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Anamnart, Witthaya; Maleewong Intapan, Pewpan; Pattanawongsa, Attarat; Chamavit, Pennapa; Kaewsawat, Supreecha; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion or dilution of stool by water from heavy rainfall may affect Strongyloides stercoralis free-living development producing infective filariform larvae (FL). This study examined effect of water dilution of stool on survival of S. stercoralis free-living development. One g of stool was prepared in water so that its soluble component was diluted sequentially from 1:2 to 1:480. Three dishes were used to compare FL production in three culture conditions: stool suspension, stool sediment deposited in soil, and isolated rhabditiform larvae (RhL) deposited in soil. The fourth dish was for developmental observation of RhL into free-living stages. Numerous FL were generated from undiluted or 1:2 diluted stool and stool sediment placed on soil. However, starting from dilution 1:5, FL production continuously decreased in both stool suspensions and stool sediments placed on soil. RhL isolated from stool dilutions placed on soil gave rise to few FL. Worm mating were seen at 24-30 hours in dilutions 1:20-1:120 only. Highest numbers of FL from indirect free-living cycle were 1/3 of those from control. FL production decreased as stool dilution increased, and reached zero production at 1:160 dilution. Rainfall may disperse or dilute stool so that nutritional supplement for S. stercoralis free-living development is insufficient. PMID:26035061

  14. Review of patients with Strongyloides stercoralis infestation in a tertiary teaching hospital, Kelantan.

    PubMed

    Azira, N M S; Abdel Rahman, M Z; Zeehaida, M

    2013-06-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode infecting humans. The actual prevalence of infestation with this parasite in our setting is not well established. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the age, sex and co-morbid conditions among patients with S. stercoralis infestation as well as to study the common manifestations of strongyloidiasis in our patients. Records of patients with positive S. stercoralis larvae from January 2000 to December 2012 in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan were reviewed. Ten patients were male and two were female. Their ages ranged from 19 to 78 years old. The majority (92%) of cases, presented with intestinal symptoms and 50% with moderate to severe anaemia. Thirty percent of cases had extraintestinal manifestations such as cough, sepsis and pleural effusion. Ninety-two percent of the patients had a comorbid illness. Most patients were immunocompromised, with underlying diabetes mellitus, retroviral disease, lymphoma and steroid therapy contributing to about 58% of cases. Only 58% were treated with anti-helminthic drugs. Strongyloidiasis is present in our local setting, though the prevalence could be underestimated.

  15. Evaluation of real-time PCR for Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm as diagnostic tool in asymptomatic schoolchildren in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Schär, Fabian; Odermatt, Peter; Khieu, Virak; Panning, Marcus; Duong, Socheat; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Kramme, Stefanie

    2013-05-01

    Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths such as Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) is challenging due to irregular larval and egg output in infected individuals and insensitive conventional diagnostic procedures. Sensitive novel real-time PCR assays have been developed. Our study aimed to evaluate the real-time PCR assays as a diagnostic tool for detection of Strongyloides spp. and hookworms in a random stool sample of 218 asymptomatic schoolchildren in Cambodia. Overall prevalence of 17.4% (38/218) and 34.9% (76/218) were determined by real-time PCR for S. stercoralis and hookworms, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of S. stercoralis specific real-time PCR as compared to the combination of Baermann/Koga Agar as gold standard were 88.9% and 92.7%, respectively. For hookworm specific real-time PCR a sensitivity of 78.9% and specificity of 78.9% were calculated. Co-infections were detectable by PCR in 12.8% (28/218) of individuals. S. stercoralis real-time PCR applied in asymptomatic cases showed a lower sensitivity compared to studies undertaken with symptomatic patients with the same molecular tool, yet it proved to be a valid supplement in the diagnosis of STH infection in Cambodia.

  16. RNAseq Analysis of the Parasitic Nematode Strongyloides stercoralis Reveals Divergent Regulation of Canonical Dauer Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Stoltzfus, Jonathan D.; Minot, Samuel; Berriman, Matthew; Nolan, Thomas J.; Lok, James B.

    2012-01-01

    The infectious form of many parasitic nematodes, which afflict over one billion people globally, is a developmentally arrested third-stage larva (L3i). The parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis differs from other nematode species that infect humans, in that its life cycle includes both parasitic and free-living forms, which can be leveraged to investigate the mechanisms of L3i arrest and activation. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has a similar developmentally arrested larval form, the dauer, whose formation is controlled by four pathways: cyclic GMP (cGMP) signaling, insulin/IGF-1-like signaling (IIS), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling, and biosynthesis of dafachronic acid (DA) ligands that regulate a nuclear hormone receptor. We hypothesized that homologous pathways are present in S. stercoralis, have similar developmental regulation, and are involved in L3i arrest and activation. To test this, we undertook a deep-sequencing study of the polyadenylated transcriptome, generating over 2.3 billion paired-end reads from seven developmental stages. We constructed developmental expression profiles for S. stercoralis homologs of C. elegans dauer genes identified by BLAST searches of the S. stercoralis genome as well as de novo assembled transcripts. Intriguingly, genes encoding cGMP pathway components were coordinately up-regulated in L3i. In comparison to C. elegans, S. stercoralis has a paucity of genes encoding IIS ligands, several of which have abundance profiles suggesting involvement in L3i development. We also identified seven S. stercoralis genes encoding homologs of the single C. elegans dauer regulatory TGFβ ligand, three of which are only expressed in L3i. Putative DA biosynthetic genes did not appear to be coordinately regulated in L3i development. Our data suggest that while dauer pathway genes are present in S. stercoralis and may play a role in L3i development, there are significant differences between the two species

  17. Side Benefits of Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis on Strongyloides stercoralis Prevalence on Pemba Island, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Barda, Beatrice; Albonico, Marco; Buonfrate, Dora; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said; Speich, Benjamin; Keiser, Jennifer

    2017-06-19

    Strongyloides stercoralis, although endemic in many countries, is not included in helminth control programs. Few data are available on the prevalence and morbidity linked to this infection. We compared data from two studies conducted in 1998 and 2013 on Pemba Island, Tanzania, involving 525 and 509 schoolchildren, respectively. In 1998, the diagnostic method used was Harada Mori, whereas in 2013 diagnosis was made by both Koga agar plate and Baermann methods. The prevalence registered was 41% in 1998 and 7% in 2013. This data suggest that the prevalence of S. stercoralis on Pemba was significantly reduced 7 years after the last ivermectin administration for preventive chemotherapy and underlines the importance and impact of large-scale preventive chemotherapy, which often goes beyond its actual target. Preventive chemotherapy with ivermectin should be recommended in areas where S. stercoralis is endemic.

  18. Strongyloides stercoralis: Systematic Review of Barriers to Controlling Strongyloidiasis for Australian Indigenous Communities

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Adrian; Smith, Michelle L.; Judd, Jenni A.; Speare, Rick

    2014-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis infects human hosts mainly through skin contact with contaminated soil. The result is strongyloidiasis, a parasitic disease, with a unique cycle of auto-infection causing a variety of symptoms and signs, with possible fatality from hyper-infection. Australian Indigenous community members, often living in rural and remote settings, are exposed to and infected with S. stercoralis. The aim of this review is to determine barriers to control of strongyloidiasis. The purpose is to contribute to the development of initiatives for prevention, early detection and effective treatment of strongyloidiasis. Methodology/Principle Findings Systematic search reviewing research published 2012 and earlier was conducted. Research articles discussing aspects of strongyloidiasis, context of infection and overall health in Indigenous Australians were reviewed. Based on the PRISMA statement, the systematic search of health databases, Academic Search Premier, Informit, Medline, PubMed, AMED, CINAHL, Health Source Nursing and Academic was conducted. Key search terms included strongyloidiasis, Indigenous, Australia, health, and community. 340 articles were retrieved with 16 original research articles published between 1969 and 2006 meeting criteria. Review found barriers to control defined across three key themes, (1) health status, (2) socioeconomic status, and (3) health care literacy and procedures. Conclusions/Significance This study identifies five points of intervention: (1) develop reporting protocols between health care system and communities; (2) test all Indigenous Australian patients, immunocompromised patients and those exposed to areas with S. stercoralis; (3) health professionals require detailed information on strongyloidiasis and potential for exposure to Indigenous Australian people; (4) to establish testing and treatment initiatives within communities; and (5) to measure and report prevalence rates specific to communities and to act

  19. [Prevalence of Strongyloides spp. infection in household dogs].

    PubMed

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Muraoka, Noboru; Aoki, Mikiko; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2003-06-01

    A total of 1,505 household dogs were investigated for the prevalence of Strongyloides spp. infection by fecal examination in relation to their fecal conditions, rearing environments, origins, age, sex and breed. Strongyloides spp. infection was demonstrated in 29 of 1,505 (1.93%) dogs. Strongyloides stercoralis was detected in 28 dogs, and Strongyloides planiceps was detected in one dog. The rate of Strongyloides spp. infection was higher in dogs reared indoors, originated from pet shops/breeding kennels and aged 1-6 months. The infected rate was higher in dogs excreting soft feces. No significant sex-related difference was observed in Strongyloides spp. infection. The rate was high in Pomeranians and low in mongrels. The detection of S. stercolaris in dogs reared indoors will involve a serious problem in public health, because the parasite has zoonoitic potential. It suggests that a positive sanitary instruction against a dog's owner and a worker in pet shops/breeding kennels seems necessary for prevention of transmission from dogs to humans. Furthermore, the reliable treatment for dogs infected with S. stercoralis seems to be important.

  20. Soluble extract from the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis induces CXCR2 dependent/IL-17 independent neutrophil recruitment

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Amy E.; Redding, Kevin M.; Hess, Jessica A.; Lok, James B.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Abraham, David

    2011-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment via CXCR2 is required for innate and adaptive protective immunity to the larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. The goal of the present study was to determine the mechanism of CXCR2-mediated neutrophil recruitment to S. stercoralis. Mice deficient in the receptor for IL-17A and IL-17F, upstream mediators of CXCR2 ligand production, were infected with S. stercoralis larvae; there was no difference in larval survival, neutrophil recruitment, or production of CXCR2 ligands compared with wild type mice. In vivo and in vitro stimulation of neutrophils with S. stercoralis soluble extract resulted in significant neutrophil recruitment. In vitro assays demonstrated that the recruitment functioned through both chemokinesis and chemotaxis, was specific for CXCR2, and was a G protein coupled response involving tyrosine kinase and PI3K. Finally, neutrophil stimulation with S. stercoralis soluble extract induced release of the CXCR2 ligands MIP-2 and KC from neutrophils, thereby potentially enhancing neutrophil recruitment. PMID:21315175

  1. Improved diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis using recombinant antigen-based serologies in a community-wide study in northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Krolewiecki, Alejandro J; Ramanathan, Roshan; Fink, Valeria; McAuliffe, Isabel; Cajal, Silvana P; Won, Kimberly; Juarez, Marisa; Di Paolo, Adriana; Tapia, Laura; Acosta, Norma; Lee, Rogan; Lammie, Patrick; Abraham, David; Nutman, Thomas B

    2010-10-01

    The serodiagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays based on crude antigen (CrAg-ELISA), while useful, has been limited by the reliance on crude parasite extracts. Newer techniques such as the luciferase immunoprecipitation system assay (LIPS), based on a 31-kDa recombinant antigen (termed NIE) from S. stercoralis and/or the recombinant antigen S. stercoralis immunoreactive antigen (SsIR), or the NIE-ELISA have shown promise in controlled settings. We compared each of these serologic assays in individuals from both regions of the world in which S. stercoralis is endemic and those in which it is not. A comprehensive stool evaluation (sedimentation concentration, Baermann concentration with charcoal cultures, agar plate, and Harada-Mori) and four different serologic techniques using CrAg-ELISA or recombinant NIE-ELISA as well as LIPS using NIE alone or in combination with a second recombinant antigen (NIE/SsIR-LIPS) were compared among individuals with parasitologically proven infection (n = 251) and healthy controls from regions of the world in which the infection is nonendemic (n = 11). Accuracy was calculated for each assay. The prevalence of S. stercoralis infection was 29.4% among Argentinean stool samples (n = 228). Sedimentation concentration and Baermann were the most sensitive stool-based methods. NIE-LIPS showed the highest sensitivity (97.8%) and specificity (100%) of the serologic assays. The calculated negative predictive value was highest for both the NIE-LIPS and CrAg-ELISA (>97%) irrespective of disease prevalence. No cross-reactivity with soil-transmitted helminths was noted. NIE-LIPS compares favorably against the current CrAg-ELISA and stool evaluation, providing additional accuracy and ease of performance in the serodiagnosis of S. stercoralis infections irrespective of disease prevalence.

  2. Genetic differentiation of strongyloides stercoralis from two different climate zones revealed by 18S ribosomal DNA sequence comparison.

    PubMed

    Pakdee, Wallop; Thaenkham, Urusa; Dekumyoy, Paron; Sa-Nguankiat, Surapol; Maipanich, Wanna; Pubampen, Somchit

    2012-11-01

    Over 70 countries in tropical and subtropical zones are endemic areas for Strongyloides stercoralis, with a higher prevalence of the parasite often occurring in tropical regions compared to subtropical ones. In order to explore genetic variations of S. stercoralis form different climate zones, 18S ribosomal DNA of parasite specimens obtained from Thailand were sequenced and compared with those from Japan. The maximum likelihood indicates that S. stercoralis populations from these two different climate zones have genetically diverged. The genetic relationship between S. stercoralis populations is not related to the host species, but rather to moisture and temperature. These factors may directly drive genetic differentiation among isolated populations of S. stercoralis.

  3. Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection Syndrome Presenting as Severe, Recurrent Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Leading to a Diagnosis of Cushing Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Brittany; Chi, Nai-Wen; Hansen, Lawrence A.; Lee, Roland R.; U, Hoi-Sang; Savides, Thomas J.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old male immigrant from Ethiopia presented for consultation after 3 years of hematochezia/melena requiring > 25 units of blood transfusions. Physical examination revealed severe proximal muscle wasting and weakness, central obesity, proptosis, and abdominal striae, accompanied by eosinophilia, elevated hemoglobin A1c, elevated 24-hour urinary cortisol, lack of suppression of 8 am cortisol levels by 1 mg dexamethasone, and inappropriately elevated random adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level. Histopathological examination of gastrointestinal biopsies showed large numbers of Strongyloides stercoralis, indicating Strongyloides hyperinfection. Treatment with 2 days of ivermectin led to resolution of gastrointestinal bleeding. This syndrome was due to chronic immunosuppression from a pituitary ACTH (corticotroph) microadenoma, of which resection led to gradual normalization of urine cortisol, improved glycemic control, resolution of eosinophilia, and no recurrence of infection. PMID:26195463

  4. Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection Syndrome Presenting as Severe, Recurrent Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Leading to a Diagnosis of Cushing Disease.

    PubMed

    Yee, Brittany; Chi, Nai-Wen; Hansen, Lawrence A; Lee, Roland R; U, Hoi-Sang; Savides, Thomas J; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2015-10-01

    A 50-year-old male immigrant from Ethiopia presented for consultation after 3 years of hematochezia/melena requiring > 25 units of blood transfusions. Physical examination revealed severe proximal muscle wasting and weakness, central obesity, proptosis, and abdominal striae, accompanied by eosinophilia, elevated hemoglobin A1c, elevated 24-hour urinary cortisol, lack of suppression of 8 am cortisol levels by 1 mg dexamethasone, and inappropriately elevated random adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level. Histopathological examination of gastrointestinal biopsies showed large numbers of Strongyloides stercoralis, indicating Strongyloides hyperinfection. Treatment with 2 days of ivermectin led to resolution of gastrointestinal bleeding. This syndrome was due to chronic immunosuppression from a pituitary ACTH (corticotroph) microadenoma, of which resection led to gradual normalization of urine cortisol, improved glycemic control, resolution of eosinophilia, and no recurrence of infection.

  5. Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage and severe hypoxemia from Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Sameed, Yaser Abu; Beejay, Nigel; Al Maashari, Rehab

    2015-10-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome is a rare, yet highly fatal disorder. It occurs most commonly in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a 36-year-old Ethiopian female who presented with abdominal pain and hypotension. Shortly thereafter, she developed acute respiratory failure and progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock. She was found to have diffuse alveolar hemorrhage due to disseminated strongyloidiasis. We discuss the clinical condition of Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome presenting with severe hypoxemia and complicated by severe diffuse alveolar hemorrhage leading to death. Similar cases in the literature are also describe. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Genome-Wide Analyses of Individual Strongyloides stercoralis (Nematoda: Rhabditoidea) Provide Insights into Population Structure and Reproductive Life Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Myo Pa Pa Thet Hnin Htwe; Afrin, Tanzila; Nagayasu, Eiji; Tanaka, Ryusei; Higashiarakawa, Miwa; Win, Kyu Kyu; Hirata, Tetsuo; Htike, Wah Win; Fujita, Jiro; Maruyama, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    The helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, which is transmitted through soil, infects 30–100 million people worldwide. S. stercoralis reproduces sexually outside the host as well as asexually within the host, which causes a life-long infection. To understand the population structure and transmission patterns of this parasite, we re-sequenced the genomes of 33 individual S. stercoralis nematodes collected in Myanmar (prevalent region) and Japan (non-prevalent region). We utilised a method combining whole genome amplification and next-generation sequencing techniques to detect 298,202 variant positions (0.6% of the genome) compared with the reference genome. Phylogenetic analyses of SNP data revealed an unambiguous geographical separation and sub-populations that correlated with the host geographical origin, particularly for the Myanmar samples. The relatively higher heterozygosity in the genomes of the Japanese samples can possibly be explained by the independent evolution of two haplotypes of diploid genomes through asexual reproduction during the auto-infection cycle, suggesting that analysing heterozygosity is useful and necessary to infer infection history and geographical prevalence. PMID:28033376

  7. Extracellular traps are associated with human and mouse neutrophil and macrophage mediated killing of larval Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Bonne-Année, Sandra; Kerepesi, Laura A.; Hess, Jessica A.; Wesolowski, Jordan; Paumet, Fabienne; Lok, James B.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Abraham, David

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are multifaceted cells that are often the immune system’s first line of defense. Human and murine cells release extracellular DNA traps (ETs) in response to several pathogens and diseases. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is crucial to trapping and killing extracellular pathogens. Aside from neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils also release ETs. We hypothesized that ETs serve as a mechanism of ensnaring the large and highly motile helminth parasite Strongyloides stercoralis thereby providing a static target for the immune response. We demonstrated that S. stercoralis larvae trigger the release of ETs by human neutrophils and macrophages. Analysis of NETs revealed that NETs trapped but did not kill larvae. Induction of NETs was essential for larval killing by human but not murine neutrophils and macrophages in vitro. In mice, extracellular traps were induced following infection with S. stercoralis larvae and were present in the microenvironment of worms being killed in vivo. These findings demonstrate that NETs ensnare the parasite facilitating larval killing by cells of the immune system. PMID:24642003

  8. A modified agar plate method for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis.

    PubMed

    Koga, K; Kasuya, S; Khamboonruang, C; Sukhavat, K; Ieda, M; Takatsuka, N; Kita, K; Ohtomo, H

    1991-10-01

    The agar plate method is a new technique with high detection rates for coprological diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. This report details modifications of the technique and establishes a standardized procedure. We recommend that all plates should be carefully observed using a microscope because macroscopic observation can lead to false negative results. It is also advisable to pour formalin solution directly into microscopically positive dishes to collect worms by sedimentation. This procedure enables one to observe worms otherwise hidden. Sealing dishes with adhesive tape prevents larvae from crawling out of the dishes, eliminating any possibility in the reduction of detection rates, and greatly improves the safety conditions for the technician performing the procedure. We consider the agar plate method to be superior to the filter paper method in detecting Strongyloides, and we believe that it will eventually become the technique of choice.

  9. Efficacy of parasitological methods for the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in faecal specimens.

    PubMed

    Inês, Elizabete de J; Souza, Joelma N; Santos, Renata C; Souza, Eliane S; Santos, Fred L; Silva, Mônica L S; Silva, Moacir P; Teixeira, Márcia C A; Soares, Neci M

    2011-12-01

    To compare the efficacy of stool examination for the detection of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm, a total of 634 stool samples from the routine laboratory service of the Pharmacia Faculty, Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, were examined by agar plate culture (APC), Baermann-Moraes and spontaneous sedimentation. The sensitivity of agar plate culture, calculated by combining results of all 3 methods, was 95% for S. stercoralis and 77.6% for hookwoorm. Moreover, APC had superior accuracy than Baermann-Moraes and spontaneous sedimentation for S. stercoralis and hookworm diagnosis, respectively. The S. stercoralis and hookworm positive samples from the laboratory routine, obtained after the previous analysis, along with those initially selected, were used to evaluate the concordance between microscopic examination and both the type of furrows left by larvae and the time for culture positivity using the APC method. Of 115 stool samples positive for S. stercoralis and 92 positive for hookworm, 110 (95.7%) and 89 (96.7%), respectively, had concordant results for furrows and morphological characteristics. The cumulative percentage of positivity increased to 94% by the third day of observation; at this time, only 19.6% of hookworm-positive samples had positive culture plates. Analyses of 74 S. stercoralis-positive stool samples stored at 4°C for 24, 48 and 72h showed the presence of larvae in 48.6%, 28.4% and 23% of samples, respectively when re-examined by the APC. As a definitive diagnosis of strongyloidiasis depends on the microscopic demonstration of parasites, increasing the sensitivity of the detection requires the use of different parasitological methods, including APC.

  10. Simultaneous Larva Migrans and Larva Currens Caused by Strongyloides stercoralis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Corte, Liliam Dalla; da Silva, Mariana Vale Scribel; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins

    2013-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is an infectious disease caused by the Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, which penetrate the skin, go through the lymphatic circulation, and migrate to the lungs before reaching the intestines. They mature and may cause cutaneous strongyloidiasis, known as larva currens because of the quick migratory rate of the larva. The authors describe a case in which the larvae did not follow their natural lymph route, and after penetrating into the intertriginous area, they migrated to the dermis, developing larva migrans in the early phase, and later associated with the typical lesions of larva currens. The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of larva in the skin biopsy. PMID:23476820

  11. Eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis in an HIV-positive patient

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Dennis Baroni; Friedrisch, Bruno Kras; Fontanive Junior, Vilmar; da Rocha, Vívian Wünderlich

    2012-01-01

    A 29 year old female HIV-positive patient presented in emergency with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, tenderness and positive Blumberg sign. Laboratorial tests revealed eosinophilia, anaemia and leukocytosis. She underwent exploratory laparotomy followed by appendectomy. The pathological analysis of the appendix revealed acute appendicitis, accentuated eosinophilia and infestation by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis. She did well after surgery and adequate treatment. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by these two parasitic worms reported in the medical literature. PMID:22605801

  12. Eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis in an HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Dennis Baroni; Friedrisch, Bruno Kras; Fontanive Junior, Vilmar; da Rocha, Vívian Wünderlich

    2012-03-27

    A 29 year old female HIV-positive patient presented in emergency with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, tenderness and positive Blumberg sign. Laboratorial tests revealed eosinophilia, anaemia and leukocytosis. She underwent exploratory laparotomy followed by appendectomy. The pathological analysis of the appendix revealed acute appendicitis, accentuated eosinophilia and infestation by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis. She did well after surgery and adequate treatment. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by these two parasitic worms reported in the medical literature.

  13. Comparison between PCR and larvae visualization methods for diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis out of endemic area: A proposed algorithm.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Silvia A; Ruybal, Paula; Solana, María Elisa; López, Carlota; Berini, Carolina A; Alba Soto, Catalina D; Cappa, Stella M González

    2016-05-01

    Underdiagnosis of chronic infection with the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis may lead to severe disease in the immunosuppressed. Thus, we have set-up a specific and highly sensitive molecular diagnosis in stool samples. Here, we compared the accuracy of our polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method with that of conventional diagnostic methods for chronic infection. We also analyzed clinical and epidemiological predictors of infection to propose an algorithm for the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis useful for the clinician. Molecular and gold standard methods were performed to evaluate a cohort of 237 individuals recruited in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Subjects were assigned according to their immunological status, eosinophilia and/or history of residence in endemic areas. Diagnosis of strongyloidiasis by PCR on the first stool sample was achieved in 71/237 (29.9%) individuals whereas only 35/237(27.4%) were positive by conventional methods, requiring up to four serial stool samples at weekly intervals. Eosinophilia and history of residence in endemic areas have been revealed as independent factors as they increase the likelihood of detecting the parasite according to our study population. Our results underscore the usefulness of robust molecular tools aimed to diagnose chronic S. stercoralis infection. Evidence also highlights the need to survey patients with eosinophilia even when history of an endemic area is absent.

  14. Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis in northern Italy: results of a multicentre case–control study, February 2013 to July 2014

    PubMed Central

    Buonfrate, Dora; Baldissera, Mara; Abrescia, Fabrizio; Bassetti, Matteo; Caramaschi, Giacomo; Giobbia, Mario; Mascarello, Marta; Rodari, Paola; Scattolo, Novella; Napoletano, Giuseppina; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2016-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth widely diffused in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Autochthonous cases have been also diagnosed sporadically in areas of temperate climate. We aimed at defining the epidemiology of strongyloidiasis in immigrants and Italians living in three northern Italian Regions. Screening for S. stercoralis infection was done with serology, confirmation tests were a second serological method or stool agar culture. A case–control approach was adopted and patients with a peripheral eosinophil count ≥ 500/mcL were classified as cases. Of 2,701 individuals enrolled here 1,351 were cases and 1,350 controls; 86% were Italians, 48% women. Italians testing positive were in 8% (97/1,137) cases and 1% (13/1,178) controls (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 8.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5–14.8), while positive immigrants were in 17% (36/214) cases and in 2% (3/172) controls (aOR 9.6; 95% CI: 2.9–32.4). Factors associated with a higher risk of infection for all study participants were eosinophilia (p < 0.001) and immigration (p = 0.001). Overall, strongyloidiasis was nine-times more frequent in individuals with eosinophilia than in those with normal eosinophil count. PMID:27525375

  15. Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis in northern Italy: results of a multicentre case-control study, February 2013 to July 2014.

    PubMed

    Buonfrate, Dora; Baldissera, Mara; Abrescia, Fabrizio; Bassetti, Matteo; Caramaschi, Giacomo; Giobbia, Mario; Mascarello, Marta; Rodari, Paola; Scattolo, Novella; Napoletano, Giuseppina; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2016-08-04

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth widely diffused in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Autochthonous cases have been also diagnosed sporadically in areas of temperate climate. We aimed at defining the epidemiology of strongyloidiasis in immigrants and Italians living in three northern Italian Regions. Screening for S. stercoralis infection was done with serology, confirmation tests were a second serological method or stool agar culture. A case-control approach was adopted and patients with a peripheral eosinophil count ≥ 500/mcL were classified as cases. Of 2,701 individuals enrolled here 1,351 were cases and 1,350 controls; 86% were Italians, 48% women. Italians testing positive were in 8% (97/1,137) cases and 1% (13/1,178) controls (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 8.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5-14.8), while positive immigrants were in 17% (36/214) cases and in 2% (3/172) controls (aOR 9.6; 95% CI: 2.9-32.4). Factors associated with a higher risk of infection for all study participants were eosinophilia (p < 0.001) and immigration (p = 0.001). Overall, strongyloidiasis was nine-times more frequent in individuals with eosinophilia than in those with normal eosinophil count. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  16. The Transcriptome Analysis of Strongyloides stercoralis L3i Larvae Reveals Targets for Intervention in a Neglected Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marcilla, Antonio; Garg, Gagan; Bernal, Dolores; Ranganathan, Shoba; Forment, Javier; Ortiz, Javier; Muñoz-Antolí, Carla; Dominguez, M. Victoria; Pedrola, Laia; Martinez-Blanch, Juan; Sotillo, Javier; Trelis, Maria; Toledo, Rafael; Esteban, J. Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis is one of the most neglected diseases distributed worldwide with endemic areas in developed countries, where chronic infections are life threatening. Despite its impact, very little is known about the molecular biology of the parasite involved and its interplay with its hosts. Next generation sequencing technologies now provide unique opportunities to rapidly address these questions. Principal Findings Here we present the first transcriptome of the third larval stage of S. stercoralis using 454 sequencing coupled with semi-automated bioinformatic analyses. 253,266 raw sequence reads were assembled into 11,250 contiguous sequences, most of which were novel. 8037 putative proteins were characterized based on homology, gene ontology and/or biochemical pathways. Comparison of the transcriptome of S. strongyloides with those of other nematodes, including S. ratti, revealed similarities in transcription of molecules inferred to have key roles in parasite-host interactions. Enzymatic proteins, like kinases and proteases, were abundant. 1213 putative excretory/secretory proteins were compiled using a new pipeline which included non-classical secretory proteins. Potential drug targets were also identified. Conclusions Overall, the present dataset should provide a solid foundation for future fundamental genomic, proteomic and metabolomic explorations of S. stercoralis, as well as a basis for applied outcomes, such as the development of novel methods of intervention against this neglected parasite. PMID:22389732

  17. A Fatal Strongyloides Stercoralis Hyperinfection Syndrome in a Patient With Chronic kidney Disease: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ting-Ting; Yang, Qing; Yu, Mei-Hong; Wang, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome is a rare but fatal disease, which occurs commonly in immunocompromised patients. Strongyloidiasis among patients with chronic kidney disease is rarely reported.A 55-year-old Chinese male presented to hospital with diarrhea and abdominal pain. He developed acute respiratory failure and progressed to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage owing to disseminated strongyloidiasis immediately. The bronchoalveolar lavage revealed filariform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis.This patient was diagnosed with Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome. Although albendazole, mechanical ventilator support, fluid resuscitation, vasopressor support, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, hydrocortisone, and broadspectrum antimicrobials were actively used, the patient eventually died.Similar cases in patients with chronic kidney disease in the literature are also reviewed. Through literature review, we recommend that strongyloidiasis should be routinely investigated in patients with chronic kidney disease who will undergo immunosuppressive therapy.

  18. Toward Understanding the Functional Role of Ss-riok-1, a RIO Protein Kinase-Encoding Gene of Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wang; Lok, James B.; Stoltzfus, Jonathan D.; Gasser, Robin B.; Fang, Fang; Lei, Wei-Qiang; Fang, Rui; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long; Hu, Min

    2014-01-01

    Background Some studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammals have shown that RIO protein kinases (RIOKs) are involved in ribosome biogenesis, cell cycle progression and development. However, there is a paucity of information on their functions in parasitic nematodes. We aimed to investigate the function of RIOK-1 encoding gene from Strongyloides stercoralis, a nematode parasitizing humans and dogs. Methodology/Principal Findings The RIOK-1 protein-encoding gene Ss-riok-1 was characterized from S. stercoralis. The full-length cDNA, gDNA and putative promoter region of Ss-riok-1 were isolated and sequenced. The cDNA comprises 1,828 bp, including a 377 bp 5′-UTR, a 17 bp 3′-UTR and a 1,434 bp ORF encoding a protein of 477 amino acids containing a RIOK-1 signature motif. The genomic sequence of the Ss-riok-1 coding region is 1,636 bp in length and has three exons and two introns. The putative promoter region comprises 4,280 bp and contains conserved promoter elements, including four CAAT boxes, 12 GATA boxes, eight E-boxes (CANNTG) and 38 TATA boxes. The Ss-riok-1 gene is transcribed throughout all developmental stages with the highest transcript abundance in the infective third-stage larva (iL3). Recombinant Ss-RIOK-1 is an active kinase, capable of both phosphorylation and auto-phosphorylation. Patterns of transcriptional reporter expression in transgenic S. stercoralis larvae indicated that Ss-RIOK-1 is expressed in neurons of the head, body and tail as well as in pharynx and hypodermis. Conclusions/Significance The characterization of the molecular and the temporal and spatial expression patterns of the encoding gene provide first clues as to functions of RIOKs in the biological processes of parasitic nematodes. PMID:25101874

  19. High prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in school-aged children in a rural highland of north-western Ethiopia: the role of intensive diagnostic work-up.

    PubMed

    Amor, Aranzazu; Rodriguez, Esperanza; Saugar, José M; Arroyo, Ana; López-Quintana, Beatriz; Abera, Bayeh; Yimer, Mulat; Yizengaw, Endalew; Zewdie, Derejew; Ayehubizu, Zimman; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Echazú, Adriana; Krolewieki, Alejandro J; Aparicio, Pilar; Herrador, Zaida; Anegagrie, Melaku; Benito, Agustín

    2016-12-01

    Soil-transmitted helminthiases (hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura) are extremely prevalent in school-aged children living in poor sanitary conditions. Recent epidemiological data suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis is highly unreported. However, accurate data are essential for conducting interventions aimed at introducing control and elimination programmes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 396 randomly selected school-aged children in Amhara region in rural area in north-western Ethiopia, to assess the prevalence of S. stercoralis and other intestinal helminths. We examined stools using three techniques: conventional stool concentration; and two S. stercoralis-specific methods, i.e. the Baermann technique and polymerase chain reaction. The diagnostic accuracy of these three methods was then compared. There was an overall prevalence of helminths of 77.5%, with distribution differing according to school setting. Soil-transmitted helminths were recorded in 69.2%. Prevalence of S. stercoralis and hookworm infection was 20.7 and 54.5%, respectively, and co-infection was detected in 16.3% of cases. Schistosoma mansoni had a prevalence of 15.7%. Prevalence of S. stercoralis was shown 3.5% by the conventional method, 12.1% by the Baermann method, and 13.4% by PCR, which thus proved to be the most sensitive. Our results suggest that S. stercoralis could be overlooked and neglected in Ethiopia, if studies of soil-transmitted helminths rely on conventional diagnostic techniques alone. A combination of molecular and stool microscopy techniques yields a significantly higher prevalence. In view of the fact that current control policies for triggering drug administration are based on parasite prevalence levels, a comprehensive diagnostic approach should instead be applied to ensure comprehensive control of helminth infections.

  20. Tribendimidine and Albendazole for Treating Soil-Transmitted Helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis and Taenia spp.: Open-Label Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Xiao, Shu-Hua; Wu, Zhong-Xing; Zhou, Hui; Utzinger, Jürg

    2008-01-01

    Background Tribendimidine is an anthelminthic drug with a broad spectrum of activity. In 2004 the drug was approved by Chinese authorities for human use. The efficacy of tribendimidine against soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura) has been established, and new laboratory investigations point to activity against cestodes and Strongyloides ratti. Methodology/Principal Findings In an open-label randomized trial, the safety and efficacy of a single oral dose of albendazole or tribendimidine (both drugs administered at 200 mg for 5- to 14-year-old children, and 400 mg for individuals ≥15 years) against soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Taenia spp. were assessed in a village in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. The analysis was on a per-protocol basis and the trial is registered with controlled-trials.com (number ISRCTN01779485). Both albendazole and tribendimidine were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides and, moderately, against hookworm. The efficacy against T. trichiura was low. Among 57 individuals who received tribendimidine, the prevalence of S. stercoralis was reduced from 19.3% to 8.8% (observed cure rate 54.5%, p = 0.107), and that of Taenia spp. from 26.3% to 8.8% (observed cure rate 66.7%, p = 0.014). Similar prevalence reductions were noted among the 66 albendazole recipients. Taking into account “new” infections discovered at treatment evaluation, which were most likely missed pre-treatment due to the lack of sensitivity of available diagnostic approaches, the difference between the drug-specific net Taenia spp. cure rates was highly significant in favor of tribendimidine (p = 0.001). No significant adverse events of either drug were observed. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that single-dose oral tribendimidine can be employed in settings with extensive intestinal polyparasitism, and its efficacy against A. lumbricoides and hookworm was

  1. Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and Other Intestinal Parasites among Institutionalized Mentally Disabled Individuals in Rasht, Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    SAEIDINIA, Amin; TAVAKOLI, Ilnaz; NAGHIPOUR, Mohammad Reza; RAHMATI, Behnaz; GHAVAMI LAHIJI, Hossein; SALKHORI, Omid; ASHRAFI, Keyhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: We aimed to determine the status of strongyloidiasis in mentally disabled population in the institutional places in Rasht City, the capital of Guilan Province, northern Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 institutions for mentally retarded population in Rasht in 2013. Before collecting the samples, a questionnaire was filled out for each participant by an expert person. A single stool sample was obtained from each of the 173 subjects and examined using direct wet mount, formalin-ether concentration technique and agar plate culture method. Results: A total of 173 mentally disabled individuals aged 2–57 (25.69±11.56) yr old were studied. Stool examination showed that 51 (29.5%) cases were infected with at least one parasite. Of 173 studied cases only 10 (5.8%) individuals were infected with pathogenic parasites, of which 2 (1.2%) cases were infected with Strongyloides stercoralis and 8 (4.6%) with Giardia lamblia. On the other hand, 42 (24.3%) of the studied population were infected with non-pathogenic intestinal protozoa such as Blastocystis hominis (n=29, 16.8%), Entamoeba coli (n=16, 9.2%) and Endolimax nana (n=4, 2.3%). Mixed protozoal infections were observed in 8 (4.6%) individuals. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of S. stercoralis in mentally disabled individuals in Rasht was somewhat higher than those of normal population of the province. The same picture was seen when the prevalence of G. lamblia and non-pathogenic protozoa in normal and mentally disabled populations were compared. PMID:28127364

  2. Comparison of Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction with Parasitological Methods for Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in Human Fecal Samples

    PubMed Central

    Sharifdini, Meysam; Mirhendi, Hossein; Ashrafi, Keyhan; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khodadadi, Hossein; Kia, Eshrat Beigom

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR methods for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in fecal samples compared with parasitological methods. A total of 466 stool samples were examined by conventional parasitological methods (formalin ether concentration [FEC] and agar plate culture [APC]). DNA was extracted using an in-house method, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 18S ribosomal genes were amplified by nested PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. Among 466 samples, 12.7% and 18.2% were found infected with S. stercoralis by FEC and APC, respectively. DNA of S. stercoralis was detected in 18.9% and 25.1% of samples by real-time PCR and nested PCR, respectively. Considering parasitological methods as the diagnostic gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of nested PCR were 100% and 91.6%, respectively, and that of real-time PCR were 84.7% and 95.8%, respectively. However, considering sequence analyzes of the selected nested PCR products, the specificity of nested PCR is increased. In general, molecular methods were superior to parasitological methods. They were more sensitive and more reliable in detection of S. stercoralis in comparison with parasitological methods. Between the two molecular methods, the sensitivity of nested PCR was higher than real-time PCR. PMID:26350449

  3. Comparison of Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction with Parasitological Methods for Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in Human Fecal Samples.

    PubMed

    Sharifdini, Meysam; Mirhendi, Hossein; Ashrafi, Keyhan; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khodadadi, Hossein; Kia, Eshrat Beigom

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR methods for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in fecal samples compared with parasitological methods. A total of 466 stool samples were examined by conventional parasitological methods (formalin ether concentration [FEC] and agar plate culture [APC]). DNA was extracted using an in-house method, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 18S ribosomal genes were amplified by nested PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. Among 466 samples, 12.7% and 18.2% were found infected with S. stercoralis by FEC and APC, respectively. DNA of S. stercoralis was detected in 18.9% and 25.1% of samples by real-time PCR and nested PCR, respectively. Considering parasitological methods as the diagnostic gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of nested PCR were 100% and 91.6%, respectively, and that of real-time PCR were 84.7% and 95.8%, respectively. However, considering sequence analyzes of the selected nested PCR products, the specificity of nested PCR is increased. In general, molecular methods were superior to parasitological methods. They were more sensitive and more reliable in detection of S. stercoralis in comparison with parasitological methods. Between the two molecular methods, the sensitivity of nested PCR was higher than real-time PCR. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. Detrimental effect of water submersion of stools on development of Strongyloides stercoralis.

    PubMed

    Anamnart, Witthaya; Pattanawongsa, Attarat; Intapan, Pewpan Maleewong; Morakote, Nimit; Janwan, Penchom; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is prevalent in Thailand, yet its prevalence in the south is lower than in other parts of the country. This might be due to the long rainy season in the south resulting in stool submersion in water inhibiting worm development. In this study, the effect of water submersion of fecal samples on development of Strongyloides stercoralis was investigated. Ten ml of a 1 ∶ 5 fecal suspension were placed in 15-ml tubes, 35-mm dishes, and 90-mm dishes producing the depths of 80 mm, 11 mm and 2 mm-suspensions, respectively. The worm development was followed at 1/6, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 24, and 36 h, by determining the number of filariform larva (FL) generated from agar-plate cultures (APC). Fecal suspensions kept in tubes and 35-mm dishes showed a decline in FL yield relative to incubation time and reached zero production 14 h after incubation. In contrast, the number of FL generated from the suspension kept in 90-mm dishes remained stable up to 36 h. Cumulatively, all tubes and 35-mm dishes became negative in APC after 14 h while 90-mm dishes remained APC-positive up to 36 h. Adding more water or stool suspension to dishes resulted in a decreased number of FL. Mechanical aeration of the suspensions in tubes restored an almost normal FL yield. It appears that the atmospheric air plays a significant role in growth and development of S. stercoralis in the environment and may be one of factors which contribute to a lower prevalence of human strongyloidiasis in the south of Thailand.

  5. Discordances Between Serology and Culture for Strongyloides in an Ethiopian Adopted Child With Multiple Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Sulleiro, Elena; Zarzuela, Francesc; Ruiz, Edurne; Clavería, Isabel; Espasa, Mateu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: infectious diseases screening of international adoptees is complex because of the concurrence of different pathogens in a child at same time. We describe an international adopted child born at Ethiopia infected by 5 different pathogens (Hymenolepis nana, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura), 2 of them S. stercoralis and E. histolytica with a capacity to develop severe clinical complications if not detected promptly with appropriate diagnosis tests. Concerns of the patient: according to the screening protocol a stool sample is always processed for culture addressed to find out protozoan and helminthic pathogens but not specifically for S. stercoralis. Only, when eosinophilia is detected 3 serial stool samples are collected to rule out intestinal parasitic infection including S. stercoralis. Interventions: in our case, S. stercoralis would not have been detected if we had followed the protocol because eosinophilia was absent and its specific serology was negative. Fortunately, the initial inclusion of the feces charcoal culture for S. stercoralis allowed us to detect this infection. Outcomes: discordances between direct methods such as culture and indirect as serology or antigen test forces us to be very cautious before ruling out S. stercoralis or E. histolytica infection, respectively. Also, if a child from tropical areas has persistent symptoms (such as diarrhea or fever) that have not been treated we have to rule out other infections that have not been detected yet. Main lessons: The introduction of different sequencing tests and the insistence to find out pathogens such as S. stercoralis or E. histolytica was determinant to be able to cure this symptomatic child and to prevent potential severe clinical forms in case of immunosuppression. PMID:26962825

  6. Cutaneous manifestations of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in an HIV-seropositive patient.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephanie J; Cohen, Philip R; MacFarlane, Deborah F; Grossman, Marc E

    2011-01-01

    white cell count of 7/microL (100% lymphocytes), a decreased glucose level of 53 mg/dL, and a decreased protein level of 33 mg/dL. The cerebrospinal fluid culture was now positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to cefotaxime. The patient was started on imipenem. On day 34 of his admission, the patient became tachypneic with complaints of dyspnea. A chest roentgenogram revealed bilateral patchy infiltrates. He was transferred to the intensive care unit and intubated for hypoxemic respiratory failure (arterial blood gas values on 6 L of oxygen: pH, 7.46; bicarbonate, 23; and oxygen saturation, 37). That evening, the patient was also noted to have diffuse petechiae and purpura in a reticulated pattern over his abdomen (Figure 1A and 1B), most heavily concentrated in the periumbilical region, extending to the axillae and upper thighs. A 3x3-mm punch biopsy from abdominal skin demonstrated Strongyloides stercoralis larvae in the dermis (Figure 2A and 2B). His sputum specimen was teeming with adult S stercoralis worms (Figure 3) and, subsequently, numerous S stercoralis larvae were observed not only from the bronchoalveolar lavage but also from the nasogastric fluid specimen. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of disseminated strongyloidiasis. On hospital day 35, the patient was doing poorly and was started on thiabendazole (1250 mg twice daily for 28 days). Nine days later, ivermectin (4.5 mg once daily for 3 days for 2 courses) was also added. He continued to clinically deteriorate. The patient died 31 days after systemic antihelminthic treatment was initiated.

  7. Albendazole and ivermectin for the control of soil-transmitted helminths in an area with high prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in northwestern Argentina: A community-based pragmatic study.

    PubMed

    Echazú, Adriana; Juarez, Marisa; Vargas, Paola A; Cajal, Silvana P; Cimino, Ruben O; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Paredes, Gladys; Arias, Luis M; Abril, Marcelo; Gold, Silvia; Lammie, Patrick; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

    2017-10-09

    Recommendations for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control give a key role to deworming of school and pre-school age children with albendazole or mebendazole; which might be insufficient to achieve adequate control, particularly against Strongyloides stercoralis. The impact of preventive chemotherapy (PC) against STH morbidity is still incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a community-based program with albendazole and ivermectin in a high transmission setting for S. stercoralis and hookworm. Community-based pragmatic trial conducted in Tartagal, Argentina; from 2012 to 2015. Six communities (5070 people) were enrolled for community-based PC with albendazole and ivermectin. Two communities (2721 people) were re-treated for second and third rounds. STH prevalence, anemia and malnutrition were explored through consecutive surveys. Anthropometric assessment of children, stool analysis, complete blood count and NIE-ELISA serology for S. stercoralis were performed. STH infection was associated with anemia and stunting in the baseline survey that included all communities and showed a STH prevalence of 47.6% (almost exclusively hookworm and S. stercoralis). Among communities with multiple interventions, STH prevalence decreased from 62% to 23% (p<0.001) after the first PC; anemia also diminished from 52% to 12% (p<0.001). After two interventions S. stercoralis seroprevalence declined, from 51% to 14% (p<0.001) and stunting prevalence decreased, from 19% to 12% (p = 0.009). Hookworm' infections are associated with anemia in the general population and nutritional impairment in children. S. stercoralis is also associated with anemia. Community-based deworming with albendazole and ivermectin is effective for the reduction of STH prevalence and morbidity in communities with high prevalence of hookworm and S. stercoralis.

  8. Discordances Between Serology and Culture for Strongyloides in an Ethiopian Adopted Child With Multiple Parasitic Infections: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Sulleiro, Elena; Zarzuela, Francesc; Ruiz, Edurne; Clavería, Isabel; Espasa, Mateu

    2016-03-01

    infectious diseases screening of international adoptees is complex because of the concurrence of different pathogens in a child at same time. We describe an international adopted child born at Ethiopia infected by 5 different pathogens (Hymenolepis nana, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura), 2 of them S. stercoralis and E. histolytica with a capacity to develop severe clinical complications if not detected promptly with appropriate diagnosis tests.Concerns of the patient: according to the screening protocol a stool sample is always processed for culture addressed to find out protozoan and helminthic pathogens but not specifically for S. stercoralis. Only, when eosinophilia is detected 3 serial stool samples are collected to rule out intestinal parasitic infection including S. stercoralis. in our case, S. stercoralis would not have been detected if we had followed the protocol because eosinophilia was absent and its specific serology was negative. Fortunately, the initial inclusion of the feces charcoal culture for S. stercoralis allowed us to detect this infection. discordances between direct methods such as culture and indirect as serology or antigen test forces us to be very cautious before ruling out S. stercoralis or E. histolytica infection, respectively. Also, if a child from tropical areas has persistent symptoms (such as diarrhea or fever) that have not been treated we have to rule out other infections that have not been detected yet.Main lessons: The introduction of different sequencing tests and the insistence to find out pathogens such as S. stercoralis or E. histolytica was determinant to be able to cure this symptomatic child and to prevent potential severe clinical forms in case of immunosuppression.

  9. Investigation of Strongyloides stercoralis Seroprevalence in Individuals Who Grow Vegetables and Gather Mushroom in Muğla Province in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aksoy Gökmen, Ayşegül; Çaylak, Selmin; Citil, Burak Ekrem; Sözen, Hamdi; Şahin, Cem; Yula, Erkan; Kaya, Selçuk; Demirci, Mustafa

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the incidence of Strongyloides stercoralis in individuals who live in rural areas in the towns near Mugla and have contact with humid soil and gather saffron milk cap mushroom in autumn, and to obtain epidemiological data in our region. A total of 281 volunteers were included; 192 of them were the individuals who only gather mushroom, only work in the garden, or gather mushroom as well as work in the garden, while 89 had no contact with the soil. Totally, 281 sera were tested for the presence of S. stercoralis-IgG antibodies by ELISA technique, using a commercial kit (DRG® Diagnostics Strongyloides IgG ELISA EIA-4208; Germany). One of 281 volunteers (0.3 %) was found positive for S. stercoralis-IgG antibodies, while the other 280 volunteers (99.7 %) were found negative. Thirty-seven, 33, and 43 of 192 volunteers reported wearing only boots, only gloves, and both boots and gloves, respectively. Seventy-nine of 192 volunteers reported wearing neither boots nor gloves. This preliminary study is the first study that involves the individuals with soil contact in our country, and it was concluded that this study will offer an insight into the other studies on S. stercoralis.

  10. Albendazole Stimulates the Excretion of Strongyloides stercoralis Larvae in Stool Specimens and Enhances Sensitivity for Diagnosis of Strongyloidiasis▿

    PubMed Central

    Anamnart, Witthaya; Pattanawongsa, Attarat; Intapan, Pewpan Maleewong; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2010-01-01

    We succeeded in stimulation of excretion of Strongyloides stercoralis larvae in stool by oral administration of a single dose of 400 mg albendazole to strongyloidiasis patients. This result overcame the false-negative results of stool examination due to low larval numbers. Stool samples were collected from 152 asymptomatic strongyloidiasis patients in the morning, prior to eating. After breakfast, they were given a dose of 400 mg albendazole, and stool samples were collected the following morning. Agar plate culture (APC), modified formalin-ether concentration technique (MFECT), and direct-smear (DS) methods were used to examine stool specimens within 3 h after defecation. The results before and after albendazole was taken were compared. All APCs that were positive became negative after albendazole administration, while MFECT showed a 1.4- to 18.0-fold increase in larval numbers in 97.4% (148/152) of the samples. The DSs were positive in 3 out of 3 smears at a larval number of ≥45 larvae per g (lpg) of stool, and in 1or 2 out of 3 smears at a larval number between 35 and 44 lpg. At a larval number of <35 lpg, the DS became negative. Interestingly 90.5% (19/21) of the samples that were negative by all methods before albendazole administration became positive by MFECT after the treatment. Thus, MFECT can be effectively used for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis with prior administration of albendazole to the subject. PMID:20844212

  11. Inactivation of strongyloides stercoralis filariform larvae in vitro by six Jamaican plant extracts and three commercial anthelmintics.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R D; Williams, L A; Lindo, J F; Terry, S I; Mansingh, A

    1990-12-01

    In vitro bioassay of (a) aqueous methanol extracts (AME) of the green leaves of mimosa (Mimosa pudica), love weed (Cuscuta americana), vervine (Stachytarpheta jamaicensis), chicken weed (Salvia serotina) and breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis); (b) methanol-water fraction (MWF) of breadfruit leaves, and (c) commercially available drugs albendazole, thiabendazole and levamisole were assayed for nematode inactivating potential, using filariform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. Test larvae were obtained from a 10-day-old charcoal coproculture. Bioassays were conducted in Locke's solution, using 100 larvae in each of three replicates. Inactivation was recorded microscopically at 1, 3, 6 and 12 hours, then every 24 hours up to 5 days' incubation. It50 (time for inactivation of 50% of larvae) values read: levamisole and mimosa extract less than 1 hour; love weed extract, approximately 2 hours; breadfruit (MWF), 9.5 hours; chicken weed, 20 hours; albendazole, 35 hours; breadfruit (AME), 49 hours; thiabendazole, 74 hours and vervine extract, 81.5 hours. It95 values followed a similar, trend, and were approximately double the It50 measures. A potential role for locally available natural products in the treatment of strongyloidiasis is highlighted.

  12. Persistent eosinophilia and Strongyloides infection in Montagnard refugees after presumptive albendazole therapy.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Neela D; Shah, J Jina; Corey, G Ralph; Stout, Jason E

    2009-08-01

    Chronic helminth infections are common in refugee populations and may persist years after immigration. Asymptomatic Strongyloides stercoralis infection raises particular concern because of its potential for complications in immunosuppressed patients. We examined 172 Montagnard refugees resettled to Wake County, North Carolina from 2002 through 2003. Refugees were pretreated with albendazole for five days and screened for health conditions after arrival. Eosinophilia was present in 41 of 171 refugees at the first blood draw. Only 1 of 172 had a stool helminth (Fasciola) identified by microscopy. On repeat testing, 13 people had persistent eosinophilia. Results of serologic analysis for Strongyloides were available in 24 persons. Eosinophil counts decreased significantly after treatment with ivermectin in nine refugees (P = 0.039). Persistent eosinophilia, likely caused by Strongyloides infection, was common in this cohort of Montagnard refugees. Clinicians should understand the limitations of stool microscopy in diagnosis of strongyloidiasis, the limited effectiveness of albendazole in treating strongyloidiasis, and the importance of following-up refugees with persistent eosinophilia.

