Science.gov

Sample records for structure-guided mutational analysis

  1. Structure-guided mutational analysis reveals the functional requirements for product specificity of DOT1 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Dindar, Gülcin; Anger, Andreas M; Mehlhorn, Christine; Hake, Sandra B; Janzen, Christian J

    2014-11-12

    DOT1 enzymes are conserved methyltransferases that catalyse the methylation of lysine 79 on histone H3 (H3K79). Most eukaryotes contain one DOT1 enzyme, whereas African trypanosomes have two homologues, DOT1A and DOT1B, with different enzymatic activities. DOT1A mediates mono- and dimethylation of H3K76, the homologue of H3K79 in other organisms, whereas DOT1B additionally catalyses H3K76 trimethylation. However, it is unclear how these different enzymatic activities are achieved. Here we employ a trypanosomal nucleosome reconstitution system and structure-guided homology modelling to identify critical residues within and outside the catalytic centre that modulate product specificity. Exchange of these residues transfers the product specificity from one enzyme to the other, and reveals the existence of distinct regulatory domains adjacent to the catalytic centre. Our study provides the first evidence that a few crucial residues in DOT1 enzymes are sufficient to catalyse methyl-state-specific reactions. These results might also have far-reaching consequences for the functional understanding of homologous enzymes in higher eukaryotes.

  2. Structure-guided Mutational Analysis of the Nucleotidyltransferase Domain of Escherichia coli DNA Ligase (LigA).

    PubMed

    Wang, Li Kai; Zhu, Hui; Shuman, Stewart

    2009-03-27

    NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases (LigA) are ubiquitous in bacteria, where they are essential for growth and present attractive targets for antimicrobial drug discovery. LigA has a distinctive modular structure in which a nucleotidyltransferase catalytic domain is flanked by an upstream NMN-binding module and by downstream OB-fold, zinc finger, helix-hairpin-helix, and BRCT domains. Here we conducted a structure-function analysis of the nucleotidyltransferase domain of Escherichia coli LigA, guided by the crystal structure of the LigA-DNA-adenylate intermediate. We tested the effects of 29 alanine and conservative mutations at 15 amino acids on ligase activity in vitro and in vivo. We thereby identified essential functional groups that coordinate the reactive phosphates (Arg(136)), contact the AMP adenine (Lys(290)), engage the phosphodiester backbone flanking the nick (Arg(218), Arg(308), Arg(97) plus Arg(101)), or stabilize the active domain fold (Arg(171)). Finer analysis of the mutational effects revealed step-specific functions for Arg(136), which is essential for the reaction of LigA with NAD(+) to form the covalent ligase-AMP intermediate (step 1) and for the transfer of AMP to the nick 5'-PO(4) to form the DNA-adenylate intermediate (step 2) but is dispensable for phosphodiester formation at a preadenylylated nick (step 3).

  3. Structure-guided mutational analysis of the nucleotidyltransferase domain of Escherichia coli NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; Shuman, Stewart

    2005-04-01

    NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA) is essential for bacterial growth and a potential target for antimicrobial drug discovery. Here we queried the role of 14 conserved amino acids of Escherichia coli LigA by alanine scanning and thereby identified five new residues within the nucleotidyltransferase domain as being essential for LigA function in vitro and in vivo. Structure activity relationships were determined by conservative mutagenesis for the Glu-173, Arg-200, Arg-208, and Arg-277 side chains, as well as four other essential side chains that had been identified previously (Lys-115, Asp-117, Asp-285, and Lys-314). In addition, we identified Lys-290 as important for LigA activity. Reference to the structure of Enterococcus faecalis LigA allowed us to discriminate three classes of essential/important side chains that: (i) contact NAD+ directly (Lys-115, Glu-173, Lys-290, and Lys-314); (ii) comprise the interface between the NMN-binding domain (domain Ia) and the nucleotidyltransferase domain or comprise part of a nick-binding site on the surface of the nucleotidyltransferase domain (Arg-200 and Arg-208); or (iii) stabilize the active site fold of the nucleotidyltransferase domain (Arg-277). Analysis of mutational effects on the isolated ligase adenylylation and phosphodiester formation reactions revealed different functions for essential side chains at different steps of the DNA ligase pathway, consistent with the proposal that the active site is serially remodeled as the reaction proceeds.

  4. Structure-guided mutational analysis of the OB, HhH, and BRCT domains of Escherichia coli DNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li Kai; Nair, Pravin A; Shuman, Stewart

    2008-08-22

    NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases (LigAs) are ubiquitous in bacteria and essential for growth. LigA enzymes have a modular structure in which a central catalytic core composed of nucleotidyltransferase and oligonucleotide-binding (OB) domains is linked via a tetracysteine zinc finger to distal helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) and BRCT (BRCA1-like C-terminal) domains. The OB and HhH domains contribute prominently to the protein clamp formed by LigA around nicked duplex DNA. Here we conducted a structure-function analysis of the OB and HhH domains of Escherichia coli LigA by alanine scanning and conservative substitutions, entailing 43 mutations at 22 amino acids. We thereby identified essential functional groups in the OB domain that engage the DNA phosphodiester backbone flanking the nick (Arg(333)); penetrate the minor grove and distort the nick (Val(383) and Ile(384)); or stabilize the OB fold (Arg(379)). The essential constituents of the HhH domain include: four glycines (Gly(455), Gly(489), Gly(521), Gly(553)), which bind the phosphate backbone across the minor groove at the outer margins of the LigA-DNA interface; Arg(487), which penetrates the minor groove at the outer margin on the 3 (R)-OH side of the nick; and Arg(446), which promotes protein clamp formation via contacts to the nucleotidyltransferase domain. We find that the BRCT domain is required in its entirety for effective nick sealing and AMP-dependent supercoil relaxation.

  5. Structure-guided Mutational Analysis of the OB, HhH, and BRCT Domains of Escherichia coli DNA Ligase*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li Kai; Nair, Pravin A.; Shuman, Stewart

    2008-01-01

    NAD+-dependent DNA ligases (LigAs) are ubiquitous in bacteria and essential for growth. LigA enzymes have a modular structure in which a central catalytic core composed of nucleotidyltransferase and oligonucleotide-binding (OB) domains is linked via a tetracysteine zinc finger to distal helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) and BRCT (BRCA1-like C-terminal) domains. The OB and HhH domains contribute prominently to the protein clamp formed by LigA around nicked duplex DNA. Here we conducted a structure-function analysis of the OB and HhH domains of Escherichia coli LigA by alanine scanning and conservative substitutions, entailing 43 mutations at 22 amino acids. We thereby identified essential functional groups in the OB domain that engage the DNA phosphodiester backbone flanking the nick (Arg333); penetrate the minor grove and distort the nick (Val383 and Ile384); or stabilize the OB fold (Arg379). The essential constituents of the HhH domain include: four glycines (Gly455, Gly489, Gly521, Gly553), which bind the phosphate backbone across the minor groove at the outer margins of the LigA-DNA interface; Arg487, which penetrates the minor groove at the outer margin on the 3 ®-OH side of the nick; and Arg446, which promotes protein clamp formation via contacts to the nucleotidyltransferase domain. We find that the BRCT domain is required in its entirety for effective nick sealing and AMP-dependent supercoil relaxation. PMID:18515356

  6. Structure guided GANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Feidao; Zhao, Huaici; Liu, Pengfei

    2017-11-01

    Generative adversarial networks (GANs) has achieved success in many fields. However, there are some samples generated by many GAN-based works, whose structure is ambiguous. In this work, we propose Structure Guided GANs that introduce structural similar into GANs to overcome the problem. In order to achieve our goal, we introduce an encoder and a decoder into a generator to design a new generator and take real samples as part of the input of a generator. And we modify the loss function of the generator accordingly. By comparison with WGAN, experimental results show that our proposed method overcomes largely sample structure ambiguous and can generate higher quality samples.

  7. Monoallelic mutation analysis (MAMA) for identifying germline mutations.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, N; Leach, F S; Kinzler, K W; Vogelstein, B

    1995-09-01

    Dissection of germline mutations in a sensitive and specific manner presents a continuing challenge. In dominantly inherited diseases, mutations occur in only one allele and are often masked by the normal allele. Here we report the development of a sensitive and specific diagnostic strategy based on somatic cell hybridization termed MAMA (monoallelic mutation analysis). We have demonstrated the utility of this strategy in two different hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes, one caused by a defective tumour suppressor gene on chromosome 5 (familial adenomatous polyposis, FAP) and the other caused by a defective mismatch repair gene on chromosome 2 (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, HNPCC).

  8. Use of mutation spectra analysis software.

    PubMed

    Rogozin, I; Kondrashov, F; Glazko, G

    2001-02-01

    The study and comparison of mutation(al) spectra is an important problem in molecular biology, because these spectra often reflect on important features of mutations and their fixation. Such features include the interaction of DNA with various mutagens, the function of repair/replication enzymes, and properties of target proteins. It is known that mutability varies significantly along nucleotide sequences, such that mutations often concentrate at certain positions, called "hotspots," in a sequence. In this paper, we discuss in detail two approaches for mutation spectra analysis: the comparison of mutation spectra with a HG-PUBL program, (FTP: sunsite.unc.edu/pub/academic/biology/dna-mutations/hyperg) and hotspot prediction with the CLUSTERM program (www.itba.mi.cnr.it/webmutation; ftp.bionet.nsc.ru/pub/biology/dbms/clusterm.zip). Several other approaches for mutational spectra analysis, such as the analysis of a target protein structure, hotspot context revealing, multiple spectra comparisons, as well as a number of mutation databases are briefly described. Mutation spectra in the lacI gene of E. coli and the human p53 gene are used for illustration of various difficulties of such analysis. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. iMARS--mutation analysis reporting software: an analysis of spontaneous cII mutation spectra.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Claire; Lewis, Paul D

    2006-01-31

    The sensitivity of any mutational assay is determined by the level at which spontaneous mutations occur in the corresponding untreated controls. Establishing the type and frequency at which mutations occur naturally within a test system is essential if one is to draw scientifically sound conclusions regarding chemically induced mutations. Currently, mutation-spectra analysis is laborious and time-consuming. Thus, we have developed iMARS, a comprehensive mutation-spectrum analysis package that utilises routinely used methodologies and visualisation tools. To demonstrate the use and capabilities of iMARS, we have analysed the distribution, types and sequence context of spontaneous base substitutions derived from the cII gene mutation assay in transgenic animals. Analysis of spontaneous mutation spectra revealed variation both within and between the transgenic rodent test systems Big Blue Mouse, MutaMouse and Big Blue Rat. The most common spontaneous base substitutions were G:C-->A:T transitions and G:C-->T:A transversions. All Big Blue Mouse spectra were significantly different from each other by distribution and nearly all by mutation type, whereas the converse was true for the other test systems. Twenty-eight mutation hotspots were observed across all spectra generally occurring in CG, GA/TC, GG and GC dinucleotides. A mutation hotspot at nucleotide 212 occurred at a higher frequency in MutaMouse and Big Blue Rat. In addition, CG dinucleotides were the most mutable in all spectra except two Big Blue Mouse spectra. Thus, spontaneous base-substitution spectra showed more variation in distribution, type and sequence context in Big Blue Mouse relative to spectra derived from MutaMouse and Big Blue Rat. The results of our analysis provide a baseline reference for mutation studies utilising the cII gene in transgenic rodent models. The potential differences in spontaneous base-substitution spectra should be considered when making comparisons between these test systems

  10. Mutation Analysis in Classical Phenylketonuria Patients Followed by Detecting Haplotypes Linked to Some PAH Mutations.

    PubMed

    Dehghanian, Fatemeh; Silawi, Mohammad; Tabei, Seyed M B

    2017-02-01

    Deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) enzyme and elevation of phenylalanine in body fluids cause phenylketonuria (PKU). The gold standard for confirming PKU and PAH deficiency is detecting causal mutations by direct sequencing of the coding exons and splicing involved sequences of the PAH gene. Furthermore, haplotype analysis could be considered as an auxiliary approach for detecting PKU causative mutations before direct sequencing of the PAH gene by making comparisons between prior detected mutation linked-haplotypes and new PKU case haplotypes with undetermined mutations. In this study, 13 unrelated classical PKU patients took part in the study detecting causative mutations. Mutations were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing in all patients. After that, haplotype analysis was performed by studying VNTR and PAHSTR markers (linked genetic markers of the PAH gene) through application of PCR and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Mutation analysis was performed successfully and the detected mutations were as follows: c.782G>A, c.754C>T, c.842C>G, c.113-115delTCT, c.688G>A, and c.696A>G. Additionally, PAHSTR/VNTR haplotypes were detected to discover haplotypes linked to each mutation. Mutation detection is the best approach for confirming PAH enzyme deficiency in PKU patients. Due to the relatively large size of the PAH gene and high cost of the direct sequencing in developing countries, haplotype analysis could be used before DNA sequencing and mutation detection for a faster and cheaper way via identifying probable mutated exons.

  11. Pan-Cancer Analysis of Mutation Hotspots in Protein Domains.

    PubMed

    Miller, Martin L; Reznik, Ed; Gauthier, Nicholas P; Aksoy, Bülent Arman; Korkut, Anil; Gao, Jianjiong; Ciriello, Giovanni; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sander, Chris

    2015-09-23

    In cancer genomics, recurrence of mutations in independent tumor samples is a strong indicator of functional impact. However, rare functional mutations can escape detection by recurrence analysis owing to lack of statistical power. We enhance statistical power by extending the notion of recurrence of mutations from single genes to gene families that share homologous protein domains. Domain mutation analysis also sharpens the functional interpretation of the impact of mutations, as domains more succinctly embody function than entire genes. By mapping mutations in 22 different tumor types to equivalent positions in multiple sequence alignments of domains, we confirm well-known functional mutation hotspots, identify uncharacterized rare variants in one gene that are equivalent to well-characterized mutations in another gene, detect previously unknown mutation hotspots, and provide hypotheses about molecular mechanisms and downstream effects of domain mutations. With the rapid expansion of cancer genomics projects, protein domain hotspot analysis will likely provide many more leads linking mutations in proteins to the cancer phenotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis and implications of mutational variation.

    PubMed

    Keightley, Peter D; Halligan, Daniel L

    2009-06-01

    Variation from new mutations is important for several questions in quantitative genetics. Key parameters are the genomic mutation rate and the distribution of effects of mutations (DEM), which determine the amount of new quantitative variation that arises per generation from mutation (V(M)). Here, we review methods and empirical results concerning mutation accumulation (MA) experiments that have shed light on properties of mutations affecting quantitative traits. Surprisingly, most data on fitness traits from laboratory assays of MA lines indicate that the DEM is platykurtic in form (i.e., substantially less leptokurtic than an exponential distribution), and imply that most variation is produced by mutations of moderate to large effect. This finding contrasts with results from MA or mutagenesis experiments in which mutational changes to the DNA can be assayed directly, which imply that the vast majority of mutations have very small phenotypic effects, and that the distribution has a leptokurtic form. We compare these findings with recent approaches that attempt to infer the DEM for fitness based on comparing the frequency spectra of segregating nucleotide polymorphisms at putatively neutral and selected sites in population samples. When applied to data for humans and Drosophila, these analyses also indicate that the DEM is strongly leptokurtic. However, by combining the resultant estimates of parameters of the DEM with estimates of the mutation rate per nucleotide, the predicted V(M) for fitness is only a tiny fraction of V(M) observed in MA experiments. This discrepancy can be explained if we postulate that a few deleterious mutations of large effect contribute most of the mutational variation observed in MA experiments and that such mutations segregate at very low frequencies in natural populations, and effectively are never seen in population samples.

  13. Mutation analysis of 28 gaucher disease patients: The Australasian experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, B.D.; Nelson, P.V.; Robertson, E.F.

    1994-01-15

    Gaucher disease is the most common lysomal storage disease. It is an autosomal recessive disorder that results from a deficiency of {beta}-glucocerrebrosidase. Three clinical phenotypes have been described: non-neuronopathic, acute neuronopathic, and subacuteneuronopathic. Genomic DNA from 28 Australasian patients of diverse ethnic origin with Gaucher disease was screened for 3 common mutations (1226G, 1448C and 84GG) using the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), and one uncommon mutation (1504T) by restriction enzyme digestion. Thirty-eight of the 56 independent alleles in these patients were characterized, with 1448C present in 42% and 1226G in 28% of the alleles. The 1226G mutation was associatedmore » only with the nonneuronopathic phenotype and 7 of the 15 patients who carried the 1448C mutation developed neuronopathic disease. Three infants who died in the neonatal period following a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative course carried no identifiable mutations. The 84GG mutation was carried by 2 Jewish patients and 1504T was present in one patient. It is now possible to rapidly identify the common Gaucher mutations using ARMS and restriction enzyme digestion, and our findings confirm the heterogeneity of mutations in Gaucher disease. It is also possible to predict in part the phenotypic outcome when screening patients for these mutations. The authors consider mutation analysis to be of most use in prenatal diagnosis and for carrier detection within affected families. 27 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  14. Mutational analysis of patients with neurofibromatosis 2

    SciTech Connect

    MacCollin, M.; Ramesh, V.; Pulaski, K.

    Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) is a genetic disorder characterized by the development of multiple nervous-system tumors in young adulthood. The NF2 gene has recently been isolated and found to encode a new member, merlin, of the protein 4.1 family of cytoskeleton-associated proteins. To define the molecular basis of NF2 in affected individuals, the authors have used SSCP analysis to scan the exons of the NF2 gene from 33 unrelated patients with NF2. Twenty unique SSCP variants were seen in 21 patients; 10 of these individuals were known to be the only affected person in their kindred, while 7 had at leastmore » one other known affected relative. In all cases in which family members were available, the SSCP variant segregated with the disease; comparison of sporadic cases with their parents confirmed the de novo variants. DNA sequence analysis revealed that 19 of the 20 variants observed are predicted to lead to a truncated protein due to frameshift, creation of a stop codon, or interference with normal RNA splicing. A single patient carried a 3-bp deletion removing a phenylalanine residue. The authors conclude that the majority of NF2 patients carry an inactivating mutation of the NF2 gene and that neutral polymorphism in the gene is rare. 18 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  15. Multi-institutional oncogenic driver mutation analysis in lung adenocarcinoma: The Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium experience

    PubMed Central

    Dias-Santagata, Dora; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Chen, Heidi; Fujimoto, Junya; Kugler, Kelly; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Iafrate, A. John; Ladanyi, Marc; Kris, Mark G.; Johnson, Bruce E.; Bunn, Paul A.; Minna, John D.; Kwiatkowski, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Molecular genetic analyses of lung adenocarcinoma have recently become standard of care for treatment selection. The Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium was formed to enable collaborative multi-institutional analyses of 10 potential oncogenic driver mutations. Technical aspects of testing, and clinicopathologic correlations are presented. Methods Mutation testing in at least one of 8 genes (EGFR, KRAS, ERBB2, AKT1, BRAF, MEK1, NRAS, PIK3CA) using SNaPshot, mass spectrometry, Sanger sequencing +/− PNA and/or sizing assays, along with ALK and/or MET FISH were performed in 6 labs on 1007 patients from 14 institutions. Results 1007 specimens had mutation analysis performed, and 733 specimens had all 10 genes analyzed. Mutation identification rates did not vary by analytic method. Biopsy and cytology specimens were inadequate for testing in 26% and 35% of cases compared to 5% of surgical specimens. Among the 1007 cases with mutation analysis performed, EGFR, KRAS, ALK, and ERBB2 alterations were detected in 22, 25, 8.5, and 2.4% of cases, respectively. EGFR mutations were highly associated with female sex, Asian race, and never smoking status; and less strongly associated with stage IV disease, presence of bone metastases, and absence of adrenal metastases. ALK rearrangements were strongly associated with never smoking status, and more weakly associated with presence of liver metastases. ERBB2 mutations were strongly associated with Asian race and never smoking status. Two mutations were seen in 2.7% of samples, all but one of which involved one or more of PIK3CA, ALK or MET. Conclusion Multi-institutional molecular analysis across multiple platforms, sample types, and institutions can yield consistent results and novel clinicopathological observations. PMID:25738220

  16. Mutational Analysis of Cell Types in TSC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    disability, and autism . TSC1/TSC2 gene mutations lead to developmental alterations in brain structure known as tubers in over 80% of TSC patients. Loss of...that is associated with epilepsy, cognitive disability, and autism . TSC1/TSC2 gene mutations lead to developmental alterations in brain structure...2000). Comorbid neuropsychological disorders such as autism , mental retardation (MR), pervasive developmental disorder, attention deficit disorder (ADD

  17. DMD mutation spectrum analysis in 613 Chinese patients with dystrophinopathy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruolan; Zhu, Guosheng; Zhu, Huimin; Ma, Ruiyu; Peng, Ying; Liang, Desheng; Wu, Lingqian

    2015-08-01

    Dystrophinopathy is a group of inherited diseases caused by mutations in the DMD gene. Within the dystrophinopathy spectrum, Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies are common X-linked recessive disorders that mainly feature striated muscle necrosis. We combined multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification with Sanger sequencing to detect large deletions/duplications and point mutations in the DMD gene in 613 Chinese patients. A total of 571 (93.1%) patients were diagnosed, including 428 (69.8%) with large deletions/duplications and 143 (23.3%) with point mutations. Deletion/duplication breakpoints gathered mostly in introns 44-55. Reading frame rules could explain 88.6% of deletion mutations. We identified seventy novel point mutations that had not been previously reported. Spectrum expansion and genotype-phenotype analysis of DMD mutations on such a large sample size in Han Chinese population would provide new insights into the pathogenic mechanism underlying dystrophinopathies.

  18. Mutational analysis of the HGO gene in Finnish alkaptonuria patients

    PubMed Central

    de Bernabe, D. B.-V.; Peterson, P.; Luopajarvi, K.; Matintalo, P.; Alho, A.; Konttinen, Y.; Krohn, K.; de Cordoba, S. R.; Ranki, A.

    1999-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU), the prototypic inborn error of metabolism, has recently been shown to be caused by loss of function mutations in the homogentisate-1,2-dioxygenase gene (HGO). So far 17 mutations have been characterised in AKU patients of different ethnic origin. We describe three novel mutations (R58fs, R330S, and H371R) and one common AKU mutation (M368V), detected by mutational and polymorphism analysis of the HGO gene in five Finnish AKU pedigrees. The three novel AKU mutations are most likely specific for the Finnish population and have originated recently.


Keywords: alkaptonuria; homogentisate-1,2-dioxygenase; Finland PMID:10594001

  19. Targeted mutation analysis of endometrial clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Lien N; McConechy, Melissa K; Meng, Bo; McIntyre, John B; Ewanowich, Carol; Gilks, Cyril Blake; Huntsman, David G; Köbel, Martin; Lee, Cheng-Han

    2015-04-01

    Endometrial clear cell carcinomas (CCC) constitute fewer than 5% of all carcinomas of the endometrium. Currently, little is known regarding the genetic basis of endometrial CCC. We performed genomic and immunohistochemical analyses on 14 rigorously reviewed pure endometrial CCC. The genomic analysis consisted of sequencing the coding regions of 26 genes implicated previously in endometrial carcinoma. Twelve of 14 tumours displayed a prototypical CCC immunophenotype [napsin A+, hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β (HNF1β(+) ) and oestrogen receptor(-) ] and all showed intact mismatch repair protein expression. We detected mutations in 11 of 14 tumours, and there was a predominance of mutations involving genes that are mutated more frequently in endometrial serous carcinomas than in endometrioid carcinomas. Two tumours displayed a prototypical serous carcinoma mutation profile (concurrent TP53 and PPP2R1A mutations, without PTEN, CTNNB1 or ARID1A mutation). No mutations in PTEN, CTNNB1 or POLE were identified. The overall mutation profile of this cohort of endometrial CCC appears to be more serous-like than endometrioid-like, with a minor subset in the TP53-mutated CCC showing serous carcinoma profile. These findings provide new insights into the molecular features of morphologically prototypical endometrial CCC, and underscore the need for further investigations into the oncogenesis of endometrial CCC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Clinical implications of mutation analysis in primary hyperoxaluria type 1.

    PubMed

    van Woerden, Christiaan S; Groothoff, Jaap W; Wijburg, Frits A; Annink, Carla; Wanders, Ronald J A; Waterham, Hans R

    2004-08-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an inborn error of glyoxylate metabolism with an extensive clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Although over 50 disease-causing mutations have been identified, the relationship between genotype and clinical outcome remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine this association in order to find clues for improvement of patient care. AGXT mutation analysis and assessment of biochemical characteristics and clinical outcome were performed on patients from a Dutch PH1 cohort. Thirty-three of a cohort of 57 PH1 patients, identified in The Netherlands over a period of 30 years, were analyzed. Ten different mutations were found. The most common mutations were the Gly170Arg, Phe152Ile, and the 33insC mutations, with an allele frequency of 43%, 19%, and 15%, respectively. Homozygous Gly170Arg and Phe152Ile mutations were associated with pyridoxine responsiveness and a preserved renal function over time when treatment was timely initiated. All patients homozygous for the 33insC mutation had end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before the first year of age. In two unrelated patients, a new Val336Asp mutation was found coupled with the Gly170Arg mutation on the minor allele. We also found 3 patients homozygous for a novel Gly82Arg mutation with adverse outcome in 2 of them. Early detection of Gly170Arg and Phe152Ile mutations in PH1 has important clinical implications because of their association with pyridoxine responsiveness and clinical outcome. The association of a homozygous 33insC mutation with severe infantile ESRD, resulting in early deaths in 2 out of 3 cases, warrants a choice for prenatal diagnostics in affected families.

  1. Molecular analysis of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA: Common mutations and racial difference

    SciTech Connect

    Tomatsu, S.; Hori, T.; Nakashima, Y.

    1994-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in N-acetylgalactosamine -6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). Studies on the molecular basis of MPS IVA have been facilitated following cloning of the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA. In this study we detected mutations from 20 Caucasian and 19 Japanese MPS IVA patients using SSCP system and compared mutations of Caucasian origin with those of Japanese origin. The results showed the presence of 16 various mutations (3 small, deletions, 2 nonsense and 11 missense mutations) for Caucasian patients and 15 (1 deletion, 1 large alteration and 13 missense mutations) formore » Japanese. Moreover, two common mutations existed; one is double gene deletion characteristic for Japanese (6 alleles; 15%) and the other is a point mutation (1113F A{yields}T transition) characteristic for Caucasian (9 alleles; 22.5%). And the clear genotype/phenotype relationship among 1342delCA, IVS1(-2), P151S, Q148X, R386C, I113F, Q473X, W220G, P151L, A291T, R90W, and P77R, for a severe type, G96B N204K and V138A for a milder type, was observed. Only R386 mutation was seen in both of the populations. Further, the precise DNA analysis for double gene deletion of a common double gene deletion has been performed by defining the breakpoints and the results showed that one deletion was caused by homologous recombination due to Alu repetitive sequences and the other was due to nonhomologous recombination of short direct repeat. Haplotype analysis for six alleles with double deletion were different, indicating the different origin of this mutation or the frequent recombination events before a mutational event. Thus the mutations in GALNS gene are very heterogeneous and the racial difference is characteristic.« less

  2. Mutation analysis of Australasian Gaucher disease patients

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.V.; Carey, W.F.; Morris, C.P.

    1995-09-25

    We have previously reported phenotype and genotype analyses in 28 Australasian Gaucher patients who were screened for several of the common Gaucher mutations: N370S, L444P, 84GG, and R463C. Horowitz and Zimran have reported that the complex alleles recNciI and recTL, which contain several point mutations including L444P, are relatively common, especially in non-Jewish Gaucher patients. Zimran and Horowitz have also stated that these recombinant alleles could easily be missed by laboratories testing only for the common Gaucher point mutations. Failure to correctly identify these mutations would influence any attempt to correlate genotype with phenotype. We have therefore retested our Gauchermore » patients for recNciI (L444P, A456P, and V46OV) and recTL (D409H, L444P, A456P, and V46OV) by PCR amplification, followed by hybridization with allele-specific oligonucleotides. 4 refs.« less

  3. Mutation analysis of the MECP2 gene in patients of Slavic origin with Rett syndrome: novel mutations and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Zahorakova, Daniela; Rosipal, Robert; Hadac, Jan; Zumrova, Alena; Bzduch, Vladimir; Misovicova, Nadezda; Baxova, Alice; Zeman, Jiri; Martasek, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder in females, is caused mainly by de novo mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene (MECP2). Here we report mutation analysis of the MECP2 gene in 87 patients with RTT from the Czech and Slovak Republics, and Ukraine. The patients, all girls, with classical RTT were investigated for mutations using bi-directional DNA sequencing and conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis analysis of the coding sequence and exon/intron boundaries of the MECP2 gene. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed to confirm the mutations that cause the creation or abolition of the restriction site. Mutation-negative cases were subsequently examined by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to identify large deletions. Mutation screening revealed 31 different mutations in 68 patients and 12 non-pathogenic polymorphisms. Six mutations have not been previously published: two point mutations (323T>A, 904C>T), three deletions (189_190delGA, 816_832del17, 1069delAGC) and one deletion/inversion (1063_1236del174;1189_1231inv43). MLPA analysis revealed large deletions in two patients. The detection rate was 78.16%. Our results confirm the high frequency of MECP2 mutations in females with RTT and provide data concerning the mutation heterogeneity in the Slavic population.

  4. FRAXE mutation analysis in three Spanish families

    SciTech Connect

    Carbonell, P.; Lopez, I.; Gabarron, J.

    Very little is known about the phenotype of FRAXE-positive individuals and the relation between the genotype/phenotype and genotype/cytogenetic expression. We describe three families with normal and mildly affected individuals and a severely retarded male expressing fragility at the FRAXE locus or presenting different expansions at the CGG FRAXE triplet. In addition, we analyze the FRAXE mutation in sperm DNA from a retarded male carrier with a handicapped daughter expressing fragility at the FRAXE locus. Mental status in FRAXE individuals is highly variable and, although mild mental retardation is observed in most cases, several carrier males are apparently normal. It seemsmore » that methylation is not as strictly associated with size of CGG triplets in the FRAXE locus as in FRAXA, and it is possible that normal carrier individuals with fully methylated increments in lymphocytes have a certain proportion of unmethylated alleles in the critical (i.e., neural) tissues. FRAXE mutation is apparently similar to FRAXA in that males with somatic large methylated increments are carriers of small unmethylated ones in germinal cells. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  5. [FANCA gene mutation analysis in Fanconi anemia patients].

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Peng, Guang-Jie; Zhang, Kejian; Hu, Qun; Zhang, Liu-Qing; Liu, Ai-Guo

    2005-10-01

    To screen the FANCA gene mutation and explore the FANCA protein function in Fanconi anemia (FA) patients. FANCA protein expression and its interaction with FANCF were analyzed using Western blot and immunoprecipitation in 3 cases of FA-A. Genomic DNA was used for MLPA analysis followed by sequencing. FANCA protein was undetectable and FANCA and FANCF protein interaction was impaired in these 3 cases of FA-A. Each case of FA-A contained biallelic pathogenic mutations in FANCA gene. No functional FANCA protein was found in these 3 cases of FA-A, and intragenic deletion, frame shift and splice site mutation were the major pathogenic mutations found in FANCA gene.

  6. Analysis of 16 cystic fibrosis mutations in Mexican patients

    SciTech Connect

    Villalobos-Torres, C.; Rojas-Martinez, A.; Barrera-Saldana, H.A.

    1997-04-14

    We carried out molecular analysis of 80 chromosomes from 40 unrelated Mexican patients with a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. The study was performed in two PCR steps: a preliminary one to identify mutation AF508, the most frequent cause of cystic fibrosis worldwide, and the second a reverse dot-blot with allele-specific oligonucleotide probes to detect 15 additional common mutations in the Caucasian population. A frequency of 45% for AF508 was found, making it the most common in our sample of Mexican patients. Another five mutations (G542X, 3849 + 10 kb C{r_arrow}T, N1303K, S549N, and 621 + 1 G{r_arrow}T) were detected, andmore » these accounted for 11.25%. The remaining mutations (43.75%) were undetectable with the methodology used. 20 refs., 2 tabs.« less

  7. A Novel Missense Mutation of Doublecortin: Mutation Analysis of Korean Patients with Subcortical Band Heterotopia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Park, Man-Seok; Kim, Byeong-Chae; Cho, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Young-Seon; Kim, Jin-Hee; Heo, Tag; Kim, Eun-Young

    2005-01-01

    The neuronal migration disorders, X-linked lissencephaly syndrome (XLIS) and subcortical band heterotopia (SBH), also called "double cortex", have been linked to missense, nonsense, aberrant splicing, deletion, and insertion mutations in doublecortin (DCX) in families and sporadic cases. Most DCX mutations identified to date are located in two evolutionarily conserved domains. We performed mutation analysis of DCX in two Korean patients with SBH. The SBH patients had mild to moderate developmental delays, drug-resistant generalized seizures, and diffuse thick SBH upon brain MRI. Sequence analysis of the DCX coding region in Patient 1 revealed a c.386 C>T change in exon 3. The sequence variation results in a serine to leucine amino acid change at position 129 (S129L), which has not been found in other family members of Patient 1 or in a large panel of 120 control X-chromosomes. We report here a novel c.386 C>T mutation of DCX that is responsible for SBH. PMID:16100463

  8. Mutational Analysis of the Rhodopsin Gene in Sector Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Napier, Maria L; Durga, Dash; Wolsley, Clive J; Chamney, Sarah; Alexander, Sharon; Brennan, Rosie; Simpson, David A; Silvestri, Giuliana; Willoughby, Colin E

    2015-01-01

    To determine the role of rhodopsin (RHO) gene mutations in patients with sector retinitis pigmentosa (RP) from Northern Ireland. A case series of sector RP in a tertiary ocular genetics clinic. Four patients with sector RP were recruited from the Royal Victoria Hospital (Belfast, Northern Ireland) and Altnagelvin Hospital (Londonderry, Northern Ireland) following informed consent. The diagnosis of sector RP was based on clinical examination, International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) standard electrophysiology, and visual field analysis. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes and the coding regions and adjacent flanking intronic sequences of the RHO gene were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified and cycle sequenced. Rhodopsin mutational status. A heterozygous missense mutation in RHO (c.173C > T) resulting in a non-conservative substitution of threonine to methionine (p. Thr58Met) was identified in one patient and was absent from 360 control individuals. This non-conservative substitution (p.Thr58Met) replaces a highly evolutionary conserved polar hydrophilic threonine residue with a non-polar hydrophobic methionine residue at position 58 near the cytoplasmic border of helix A of RHO. The study identified a RHO gene mutation (p.Thr58Met) not previously reported in RP in a patient with sector RP. These findings outline the phenotypic variability associated with RHO mutations. It has been proposed that the regional effects of RHO mutations are likely to result from interplay between mutant alleles and other genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors.