  13. Mass Administration of Ivermectin for the Elimination of Onchocerciasis Significantly Reduced and Maintained Low the Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in Esmeraldas, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Mariella; Buonfrate, Dora; Guevara Espinoza, Angel; Prandi, Rosanna; Marquez, Monica; Gobbo, Maria; Montresor, Antonio; Albonico, Marco; Racines Orbe, Marcia; Martin Moreira, Juan; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of ivermectin mass drug administration on strongyloidiasis and other soil transmitted helminthiases. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected in Esmeraldas (Ecuador) during surveys conducted in areas where ivermectin was annually administered to the entire population for the control of onchocerciasis. Data from 5 surveys, conducted between 1990 (before the start of the distribution of ivermectin) and 2013 (six years after the interruption of the intervention) were analyzed. The surveys also comprised areas where ivermectin was not distributed because onchocerciasis was not endemic. Different laboratory techniques were used in the different surveys (direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration, IFAT and IVD ELISA for Strongyloides stercoralis). In the areas where ivermectin was distributed the strongyloidiasis prevalence fell from 6.8% in 1990 to zero in 1996 and 1999. In 2013 prevalence in children was zero with stool examination and 1.3% with serology, in adult 0.7% and 2.7%. In areas not covered by ivermectin distribution the prevalence was 23.5% and 16.1% in 1996 and 1999, respectively. In 2013 the prevalence was 0.6% with fecal exam and 9.3% with serology in children and 2.3% and 17.9% in adults. Regarding other soil transmitted helminthiases: in areas where ivermectin was distributed the prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly reduced, while A. lumbricoides and hookworms were seemingly unaffected. Periodic mass distribution of ivermectin had a significant impact on the prevalence of strongyloidiasis, less on trichuriasis and apparently no effect on ascariasis and hookworm infections.

  14. Mass Administration of Ivermectin for the Elimination of Onchocerciasis Significantly Reduced and Maintained Low the Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in Esmeraldas, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Anselmi, Mariella; Buonfrate, Dora; Guevara Espinoza, Angel; Prandi, Rosanna; Marquez, Monica; Gobbo, Maria; Montresor, Antonio; Albonico, Marco; Racines Orbe, Marcia; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of ivermectin mass drug administration on strongyloidiasis and other soil transmitted helminthiases. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected in Esmeraldas (Ecuador) during surveys conducted in areas where ivermectin was annually administered to the entire population for the control of onchocerciasis. Data from 5 surveys, conducted between 1990 (before the start of the distribution of ivermectin) and 2013 (six years after the interruption of the intervention) were analyzed. The surveys also comprised areas where ivermectin was not distributed because onchocerciasis was not endemic. Different laboratory techniques were used in the different surveys (direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration, IFAT and IVD ELISA for Strongyloides stercoralis). Results In the areas where ivermectin was distributed the strongyloidiasis prevalence fell from 6.8% in 1990 to zero in 1996 and 1999. In 2013 prevalence in children was zero with stool examination and 1.3% with serology, in adult 0.7% and 2.7%. In areas not covered by ivermectin distribution the prevalence was 23.5% and 16.1% in 1996 and 1999, respectively. In 2013 the prevalence was 0.6% with fecal exam and 9.3% with serology in children and 2.3% and 17.9% in adults. Regarding other soil transmitted helminthiases: in areas where ivermectin was distributed the prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly reduced, while A. lumbricoides and hookworms were seemingly unaffected. Conclusions Periodic mass distribution of ivermectin had a significant impact on the prevalence of strongyloidiasis, less on trichuriasis and apparently no effect on ascariasis and hookworm infections. PMID:26540412

  15. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Strongyloides stercoralis in stool that uses a visual detection method with SYTO-82 fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Watts, Matthew R; James, Gregory; Sultana, Yasmin; Ginn, Andrew N; Outhred, Alexander C; Kong, Fanrong; Verweij, Jaco J; Iredell, Jonathan R; Chen, Sharon C-A; Lee, Rogan

    2014-02-01

    An assay to detect Strongyloides stercoralis in stool specimens was developed using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. Primers were based on the 28S ribosomal subunit gene. The reaction conditions were optimized and SYTO-82 fluorescent dye was used to allow real-time and visual detection of the product. The product identity was confirmed with restriction enzyme digestion, cloning, and sequence analysis. The assay was specific when tested against DNA from bacteria, fungi and parasites, and 30 normal stool samples. Analytical sensitivity was to < 10 copies of target sequence in a plasmid and up to a 10(-2) dilution of DNA extracted from a Strongyloides ratti larva spiked into stool. Sensitivity was increased when further dilutions were made in water, indicative of reduced reaction inhibition. Twenty-seven of 28 stool samples microscopy and polymerase chain reaction positive for S. stercoralis were positive with the LAMP method. On the basis of these findings, the assay warrants further clinical validation.

  16. Maltreatment of Strongyloides infection: Case series and worldwide physicians-in-training survey

    PubMed Central

    Boulware, David R.; Stauffer, William M.; Hendel-Paterson, Brett R.; Rocha, Jaime Luís Lopes; Seet, Raymond Chee-Seong; Summer, Andrea P.; Nield, Linda S.; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Walker, Patricia F.

    2007-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis infects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is an important cause of mortality from intestinal helminth infection in developed countries. The persistence of infection, increasing international travel, lack of familiarity by healthcare providers, and potential for iatrogenic hyperinfection, all make strongyloidiasis an important emerging infection. Design & Methods Two studies were performed. A retrospective chart review of Strongyloides stercoralis cases identified through microbiology laboratory records from 1993–2002 was conducted. Subsequently, 363 resident physicians in 15 training programs worldwide were queried with a case scenario of strongyloidiasis presenting an immigrant with wheezing and eosinophilia. The evaluation focused on resident recognition and diagnostic recommendations. Results In 151 strongyloidiasis cases, stool ova and parasite sensitivity is poor (51%), and eosinophilia (>5% or >400 cells/μL) commonly present (84%). Diagnosis averaged 56 months (Intra-quartile range: 4 to 72 months) after immigration. Presenting complaints were non-specific, although 10% presented with wheezing. Hyperinfection occurred in five patients prescribed corticosteroids with two deaths. Treatment errors occurred more often among providers unfamiliar with immigrant health (Relative Risk of Error: 8.4; 95% CI: 3.4 to 21.0; P<0.001). When presented a hypothetical case scenario, U.S. physicians-in-training had poor recognition (9%) of the need for parasite screening and frequently advocated empiric corticosteroids (23%). International trainees had superior recognition at 56% (P<0.001). Among U.S. trainees, 41% were unable to choose any parasite causing pulmonary symptoms. Conclusions Strongyloidiasis is present in U.S. patients. Diagnostic consideration should occur with appropriate exposure, non-specific symptoms including wheezing, or eosinophilia (>5% relative or >400 eosinophils/μL). U.S. residents’ helminth knowledge is

  17. Dexamethasone Effects in the Strongyloides venezuelensis Infection in A Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Eleuza R.; Carlos, Daniela; Sorgi, Carlos A.; Ramos, Simone G.; Souza, Daniela I.; Soares, Edson G.; Costa-Cruz, Julia M.; Ueta, Marlene T.; Aronoff, David M.; Faccioli, Lúcia H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of glucocorticoids on the immune response to Strongyloides venezuelensis in mice. Balb/c mice were infected with S. venezuelensis and treated with Dexamethasone (Dexa) or vehicle. Dexa treatment increased circulating blood neutrophil numbers and inhibited eosinophil and mononuclear cell accumulation in the blood, bronchoalveolar, and peritoneal fluid compared with control animals. Moreover, Dexa decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-12 production in the lungs and circulating immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, and IgE antibody levels while increasing the overall parasite burden in the feces and intestine. Dexa treatment enhanced the fertility of female nematodes relative to untreated and infected mice. In summary, the alterations in the immune response induced by Dexa resulted in a blunted, aberrant immune response associated with increased parasite burden. This phenomenon is similar to that observed in S. stercoralis-infected humans who are taking immunosuppressive or antiinflammatory drugs, including corticosteroids. PMID:21633034

  18. Eosinophilia: A poor predictor of Strongyloides infection in refugees

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, Prenilla; Yanow, Stephanie K; Kowalewska-Grochowska, Kinga T

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Canada resettles 10,000 to 12,000 refugees annually. Despite this being a highly vulnerable population, there are little Canadian data on subclinical tropical diseases harboured in this population over the past 20 years. OBJECTIVES: To determine the seroprevalence and predictors of Strongyloides infection in refugees arriving in Edmonton, Alberta. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all refugees seen at the New Canadians Clinic between March 2009 and April 2010 was performed. Demographic, symptom and physical examination data were collected from the charts. Laboratory results were obtained from the electronic laboratory records. RESULTS: A total of 350 subjects were studied. The overall seroprevalence of strongyloidiasis was 4.6%. Equivocal results were found in 6.3%. In the positive group, the majority were male (62.5%); 75% were born in Africa (P=0.004) and 81.2% lived in refugee camps in Africa (P=0.002). Eosinophilia was present in 25% of the positive subjects (P=0.05), in none of the equivocal group and in 8.7% of the negative group. DISCUSSION: Persistent asymptomatic Strongyloides infection is maintained for years through autoinfection. Traditionally, eosinophilia was used as one of the key tools to diagnose chronic but stable diseases, but it was shown to have a poor predictive value for strongyloidiasis in returning expatriates as well as in those presenting with a disseminated form of the disease. It is important to raise awareness of the severe limitations of eosinophilia as a marker for strongyloidiasis when managing patients who either are immunocompromised, or about to start immunosuppressive therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicated that eosinophilia is a poor predictor of seropositivity and, thus, Strongyloides infection. Residence in Africa (birth/refugee camps) proved to be a significantly better predictor of Strongyloides seropositivity. PMID:24421809

  19. Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome and VRE pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Abu Omar, Mohannad; Abu Ghanimeh, Mouhanna; Kim, Sola; Howell, Gregory

    2017-01-16

    Immunocompromised patients have high risk of infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. One of these infections is those caused by Strongyloides stercoralis Immunocompromised patients are at risk of hyperinfection syndrome which is characterised with more systemic manifestation and a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. This can be complicated by coinfection with enteric organisms, specifically Gram-negative. Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci which are inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract. Even though enterococci can cause serious infections in multiple sites, they are a rare cause of pneumonia. We present a case of disseminated strongyloides with vancomycin-resistant enterococcus causing pneumonia. The patient had a complicated course with respiratory failure and septic shock. He died eventually due to his severe infections. After a literature review, we could not find a similar case of coinfection of disseminated strongyloides with vancomycin-resistant enterococcus pneumonia in immune-compromised patients. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. STRONGYLOIDES INFECTIONS IN MAN AND ANIMALS IN THE ISTHMIAN CANAL ZONE

    PubMed Central

    Darling, S. T.

    1911-01-01

    From a study of strongyloides infections in man and animals in this region, it has been determined, in confirmation of the view of Grassi, Calmette, and others, that they are not causative factors in the production of diarrhea. The mother worm, however, burrows into the mucosa and deposits her ova there. Certain tissue reactions take place and are evidenced by the cellular proliferation in those portions of the intestines occupied by the nematodes. In animals, there is an associated anemia, not positively attributable to the strongyloides, but, on the other hand, not attributable to any other cause. It is possible that S. stercoralis may cause some degree of anemia in man. The amount is indeterminable in this region among hospital cases on account of the associated hookworm disease or malaria. Portals of entry for various microörganisms are made by the female mother worm and her larvæ in the small intestine, and, while no case of general bacterial infection has been proved to have arisen in this way, its occurrence is possible and highly probable. In the cultures of strongyloides of man, there is among natives, who presumably are infected with purely tropical strains, a very marked predominance of development by the indirect or sexually differentiated mode, in some cases, an absolutely pure culture of the indirect mode larvæ being obtained. There are, however, natives, cultures from whose stools contain from a single filariform larva of the direct phase up to a very definite predominance of this mode. Cultures from natives of the temperate zones contain a marked predominance of the direct phase larvæ. The presence of the filariform (direct mode), larva is perhaps best accounted for by its being an attempt at more perfect parasitism (Stiles). From a correlation of culture study with the results of a histological examination of the invaded mucosa, this explanation of the derivation of the two phases is suggested. The mother worm in the intestinal tract has two

  1. Central Nervous System Strongyloidiasis and Cryptococcosis in an HIV-Infected Patient Starting Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Mónica; Flores, Paúl; Ahumada, Víctor; Vázquez-Vázquez, Lorena; Alvarado-de la Barrera, Claudia; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome with central nervous system involvement, in a patient with late human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection starting antiretroviral therapy, in whom Strongyloides stercoralis larvae and Cryptococcus neoformans were isolated antemortem from cerebrospinal fluid. Our patient was not from an endemic region for the parasite, so strongyloidiasis was not originally suspected. For this reason, we conclude that Strongyloides stercoralis infection should be suspected in HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy in order to avoid potential fatal outcomes. PMID:22924046

  2. Development of a Sensitive and Specific Antigen-Detection System for Strongyloides Stercoralis and Hookworm Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    for up to thirty years attached to the mucosa of the small intestine, where they feed (mostly on blood) and deposit eggs which are passed with the stool...Blood loss and number of attached hookworms can both be shown to correlate with the number of eggs per gram of stool. The eggs hatch ex vivo and the...cycle find their way to the small intestine, where they attach to the mucosa, mature and begin laying eggs . Large numbers of larvae migrating through the

  3. Strongyloides infections of humans and great apes in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic and in degraded forest fragments in Bulindi, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Kalousova, Barbora; McLennan, Matthew R; Modry, David; Profousova-Psenkova, Ilona; Shutt-Phillips, Kathryn A; Todd, Angelique; Huffman, Michael A; Petrzelkova, Klara J

    2016-10-01

    DNA sequence analysis was carried out on Strongyloides spp. larvae obtained from fecal samples of local humans, a wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and a central chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas (DSPA), Central African Republic, and eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) living in degraded forest fragments on farmland in Bulindi, Uganda. From humans, both Strongyloides fuelleborni and Strongyloides stercoralis were recorded, though the former was predominant. Only S. fuelleborni was present in the great apes in both areas. Phylogenetic analysis of partial mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (Cox1) and comparison of 18S rDNA hyper variable region IV (HVR-IV) sequences implied that in DSPA S. fuelleborni populations in humans differ from those in the nonhuman great apes.

  4. A PCR-Based Molecular Detection of Strongyloides stercoralisin Human Stool Samples from Tabriz City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghasemikhah, Reza; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Shariatzadeh, Seyed Ali; Shahbazi, Abbas; Hazratian, Teymour

    2017-03-27

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a nematode causing serious infections in immunocompromised patients. In chronically infected patients, the low parasitic content as well as the resemblance of the larvae to several other species make diagnosis basedonmorphology difficult. In the present study, a PCR-based method targeting the internal transcribed sequence 2 (ITS2) of the rDNA region was examined for the molecular detection of S. stercoralis infection from the stool samples. A total of 1800 patients were included. Three fresh stool samples were collected per patient, and S. stercoralis isolates were identified by the morphological method. A subset of isolates was later used in the PCR-based method as positive controls. Additionally, negative and no-template controls were included. Data analysis was accomplished using an x² test. Ap-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. In total, fivestool samples were found to be infected with S. stercoralis using the morphology method. PCR method detected S. stercoralis DNA target from all of the fiveDNA samples extracted from positive fecal samples.

  5. Strongyloides stercoralis: a field-based survey of mothers and their preschool children using ELISA, Baermann and Koga plate methods reveals low endemicity in western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Stothard, J R; Pleasant, J; Oguttu, D; Adriko, M; Galimaka, R; Ruggiana, A; Kazibwe, F; Kabatereine, N B

    2008-09-01

    To ascertain the current status of strongyloidiasis in mothers and their preschool children, a field-based survey was conducted in western Uganda using a combination of diagnostic methods: ELISA, Baermann concentration and Koga agar plate. The prevalence of other soil-transmitted helminthiasis and intestinal schistosomiasis were also determined. In total, 158 mothers and 143 children were examined from five villages within Kabale, Hoima and Masindi districts. In mothers and children, the general prevalence of strongyloidiasis inferred by ELISA was approximately 4% and approximately 2%, respectively. Using the Baermann concentration method, two parasitologically proven cases were encountered in an unrelated mother and child, both of whom were sero-negative for strongyloidiasis. No infections were detected by Koga agar plate method. The general level of awareness of strongyloidiasis was very poor ( < 5%) in comparison to schistosomiasis (51%) and ascariasis (36%). Strongyloidiasis is presently at insufficient levels to justify inclusion within a community treatment programme targeting maternal and child health. Better epidemiological screening is needed, however, especially identifying infections in HIV-positive women of childbearing age. In the rural clinic setting, further use of the Baermann concentration method would appear to be the most immediate and pragmatic option for disease diagnosis.

  6. Neuroparasitic infections: nematodes.

    PubMed

    Walker, M D; Zunt, J R

    2005-09-01

    Globalization has produced an increase in the number of people at risk for contracting parasitic infection. Central nervous system infection by nematodal parasites can be devastating. Early recognition and treatment of infection can significantly decrease morbidity of the parasitic infection, as well as the risk of secondary superinfection. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for five of the more common nematodal infections of the nervous system--Angiostrongylus spp., Baylisacaris procyonis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara spp.--is reviewed.

  7. Strongyloides Hyperinfection in a Renal Transplant Patient: Always Be on the Lookout

    PubMed Central

    Mazhar, Murtaza; Agudelo Higuita, Nelson Iván

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of a 71-year-old Vietnamese man with chronic kidney disease secondary to adult polycystic kidney disease. He had been a prisoner of war before undergoing a successful cadaveric renal transplant in the United States. He presented to clinic one year after the transplant with gross hematuria, productive cough, intermittent chills, and weight loss. Long standing peripheral eosinophilia of 600–1200/μL triggered further evaluation. A wet mount of stool revealed Strongyloides stercoralis larvae. A computed tomography (CT) of chest showed findings suggestive of extension of the infection to the lungs. The patient was treated with a three-week course of ivermectin with complete resolution of signs, symptoms, peripheral eosinophilia, and the positive IgG serology. Strongyloides infection in renal transplant patient is very rare and often presents with hyperinfection, associated with high mortality rates. The American Transplant Society recommends pretransplant screening with stool examination and Strongyloides stercoralis antibody in recipients and donors from endemic areas or with eosinophilia. It is imperative that healthcare professionals involved in the care of these individuals be cognizant of these recommendations as it is a very preventable and treatable entity. PMID:28316848

  8. Evaluation of gastrointestinal transit after infection with different loads of Strongyloides venezuelensis in rats.

    PubMed

    Anjos-Ramos, L; Gama, L A; Mati, V L T; Corá, L A; Fujiwara, R T; Americo, M F

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to correlate the gastrointestinal transit profile in rats, evaluated by a biomagnetic technique, in response to infection with different loads of Strongyloides venezuelensis. Eggs per gram, intestinal number of worms and fecundity, and also gastric emptying time, cecum arrival time, small intestinal transit time and stool weight were determined. Assessments occurred at 0 (control), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days post infection (dpi) with three infective loads (400, 2000, and 10,000 L). Gastric emptying was faster (p=0.0001) and the intestinal transit was significantly slower (p=0.001) during the infection time course. Also, linear mixed-effects models showed significantly changes in small intestinal transit after three parasite load over time. Cecum arrival was not influenced by infection time course or parasite load. As indirect effect, stool weight decreased accompanied a strong oviposition peak at 9 dpi in 400 L and 2000 L. In several motor function instances, neuromuscular dysfunction persists after mucosal inflammation has decreased. Our approach could be very helpful to evaluate gastrointestinal motor abnormalities in vivo after parasite infection. Despite parasitological data progressively decreased after 15 dpi, small intestinal transit worse over time and according to burden.

  9. Mucosal mast cells are indispensable for the timely termination of Strongyloides ratti infection.

    PubMed

    Reitz, M; Brunn, M-L; Rodewald, H-R; Feyerabend, T B; Roers, A; Dudeck, A; Voehringer, D; Jönsson, F; Kühl, A A; Breloer, M

    2017-03-01

    Mast cells and basophils are innate immune cells with overlapping functions that contribute to anti-helminth immunity. Mast cell function during helminth infection was previously studied using mast cell-deficient Kit-mutant mice that display additional mast cell-unrelated immune deficiencies. Here, we use mice that lack basophils or mucosal and connective tissue mast cells in a Kit-independent manner to re-evaluate the impact of each cell type during helminth infection. Neither mast cells nor basophils participated in the immune response to tissue-migrating Strongyloides ratti third-stage larvae, but both cell types contributed to the early expulsion of parasitic adults from the intestine. The termination of S. ratti infection required the presence of mucosal mast cells: Cpa3(Cre) mice, which lack mucosal and connective tissue mast cells, remained infected for more than 150 days. Mcpt5(Cre) R-DTA mice, which lack connective tissue mast cells only, and basophil-deficient Mcpt8(Cre) mice terminated the infection after 1 month with wild-type kinetics despite their initial increase in intestinal parasite burden. Because Cpa3(Cre) mice showed intact Th2 polarization and efficiently developed protective immunity after vaccination, we hypothesize that mucosal mast cells are non-redundant terminal effector cells in the intestinal epithelium that execute anti-helminth immunity but do not orchestrate it.

  10. Loss of surface coat by Strongyloides ratti infective larvae during skin penetration: evidence using larvae radiolabelled with /sup 67/gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, D.I.; Northern, C.; Warwick, A.; Lovegrove, F.T.

    1984-10-01

    The optimal conditions for labelling infective larvae of Strongyloides ratti with /sup 67/Ga citrate were determined. Radiolabelled larvae were injected s.c. into normal and previously infected rats. The distribution of radioactivity in these animals was compared with that in rats infected subcutaneously with a similar dose of free /sup 67/Ga by using a gamma camera linked to a computer system. Whereas free /sup 67/Ga was distributed throughout the body and excreted via the hepatobiliary system, the bulk of radioactivity in rats injected with radiolabelled larvae remained at the injection sites. Direct microscopical examination of these sites, however, revealed only minimal numbers of worms. When rats were infected percutaneously with radiolabelled larvae, it was found that most radioactivity remained at the surface, despite penetration of worms. When infective larvae were exposed to CO/sub 2/ in vitro and examined carefully by light microscopy, loss of an outer coat was observed. It was concluded that infective larvae lose an outer coat on skin penetration.

  11. Genetic characterization of Strongyloides spp. from captive, semi-captive and wild Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in Central and East Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Labes, E M; Nurcahyo, W; Wijayanti, N; Deplazes, P; Mathis, A

    2011-09-01

    Orangutans (Pongo spp.), Asia's only great apes, are threatened in their survival due to habitat loss, hunting and infections. Nematodes of the genus Strongyloides may represent a severe cause of death in wild and captive individuals. In order to better understand which Strongyloides species/subspecies infect orangutans under different conditions, larvae were isolated from fecal material collected in Indonesia from 9 captive, 2 semi-captive and 9 wild individuals, 18 captive groups of Bornean orangutans and from 1 human working with wild orangutans. Genotyping was done at the genomic rDNA locus (part of the 18S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 1, ITS1) by sequencing amplicons. Thirty isolates, including the one from the human, could be identified as S. fuelleborni fuelleborni with 18S rRNA gene identities of 98·5-100%, with a corresponding published sequence. The ITS1 sequences could be determined for 17 of these isolates revealing a huge variability and 2 main clusters without obvious pattern with regard to attributes of the hosts. The ITS1 amplicons of 2 isolates were cloned and sequenced, revealing considerable variability indicative of mixed infections. One isolate from a captive individual was identified as S. stercoralis (18S rRNA) and showed 99% identity (ITS1) with S. stercoralis sequences from geographically distinct locations and host species. The findings are significant with regard to the zoonotic nature of these parasites and might contribute to the conservation of remaining orangutan populations.

  12. The Genomic Basis of Parasitism in the Strongyloides Clade of Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Vicky L.; Tsai, Isheng J.; Coghlan, Avril; Reid, Adam J.; Holroyd, Nancy; Foth, Bernardo J.; Tracey, Alan; Cotton, James A.; Stanley, Eleanor J.; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M.; Brooks, Karen; Harsha, Bhavana; Kajitani, Rei; Kulkarni, Arpita; Harbecke, Dorothee; Nagayasu, Eiji; Nichol, Sarah; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Quail, Michael A.; Randle, Nadine; Xia, Dong; Brattig, Norbert W.; Soblik, Hanns; Ribeiro, Diogo M.; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Itoh, Takehiko; Denver, Dee R.; Grant, Warwick; Stoltzfus, Jonathan D.; Lok, James B.; Murayama, Haruhiko; Wastling, Jonathan; Streit, Adrian; Kikuchi, Taisei; Viney, Mark; Berriman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Soil transmitted nematodes, including Strongyloides, cause one of the most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases. Here we compare the genomes of four Strongyloides spp., including the human pathogen S. stercoralis, and their close relatives that are facultatively parasitic (Parastrongyloides trichosuri) and free-living (Rhabditophanes sp). A significant paralogous expansion of key gene families – astacin-like and SCP/TAPS coding gene families – is associated with the evolution of parasitism in this clade. Exploiting the unique Strongyloides life cycle we compare the transcriptome of its parasitic and free-living stages and find that these same genes are upregulated in the parasitic stages, underscoring their role in nematode parasitism. PMID:26829753

  13. Effects of infection intensity with Strongyloides papillosus and albendazole treatment on development of oxidative/nitrosative stress in sheep.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, Blagoje; Borozan, Sunčica; Katić-Radivojević, Sofija; Stojanović, Srđan

    2012-05-25

    The objective of this study was to estimate and evaluate oxidative/nitrosative stress parameters in sheep infected with Strongyloides papillosus and after antihelminthic treatment with albendazole (ABZ). This parasite, especially during development stages can seriously damage parenchaematous organs during migration within the host. The presence of parasites leads to increased productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). It is also well known that certain drugs can be very harmful for the delicate oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium, provoking oxidative stress during their biotransformation. ABZ is a broad spectrum antihelminthic drug, frequently used in veterinary medicine for therapy of parasitic infections. The current research was performed on female Württemberg sheep (n=48). The distribution of parasites in sheep was evaluated using the native smear coprological technique, by sedimentation and flotation methods, revealing the presence of S. papillosus. The degree of infection intensity per sheep was quantitatively established by the method of McMaster, the animals having been divided into three groups according to the intensity of infection; mild, moderate and high. The control group consisted of sheep negative to the parasites. After determining the type of parasite infection, the sheep were treated with ABZ, per orally, in single doses of 5mg/kg per body weight. Sampling of feces for parasitological and blood for biochemical assaying was performed on the 0 and 21st day after treatment with ABZ. The oxidative stress parameters were measured for catalase activity (CAT), the red cell membrane damage by level of malondialdehyde (MDA), while carbonyl and thiol plasma protein group concentrations were used as indicators of the degree of protein oxidative modification. The activity of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and relative distribution of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH(1)-LDH(5)) activity were determined electrophoretically. The

  14. Intestinal Parasite Infections in Symptomatic Children Attending Hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Catrin E.; Nget, Phot; Saroeun, Mao; Kuong, Suy; Chanthou, Seng; Kumar, Varun; Bousfield, Rachel; Nader, Johanna; Bailey, J. Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P.; Parry, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia. Methods In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected. Principal Findings We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range) age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2) years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3%) children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6%) and Giardia lamblia (11.2%). Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia. Conclusions/Significance This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation. PMID

  15. Effect of different stages of Schistosoma mansoni infection on the parasite burden and immune response to Strongyloides venezuelensis in co-infected mice.

    PubMed

    de Rezende, Michelle Carvalho; Araújo, Emília Souza; Moreira, João Marcelo Peixoto; Rodrigues, Vanessa Fernandes; Rodrigues, Jailza Lima; Pereira, Cíntia A de Jesus; Negrão-Corrêa, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Multiple schistosome and soil-transmitted nematode infections are frequently reported in human populations living in tropical areas of developing countries. In addition to exposure factors, the host immune response plays an important role in helminth control and morbidity in hosts with multiple infections; however, these aspects are difficult to evaluate in human populations. In the current study, female Swiss mice were simultaneously co-infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis and Schistosoma mansoni or infected with St. venezuelensis at 2, 4, or 14 weeks after Sc. mansoni infection. The simultaneously infected mice showed a similar parasite burden for St. venezuelensis compared with mono-infected mice. In contrast, there was a significant reduction of St. venezuelensis burden (primarily during the migration of the larvae) in mice that were previously infected with Sc. mansoni at the acute or chronic phase. Independent of the stage of Sc. mansoni infection, the St. venezuelensis co-infection was capable of inducing IL-4 production in the small intestine, increasing the IgE concentration in the serum and increasing eosinophilia in the lungs and intestine. This result suggests that the nematode infection stimulates local type 2 immune responses independently of the schistosomiasis stage. Moreover, previous Sc. mansoni infection stimulated early granulocyte infiltration in the lungs and trematode-specific IgM and IgG1 production that recognized antigens from St. venezuelensis infective larvae; these immune responses would act in the early control of St. venezuelensis larvae. Our data suggest that the effect of multiple helminth infections on host susceptibility and morbidity largely depends on the species of parasite and the immune response.

  16. Molecular identification of the causative agent of human strongyloidiasis acquired in Tanzania: dispersal and diversity of Strongyloides spp. and their hosts.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Sato, Hiroshi; Fujita, Shiho; Nguema, Pierre Philippe Mbehang; Nobusue, Kenichi; Miyagi, Kei; Kooriyama, Takanori; Takenoshita, Yuji; Noda, Shohei; Sato, Akiko; Morimoto, Azusa; Ikeda, Yatsukaho; Nishida, Toshisada

    2010-09-01

    In order to identify the causative agent of imported strongyloidiasis found in a Japanese mammalogist, who participated in a field survey in Tanzania, the hyper-variable region IV (HVR-IV) of 18S ribosomal DNA and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) were analyzed and compared with Strongyloides fuelleborni collected from apes and monkeys of Africa and Japan, and S. stercoralis from humans, apes and dogs. The HVR-IV and cox1 of the patient's worms were identical to or only slightly differed from those of worms parasitic in Tanzanian chimpanzees and yellow baboons, demonstrating that the patient acquired the infection during her field survey in Tanzania. Phylogenetic analysis with the maximum-likelihood method largely divided isolates of S. fuelleborni into three groups, which corresponded to geographical localities but not to host species. Meanwhile, isolates of S. stercoralis were grouped by the phylogenetic analysis into dog-parasitic and primate-parasitic clades, and not to geographical regions. It is surmised that subspeciation has occurred in S. fuelleborni during the dispersal of primates in Africa and Asia, while worldwide dispersal of S. stercoralis seems to have occurred more recently by migration and the activities of modern humans.

  17. Gelatin particle indirect agglutination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis using Strongyloides venezuelensis antigen.

    PubMed

    Huaman, Maria Cecilia; Sato, Yoshiya; Aguilar, Jose Luis; Terashima, Angelica; Guerra, Humberto; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Kanbara, Hiroji

    2003-01-01

    Routine microscopical examination of stool specimens for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is insensitive and serological methods using Strongyloides stercoralis antigen are at present not available for field studies. We evaluated 2 techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gelatin particle indirect agglutination (GPIA), using an antigen obtained from the rodent parasite, S. venezuelensis. Fifty-four Peruvian patients with different clinical forms of strongyloidiasis were studied: 12 asymptomatic, 31 symptomatic, and 11 hyperinfection cases. Our results demonstrate that both ELISA and GPIA using S. venezuelensis antigen are useful for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis, with sensitivities of 74.1% and 98.2%, respectively and a specificity of 100% for both techniques. We found that GPIA is a highly sensitive test for patients with suspected chronic infection and/or hyperinfection. In the hyperinfection cases, significantly lower concentrations of specific immunoglobulin antibodies and eosinophils (P < 0.001) were found compared with the asymptomatic and symptomatic cases.

  18. Life Cycle Stage-resolved Proteomic Analysis of the Excretome/Secretome from Strongyloides ratti—Identification of Stage-specific Proteases*

    PubMed Central

    Soblik, Hanns; Younis, Abuelhassan Elshazly; Mitreva, Makedonka; Renard, Bernhard Y.; Kirchner, Marc; Geisinger, Frank; Steen, Hanno; Brattig, Norbert W.

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of biomolecules, including proteins, are excreted and secreted from helminths and contribute to the parasite's successful establishment, survival, and reproduction in an adverse habitat. Excretory and secretory proteins (ESP) are active at the interface between parasite and host and comprise potential targets for intervention. The intestinal nematode Strongyloides spp. exhibits an exceptional developmental plasticity in its life cycle characterized by parasitic and free-living generations. We investigated ESP from infective larvae, parasitic females, and free-living stages of the rat parasite Strongyloides ratti, which is genetically very similar to the human pathogen, Strongyloides stercoralis. Proteomic analysis of ESP revealed 586 proteins, with the largest number of stage-specific ESP found in infective larvae (196), followed by parasitic females (79) and free-living stages (35). One hundred and forty proteins were identified in all studied stages, including anti-oxidative enzymes, heat shock proteins, and carbohydrate-binding proteins. The stage-selective ESP of (1) infective larvae included an astacin metalloproteinase, the L3 Nie antigen, and a fatty acid retinoid-binding protein; (2) parasitic females included a prolyl oligopeptidase (prolyl serine carboxypeptidase), small heat shock proteins, and a secreted acidic protein; (3) free-living stages included a lysozyme family member, a carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzyme, and saponin-like protein. We verified the differential expression of selected genes encoding ESP by qRT-PCR. ELISA analysis revealed the recognition of ESP by antibodies of S. ratti-infected rats. A prolyl oligopeptidase was identified as abundant parasitic female-specific ESP, and the effect of pyrrolidine-based prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitors showed concentration- and time-dependent inhibitory effects on female motility. The characterization of stage-related ESP from Strongyloides will help to further understand the interaction of

  19. Enterococcal meningitis in association with Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sukhwani, Kalpesh S; Bansal, Nitin; Soni, Mamta; Ramamurthy, Anand; Gopalakrishnan, Ram

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Strongyloidiasis can cause hyperinfection or disseminated infection in an immunocompromised host, and is an important factor linked to enterococcal bacteremia and meningitis. Case reports We report two cases highlighting the importance of suspecting Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome in patients with enterococcal meningitis. Conclusion Our cases highlight the importance of suspecting Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome in cases of community acquired enterococcal bacteremia and meningitis. PMID:28331839

  20. Strongyloides stercolaris infection mimicking a malignant tumour in a non-immunocompromised patient. Diagnosis by bronchoalveolar cytology

    PubMed Central

    Mayayo, E; Gomez-Aracil, V; Azua-Blanco, J; Azua-Romeo, J; Capilla, J; Mayayo, R

    2005-01-01

    Autoinfective strongyloidiasis is often fatal in immunosuppressed patients or in immunocomprised hosts. An interesting case of Strongyloides stercolaris hyperinfection was seen in an immunocompetent patient. This report describes a case of fatal strogyloidiasis in a 79 year old man, who had suffered gastrointestinal discomfort for years, and who presented because of respiratory illness. A chest radiograph showed an irregular mass close to the mediastinum and interstitial infiltrates, but blood eosinophilia was not observed. Cytological examination of the samples obtained from bronchial aspiration and brushing identified several filariform larvae. Thus, cytology was essential for the correct diagnosis in this patient and is a very reliable method to diagnose lung parasitosis. PMID:15790710

  1. Strongyloides stercolaris infection mimicking a malignant tumour in a non-immunocompromised patient. Diagnosis by bronchoalveolar cytology.

    PubMed

    Mayayo, E; Gomez-Aracil, V; Azua-Blanco, J; Azua-Romeo, J; Capilla, J; Mayayo, R

    2005-04-01

    Autoinfective strongyloidiasis is often fatal in immunosuppressed patients or in immunocomprised hosts. An interesting case of Strongyloides stercolaris hyperinfection was seen in an immunocompetent patient. This report describes a case of fatal strogyloidiasis in a 79 year old man, who had suffered gastrointestinal discomfort for years, and who presented because of respiratory illness. A chest radiograph showed an irregular mass close to the mediastinum and interstitial infiltrates, but blood eosinophilia was not observed. Cytological examination of the samples obtained from bronchial aspiration and brushing identified several filariform larvae. Thus, cytology was essential for the correct diagnosis in this patient and is a very reliable method to diagnose lung parasitosis.

  2. The use of isoenzyme electrophoresis in the taxonomy of Strongyloides.

    PubMed

    Viney, M E; Ashford, R W

    1990-02-01

    The limited usefulness of traditional taxonomic methods combined with the discovery of a Strongyloides parasitic in man in Papua New Guinea (PNG) that resembles S. fuelleborni, a parasite of man and other primates in tropical Africa, has precipitated the need to apply new methods to the taxonomy of the genus. In this study isoenzyme electrophoresis has been used on Strongyloides isolates of many different origins. Cluster analysis of the data suggested that existence of three main groups within the material considered, consisting of (1) isolates of S. stercoralis, (2) isolates from PNG domestic animals, and (3) isolates from PNG man and African non-human primates. The taxonomic implications of these groups are considered.

  3. New trends in diagnosis and treatment of chronic intestinal strongyloidiasis stercoralis in Egyptian patients.

    PubMed

    Massoud, Ahmed M; El-Shazly, Atef M; Awad, Soha E; Morsy, Ayman T A; Sadek, Gehan S; Morsy, Tosson A

    2006-12-01

    Strongyloidiasis, caused by Strongyloides stercoralis, is diagnosis considered as a challenge to clinician and laboratory technician. Because the auto-infective larvae are difficult to eradicate, one regimen dose may be in-sufficient and re-treatment of patients on two occasions, at 1 and 2 months after the initial treatment dose was recommended. This re-treatment regimen has yet to be proven in clinical trials. This study was performed on 24 patients who completed the study and having Strongyloides larvae in their stool obtained from Mansoura University Hospitals. Each stool sample was examined by direct saline smear, the formalin-ether sedimentation technique and agar plate culture. Patients were treated with Mirazid double course for a month to be followed up by stool examination by traditional method and agar plate culture for three consecutive months. In this study five cases out of 24 were asymptomatic (20.8%). Symptoms include abdominal manifestations as nausea and vomiting (16.7%), epi-gastric pain and nausea (12.5%), generalized abdominal pain (12.5%), chronic diarrhea (16.7%), irregular bowel habit (8.3%), and urticaria with abdominal pain (4.2%). Agar plate culture gave 100% positivity, even in cases were negative by coprological methods either direct smear and/or sedimenttation technique. All cases were cured by Mirazid given for one month except three resistant cases. Only one case responded to repeated course of Mirazid, while the other two cases still had larvae in their stool by agar culture plate. On combined therapy of both Mirazid and Mebendazole, larvae could be eliminated from their stool as approved by agar plate culture.

  4. Strongyloides hyperinfection following hematopoietic stem cell transplant in a patient with HTLV-1-associated T-cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Alpern, Jonathan D; Arbefeville, Sophie S; Vercellotti, Gregory; Ferrieri, Patricia; Green, Jaime S

    2017-02-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis has the potential to cause accelerated autoinfection in immunocompromised hosts. Screening tests for strongyloidiasis may be falsely negative in the setting of immunosuppression. We report a case of Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome in a patient with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated T-cell leukemia early after hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The diagnosis was made by stool ova and parasite examination, despite a negative screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Because of anticipated prolonged neutropenia, an extended course of treatment was utilized. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. High rate of strongyloidosis infection, out of endemic area, in patients with eosinophilia and without risk of exogenous reinfections.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Silvia A; Durán, Pablo A; Lasala, María B; González-Cappa, Stella M

    2010-06-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis chronic infections are usually asymptomatic and underestimated. We used direct fresh stool examination, Ritchie's method, and agar plate culture for diagnosis in patients with eosinophilia and previous residence in endemic areas. The frequency of strongyloidosis detected among these patients was high: 21 of 42 were positive. Among them, 10 were positive only by agar plate culture. After ivermectin treatment, patients resulted negative for parasitological tests and reduced their eosinophil counts. Half of the submitted patients that were followed 4-12 months after treatment remained negative without eosinophilia, except one who showed an eosinophil ascending curve before reappearance of larvae in stools. The high frequency of strongyloidosis found in this group emphasizes the relevance of including this parasitosis among differential diagnosis in patients with eosinophilia and past risk of S. stercoralis infection to prevent disseminated infections secondary to corticoid therapy.

  6. High Rate of Strongyloidosis Infection, Out of Endemic Area, in Patients with Eosinophilia and without Risk of Exogenous Reinfections

    PubMed Central

    Repetto, Silvia A.; Durán, Pablo A.; Lasala, María B.; González-Cappa, Stella M.

    2010-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis chronic infections are usually asymptomatic and underestimated. We used direct fresh stool examination, Ritchie's method, and agar plate culture for diagnosis in patients with eosinophilia and previous residence in endemic areas. The frequency of strongyloidosis detected among these patients was high: 21 of 42 were positive. Among them, 10 were positive only by agar plate culture. After ivermectin treatment, patients resulted negative for parasitological tests and reduced their eosinophil counts. Half of the submitted patients that were followed 4–12 months after treatment remained negative without eosinophilia, except one who showed an eosinophil ascending curve before reappearance of larvae in stools. The high frequency of strongyloidosis found in this group emphasizes the relevance of including this parasitosis among differential diagnosis in patients with eosinophilia and past risk of S. stercoralis infection to prevent disseminated infections secondary to corticoid therapy. PMID:20519604

  7. Strong-LAMP: A LAMP Assay for Strongyloides spp. Detection in Stool and Urine Samples. Towards the Diagnosis of Human Strongyloidiasis Starting from a Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Gandasegui, Javier; Bajo Santos, Cristina; López-Abán, Julio; Saugar, José María; Rodríguez, Esperanza; Vicente, Belén; Muro, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis, the chief causative agent of human strongyloidiasis, is a nematode globally distributed but mainly endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. Chronic infection is often clinically asymptomatic but it can result in severe hyperinfection syndrome or disseminated strongyloidiasis in immunocompromised patients. There is a great diversity of techniques used in diagnosing the disease, but definitive diagnosis is accomplished by parasitological examination of stool samples for morphological identification of parasite. Until now, no molecular method has been tested in urine samples as an alternative to stool samples for diagnosing strongyloidiasis. This study aimed to evaluate the use of a new molecular LAMP assay in a well-established Wistar rat experimental infection model using both stool and, for the first time, urine samples. The LAMP assay was also clinically evaluated in patients´ stool samples. Methodology/Principal Findings Stool and urine samples were obtained daily during a 28-day period from rats infected subcutaneously with different infective third-stage larvae doses of S. venezuelensis. The dynamics of parasite infection was determined by daily counting the number of eggs per gram of feces from day 1 to 28 post-infection. A set of primers for LAMP assay based on a DNA partial sequence in the 18S rRNA gene from S. venezuelensis was designed. The set up LAMP assay (namely, Strong-LAMP) allowed the sensitive detection of S. venezuelensis DNA in both stool and urine samples obtained from each infection group of rats and was also effective in S. stercoralis DNA amplification in patients´ stool samples with previously confirmed strongyloidiasis by parasitological and real-time PCR tests. Conclusions/Significance Our Strong-LAMP assay is an useful molecular tool in research of a strongyloidiasis experimental infection model in both stool and urine samples. After further validation, the Strong-LAMP could also be potentially

  8. Strongyloides ratti: transplantation of adults recovered from the small intestine at different days after infection into the colon of naive and infection-primed Wistar rats, and the effect of antioxidant treatment on large intestinal parasitism.

    PubMed

    Shintoku, Y; Takagi, H; Kadosaka, T; Nagaoka, F; Kondo, S; Itoh, M; Honda, S; Kimura, E

    2011-07-01

    Strongyloides ratti (Nagoya strain) is unique in that a portion of adults parasitizing the small intestine withstands 'worm expulsion', which starts at around day 8 post-infection (p.i.) by host immunity, and establishes in the large intestine after day 19 p.i. To investigate the mechanism, adults obtained from the small intestine at day 7 or 19 p.i. were transplanted into the colon of infection-primed immune rats. Adults obtained at day 7 p.i. were rejected quickly, whereas those obtained at day 19 p.i. could establish infection. Moreover, the body length and the number of intrauterine eggs increased in the large intestine. In a separate experiment, large intestinal parasitism was abolished by the treatment of host rats with an anti-oxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole. These results indicate that small intestinal adults between days 7 and 19 p.i. acquired the ability to parasitize the large intestine of immune rats, and that free radicals produced by the host may have played a significant role in the process.

  9. Intestinal parasitic infection among five interior communities at upper Rejang River, Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sagin, D D; Mohamed, M; Ismail, G; Jok, J J; Lim, L H; Pui, J N F

    2002-03-01

    Intestinal parasitic infection among five interior communities at Bakun Valley, upper Rejang River, Sarawak, Malaysia, was investigated as part of a public health impact assessment of the proposed US$ 3 billion Bakun Hydroelectric Project. Coproparasitological examination of 355 stool samples from 7 of 16 villages representing 5 of 7 tribes in the area revealed infection rate of 41%. A higher infection rate was found among the settled Kayans (56%) than the seminomadic Penans (29%). Infection rate was high (68%) among children less than 14 years old. Trichuris trichiura accounted for more than 90% of all infections; less common were Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis. Polyparasitism was found in 8% of the individuals surveyed with dual infection due to T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides being more common than dual infection with T. trichiura and hookworm. Women had higher infection rates (57%) than men (33%).

  10. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abah, A. E.; Arene, F. O. I.

    2015-01-01

    Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state. PMID:26600945

  11. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abah, A E; Arene, F O I

    2015-01-01

    Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state.

  12. Strongyloidiasis and Infective Dermatitis Alter Human T Lymphotropic Virus-1 Clonality in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gillet, Nicolas A.; Cook, Lucy; Laydon, Daniel J.; Hlela, Carol; Verdonck, Kristien; Alvarez, Carolina; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Clark, Daniel; Farré, Lourdes; Bittencourt, Achiléa; Asquith, Becca; Taylor, Graham P.; Bangham, Charles R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic Virus-1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that persists lifelong by driving clonal proliferation of infected T-cells. HTLV-1 causes a neuroinflammatory disease and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Strongyloidiasis, a gastrointestinal infection by the helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, and Infective Dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH), appear to be risk factors for the development of HTLV-1 related diseases. We used high-throughput sequencing to map and quantify the insertion sites of the provirus in order to monitor the clonality of the HTLV-1-infected T-cell population (i.e. the number of distinct clones and abundance of each clone). A newly developed biodiversity estimator called “DivE” was used to estimate the total number of clones in the blood. We found that the major determinant of proviral load in all subjects without leukemia/lymphoma was the total number of HTLV-1-infected clones. Nevertheless, the significantly higher proviral load in patients with strongyloidiasis or IDH was due to an increase in the mean clone abundance, not to an increase in the number of infected clones. These patients appear to be less capable of restricting clone abundance than those with HTLV-1 alone. In patients co-infected with Strongyloides there was an increased degree of oligoclonal expansion and a higher rate of turnover (i.e. appearance and disappearance) of HTLV-1-infected clones. In Strongyloides co-infected patients and those with IDH, proliferation of the most abundant HTLV-1+ T-cell clones is independent of the genomic environment of the provirus, in sharp contrast to patients with HTLV-1 infection alone. This implies that new selection forces are driving oligoclonal proliferation in Strongyloides co-infection and IDH. We conclude that strongyloidiasis and IDH increase the risk of development of HTLV-1-associated diseases by increasing the rate of infection of new clones and the abundance of existing HTLV-1+ clones. PMID:23592987

  13. Strongyloidiasis and infective dermatitis alter human T lymphotropic virus-1 clonality in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Nicolas A; Cook, Lucy; Laydon, Daniel J; Hlela, Carol; Verdonck, Kristien; Alvarez, Carolina; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Clark, Daniel; Farré, Lourdes; Bittencourt, Achiléa; Asquith, Becca; Taylor, Graham P; Bangham, Charles R M

    2013-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic Virus-1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that persists lifelong by driving clonal proliferation of infected T-cells. HTLV-1 causes a neuroinflammatory disease and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Strongyloidiasis, a gastrointestinal infection by the helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, and Infective Dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH), appear to be risk factors for the development of HTLV-1 related diseases. We used high-throughput sequencing to map and quantify the insertion sites of the provirus in order to monitor the clonality of the HTLV-1-infected T-cell population (i.e. the number of distinct clones and abundance of each clone). A newly developed biodiversity estimator called "DivE" was used to estimate the total number of clones in the blood. We found that the major determinant of proviral load in all subjects without leukemia/lymphoma was the total number of HTLV-1-infected clones. Nevertheless, the significantly higher proviral load in patients with strongyloidiasis or IDH was due to an increase in the mean clone abundance, not to an increase in the number of infected clones. These patients appear to be less capable of restricting clone abundance than those with HTLV-1 alone. In patients co-infected with Strongyloides there was an increased degree of oligoclonal expansion and a higher rate of turnover (i.e. appearance and disappearance) of HTLV-1-infected clones. In Strongyloides co-infected patients and those with IDH, proliferation of the most abundant HTLV-1⁺ T-cell clones is independent of the genomic environment of the provirus, in sharp contrast to patients with HTLV-1 infection alone. This implies that new selection forces are driving oligoclonal proliferation in Strongyloides co-infection and IDH. We conclude that strongyloidiasis and IDH increase the risk of development of HTLV-1-associated diseases by increasing the rate of infection of new clones and the abundance of existing HTLV-1⁺ clones.

  14. Comparison of S. stercoralis Serology Performed on Dried Blood Spots and on Conventional Serum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Formenti, Fabio; Buonfrate, Dora; Prandi, Rosanna; Marquez, Monica; Caicedo, Cintia; Rizzi, Eleonora; Guevara, Angel G.; Vicuña, Yosselin; Huerlo, Francisco R.; Perandin, Francesca; Bisoffi, Zeno; Anselmi, Mariella

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dried blood spots (DBS) are used for epidemiological surveys on infectious diseases in settings where limited resources are available. In fact, DBS can help to overcome logistic difficulties for the collection, transport and storage of biological specimens. Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of Strongyloides stercoralis serology performed on DBS. Methods: A survey was proposed to children attending a school in the village of Borbon, Ecuador, and to their parents/guardians. Each participant gave consent to the collection of both serum and DBS specimens. DBS absorbed on filter papers were analyzed with a commercially available ELISA test for S. stercoralis antibodies, as well as with standard serology. The agreement between the two methods was assessed through the Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results: The study sample was composed of 174 children and 61 adults, for a total of 235 serum and 235 DBS samples. The serology was positive in 31/235 (13%) serum samples, and in 27/235 (11%) DBS: 4 samples resulted discordant (positive at standard serology). Cohen’s kappa coefficient was 0.921 (95% CI 0.845 – 0.998), indicating a high rate of concordance. Conclusion: DBS are suitable for in field-surveys requiring serological testing for S. stercoralis. PMID:27877170

  15. SURVEY OF HOUSE RAT INTESTINAL PARASITES FROM SURABAYA DISTRICT, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA THAT CAN CAUSE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HUMANS.

    PubMed

    Prasetyo, R H

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of house rat zoonotic intestinal parasites from Surabaya District, East Java, Indonesia that have the potential to cause opportunistic infection in humans. House rat fecal samples were collected from an area of Surabaya District with a dense rat population during May 2015. Intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using direct smear of feces stained with Lugol's iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. The fecal samples were also cultured for Strongyloides stercoralis. Ninety-eight house rat fecal samples were examined. The potential opportunistic infection parasite densities found in those samples were Strongyloides stercoralis in 53%, Hymenolepis nana in 42%, Cryptosporidium spp in 33%, and Blastocystis spp in 6%. This is the first report of this kind in Surabaya District. Measures need to be taken to control the house rat population in the study area to reduce the risk of the public health problem. Keywords: zoonotic intestinal parasites, opportunistic infection, house rat, densely populated area, Indonesia

  16. Stage-specific excretory-secretory small heat shock proteins from the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti--putative links to host's intestinal mucosal defense system.