  9. The Energy Landscape Analysis of Cancer Mutations in Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Anshuman; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2011-01-01

    The growing interest in quantifying the molecular basis of protein kinase activation and allosteric regulation by cancer mutations has fueled computational studies of allosteric signaling in protein kinases. In the present study, we combined computer simulations and the energy landscape analysis of protein kinases to characterize the interplay between oncogenic mutations and locally frustrated sites as important catalysts of allostetric kinase activation. While structurally rigid kinase core constitutes a minimally frustrated hub of the catalytic domain, locally frustrated residue clusters, whose interaction networks are not energetically optimized, are prone to dynamic modulation and could enable allosteric conformational transitions. The results of this study have shown that the energy landscape effect of oncogenic mutations may be allosteric eliciting global changes in the spatial distribution of highly frustrated residues. We have found that mutation-induced allosteric signaling may involve a dynamic coupling between structurally rigid (minimally frustrated) and plastic (locally frustrated) clusters of residues. The presented study has demonstrated that activation cancer mutations may affect the thermodynamic equilibrium between kinase states by allosterically altering the distribution of locally frustrated sites and increasing the local frustration in the inactive form, while eliminating locally frustrated sites and restoring structural rigidity of the active form. The energy landsape analysis of protein kinases and the proposed role of locally frustrated sites in activation mechanisms may have useful implications for bioinformatics-based screening and detection of functional sites critical for allosteric regulation in complex biomolecular systems. PMID:21998754

  10. Mutational Signatures in Cancer (MuSiCa): a web application to implement mutational signatures analysis in cancer samples.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gay, Marcos; Vila-Casadesús, Maria; Franch-Expósito, Sebastià; Hernández-Illán, Eva; Lozano, Juan José; Castellví-Bel, Sergi

    2018-06-14

    Mutational signatures have been proved as a valuable pattern in somatic genomics, mainly regarding cancer, with a potential application as a biomarker in clinical practice. Up to now, several bioinformatic packages to address this topic have been developed in different languages/platforms. MutationalPatterns has arisen as the most efficient tool for the comparison with the signatures currently reported in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database. However, the analysis of mutational signatures is nowadays restricted to a small community of bioinformatic experts. In this work we present Mutational Signatures in Cancer (MuSiCa), a new web tool based on MutationalPatterns and built using the Shiny framework in R language. By means of a simple interface suited to non-specialized researchers, it provides a comprehensive analysis of the somatic mutational status of the supplied cancer samples. It permits characterizing the profile and burden of mutations, as well as quantifying COSMIC-reported mutational signatures. It also allows classifying samples according to the above signature contributions. MuSiCa is a helpful web application to characterize mutational signatures in cancer samples. It is accessible online at http://bioinfo.ciberehd.org/GPtoCRC/en/tools.html and source code is freely available at https://github.com/marcos-diazg/musica .

  11. Analysis of APC mutation in human ameloblastoma and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Liu, Bing; Sui, Chengguang; Jiang, Youhong

    2016-01-01

    As a highly conserved signaling pathway, Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction pathway plays an important role in many processes. Either in the occurrence or development of tumor, activation of this pathway takes an important place. APC inhibits Wnt/β-catenin pathway to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. This study aimed to investigate the function of cancer suppressor gene. PCR amplification and sequencing method was used to analyze APC mutations of human clinical specimens. The pathological specimens were collected for PCR and clear electrophoretic bands were obtained after electrophoresis. The gene sequence obtained after purification and sequencing analysis was compared with the known APC gene sequence (NM_000038.5). Base mutations at APC 1543 (T → C), APC-4564 (G → A), APC-5353 (T → G), APC-5550 (T → A) and APC-5969 (G → A) locus existed in 22 (27.5 %), 12 (15 %), 5 (6.25 %), 13 (16.25 %) and 12 patients (15 %), respectively. Gene mutations existed in ameloblastoma, and the mutation loci were 1543 locus (T → C), 4564 locus (G → A), 5353 locus (T → G), 5550 locus (T → A) and 5969 locus (G → A) 15 %, respectively. APC mutation plays a certain role in monitoring the tumor malignant degree as it may indicate the transition process of ameloblastoma malignant phenotype.

  12. [Mutation analysis of seven patients with Waardenburg syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hao, Ziqi; Zhou, Yongan; Li, Pengli; Zhang, Quanbin; Li, Jiao; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Xiangshao; Feng, Yong

    2016-06-01

    To perform genetic analysis for 7 patients with Waardenburg syndrome. Potential mutation of MITF, PAX3, SOX10 and SNAI2 genes was screened by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Functions of non-synonymous polymorphisms were predicted with PolyPhen2 software. Seven mutations, including c.649-651delAGA (p.R217del), c.72delG (p.G24fs), c.185T>C (p.M62T), c.118C>T (p.Q40X), c.422T>C (p.L141P), c.640C>T (p.R214X) and c.28G>T(p.G43V), were detected in the patients. Among these, four mutations of the PAX3 gene (c.72delG, c.185T>C, c.118C>T and c.128G>T) and one SOX10 gene mutation (c.422T>C) were not reported previously. Three non-synonymous SNPs (c.185T>C, c.128G>T and c.422T>C) were predicted as harmful. Genetic mutations have been detected in all patients with Waardenburg syndrome.

  13. Calreticulin mutation analysis in non-mutated Janus kinase 2 essential thrombocythemia patients in Chiang Mai University: analysis of three methods and clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Rattarittamrong, Ekarat; Tantiworawit, Adisak; Kumpunya, Noppamas; Wongtagan, Ornkamon; Tongphung, Ratchanoo; Phusua, Arunee; Chai-Adisaksopha, Chatree; Hantrakool, Sasinee; Rattanathammethee, Thanawat; Norasetthada, Lalita; Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Lekawanvijit, Suree

    2018-03-09

    The primary objective was to determine the prevalence of calreticulin (CALR) mutation in patients with non-JAK2V617F mutated essential thrombocythemia (ET). The secondary objectives were to evaluate the accuracy of CALR mutation analysis by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) compared with DNA sequencing and to compare clinical characteristics of CALR mutated and JAK2V617F mutated ET. This was a prospective cohort study involving ET patients registered at Chiang Mai University in the period September 2015-September 2017 who were aged more than 2 years, and did not harbor JAK2V617F mutation. The presence of CALR mutation was established by DNA sequencing, HRM, and real-time PCR for type 1 and type 2 mutation. Clinical data were compared with that from ET patients with mutated JAK2V617F. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled onto the study. CALR mutations were found in 10 patients (35.7%). Three patients had type 1 mutation, 5 patients had type 2 mutation, 1 patient had type 18 mutation, and 1 patients had novel mutations (c.1093 C-G, c.1098_1131 del, c.1135 G-A). HRM could differentiate between the types of mutation in complete agreement with DNA sequencing. Patients with a CALR mutation showed a significantly greater male predominance and had a higher platelet count when compared with 42 JAK2V617F patients. The prevalence of CALR mutation in JAK2V617F-negative ET in this study is 35.7%. HRM is an effective method of detecting CALR mutation and is a more advantageous method of screening for CALR mutation.

  14. Mutational analysis of genes coding for cell surface proteins in colorectal cancer cell lines reveal novel altered pathways, druggable mutations and mutated epitopes for targeted therapy

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Bruna R.; Bettoni, Fabiana; Koyama, Fernanda C.; Navarro, Fabio C.P.; Perez, Rodrigo O.; Mariadason, John; Sieber, Oliver M.; Strausberg, Robert L.; Simpson, Andrew J.G.; Jardim, Denis L.F.; Reis, Luiz Fernando L.; Parmigiani, Raphael B.; Galante, Pedro A.F.; Camargo, Anamaria A.

    2014-01-01

    We carried out a mutational analysis of 3,594 genes coding for cell surface proteins (Surfaceome) in 23 colorectal cancer cell lines, searching for new altered pathways, druggable mutations and mutated epitopes for targeted therapy in colorectal cancer. A total of 3,944 somatic non-synonymous substitutions and 595 InDels, occurring in 2,061 (57%) Surfaceome genes were catalogued. We identified 48 genes not previously described as mutated in colorectal tumors in the TCGA database, including genes that are mutated and expressed in >10% of the cell lines (SEMA4C, FGFRL1, PKD1, FAM38A, WDR81, TMEM136, SLC36A1, SLC26A6, IGFLR1). Analysis of these genes uncovered important roles for FGF and SEMA4 signaling in colorectal cancer with possible therapeutic implications. We also found that cell lines express on average 11 druggable mutations, including frequent mutations (>20%) in the receptor tyrosine kinases AXL and EPHA2, which have not been previously considered as potential targets for colorectal cancer. Finally, we identified 82 cell surface mutated epitopes, however expression of only 30% of these epitopes was detected in our cell lines. Notwithstanding, 92% of these epitopes were expressed in cell lines with the mutator phenotype, opening new venues for the use of “general” immune checkpoint drugs in this subset of patients. PMID:25193853

  15. Analysis of the mutations induced by conazole fungicides in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jeffrey A; Leavitt, Sharon A

    2010-05-01

    The mouse liver tumorigenic conazole fungicides triadimefon and propiconazole have previously been shown to be in vivo mouse liver mutagens in the Big Blue transgenic mutation assay when administered in feed at tumorigenic doses, whereas the non-tumorigenic conazole myclobutanil was not mutagenic. DNA sequencing of the mutants recovered from each treatment group as well as from animals receiving control diet was conducted to gain additional insight into the mode of action by which tumorigenic conazoles induce mutations. Relative dinucleotide mutabilities (RDMs) were calculated for each possible dinucleotide in each treatment group and then examined by multivariate statistical analysis techniques. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of RDM values segregated two independent control groups together, along with the non-tumorigen myclobutanil. The two tumorigenic conazoles clustered together in a distinct grouping. Partitioning around mediods of RDM values into two clusters also groups the triadimefon and propiconazole together in one cluster and the two control groups and myclobutanil together in a second cluster. Principal component analysis of these results identifies two components that account for 88.3% of the variability in the points. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that propiconazole- and triadimefon-induced mutations do not represent clonal expansion of background mutations and support the hypothesis that they arise from the accumulation of reactive electrophilic metabolic intermediates within the liver in vivo.

  16. Analysis of gene mutations among South Indian patients with maple syrup urine disease: identification of four novel mutations.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, M P; Menon, Krishnakumar N; Vasudevan, D M

    2013-10-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is predominantly caused by mutations in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes, which encode for the E1alpha, E1beta and E2 subunits of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, respectively. Because disease causing mutations play a major role in the development of the disease, prenatal diagnosis at gestational level may have significance in making decisions by parents. Thus, this study was aimed to screen South Indian MSUD patients for mutations and assess the genotype-phenotype correlation. Thirteen patients diagnosed with MSUD by conventional biochemical screening such as urine analysis by DNPH test, thin layer chromatography for amino acids and blood amino acid quantification by HPLC were selected for mutation analysis. The entire coding regions of the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes were analyzed for mutations by PCR-based direct DNA sequencing. BCKDHA and BCKDHB mutations were seen in 43% of the total ten patients, while disease-causing DBT gene mutation was observed only in 14%. Three patients displayed no mutations. Novel mutations were c.130C>T in BCKDHA gene, c. 599C>T and c.121_122delAC in BCKDHB gene and c.190G>A in DBT gene. Notably, patients harbouring these mutations were non-responsive to thiamine supplementation and other treatment regimens and might have a worse prognosis as compared to the patients not having such mutations. Thus, identification of these mutations may have a crucial role in the treatment as well as understanding the molecular mechanisms in MSUD.

  17. Facile one-pot transformation using structure-guided combustion waves of micro-nanostructured β-Bi2O3 to α-Bi2O3@C and analysis of electrochemical capacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hayoung; Shin, Jung-ho; Lee, Kang Yeol; Choi, Wonjoon

    2018-01-01

    Precise phase-transformation can facilitate control of the properties of various materials, while an organic coating surrounding inorganic materials can yield useful characteristics. Herein, we demonstrate facile, selective manipulation of micro-nanostructured bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) for phase transformation from microflower-like β-Bi2O3 to micropill-like α-Bi2O3, with carbon-coating layer deposition, using structure-guided combustion waves (SGCWs). Microflower-like β-Bi2O3 are synthesized as core materials and nitrocellulose is coated on their surfaces for the formation of core-shell hybrid structures of Bi2O3 and chemical fuel. The SGCWs, which propagate along the core-material and fuel interfaces, apply high thermal energy (550-600 °C) and deposit incompletely combusted carbonaceous fuel on the microflower-like β-Bi2O3 to enable transformation to α-phase and carbon-coating-layer synthesis. SGCW-induced improvements to the electrochemical characteristics of the developed micropill-like α-Bi2O3@C, compared with the microflower-like β-Bi2O3, are investigated. The enhanced stability from the α-phase Bi2O3 and micropill-like structures during charge-discharge cycling improves the specific capacitance, while the carbon-coating layers facilitate increased electrical conductivity. SGCW-based methods exhibit high potential for selective phase manipulation and synthesis of carbon coatings surrounding micro-nanomaterials. They constitute a low-cost, fast, large-scale process for metal oxides, ceramics, and hybrid materials, implemented through control of the processing parameters by tuning the temperature, chemical fuel, and ambient conditions.

  18. Simultaneous mutation detection of three homoeologous genes in wheat by High Resolution Melting analysis and Mutation Surveyor.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chongmei; Vincent, Kate; Sharp, Peter

    2009-12-04

    TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) is a powerful tool for reverse genetics, combining traditional chemical mutagenesis with high-throughput PCR-based mutation detection to discover induced mutations that alter protein function. The most popular mutation detection method for TILLING is a mismatch cleavage assay using the endonuclease CelI. For this method, locus-specific PCR is essential. Most wheat genes are present as three similar sequences with high homology in exons and low homology in introns. Locus-specific primers can usually be designed in introns. However, it is sometimes difficult to design locus-specific PCR primers in a conserved region with high homology among the three homoeologous genes, or in a gene lacking introns, or if information on introns is not available. Here we describe a mutation detection method which combines High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis of mixed PCR amplicons containing three homoeologous gene fragments and sequence analysis using Mutation Surveyor software, aimed at simultaneous detection of mutations in three homoeologous genes. We demonstrate that High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis can be used in mutation scans in mixed PCR amplicons containing three homoeologous gene fragments. Combining HRM scanning with sequence analysis using Mutation Surveyor is sensitive enough to detect a single nucleotide mutation in the heterozygous state in a mixed PCR amplicon containing three homoeoloci. The method was tested and validated in an EMS (ethylmethane sulfonate)-treated wheat TILLING population, screening mutations in the carboxyl terminal domain of the Starch Synthase II (SSII) gene. Selected identified mutations of interest can be further analysed by cloning to confirm the mutation and determine the genomic origin of the mutation. Polyploidy is common in plants. Conserved regions of a gene often represent functional domains and have high sequence similarity between homoeologous loci. The method described here

  19. Mutation Analysis in Cultured Cells of Transgenic Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Albert; Bates, Steven E.; Tommasi, Stella

    2018-01-01

    To comply with guiding principles for the ethical use of animals for experimental research, the field of mutation research has witnessed a shift of interest from large-scale in vivo animal experiments to small-sized in vitro studies. Mutation assays in cultured cells of transgenic rodents constitute, in many ways, viable alternatives to in vivo mutagenicity experiments in the corresponding animals. A variety of transgenic rodent cell culture models and mutation detection systems have been developed for mutagenicity testing of carcinogens. Of these, transgenic Big Blue® (Stratagene Corp., La Jolla, CA, USA, acquired by Agilent Technologies Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA, BioReliance/Sigma-Aldrich Corp., Darmstadt, Germany) mouse embryonic fibroblasts and the λ Select cII Mutation Detection System have been used by many research groups to investigate the mutagenic effects of a wide range of chemical and/or physical carcinogens. Here, we review techniques and principles involved in preparation and culturing of Big Blue® mouse embryonic fibroblasts, treatment in vitro with chemical/physical agent(s) of interest, determination of the cII mutant frequency by the λ Select cII assay and establishment of the mutation spectrum by DNA sequencing. We describe various approaches for data analysis and interpretation of the results. Furthermore, we highlight representative studies in which the Big Blue® mouse cell culture model and the λ Select cII assay have been used for mutagenicity testing of diverse carcinogens. We delineate the advantages of this approach and discuss its limitations, while underscoring auxiliary methods, where applicable. PMID:29337872

  20. Validation of high-resolution DNA melting analysis for mutation scanning of the CDKL5 gene: identification of novel mutations.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Laure; Diebold, Bertrand; Leroux, Céline; Maurey, Hélène; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Delahaye, Andre; Dulac, Olivier; Metreau, Julia; Melikishvili, Gia; Toutain, Annick; Rivier, François; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5) have been predominantly described in epileptic encephalopathies of female, including infantile spasms with Rett-like features. Up to now, detection of mutations in this gene was made by laborious, expensive and/or time consuming methods. Here, we decided to validate high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) for mutation scanning of the CDKL5 gene. Firstly, using a large DNA bank consisting to 34 samples carrying different mutations and polymorphisms, we validated our analytical conditions to analyse the different exons and flanking intronic sequences of the CDKL5 gene by HRMA. Secondly, we screened CDKL5 by both HRMA and denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) in a cohort of 135 patients with early-onset seizures. Our results showed that point mutations and small insertions and deletions can be reliably detected by HRMA. Compared to dHPLC, HRMA profiles are more discriminated, thereby decreasing unnecessary sequencing. In this study, we identified eleven novel sequence variations including four pathogenic mutations (2.96% prevalence). HRMA appears cost-effective, easy to set up, highly sensitive, non-toxic and rapid for mutation screening, ideally suited for large genes with heterogeneous mutations located along the whole coding sequence, such as the CDKL5 gene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mutation analysis of the Fanconi Anemia Gene FACC

    SciTech Connect

    Verlander, P.C.; Lin, J.D.; Udono, M.U.

    1994-04-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a unique hypersensitivity of cells to DNA cross-linking agents; a gene for complementation group C (FACC) has recently been cloned. The authors have amplified FACC exons with their flanking intron sequences from genomic DNA from 174 racially and ethnically diverse families in the International Fanconi Anemia Registry and have screened for mutations by using SSCP analysis. They have identified eight different variants in 32 families; three were detected in exon 1, one in exon 4, one in intron 4, two in exon 6, and one in exon 14.more » Two of the eight variants, in seven families, did not segregate with the disease allele in multiplex families, suggesting that these variants represented benign polymorphisms. Disease-associated mutations in FACC were detected in a total of 25 (14.4%) of 174 families screened. The most frequent mutations were IVS4 + 4 A [yields] T (intron 4; 12 families) and 322delG (exon 1; 9 families). Other, less common mutations include Q13X in exon 1, R185X and D195V in exon 6, and L554P in exon 14. The polymorphisms were S26F in exon 1 and G139E in exon 4. All patients in the study with 322delG, Q13X, R185X, and D195V are of northern or eastern European or southern Italian ancestry, and 18 of 19 have a mild form of the disease, while the 2 patients with L554P, both from the same family, have a severe phenotype. All 19 patients with IVS4 + 4 A [yields] T have Jewish ancestry and have a severe phenotype. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.« less

  2. Mutational analysis of GALT gene in Greek patients with galactosaemia: identification of two novel mutations and clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Schulpis, Kleopatra H; Thodi, Georgia; Iakovou, Konstantinos; Chatzidaki, Maria; Dotsikas, Yannis; Molou, Elina; Triantafylli, Olga; Loukas, Yannis L

    2017-10-01

    Classical galactosaemia is an inborn error of metabolism due to the deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT). The aim of the study was to identify the underlying mutations in Greek patients with GALT deficiency and evaluate their psychomotor and speech development. Patients with GALT deficiency (n = 17) were picked up through neonatal screening. Mutational analysis was conducted via Sanger sequencing, while in silico analysis was used in the cases of novel missense mutations. Psychomotor speech development tests were utilized for the clinical evaluation of the patients. Eleven different mutations in the GALT gene were detected in the patient cohort, including two novel ones. The most frequent mutation was p.Q188R (c.563 A > G). As for the novel mutations, p.M298I (c.894 G > A) was identified in four out of 32 independent alleles, while p.P115S (c.343 C > T) was identified once. Psychomotor evaluation revealed that most of the patients were found in the borderline area (Peabody test), while only two had speech delay problems. The WISK test revealed three patients at borderline limits and two were at lower than normal limits. The mutational spectrum of the GALT gene in Greek patients is presented for the first time. The mutation p.Q188R is the most frequent among Greek patients. Two novel mutations were identified and their potential pathogenicity was estimated. Regarding the phenotypic characteristics, psychomotor disturbances and speech delay were mainly observed among GALT-deficient patients.

  3. Haplotype analysis suggest that the MLH1 c.2059C > T mutation is a Swedish founder mutation.

    PubMed

    von Salomé, Jenny; Liu, Tao; Keihäs, Markku; Morak, Moni; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Berry, Ian R; Moilanen, Jukka S; Baert-Desurmont, Stéphanie; Lindblom, Annika; Lagerstedt-Robinson, Kristina

    2017-12-29

    Lynch syndrome (LS) predisposes to a spectrum of cancers and increases the lifetime risk of developing colorectal- or endometrial cancer to over 50%. Lynch syndrome is dominantly inherited and is caused by defects in DNA mismatch-repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2, with the vast majority detected in MLH1 and MSH2. Recurrent LS-associated variants observed in apparently unrelated individuals, have either arisen de novo in different families due to mutation hotspots, or are inherited from a founder (a common ancestor) that lived several generations back. There are variants that recur in some populations while also acting as founders in other ethnic groups. Testing for founder mutations can facilitate molecular diagnosis of Lynch Syndrome more efficiently and more cost effective than screening for all possible mutations. Here we report a study of the missense mutation MLH1 c.2059C > T (p.Arg687Trp), a potential founder mutation identified in eight Swedish families and one Finnish family with Swedish ancestors. Haplotype analysis confirmed that the Finnish and Swedish families shared a haplotype of between 0.9 and 2.8 Mb. While MLH1 c.2059C > T exists worldwide, the Swedish haplotype was not found among mutation carriers from Germany or France, which indicates a common founder in the Swedish population. The geographic distribution of MLH1 c.2059C > T in Sweden suggests a single, ancient mutational event in the northern part of Sweden.

  4. [Gene mutation analysis of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets].

    PubMed

    Song, Ying; Ma, Hong-Wei; Li, Fang; Hu, Man; Ren, Shuang; Yu, Ya-Fen; Zhao, Gui-Jie

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the frequency and type of PHEX gene mutations in children with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), the possible presence of mutational hot spots, and the relationship between genotype and clinical phenotype. Clinical data of 10 children with XLH was retrospectively reviewed. The relationship between gene mutation type and severity of XLH was evaluated. PHEX gene mutations were detected in all 10 children with XLH, including 6 cases of missense mutation, 2 cases of splice site mutation, 1 case of frameshift mutation, and 1 case of nonsense mutation. Two new mutations, c.2048T>C and IVS14+1delAG, were found. The type of PHEX gene mutation was not associated with the degree of short stature and leg deformity (P=0.571 and 0.467), and the mutation site was also not associated with the degree of short stature and leg deformity (P=0.400 and 1.000). Missense mutation is the most common type of PHEX gene mutation in children with XLH, and c.2048T>C and IVS14+1delAG are two new PHEX gene mutations. The type and site of PHEX gene mutation are not associated with the severity of XLH.

  5. [Observation and analysis on mutation of routine STR locus].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiu-yang; Feng, Wei-jun; Yang, Qin-gen

    2005-05-01

    To observe and analyze the characteristic of mutation at STR locus. 27 mutant genes observed in 1211 paternity testing cases were checked by PAGE-silver stained and PowerPlex 16 System Kit and validated by sequencing. Mutant genes locate on 15 loci. The pattern of mutation was accord with stepwise mutation model. The mutation ratio of male-to-female was 8:1 and correlated to the age of father. Mutation rate is correlated to the geometric mean of the number of homogeneous repeats of locus. The higher the mean, the higher the mutation rate. These loci are not so appropriate for use in paternity testing.

  6. Functional Analysis of Somatic Mutations in Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    antibody cetuximab [11]. Finally, we have developed novel single cell sequencing approaches to uncover EGFR mutational variants in glioblastoma and their...assessed which mutations are epistatic to EGFR or capable of initiating xenograft tumor formation in vivo. Using eVIP, we identified 69% of mutations...analyzed as impactful whereas 31% appear functionally neutral. A subset of the impactful mutations induce xenograft tumor formation in mice and/or

  7. Role of CFTR mutation analysis in the diagnostic algorithm for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ratkiewicz, Michelle; Pastore, Matthew; McCoy, Karen Sharrock; Thompson, Rohan; Hayes, Don; Sheikh, Shahid Ijaz

    2017-04-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation identification is being used with increased frequency to aid in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) in those suspected with CF. Aim of this study was to identify diagnostic outcomes when CFTR mutational analysis was used in CF diagnosis. CFTR mutational analysis results were also compared with sweat chloride results. This study was done on all patients at our institution who had CFTR mutation analysis over a sevenyear period since August 2006. A total of 315 patients underwent CFTR mutational analysis. Fifty-one (16.2%) patients had two mutations identified. Among them 32 had positive sweat chloride levels (≥60 mmol/L), while seven had borderline sweat chloride levels (40-59 mmol/L). An additional 70 patients (22.3%) had only one mutation identified. Among them eight had positive sweat chloride levels, and 17 had borderline sweat chloride levels. Fifty-five patients (17.5%) without CFTR mutations had either borderline (n=45) or positive (n=10) sweat chloride results. Three patients with a CF phenotype had negative CFTR analysis but elevated sweat chloride levels. In eighty-three patients (26.4%) CFTR mutational analysis was done without corresponding sweat chloride testing. Although CFTR mutation analysis has improved the diagnostic capability for CF, its use either as the first step or the only test to diagnose CFTR dysfunction should be discouraged and CF diagnostic guidelines need to be followed.

  8. Novel pathogenic mutations and skin biopsy analysis in Knobloch syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Oscar; Kague, Erika; Bagatini, Kelly; Tu, Hongmin; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Carvalhaes, Lorenza; Gava, Elisandra; de Oliveira, Gisele; Godoi, Paulo; Oliva, Glaucius; Kitten, Gregory; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Passos-Bueno, Maria-Rita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To facilitate future diagnosis of Knobloch syndrome (KS) and better understand its etiology, we sought to identify not yet described COL18A1 mutations in KS patients. In addition, we tested whether mutations in this gene lead to absence of the COL18A1 gene product and attempted to better characterize the functional effect of a previously reported missense mutation. Methods Direct sequencing of COL18A1 exons was performed in KS patients from four unrelated pedigrees. We used immunofluorescent histochemistry in skin biopsies to evaluate the presence of type XVIII collagen in four KS patients carrying two already described mutations: c.3277C>T, a nonsense mutation, and c.3601G>A, a missense mutation. Furthermore, we determined the binding properties of the mutated endostatin domain p.A1381T (c.3601G>A) to extracellular matrix proteins using ELISA and surface plasmon resonance assays. Results We identified four novel mutations in COL18A1, including a large deletion involving exon 41. Skin biopsies from KS patients revealed lack of type XVIII collagen in epithelial basement membranes and blood vessels. We also found a reduced affinity of p.A1381T endostatin to some extracellular matrix components. Conclusions COL18A1 mutations involved in Knobloch syndrome have a distribution bias toward the coding exons of the C-terminal end. Large deletions must also be considered when point mutations are not identified in patients with characteristic KS phenotype. We report, for the first time, lack of type XVIII collagen in KS patients by immunofluorescent histochemistry in skin biopsy samples. As a final point, we suggest the employment of this technique as a preliminary and complementary test for diagnosis of KS in cases when mutation screening either does not detect mutations or reveals mutations of uncertain effect, such as the p.A1381T change. PMID:19390655

  9. Novel pathogenic mutations and skin biopsy analysis in Knobloch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Oscar; Kague, Erika; Bagatini, Kelly; Tu, Hongmin; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Carvalhaes, Lorenza; Gava, Elisandra; de Oliveira, Gisele; Godoi, Paulo; Oliva, Glaucius; Kitten, Gregory; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Passos-Bueno, Maria-Rita

    2009-01-01

    To facilitate future diagnosis of Knobloch syndrome (KS) and better understand its etiology, we sought to identify not yet described COL18A1 mutations in KS patients. In addition, we tested whether mutations in this gene lead to absence of the COL18A1 gene product and attempted to better characterize the functional effect of a previously reported missense mutation. Direct sequencing of COL18A1 exons was performed in KS patients from four unrelated pedigrees. We used immunofluorescent histochemistry in skin biopsies to evaluate the presence of type XVIII collagen in four KS patients carrying two already described mutations: c.3277C>T, a nonsense mutation, and c.3601G>A, a missense mutation. Furthermore, we determined the binding properties of the mutated endostatin domain p.A1381T (c.3601G>A) to extracellular matrix proteins using ELISA and surface plasmon resonance assays. We identified four novel mutations in COL18A1, including a large deletion involving exon 41. Skin biopsies from KS patients revealed lack of type XVIII collagen in epithelial basement membranes and blood vessels. We also found a reduced affinity of p.A1381T endostatin to some extracellular matrix components. COL18A1 mutations involved in Knobloch syndrome have a distribution bias toward the coding exons of the C-terminal end. Large deletions must also be considered when point mutations are not identified in patients with characteristic KS phenotype. We report, for the first time, lack of type XVIII collagen in KS patients by immunofluorescent histochemistry in skin biopsy samples. As a final point, we suggest the employment of this technique as a preliminary and complementary test for diagnosis of KS in cases when mutation screening either does not detect mutations or reveals mutations of uncertain effect, such as the p.A1381T change.

  10. Identification and analysis of mutational hotspots in oncogenes and tumour suppressors.

    PubMed

    Baeissa, Hanadi; Benstead-Hume, Graeme; Richardson, Christopher J; Pearl, Frances M G

    2017-03-28

    The key to interpreting the contribution of a disease-associated mutation in the development and progression of cancer is an understanding of the consequences of that mutation both on the function of the affected protein and on the pathways in which that protein is involved. Protein domains encapsulate function and position-specific domain based analysis of mutations have been shown to help elucidate their phenotypes. In this paper we examine the domain biases in oncogenes and tumour suppressors, and find that their domain compositions substantially differ. Using data from over 30 different cancers from whole-exome sequencing cancer genomic projects we mapped over one million mutations to their respective Pfam domains to identify which domains are enriched in any of three different classes of mutation; missense, indels or truncations. Next, we identified the mutational hotspots within domain families by mapping small mutations to equivalent positions in multiple sequence alignments of protein domainsWe find that gain of function mutations from oncogenes and loss of function mutations from tumour suppressors are normally found in different domain families and when observed in the same domain families, hotspot mutations are located at different positions within the multiple sequence alignment of the domain. By considering hotspots in tumour suppressors and oncogenes independently, we find that there are different specific positions within domain families that are particularly suited to accommodate either a loss or a gain of function mutation. The position is also dependent on the class of mutation.We find rare mutations co-located with well-known functional mutation hotspots, in members of homologous domain superfamilies, and we detect novel mutation hotspots in domain families previously unconnected with cancer. The results of this analysis can be accessed through the MOKCa database (http://strubiol.icr.ac.uk/extra/MOKCa).

  11. Structure-Functional Prediction and Analysis of Cancer Mutation Effects in Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Anshuman; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2014-01-01

    A central goal of cancer research is to discover and characterize the functional effects of mutated genes that contribute to tumorigenesis. In this study, we provide a detailed structural classification and analysis of functional dynamics for members of protein kinase families that are known to harbor cancer mutations. We also present a systematic computational analysis that combines sequence and structure-based prediction models to characterize the effect of cancer mutations in protein kinases. We focus on the differential effects of activating point mutations that increase protein kinase activity and kinase-inactivating mutations that decrease activity. Mapping of cancer mutations onto the conformational mobility profiles of known crystal structures demonstrated that activating mutations could reduce a steric barrier for the movement from the basal “low” activity state to the “active” state. According to our analysis, the mechanism of activating mutations reflects a combined effect of partial destabilization of the kinase in its inactive state and a concomitant stabilization of its active-like form, which is likely to drive tumorigenesis at some level. Ultimately, the analysis of the evolutionary and structural features of the major cancer-causing mutational hotspot in kinases can also aid in the correlation of kinase mutation effects with clinical outcomes. PMID:24817905

  12. Structure-functional prediction and analysis of cancer mutation effects in protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Anshuman; Verkhivker, Gennady M

    2014-01-01

    A central goal of cancer research is to discover and characterize the functional effects of mutated genes that contribute to tumorigenesis. In this study, we provide a detailed structural classification and analysis of functional dynamics for members of protein kinase families that are known to harbor cancer mutations. We also present a systematic computational analysis that combines sequence and structure-based prediction models to characterize the effect of cancer mutations in protein kinases. We focus on the differential effects of activating point mutations that increase protein kinase activity and kinase-inactivating mutations that decrease activity. Mapping of cancer mutations onto the conformational mobility profiles of known crystal structures demonstrated that activating mutations could reduce a steric barrier for the movement from the basal "low" activity state to the "active" state. According to our analysis, the mechanism of activating mutations reflects a combined effect of partial destabilization of the kinase in its inactive state and a concomitant stabilization of its active-like form, which is likely to drive tumorigenesis at some level. Ultimately, the analysis of the evolutionary and structural features of the major cancer-causing mutational hotspot in kinases can also aid in the correlation of kinase mutation effects with clinical outcomes.

  13. Analysis of TSC1 mutation spectrum in mucosal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meng; Dai, Jie; Xu, Tianxiao; Yu, Sifan; Yu, Huan; Tang, Huan; Yan, Junya; Wu, Xiaowen; Yu, Jiayi; Chi, Zhihong; Si, Lu; Cui, Chuanliang; Sheng, Xinan; Kong, Yan; Guo, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Mucosal melanoma is a relatively rare subtype of melanoma for which no clearly established therapeutic strategy exists. The genes of the mTOR signalling pathway have drawn great attention as key targets for cancer treatment, including melanoma. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mutation status of the upstream mTOR regulator TSC1 and evaluated its correlation with the clinicopathological features of mucosal melanoma. We collected 91 mucosal melanoma samples for detecting TSC1 mutations. All the coding exons of TSC1 were amplified by PCR and subjected to Sanger sequencing. Expression level of TSC1 encoding protein (hamartin) was detected by immunohistochemistry. The activation of mTOR pathway was determined by evaluating the phosphorylation status of S6RP and 4E-BP1. The overall mutation frequency of TSC1 was found to be 17.6% (16/91 patients). TSC1 mutations were more inclined to occur in advanced mucosal melanoma (stages III and IV). In the 16 patients with TSC1 mutations, 14 different mutations were detected, affecting 11 different exons. TSC1 mutations were correlated with upregulation of S6RP phosphorylation but were unrelated to 4E-BP1 phosphorylation or hamartin expression. Mucosal melanoma patients with TSC1 mutations had a worse outcome than patients without TSC1 mutations (24.0 versus 34.0 months, P = 0.007). Our findings suggest that TSC1 mutations are frequent in mucosal melanoma. TSC1 mutations can activate the mTOR pathway through phospho-S6RP and might be a poor prognostic predictor of mucosal melanoma. Our data implicate the potential significance of TSC1 mutations for effective and specific drug therapy for mucosal melanoma.

  14. Mutational Analysis of Cell Types in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    disorder resulting from mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes that is associated with epilepsy, cognitive disability, and autism . TSC1/TSC2 gene mutations...cognitive disability, and autism . TSC1/TSC2 gene mutations lead to developmental alterations in brain structure known as tubers in over 80% of TSC...TSC (Sparagana and Roach, 2000). Comorbid neuropsychological disorders such as autism , mental retardation (MR), pervasive developmental disorder

  15. Structure-guided development of selective TbcatB inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mallari, Jeremy P.; Shelat, Anang A.; Kosinski, Aaron; Caffrey, Conor R.; Connelly, Michele; Zhu, Fangyi; McKerrow, James H.; Guy, R. Kiplin

    2009-01-01

    The trypanosomal cathepsin TbcatB is essential for parasite survival and is an attractive therapeutic target. Herein we report the structure-guided development of TbcatB inhibitors with specificity relative to rhodesain and human cathepsins B and L. Inhibitors were tested for enzymatic activity, trypanocidal activity, and general cytotoxicity. These data chemically validate TbcatB as a drug target, and demonstrate that it is possible to potently and selectively inhibit TbcatB relative to trypanosomal and human homologues. PMID:19769357

  16. Differential analysis between somatic mutation and germline variation profiles reveals cancer-related genes.

    PubMed

    Przytycki, Pawel F; Singh, Mona

    2017-08-25

    A major aim of cancer genomics is to pinpoint which somatically mutated genes are involved in tumor initiation and progression. We introduce a new framework for uncovering cancer genes, differential mutation analysis, which compares the mutational profiles of genes across cancer genomes with their natural germline variation across healthy individuals. We present DiffMut, a fast and simple approach for differential mutational analysis, and demonstrate that it is more effective in discovering cancer genes than considerably more sophisticated approaches. We conclude that germline variation across healthy human genomes provides a powerful means for characterizing somatic mutation frequency and identifying cancer driver genes. DiffMut is available at https://github.com/Singh-Lab/Differential-Mutation-Analysis .

  17. The application of a linear algebra to the analysis of mutation rates.

    PubMed

    Jones, M E; Thomas, S M; Clarke, K

    1999-07-07

    Cells and bacteria growing in culture are subject to mutation, and as this mutation is the ultimate substrate for selection and evolution, the factors controlling the mutation rate are of some interest. The mutational event is not observed directly, but is inferred from the phenotype of the original mutant or of its descendants; the rate of mutation is inferred from the number of such mutant phenotypes. Such inference presumes a knowledge of the probability distribution for the size of a clone arising from a single mutation. We develop a mathematical formulation that assists in the design and analysis of experiments which investigate mutation rates and mutant clone size distribution, and we use it to analyse data for which the classical Luria-Delbrück clone-size distribution must be rejected. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  18. [Mutation Analysis of 19 STR Loci in 20 723 Cases of Paternity Testing].

    PubMed

    Bi, J; Chang, J J; Li, M X; Yu, C Y

    2017-06-01

    To observe and analyze the confirmed cases of paternity testing, and to explore the mutation rules of STR loci. The mutant STR loci were screened from 20 723 confirmed cases of paternity testing by Goldeneye 20A system.The mutation rates, and the sources, fragment length, steps and increased or decreased repeat sequences of mutant alleles were counted for the analysis of the characteristics of mutation-related factors. A total of 548 mutations were found on 19 STR loci, and 557 mutation events were observed. The loci mutation rate was 0.07‰-2.23‰. The ratio of paternal to maternal mutant events was 3.06:1. One step mutation was the main mutation, and the number of the increased repeat sequences was almost the same as the decreased repeat sequences. The repeat sequences were more likely to decrease in two steps mutation and above. Mutation mainly occurred in the medium allele, and the number of the increased repeat sequences was almost the same as the decreased repeat sequences. In long allele mutations, the decreased repeat sequences were significantly more than the increased repeat sequences. The number of the increased repeat sequences was almost the same as the decreased repeat sequences in paternal mutation, while the decreased repeat sequences were more than the increased in maternal mutation. There are significant differences in the mutation rate of each locus. When one or two loci do not conform to the genetic law, other detection system should be added, and PI value should be calculated combined with the information of the mutate STR loci in order to further clarify the identification opinions. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  19. Mutation-profile-based methods for understanding selection forces in cancer somatic mutations: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhan; Zou, Yangyun; Liu, Gangbiao; Zhou, Jingqi; Wu, Jingcheng; Zhao, Shimin; Su, Zhixi; Gu, Xun

    2017-08-29

    Human genes exhibit different effects on fitness in cancer and normal cells. Here, we present an evolutionary approach to measure the selection pressure on human genes, using the well-known ratio of the nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rate in both cancer genomes ( C N / C S ) and normal populations ( p N / p S ). A new mutation-profile-based method that adopts sample-specific mutation rate profiles instead of conventional substitution models was developed. We found that cancer-specific selection pressure is quite different from the selection pressure at the species and population levels. Both the relaxation of purifying selection on passenger mutations and the positive selection of driver mutations may contribute to the increased C N / C S values of human genes in cancer genomes compared with the p N / p S values in human populations. The C N / C S values also contribute to the improved classification of cancer genes and a better understanding of the onco-functionalization of cancer genes during oncogenesis. The use of our computational pipeline to identify cancer-specific positively and negatively selected genes may provide useful information for understanding the evolution of cancers and identifying possible targets for therapeutic intervention.

  20. Determining mutation density using Restriction Enzyme Sequence Comparative Analysis (RESCAN)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The average mutation density of a mutant population is a major consideration when developing resources for the efficient, cost-effective implementation of reverse genetics methods such as Targeting of Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING). Reliable estimates of mutation density can be achieved ...

  1. Tuning and Switching Enantioselectivity of Asymmetric Carboligation in an Enzyme through Mutational Analysis of a Single Hot Spot.

    PubMed

    Wechsler, Cindy; Meyer, Danilo; Loschonsky, Sabrina; Funk, Lisa-Marie; Neumann, Piotr; Ficner, Ralf; Brodhun, Florian; Müller, Michael; Tittmann, Kai

    2015-12-01

    Enantioselective bond making and breaking is a hallmark of enzyme action, yet switching the enantioselectivity of the reaction is a difficult undertaking, and typically requires extensive screening of mutant libraries and multiple mutations. Here, we demonstrate that mutational diversification of a single catalytic hot spot in the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase gives access to both enantiomers of acyloins acetoin and phenylacetylcarbinol, important pharmaceutical precursors, in the case of acetoin even starting from the unselective wild-type protein. Protein crystallography was used to rationalize these findings and to propose a mechanistic model of how enantioselectivity is controlled. In a broader context, our studies highlight the efficiency of mechanism-inspired and structure-guided rational protein design for enhancing and switching enantioselectivity of enzymatic reactions, by systematically exploring the biocatalytic potential of a single hot spot. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Beta thalassemia in 31,734 cases with HBB gene mutations: Pathogenic and structural analysis of the common mutations; Iran as the crossroads of the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Mahdieh, Nejat; Rabbani, Bahareh

    2016-11-01

    Thalassemia is one of the most common single gene disorders worldwide. Nearly 80 to 90 million with minor beta thalassemia and 60-70 thousand affected infants are born annually worldwide. A comprehensive search on several databases including PubMed, InterScience, British Library Direct, and Science Direct was performed extracting papers about mutation detection and frequency of beta thalassemia. All papers reporting on the mutation frequency of beta thalassemia patients were selected to analyze the frequency of mutations in different regions and various ethnicities. Mutations of 31,734 individuals were identified. Twenty common mutations were selected for further analysis. Genotype-phenotype correlation, interactome, and in silico analyses of the mutations were performed using available bioinformatics tools. Secondary structure prediction was achieved for two common mutations with online tools. The mutations were also common among the countries neighboring Iran, which are responsible for 71% to 98% of mutations. Computational analyses could be used in addition to segregation and expression analysis to assess the extent of pathogenicity of the variant. The genetics of beta thalassemia in Iran is more extensively heterogeneous than in neighboring countries. Some common mutations have arisen historically from Iran and moved to other populations due to population migrations. Also, due to genetic drift, the frequencies of some mutations have increased in small populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clonal evolution in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: analysis of correlations with IGHV mutational status, NOTCH1 mutations and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    López, Cristina; Delgado, Julio; Costa, Dolors; Villamor, Neus; Navarro, Alba; Cazorla, Maite; Gómez, Cándida; Arias, Amparo; Muñoz, Concha; Cabezas, Sandra; Baumann, Tycho; Rozman, María; Aymerich, Marta; Colomer, Dolors; Pereira, Arturo; Cobo, Francesc; López-Guillermo, Armando; Campo, Elías; Carrió, Ana

    2013-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder characterized with highly variable clinical course. The most common chromosomal abnormalities in CLL, using conventional and molecular cytogenetics, are trisomy 12, del(13)(q14), del(11)(q22-23), del(17)(p13), and del(6)(q21). Whereas the prognostic marker such as IGHV mutational status remains stable during course of the diseases, chromosomal aberrations may be acquired over time. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, and biological significance of clonal evolution (CE) using conventional and molecular cytogenetics and its relationship with prognostic markers such as CD38, ZAP70, and the mutational status of IGHV and NOTCH1. One hundred and forty-three untreated CLL patients were included in the study. The median time interval between analyses was 32 months (range 6-156 months). Forty-seven patients (33%) had CE as evidenced by detection of new cytogenetic abnormalities during follow-up. CE was not correlated with high expression of ZAP70, unmutated IGHV genes or NOTCH1 mutations. Multivariate analysis revealed that CE and IGHV mutation status had a significant impact on TFS. The combination of conventional and molecular cytogenetics increased the detection of CE, this phenomenon probably being a reflection of genomic instability and conferring a more aggressive clinical course. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Chlorella virus DNA ligase: nick recognition and mutational analysis.

    PubMed

    Sriskanda, V; Shuman, S

    1998-01-15

    Chlorella virus PBCV-1 DNA ligase seals nicked DNA substrates consisting of a 5'-phosphate-terminated strand and a 3'-hydroxyl-terminated strand annealed to a bridging DNA template strand. The enzyme discriminates at the DNA binding step between substrates containing a 5'-phosphate versus a 5'-hydroxyl at the nick. Mutational analysis of the active site motif KxDGxR (residues 27-32) illuminates essential roles for the conserved Lys, Asp and Arg moieties at different steps of the ligase reaction. Mutant K27A is unable to form the covalent ligase-(Lys-straightepsilonN-P)-adenylate intermediate and hence cannot activate a nicked DNA substrate via formation of the DNA-adenylate intermediate. Nonetheless, K27A catalyzes phosphodiester bond formation at a pre-adenylated nick. This shows that the active site lysine is not required for the strand closure reaction. K27A binds to nicked DNA-adenylate, but not to a standard DNA nick. This suggests that occupancy of the AMP binding pocket of DNA ligase is important for nick recognition. Mutant D29A is active in enzyme-adenylate formation and binds readily to nicked DNA, but is inert in DNA-adenylate formation. R32A is unable to catalyze any of the three reactions of the ligation pathway and does not bind to nicked DNA.

  5. DHPLC-based mutation analysis of ENG and ALK-1 genes in HHT Italian population.

    PubMed

    Lenato, Gennaro M; Lastella, Patrizia; Di Giacomo, Marilena C; Resta, Nicoletta; Suppressa, Patrizia; Pasculli, Giovanna; Sabbà, Carlo; Guanti, Ginevra

    2006-02-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT or Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by localized angiodysplasia due to mutations in endoglin, ALK-1 gene, and a still unidentified locus. The lack of highly recurrent mutations, locus heterogeneity, and the presence of mutations in almost all coding exons of the two genes makes the screening for mutations time-consuming and costly. In the present study, we developed a DHPLC-based protocol for mutation detection in ALK1 and ENG genes through retrospective analysis of known sequence variants, 20 causative mutations and 11 polymorphisms, and a prospective analysis on 47 probands with unknown mutation. Overall DHPLC analysis identified the causative mutation in 61 out 66 DNA samples (92.4%). We found 31 different mutations in the ALK1 gene, of which 15 are novel, and 20, of which 12 are novel, in the ENG gene, thus providing for the first time the mutational spectrum in a cohort of Italian HHT patients. In addition, we characterized the splicing pattern of ALK1 gene in lymphoblastoid cells, both in normal controls and in two individuals carrying a mutation in the non-invariant -3 position of the acceptor splice site upstream exon 6 (c.626-3C>G). Functional essay demonstrated the existence, also in normal individuals, of a small proportion of ALK1 alternative splicing, due to exon 5 skipping, and the presence of further aberrant splicing isoforms in the individuals carrying the c.626-3C>G mutation. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Multi-center analysis of glucocerebrosidase mutations in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Sidransky, Ellen; Nalls, Michael A.; Aasly, Jan O.; Aharon-Peretz, Judith; Annesi, Grazia; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Bar-Shira, Anat; Berg, Daniela; Bras, Jose; Brice, Alexis; Chen, Chiung-Mei; Clark, Lorraine N.; Condroyer, Christel; De Marco, Elvira Valeria; Dürr, Alexandra; Eblan, Michael J.; Fahn, Stanley; Farrer, Matthew; Fung, Hon-Chung; Gan-Or, Ziv; Gasser, Thomas; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Giladi, Nir; Griffith, Alida; Gurevich, Tanya; Januario, Cristina; Kropp, Peter; Lang, Anthony E.; Lee-Chen, Guey-Jen; Lesage, Suzanne; Marder, Karen; Mata, Ignacio F.; Mirelman, Anat; Mitsui, Jun; Mizuta, Ikuko; Nicoletti, Giuseppe; Oliveira, Catarina; Ottman, Ruth; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Pereira, Lygia V.; Quattrone, Aldo; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Rolfs, Arndt; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Rozenberg, Roberto; Samii, Ali; Samaddar, Ted; Schulte, Claudia; Sharma, Manu; Singleton, Andrew; Spitz, Mariana; Tan, Eng-King; Tayebi, Nahid; Toda, Tatsushi; Troiano, André; Tsuji, Shoji; Wittstock, Matthias; Wolfsberg, Tyra G.; Wu, Yih-Ru; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Zhao, Yi; Ziegler, Shira G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies indicate an increased frequency of mutations in the gene for Gaucher disease, glucocerebrosidase (GBA), among patients with Parkinson disease. An international collaborative study was conducted to ascertain the frequency of GBA mutations in ethnically diverse patients with Parkinson disease. Methods Sixteen centers participated, including five from the Americas, six from Europe, two from Israel and three from Asia. Each received a standard DNA panel to compare genotyping results. Genotypes and phenotypic data from patients and controls were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models and the Mantel Haenszel procedure to estimate odds ratios (ORs) across studies. The sample included 5691 patients (780 Ashkenazi Jews) and 4898 controls (387 Ashkenazi Jews). Results All 16 centers could detect GBA mutations, L444P and N370S, and the two were found in 15.3% of Ashkenazi patients with Parkinson disease (ORs = 4.95 for L444P and 5.62 for N370S), and in 3.2% of non-Ashkenazi patients (ORs = 9.68 for L444P and 3.30 for N370S). GBA was sequenced in 1642 non-Ashkenazi subjects, yielding a frequency of 6.9% for all mutations, demonstrate that limited mutation screens miss half the mutant alleles. The presence of any GBA mutation was associated with an OR of 5.43 across studies. Clinically, although phenotypes varied, subjects with a GBA mutation presented earlier, and were more likely to have affected relatives and atypical manifestations. Conclusion Data collected from sixteen centers demonstrate that there is a strong association between GBA mutations and Parkinson disease. PMID:19846850

  7. Software and database for the analysis of mutations in the human FBN1 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Collod, G; Béroud, C; Soussi, T; Junien, C; Boileau, C

    1996-01-01

    Fibrillin is the major component of extracellular microfibrils. Mutations in the fibrillin gene on chromosome 15 (FBN1) were described at first in the heritable connective tissue disorder, Marfan syndrome (MFS). More recently, FBN1 has also been shown to harbor mutations related to a spectrum of conditions phenotypically related to MFS and many mutations will have to be accumulated before genotype/phenotype relationships emerge. To facilitate mutational analysis of the FBN1 gene, a software package along with a computerized database (currently listing 63 entries) have been created. PMID:8594563

  8. Systematic Analysis of Splice-Site-Creating Mutations in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Reyka G; Cao, Song; Gao, Qingsong; Wendl, Michael C; Vo, Nam Sy; Reynolds, Sheila M; Zhao, Yanyan; Climente-González, Héctor; Chai, Shengjie; Wang, Fang; Varghese, Rajees; Huang, Mo; Liang, Wen-Wei; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A; Sengupta, Sohini; Li, Zhi; Payne, Samuel H; Fenyö, David; Miner, Jeffrey H; Walter, Matthew J; Vincent, Benjamin; Eyras, Eduardo; Chen, Ken; Shmulevich, Ilya; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2018-04-03

    For the past decade, cancer genomic studies have focused on mutations leading to splice-site disruption, overlooking those having splice-creating potential. Here, we applied a bioinformatic tool, MiSplice, for the large-scale discovery of splice-site-creating mutations (SCMs) across 8,656 TCGA tumors. We report 1,964 originally mis-annotated mutations having clear evidence of creating alternative splice junctions. TP53 and GATA3 have 26 and 18 SCMs, respectively, and ATRX has 5 from lower-grade gliomas. Mutations in 11 genes, including PARP1, BRCA1, and BAP1, were experimentally validated for splice-site-creating function. Notably, we found that neoantigens induced by SCMs are likely several folds more immunogenic compared to missense mutations, exemplified by the recurrent GATA3 SCM. Further, high expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 was observed in tumors with SCMs, suggesting candidates for immune blockade therapy. Our work highlights the importance of integrating DNA and RNA data for understanding the functional and the clinical implications of mutations in human diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mutation analysis of the Smad3 gene in human osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun-Yan; Wang, Yan; An, Jing; Mao, Chun-Ming; Hou, Ning; Lv, Ya-Xin; Wang, You-Liang; Cui, Fang; Huang, Min; Yang, Xiao

    2003-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease worldwide. Recent studies have shown that targeted disruption of Smad3 in mouse results in OA. To reveal the possible association between the Smad3 gene mutation and human OA, we employed polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing to screen mutations in all nine exons of the Smad3 gene in 32 patients with knee OA and 50 patients with only bone fracture. A missense mutation of the Smad3 gene was found in one patient. The single base mutation located in the linker region of the SMAD3 protein was A --> T change in the position 2 of codon 197 and resulted in an asparagine to isoleucine amino-acid substitution. The expressions of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 in sera of the patient carrying the mutation were higher than other OA patients and controls. This is the first report showing that the Smad3 gene mutations could be associated with the pathogenesis of human OA.

  10. Systematic Analysis of Splice-Site-Creating Mutations in Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jayasinghe, Reyka G.; Cao, Song; Gao, Qingsong

    For the past decade, cancer genomic studies have focused on mutations leading to splice-site disruption, overlooking those having splice-creating potential. Here, we applied a bioinformatic tool, MiSplice, for the large-scale discovery of splice-site-creating mutations (SCMs) across 8,656 TCGA tumors. We report 1,964 originally mis-annotated mutations having clear evidence of creating alternative splice junctions. TP53 and GATA3 have 26 and 18 SCMs, respectively, and ATRX has 5 from lower-grade gliomas. Mutations in 11 genes, including PARP1, BRCA1, and BAP1, were experimentally validated for splice-site-creating function. Notably, we found that neoantigens induced by SCMs are likely several folds more immunogenic compared tomore » missense mutations, exemplified by the recurrent GATA3 SCM. Further, high expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 was observed in tumors with SCMs, suggesting candidates for immune blockade therapy. Finally, our work highlights the importance of integrating DNA and RNA data for understanding the functional and the clinical implications of mutations in human diseases.« less

  11. Systematic Analysis of Splice-Site-Creating Mutations in Cancer

    DOE PAGES

    Jayasinghe, Reyka G.; Cao, Song; Gao, Qingsong; ...

    2018-04-05

    For the past decade, cancer genomic studies have focused on mutations leading to splice-site disruption, overlooking those having splice-creating potential. Here, we applied a bioinformatic tool, MiSplice, for the large-scale discovery of splice-site-creating mutations (SCMs) across 8,656 TCGA tumors. We report 1,964 originally mis-annotated mutations having clear evidence of creating alternative splice junctions. TP53 and GATA3 have 26 and 18 SCMs, respectively, and ATRX has 5 from lower-grade gliomas. Mutations in 11 genes, including PARP1, BRCA1, and BAP1, were experimentally validated for splice-site-creating function. Notably, we found that neoantigens induced by SCMs are likely several folds more immunogenic compared tomore » missense mutations, exemplified by the recurrent GATA3 SCM. Further, high expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 was observed in tumors with SCMs, suggesting candidates for immune blockade therapy. Finally, our work highlights the importance of integrating DNA and RNA data for understanding the functional and the clinical implications of mutations in human diseases.« less

  12. Structure-guided Discovery of Dual-recognition Chemibodies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Alan C; Doherty, Elizabeth M; Johnstone, Sheree; DiMauro, Erin F; Dao, Jennifer; Luthra, Abhinav; Ye, Jay; Tang, Jie; Nixey, Thomas; Min, Xiaoshan; Tagari, Philip; Miranda, Les P; Wang, Zhulun

    2018-05-15

    Small molecules and antibodies each have advantages and limitations as therapeutics. Here, we present for the first time to our knowledge, the structure-guided design of "chemibodies" as small molecule-antibody hybrids that offer dual recognition of a single target by both a small molecule and an antibody, using DPP-IV enzyme as a proof of concept study. Biochemical characterization demonstrates that the chemibodies present superior DPP-IV inhibition compared to either small molecule or antibody component alone. We validated our design by successfully solving a co-crystal structure of a chemibody in complex with DPP-IV, confirming specific binding of the small molecule portion at the interior catalytic site and the Fab portion at the protein surface. The discovery of chemibodies presents considerable potential for novel therapeutics that harness the power of both small molecule and antibody modalities to achieve superior specificity, potency, and pharmacokinetic properties.

  13. Mutational Analysis of Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein: Identification of Mutations That Affect RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Mena, Ignacio; Jambrina, Enrique; Albo, Carmen; Perales, Beatriz; Ortín, Juan; Arrese, Marta; Vallejo, Dolores; Portela, Agustín

    1999-01-01

    The influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) is a multifunctional polypeptide which plays a pivotal role in virus replication. To get information on the domains and specific residues involved in the different NP activities, we describe here the preparation and characterization of 20 influenza A virus mutant NPs. The mutations, mostly single-amino-acid substitutions, were introduced in a cDNA copy of the A/Victoria/3/75 NP gene and, in most cases, affected residues located in regions that were highly conserved across the NPs of influenza A, B, and C viruses. The mutant NPs were characterized (i) in vivo (cell culture) by analyzing their intracellular localization and their functionality in replication, transcription, and expression of model RNA templates; and (ii) in vitro by analyzing their RNA-binding and sedimentation properties. The results obtained allowed us to identify both a mutant protein that accumulated in the cytoplasm and mutations that altered the functionality and/or the oligomerization state of the NP polypeptide. Among the mutations that reduced the NP capability to express chloramphenicol acetyltransferase protein from a model viral RNA (vRNA) template, some displayed a temperature-sensitive phenotype. Interestingly, four mutant NPs, which showed a reduced functionality in synthesizing cRNA molecules from a vRNA template, were fully competent to reconstitute complementary ribonucleoproteins (cRNPs) capable of synthesizing vRNAs, which in turn yielded mRNA molecules. Based on the phenotype of these mutants and on previously published observations, it is proposed that these mutant NPs have a reduced capability to interact with the polymerase complex and that this NP-polymerase interaction is responsible for making vRNPs switch from mRNA to cRNA synthesis. PMID:9882320

  14. Digital PCR Improves Mutation Analysis in Pancreas Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy Specimens.

    PubMed

    Sho, Shonan; Court, Colin M; Kim, Stephen; Braxton, David R; Hou, Shuang; Muthusamy, V Raman; Watson, Rabindra R; Sedarat, Alireza; Tseng, Hsian-Rong; Tomlinson, James S

    2017-01-01

    Applications of precision oncology strategies rely on accurate tumor genotyping from clinically available specimens. Fine needle aspirations (FNA) are frequently obtained in cancer management and often represent the only source of tumor tissues for patients with metastatic or locally advanced diseases. However, FNAs obtained from pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are often limited in cellularity and/or tumor cell purity, precluding accurate tumor genotyping in many cases. Digital PCR (dPCR) is a technology with exceptional sensitivity and low DNA template requirement, characteristics that are necessary for analyzing PDAC FNA samples. In the current study, we sought to evaluate dPCR as a mutation analysis tool for pancreas FNA specimens. To this end, we analyzed alterations in the KRAS gene in pancreas FNAs using dPCR. The sensitivity of dPCR mutation analysis was first determined using serial dilution cell spiking studies. Single-cell laser-microdissection (LMD) was then utilized to identify the minimal number of tumor cells needed for mutation detection. Lastly, dPCR mutation analysis was performed on 44 pancreas FNAs (34 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and 10 fresh (non-fixed)), including samples highly limited in cellularity (100 cells) and tumor cell purity (1%). We found dPCR to detect mutations with allele frequencies as low as 0.17%. Additionally, a single tumor cell could be detected within an abundance of normal cells. Using clinical FNA samples, dPCR mutation analysis was successful in all preoperative FNA biopsies tested, and its accuracy was confirmed via comparison with resected tumor specimens. Moreover, dPCR revealed additional KRAS mutations representing minor subclones within a tumor that were not detected by the current clinical gold standard method of Sanger sequencing. In conclusion, dPCR performs sensitive and accurate mutation analysis in pancreas FNAs, detecting not only the dominant mutation subtype, but also the additional rare

  15. Digital PCR Improves Mutation Analysis in Pancreas Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Court, Colin M.; Kim, Stephen; Braxton, David R.; Hou, Shuang; Muthusamy, V. Raman; Watson, Rabindra R.; Sedarat, Alireza; Tseng, Hsian-Rong; Tomlinson, James S.

    2017-01-01

    Applications of precision oncology strategies rely on accurate tumor genotyping from clinically available specimens. Fine needle aspirations (FNA) are frequently obtained in cancer management and often represent the only source of tumor tissues for patients with metastatic or locally advanced diseases. However, FNAs obtained from pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are often limited in cellularity and/or tumor cell purity, precluding accurate tumor genotyping in many cases. Digital PCR (dPCR) is a technology with exceptional sensitivity and low DNA template requirement, characteristics that are necessary for analyzing PDAC FNA samples. In the current study, we sought to evaluate dPCR as a mutation analysis tool for pancreas FNA specimens. To this end, we analyzed alterations in the KRAS gene in pancreas FNAs using dPCR. The sensitivity of dPCR mutation analysis was first determined using serial dilution cell spiking studies. Single-cell laser-microdissection (LMD) was then utilized to identify the minimal number of tumor cells needed for mutation detection. Lastly, dPCR mutation analysis was performed on 44 pancreas FNAs (34 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and 10 fresh (non-fixed)), including samples highly limited in cellularity (100 cells) and tumor cell purity (1%). We found dPCR to detect mutations with allele frequencies as low as 0.17%. Additionally, a single tumor cell could be detected within an abundance of normal cells. Using clinical FNA samples, dPCR mutation analysis was successful in all preoperative FNA biopsies tested, and its accuracy was confirmed via comparison with resected tumor specimens. Moreover, dPCR revealed additional KRAS mutations representing minor subclones within a tumor that were not detected by the current clinical gold standard method of Sanger sequencing. In conclusion, dPCR performs sensitive and accurate mutation analysis in pancreas FNAs, detecting not only the dominant mutation subtype, but also the additional rare

  16. Mutation analysis of the APC gene in Taiwanese FAP families: low incidence of APC germline mutation in a distinct subgroup of FAP families.

    PubMed

    Chiang, J M; Chen, H W; Tang, R P; Chen, J S; Changchien, C R; Hsieh, P S; Wang, J Y

    2010-06-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal-dominant disease caused by germline mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. The affected individuals develop colorectal polyposis and show various extra-colonic manifestations. In this study, we aimed to investigate the genetic and clinical characteristics of FAP in Taiwanese families and analyze the genotype-phenotype correlations. Blood samples were obtained from 66 FAP patients registered in the hereditary colorectal cancer database. Then, germline mutations in the APC genes of these 66 polyposis patients from 47 unrelated FAP families were analyzed. The germline-mutation-negative cases were analyzed by performing multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the MUTYH gene. Among the analyzed families, 79% (37/47) of the families showed 28 APC mutations, including 19 frameshift mutations, 4 nonsense mutations, 3 genomic deletion mutations, 1 missense mutation, and 1 splice-site mutation. In addition, we identified 15 novel mutations in 32% (15/47) of the families. The cases in which APC mutations were not identified showed significantly lower incidence of profuse polyposis (P = 0.034) and gastroduodenal polyps (P = 0.027). Furthermore, FAP families in which some affected individuals had less than 100 polyps showed significant association with low incidence of APC germline mutations (P = 0.002). We have added the APC germline-mutation data for Taiwanese FAP patients and indicated the presence of an FAP subgroup comprising affected individuals with nonadenomatous polyps or less than 100 adenomatous polyps; this form of FAP is less frequently caused by germline mutations of the APC gene.

  17. Systematic analysis of mutation distribution in three dimensional protein structures identifies cancer driver genes.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Akihiro; Okada, Yukinori; Boroevich, Keith A; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Hidewaki

    2016-05-26

    Protein tertiary structure determines molecular function, interaction, and stability of the protein, therefore distribution of mutation in the tertiary structure can facilitate the identification of new driver genes in cancer. To analyze mutation distribution in protein tertiary structures, we applied a novel three dimensional permutation test to the mutation positions. We analyzed somatic mutation datasets of 21 types of cancers obtained from exome sequencing conducted by the TCGA project. Of the 3,622 genes that had ≥3 mutations in the regions with tertiary structure data, 106 genes showed significant skew in mutation distribution. Known tumor suppressors and oncogenes were significantly enriched in these identified cancer gene sets. Physical distances between mutations in known oncogenes were significantly smaller than those of tumor suppressors. Twenty-three genes were detected in multiple cancers. Candidate genes with significant skew of the 3D mutation distribution included kinases (MAPK1, EPHA5, ERBB3, and ERBB4), an apoptosis related gene (APP), an RNA splicing factor (SF1), a miRNA processing factor (DICER1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase (CUL1) and transcription factors (KLF5 and EEF1B2). Our study suggests that systematic analysis of mutation distribution in the tertiary protein structure can help identify cancer driver genes.

  18. Systematic analysis of mutation distribution in three dimensional protein structures identifies cancer driver genes

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Akihiro; Okada, Yukinori; Boroevich, Keith A.; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Hidewaki

    2016-01-01

    Protein tertiary structure determines molecular function, interaction, and stability of the protein, therefore distribution of mutation in the tertiary structure can facilitate the identification of new driver genes in cancer. To analyze mutation distribution in protein tertiary structures, we applied a novel three dimensional permutation test to the mutation positions. We analyzed somatic mutation datasets of 21 types of cancers obtained from exome sequencing conducted by the TCGA project. Of the 3,622 genes that had ≥3 mutations in the regions with tertiary structure data, 106 genes showed significant skew in mutation distribution. Known tumor suppressors and oncogenes were significantly enriched in these identified cancer gene sets. Physical distances between mutations in known oncogenes were significantly smaller than those of tumor suppressors. Twenty-three genes were detected in multiple cancers. Candidate genes with significant skew of the 3D mutation distribution included kinases (MAPK1, EPHA5, ERBB3, and ERBB4), an apoptosis related gene (APP), an RNA splicing factor (SF1), a miRNA processing factor (DICER1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase (CUL1) and transcription factors (KLF5 and EEF1B2). Our study suggests that systematic analysis of mutation distribution in the tertiary protein structure can help identify cancer driver genes. PMID:27225414

  19. A meta-analysis of prognostic value of KIT mutation status in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jian; Li, Zhi; Liu, Yingjun; Wang, Daohai; Han, Guangsen

    2016-01-01

    Numerous types of KIT mutations have been reported in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs); however, controversy still exists regarding their clinicopathological significance. In this study, we reviewed the publicly available literature to assess the data by a meta-analysis to characterize KIT mutations and different types of KIT mutations in prognostic prediction in patients with GISTs. Twenty-eight studies that included 4,449 patients were identified and analyzed. We found that KIT mutation status was closely correlated with size of tumors and different mitosis indexes, but not with tumor location. KIT mutation was also observed to be significantly correlated with tumor recurrence, metastasis, as well as the overall survival of patients. Interestingly, there was higher risk of progression in KIT exon 9-mutated patients than in exon 11-mutated patients. Five-year relapse-free survival (RFS) rate was significantly higher in KIT exon 11-deleted patients than in those with other types of KIT exon 11 mutations. In addition, RFS for 5 years was significantly worse in patients bearing KIT codon 557–558 deletions than in those bearing other KIT exon 11 deletions. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that KIT mutation status is another evaluable factor for prognosis prediction in GISTs. PMID:27350754

  20. Analysis of gene mutations in Chinese patients with maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Han, Lianshu; Gu, Xuefan; Ye, Jun; Qiu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Huiwen; Gong, Zhuwen; Zhang, Yafen

    2012-08-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is predominantly caused by mutations in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes, which encode for the E1α, E1β and E2 subunits of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, respectively. The aim of this study was to screen DNA samples from 16 Chinese MSUD patients and assess a potential correlation between genotype and phenotype. BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. Segments bearing novel mutations were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Within the variant alleles, 28 mutations (28/32, 87.5%), were detected in 15 patients, while one patient displayed no mutations. Mutations were comprised of 20 different: 6 BCKDHA gene mutations in 4 cases, 10 BCKDHB gene mutations in 8 cases and 4 DBT gene mutations in 3 cases. From these, 14 were novel, which included 3 mutations in the BCKDHA gene, 7 in the BCKDHB gene and 4 in the DBT gene. Only two patients with mutations in the BCKDHB and DBT genes were thiamine-responsive and presented a better clinical outcome. We identified 20 different mutations within the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes among 16 Chinese MSUD patients, including 14 novel mutations. The majority were non-responsive to thiamine, associating with a worse clinical outcome. Our data provide the basis for further genotype-phenotype correlation studies in these patients, which will be beneficial for early diagnosis and in directing the approach to clinical intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Haplotype analysis of the 185delAG BRCA1 mutation in ethnically diverse populations

    PubMed Central

    Laitman, Yael; Feng, Bing-Jian; Zamir, Itay M; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Duncan, Paul; Port, Danielle; Thirthagiri, Eswary; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Evans, Gareth; Latif, Ayse; Newman, William G; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Zidan, Jamal; Shimon-Paluch, Shani; Goldgar, David; Friedman, Eitan

    2013-01-01

    The 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation is encountered primarily in Jewish Ashkenazi and Iraqi individuals, and sporadically in non-Jews. Previous studies estimated that this is a founder mutation in Jewish mutation carriers that arose before the dispersion of Jews in the Diaspora ∼2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to assess the haplotype in ethnically diverse 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation carriers, and to estimate the age at which the mutation arose. Ethnically diverse Jewish and non-Jewish 185delAG*BRCA1 mutation carriers and their relatives were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers and three SNPs spanning 12.5 MB, encompassing the BRCA1 gene locus. Estimation of mutation age was based on a subset of 11 markers spanning a region of ∼5 MB, using a previously developed algorithm applying the maximum likelihood method. Overall, 188 participants (154 carriers and 34 noncarriers) from 115 families were included: Ashkenazi, Iraq, Kuchin-Indians, Syria, Turkey, Iran, Tunisia, Bulgaria, non-Jewish English, non-Jewish Malaysian, and Hispanics. Haplotype analysis indicated that the 185delAG mutation arose 750–1500 years ago. In Ashkenazim, it is a founder mutation that arose 61 generations ago, and with a small group of founder mutations was introduced into the Hispanic population (conversos) ∼650 years ago, and into the Iraqi–Jewish community ∼450 years ago. The 185delAG mutation in the non-Jewish populations in Malaysia and the UK arose at least twice independently. We conclude that the 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation resides on a common haplotype among Ashkenazi Jews, and arose about 61 generations ago and arose independently at least twice in non-Jews. PMID:22763381

  2. Shifted termination assay (STA) fragment analysis to detect BRAF V600 mutations in papillary thyroid carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background BRAF mutation is an important diagnostic and prognostic marker in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). To be applicable in clinical laboratories with limited equipment, diverse testing methods are required to detect BRAF mutation. Methods A shifted termination assay (STA) fragment analysis was used to detect common V600 BRAF mutations in 159 PTCs with DNAs extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue. The results of STA fragment analysis were compared to those of direct sequencing. Serial dilutions of BRAF mutant cell line (SNU-790) were used to calculate limit of detection (LOD). Results BRAF mutations were detected in 119 (74.8%) PTCs by STA fragment analysis. In direct sequencing, BRAF mutations were observed in 118 (74.2%) cases. The results of STA fragment analysis had high correlation with those of direct sequencing (p < 0.00001, κ = 0.98). The LOD of STA fragment analysis and direct sequencing was 6% and 12.5%, respectively. In PTCs with pT3/T4 stages, BRAF mutation was observed in 83.8% of cases. In pT1/T2 carcinomas, BRAF mutation was detected in 65.9% and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.007). Moreover, BRAF mutation was more frequent in PTCs with extrathyroidal invasion than tumors without extrathyroidal invasion (84.7% versus 62.2%, p = 0.001). To prepare and run the reactions, direct sequencing required 450 minutes while STA fragment analysis needed 290 minutes. Conclusions STA fragment analysis is a simple and sensitive method to detect BRAF V600 mutations in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded clinical samples. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5684057089135749 PMID:23883275

  3. [Analysis of gene mutation in a Chinese family with Norrie disease].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-xiao; Zhao, Xiu-li; Hua, Rui; Zhang, Jin-song; Zhang, Xue

    2012-09-01

    To detect the pathogenic mutation in a Chinese family with Norrie disease. Clinical diagnosis was based on familial history, clinical sign and B ultrasonic examination. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from all available members in a Chinese family with Norrie disease. Genomic DNA was extracted from lymphocytes by the standard SDS-proteinase K-phenol/chloroform method. Two coding exons and all intron-exon boundaries of the NDP gene were PCR amplified using three pairs of primers and subjected to automatic DNA sequence. The causative mutation was confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis and genotyping analysis in all members. Sequence analysis of NDP gene revealed a missense mutation c.220C > T (p.Arg74Cys) in the proband and his mother. Further mutation identification by restriction enzyme analysis and genotyping analysis showed that the proband was homozygote of this mutation. His mother and other four unaffected members (III3, IV4, III5 and II2) were carriers of this mutation. The mutant amino acid located in the C-terminal cystine knot-like domain, which was critical motif for the structure and function of NDP. A NDP missense mutation was identified in a Chinese family with Norrie disease.