    PubMed

    Younis, Abuelhassan Elshazly; Geisinger, Frank; Ajonina-Ekoti, Irene; Soblik, Hanns; Steen, Hanno; Mitreva, Makedonka; Erttmann, Klaus D; Perbandt, Markus; Liebau, Eva; Brattig, Norbert W

    2011-09-01

    In a search for molecules involved in the interaction between intestinal nematodes and mammalian mucosal host cells, we performed MS to identify excretory-secretory proteins from Strongyloides ratti. In the excretory-secretory proteins of the parasitic female stage, we detected, in addition to other peptides, peptides homologous with the Caenorhabditis elegans heat shock protein (HSP)-17, named Sra-HSP-17.1 (∼ 19 kDa) and Sra-HSP-17.2 (∼ 18 kDa), with 49% amino acid identity. The full-length cDNAs (483 bp and 474 bp, respectively) were identified, and the genomic organization was analyzed. To allow further characterization, the proteins were recombinantly expressed and purified. Profiling of transcription by quantitative real-time-PCR and of protein by ELISA in various developmental stages revealed parasitic female-specific expression. Sequence analyses of both the DNA and amino acid sequences showed that the two proteins share a conserved α-crystallin domain and variable N-terminals. The Sra-HSP-17s showed the highest homology with the deduced small HSP sequence of the human pathogen Strongyloides stercoralis. We observed strong immunogenicity of both proteins, leading to strong IgG responses following infection of rats. Flow cytometric analysis indicated the binding of Sra-HSP-17s to the monocyte-macrophage lineage but not to peripheral lymphocytes or neutrophils. A rat intestinal epithelial cell line showed dose-dependent binding to Sra-HSP-17.1, but not to Sra-HSP-17.2. Exposed monocytes released interleukin-10 but not tumor necrosis factor-α in response to Sra-HSP-17s, suggesting the possible involvement of secreted female proteins in host immune responses. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  17. Impact of Helminth Infection on the Clinical and Microbiological Presentation of Chagas Diseases in Chronically Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Martínez-Gallo, Mónica; Carrillo, Eugenia; Molina, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Helminth infections are highly prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, coexisting in Chagas disease endemic areas. Helminth infections in humans may modulate the host immune system, changing the Th1/Th2 polarization. This immunological disturbance could modify the immune response to other infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinical, microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of Chagas disease patients, with the presence of helminth infection. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted at Vall d’Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain). Inclusion criteria were: age over 18 years, diagnosis of Chagas disease, and not having received specific treatment for Chagas disease previously to the inclusion. The study protocol included Chagas disease assessment (cardiac and digestive evaluation, detection of T. cruzi DNA measured by PCR in peripheral blood), and helminth infection diagnosis (detection of IgG anti-Strongyloides stercoralis by ELISA, microscopic examination of stool samples from three different days, and specific faecal culture for S. stercoralis larvae). Results Overall, 65 patients were included, median age was 38 years, 75.4% were women and most of them came from Bolivia. Cardiac and digestive involvement was present in 18.5% and 27.7% of patients respectively. T. cruzi PCR was positive in 28 (43.1%) patients. Helminth infection was diagnosed in 12 (18.5%) patients. No differences were observed in clinical and epidemiological characteristics between patients with and without helminth infection. Nevertheless, the proportion of patients with positive T. cruzi PCR was higher among patients with helminth infection compared with patients without helminth infection (75% vs 35.8%, p = 0.021). Conclusions We observed a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection among chronic Chagas disease patients attended in our tropical medicine unit. Strongyloidiasis was associated

  18. Impact of Helminth Infection on the Clinical and Microbiological Presentation of Chagas Diseases in Chronically Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Martínez-Gallo, Mónica; Carrillo, Eugenia; Molina, Israel

    2016-04-01

    Helminth infections are highly prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, coexisting in Chagas disease endemic areas. Helminth infections in humans may modulate the host immune system, changing the Th1/Th2 polarization. This immunological disturbance could modify the immune response to other infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinical, microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of Chagas disease patients, with the presence of helminth infection. A prospective observational study was conducted at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain). Inclusion criteria were: age over 18 years, diagnosis of Chagas disease, and not having received specific treatment for Chagas disease previously to the inclusion. The study protocol included Chagas disease assessment (cardiac and digestive evaluation, detection of T. cruzi DNA measured by PCR in peripheral blood), and helminth infection diagnosis (detection of IgG anti-Strongyloides stercoralis by ELISA, microscopic examination of stool samples from three different days, and specific faecal culture for S. stercoralis larvae). Overall, 65 patients were included, median age was 38 years, 75.4% were women and most of them came from Bolivia. Cardiac and digestive involvement was present in 18.5% and 27.7% of patients respectively. T. cruzi PCR was positive in 28 (43.1%) patients. Helminth infection was diagnosed in 12 (18.5%) patients. No differences were observed in clinical and epidemiological characteristics between patients with and without helminth infection. Nevertheless, the proportion of patients with positive T. cruzi PCR was higher among patients with helminth infection compared with patients without helminth infection (75% vs 35.8%, p = 0.021). We observed a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection among chronic Chagas disease patients attended in our tropical medicine unit. Strongyloidiasis was associated with significantly higher proportion of positive T

  19. A microarray analysis of gene expression in the free-living stages of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Fiona J; Barker, Gary LA; Hughes, Louise; Wilkes, Clare P; Coghill, Jane; Viney, Mark E

    2006-01-01

    Background The nematode Strongyloides ratti has two adult phases in its lifecycle: one obligate, female and parasitic and one facultative, dioecious and free-living. The molecular control of the development of this free-living generation remains to be elucidated. Results We have constructed an S. ratti cDNA microarray and used it to interrogate changes in gene expression during the free-living phase of the S. ratti life-cycle. We have found very extensive differences in gene expression between first-stage larvae (L1) passed in faeces and infective L3s preparing to infect hosts. In L1 stages there was comparatively greater expression of genes involved in growth. We have also compared gene expression in L2 stages destined to develop directly into infective L3s with those destined to develop indirectly into free-living adults. This revealed relatively small differences in gene expression. We find little evidence for the conservation of transcription profiles between S. ratti and S. stercoralis or C. elegans. Conclusion This is the first multi-gene study of gene expression in S. ratti. This has shown that robust data can be generated, with consistent measures of expression within computationally determined clusters and contigs. We find inconsistencies between EST representation data and microarray hybridization data in the identification of genes with stage-specific expression and highly expressed genes. Many of the genes whose expression is significantly different between L1 and iL3s stages are unknown beyond alignments to predicted genes. This highlights the forthcoming challenge in actually determining the role of these genes in the life of S. ratti. PMID:16784522

  20. Appendicitis and infections of the appendix.

    PubMed

    Lamps, Laura W

    2004-05-01

    The pathologic spectrum of the acutely inflamed appendix encompasses a wide range of infectious and noninfectious entities. The appendix suffers alone in some of these disorders, and in others may be involved through extension from other areas of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the appendix is the most commonly resected and examined intraabdominal organ, the pathogenesis and etiology of acute nonspecific appendicitis (the most common diagnosis made in this organ) remains enigmatic. This review encompasses the pathology, pathogenesis, and bacteriology of acute appendicitis, as well as controversial issues such as the diagnosis of chronic appendicitis and the significance of a morphologically unremarkable appendectomy specimen in the clinical context of appendicitis. In addition, the pathologic features, pertinent diagnostic techniques, and clinical significance of several specific bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections affecting the appendix are presented, including adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, Yersinia species, actinomycosis, Mycobacteria species, histoplasmosis, pinworms, schistosomiasis, and Strongyloides stercoralis.

  1. Sub-acute intestinal obstruction by Strongyloides stercolaris.

    PubMed

    al-Bahrani, Z R; al-Saleem, T; al-Gailani, M A

    1995-01-01

    Strongyloides stercolaris infestation is rather rare in Iraq. Individuals with infection confined to the intestinal tract are often asymptomatic. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss and other non-specific complaints. The diagnosis depends upon repeated examination of stool and duodenal aspirate. Two cases presenting as sub-acute intestinal obstruction and mimicking primary intestinal lymphoma (PIL) on presentation are presented. Differentiation between the two conditions regarding presenting features, barium studies and pathology are discussed.

  2. The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village.

    PubMed

    Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin; Traub, Rebecca J; Khieu, Virak; Dalsgaard, Anders; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-08-01

    In Cambodia, intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent in humans and particularly in children. Yet, information on potentially zoonotic parasites in animal reservoir hosts is lacking. In May 2012, faecal samples from 218 humans, 94 dogs and 76 pigs were collected from 67 households in Dong village, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia. Faecal samples were examined microscopically using sodium nitrate and zinc sulphate flotation methods, the Baermann method, Koga Agar plate culture, formalin-ether concentration technique and Kato Katz technique. PCR was used to confirm hookworm, Ascaris spp., Giardia spp. and Blastocystis spp. Major gastrointestinal parasitic infections found in humans included hookworms (63.3%), Entamoeba spp. (27.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.3%). In dogs, hookworm (80.8%), Spirometra spp. (21.3%) and Strongyloides spp. (14.9%) were most commonly detected and in pigs Isospora suis (75.0%), Oesophagostomum spp. (73.7%) and Entamoeba spp. (31.6%) were found. Eleven parasite species were detected in dogs (eight helminths and three protozoa), seven of which have zoonotic potential, including hookworm, Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp., Toxocara canis, Echinostoma spp., Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. Five of the parasite species detected in pigs also have zoonotic potential, including Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Balantidium coli and Entamoeba spp. Further molecular epidemiological studies will aid characterisation of parasite species and genotypes and allow further insight into the potential for zoonotic cross transmission of parasites in this community.

  3. Determining intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in inmates from Kajang Prison, Selangor, Malaysia for improved prison management.

    PubMed

    Angal, Lorainne; Mahmud, Rohela; Samin, Sajideh; Yap, Nan-Jiun; Ngui, Romano; Amir, Amirah; Ithoi, Init; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-10-29

    The prison management in Malaysia is proactively seeking to improve the health status of the prison inmates. Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are widely distributed throughout the world and are still gaining great concern due to their significant morbidity and mortality among infected humans. In Malaysia, there is a paucity of information on IPIs among prison inmates. In order to further enhance the current health strategies employed, the present study aims to establish firm data on the prevalence and diversity of IPIs among HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals in a prison, an area in which informed knowledge is still very limited. Samples were subjected to microscopy examination and serological test (only for Strongyloides). Speciation for parasites on microscopy-positive samples and seropositive samples for Strongyloides were further determined via polymerase chain reaction. SPSS was used for statistical analysis. A total of 294 stool and blood samples each were successfully collected, involving 131 HIV positive and 163 HIV negative adult male inmates whose age ranged from 21 to 69-years-old. Overall prevalence showed 26.5% was positive for various IPIs. The IPIs detected included Blastocystis sp., Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and Trichuris trichiura. Comparatively, the rate of IPIs was slightly higher among the HIV positive inmates (27.5%) than HIV negative inmates (25.8%). Interestingly, seropositivity for S. stercoralis was more predominant in HIV negative inmates (10.4%) compared to HIV-infected inmates (6.9%), however these findings were not statistically significant. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the presence of Blastocystis, Strongyloides, Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar. These data will enable the health care providers and prison management staff to understand the trend and epidemiological situations in HIV/parasitic co-infections in a prison. This information will further

  4. Distribution and Risk Factors for Plasmodium and Helminth Co-infections: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Children in Bagamoyo District, Coastal Region of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Nahya; Knopp, Stefanie; Lweno, Omar; Abdul, Ummi; Mohamed, Ali; Schindler, Tobias; Rothen, Julian; Masimba, John; Kwaba, Denis; Mohammed, Alisa S.; Althaus, Fabrice; Abdulla, Salim; Tanner, Marcel; Daubenberger, Claudia; Genton, Blaise

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasmodium and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) are a major public health problem, particularly among children. There are conflicting findings on potential association between these two parasites. This study investigated the Plasmodium and helminth co-infections among children aged 2 months to 9 years living in Bagamoyo district, coastal region of Tanzania. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1033 children. Stool, urine and blood samples were examined using a broad set of quality controlled diagnostic methods for common STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichura), schistosoma species and Wuchereria bancrofti. Blood slides and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) were utilized for Plasmodium diagnosis. Results Out of 992 children analyzed, the prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 13% (130/992), helminth 28.5% (283/992); 5% (50/992) had co-infection with Plasmodium and helminth. The prevalence rate of Plasmodium, specific STH and co-infections increased significantly with age (p < 0.001), with older children mostly affected except for S. stercoralis monoinfection and co-infections. Spatial variations of co-infection prevalence were observed between and within villages. There was a trend for STH infections to be associated with Plasmodium infection [OR adjusted for age group 1.4, 95% CI (1.0–2.1)], which was more marked for S. stercoralis (OR = 2.2, 95% CI (1.1–4.3). Age and not schooling were risk factors for Plasmodium and STH co-infection. Conclusion The findings suggest that STH and Plasmodium infections tend to occur in the same children, with increasing prevalence of co-infection with age. This calls for an integrated approach such as using mass chemotherapy with dual effect (e.g., ivermectin) coupled with improved housing, sanitation and hygiene for the control of both parasitic infections. PMID:25837022

  5. Distribution and risk factors for Plasmodium and helminth co-infections: a cross-sectional survey among children in Bagamoyo district, coastal region of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Salim, Nahya; Knopp, Stefanie; Lweno, Omar; Abdul, Ummi; Mohamed, Ali; Schindler, Tobias; Rothen, Julian; Masimba, John; Kwaba, Denis; Mohammed, Alisa S; Althaus, Fabrice; Abdulla, Salim; Tanner, Marcel; Daubenberger, Claudia; Genton, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Plasmodium and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) are a major public health problem, particularly among children. There are conflicting findings on potential association between these two parasites. This study investigated the Plasmodium and helminth co-infections among children aged 2 months to 9 years living in Bagamoyo district, coastal region of Tanzania. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1033 children. Stool, urine and blood samples were examined using a broad set of quality controlled diagnostic methods for common STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichura), schistosoma species and Wuchereria bancrofti. Blood slides and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) were utilized for Plasmodium diagnosis. Out of 992 children analyzed, the prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 13% (130/992), helminth 28.5% (283/992); 5% (50/992) had co-infection with Plasmodium and helminth. The prevalence rate of Plasmodium, specific STH and co-infections increased significantly with age (p < 0.001), with older children mostly affected except for S. stercoralis monoinfection and co-infections. Spatial variations of co-infection prevalence were observed between and within villages. There was a trend for STH infections to be associated with Plasmodium infection [OR adjusted for age group 1.4, 95% CI (1.0-2.1)], which was more marked for S. stercoralis (OR = 2.2, 95% CI (1.1-4.3). Age and not schooling were risk factors for Plasmodium and STH co-infection. The findings suggest that STH and Plasmodium infections tend to occur in the same children, with increasing prevalence of co-infection with age. This calls for an integrated approach such as using mass chemotherapy with dual effect (e.g., ivermectin) coupled with improved housing, sanitation and hygiene for the control of both parasitic infections.

  6. Neuroparasitic Infections: Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Walker, M.D.; Zunt, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Globalization has produced an increase in the number of people at risk for contracting parasitic infection. Central nervous system infection by nematodal parasites can be devastating. Early recognition and treatment of infection can significantly decrease morbidity of the parasitic infection, as well as the risk of secondary superinfection. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for five of the more common nematodal infections of the nervous system—Angiostrongylus spp., Baylisacaris procyonis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara spp.—is reviewed. Objectives On completion of this article, the reader should be able to summarize the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the common nematodal infections of the nervous system. Accreditation The Indiana University School of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. Credit The Indiana University School of Medicine designates this educational activity for a maximum of 1 Category 1 credit toward the AMA Physicians Recognition Award. Each physician should claim only those credits that he/she actually spent in the educational activity. Disclosure Statements of disclosure have been obtained regarding the authors’ relevant financial relationships. The authors have nothing to disclose. PMID:16170738

  7. Intestinal parasitic infections in Thai HIV-infected patients with different immunity status

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2001-01-01

    Background One of the major health problems among HIV seropositive patients is superimposed infection due to the defect of immunity. Furthermore, intestinal parasite infection, which is also one of the basic health problems in tropical region, is common in these patients. In this study, a cross sectional study to document the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in Thai HIV-infected patients with different immune status was performed. Methods A study of stool samples from 60 Thai HIV-infected patients with different immune status was performed at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand. Each patient was examined for CD4 count and screened for diarrheal symptoms. Results The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among the HIV-infected patients in this study was 50 %. Non- opportunistic intestinal parasite infections such as hookworms, Opisthorchis viverrini and Ascaris lumbricoides were commonly found in HIV-infected people regardless of immune status with or without diarrheal symptoms. Opportunistic intestinal parasites such as Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Microsporidia and Strongyloides stercoralis infection were significantly more frequent in the low immunity group with diarrhea. Conclusion Therefore, opportunistic intestinal parasite infection should be suspected in any HIV infected patient with advanced disease presenting with diarrhea. The importance of tropical epidemic non-opportunistic intestinal parasite infections among HIV-infected patients should not be neglected. PMID:11394966

  8. First report of Strongyloides sp. (Nematoda, Strongyloididae) in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora: Felidae) in the municipality of Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Karina R; Faciulli, Paula; Paparotto, Telma; Takahira, Regina K; Lopes, Raimundo S; da Silva, Reinaldo J

    2009-12-01

    The present study reports the first case of infection by Strongyloides sp. in Leopardus tigrinus in the municipality of Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Feces of the infected L. tigrinus specimen were cultivated in sterilized equine feces and a cat (Felis catus domesticus) was experimentally infected with three thousand infective L3 subcutaneous route, in order to identify the Strongyloides species involved in the parasitism. Parthenogenetic females recovered from the experimental animals were analyzed but comparison between the biometric data found and the data in the literature did not enable identification of the species. This is the first report on the occurrence of Strongyloides sp. in L. tigrinus.

  9. Infections in patients with aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Jessica M; Scheinberg, Phillip; Young, Neal S; Walsh, Thomas J

    2009-07-01

    Infection is a major cause of death in patients with aplastic anemia (AA). There are differences between the immunocompromised state of a patient with AA and the patient who is neutropenic due to chemotherapy and this leads to a difference in the infections that they incur. Prolonged neutropenia is one of the largest risk factors for the development of infections with the invasive mycoses and bacteria. Recovery from neutropenia is directly related to survival, and supportive care plays a large role in protection while the patient is in a neutropenic state. The most common invasive mycoses include the Aspergillus species, Zygomycetes, Candida spp., and Fusarium spp. Bacterial infections that are seen in patients with AA include gram-positive coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species, Enterococcus, Staphylococus aureus, Clostridium spp., Micrococcus, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus cereus. Gram-negative infections including gram-negative bacilli, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Bacteroides fragilis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumonia, Aeromonas hydrophilia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio vulnificus. Viral infections are much less common but include those that belong to the Herpesviridae family, community-acquired respiratory viral infection, and the viral hepatitides A, B, and C. Evidence of the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis has also been documented. This review discusses the major invasive fungal infections, bacterial pathogens, parasites, and viral infections that are found in patients with AA who are treated with immunosuppressive therapy. The specific immune impairment and current treatment parameters for each of these classes of infection will also be discussed.

  10. Stage-specific excretory/secretory small heat shock proteins from the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti: putative links to host’s intestinal mucosal defense system

    PubMed Central

    Younis, Abuelhassan Elshazly; Geisinger, Frank; Ajonina-Ekoti, Irene; Soblik, Hanns; Steen, Hanno; Mitreva, Makedonka; Erttmann, Klaus D.; Perbandt, Markus; Liebau, Eva; Brattig, Norbert W.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In search of molecules involved in the interaction of intestinal nematodes and mammalian mucosal host cells, we performed mass spectrometry to identify excretory/secretory proteins (ESP) from Strongyloides ratti. In addition to other peptides, we detected in the ESP of parasitic female stage peptides homologous to the Caenorhabditis elegans heat shock protein-17, named Sra-HSP-17.1 (~19 kDa) and Sra-HSP-17.2 (~ 18 kDa) with 49% amino acid identity. The full-length cDNAs (483 bp and 474 bp, respectively) were identified and the genomic organization analyzed. To allow further characterization, the proteins were recombinantly expressed and purified. Profiling of transcription by qRT-PCR and of protein by ELISA in various developmental stages revealed parasitic female-specific expression. The sequence analysis of both DNA and amino acid sequence showed two genes share a conserved alpha-crystallin domain and variable N-terminals. The Sra-HSP-17 proteins showed the highest homology to the deduced small heat-shock protein sequence of the human pathogen S. stercoralis. We observed strong immunogenicity of both proteins, leading to high IgG responses following infection of rats. Flow cytometric analysis indicated the binding of Sra-HSP-17s to the monocytes/macrophage lineage but not to peripheral lymphocytes or neutrophils. A rat intestinal epithelial cell line showed dose dependent binding to Sra-HSP-17.1, but not to Sra-HSP-17.2. Exposed monocytes released IL-10 but not TNF-alpha in response to Sra-HSP-17s, suggesting a possible involvement of secreted female proteins in host immune responses. PMID:21762402

  11. HTLV-I infection in the South West Indian Ocean islands, particularly in La Réunion and the Seychelles.

    PubMed

    Aubry, P; Bovet, P; Vitrac, D; Schooneman, F; Hollanda, J; Malvy, D; Gaüzère, B-A

    2013-10-01

    Data on HTLV-I are scarce in several Southwest Indian Ocean islands except for La Réunion and The Seychelles. The two cases of HTLV-I have been confirmed by Western-Blot in La Réunion, among blood donors. In Seychelles (87 400 inhabitants in 2012), where blood donors and some other cases are screened, HTLV-I was confirmed with a line immune assay in 43 persons and at least 10-20 patients are known to have tropical spastic paraparesia or adult T-cell lymphoma associated with HTLV-I. In the south-west Indian Ocean, a possibly important other issue may be co-infection of HTLV-1 with the Strongyloides stercoralis roundworm, which is endemic in all countries of the region and which can sometimes lead to severe symptomatic infestation.

  12. Strongyloides fuelleborni kellyi and other intestinal helminths in children from Papua New Guinea: associations with nutritional status and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    King, Sarah E; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This survey examined the prevalence and intensity of Strongyloides fuelleborni kellyi and other intestinal helminths in children 5 years of age or under living near Kanabea, Papua New Guinea. Of 179 samples, 27% of the children tested positive for Strongyloides, with 81% of these children being a year or less in age. Overall, 68% of the children had one or more infections including Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm (Necator americanus) as well as Strongyloides. Egg counts in the stools ranged from 100 to 98,300 eggs/ml for Strongyloides, 100 to 59,200 eggs/ml for Ascaris and 100 to 3400 eggs/ml for hookworm. There were significant associations between Strongyloides intensity and weight for age and weight for height such that children with higher intensities had, on average, lower z-scores. Relationships between the prevalence of helminth infections and socioeconomic factors were also observed. Logistic regression models showed that children living farther away from Kanabea (more than 2 hours' walking distance), in smaller households (5 or less people) and with uneducated mothers best predict children with Strongyloides. Two of these variables also predicted the presence of hookworm: maternal education and household size. However, in contrast to Strongyloides, a larger household size (6 or more people) was significantly associated with the presence of hookworm. House type was associated with the prevalence of Ascaris, with children living in houses with tin roofs being less likely to have Ascaris than those living in traditional houses. In addition, maternal education was associated with Ascaris intensity in those children with infection, such that the mean intensities were greater in children of uneducated mothers.

  13. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected and non-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence region, West-Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Nana, Christelle Tafou; Payne, Vincent Khan

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6%) were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42) were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354) of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%), Entamoeba coli (4.04%), Giardia lamblia (0.25%), Trichuris trichura (0.25%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%). In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%), Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%), Entamoeba coli (21.42%), Giardia lamblia (2.38%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%) were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the HIV status and the quality of water were the major risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction of

  14. Influence of helminth infections on childhood nutritional status in lowland Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Tanner, S; Leonard, W R; McDade, T W; Reyes-Garcia, V; Godoy, R; Huanca, T

    2009-01-01

    Infectious disease, such as diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, and parasitic infections, are an important source of nutritional and energetic stress in many populations. Inspired by the research and methodological innovations of A. Roberto Frisancho, this work considers the impact of childhood environment and local disease ecology on child health and nutritional patterns among an indigenous group in lowland Bolivia. Specifically, we examine the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection, especially hookworm species, and anthropometric markers of short- and long-term nutritional status. Fecal samples, anthropometric dimensions, and health interviews were collected for 92 children ranging in age from 2.0 to 10.9 years. Microscopic examination revealed high levels of parasitic infection, with 76% of children positive for hookworm species infections (77% of girls and 74% of boys). Less common infections included Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichurius trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis with only 15% of children positive for multiple-species infections. After adjusting for sex and age, no statistically significant associations were observed between helminth infections and the frequency of reported illness or anthropometric measures of nutritional status. These data demonstrate the difficulty of assessing nutritional impacts of endemic infections.

  15. Association between parasitic intestinal infections and acute or chronic diarrhoea in HIV-infected patients in Caracas, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Pinto, A; Certad, G; Ferrara, G; Castro, J; Bello, M A; Núñez, L T

    2003-07-01

    A cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the association between enteric parasites and diarrhoea in HIV-infected adults in Caracas. Three hundred and four patients were evaluated: 104 had acute diarrhoea, 113 chronic diarrhoea and 87 were controls. Isopora belli infection was associated with acute (P = 0.022) and chronic diarrhoea (P = 0.003), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar infection was also associated with both acute (P = 0.015) and chronic diarrhoea (P = 0.017). Strongyloides stercoralis (P = 0.003), and Cryptosporidium parvum (P = 0.017) infections were associated mainly with chronic episodes. Weight loss (P < 0.001), a non-infectious factor investigated, was significantly associated with diarrhoea. Eosinophilia, a laboratory parameter studied, was found to be associated with strongyloidiasis (P = 0.001), giardiasis (P = 0.001) and isoporiasis (P = 0.003). In summary, the presence of enteric parasites in HIV-infected patients from tropical urban areas with diarrhoea, with or without significant weight loss, must be considered. Similarly, eosinophilia might suggest parasitic infection in these patients.

  16. Strongyloidiasis in the immunocompetent: an overlooked infection

    PubMed Central

    Tachamo, Niranjan; Nazir, Salik; Lohani, Saroj; Karmacharya, Paras

    2016-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic infestation caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. Most cases are asymptomatic; however, symptomatic patients may present with a wide range of non-specific cutaneous, pulmonary, or gastrointestinal symptoms posing a diagnostic dilemma and delay in diagnosis. We report a case of a 58-year-old female who presented with months of generalized pruritus and abdominal discomfort along with persistent eosinophilia due to strongyloidiasis, which completely resolved with treatment. PMID:27609726

  17. Parasite Infection, Carcinogenesis and Human Malignancy.

    PubMed

    van Tong, Hoang; Brindley, Paul J; Meyer, Christian G; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P

    2017-02-01

    Cancer may be induced by many environmental and physiological conditions. Infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites have been recognized for years to be associated with human carcinogenicity. Here we review current concepts of carcinogenicity and its associations with parasitic infections. The helminth diseases schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis are highly carcinogenic while the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causing agent of Chagas disease, has a dual role in the development of cancer, including both carcinogenic and anticancer properties. Although malaria per se does not appear to be causative in carcinogenesis, it is strongly associated with the occurrence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma in areas holoendemic for malaria. The initiation of Plasmodium falciparum related endemic Burkitt lymphoma requires additional transforming events induced by the Epstein-Barr virus. Observations suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis may be a relevant co-factor in HTLV-1-related T cell lymphomas. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of parasitic infection-induced carcinogenicity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Advances in developing molecular-diagnostic tools for strongyloid nematodes of equids: fundamental and applied implications.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Robin B; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Chilton, Neil B; Beveridge, Ian

    2004-02-01

    Infections of equids with parasitic nematodes of the order Strongylida (subfamilies Strongylinae and Cyathostominae) are of major veterinary importance. In last decades, the widespread use of drugs against these parasites has led to problems of resistance within the Cyathostominae, and to an increase in their prevalence and intensity of infection. Novel control strategies, based on improved knowledge of parasite biology and epidemiology, have thus become important. However, there are substantial limitations in the understanding of fundamental biological and systematic aspects of these parasites, which have been due largely to limitations in their specific identification and diagnosis using traditional, morphological approaches. Recently, there has been progress in the development of DNA-based approaches for the specific identification of strongyloids of equids for systematic studies and disease diagnosis. The present article briefly reviews information on the classification, biology, pathogenesis, epidemiology of equine strongyloids and the diagnosis of infections, highlights knowledge gaps in these areas, describes recent advances in the use of molecular techniques for the genetic characterisation, specific identification and differentiation of strongyloids of equids as a basis for fundamental investigations of the systematics, population biology and ecology.

  19. Parasitic infections among Karen in Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nithikathkul, Choosak; Changsap, Bangon; Wannapinyosheep, Supaporn; Arnat, Naiyana; Kongkham, Somprathana; Benchawattananon, Rachadaporn; Leemingsawat, Somjai

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of intestinal parasitic and malarial infections during a period of low infection among the residents of remote Karen villages in Thailand. Fifty-five males and 64 females, aged 6 months to 70 years, were examined for malaria by thick blood smears using the Giemsa staining technique. Of the 119 subjects, 4 (3.36%) showed positive for malaria with vivax gametocytes. Results suggested that mass screening was not an effective way for diagnosing malaria. Stool samples were examined under a light microscope. The overall intestinal parasitic infection rates were 38.24% in 34 males, and 36.11% in 36 females. These were hookworm (17.14%), Ascaris lumbricoides (7.14%), Trichuris trichiura (1.43%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia spp (1.43%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.43%), Entamaeba coli (10.00%) and Giatdia lamblia (1.43%). The highest (55.55%) and lowest (16.66%) rates of infection were observed in age groups 0-5 and over 45, years respectively. In addition, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were found more frequently in children, while hookworms was found similarly in every age group. Results showed that the Karen living along the western border of Thailand possessed high rates of intestinal parasitic infections. Strict monitoring and control programs for these parasites should be implemented.

  20. Helminth infection is not associated with faster progression of HIV disease in coinfected adults in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael; Kizza, Moses; Watera, Christine; Quigley, Maria A; Rowland, Samantha; Hughes, Peter; Whitworth, James A G; Elliott, Alison M

    2004-11-15

    We studied a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in Uganda who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy, to explore the impact of helminths on HIV progression in areas where antiretrovirals are not available. A total of 663 patients were screened for helminths, treated presumptively with albendazole and selectively with praziquantel, and monitored for 6 months. Blood samples were analyzed for CD4+ cell count and HIV-1 RNA. Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Mansonella perstans were the most prevalent helminths. Helminth infection was not associated with higher viral load, lower CD4+ cell count, or faster decrease in CD4+ cell count preceding antihelminthic therapy. The effect of coinfection on HIV disease progression varied with species. CD4+ cell counts were highest in subjects with hookworm and Mansonella perstans infection. For most helminths, effective treatment was associated with greater decrease in CD4+ cell count than in those in whom infection was still present at follow-up. A highly significant decrease in viral load at 6 months was seen in patients with persistent Mansonella perstans infection at follow-up. Mortality was lower in subjects with hookworm infection at enrollment. Helminth infection was not associated with more-advanced HIV disease or faster disease progression. Antihelminthic therapy may not be beneficial in slowing HIV progression in coinfected adults.

  1. Epidemiology of infections with intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among sugar-estate residents in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fontanet, A L; Sahlu, T; Rinke de Wit, T; Messele, T; Masho, W; Woldemichael, T; Yeneneh, H; Coutinho, R A

    2000-04-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections could play an important role in the progression of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), by further disturbing the immune system whilst it is already engaged in the fight against HIV. HIV and intestinal parasitic infections were investigated in 1239, randomly selected individuals, aged 15-54 years, living on a sugar estate in central Ethiopia. Intestinal parasites were identified in faecal samples (one/subject) using direct, concentration, and (for Strongyloides stercoralis larvae) Baermann methods. HIV serological status was determined using ELISA, with ELISA-positive samples confirmed as positive by western blotting. Most (70.1%) of the subjects were infected with at least one intestinal parasite and 3.1% were seropositive (but asymptomatic) for HIV. The intestinal parasites identified in the study population were amoebic parasites (Entamoeba histolytica/Enta. dispar) (24.6%), hookworms (23.8%), Ascaris lumbricoides (22.2%), Trichuris trichiura (19.5%), S. stercoralis (13.0%), Taenia saginata (4.5%), Giardia lamblia (3.0%), and Enterobius vermicularis (1.3%). Overall, the HIV-positives were no more or less likely to carry intestinal parasites than the HIV-negatives (76.2% v. 69.9%; P > 0.05). However, when each parasite was considered separately, amoebic parasites were found to be more common in the HIV-positives than the HIV-negatives (43.7% v. 24.0%; P < 0.05). This difference remained significant in a multivariate analysis, after controlling for the socio-demographic characteristics of the study participants. In conclusion, there was moderate interaction between intestinal parasites and HIV at the asymptomatic stage of HIV infection. The observed association between amoebic and HIV infections requires confirmation in a prospective study, allowing for the analysis of biological mechanisms involved in the association.

  2. Helminth infections in British troops following an operation in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Bailey, M S; Thomas, R; Green, A D; Bailey, J W; Beeching, N J

    2006-09-01

    One hundred and fifty-three British soldiers and 86 Royal Air Force (RAF) personnel were deployed on a hostage rescue operation in Sierra Leone. For 3 days they were exposed to various infection risks and 6 weeks later some of the soldiers presented with gastrointestinal complaints. Both groups were screened with structured questionnaires, blood investigations and (where indicated) faecal microscopy and charcoal culture for helminths. Definite and probable cases of helminth infection were treated with albendazole and all soldiers were screened again after 3 months. Among the soldiers investigated, 73/145 (50%) reported gastrointestinal symptoms and 70/139 (50%) had eosinophilia. Among these, 17/66 (26%) had hookworm infection, 6/66 (9%) had Strongyloides stercoralis infection and 1/66 (2%) had Giardia lamblia infection. Eosinophilia was most strongly associated with entering the enemy camp and being in the platoon that attacked the area around the camp latrines. Among RAF personnel, who were not involved in activities on the ground, 3/86 (3%) had borderline eosinophilia. Treatment of 105/153 (69%) soldiers with albendazole was well tolerated and, on follow-up screening 3 months later, 23/124 soldiers (19%) had gastrointestinal symptoms and 18/121 (15%) had eosinophilia. Faecal investigations and schistosomiasis serology tests were all negative at this stage.

  3. Prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections in Kao District, north Halmahera, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mangali, A; Sasabone, P; Syafruddin; Abadi, K; Hasegawa, H; Toma, T; Kamimura, K; Hasan, M; Miyagi, I; Mogi, M

    1994-12-01

    A parasitological survey was conducted on the inhabitants of six villages of Kao District, Halmahera Island, North Maluku, Indonesia, in July 1993. A total of 422 fecal samples were examined by using Kato-Katz thick smear, modified Harada-Mori culture and formalin ether concentration techniques. Seven nematode species, ie Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis and unidentified rhabditoids of free-living nature, were detected. Trematode and cestode infection was not proven. Necator americanus was the predominant species of hookworm. Soil-transmitted nematode infections were highly prevalent. Among the young inhabitants aged less than 15, positive rates of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm infections were 32.7, 52.7 and 68.6%, respectively. Among the people aged 15 or more, the positive rate for hookworm (85.9%) was much higher than that for Ascaris and Trichuris (13.5 and 40.5%, respectively). Egg count revealed that more than 90% of inhabitants with Trichuris or hookworm had light infections. The latrines in the surveyed area seemed to have only limited effects on the improvement of the parasitological status because the prevalence of Trichuris infections was much higher in a village where most houses were provided with latrines. These conflicting conditions were considered to have been caused by many factors including the inadequate structure of the latrines.

  4. Opportunistic parasitic infections among immunocompromised Egyptian patients.

    PubMed

    Baiomy, Ahmed M Said; Mohamed, Khairy Abd Al-Hamid; Ghannam, Mohamed A Mosaad; Shahat, Samir Abd Al-Razek; Al-Saadawy, Ahmed Saad Kamel

    2010-12-01

    The commonest opportunistic parasites causing morbidity and/or mortality in the immuno-compromised subjects are mainly the gastro-intestinal ones. This study clarified the prevalence of the opportunistic parasites among a group of immunocompromised patients selected from Al Azhar University Hospitals. One hundred immunocompromised patients (GI) were divided into GIa: 40 malignancy patients. GIb: 30 with diabetes mellitus. GIc: 30 with chronic renal failure. GII: included 20 cross-matched healthy subjects as controls. Sheets were filled out on each subject including all personal and medical history. Both groups were subjected to stool and blood examinations for parasites. The results showed opportunistic parasites in 30% of patients and in 10% of healthy controls. The highest group had parasitosis was patients suffering from malignancy (18%). The patients suffering from chronic renal failure or from diabetes mellitus were equally affected (6% each group). There was significant relation between malignant patients and diabetic or chronic renal failure ones, but without significant relation between diabetic and chronic renal failure patients. Giardia lamblia was the most common parasite found in the patients (10%) of which 5% were among patients suffering from malignancy. Others were Cryptospotidium parvum (7%) Cyclospora cayetanensis (3%) and Microsporidia species (2%). Mixed infection was detected in 2 cases that had C. parvum and Cyclospora. But, neither Isospora belli nor Strongyloides stercoralis were detected. Also, ELISA showed antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in sex patients but none against Leishmania d. infantum.

  5. Distribution of intestinal parasitic infections amongst aborigine children at Post Sungai Rual, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hartini, Y; Geishamimi, G; Mariam, A Z; Mohamed-Kamel, A G; Hidayatul, F O; Ismarul, Y I

    2013-12-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are important public health problems among underprivileged communities. This study was carried out to evaluate the infection rate of intestinal parasites among aborigine children at Pos Sungai Rual, Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of 111 faecal samples from aborigine children aged 4-12 years were screened for intestinal parasites by direct smear technique. Harada-Mori culture was also performed to identify hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae. The results showed that 87.4% of the children examined were positive for one or more parasites. Intestinal parasites were significantly lower in boys (78.7%) as compared to girls (93.8%). The infection occurred in very young children aged 4-6 years (80.0%) and the percentage of parasite-positive cases appeared to be significantly higher (92.9%) among the children aged 7-9 years. Trichuris trichiura was the most common parasite found in aborigine children (65.8%). Low socioeconomic status, poor environmental sanitation and poor personal hygiene are possible contributing factors that increase the rate of intestinal parasitic infections among the children. Thus, the parasitic diseases will continue to threaten the people's health especially among communities from rural areas if no appropriate actions are taken to diminish the transmission of the parasites.

  6. Geophagy (Soil-eating) in relation to Anemia and Helminth infection among HIV-infected pregnant women in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kosuke; Saathoff, Elmar; Antelman, Gretchen; Msamanga, Gernard; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2009-01-01

    Geophagy, the regular and deliberate consumption of soil, is prevalent among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the associations of geophagy with anemia and helminth infection among 971 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive pregnant women in Tanzania. About 29% of pregnant women regularly consumed soil. Occupation, marital status, and gestational age were associated with geophagy. Ascaris lumbricoides infection was associated with the prevalence of geophagy (adjusted-prevalence ratio 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37-2.40); however, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis showed no association. Anemia and red blood cell characteristics suggestive of iron deficiency were strongly correlated with geophagy at baseline. In longitudinal analyses, we found evidence suggesting that soil consumption may be associated with an increased risk of anemia (adjusted-relative risk 1.16; 95% CI = 0.98-1.36) and a lower hemoglobin concentration (adjusted-mean difference -3.8 g/L; 95% CI [-7.3, -0.4]). Pregnant women should be informed about the potential risks associated with soil consumption.

  7. Rapid Re-Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths after Triple-Dose Albendazole Treatment of School-Aged Children in Yunnan, People's Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Peiling; Du, Zun-Wei; Wu, Fang-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Ran; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Hattendorf, Jan; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Post-treatment soil-transmitted helminth re-infection patterns were studied as part of a randomized controlled trial among school-aged children from an ethnic minority group in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Children with a soil-transmitted helminth infection (N = 194) were randomly assigned to triple-dose albendazole or placebo and their infection status monitored over a 6-month period using the Kato-Katz and Baermann techniques. Baseline prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis were 94.5%, 93.3%, 61.3%, and 3.1%, respectively, with more than half of the participants harboring triple-species infections. For the intervention group (N = 99), the 1-month post-treatment cure rates were 96.7%, 91.5%, and 19.6% for hookworm, A. lumbricoides, and T. trichiura, respectively. Egg reduction rates were above 88% for all three species. Rapid re-infection with A. lumbricoides was observed: the prevalence 4 and 6 months post-treatment was 75.8% and 83.8%, respectively. Re-infection with hookworm and T. trichiura was considerably slower. PMID:23690551

  8. Exposure of medical staff to Strongyloides stercolaris from a patient with disseminated strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kazuhiro; Hasegawa, Yuichi; Nagasawa, Toshiro; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2006-08-01

    We examined whether medical staff were infected with Strongyloides stercolaris through exposure to the body substances of a patient with disseminated strongyloidiasis. The patient excreted a large number of S. stercolaris organisms in respiratory secretions and stool-like excretions from a nasogastric tube. Blood tests in six physicians and three nurses, who were highly suspected of having had contact with the substances without appropriate protection during medical care of the patient for about 1 week, showed no increase of eosinophiles or IgG antibodies against S. stercolaris. We conclude that adherence to the standard precautions is sufficient for preventing the nosocomial transmission of this organism.

  9. Plasma IgG autoantibody against actin-related protein 3 in liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini infection.

    PubMed

    Rucksaken, R; Haonon, O; Pinlaor, P; Pairojkul, C; Roytrakul, S; Yongvanit, P; Selmi, C; Pinlaor, S

    2015-07-01

    Opisthorchiasis secondary to Opisthorchis viverrini infection leads to cholangiocellular carcinoma through chronic inflammation of the bile ducts and possibly inducing autoimmunity. It was hypothesized that plasma autoantibodies directed against self-proteins are biomarkers for opisthorchiasis. Plasma from patients with opisthorchiasis was tested using proteins derived from immortalized cholangiocyte cell lines, and spots reacting with plasma were excised and subjected to LC-MS/MS. Seven protein spots were recognized by IgG autoantibodies, and the highest matching scored protein was actin-related protein 3 (ARP3). The antibody against ARP3 was tested in plasma from 55 O. viverrini-infected patients, 24 patients with others endemic parasitic infections and 17 healthy controls using Western blot and ELISA. Immunoreactivity against recombinant ARP3 was significantly more prevalent in opisthorchiasis compared to healthy controls at Western blotting and ELISA (P < 0.05). Plasma ARP3 autoantibody titres were also higher in opisthorchiasis compared to healthy individuals (P < 0.01) and other parasitic infections including Strongyloides stercoralis (P < 0.001), echinostome (P < 0.05), hookworms (P < 0.001) and Taenia spp. (P < 0.05). It was further characterized in that the ARP3 autoantibody titre had a sensitivity of 78.18% and specificity of 100% for opisthorchiasis. In conclusion, it may be suggested that plasma anti-ARP3 might represent a new diagnostic antibody for opisthorchiasis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Repurposing drugs for the treatment and control of helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Panic, Gordana; Duthaler, Urs; Speich, Benjamin; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Helminth infections are responsible for a considerable public health burden, yet the current drug armamentarium is small. Given the high cost of drug discovery and development, the high failure rates and the long duration to develop novel treatments, drug repurposing circumvents these obstacles by finding new uses for compounds other than those they were initially intended to treat. In the present review, we summarize in vivo and clinical trial findings testing clinical candidates and marketed drugs against schistosomes, food-borne trematodes, soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, the major human filariases lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and echinococcosis. While expanding the applications of broad-spectrum or veterinary anthelmintics continues to fuel alternative treatment options, antimalarials, antibiotics, antiprotozoals and anticancer agents appear to be producing fruitful results as well. The trematodes and nematodes continue to be most investigated, while cestodal drug discovery will need to be accelerated. The most clinically advanced drug candidates include the artemisinins and mefloquine against schistosomiasis, tribendimidine against liver flukes, oxantel pamoate against trichuriasis, and doxycycline against filariasis. Preclinical studies indicate a handful of promising future candidates, and are beginning to elucidate the broad-spectrum activity of some currently used anthelmintics. Challenges and opportunities are further discussed. PMID:25516827

  11. Intestinal parasites infection among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Megrin, Wafa A I

    2010-04-15

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males), aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal(-1)) and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7%) most of them (25.7%) were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%), Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%), Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%), Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%), Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%), Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7%) and Hook worm 1 (0.7%). The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (p < 0.001), followed by G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients.

  12. Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths Is Associated with Increased Insulin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Wiria, Aprilianto E.; Hamid, Firdaus; Wammes, Linda J.; Prasetyani, Margaretta A.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; May, Linda; Kaisar, Maria M. M.; Verweij, Jaco J.; Guigas, Bruno; Partono, Felix; Sartono, Erliyani

    2015-01-01

    Objective Given that helminth infections have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies, which may be explained by beneficial effects on energy balance or by a shift in the immune system to an anti-inflammatory profile, we investigated whether soil-transmitted helminth (STH)-infected subjects are more insulin sensitive than STH-uninfected subjects. Design We performed a cross-sectional study on Flores island, Indonesia, an area with high prevalence of STH infections. Methods From 646 adults, stool samples were screened for Trichuris trichiura by microscopy and for Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Strongyloides stercoralis by qPCR. No other helminth was found. We collected data on body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), fasting blood glucose (FBG, mmol/L), insulin (pmol/L), high sensitive C-reactive protein (ng/ml) and Immunoglobulin E (IU/ml). The homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMAIR) was calculated and regression models were used to assess the association between STH infection status and insulin resistance. Results 424 (66%) participants had at least one STH infection. STH infected participants had lower BMI (23.2 vs 22.5 kg/m2, p value = 0.03) and lower HOMAIR (0.97 vs 0.81, p value = 0.05). In an age-, sex- and BMI-adjusted model a significant association was seen between the number of infections and HOMAIR: for every additional infection with STH species, the HOMAIR decreased by 0.10 (p for linear trend 0.01). This effect was mainly accounted for by a decrease in insulin of 4.9 pmol/L for every infection (p for trend = 0.07). Conclusion STH infections are associated with a modest improvement of insulin sensitivity, which is not accounted for by STH effects on BMI alone. PMID:26061042

  13. Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths Is Associated with Increased Insulin Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wiria, Aprilianto E; Hamid, Firdaus; Wammes, Linda J; Prasetyani, Margaretta A; Dekkers, Olaf M; May, Linda; Kaisar, Maria M M; Verweij, Jaco J; Guigas, Bruno; Partono, Felix; Sartono, Erliyani; Supali, Taniawati; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Smit, Johannes W A

    2015-01-01

    Given that helminth infections have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies, which may be explained by beneficial effects on energy balance or by a shift in the immune system to an anti-inflammatory profile, we investigated whether soil-transmitted helminth (STH)-infected subjects are more insulin sensitive than STH-uninfected subjects. We performed a cross-sectional study on Flores island, Indonesia, an area with high prevalence of STH infections. From 646 adults, stool samples were screened for Trichuris trichiura by microscopy and for Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Strongyloides stercoralis by qPCR. No other helminth was found. We collected data on body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), fasting blood glucose (FBG, mmol/L), insulin (pmol/L), high sensitive C-reactive protein (ng/ml) and Immunoglobulin E (IU/ml). The homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMAIR) was calculated and regression models were used to assess the association between STH infection status and insulin resistance. 424 (66%) participants had at least one STH infection. STH infected participants had lower BMI (23.2 vs 22.5 kg/m2, p value = 0.03) and lower HOMAIR (0.97 vs 0.81, p value = 0.05). In an age-, sex- and BMI-adjusted model a significant association was seen between the number of infections and HOMAIR: for every additional infection with STH species, the HOMAIR decreased by 0.10 (p for linear trend 0.01). This effect was mainly accounted for by a decrease in insulin of 4.9 pmol/L for every infection (p for trend = 0.07). STH infections are associated with a modest improvement of insulin sensitivity, which is not accounted for by STH effects on BMI alone.

  14. Patterns of parasitic infections in faecal samples from stray cat populations in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Abu-Madi, M A; Al-Ahbabi, D A; Al-Mashhadani, M M; Al-Ibrahim, R; Pal, P; Lewis, J W

    2007-09-01

    The parasite fauna of stray cat populations, comprising mainly helminth parasites, is described for the first time from the arid environment of the Qatar peninsula. During the winter and summer months of 2005, 824 faecal samples were examined from six sites in Qatar. Up to seven species of parasites were identified, six of which were nematodes - Strongyloides stercoralis as the most prevalent (18.4%), followed by Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (7.5%), Toxocara cati (6.1%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (5.9%) and Physaloptera sp. (4.8%) and Toxascaris leonina (0.7%) - and one sporozoan species, Isospora felis (0.5%). Unidentified cestode eggs were also recovered from 10.7% of samples examined. The parasite species were found to be highly overdispersed in faecal samples from all sites, whereas the prevalence and intensity of infections were influenced by site and season. Infection levels tended to be higher during the winter season, especially in the case of A. abstrusus and A. tubaeforme, when conditions of temperature and humidity were more favourable for the development of egg and/or larval stages of parasites compared with the extremely hot and dry summer months. The results are discussed in relation to the distribution of the cat population in the vicinity of Doha and its outskirts and the potential threat of parasite transmission to human communities in Qatar.

  15. Effect of Poor Access to Water and Sanitation As Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Selectiveness by the Infective Route

    PubMed Central

    Echazú, Adriana; Bonanno, Daniela; Juarez, Marisa; Cajal, Silvana P.; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Cimino, Ruben O.; Caro, Nicolas; Vargas, Paola A.; Paredes, Gladys; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a public health problem in resource-limited settings worldwide. Chronic STH infection impairs optimum learning and productivity, contributing to the perpetuation of the poverty-disease cycle. Regular massive drug administration (MDA) is the cardinal recommendation for its control; along with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. The impact of joint WASH interventions on STH infections has been reported; studies on the independent effect of WASH components are needed to contribute with the improvement of current recommendations for the control of STH. The aim of this study is to assess the association of lacking access to water and sanitation with STH infections, taking into account the differences in route of infection among species and the availability of adequate water and sanitation at home. Methods and Findings Cross-sectional study, conducted in Salta province, Argentina. During a deworming program that enrolled 6957 individuals; 771 were randomly selected for stool/serum sampling for parasitological and serological diagnosis of STH. Bivariate stratified analysis was performed to explore significant correlations between risk factors and STH infections grouped by mechanism of entry as skin-penetrators (hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis) vs. orally-ingested (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). After controlling for potential confounders, unimproved sanitation was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of skin-penetrators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.6–5.9). Unimproved drinking water was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of orally-ingested (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3–3.7). Conclusions Lack of safe water and proper sanitation pose a risk of STH infections that is distinct according to the route of entry to the human host used by each of the STH species. Interventions aimed to improve water and sanitation access should

  16. Effect of Poor Access to Water and Sanitation As Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Selectiveness by the Infective Route.

    PubMed

    Echazú, Adriana; Bonanno, Daniela; Juarez, Marisa; Cajal, Silvana P; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Cimino, Ruben O; Caro, Nicolas; Vargas, Paola A; Paredes, Gladys; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

    2015-09-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a public health problem in resource-limited settings worldwide. Chronic STH infection impairs optimum learning and productivity, contributing to the perpetuation of the poverty-disease cycle. Regular massive drug administration (MDA) is the cardinal recommendation for its control; along with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. The impact of joint WASH interventions on STH infections has been reported; studies on the independent effect of WASH components are needed to contribute with the improvement of current recommendations for the control of STH. The aim of this study is to assess the association of lacking access to water and sanitation with STH infections, taking into account the differences in route of infection among species and the availability of adequate water and sanitation at home. Cross-sectional study, conducted in Salta province, Argentina. During a deworming program that enrolled 6957 individuals; 771 were randomly selected for stool/serum sampling for parasitological and serological diagnosis of STH. Bivariate stratified analysis was performed to explore significant correlations between risk factors and STH infections grouped by mechanism of entry as skin-penetrators (hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis) vs. orally-ingested (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). After controlling for potential confounders, unimproved sanitation was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of skin-penetrators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.6-5.9). Unimproved drinking water was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of orally-ingested (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7). Lack of safe water and proper sanitation pose a risk of STH infections that is distinct according to the route of entry to the human host used by each of the STH species. Interventions aimed to improve water and sanitation access should be highlighted in the recommendations for the

  17. A Cross-Sectional Study on Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Rural Communities, Northeast Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee

    2013-01-01

    Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba bütschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed. PMID:24516280

  18. A cross-sectional study on intestinal parasitic infections in rural communities, northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee

    2013-12-01

    Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba bütschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed.

  19. Structural and functional characterization of a novel scFv anti-HSP60 of Strongyloides sp.

    PubMed Central

    Levenhagen, Marcelo Arantes; de Almeida Araújo Santos, Fabiana; Fujimura, Patrícia Tiemi; Caneiro, Ana Paula; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Phage display is a powerful technology that selects specific proteins or peptides to a target. We have used Phage Display to select scFv (single-chain variable fragment) clones from a combinatorial library against total proteins of Strongyloides venezuelensis. After scFv characterization, further analysis demonstrated that this recombinant fragment of antibody was able to bind to an S. venezuelensis antigenic fraction of ~65 kDa, present in the body periphery and digestive system of infective larvae (L3), as demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Mass spectrometry results followed by bioinformatics analysis showed that this antigenic fraction was a heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) of Strongyloides sp. The selected scFv was applied in serodiagnosis by immune complexes detection in serum samples from individuals with strongyloidiasis using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), showing sensitivity of 97.5% (86.84–99.94), specificity of 98.81 (93.54–99.97), positive likelihood ratio of 81.60 and an area under the curve of 0.9993 (0.9973–1.000). Our study provided a novel monoclonal scFv antibody fragment which specifically bound to HSP60 of Strongyloides sp. and was applied in the development of an innovative serodiagnosis method for the human strongyloidiasis. PMID:25994608

  20. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among HIV Positive Persons Who Are Naive and on Antiretroviral Treatment in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teklemariam, Zelalem; Abate, Degu; Mitiku, Habtamu; Dessie, Yadeta

    2013-01-01

    Background. Intestinal parasitic infection affects the health and quality of life of people living with HIV. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV positive individuals who are naive and who are on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on 371 (112 ART-naive group and 259 on ART) HIV positive individuals. Stool specimens were collected and examined by direct wet mount, formol ether concentration technique, and modified ziehl-Neelsen methods. Results. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 33.7%; it was significantly higher among the study participants who were ART-naive group (45.5%) (AOR: 2.60(1.56,4.34)) and diarrheic (53.3%) (AOR: 2.30(1.34,3.96)) and with CD4 count <200 cells/μL (46%) (AOR: 2.07(1.06,4.04)). The most commonly identified parasites were Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (13.5%), Giardia lamblia (8.1%), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.0%), and Cryptosporidium species (2.2%). Conclusion. HIV positive individuals with diarrhea and low CD4 count and ART naive groups were more infected with intestinal parasites than their counterparts. Early stool examination and treatment of intestinal parasites for HIV/AIDS patients is essential. PMID:24052888

  1. Gastric acid secretion and enteric infection in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Carlton A. W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Rabbani, G. H.; Salazar, Guillermo; Ali, Akbar

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries many enteric infections are caused by acid-sensitive pathogens. Failure of the gastric acid barrier to infection has been reported in cholera but gastric acid secretion has been little studied in other enteric infections. We therefore studied basal and stimulated gastric acid in 185 Bangladeshi men admitted to hospital for the treatment of enteric infection. Patients with dysentery (amoebiasis, n=24 and shigellosis, n= 19) and culture-negative diarrhoea (n=69) had similar mean gastric acid levels (basal, 3–5 mmol/h; stimulated, 11–17 mmol/h), which remained stable in those patients studied throughout 12 weeks of convalescence. In contrast, patients with secretory diarrhoea caused by cholera or enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) had low gastric acid levels (PStrongyloides stercoralis co-infection, fever, use of tobacco, or chewing betel nut. Cholera and secretory diarrhoea caused by etec may, therefore, partly result from a reduction in gastric acid level which does not occur during dysentery. Factors which impair gastric acid secretion may predispose to diarrhoeal disease in developing countries. PMID:9509179

  2. Prevalence of Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and Strongyloides in pre-weaned calves on smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini district, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Getrude Shepelo; Gitau, George Karuoya; Mulei, Charles Matiku; Vanleeuwen, John; Richards, Shauna; Wichtel, Jeff; Uehlinger, Fabienne; Mainga, Omwando

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Gastrointestinal diseases are among the leading causes of calf morbidity and mortality in Kenya and elsewhere. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and Strongyloides in calves on smallholder dairy farms (SDF) in Mukurwe-ini District, Nyeri County, Kenya. These infections have been associated with economic losses by decreased growth rates, decreased productivity, and increased susceptibility to other diseases. Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted on 109 farms in Mukurwe-ini District, Nyeri County, Kenya, where 220 calf fecal samples (each calf at 4 and 6 weeks of age) from 110 calves (1 set of twins) were collected and analyzed for Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and helminth parasites. Results: Eimeria oocysts, Cryptosporidia oocysts, and Strongyloides eggs were detected in the fecal samples examined, but no Giardia cysts were found. The overall period prevalence of Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides was 42.7% (47/110), 13.6% (15/110), and 5.4% (6/110), respectively. The prevalence at 4 weeks of age for Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides was 30.0% (33/110), 8.2% (9/110), and 3.7% (4/109), respectively, while the prevalence at 6 weeks of age was 20.2% (22/109), 6.5% (7/107), and 2.7% (3/110), respectively. There was, however, no significant difference in the prevalence at 4 and 6 weeks (p>0.05). Conclusion: Findings from this study show that Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides, are prevalent in the study area and indicate the need to adopt optimal management practices to control infections in calves. PMID:27047207

  3. Strongyloides cebus (Nematoda: Strongyloididae) in Lagothrix cana (Primates: Atelidae) from the Brazilian Amazon: aspects of clinical presentation, anatomopathology, treatment, and parasitic biology.