  4. Mutational Analysis of Cell Types in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    from mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes that is associated with epilepsy, cognitive disability, and autism . TSC1/TSC2 gene mutations lead to...gene inactivation and leads to activation of the mTOR cascade as evidenced by phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 protein (P-S6). We demonstrate that...phosphorylation of the ribosomal S6 protein (phospho-S6 or P-S6), a marker for enhanced mTOR signaling. We find P-S6 expression in cortex as well as

  5. Expression analysis revealing destabilizing mutations in phosphomannomutase 2 deficiency (PMM2-CDG): expression analysis of PMM2-CDG mutations.

    PubMed

    Vega, Ana Isabel; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia; Abia, David; Gámez, Alejandra; Briones, Paz; Artuch, Rafael; Desviat, Lourdes R; Ugarte, Magdalena; Pérez, Belén

    2011-08-01

    Deficiency of phosphomannomutase (PMM2, MIM#601785) is the most common congenital disorder of glycosylation. Herein we report the genetic analysis of 22 Spanish PMM2 deficient patients and the functional analysis of 14 nucleotide changes in a prokaryotic expression system in order to elucidate their molecular pathogenesis. PMM2 activity assay revealed the presence of six protein changes with no enzymatic activities (p.R123Q, p.R141H, p.F157S, p.P184T, p.F207S and p.D209G) and seven mild protein changes with residual activities ranging from 16 to 54% (p.L32R, p.V44A p.D65Y, p.P113L p.T118S, p.T237M and p.C241S) and also one variant change with normal activity (p.E197A). The results obtained from Western blot analysis, degradation time courses of 11 protein changes and structural analysis of the PMM2 protein, suggest that the loss-of-function of most mutant proteins is based on their increased susceptibility to degradation or aggregation compared to the wild type protein, considering PMM2 deficiency as a conformational disease. We have identified exclusively catalytic protein change (p.D209G), catalytic protein changes affecting protein stability (p.R123Q and p.R141H), two protein changes disrupting the dimer interface (p.P113L and p.T118S) and several misfolding changes (p.L32R, p.V44A, p.D65Y, p.F157S, p.P184T, p.F207S, p.T237M and p.C241S). Our current work opens a promising therapeutic option using pharmacological chaperones to revert the effect of the characterized misfolding mutations identified in a wide range of PMM2 deficient patients.

  6. Detection of somatic mutations by high-resolution DNA melting (HRM) analysis in multiple cancers.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Bosquet, Jesus; Calcei, Jacob; Wei, Jun S; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Sherman, Mark E; Hewitt, Stephen; Vockley, Joseph; Lissowska, Jolanta; Yang, Hannah P; Khan, Javed; Chanock, Stephen

    2011-01-17

    Identification of somatic mutations in cancer is a major goal for understanding and monitoring the events related to cancer initiation and progression. High resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis represents a fast, post-PCR high-throughput method for scanning somatic sequence alterations in target genes. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of HRM analysis for tumor mutation screening in a range of tumor samples, which included 216 frozen pediatric small rounded blue-cell tumors as well as 180 paraffin-embedded tumors from breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers (60 of each). HRM analysis was performed in exons of the following candidate genes known to harbor established commonly observed mutations: PIK3CA, ERBB2, KRAS, TP53, EGFR, BRAF, GATA3, and FGFR3. Bi-directional sequencing analysis was used to determine the accuracy of the HRM analysis. For the 39 mutations observed in frozen samples, the sensitivity and specificity of HRM analysis were 97% and 87%, respectively. There were 67 mutation/variants in the paraffin-embedded samples, and the sensitivity and specificity for the HRM analysis were 88% and 80%, respectively. Paraffin-embedded samples require higher quantity of purified DNA for high performance. In summary, HRM analysis is a promising moderate-throughput screening test for mutations among known candidate genomic regions. Although the overall accuracy appears to be better in frozen specimens, somatic alterations were detected in DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded samples.

  7. Detection of Somatic Mutations by High-Resolution DNA Melting (HRM) Analysis in Multiple Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Bosquet, Jesus; Calcei, Jacob; Wei, Jun S.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Sherman, Mark E.; Hewitt, Stephen; Vockley, Joseph; Lissowska, Jolanta; Yang, Hannah P.; Khan, Javed; Chanock, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Identification of somatic mutations in cancer is a major goal for understanding and monitoring the events related to cancer initiation and progression. High resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis represents a fast, post-PCR high-throughput method for scanning somatic sequence alterations in target genes. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of HRM analysis for tumor mutation screening in a range of tumor samples, which included 216 frozen pediatric small rounded blue-cell tumors as well as 180 paraffin-embedded tumors from breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers (60 of each). HRM analysis was performed in exons of the following candidate genes known to harbor established commonly observed mutations: PIK3CA, ERBB2, KRAS, TP53, EGFR, BRAF, GATA3, and FGFR3. Bi-directional sequencing analysis was used to determine the accuracy of the HRM analysis. For the 39 mutations observed in frozen samples, the sensitivity and specificity of HRM analysis were 97% and 87%, respectively. There were 67 mutation/variants in the paraffin-embedded samples, and the sensitivity and specificity for the HRM analysis were 88% and 80%, respectively. Paraffin-embedded samples require higher quantity of purified DNA for high performance. In summary, HRM analysis is a promising moderate-throughput screening test for mutations among known candidate genomic regions. Although the overall accuracy appears to be better in frozen specimens, somatic alterations were detected in DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded samples. PMID:21264207

  8. Mutational analysis in patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD): Identification of five mutations in the PKD1 gene.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahed, Mayssa; Hilbert, Pascale; Ahmed, Asma; Mahfoudh, Hichem; Bouomrani, Salem; Dey, Mouna; Hachicha, Jamil; Kamoun, Hassen; Keskes-Ammar, Leila; Belguith, Neïla

    2018-05-31

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD), the most frequent genetic disorder of the kidneys, is characterized by a typical presenting symptoms include cysts development in different organs and a non-cysts manifestations. ADPKD is caused by mutations in PKD1 or PKD2 genes. In this study, we aimed to search for molecular causative defects among PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Eighteen patients were diagnosed based on renal ultrasonography and renal/extra-renal manifestations. Then, Sanger sequencing was performed for PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Multiplex Ligation dependent Probe Amplification method (MLPA) methods was performed for both PKD genes. Mutational analysis of the PKD2 gene revealed the absence of variants and no deletions or duplications of both PKD genes were detected. But three novels mutations i.e. p.S463C exon 7; c. c.11156+2T>C IVS38 and c.8161-1G>A IVS22 and two previously reported c.1522T>C exon 7 and c.412C>T exon 4 mutations in the PKD1 gene were detected. Bioinformatics tools predicted that the novel variants have a pathogenic effects on splicing machinery, pre-mRNA secondary structure and stability and protein stability. Our results highlighted molecular features of Tunisian patients with ADPKD and revealed novel variations that can be utilized in clinical diagnosis and in the evaluation of living kidney donor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Autosomal Polycystic Kidney Disease in Tunisia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Analysis of the mutations inducedd by conazole fungicides in vivo

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mouse liver tumorigenic conazo1e fungicides triadimefon and propiconazo1e have previously been shown to be in vivo mouse liver mutagens in the Big Blue" transgenic mutation assay when administered in feed at tumorigenic doses, whereas the nontumorigenic conazo1e myc1obutani1 ...

  10. DETECTION OF K-RAS AND P53 MUTATIONS IN SPUTUM SAMPLES OF LUNG CANCER PATIENTS USING LASER CAPTURE MICRODISSECTION MICROSCOPE AND MUTATION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of K-ras and p53 Mutations in Sputum Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Using Laser Capture Microdissection Microscope and Mutation Analysis

    Phouthone Keohavong a,*, Wei-Min Gao a, Kui-Cheng Zheng a, Hussam Mady b, Qing Lan c, Mona Melhem b, and Judy Mumford d.
    <...

  11. Identification and Functional Analysis of ZIC3 Mutations in Heterotaxy and Related Congenital Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Stephanie M.; Peng, Jianlan; Zhu, Lirong; Fernbach, Susan; Colicos, Suzanne; Casey, Brett; Towbin, Jeffrey; Belmont, John W.

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in the zinc finger transcription factor ZIC3 cause X-linked heterotaxy and have also been identified in patients with isolated congenital heart disease (CHD). To determine the relative contribution of ZIC3 mutations to both heterotaxy and isolated CHD, we screened the coding region of ZIC3 in 194 unrelated patients, including 61 patients with classic heterotaxy, 93 patients with heart defects characteristic of heterotaxy, and 11 patients with situs inversus totalis. Five novel ZIC3 mutations in three classic heterotaxy kindreds and two sporadic CHD cases were identified. None of these alleles was found in 97 ethnically matched control samples. On the basis of these analyses, we conclude that the phenotypic spectrum of ZIC3 mutations should be expanded to include affected females and CHD not typical for heterotaxy. This screening of a cohort of patients with sporadic heterotaxy indicates that ZIC3 mutations account for ∼1% of affected individuals. Missense and nonsense mutations were found in the highly conserved zinc finger–binding domain and in the N-terminal protein domain. Functional analysis of all currently known ZIC3 point mutations indicates that mutations in the putative zinc finger DNA binding domain and in the N-terminal domain result in loss of reporter gene transactivation. It is surprising that transfection studies demonstrate aberrant cytoplasmic localization resulting from mutations between amino acids 253–323 of the ZIC3 protein, indicating that the pathogenesis of a subset of ZIC3 mutations results at least in part from failure of appropriate nuclear localization. These results further expand the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of ZIC3 mutations and provide initial mechanistic insight into their functional consequences. PMID:14681828

  12. Functional analysis of 'a' determinant mutations associated with occult HBV in HIV-positive South Africans.

    PubMed

    Powell, Eleanor A; Boyce, Ceejay L; Gededzha, Maemu P; Selabe, Selokela G; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Blackard, Jason T

    2016-07-01

    Occult hepatitis B is defined by the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Occult HBV is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, reactivation during immune suppression, and virus transmission. Viral mutations contribute significantly to the occult HBV phenotype. Mutations in the 'a' determinant of HBsAg are of particular interest, as these mutations are associated with immune escape, vaccine escape and diagnostic failure. We examined the effects of selected occult HBV-associated mutations identified in a population of HIV-positive South Africans on HBsAg production in vitro. Mutations were inserted into two different chronic HBV backbones and transfected into a hepatocyte-derived cell line. HBsAg levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the detectability of mutant HBsAg was determined using an HA-tagged HBsAg expression system. Of the seven mutations analysed, four (S132P, C138Y, N146D and C147Y) resulted in decreased HBsAg expression in one viral background but not in the second viral background. One mutation (N146D) led to a decrease in HBsAg detected as compared to HA-tag, indicating that this mutation compromises the ability of the ELISA to detect HBsAg. The contribution of occult-associated mutations to the HBsAg-negative phenotype of occult HBV cannot be determined adequately by testing the effect of the mutation in a single viral background, and rigorous analysis of these mutations is required.

  13. PTT analysis of polyps from FAP patients reveals a great majority of APC truncating mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Luijt, R.B. van der; Khan, P.M.; Tops, C.M.J.

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Germline APC mutations are associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an autosomal dominantly inherited predisposition to colorectal cancer, characterized by the development of numerous adenomatous polyps in the large intestine. In order to investigate whether somatic inactivation of the remaining APC allele is necessary for adenoma formation, we collected multiple adenomatous polyps from individual FAP patients and investigated the presence of somatic mutations in the APC gene. The analysis of somatic APC mutations in these tumor samples was performed using a rapid and sensitive assay, called themore » protein truncation test (PTT). Chain-terminating somatic APC mutations were detected in the great majority of the tumor samples investigated. As expected, these mutations were mainly located in the mutation cluster region (MCR) in exon 15. Our results confirm that somatic mutation of the second APC allele is required for adenoma formation in FAP. Interestingly, in the polyps investigated in our study, the second APC allele is somatically inactivated through point mutation leading to a stop codon rather than by loss of heterozygosity. The observation that somatic second hits in APC are required for tumor development in FAP is in apparent accordance with the Knudson hypothesis for classical tumor suppressor genes. However, it is yet unknown whether chain-terminating APC mutations lead to a truncated protein exerting a dominant-negative effect or whether these mutations result in a null allele. Further investigation of this important issue will hopefully provide a better understanding of the mechanism of action of the mutated APC alleles in colorectal carcinogenesis.« less

  14. Core Needle Lung Biopsy Specimens: Adequacy for EGFR and KRAS Mutational Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zakowski, Maureen F.; Pao, William; Thornton, Raymond H.; Ladanyi, Marc; Kris, Mark G.; Rusch, Valerie W.; Rizvi, Naiyer A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare the adequacy of core needle biopsy specimens with the adequacy of specimens from resected tissue, the histologic reference standard, for mutational analysis of malignant tumors of the lung. SUBJECTS AND METHODS The first 18 patients enrolled in a phase 2 study of gefitinib for lung cancer in July 2004 through August 2005 underwent CT- or fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy before the start of gefitinib therapy. Three weeks after gefitinib therapy, the patients underwent lung tumor resection. The results of EGFR and KRAS mutational analysis of the core needle biopsy specimens were compared with those of EGFR and KRAS mutational analysis of the surgical specimens. RESULTS Two specimens were unsatisfactory for mutational analysis. The results of mutational assay results of the other 16 specimens were the same as those of analysis of the surgical specimens obtained an average of 31 days after biopsy. CONCLUSION Biopsy with small (18- to 20-gauge) core needles can yield sufficient and reliable samples for mutational analysis. This technique is likely to become an important tool with the increasing use of pharmacotherapy based on the genetics of specific tumors in individual patients. PMID:20028932

  15. Cancerouspdomains: comprehensive analysis of cancer type-specific recurrent somatic mutations in proteins and domains.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seirana; Nowzari Dalini, Abbas; Jalali, Adrin; Banaei-Moghaddam, Ali Mohammad; Razaghi-Moghadam, Zahra

    2017-08-16

    Discriminating driver mutations from the ones that play no role in cancer is a severe bottleneck in elucidating molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development. Since protein domains are representatives of functional regions within proteins, mutations on them may disturb the protein functionality. Therefore, studying mutations at domain level may point researchers to more accurate assessment of the functional impact of the mutations. This article presents a comprehensive study to map mutations from 29 cancer types to both sequence- and structure-based domains. Statistical analysis was performed to identify candidate domains in which mutations occur with high statistical significance. For each cancer type, the corresponding type-specific domains were distinguished among all candidate domains. Subsequently, cancer type-specific domains facilitated the identification of specific proteins for each cancer type. Besides, performing interactome analysis on specific proteins of each cancer type showed high levels of interconnectivity among them, which implies their functional relationship. To evaluate the role of mitochondrial genes, stem cell-specific genes and DNA repair genes in cancer development, their mutation frequency was determined via further analysis. This study has provided researchers with a publicly available data repository for studying both CATH and Pfam domain regions on protein-coding genes. Moreover, the associations between different groups of genes/domains and various cancer types have been clarified. The work is available at http://www.cancerouspdomains.ir .

  16. A comprehensive functional analysis of PTEN mutations: implications in tumor- and autism-related syndromes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Escudero, Isabel; Oliver, María D; Andrés-Pons, Amparo; Molina, María; Cid, Víctor J; Pulido, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    The PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) phosphatase is unique in mammals in terms of its tumor suppressor activity, exerted by dephosphorylation of the lipid second messenger PIP(3) (phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate), which activates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) oncogenic pathway. Loss-of-function mutations in the PTEN gene are frequent in human cancer and in the germline of patients with PTEN hamartoma tumor-related syndromes (PHTSs). In addition, PTEN is mutated in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), although no functional information on these mutations is available. Here, we report a comprehensive in vivo functional analysis of human PTEN using a heterologous yeast reconstitution system. Ala-scanning mutagenesis at the catalytic loops of PTEN outlined the critical role of residues within the P-catalytic loop for PIP(3) phosphatase activity in vivo. PTEN mutations that mimic the P-catalytic loop of mammalian PTEN-like proteins (TPTE, TPIP, tensins and auxilins) affected PTEN function variably, whereas tumor- or PHTS-associated mutations targeting the PTEN P-loop produced complete loss of function. Conversely, Ala-substitutions, as well as tumor-related mutations at the WPD- and TI-catalytic loops, displayed partial activity in many cases. Interestingly, a tumor-related D92N mutation was partially active, supporting the notion that the PTEN Asp92 residue might not function as the catalytic general acid. The analysis of a panel of ASD-associated hereditary PTEN mutations revealed that most of them did not substantially abrogate PTEN activity in vivo, whereas most of PHTS-associated mutations did. Our findings reveal distinctive functional patterns among PTEN mutations found in tumors and in the germline of PHTS and ASD patients, which could be relevant for therapy.

  17. Computational analysis of histidine mutations on the structural stability of human tyrosinases leading to albinism insurgence.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mubashir; Abbas, Qamar; Raza, Hussain; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2017-07-25

    Misfolding and structural alteration in proteins lead to serious malfunctions and cause various diseases in humans. Mutations at the active binding site in tyrosinase impair structural stability and cause lethal albinism by abolishing copper binding. To evaluate the histidine mutational effect, all mutated structures were built using homology modelling. The protein sequence was retrieved from the UniProt database, and 3D models of original and mutated human tyrosinase sequences were predicted by changing the residual positions within the target sequence separately. Structural and mutational analyses were performed to interpret the significance of mutated residues (N 180 , R 202 , Q 202 , R 211 , Y 363 , R 367 , Y 367 and D 390 ) at the active binding site of tyrosinases. CSpritz analysis depicted that 23.25% residues actively participate in the instability of tyrosinase. The accuracy of predicted models was confirmed through online servers ProSA-web, ERRAT score and VERIFY 3D values. The theoretical pI and GRAVY generated results also showed the accuracy of the predicted models. The CCA negative correlation results depicted that the replacement of mutated residues at His within the active binding site disturbs the structural stability of tyrosinases. The predicted CCA scores of Tyr 367 (-0.079) and Q/R 202 (0.032) revealed that both mutations have more potential to disturb the structural stability. MD simulation analyses of all predicted models justified that Gln 202 , Arg 202 , Tyr 367 and D 390 replacement made the protein structures more susceptible to destabilization. Mutational results showed that the replacement of His with Q/R 202 and Y/R 363 has a lethal effect and may cause melanin associated diseases such as OCA1. Taken together, our computational analysis depicts that the mutated residues such as Q/R 202 and Y/R 363 actively participate in instability and misfolding of tyrosinases, which may govern OCA1 through disturbing the melanin biosynthetic pathway.

  18. [Gene mutation analysis and prenatal diagnosis of a family with Bartter syndrome].

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Ma, Na; Li, Xiu-Rong; Gong, Fei; DU, Juan

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the mutation of related genes and prenatal diagnosis of a family with Bartter syndrome (BS). The high-throughput capture sequencing technique and PCR-Sanger sequencing were used to detect pathogenic genes in the proband of this family and analyze the whole family at the genomic level. After the genetic cause was clarified, the amniotic fluid was collected from the proband's mother who was pregnant for 5 months for prenatal diagnosis. The proband carried compound heterozygous mutations of c.88C>T(p.Arg30*) and c.968+2T>A in the CLCNKB gene; c.88C>T(p.Arg30*) had been reported as a pathogenic mutation, and c.968+2T>A was a new mutation. Pedigree analysis showed that the two mutations were inherited from the mother and father, respectively. Prenatal diagnosis showed that the fetus did not inherit the mutations from parents and had no mutations at the two loci. The follow-up visit confirmed that the infant was in a healthy state, which proved the accuracy of genetic diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis. The compound heterozygous mutations c.88C>T(p.Arg30*) and c.968+2T>A in the CLCNKB gene are the cause of BS in the proband, and prenatal diagnosis can prevent the risk of recurrence of BS in this family.

  19. Mutation analysis of the STRA6 gene in isolated and non-isolated anophthalmia/microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Chassaing, N; Ragge, N; Kariminejad, A; Buffet, A; Ghaderi-Sohi, S; Martinovic, J; Calvas, P

    2013-03-01

    PDAC syndrome [Pulmonary hypoplasia/agenesis, Diaphragmatic hernia/eventration, Anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M) and Cardiac Defect] is a condition associated with recessive mutations in the STRA6 gene in some of these patients. Recently, cases with isolated anophthalmia have been associated with STRA6 mutations. To determine the minimal findings associated with STRA6 mutations, we performed mutation analysis of the STRA6 gene in 28 cases with anophthalmia. In 7 of the cases the anophthalmia was isolated, in 14 cases it was associated with one of the major features included in PDAC and 7 had other abnormalities. Mutations were identified in two individuals: one with bilateral anophthalmia and some features included in PDAC, who was a compound heterozygote for a missense mutation and a large intragenic deletion, and the second case with all the major features of PDAC and who had a homozygous splicing mutation. This study suggests that STRA6 mutations are more likely to be identified in individuals with A/M and other abnormalities included in the PDAC spectrum, rather than in isolated A/M cases. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. [Mutation analysis for a pedigree affected with keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome].

    PubMed

    Li, Lulu; Li, Yuan; Lin, Wei; Zhao, Xiuli

    2017-10-10

    To identify mutation of GJB2 gene and provide genetic counseling for a family affected with keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples with a standard phenol-chloroform method. PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to analyze potential mutation in the proband. Suspected mutation was verified with a PCR-high-resolution melting (PCR-HRM) method. T-clone sequencing was applied to determine the parental origin of the mutation. A heterozygous mutation, c.148G>A (p.Asp50Asn), which is located in the exon 1 of the GJB2 gene, was found in the proband. The results was confirmed by HRM analysis. Cloning sequencing suggested that the mutation was derived from the father's germline. The hot-spot mutation c.148G>A (p.Asp50Asn) in the GJB2 gene probably underlies the KID syndrome in this Chinese family. A PCR-HRM method has been established to rapidly detect common mutations associated with this disease.

  1. Tracing Primordial Protein Evolution through Structurally Guided Stepwise Segment Elongation*

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hideki; Yamasaki, Kazuhiko; Honda, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of how primordial proteins emerged has been a fundamental and longstanding issue in biology and biochemistry. For a better understanding of primordial protein evolution, we synthesized an artificial protein on the basis of an evolutionary hypothesis, segment-based elongation starting from an autonomously foldable short peptide. A 10-residue protein, chignolin, the smallest foldable polypeptide ever reported, was used as a structural support to facilitate higher structural organization and gain-of-function in the development of an artificial protein. Repetitive cycles of segment elongation and subsequent phage display selection successfully produced a 25-residue protein, termed AF.2A1, with nanomolar affinity against the Fc region of immunoglobulin G. AF.2A1 shows exquisite molecular recognition ability such that it can distinguish conformational differences of the same molecule. The structure determined by NMR measurements demonstrated that AF.2A1 forms a globular protein-like conformation with the chignolin-derived β-hairpin and a tryptophan-mediated hydrophobic core. Using sequence analysis and a mutation study, we discovered that the structural organization and gain-of-function emerged from the vicinity of the chignolin segment, revealing that the structural support served as the core in both structural and functional development. Here, we propose an evolutionary model for primordial proteins in which a foldable segment serves as the evolving core to facilitate structural and functional evolution. This study provides insights into primordial protein evolution and also presents a novel methodology for designing small sized proteins useful for industrial and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:24356963

  2. Clinical evaluation and mutational analysis of GALK and GALE genes in patients with galactosemia in Greece: one novel mutation and two rare cases.

    PubMed

    Schulpis, Kleopatra H; Thodi, Georgia; Iakovou, Konstantinos; Chatzidaki, Maria; Dotsikas, Yannis; Molou, Elina; Triantafylli, Olga; Loukas, Yannis L

    2017-07-26

    Deficiencies of galactokinase (GALK) and UDP-epimerase (GALE) are implicated with galactose metabolic disorders. The aim of the study was the identification of mutations in GALK and GALE genes and clinical evaluation of patients. Five patients with GALK and five with GALE deficiency were picked up via the Neonatal Screening Program. Additionally, two females, 4 years old, were referred with late diagnosed galactosemia, as rare cases. Mutational analysis was conducted via Sanger sequencing, while in silico analysis tools were utilized for the novel mutation. Psychomotor and speech development tests were performed, as well. The mutation p.Pro28Thr was identified in both alleles in GALK-deficient patients of Roma (gypsy) origin, whereas the novel p.Asn39Ser was detected in two non-Roma patients. In GALE-deficient patients benign and/or likely benign mutations were found. Psychomotor and speech delay were determined in the Roma GALK patients. In each of the late diagnosed females, four mutations were identified in all galactosemia-related genes. The mutational spectrums of GALE- and GALK-deficient patients in Greece are presented for the first time along with a clinical evaluation. Mutational analysis in all galactosemia-related genes of symptomatic patients is highly recommended for future cases.

  3. Mutational analysis of PI3K/AKT and RAS/RAF pathway activation in malignant salivary gland tumours with a new mutation of PIK3CA.

    PubMed

    Shalmon, B; Drendel, M; Wolf, M; Hirshberg, A; Cohen, Y

    2016-06-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PIK3)/v-akt murine thymoma (AKT) oncogene pathway and the RAS/RAF pathway are involved in regulating the signalling of multiple biological processes, including apoptosis, metabolism, cell proliferation, and cell growth. Mutations in the genes within these pathways are frequently found in several tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of mutations in the PIK3CA, BRAF, and KRAS genes in cases of malignant salivary gland tumours. Mutational analysis of the PIK3CA, KRAS, and BRAF genes was performed by direct sequencing of material from 21 patients with malignant salivary gland tumours who underwent surgery between 1992 and 2001. No mutations were found in the KRAS exon 2, BRAF exon 15, or PIK3CA exon 9 genes. However, an unpublished mutation of the PIK3CA gene in exon 20 (W1051 stop mutation) was found in one case of adenocarcinoma NOS. The impact of this mutation on the biological behaviour of the tumour has yet to be explored, however the patient with adenocarcinoma NOS harbouring this mutation has survived for over 20 years following surgery despite a high stage at presentation. Further studies with more homogeneous patient cohorts are needed to address whether this mutation reflects a different clinical presentation and may benefit from targeted treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of mutational spectra by denaturant capillary electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Ekstrøm, Per O.; Khrapko, Konstantin; Li-Sucholeiki, Xiao-Cheng; Hunter, Ian W.; Thilly, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Numbers and kinds of point mutant within DNA from cells, tissues and human population may be discovered for nearly any 75–250bp DNA sequence. High fidelity DNA amplification incorporating a thermally stable DNA “clamp” is followed by separation by denaturing capillary electrophoresis (DCE). DCE allows for peak collection and verification sequencing. DCE in a mode of cycling temperature, e.g.+/− 5°C, CyDCE, permits high resolution of mutant sequences using computer defined analytes without preliminary optimization experiments. DNA sequencers have been modified to permit higher throughput CyDCE and a massively parallel,~25,000 capillary system, has been designed for pangenomic scans in large human populations. DCE has been used to define quantitative point mutational spectra for study a wide variety of genetic phenomena: errors of DNA polymerases, mutations induced in human cells by chemicals and irradiation, testing of human gene-common disease associations and the discovery of origins of point mutations in human development and carcinogenesis. PMID:18600220

  5. Molecular analysis of rice plant mutated after space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Z.; Li, C.; Wei, L.; Xu, D.; Gu, D.; Guan, S.; Zhao, H.; Xin, P.; Sun, Y.

    We have obtained several rice mutants planted from seeds flown on recoverable satellites. Some new traits, such as good yields, diseases resistances and higher nutrient values, have been identified, putatively as consequences of the space environment. Radiation inside the Chinese recoverable satellite was composed of low flux of high energy particles (>40 Mev/u). To study the mechanisms of plant mutations induced by the space environment, we used dry rice seeds as a model to identify the phenotype of mutations, and used the wealth of the rice genome to identify the mutated genes in the mutants. The research included collecting rice plant mutants in the seeds flown on the satellites, identifying the nature of genomic and proteomic alterations, modifications and identifying the functional changes of the specific genes. The study showed that the rice seeds are a good model for exploring biological effect of space environment since 1) it is easy fly the seeds without specific hardware and crew work, 2) it is easy to obtain pure mutant breed lines for cloning DNA sequence in order to compare with the sequence in the wild type, and 3) it is easy to quantitatively analyze genetics using advanced molecular techniques.

  6. CHEK2 mutation and risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Dai, Bo; Ye, Dingwei

    2015-01-01

    Background: CHEK2 encodes for a G2 checkpoint kinase which plays a critical role in DNA repair. Its mutation confers an increased risk of breast cancer. It has also been suggested to increase risks of prostate cancer, but its involvement with this type of cancer has not been confirmed. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association between CHEK2 1100delC, IVS2+1G>A, I157T mutation and risk of Prostate Cancer. A comprehensive, computerized literature search of PubMed until December 27, 2014 was carried out. Eligible studies were included according to specific inclusion criteria. Pooled hazard ratio was estimated using the fixed effects model or random effects model according to heterogeneity between studies. Results: Eight eligible studies were included in the analysis, all were retrospective studies. The overall meta-analysis demonstrated that the CHEK2 1100delC mutation (OR 3.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.85-5.85; P = 0.00) and I157T missense mutation (OR 1.80; 95% confidence interval: 1.51-2.14; P = 0.00) was associated with higher risk of Prostate Cancer, and CHEK2 1100delC mutation is irrelevant to familial aggregation phenomenon of prostate cancer (OR 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.79-3.20; P = 0.20). The IVS2+1G>A mutation is also irrelevant to Prostate Cancer (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 0.93-2.71, P = 0.09). None of the single studies materially altered the original results and no evidence of publication bias was found. Conclusion: CHEK2 1100delC mutation and I157T missense mutation in males indicates higher risk of Prostate Cancer, but there’s no evidence to prove the CHEK2 1100delC mutation was associated with Familial prostate cancer. PMID:26629066

  7. CHEK2 mutation and risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Dai, Bo; Ye, Dingwei

    2015-01-01

    CHEK2 encodes for a G2 checkpoint kinase which plays a critical role in DNA repair. Its mutation confers an increased risk of breast cancer. It has also been suggested to increase risks of prostate cancer, but its involvement with this type of cancer has not been confirmed. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association between CHEK2 1100delC, IVS2+1G>A, I157T mutation and risk of Prostate Cancer. A comprehensive, computerized literature search of PubMed until December 27, 2014 was carried out. Eligible studies were included according to specific inclusion criteria. Pooled hazard ratio was estimated using the fixed effects model or random effects model according to heterogeneity between studies. Eight eligible studies were included in the analysis, all were retrospective studies. The overall meta-analysis demonstrated that the CHEK2 1100delC mutation (OR 3.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.85-5.85; P = 0.00) and I157T missense mutation (OR 1.80; 95% confidence interval: 1.51-2.14; P = 0.00) was associated with higher risk of Prostate Cancer, and CHEK2 1100delC mutation is irrelevant to familial aggregation phenomenon of prostate cancer (OR 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.79-3.20; P = 0.20). The IVS2+1G>A mutation is also irrelevant to Prostate Cancer (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 0.93-2.71, P = 0.09). None of the single studies materially altered the original results and no evidence of publication bias was found. CHEK2 1100delC mutation and I157T missense mutation in males indicates higher risk of Prostate Cancer, but there's no evidence to prove the CHEK2 1100delC mutation was associated with Familial prostate cancer.

  8. The TREAT-NMD DMD Global Database: Analysis of More than 7,000 Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Bladen, Catherine L; Salgado, David; Monges, Soledad; Foncuberta, Maria E; Kekou, Kyriaki; Kosma, Konstantina; Dawkins, Hugh; Lamont, Leanne; Roy, Anna J; Chamova, Teodora; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Chan, Sophelia; Korngut, Lawrence; Campbell, Craig; Dai, Yi; Wang, Jen; Barišić, Nina; Brabec, Petr; Lahdetie, Jaana; Walter, Maggie C; Schreiber-Katz, Olivia; Karcagi, Veronika; Garami, Marta; Viswanathan, Venkatarman; Bayat, Farhad; Buccella, Filippo; Kimura, En; Koeks, Zaïda; van den Bergen, Janneke C; Rodrigues, Miriam; Roxburgh, Richard; Lusakowska, Anna; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Zimowski, Janusz; Santos, Rosário; Neagu, Elena; Artemieva, Svetlana; Rasic, Vedrana Milic; Vojinovic, Dina; Posada, Manuel; Bloetzer, Clemens; Jeannet, Pierre-Yves; Joncourt, Franziska; Díaz-Manera, Jordi; Gallardo, Eduard; Karaduman, A Ayşe; Topaloğlu, Haluk; El Sherif, Rasha; Stringer, Angela; Shatillo, Andriy V; Martin, Ann S; Peay, Holly L; Bellgard, Matthew I; Kirschner, Jan; Flanigan, Kevin M; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Kate; Verschuuren, Jan; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Béroud, Christophe; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the type and frequency of patient-specific mutations that give rise to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an invaluable tool for diagnostics, basic scientific research, trial planning, and improved clinical care. Locus-specific databases allow for the collection, organization, storage, and analysis of genetic variants of disease. Here, we describe the development and analysis of the TREAT-NMD DMD Global database (http://umd.be/TREAT_DMD/). We analyzed genetic data for 7,149 DMD mutations held within the database. A total of 5,682 large mutations were observed (80% of total mutations), of which 4,894 (86%) were deletions (1 exon or larger) and 784 (14%) were duplications (1 exon or larger). There were 1,445 small mutations (smaller than 1 exon, 20% of all mutations), of which 358 (25%) were small deletions and 132 (9%) small insertions and 199 (14%) affected the splice sites. Point mutations totalled 756 (52% of small mutations) with 726 (50%) nonsense mutations and 30 (2%) missense mutations. Finally, 22 (0.3%) mid-intronic mutations were observed. In addition, mutations were identified within the database that would potentially benefit from novel genetic therapies for DMD including stop codon read-through therapies (10% of total mutations) and exon skipping therapy (80% of deletions and 55% of total mutations). PMID:25604253

  9. Structural Analysis of Single-Point Mutations Given an RNA Sequence: A Case Study with RNAMute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churkin, Alexander; Barash, Danny

    2006-12-01

    We introduce here for the first time the RNAMute package, a pattern-recognition-based utility to perform mutational analysis and detect vulnerable spots within an RNA sequence that affect structure. Mutations in these spots may lead to a structural change that directly relates to a change in functionality. Previously, the concept was tried on RNA genetic control elements called "riboswitches" and other known RNA switches, without an organized utility that analyzes all single-point mutations and can be further expanded. The RNAMute package allows a comprehensive categorization, given an RNA sequence that has functional relevance, by exploring the patterns of all single-point mutants. For illustration, we apply the RNAMute package on an RNA transcript for which individual point mutations were shown experimentally to inactivate spectinomycin resistance in Escherichia coli. Functional analysis of mutations on this case study was performed experimentally by creating a library of point mutations using PCR and screening to locate those mutations. With the availability of RNAMute, preanalysis can be performed computationally before conducting an experiment.

  10. Mutation analysis of 272 Spanish families affected by autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa using a genotyping microarray.

    PubMed

    Ávila-Fernández, Almudena; Cantalapiedra, Diego; Aller, Elena; Vallespín, Elena; Aguirre-Lambán, Jana; Blanco-Kelly, Fiona; Corton, M; Riveiro-Álvarez, Rosa; Allikmets, Rando; Trujillo-Tiebas, María José; Millán, José M; Cremers, Frans P M; Ayuso, Carmen

    2010-12-03

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by progressive loss of vision. The aim of this study was to identify the causative mutations in 272 Spanish families using a genotyping microarray. 272 unrelated Spanish families, 107 with autosomal recessive RP (arRP) and 165 with sporadic RP (sRP), were studied using the APEX genotyping microarray. The families were also classified by clinical criteria: 86 juveniles and 186 typical RP families. Haplotype and sequence analysis were performed to identify the second mutated allele. At least one-gene variant was found in 14% and 16% of the juvenile and typical RP groups respectively. Further study identified four new mutations, providing both causative changes in 11% of the families. Retinol Dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12) was the most frequently mutated gene in the juvenile RP group, and Usher Syndrome 2A (USH2A) and Ceramide Kinase-Like (CERKL) were the most frequently mutated genes in the typical RP group. The only variant found in CERKL was p.Arg257Stop, the most frequent mutation. The genotyping microarray combined with segregation and sequence analysis allowed us to identify the causative mutations in 11% of the families. Due to the low number of characterized families, this approach should be used in tandem with other techniques.

  11. Mutation analysis of 13 driver genes of colorectal cancer-related pathways in Taiwanese patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuli Christine; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Liu, Ta-Chih; Lin, Chien-Yu; Yang, Shu-Fen; Ho, Cheng-Mao; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Chang, Ya-Sian

    2016-02-21

    To investigate the driver gene mutations associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) in the Taiwanese population. In this study, 103 patients with CRC were evaluated. The samples consisted of 66 men and 37 women with a median age of 59 years and an age range of 26-86 years. We used high-resolution melting analysis (HRM) and direct DNA sequencing to characterize the mutations in 13 driver genes of CRC-related pathways. The HRM assays were conducted using the LightCycler® 480 Instrument provided with the software LightCycler® 480 Gene Scanning Software Version 1.5. We also compared the clinicopathological data of CRC patients with the driver gene mutation status. Of the 103 patients evaluated, 73.79% had mutations in one of the 13 driver genes. We discovered 18 novel mutations in APC, MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, SMAD4 and TP53 that have not been previously reported. Additionally, we found 16 de novo mutations in APC, BMPR1A, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, MUTYH and PMS2 in cancerous tissues previously reported in the dbSNP database; however, these mutations could not be detected in peripheral blood cells. The APC mutation correlates with lymph node metastasis (34.69% vs 12.96%, P = 0.009) and cancer stage (34.78% vs 14.04%, P = 0.013). No association was observed between other driver gene mutations and clinicopathological features. Furthermore, having two or more driver gene mutations correlates with the degree of lymph node metastasis (42.86% vs 24.07%, P = 0.043). Our findings confirm the importance of 13 CRC-related pathway driver genes in the development of CRC in Taiwanese patients.

  12. Bioinformatic Analysis of Pathogenic Missense Mutations of Activin Receptor Like Kinase 1 Ectodomain

    PubMed Central

    Scotti, Claudia; Olivieri, Carla; Boeri, Laura; Canzonieri, Cecilia; Ornati, Federica; Buscarini, Elisabetta; Pagella, Fabio; Danesino, Cesare

    2011-01-01

    Activin A receptor, type II-like kinase 1 (also called ALK1), is a serine-threonine kinase predominantly expressed on endothelial cells surface. Mutations in its ACVRL1 encoding gene (12q11-14) cause type 2 Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT2), an autosomal dominant multisystem vascular dysplasia. The study of the structural effects of mutations is crucial to understand their pathogenic mechanism. However, while an X-ray structure of ALK1 intracellular domain has recently become available (PDB ID: 3MY0), structure determination of ALK1 ectodomain (ALK1EC) has been elusive so far. We here describe the building of a homology model for ALK1EC, followed by an extensive bioinformatic analysis, based on a set of 38 methods, of the effect of missense mutations at the sequence and structural level. ALK1EC potential interaction mode with its ligand BMP9 was then predicted combining modelling and docking data. The calculated model of the ALK1EC allowed mapping and a preliminary characterization of HHT2 associated mutations. Major structural changes and loss of stability of the protein were predicted for several mutations, while others were found to interfere mainly with binding to BMP9 or other interactors, like Endoglin (CD105), whose encoding ENG gene (9q34) mutations are known to cause type 1 HHT. This study gives a preliminary insight into the potential structure of ALK1EC and into the structural effects of HHT2 associated mutations, which can be useful to predict the potential effect of each single mutation, to devise new biological experiments and to interpret the biological significance of new mutations, private mutations, or non-synonymous polymorphisms. PMID:22028876

  13. Mutation analysis of 13 driver genes of colorectal cancer-related pathways in Taiwanese patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yuli Christine; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Liu, Ta-Chih; Lin, Chien-Yu; Yang, Shu-Fen; Ho, Cheng-Mao; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Chang, Ya-Sian

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the driver gene mutations associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) in the Taiwanese population. METHODS: In this study, 103 patients with CRC were evaluated. The samples consisted of 66 men and 37 women with a median age of 59 years and an age range of 26-86 years. We used high-resolution melting analysis (HRM) and direct DNA sequencing to characterize the mutations in 13 driver genes of CRC-related pathways. The HRM assays were conducted using the LightCycler® 480 Instrument provided with the software LightCycler® 480 Gene Scanning Software Version 1.5. We also compared the clinicopathological data of CRC patients with the driver gene mutation status. RESULTS: Of the 103 patients evaluated, 73.79% had mutations in one of the 13 driver genes. We discovered 18 novel mutations in APC, MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, SMAD4 and TP53 that have not been previously reported. Additionally, we found 16 de novo mutations in APC, BMPR1A, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, MUTYH and PMS2 in cancerous tissues previously reported in the dbSNP database; however, these mutations could not be detected in peripheral blood cells. The APC mutation correlates with lymph node metastasis (34.69% vs 12.96%, P = 0.009) and cancer stage (34.78% vs 14.04%, P = 0.013). No association was observed between other driver gene mutations and clinicopathological features. Furthermore, having two or more driver gene mutations correlates with the degree of lymph node metastasis (42.86% vs 24.07%, P = 0.043). CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm the importance of 13 CRC-related pathway driver genes in the development of CRC in Taiwanese patients. PMID:26900293

  14. Structure-Based Analysis Reveals Cancer Missense Mutations Target Protein Interaction Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Engin, H Billur; Kreisberg, Jason F; Carter, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that cancer mutations selectively target protein-protein interactions. We hypothesized that mutations affecting distinct protein interactions involving established cancer genes could contribute to tumor heterogeneity, and that novel mechanistic insights might be gained into tumorigenesis by investigating protein interactions under positive selection in cancer. To identify protein interactions under positive selection in cancer, we mapped over 1.2 million nonsynonymous somatic cancer mutations onto 4,896 experimentally determined protein structures and analyzed their spatial distribution. In total, 20% of mutations on the surface of known cancer genes perturbed protein-protein interactions (PPIs), and this enrichment for PPI interfaces was observed for both tumor suppressors (Odds Ratio 1.28, P-value < 10(-4)) and oncogenes (Odds Ratio 1.17, P-value < 10(-3)). To study this further, we constructed a bipartite network representing structurally resolved PPIs from all available human complexes in the Protein Data Bank (2,864 proteins, 3,072 PPIs). Analysis of frequently mutated cancer genes within this network revealed that tumor-suppressors, but not oncogenes, are significantly enriched with functional mutations in homo-oligomerization regions (Odds Ratio 3.68, P-Value < 10(-8)). We present two important examples, TP53 and beta-2-microglobulin, for which the patterns of somatic mutations at interfaces provide insights into specifically perturbed biological circuits. In patients with TP53 mutations, patient survival correlated with the specific interactions that were perturbed. Moreover, we investigated mutations at the interface of protein-nucleotide interactions and observed an unexpected number of missense mutations but not silent mutations occurring within DNA and RNA binding sites. Finally, we provide a resource of 3,072 PPI interfaces ranked according to their mutation rates. Analysis of this list highlights 282 novel candidate cancer

  15. Meta-analysis of neuroblastomas reveals a skewed ALK mutation spectrum in tumors with MYCN amplification.

    PubMed

    De Brouwer, Sara; De Preter, Katleen; Kumps, Candy; Zabrocki, Piotr; Porcu, Michaël; Westerhout, Ellen M; Lakeman, Arjan; Vandesompele, Jo; Hoebeeck, Jasmien; Van Maerken, Tom; De Paepe, Anne; Laureys, Geneviève; Schulte, Johannes H; Schramm, Alexander; Van Den Broecke, Caroline; Vermeulen, Joëlle; Van Roy, Nadine; Beiske, Klaus; Renard, Marleen; Noguera, Rosa; Delattre, Olivier; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Kogner, Per; Martinsson, Tommy; Nakagawara, Akira; Ohira, Miki; Caron, Huib; Eggert, Angelika; Cools, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Speleman, Frank

    2010-09-01

    Activating mutations of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) were recently described in neuroblastoma. We carried out a meta-analysis of 709 neuroblastoma tumors to determine their frequency and mutation spectrum in relation to genomic and clinical parameters, and studied the prognostic significance of ALK copy number and expression. The frequency and type of ALK mutations, copy number gain, and expression were analyzed in a new series of 254 neuroblastoma tumors. Data from 455 published cases were used for further in-depth analysis. ALK mutations were present in 6.9% of 709 investigated tumors, and mutations were found in similar frequencies in favorable [International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) 1, 2, and 4S; 5.7%] and unfavorable (INSS 3 and 4; 7.5%) neuroblastomas (P = 0.087). Two hotspot mutations, at positions R1275 and F1174, were observed (49% and 34.7% of the mutated cases, respectively). Interestingly, the F1174 mutations occurred in a high proportion of MYCN-amplified cases (P = 0.001), and this combined occurrence was associated with a particular poor outcome, suggesting a positive cooperative effect between both aberrations. Furthermore, the F1174L mutant was characterized by a higher degree of autophosphorylation and a more potent transforming capacity as compared with the R1275Q mutant. Chromosome 2p gains, including the ALK locus (91.8%), were associated with a significantly increased ALK expression, which was also correlated with poor survival. ALK mutations occur in equal frequencies across all genomic subtypes, but F1174L mutants are observed in a higher frequency of MYCN-amplified tumors and show increased transforming capacity as compared with the R1275Q mutants.

  16. Network Analysis of Protein Adaptation: Modeling the Functional Impact of Multiple Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Beleva Guthrie, Violeta; Masica, David L; Fraser, Andrew; Federico, Joseph; Fan, Yunfan; Camps, Manel; Karchin, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The evolution of new biochemical activities frequently involves complex dependencies between mutations and rapid evolutionary radiation. Mutation co-occurrence and covariation have previously been used to identify compensating mutations that are the result of physical contacts and preserve protein function and fold. Here, we model pairwise functional dependencies and higher order interactions that enable evolution of new protein functions. We use a network model to find complex dependencies between mutations resulting from evolutionary trade-offs and pleiotropic effects. We present a method to construct these networks and to identify functionally interacting mutations in both extant and reconstructed ancestral sequences (Network Analysis of Protein Adaptation). The time ordering of mutations can be incorporated into the networks through phylogenetic reconstruction. We apply NAPA to three distantly homologous β-lactamase protein clusters (TEM, CTX-M-3, and OXA-51), each of which has experienced recent evolutionary radiation under substantially different selective pressures. By analyzing the network properties of each protein cluster, we identify key adaptive mutations, positive pairwise interactions, different adaptive solutions to the same selective pressure, and complex evolutionary trajectories likely to increase protein fitness. We also present evidence that incorporating information from phylogenetic reconstruction and ancestral sequence inference can reduce the number of spurious links in the network, whereas preserving overall network community structure. The analysis does not require structural or biochemical data. In contrast to function-preserving mutation dependencies, which are frequently from structural contacts, gain-of-function mutation dependencies are most commonly between residues distal in protein structure. PMID:29522102

  17. A comprehensive analysis of clinical outcomes in lung cancer patients harboring a MET exon 14 skipping mutation compared to other driver mutations in an East Asian population.

    PubMed

    Gow, Chien-Hung; Hsieh, Min-Shu; Wu, Shang-Gin; Shih, Jin-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent somatic splice-site alterations at MET exon 14 (MET Δ14 ), which result in exon skipping and MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase (MET) activation, have been characterised. However, their demographic features and clinical outcomes in East Asian lung cancer patients have yet to be determined. A one-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), using RNA samples from 850 East Asian lung cancer patients, was performed in order to detect MET Δ14 and five other major driver mutations, including those in the EGFR, KRAS, ALK, HER2, and ROS1 genes. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to confirm the overexpression of MET in patients harbouring the MET Δ14 mutation. We analysed the demographic data and clinical outcomes of MET Δ14 mutation positive lung cancer patients and compared them to those of MET Δ14 mutation negative lung cancer patients. In total, 27 lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients and 1 squamous cell carcinoma patient with the MET Δ14 mutation were identified. The overall incidence was 3.3% for lung cancer and 4.0% for lung ADC. IHC demonstrated that the majority of lung cancer patients harboring a MET Δ14 mutation exhibited a strong cytoplasmic expression of MET. MET Δ14 mutation positive patients were generally quite elderly individuals. Stage IV MET Δ14 mutation positive lung cancer patients receiving no specific anti-MET therapy were observed to have a similar overall survival (OS) compared to patients in the all negative group (P>0.05). In the multivariate analysis, mutation status was found not to be a major risk factor for OS in lung cancer patients without appropriate tyrosine kinase inhibitors treatment. The OS of MET Δ14 mutation positive lung cancer patients is comparable to that of the major driver gene mutation negative lung cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular analysis of Cypriot patients with Glutaric aciduria type I: identification of two novel mutations.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Theodoros; Nicolaidou, Paola; Hadjichristou, Anastasia; Ioannou, Rodothea; Dionysiou, Maria; Siama, Elli; Chappa, Georgia; Anastasiadou, Violetta; Drousiotou, Anthi

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the mutations in the glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase gene (GCDH) in ten Cypriot patients with Glutaric aciduria type I (GAI). Molecular analysis of the GCDH gene was performed by direct sequencing of the patients' genomic DNA. In silico tools were applied to predict the effect of the novel variants on the structure and function of the protein. All disease alleles were characterized (mutation detection rate 100%). Five missense mutations were identified: c.192G>T (p.Glu64Asp) and c.803G>T (p.Gly268Val), which are novel, and three previously described mutations, c.1123T>C (p.Cys375Arg), c.1204C>T (p.Arg402Trp) and c.1286C>T (p.Thr429Met). Two novel mutations, p.Glu64Asp and p.Gly268Val, account for the majority of disease alleles (76.5%) in Cypriot patients with Glutaric aciduria type I. A founder effect for the p.Glu64Asp and the p.Gly268Val can be suggested based on the place of origin of the carriers of these mutations. Identification of the causative mutations of GAI in Cypriot patients will facilitate carrier detection as well as post- and pre-natal diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical profile and mutation analysis of xeroderma pigmentosum in Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Tamhankar, Parag M; Iyer, Shruti V; Ravindran, Shyla; Gupta, Neerja; Kabra, Madhulika; Nayak, Chitra; Kura, Mahendra; Sanghavi, Swapnil; Joshi, Rajesh; Chennuri, Vasundhara Sridhar; Khopkar, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by cutaneous and ocular photosensitivity and an increased risk of developing cutaneous neoplasms. Progressive neurological abnormalities develop in a quarter of XP patients. To study the clinical profile and perform a mutation analysis in Indian patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. Ten families with 13 patients with XP were referred to our clinic over 2 years. The genes XPA, XPB and XPC were sequentially analyzed till a pathogenic mutation was identified. Homozygous mutations in the XPA gene were seen in patients with moderate to severe mental retardation (6/10 families) but not in those without neurological features. Two unrelated families with a common family name and belonging to the same community from Maharashtra were found to have an identical mutation in the XPA gene, namely c.335_338delTTATinsCATAAGAAA (p.F112SfsX2). Testing of the XPC gene in two families with four affected children led to the identification of the novel mutations c.1243C>T or p.R415X and c.1677C>A or p.Y559X. In two families, mutations could not be identified in XPA, XPB and XPC genes. The sample size is small. Indian patients who have neurological abnormalities associated with XP should be screened for mutations in the XPA gene.

  20. Structural and functional analysis of APOA5 mutations identified in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia[S

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Barberá, Elena; Julve, Josep; Nilsson, Stefan K.; Lookene, Aivar; Martín-Campos, Jesús M.; Roig, Rosa; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso M.; Sloan, John H.; Fuentes-Prior, Pablo; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    During the diagnosis of three unrelated patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia, three APOA5 mutations [p.(Ser232_Leu235)del, p.Leu253Pro, and p.Asp332ValfsX4] were found without evidence of concomitant LPL, APOC2, or GPIHBP1 mutations. The molecular mechanisms by which APOA5 mutations result in severe hypertriglyceridemia remain poorly understood, and the functional impairment/s induced by these specific mutations was not obvious. Therefore, we performed a thorough structural and functional analysis that included follow-up of patients and their closest relatives, measurement of apoA-V serum concentrations, and sequencing of the APOA5 gene in 200 nonhyperlipidemic controls. Further, we cloned, overexpressed, and purified both wild-type and mutant apoA-V variants and characterized their capacity to activate LPL. The interactions of recombinant wild-type and mutated apoA-V variants with liposomes of different composition, heparin, LRP1, sortilin, and SorLA/LR11 were also analyzed. Finally, to explore the possible structural consequences of these mutations, we developed a three-dimensional model of full-length, lipid-free human apoA-V. A complex, wide array of impairments was found in each of the three mutants, suggesting that the specific residues affected are critical structural determinants for apoA-V function in lipoprotein metabolism and, therefore, that these APOA5 mutations are a direct cause of hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:23307945

  1. A regional analysis of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutated lung cancer for HSE South.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D; Mc Sorley, L; O'Shea, E; Mc Carthy, E; Bowe, S; Brady, C; Sui, J; Dawod, M A; O'Brien, O; Graham, D; McCarthy, J; Burke, L; Power, D; O'Reilly, S; Bambury, R M; Mahony, D O

    2017-11-01

    EGFR mutated lung cancer represents a subgroup with distinct clinical presentations, prognosis, and management requirements. We investigated the survival, prognostic factors, and real-world treatment of NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation in clinical practice. A retrospective review of all specimens sent for EGFR analysis from December 2009 to September 2015 was performed. Patient demographics, specimen type, EGFR mutation status/type, stage at diagnosis, treatment, response rate, and survival data were recorded. 27/334 (8%) patient specimens sent for EGFR testing tested positive for a sensitising EGFR mutation. The median age was 65 years (40-85 years). Exon 19 deletion represented the most commonly detected alteration, accounting for 39% (n = 11). First-line treatment for those with Exon 18, 19, or 21 alterations (n = 24) was with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in 79% (n = 19). Objective response rate among these patients was 74% and median duration of response was 13 months (range 7-35 months). The incidence of EGFR mutation in our cohort of NSCLC is 9% which is consistent with mutation incidence reported in other countries. The rate of EGFR mutation in our population is slightly below that reported internationally, but treatment outcomes are consistent with published data. Real-world patient data have important contributions to make with regard to quality measurement, incorporating patient experience into guidelines and identifying safety signals.

  2. The first USH2A mutation analysis of Japanese autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa patients: a totally different mutation profile with the lack of frequent mutations found in Caucasian patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Hosono, Katsuhiro; Suto, Kimiko; Ishigami, Chie; Arai, Yuuki; Hikoya, Akiko; Hirami, Yasuhiko; Ohtsubo, Masafumi; Ueno, Shinji; Terasaki, Hiroko; Sato, Miho; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Endo, Shiori; Mizuta, Kunihiro; Mineta, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Mineo; Takahashi, Masayo; Minoshima, Shinsei; Hotta, Yoshihiro

    2014-09-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a highly heterogeneous genetic disease. The USH2A gene, which accounts for approximately 74-90% of Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2) cases, is also one of the major autosomal recessive RP (arRP) causative genes among Caucasian populations. To identify disease-causing USH2A gene mutations in Japanese RP patients, all 73 exons were screened for mutations by direct sequencing. In total, 100 unrelated Japanese RP patients with no systemic manifestations were identified, excluding families with obvious autosomal dominant inheritance. Of these 100 patients, 82 were included in this present study after 18 RP patients with very likely pathogenic EYS (eyes shut homolog) mutations were excluded. The mutation analysis of the USH2A revealed five very likely pathogenic mutations in four patients. A patient had only one very likely pathogenic mutation and the others had two of them. Caucasian frequent mutations p.C759F in arRP and p.E767fs in USH2 were not found. All the four patients exhibited typical clinical features of RP. The observed prevalence of USH2A gene mutations was approximately 4% among Japanese arRP patients, and the profile of the USH2A gene mutations differed largely between Japanese patients and previously reported Caucasian populations.

  3. Mutational analysis of polynucleotide phosphorylase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jarrige, Anne; Bréchemier-Baey, Dominique; Mathy, Nathalie; Duché, Ophélie; Portier, Claude

    2002-08-16

    Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), a homotrimeric exoribonuclease present in bacteria, is involved in mRNA degradation. In Escherichia coli, expression of this enzyme is autocontrolled at the translational level. We introduced about 30 mutations in the pnp gene by site-directed mutagenesis, most of them in phylogenetically conserved residues, and determined their effects on the three catalytic activities of PNPase, phosphorolysis, polymerisation and phosphate exchange, as well as on the efficiency of translational repression. The data are presented and discussed in the light of the crystallographic structure of PNPase from Streptomyces antibioticus. The results show that both PNPase activity and the presence of the KH and S1 RNA-binding domains are required for autocontrol. Deletions of these RNA-binding domains do not abolish any of the three catalytic activities, indicating that they are contained in a domain independent of the catalytic centre. Moreover, the catalytic centre was located around the tungsten-binding site identified by crystallography. Some mutations affect the three catalytic activities differently, an observation consistent with the presence of different subsites.

  4. Mutation analysis of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene in native American populations of the southwest

    SciTech Connect

    Grebe, T.A.; Doane, W.W.; Norman, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    The authors report DNA and clinical analysis of cystic fibrosis (CF) in two previously unstudied, genetically isolated populations: Pueblo and Navajo Native Americans. Direct mutation analysis of six mutations of the CFTR gene - namely, [Delta]F508, G542X, G551D, R553X, N1303K, and W1282X - was performed on PCR-amplified genomic DNA extracted from blood samples. Haplotype analyses with marker/enzyme pairs XV2c/TaqI and KM29/PstI were performed as well. Of the 12 affected individuals studied, no [Delta]F508 mutation was detected; only one G542X mutation was found. None of the other mutations was detected. All affected individuals have either an AA, AC, or CC haplotype,more » except for the one carrying the G542X mutation, who has the haplotye AB. Clinically, six of the affected individuals examined exhibit growth deficiency, and five (all from the Zuni Pueblo) have a severe CF phenotype. Four of the six Zunis with CF are also microcephalic, a finding not previously noted in CF patients. The DNA data have serious implications for risk assessment of CF carrier status for these people. 14 refs., 3 tabs.« less

  5. TRPC6 mutational analysis in a large cohort of patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Santín, Sheila; Ars, Elisabet; Rossetti, Sandro; Salido, Eduardo; Silva, Irene; García-Maset, Rafael; Giménez, Isabel; Ruíz, Patricia; Mendizábal, Santiago; Luciano Nieto, José; Peña, Antonia; Camacho, Juan Antonio; Fraga, Gloria; Cobo, M Angeles; Bernis, Carmen; Ortiz, Alberto; de Pablos, Augusto Luque; Sánchez-Moreno, Ana; Pintos, Guillem; Mirapeix, Eduard; Fernández-Llama, Patricia; Ballarín, José; Torra, Roser; Zamora, Isabel; López-Hellin, Joan; Madrid, Alvaro; Ventura, Clara; Vilalta, Ramón; Espinosa, Laura; García, Carmen; Melgosa, Marta; Navarro, Mercedes; Giménez, Antonio; Cots, Jorge Vila; Alexandra, Simona; Caramelo, Carlos; Egido, Jesús; San José, M Dolores Morales; de la Cerda, Francisco; Sala, Pere; Raspall, Frederic; Vila, Angel; Daza, Antonio María; Vázquez, Mercedes; Ecija, José Luis; Espinosa, Mario; Justa, Ma Luisa; Poveda, Rafael; Aparicio, Cristina; Rosell, Jordi; Muley, Rafael; Montenegro, Jesús; González, Domingo; Hidalgo, Emilia; de Frutos, David Barajas; Trillo, Esther; Gracia, Salvador; de los Ríos, Francisco Javier Gainza

    2009-10-01

    Mutations in the TRPC6 gene have been reported in six families with adult-onset (17-57 years) autosomal dominant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Electrophysiology studies confirmed augmented calcium influx only in three of these six TRPC6 mutations. To date, the role of TRPC6 in childhood and adulthood non-familial forms is unknown. TRPC6 mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing in 130 Spanish patients from 115 unrelated families with FSGS. An in silico scoring matrix was developed to evaluate the pathogenicity of amino acid substitutions, by using the bio-physical and bio-chemical differences between wild-type and mutant amino acid, the evolutionary conservation of the amino acid residue in orthologues, homologues and defined domains, with the addition of contextual information. Three new missense substitutions were identified in two clinically non-familial cases and in one familial case. The analysis by means of this scoring system allowed us to classify these variants as likely pathogenic mutations. One of them was detected in a female patient with unusual clinical features: mesangial proliferative FSGS in childhood (7 years) and partial response to immunosupressive therapy (CsA + MMF). Asymptomatic carriers of this likely mutation were found within her family. We describe for the first time TRPC6 mutations in children and adults with non-familial FSGS. It seems that TRPC6 is a gene with a very variable penetrance that may contribute to glomerular diseases in a multi-hit setting.

  6. [The mutation analysis of PAH gene and prenatal diagnosis in classical phenylketonuria family].

    PubMed

    Yan, Yousheng; Hao, Shengju; Yao, Fengxia; Sun, Qingmei; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhang, Chuan; Yang, Tao; Huang, Shangzhi

    2014-12-01

    To characterize the mutation spectrum of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene and perform prenatal diagnosis for families with classical phenylketonuria. By stratified sequencing, mutations were detected in the exons and flaking introns of PAH gene of 44 families with classical phenylketonuria. 47 fetuses were diagnosed by combined sequencing with linkage analysis of three common short tandem repeats (STR) (PAH-STR, PAH-26 and PAH-32) in the PAH gene. Thirty-one types of mutations were identified. A total of 84 mutations were identified in 88 alleles (95.45%), in which the most common mutation have been R243Q (21.59%), EX6-96A>G (6.82%), IVS4-1G>A (5.86%) and IVS7+2T>A (5.86%). Most mutations were found in exons 3, 5, 6, 7, 11 and 12. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of these three STR markers was 0.71 (PAH-STR), 0.48 (PAH-26) and 0.40 (PAH-32), respectively. Prenatal diagnosis was performed successfully with the combined method in 47 fetuses of 44 classical phenylketonuria families. Among them, 11 (23.4%) were diagnosed as affected, 24 (51.1%) as carriers, and 12 (25.5%) as unaffected. Prenatal diagnosis can be achieved efficiently and accurately by stratified sequencing of PAH gene and linkage analysis of STR for classical phenylketonuria families.

  7. Analysis of PIK3CA Mutations and Activation Pathways in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Muroni, Maria Rosaria; Sanges, Francesca; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Ena, Sara; Pira, Giovanna; Murgia, Luciano; Manca, Alessandra; Uras, Maria Gabriela; Sarobba, Maria Giuseppina; Urru, Silvana; De Miglio, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Background Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) accounts for 12–24% of all breast carcinomas, and shows worse prognosis compared to other breast cancer subtypes. Molecular studies demonstrated that TNBCs are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different clinical and pathologic features, prognosis, genetic-molecular alterations and treatment responsivity. The PI3K/AKT is a major pathway involved in the regulation of cell survival and proliferation, and is the most frequently altered pathway in breast cancer, apparently with different biologic impact on specific cancer subtypes. The most common genetic abnormality is represented by PIK3CA gene activating mutations, with an overall frequency of 20–40%. The aims of our study were to investigate PIK3CA gene mutations on a large series of TNBC, to perform a wider analysis on genetic alterations involving PI3K/AKT and BRAF/RAS/MAPK pathways and to correlate the results with clinical-pathologic data. Materials and Methods PIK3CA mutation analysis was performed by using cobas® PIK3CA Mutation Test. EGFR, AKT1, BRAF, and KRAS genes were analyzed by sequencing. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to identify PTEN loss and to investigate for PI3K/AKT pathways components. Results PIK3CA mutations were detected in 23.7% of TNBC, whereas no mutations were identified in EGFR, AKT1, BRAF, and KRAS genes. Moreover, we observed PTEN loss in 11.3% of tumors. Deregulation of PI3K/AKT pathways was revealed by consistent activation of pAKT and p-p44/42 MAPK in all PIK3CA mutated TNBC. Conclusions Our data shows that PIK3CA mutations and PI3K/AKT pathway activation are common events in TNBC. A deeper investigation on specific TNBC genomic abnormalities might be helpful in order to select patients who would benefit from current targeted therapy strategies. PMID:26540293

  8. Analysis of PIK3CA Mutations and Activation Pathways in Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Orrù, Sandra; Muroni, Maria Rosaria; Sanges, Francesca; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Ena, Sara; Pira, Giovanna; Murgia, Luciano; Manca, Alessandra; Uras, Maria Gabriela; Sarobba, Maria Giuseppina; Urru, Silvana; De Miglio, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) accounts for 12-24% of all breast carcinomas, and shows worse prognosis compared to other breast cancer subtypes. Molecular studies demonstrated that TNBCs are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different clinical and pathologic features, prognosis, genetic-molecular alterations and treatment responsivity. The PI3K/AKT is a major pathway involved in the regulation of cell survival and proliferation, and is the most frequently altered pathway in breast cancer, apparently with different biologic impact on specific cancer subtypes. The most common genetic abnormality is represented by PIK3CA gene activating mutations, with an overall frequency of 20-40%. The aims of our study were to investigate PIK3CA gene mutations on a large series of TNBC, to perform a wider analysis on genetic alterations involving PI3K/AKT and BRAF/RAS/MAPK pathways and to correlate the results with clinical-pathologic data. PIK3CA mutation analysis was performed by using cobas® PIK3CA Mutation Test. EGFR, AKT1, BRAF, and KRAS genes were analyzed by sequencing. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to identify PTEN loss and to investigate for PI3K/AKT pathways components. PIK3CA mutations were detected in 23.7% of TNBC, whereas no mutations were identified in EGFR, AKT1, BRAF, and KRAS genes. Moreover, we observed PTEN loss in 11.3% of tumors. Deregulation of PI3K/AKT pathways was revealed by consistent activation of pAKT and p-p44/42 MAPK in all PIK3CA mutated TNBC. Our data shows that PIK3CA mutations and PI3K/AKT pathway activation are common events in TNBC. A deeper investigation on specific TNBC genomic abnormalities might be helpful in order to select patients who would benefit from current targeted therapy strategies.