    PubMed

    Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Ferreira Junior, Francisco Carlos; Pinto, Hudson Alves; de Melo, Alan Lane

    2013-12-01

    Abstract :  Seven cases of parasitism by Strongyloides cebus were identified in Lagothrix cana from Brazil. Aspects of the clinical presentation, treatment, pathology, and parasitic biology of these infections are described. Moderate to severe disease was observed, requiring hospitalization of 3 primates, and diarrhea was the most common clinical sign described. One L. cana individual died, for which ulcerative enteritis was the major finding upon histopathological analysis. The use of ivermectin in these atelids was safe and effective against the parasite. Parallel attempts to experimentally infect gerbils with the parasite failed. Lagothrix cana is presented as a new host for S. cebus. The evidence that Strongyloides infections are common in nonhuman primates under free-living conditions, and even more prevalent in captive animals, likely represents a neglected problem.

  4. Gastrointestinal and urinary tract pathogenic infections among HIV seropositive patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal and urinary tract pathogenic infections are aggravating the incidence and progression of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection into Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) more especially in the developing countries. This study was conducted to assess the common gastrointestinal and urinary infections among HIV/AIDS patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Ghana between April and December 2008. Findings This work reports on gastrointestinal and urinary tract pathogenic infections among 500 HIV seropositive and 300 HIV seronegative patients. There was a 35% (175/500) prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV seropositive patients compared to 4.3% (13/300) in HIV seronegative patients. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium accounted for 19% (95/500) and 14% (70/500) respectively, while Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm together accounted for 2% (10/500) of intestinal parasitic infections among the HIV seropositive patients. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in urinary parasitic infection between HIV seropositive 1% (2/500) and seronegative patients 0.7% (2/300). Most, 60 (86%) out of 70, of the urinary tract infection among the HIV seropositive patients was due to bacteria with E. coli being the most predominant isolate, 28 (47%) out of 60. There was no significant difference in infections based on age and gender. Conclusion G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium were the most common gastrointestinal parasites detected while bacteria accounted for majority of the urinary tract infections among the HIV seropositive patients at the hospital. PMID:22909315

  5. Hymenolepis nana Impact Among Children in the Highlands of Cusco, Peru: An Emerging Neglected Parasite Infection.

    PubMed

    Cabada, Miguel M; Morales, Maria Luisa; Lopez, Martha; Reynolds, Spencer T; Vilchez, Elizabeth C; Lescano, Andres G; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Garcia, Hector Hugo; White, Clinton A

    2016-11-02

    Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode infection in the world. However, limited information is available regarding its impact on affected populations. We studied the epidemiology and symptoms associated with hymenolepiasis among children 3-16 years old in 16 rural communities of the highlands of the Cusco region in Peru. Information on demographics, socioeconomic status, symptoms as reported by parents, and parasitological testing was obtained from the database of an ongoing Fasciola hepatica epidemiologic study. A total of 1,230 children were included in the study. Forty-five percent were infected with at least one pathogenic intestinal parasite. Giardia spp. (22.9%) was the most common, followed by Hymenolepis (17.4%), Fasciola (14.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.1%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (2%). The prevalence of Hymenolepis infection varied by community, by other parasitic infections, and by socioeconomic status. However, only years of education of the mother, use of well water, and age less than 10 years were associated with Hymenolepis infection in the multivariate analysis. Hymenolepis nana infection was associated with diarrhea, jaundice, headaches, fever, and fatigue. Children with > 500 eggs/g of stool were more likely to have symptoms of weight loss, jaundice, diarrhea, and fever. Hymenolepis nana infection and age were the only factors retained in the multivariate analysis modeling diarrhea. Hymenolepiasis is a common gastrointestinal helminth in the Cusco region and is associated with significant morbidity in children in rural communities. The impact caused by the emergence of Hymenolepis as a prevalent intestinal parasite deserves closer scrutiny. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Development of free-living stages of Strongyloides ratti under different temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Maki; Uga, Shoji

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that the Strongyloides species have two different developmental courses-direct and indirect development-and selection of these courses is affected by various environmental factors. This study examined the effect of temperature on the development of first-stage larvae (L1s) of Strongyloides ratti, to clarify how larvae adapt and survive at unsuitable temperatures. It was revealed that L1s cultured at 4 or 10 °C for 120 h could not develop because of growth arrest or delay. However, L1s could develop after transfer to culture at 25 °C for 48 h. Although larvae cultured at 25 °C take indirect development, larvae subjected to low-temperature stimulation (at 4 or 10 °C) take direct development into infective third-stage larvae (L3s), and only 1 min of low-temperature stimulation was sufficient to induce direct development. Morphological study of low-temperature-stimulated L3s revealed that those stimulated at 4 °C (L3-4) showed less development, but those stimulated at 10 °C (L3-10) developed as well as the control (no low-temperature stimulation). Furthermore, we revealed that L3-10 showed similar infectivity to the control when they were injected subcutaneously into rats as the final host, which indicated that L3-10 grew normally. We conclude that S. ratti has a survival strategy of growth arrest or delay if excreted in cold conditions. Moreover, even if they start development after transfer to suitable conditions, they memorize low-temperature stimulation, which leads them to direct development thereafter so that they can immediately infect the final host.

  7. Pattern of co-infection by enteric pathogenic parasites among HIV sero-positive individuals in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nishat Hussain; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2015-01-01

    One of the major medical concerns in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) is management of diarrhea that can lead to severe morbidity and mortality. Such clinical scenario warrants an analysis of intestinal parasites, which are important opportunistic pathogens in PLHA. Owing to the scarcity of recent pattern of intestinal opportunistic infections from this region, the study was designed to determine the opportunistic parasites causing diarrhea in PLHA; and to find out whether there is any significant difference in the enteric parasitic pathogens in patients with different immunological status and in those on highly active anti retro-viral therapy (HAART). Analysis of the spectrum of intestinal parasites was carried out with 192 subjects in two groups (142 HIV sero-positive patients having diarrhea and 50 HIV sero-negative patients having diarrhea). The routine light microscopic examination was carried out to determine the infection and CD4+ T-Lymphocyte count was estimated using flow cytometry. Enteric parasites were detected in 35.9% of HIV sero-positive patients having diarrhea and 18% of HIV sero-negative patients having diarrhea. Most common opportunistic enteric parasite was Isospora belli (11.5%); others were Entamoeba histolytica (4.7%), Cryptosporidium sp. (3.6%), Strongyloides stercoralis (3.1%), Giardia intestinalis (3.1%) and Cyclospora cayatanenesis (1.6%). Opportunistic enteric parasites were detected in significantly low numbers in patients with CD4+ T-Lymphocyte counts >500 cells/ml; and in those taking HAART.

  8. Specific detection of Neospora caninum oocysts in fecal samples from experimentally-infected dogs using the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Hill, D E; Liddell, S; Jenkins, M C; Dubey, J P

    2001-04-01

    Neospora caninum oocysts, passed in the feces of a definitive host (dog), were isolated, and genomic DNA was extracted. A polymerase cahin reaction (PCR) targeting the N. caninum-specific Nc 5 genomic sequence was performed using the isolated DNA. A synthesized competitor molecule containing part of the Nc 5 sequence was included in the assay as a check against false-negative PCR results and to quantify N. caninum oocyst DNA in fecal samples. A standard curve of the ratio of fluorescence intensity of PCR-amplified competitor to that of oocyst DNA was constructed to compare oocyst equivalents from fecal samples containing unknown numbers of N. caninum oocysts and to assess the sensitivity of the assay. The specificity of the assay was determined using the Nc 5-specific primers in PCR assays against other parasites likely to be found in canine feces. Genomic DNA sequences from the canine coccidians Hammondia heydorni, Cryptosporidium parvum, Sarcocystis cruzi, S. tenella, and Isospora ohioensis and the canine helminth parasites Strongyloides stercoralis, Toxocara canis, Dipylidium caninum, and Ancylostoma caninum were not amplified. In addition, genomic DNA sequences from oocysts of coccidian parasites that might contaminate dog feces, such as Hammondia hammondi, Toxoplasma gondii, or Eimeria tenella, were not amplified in the PCR assay. The assay should be useful in epidemiological surveys of both domestic and wild canine hosts and in investigations of oocyst biology in experimental infections.

  9. [Second national survey of intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba, 2009].

    PubMed

    Rojas, C Lázara; Angel Núñez, C Fidel; Aguiar, Pablo Héctor; Silva Ayçaguer, C Luis Carlos; Alvarez, Delmis; Martínez, Raydel; Cabrera, Mateo; Cordoví, Raúl; Kourí, C Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    the intestinal parasitic infections are still endemic in Cuba, with a higher frequency in rural and mountain regions. Twenty five years after the last national survey, it deemed necessary to carry out a new national survey in order to know the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and to compare the obtained results between both studies. That knowledge would be valuable to work out strategies of health and to design a control program for intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba. to determine the current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba and to compare these results with those obtained from the previous survey after a 25 year-period. a cross sectional study was conducted from May to August of 2009 in a sample of Cuban population. A stool sample was collected from each individual, which was analyzed by direct examination, Willis' brine flotation method and the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. Additionally, a questionnaire was administered. the comparison between 1984 and 2009 surveys showed a general decrease of frequencies of intestinal parasitic infections caused by both helminths and pathogenic protozoa; however, the percentage of infections with commensal protozoa increased in 2009. In this last survey, there was observed decline of frequencies of infections with soil transmitted species, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis and the pathogenic protozoa: Giardiau lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, and the commensals: Endolimax nana and Entamoeba coli. The intestinal parasite Enterobius vermicularis was the only parasitic species that increased the frequency of infections with respect to the 1984 survey. The frequencies of parasitic and commensal infections in both studies were higher in the 5-14 y age group (school age). the comparison between the intestinal parasitic infections surveys of 1984 and 2009 showed a reduction in the frequencies of intestinal parasitic infections in the

  10. Economic Analysis of the Impact of Overseas and Domestic Treatment and Screening Options for Intestinal Helminth Infection among US-Bound Refugees from Asia.

    PubMed

    Maskery, Brian; Coleman, Margaret S; Weinberg, Michelle; Zhou, Weigong; Rotz, Lisa; Klosovsky, Alexander; Cantey, Paul T; Fox, LeAnne M; Cetron, Martin S; Stauffer, William M

    2016-08-01

    Many U.S.-bound refugees travel from countries where intestinal parasites (hookworm, Trichuris trichuria, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis) are endemic. These infections are rare in the United States and may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, leading to potentially serious consequences. This evaluation examined the costs and benefits of combinations of overseas presumptive treatment of parasitic diseases vs. domestic screening/treating vs. no program. An economic decision tree model terminating in Markov processes was developed to estimate the cost and health impacts of four interventions on an annual cohort of 27,700 U.S.-bound Asian refugees: 1) "No Program," 2) U.S. "Domestic Screening and Treatment," 3) "Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin" presumptive treatment, and 4) "Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides". Markov transition state models were used to estimate long-term effects of parasitic infections. Health outcome measures (four parasites) included outpatient cases, hospitalizations, deaths, life years, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The "No Program" option is the least expensive ($165,923 per cohort) and least effective option (145 outpatient cases, 4.0 hospitalizations, and 0.67 deaths discounted over a 60-year period for a one-year cohort). The "Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin" option ($418,824) is less expensive than "Domestic Screening and Treatment" ($3,832,572) or "Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides" ($2,182,483). According to the model outcomes, the most effective treatment option is "Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin," which reduces outpatient cases, deaths and hospitalization by around 80% at an estimated net cost of $458,718 per death averted, or $2,219/$24,036 per QALY/life year gained relative to "No Program". Overseas presumptive treatment for U.S.-bound refugees is a cost-effective intervention that is less expensive and at least as effective as domestic

  11. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Amphimerus spp. liver fluke infection in Humans.

    PubMed

    Cevallos, William; Calvopiña, Manuel; Nipáz, Victoria; Vicente-Santiago, Belén; López-Albán, Julio; Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Guevara, Ángel; Muro, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    Amphimerus spp. is a liver fluke that infects humans and domestic animals. It is highly prevalent in some Ecuadorian communities. Currently, diagnosis is based on the microscopic observation of eggs in faeces, but this has variable sensitivity. More sensitive methods are needed for diagnostic testing. The main objective of this work was to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using crude antigens from Amphimerus spp. adult worms to detect anti-Amphimerus IgG in human sera. Crude somatic antigens were obtained from adult Amphimerus spp. worms. Human sera from 119 patients were tested: 48 from individuals with a confirmed Amphimerus spp. infection, 78 from non-infected Ecuadorians living in the endemic region, 60 from persons living in non-endemic areas (20 Ecuadorians, 20 Europeans, and 20 Africans), and 33 who had other parasitic and non-parasitic infections. Results were analysed using the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis with an area under curve (AUC) value of 0.967. The accuracy of the ELISA was high. The sensitivity was 85.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 80.3-89.7%] and the specificity was 71.0% (95% CI: 65.2-76.8%). Some cross reactivity was detected against Paragonimus mexicanus, Fasciola hepatica, Schistosomiasis, Taenia solium, Strongyloides stercoralis, Mansonella spp., and Vampirolepis nana. We have developed the first ELISA technique that detects anti-Amphimerus IgG in human sera with good sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility. However, more specific antigens are needed to further enhance performance of this assay. Regardless, this ELISA test could be useful for early diagnosis and prompt treatment of human Amphimerus spp. infections.

  12. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Amphimerus spp. liver fluke infection in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Cevallos, William; Calvopiña, Manuel; Nipáz, Victoria; Vicente-Santiago, Belén; López-Albán, Julio; Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Guevara, Ángel; Muro, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Amphimerus spp. is a liver fluke that infects humans and domestic animals. It is highly prevalent in some Ecuadorian communities. Currently, diagnosis is based on the microscopic observation of eggs in faeces, but this has variable sensitivity. More sensitive methods are needed for diagnostic testing. OBJECTIVE The main objective of this work was to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using crude antigens from Amphimerus spp. adult worms to detect anti-Amphimerus IgG in human sera. METHODS Crude somatic antigens were obtained from adult Amphimerus spp. worms. Human sera from 119 patients were tested: 48 from individuals with a confirmed Amphimerus spp. infection, 78 from non-infected Ecuadorians living in the endemic region, 60 from persons living in non-endemic areas (20 Ecuadorians, 20 Europeans, and 20 Africans), and 33 who had other parasitic and non-parasitic infections. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Results were analysed using the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis with an area under curve (AUC) value of 0.967. The accuracy of the ELISA was high. The sensitivity was 85.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 80.3-89.7%] and the specificity was 71.0% (95% CI: 65.2-76.8%). Some cross reactivity was detected against Paragonimus mexicanus, Fasciola hepatica, Schistosomiasis, Taenia solium, Strongyloides stercoralis, Mansonella spp., and Vampirolepis nana. MAIN CONCLUSIONS We have developed the first ELISA technique that detects anti-Amphimerus IgG in human sera with good sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility. However, more specific antigens are needed to further enhance performance of this assay. Regardless, this ELISA test could be useful for early diagnosis and prompt treatment of human Amphimerus spp. infections. PMID:28443982

  13. Geospatial distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and its association with social determinants

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Clarissa Perez; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Dias, Gisele Silva; da Silva, Sidnei; de Freitas, Marcelo Bessa; Almendra, Ricardo; Santana, Paula; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2017-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections remain among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. This study aimed to estimate their prevalence and provide a detailed analysis of geographical distribution of intestinal parasites in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, considering demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiological contextual factors. Methods/Principal findings The cross-section survey was conducted among individuals attending the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (FIOCRUZ, RJ) during the period from April 2012 to February 2015. Stool samples were collected and processed by sedimentation, flotation, Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes and Graham methods, iron haematoxylin staining and safranin staining. Of the 3245 individuals analysed, 569 (17.5%) were infected with at least one parasite. The most common protozoa were Endolimax nana (28.8%), Entamoeba coli (14.8%), Complex Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (13.5%), Blastocystis hominis (12.7%), and Giardia lamblia (8.1%). Strongyloides stercoralis (4.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.6%), and hookworms (1.5%) were the most frequent helminths. There was a high frequency of contamination by protozoa (87%), and multiple infections were observed in 141 participants (24.8%). A positive association between age (young children) and gender (male) with intestinal parasites was observed. Geospatial distribution of the detected intestinal parasitic infections was not random or homogeneous, but was influenced by socioeconomic conditions (through the material deprivation index (MDI)). Participants classified in the highest levels of deprivation had higher risk of having intestinal parasites. Conclusions/Significance This study provides the first epidemiological information on the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Intestinal parasites, especially protozoa, are highly prevalent, indicating that

  14. Geospatial distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and its association with social determinants.

    PubMed

    Faria, Clarissa Perez; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Dias, Gisele Silva; da Silva, Sidnei; de Freitas, Marcelo Bessa; Almendra, Ricardo; Santana, Paula; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2017-03-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections remain among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. This study aimed to estimate their prevalence and provide a detailed analysis of geographical distribution of intestinal parasites in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, considering demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiological contextual factors. The cross-section survey was conducted among individuals attending the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (FIOCRUZ, RJ) during the period from April 2012 to February 2015. Stool samples were collected and processed by sedimentation, flotation, Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes and Graham methods, iron haematoxylin staining and safranin staining. Of the 3245 individuals analysed, 569 (17.5%) were infected with at least one parasite. The most common protozoa were Endolimax nana (28.8%), Entamoeba coli (14.8%), Complex Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (13.5%), Blastocystis hominis (12.7%), and Giardia lamblia (8.1%). Strongyloides stercoralis (4.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.6%), and hookworms (1.5%) were the most frequent helminths. There was a high frequency of contamination by protozoa (87%), and multiple infections were observed in 141 participants (24.8%). A positive association between age (young children) and gender (male) with intestinal parasites was observed. Geospatial distribution of the detected intestinal parasitic infections was not random or homogeneous, but was influenced by socioeconomic conditions (through the material deprivation index (MDI)). Participants classified in the highest levels of deprivation had higher risk of having intestinal parasites. This study provides the first epidemiological information on the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Intestinal parasites, especially protozoa, are highly prevalent, indicating that parasitic infections are still a serious public health problem

  15. daf-7 and the development of Strongyloides ratti and Parastrongyloides trichosuri.

    PubMed

    Crook, Matt; Thompson, Fiona J; Grant, Warwick N; Viney, Mark E

    2005-02-01

    daf-7 is a key ligand in one of the three pathways that control dauer larva development in Caenorhabditis elegans. Given the similarities between dauer larvae of free-living nematodes and third stage infective larvae of animal parasitic nematodes, we hypothesised that daf-7 may be involved in the development of these infective larvae. To investigate this, we cloned daf-7 orthologues from Strongyloides ratti and Parastrongyloides trichosuri and analysed their RNA level by semi-quantitative RT-PCR during the S. ratti and P. trichosuri life cycles and in a range of in vitro and in vivo conditions. We found that, in both species, the RNA level of daf-7 was low in free-living stages but peaked in the infective L3 (iL3) stage with little or no expression in the parasitic stages. This contrasts with the daf-7 RNA level in C. elegans, which peaks in L1, decreases thereafter, and is absent in dauer larvae. The RNA level of daf-7 in infective larvae was reduced by larval penetration of host skin or development in the host, but not by a shift to the body temperature of the host.

  16. An unusual cause of alveolar hemorrhage post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sachin; Jain, Amit; Fanning, Tina V; Couriel, Daniel R; Jimenez, Carlos A; Eapen, Georgie A

    2006-04-07

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is being increasingly used in cancer therapy. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, an early complication of stem cell transplant, results from bacterial, viral and fungal infections, coagulopathy, and engraftment syndrome, or can be idiopathic. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage associated with Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in stem cell transplant patients has been rarely reported. We describe an unusual cause of alveolar hemorrhage post hematopoietic stem cell transplant due to Strongyloides hyperinfection. Therapy with parenteral ivermectin and thiabendazole was initiated but the patient deteriorated and died of respiratory failure and septic shock. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection is an unusual cause of alveolar hemorrhage early after hematopoietic stem cell transplant with very high mortality.

  17. Duplications and Positive Selection Drive the Evolution of Parasitism-Associated Gene Families in the Nematode Strongyloides papillosus

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Praveen; Jaleta, Tegegn G.; Streit, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Gene duplication is a major mechanism playing a role in the evolution of phenotypic complexity and in the generation of novel traits. By comparing parasitic and nonparasitic nematodes, a recent study found that the evolution of parasitism in Strongyloididae is associated with a large expansion in the Astacin and CAP gene families. To gain novel insights into the developmental processes in the sheep parasite Strongyloides papillosus, we sequenced transcriptomes of different developmental stages and sexes. Overall, we found that the majority of genes are developmentally regulated and have one-to-one orthologs in the diverged S. ratti genome. Together with the finding of similar expression profiles between S. papillosus and S. ratti, these results indicate a strong evolutionary constraint acting against change at sequence and expression levels. However, the comparison between parasitic and free-living females demonstrates a quite divergent pattern that is mostly due to the previously mentioned expansion in the Astacin and CAP gene families. More detailed phylogenetic analysis of both gene families shows that most members date back to single expansion events early in the Strongyloides lineage and have undergone subfunctionalization resulting in clusters that are highly expressed either in infective larvae or in parasitic females. Finally, we found increased evidence for positive selection in both gene families relative to the genome-wide expectation. In summary, our study reveals first insights into the developmental transcriptomes of S. papillosus and provides a detailed analysis of sequence and expression evolution in parasitism-associated gene families. PMID:28338804

  18. Duplications and positive selection drive the evolution of parasitism associated gene families in the nematode Strongyloides papillosus.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Praveen; Jaleta, Tegegn G; Streit, Adrian; Rödelsperger, Christian

    2017-03-02

    Gene duplication is one major mechanism playing a role in the evolution of phenotypic complexity and in the generation of novel traits. By comparing parasitic and nonparasitic nematodes, a recent study found that the evolution of parasitism in Strongyloididae is associated with a large expansion in the Astacin and CAP gene families.To gain novel insights into the developmental processes in the sheep parasite Strongyloides papillosus, we sequenced transcriptomes of different developmental stages and sexes. Overall, we found that the majority of genes are developmentally regulated and have one-to-one orthologs in the diverged S. ratti genome. Together with the finding of similar expression profiles between S. papillosus and S. ratti, these results indicate a strong evolutionary constraint acting against change at sequence and expression levels. However, the comparison between parasitic and free-living females demonstrates a quite divergent pattern that is mostly due to the previously mentioned expansion in the Astacin and CAP gene families. More detailed phylogenetic analysis of both gene families shows that most members date back to single expansion events early in the Strongyloides lineage and have undergone subfunctionalization resulting in clusters that are highly expressed either in infective larvae or in parasitic females. Finally, we found increased evidence for positive selection in both gene families relative to the genome-wide expectation.In summary, our study reveals first insights into the developmental transcriptomes of S. papillosus and provides a detailed analysis of sequence and expression evolution in parasitism associated gene families.

  19. Intestinal mast cells and eosinophils in relation to Strongyloides ratti adult expulsion from the small and large intestines of rats.

    PubMed

    Shintoku, Y; Kadosaka, T; Kimura, E; Takagi, H; Kondo, S; Itoh, M

    2013-04-01

    Mucosal mast cells (MMC) play a crucial role in the expulsion of Strongyloides ratti adults from the small intestine of mice. We reported the large intestinal parasitism of S. ratti in rats, and there has been no report on MMC in the large intestine of the natural host. We studied kinetics of MMC, together with eosinophils, in the upper and lower small intestines, caecum and colon of infected rats. Two distinct phases of mastocytosis were revealed: one in the upper small intestine triggered by stimulation of 'ordinary' adults, and the other in the colon stimulated by 'immune-resistant' adults that started parasitizing the colon around 19 days post-infection. In all 4 intestinal sites, the MMC peaks were observed 5-7 days after the number of adult worms became the maximum and the height of MMC peaks appeared to be dependent on the number of parasitic adults, suggesting an important role played by worms themselves in the MMC buildup.

  20. Molecular identification of the strongyloid nematode Oesophagostomum aculeatum in the Asian wild elephant Elephas maximus.

    PubMed

    Phuphisut, O; Maipanich, W; Pubampen, S; Yindee, M; Kosoltanapiwat, N; Nuamtanong, S; Ponlawat, A; Adisakwattana, P

    2016-07-01

    The transmission of zoonoses by wildlife, including elephants, is a growing global concern. In this study, we screened for helminth infections among Asian wild elephants (Elephas maximus) of the Salakpra Wildlife Sanctuary, Kanchanaburi, Thailand. Elephant faecal samples (45) were collected from the sanctuary grounds during January through November 2013 and assayed individually using the tetranucleotide microsatellite technique. Microscopic examination indicated a high prevalence of strongylids (93.0%) and low prevalences of trichurids (2.3%) and ascarids (2.3%). To identify the strongylid species, small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences were amplified from copro-DNA and compared with sequences in GenBank. The generated SSU-rDNA sequences comprised five distinct haplotypes that were closely related to Oesophagostomum aculeatum. A phylogenetic analysis that incorporated related nematodes yielded a tree separated into two main clades, one containing our samples and human and domestic animal hookworms and the other consisting of Strongyloides. The present results indicate that O. aculeatum in local elephants is a potential source of helminthiasis in human and domestic animals in this wild-elephant irrupted area.

  1. A Case of Strongyloidiasis: An Immigrant Healthcare Worker Presenting with Fatigue and Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Alexa; Aung, Khin N.; Lois, William; Hasan, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode parasite classified as a soil-transmitted helminth, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. Strongyloides stercoralis can remain dormant for decades after the initial infection. Case We describe a patient who was diagnosed with Strongyloides stercoralis infection three weeks after a left inguinal hernia repair and discuss approaches to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Conclusions Physicians in the United States often miss opportunities to identify patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. Symptoms may be vague and screening tests have limitations. We review current strategies for diagnosis and treatment of chronic intestinal strongyloidiasis in immigrant patients who have significant travel history to tropical regions and discuss the clinical features and management of the infection. PMID:28744381

  2. Questionnaire survey and prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections in Barru, Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Toma, A; Miyagi, I; Kamimura, K; Tokuyama, Y; Hasegawa, H; Selomo, M; Dahlan, D; Majid, I; Hasanuddi, I; Ngatimin, R; Mogi, M; Kuwabara, N

    1999-03-01

    A questionnaire survey with parasitological study was carried out on the inhabitants of 4 villages in Barru district, Sulawesi, Indonesia from 1994 to 1995. The questionnaire dealt with life style and sanitary conditions. In 482 houses in the 4 villages, interviews for the items of the questionnaire were conducted with the owner, housekeeper and children of the same family. In Pancana and Lalolang, 37.7% and 50% respectively of man inhabitants surveyed were fishermen, while in Lompo Riaja and Pattappa, 38.6% and 65.5% respectively were farmers. The highest proportion of official workers was 33.7% in Lompo Riaja. Educational level was low; 88.4% in Pancana, 90.4% in Lalolang, 62.1% in Lompo Riaja and 91.2% in Pattappa had elementary or below elementary school education. In Lompo Riaja, 30.8% of the inhabitants graduated from senior high school or university. The percentage of families having their own latrine was 30.3% in Pancana, 13.2% in Lalolang, 31.9% in Pattapa and 60% in Lompo Riaja. The people without latrines usually defecated in rice fields, seaside or riverside. A total of 654 fecal samples was examined by the modified Kato-Katz thick smear method. Five nematode species, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, Strongyloides stercoralis and unidentified Rhabditoids of free-living nature were detected. Cestode, Hymenolepis nana infection was confirmed. All the hookworms examined by the modified Harada-Mori culture technic were Necator americanus. Trichuris infection was most common, followed by hookworm and Ascaris infections, both in young (aged 4-14) and older (aged over 15) age groups. The prevalence of hookworm infection was significantly higher in males than in females of older age. Among the older age group, the prevalence of Trichuris infection was significantly lower in Lompo Riaja, while hookworm infection was the highest in Pattappa. Among all the inhabitants examined for parasite infection, 17.4% had 3 kinds of nematode

  3. Prevalence and clinical relevance of helminth co-infections among tuberculosis patients in urban Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Hella, Jerry; Said, Khadija; Kamwela, Lujeko; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Maroa, Thomas; Chiryamkubi, Magreth; Mhalu, Grace; Schindler, Christian; Reither, Klaus; Knopp, Stefanie; Utzinger, Jürg; Gagneux, Sébastien; Fenner, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Background Helminth infections can negatively affect the immunologic host control, which may increase the risk of progression from latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to tuberculosis (TB) disease and alter the clinical presentation of TB. We assessed the prevalence and determined the clinical relevance of helminth co-infection among TB patients and household contact controls in urban Tanzania. Methodology Between November 2013 and October 2015, we enrolled adult (≥18 years) sputum smear-positive TB patients and household contact controls without TB during an ongoing TB cohort study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We used Baermann, FLOTAC, Kato-Katz, point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen, and urine filtration to diagnose helminth infections. Multivariable logistic regression models with and without random effects for households were used to assess for associations between helminth infection and TB. Principal findings A total of 597 TB patients and 375 household contact controls were included. The median age was 33 years and 60.2% (585/972) were men. The prevalence of any helminth infection among TB patients was 31.8% (190/597) and 25.9% (97/375) among controls. Strongyloides stercoralis was the predominant helminth species (16.6%, 161), followed by hookworm (9.0%, 87) and Schistosoma mansoni (5.7%, 55). An infection with any helminth was not associated with TB (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–1.80, p = 0.22), but S. mansoni infection was (aOR 2.15, 95% CI: 1.03–4.45, p = 0.040). Moreover, S. mansoni infection was associated with lower sputum bacterial load (aOR 2.63, 95% CI: 1.38–5.26, p = 0.004) and tended to have fewer lung cavitations (aOR 0.41, 95% CI: 0.12–1.16, p = 0.088). Conclusions/Significance S. mansoni infection was an independent risk factor for active TB and altered the clinical presentation in TB patients. These findings suggest a role for schistosomiasis in modulating the pathogenesis of human TB

  4. Strongyloides seroprevalence before and after an ivermectin mass drug administration in a remote Australian Aboriginal community

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Bart J.; Cheng, Allen C.; McCarthy, James; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Holt, Deborah C.; Page, Wendy; Shield, Jennifer; Gundjirryirr, Roslyn; Mulholland, Eddie; Ward, Linda; Andrews, Ross M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Strongyloides seroprevalence is hyper-endemic in many Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, ranging from 35–60%. We report the impact on Strongyloides seroprevalence after two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs) delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community. Methods Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured Strongyloides seroprevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined changes in serostatus. Serodiagnosis was undertaken by ELISA that used sonicated Strongyloides ratti antigen to detect anti-Strongyloides IgG. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 10–42 days if Strongyloides and/or scabies was diagnosed; others followed a standard alternative algorithm. A questionnaire on clinical symptoms was administered to identify adverse events from treatment and self-reported symptoms associated with serostatus. Findings We surveyed 1013 participants at the baseline population census and 1060 (n = 700 from baseline cohort and 360 new entrants) at month 12. Strongyloides seroprevalence fell from 21% (175/818) at baseline to 5% at month 6. For participants from the baseline cohort this reduction was sustained at month 12 (34/618, 6%), falling to 2% at month 18 after the second MDA. For new entrants to the cohort at month 12, seroprevalence reduced from 25% (75/297) to 7% at month 18. Strongyloides positive seroconversions for the baseline cohort six months after each MDA were 2.5% (4/157) at month 6 and 1% at month 18, whilst failure to serorevert remained unchanged at 18%. At 12 months, eosinophilia was identified in 59% of baseline seropositive participants and 89% of seropositive new entrants, compared with 47%baseline seronegative participants and 51% seronegative new entrants. Seropositivity was not correlated with haemoglobin or any

  5. Comparison between the effect of Lawsonia inermis and flubendazole on Strongyloides species using scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Khadiga Ahmed; Ibrahim, Ayman Nabil; Ahmed, Mona Abdel-Fattah; Hetta, Mona Hafez

    2016-06-01

    Strongyloides species is a helminth of worldwide distribution primarily in tropical and subtropical regions. It is the only soil-transmitted helminth with the ability for autoinfection so; it may lead to severe systemic manifestations especially in immunosuppressed patients. Chemotherapy is currently considered the best therapeutic option for strongyloidiasis but some drugs are expensive and others have side effects as nausea, diarrhea and headache. Strongyloides larva is resistant to most chemical agents so, search for plant extracts may provide other effective but less expensive treatment. Lawsonia inermis Linn, popularly known as Henna, has been proven to have antihelminthic, antibacterial and antifungal properties. The current study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of Lawsonia inermis on Strongyloides spp. In vitro using scanning electron microscopy. Fifty Strongyloides species. larvae and free living females were incubated with different concentrations of Lawsonia (1, 10, 100 mg/ml), for different incubation periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) in comparison to the same concentrations of flubendazole at the same different time points. The results showed that Lawsonia inermis in a concentration of 10 mg/ml incubated with Strongyloides spp. female for 24 h affected the parasite cuticular surface in the form of transverse and longitudinal fissures and transverse depression in comparison to no cuticular change with flubendazole (100 mg/ml). This suggests that Lawsonia inermis may be a promising phytotherapeutic agent for strongyloidiasis.

  6. Cellular cytokine and chemokine responses to parasite antigens and fungus and mite allergens in children co-infected with helminthes and protozoa parasites.

    PubMed

    Hegewald, Jana; Gantin, Richard G; Lechner, Christian J; Huang, Xiangsheng; Agosssou, Abram; Agbeko, Yvon F; Soboslay, Peter T; Köhler, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa poly-parasite infections are frequently observed in children, and with poly-parasitism modulating immune mechanisms, mediated by cytokines and chemokines, are required to prevent overwhelming inflammation and host tissue damage. We analyzed in children co-infected with helminthes and protozoan parasites their cellular production of regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to parasite antigens and allergens. Intestinal and intravascular parasite infections were detected in stool and urines samples. The in vitro cellular cytokine and chemokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to parasite antigens and allergens were analysed in children (n = 87) with single and poly-parasite infection, and skin prick test reactivity to fungus and mite allergens was determined in singly and poly-parasitized children (n = 509). In children Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (62%), Necator americanus (31%), Schistosoma haematobium (28%), S. mansoni (21%), Hymenolepis nana (2%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (1%) were diagnosed. Singly infected were 37%, 47% were positive for 2 or more parasite species and 16% were infection-free. When PBMC were stimulated in vitro with parasite antigens and allergens, regulatory-type cytokine IL-27 and alarmin-type IL-33 enhanced with poly-parasite infections whilst IL-10 and pro-inflammatory MIP3-α/CCL20 and MIG/CXCL9 were produced in similar amounts in singly or poly-parasitized children. The co-stimulation in vitro of PBMC with mite allergens and Ascaris lumbricoides antigens depressed the allergen-induced pro-inflammatory IL-27, IL-33 and MIP3-α/CCL20 responses while regulatory IL-10 remained unaffected. Post albendazole and/or praziquantel treatment, the cellular release of IL-10, IL-33, MIP3-α/CCL20 and MIG/CXCL9 lessened significantly in all children infection groups. Skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

  7. Application of a Multiplex Quantitative PCR to Assess Prevalence and Intensity Of Intestinal Parasite Infections in a Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Llewellyn, Stacey; Inpankaew, Tawin; Nery, Susana Vaz; Gray, Darren J.; Verweij, Jaco J.; Clements, Archie C. A.; Gomes, Santina J.; Traub, Rebecca; McCarthy, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate quantitative assessment of infection with soil transmitted helminths and protozoa is key to the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of these parasites, as well as for monitoring large scale treatment efficacy and effectiveness studies. As morbidity and transmission of helminth infections are directly related to both the prevalence and intensity of infection, there is particular need for improved techniques for assessment of infection intensity for both purposes. The current study aimed to evaluate two multiplex PCR assays to determine prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasite infections, and compare them to standard microscopy. Methodology/Principal Findings Faecal samples were collected from a total of 680 people, originating from rural communities in Timor-Leste (467 samples) and Cambodia (213 samples). DNA was extracted from stool samples and subject to two multiplex real-time PCR reactions the first targeting: Necator americanus, Ancylostoma spp., Ascaris spp., and Trichuris trichiura; and the second Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia. duodenalis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Samples were also subject to sodium nitrate flotation for identification and quantification of STH eggs, and zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation for detection of protozoan parasites. Higher parasite prevalence was detected by multiplex PCR (hookworms 2.9 times higher, Ascaris 1.2, Giardia 1.6, along with superior polyparasitism detection with this effect magnified as the number of parasites present increased (one: 40.2% vs. 38.1%, two: 30.9% vs. 12.9%, three: 7.6% vs. 0.4%, four: 0.4% vs. 0%). Although, all STH positive samples were low intensity infections by microscopy as defined by WHO guidelines the DNA-load detected by multiplex PCR suggested higher intensity infections. Conclusions/Significance Multiplex PCR, in addition to superior sensitivity, enabled more accurate determination of infection intensity for Ascaris, hookworms and

  8. Molecular appraisal of intestinal parasitic infection in transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Pooja; Khalil, Shehla; Mirdha, Bijay Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Diarrhoea is the main clinical manifestation caused by intestinal parasitic infections in patients, with special reference to transplant recipients who require careful consideration to reduce morbidity and mortality. Further, molecular characterization of some important parasites is necessary to delineate the different modes of transmission to consider appropriate management strategies. We undertook this study to investigate the intestinal parasitic infections in transplant recipients with or without diarrhoea, and the genotypes of the isolated parasites were also determined. Methods: Stool samples from 38 transplant recipients comprising 29 post-renal, two liver and seven bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients presenting with diarrhoea and 50 transplant recipients (42 post-renal transplant, eight BMT) without diarrhoea were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites by light microscopy using wet mount, modified Ziehl–Neelsen staining for intestinal coccidia and modified trichrome staining for microsporidia. Genotypes of Cryptosporidium species were determined by multilocus genotyping using small subunit ribosomal (SSUrRNA), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) as the target genes. Assemblage study for Giardia lamblia was performed using triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) as the target gene. Samples were also screened for bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Results: The parasites that were detected included Cryptosporidium species (21%, 8/38), Cystoisospora (Isospora) belli (8%, 3), Cyclospora cayetanensis (5%, 2), G. lamblia (11%, 4), Hymenolepis nana (11%, 4), Strongyloides stercoralis (3%, 1) and Blastocystis hominis (3%, 1). Multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium species at SSUrRNA, COWP and DHFR loci could detect four isolates of C. hominis; two of C. parvum, one of mixed genotype and one could not be genotyped. All the C. hominis isolates were detected in adult post

  9. Strongyloidiasis detected by the agar plate culture method among patients infected by HIV.

    PubMed

    Urdez-Hernández, E; Jiménez-Galán, S; Antonio-Manríquez, M; DE León-Juárez, E A; Terrazas-Estrada, J J; Hernández-García, M C; García-Zaldívar, P; Estrada-Aguilera, A

    1999-10-01

    To evaluate the rate of strongyloidiasis among HIV/AIDS patients, stools and duodenal juice were examined using the agar plate culture method. From January to June 1993, a total of 60 HIV/AIDS patients were required for duodenal aspirate and three serial samples of freshly passed stools. Stools and duodenal aspirate were dispensed on an agar plate culture; after incubation at 28 degrees C during 48 h, screening of plates was made at 10 x. The presence of furrows and worms of short buccal chamber and prominent genital primordium were positive for Strongyloides stercoralis. Most patients were men (91.7%); their mean age, of 33.9 years (SD +/- 10.6); their median CD4(+) T-cells count, of 105/microL (range of 12 to 646). S. stercoralis was detected in three patients (5%). In duodenal juice, the three patients showed the parasite, but in feces, only two (3.3%). In these two individuals, the worms were found in feces by agar culture and Faust's concentration method. The rate of S. stercoralis in feces of HIV/AIDS individuals (3.3%) by agar culture method was similar to that formerly reported from the general Mexican population (2.9%) using standard concentration procedures. Hence, in this immunocompromised population of a low prevalence city, there was no advantage to using an agar plate culture for strongyloidiasis.

  10. Occurrence of strongyloidiasis among patients with HTLV-1/2 seen at the outpatient clinic of the Núcleo de Medicina Tropical, Belém, State of Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Karen Cristini Yumi Ogawa; Costa, Carlos Araújo da; Ferreira, Louise de Souza Canto; Martins, Luisa Carício; Linhares, Alexandre da Costa; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Yassui; Batista, Evander de Jesus Oliveira; Sousa, Maisa Silva de

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of Strongyloides stercoralis infestation and coinfection with HTLV-1/2 in Belém, Brazil. S. stercoralis was investigated in stool samples obtained from individuals infected with HTLV-1/2 and their uninfected relatives. The frequency of S. stercoralis was 9% (9/100), including six patients infected with HTLV-1 (14.3%), two patients infected with HTLV-2 (11.1%), and one uninfected relative. Two cases of hyperinfestation by S. stercoralis were characterized as HTLV-1. These results support the need for the routine investigation of S. stercoralis in patients with HTLV-1, in an attempt to prevent the development of severe forms of strongyloidiasis.

  11. Parasitiosis in handicapped children in an Egyptian blind asylum.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbini, Gehad T; Aboul Noor, Mohamad F; Hegazi, Mamdouh M

    2008-04-01

    Examination of visually handicapped children and their serving staff revealed in a descending order Enterobius vermicularis, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Cryptospodium parvum, Tricocephalus trichura and Strongyloides stercoralis. Head lice were encountered. But, neither blood parasites nor protozoan infective agent in water for human consumption.

  12. F-actin accumulates in the vulva of female Strongyloides venezuelensis.

    PubMed

    Silva, C V; Gonçalves, A L R; Cruz, L; Cruz, M C; Ueta, M T; Costa-Cruz, J M

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the actin cytoskeleton architecture in female Strongyloides venezuelensis and thus to investigate the distribution and concentration of actin, female worms were labelled with phalloidin-rhodamine and visualized under confocal microscopy. Our results demonstrate that filamentous actin accumulates in the vulva and the concentration of F-actin at this site suggests its important role, especially during oviposition, in the life cycle of S. venezuelensis.

  13. Strongyloides appendicitis: unusual etiology in two siblings with chronic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Komenaka, Ian K; Wu, George C H; Lazar, Eric L; Cohen, Jason A

    2003-09-01

    Appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute surgical disease in children and young adults. Parasites, however, are one of the uncommon etiologies. An 8-year-old girl and her 7-year-old sister presented with more than 2 months of chronic abdominal pain that became worse over a 1-week period before presentation. The 2 sisters presented 1 month apart. Both had similar symptomatology and physical examination findings. At operation, the surgical findings included an inflamed appendix with a cross section of the parasite Strongyloides. Strongyloides appendicitis has occurred almost exclusively in areas endemic to the parasite. Its environment is more common outside the United States but occasionally is seen in the Southeast region and in institutionalized individuals. The presentation of acute exacerbation of chronic abdominal pain coupled with the pathologic finding of Strongyloides in an acutely inflamed appendix, should alert the clinician of other possible cases. This increased index of suspicion will allow more prompt diagnosis and help avoid the morbidity of delayed operation.

  14. Epidemiological Characteristics of Strongyloidiasis in Inhabitants of Indigenous Communities in Borneo Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ngui, Romano; Halim, Noor Amira Abdul; Rajoo, Yamuna; Lim, Yvonne Al; Ambu, Stephen; Rajoo, Komalaveni; Chang, Tey Siew; Woon, Lu Chan; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological study on strongyloidiasis in humans is currently lacking in Malaysia. Thus, a cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among the inhabitants of longhouse indigenous communities in Sarawak. A single stool and blood sample were collected from each participant and subjected to microscopy, serological and molecular techniques. Five species of intestinal parasites were identified by stool microscopy. None of the stool samples were positive for S. stercoralis. However, 11% of 236 serum samples were seropositive for strongyloidiasis. Further confirmation using molecular technique on stool samples of the seropositive individuals successfully amplified 5 samples, suggesting current active infections. The prevalence was significantly higher in adult males and tended to increase with age. S. stercoralis should no longer be neglected in any intestinal parasitic survey. Combination of more than 1 diagnostic technique is necessary to increase the likelihood of estimating the 'true' prevalence of S. stercoralis.

  15. Epidemiological Characteristics of Strongyloidiasis in Inhabitants of Indigenous Communities in Borneo Island, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ngui, Romano; Halim, Noor Amira Abdul; Rajoo, Yamuna; Lim, Yvonne AL; Ambu, Stephen; Rajoo, Komalaveni; Chang, Tey Siew; Woon, Lu Chan; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological study on strongyloidiasis in humans is currently lacking in Malaysia. Thus, a cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among the inhabitants of longhouse indigenous communities in Sarawak. A single stool and blood sample were collected from each participant and subjected to microscopy, serological and molecular techniques. Five species of intestinal parasites were identified by stool microscopy. None of the stool samples were positive for S. stercoralis. However, 11% of 236 serum samples were seropositive for strongyloidiasis. Further confirmation using molecular technique on stool samples of the seropositive individuals successfully amplified 5 samples, suggesting current active infections. The prevalence was significantly higher in adult males and tended to increase with age. S. stercoralis should no longer be neglected in any intestinal parasitic survey. Combination of more than 1 diagnostic technique is necessary to increase the likelihood of estimating the ‘true’ prevalence of S. stercoralis. PMID:27853126

  16. Screening of living organ donors for endemic infections: Understanding the challenges and benefits of enhanced screening.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Amanda; Ison, Michael G

    2016-11-14

    Living organ donor candidates are screened for medical and psychosocial contraindications to donation. One important goal of this process is to prevent donor-derived infectious diseases transmissions. These transmissions are exceptionally rare, but have the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality. The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network now requires each recovery hospital to develop a protocol for evaluating living donors for tuberculosis and other geographically-defined endemic pathogens, including Trypanosoma cruzi (the causative pathogen of Chagas' disease), Strongyloides stercoralis, and West Nile Virus (WNV), in addition to universal screening for blood-borne pathogens. Enhanced screening requirements were developed in response to the changing epidemiology and endemicity of these diseases, as well as recent case reports of donor-derived disease transmission. Living organ donor disease screening presents a number of unique challenges to clinicians and policy-makers, including deciding which donors to test, which testing modality to use, when to test, and appropriate interpretation of results. This review will analyze the epidemiology of T. cruzi, S. stercoralis, and WNV, the assays available for screening for these diseases, and the subsequent impact on the living organ donor process . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Strongyloides myopotami (Secernentea: Strongyloididae) from the intestine of feral nutrias (Myocastor coypus) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choe, Seongjun; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Oh, Mihyeon; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

    2014-10-01

    Surveys on helminthic fauna of the nutria, Myocastor coypus, have seldom been performed in the Republic of Korea. In the present study, we describe Strongyloides myopotami (Secernentea: Strongyloididae) recovered from the small intestine of feral nutrias. Total 10 adult nutrias were captured in a wetland area in Gimhae-si (City), Gyeongsangnam-do (Province) in April 2013. They were transported to our laboratory, euthanized with ether, and necropsied. About 1,300 nematode specimens were recovered from 10 nutrias, and some of them were morphologically observed by light and scanning electron microscopies. They were 3.7-4.7 (4.0±0.36) mm in length, 0.03-0.04 (0.033) mm in width. The worm dimension and other morphological characters, including prominent lips of the vulva, blunted conical tail, straight type of the ovary, and 8-chambered stoma, were all consistent with S. myopotami. This nematode fauna is reported for the first time in Korea.

  18. Economic Analysis of the Impact of Overseas and Domestic Treatment and Screening Options for Intestinal Helminth Infection among US-Bound Refugees from Asia

    PubMed Central

    Maskery, Brian; Coleman, Margaret S.; Weinberg, Michelle; Zhou, Weigong; Rotz, Lisa; Klosovsky, Alexander; Cantey, Paul T.; Fox, LeAnne M.; Cetron, Martin S.; Stauffer, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many U.S.-bound refugees travel from countries where intestinal parasites (hookworm, Trichuris trichuria, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis) are endemic. These infections are rare in the United States and may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, leading to potentially serious consequences. This evaluation examined the costs and benefits of combinations of overseas presumptive treatment of parasitic diseases vs. domestic screening/treating vs. no program. Methods An economic decision tree model terminating in Markov processes was developed to estimate the cost and health impacts of four interventions on an annual cohort of 27,700 U.S.-bound Asian refugees: 1) “No Program,” 2) U.S. “Domestic Screening and Treatment,” 3) “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin” presumptive treatment, and 4) “Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides”. Markov transition state models were used to estimate long-term effects of parasitic infections. Health outcome measures (four parasites) included outpatient cases, hospitalizations, deaths, life years, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results The “No Program” option is the least expensive ($165,923 per cohort) and least effective option (145 outpatient cases, 4.0 hospitalizations, and 0.67 deaths discounted over a 60-year period for a one-year cohort). The “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin” option ($418,824) is less expensive than “Domestic Screening and Treatment” ($3,832,572) or “Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides” ($2,182,483). According to the model outcomes, the most effective treatment option is “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin,” which reduces outpatient cases, deaths and hospitalization by around 80% at an estimated net cost of $458,718 per death averted, or $2,219/$24,036 per QALY/life year gained relative to “No Program”. Discussion Overseas presumptive treatment for U.S.-bound refugees is a cost

  19. Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Infections Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) Styes Fungal Infections (Ringworm, Yeast, etc.) Diaper Rash Infections That Pets Carry Oral ... Pneumonia Tinea (Ringworm, Jock Itch, Athlete's Foot) Vaginal Yeast Infections Immunizations Do My Kids Need Vaccines Before ...

  20. Strongyloides myopotami (Secernentea: Strongyloididae) from the Intestine of Feral Nutrias (Myocastor coypus) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Seongjun; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Oh, Mihyeon; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Surveys on helminthic fauna of the nutria, Myocastor coypus, have seldom been performed in the Republic of Korea. In the present study, we describe Strongyloides myopotami (Secernentea: Strongyloididae) recovered from the small intestine of feral nutrias. Total 10 adult nutrias were captured in a wetland area in Gimhae-si (City), Gyeongsangnam-do (Province) in April 2013. They were transported to our laboratory, euthanized with ether, and necropsied. About 1,300 nematode specimens were recovered from 10 nutrias, and some of them were morphologically observed by light and scanning electron microscopies. They were 3.7-4.7 (4.0±0.36) mm in length, 0.03-0.04 (0.033) mm in width. The worm dimension and other morphological characters, including prominent lips of the vulva, blunted conical tail, straight type of the ovary, and 8-chambered stoma, were all consistent with S. myopotami. This nematode fauna is reported for the first time in Korea. PMID:25352703

  1. IMMUNODIAGNOSIS OF HUMAN STRONGYLOIDIASIS: USE OF SIX DIFFERENT ANTIGENIC FRACTIONS FROM Strongyloides venezuelensis PARASITIC FEMALES

    PubMed Central

    CORRAL, Marcelo Andreetta; de PAULA, Fabiana Martins; GOTTARDI, Maiara; MEISEL, Dirce Mary Correia Lima; CASTILHO, Vera Lucia Pagliusi; GONÇALVES, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; CHIEFFI, Pedro Paulo; GRYSCHEK, Ronaldo Cesar Borges

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to evaluate six different antigenic fractions from Strongyloides venezuelensis parasitic females for the immunodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. Soluble and membrane fractions from S. venezuelensis parasitic females were prepared in phosphate-buffered saline (SSF and SMF, respectively), Tris-HCl (TSF and TMF, respectively), and an alkaline buffer (ASF and AMF, respectively). Serum samples obtained from patients with strongyloidiasis or, other parasitic diseases, and healthy individuals were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Soluble fractions SSF, TSF, and ASF showed 85.0%, 75.0%, and 80.0% sensitivity and 93.1%, 93.1%, and 87.5% specificity, respectively. Membrane fractions SMF, TMF, and AMF showed 80.0%, 75.0%, and 85.0% sensitivity, and 95.8%, 90.3%, and 91.7% specificity, respectively. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the fractions obtained from parasitic females, especially the SSF and SMF, could be used as alternative antigen sources in the serodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. PMID:26603231

  2. Optimizing culture conditions for free-living stages of the nematode parasite Strongyloides ratti.

    PubMed

    Dulovic, Alex; Puller, Vadim; Streit, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    The rat parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti (S. ratti) has recently emerged as a model system for various aspects of parasite biology and evolution. In addition to parasitic parthenogenetic females, this species can also form facultative free-living generations of sexually reproducing adults. These free-living worms are bacteriovorous and grow very well when cultured in the feces of their host. However, in fecal cultures the worms are rather difficult to find for observation and experimental manipulation. Therefore, it has also been attempted to raise S. ratti on Nematode Growth Media (NGM) plates with Escherichia coli OP50 as food, exactly as described for the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Whilst worms did grow on these plates, their longevity and reproductive output compared to fecal cultures were dramatically reduced. In order to improve the culture success we tested other plates occasionally used for C. elegans and, starting from the best performing one, systematically varied the plate composition, the temperature and the food in order to further optimize the conditions. Here we present a plate culturing protocol for free-living stages of S. ratti with strongly improved reproductive success and longevity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pilot Study to Assess the Efficacy of Ivermectin and Fenbendazole for Treating Captive-Born Olive Baboons (Papio anubis) Coinfected with Strongyloides fülleborni and Trichuris trichiura

    PubMed Central

    Reichard, Mason V; Thomas, Jennifer E; Chavez-Suarez, Maria; Cullin, Cassandra O; White, Gary L; Wydysh, Emily C; Wolf, Roman F

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of combined treatment with ivermectin and fenbendazole (IVM–FBZ) for treating captive olive baboons (Papio anubis) infected with Strongyloides fülleborni and Trichuris trichiura, 2 common nematode parasites of these NHP. Infected baboons were treated for a total of 9 wk with ivermectin (400 μg/kg IM twice weekly) and fenbendazole (50 mg/kg PO once daily for 3 d; 3 rounds of treatment, 21 d apart). Five baboons naturally infected with both S. fülleborni and T. trichiura (n = 4) or S. fülleborni alone (n = 1) received the combination therapy; an additional baboon infected with both parasites served as a nontreated control. The efficacy of IVM–FBZ was measured as the reduction in fecal egg counts of S. fülleborni and T. trichiura as determined by quantitative fecal flotation examination after treatment of baboons with IVM–FBZ. All baboons treated with IVM–FBZ stopped shedding S. fülleborni and T. trichiura eggs by 8 d after treatment and remained negative for at least 161 d. The nontreated control baboon shed S. fülleborni and T. trichiura eggs throughout the study period. Our results indicate that the IVM–FBZ regimen was efficacious for treating olive baboons infected with S. fülleborni and T. trichiura. PMID:28905715

  4. Pilot Study to Assess the Efficacy of Ivermectin and Fenbendazole for Treating Captive-Born Olive Baboons (Papio anubis) Coinfected with Strongyloides fülleborni and Trichuris trichiura.

    PubMed

    Reichard, Mason V; Thomas, Jennifer E; Chavez-Suarez, Maria; Cullin, Cassandra O; White, Gary L; Wydysh, Emily C; Wolf, Roman F

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of combined treatment with ivermectin and fenbendazole (IVM-FBZ) for treating captive olive baboons (Papio anubis) infected with Strongyloides fülleborni and Trichuris trichiura, 2 common nematode parasites of these NHP. Infected baboons were treated for a total of 9 wk with ivermectin (400 μg/kg IM twice weekly) and fenbendazole (50 mg/kg PO once daily for 3 d; 3 rounds of treatment, 21 d apart). Five baboons naturally infected with both S. fülleborni and T. trichiura (n = 4) or S. fülleborni alone (n = 1) received the combination therapy; an additional baboon infected with both parasites served as a nontreated control. The efficacy of IVM-FBZ was measured as the reduction in fecal egg counts of S. fülleborni and T. trichiura as determined by quantitative fecal flotation examination after treatment of baboons with IVM-FBZ. All baboons treated with IVM-FBZ stopped shedding S. fülleborni and T. trichiura eggs by 8 d after treatment and remained negative for at least 161 d. The nontreated control baboon shed S. fülleborni and T. trichiura eggs throughout the study period. Our results indicate that the IVM-FBZ regimen was efficacious for treating olive baboons infected with S. fülleborni and T. trichiura.

  5. The Epidemiology of Infectious Gastroenteritis Related Reactive Arthritis in U.S. Military Personnel: A Case-Control Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-13

    Campylobacter [11-15], Salmonella [16-19], Shigella[4,20], and Yersinia[21,22]. Other ReA case reports have implicated asymptomatic enteric infections[23...enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)[10,24], Cryptosporidium spp [25,26], Giardia lamblia[27], Strongyloides stercoralis[28], and possibly Schistosoma...after Salmonella among medical doctors - study of an outbreak. Journal of Rheumatology 1993, 20:845-848. 17.Inman RD, Johnston ME, Hodge M, Falk J

  6. Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    standing, diagnosis, and treatment of musculoskeletal infections. Key Words: musculoskeletal infection, biofilm , bacteria, biomaterial (J Orthop Trauma...form a biofilm , or slime layer.1 The recurrence of infections is often the result of microbial biofilm formation on the implant, enabling the persistence...Klebsiella pneumoniae). Staphylococcus species is by far the most studied pathogen in musculoskeletal infections and can produce a multilayered biofilm

  7. Pelodera (syn. Rhabditis) strongyloides as a cause of dermatitis – a report of 11 dogs from Finland

    PubMed Central

    Saari, Seppo AM; Nikander, Sven E

    2006-01-01

    Background Pelodera (Rhabditis) strongyloides is a small saprophytic nematode that lives in decaying organic matter. On rare occasions, it can invade the mammalian skin, causing a pruritic, erythematous, alopecic and crusting dermatitis on skin sites that come into contact with the ground. Diagnosis of the disease is based on case history (a dog living outdoors on damp straw bedding) with characteristic skin lesions and on the demonstration of typical larvae in skin scrapings or biopsy. Pelodera (rhabditic) dermatitis cases have been reported mainly from Central European countries and the United States. Case presentation During 1975–1999, we verified 11 canine cases of Pelodera dermatitis in Finland. The cases were confirmed by identifying Pelodera larvae in scrapings. Biopsies for histopathology were obtained from three cases, and typical histopathological lesions (epidermal hyperplasia, epidermal and follicular hyperkeratosis, folliculitis and furunculosis with large numbers of nematode larvae of 25–40 μm of diameter within hair follicles) were present. The Pelodera strongyloides dermatitica strain from the first verified case in Finland has been maintained in ordinary blood agar in our laboratory since 1975. Light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies were employed to obtain detailed morphological information about the causative agent. The rhabditiform oesophagus at all developmental stages, the morphology of the anterior end of the nematode, copulatory bursa and spicules of the male and the tail of the female were the most important morphological features for identifying P. strongyloides. Conclusion These cases show that Pelodera dermatitis occurs in Finland, and also farther north than described earlier in the literature. This condition should be considered when a dog living outdoors has typical skin lesions situated at sites in contact with the ground as the main presenting clinical feature. The fastest and easiest way to confirm

  8. How to become a parasite without sex chromosomes: a hypothesis for the evolution of Strongyloides spp. and related nematodes.

    PubMed

    Streit, Adrian

    2014-09-01

    Parasitic lifestyles evolved many times independently. Just within the phylum Nematoda animal parasitism must have arisen at least four times. Switching to a parasitic lifestyle is expected to lead to changes in various life history traits including reproductive strategies. Parasitic nematode worms of the genus Strongyloides represent an interesting example to study these processes because they are still capable of forming facultative free-living generations in between parasitic ones. The parasitic generation consists of females only, which reproduce parthenogenetically. The sex in the progeny of the parasitic worms is determined by environmental cues, which control a, presumably ancestral, XX/XO chromosomal sex determining system. In some species the X chromosome is fused with an autosome and one copy of the X-derived sequences is removed by sex-specific chromatin diminution in males. Here I propose a hypothesis for how today's Strongyloides sp. might have evolved from a sexual free-living ancestor through dauer larvae forming free-living and facultative parasitic intermediate stages.

  9. Prevalence of strongyloidiasis in Latin America: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Buonfrate, D; Mena, M A; Angheben, A; Requena-Mendez, A; Muñoz, J; Gobbi, F; Albonico, M; Gotuzzo, E; Bisoffi, Z

    2015-02-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is rarely recognized as a major public health issue, probably because its burden is largely underestimated. We reviewed the literature (both PubMed and 'grey' literature) about the prevalence of strongyloidiasis in Latin America, an area of presumable high endemicity. There were finally 88 papers involved in the analysis, covering the period between 1981 and 2011. Studies were heterogeneous in several aspects, such as the populations screened and the diagnostic methods used. Most of the studies relied on direct coproparasitological examination, which has low sensitivity for the detection of S. stercoralis larvae. The following countries presented areas of high prevalence (>20%): Argentina, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru and Brazil. Globally, for most of the included countries it was not possible to define reliable data because of paucity and/or inadequacy of studies. S. stercoralis requires specific diagnostic methods for its detection; therefore, surveys should be specifically designed in order to avoid underestimation of the infection.

  10. Hyperinfection strongyloidiasis in renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Khuroo, Mehnaaz S

    2014-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is infection caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Chronic uncomplicated strongyloidiasis is known to occur in immunocompetent individuals while hyperinfection and dissemination occurs in selective immunosuppressed hosts particularly those on corticosteroid therapy. We report two cases of hyperinfection strongyloidiasis in renal transplant recipients and document endoscopic and pathological changes in the involved small bowel. One patient presented with features of dehydration and malnutrition while another developed ileal obstruction and strangulation, requiring bowel resection. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy showed erythematous and thickened duodenal mucosal folds. Histopathological examination of duodenal biopsies revealed S. stercoralis worms, larvae and eggs embedded in mucosa and submucosa. Wet mount stool preparation showed filariform larvae of S. stercoralis in both cases. Patients were managed with anthelmintic therapy (ivermectin/albendazole) and concurrent reduction of immunosuppression. Both patients had uneventful recovery. Complicated strongyloidiasis should be suspected in immunocompromised hosts who present with abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea, particularly in endemic areas. PMID:25150235

  11. Diverse Host-Seeking Behaviors of Skin-Penetrating Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Castelletto, Michelle L.; Gang, Spencer S.; Okubo, Ryo P.; Tselikova, Anastassia A.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Platzer, Edward G.; Lok, James B.; Hallem, Elissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Skin-penetrating parasitic nematodes infect approximately one billion people worldwide and are responsible for some of the most common neglected tropical diseases. The infective larvae of skin-penetrating nematodes are thought to search for hosts using sensory cues, yet their host-seeking behavior is poorly understood. We conducted an in-depth analysis of host seeking in the skin-penetrating human parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, and compared its behavior to that of other parasitic nematodes. We found that Str. stercoralis is highly mobile relative to other parasitic nematodes and uses a cruising strategy for finding hosts. Str. stercoralis shows robust attraction to a diverse array of human skin and sweat odorants, most of which are known mosquito attractants. Olfactory preferences of Str. stercoralis vary across life stages, suggesting a mechanism by which host seeking is limited to infective larvae. A comparison of odor-driven behavior in Str. stercoralis and six other nematode species revealed that parasite olfactory preferences reflect host specificity rather than phylogeny, suggesting an important role for olfaction in host selection. Our results may enable the development of new strategies for combating harmful nematode infections. PMID:25121736

  12. Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... or articles contaminated by them is an important component of infection control and isolation precautions. To help protect exposure to infectious materials, wash your hands: Wear gloves: In addition to ...

  13. Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strunz, Eric C.; Addiss, David G.; Stocks, Meredith E.; Ogden, Stephanie; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preventive chemotherapy represents a powerful but short-term control strategy for soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Since humans are often re-infected rapidly, long-term solutions require improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The purpose of this study was to quantitatively summarize the relationship between WASH access or practices and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the associations of improved WASH on infection with STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm [Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus], and Strongyloides stercoralis). PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and LILACS were searched from inception to October 28, 2013 with no language restrictions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they provided an estimate for the effect of WASH access or practices on STH infection. We assessed the quality of published studies with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. A total of 94 studies met our eligibility criteria; five were randomized controlled trials, whilst most others were cross-sectional studies. We used random-effects meta-analyses and analyzed only adjusted estimates to help account for heterogeneity and potential confounding respectively. Use of treated water was associated with lower odds of STH infection (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% CI 0.36–0.60). Piped water access was associated with lower odds of A. lumbricoides (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.39–0.41) and T. trichiura infection (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.45–0.72), but not any STH infection (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.28–3.11). Access to sanitation was associated with decreased likelihood of infection with any STH (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.57–0.76), T. trichiura (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.50–0.74), and A. lumbricoides (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44–0.88), but not with hookworm infection (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.61–1.06). Wearing shoes was associated with reduced

  14. Severe strongyloidiasis complicated by meningitis and hydrocephalus in an HTLV-1 carrier with increased proviral load.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Masao; Futami, Atsushi; Takahira, Kenichiro; Kodaira, Makoto; Tanaka, Tokutaro; Kuriki, Ken; Hori, Eitaro

    2003-12-01

    We report a 47-year-old Japanese man who was a human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) carrier with strongyloidiasis, and who was born in an area endemic for both Strongyloides stercoralis ( S. stercoralis) and HTLV-1. He presented with edema of both legs. Laboratory examination on admission revealed hypoalbuminemia, and S. stercoralis rhabditiform larvae were found by stool microscopy. Purulent meningitis, which was suspected to be due to disseminated strongyloidiasis, developed during the first and second treatment for S. stercoralis infection. After the meningitis was alleviated, hydrocephalus with gait disturbance developed, and these features were attenuated by a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. Impaired immunity and increased HTLV-1 proviral load, with an increased titer of HTLV-1 antibody, were observed in this patient. These results suggest that HTLV-1 proviral load and/or antibody titer of HTLV-1 can be used for the identification of carriers who are at increased risk of developing severe strongyloidiasis among those patients who are infected with both S. stercoralis and HTLV-1.

  15. Considerations for screening live kidney donors for endemic infections: a viewpoint on the UNOS policy.

    PubMed

    Levi, M E; Kumar, D; Green, M; Ison, M G; Kaul, D; Michaels, M G; Morris, M I; Schwartz, B S; Echenique, I A; Blumberg, E A

    2014-05-01

    In February 2013, the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network mandated that transplant centers perform screening of living kidney donors prior to transplantation for Strongyloides, Trypanosoma cruzi and West Nile virus (WNV) infection if the donor is from an endemic area. However, specific guidelines for screening were not provided, such as the optimal testing modalities, timing of screening prior to donation and the appropriate selection of donors. In this regard, the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice, together with disease-specific experts, has developed this viewpoint document to provide guidance for the testing of live donors for Strongyloides, T. cruzi and WNV infection, specifically identifying at-risk populations and testing algorithms, including advantages, limitations and interpretation of results.

  16. [Pulmonary strongyloidiasis].

    PubMed

    Lozada, Heiler; Daza, Jorge E

    2016-10-01

    Strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, which can be asymptomatic and means a high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts, severe malnutrition and coinfection with HTLV-1 virus. The parasite has the potential to produce and multiply internal autoinfection in humans, thus an hyperinfection can be developed. A case of pulmonary infection by this parasite is presented in this study, infection which advanced into a respiratory failure and required mechanical ventilation and hemodynamic support in an intensive care unit. The standard treatment combined with ivermectin and albendazole was provided, achieving an appropriate response.

  17. Differences in the Importance of Mast Cells, Basophils, IgE, and IgG versus That of CD4(+) T Cells and ILC2 Cells in Primary and Secondary Immunity to Strongyloides venezuelensis.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kaori; Karasuyama, Hajime; Kabashima, Kenji; Kubo, Masato; Galli, Stephen J

    2017-05-01

    There is evidence that mast cells, basophils, and IgE can contribute to immune responses to parasites; however, the relative levels of importance of these effector elements in parasite immunity are not fully understood. Previous work in Il3-deficient and c-kit mutant Kit(W/W-v) mice indicated that interleukin-3 and c-Kit contribute to expulsion of the intestinal nematode Strongyloides venezuelensis during primary infection. Our findings in mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice and two types of mast cell-deficient mice that have normal c-kit ("Hello Kitty" and MasTRECK mice) confirmed prior work in Kit(W/W-v) mice that suggested that mast cells play an important role in S. venezuelensis egg clearance in primary infections. We also assessed a possible contribution of basophils in immune responses to S. venezuelensis By immunohistochemistry, we found that numbers of basophils and mast cells were markedly increased in the jejunal mucosa during primary infections with S. venezuelensis Studies in basophil-deficient Mcpt8(DTR) mice revealed a small but significant contribution of basophils to S. venezuelensis egg clearance in primary infections. Studies in mice deficient in various components of immune responses showed that CD4(+) T cells and ILC2 cells, IgG, FcRγ, and, to a lesser extent, IgE and FcεRI contribute to effective immunity in primary S. venezuelensis infections. These findings support the conclusion that the hierarchy of importance of immune effector mechanisms in primary S. venezuelensis infection is as follows: CD4(+) T cells/ILC2 cells, IgG, and FcRγ>mast cells>IgE and FcεRI>basophils. In contrast, in secondary S. venezuelensis infection, our evidence indicates that the presence of CD4(+) T cells is of critical importance but mast cells, antibodies, and basophils have few or no nonredundant roles. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Multifunctional Thioredoxin-Like Protein from the Gastrointestinal Parasitic Nematodes Strongyloides ratti and Trichuris suis Affects Mucosal Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hansmann, Jan; Winter, Dominic; Schramm, Guido; Erttmann, Klaus D.; Liebau, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The cellular redox state is important for the regulation of multiple functions and is essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and antioxidant defense. In the excretory/secretory (E/S) products of Strongyloides ratti and Trichuris suis sequences for thioredoxin (Trx) and Trx-like protein (Trx-lp) were identified. To characterize the antioxidant Trx-lp and its interaction with the parasite's mucosal habitat, S. ratti and T. suis Trx-lps were cloned and recombinantly expressed. The primary antioxidative activity was assured by reduction of insulin and IgM. Further analysis applying an in vitro mucosal 3D-cell culture model revealed that the secreted Trx-lps were able to bind to monocytic and intestinal epithelial cells and induce the time-dependent release of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-22, and TSLP. In addition, the redox proteins also possessed chemotactic activity for monocytic THP-1 cells and fostered epithelial wound healing activity. These results confirm that the parasite-secreted Trx-lps are multifunctional proteins that can affect the host intestinal mucosa. PMID:27872753

  19. In vitro efficacy of latex and purified papain from Carica papaya against Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs and larvae

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Dayane; Levenhagen, Marcelo Arantes; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria; da Costa, Antônio Paulino; Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Latex from Carica papaya is rich in bioactive compounds, especially papain, which may help to control parasitic diseases. This study evaluated the efficacy of latex from C. papaya and purified papain against Strongyloides venezuelensis. The Egg Hatching Test (EHT) and the Larval Motility Test (LMT) using fresh and frozen latex (250mg/mL), lyophilized latex (34mg/mL), and purified papain (2.8 mg/mL) were performed. Albendazole (0.025 mg/mL) and ivermectin (316 ppm) were used as positive controls. EHT and LMT were carried out through the incubation of each solution with S. venezuelensis eggs or larvae (± 100 specimens), and results were analyzed after 48h (EHT) or 24, 48, and 72h (LMT). EHT showed that latex preparations at higher concentrations (1:10 to 1:100) resulted in partial or complete destruction of eggs and larvae inside the eggs. The result from the 1:1,000 dilution was similar to the positive control. LMT showed effectiveness in all the tested dilutions compared to negative controls. Purified papain showed a dose-dependent response in the EHT. Purified papain (2.8 mg/ mL) showed similar results to lyophilized latex at 1:1,000 in the EHT. Latex and purified papain from C. papaya were effective against S. venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vitro, suggesting their potential use as an alternative treatment for strongyloidiasis. PMID:28380118

  20. In vitro efficacy of latex and purified papain from Carica papaya against Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs and larvae.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Dayane; Levenhagen, Marcelo Arantes; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria; Costa, Antônio Paulino da; Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria

    2017-04-03

    Latex from Carica papaya is rich in bioactive compounds, especially papain, which may help to control parasitic diseases. This study evaluated the efficacy of latex from C. papaya and purified papain against Strongyloides venezuelensis. The Egg Hatching Test (EHT) and the Larval Motility Test (LMT) using fresh and frozen latex (250mg/mL), lyophilized latex (34mg/mL), and purified papain (2.8 mg/mL) were performed. Albendazole (0.025 mg/mL) and ivermectin (316 ppm) were used as positive controls. EHT and LMT were carried out through the incubation of each solution with S. venezuelensis eggs or larvae (± 100 specimens), and results were analyzed after 48h (EHT) or 24, 48, and 72h (LMT). EHT showed that latex preparations at higher concentrations (1:10 to 1:100) resulted in partial or complete destruction of eggs and larvae inside the eggs. The result from the 1:1,000 dilution was similar to the positive control. LMT showed effectiveness in all the tested dilutions compared to negative controls. Purified papain showed a dose-dependent response in the EHT. Purified papain (2.8 mg/ mL) showed similar results to lyophilized latex at 1:1,000 in the EHT. Latex and purified papain from C. papaya were effective against S. venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vitro, suggesting their potential use as an alternative treatment for strongyloidiasis.

  1. Expanded infectious diseases screening program for Hispanic transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, M A; Caicedo, J C; Stosor, V; Ison, M G

    2010-08-01

    Most guidelines for pre-transplant screening recommend enhanced screening among patients with potential exposure to such pathogens as Strongyloides stercoralis and Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of Chagas disease. The incidence of these diseases in the Hispanic immigrant population has not been extensively studied. Transplant candidates who were evaluated by our program's Hispanic Transplant Program were referred for expanded infectious disease screening including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, S. stercoralis, Leishmania, and T. cruzi. Between December 2006 and December 2008, 83 patients were screened. Most were from Mexico but we also screened patients from Ecuador, Puerto Rico, and Peru. Most patients lived in urban locations before moving to the United States. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) was found in 20%, and 6.7% had serologic evidence of S. stercoralis infection. These patients underwent treatment of latent infection without difficulty. To date, 14 patients have undergone living-donor kidney transplantation. Two of these patients had positive Leishmania titers and are being followed clinically, 1 was treated for S. stercoralis, and 2 were treated for LTBI pre-transplant. All have done well without evidence of screened pathogens an average of 348 days (range 65-766 days) post transplant. Expanded screening identifies endemic infections in the Hispanic immigrant population that can be treated before transplant, thereby minimizing post-transplant infectious complications.

  2. [Parasitic diseases in pediatric cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Bialek, R

    2005-11-01

    Parasitic infections are rare events in pediatric oncology. Transmission routes and diseases of most parasites do not differ significantly from those seen in otherwise healthy children. However, latent asymptomatic infections with Cryptosporidium spp., Leishmania spp., Strongyloides stercoralis and Toxoplasma gondii might exacerbate during immunosuppression. Screening in asymptomatic patients is often unsuccessful due to the low sensitivity of available assays except in toxoplasmosis. This article provides the recommendations of the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases (DGPI) and the German Society for Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (GPOH) for the appropriate diagnostic procedures and antiparasitic treatment immunocompromised patients.

  3. Intestinal parasitic infections and its association with undernutrition and CD4 T cell levels among HIV/AIDS patients on HAART in Butajira, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gedle, Dereje; Kumera, Gemechu; Eshete, Tewodros; Ketema, Kasahun; Adugna, Haweni; Feyera, Fetuma

    2017-05-15

    Intestinal parasitic infections and HIV/AIDS have been the major public health problems and remain a vital cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Both problems are linked in a vicious cycle. The magnitude of intestinal parasites was prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS even in the HAART era. However, the pertinent risk factors associated with intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients were not well investigated in Ethiopia particularly at Butajira town. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors among HIV/AIDS patients on HAART in Butajira, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a total of 323 study subjects was involved in the study. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select each participant during data collection. Stool specimen was collected and processed using direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration technique, and modified Ziehl-Neelson staining techniques to identify both common and opportunistic intestinal parasites. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, environmental, clinical, and nutritional data. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of various explanatory factors on intestinal parasites. P value ≤0.05 at 95% CI was considered statistically significant. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 35.9% (95% CI 31.0-40.9%). Protozoa's (Entanmoeba histolytica/dispar trophozoite, E. histolytica/dispar cyst, Giardia lamblia trophozoite, and G. lamblia cyst), helminths (Tanea species, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloid stercoralis, Hookworm species and H. nana), and opportunistic intestinal parasites (Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli) were observed in 57 (17.1%), 46 (14.4%), and 28 (8.7%) study participants respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of animals (AOR 6. 14; 95% CI 3.13, 12

  4. [Morphology and biometry of eggs and larvae of Strongyloides sp. Grassi, 1879 (Rhabditoidea: Strongyloididae), a gastrointestinal parasite of Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (Rodentia: Hydrochaeridae), in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Lima, Sueli de S; Bessa, Elisabeth Cristina de A

    2006-01-01

    An important method to diagnose and study the helminthofauna of wild animals is to examine the host's feces to find eggs and larvae, seeking to identify the parasites and study their morphobiology. The objective of the present work is to provide morphological and biometric data on the eggs and larvae of Strongyloides sp., a capybara gastrointestinal parasite. Using the technique of Gordon and Whitlock, simple flotation and the modified Baermann examination, capybara fecal samples were selected based on a criterion of the highest proportion of eggs and larvae in the initial development stages, for morphometric description of eggs, L1, L2 and L3 of Strongyloides sp. From past reports of parasitism in Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, we suspect that the eggs and larvae in this study are of Strongyloides chapini Sandground, 1925, which constitutes the first description of these stages for this species of nematode. Nevertheless, the morphology and biometry data of these stages demonstrate that they are similar to those of other species of the Strongyloides genus.

  5. Cryptosporidiosis in a tertiary care hospital in Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Nagamani, K; Rajkumari, A

    2001-01-01

    Enteric protozoal parasitic infection has become an important cause of morbidity in children and adults. In the developing countries the association of Cryptosporidium with acute and persistent diarrhoea has been striking. Stool samples from 1002 patients (800 adults and 202 children) suffering from diarrhoea or other gastrointestinal symptoms were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by modified Ziehl Neelsen stained smears. C. parvum was detected in 2.99% of children and 0.12% adults. Other parasites detected were E. histolytica (6.18%), G. lamblia (1.49%), A. lumbricoides (1.49%), hookworm (1.39%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.39%), and Taenia (0.09%).

  6. Intestinal strongyloidiasis and hyperinfection syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vadlamudi, Raja S; Chi, David S; Krishnaswamy, Guha

    2006-01-01

    In spite of recent advances with experiments on animal models, strongyloidiasis, an infection caused by the nematode parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, has still been an elusive disease. Though endemic in some developing countries, strongyloidiasis still poses a threat to the developed world. Due to the peculiar but characteristic features of autoinfection, hyperinfection syndrome involving only pulmonary and gastrointestinal systems, and disseminated infection with involvement of other organs, strongyloidiasis needs special attention by the physician, especially one serving patients in areas endemic for strongyloidiasis. Strongyloidiasis can occur without any symptoms, or as a potentially fatal hyperinfection or disseminated infection. Th2 cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity and mucosal immunity have been shown to have protective effects against this parasitic infection especially in animal models. Any factors that suppress these mechanisms (such as intercurrent immune suppression or glucocorticoid therapy) could potentially trigger hyperinfection or disseminated infection which could be fatal. Even with the recent advances in laboratory tests, strongyloidiasis is still difficult to diagnose. But once diagnosed, the disease can be treated effectively with antihelminthic drugs like Ivermectin. This review article summarizes a case of strongyloidiasis and various aspects of strongyloidiasis, with emphasis on epidemiology, life cycle of Strongyloides stercoralis, clinical manifestations of the disease, corticosteroids and strongyloidiasis, diagnostic aspects of the disease, various host defense pathways against strongyloidiasis, and available treatment options. PMID:16734908

  7. Strongyloidiasis in Canadian Far East war veterans

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Eileen M.; Isaac-Renton, Judith L.; Robertson, William B.; Black, William A.

    1985-01-01

    A survey was done of Canadians who had been interned by the Japanese during World War II to assess the prevalence of latent infection with Strongyloides stercoralis in this group. Packages containing three mail-in kits and a questionnaire were sent to 992 men, 694 (70%) of whom responded. Larvae were found in the stool specimens of four of the respondents. Examination of stool specimens after formalin-ether concentration was the most successful method of detecting Strongyloides larvae. The Baermann concentration technique yielded negative results in all four men. Three of the four cases of strongyloidiasis were detected after sampling of three fecal specimens. In the fourth case additional specimens were requested on the basis of data derived from the questionnaire. The most frequently cited clinical manifestations were abdominal pain, weight loss, diarrhea and rashes. PMID:4052898

  8. Human strongyloidiasis in AIDS era: its zoonotic importance.

    PubMed

    Singh, S

    2002-03-01

    Human strongyloidiasis is caused by a nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Many species cause strongyloidiasis in animals. The parasite has predilection to one host only but the host specificity is not strict. When animal species infects humans there is intense allergic reaction in the form of cutaneous larva currens and larva migrans. Therefore, strongyloidiasis in strict terms is a zoonotic disease. The strongyloides species have three stages. The parasitic form inside the host, the free form stage in the soil or water that moults to infective third stage. The later infects the host through skin and migrate to the heart and lung and finally swallowed back to cause intestinal infection. However, in some cases intense pulmonary manifestations may take place. The Strongyloides stercoralis has unique feature of moulting from parasitic form to infective stage within the body, rather than coming out and forming free living stage and causing autoinfection. This may lead to latent infection for indefinite period in an immunocompetant person but fatal hyper or disseminated infection in immunocompromised person like patients of AIDS, organ transplant recipients, cancer and other patients put on immunosuppressive therapy, in whom it can involve any organ of the body. Because this group of patients in last few years have increased tremendously in Africa and South-East Asia, more and more cases of strongyloidiasis are being reported in english literature. The diagnosis of intestinal strongyloidiasis is made by repeated stool smear examinations and in extraintestinal strongyloidiasis the appropriate specimen is examined for the rhabditiform larvae. Recently serological tests have also been developed that can be used for epidemiological purposes. The drug of choice for the treatment of strongyloidiasis remains thiabendazole but due to its unacceptable side effects other medicines like albendazole and ivermectine are being used more frequently. The prevention of the infection is

  9. Streptococcus gallolyticus meningitis in adults: report of five cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    van Samkar, A; Brouwer, M C; Pannekoek, Y; van der Ende, A; van de Beek, D

    2015-12-01

    We describe the incidence and patient characteristics of Streptococcus gallolyticus meningitis. We identified S. gallolyticus meningitis in a nationwide cohort of patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis, and performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all reported adult cases in the literature. Five cases were identified (0.3%) in a cohort of 1561 episodes of bacterial meningitis. In one patient, bowel disease (colon polyps) was identified as a predisposing condition for S. gallolyticus infection, whereas no patients were diagnosed with endocarditis. In a combined analysis of our patients and 37 reported in the literature, we found that the median age was 59 years. Predisposing factors were present in 21 of 42 patients (50%), and mainly consisted of immunosuppressive therapy (seven patients), cancer (four patients), and alcoholism (four patients). Colon disease was identified in 15 of 24 patients (63%) and endocarditis in five of 27 patients (18%). Co-infection with Strongyloides stercoralis was identified in 14 of 34 patients (41%), ten of whom were infected with human immunodeficiency virus or human T-lymphotropic virus. Outcomes were described for 37 patients; eight died (22%) and one (3%) had neurological sequelae. S. gallolyticus is an uncommon cause of bacterial meningitis, with specific predisposing conditions. When it is identified, consultation with a cardiologist and gastroenterologist is warranted to rule out underlying endocarditis or colon disease. Stool examinations for Strongyloides stercoralis should be performed in patients who have travelled to or originate from endemic areas.

  10. [Infections in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Mathurin, Sebastián; Chapelet, Adrián; Spanevello, Valeria; Sayago, Gabriel; Balparda, Cecilia; Virga, Eliana; Beraudo, Nora; Bartolomeo, Mirta

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence and the clinical relevance of bacterial and nonbacterial infections in predominantly alcoholic cirrhotic patients, admitted to an intermediate complexity hospital, and we also compared the clinical characteristics, laboratory and evolution of these patients with and without bacterial infection in a prospective study of cohort. A total of 211 consecutive admissions in 132 cirrhotic patients, between April 2004 and July 2007, were included. The mean age was 51.8 (+/-8) years, being 84.8% male. The alcoholic etiology of cirrhosis was present in 95.4%. One hundred and twenty nine episodes of bacterial infections were diagnosed in 99/211 (46.9%) admissions, community-acquired in 79 (61.2%) and hospital-acquired in 50 (38.8%): spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (23.3%); urinary tract infection (21.7%); pneumonia (17.8%); infection of the skin and soft parts (17.1%), sepsis by spontaneous bacteremia (7.7%); other bacterial infections (12.4%). Gram-positive organisms were responsible for 52.2% of total bacterial infections documented cases. There were eight serious cases of tuberculosis, fungal and parasitic infections; the prevalence of tuberculosis was 6% with an annual mortality of 62.5%; 28.1% (9/32) of the coproparasitological examination had Strongyloides stercolaris. The in-hospital mortality was significantly higher in patients with bacterial infection than in non-infected patients (32.4% vs. 13.2%; p=0.02). The independent factors associated with mortality were bacterial infections, the score of Child-Pügh and creatininemia > 1.5 mg/dl. By the multivariate analysis, leukocytosis and hepatic encephalopathy degree III/IV were independent factors associated to bacterial infection. This study confirms that bacterial and nonbacterial infections are a frequent and severe complication in hospitalized cirrhotic patients, with an increase of in-hospital mortality.

  11. Effect of ivermectin on allergy-type manifestations in occult strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Rampur, Lahari; Jariwala, Sunit P; Hudes, Golda; Rosenstreich, David L; de Vos, Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    The immunomodulatory effects of helminths have been well described. However, there is a relative lack of literature regarding the link between parasites and allergic diseases. A number of patients with allergic symptoms have positive serologic test results for Strongyloides stercoralis. To identify patients with allergy-type symptoms and coexisting Strongyloides infection and to analyze the effect of Strongyloides eradication therapy with ivermectin on these symptoms. The medical records of our allergy clinic sites were reviewed for Strongyloides test results between January 2011 and October 2014. Each allergy-type symptom was assessed separately with regard to improvement after ivermectin therapy. Among the 1,446 patients who had Strongyloides serologic tests ordered, 127 (8.8%) had positive test results. Eighty-four patients had follow-up data regarding allergy-type symptoms after ivermectin treatment. Among these, 52 patients (61.9%) reported skin-related problems (pruritus, urticaria, angioedema, and/or rash). Forty-nine patients (58.3%) had asthma, and 73.8% had allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Although respiratory symptoms typically did not respond to ivermectin treatment, 24 of 48 patients (50%) with skin symptoms reported a significant subjective improvement of symptoms after ivermectin treatment. Peripheral eosinophil counts significantly decreased after ivermectin treatment from 450 to 200/μL (P < .001). Serologic testing for strongyloides may be indicated for patients with allergy-type symptoms and a suggestive exposure history. Patients with strongyloidiasis and primarily cutaneous symptoms experienced significant symptomatic improvement after ivermectin therapy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A hospital-based study of epidemiological and clinical data on Blastocystis hominis infection.

    PubMed

    Laodim, Pongsakorn; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2012-12-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a foodborne protozoan found in the human feces worldwide. One hundred and ninety-nine individuals with stool samples positive for B. hominis were identified from a pool of 14,325 patient stools collected between 2003 and 2010 from Srinagarind hospital in Thailand. The medical records of patients were reviewed for demographic and clinical data. Of the 85 patients (42.7%) who had B. hominis infection with no co-infections, 42.5% experienced gastrointestinal symptoms. Abdominal pain is the most frequently observed symptom followed by diarrhea. Strongyloides stercolaris and Opisthorchis viverrini were the predominant parasitic co-infections in blastocystosis patients. The infection rates of B. hominis were high during the rainy season. Most B. hominis-infected patients (94%) had underlying diseases; malignancy and chronic diseases were equally top ranked (35.3%) which indicated that B. hominis is an opportunistic protozoan.

  13. Anthelmintic Therapy Modifies the Systemic and Mycobacterial Antigen-Stimulated Cytokine Profile in Helminth-Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Coinfection.

    PubMed

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Munisankar, Saravanan; Bhootra, Yukthi; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2017-04-01

    Helminth infections are known to modulate cytokine responses in latent tuberculosis (LTB). However, very few studies have examined whether this modulation is reversible upon anthelmintic therapy. We measured the systemic and mycobacterial (TB) antigen-stimulated levels of type 1, type 2, type 17, and regulatory cytokines in individuals with LTB and with or without coexistent Strongyloides stercoralis infection before and after anthelmintic therapy. Our data reveal that individuals with LTB and coexistent S. stercoralis infection have significantly lower levels of systemic and TB antigen-stimulated type 1 (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and interleukin-2 [IL-2]) and type 17 (IL-17A and/or IL-17F) cytokines and significantly higher levels of systemic but not TB antigen-stimulated type 2 (IL-4 and IL-5) and regulatory (transforming growth factor beta [TGF-β]) cytokines. Anthelmintic therapy resulted in significantly increased systemic levels of type 1 and/or type 17 cytokines and in significantly decreased systemic levels of type 2 and regulatory (IL-10 and TGF-β) cytokines. In addition, anthelmintic therapy resulted in significantly increased TB antigen-stimulated levels of type 1 cytokines only. Our data therefore confirm that the modulation of systemic and TB antigen-stimulated cytokine responses in S. stercoralis-LTB coinfection is reversible (for the most part) by anthelmintic treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Eosinophilia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Chou, Andrew; Serpa, Jose A

    2015-09-01

    Eosinophilia is not uncommonly encountered in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), particularly at initiation of care or among those with advanced disease. The clinical manifestation most commonly associated with eosinophilia in this patient population is skin rash. Management of these patients is challenging due to a paucity of data evaluating diagnostic testing and therapeutic strategies. Patients born in or with significant travel to parasite-endemic countries are more likely to have tissue-invasive helminthes, such as Strongyloides or Schistosoma. Patients without such risk factors are unlikely to have parasitic infections and frequently will have self-resolution of eosinophilia. When a detailed history, physical exam, and diagnostic work-up are unrevealing, we sometimes consider empirical therapy with ivermectin. Praziquantel may also be considered for those at risk for schistosomiasis.

  15. Eosinophilia in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Andrew; Serpa, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilia is not uncommonly encountered in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); particularly at initiation of care or among those with advanced disease. The clinical manifestation most commonly associated with eosinophilia in this patient population is skin rash. Management of these patients is challenging due to a paucity of data evaluating diagnostic testing and therapeutic strategies. Patients born in or with significant travel to parasite-endemic countries are more likely to have tissue-invasive helminthes, such as Strongyloides or Schistosoma. Patients without such risk factors are unlikely to have parasitic infections and frequently will have self-resolution of eosinophilia. When a detailed history, physical exam and diagnostic work-up is unrevealing, we sometimes consider empirical therapy with ivermectin. Praziquantel may also be considered for those at risk for schistosomiasis. PMID:26126686

  16. Clinicopathological studies of gastrointestinal tract disorders in sheep with parasitic infection

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sarvan; Jakhar, K. K.; Singh, Satyavir; Potliya, Sandeep; Kumar, Kailash; Pal, Madan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was envisaged to elucidate the parasitological aspects of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders of sheep. Materials and Methods: Fecal, blood and serum samples collected from 31 sheep/lambs of Sheep Breeding Farm, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Hisar. Results: Of 25 cases, strongyle eggs (12 cases, 48%) were a major infection, followed by Strongyloides spp. (8 cases, 32%) and Moniezia spp. (5 case, 20%). In one case, massive infection of strongyle particularly Haemonchus contortus and Moniezia spp. was observed. All these animals were found negative for hemoprotozoan parasites in blood smear examination. Hematological studies revealed that significantly decreased values of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and total erythrocytic count (TEC). Absolute leukocytic count revealed significant leukocytosis due to neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, monocytosis and eosinophilia. Serum biochemical profiles of diarrheic sheep/lambs in present study were significant decrease in values of total protein, serum globulin, glucose where as significant increase in the albumin: Globulin ratio, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatise (ALKP) and bilirubin. Conclusions: From the present study, it is reasonable to conclude that major parasitic infection of sheep/lamb observed was strongyle, followed by Strongyloides spp. and Moniezia spp. Hemato-biochemical studies revealed significant leukocytosis and increase in AST, ALT, ALKP and bilirubin. PMID:27046991

  17. Improved PCR-Based Detection of Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections Using a Next-Generation Sequencing Approach to Assay Design

    PubMed Central

    Pilotte, Nils; Papaiakovou, Marina; Grant, Jessica R.; Bierwert, Lou Ann; Llewellyn, Stacey; McCarthy, James S.; Williams, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The soil transmitted helminths are a group of parasitic worms responsible for extensive morbidity in many of the world’s most economically depressed locations. With growing emphasis on disease mapping and eradication, the availability of accurate and cost-effective diagnostic measures is of paramount importance to global control and elimination efforts. While real-time PCR-based molecular detection assays have shown great promise, to date, these assays have utilized sub-optimal targets. By performing next-generation sequencing-based repeat analyses, we have identified high copy-number, non-coding DNA sequences from a series of soil transmitted pathogens. We have used these repetitive DNA elements as targets in the development of novel, multi-parallel, PCR-based diagnostic assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Utilizing next-generation sequencing and the Galaxy-based RepeatExplorer web server, we performed repeat DNA analysis on five species of soil transmitted helminths (Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis). Employing high copy-number, non-coding repeat DNA sequences as targets, novel real-time PCR assays were designed, and assays were tested against established molecular detection methods. Each assay provided consistent detection of genomic DNA at quantities of 2 fg or less, demonstrated species-specificity, and showed an improved limit of detection over the existing, proven PCR-based assay. Conclusions/Significance The utilization of next-generation sequencing-based repeat DNA analysis methodologies for the identification of molecular diagnostic targets has the ability to improve assay species-specificity and limits of detection. By exploiting such high copy-number repeat sequences, the assays described here will facilitate soil transmitted helminth diagnostic efforts. We recommend similar analyses when designing PCR-based diagnostic tests for the detection of other

  18. The effect of electron transport (ET) inhibitors and thiabendazole on the fumarate reductase (FR) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) of Strongyloides ratti infective (L3) larvae.

    PubMed

    Armson, A; Grubb, W B; Mendis, A H

    1995-02-01

    The fumarate reductase (FR) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities of isolated submitochondrial particles (SMPs) prepared from axenised L3 larvae of S. ratti were characterised with respect to their response to a selected range of inhibitors. Rotenone (a specific inhibitor of electron transport Complex I) inhibited the S. ratti FR (EC50 = 3.0 x 10(-7) M) but not SDH. This strongly suggests that the S. ratti FR is functionally linked with the S. ratti ET-Complex I. 2-Thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA, an inhibitor of ET-Complex II) inhibited FR (EC50 = 2.6 x 10(-5) M) and SDH (EC50 = 2.8 x 10(-5) M) with similar effectiveness. Sodium malonate (substrate analogue of succinate) had a greater affinity for SDH (EC50 = 6.8 x 10(-4) M), than FR (EC50 = 1.9 x 10(-2) M). Sodium fumarate was ca. 8-fold more effective in inhibiting the S. ratti FR (EC50 = 6.0 x 10(-4) M) than SDH (EC50 = 4.8 x 10(-3) M). The S. ratti FR was more sensitive to inhibition by thiabendazole (TBZ; EC50 = 4.6 x 10(-4) M) than SDH (EC50 > 1.0 x 10(-3) M), suggesting that one of the sites-of-action of TBZ to be the FR of S. ratti mitochondria. More potent inhibitors of S. ratti FR, if developed, may prove to be effective chemotherapeutic agents in the management of human strongloidiasis.

  19. Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in an Amazonic community of Peru using multiple diagnostic techniques.

    PubMed

    Machicado, Jorge D; Marcos, Luis A; Tello, Raul; Canales, Marco; Terashima, Angelica; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    An observational descriptive study was conducted in a Shipibo-Conibo/Ese'Eja community of the rainforest in Peru to compare the Kato-Katz method and the spontaneous sedimentation in tube technique (SSTT) for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites as well as to report the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in this area. A total of 73 stool samples were collected and analysed by several parasitological techniques, including Kato-Katz, SSTT, modified Baermann technique (MBT), agar plate culture, Harada-Mori culture and the direct smear examination. Kato-Katz and SSTT had the same rate of detection for Ascaris lumbricoides (5%), Trichuris trichiura (5%), hookworm (14%) and Hymenolepis nana (26%). The detection rate for Strongyloides stercoralis larvae was 16% by SSTT and 0% by Kato-Katz, but 18% by agar plate culture and 16% by MBT. The SSTT also had the advantage of detecting multiple intestinal protozoa such as Blastocystis hominis (40%), Giardia intestinalis (29%) and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (16%). The most common intestinal parasites found in this community were B. hominis, G. intestinalis, H. nana, S. stercoralis and hookworm. In conclusion, the SSTT is not inferior to Kato-Katz for the diagnosis of common STH infections but is largely superior for detecting intestinal protozoa and S. stercoralis larvae.

  20. Pharmacological effects of ivermectin, an antiparasitic agent for intestinal strongyloidiasis: its mode of action and clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Takanori

    2003-12-01

    Ivermectin is an oral semi-synthetic lactone anthelmintic agent derived from avermectins isolated from fermentation products of Streptomyces avermitilis. Ivermectin showed a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on motility of a free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). There exist specific binding sites having a high affinity for ivermectin in the membrane fraction of C. elegans, and a strong positive correlation was detected between the affinity for these binding sites and the suppressive effect on motility of C. elegans in several ivermectin-related substances. These results suggested that the binding to these binding sites is important for the nematocidal activity of ivermectin. In oocytes of Xenopus laevis injected with the Poly (A)(+) RNA of C. elegans, expression of a chloride channel, which is irreversibly activated by ivermectin, was recognized. The pharmacological properties of this channel suggest that the ivermectin-sensitive channel is a glutamate-activated chloride channel. As to the glutamate-activated chloride channel, two subtypes (GluCl-alpha and GluCl-beta) were cloned, suggesting these subtypes constitute the glutamate-activated chloride channel. These findings suggest that ivermectin binds to glutamate-activated chloride channels existing in nerve or muscle cells of nematode with a specific and high affinity, causing hyperpolarization of nerve or muscle cells by increasing permeability of chloride ion through the cell membrane, and as a result, the parasites are paralyzed to death. In experimental infections in sheep and cattle, ivermectin exhibited potent dose-dependent anthelmintic effects on Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Oesphagostomum, and Dictyocaulus. Anthelmintic effects were reported also in dogs, horses, and humans infected with Strongyloides. In the clinical Phase III trial in Japan, 50 patients infected with Strongyloides stercoralis were administered approx. 200 microg/kg of ivermectin to

  1. An extended proof of migration routes of immature parasites inside hosts: pathways of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Strongyloides ratti in the rat are mutually exclusive.

    PubMed

    Tindall, N R; Wilson, P A

    1990-04-01

    Rigorous proofs applicable to the routes of migration of Strongyloides ratti and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis skin-penetrating juveniles inside the rat are extended. By applying the inequality principle (Tindall & Wilson, 1988) it was confirmed with a probability of error of 1 in 10(10) that N. brasiliensis larvae applied to the skin passed through the lungs on their way to the intestine. Taking the analysis further, migrating larvae of S. ratti or N. brasiliensis were extracted from the nose or lungs, respectively, of donor rats and transferred to recipients by stomach tube to assay their ability to colonize the intestine. Results showed that (a) changes undergone by each parasite in its proven, specific transit site were essential before larvae could establish in the intestines of recipients, (b) these changes could be monitored by morphological criteria, and [corrected] (c) these changes were not completed until larvae had been in the nose or lung for a significant period. It follows from (c) that anywhere in the body of the host, termed a 'nursery', that supports a substantial amount of this mandatory development must be detectable by the conventional procedure of sampling at autopsy. Conversely, absence of parasites judged by sampling at autopsy is positive proof that a site is not a nursery when sampling is timed in relation to reliable estimates of overall kinetics (Tindall & Wilson, 1990), and with control information on the efficiency of sampling. Comparative data from sampling at autopsy using the same extraction techniques for both species met these criteria: they demonstrated that no part of the head of the rat was a nursery for N. brasiliensis, and that the lung did not serve in this capacity for S. ratti.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Intestinal parasitic infections among school children in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Warunee, N; Choomanee, L; Sataporn, P; Rapeeporn, Y; Nuttapong, W; Sompong, S; Thongdee, S; Bang-On, S; Rachada, K

    2007-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children from eight schools located in Phuttamonthon District, Nakhon Prathom Province during November 2004 to December 2004. Stool samples were collected from 1920 students; age range from 7 to 12 years old, and examined for intestinal parasites by using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique. Of these subjects, 242 (12.6%) were infected with one or more of 10 intestinal parasitic species. In these infected subjects, 214 (11.1%) were single infections whereas 28 (1.5%) were mix infections. The most frequent parasite was Blastocystis hominis (6.2%). Other parasites were Giardia lamblia (1.7%), Entamoeba coli (1.5%), Endolimax nana (1.0%), Entamoeba histolytica (0.3%), Hookworm (0.3%), Trichuris trichiura (< 0.1%), Taenia spp. (< 0.1%), Strongyloides stercolaris (< 0.1%), and liver fluke or small intestinal fluke (Opisthorchis eggs) (< 0.1%). Prevalence of protozoan infections was significantly higher than helminth infections (p < 0.05). Between male and female, there was no significant difference in prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (p > 0.05). The results suggest that prevention and control programme for intestinal parasites should be discussed in the design of long term use in this area.

  3. Decreasing intestinal parasites in recent Northern California refugees.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alicia H; Perry, Sharon; Du, Jenny N T; Agunbiade, Abdulkareem; Polesky, Andrea; Parsonnet, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) expanded the overseas presumptive treatment of intestinal parasites with albendazole to include refugees from the Middle East. We surveyed the prevalence of helminths and protozoa in recent Middle Eastern refugees (2008-2010) in comparison with refugees from other geographical regions and from a previous survey (2001-2004) in Santa Clara County, California. Based on stool microscopy, helminth infections decreased, particularly in Middle Eastern refugees (0.1% versus 2.3% 2001-2004, P = 0.01). Among all refugees, Giardia intestinalis was the most common protozoan found. Protozoa infections also decreased somewhat in Middle Eastern refugees (7.2%, 2008-2010 versus 12.9%, 2001-2004, P = 0.08). Serology for Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma spp. identified more infected individuals than stool exams. Helminth infections are increasingly rare in refugees to Northern California. Routine screening stool microscopy may be unnecessary in all refugees.

  4. Estimation of infection of internal parasites in horses from different type of farms.

    PubMed

    Sokół, Rajmund; Raś-Noryńska, Małgorzata; Michalczyk, Maria; Raś, Andrzej; Rapacz-Leonard, Anna; Koziatek, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    Studies were carried out in year 2014 during the pasture period (from April to October) in Warmia and Mazury Region. Fecal samples were taken from cold- and warmblood horses from individual and agrotouristic farms with the different housing, feeding and pasture- care practices. Total of 512 horses were examined (320 mares, 170 geldings and 22 stallions). In the group of 185 horses from individual farms, 119 animals (64.3%) were infected with gastro-intestinal parasites. Among the 372 horses from agrotouristic farms 169 (51.7%) were infected with parasites. Most of the animals expelled the eggs of Cyathostominae. In some individuals occurred eggs of Strongylus spp., Parascaris equorum, Strongyloides westeri and tapeworm of Anoplocephala. The number of infected horses from agrotouristic farms was lower than from individual farms, probably due to more regular deworming (usually 2 times a year) and bigger care paid to cleaning pastures.

  5. A simple modification of the Baermann method for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Chavarría, F; Avendaño, L

    2001-08-01

    The diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infections is routinely made by microscopic observation of larvae in stool samples, a low sensitivity method, or by other, most effective methods, such as the Baermann or agar culture plate methods. We propose in this paper a practical modification of Baermann method. One hundred and six stool samples from alcoholic patients were analyzed using the direct smear test, agar culture plate method, the standard Baermann method, and its proposed modification. For this modification the funnel used in the original version of the method is substituted by a test tube with a rubber stopper, perforated to allow insertion of a pipette tip. The tube with a fecal suspension is inverted over another tube containing 6 ml of saline solution and incubated at 37 degrees C for at least 2 h. The saline solution from the second tube is centrifuged and the pellet is observed microscopically. Larva of S. stercoralis were detected in six samples (5.7%) by the two versions of the Baermann method. Five samples were positive using the agar culture plate method, and only in two samples the larva were observed using direct microscopic observation of fecal smears. Cysts of Endolimax nana and Entamoeba histolytica/dyspar were also detected in the modification of Baermann method. Data obtained by the modified Baermann method suggest that this methodology may helps concentrate larvae of S. stercoralis as efficiently as the original method.