  9. Biochemical analysis of active site mutations of human polymerase η.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Samuel C; Beardslee, Renee A; Toffton, Shannon M; McCulloch, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    DNA polymerase η (pol η) plays a critical role in suppressing mutations caused by the bypass of cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) that escape repair. There is evidence this is also the case for the oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-guanine (8-oxoG). Both of these lesions cause moderate to severe blockage of synthesis when encountered by replicative polymerases, while pol η displays little no to pausing during translesion synthesis. However, since lesion bypass does not remove damaged DNA from the genome and can possibly be accompanied by errors in synthesis during bypass, the process is often called 'damage tolerance' to delineate it from classical DNA repair pathways. The fidelity of lesion bypass is therefore of importance when determining how pol η suppresses mutations after DNA damage. As pol η has been implicated in numerous in vivo pathways other than lesion bypass, we wanted to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the relatively low-fidelity synthesis displayed by pol η. To that end, we have created a set of mutant pol η proteins each containing a single amino acid substitution in the active site and closely surrounding regions. We determined overall DNA synthesis ability as well as the efficiency and fidelity of bypass of thymine-thymine CPD (T-T CPD) and 8-oxoG containing DNA templates. Our results show that several amino acids are critical for normal polymerase function, with changes in overall activity and fidelity being observed. Of the mutants that retain polymerase activity, we demonstrate that amino acids Q38, Y52, and R61 play key roles in determining polymerase fidelity, with substation of alanine causing both increases and decreases in fidelity. Remarkably, the Q38A mutant displays increased fidelity during synthesis opposite 8-oxoG but decreased fidelity during synthesis opposite a T-T CPD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A single center analysis of nucleophosmin in acute myeloid leukemia: value of combining immunohistochemistry with molecular mutation analysis.

    PubMed

    Woolthuis, Carolien M; Mulder, André B; Verkaik-Schakel, Rikst Nynke; Rosati, Stefano; Diepstra, Arjan; van den Berg, Eva; Schuringa, Jan Jacob; Vellenga, Edo; Kluin, Philip M; Huls, Gerwin

    2013-10-01

    Mutations of nucleophosmin 1 are frequently found in acute myeloid leukemia and lead to aberrant cytoplasmic accumulation of nucleophosmin protein. Immunohistochemical staining is therefore recommended as the technique of choice in front-line screening. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity and specificity of immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed bone marrow biopsies compared with gold standard molecular analysis to predict nucleophosmin 1 mutation status in 119 patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Discrepant cases were further characterized by gene expression analyses and fluorescence in situ hybridization. A large overlap between both methods was observed. Nevertheless, nine patients demonstrated discordant results at initial screening. Five cases demonstrated nuclear staining of nucleophosmin 1 by immunohistochemistry, but a nucleophosmin 1 mutation by molecular analysis. In two cases this could be attributed to technical issues and in three cases minor subpopulations of myeloblasts had not been discovered initially. All tested cases exhibited the characteristic nucleophosmin-mutated gene expression pattern. Four cases had cytoplasmic nucleophosmin 1 staining and a nucleophosmin-mutated gene expression pattern without a detectable nucleophosmin 1 mutation. In two of these cases we found the chromosomal translocation t(3;5)(q25;q35) encoding the NPM-MLF1 fusion protein. In the other discrepant cases the aberrant cytoplasmic nucleophosmin staining and gene expression could not be explained. In total six patients (5%) had true discordant results between immunohistochemistry and mutation analysis. We conclude that cytoplasmic nucleophosmin localization is not always caused by a conventional nucleophosmin 1 mutation and that in the screening for nucleophosmin 1 abnormalities, most information will be obtained by combining immunohistochemistry with molecular analysis.

  11. A single center analysis of nucleophosmin in acute myeloid leukemia: value of combining immunohistochemistry with molecular mutation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Woolthuis, Carolien M.; Mulder, André B.; Verkaik-Schakel, Rikst Nynke; Rosati, Stefano; Diepstra, Arjan; van den Berg, Eva; Schuringa, Jan Jacob; Vellenga, Edo; Kluin, Philip M.; Huls, Gerwin

    2013-01-01

    Mutations of nucleophosmin 1 are frequently found in acute myeloid leukemia and lead to aberrant cytoplasmic accumulation of nucleophosmin protein. Immunohistochemical staining is therefore recommended as the technique of choice in front-line screening. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity and specificity of immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed bone marrow biopsies compared with gold standard molecular analysis to predict nucleophosmin 1 mutation status in 119 patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Discrepant cases were further characterized by gene expression analyses and fluorescence in situ hybridization. A large overlap between both methods was observed. Nevertheless, nine patients demonstrated discordant results at initial screening. Five cases demonstrated nuclear staining of nucleophosmin 1 by immunohistochemistry, but a nucleophosmin 1 mutation by molecular analysis. In two cases this could be attributed to technical issues and in three cases minor subpopulations of myeloblasts had not been discovered initially. All tested cases exhibited the characteristic nucleophosmin-mutated gene expression pattern. Four cases had cytoplasmic nucleophosmin 1 staining and a nucleophosmin-mutated gene expression pattern without a detectable nucleophosmin 1 mutation. In two of these cases we found the chromosomal translocation t(3;5)(q25;q35) encoding the NPM-MLF1 fusion protein. In the other discrepant cases the aberrant cytoplasmic nucleophosmin staining and gene expression could not be explained. In total six patients (5%) had true discordant results between immunohistochemistry and mutation analysis. We conclude that cytoplasmic nucleophosmin localization is not always caused by a conventional nucleophosmin 1 mutation and that in the screening for nucleophosmin 1 abnormalities, most information will be obtained by combining immunohistochemistry with molecular analysis. PMID:23716555

  12. Mutational signature analysis identifies MUTYH deficiency in colorectal cancers and adrenocortical carcinomas: Mutational signature associated with MUTYH deficiency in cancers

    DOE PAGES

    Pilati, Camilla; Shinde, Jayendra; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; ...

    2017-03-29

    Germline alterations in DNA repair genes are implicated in cancer predisposition and can result in characteristic mutational signatures. However, specific mutational signatures associated with base excision repair (BER) defects remain to be characterized. Here, by analysing a series of colorectal cancers (CRCs) using exome sequencing, we identified a particular spectrum of somatic mutations characterized by an enrichment of C > A transversions in NpCpA or NpCpT contexts in three tumours from a MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) patient and in two cases harbouring pathogenic germline MUTYH mutations. In two series of adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs), we identified four tumours with a similar signaturemore » also presenting germline MUTYH mutations. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that MUTYH inactivation results in a particular mutational signature, which may serve as a useful marker of BER-related genomic instability in new cancer types.« less

  13. Mutational signature analysis identifies MUTYH deficiency in colorectal cancers and adrenocortical carcinomas: Mutational signature associated with MUTYH deficiency in cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Pilati, Camilla; Shinde, Jayendra; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.

    Germline alterations in DNA repair genes are implicated in cancer predisposition and can result in characteristic mutational signatures. However, specific mutational signatures associated with base excision repair (BER) defects remain to be characterized. Here, by analysing a series of colorectal cancers (CRCs) using exome sequencing, we identified a particular spectrum of somatic mutations characterized by an enrichment of C > A transversions in NpCpA or NpCpT contexts in three tumours from a MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) patient and in two cases harbouring pathogenic germline MUTYH mutations. In two series of adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs), we identified four tumours with a similar signaturemore » also presenting germline MUTYH mutations. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that MUTYH inactivation results in a particular mutational signature, which may serve as a useful marker of BER-related genomic instability in new cancer types.« less

  14. Genome-Wide Linkage Analysis to Identify Genetic Modifiers of ALK Mutation Penetrance in Familial Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Devoto, Marcella; Specchia, Claudia; Laudenslager, Marci; Longo, Luca; Hakonarson, Hakon; Maris, John; Mossé, Yael

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuroblastoma (NB) is an important childhood cancer with a strong genetic component related to disease susceptibility. Approximately 1% of NB cases have a positive family history. Following a genome-wide linkage analysis and sequencing of candidate genes in the critical region, we identified ALK as the major familial NB gene. Dominant mutations in ALK are found in more than 50% of familial NB cases. However, in the families used for the linkage study, only about 50% of carriers of ALK mutations are affected by NB. Methods To test whether genetic variation may explain the reduced penetrance of the disease phenotype, we analyzed genome-wide genotype data in ALK mutation-positive families using a model-based linkage approach with different liability classes for carriers and non-carriers of ALK mutations. Results The region with the highest LOD score was located at chromosome 2p23–p24 and included the ALK locus under models of dominant and recessive inheritance. Conclusions This finding suggests that variants in the non-mutated ALK gene or another gene linked to it may affect penetrance of the ALK mutations and risk of developing NB in familial cases. PMID:21734404

  15. Single quantum dot analysis enables multiplexed point mutation detection by gap ligase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Song, Yunke; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2013-04-08

    Gene point mutations present important biomarkers for genetic diseases. However, existing point mutation detection methods suffer from low sensitivity, specificity, and a tedious assay processes. In this report, an assay technology is proposed which combines the outstanding specificity of gap ligase chain reaction (Gap-LCR), the high sensitivity of single-molecule coincidence detection, and the superior optical properties of quantum dots (QDs) for multiplexed detection of point mutations in genomic DNA. Mutant-specific ligation products are generated by Gap-LCR and subsequently captured by QDs to form DNA-QD nanocomplexes that are detected by single-molecule spectroscopy (SMS) through multi-color fluorescence burst coincidence analysis, allowing for multiplexed mutation detection in a separation-free format. The proposed assay is capable of detecting zeptomoles of KRAS codon 12 mutation variants with near 100% specificity. Its high sensitivity allows direct detection of KRAS mutation in crude genomic DNA without PCR pre-amplification. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. High-resolution melting analysis for detection of MYH9 mutations.

    PubMed

    Provaznikova, Dana; Kumstyrova, Tereza; Kotlin, Roman; Salaj, Peter; Matoska, Vaclav; Hrachovinova, Ingrid; Rittich, Simon

    2008-09-01

    May-Hegglin anomaly (MHA), Sebastian (SBS), Fechtner (FTNS) and Epstein (EPS) syndromes are rare autosomal dominant disorders with giant platelets and thrombocytopenia. Other manifestations of these disorders are combinations of the presence of granulocyte inclusions and deafness, cataracts and renal failure. Currently, MHA, SBS, FTNS and EPS are considered to be distinct clinical manifestation of a single illness caused by mutations of the MYH9 gene encoding the heavy chain of non-muscle myosin IIA (NMMHC-IIA). As the MYH9 gene has a high number of exons, it takes much time and material to use this method for the detection of MYH9 mutations. Recently, a new method has been introduced for scanning DNA mutations without the need for direct sequencing: high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA). Mutation detection with HRMA relies on the intercalation of the specific dye (LC Green plus) in double-strand DNA and fluorescence monitoring of PCR product melting profiles. In our study, we optimized the conditions and used HRMA for rapid screening of mutations in all MYH9 exons in seven affected individuals from four unrelated families with suspected MYH9 disorders. Samples identified by HRMA as positive for the mutation were analysed by direct sequencing. HRMA saved us over 85% of redundant sequencing.

  17. Clinical analysis of PMS2: mutation detection and avoidance of pseudogenes.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Cecily P; Robles, Jorge; Swensen, Jeffrey J; Miller, Christine E; Lyon, Elaine; Mao, Rong; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Samowitz, Wade S

    2010-05-01

    Germline mutation detection in PMS2, one of four mismatch repair genes associated with Lynch syndrome, is greatly complicated by the presence of numerous pseudogenes. We used a modification of a long-range PCR method to evaluate PMS2 in 145 clinical samples. This modification avoids potential interference from the pseudogene PMS2CL by utilizing a long-range product spanning exons 11-15, with the forward primer anchored in exon 10, an exon not shared by PMS2CL. Large deletions were identified by MLPA. Pathogenic PMS2 mutations were identified in 22 of 59 patients whose tumors showed isolated loss of PMS2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC), the IHC profile most commonly associated with a germline PMS2 mutation. Three additional patients with pathogenic mutations were identified from 53 samples without IHC data. Thirty-seven percent of the identified mutations were large deletions encompassing one or more exons. In 27 patients whose tumors showed absence of either another protein or combination of proteins, no pathogenic mutations were identified. We conclude that modified long-range PCR can be used to preferentially amplify the PMS2 gene and avoid pseudogene interference, thus providing a clinically useful germline analysis of PMS2. Our data also support the use of IHC screening to direct germline testing of PMS2. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Mutational analysis of the RB1 gene and the inheritance patterns of retinoblastoma in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Yacoub A; Tbakhi, Abdelghani; Al-Hussaini, Maysa; AlNawaiseh, Ibrahim; Saab, Ala; Afifi, Amal; Naji, Maysa; Mohammad, Mona; Deebajah, Rasha; Jaradat, Imad; Sultan, Iyad; Mehyar, Mustafa

    2018-04-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is a childhood cancer developing in the retina due to RB1 pathologic variant. Herein we are evaluating the oncogenic mutations in the RB1 gene and the inheritance patterns of RB in the Jordanian patients. In this prospective study, the peripheral blood of 50 retinoblastoma patients was collected, genomic DNA was extracted, mutations were identified using Quantitative multiplex PCR (QM-PCR), Allele-specific PCR, Next Generation Sequencing analysis, and Sanger sequencing. In this cohort of 50 patients, 20(40%) patients had unilateral RB and 30(60%) were males. Overall, 36(72%) patients had germline disease, 17(47%) of whom had the same RB1 pathologic variant detected in one of the parents (inherited disease). In the bilateral group, all (100%) patients had germline disease; 13(43%) of them had inherited mutation. In the unilateral group, 6(30%) had germline disease, 4(20%) of them had inherited mutation. Nonsense mutation generating a stop codon and producing a truncated non-functional protein was the most frequent detected type of mutations (n = 15/36, 42%). Only one (2%) of the patients had mosaic mutation, and of the 17 inherited cases, 16(94%) had an unaffected carrier parent. In conclusion, in addition to all bilateral RB patients in our cohort, 30% of unilateral cases showed germline mutation. Almost half (47%) of germline cases had inherited disease from affected (6%) parent or unaffected carrier (94%). Therefore molecular screening is critical for the genetic counseling regarding the risk for inherited RB in both unilateral and bilateral cases including those with no family history.

  19. Survival analysis of cancer risk reduction strategies for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Allison W; Sigal, Bronislava M; Plevritis, Sylvia K

    2010-01-10

    Women with BRCA1/2 mutations inherit high risks of breast and ovarian cancer; options to reduce cancer mortality include prophylactic surgery or breast screening, but their efficacy has never been empirically compared. We used decision analysis to simulate risk-reducing strategies in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and to compare resulting survival probability and causes of death. We developed a Monte Carlo model of breast screening with annual mammography plus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from ages 25 to 69 years, prophylactic mastectomy (PM) at various ages, and/or prophylactic oophorectomy (PO) at ages 40 or 50 years in 25-year-old BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. With no intervention, survival probability by age 70 is 53% for BRCA1 and 71% for BRCA2 mutation carriers. The most effective single intervention for BRCA1 mutation carriers is PO at age 40, yielding a 15% absolute survival gain; for BRCA2 mutation carriers, the most effective single intervention is PM, yielding a 7% survival gain if performed at age 40 years. The combination of PM and PO at age 40 improves survival more than any single intervention, yielding 24% survival gain for BRCA1 and 11% for BRCA2 mutation carriers. PM at age 25 instead of age 40 offers minimal incremental benefit (1% to 2%); substituting screening for PM yields a similarly minimal decrement in survival (2% to 3%). Although PM at age 25 plus PO at age 40 years maximizes survival probability, substituting mammography plus MRI screening for PM seems to offer comparable survival. These results may guide women with BRCA1/2 mutations in their choices between prophylactic surgery and breast screening.

  20. Tracking of the origin of recurrent mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in the North-East of Italy and improved mutation analysis strategy.

    PubMed

    Cini, Giulia; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Della Puppa, Lara; Cupelli, Elisa; Fornasin, Alessio; D'Elia, Angela Valentina; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Damante, Giuseppe; Bertok, Sara; Miolo, Gianmaria; Maestro, Roberta; de Paoli, Paolo; Amoroso, Antonio; Viel, Alessandra

    2016-02-06

    About 20 % of hereditary breast cancers are caused by mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Since BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations may be spread throughout the gene, genetic testing is usually performed by direct sequencing of entire coding regions. In some populations, especially if relatively isolated, a few number of recurrent mutations is reported, sometimes caused by founder effect. BRCA1 and BRCA2 screening for mutations was carried out on 1114 breast and/or ovarian cancer patients complying with the eligibility criteria for BRCA testing. Haplotype analysis was performed on the probands carrying recurrent mutations and their relatives, using two sets of microsatellite markers covering the BRCA1 (D17S588, D17S806, D17S902, D17S1325, D17S855, D17S1328, D17S800, and D17S250) and BRCA2 (D13S220, D13S267, D13S171, D13S1701, D13S1698, D13S260, D13S290, D13S1246) loci. The DMLE + 2.2 software was used to estimate the age of BRCA1 c.676delT and BRCA2 c.7806-2A > G. A multiplex PCR and two different primer extension assays were optimized and used for genotyping the recurrent mutations of the two genes. In the time frame of almost 20 years of genetic testing, we have found that five BRCA1 and three BRCA2 mutations are recurrent in a substantial subset of carriers from North-East Italy and neighboring Istria, where they represent more than 50 % of all mutations. Microsatellite analyses identified a common haplotype of different length for each mutation. Age estimation of BRCA1 c.676delT and BRCA2 c.7806-2A > G mutations revealed that they arose in the Friuli Venezia Giulia area about 86 and 94 generations ago, respectively. Suggestion of an association between BRCA2 c.7806-2A > G and risk of breast cancer in males has emerged. Finally, we developed a simple and efficient pre-screening test, performing an in-house primer extension SNaPshot® assay for the rapid identification of the eight recurrent mutations. Proofs of common ancestry has been obtained for the eight recurrent

  1. High Resolution Melting Analysis for JAK2 Exon 14 and Exon 12 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Rapado, Inmaculada; Grande, Silvia; Albizua, Enriqueta; Ayala, Rosa; Hernández, José-Angel; Gallardo, Miguel; Gilsanz, Florinda; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin

    2009-01-01

    JAK2 mutations are important criteria for the diagnosis of Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. We aimed to assess JAK2 exon 14 and exon 12 mutations by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis, which allows variation screening. The exon 14 analysis included 163 patients with polycythemia vera, secondary erythrocytoses, essential thrombocythemia, or secondary thrombocytoses, and 126 healthy subjects. The study of exon 12 included 40 JAK2 V617F-negative patients (nine of which had polycythemia vera, and 31 with splanchnic vein thrombosis) and 30 healthy subjects. HRM analyses of JAK2 exons 14 and 12 gave analytical sensitivities near 1% and both intra- and interday coefficients of variation of less than 1%. For HRM analysis of JAK2 exon 14 in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia, clinical sensitivities were 93.5% and 67.9%, clinical specificities were 98.8% and 97.0%, positive predictive values were 93.5% and 79.2%, and negative predictive values were 98.8% and 94.6, respectively. Correlations were observed between the results from HRM and three commonly used analytical methods. The JAK2 exon 12 HRM results agreed completely with those from sequencing analysis, and the three mutations in exon 12 were detected by both methods. Hence, HRM analysis of exons 14 and 12 in JAK2 shows better diagnostic values than three other routinely used methods against which it was compared. In addition, HRM analysis has the advantage of detecting unknown mutations. PMID:19225136

  2. Structural and functional analysis of rare missense mutations in human chorionic gonadotrophin β-subunit

    PubMed Central

    Nagirnaja, Liina; Venclovas, Česlovas; Rull, Kristiina; Jonas, Kim C.; Peltoketo, Hellevi; Christiansen, Ole B.; Kairys, Visvaldas; Kivi, Gaily; Steffensen, Rudi; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Laan, Maris

    2012-01-01

    Heterodimeric hCG is one of the key hormones determining early pregnancy success. We have previously identified rare missense mutations in hCGβ genes with potential pathophysiological importance. The present study assessed the impact of these mutations on the structure and function of hCG by applying a combination of in silico (sequence and structure analysis, molecular dynamics) and in vitro (co-immunoprecipitation, immuno- and bioassays) approaches. The carrier status of each mutation was determined for 1086 North-Europeans [655 patients with recurrent miscarriage (RM)/431 healthy controls from Estonia, Finland and Denmark] using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The mutation CGB5 p.Val56Leu (rs72556325) was identified in a single heterozygous RM patient and caused a structural hindrance in the formation of the hCGα/β dimer. Although the amount of the mutant hCGβ assembled into secreted intact hCG was only 10% compared with the wild-type, a stronger signaling response was triggered upon binding to its receptor, thus compensating the effect of poor dimerization. The mutation CGB8 p.Pro73Arg (rs72556345) was found in five heterozygotes (three RM cases and two control individuals) and was inherited by two of seven studied live born children. The mutation caused ∼50% of secreted β-subunits to acquire an alternative conformation, but did not affect its biological activity. For the CGB8 p.Arg8Trp (rs72556341) substitution, the applied in vitro methods revealed no alterations in the assembly of intact hCG as also supported by an in silico analysis. In summary, the accumulated data indicate that only mutations with neutral or mild functional consequences might be tolerated in the major hCGβ genes CGB5 and CGB8. PMID:22554618

  3. Association between smoking and p53 mutation in lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Lin, X J; Wang, C P; Yan, K K; Zhao, L Y; An, W X; Liu, X D

    2014-01-01

    To carry out a meta-analysis on the relationship between smoking and p53 gene mutation in lung cancer patients. PubMed, Web of Science, ProQest and Medline were searched by using the key words: 'lung cancer or lung neoplasm or lung carcinoma', 'p53 mutation' and 'smoking'. According to the selection criteria, 15 articles were identified and methodologically analysed by stata 12.0 software package. Crude odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals calculated using the fixed-effects model were used to assess the strength of association between smoking and p53 mutation in lung cancer. In total, 15 articles with 1770 lung cancer patients were identified; 69.6% of the patients were smokers, 30.4% were non-smokers. Overall, smokers with lung cancer had a 2.70-fold (95% confidence interval 2.04-3.59) higher risk for mutation than the non-smokers with lung cancer. In subgroup analyses, the increased risk of p53 mutation in smokers than in non-smokers was found in the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) group (odds ratio = 2.38, 95% confidence interval = 1.71-3.32) and in the NSCLC and SCLC group (odds ratio = 3.82, 95% confidence interval = 2.19-6.69). This meta-analysis strongly suggests that p53 mutation is associated with smoking-induced lung cancer. Smokers with lung cancer had a higher risk for p53 mutation than non-smokers. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Elucidating the Mechanisms of the Tomato ovate Mutation in Regulating Fruit Quality Using Proteomics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juhua; Zhang, Jing; Miao, Hongxia; Jia, Caihong; Wang, Jingyi; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2017-11-22

    The ovate mutation has frequently been used to study changes in fruit shape but not fruit quality. A deterioration in fruit quality associated with the ovate mutation was discovered in this study. To elucidate how ovate influences the quality of fruit, we performed a proteomics analysis of the fruits of the ovate mutant (LA3543) and wild-type ("Ailsa Craig", LA2838A) using tandem mass tag analysis. The results indicated that the ovate mutation significantly influences fruit quality in a number of ways, including by reducing the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase 3 (ACO3) in ethylene biosynthesis, improving firmness by reducing the amount of pectinesterase and polygalacturonase, reducing sugar accumulation by downregulating the abundance of mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidase 4, β-galactosidase, and β-amylase, and reducing the malic acid content by downregulating the accumulation of malic enzymes and malate synthase. These findings could inform future improvements in fruit quality.

  5. Amino-Acid Network Clique Analysis of Protein Mutation Non-Additive Effects: A Case Study of Lysozme.

    PubMed

    Ming, Dengming; Chen, Rui; Huang, He

    2018-05-10

    Optimizing amino-acid mutations in enzyme design has been a very challenging task in modern bio-industrial applications. It is well known that many successful designs often hinge on extensive correlations among mutations at different sites within the enzyme, however, the underpinning mechanism for these correlations is far from clear. Here, we present a topology-based model to quantitively characterize non-additive effects between mutations. The method is based on the molecular dynamic simulations and the amino-acid network clique analysis. It examines if the two mutation sites of a double-site mutation fall into to a 3-clique structure, and associates such topological property of mutational site spatial distribution with mutation additivity features. We analyzed 13 dual mutations of T4 phage lysozyme and found that the clique-based model successfully distinguishes highly correlated or non-additive double-site mutations from those additive ones whose component mutations have less correlation. We also applied the model to protein Eglin c whose structural topology is significantly different from that of T4 phage lysozyme, and found that the model can, to some extension, still identify non-additive mutations from additive ones. Our calculations showed that mutation non-additive effects may heavily depend on a structural topology relationship between mutation sites, which can be quantitatively determined using amino-acid network k -cliques. We also showed that double-site mutation correlations can be significantly altered by exerting a third mutation, indicating that more detailed physicochemical interactions should be considered along with the network clique-based model for better understanding of this elusive mutation-correlation principle.

  6. Expression and Mutational Analysis of c-kit in Ovarian Surface Epithelial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myung-Hoon; Park, Tae-In; Bae, Han-Ik

    2006-01-01

    Coexpression of Kit ligand and c-kit has been reported in some gynecologic tumors. To determine whether imatinib mesylate is useful in ovarian epithelial tumors, we performed immunohistochemical and mutational analysis. The cases consisted of 33 cases, which included 13 serous cystadenocarcinomas, 1 borderline serous tumor, 8 mucinous cystadenocarcinomas, 6 borderline mucinous tumors and 5 clear cell carcinomas. Five cases of serous cystadenoma and 5 cases of mucinous cystadenoma were also included. In the immunohistochemical study, 3 cases (3/6, 50%) of borderline mucinous cystic tumor and two cases (2/8, 25%) of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma show positive staining for KIT protein. Only one case (1/13, 7.7%) of serous cystadenocarcinoma had positive staining. On mutational analysis, no mutation was identified at exon 11. However, two cases of borderline mucinous tumors and one case of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma had mutations at exon 17. In these cases, the immunohistochemistry also shows focal positive staining at epithelial component. Although, KIT protein expression showed higher incidence in mucinous tumors than serous tumors, they lack KIT-activating mutations in exon 11. Thus, ovarian surface epithelial tumors are unlikely to respond to imatinib mesylate. PMID:16479070

  7. Lack of CHEK2 gene mutations in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients using high resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Fayaz, Shima; Fard-Esfahani, Pezhman; Torbati, Peyman Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, mutations in the genes involved in cell cycle control, including CHEK2, are being considered as etiological factors in different kinds of cancers. The CHEK2 protein plays an important role in protecting damaged DNA from entering mitosis. In this study the potential effects of two common mutations IVS2+1G?A and Ile157Thr of CHEK2 gene in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) were evaluated. A total of 100 patients admitted to the Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine were diagnosed with DTC based on pathology reports of surgery samples. An additional 100 people were selected as a control group with no cancer history. PCR-HRM (high resolution melting) analysis was performed to deal with each of mutations in all case and control samples separately. During the analysis of IVS2+1G?A and Ile157Thr mutations of CHEK2 gene in the case and control groups, all the samples were identified as wild homozygote type. The finding suggests that IVS2+1G?A and Ile157Thr mutations of CHEK2 gene do not constitute a risk factor for DTC in the Iranian population. However, further studies with a larger population are required to confirm the outcome.

  8. The timing of UV mutagenesis in yeast: a pedigree analysis of induced recessive mutation.

    PubMed

    James, A P; Kilbey, B J

    1977-10-01

    The mechanism of UV-induced mutation in eukaryotes was studied in individual yeast cells by a procedure that combined pedigree analysis and tetrad analysis. The technique involved the induction of recessive lethals and semilethals in G1 diploid cells. Induced frequencies were 25 and 61 percent at survival levels of 90 and 77 percent, respectively. No evidence of gross chromosome aberrations was detected. Recessive mutations that affect only one strand or that affect both strands of the DNA molecule are induced much at random among a population of cells, and both types can occur within the same cell. However, the data confirm that two-strand mutations are in the majority after a low level of irradiation. The simplest explanation involves a mechanism whereby most mutations are fixed in both strands prior to the first round of post-irradiation DNA replication. The recessive mutational consequences of irradiation are exhausted at the conclusion of the first post-irradiation cell division, although dominant-lethal sectoring continues at a high level through the second post-irradiation division. It is concluded that pyrimidine dimers that persist to the second round of DNA replication are rare or ineffective.

  9. Mutational analysis of multiple lung cancers: Discrimination between primary and metastatic lung cancers by genomic profile.

    PubMed

    Goto, Taichiro; Hirotsu, Yosuke; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Nakagomi, Takahiro; Shikata, Daichi; Yokoyama, Yujiro; Oyama, Toshio; Amemiya, Kenji; Okimoto, Kenichiro; Omata, Masao

    2017-05-09

    In cases of multiple lung cancers, individual tumors may represent either a primary lung cancer or both primary and metastatic lung cancers. Treatment selection varies depending on such features, and this discrimination is critically important in predicting prognosis. The present study was undertaken to determine the efficacy and validity of mutation analysis as a means of determining whether multiple lung cancers are primary or metastatic in nature. The study involved 12 patients who underwent surgery in our department for multiple lung cancers between July 2014 and March 2016. Tumor cells were collected from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of the primary lesions by using laser capture microdissection, and targeted sequencing of 53 lung cancer-related genes was performed. In surgically treated patients with multiple lung cancers, the driver mutation profile differed among the individual tumors. Meanwhile, in a case of a solitary lung tumor that appeared after surgery for double primary lung cancers, gene mutation analysis using a bronchoscopic biopsy sample revealed a gene mutation profile consistent with the surgically resected specimen, thus demonstrating that the tumor in this case was metastatic. In cases of multiple lung cancers, the comparison of driver mutation profiles clarifies the clonal origin of the tumors and enables discrimination between primary and metastatic tumors.

  10. Structural analysis of thermostabilizing mutations of cocaine esterase

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, Diwahar; Nance, Mark R.; Gao, Daquan

    Cocaine is considered to be the most addictive of all substances of abuse and mediates its effects by inhibiting monoamine transporters, primarily the dopamine transporters. There are currently no small molecules that can be used to combat its toxic and addictive properties, in part because of the difficulty of developing compounds that inhibit cocaine binding without having intrinsic effects on dopamine transport. Most of the effective cocaine inhibitors also display addictive properties. We have recently reported the use of cocaine esterase (CocE) to accelerate the removal of systemic cocaine and to prevent cocaine-induced lethality. However, wild-type CocE is relatively unstablemore » at physiological temperatures ({tau}{sub 1/2} {approx} 13 min at 37 C), presenting challenges for its development as a viable therapeutic agent. We applied computational approaches to predict mutations to stabilize CocE and showed that several of these have increased stability both in vitro and in vivo, with the most efficacious mutant (T172R/G173Q) extending half-life up to 370 min. Here we present novel X-ray crystallographic data on these mutants that provide a plausible model for the observed enhanced stability. We also more extensively characterize the previously reported variants and report on a new stabilizing mutant, L169K. The improved stability of these engineered CocE enzymes will have a profound influence on the use of this protein to combat cocaine-induced toxicity and addiction in humans.« less

  11. Mutational analysis of the MS2 lysis protein L

    PubMed Central

    Chamakura, Karthik R.; Edwards, Garrett B.

    2017-01-01

    Small single-stranded nucleic acid phages effect lysis by expressing a single protein, the amurin, lacking muralytic enzymatic activity. Three amurins have been shown to act like ‘protein antibiotics’ by inhibiting cell-wall biosynthesis. However, the L lysis protein of the canonical ssRNA phage MS2, a 75 aa polypeptide, causes lysis by an unknown mechanism without affecting net peptidoglycan synthesis. To identify residues important for lytic function, randomly mutagenized alleles of L were generated, cloned into an inducible plasmid and the transformants were selected on agar containing the inducer. From a total of 396 clones, 67 were unique single base-pair changes that rendered L non-functional, of which 44 were missense mutants and 23 were nonsense mutants. Most of the non-functional missense alleles that accumulated in levels comparable to the wild-type allele are localized in the C-terminal half of L, clustered in and around an LS dipeptide sequence. The LS motif was used to align L genes from ssRNA phages lacking any sequence similarity to MS2 or to each other. This alignment revealed a conserved domain structure, in terms of charge, hydrophobic character and predicted helical content. None of the missense mutants affected membrane-association of L. Several of the L mutations in the central domains were highly conservative and recessive, suggesting a defect in a heterotypic protein–protein interaction, rather than in direct disruption of the bilayer structure, as had been previously proposed for L. PMID:28691656

  12. A mutational analysis of U12-dependent splice site dinucleotides

    PubMed Central

    DIETRICH, ROSEMARY C.; FULLER, JOHN D.; PADGETT, RICHARD A.