  6. An investigation of parasitic infections and review of molecular characterization of the intestinal protozoa in nonhuman primates in China from 2009 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Li, Junqiang; Dong, Haiju; Wang, Rongjun; Yu, Fuchang; Wu, Yayun; Chang, Yankai; Wang, Chenrong; Qi, Meng; Zhang, Longxian

    2017-04-01

    Parasites are a well-known threat to nonhuman primate (NHP) populations, and potentially cause zoonotic diseases in humans. In this study, the basic data was provided of the parasites in NHPs and the molecular characterization of the Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. were reviewed, which were found in these samples. A total of 3349 fecal samples were collected from 34 species reared at 17 districts in zoos, farms, free-range, or research laboratories, and examined microscopically. Eleven genera of intestinal parasites were detected: five genera of protozoans (Isospora spp., Entamoeba spp., Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Cyclospora spp.) and six genera of helminths (Trichuris spp., Strongyloides spp., Ascaris spp., Physaloptera spp., Ancylostoma spp., and Enterobius spp.). The overall sample prevalence of parasitic infection was 54.1% (1811/3349). Entamoeba spp. was the most prevalent (36.4%, 1218/3349). The infection rate was the highest in free-range animals (73.0%, 670/918) (P < 0.01) and Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region (64.8%, 566/873). Mixed infections were mostly detected for Entamoeba spp., Trichuris spp., and Strongyloides spp.. Molecular characterization was reviewed of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp., as these are zoonotic species or genotypes. This parasitological data for NHPs in China, provides important information for veterinarians and public health authorities for the elimination of such parasites and monitor the potential transmission of zoonotic infections from NHPs.

  7. Symptomatic chronic strongyloidiasis in children following treatment for solid organ malignancies: case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Norsarwany, M; Abdelrahman, Z; Rahmah, N; Ariffin, N; Norsyahida, A; Madihah, B; Zeehaida, M

    2012-09-01

    Strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the intestinal nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Infected healthy individuals are usually asymptomatic, however it is potentially fatal in immunocompromised hosts due to its capacity to cause an overwhelming hyperinfection. Strongyloidiasis could be missed during routine screening because of low and intermittent larval output in stool and variable manifestations of the symptoms. We present two cases of strongyloidiasis occurring in children with solid organ malignancies suspected to have the infection based on their clinical conditions and treatment history for cancer. Both patients were diagnosed by molecular and serological tests and were successfully treated. Thus, strongyloidiasis in patients undergoing intensive treatment for malignancies should be suspected, properly investigated and treated accordingly.

  8. [Spectrum of species and infection frequency of endoparasites in bitches and their puppies in south Germany].

    PubMed

    Gothe, R; Reichler, I

    1990-02-01

    Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, hookworms, Trichuris vulpis, Strongyloides, Hammondia heydorni, Sarcocystis spp., Isospora canis and Isospora ohioensis and/or Isospora burrowsi of at least 9 species were detected in 100 randomly selected dog families in Southern Germany. Examinations carried out 5 to 9 times at weekly intervals revealed a monoinfection in 37 litters, infection with two parasite species in 28 litters, with three species in 10 litters and with four species in 6 litters. During the investigation period, 29 of the examined litters did not excrete helminth eggs, and, of these, 19 also did not excrete oocysts/sporocysts. In order of decreasing frequency among the dog families, the excretion extent of the litters and their mothers was as follows: Toxocara canis 67% and 45%, Isospora ohioensis/burrowsi 36% and 24%, Sarcocystis spp. 12% and 19%, Isospora canis 16% and 8%, Hammondia heydorni 7% and 6%, hookworms 6% and 7% and Toxascaris leonina 3% and 8%, respectively. Trichuris vulpis and Strongyloides eggs were only detected in 6 and 3 of the bitches, respectively.

  9. Intrinsic Factors Influencing the Infection by Helminth Parasites in Horses under an Oceanic Climate Area (NW Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, I.; Arias, M.; Cortiñas, F. J.; Francisco, R.; Mochales, E.; Dacal, V.; Suárez, J. L.; Uriarte, J.; Morrondo, P.; Sánchez-Andrade, R.; Díez-Baños, P.; Paz-Silva, A.

    2009-01-01

    A coprological survey to determine the influence of some intrinsic factors (breed, age, and sex) on the infection by helminth parasites in equine livestock (n = 418) under an oceanic climate area (NW Spain) was conducted. Faecal samples were individually collected and analyzed by the coprological techniques. The main strongylid genera identified were Trichonema and Cyalocephalus spp (small strongyles) and Strongylus and Triodontophorus (large strongyles). The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode was 89% (95% CI 86, 92) and 1% cestoda (0, 2). The percentage of horses with strongyloid parasites was 89% (86, 92), 11% (8, 14) for Parascaris, and 3% (1, 5) for Oxyuris. The highest prevalence for ascariosis was observed in the youngest horses (<3 years), for oxyurosis in the >10 years animals, and for strongylosis in the 3–10 years ones. Females were significantly more parasitized than males. A negative correlation between the age and the egg-excretion of ascarids and strongyles was recorded. The autochthonous and the English Pure Blood horses were the most parasitized. We concluded that the infections by helminths, especially the strongyloids, are significantly common in the region, so that greater importance should be given to this situation. PMID:20721327

  10. Parasitic and Bacterial Infections of Myocastor coypus in a Metropolitan Area of Northwestern Italy.

    PubMed

    Zanzani, Sergio A; Di Cerbo, Annarita; Gazzonis, Alessia L; Epis, Sara; Invernizzi, Anna; Tagliabue, Silvia; Manfredi, Maria T

    2016-01-01

    Coypus (Myocastor coypus) are widespread throughout Europe. In northern Italy, they are abundant in the flatland areas, and their high population densities can cause economic loss and ecosystem damage. We examined 153 coypus for selected parasitic and bacterial infections. We found Strongyloides myopotami (63.4% prevalence), Trichostrongylus duretteae (28.1%), Eimeria coypi (86.3%), and Eimeria seideli (6.8%), but did not find Giardia duodenalis or Cryptosporidium spp. We also isolated Staphylococcus aureus (10.1%), Escherichia coli (4.5%), and Streptococcus spp. (3.4%) from lung samples; no Salmonella spp. were isolated from fecal samples. Coypus had antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii (28.9%) and to four serovars of Leptospira interrogans (44.9%); Australis/Bratislava was the serovar most frequently detected. It is clear that coypu can be infected with pathogens of human and veterinary importance.

  11. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P < .01). Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  12. The prevalence and clinical associations of HTLV-1 infection in a remote Indigenous community.

    PubMed

    Einsiedel, Lloyd J; Pham, Hai; Woodman, Richard J; Pepperill, Clinton; Taylor, Kerry A

    2016-10-03

    Hospital and laboratory data indicate that human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic to central Australia, but no community-based studies of its prevalence or disease burden have been reported. We determined the prevalence rates of HTLV-1 infection and of HTLV-1-associated diseases in a remote Indigenous community. A remote Northern Territory community. All residents were asked to complete a health survey and offered a limited clinical examination, together with serological tests for HTLV-1 and Strongyloides, and HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) assessment. HTLV-1 seropositivity rates; HTLV-1 PVL (copies/105 peripheral blood leucocytes [PBL]); presentation with HTLV-1-related clinical disease. HTLV-1 serostatus was determined for 97 of 138 residents (70%). The prevalence of HTLV-1 infection was significantly higher among adults (30 of 74 people tested) than children (1 of 23; P = 0.001). Nine of 30 HTLV-1-positive adults had a clinical syndrome that was potentially attributable to HTLV-1 infection (chronic lung disease, seven; symptomatic strongyloidiasis, two). The median HTLV-1 PVL was significantly higher for adults with chronic lung disease than for those who were asymptomatic (chronic lung disease, 649 copies/105 PBL [IQR, 162-2220]; asymptomatic adults, 40 copies/105 PBL [IQR, 0.9-229]; P = 0.017). Ten of 72 adults tested were seropositive for Strongyloides (six of 28 HTLV-1-positive participants and four of 44 HTLV-1-negative participants; P = 0.17), as were three of 15 children tested; the three children were HTLV-1-negative. The prevalence of HTLV-1 infection and the rate of disease potentially attributable to HTLV-1 were high among adults in this remote community.

  13. Verminous myelitis in a pit bull puppy.

    PubMed

    Snook, Eric R; Baker, David G; Bauer, Rudy W

    2009-05-01

    A 10-week-old, male pit bull dog presented to the referring veterinarian with hind limb paresis and epaxial muscle atrophy. No spinal lesions were identified at gross necropsy; however, histologically there was marked granulomatous myelitis in the spinal cord between T13 and L2 with occasional, intralesional nematode larvae. Based on morphologic characteristics, the nematode larvae were identified as Strongyloides spp., possibly Strongyloides stercoralis.

  14. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  15. Use of levamisole in parasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J

    1980-08-01

    Levamisole is a drug of choice for treatment of ascariasis. With recommended dosages, it is virtually free of side effects. Single doses of 50 to 150mg will eliminate all parasites in 90 to 100% of ascariasis patients irrespective of worm burden. Activity against hookworms has been demonstrated for levamisole but the most effective treatment regimen has not been determined. Further drug trials are needed for better assessment of efficacy. Levamisole has little or no curative action on infections with whipworms and pinworms. It may have some activity against strongyloides but confirmatory studies are needed. It has been shown that levamisole has significant activity against microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. It is not, however, as effective as diethylcarbamazine ('Hetrazan'), and side reactions are greater. In tolerated doses, levamisole does not have significant action on adult forms or microfilariae of Onchoceea volvulus. The drug applied topically, however, may find a place in treatment of ocular onchocerciasis. Limited trials with levamisole for toxoplasmosis and chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis have given promising results, and further studies are indicated.

  16. Pneumococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bloodstream (bacteremia) Joint infection (arthritis) Ear infection (otitis media) Infection of the sinus membranes (sinusitis) Eye infection ( ... breathing; for bacteremia, fever and less energy; for ear infections, fever and ear pain; and for sinustitis, fever ...

  17. Intestinal parasitic infections in Srimum suburban area of Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kitvatanachai, Sirima; Boonslip, Siriphan; Watanasatitarpa, Suphatra

    2008-12-01

    A survey on intestinal parasitic infections and some risk factors of infection (social, economic and behavioral) was conducted in suburban area at Simum subdistrict, Mueang district, Nakhon Ratchasima Province during the period of April 3rd to April 11th, 2007. A total of 214 stool samples, from 85 males and 129 females were examined using simple direct smear, Kato's thick smear and modified Harada-Mori Filter Paper Strip culture technique. The results showed that the prevalence rate of protozoa infections by simple direct smear method was 17.3% (37 infected samples) in 11 males and 26 females and were from all age groups. Mixed infections (56.8%), showed higher results than single infection. The highest number of intestinal protozoan infections was Entamoeba histolytica (11.7%), followed by Blastocystis hominis (5.6%). Fifty four percent of protozoan infection was at a moderate to high level. Ninety five percent of infected cases consumed unboiled water. The prevalence rate of helminthic infections was 7% total by Kato's thick smear and Modified Harada-Mori Filter Paper Strip culture technique. Kato's Thick smear Technique showed the highest rate of Strongyloides stercolaris (2.8%), followed by hookworm infection (1.4%) Taenia spp. (0.9%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.5%), respectively. All infections showed a light intensity, (< 200 epg), using Kato-Katz thick smear. Although Modified Harada-Mori's culture Technique showed higher S. stercolaris (3.3%) and hookworm infection (2.3%) than Kato's thick smear in the area where there is low Soil transmitted helminthes, we recommend using Simple or Kato's thick smear to determine the prevalence of parasitic infection due to these techniques being able to detect various groups of parasites, and being inexpensive and less time consuming.

  18. Kato-Katz and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test to evaluate helminth prevalence in the setting of a school-based deworming program.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Martha; Morales, Maria Luisa; Konana, Monisha; Hoyer, Paige; Pineda-Reyes, Roberto; White, Arthur Clinton; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Lescano, Andres Guillermo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cabada, Miguel Mauricio

    2016-05-01

    The sensitivity of the Kato-Katz test is suboptimal for the evaluation of intestinal helminth prevalence. Moreover, during mass deworming, as helminth egg burden decreases, the sensitivity is likely to decrease. The Lumbreras rapid sedimentation (Lumbreras) is a low-cost non-quantitative test, but may provide useful information in low burden areas. We compared the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections assessed by the Kato-Katz and the Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test on 3 stool specimens from each of 1083 children. The sensitivities were compared using the McNemar paired test. Using the combined outcome of the 3 different stool tests as the standard, Kato-Katz had lower sensitivity than Lumbreras rapid sedimentation tests for Ascaris lumbricoides (85.1% vs. 95.1%, p = 0.03), Hymenolepis nana (77.7% vs. 97.9%, p < 0.01), Trichuris trichura (41.7% vs. 100%, p = 0.01), hookworm (0% vs. 100%, p = 0.01), and Strongyloides stercoralis (0% vs. 88%, p < 0.01). Kato-Katz demonstrated significantly lower sensitivity, missing most T. trichiura, hookworm, and S. stercoralis infections. The combination of Kato-Katz and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation tests enables the detection of more intestinal helminths infections in post-deworming low prevalence areas.

  19. Strongyloidiasis in Latin American immigrants: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ostera, G; Blum, J; Cornejo, C; Burgula, S; Jeun, R; Bryan, P E; Mejia, R

    2017-03-01

    The United States of America (USA) has the largest international population of any nation in the world. Immigrants from Latin American countries, where intestinal parasites are endemic, comprise more than half of this population. This study aims to determine the prevalence of strongyloidiasis, a potentially deadly parasitic infection, in foreign-born individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Washington, DC, to determine the seroprevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection using an NIE-ELISA IgG antibody assay. Multi-parallel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed in stool samples of NIE-ELISA-positive patients to investigate possible polyparasitism. The NIE-ELISA assay detected an S. stercoralis prevalence of 4.2% in a group of 119 volunteers. Combining NIE-ELISA and qPCR detected a parasite prevalence of 5.0%. Our results underscore the relevance of systematic testing for gastrointestinal parasites in individuals from endemic regions. It also makes a case for a survey in the USA to identify immigrants' risk for strongyloidiasis and other gastrointestinal parasitic infections.

  20. Cutaneous manifestation of disseminated strongyloidiasis in a patient coinfected with HTLV-I.

    PubMed

    Arch, Emily L; Schaefer, Jochen T; Dahiya, Anjali

    2008-12-15

    Strongyloidiasis is a potentially lethal parasitic infection. Coinfection of a patient with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) can lead to a more severe disease course and treatment-refractoriness. Here we report a patient coinfected with HTLV-I and Strongyloides stercoralis who developed disseminated, treatment-resistant disease. The patient presented with serpiginous, nonpalpable, purpuric streaks on the abdomen and proximal lower extremities. A biopsy of this eruption demonstrating filariform larvae in the dermis was consistent with disseminated strongyloidiasis. The patient's immune dysregulation due to HTLV-I positivity likely contributed to her development of disseminated disease. Awareness of the interaction between HTLV-I and strongyloidiasis has important implications in terms of prognosis and treatment. Recognition of the cutaneous manifestations of disseminated disease can facilitate diagnosis and implementation of appropriate therapy.

  1. Finding ancient parasite larvae in a sample from a male living in late 17th century Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, D H; Chai, J Y; Park, E A; Lee, W; Lee, H; Lee, J S; Choi, Y M; Koh, B J; Park, J B; Oh, C S; Bok, G D; Kim, W L; Lee, E; Lee, E J; Seo, M

    2009-06-01

    Parasitological examination of samples from tombs of the Korean Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) could be helpful to researchers in understanding parasitic infection prevalence in pre-industrial Korean society. Whereas most of our previous parasitological studies revealed the presence of ancient parasite eggs in coprolites of Korean mummies, a sample from a man living in late 17th century Korea proved to be relatively unique in possessing what appeared to be several species of parasite larvae. The larvae identified included Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichostrongylus spp., along with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Paragonimus westermani. Since ancient parasite larvae retain enough morphology to make proper species identification possible, even after long burial times, the examination of parasite larvae within ancient samples will be conducted more carefully in our future work.

  2. [Geohelminths].

    PubMed

    Prieto-Pérez, Laura; Pérez-Tanoira, Ramón; Cabello-Úbeda, Alfonso; Petkova-Saiz, Elizabet; Górgolas-Hernández-Mora, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Millions of people in in rural areas and deprived tropical and subtropical regions are infected by soil-transmitted helminths: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), and Strongyloides stercoralis. Large migratory flows have made their worldwide distribution easier. Besides being debilitating and producing a significant mortality, they cause high morbidity, leading to physical and intellectual impairment in millions of children who live in poverty. Along with the use of benzimidazoles (albendazole and mebendazole), large-scale international campaigns for treatment and prevention have decreased the number of affected individuals. However, re-infestations and benzimidazole-resistance are frequent, so there needs to be awareness about the importance and consequences of these neglected parasites.

  3. Strongyloidiasis in a diabetic patient accompanied by gastrointestinal stromal tumor: cause of eosinophilia unresponsive to steroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun Jeong; Jeon, Jin; Koh, Young-Il; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2015-04-01

    We report here a case of strongyloidiasis in a 72-year-old diabetic patient (woman) accompanied by gastrointestinal stromal tumor receiving imatinib therapy, first diagnosed as hypereosinophilic syndrome and treated with steroids for uncontrolled eosinophilia. She suffered from lower back pain and intermittent abdominal discomfort with nausea and diagnosed with gastrointestinal stromal tumor. After post-operative imatinib treatment eosinophilia persisted, so that steroid therapy was started under an impression of hypereosinophilic syndrome. In spite of 6 months steroid therapy, eosinophilia persisted. Stool examination was performed to rule out intestinal helminth infections. Rhabditoid larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis were detected and the patient was diagnosed as strongyloidiasis. This diagnosis was confirmed again by PCR. The patient was treated with albendazole for 14 days and her abdominal pain and diarrhea improved. This case highlights the need for thorough investigation, including molecular approaches, to test for strongyloidiasis before and during steroid therapies.

  4. Strongyloidiasis: a case with acute pancreatitis and a literature review.

    PubMed

    Makker, Jasbir; Balar, Bhavna; Niazi, Masooma; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-03-21

    Strongyloides stercoralis, a soil transmitted helminth infection, affects millions with varying prevalence worldwide. A large number of affected hosts are asymptomatic. Symptoms pertaining to pulmonary and gastrointestinal involvement may be present. Manifestations of involvement beyond lung and intestine can be seen with dissemination of infection and lethal hyperinfection. Immunosuppression secondary to use of steroids or other immunosuppressants and coexistence of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 are the known risk factors for dissemination and hyperinfection. Diagnostic modalities comprise stool examination, serology and molecular testing. Stool tests are inexpensive but are limited by low sensitivity, whereas serologic and molecular tests are more precise but at the expense of higher cost. Treatment with Ivermectin or Albendazole as an alternative is safe and efficacious. We present a rare case of acute pancreatitis secondary to Strongyloides. High index of suspicion in patients specifically from endemic countries of origin and lack of other common etiologies of acute pancreatitis may help in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of this potentially fatal infection.

  5. Strongyloidiasis: A case with acute pancreatitis and a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Makker, Jasbir; Balar, Bhavna; Niazi, Masooma; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis, a soil transmitted helminth infection, affects millions with varying prevalence worldwide. A large number of affected hosts are asymptomatic. Symptoms pertaining to pulmonary and gastrointestinal involvement may be present. Manifestations of involvement beyond lung and intestine can be seen with dissemination of infection and lethal hyperinfection. Immunosuppression secondary to use of steroids or other immunosuppressants and coexistence of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 are the known risk factors for dissemination and hyperinfection. Diagnostic modalities comprise stool examination, serology and molecular testing. Stool tests are inexpensive but are limited by low sensitivity, whereas serologic and molecular tests are more precise but at the expense of higher cost. Treatment with Ivermectin or Albendazole as an alternative is safe and efficacious. We present a rare case of acute pancreatitis secondary to Strongyloides. High index of suspicion in patients specifically from endemic countries of origin and lack of other common etiologies of acute pancreatitis may help in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of this potentially fatal infection. PMID:25805946

  6. Disseminated Strongyloidiasis in an Immunodeficient Patient (Pemphigus Vulgaris) Due to Corticosteroid Therapy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    NAJJARI, Mohsen; EBRAHIMIPOUR, Mohammad; KAHEH, Amir; KARIMAZAR, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a frequent misdiagnosed parasitic infection in the world that caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. In Iran, the disease is predominantly reported from warm and humid climate provinces. The patient was a 54-yr-old man, originated from Khuzestan Province with a history of pemphigus and diabetes that was treated with high-dose of corticosteroid drugs before admission in a non-private hospital in Shiraz, Iran in 2014. After different primary diagnosis and administrating of several drugs, endoscopy and histopatholgical biopsy revealed a massive S. stercoralis infection in the duodenal mucosa and gastric wall. In spite treating with anti-helminthic drugs in the last days, due to using different steroid drugs, clinical manifestations of the patient were exacerbated and he was expired on the seventeenth day due to severe dyspnea. Physicians’ awareness and using various diagnosis methods like serology, endoscopy, and biopsy should be considered in the endemic areas. In suspicious cases, anthelmintic drugs should be started before the initiation of immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:28127349

  7. Meningococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... are a type of bacteria that cause serious infections. The most common infection is meningitis, which is an inflammation of the ... also cause other problems, including a serious bloodstream infection called sepsis. Meningococcal infections can spread from person ...

  8. Parasitism in Children Aged Three Years and Under: Relationship between Infection and Growth in Rural Coastal Kenya

    PubMed Central

    McKibben, Maxim; Mungai, Peter; Muchiri, Eric M.; McKibben, Elisabeth; Gildengorin, Ginny; Sutherland, Laura J.; King, Charles H.; King, Christopher L.; Malhotra, Indu

    2015-01-01

    Background Parasitic infections, which are among the most common infections worldwide, disproportionately affect children; however, little is known about the impact of parasitic disease on growth in very early childhood. Our objective was to document the prevalence of parasitic infections and examine their association with growth during the first three years of life among children in coastal Kenya. Methodology/Principal Findings Children enrolled in a maternal-child cohort were tested for soil transmitted helminths (STHs: Ascaris, Trichuris, hookworm, Strongyloides), protozoa (malaria, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia), filaria, and Schistosoma infection every six months from birth until age three years. Anthropometrics were measured at each visit. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to examine the relationship between parasitic infections experienced in the first three years of life and growth outcomes (weight, length and head circumference). Of 545 children, STHs were the most common infection with 106 infections (19%) by age three years. Malaria followed in period prevalence with 68 infections (12%) by three years of age. Filaria and Schistosoma infection occurred in 26 (4.8%) and 16 (2.9%) children, respectively. Seven percent were infected with multiple parasites by three years of age. Each infection type (when all STHs were combined) was documented by six months of age. Decreases in growth of weight, length and head circumference during the first 36 months of life were associated with hookworm, Ascaris, E. histolytica, malaria and Schistosoma infection. In a subset analysis of 180 children who followed up at every visit through 24 months, infection with any parasite was associated with decelerations in weight, length and head circumference growth velocity. Multiple infections were associated with greater impairment of linear growth. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate an under-recognized burden of parasitism in the first

  9. Health Data Concerning Ecuador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-01-27

    vironment and’the lack of footgear contribute to the spread. Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis are the parasites...cooperation with the Ecuadorian National Services is an un- failing characteristic of all International Cooperation Administration activities. f. United Nations

  10. Increased intestinal endotoxin absorption during enteric nematode but not protozoal infections through a mast cell-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Farid, Ayman Samir; Jimi, Fumiko; Inagaki-Ohara, Kyoko; Horii, Yoichiro

    2008-06-01

    It is known that hypersensitivity reactions in the gastrointestinal tract, which are primarily mediated by mast cells, are associated with a secretory response of the epithelium and often increased permeability to macromolecules. Studies to date have not examined the effects of hyperpermeability on the absorption of toxic substances normally present in the intestinal lumen such as bacterial LPS. In the present study, we observed that Strongyloides venezuelensis infection in mice decreases the mRNA expression of intestinal epithelial cell junctional molecules (occludin and zonula occludens 1) and increases portal endotoxin levels 4 h after intragastric administration of LPS (20 mg/kg body weight). Furthermore, an increase in the flux of immunoglobulin G into the intestinal lumen was observed 10 days postinfection (PI). An increased rate of LPS absorption was also seen in mice infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis on day 14 PI and rats concurrently infected with S. venezuelensis and N. brasiliensis on day 20 PI. On the other hand, infection with Eimeria vermiformis and Eimeria pragensis was not observed to enhance LPS absorption 4 h after intragastric administration of LPS (20 mg/kg body weight), although E. vermiformis infection did inhibit the epithelial cell mRNA expression of zonula occludens 1, but not occludin, on day 9 PI, resulting in a reduced immunoglobulin G flux than that produced by S. venezuelensis infection. Our results suggest that mastocytosis accompanying intestinal nematode infection increases the intestinal absorption of LPS into the portal circulation by suppressing the expression of tight junction molecules.

  11. Diagnosis of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in the Era of Preventive Chemotherapy: Effect of Multiple Stool Sampling and Use of Different Diagnostic Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Knopp, Stefanie; Mgeni, Ali F.; Khamis, I. Simba; Steinmann, Peter; Stothard, J. Russell; Rollinson, David; Marti, Hanspeter; Utzinger, Jürg

    2008-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth infections are common throughout the tropics and subtropics and they disproportionately affect the poorest of the poor. In view of a growing global commitment to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis, there is a need to elucidate the effect of repeated stool sampling and the use of different diagnostic methods in areas targeted for preventive chemotherapy that are characterized by low-infection intensities. In this study, we focused on schoolchildren on Unguja Island, Zanzibar, an area where anthelminthic drugs have been repeatedly administered over the past decade. Methodology/Principal Findings Three serial stool samples from each of 342 schoolchildren were examined using the Kato-Katz (K-K), Koga agar plate (KAP), and Baermann (BM) techniques. These methods were used individually or in combination for the diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides (K-K), Trichuris trichiura (K-K), hookworm (K-K and KAP), and Strongyloides stercoralis (KAP and BM). The examination of multiple stool samples instead of a single one resulted in an increase of the observed prevalence; e.g., an increase of 161% for hookworm using the K-K method. The diagnostic sensitivity of single stool sampling ranged between 20.7% for BM to detect S. stercoralis and 84.2% for K-K to diagnose A. lumbricoides. Highest sensitivities were observed when different diagnostic approaches were combined. The observed prevalences for T. trichiura, hookworm, A. lumbricoides, and S. stercoralis were 47.9%, 22.5%, 16.5%, and 10.8% after examining 3 stool samples. These values are close to the ‘true’ prevalences predicted by a mathematical model. Conclusion/Significance Rigorous epidemiologic surveillance of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the era of preventive chemotherapy is facilitated by multiple stool sampling bolstered by different diagnostic techniques. PMID:18982057

  12. [Soil transmitted helminthiasis in Argentina. A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Socías, M Eugenia; Fernández, Anabel; Gil, José F; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of surveys performed between 1980 and 2011 (published in MEDLINE/Pubmed and/or LILACS indexed journals, available in the baseline data from a Mass Deworming National Program (MDNP, 2005) was used to identify the prevalence, distribution and detection of risk areas for soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) in Argentina. We found 310 publications in the database using the pre-defined key-words (medical subject headings) for research purposes. Only 24 articles with 26 surveillance sites in 8 provinces and a total of 5495 surveyed individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Frequency rates for STH had a wide range: Ascaris lumbricoides: 0-67%, hookworms: 0-90%, Trichuris trichiura: 0-24.6 and Strongyloides stercoralis: 0-83%. The estimated combined incidence varied from 0.8% to 88.6%. Baseline surveys from the MDNP reporting on 1943 children from 12 provinces confirmed the heterogeneity, with combined STH frequency rates ranging from 0 to 42.7%. Surveys included in this review showed that the distribution of STH in Argentina is not homogeneous, with areas of high incidence (> 20%) in the northeastern and northwestern provinces where mass deworming activities would be highly beneficial. In several surveys, the high overall incidence was mostly due to hookworms and S. stercoralis, a situation to be considered when selecting diagnostic and therapeutic control strategies. The scarcity or absence of data from various provinces and the availability of less than 8000 surveyed individuals should be considered.

  13. Viral Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... to fight it off. For most viral infections, treatments can only help with symptoms while you wait ... for viral infections. There are antiviral medicines to treat some viral infections. Vaccines can help prevent you ...

  14. Staphylococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... of bacteria. There are over 30 types, but Staphylococcus aureus causes most staph infections (pronounced "staff infections"), including ... Some staph bacteria such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) are resistant to certain antibiotics, making infections harder ...

  15. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Your eyes can get infections from bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Eye infections can occur in different parts of the eye and can affect just one eye or both. Two common eye infections are Conjunctivitis - also known as pinkeye. Conjunctivitis is ...

  16. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Campylobacter Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Campylobacter Infections Print A ... Doctor? en español Infecciones por campylobacter What Are Campylobacter Infections? Campylobacter bacteria are one of the main ...

  17. Staph Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infections Staph bacteria can cause toxic shock syndrome , cellulitis , staph food poisoning, and these infections: Folliculitis and ... Tetanus First Aid: Skin Infections Toxic Shock Syndrome Cellulitis Impetigo MRSA Abscess Cellulitis Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions ...

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Single and Double Doses of Ivermectin versus 7-Day High Dose Albendazole for Chronic Strongyloidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Premasathian, Nalinee; Bhumimuang, Kid; Waywa, Duangdao; Nilganuwong, Surasak; Karuphong, Ekkapun; Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Wanachiwanawin, Darawan; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk

    2011-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis, caused by an intestinal helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, is common throughout the tropics. It remains an important health problem due to autoinfection, which may result in hyperinfection and disseminated infection in immunosuppressed patients, especially patients receiving chemotherapy or corticosteroid treatment. Ivermectin and albendazole are effective against strongyloidiasis. However, the efficacy and the most effective dosing regimen are to be determined. Methods A prospective, randomized, open study was conducted in which a 7-day course of oral albendazole 800 mg daily was compared with a single dose (200 microgram/kilogram body weight), or double doses, given 2 weeks apart, of ivermectin in Thai patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. Patients were followed-up with 2 weeks after initiation of treatment, then 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 1 year after treatment. Combination of direct microscopic examination of fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method, and modified Koga agar plate culture were used to detect strongyloides larvae in two consecutive fecal samples in each follow-up visit. The primary endpoint was clearance of strongyloides larvae from feces after treatment and at one year follow-up. Results Ninety patients were included in the analysis (30, 31 and 29 patients in albendazole, single dose, and double doses ivermectin group, respectively). All except one patient in this study had at least one concomitant disease. Diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythrematosus, nephrotic syndrome, hematologic malignancy, solid tumor and human immunodeficiency virus infection were common concomitant diseases in these patients. The median (range) duration of follow-up were 19 (2–76) weeks in albendazole group, 39 (2–74) weeks in single dose ivermectin group, and 26 (2–74) weeks in double doses ivermectin group. Parasitological cure rate were 63.3%, 96.8% and 93.1% in albendazole, single dose oral ivermectin

  19. Soil-transmitted helminthiases and health behaviors among schoolchildren and community members in a west-central border area of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Anantaphruti, Malinee T; Waikagul, Jitra; Maipanich, Wanna; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Pubampen, Somchit

    2004-06-01

    The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthic infections and health behaviors related to infections in schoolchildren and villagers of a community (4 hamlets) was studied in Hauy Kayeng subdistrict, Thong Pha Phum district, in the north of Kanchanaburi Province. The intestinal helminth infection rate of the schoolchildren was 15.6%. Hookworm infection was the most prominent (9.8%), followed by Trichuris trichiura (6.2%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (2.2%). The community showed higher prevalence rates and was infected with more types of intestinal helminths than the schoolchildren. Thirty-five point two percent (35.2%) of the residents were infected with soil-transmitted helminths, 30.5% with hookworm, 3.4% with A. lumbricoides and 2.2% with T. trichiura. Almost all hookworm cases (94.3%) were light intensity infections, while only 1.3% were heavy infections. Moreover, the hookworm infection rate in the community was found to be much higher when a stool culture method was used (39.1%). With this technique, 2.3% Strongyloides stercoralis infections were detected in the community population. Examination of the health behavior of the study samples showed that approximately 75% always defecated in a toilet. Schoolchildren who always wore shoes comprised 67%, which was lower than the community, at 85%.

  20. Severe Strongyloidiasis with Negative Serology after Corticosteroid Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Abraham, Thomas; Williams, Frederick K.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 77 Final Diagnosis: Deere strongyloidiasis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • apetite loss • diarrhea Medication: Prednisolon Clinical Procedure: Upper endoscopy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Strongyloidiasis usually presents as a chronic and limited disease, but in some immunocompromised patients it may become a life-threatening disease. Case Report: A 77-year-old Haitian male, with history of temporal arteritis on 40 mg of oral prednisone presented complaining of decreased oral intake, epigastric pain, and non-bloody diarrhea. He had bi-temporal wasting and a distended abdomen but without guarding or tenderness. Laboratory examination included mild leukocytosis, anemia, negative HIV antibody, negative parasite stool exam, and negative serology for Giardia and Strongyloides. CT of the abdomen showed multiple distended loops, without obstruction. During the admission he had a 4 g hemoglobin drop and a positive occult blood test, requiring blood transfusions, IV pantoprazole, and upper endoscopy. Findings included severe duodenitis, blunted villi, and intramucosal and luminal helminthic worms and eggs. Pathology showed Strongyloides stercoralis infection, confirmed by subsequent PCR. He was given 1 day of 15 mg oral ivermectin, diarrhea resolved, and was discharged with a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube because of the persistent lack of appetite. Conclusions: Given the persistent nature of strongyloidiasis and its high susceptibility to ivermectin, it potentially would be worth consider treating high-risk patients in the appropriate clinical and epidemiological setting, irrespective of screening test results, in order to avoid false-negative result consequences. PMID:25690926

  1. Gastrointestinal symbionts of chimpanzees in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau with respect to habitat fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Sá, Rui M; Petrášová, Jana; Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Profousová, Ilona; Petrželková, Klára J; Sousa, Cláudia; Cable, Joanne; Bruford, Michael W; Modrý, David

    2013-10-01

    One of the major factors threatening chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Guinea-Bissau is habitat fragmentation. Such fragmentation may cause changes in symbiont dynamics resulting in increased susceptibility to infection, changes in host specificity and virulence. We monitored gastrointestinal symbiotic fauna of three chimpanzee subpopulations living within Cantanhez National Park (CNP) in Guinea Bissau in the areas with different levels of anthropogenic fragmentation. Using standard coproscopical methods (merthiolate-iodine formalin concentration and Sheather's flotation) we examined 102 fecal samples and identified at least 13 different symbiotic genera (Troglodytella abrassarti, Troglocorys cava, Blastocystis spp., Entamoeba spp., Iodamoeba butschlii, Giardia intestinalis, Chilomastix mesnili, Bertiella sp., Probstmayria gombensis, unidentified strongylids, Strongyloides stercoralis, Strongyloides fuelleborni, and Trichuris sp.). The symbiotic fauna of the CNP chimpanzees is comparable to that reported for other wild chimpanzee populations, although CNP chimpanzees have a higher prevalence of Trichuris sp. Symbiont richness was higher in chimpanzee subpopulations living in fragmented forests compared to the community inhabiting continuous forest area. We reported significantly higher prevalence of G. intestinalis in chimpanzees from fragmented areas, which could be attributed to increased contact with humans and livestock. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Gastrointestinal parasite infections and self-medication in wild chimpanzees surviving in degraded forest fragments within an agricultural landscape mosaic in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Bardi, Massimo; Huffman, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring health in wild great apes is integral to their conservation and is especially important where they share habitats with humans, given the potential for zoonotic pathogen exchange. We studied the intestinal parasites of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) inhabiting degraded forest fragments amid farmland and villages in Bulindi, Uganda. We first identified protozoan and helminth parasites infecting this population. Sixteen taxa were demonstrated microscopically (9 protozoa, 5 nematodes, 1 cestode, and 1 trematode). DNA sequence analysis enabled more precise identification of larval nematodes (e.g. Oesophagostomum stephanostomum, O. bifurcum, Strongyloides fuelleborni, Necator sp. Type II) and tapeworm proglottids (genus Bertiella). To better understand the ecology of infections, we used multidimensional scaling analysis to reveal general patterns of association among parasites, climate, and whole leaf swallowing–a prevalent self-medicative behaviour at Bulindi linked to control of nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp.). Prevalence of parasites varied with climate in diverse ways. For example, Oesophagostomum sp. was detected in faeces at higher frequencies with increasing rainfall but was most clearly associated with periods of low temperature. Certain parasites occurred together within chimpanzee hosts more or less frequently than expected by chance. For example, the commensal ciliate Troglodytella abrassarti was negatively associated with Balantidium coli and Oesophagostomum sp., possibly because the latter taxa make the large intestine less suitable for T. abrassarti. Whole leaves in faeces showed independent associations with the prevalence of Oesophagostomum sp., Strongyloides sp., and hookworm by microscopic examination, and with egestion of adult O. stephanostomum by macroscopic inspection. All parasites identified to species or genus have been reported in wild chimpanzees inhabiting less-disturbed environments than Bulindi

  3. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... it can get infected by them. Some common types of skin infections are Bacterial: Cellulitis and impetigo. Staphylococcal infections can also affect the skin. Viral: Shingles, warts, and herpes simplex Fungal: Athlete's foot and yeast infections Parasitic: Body lice, head lice, and scabies ...

  4. Plasmodium falciparum and helminth co-infection in a semi-urban population of pregnant women in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Hillier, Stephen D.; Booth, Mark; Muhangi, Lawrence; Nkurunziza, Peter; Khihembo, Macklyn; Kakande, Muhammad; Sewankambo, Moses; Kizindo, Robert; Kizza, Moses; Muwanga, Moses; Bambury, Mark; Elliott, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Helminth infections and malaria are widespread in the tropics. Recent studies suggest helminth infections may increase susceptibility to malaria. If confirmed, this could be particularly important during pregnancy-induced immunosuppression. Aim To evaluate the geographical distribution of Plasmodium falciparum-helminth co-infection, and associations between parasite species in pregnant women in Entebbe, Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at baseline in a trial of anti-helminthics during pregnancy. Helminth and P.falciparum infections were quantified in 2507 asymptomatic women; socio-demographic and geographical details were recorded. Results Hookworm and Mansonella perstans were associated with P.falciparum but the effect of hookworm was seen only in the absence of M.perstans (OR for P.falciparum, adjusted for age, tribe, socioeconomic status, HIV and location: hookworm without M.perstans 1.53 (95% CI 1.09-2.14); M.perstans without hookworm 2.33 (1.47-3.69), both hookworm and M.perstans, 1.85 (1.24-2.76)). No association was observed between Schistosoma mansoni, Trichuris or Strongyloides and P.falciparum. Conclusions Hookworm-P.falciparum and M.perstans-P.falciparum co-infection amongst pregnant women in Entebbe is more common than expected by chance. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of this association. Helminth-induced increased susceptibility to P.falciparum could have important consequences for pregnancy outcome and responses to malaria in infancy. PMID:18721060

  5. Number of Grooming Partners Is Associated with Hookworm Infection in Wild Vervet Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    PubMed

    Wren, Brandi T; Remis, Melissa J; Camp, Joseph W; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    There are many known benefits of social grooming among primates, including maintenance of social relationships, removal of ectoparasites, and improved physiological condition. Recently, however, researchers have noted that social grooming and social contact may also present a significant cost by facilitating transmission of some parasites and pathogens. We investigated whether the number of social grooming partners varied based on infection status for gastrointestinal parasites. We used focal animal sampling and continuous recording to collect data on the number of grooming partners for known individual vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). We collected non-invasive faecal samples and examined them using faecal flotation, faecal sedimentation, and immunofluorescence microscopy. We detected 6 parasites: Trichuris sp. (92%), hookworm (71%), spirurids (68%), Oesophagostomum sp. (84%), Strongyloides sp. (24%), and Entamoeba coli (92%). The number of grooming partners varied significantly based on infection with hookworm and sex. No significant relationships were detected for other parasites. Associations between host behavioural variation and some parasite taxa (specifically Trichuris, Oesophagostomum, and Entamoeba spp.) were impossible to explore due to an extremely high prevalence among hosts. This is the first report that we are aware of that has detected an association between social grooming behaviours and infection with hookworm. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Helminthiasis: Hookworm Infection Remains a Public Health Problem in Dera District, South Gondar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Mengistu, Agmas Dessalegn

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are significant cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic countries. In Ethiopia, helminthiasis was the third leading cause of outpatient visits. Despite the health extension program was launched to address this problem, there is limited information on the burden of intestinal parasites after implementation of the program in our setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the intestinal helminthic infections among clients attending at Anbesame health center, South Gondar, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted at Anbesame health center from March to June 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 464 study participants selected consecutively. Stool specimen collection, processing through formol-ether concentration technique and microscopic examination for presence of parasites were carried out. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Among the total 464 study participants with median (±IQR) age of 25.0 (±21.75) years, 262 (56.5%) were females. Helminthic infection was found in 97 (20.9%) participants. Hookworm (68 [14.7%]) was the predominant parasite followed by S. mansoni (11 [2.4%]), E. vermicularis (9 [1.9%]) and S. stercoralis (5 [1.1%]). Patients with age group ≥15 years (AOR: 5.26; 95% CI: 2.05-13.46; P: 0.001) and walking barefoot (AOR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.08-4.48; P: 0.031) were more vulnerable from the hookworm infections. There was a high burden of hookworm infections in our setting. Hence, regular shoes wearing, considering all age groups in the albendazole deworming as mass treatment and environmental hygiene are important interventions to reduce the burden of such neglected tropical disease.

  7. A novel rapid test for detecting antibody responses to Loa loa infections

    PubMed Central

    Pedram, Bijan; Pasquetto, Valérie; Drame, Papa M.; Ji, Yongchang; Gonzalez-Moa, Maria J.; Baldwin, Richard K.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    Ivermectin-based mass drug administration (MDA) programs have achieved remarkable success towards the elimination of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. However, their full implementation has been hindered in Central Africa by the occurrence of ivermectin-related severe adverse events (SAEs) in a subset of individuals with high circulating levels of Loa loa microfilariae. Extending MDA to areas with coincident L. loa infection is problematic, and inexpensive point-of-care tests for L. loa are acutely needed. Herein, we present a lateral flow assay (LFA) to identify subjects with a serological response to Ll-SXP-1, a specific and validated marker of L. loa. The test was evaluated on serum samples from patients infected with L. loa (n = 109) and other helminths (n = 204), as well as on uninfected controls (n = 77). When read with the naked eye, the test was 94% sensitive for L. loa infection and was 100% specific when sera from healthy endemic and non-endemic controls or from those with S. stercoralis infections were used as the comparators. When sera of patients with O. volvulus, W. bancrofti, or M. perstans were used as the comparators, the specificity of the LFA was 82%, 87%, and 88%, respectively. A companion smartphone reader allowed measurement of the test line intensities and establishment of cutoff values. With a cutoff of 600 Units, the assay sensitivity decreased to 71%, but the specificity increased to 96% for O. volvulus, 100% for W. bancrofti, and 100% for M. perstans-infected individuals. The LFA may find applications in refining the current maps of L. loa prevalence, which are needed to eliminate onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis from the African continent. PMID:28749939

  8. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  9. Development of Ss-NIE-1 Recombinant Antigen Based Assays for Immunodiagnosis of Strongyloidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Rascoe, Lisa N.; Price, Courtney; Shin, Sun Hee; McAuliffe, Isabel; Priest, Jeffrey W.; Handali, Sukwan

    2015-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a widely distributed parasite that infects 30 to 100 million people worldwide. In the United States strongyloidiasis is recognized as an important infection in immigrants and refugees. Public health and commercial reference laboratories need a simple and reliable method for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis to identify and treat cases and to prevent transmission. The recognized laboratory test of choice for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is detection of disease specific antibodies, most commonly using a crude parasite extract for detection of IgG antibodies. Recently, a luciferase tagged recombinant protein of S. stercoralis, Ss-NIE-1, has been used in a luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) to detect IgG and IgG4 specific antibodies. To promote wider adoption of immunoassays for strongyloidiasis, we used the Ss-NIE-1 recombinant antigen without the luciferase tag and developed ELISA and fluorescent bead (Luminex) assays to detect S. stercoralis specific IgG4. We evaluated the assays using well-characterized sera from persons with or without presumed strongyloidiasis. The sensitivity and specificity of Ss-NIE-1 IgG4 ELISA were 95% and 93%, respectively. For the IgG4 Luminex assay, the sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 95%, respectively. Specific IgG4 antibody decreased after treatment in a manner that was similar to the decrease of specific IgG measured in the crude IgG ELISA. The sensitivities of the Ss-NIE-1 IgG4 ELISA and Luminex assays were comparable to the crude IgG ELISA but with improved specificities. However, the Ss-NIE-1 based assays are not dependent on native parasite materials and can be performed using widely available laboratory equipment. In conclusion, these newly developed Ss-NIE-1 based immunoassays can be readily adopted by public health and commercial reference laboratories for routine screening and clinical diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection in refugees and immigrants in the United States. PMID

  10. Staph Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Staph Infections Staph infections are caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Many healthy people carry these bacteria ... MRSA You may have heard about methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a type of staph bacteria with ...

  11. Opportunistic Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infections Opportunistic Infections and Their Relationship to HIV/AIDS People with healthy immune systems can be exposed ... Disease Dementia Hospitalization & Palliative Care Related Topics on AIDS.gov Signs and Symptoms Immune System 101 Stages ...

  12. Breast infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... slowly, over several weeks, rather than quickly stopping breastfeeding Alternative Names Mastitis; Infection - breast tissue; Breast abscess Images Normal female breast anatomy Breast infection Female breast References Hunt KK, Mittendorf ...

  13. Salmonella Infection

    MedlinePlus

    Salmonella infection Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Salmonella infection (salmonellosis) is a common bacterial disease that affects the intestinal tract. Salmonella bacteria typically live in animal and human intestines and are ...

  14. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ... Sometimes, particularly when a Campylobacter infection is severe, antibiotics may be given. If taken early in the ...

  15. MRSA Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... MRSA infection By Mayo Clinic Staff Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is caused by a type of ... a fever, see your doctor. Different varieties of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, commonly called "staph," exist. Staph bacteria are ...

  16. Hantavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... but deadly viral infection. It is spread by mice and rats. They shed the virus in their ... breathe infected air or come into contact with rodents or their urine or droppings. You cannot catch ...

  17. Spinal infections.

    PubMed

    Tay, Bobby K-B; Deckey, Jeffrey; Hu, Serena S

    2002-01-01

    Spinal infections can occur in a variety of clinical situations. Their presentation ranges from the infant with diskitis who is unwilling to crawl or walk to the adult who develops an infection after a spinal procedure. The most common types of spinal infections are hematogenous bacterial or fungal infections, pediatric diskitis, epidural abscess, and postoperative infections. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of spinal infections, the cornerstone of treatment, requires a high index of suspicion in at-risk patients and the appropriate evaluation to identify the organism and determine the extent of infection. Neurologic function and spinal stability also should be carefully evaluated. The goals of therapy should include eradicating the infection, relieving pain, preserving or restoring neurologic function, improving nutrition, and maintaining spinal stability.

  18. Rotavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all ... the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  19. Coronavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Coronaviruses are common viruses that most people get some time in their life. They are common throughout the world, and they can infect people and animals. Several different coronaviruses can infect people ...

  20. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You get it from eating raw or undercooked poultry. You ... whether you need to take antibiotics. To prevent campylobacter infection, cook poultry thoroughly. Use a separate cutting ...

  1. Staph Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes skin infections like folliculitis, boils, impetigo, and cellulitis that are limited to a small area of ... to other parts of the body by scratching. Cellulitis (pronounced: sell-yuh-LYE-tus) is an infection ...

  2. Vaginal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Nicolle, Lindsay E.

    1989-01-01

    Vaginal infections are among the most common complaints for which women see their physicians. The patient complains primarily of vaginal discharge or pruritus. Optimal management of these infections requires a careful history, physical examination, and laboratory assessment to determine the pathogen. Specific therapy is available for the three important causes of vaginal infection: yeast vulvovaginitis, trichomoniasis, and bacterial vaginosis. Concomitant sexually transmitted diseases should be excluded in women with complaints suggestive of vaginal infection. PMID:21248968

  3. Bone Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent injury to the bone. You may also be at risk if you are having hemodialysis. Symptoms of bone infections include Pain in the infected area Chills and ...

  4. Tapeworm Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... When to see a doctor If you experience any of the signs or symptoms of tapeworm infection, seek medical attention. A tapeworm infection starts after ... the most of your time together. For tapeworm infection, some basic questions to ask ... of tests do I need, if any? What treatments are available and which do you ...

  5. Diagnosing Polyparasitism in a High-Prevalence Setting in Beira, Mozambique: Detection of Intestinal Parasites in Fecal Samples by Microscopy and Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Meurs, Lynn; Polderman, Anton M; Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V S; Brienen, Eric A T; Verweij, Jaco J; Groosjohan, Bernhard; Mendes, Felisberto; Mechendura, Manito; Hepp, Dagmar H; Langenberg, Marijke C C; Edelenbosch, Rosanne; Polman, Katja; van Lieshout, Lisette

    2017-01-01

    Many different intestinal parasite species can co-occur in the same population. However, classic diagnostic tools can only frame a particular group of intestinal parasite species. Hence, one or two tests do not suffice to provide a complete picture of infecting parasite species in a given population. The present study investigated intestinal parasitic infections in Beira, Mozambique, i.e. in the informal settlement of Inhamudima. Diagnostic accuracy of five classical microscopy techniques and real-time PCR for the detection of a broad spectrum of parasites was compared. A cross-sectional population-based survey was performed. One stool sample per participant (n = 303) was examined by direct smear, formal-ether concentration (FEC), Kato smear, Baermann method, coproculture and real-time PCR. We found that virtually all people (96%) harbored at least one helminth, and that almost half (49%) harbored three helminths or more. Remarkably, Strongyloides stercoralis infections were widespread with a prevalence of 48%, and Ancylostoma spp. prevalence was higher than that of Necator americanus (25% versus 15%), the hookworm species that is often assumed to prevail in East-Africa. Among the microscopic techniques, FEC was able to detect the broadest spectrum of parasite species. However, FEC also missed a considerable number of infections, notably S. stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and G. intestinalis. PCR outperformed microscopy in terms of sensitivity and range of parasite species detected. We showed intestinal parasites-especially helminths-to be omnipresent in Inhamudima, Beira. However, it is a challenge to achieve high diagnostic sensitivity for all species. Classical techniques such as FEC are useful for the detection of some intestinal helminth species, but they lack sensitivity for other parasite species. PCR can detect intestinal parasites more accurately but is generally not feasible in resource-poor settings, at least not in peripheral labs. Hence, there is a

  6. Nematode intestinal parasites of children in rural Guinea, Africa: prevalence and relationship to geophagia.

    PubMed

    Glickman, L T; Camara, A O; Glickman, N W; McCabe, G P

    1999-02-01

    Intestinal parasites are routinely found among children in developing countries, but the risk factors of such infection are poorly characterized. The stools of 286 randomly selected children aged 1-18 years from 3 rural villages in Guinea were examined. Data collected via questionnaire were then analyzed to assess the relationship between geophagia, the regular ingestion of soil, and infection with intestinal nematodes acquired through ingestion rather than through skin penetration. 53% of children were infected with at least 1 type of soil-transmitted nematode, and geophagia was reported by parents to occur in 57%, 53%, and 43% of children aged 1-5, 6-10, and 11-18 years, respectively. The pattern of geophagia by age and gender of the children more closely resembled the infection pattern for the 2 orally acquired and soil-transmitted nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura than it did the infection pattern for the 2 soil-transmitted nematodes which infect by penetrating the skin, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis. Geophagia is therefore an important risk factor for orally acquired nematode infections among African children, and education on geophagia prevention should be an integral component of all soil-transmitted parasite control programs.

  7. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.).

  8. Arbovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Beckham, J. David; Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review Arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) infections are increasingly important causes of neurologic disease in the United States through both endemic transmission and travel-associated infections. This article reviews the major arbovirus infections that can cause neurologic disease likely to be encountered in the United States. Recent Findings West Nile virus continues to be an important cause of epidemic encephalitis, while emerging arbovirus infections such as dengue and chikungunya have rapidly expanded their geographic distribution. As emerging arboviruses expand in new geographic regions, neurologic abnormalities are reported in new patient populations. Summary Emerging arbovirus infections are increasingly important causes of neurologic disease throughout the world and in the United States. While no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved therapy is yet available for these infections, prompt recognition and diagnosis from the consulting neurologist will ensure appropriate supportive care for the patient. PMID:26633778

  9. [Hand infections].

    PubMed

    Schiele, Philippe; Le Nen, Dominique

    2013-11-01

    Superficial and deep hand infections are frequent in general medical practice. Clinical examination is a crucial step for an adapted provided care. Most of the time, surgery is the only way to heal infections. However, in some cases (like bites), empiric antibiotherapy is first indicated to limit infection. Staphyloccocus aureus as well as Group Beta Streptococcus are the most frequently pathogenes associated with hand infections. Methicillin resistant S. Aureus must always be considered in the diagnoses. Whatever treatment is provided, clinical assessement must be repeated within two days. An early adaquated treatment prevent functional complications and in some cases death of the patients.

  10. Anaerobic Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... doses of antibiotics taken by mouth for months. Bacteroides and Prevotella infections. Bacterial organisms from species called Bacteroides and Prevotella are anaerobic. They are common organisms ...

  11. Associations between mild-to-moderate anaemia in pregnancy and helminth, malaria and HIV infection in Entebbe, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Muhangi, Lawrence; Woodburn, Patrick; Omara, Mildred; Omoding, Nicholas; Kizito, Dennison; Mpairwe, Harriet; Nabulime, Juliet; Ameke, Christine; Morison, Linda A.; Elliott, Alison M.