    2005-01-01

    Introns spliced by the U12-dependent minor spliceosome are divided into two classes based on their splice site dinucleotides. The /AU-AC/ class accounts for about one-third of U12-dependent introns in humans, while the /GU-AG/ class accounts for the other two-thirds. We have investigated the in vivo and in vitro splicing phenotypes of mutations in these dinucleotide sequences. A 5′ A residue can splice to any 3′ residue, although C is preferred. A 5′ G residue can splice to 3′ G or U residues with a preference for G. Little or no splicing was observed to 3′ A or C residues. A 5′ U or C residue is highly deleterious for U12-dependent splicing, although some combinations, notably 5′ U to 3′ U produced detectable spliced products. The dependence of 3′ splice site activity on the identity of the 5′ residue provides evidence for communication between the first and last nucleotides of the intron. Most mutants in the second position of the 5′ splice site and the next to last position of the 3′ splice site were defective for splicing. Double mutants of these residues showed no evidence of communication between these nucleotides. Varying the distance between the branch site and the 3′ splice site dinucleotide in the /GU-AG/ class showed that a somewhat larger range of distances was functional than for the /AU-AC/ class. The optimum branch site to 3′ splice site distance of 11–12 nucleotides appears to be the same for both classes. PMID:16043500

  13. Mutation analysis of pre-mRNA splicing genes in Chinese families with retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xinyuan; Chen, Xue; Liu, Xiaoxing; Gao, Xiang; Kang, Xiaoli; Xu, Qihua; Chen, Xuejuan; Zhao, Kanxing; Zhang, Xiumei; Chu, Qiaomei; Wang, Xiuying

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Seven genes involved in precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) splicing have been implicated in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). We sought to detect mutations in all seven genes in Chinese families with RP, to characterize the relevant phenotypes, and to evaluate the prevalence of mutations in splicing genes in patients with adRP. Methods Six unrelated families from our adRP cohort (42 families) and two additional families with RP with uncertain inheritance mode were clinically characterized in the present study. Targeted sequence capture with next-generation massively parallel sequencing (NGS) was performed to screen mutations in 189 genes including all seven pre-mRNA splicing genes associated with adRP. Variants detected with NGS were filtered with bioinformatics analyses, validated with Sanger sequencing, and prioritized with pathogenicity analysis. Results Mutations in pre-mRNA splicing genes were identified in three individual families including one novel frameshift mutation in PRPF31 (p.Leu366fs*1) and two known mutations in SNRNP200 (p.Arg681His and p.Ser1087Leu). The patients carrying SNRNP200 p.R681H showed rapid disease progression, and the family carrying p.S1087L presented earlier onset ages and more severe phenotypes compared to another previously reported family with p.S1087L. In five other families, we identified mutations in other RP-related genes, including RP1 p. Ser781* (novel), RP2 p.Gln65* (novel) and p.Ile137del (novel), IMPDH1 p.Asp311Asn (recurrent), and RHO p.Pro347Leu (recurrent). Conclusions Mutations in splicing genes identified in the present and our previous study account for 9.5% in our adRP cohort, indicating the important role of pre-mRNA splicing deficiency in the etiology of adRP. Mutations in the same splicing gene, or even the same mutation, could correlate with different phenotypic severities, complicating the genotype–phenotype correlation and clinical prognosis. PMID:24940031

  14. Mutation and polymorphism analysis of the human homogentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase gene in alkaptonuria patients.

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Valero de Bernabé, D; Granadino, B; Chiarelli, I; Porfirio, B; Mayatepek, E; Aquaron, R; Moore, M M; Festen, J J; Sanmartí, R; Peñalva, M A; de Córdoba, S R

    1998-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU), a rare hereditary disorder of phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolism, was the first disease to be interpreted as an inborn error of metabolism. AKU patients are deficient for homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase (HGO); this deficiency causes homogentisic aciduria, ochronosis, and arthritis. We cloned the human HGO gene and characterized two loss-of-function mutations, P230S and V300G, in the HGO gene in AKU patients. Here we report haplotype and mutational analysis of the HGO gene in 29 novel AKU chromosomes. We identified 12 novel mutations: 8 (E42A, W97G, D153G, S189I, I216T, R225H, F227S, and M368V) missense mutations that result in amino acid substitutions at positions conserved in HGO in different species, 1 (F10fs) frameshift mutation, 2 intronic mutations (IVS9-56G-->A, IVS9-17G-->A), and 1 splice-site mutation (IVS5+1G-->T). We also report characterization of five polymorphic sites in HGO and describe the haplotypic associations of alleles at these sites in normal and AKU chromosomes. One of these sites, HGO-3, is a variable dinucleotide repeat; IVS2+35T/A, IVS5+25T/C, and IVS6+46C/A are intronic sites at which single nucleotide substitutions (dimorphisms) have been detected; and c407T/A is a relatively frequent nucleotide substitution in the coding sequence, exon 4, resulting in an amino acid change (H80Q). These data provide insight into the origin and evolution of the various AKU alleles. PMID:9529363

  15. Targeted next-generation sequencing analysis identifies novel mutations in families with severe familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Hong; Wu, Ji-Hong; Li, Jian-Kang; Hu, Fang-Yuan; Zheng, Yu; Tellier, Laurent Christian Asker M; Zhang, Sheng-Hai; Gao, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Xu, Ge-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disease, characterized by failure of vascular development of the peripheral retina. The symptoms of FEVR vary widely among patients in the same family, and even between the two eyes of a given patient. This study was designed to identify the genetic defect in a patient cohort of ten Chinese families with a definitive diagnosis of FEVR. To identify the causative gene, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based target capture sequencing was performed. Segregation analysis of the candidate variant was performed in additional family members by using Sanger sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR). Of the cohort of ten FEVR families, six pathogenic variants were identified, including four novel and two known heterozygous mutations. Of the variants identified, four were missense variants, and two were novel heterozygous deletion mutations [ LRP5 , c.4053 DelC (p.Ile1351IlefsX88); TSPAN12 , EX8Del]. The two novel heterozygous deletion mutations were not observed in the control subjects and could give rise to a relatively severe FEVR phenotype, which could be explained by the protein function prediction. We identified two novel heterozygous deletion mutations [ LRP5 , c.4053 DelC (p.Ile1351IlefsX88); TSPAN12 , EX8Del] using targeted NGS as a causative mutation for FEVR. These genetic deletion variations exhibit a severe form of FEVR, with tractional retinal detachments compared with other known point mutations. The data further enrich the mutation spectrum of FEVR and enhance our understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations to provide useful information for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and effective genetic counseling.

  16. Targeted next-generation sequencing analysis identifies novel mutations in families with severe familial exudative vitreoretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Hong; Wu, Ji-Hong; Li, Jian-Kang; Hu, Fang-Yuan; Zheng, Yu; Tellier, Laurent Christian Asker M.; Zhang, Sheng-Hai; Gao, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disease, characterized by failure of vascular development of the peripheral retina. The symptoms of FEVR vary widely among patients in the same family, and even between the two eyes of a given patient. This study was designed to identify the genetic defect in a patient cohort of ten Chinese families with a definitive diagnosis of FEVR. Methods To identify the causative gene, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based target capture sequencing was performed. Segregation analysis of the candidate variant was performed in additional family members by using Sanger sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR). Results Of the cohort of ten FEVR families, six pathogenic variants were identified, including four novel and two known heterozygous mutations. Of the variants identified, four were missense variants, and two were novel heterozygous deletion mutations [LRP5, c.4053 DelC (p.Ile1351IlefsX88); TSPAN12, EX8Del]. The two novel heterozygous deletion mutations were not observed in the control subjects and could give rise to a relatively severe FEVR phenotype, which could be explained by the protein function prediction. Conclusions We identified two novel heterozygous deletion mutations [LRP5, c.4053 DelC (p.Ile1351IlefsX88); TSPAN12, EX8Del] using targeted NGS as a causative mutation for FEVR. These genetic deletion variations exhibit a severe form of FEVR, with tractional retinal detachments compared with other known point mutations. The data further enrich the mutation spectrum of FEVR and enhance our understanding of genotype–phenotype correlations to provide useful information for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and effective genetic counseling. PMID:28867931

  17. Mutation analysis of the carbohydrate sulfotransferase gene in Vietnamese with macular corneal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Ha, Nguyen Thanh; Chau, Hoang Minh; Cung, Le Xuan; Thanh, Ton Kim; Fujiki, Keiko; Murakami, Akira; Hiratsuka, Yoshimune; Kanai, Atsushi

    2003-08-01

    Mutations in a new carbohydrate sulfotransferase gene (CHST6) encoding corneal N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfotransferase (C-GlcNac-6-ST) have been identified as the cause of macular corneal dystrophy (MCD) in various ethnicities. This study was conducted to examine the CHST6 gene in Vietnamese with MCD. Nineteen unrelated families, including 35 patients and 38 unaffected relatives were examined clinically. Blood samples were collected. Fifty normal Vietnamese individuals served as control subjects. Genomic DNA was extracted from leukocytes. Analysis of the CHST6 gene was performed with polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Corneal buttons were studied histopathologically. A slit lamp examination revealed clinical features of MCD with gray-white opacities and stromal haze between. On histopathology, corneal sections showed positive staining with colloidal iron. Sequencing of the CHST6 gene revealed six homozygous and three compound heterozygous mutations. The homozygous mutations, including L59P, V66L, R211Q, W232X, Y268C, and 1067-1068ins(GGCCGTG) were detected, respectively, in two, one, eight, one, one, and two families. Compound heterozygous mutations R211Q/Q82X, S51L/Y268C, and Y268C/1067-1068ins(GGCCGTG) were identified, each in one family. A single heterozygous change at codon 76 (GTG-->ATG) was detected in family L, resulting in a valine-to-methionine substitution (V76M). None of these mutations was detected in the control group. Mutations identified in the CHST6 gene cosegregated with the disease phenotype in all but one family studied and thus caused MCD. Among these, the R211Q detected in 9 of 19 families may be the most common mutation in Vietnamese. These data also indicate that significant allelic heterogeneity exists for MCD.

  18. Mutation analysis for DJ-1 in sporadic and familial parkinsonism: screening strategy in parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Li, Yuanzhe; Yoshino, Hiroyo; Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Kubo, Shin-Ichiro; Toda, Tatsushi; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2009-05-22

    DJ-1 mutations cause autosomal recessive parkinsonism (ARP). Although some reports of DJ-1 mutations have been published, there is lack of information on the prevalence of these mutations in large-scale studies of both familial and sporadic parkinsonism. In this genetic screening study, we analyzed the distribution and frequency of DJ-1 mutations by direct nucleotide sequencing of coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of DJ-1, in 386 parkin-negative parkinsonism patients (371 index cases: 67 probands of autosomal recessive parkinsonism families, 90 probands of autosomal dominant parkinsonism families, 201 patients with sporadic parkinsonism, and 13 with unknown family histories) from 12 countries (Japan 283, China 27, Taiwan 22, Korea 22, Israel 16, Turkey 5, Philippines 2, Bulgaria 2, Greece 2, Tunisia 1, USA 2, Ukraine 1, unknown 1). None had causative mutation in DJ-1, suggesting DJ-1 mutation is very rare among patients with familial and sporadic parkinsonism from Asian countries and those with other ethnic background. This is in contrast to the higher frequencies and worldwide distribution of parkin- and PINK1-related parkinsonism in ARP and sporadic parkinsonism. Thus, after obtaining clinical information, screening for mutations in (1) parkin, (2) PINK1, (3) DJ-1, (4) ATP13A2 should be conducted in that order, in ARP and sporadic parkinsonism, based on their reported frequencies. In addition, haplotype analysis should be employed to check for homozygosity of 1p36, which harbors a cluster of causative genes for ARP such as DJ-1, PINK1 and ATP13A2 in ARP and sporadic parkinsonism, especially in parkinsonism with consanguinity.

  19. CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-1-METHIONINE: ARSENIC (III) METHYLTRANSFERASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF RAT
    S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC(III) METHYLTRANSFERASE

    Stephen B. Waters, Ph.D., Miroslav Styblo, Ph.D., Melinda A. Beck, Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; David J. Thomas, Ph.D., U.S. Environmental...

  20. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS INDUCED BY MUTAGENS IN THE TK GENE OF MOUSE LYMPHOMA CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS INDUCED BY BROMATE AND N- ETHYL-N-NITROSOUREA IN THE TK GENE OF MOUSE L YMPHOMA CELLS

    The mouse lymphoma assay is widely used to identify chemical mutagens The Tk +1- gene located on an autosome in mouse lymphoma cells may recover a wide ra...

  1. New insights into thyroglobulin gene: molecular analysis of seven novel mutations associated with goiter and hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Citterio, Cintia E; Machiavelli, Gloria A; Miras, Mirta B; Gruñeiro-Papendieck, Laura; Lachlan, Katherine; Sobrero, Gabriela; Chiesa, Ana; Walker, Joanna; Muñoz, Liliana; Testa, Graciela; Belforte, Fiorella S; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Rivolta, Carina M; Targovnik, Héctor M

    2013-01-30

    The thyroglobulin (TG) gene is organized in 48 exons, spanning over 270 kb on human chromosome 8q24. Up to now, 62 inactivating mutations in the TG gene have been identified in patients with congenital goiter and endemic or non-endemic simple goiter. The purpose of the present study was to identify and characterize new mutations in the TG gene. We report 13 patients from seven unrelated families with goiter, hypothyroidism and low levels of serum TG. All patients underwent clinical, biochemical and imaging evaluation. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, endonuclease restriction analysis, sequencing of DNA, genotyping, population screening, and bioinformatics studies were performed. Molecular analyses revealed seven novel inactivating TG mutations: c.378C>A [p.Y107X], c.2359C>T [p.R768X], c.2736delG [p.R893fsX946], c.3842G>A [p.C1262Y], c.5466delA [p.K1803fsX1833], c.6000C>G [p.C1981W] and c.6605C>G [p.P2183R] and three previously reported mutations: c.886C>T [p.R277X], c.6701C>A [p.A2215D] and c.7006C>T [p.R2317X]. Six patients from two families were homozygous for p.R277X mutation, four were compound heterozygous mutations (p.Y107X/p.C1262Y, p.R893fsX946/p.A2215D, p.K1803fsX1832/p.R2317X), one carried three identified mutations (p.R277X/p.C1981W-p.P2183R) together with a hypothetical micro deletion and the remaining two siblings from another family with typical phenotype had a single p.R768X mutated allele. In conclusion, our results confirm the genetic heterogeneity of TG defects and the pathophysiological importance of altered TG folding as a consequency of truncated TG proteins and missense mutations located in ACHE-like domain or that replace cysteine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Whole-Genome Analysis Reveals that Mutations in Inositol Polyphosphate Phosphatase-like 1 Cause Opsismodysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Below, Jennifer E.; Earl, Dawn L.; Shively, Kathryn M.; McMillin, Margaret J.; Smith, Joshua D.; Turner, Emily H.; Stephan, Mark J.; Al-Gazali, Lihadh I.; Hertecant, Jozef L.; Chitayat, David; Unger, Sheila; Cohn, Daniel H.; Krakow, Deborah; Swanson, James M.; Faustman, Elaine M.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Opsismodysplasia is a rare, autosomal-recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature, characteristic facial features, and in some cases severe renal phosphate wasting. We used linkage analysis and whole-genome sequencing of a consanguineous trio to discover that mutations in inositol polyphosphate phosphatase-like 1 (INPPL1) cause opsismodysplasia with or without renal phosphate wasting. Evaluation of 12 families with opsismodysplasia revealed that INPPL1 mutations explain ∼60% of cases overall, including both of the families in our cohort with more than one affected child and 50% of the simplex cases. PMID:23273567

  3. Analysis of KRAS and BRAF genes mutation in the central nervous system metastases of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Nicoś, Marcin; Krawczyk, Paweł; Jarosz, Bożena; Sawicki, Marek; Szumiłło, Justyna; Trojanowski, Tomasz; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-05-01

    KRAS mutations are associated with tumor resistance to EGFR TKIs (erlotinib, gefitinib) and to monoclonal antibody against EGFR (cetuximab). Targeted treatment of mutated RAS patients is still considered as a challenge. Inhibitors of c-Met (onartuzumab or tiwantinib) and MEK (selumetinib-a dual inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2) signaling pathways showed activity in patients with mutations in KRAS that can became an effective approach in carriers of such disorders. BRAF mutation is very rare in patients with NSCLC, and its presence is associated with sensitivity of tumor cells to BRAF inhibitors (vemurafenib, dabrafenib). In the present study, the frequency and type of KRAS and BRAF mutation were assessed in 145 FFPE tissue samples from CNS metastases of NSCLC. In 30 patients, material from the primary tumor was simultaneously available. Real-time PCR technique with allele-specific molecular probe (KRAS/BRAF Mutation Analysis Kit, Entrogen, USA) was used for molecular tests. KRAS mutations were detected in 21.4 % of CNS metastatic lesions and in 23.3 % of corresponding primary tumors. Five mutations were identified both in primary and in metastatic lesions, while one mutation only in primary tumor and one mutation only in the metastatic tumor. Most of mutations were observed in codon 12 of KRAS; however, an individual patient had diagnosed a rare G13D and Q61R substitutions. KRAS mutations were significantly more frequent in adenocarcinoma patients and smokers. Additional analysis indicated one patient with rare coexistence of KRAS and DDR2 mutations. BRAF mutation was not detected in the examined materials. KRAS frequency appears to be similar in primary and CNS.

  4. [Analysis of H63D mutation in hemochromatosis (HFE) gene in populations of central Eurasia].

    PubMed

    Khusainova, R I; Khusnutdinova, N N; Litvinov, S S; Khusnutdinova, E K

    2013-02-01

    An analysis of the frequency of H63D (c. 187C>G) mutations in the HFEgene in 19 populations from Central Eurasia demonstrated that the distribution of the mutation in the region of interest was not uniform and that there were the areas of H63D accumulation. The investigation of three polymorphic variants, c.340+4T>C (rs2071303, IVS2(+4)T>C), c.893-44T>C (rs1800708, IVS4(-44)T>C), and c.1007-47G>A (rs1572982, IVS5(-47)A>G), in the HFE gene in individuals homozygous for H63D mutations in the HFE gene revealed the linkage of H63D with three haplotypes, *CTA, *TG, and *TTA. These findings indicated the partial spread of the mutation in Central Eurasia from Western Europe, as well as the possible repeated appearance of the mutation on the territory on interest.

  5. AB036. Analysis of human mitochondrial genome mutations of Vietnamese patients tentatively diagnosed with encephalomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nghia, Phan Tuan; Thai, Trinh Hong; Hue, Truong Thi; Van Minh, Nguyen; Khanh, Phung Bao; Hiep, Tran Duc; Anh, Tran Kieu; Loan, Nguyen Thi Hong; Van, Nguyen Thi Hong; Anh, Pham Van; Hung, Cao Vu; Anh, Le Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    Human mitochondrial genome consists of 16,569 bp, and replicates independently from the nuclear genome. Mutations in mitochondrial genome are usually causative factors of various metabolic disorders, especially those of encephalomyopathy. DNA analysis is the most reliable method for detection of mitochondrial genome mutations, and accordingly an excellent diagnostic tool for mitochondrial mutation-related diseases. In this study, 19 different mitochondrial genome mutations including A3243G, A3251G, T3271C and T3291C (MELAS); A8344G, T8356C and G8363A (MERRF); G3460A, G11778A and T14484C (LHON); T8993G/C and T9176G (Leigh); A1555G (deafness) and A4225G, G4298A, T10010C, T14727C, T14728C, T14709C (encephalomyopathy in general) were analyzed using PCR-RFLP in combination with DNA sequencing. In addition, a real-time PCR method using locked nucleic acid (LNA) Taqman probe was set up for heteroplasmy determination. Screening of 283 tentatively diagnosed encephalomyopathy patients revealed 7 cases of A3243G, 1 case of G11778A, 1 case of A1555G, 1 case of A4225G, 1 case G4298A, and 1 case of 6 bp (ACTCCT/CTCCTA) deletion. Using the LNA Taqman probe real-time PCR, the heteroplasmy of some point mutations was determined and the results support a potential relationship between heteroplasmy level and severity of the disease.

  6. [Analysis of USH2A gene mutation in a Chinese family affected with Usher syndrome].

    PubMed

    Li, Pengcheng; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Mingchang; Wang, Qiufen; Liu, Mugen

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the disease-causing mutation in a Chinese family affected with Usher syndrome type II. All of the 11 members from the family underwent comprehensive ophthalmologic examination and hearing test, and their genomic DNA were isolated from venous leukocytes. PCR and direct sequencing of USH2A gene were performed for the proband. Wild type and mutant type minigene vectors containing exon 42, intron 42 and exon 43 of the USH2A gene were constructed and transfected into Hela cells by lipofectamine reagent. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was carried out to verify the splicing of the minigenes. Pedigree analysis and clinical diagnosis indicated that the patients have suffered from autosomal recessive Usher syndrome type II. DNA sequencing has detected a homozygous c.8559-2A>G mutation of the USH2A gene in the proband, which has co-segregated with the disease in the family. The mutation has affected a conserved splice site in intron 42, which has led to inactivation of the splice site. Minigene experiment has confirmed the retaining of intron 42 in mature mRNA. The c.8559-2A>G mutation in the USH2A gene probably underlies the Usher syndrome type II in this family. The splice site mutation has resulted in abnormal splicing of USH2A pre-mRNA.

  7. Screening of mutations affecting protein stability and dynamics of FGFR1-A simulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Doss, C George Priya; Rajith, B; Garwasis, Nimisha; Mathew, Pretty Raju; Raju, Anand Solomon; Apoorva, K; William, Denise; Sadhana, N R; Himani, Tanwar; Dike, I P

    2012-12-01

    Single amino acid substitutions in Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 ( FGFR1 ) destabilize protein and have been implicated in several genetic disorders like various forms of cancer, Kallamann syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome, Jackson Weiss syndrome, etc. In order to gain functional insight into mutation caused by amino acid substitution to protein function and expression, special emphasis was laid on molecular dynamics simulation techniques in combination with in silico tools such as SIFT, PolyPhen 2.0, I-Mutant 3.0 and SNAP. It has been estimated that 68% nsSNPs were predicted to be deleterious by I-Mutant, slightly higher than SIFT (37%), PolyPhen 2.0 (61%) and SNAP (58%). From the observed results, P722S mutation was found to be most deleterious by comparing results of all in silico tools. By molecular dynamics approach, we have shown that P722S mutation leads to increase in flexibility, and deviated more from the native structure which was supported by the decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds. In addition, biophysical analysis revealed a clear insight of stability loss due to P722S mutation in FGFR1 protein. Majority of mutations predicted by these in silico tools were in good concordance with the experimental results.

  8. Prognostic Value of RUNX1 Mutations in AML: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed

    Jalili, Mahdi; Yaghmaie, Marjan; Ahmadvand, Mohammad; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Mousavi, Seyed Asadollah; Vaezi, Mohammad; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2018-02-26

    The RUNX1 (AML1) gene is a relatively infrequent mutational target in cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Previous work indicated that RUNX1 mutations can have pathological and prognostic implications. To evaluate prognostic value, we conducted a meta-analysis of 4 previous published works with data for survival according to RUNX1 mutation status. Pooled hazard ratios for overall survival and disease-free survival were 1.55 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11–2.15; p-value = 0.01) and 1.76 (95% CI = 1.24–2.52; p-value = 0.002), respectively, for cases positive for RUNX1 mutations. This evidence supports clinical implications of RUNX1 mutations in the development and progression of AML cases and points to the possibility of a distinct category within the newer WHO classification. Though it must be kept in mind that the present work was based on data extracted from observational studies, the findings suggest that the RUNX1 status can contribute to risk-stratification and decision-making in management of AML. Creative Commons Attribution License

  9. Genetic mutation analysis of human gastric adenocarcinomas using ion torrent sequencing platform.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi; Huo, Xinying; Ye, Hua; Tang, Chuanning; Nandakumar, Vijayalakshmi; Lou, Feng; Zhang, Dandan; Dong, Haichao; Sun, Hong; Jiang, Shouwen; Zhang, Guangchun; Liu, Zhiyuan; Dong, Zhishou; Guo, Baishuai; He, Yan; Yan, Chaowei; Wang, Lu; Su, Ziyi; Li, Yangyang; Gu, Dongying; Zhang, Xiaojing; Wu, Xiaomin; Wei, Xiaowei; Hong, Lingzhi; Zhang, Yangmei; Yang, Jinsong; Gong, Yonglin; Tang, Cuiju; Jones, Lindsey; Huang, Xue F; Chen, Si-Yi; Chen, Jinfei

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the one of the major causes of cancer-related death, especially in Asia. Gastric adenocarcinoma, the most common type of gastric cancer, is heterogeneous and its incidence and cause varies widely with geographical regions, gender, ethnicity, and diet. Since unique mutations have been observed in individual human cancer samples, identification and characterization of the molecular alterations underlying individual gastric adenocarcinomas is a critical step for developing more effective, personalized therapies. Until recently, identifying genetic mutations on an individual basis by DNA sequencing remained a daunting task. Recent advances in new next-generation DNA sequencing technologies, such as the semiconductor-based Ion Torrent sequencing platform, makes DNA sequencing cheaper, faster, and more reliable. In this study, we aim to identify genetic mutations in the genes which are targeted by drugs in clinical use or are under development in individual human gastric adenocarcinoma samples using Ion Torrent sequencing. We sequenced 737 loci from 45 cancer-related genes in 238 human gastric adenocarcinoma samples using the Ion Torrent Ampliseq Cancer Panel. The sequencing analysis revealed a high occurrence of mutations along the TP53 locus (9.7%) in our sample set. Thus, this study indicates the utility of a cost and time efficient tool such as Ion Torrent sequencing to screen cancer mutations for the development of personalized cancer therapy.

  10. Screening of mutations affecting protein stability and dynamics of FGFR1—A simulation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Doss, C. George Priya; Rajith, B.; Garwasis, Nimisha; Mathew, Pretty Raju; Raju, Anand Solomon; Apoorva, K.; William, Denise; Sadhana, N.R.; Himani, Tanwar; Dike, IP.

    2012-01-01

    Single amino acid substitutions in Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1) destabilize protein and have been implicated in several genetic disorders like various forms of cancer, Kallamann syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome, Jackson Weiss syndrome, etc. In order to gain functional insight into mutation caused by amino acid substitution to protein function and expression, special emphasis was laid on molecular dynamics simulation techniques in combination with in silico tools such as SIFT, PolyPhen 2.0, I-Mutant 3.0 and SNAP. It has been estimated that 68% nsSNPs were predicted to be deleterious by I-Mutant, slightly higher than SIFT (37%), PolyPhen 2.0 (61%) and SNAP (58%). From the observed results, P722S mutation was found to be most deleterious by comparing results of all in silico tools. By molecular dynamics approach, we have shown that P722S mutation leads to increase in flexibility, and deviated more from the native structure which was supported by the decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds. In addition, biophysical analysis revealed a clear insight of stability loss due to P722S mutation in FGFR1 protein. Majority of mutations predicted by these in silico tools were in good concordance with the experimental results. PMID:27896051

  11. Dissecting the Mutational Landscape of Cutaneous Melanoma: An Omic Analysis Based on Patients from Greece

    PubMed Central

    Piroti, Georgia; Papadodima, Olga

    2018-01-01

    Melanoma is a lethal type of skin cancer, unless it is diagnosed early. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is a valuable source for molecular assays after diagnostic examination, but isolated nucleic acids often suffer from degradation. Here, for the first time, we examine primary melanomas from Greek patients, using whole exome sequencing, so as to derive their mutational profile. Application of a bioinformatic framework revealed a total of 10,030 somatic mutations. Regarding the genes containing putative protein-altering mutations, 73 were common in at least three patients. Sixty-five of these 73 top common genes have been previously identified in melanoma cases. Biological processes related to melanoma were affected by varied genes in each patient, suggesting differences in the components of a pathway possibly contributing to pathogenesis. We performed a multi-level analysis highlighting a short list of candidate genes with a probable causative role in melanoma. PMID:29596374

  12. Mutational analysis of BRAF and KRAS in ovarian serous borderline (atypical proliferative) tumours and associated peritoneal implants

    PubMed Central

    Ardighieri, Laura; Zeppernick, Felix; Hannibal, Charlotte G; Vang, Russell; Cope, Leslie; Junge, Jette; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kurman, Robert J; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2014-01-01

    There is debate as to whether peritoneal implants associated with serous borderline tumours/atypical proliferative serous tumours (SBT/APSTs) of the ovary are derived from the primary ovarian tumour or arise independently in the peritoneum. We analysed 57 SBT/APSTs from 45 patients with advanced-stage disease identified from a nation-wide tumour registry in Denmark. Mutational analysis for hotspots in KRAS and BRAF was successful in 55 APSTs and demonstrated KRAS mutations in 34 (61.8%) and BRAF mutations in eight (14.5%). Mutational analysis was successful in 56 peritoneal implants and revealed KRAS mutations in 34 (60.7%) and BRAF mutations in seven (12.5%). Mutational analysis could not be performed in two primary tumours and in nine implants, either because DNA amplification failed or because there was insufficient tissue for mutational analysis. For these specimens we performed VE1 immunohistochemistry, which was shown to be a specific and sensitive surrogate marker for a V600E BRAF mutation. VE1 staining was positive in one of two APSTs and seven of nine implants. Thus, among 63 implants for which mutation status was known (either by direct mutational analysis or by VE1 immunohistochemistry), 34 (53.9%) had KRAS mutations and 14 (22%) had BRAF mutations, of which identical KRAS mutations were found in 34 (91%) of 37 SBT/APST–implant pairs and identical BRAF mutations in 14 (100%) of 14 SBT/APST–implant pairs. Wild-type KRAS and BRAF (at the loci investigated) were found in 11 (100%) of 11 SBT/APST–implant pairs. Overall concordance of KRAS and BRAF mutations was 95% in 59 of 62 SBT/APST–implant (non-invasive and invasive) pairs (p < 0.00001). This study provides cogent evidence that the vast majority of peritoneal implants, non-invasive and invasive, harbour the identical KRAS or BRAF mutations that are present in the associated SBT/APST, supporting the view that peritoneal implants are derived from the primary ovarian tumour. PMID:24307542

  13. Genomic Context Analysis of de Novo STXBP1 Mutations Identifies Evidence of Splice Site DNA-Motif Associated Hotspots.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Mohammed; Woodbury-Smith, Marc; Chan, Ada J S; Albanna, Ammar; Minassian, Berge; Boelman, Cyrus; Scherer, Stephen W

    2018-03-28

    Mutations within STXBP1 have been associated with a range of neurodevelopmental disorders implicating the pleotropic impact of this gene. Although the frequency of de novo mutations within STXBP1 for selective cohorts with early onset epileptic encephalopathy is more than 1%, there is no evidence for a hotspot within the gene. In this study, we analyzed the genomic context of de novo STXBP1 mutations to examine whether certain motifs indicated a greater risk of mutation. Through a comprehensive context analysis of 136 de novo /rare mutation (SNV/Indels) sites in this gene, strikingly 26.92% of all SNV mutations occurred within 5bp upstream or downstream of a 'GTA' motif ( P < 0.0005). This implies a genomic context modulated mutagenesis. Moreover, 51.85% (14 out of 27) of the 'GTA' mutations are splicing compared to 14.70% (20 out of 136) of all reported mutations within STXBP1 We also noted that 11 of these 14 'GTA' associated mutations are de novo in origin. Our analysis provides strong evidence of DNA motif modulated mutagenesis for STXBP1 de novo splicing mutations. Copyright © 2018 Uddin et al.

  14. Automated extraction and semantic analysis of mutation impacts from the biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Open Mutation Miner (OMM), the first comprehensive, fully open-source approach to automatically extract impacts and related relevant information from the biomedical literature. We assessed the performance of our work on manually annotated corpora and the results show the reliability of our approach. The representation of the extracted information into a structured format facilitates knowledge management and aids in database curation and correction. Furthermore, access to the analysis results is provided through multiple interfaces, including web services for automated data integration and desktop-based solutions for end user interactions. PMID:22759648

  15. Mutation analysis of BRCA1/2 mutations with special reference to polymorphic SNPs in Indian breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nidhi D; Shah, Parth S; Panchal, Yash Y; Katudia, Kalpesh H; Khatri, Nikunj B; Ray, Hari Shankar P; Bhatiya, Upti R; Shah, Sandip C; Shah, Bhavini S; Rao, Mandava V

    2018-01-01

    Germline mutations BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute almost equally in the causation of breast cancer (BC). The type of mutations in the Indian population that cause this condition is largely unknown. In this cohort, 79 randomized BC patients were screened for various types of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations including frameshift, nonsense, missense, in-frame and splice site types. The purified extracted DNA of each referral patient was subjected to Sanger gene sequencing using Codon Code Analyzer and Mutation Surveyor and next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods with Ion torrent software, after appropriate care. The data revealed that 35 cases were positive for BRCA1 or BRCA2 (35/79: 44.3%). BRCA2 mutations were higher (52.4%) than BRCA1 mutations (47.6%). Five novel mutations detected in this study were p.pro163 frameshift, p.asn997 frameshift, p.ser148 frameshift and two splice site single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Additionally, four nonsense and one in-frame deletion were identified, which all seemed to be pathogenic. Polymorphic SNPs contributed the highest percentage of mutations (72/82: 87.8%) and contributed to pathogenic, likely pathogenic, likely benign, benign and variant of unknown significance (VUS). Young age groups (20-60 years) had a high frequency of germline mutations (62/82;75.6%) in the Indian population. This study suggested that polymorphic SNPs contributed a high percentage of mutations along with five novel types. Younger age groups are prone to having BC with a higher mutational rate. Furthermore, the SNPs detected in exons 10, 11 and 16 of BRCA1 and BRCA2 were higher than those in other exons 2, 3 and 9 polymorphic sites in two germline genes. These may be contributory for BC although missense types are known to be susceptible for cancer depending on the type of amino acid replaced in the protein and associated with pathologic events. Accordingly, appropriate counseling and treatment may be suggested.

  16. TERT promoter mutation and its interaction with IDH mutations in glioma: Combined TERT promoter and IDH mutations stratifies lower-grade glioma into distinct survival subgroups-A meta-analysis of aggregate data.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Huy Gia; Altibi, Ahmed M A; Duong, Uyen N P; Ngo, Hanh T T; Pham, Thong Quang; Chan, Aden Ka-Yin; Park, Chul-Kee; Fung, Kar-Ming; Hassell, Lewis

    2017-12-01

    The clinical significance of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutation in glioma remains unclear. The aim of our meta-analysis is to investigate the prognostic impact TERT promoter mutation in glioma patients and its interaction with other molecular markers, particularly Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation from aggregate level data. Relevant articles were searched in four electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Virtual Health Library. Pooled HRs were calculated using random effect model weighted by inverse variance method. From 1010 studies, we finally included 28 studies with 11519 patients for meta-analyses. TERT mutation is significantly associated with compromised overall survival (OS) (HR=1.38; 95% CI=1.15-1.67) and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR=1.31; 95% CI=1.06-1.63) in glioma patients. In studying its reaction with IDH, TERT promoter mutation was associated with reduced OS in both IDH-mutant (IDH-mut) and IDH-wild type (IDH-wt) glioblastomas but shown to have inverse effects on IDH-mut and IDH-wt grade II/III tumors. Our analysis categorized WHO grade II/III glioma patients into four distinct survival subgroups with descending survival as follow: TERT-mut/IDH-mut≫TERT-wt/IDH-mut≫TERT-wt/IDH-wt≫TERT-mut/IDH-wt. Prognostic value of TERT promoter mutations in gliomas is dependent on tumor grade and the IDH mutational status. With the same tumor grade in WHO grade II and III tumors and the same IDH mutation status, TERT-mut is a prognostic factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pyrosequencing analysis for detection of a BRAFV600E mutation in an FNAB specimen of thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suk Kyeong; Kim, Dong-Lim; Han, Hye Seung; Kim, Wan Seop; Kim, Seung Ja; Moon, Won Jin; Oh, Seo Young; Hwang, Tae Sook

    2008-06-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the primary means of distinguishing benign from malignant and of guiding therapeutic intervention in thyroid nodules. However, 10% to 30% of cases with indeterminate cytology in FNAB need other diagnostic tools to refine diagnosis. We compared the pyrosequencing method with the conventional direct DNA sequencing analysis and investigated the usefulness of preoperative BRAF mutation analysis as an adjunct diagnostic tool with routine FNAB. A total of 103 surgically confirmed patients' FNA slides were recruited and DNA was extracted after atypical cells were scraped from the slides. BRAF mutation was analyzed by pyrosequencing and direct DNA sequencing. Sixty-three (77.8%) of 81 histopathologically diagnosed malignant nodules revealed positive BRAF mutation on pyrosequencing analysis. In detail, 63 (84.0%) of 75 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) samples showed positive BRAF mutation, whereas 3 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 1 anaplastic carcinoma, 1 medullary thyroid carcinoma, and 1 metastatic lung carcinoma did not show BRAF mutation. None of 22 benign nodules had BRAF mutation in both pyrosequencing and direct DNA sequencing. Out of 27 thyroid nodules classified as 'indeterminate' on cytologic examination preoperatively, 21 (77.8%) cases turned out to be malignant: 18 PTCs (including 2 follicular variant types) and 3 follicular thyroid carcinomas. Among these, 13 (61.9%) classic PTCs had BRAF mutation. None of 6 benign nodules, including 3 follicular adenomas and 3 nodular hyperplasias, had BRAF mutation. Among 63 PTCs with positive BRAF mutation detected by pyrosequencing analysis, 3 cases did not show BRAF mutation by direct DNA sequencing. Although it was not statistically significant, pyrosequencing was superior to direct DNA sequencing in detecting the BRAF mutation of thyroid nodules (P=0.25). Detecting BRAF mutation by pyrosequencing is more sensitive, faster, and less expensive than direct DNA sequencing and is

  18. [Analysis of gene mutation of early onset epileptic spasm with unknown reason].