    2007-01-01

    Summary It is suggested that helminths, particularly hookworm and schistosomiasis, may be important causes of anaemia in pregnancy. We assessed the associations between mild-to-moderate anaemia (haemoglobin >8.0 g/dl and <11.2 g/dl) and helminths, malaria and HIV among 2507 otherwise healthy pregnant women at enrolment to a trial of deworming in pregnancy in Entebbe, Uganda. The prevalence of anaemia was 39.7%. The prevalence of hookworm was 44.5%, Mansonella perstans 21.3%, Schistosoma mansoni 18.3%, Strongyloides 12.3%, Trichuris 9.1%, Ascaris 2.3%, asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia 10.9% and HIV 11.9%. Anaemia showed little association with the presence of any helminth, but showed a strong association with malaria (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.22, 95% CI 2.43–4.26) and HIV (AOR 2.46, 95% CI 1.90–3.19). There was a weak association between anaemia and increasing hookworm infection intensity. Thus, although highly prevalent, helminths showed little association with mild-to-moderate anaemia in this population, but HIV and malaria both showed a strong association. This result may relate to relatively good nutrition and low helminth infection intensity. These findings are pertinent to estimating the disease burden of helminths and other infections in pregnancy. [Clinical Trial No. ISRCTN32849447] PMID:17555783

  12. Associations between mild-to-moderate anaemia in pregnancy and helminth, malaria and HIV infection in Entebbe, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Muhangi, Lawrence; Woodburn, Patrick; Omara, Mildred; Omoding, Nicholas; Kizito, Dennison; Mpairwe, Harriet; Nabulime, Juliet; Ameke, Christine; Morison, Linda A; Elliott, Alison M

    2007-09-01

    It is suggested that helminths, particularly hookworm and schistosomiasis, may be important causes of anaemia in pregnancy. We assessed the associations between mild-to-moderate anaemia (haemoglobin >8.0 g/dl and <11.2 g/dl) and helminths, malaria and HIV among 2507 otherwise healthy pregnant women at enrolment to a trial of deworming in pregnancy in Entebbe, Uganda. The prevalence of anaemia was 39.7%. The prevalence of hookworm was 44.5%, Mansonella perstans 21.3%, Schistosoma mansoni 18.3%, Strongyloides 12.3%, Trichuris 9.1%, Ascaris 2.3%, asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia 10.9% and HIV 11.9%. Anaemia showed little association with the presence of any helminth, but showed a strong association with malaria (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.22, 95% CI 2.43-4.26) and HIV (AOR 2.46, 95% CI 1.90-3.19). There was a weak association between anaemia and increasing hookworm infection intensity. Thus, although highly prevalent, helminths showed little association with mild-to-moderate anaemia in this population, but HIV and malaria both showed a strong association. This result may relate to relatively good nutrition and low helminth infection intensity. These findings are pertinent to estimating the disease burden of helminths and other infections in pregnancy. [Clinical Trial No. ISRCTN32849447].

  13. [A very up-to-date stage in the fate of infectious diseases: parasitic and fungal opportunistic infections].

    PubMed

    Ambroise-Thomas, P; Grillot, R

    1995-04-01

    Opportunistic parasitosis and mycosis are becoming ever more widespread, mainly under the influence of major immunodeficiencies, either acquired (AIDS) or therapeutic. In this general overview, their main aspects, both clinical and epidemiological, are underlined. In terms of epidemiology, three types of phenomena have been observed: 1) emergence of human parasitosis unknown before (microsporidiosis due to Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoom hellem or Septata intestinalis); 2) among the human parasites already known, identification of very pathogenic strains (Toxoplasma gondii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans); 3) origin probably or certainly nosocomial of certain infections (pneumocystosis; toxoplasmosis and visceral leishmaniasis transmitted during bone-marrow or organ transplantations). The development of deep mycosis (invasive aspergillosis) is particularly promoted by granulopenia and alterations in the phagocytosis. On the other hand, opportunistic protozoosis (toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis) and helminthiasis (strongyloidosis due to Strongyloides stercolaris) are related, above all, to disorders in cellular immunity (deficit of CD4+, mainly). Finally, several of these infections may be characterised by a variety of clinical pictures and outcome, depending on the contributory factors (immunodeficit or not) which led to the development of the infection.

  14. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... feces (poop), which can lead to infection in humans via contaminated food, meats (especially chicken), water taken from contaminated sources (streams or rivers near where animals graze), and milk products that haven't been ... the human digestive system, Campylobacter infects and attacks the lining ...

  15. Staph Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor. previous continue Can I Prevent a Staph Skin Infection? Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are everywhere. Many healthy people carry staph bacteria without getting sick. Cleanliness and good hygiene are ... You can help prevent staph skin infections by washing your hands often and by ...

  16. Salmonella Infections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infections with bacteria of the genus Salmonella are responsible for both acute and chronic poultry diseases. These diseases cause economically significant losses for poultry producers in many nations and absorb large investments of public and private resources in testing and control efforts. Infect...

  17. Human contact influences the foraging behaviour and parasite community in long-tailed macaques.

    PubMed

    Wenz-Mücke, Alexandra; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Petney, Trevor N; Taraschewski, Horst

    2013-05-01

    Human–wildlife interactions have reached unprecedented levels, and humans are influencing the earth’s ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than ever before. This situation is cause for serious concern, especially since disease interactions between wildlife and humans have been recognized as major conservation threats. In this study, long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, from 2 forest parks located in north-eastern Thailand were investigated to determine the influence of habitat modification by humans on helminth parasite associations in non-human primates. Macaque populations with contact to anthropogenically modified environments were compared with sylvatic groups in nearby natural environments. In order to test for human–non-human primate transmission of parasites, the local human populations were also examined. Humans were infected with a number of potentially pathogenic parasites, including Opisthorchis viverrini and Strongyloides stercoralis. However, eggs of these helminths were not detected in macaque feces. Thus, no direct parasite transfer from humans to non-human primates could be confirmed. However, macaque groups with more frequent contact with human modified habitats, and a higher portion of human-provided food in their diet, had significantly higher prevalences and intensities of Strongyloides fuelleborni and of an intestinal fluke (probably Haplorchis sp.) than sylvatic groups. Positive correlations were found between the time foraging on the ground and infection with S. fuelleborni, and the amount of human-provided food and intestinal fluke infection. Human alteration of habitat and associated modifications in nonhuman primate behaviour are likely to play a role in determining the occurrence, prevalence and intensity of zoonotic helminth infection of wild non-human primates.

  18. Post-travel screening of asymptomatic long-term travelers to the tropics for intestinal parasites using molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Soonawala, Darius; van Lieshout, Lisette; den Boer, Marion A M; Claas, Eric C J; Verweij, Jaco J; Godkewitsch, André; Ratering, Marchel; Visser, Leo G

    2014-05-01

    The incidence of asymptomatic travel-related parasitic infection is uncertain. Previous studies did not distinguish new incident infections, from past infections. Regardless of symptoms, we performed multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction on pre- and post-travel stool samples of Dutch long-term travelers to the (sub)tropics. Serological screening for Schistosoma spp. was only performed in travelers to sub-Saharan Africa. In total, 679 travelers were included in the study. The follow-up rate was 82% (556 of 679). Participants' median travel duration was 12 weeks. There was one incident infection with Strongyloides stercoralis; there were none with Entamoeba histolytica, 4 with Cryptosporidium spp. (1%), and 22 with Giardia lamblia (4%). Nine of 146 travelers (6%) seroconverted for Schistosoma spp. Routine screening of stool samples for parasitic infection is not indicated for asymptomatic people, who travel to the (sub)tropics for up to 3 months. Screening for Schistosoma spp. should be offered to travelers with fresh-water contact in endemic regions.

  19. [Digestive manifestations of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): study in 26 patients].

    PubMed

    René, E; Marche, C; Régnier, B; Saimot, A G; Vittecoq, B; Matheron, S; Le Port, C; Bricaire, F; Bure, A; Brun-Vezinet, C

    1985-04-01

    We studied the gastrointestinal manifestations in 26 cases of AIDS. The patients belonged to two different epidemiological groups: the first group included thirteen french homosexual men, the second group included 6 Haitians, 6 Africans and a Pakistanian, none of them admit homosexual activity. The clinical manifestations were: chronic watery diarrhea in 17 cases, bloody diarrhea in 2 cases; loss of weight in the 26 cases; dysphagia in five cases; jaundice in one patient (due to Kaposi sarcoma of the ampulla of Vater). The digestive lesions found, alone or associated, were necrotizing enteritis (2), ulcerative colitis (1), pseudomembranous colitis (1), Candida esophagitis (10), erythematous duodenitis (6), proctitis (4), Kaposi sarcoma (3), diffuse (2) or localized (1). Thirteen patients out of the 26 presented opportunistic digestive infections due to one or several germs. These were 10 cases of esophageal infection (due to Candida albicans) and 8 cases of enterocolonic infection due to Cytomegalovirus (3 cases), Cryptosporidium (3 cases), Mycobacterium avium intracellulare (1 case), Cryptococcus neoformans (1 case). The other digestive infections cases were due to non-opportunistic pathogens: Entamoeba histolytica (3 cases); Giardia lamblia (3 cases); Strongyloides stercoralis (2 cases); Salmonella typhi (2 cases); Shigella (1 case); Herpes simplex virus (1 case). No difference was noticed between the homosexual and the heterosexual groups with respect to the nature and the frequency of the digestive infections.

  20. Enteric pathogens of food sellers in rural Gambia with incidental finding of Myxobolus species (Protozoa: Myxozoa).

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Richard S; Barbé, Barbara; Jacobs, Jan; Jallow, Amadou T; Camara, Karamo C; Colley, Musa; Wegmüller, Rita; Jassey, Babucarr; Cham, Yorro; Baldeh, Ignatius; Prentice, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Ongoing surveillance of enteric pathogens of public health significance among casual food sellers is undertaken in many resource-limited countries. We report the results of a survey in Kiang West province, The Gambia, and provide an exemplar methodology for such surveys in resource-limited laboratories. Unpreserved, unrefrigerated stool samples were subjected to Salmonella, Shigella and agar plate culture for rhabditoid nematodes. Direct microscopy, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration and iron-hematoxylin staining was performed later, following preservation. Of 128 specimens received, no Shigella spp. was recovered, while four serovars of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica, including Chandans, were isolated. Pathogenic parasitic infections were Necator americanus 10/128 (7.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis 3/128 (2.8%), Blastocystis species 45/128 (35.1%), Entamoeba histolytica complex 19/128 (14.8%) and Giardia intestinalis 4/128 (3.1%). A single case each of Hymenolepis diminuta and S. mansoni infection were detected. In one participant, myxozoan spores identical to those of Myxobolus species were found. Rare parasitoses and serovars of Salmonella enterica may occur relatively commonly in rural Africa. This paper describes intestinal pathogens found in a cohort of food sellers in such a setting. Furthermore, it describes two parasites rarely recovered from humans and demonstrates the need for methods other than microscopy to detect S. stercoralis infections. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Hookworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... intestinal wall and suck blood, which results in iron deficiency anemia and protein loss. Adult worms and larvae ... problems that may result from hookworm infection include: Iron deficiency anemia , caused by loss of blood Nutritional deficiencies ...

  2. Spinal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... spinal infection include fever, chills, headache, neck stiffness, pain, wound redness and tenderness, and wound drainage. In some cases, patients may notice new weakness, numbness or tingling sensations in the arms and/or legs. The symptoms ...

  3. Pneumocystis Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common type of infection is pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). PCP once was the major cause of death for ... or treat most cases. The key to surviving PCP is early treatment. The first signs of PCP ...

  4. Shigella Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hand Washing So Important? Diarrhea Vomiting Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Fevers "Stomach Flu" Why Do I Need to Wash My Hands? Food Poisoning Salmonellosis Shigellosis Cholera E. Coli Gastrointestinal Infections ...

  5. Bacterial Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... body will learn to resist them causing antibiotic resistance. Later, you could get or spread an infection that those antibiotics cannot cure. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  6. Mycobacterial Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... many different kinds. The most common one causes tuberculosis. Another one causes leprosy. Still others cause infections ... aren't "typical" because they don't cause tuberculosis. But they can still harm people, especially people ...

  7. Pinworm Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... length. While the infected person sleeps, female pinworms lay thousands of eggs in the folds of skin ... Female pinworms move to the anal area to lay their eggs, which often results in anal itching. ...

  8. Kidney Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... filter waste from your blood and return your filtered blood to the rest of your body. Having ... urinary tract infections if they: Drink fluids, especially water. Fluids can help remove bacteria from your body ...

  9. Norovirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Noroviruses are a group of related viruses. Infection with these viruses causes an illness called gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the stomach and intestines. It can spread from person to person, or ...

  10. Norovirus Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has a norovirus infection Noroviruses are difficult to wipe out because they can withstand hot and cold ... especially after using the toilet or changing a diaper. Avoid contaminated food and water, including food that ...

  11. Neonatal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... their surroundings, particularly if they have weakened immune systems that would make them more susceptible. Symptoms of infection in newborns aren't very specific and may include persistent crying, irritability, sleeping more than usual, lethargy, refusing ...

  12. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common cause of ear infections. Get your child’s vaccinations on time.Practice routine hand washing and avoid sharing food and drinks, especially if your child is exposed to large groups of kids in ...

  13. Hand Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread to others. Necrotizing Fasciitis, or “Flesh-Eating Bacteria” Necrotizing fasciitis is a very rare but severe infection. Streptococcus pyogenes or other “flesh-eating bacteria” enter the body through a cut. Bacteria toxins ...

  14. Staphylococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... you should be familiar with include the following: Cellulitis is a bacterial skin infection that first affects ... skin. Although other types of bacteria can cause cellulitis, Saureus is responsible for many childhood cases. Symptoms ...

  15. A comparative study of intestinal helminths in pre-school-age urban and rural children in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Shield, Jennifer M; Kow, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    Children aged between 1 month and 10 years from one rural coastal locality, two rural upland localities and two urban localities in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea were examined between September 1980 and September 1982. Hookworm (predominantly Necator americanus), Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura increased in prevalence with age. The prevalence of Strongyloides fuelleborni subspecies kellyi, where present, was either highest in the < 1 year age group or similar in all age groups. N. americanus prevalence was between 59% and 83% in the 3 year age group except at the coastal locality, where it was 15%. A. lumbricoides prevalence in the 3 year age group was very low in one upland locality and between 7% and 41% for the other localities. T. trichiura prevalence in the 3 year age group was between 33% and 55% at the coastal and two urban localities, and very low at the two upland localities. S. f. kellyi prevalence in the < 1 year age group was 48% and 20% respectively at the two upland localities, 2% at one of the urban localities and not detected at the other localities. Strongyloides stercoralis was detected at both urban localities, but not at the coastal locality or at the upland locality where testing was done. Many children had infections of more than one species, and there was a significant association of A. lumbricoides with T. trichiura at the coastal and two urban localities. The presence of S. f. kellyi at one of the urban localities raises the possibility that this once isolated species may now be spreading as infected people visit and settle in the towns. Between 68% and 93% of children in the 3 year age group and between 65% and 100% in the 5 year age group were infected with at least one helminth species.

  16. Decreasing Intestinal Parasites in Recent Northern California Refugees

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alicia H.; Perry, Sharon; Du, Jenny N. T.; Agunbiade, Abdulkareem; Polesky, Andrea; Parsonnet, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) expanded the overseas presumptive treatment of intestinal parasites with albendazole to include refugees from the Middle East. We surveyed the prevalence of helminths and protozoa in recent Middle Eastern refugees (2008–2010) in comparison with refugees from other geographical regions and from a previous survey (2001–2004) in Santa Clara County, California. Based on stool microscopy, helminth infections decreased, particularly in Middle Eastern refugees (0.1% versus 2.3% 2001–2004, P = 0.01). Among all refugees, Giardia intestinalis was the most common protozoan found. Protozoa infections also decreased somewhat in Middle Eastern refugees (7.2%, 2008–2010 versus 12.9%, 2001–2004, P = 0.08). Serology for Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma spp. identified more infected individuals than stool exams. Helminth infections are increasingly rare in refugees to Northern California. Routine screening stool microscopy may be unnecessary in all refugees. PMID:23149583

  17. Prevalence and Types of Coinfections in Sleeping Sickness Patients in Kenya (2000/2009)

    PubMed Central

    Kagira, J. M.; Maina, N.; Njenga, J.; Karanja, S. M.; Karori, S. M.; Ngotho, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of coinfections in human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) patients was investigated using a retrospective data of hospital records at the National Sleeping Sickness Referral Hospital in Alupe, Kenya. A total of 31 patients, 19 males and 12 females, were diagnosed with HAT between the years 2000 and 2009. The observed co-infections included malaria (100%), helminthosis (64.5%), typhoid (22.5%), urinary tract infections (16.1%), HIV (12.9%), and tuberculosis (3.2%). The species of helminthes observed included Ancylostoma duodenale (38.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (45.7%), Strongyloides stercoralis (9.7%), and Taenia spp. (3.2%). The patients were also infected with Entamoeba spp. (32.3%) and Trichomonas hominis (22.6%) protozoan parasites. The main clinical signs observed at the point of admission included headache (74.2%), fever (48.4%), sleep disorders (45.2%), and general body pain (41.9%). The HAT patients were treated with suramin (early stage, 9/31) and melarsoprol (late stage, 22/31). In conclusion, the study has shown that HAT patients have multiple co-infections which may influence the disease pathogenesis and complicate management of HAT. PMID:21915184

  18. Intestinal and lung parasites in owned dogs and cats from central Italy.

    PubMed

    Riggio, Francesca; Mannella, Riccardo; Ariti, Gaetano; Perrucci, Stefania

    2013-03-31

    Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal and lung parasites were investigated in 239 owned dogs and 81 owned cats from central Italy. In 36 dogs and 20 cats found infected by nematodes, pre and post-treatment faecal egg count (FEC) was also evaluated. About 31% of dogs and about 35% of cats resulted positive for at least one intestinal or lung parasitic species. Helminthic, intestinal and zoonotic infections resulted prevalent in examined animals. Examined dogs resulted infected by Toxocara canis (13.0%), Toxascaris leonina (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis (3.3%), Ancylostoma caninum (2.0%), Uncinaria stenocephala (1.25%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.8%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (0.4%), Dipylidium caninum (1.25%), Taeniidae eggs (0.4%), Giardia duodenalis (3.8%), and Cystoisospora (Isospora) spp. (7.5%). Examined cats were infected by Toxocara cati (22.2%), Capillaria aerophila (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeformae (1.2%), U. stenocephala (3.7%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (1.2%), Mesocestoides sp. (1.2%), D. caninum (1.2%), G. duodenalis (1.2%) and Cystoisospora spp. (4.5%). The presence of clinical signs and the young age (less than 6 months) were identified as risk factors by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. In 63.9% treated dogs and in 80.0% treated cats, percentages of post-treatment FEC reduction higher than 90% were found. Results obtained in this study are discussed.

  19. Human Onchocerciasis and Tetanus Vaccination: Impact on the Postvaccination Antitetanus Antibody Response

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Philip J.; Espinel, Ivan; Wieseman, Moira; Paredes, Wilson; Espinel, Mauricio; Guderian, Ronald H.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate whether helminth infections may affect the efficacy of vaccines by impairing the immune response to nonparasite vaccine antigens, we compared the antibody responses to tetanus toxoid (TT) after tetanus vaccination in 193 subjects with Onchocerca volvulus infection with 85 comparable noninfected controls. After vaccination, the proportions of subjects in each group attaining protective levels of antitetanus antibodies were similar (96.9% infected versus 97.6% noninfected). Postvaccination increases in antitetanus immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the predominant IgG isotype, IgG1, were equivalent in both groups, as were increases in specific IgG4 and IgE; however, significantly greater increases in specific IgG2 (P < 0.05) and IgG3 (P < 0.001) were observed in the noninfected group. Stratification of the O. volvulus-infected group into two groups representing light and heavy infections revealed a significantly impaired antitetanus IgG response in those with heavy infections compared to those with light infections (P < 0.01) or no infection (P < 0.05). The impact of concurrent intestinal helminth infections on the antitetanus response was also examined; an increased IgG4/IgE ratio was seen in those infected with Strongyloides stercoralis (P < 0.05) and when all helminth infections were combined as a single group (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that concurrent infection with O. volvulus does not prevent the development of a protective antitetanus response, although heavier O. volvulus infections are able to alter the magnitude of this response, and concurrent helminth infections (O. volvulus and intestinal helminths) may alter TT-specific antibody isotype responses. PMID:10531253

  20. Infection levels of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

    2013-12-01

    Gastrointestinal parasites of livestock cause diseases of important socio-economic concern worldwide. The present study investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in lowland and highland regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Faecal samples were collected from a total of 165 small ruminants (110 sheep and 55 goats) from February to April 2011. Analysis by a modified McMaster technique revealed that 128 animals (72% of sheep and 89% of goats) were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites. The gastrointestinal parasites found and their prevalences in sheep (S) and in goats (G) were as follows: strongyle 67.3% (S), 85.5% (G); Eimeria 17.3% (S), 16.4% (G); Strongyloides, 8.2% (S), 23.6% (G); Fasciola, 5.5% (S), 18.2% (G); Trichuris, 1.8% (S), 3.6% (G); and Nematodirus, 1.8% (S), 3.6% (G). Two additional genera were found in goats: Moniezia (9.1%) and Dictocaulus (3.6%). This is the first study to quantitatively examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goats in PNG. The high rates of parasitism observed in the present study are likely to be associated with poor farming management practices, including lack of pasture recovery time, lack of parasite control measures and poor-quality feed.

  1. Prevalence of parasitic infection in captive wild animals in Bir Moti Bagh mini zoo (Deer Park), Patiala, Punjab

    PubMed Central

    Mir, A. Q.; Dua, K.; Singla, L. D.; Sharma, S.; Singh, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of captive wild animals at Bir Moti Bagh Mini Zoo (Deer Park), Patiala, Punjab. Materials and Methods: A total of 31 fecal samples from eight species of captive animals including Civet cat (Viverra zibetha), Porcupine (Hystrix indica), Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus), Spotted deer (Axis axis), Black buck (Antelope cervicapra), Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), Hog deer (Axis porcinus), and Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) were screened using classical parasitological techniques including sedimentation and floatation technique. Results: Out of 31 fecal samples examined, 20 were positive for parasitic ova/oocysts of different species indicating an overall prevalence of 68.0%. The six different types of parasites observed in the study included strongyle (67%), Strongyloides spp. (14%), coccidia (38%), Trichuris spp. (19%), ascarid (10%), and Capillaria spp. (10%). Strongyles were the most common parasites observed (67%) followed by coccidia (38%). Mixed helminth and protozoan infection were observed in 48% of animals. No cestode or trematodes were detected during the study. Conclusion: The high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites without overt clinical signs of disease or mortality as observed in this study is suggestive of subclinical infection. The findings will help in formulating the appropriate deworming protocol for parasitic control in these captive animals. PMID:27397973

  2. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Vaginal Yeast Infections KidsHealth > For Teens > Vaginal Yeast Infections Print ... side effect of taking antibiotics. What Is a Yeast Infection? A yeast infection is a common infection ...

  3. Infection: musculoskeletal.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Diego

    2011-05-01

    The imaging approach to osteomyelitis has evolved in the past two decades. Advances in MRI allow for whole body imaging, decreasing the need for scintigraphy when symptoms are not localized or the disease may be multifocal. There is an increasing clinical need for depiction of abscesses in the soft tissues and subperiosteal space, particularly because methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections constitute more than one-third of all the infections. The increasing emphasis on radiation dose reduction has also led away from scintigraphy and computed tomography. MR imaging has become the advanced imaging modality of choice in osteomyelitis. There is an increasing understanding of the appropriate role for gadolinium enhancement, which is not indicated when the pre-gadolinium images are normal. Other related infections, including pyomyositis, are best imaged with MRI.

  4. Pathogenic micro-organisms and helminths in sewage products, Arabian Gulf, country of Bahrain.

    PubMed Central

    Amin, O M

    1988-01-01

    Fecal and sludge samples from the Arabian Gulf country of Bahrain contained poliomyelitis and coxackie viruses, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella sonni, fecal streptococci, Balantidium coli, Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis nana eggs, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Sludge produced in the central sewage treatment plant is used for agricultural purposes and poses a threat to public health. Recommendations to reduce the potential health hazards are made. PMID:3341504

  5. Pathogenic micro-organisms and helminths in sewage products, Arabian Gulf, country of Bahrain.

    PubMed

    Amin, O M

    1988-03-01

    Fecal and sludge samples from the Arabian Gulf country of Bahrain contained poliomyelitis and coxackie viruses, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella sonni, fecal streptococci, Balantidium coli, Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis nana eggs, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Sludge produced in the central sewage treatment plant is used for agricultural purposes and poses a threat to public health. Recommendations to reduce the potential health hazards are made.

  6. Molecular paleoparasitological hybridization approach as effective tool for diagnosing human intestinal parasites from scarce archaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples.

  7. [Intestinal helminthiasis diagnosed in Dakar, Senegal].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, D; Ndiaye, M; Gueye, P A L; Badiane, A; Fall, I D; Ndiaye, Y D; Faye, B; Ndiaye, J L; Tine, R; Ndir, O

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of digestive helminthiasis among patients referred to the laboratory of Parasitology and mycology at Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar for examination of stool samples from 2004 to 2009. Of 1 526 direct stool examinations (Ritchie and Baerman techniques) analyzed at the laboratory of Parasitology and Mycology of Le Dantec Hospital from 2004 to 2009, 310 were positive for intestinal helminthiasis, for a prevalence of 20.3%. The main species found were: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, Tænia saginata and Tænia solium. Most patients had a single parasite (90.1%, versus 9% with two and 0.9% with three). Men are infected more often than women, accounting respectively for 58% and 42% of the infections, for a sex ratio of 1.38. Children aged 10 to 15 years had the highest prevalence of infection: 34.5%. The results show that digestive helminthiasis is endemic in Dakar, where it is necessary to implement campaigns of deworming, health education and environmental improvement.

  8. Gastrointestinal parasites of captive and free-roaming primates at the Afi Mountain Primate Conservation Area in Calabar, Nigeria and their zoonotic implications.

    PubMed

    Mbaya, A W; Udendeye, U J

    2011-07-01

    A study on the gastrointestinal parasites among free-living and captive primates at the Afi Mountain, Primate Conservation Area in Calabar, Nigeria was undertaken for the first time to ascertain their zoonotic implications. Faecal samples were subjected to direct smear, floatation, quantitative estimation of helminth eggs (epg) and oocysts (opg), larval isolation and identification by modified Baerman's technique and oocyst sporulation for specie identification. Out of the 108 primates examined, 75(69.44%) were found to be shedding the ova and oocysts of several gastrointestinal parasites of which, the mona monkeys (Cercopethicus mona) 16(80%) followed by the white collared mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) 7 (77.78) had the highest (p < 0.05) prevalence of infection. Meanwhile, the chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) had the highest ova or oocyst counts and variety of gastrointestinal parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Balantidium coli, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ancylostosoma duodenale and Cryptosporidium species. Similarly, the drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus), Sclater's white-nosed monkey (Cercopethicus erythrotis sclateri), white-collared mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) and others, had Ascaris lumbricoides or Ancylostoma duodenale. All captive primates were more infected than those under free-roam. The young (< 12 months) and females had higher infection rates (p < 0.05) than their counterparts. In conclusion, the primates harboured several parasites of zoonotic importance.

  9. Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization Approach as Effective Tool for Diagnosing Human Intestinal Parasites from Scarce Archaeological Remains

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples. PMID:25162694

  10. Endemic strongyloidiasis on the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, P R; Guzman, A P; Guillen, S M; Adell, R I; Estruch, A M; Gonzalo, I N; Olmos, C R

    2001-07-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of Strongyloides stercoralis infection can be difficult, and a high degree of clinical suspicion in patients who have visited an endemic area is required. We describe the epidemiology and clinical features of 152 prospectively identified cases of strongyloidiasis in an European region, and identify risk factors for the development of severe forms of the disease. This was a prospective study of all patients admitted to a single institution over an 8-year period. Patients (n=152) were mainly elderly male farmers (79%) who had acquired the disease by working barefoot in contact with soil and ingesting non-drinking water. Eosinophilia was a sensitive marker for the infection (82%). Twenty patients (13%) developed severe forms of the illness and six patients (4%) died. A significant association was found between severe forms of strongyloidiasis and steroid usage (OR 9.0, 95%CI 2.1-37.6), immunodebilitating illness (OR 10.1, 95%CI 3.2-32.3) and other immunosuppressive therapy (OR 13.7, 95%CI 2.9-58.7), but by logistic regression analysis, only immunodebilitating disease was as a risk factor (OR 2.1, 95%CI 1.78-2.43). S. stercolaris infection is endemic in the Spanish Mediterranean coast. The frequent development of severe forms of the disease, with a high mortality, makes early recognition and treatment essential.

  11. Parasitic diseases of remote Indigenous communities in Australia.

    PubMed

    Holt, Deborah C; McCarthy, James S; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2010-08-15

    Indigenous Australians suffer significant disadvantage in health outcomes and have a life expectancy well below that of non-Indigenous Australians. Mortality rates of Indigenous Australians are higher than that of Indigenous populations in developed countries elsewhere in the world. A number of parasitic diseases which are uncommon in the rest of the Australian population contribute to the high burden of disease in many remote Indigenous communities. High rates of infection with enteric parasites such as Strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm and Trichuris have been recorded and infection of the skin with the ecto-parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei is also a substantial problem. Secondary infection of scabies lesions, including with Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptococcus, can produce serious sequelae such as rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Transmission of many parasites in many remote communities is facilitated by overcrowded living conditions and infrastructure problems which result in poor sanitation and hygiene. Improvements in environmental health conditions must accompany medical initiatives to achieve sustainable improvement in the health of Indigenous Australians.

  12. Myxobolus sp., Another Opportunistic Parasite in Immunosuppressed Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Moncada, Ligia I.; López, Myriam C.; Murcia, Martha I.; Nicholls, Santiago; León, Frecia; Guío, Olga Lucia; Corredor, Augusto

    2001-01-01

    During a study of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients, a parasite belonging to the phylum Myxozoa, recently described from human samples, was identified in one sample. When this parasite was stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method, the features of the spores were identified: they were pyriform in shape, had thick walls, and had one suture and two polar capsules, with each one having four or five coils. The suture and two polar capsules were observed with the chromotrope-modified stain. The number of stools passed was more than 30 per day, but oocysts of Isospora belli were also found. Upon reexamination of some formalin- or merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde-preserved samples an identical parasite was found in another sample from a patient presenting with diarrhea. Strongyloides stercoralis larvae and eggs of Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides were also found in this sample. Given that both patients were also infected with other pathogens that cause diarrhea, the possible pathogenic role of this parasite could not be established. The probable route of infection also could not be established. PMID:11326017

  13. First report of human intestinal sarcocystosis in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Khieu, Virak; Marti, Hanspeter; Chhay, Saomony; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Human intestinal sarcocystosis (HIS), caused by Sarcocystis species, is acquired by eating undercooked meat from sarcocyst-containing cattle (S. hominis, S. heydorni) and pigs (S. suihominis). We report on the detection of human intestinal Sarcocystis infections in a cross-sectional survey of Strongyloides stercoralis in early 2014, in Rovieng District, Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Among 1081 participants, 108 (10.0%) were diagnosed with Sarcocystis spp. oocysts in stool samples. Males had a significantly higher risk of infection than females (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9, p=0.001). None of the reported symptoms (abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, muscle pain and itching skin) occurring in the two weeks preceding the examinations were associated with a Sarcocystis infection. Many Sarcocystis cases were found among those who had participated in a wedding celebration and Chinese New Year festivities, where they had consumed raw or insufficiently cooked beef (83.3%) and pork (38.9%) based dishes. This report documents the first HIS cases in Cambodia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Does meatiness of pigs depend on the level of gastro-intestinal parasites infection?

    PubMed

    Knecht, Damian; Popiołek, Marcin; Zaleśny, Grzegorz

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present paper was to determine an influence of the presence and a level of intestine parasites infection on the quality of pork carcass expressed by the content of meat in carcass (meatiness) in pigs. The experimental part of the study was conducted on pigs farm produced in a closed cycle. The population in the study included 120 fattening pigs maintained in two keeping systems: group I--60 individuals kept on slatted floor, and group II--60 individuals kept on deep litter. All the experimental animals were treated in the same manner. The analysed fatteners were slaughtered in Meat Processing Plant when their body mass reached 110 kg, and the post-slaughter assessment was conducted according to the EUROP classification of pigs carcass using the Ultra-Fom 300 device. The study concerning the internal parasites were conducted basing on coproscopic quantitative McMaster method. As a results, the eggs of three nematode taxa were isolated and identified: Oesophagostomum spp., Ascaris suum and Strongyloides ransomi. Overall prevalence of infection of fatteners kept on litter was lower (25%±11.2) as compared to those kept on slatted floor (38.3%±12.6), however the differences were not statistically significant (χ(2)=2.465; df=1; P=0.116). The mean value of meatiness for pigs free from parasites was 53.68, while in the case of infected pigs the meatiness was statistically lower and was 52.12 (t=2.35; P=0.02). The analysed pigs were classified into three categories and conducted analysis of an influence of parasites on meatiness demonstrate the relationship that is statistically significant. The analysis of correlation between meatiness and an average number of helminth eggs also demonstrated the negative, statistically significant, relationship (F=5.52; P=0.020), i.e. in fatteners with higher EPG value the meatiness was lower.

  15. Hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Alex; Hotez, Peter J; Diemert, David; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; McCarthy, James S; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Croese, John; Bethony, Jeffrey M

    2016-12-08

    Hookworms are soil-transmitted nematode parasites that can reside for many years in the small intestine of their human hosts; Necator americanus is the predominant infecting species. Adult worms feed on the blood of a host and can cause iron deficiency anaemia, especially in high-risk populations (children and women of childbearing age). Almost 500 million people in developing tropical countries are infected, and simulation models estimate that hookworm infection is responsible for >4 million disability-adjusted life years lost annually. Humans mount an immune response to hookworms, but it is mostly unsuccessful at removing adult worms from the bowel. Accordingly, the host switches to an immune-tolerant state that enables hookworms to reside in the gut for many years. Although anthelmintic drugs are available and widely used, their efficacy varies and the drugs do not prevent reinfection. Thus, other control strategies aimed at improving water quality, sanitation and hygiene are needed. In addition, efforts are underway to develop a human hookworm vaccine through public-private partnerships. However, hookworms could also be a resource; as hookworms have the capability to regulate the host's inflammation, researchers are experimentally infecting patients to treat some inflammatory diseases as an approach to discover new anti-inflammatory molecules. This area of endeavour might well yield new biotherapeutics for autoimmune and allergic diseases.

  16. Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... it, you'll be saying bye-bye to fungi (say: FUN-guy). What Is a Fungal Infection? Fungi , the word for more than one fungus, can ... but of course, they're not!). Because the fungi that cause tinea (ringworm) live on different parts ...

  17. Fusarium Infection

    PubMed Central

    Muhammed, Maged; Anagnostou, Theodora; Desalermos, Athanasios; Kourkoumpetis, Themistoklis K.; Carneiro, Herman A.; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Coleman, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Fusarium species is a ubiquitous fungus that causes opportunistic infections. We present 26 cases of invasive fusariosis categorized according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria of fungal infections. All cases (20 proven and 6 probable) were treated from January 2000 until January 2010. We also review 97 cases reported since 2000. The most important risk factors for invasive fusariosis in our patients were compromised immune system, specifically lung transplantation (n = 6) and hematologic malignancies (n = 5), and burns (n = 7 patients with skin fusariosis), while the most commonly infected site was the skin in 11 of 26 patients. The mortality rates among our patients with disseminated, skin, and pulmonary fusariosis were 50%, 40%, and 37.5%, respectively. Fusarium solani was the most frequent species, isolated from 49% of literature cases. Blood cultures were positive in 82% of both current study and literature patients with disseminated fusariosis, while the remaining 16% had 2 noncontiguous sites of infection but negative blood cultures. Surgical removal of focal lesions was effective in both current study and literature cases. Skin lesions in immunocompromised patients should raise the suspicion for skin or disseminated fusariosis. The combination of medical monotherapy with voriconazole or amphotericin B and surgery in such cases is highly suggested. PMID:24145697

  18. Protozoan Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Other protozoal infections are caused by luminal parasites. Of these, Giardia lamblia , Crytosporidium and Trichomonas vaginalis are the most...complement- mediated killing. African trypanosomes and Giardia lamblia , for exam- ple, are killed by action of the alternative complement pathway...operation between T cells and macrophages is import- ant in defence against Giardia . Resistance to murine giardiasis requires participation of thymus

  19. [Infected pseudarthrosis].

    PubMed

    Kinzl, L; Suger, G

    1996-09-01

    In open fractures the rate of infected non-union defects has in recent years decreased due to the increased primary application of external fixation. In spite of this positive state of affairs the condition is still encountered often enough to warrant specific treatment strategies and techniques. In the treatment of infected pseudarthroses the general principles of osteitis treatment are applied. This includes radical excision of infected pseudarthrotic bone and of the diseased surrounding soft tissue, provides mechanical stability in the non-union area and requires effective local treatment of the infection in combination with systemic, target-specific and temporary well-defined antibiotic therapy as well as procedures to improve local circulation. The incorporation of autogenous bone transplants in defects appears to depend on close contact between the transplant and the vascularized receiving site and on the quantity of the transplanted osseous material. A promising alternative method of dealing with extensive bone defects is osteogenesis produced by callus distraction; therefore special attention is given to Ilizarov's ring fixation system. Unstable scar formation demands local muscular flaps or microvascularized free flap transfer, which seems to be superior to other methods.

  20. Tinea Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Tinea is the name of a group of diseases caused by a fungus. Types of tinea include ringworm, athlete's foot and jock itch. These infections are ... depend on the affected area of the body: Ringworm is a red skin rash that forms a ...

  1. Paratyphoid Infections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The numerous motile members of the bacterial genus Salmonella are collectively referred to as paratyphoid (PT) salmonellae. Found throughout the world, these organisms infect a wide variety of hosts (including invertebrate and vertebrate wildlife, domestic animals, and humans) to yield either asympt...

  2. Cytomegalovirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a virus found around the world. It is related to the viruses that cause chickenpox and infectious mononucleosis (mono). Between 50 percent ... in the United States have had a CMV infection by age 40. Once CMV is in a ...

  3. Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... it, you'll be saying bye-bye to fungi (say: FUN-guy). What Is a Fungal Infection? Fungi , the word for more than one fungus, can ... but of course, they're not!). Because the fungi that cause tinea (ringworm) live on different parts ...

  4. Chlamydia Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... PID). PID can cause permanent damage to your reproductive system. This can lead to long-term pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Women who have had chlamydia infections more than once are at higher risk of serious reproductive health complications. Men often don't have health ...

  5. Salmonella infections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infections of poultry with bacteria of the genus Salmonella can cause clinical disease, but are of greater current concern as agents of food-borne transmission of illness to humans. However, two nonmotile organisms, S. Pullorum and S. Gallinarum, are host-specific for avian species. Pullorum disease...

  6. Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... of all types of fungi are harmful. Some fungi reproduce through tiny spores in the air. You can inhale the spores or they can land on you. As a result, fungal infections often start in the lungs ... or take antibiotics. Fungi can be difficult to kill. For skin and ...

  7. The impact of prenatal exposure to parasitic infections and to anthelminthic treatment on antibody responses to routine immunisations given in infancy: Secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mentzer, Alexander J.; Lule, Swaib A.; Kizito, Dennison; Smits, Gaby; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Elliott, Alison M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic parasitic infections are associated with active immunomodulation which may include by-stander effects on unrelated antigens. It has been suggested that pre-natal exposure to parasitic infections in the mother impacts immunological development in the fetus and hence the offspring’s response to vaccines, and that control of parasitic infection among pregnant women will therefore be beneficial. Methodology/Principal findings We used new data from the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, a trial of anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy conducted in Uganda, to further investigate this hypothesis. 2705 mothers were investigated for parasitic infections and then randomised to albendazole (400mg) versus placebo and praziquantel (40mg/kg) during pregnancy in a factorial design. All mothers received sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine for presumptive treatment of malaria. Offspring received Expanded Programme on Immunisation vaccines at birth, six, 10 and 14 weeks. New data on antibody levels to diphtheria toxin, three pertussis antigens, Haemophilus influenzae type B (HiB) and Hepatitis B, measured at one year (April 2004 –May 2007) from 1379 infants were analysed for this report. Additional observational analyses relating maternal infections to infant vaccine responses were also conducted. Helminth infections were highly prevalent amongst mothers (hookworm 43.1%, Mansonella 20.9%, Schistosoma mansoni 17.3%, Strongyloides 11.7%, Trichuris 8.1%) and 9.4% had malaria at enrolment. In the trial analysis we found no overall effect of either anthelminthic intervention on the measured infant vaccine responses. In observational analyses, no species was associated with suppressed responses. Strongyloidiasis was associated with enhanced responses to pertussis toxin, HiB and Hep B vaccine antigens. Conclusions/Significance Our results do not support the hypothesis that routine anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy has a benefit for the infant’s vaccine response, or

  8. Infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Thomas J; Prendergast, Bernard D

    2016-02-27

    Infective endocarditis occurs worldwide, and is defined by infection of a native or prosthetic heart valve, the endocardial surface, or an indwelling cardiac device. The causes and epidemiology of the disease have evolved in recent decades with a doubling of the average patient age and an increased prevalence in patients with indwelling cardiac devices. The microbiology of the disease has also changed, and staphylococci, most often associated with health-care contact and invasive procedures, have overtaken streptococci as the most common cause of the disease. Although novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have emerged, 1 year mortality has not improved and remains at 30%, which is worse than for many cancers. Logistical barriers and an absence of randomised trials hinder clinical management, and longstanding controversies such as use of antibiotic prophylaxis remain unresolved. In this Seminar, we discuss clinical practice, controversies, and strategies needed to target this potentially devastating disease.

  9. Viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Puigdomènech, Isabel; de Armas-Rillo, Laura; Machado, José-David

    2011-01-01

    Viruses have developed different survival strategies in host cells by crossing cell-membrane compartments, during different steps of their viral life cycle. In fact, the non-regenerative viral membrane of enveloped viruses needs to encounter the dynamic cell-host membrane, during early steps of the infection process, in which both membranes fuse, either at cell-surface or in an endocytic compartment, to promote viral entry and infection. Once inside the cell, many viruses accomplish their replication process through exploiting or modulating membrane traffic, and generating specialized compartments to assure viral replication, viral budding and spreading, which also serve to evade the immune responses against the pathogen. In this review, we have attempted to present some data that highlight the importance of membrane dynamics during viral entry and replicative processes, in order to understand how viruses use and move through different complex and dynamic cell-membrane structures and how they use them to persist. PMID:21966556

  10. [Enteroparasite determination in Lactuca sativa from farms dedicated to its production in Pasto, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Polo, Giovanni Andrés; Benavides, Carmenza Janneth; Astaiza, Juan Manuel; Vallejo, Dario Antonio; Betancourt, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    Currently, vegetables like lettuce are widely recommended as part of the daily diet given their high nutritional value; however, while consumers feel attracted to the benefits provided by the vegetable, they may also be exposed to parasitic intestinal infections. To determine the presence or absence of enteroparasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) grown in the rural area in the municipality of Pasto, and to analyze associated factors based on the characterization of the lands. We conducted a descriptive double blind cross-sectional study. We took a total of 105 samples from 21 properties from June to December, 2013, and we processed them by sedimentation and flotation tests. Additionally, the owners were surveyed in order to obtain information about the possible variables influencing the occurrence of enteroparasites. We detected contamination in 100% of the lettuce samples and we found parasite eggs and larvae as follows: 95.25% with Entamoeba spp. cysts; 71.43% with Isospora spp. oocysts; 61.90% with Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (L3); 28.57% with Toxocara spp. eggs, and 4.76% with Eimeria spp. oocysts. Using the chi-square test we found association between Entamoeba spp. and ditches (p=0.008), dogs (p=0.008) and septic tanks (p=0.029); between Isospora spp. and compost (p=0.0001), dogs (p=0.0001) and slugs (p=0.002); between S. stercoralis and handling (p=0.003), and between Toxocara spp. and no use of biodigesters (p= 0.002). We found contamination with enteroparasites in lettuce samples from growing areas in the municipality of Pasto with animal and human sources as their main reservoirs, although others were present in the environment.

  11. Infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Dunne, B; Marr, T; Kim, D; Andrews, D; Edwards, M; Merry, C; Larbalestier, R

    2014-07-01

    Infective endocarditis continues to pose a therapeutic challenge to treating clinicians. We believe that the successful management of endocarditis mandates a thorough understanding of the risk factors for adverse outcomes and a co-ordinated team approach. Between the years 2000 and 2009, 85 patients required surgery for infective endocarditis, with a total of 112 infected valves being treated surgically. Data was analysed to determine factors significantly associated with morbidity and mortality. The mean age was 50.5 years. Nine (10.5%) of these patients had Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis, the remaining 76 (89.5%) had Native Valve Endocarditis. Twenty-nine percent of patients were NYHA 4 pre-operatively, 15% of patients were haemodynamically unstable requiring inotropic support, 34% were persistently febrile despite antibiotic therapy, and 48% had suffered any embolic event, 20% suffered cerebral emboli. The commonest causative organism in our series was Staphylococcus Aureus (54.1%) with 2.3% of cases being due to MRSA. The second commonest organism isolated was Streptococcus spp. at 21.1%. Operative mortality was 12.9%, of which on-table mortality was 2.2%. Mean follow-up was 56 months (range 1-151). Early recurrence rates (<3 months) were 2.3%. Late recurrence was 7.0%. The pre-operative factors associated with increased mortality were age over 65, inotropic requirement, uncontrolled sepsis and cerebral emboli. We summarise our experience and recommendations for a team approach to the management of infective endocarditis. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Anthrax Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Daniel A.; Hicks, Caitlin W.; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it. Furthermore, although anthrax was known to typically occur as one of three syndromes related to entry site of (i.e., cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational), a fourth syndrome including severe soft tissue infection in injectional drug users is emerging. Although shock has been described with cutaneous anthrax, it appears much more common with gastrointestinal, inhalational (5 of 11 patients in the 2001 outbreak in the United States), and injectional anthrax. Based in part on case series, the estimated mortalities of cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalational, and injectional anthrax are 1%, 25 to 60%, 46%, and 33%, respectively. Nonspecific early symptomatology makes initial identification of anthrax cases difficult. Clues to anthrax infection include history of exposure to herbivore animal products, heroin use, or clustering of patients with similar respiratory symptoms concerning for a bioterrorist event. Once anthrax is suspected, the diagnosis can usually be made with Gram stain and culture from blood or surgical specimens followed by confirmatory testing (e.g., PCR or immunohistochemistry). Although antibiotic therapy (largely quinolone-based) is the mainstay of anthrax treatment, the use of adjunctive therapies such as anthrax toxin antagonists is a consideration. PMID:21852539

  13. Infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Ferro, José M; Fonseca, Ana Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious disease of the endocardium of the heart and cardiac valves, caused by a variety of infectious agents, ranging from streptococci to rickettsia. The proportion of cases associated with rheumatic valvulopathy and dental surgery has decreased in recent years, while endocarditis associated with intravenous drug abuse, prosthetic valves, degenerative valve disease, implanted cardiac devices, and iatrogenic or nosocomial infections has emerged. Endocarditis causes constitutional, cardiac and multiorgan symptoms and signs. The central nervous system can be affected in the form of meningitis, cerebritis, encephalopathy, seizures, brain abscess, ischemic embolic stroke, mycotic aneurysm, and subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke in endocarditis is an ominous prognostic sign. Treatment of endocarditis includes prolonged appropriate antimicrobial therapy and in selected cases, cardiac surgery. In ischemic stroke associated with infective endocarditis there is no indication to start antithrombotic drugs. In previously anticoagulated patients with an ischemic stroke, oral anticoagulants should be replaced by unfractionated heparin, while in intracranial hemorrhage, all anticoagulation should be interrupted. The majority of unruptured mycotic aneurysms can be treated by antibiotics, but for ruptured aneurysms, endovascular or neurosurgical therapy is indicated.

  14. Stages of HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infection Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Stages of HIV Infection How Does HIV Progress in Your Body? Without treatment, HIV advances ... are the three stages of HIV infection: Acute HIV Infection Stage Within 2-4 weeks after HIV ...

  15. Fish tapeworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw or undercooked ...

  16. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News media ... who suffer from the most common type of ear infection, called middle ear infection or otitis media ( ...

  17. [The effect of dehelminthizations performed during the year on the seasonal dynamics of natural nematode infections in sheep].

    PubMed

    Kozdon, O; Zajícek, D

    1976-11-01

    In four sheep flocks of two age categories dynamics of natural infections by pulmonary and gastrointestinal nematodes was studied; sheep were kept on a farm in Western Bohemia. Dehelminthizations were performed in different intervals during the grazing period on the basis of the results of quantitative coprologic examinations. Total effectiveness of 80--100% intenseffectiveness (IE) was obtained as a result of single peroral or intraruminal dehelminthization with the following preparations: pyrantel hydrochloricum (Spofa), helmatac (SKF) and nilverm (ICI); the effectiveness concerned gastrointestinal nematodes of the genus Haemonchus, Cooperia, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Bunostomum, Chabertia, Nematodirus, Strongyloides, Oesophagostomum and Trichocephalus. The effectiveness of nilverm on lungworms of D. filaria and P. kochi reached 100%; the preparation was less effective and ineffective on M. capillaris. Dehelminthization practices during three years were more successful as to lowering of incidence of lungworm infections of D. filaria and P. kochi than in gastrointestinal nematodes. If sping dehelminthizations had been postponed till the second half of May or June, the climax of the elimination of ova from summer re-infection was put off till November, with an initial significant increase in September. The third dehelminthization, applied in August, did not result in the increased elimination of ova in autumn, while there was no usual autumnal climax following September dehelminthization. Effective dehelminthization performed at the end of November in all three years maintained low levels of infections during winter housing and significantly influenced the health conditions of ewes before lambing. Dynamics of the elimination of ova after dehelminthization was affected by nematodes with the migration phase in organs and tissues -- S. papillosus, Oesophagostomum sp. and Ostertagia sp.; the same effect was observed, during pasture, in nematodes with relatively

  18. Integration of Multiplex Bead Assays for Parasitic Diseases into a National, Population-Based Serosurvey of Women 15-39 Years of Age in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Jeffrey W.; Jenks, M. Harley; Moss, Delynn M.; Mao, Bunsoth; Buth, Sokhal; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Soeung, Sann Chan; Lucchi, Naomi W.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Gregory, Christopher J.; Huy, Rekol; Muth, Sinuon; Lammie, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Collection of surveillance data is essential for monitoring and evaluation of public health programs. Integrated collection of household-based health data, now routinely carried out in many countries through demographic health surveys and multiple indicator surveys, provides critical measures of progress in health delivery. In contrast, biomarker surveys typically focus on single or related measures of malaria infection, HIV status, vaccination coverage, or immunity status for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD). Here we describe an integrated biomarker survey based on use of a multiplex bead assay (MBA) to simultaneously measure antibody responses to multiple parasitic diseases of public health importance as part of a VPD serological survey in Cambodia. A nationally-representative cluster-based survey was used to collect serum samples from women of child-bearing age. Samples were tested by MBA for immunoglobulin G antibodies recognizing recombinant antigens from Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, Wuchereria bancrofti, Toxoplasma gondii, Taenia solium, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Serologic IgG antibody results were useful both for generating national prevalence estimates for the parasitic diseases of interest and for confirming the highly focal distributions of some of these infections. Integrated surveys offer an opportunity to systematically assess the status of multiple public health programs and measure progress toward Millennium Development Goals. PMID:27136913

  19. [The effect of ivermectin on geohelminth frequency (i.e. as used in the onchocerciasis control program in Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Knudson, Angélica; Ariza, Yoseth; López, Myriam C; Fajardo, Oscar S; Reyes, Patricia; Moncada, Ligia I; Duque, Sofía; Álvarez, Carlos A; Nicholls, Rubén S

    2012-08-01

    Evaluating the effect of ivermectin on soil-transmitted helminthes (STH) infection frequency in a Colombian population included in the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA). This was an impact evaluation study which adopted a longitudinal approach using the population of Naicioná (1996) as baseline for comparison to people from the same population as controls (2008). The cross-sectional approach involved comparing the reference population of Naicioná (2008) to the population of Dos Quebradas (2008) used as controls. Fecal samples were processed by a modified Ritchie-Frick method. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most frequently found parasite in Naicioná (60/121; 49.6 %: 37.8-63.895%CI) and in Dos Quebradas (36/76; 47.4 %: 33.2-65.6 95 % CI). Ivermectin's main effect on the population aged over 5 years was a decreased risk of Trichiuris trichiura infection in both longitudinal assessment (86 % reduction: 74-93 95 % CI) and cross-sectional assessment (63 %:24-82 95 % CI). A 93 % reduction (45-99 95 % CI) in Strongyloides stercoralis frequency was found in longitudinal assessment, compared to 85 % in cross-sectional assessment (-031-99 95 % CI). Ivermectin use in the OEPA is not sufficient for STH morbidity control. Integrated programs including education and basic sanitation are required.

  20. [Prevalence of enteroparasitosis in the population of Maria Helena, Paraná State].

    PubMed

    Santos, Simone Aparecida Dos; Merlini, Luiz Sérgio

    2010-05-01

    The epidemiological study on intestinal parasites has the purpose of determining the main diseases and their respective etiologic agents, which are endemically or epidemically spread worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the enteroparasitosis infection prevalence, in which age group they prevail, relating the infection with age, gender, and the region in which the person lives, in the city of Maria Helena - PR. Data collection was performed from June of 2004 to May of 2006. 431 samples of feces were analyzed through the spontaneous sedimentation and centrifugal fluctuation methods. The enteroparasitosis prevalence was of 16%, being the most frequent enteroparasitosis: Endolimax nana (6.5%), Entamoeba coli (3.5%), Giardia lamblia (6.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.7%), Entrobius vermicularis (0.7%), Anchylostomiasis (0.2%), Entamoeba hystolitica and Taenia sp (0.2%). Poly-parasitism was found in 3.2% of the samples. The age group from 0 to 9 years presented the highest prevalence, however there was no statistical difference among the analyzed factors since p>0.05. From these results, it was possible to conclude that the city presents similar characteristics both in rural and urban zones.

  1. Deficiency of antibody responses to T-independent antigens in gerbils---Meriones unguiculatus.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Madhu Chhanda; Ravindran, Balachandran

    2002-05-01

    Meriones unguiculatus commonly known as gerbils are widely used as animal models for a variety of parasitic infections such as Brugia malayi, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia duodenalis, Toxoplasma gondi, Helicobacter pylori, Strongyloides stercoralis and Echinococcus multilocularis. Groups of BALB/c mice, gerbils and XID mice were studied for antibody responses to T-independent antigens. Gerbils were found to be significantly deficient in eliciting antibodies to both dextran and phosphorylcholine (PC) in comparison to BALB/c mice. The antibody response of gerbils to T-independent antigens was found to be similar to the response observed in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) deficient XID mice, which are known to be poor responders to T-independent antigens. Similar to XID mice, normal gerbil sera were found to be deficient in naturally occurring antibodies to single stranded DNA (SS-DNA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phospholipids. This raises the possibility of a deficiency of CD5+ B-lymphocytes (also known as B-1 cells) in gerbils, since deficiency of this sub-population of B-lymphocytes has been attributed to the absence of such naturally occurring antibodies in XID mice. These results indicate the need to study immunogenicity of parasite T-independent antigens and their relationship to protective immunity in parasitic infections in gerbils.

  2. [Concordance between the zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation methods for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites].

    PubMed

    Inês, Elizabete De Jesus; Pacheco, Flavia Thamiris Figueiredo; Pinto, Milena Carneiro; Mendes, Patrícia Silva de Almeida; Da Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Soares, Neci Matos; Teixeira, Márcia Cristina Aquino

    2016-12-01

    The diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections depends on the parasite load, the specific gravity density of the parasite eggs, oocysts or cysts, and the density and viscosity of flotation or sedimentation medium where faeces are processed. To evaluate the concordance between zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation in the recovery of parasites in faecal samples of children. Faecal samples of 330 children from day care centers were evaluated by zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation techniques. The frequencies of detection of parasites by each method were determined and the agreement between the diagnostic techniques was evaluated using the kappa index, with 95% confidence intervals. The faecal flotation in zinc sulphate diagnosed significantly more cases of Trichuris trichiura infection when compared to centrifugal sedimentation (39/330; 11.8% vs. 13/330; 3.9%, p<0.001), with low diagnostic concordance between methods (kappa=0.264; 95% CI: 0.102-0.427). Moreover, all positive samples for Enterobius vermicularis eggs (n=5) and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (n=3) were diagnosed only by zinc sulphate. No statistical differences were observed between methods for protozoa identification. The results showed that centrifugal flotation in zinc sulphate solution was significantly more likely to detect light helminths eggs such as those of T. trichiura and E. vermicularis in faeces than the centrifugal sedimentation process.

  3. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Young Quichua Children in the Highlands of Rural Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Ribeiro, Priscila S.; Quist, Bradley K.; Rydbeck, Bruce V.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of intestinal parasites in young Quichua children was assessed in 20 rural communities in the highlands of Ecuador in August 2005. The caregivers of 293 children aged 12–60 months were interviewed about the status of child health, household socioeconomic and environmental factors, and water-use practices and were requested to collect a faecal sample from the study child. Two hundred three (69.3%) of the 293 children provided faecal samples that were tested for parasites. The overall prevalences of infection for specific agents were Entamoeba histolytica or dispar 57.1%, Ascaris lumbricoides 35.5%, Entamoeba coli 34.0%, Giardia intestinalis (lamblia) 21.1%, Hymenolepis nana 11.3%, Cryptosporidium parvum 8.9%, Chilomastix mesnili 1.7%, Hymenolepis diminuta 1.0%, Strongyloides stercoralis 0.7%, and Trichuris trichiura 0.5%. The prevalence of parasites increased with age. Water storage, water treatment, consistent latrine-use, and participation in a community-based clean water project were not strongly associated with the prevalence of intestinal parasites, although having dirt floors was a risk factor for infection with E. histolytica or dispar and G. intestinalis. PMID:18402182

  4. Evaluation of eosinophilia in immigrants in Southern Spain using tailored screening and treatment protocols: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Cabezas-Fernández, María Teresa; Vázquez-Villegas, José; Soriano-Pérez, Manuel Jesús; Lozano-Serrano, Ana Belén; Pérez-Camacho, Inés; Cabeza-Barrera, María Isabel; Cobo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    To determine the etiology of eosinophilia in immigrant patients in Southern Spain. Prospective study of immigrant patients with eosinophilia (> 500 Eo/μL) attended in a reference Tropical Medicine Unit and evaluated through the implementation of a specific protocol structured in different levels meant to be accomplished depending on the findings of each previous level. Out of the 549 patients included in the study (89.6% from sub-Saharan countries), a diagnosis of helminthiasis was reached in 417 (75.9%), mainly by Strongyloides stercoralis (n = 190), Schistosoma (n = 33) and Hookworms (n = 126). 30 patients (5.5%) had a non-parasitic disorder (asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, skin conditions and drug-related eosinophilia). Multiple helminthic infections were very common: in 107 patients (19.5%) 2 helminth species were identified, three in 21 patients (3.8%), and four or more in 6 patients (1.1%). Eosinophilia was resolved in 31 of the 33 patients (93.9%) who received empirical treatment with ivermectin, albendazole and praziquantel as an etiological diagnosis was not reached after applying the whole protocol. Diagnosis of helminthic infections in immigrant patients with eosinophilia can be improved by using tailored protocols based on geographical exposure. The implementation of these protocols may also save costs by systematizing diagnostic explorations. Empirical treatment with ivermectin, albendazol and praziquantel in sub-Saharan population when an etiologic diagnosis of eosinophilia has not been attained is an effective measure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Surveillance of endoparasitic infections and the first report of Physaloptera sp. and Sarcocystis spp. in farm rodents and shrews in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tung, Kwong-Chung; Hsiao, Fun-Chun; Yang, Cheng-Hsiung; Chou, Chi-Chung; Lee, Wei-Ming; Wang, Kai-Sung; Lai, Cheng-Hung

    2009-01-01

    A total of 95 rodents and shrews including 82 Rattus norvegicus, 7 Rattus rattus, and 6 Suncus murinus were trapped from different localities of Taichung, Taiwan. The overall prevalence of parasites was 93.7%. The infection rates for R. norvegicus, R. rattus, and S. murinus were 93.9%, 85.7%, and 100%, respectively. The rats were infected with four cestodes, Taenia taeniaeformis (48.4%), Hymenolepis diminuta (38.9%), Hymenolepis nana (5.3%), and Raillietina celebensis (45.3%); ten nematodes, Angiostrongylus cantonensis (16.8%), Capillaria hepatica (49.5%), Gongylonema neoplasticum (1.1%), Heterakis spumosa (35.8%), Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (57.9%), Physaloptera sp. (1.1%), Strongyloides ratti (81.1%), Syphacia muris (2.1%), Trichosomoides crassicauda (29.5%), and Trichurus sp. (1.1%), and one protozoan, Sarcocystis spp. (33.7%). Physaloptera sp. from S. murinus and Sarcocystis spp. from both R. norvegicus and R. rattus were reported for the first time in Taiwan. The importances of zoonotic species were discussed.

  6. [Rotavirus infections].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    Rotaviruses are genetically highly variable, non-enveloped viruses with a double-stranded, segmented ribonucleic acid genome. They are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. In children aged less than 5 years, they are the most frequent agent of severe acute diarrheal illnesses. In less developed countries, rotavirus diseases are one of the most frequent causes of death in infants and little children. Typically, symptomatic rotavirus diseases in infants (<5 years) and the elderly (>70 years) arise with sudden onset of watery diarrhoea with high risk of dehydration, accompanied by vomiting and, in several cases, unspecific respiratory symptoms such as cold and sore throat. In adults aged less than 70 years, illnesses due to rotavirus appear generally mild or as travel diarrhoea. Although rotavirus infections are considered to by systemic, extraintestinal manifestations such as rotavirus central nervous system diseases are relatively rare. Rotaviruses are transmitted primarily from person-to-person by the faecal-oral route. Treatment of rotavirus diarrhoea is usually symptomatic and comprises a sufficient fluid and electrolyte substitution. Although nitazoxanide and some other drugs show high efficacy against rotavirus in vitro and in vivo, there is currently no recommended specific antiviral therapy. For prophylaxis, special attention should be paid to adequate hygienic rules. Because of the high stability of rotaviruses to changing environmental conditions, disinfection should be performed applying disinfectants with proven activity against rotaviruses. In Germany, two efficient and secure live vaccines against rotaviruses have been approved. Their application, however, is not generally recommended.

  7. Infections and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    If you are pregnant, an infection can be more than just a problem for you. Some infections can be dangerous to your baby. You can help yourself avoid infections: Don't eat raw or undercooked meat Don' ...

  8. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Listeria Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Listeria Infections A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Listeriosis About Listeria Listeria infections (known as listeriosis ) are rare. When ...

  9. Listeria Infection (Listeriosis)

    MedlinePlus

    Listeria infection Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Listeria infection is a foodborne bacterial illness that can be very serious for pregnant women and people with impaired immune systems. Listeria infection is most ...

  10. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    Ear infection (middle ear) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff An ear infection (acute otitis media) is most often a bacterial or viral infection that affects the middle ear, the air-filled space behind the eardrum that ...

  11. A Retrospective Analysis of the Results of a Five-Year (2005–2009) Parasitological Examination for Common Intestinal Parasites from Bale-Robe Health Center, Robe Town, Southeastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Chala, Bayissa

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional retrospective survey using the past five years clinical records (2005–2009) was conducted. The study was aimed at assessing the status of common intestinal parasites from Bale-Robe Health Center, Southeastern Ethiopia, in 2009/2010. The survey involved collection of data recorded on intestinal parasite from the health center during 2005–2009. Precoded questionnaires and interviews were also supplemented for knowledge attitude practices survey (KAPs survey) to assess awareness level of treatment seekers. Analysis of the various associations and strength of significant variations among qualitative and quantitative variables were assessed. The results revealed that Entamoeba histolytica (36.1%) and Giardia lamblia (11.0%), both being protozoan parasites were found to be the most prevalent intestinal parasites encountered during 2005–2009. The least prevalent intestinal parasite recorded was Strongyloides stercoralis (1.1%). Most intestinal parasites were detected among age group of 15 years and above than 0–4 and 5–14 years as shown in Table 4. There was a significant correlation between intestinal parasites prevalence and the age of treatment seeking individuals (P < 0.05). A sharp increasing trend of E. histolytica and Ascaris lumbricoides infections was observed owing to low personal and environmental sanitation of the majority of the society. Initiation of health education at different levels could be recommended to mitigate infectious parasites in the area. PMID:27335857

  12. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Laos: a community-wide cross-sectional study of humans and dogs in a mass drug administration environment.

    PubMed

    Conlan, James V; Khamlome, Boualam; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Elliot, Aileen; Pallant, Louise; Sripa, Banchob; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2012-04-01

    We conducted a community cross-sectional survey of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in humans and dogs in four provinces in northern Laos. We collected and tested human and dog fecal samples and analyzed results against sociodemographic data. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis was 26.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.7-28.4%), 41.5% (95% CI = 38.8-44.1%), 46.3% (95% CI = 43.3-49.0%), and 8.9% (95% CI = 7.4-10.4%), respectively. We observed strong heterogeneity for helminthiasis by ethnicity, province, and wealth status, which coincided with a risk profile demonstrating that Mon-Khmer persons and the poorest households are highly vulnerable. Necator americanus was the dominant hookworm species infecting humans and Ancylostoma ceylanicum was the only Ancylostoma species detected. Hookworm prevalence in village dogs was 94%, and the dominant species was A. ceylanicum. Necator americanus was also detected in dogs. It appears that dogs have a role in human hookworm transmission and warrant further investigation.

  13. A Retrospective Analysis of the Results of a Five-Year (2005-2009) Parasitological Examination for Common Intestinal Parasites from Bale-Robe Health Center, Robe Town, Southeastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Chala, Bayissa

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional retrospective survey using the past five years clinical records (2005-2009) was conducted. The study was aimed at assessing the status of common intestinal parasites from Bale-Robe Health Center, Southeastern Ethiopia, in 2009/2010. The survey involved collection of data recorded on intestinal parasite from the health center during 2005-2009. Precoded questionnaires and interviews were also supplemented for knowledge attitude practices survey (KAPs survey) to assess awareness level of treatment seekers. Analysis of the various associations and strength of significant variations among qualitative and quantitative variables were assessed. The results revealed that Entamoeba histolytica (36.1%) and Giardia lamblia (11.0%), both being protozoan parasites were found to be the most prevalent intestinal parasites encountered during 2005-2009. The least prevalent intestinal parasite recorded was Strongyloides stercoralis (1.1%). Most intestinal parasites were detected among age group of 15 years and above than 0-4 and 5-14 years as shown in Table 4. There was a significant correlation between intestinal parasites prevalence and the age of treatment seeking individuals (P < 0.05). A sharp increasing trend of E. histolytica and Ascaris lumbricoides infections was observed owing to low personal and environmental sanitation of the majority of the society. Initiation of health education at different levels could be recommended to mitigate infectious parasites in the area.

  14. Origin of Toll-like receptor-mediated innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Kanzok, Stefan M; Hoa, Ngo T; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Luna, Coralia; Huang, Yaming; Malacrida, Anna R; Zheng, Liangbiao

    2004-04-01

    Toll-related receptors (TLR) have been found in four animal phyla: Nematoda, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and Chordata. No TLR has been identified thus far in acoelomates. TLR genes play a pivotal role in the innate immunity in both fruit fly and mammals. The prevailing view is that TLR-mediated immunity is ancient. The two pseudocoelomate TLRs, one each from Caenorhabditis elegans and Strongyloides stercoralis, were distinct from the coelomate ones. Further, the only TLR gene (Tol-1) in Ca. elegans did not appear to play a role in innate immunity. We argue that TLR-mediated innate immunity developed only in the coelomates, after they split from pseudocoelomates and acoelomates. We hypothesize that the function of TLR-mediated immunity is to prevent microbial infection in the body cavity present only in the coelomates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that almost all arthropod TLRs form a separate cluster from the mammalian counterparts. We further hypothesize that TLR-mediated immunity developed independently in the protostomia and deuterostomia coelomates.

  15. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Brazil: frequency and zoonotic risk.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Maria Fernanda Melo; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Calado, Andréa Maria Campos; Lima, Victor Fernando Santana; Ramos, Ingrid Carla do Nascimento; Tenório, Rodrigo Ferreira Lima; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Glória; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2016-04-12

    Gastrointestinal helminths are considered to be the most common parasites affecting cats worldwide. Correct diagnosis of these parasites in animals living in urban areas is pivotal, especially considering the zoonotic potential of some species (e.g. Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocara sp.). In this study, a copromicroscopic survey was conducted using fecal samples (n = 173) from domestic cats living in the northeastern region of Brazil. Samples were examined through the FLOTAC technique and the overall results showed positivity of 65.31% (113/173) among the samples analyzed. Coinfections were observed in 46.01% (52/113) of the positive samples. The most common parasites detected were Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara cati, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris sp., Dipylidium caninum and Cystoisospora sp. From an epidemiological point of view, these findings are important, especially considering that zoonotic parasites (e.g. Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocara sp.) were the nematodes most frequently diagnosed in this study. Therefore, the human population living in close contact with cats is at risk of infection caused by the zoonotic helminths of these animals. In addition, for the first time the FLOTAC has been used to diagnosing gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Brazil.

  16. Canine fecal contamination in a metropolitan area (Milan, north-western Italy): prevalence of intestinal parasites and evaluation of health risks.

    PubMed

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Di Cerbo, Anna Rita; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Genchi, Marco; Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs represent a serious threat to human health due to their zoonotic potential. Thus, metropolitan areas presenting high concentrations of pets and urban fecal contamination on public areas are at sanitary risk. Major aim of this survey was to determine prevalence of zoonotic parasites in dog fecal samples collected from public soil of Milan (north-western Italy). Differences in parasites prevalence distribution were explored by a geographical information system- (GIS-) based approach, and risk factors (human density, sizes of green parks, and dog areas) were considered. The metropolitan area was divided into 157 rectangular subareas and sampling was performed following a 1-kilometer straight transect. A total of 463 fecal samples were analyzed using centrifugation-flotation technique and ELISA to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium coproantigens. A widespread fecal contamination of soil was highlighted, being fecal samples found in 86.8% of the subareas considered. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 16.63%. Zoonotic parasites were found, such as Trichuris vulpis (3.67%), Toxocara canis (1.72%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.86%), Ancylostomatidae (0.43%), and Dipylidium caninum (0.43%). Giardia duodenalis was the most prevalent zoonotic protozoa (11.06%), followed by Cryptosporidium (1.10%). Faeces from subareas characterized by broad green areas showed to be particularly prone to infection.

  17. Intestinal parasitosis: data analysis 2006-2011 in a teaching hospital of Ancona, Italy.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Carmela; Greganti, Gianfranco; Arzeni, Daniela; Morciano, Angela; Castelli, Pamela; Barchiesi, Francesco; Cirioni, Oscar; Giacometti, Andrea

    2013-03-01

    Intestinal parasites are a serious problem in developing countries, but should not be underestimated in industrialised countries either. Between January 2006 and December 2011, stool specimens and the scotch tests of 5323 Italian and non Italian patients (adults and children) attending the laboratory of our Infectious Diseases Clinic in a teaching Hospital at Ancona were analyzed specifically for intestinal parasites. The present study shows that, over a six-year period, of a total of 5323 patients 305 harboured at least one species of parasite (5.7%). Among the pathogenic protozoa Giardia lamblia was the most common, the overall prevalence of giardiasis being 1.8 % (99/5323). Helminths were found in 0.9% of the patients (48/5323). In particular, Hymenolepis nana, Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichuris trichiura were most commonly recovered in non-Italian children, suggesting that certain intestinal parasites are restricted to endemic areas in the tropics. Eighteen of the 305 infected patients had more than one parasite in their stools. Our study demonstrates that intestinal parasites must be considered even in industrialised areas and stool examination should be supported by epidemiological data and clinical features.

  18. Influence of physico-chemistry and mineralogy on the occurrence of geohelminths in geophagic soils from selected communities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, and their possible implication on human health.

    PubMed

    Sumbele, Irene U; Ngole, Veronica Mpode; Ekosse, Georges-Ivo E

    2014-01-01

    Geophagic soils from selected communities in Eastern Cape, South Africa were characterised to determine their properties and geohelminth content. The soils were coarse-textured with cation exchange capacity values ranging from 6.35 to 18.94 cmol (+)/kg. Quartz was the dominant mineral in the samples with SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3(t) having the highest concentrations among major element oxides. The soil properties, mineralogical composition, and low amounts of particle binding substances may favour the survival of geohelminth ova in the soils. Seven of the samples contained at least one of the following geohelminths: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis. The presence of these geohelminths in the soils was attributed to agricultural and sanitary practices inherent in the communities and the soil properties. Communities need to be sensitised on the importance of safe sanitary and animal husbandry practices to reduce the prevalence of helminth infection among geophagists.

  19. Opportunistic and non-opportunistic parasites in HIV-positive and negative patients with diarrhoea in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Gomez Morales, M A; Atzori, C; Ludovisi, A; Rossi, P; Scaglia, M; Pozio, E

    1995-06-01

    A survey on intestinal parasites in a rural area of Tanzania revealed the presence of eight protozoa and seven helminths in 287 subjects (81.8%). The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica and Ascaris lumbricoides was higher in HIV-negative than in HIV-positive patients (P < 0.01; P < 0.04) (25.1% and 12.5% for E. histolytica; 10.5% and 3.7% for A. lumbricoides). On the other hand, Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli and Strongyloides stercoralis prevalence was higher in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative patients (P < 0.01). The prevalence of these two opportunistic protozoa was also higher in AIDS patients than in HIV-positive patients without AIDS. Specific anti-C. parvum IgG were detected by ELISA in 18% and 56% of HIV-negative and positive patients, respectively, confirming the high number of contacts between this parasite and humans. Specific anti-Encephalitozoon cuniculi and anti-Encephalitozoon hellem IgG were detected by IFA in 18% and 19% of subjects, respectively, without any correlation with HIV and malaria infections.

  20. [Children enteroparasitosis in north east Argentine urban area].

    PubMed

    Milano, Alicia M F; Oscherov, Elena B; Palladino, Alberto C; Bar, Anibal R

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the importance of enteroparasitosis in a young urban population. The relationship between enteroparasitosis in this population and biological and environmental conditions was established for 113 infants between 0 and 14 years. Serial stool samples were analyzed and Graham tests were performed in each infant. The degree of nutrition of each infant was also assessed. Environmental data were collected via semi-structured surveys. Soil samples were tested to determine the degree of soil contamination. The following species were identified: Blastocystis hominis, Enterobius vermicularis, coccidios, Giardia intestinalis, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and Taenia sp. Children infection prevalence was 73.5%. The frequency of enteroparasitosis was largest in the population from 3 to 8 years. The homes of the children analyzed were brick houses with tin roof and access to tap water. A 79.5% of these houses had bathrooms. The remaining used outdoors latrines. In 95.5% of these houses, the residents lived with one or more dogs and cats. The soil collected from nine houses was contaminated with infectious forms of Toxocara canis and ancilostomideos. The relationship between parasitosis and latrines and overcrowding was verified. Five cases of malnutrition were detected (4.4%). The relevance of physical and cultural factors in relation to enteric parasitosis suggests that the pharmacological treatment should be accompanied with preventive measures regarding hygiene and proper elimination of human and pet faeces.

  1. [Intestinal parasitoses in the Mahajanga region, west coast of Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Buchy, P

    2003-03-01

    A study on human intestinal parasites was carried out from November 1996 until January 1997, in Mahajanga's hospital, on the western coast of Madagascar. We collected the faeces from 401 patients and the sera from 112 of them. Faecal examination using direct examination and MIF method revealed that 67.6% of the stools contained at least one parasite. The frequency of the protozoa was high (47.7%). The prevalence of the nematodosis reached 23.4%. Hymenolepis nana, Taenia saginata or solium and Schistosoma mansoni were less frequent (respectively 2.5%, 0.75% and 3.7%). More than 50% of the sera contained antibodies anti-Ascaris lumbricoides and anti-Strongyloides stercoralis. Serology by IFI using Schistosoma antigen was positive in 15.2% of the cases. The serological and microscopical exams showed that Entamoeba histolytica was present in this region and that amoebiasis should be considered as one of the etiologies of diarrhoea. The study pointed out also the frequency of the transmitted fecal infections. Preventive measures as water distribution, sanitary installations, hygiene education should be implemented.

  2. Helminths as an alternative therapy for intestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Sipahi, Aytan Miranda; Baptista, Daniel Machado

    2017-09-07

    Animal models and clinical studies have shown that helminth infections exert immunomodulatory activity, altering intestinal permeability and providing a potential beneficial action on autoimmune and inflammatory disorders in human beings, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease. This is consistent with the theory that intestinal microbiota is responsible for shaping human immunological responses. With the arrival of the immunobiologic era and the use of antibodies, we propose a distinctive pathway for treating patients with IBD and celiac disease. We have some evidence about the safety and tolerability of helminth use, but evidence about their impact on disease activity is lacking. Using worms to treat diseases could be a possible way to lower treatment costs, since the era of immunobiologic agents is responsible for a significant rise in expenses. Some questions remain to be investigated regarding the use of helminths in intestinal disease, such as the importance of the specific species of helminths used, appropriate dosing regimens, optimal timing of treatment, the role of host genetics, diet, environment, and the elucidation of the exact mechanisms of action. One promising approach is the use of helminth-derived anti-inflammatory molecules as drugs. Yet there are still many challenges with this method, especially with regard to safety. Studies on intestinal permeability point to Strongyloides stercoralis as a useful nematode for these purposes.

  3. Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Youn, Heejeong

    2009-10-01

    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea.

  4. Review of Zoonotic Parasites in Medical and Veterinary Fields in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

  5. Canine Fecal Contamination in a Metropolitan Area (Milan, North-Western Italy): Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Evaluation of Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Di Cerbo, Anna Rita; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Genchi, Marco; Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs represent a serious threat to human health due to their zoonotic potential. Thus, metropolitan areas presenting high concentrations of pets and urban fecal contamination on public areas are at sanitary risk. Major aim of this survey was to determine prevalence of zoonotic parasites in dog fecal samples collected from public soil of Milan (north-western Italy). Differences in parasites prevalence distribution were explored by a geographical information system- (GIS-) based approach, and risk factors (human density, sizes of green parks, and dog areas) were considered. The metropolitan area was divided into 157 rectangular subareas and sampling was performed following a 1-kilometer straight transect. A total of 463 fecal samples were analyzed using centrifugation-flotation technique and ELISA to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium coproantigens. A widespread fecal contamination of soil was highlighted, being fecal samples found in 86.8% of the subareas considered. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 16.63%. Zoonotic parasites were found, such as Trichuris vulpis (3.67%), Toxocara canis (1.72%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.86%), Ancylostomatidae (0.43%), and Dipylidium caninum (0.43%). Giardia duodenalis was the most prevalent zoonotic protozoa (11.06%), followed by Cryptosporidium (1.10%). Faeces from subareas characterized by broad green areas showed to be particularly prone to infection. PMID:25478583

  6. Clostridium difficile Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Home Diseases and Conditions Clostridium difficile (C. diff.) Infection Clostridium difficile (C. diff.) Infection Condition Family HealthSeniors Share ...

  7. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates ...

  8. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates ...

  9. [Hantavirus infections].

    PubMed

    Strady, C; Jaussaud, R; Remy, G; Penalba, C

    2005-03-12

    Hantaviruses are cosmopolite anthropozoonosis considered as an emerging disease. Four pathogenic types for humans and part of the Bunyaviridae species are hosted by rodents and have been isolated: the Sin nombre virus responsible for the severe American respiratory form; the Hantaan and Seoul viruses responsible for hemorrhagic fevers with renal syndrome (HFRS) of severe to moderate expression in Asia and also in the Balkans; the Puumala virus responsible for HFRS of moderate expression or the socalled nephropathia epidemica in Europe. The Puumala virus is responsible for a minor form of the disease that is observed in areas of the Occidental sector of the ex-URSS, in Scandinavia and in the rest of Europe, notably in the North-East of France. The epidemic episodes occur every three years. They follow the proliferation of rodents, notably russet voles, the reservoir hosts, and their degree of infection. The concept of an occupation at risk in 20 to 49 year-old men (working in forests, agriculture, living near a forest, contact with wood) in an endemic area has not always been found. Its clinical form can vary greatly in its presentation. Basically it is a severe algic influenza syndrome accompanied by acute myopia in 38% of cases, but is nearly pathognomonic in the context. Respiratory involvement is frequent but benign. The initial syndrome can suggest an abdominal or urological surgical emergency, which is source of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. Early biological examination reveals thrombopenia and proteinuria. Then more or less severe acute kidney failure appears in slightly more than 50% of cases. Although it usually regresses with symptomatic treatment, after effects remain in some patients. The environmental changes, the geographical distribution depending on the biotope, the dynamics and behaviour of rodents and the viral circulation between them and its transmission to human beings and its risk factors must continue to be studied in order to gain

  10. HIV and gynaecological infections.

    PubMed

    Sebitloane, Mothshedisi H

    2005-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection primarily affects women during their reproductive years, and the co-existence of gynaecological infections is not surprising, given the fact that HIV is mainly acquired via heterosexual contact. Most gynaecological infections are themselves sexually acquired, and have the potential to increase the risk both of acquiring and transmitting the HI virus. As most sexually transmitted infections are asymptomatic, there is a need to improve methods of diagnosis and algorithms for early detection of sexually transmitted infections. HIV infection, however, particularly advanced disease, may alter the clinical presentation, course and response to conservative treatment for some of the sexually transmitted infections.

  11. Epidemiology, sero-diagnosis and therapeutic studies on nematodes infection in balochi range-sheep at district quetta, balochistan, pakistan.

    PubMed

    Razzaq, Abdul; Ashraf, Kamran; Maqbool, Azhar; Islam, Muhammad; Hanan, Abdul; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Khetran, Munir Ahmad; Jan, Saadullah; Shafee, Muhammad; Essa, Muhammad; Kakar, Hamdullah

    2014-01-01

    Among the infectious organisms of parasitic origin, gastrointestinal nematodes are very important as they have been reported worldwide. The main aim of the present research study to highlight the annual epidemiological contributing factors associated with the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and their control in sheep. A total 1200 faecal samples (100 per month) were collected from farmers holding Balochi-sheep (either sexes, 1-5 years old) during January-December 2012 and analyzed to determine the prevalence of nematodes based on microscopy and ELISA based diagnostic assay. Therapeutic efficacies of different synthetic and herbal medicines against these nematodes were assessed by field trials. Results showed that 23.92% Balochi-sheep were infected with nematodes. Five nematodes infections were recorded with highest prevalence of Haemonchus (7.75%) followed by Nematodirus (7.58%), Strongyloides (4.42%), Trichostrongylus (2.33%) and Trichuris (1.83%). The younger and older ewes (one and five years) presented higher nematodes prevalence with peak during March/April and August/September. Haemonchus and Trichuris positive samples based on coprological examination were also showed 92-100% positive sensitivity for these nematodes by the ELISA. Sheep treated with Ivermectin showed higher reduction (97.76%) in nematode egg counts followed by Atreefal deedan (96.42%) and Oxfendazole (95.44%), respectively. The gastro-intestinal nematodes are prevalent in all age and either sex of Balochi-sheep with peak during summer. The ELISA based diagnosis is more accurte. The synthetic and herbal products are very effective against sheep nematodes.

  12. Patterns and Risk Factors of Helminthiasis and Anemia in a Rural and a Peri-urban Community in Zanzibar, in the Context of Helminth Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Knopp, Stefanie; Mohammed, Khalfan A.; Stothard, J. Russell; Khamis, I. Simba; Rollinson, David; Marti, Hanspeter; Utzinger, Jürg

    2010-01-01

    Background The control of helminth infections and prevention of anemia in developing countries are of considerable public health importance. The purpose of this study was to determine patterns and risk factors of helminth infections and anemia in a rural and a peri-urban community of Zanzibar, Tanzania, in the context of national helminth control programs. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a community-based cross-sectional study in 454 individuals by examining at least two stool samples with different methods for soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura) and one urine sample for Schistosoma haematobium. Finger-prick blood was taken to estimate anemia levels and to detect antibody reactions against ascariasis, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) approach. Parasitological methods determined a helminth prevalence of 73.7% in the rural, and 48.9% in the peri-urban setting. Most helminth infections were of light intensity with school-aged children showing the highest intensities. Multiple helminth species infections were pervasive in rural dwellers regardless of age. More than half of the participants were anemic, with a particularly high prevalence in the peri-urban setting (64.7%). Risk factors for helminth infections were age, sex, consumption of raw vegetables or salad, recent travel history, and socio-economic status. Conclusion/Significance After several years of chemotherapy-based morbidity control efforts in Zanzibar, helminth prevalences are still high and anemia is common, but helminth infection intensities are low. Hence, chemotherapy should be continued, and complemented with improved access to clean water, adequate sanitation, and health education, along with poverty alleviation measures for a more enduring impact. PMID:20485491

  13. Pediatric HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Espanol, Teresa; Caragol, Isabel; Soler, Pere; Hernandez, Manuel

    2004-12-01

    HIV infection by maternal transmission is increasing in the world due to the increase in infected women who are not receiving appropriate antiretroviral therapy. Prognosis of HIV infection in children is poor because the newborn has an immature immune system. Early diagnosis and therapy are needed to avoid the development of AIDS. New therapies are becoming available but prevention of infection, through maternal therapy during pregnancy, is the most effective measure in avoiding this infection through this transmission route.

  14. Shewanella putrefaciens infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Constant, Jonathan; Chernev, Ivan; Gomez, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens rarely causes infection in humans. In the last few decades a growing number of cases have been described. The following report outlines the case of a 40-year-old immunocompetent white man with S. putrefaciens infective endocarditis. This is the first known case of infective endocarditis due to an apparently monomicrobial S. putrefaciens infection, and the second known case of S. putrefaciens-related infective endocarditis worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Prosthetic Joint Infections

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Saima; Darouiche, Rabih O.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infections represent a major therapeutic challenge for both healthcare providers and patients. This paper reviews the predisposing factors, pathogenesis, microbiology, diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of prosthetic joint infection. The most optimal management strategy should be identified based on a number of considerations including type and duration of infection, antimicrobial susceptibility of the infecting pathogen, condition of infected tissues and bone stock, patient wishes and functional status. PMID:22847032

  16. Bloodstream infections in HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Taramasso, Lucia; Tatarelli, Paola; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the combined antiretroviral therapy era, HIV-infected patients remain a vulnerable population for the onset of bloodstream infections (BSI). Worldwide, nontyphoid salmonellae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci are the most important pathogens. Intravenous catheter associated infection, skin-soft tissue infection and endocarditis are associated with Gram-positive bacteremia. Among the Gram-negative, nontyphoidal Salmonella have been previously correlated to sepsis. Other causes of BSI in HIV-infected patients are mycobacteria and fungi. Mycobacteria constitute a major cause of BSI in limited resource countries. Fungal BSI are not frequent and among them Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common life-threatening infection. The degree of immunosuppression remains the key prognostic factor leading to the development of BSI. PMID:26950194

  17. Bloodstream infections in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Taramasso, Lucia; Tatarelli, Paola; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2016-04-02

    In the combined antiretroviral therapy era, HIV-infected patients remain a vulnerable population for the onset of bloodstream infections (BSI). Worldwide, nontyphoid salmonellae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci are the most important pathogens. Intravenous catheter associated infection, skin-soft tissue infection and endocarditis are associated with Gram-positive bacteremia. Among the Gram-negative, nontyphoidal Salmonella have been previously correlated to sepsis. Other causes of BSI in HIV-infected patients are mycobacteria and fungi. Mycobacteria constitute a major cause of BSI in limited resource countries. Fungal BSI are not frequent and among them Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common life-threatening infection. The degree of immunosuppression remains the key prognostic factor leading to the development of BSI.

  18. Diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection using a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA for detection of circulating cathepsin B3 protease.

    PubMed

    Anuracpreeda, Panat; Chawengkirtikul, Runglawan; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Sobhon, Prasert

    2013-07-01

    A reliable monoclonal antibody (MoAb)-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sandwich ELISA) was developed for the detection of circulating cathepsin B3 protease (CatB3) in the sera from mice experimentally infected with Fasciola gigantica and cattle naturally infected with the same parasite. The MoAb 2F9 and biotinylated rabbit polyclonal anti-recombinant CatB3 antibody were selected due to their high reactivities and specificities to F. gigantica CatB3 antigen based on indirect ELISA and immunoblotting. The lower detection limit of the sandwich ELISA assay was 10, 100 and 400pg/ml, when applied for the detection of rCatB3 antigen and CatB3 in whole body (WB) of newly excysted juveniles (NEJ) and metacercariae (Met) of F. gigantica, respectively. This sandwich ELISA assay could detect F. gigantica infection from day 1 to 35 post infection and revealed that circulating level of CatB3 peaked at day 1 post infection. In contrast, the antibody detection by indirect ELISA could only demonstrate the antibody level from 35 days post infection. The reliability of the assay method was evaluated using serum samples from mice infected with F. gigantica or Schistosoma mansoni, and hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini, as well as normal mice and hamsters. In addition, sera from cattle infected with Paramphistomum cervi, Strongylid, Trichuris sp. and Strongyloides sp., as well as sera from normal cattle were also assessed. In experimental mice, the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive rate, false negative rate and accuracy of ELISA were 95%, 100%, 100%, 97.9%, 0%, 5.3% and 98.5%, while in natural cattle they were 96.7%, 100%, 100%, 98.5%, 0%, 3.4% and 98.9%, respectively. Hence, this assay method showed high efficient and precision for early diagnosis of fasciolosis by F. gigantica. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnosing Polyparasitism in a High-Prevalence Setting in Beira, Mozambique: Detection of Intestinal Parasites in Fecal Samples by Microscopy and Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Polderman, Anton M.; Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V. S.; Brienen, Eric A. T.; Verweij, Jaco J.; Groosjohan, Bernhard; Mendes, Felisberto; Mechendura, Manito; Hepp, Dagmar H.; Langenberg, Marijke C. C.; Edelenbosch, Rosanne; Polman, Katja; van Lieshout, Lisette

    2017-01-01

    Background Many different intestinal parasite species can co-occur in the same population. However, classic diagnostic tools can only frame a particular group of intestinal parasite species. Hence, one or two tests do not suffice to provide a complete picture of infecting parasite species in a given population. The present study investigated intestinal parasitic infections in Beira, Mozambique, i.e. in the informal settlement of Inhamudima. Diagnostic accuracy of five classical microscopy techniques and real-time PCR for the detection of a broad spectrum of parasites was compared. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional population-based survey was performed. One stool sample per participant (n = 303) was examined by direct smear, formal-ether concentration (FEC), Kato smear, Baermann method, coproculture and real-time PCR. We found that virtually all people (96%) harbored at least one helminth, and that almost half (49%) harbored three helminths or more. Remarkably, Strongyloides stercoralis infections were widespread with a prevalence of 48%, and Ancylostoma spp. prevalence was higher than that of Necator americanus (25% versus 15%), the hookworm species that is often assumed to prevail in East-Africa. Among the microscopic techniques, FEC was able to detect the broadest spectrum of parasite species. However, FEC also missed a considerable number of infections, notably S. stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and G. intestinalis. PCR outperformed microscopy in terms of sensitivity and range of parasite species detected. Conclusions/Significance We showed intestinal parasites—especially helminths—to be omnipresent in Inhamudima, Beira. However, it is a challenge to achieve high diagnostic sensitivity for all species. Classical techniques such as FEC are useful for the detection of some intestinal helminth species, but they lack sensitivity for other parasite species. PCR can detect intestinal parasites more accurately but is generally not feasible in

  20. [Infection prevention and control for foodborne infections].

    PubMed

    Mitsuda, Toshihiro

    2012-08-01

    Patients' care for foodborne infections is sometimes very critical, since these patients exerting high copy numbers of contagious pathogens. Recently, Norovirus infection became the most frequent pathogen for large outbreaks in the community and the hospital around the world. Norovirus is alcohol-resistant and highly contagious. For preventing outbreaks of foodborne infections, standard precaution(and contact precaution for diaper changing patients) is required by the CDC's isolation precaution guideline revised at 2007. We need to provide for infection prevention and control in the epidemic winter period not only in healthcare facilities but also for communities.

  1. Prevalence and epidemiology of intestinal parasitism, as revealed by three distinct techniques in an endemic area in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, J G; Gomes-Silva, A; De Carvalho Moreira, C J; Leles De Souza, D; Jaeger, L H; Martins, P P; Meneses, V F; Bóia, M N; Carvalho-Costa, F A

    2011-01-01

    This survey aims to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, Amazonian Brazil, through three distinct techniques, correlating the prevalence rates with family income and age groups as well as assessing the household clustering of infections. Prevalence rates were assessed through Graham (n = 113), Baermann-Moraes (n = 232) and Ritchie (n = 463) methods. The Graham method was adopted only for children under 5 years old, 15% of whom were positive for Enterobius vermicularis. By the Baermann-Moraes technique, 5.6% of the samples were positive for Strongyloides stercoralis larvae. The Ritchie technique disclosed the following results: Ascaris lumbricoides (26%), Trichuris trichiura (22.5%), hookworms (9.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (25.3%), Giardia lamblia (12.5%) and E. vermicularis (0.6%). Children aged 5–14 years presented the highest prevalence for pathogenic parasites. Giardiasis and hookworm infection rates were inversely related to family income. The presence of positive contacts in the same household substantially increased the risk of infection by enteric parasites: odds ratio (OR) = 2.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.69–4.29 for ascariasis; OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.34–3.51 for trichuriasis; OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.08–4.17 for hookworm disease; OR = 3.42, 95% CI = 1.86–6.30 for giardiasis; and OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.35–3.47 for amoebiasis, supporting infection clustering in the home. Intestinal parasitoses are extremely frequent in the studied area, and routine methods for diagnosis may underestimate the prevalence of enterobiasis and strongyloidiasis. PMID:22117850

  2. [Larva migrans].

    PubMed

    Chabasse, D; Le Clec'h, C; de Gentile, L; Verret, J L

    1995-01-01

    Larbish, cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruption, is a serpiginous cutaneous eruption caused by skin penetration of infective larva from various animal nematodes. Hookworms (Ancylostoma brasiliense, A. caninum) are the most common causative parasites. They live in the intestines of dogs and cats where their ova are deposited in the animal feces. In sandy and shady soil, when temperature and moisture are elevated, the ova hatch and mature into infective larva. Infection occurs when humans have contact with the infected soil. Infective larva penetrate the exposed skin of the body, commonly around the feet, hands and buttocks. In humans, the larva are not able to complete their natural cycle and remain trapped in the upper dermis of the skin. The disease is widespread in tropical or subtropical regions, especially along the coast on sandy beaches. The diagnosis is easy for the patient who is returning from a tropical or subtropical climate and gives a history of beach exposure. The characteristic skin lesion is a fissure or erythematous cord which is displaced a few millimeters each day in a serpiginous track. Scabies, the larva currens syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis, must be distinguished from other creeping eruptions and subcutaneous swelling lesions caused by other nematodes or myiasis. Medical treatments are justified because it shortens the duration of the natural evolution of the disease. Topical tiabendazole is safe for localized invasions, but prolonged treatment may be necessary. Oral thiabendazole treatment for three days is effective, but sometimes is associated with adverse effects. Trials using albendazole for one or four consecutive days appear more efficacious. More recent trials using ivermectine showed that a single oral dose can cure 100% of the patients; thus, this drug looks very promising as a new form of therapy. Individual prophylaxis consists of avoiding skin contact with soil which has been contaminated with dog or cat feces

  3. Acute Chest Wall Infections: Surgical Site Infections, Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections, and Sternoclavicular Joint Infection.

    PubMed

    Schipper, Paul; Tieu, Brandon H

    2017-05-01

    Acute chest wall infections are uncommon and share similar risk factors for infection at other surgical sites. Smoking cessation has been shown to decrease the risk of surgical site infection. Depending on the depth of infection and/or involvement of the organ space, adequate therapy involves antibiotics and drainage. Early diagnosis and debridement of necrotizing soft tissue infections is essential to reduce mortality. Sternoclavicular joint infections require surgical debridement, en bloc resection, and antibiotic therapy. A standard approach to wound closure after resection has yet to be established. Vacuum-assisted closure is a valuable adjunct to standard therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Infections after organ transplantation].

    PubMed

    Kern, W V; Wagner, D; Hirsch, H H

    2005-06-01

    Early postoperative infections after transplantation vary according to the transplanted organ. During the subsequent course opportunistic infections such as cytomegalovirus reactivation, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, invasive pneumococcal infection and mould infections predominate. Reactivated tuberculous infection appears to become more prevalent. Some of the opportunistic infections are preventable by chemoprophylaxis; others can be managed very effectively by monitoring and early preemptive therapy. Physicians caring for patients after organ transplantation need to early consider in the differential diagnosis rare pathogens which are often overlooked with standard diagnostic procedures.

  5. In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy of Monepantel (AAD 1566) against Laboratory Models of Human Intestinal Nematode Infections

    PubMed Central

    Tritten, Lucienne; Silbereisen, Angelika; Keiser, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background Few effective drugs are available for soil-transmitted helminthiases and drug resistance is of concern. In the present work, we tested the efficacy of the veterinary drug monepantel, a potential drug development candidate compared to standard drugs in vitro and in parasite-rodent models of relevance to human soil-transmitted helminthiases. Methodology A motility assay was used to assess the efficacy of monepantel, albendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel pamoate in vitro on third-stage larvae (L3) and adult worms of Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Necator americanus and Trichuris muris. Ancylostoma ceylanicum- or N. americanus-infected hamsters, T. muris- or Ascaris suum-infected mice, and Strongyloides ratti-infected rats were treated with single oral doses of monepantel or with one of the reference drugs. Principal Findings Monepantel showed excellent activity on A. ceylanicum adults (IC50 = 1.7 µg/ml), a moderate effect on T. muris L3 (IC50 = 78.7 µg/ml), whereas no effect was observed on A. ceylanicum L3, T. muris adults, and both stages of N. americanus. Of the standard drugs, levamisole showed the highest potency in vitro (IC50 = 1.6 and 33.1 µg/ml on A. ceylanicum and T. muris L3, respectively). Complete elimination of worms was observed with monepantel (10 mg/kg) and albendazole (2.5 mg/kg) in A. ceylanicum-infected hamsters. In the N. americanus hamster model single 10 mg/kg oral doses of monepantel and albendazole resulted in worm burden reductions of 58.3% and 100%, respectively. Trichuris muris, S. ratti and A. suum were not affected by treatment with monepantel in vivo (following doses of 600 mg/kg, 32 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively). In contrast, worm burden reductions of 95.9% and 76.6% were observed following treatment of T. muris- and A. suum infected mice with levamisole (200 mg/kg) and albendazole (600 mg/kg), respectively. Conclusions/Significance Monepantel reveals low or no activities against N. americanus

  6. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Helicobacter Pylori Infections Page Content Article Body Most people, ... always) caused by bacteria—specifically, an organism called Helicobacter pylori. H pylori infections occur at a low ...

  7. Yeast Infection (Vaginal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your infection is caused by a type of candida other than Candida albicans You're pregnant You have uncontrolled diabetes ... or suppositories You develop other symptoms The fungus candida causes a vaginal yeast infection. Your vagina naturally ...

  8. Fungal Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Impetigo is a bacterial skin infection. The infection ... Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge . Merck Manuals About Disclaimer Permissions Privacy Contributors Terms ...

  9. Salmonella Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Salmonella Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Salmonella Infections A A ... bathroom and before handling food in any way. Salmonella Basics Not everyone who ingests Salmonella bacteria will ...

  10. Particle exposures and infections

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particle exposures increase the risk for human infections. Particles can deposit in the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and distal lung and, accordingly, the respiratory tract is the system most frequently infected after such exposure; however, meningitis also occurs. Ci...

  11. Middle ear infection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  12. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000682.htm Asymptomatic HIV infection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of HIV/AIDS during which ...

  13. Particle exposures and infections

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particle exposures increase the risk for human infections. Particles can deposit in the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and distal lung and, accordingly, the respiratory tract is the system most frequently infected after such exposure; however, meningitis also occurs. Ci...

  14. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Salmonella Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  15. Prevent Infections in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections before and during pregnancy: Protect yourself from Zika virus. Zika virus can be passed from a pregnant woman ... to her baby around the time of birth. Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly (a ...

  16. Vaginal yeast infection

    MedlinePlus

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the ...

  17. Yeast Infection during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... OK? What's the best way to treat a yeast infection during pregnancy? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M.D. You can safely treat a yeast infection during pregnancy with various over-the-counter ...

  18. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... more than 6 children) Changes in altitude or climate Cold climate Exposure to smoke Family history of ear infections ... or fewer children. This can reduce your child's chances of getting a cold or other infection, and ...

  19. Necrotizing soft tissue infection

    MedlinePlus

    Necrotizing fasciitis; Fasciitis - necrotizing; Flesh-eating bacteria; Soft tissue gangrene; Gangrene - soft tissue ... Many different types of bacteria can cause this infection. A very severe and usually deadly form of necrotizing soft tissue infection is due to the ...

  20. Strongyloidiasis Current Status with Emphasis in Diagnosis and Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Minori, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic neglected disease caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30 to 100 million people worldwide. Complications, strongly associated with alcoholism, organ transplants, and HTLV-1 virus, often arise due to late diagnosis, frequently leading to patient death. Lack of preemptive diagnosis is not the only difficulty when dealing with this parasite, since there are no gold standard diagnostic techniques, and the ones used have problems associated with sensitivity, resulting in false negatives. Treatment is also an issue as ivermectin and benzimidazoles administration leads to inconsistent cure rates and several side effects. Researching new anti-Strongyloides drugs is a difficult task since S. stercoralis does not develop until the adult stages in Mus musculus (with the exception of SCID mice), the main experimental host model. Fortunately, alternative parasite models can be used, namely, Strongyloides ratti and S. venezuelensis. However, even with these models, there are other complications in finding new drugs, which are associated with specific in vitro assay protocol steps, such as larvae decontamination. In this review, we highlight the challenges associated with new drug search, the compounds tested, and a list of published in vitro assay methodologies. We also point out advances being made in strongyloidiasis diagnosis so far. PMID:28210503

  1. Cutaneous Infections in Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Eugene K.; deWeber, Kevin; Berry, James W.; Wilckens, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Cutaneous infections are common in wrestlers. Although many are simply a nuisance in the everyday population, they can be problematic to wrestlers because such infections may result in disqualification from practice or competition. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are therefore important. Evidence Acquisition: Medline and PubMed databases, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and UpToDate were searched through 2012 with the following keywords in various combinations: skin infections, cutaneous infections, wrestlers, athletes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, skin and soft tissue infections, tinea corporis, tinea capitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster, molluscum contagiosum, verruca vulgaris, warts, scabies, and pediculosis. Relevant articles found in the primary search, and selected references from those articles were reviewed for pertinent clinical information. Results: The most commonly reported cutaneous infections in wrestlers are herpes simplex virus infections (herpes gladiatorum), bacterial skin and soft tissue infections, and dermatophyte infections (tinea gladiatorum). The clinical appearance of these infections can be different in wrestlers than in the community at large. Conclusion: For most cutaneous infections, diagnosis and management options in wrestlers are similar to those in the community at large. With atypical presentations, testing methods are recommended to confirm the diagnosis of herpes gladiatorum and tinea gladiatorum. There is evidence to support the use of prophylactic medications to prevent recurrence of herpes simplex virus and reduce the incidence of dermatophyte infections in wrestlers. PMID:24427413

  2. Disseminated Balamuthia mandrillaris Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Neil; Almira-Suarez, M. I.; Reese, Jennifer M.; Hoke, George M.; Mandell, James W.; Roy, Sharon L.; Visvesvara, Govinda

    2015-01-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a rare cause of human infection, but when infections do occur, they result in high rates of morbidity and mortality. A case of disseminated Balamuthia infection is presented. Early diagnosis and initiation of recommended therapy are essential for increased chances of successful outcomes. PMID:26135864

  3. Primary Aortic Infections and Infected Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Primary infections of the aorta and infected aortic aneurysms are rare and are life threatening. Most of them are due to bacterial infection occurring in an atheromatous plaque or a pre existing aneurysm during bacteremia. Rarely spread from a contiguous septic process may be the cause. The reported hospital mortality ranges from 16–44%. Gram positive bacteria are still the most common causative organisms. More recently, Gram negative bacilli are seen increasingly responsible. The mortality rate is higher for the Gram negative infection since they most often cause supra renal aneurysms and are more prone for rupture. Best results are achieved by appropriate antibiotics and aggressive surgical treatment. Excision of the infected aneurysm sac as well as surrounding tissue and in situ reconstruction of aorta is the preferred treatment. Pedicled omental cover also helps to reduce infection. Long term antibiotic is needed to prevent reinfection. Mortality is high for those who undergo emergency operation, with advanced age and for nonsalmonella infection. PMID:23555384

  4. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  5. Fungal Musculoskeletal Infections.

    PubMed

    Henry, Michael W; Miller, Andy O; Walsh, Thomas J; Brause, Barry D

    2017-06-01

    Fungi are rare but important causes of osteoarticular infections, and can be caused by a wide array of yeasts and molds. Symptoms are often subacute and mimic those of other more common causes of osteoarticular infection, which can lead to substantial delays in treatment. A high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnosis. The severity of infection depends on the inherent pathogenicity of the fungi, the immune status of the host, the anatomic location of the infection, and whether the infection involves a foreign body. Treatment often involves a combination of surgical debridement and prolonged antifungal therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neonatal and Perinatal Infections.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amira M; Morris, Shaun K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-08-01

    Lack of success in achieving considerable reductions in neonatal mortality is a contributory factor in failing to achieve Millennium Development Goal 4.2.6 million neonates still die each year, with preterm birth and infections the two leading causes. Maternal infections and environmental and infant factors influence acquisition of viral and bacterial infections in the perinatal and neonatal period. Scaling up evidence-based interventions addressing maternal risk factors and underlying causes could reduce neonatal infections by 84%. The emergence of new infections and increasing antimicrobial resistance present public health challenges that must be addressed to achieve substantial reductions in neonatal mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Therapeutic efficacy of eprinomectin extended-release injection against induced infections of developing (fourth-stage larvae) and adult nematode parasites of cattle.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, S; Baggott, D G; Royer, G C; Yoon, S; Cramer, L G; Soll, M D

    2013-03-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of eprinomectin in an extended-release injection (ERI) formulation was evaluated against induced infections of developing fourth-stage larval or adult gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematodes of cattle in a series of six studies under two identical protocols (three each for developing fourth-stage larvae or adults) conducted in the USA, Germany or the UK (two studies at each location, one per stage). Each study initially included 16 nematode-free cattle. The cattle were of various breeds or crosses, weighed 109-186.5 kg prior to treatment, and were approximately 4-7 months old. The animals were blocked based on pre-treatment bodyweight and then randomly allocated to treatment: eprinomectin ERI vehicle (control) at 1 mL/50 kg body weight or eprinomectin 5% ERI at 1 mL/50 kg bodyweight (1.0 mg eprinomectin/kg) for a total of eight and eight animals in each group. Treatments were administered once on Day 0 by subcutaneous injection in front of the shoulder. In each study, cattle were infected with a combination of infective third-stage larvae or eggs of gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematodes. Inoculation was scheduled so that the nematodes were expected to be fourth-stage larvae or adults at the time of treatment. For parasite recovery, all study animals were humanely euthanized and necropsied 14-15 (adult infections) or 21-22 days after treatment (developing fourth-s