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Pan, G; Li, W H; Zhang, L M; Wu, B B; Wang, H J; Zhang, P; Zhou, S Z

    2017-11-02

    Objective: To summarize the gene mutation of early onset epileptic spasm with unknown reason. Method: In this prospective study, data of patients with early onset epileptic spasm with unknown reason were collected from neurological department of Children's Hospital of Fudan University between March 2016 and December 2016. Patients with known disorders such as infection, metabolic, structural, immunological problems and known genetic mutations were excluded. Patients with genetic disease that can be diagnosed by clinical manifestations and phenotypic characteristics were also excluded. Genetic research methods included nervous system panel containing 1 427 epilepsy genes, whole exome sequencing (WES), analysis of copy number variation (CNV) and karyotype analysis of chromosome. The basic information, phenotypes, genetic results and the antiepileptic treatment of patients were analyzed. Result: Nine of the 17 cases with early onset epileptic spasm were boys and eight were girls. Patients' age at first seizure onset ranged from 1 day after birth to 8 months (median age of 3 months). The first hospital visit age ranged from 1 month to 2 years (median age of 4.5 months). The time of following-up ranged from 8 months to 3 years and 10 months. All the 17 patients had early onset epileptic spasm. Video electroencephalogram was used to monitor the spasm seizure. Five patients had Ohtahara syndrome, 10 had West syndrome, two had unclear classification. In 17 cases, 10 of them had detected pathogenic genes. Nine cases had point mutations, involving SCN2A, ARX, UNC80, KCNQ2, and GABRB3. Except one case of mutations in GABRB3 gene have been reported, all the other cases had new mutations. One patient had deletion mutation in CDKL5 gene. One CNV case had 6q 22.31 5.5MB repeats. Ten cases out of 17 were using 2-3 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the drugs had no effect. Seven cases used adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and prednisone besides AEDs (a total course for 8 weeks

  19. Fragment length analysis screening for detection of CEBPA mutations in intermediate-risk karyotype acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Oscar; Barragán, Eva; Bolufer, Pascual; Such, Esperanza; Valencia, Ana; Ibáñez, Mariam; Dolz, Sandra; de Juan, Inmaculada; Jiménez, Antonio; Gómez, Maria Teresa; Buño, Ismael; Martínez, Joaquín; Cervera, José; Montesinos, Pau; Moscardó, Federico; Sanz, Miguel Ángel

    2012-01-01

    During last years, molecular markers have been increased as prognostic factors routinely screened in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recently, an increasing interest has been reported in introducing to clinical practice screening for mutations in the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPA) gene in AML, as it seems to be a good prognostic factor. However, there is no reliable established method for assessing CEBPA mutations during the diagnostic work-up of AMLs. We describe here a straightforward and reliable fragment analysis method based in PCR capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE) for screening of CEBPA mutations; moreover, we present the results obtained in 151 intermediate-risk karyotype AML patients (aged 16-80 years). The method gave a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 93% with a lower detection limit of 1-5% for CEBPA mutations. The series found 19 mutations and four polymorphisms in 12 patients, seven of whom (58%) presented two mutations. The overall frequency of CEBPA mutations in AML was 8% (n = 12). CEBPA mutations showed no coincidence with FLT3-ITD or NPM1 mutations. CEBPA mutation predicted better disease-free survival in the group of patients without FLT3-ITD, NPM, or both genes mutated (HR 3.6, IC 95%; 1.0-13.2, p = 0.05) and better overall survival in patients younger than 65 of this group without molecular markers (HR 4.0, IC 95%; 1.0-17.4, p = 0.05). In conclusion, the fragment analysis method based in PCR-CE is a rapid, specific, and sensitive method for CEBPA mutation screening and our results confirm that CEBPA mutations can identify a subgroup of patients with favorable prognosis in AML with intermediate-risk karyotype.

  20. Occult HBV among Anti-HBc Alone: Mutation Analysis of an HBV Surface Gene and Pre-S Gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeong Hee; Kang, So Young; Lee, Woo In

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the molecular characteristics of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 'anti-HBc alone' subjects. Twenty-four patients with 'anti-HBc alone' and 20 control patients diagnosed with HBV were analyzed regarding S and pre-S gene mutations. All specimens were analyzed for HBs Ag, anti-HBc, and anti-HBs. For specimens with an anti-HBc alone, quantitative analysis of HBV DNA, as well as sequencing and mutation analysis of S and pre-S genes, were performed. A total 24 were analyzed for the S gene, and 14 were analyzed for the pre-S gene through sequencing. A total of 20 control patients were analyzed for S and pre-S gene simultaneously. Nineteen point mutations of the major hydrophilic region were found in six of 24 patients. Among them, three mutations, S114T, P127S/T, M133T, were detected in common. Only one mutation was found in five subjects of the control group; this mutation was not found in the occult HBV infection group, however. Pre-S mutations were detected in 10 patients, and mutations of site aa58-aa100 were detected in 9 patients. A mutation on D114E was simultaneously detected. Although five mutations from the control group were found at the same location (aa58-aa100), no mutations of occult HBV infection were detected. The prevalence of occult HBV infection is not low among 'anti-HBc alone' subjects. Variable mutations in the S gene and pre-S gene were associated with the occurrence of occult HBV infection. Further larger scale studies are required to determine the significance of newly detected mutations. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017

  1. Is High Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA) Accurate for Detection of Human Disease-Associated Mutations? A Meta Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng-Li; Jiang, Bo; Song, Xiao-Xiao; Xu, An-Gao

    2011-01-01

    Background High Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA) is becoming the preferred method for mutation detection. However, its accuracy in the individual clinical diagnostic setting is variable. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of HRMA for human mutations in comparison to DNA sequencing in different routine clinical settings, we have conducted a meta-analysis of published reports. Methodology/Principal Findings Out of 195 publications obtained from the initial search criteria, thirty-four studies assessing the accuracy of HRMA were included in the meta-analysis. We found that HRMA was a highly sensitive test for detecting disease-associated mutations in humans. Overall, the summary sensitivity was 97.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 96.8–98.5; I2 = 27.0%). Subgroup analysis showed even higher sensitivity for non-HR-1 instruments (sensitivity 98.7% (95%CI: 97.7–99.3; I2 = 0.0%)) and an eligible sample size subgroup (sensitivity 99.3% (95%CI: 98.1–99.8; I2 = 0.0%)). HRMA specificity showed considerable heterogeneity between studies. Sensitivity of the techniques was influenced by sample size and instrument type but by not sample source or dye type. Conclusions/Significance These findings show that HRMA is a highly sensitive, simple and low-cost test to detect human disease-associated mutations, especially for samples with mutations of low incidence. The burden on DNA sequencing could be significantly reduced by the implementation of HRMA, but it should be recognized that its sensitivity varies according to the number of samples with/without mutations, and positive results require DNA sequencing for confirmation. PMID:22194806

  2. Mutational Analysis of TCOF1, GSC, and HOXA2 in Patients With Treacher Collins Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shaojuan; Jin, Lei; Wang, Huijun; Li, Chenlong; Zheng, Fengyun; Ma, Duan; Zhang, Tianyu

    2016-09-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome is an autosomal dominant craniofacial malformation mainly caused by mutations in the TCOF1 gene. Few cases have been observed in the Chinese population. Herein, the authors report the mutational analysis of TCOF1, GSC, and HOXA2 to determine the mutational features of the 3 genes in Chinese patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. Genomic DNA of the patients and their parents was extracted from peripheral blood following a standard protocol. DNA sequencing analysis was performed on all exons and the exon-intron borders of TCOF1, GSC, and HOXA2 in addition to the 1200-bp upstream of TCOF1. Four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in TCOF1, one of which was in the promoter region. Mutations in GSC and HOXA2 were not found in the 3 patients. Our results suggest the possibility of genetic heterogeneity or different mechanisms leading to the disease. Further functional study of the alteration is necessary to obtain more definitive information.

  3. Mutational Analysis of TCOF1, GSC, and HOXA2 in Patients With Treacher Collins Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shaojuan; Jin, Lei; Wang, Huijun; Li, Chenlong; Zheng, Fengyun; Ma, Duan; Zhang, Tianyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Treacher Collins syndrome is an autosomal dominant craniofacial malformation mainly caused by mutations in the TCOF1 gene. Few cases have been observed in the Chinese population. Herein, the authors report the mutational analysis of TCOF1, GSC, and HOXA2 to determine the mutational features of the 3 genes in Chinese patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. Genomic DNA of the patients and their parents was extracted from peripheral blood following a standard protocol. DNA sequencing analysis was performed on all exons and the exon-intron borders of TCOF1, GSC, and HOXA2 in addition to the 1200-bp upstream of TCOF1. Four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in TCOF1, one of which was in the promoter region. Mutations in GSC and HOXA2 were not found in the 3 patients. Our results suggest the possibility of genetic heterogeneity or different mechanisms leading to the disease. Further functional study of the alteration is necessary to obtain more definitive information. PMID:27526242

  4. In silico analysis of a novel MKRN3 missense mutation in familial central precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Neocleous, Vassos; Shammas, Christos; Phelan, Marie M; Nicolaou, Stella; Phylactou, Leonidas A; Skordis, Nicos

    2016-01-01

    The onset of puberty is influenced by the interplay of stimulating and restraining factors, many of which have a genetic origin. Premature activation of the GnRH secretion in central precocious puberty (CPP) may arise either from gain-of-function mutations of the KISS1 and KISS1R genes or from loss-of-function manner mutations of the MKRN3 gene leading to MKRN3 deficiency. To explore the genetic causes responsible for CPP and the potential role of the RING finger protein 3 (MKRN3) gene. We investigated potential sequence variations in the intronless MKRN3 gene by Sanger sequencing of the entire 507 amino acid coding region of exon 1 in a family with two affected girls presented with CPP at the age of 6 and 5·7 years, respectively. A novel heterozygous g.Gly312Asp missense mutation in the MKRN3 gene was identified in these siblings. The imprinted MKRN3 missense mutation was also identified as expected in the unaffected father and followed as expected an imprinted mode of inheritance. In silico analysis of the altered missense variant using the computational algorithms Polyphen2, SIFT and Mutation Taster predicted a damage and pathogenic alteration causing CPP. The pathogenicity of the alteration at the protein level via an in silico structural model is also explored. A novel mutation in the MKRN3 gene in two sisters with CPP was identified, supporting the fundamental role of this gene in the suppression of the hypothalamic GnRH neurons. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Transcriptomic analysis and mutational status of IDH1 in paired primary-recurrent intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Peraldo-Neia, C; Ostano, P; Cavalloni, G; Pignochino, Y; Sangiolo, D; De Cecco, L; Marchesi, E; Ribero, D; Scarpa, A; De Rose, A M; Giuliani, A; Calise, F; Raggi, C; Invernizzi, P; Aglietta, M; Chiorino, G; Leone, F

    2018-06-05

    Effective target therapies for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) have not been identified so far. One of the reasons may be the genetic evolution from primary (PR) to recurrent (REC) tumors. We aim to identify peculiar characteristics and to select potential targets specific for recurrent tumors. Eighteen ICC paired PR and REC tumors were collected from 5 Italian Centers. Eleven pairs were analyzed for gene expression profiling and 16 for mutational status of IDH1. For one pair, deep mutational analysis by Next Generation Sequencing was also carried out. An independent cohort of patients was used for validation. Two class-paired comparison yielded 315 differentially expressed genes between REC and PR tumors. Up-regulated genes in RECs are involved in RNA/DNA processing, cell cycle, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), resistance to apoptosis, and cytoskeleton remodeling. Down-regulated genes participate to epithelial cell differentiation, proteolysis, apoptotic, immune response, and inflammatory processes. A 24 gene signature is able to discriminate RECs from PRs in an independent cohort; FANCG is statistically associated with survival in the chol-TCGA dataset. IDH1 was mutated in the RECs of five patients; 4 of them displayed the mutation only in RECs. Deep sequencing performed in one patient confirmed the IDH1 mutation in REC. RECs are enriched for genes involved in EMT, resistance to apoptosis, and cytoskeleton remodeling. Key players of these pathways might be considered druggable targets in RECs. IDH1 is mutated in 30% of RECs, becoming both a marker of progression and a target for therapy.

  6. Alagille syndrome in a Vietnamese cohort: mutation analysis and assessment of facial features.

    PubMed

    Lin, Henry C; Le Hoang, Phuc; Hutchinson, Anne; Chao, Grace; Gerfen, Jennifer; Loomes, Kathleen M; Krantz, Ian; Kamath, Binita M; Spinner, Nancy B

    2012-05-01

    Alagille syndrome (ALGS, OMIM #118450) is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects multiple organ systems including the liver, heart, eyes, vertebrae, and face. ALGS is caused by mutations in one of two genes in the Notch Signaling Pathway, Jagged1 (JAG1) or NOTCH2. In this study, analysis of 21 Vietnamese ALGS individuals led to the identification of 19 different mutations (18 JAG1 and 1 NOTCH2), 17 of which are novel, including the third reported NOTCH2 mutation in Alagille Syndrome. The spectrum of JAG1 mutations in the Vietnamese patients is similar to that previously reported, including nine frameshift, three missense, two splice site, one nonsense, two whole gene, and one partial gene deletion. The missense mutations are all likely to be disease causing, as two are loss of cysteines (C22R and C78G) and the third creates a cryptic splice site in exon 9 (G386R). No correlation between genotype and phenotype was observed. Assessment of clinical phenotype revealed that skeletal manifestations occur with a higher frequency than in previously reported Alagille cohorts. Facial features were difficult to assess and a Vietnamese pediatric gastroenterologist was only able to identify the facial phenotype in 61% of the cohort. To assess the agreement among North American dysmorphologists at detecting the presence of ALGS facial features in the Vietnamese patients, 37 clinical dysmorphologists evaluated a photographic panel of 20 Vietnamese children with and without ALGS. The dysmorphologists were unable to identify the individuals with ALGS in the majority of cases, suggesting that evaluation of facial features should not be used in the diagnosis of ALGS in this population. This is the first report of mutations and phenotypic spectrum of ALGS in a Vietnamese population. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Linkage and mutational analysis of familial Alzheimer disease kindreds for the APP gene region

    SciTech Connect

    Kamino, K.; Anderson, L.; O'dahl, S.

    1992-11-01

    A large number of familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) kindreds were examined to determine whether mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene could be responsible for the disease. Previous studies have identified three mutations at APP codon 717 which are pathogenic for Alzheimer disease (AD). Samples from affected subjects were examined for mutations in exons 16 and 17 of the APP gene. A combination of direct sequencing and single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis was used. Sporadic AD and normal controls were also examined by the same methods. Five sequence variants were identified. One variant at APP codon 693 resulted in amore » Glu[yields]Gly change. This is the same codon as the hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type Glu[yields]Gln mutation. Another single-base change at APP codon 708 did not alter the amino acid encoded at this site. Two point mutations and a 6-bp deletion were identified in the intronic sequences surrounding exon 17. None of the variants could be unambigously determined to be responsible for FAD. The larger families were also analyzed by testing for linkage of FAD to a highly polymorphic short tandem repeat marker (D21S210) that is tightly linked to APP. Highly negative LOD scores were obtained for the family groups tested, and linkage was formally excluded beyond [theta] = .10 for the Volga German kindreds, [theta] = .20 for early-onset non-Volga Germans, and [theta] = .10 for late-onset families. LOD scores for linkage of FAD to markers centromeric to APP (D21S1/S11, D21S13, and D21S215) were also negative in the three family groups. These studies show that APP mutations account for AD in only a small fraction of FAD kindreds. 49 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  8. Identification of feline polycystic kidney disease mutation using fret probes and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Criado-Fornelio, A; Buling, A; Barba-Carretero, J C

    2009-02-01

    We developed and validated a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using fluorescent hybridization probes and melting curve analysis to identify the PKD1 exon 29 (C-->A) mutation, which is implicated in polycystic kidney disease of cats. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood of 20 Persian cats. The employ of the new real-time PCR and melting curve analysis in these samples indicated that 13 cats (65%) were wild type homozygotes and seven cats (35%) were heterozygotes. Both PCR-RFLP and sequencing procedures were in full agreement with real-time PCR test results. Sequence analysis showed that the mutant gene had the expected base change compared to the wild type gene. The new procedure is not only very reliable but also faster than the techniques currently applied for diagnosis of the mutation.

  9. Proteomic analysis of high yield rice variety mutated from spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.; Cheng, Z.; Wang, W.; Sun, Y.

    Seeds of pure rice varieties were flown on Chinese recoverable satellite, JB-1, for a 15-day flight in 1996. Many mutant rice varieties with various phenotypes were generated after continuous selection and breeding. Among the mutants, a variety 971-5 showed a significant increase in grain yield compared to its control (971ck). In this study, proteomic analysis of both mutant variety 971-5 and control variety 971ck were carried out to investigate the changes of protein expression level in their leaves at three different growth stages (early and middle stage of tillering, and booting stage). Results showed that (1) almost all differentially expressed proteins were down-regulated in 971-5 with only one exception, (2) the percentages of differentially expressed proteins were 3.1%, 2.1% and 3.1% at the three stages, respectively, and (3) one protein showed a significant alteration in its molecular weight (MW). These data demonstrated that the space environment can alter the expression level of rice proteins both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  10. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: analysis of germline MEN1 mutations in the Italian multicenter MEN1 patient database.

    PubMed

    Marini, Francesca; Giusti, Francesca; Fossi, Caterina; Cioppi, Federica; Cianferotti, Luisella; Masi, Laura; Boaretto, Francesca; Zovato, Stefania; Cetani, Filomena; Colao, Annamaria; Davì, Maria Vittoria; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Fanciulli, Giuseppe; Ferolla, Piero; Ferone, Diego; Loli, Paola; Mantero, Franco; Marcocci, Claudio; Opocher, Giuseppe; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Persani, Luca; Scillitani, Alfredo; Guizzardi, Fabiana; Spada, Anna; Tomassetti, Paola; Tonelli, Francesco; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2018-03-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is caused by germline inactivating mutations of the MEN1 gene. Currently, no direct genotype-phenotype correlation is identified. We aim to analyze MEN1 mutation site and features, and possible correlations between the mutation type and/or the affected menin functional domain and clinical presentation in patients from the Italian multicenter MEN1 database, one of the largest worldwide MEN1 mutation series published to date. The study included the analysis of MEN1 mutation profile in 410 MEN1 patients [370 familial cases from 123 different pedigrees (48 still asymptomatic at the time of this study) and 40 single cases]. We identified 99 different mutations: 41 frameshift [small intra-exon deletions (28) or insertions (13)], 13 nonsense, 26 missense and 11 splicing site mutations, 4 in-frame small deletions, and 4 intragenic large deletions spanning more than one exon. One family had two different inactivating MEN1 mutations on the same allele. Gastro-entero-pancreatic tumors resulted more frequent in patients with a nonsense mutation, and thoracic neuroendocrine tumors in individuals bearing a splicing-site mutation. Our data regarding mutation type frequency and distribution are in accordance with previously published data: MEN1 mutations are scattered through the entire coding region, and truncating mutations are the most common in MEN1 syndrome. A specific direct correlation between MEN1 genotype and clinical phenotype was not found in all our families, and wide intra-familial clinical variability and variable disease penetrance were both confirmed, suggesting a role for modifying, still undetermined, factors, explaining the variable MEN1 tumorigenesis.

  11. Clinical and mutation analysis of 51 probands with anophthalmia and/or severe microphthalmia from a single center

    PubMed Central

    Gerth-Kahlert, Christina; Williamson, Kathleen; Ansari, Morad; Rainger, Jacqueline K; Hingst, Volker; Zimmermann, Theodor; Tech, Stefani; Guthoff, Rudolf F; van Heyningen, Veronica; FitzPatrick, David R

    2013-01-01

    Clinical evaluation and mutation analysis was performed in 51 consecutive probands with severe eye malformations – anophthalmia and/or severe microphthalmia – seen in a single specialist ophthalmology center. The mutation analysis consisted of bidirectional sequencing of the coding regions of SOX2, OTX2, PAX6 (paired domain), STRA6, BMP4, SMOC1, FOXE3, and RAX, and genome-wide array-based copy number assessment. Fifteen (29.4%) of the 51 probands had likely causative mutations affecting SOX2 (9/51), OTX2 (5/51), and STRA6 (1/51). Of the cases with bilateral anophthalmia, 9/12 (75%) were found to be mutation positive. Three of these mutations were large genomic deletions encompassing SOX2 (one case) or OTX2 (two cases). Familial inheritance of three intragenic, plausibly pathogenic, and heterozygous mutations was observed. An unaffected carrier parent of an affected child with an identified OTX2 mutation confirmed the previously reported nonpenetrance for this disorder. Two families with SOX2 mutations demonstrated a parent and child both with significant but highly variable eye malformations. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in SOX2 and OTX2 are the most common genetic pathology associated with severe eye malformations and bi-allelic loss-of-function in STRA6 is confirmed as an emerging cause of nonsyndromal eye malformations. PMID:24498598

  12. ZMYND10--Mutation Analysis in Slavic Patients with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Kurkowiak, Małgorzata; Ziętkiewicz, Ewa; Greber, Agnieszka; Voelkel, Katarzyna; Wojda, Alina; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Witt, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare recessive disease with a prevalence of 1/10,000; its symptoms are caused by a kinetic dysfunction of motile cilia in the respiratory epithelium, flagella in spermatozoids, and primary cilia in the embryonic node. PCD is genetically heterogeneous: genotyping the already known PCD-related genes explains the genetic basis in 60-65% of the cases, depending on the population. While identification of new genes involved in PCD pathogenesis remains crucial, the search for new, population-specific mutations causative for PCD is equally important. The Slavs remain far less characterized in this respect compared to West European populations, which significantly limits diagnostic capability. The main goal of this study was to characterize the profile of causative genetic defects in one of the PCD-causing genes, ZMYND10, in the cohort of PCD patients of Slavic origin. The study was carried out using biological material from 172 unrelated PCD individuals of Polish origin, with no causative mutation found in nine major PCD genes. While none of the previously described mutations was found using the HRM-based screening, a novel frameshift mutation (c.367delC) in ZMYND10, unique for Slavic PCD population, was found in homozygous state in two unrelated PCD patients. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the absence of outer and inner dynein arms from the ciliary axoneme, consistent with the already published ZMYND10-mutated phenotype; cDNA analysis revealed the lack of ZMYND10 mRNA, indicating nonsense-mediated decay of the truncated transcript.

  13. A population-based analysis of germline BAP1 mutations in melanoma.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Sally J; Robles-Espinoza, Carla Daniela; McLellan, Lauren; Harrigan, Jeanine; Jacq, Xavier; Hewinson, James; Iyer, Vivek; Merchant, Will; Elliott, Faye; Harland, Mark; Bishop, D Timothy; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Adams, David J

    2017-02-15

    Germline mutation of the BRCA1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) gene has been linked to uveal melanoma, mesothelioma, meningioma, renal cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Germline variants have also been found in familial cutaneous melanoma pedigrees, but their contribution to sporadic melanoma has not been fully assessed. We sequenced BAP1 in 1,977 melanoma cases and 754 controls and used deubiquitinase assays, a pedigree analysis, and a histopathological review to assess the consequences of the mutations found. Sequencing revealed 30 BAP1 variants in total, of which 27 were rare (ExAc allele frequency <0.002). Of the 27 rare variants, 22 were present in cases (18 missense, one splice acceptor, one frameshift and two near splice regions) and five in controls (all missense). A missense change (S98R) in a case that completely abolished BAP1 deubiquitinase activity was identified. Analysis of cancers in the pedigree of the proband carrying the S98R variant and in two other pedigrees carrying clear loss-of-function alleles showed the presence of BAP1-associated cancers such as renal cell carcinoma, mesothelioma and meningioma, but not uveal melanoma. Two of these three probands carrying BAP1 loss-of-function variants also had melanomas with histopathological features suggestive of a germline BAP1 mutation. The remaining cases with germline mutations, which were predominantly missense mutations, were associated with less typical pedigrees and tumours lacking a characteristic BAP1-associated histopathological appearances, but may still represent less penetrant variants. Germline BAP1 alleles defined as loss-of-function or predicted to be deleterious/damaging are rare in cutaneous melanoma. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. A population-based analysis of germline BAP1 mutations in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, Sally J.; Robles-Espinoza, Carla Daniela; Harrigan, Jeanine; Jacq, Xavier; Hewinson, James; Iyer, Vivek; Merchant, Will; Elliott, Faye; Harland, Mark; Bishop, D. Timothy; Newton-Bishop, Julia A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Germline mutation of the BRCA1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) gene has been linked to uveal melanoma, mesothelioma, meningioma, renal cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Germline variants have also been found in familial cutaneous melanoma pedigrees, but their contribution to sporadic melanoma has not been fully assessed. We sequenced BAP1 in 1,977 melanoma cases and 754 controls and used deubiquitinase assays, a pedigree analysis, and a histopathological review to assess the consequences of the mutations found. Sequencing revealed 30 BAP1 variants in total, of which 27 were rare (ExAc allele frequency <0.002). Of the 27 rare variants, 22 were present in cases (18 missense, one splice acceptor, one frameshift and two near splice regions) and five in controls (all missense). A missense change (S98R) in a case that completely abolished BAP1 deubiquitinase activity was identified. Analysis of cancers in the pedigree of the proband carrying the S98R variant and in two other pedigrees carrying clear loss-of-function alleles showed the presence of BAP1-associated cancers such as renal cell carcinoma, mesothelioma and meningioma, but not uveal melanoma. Two of these three probands carrying BAP1 loss-of-function variants also had melanomas with histopathological features suggestive of a germline BAP1 mutation. The remaining cases with germline mutations, which were predominantly missense mutations, were associated with less typical pedigrees and tumours lacking a characteristic BAP1-associated histopathological appearances, but may still represent less penetrant variants. Germline BAP1 alleles defined as loss-of-function or predicted to be deleterious/damaging are rare in cutaneous melanoma. PMID:28062663

  15. An Usher syndrome type 1 patient diagnosed before the appearance of visual symptoms by MYO7A mutation analysis.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Hidekane; Iwasaki, Satoshi; Kanda, Yukihiko; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Murata, Toshinori; Iwasa, Yoh-ichiro; Nishio, Shin-ya; Takumi, Yutaka; Usami, Shin-ichi

    2013-02-01

    Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) appears to have only profound non-syndromic hearing loss in childhood and retinitis pigmentosa develops in later years. This study examined the frequency of USH1 before the appearance of visual symptoms in Japanese deaf children by MYO7A mutation analysis. We report the case of 6-year-old male with profound hearing loss, who did not have visual symptoms. The frequency of MYO7A mutations in profound hearing loss children is also discussed. We sequenced all exons of the MYO7A gene in 80 Japanese children with severe to profound non-syndromic HL not due to mutations of the GJB2 gene (ages 0-14 years). A total of nine DNA variants were found and six of them were presumed to be non-pathogenic variants. In addition, three variants of them were found in two patients (2.5%) with deafness and were classified as possible pathogenic variants. Among them, at least one nonsense mutation and one missense mutation from the patient were confirmed to be responsible for deafness. After MYO7A mutation analysis, the patient was diagnosed with RP, and therefore, also diagnosed with USH1. This is the first case report to show the advantage of MYO7A mutation analysis to diagnose USH1 before the appearance of visual symptoms. We believed that MYO7A mutation analysis is valid for the early diagnosis of USH1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of novel BRCA founder mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients using capture and Sanger sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Bu, Rong; Siraj, Abdul K; Al-Obaisi, Khadija A S; Beg, Shaham; Al Hazmi, Mohsen; Ajarim, Dahish; Tulbah, Asma; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2016-09-01

    Ethnic differences of breast cancer genomics have prompted us to investigate the spectra of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in different populations. The prevalence and effect of BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutations in Middle Eastern population is not fully explored. To characterize the prevalence of BRCA mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients, BRCA mutation screening was performed in 818 unselected breast cancer patients using Capture and/or Sanger sequencing. 19 short tandem repeat (STR) markers were used for founder mutation analysis. In our study, nine different types of deleterious mutation were identified in 28 (3.4%) cases, 25 (89.3%) cases in BRCA 1 and 3 (10.7%) cases in BRCA 2. Seven recurrent mutations identified accounted for 92.9% (26/28) of all the mutant cases. Haplotype analysis was performed to confirm c.1140 dupG and c.4136_4137delCT mutations as novel putative founder mutation, accounting for 46.4% (13/28) of all BRCA mutant cases and 1.6% (13/818) of all the breast cancer cases, respectively. Moreover, BRCA 1 mutation was significantly associated with BRCA 1 protein expression loss (p = 0.0005). Our finding revealed that a substantial number of BRCA mutations were identified in clinically high risk breast cancer from Middle East region. Identification of the mutation spectrum, prevalence and founder effect in Middle Eastern population facilitates genetic counseling, risk assessment and development of cost-effective screening strategy. © 2016 UICC.

  17. Mutational analysis of FUS gene and its structural and functional role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 6.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Balu; Rajendran, Vidya; Sethumadhavan, Rao; Kumar, Chundi Vinay; Purohit, Rituraj

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 6 (ALS6) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by heterozygous mutation in the Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) gene. ALS6 is a neurodegenerative disorder, which affects the upper and lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, resulting in fatal paralysis. ALS6 is caused by the genetic mutation in the proline/tyrosine-nuclear localization signals of the Fused in sarcoma Protein (FUS). FUS gene also known as TLS (Translocated in liposarcoma), which encodes a protein called RNA-binding protein-Fus (FUS), has a molecular weight of 75 kDa. In this analysis, we applied computational approach to filter the most deleterious and neurodegenerative disease of ALS6-associated mutation on FUS protein. We found H517Q as most deleterious and disease associated using PolyPhen 2.0, I-Mutant 3.0, SIFT, SNPs&GO, PhD-SNP, Pmut, and Mutpred tools. Molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) approach was conducted to investigate conformational changes in the mutant protein structure with respect to its native conformation. MDS results showed the flexibility loss in mutant (H517Q) FUS protein. Due to mutation, FUS protein became more rigid in nature and might alter the structural and functional behavior of protein and play a major role in inducing ALS6. The results obtained from this investigation would help in the field of pharmacogenomics to develop a potent drug target against FUS-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Mutational screening in genes related with porto-pulmonary hypertension: An analysis of 6 cases.

    PubMed

    Pousada, Guillermo; Baloira, Adolfo; Valverde, Diana

    2017-04-07

    Portopulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a rare disease with a low incidence and without a clearly-identified genetic component. The aim of this work was to check genes and genetic modifiers related to pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients with PPH in order to clarify the molecular basis of the pathology. We selected a total of 6 patients with PPH and amplified the exonic regions and intronic flanking regions of the relevant genes and regions of interest of the genetic modifiers. Six patients diagnosed with PPH were analyzed and compared to 55 healthy individuals. Potentially-pathogenic mutations were identified in the analyzed genes of 5 patients. None of these mutations, which are highly conserved throughout evolution, were detected in the control patients nor different databases analyzed (1000 Genomes, ExAC and DECIPHER). After analyzing for genetic modifiers, we found different variations that could favor the onset of the disease. The genetic analysis carried out in this small cohort of patients with PPH revealed a large number of mutations, with the ENG gene showing the greatest mutational frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Histopathologic and mutational analysis of a case of blue nevus-like melanoma.

    PubMed

    Dai, Julia; Tetzlaff, Michael T; Schuchter, Lynn M; Elder, David E; Elenitsas, Rosalie

    2016-09-01

    Blue nevi are a heterogeneous group of dermal melanocytic proliferations that share a common clinical appearance but remain controversial in their histopathologic and biologic distinction. While common blue nevi and cellular blue nevi are well-defined entities that are classified without significant controversy, the distinction between atypical cellular blue nevi and blue nevus-like melanoma remains diagnostically challenging. We report a case of a 46-year-old female with recurrent blue nevus-like melanoma of the scalp with liver metastases; mutational analysis showed GNA11 Q209L and BAP1 Q393 mutations. To our knowledge, this is the first case of blue nevus-like melanoma with GNA11 and BAP1 mutations. These particular mutations and the predilection for liver metastases in our patient's case underscore a fundamental biological relationship between blue nevi and uveal melanoma and suggest the two entities may prove amenable to similar diagnostic and prognostic testing and targeted therapies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The UMD-p53 database: new mutations and analysis tools.

    PubMed

    Béroud, Christophe; Soussi, Thierry

    2003-03-01

    The tumor suppressor gene TP53 (p53) is the most extensively studied gene involved in human cancers. More than 1,400 publications have reported mutations of this gene in 150 cancer types for a total of 14,971 mutations. To exploit this huge bulk of data, specific analytic tools were highly warranted. We therefore developed a locus-specific database software called UMD-p53. This database compiles all somatic and germline mutations as well as polymorphisms of the TP53 gene which have been reported in the published literature since 1989, or unpublished data submitted to the database curators. The database is available at www.umd.necker.fr or at http://p53.curie.fr/. In this paper, we describe recent developments of the UMD-p53 database. These developments include new fields and routines. For example, the analysis of putative acceptor or donor splice sites is now automated and gives new insight for the causal role of "silent mutations." Other routines have also been created such as the prescreening module, the UV module, and the cancer distribution module. These new improvements will help users not only for molecular epidemiology and pharmacogenetic studies but also for patient-based studies. To achieve theses purposes we have designed a procedure to check and validate data in order to reach the highest quality data. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. F4-related mutation and expression analysis of the aminopeptidase N gene in pigs.

    PubMed

    Goetstouwers, T; Van Poucke, M; Nguyen, V U; Melkebeek, V; Coddens, A; Deforce, D; Cox, E; Peelman, L J

    2014-05-01

    Intestinal infections with F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are worldwide an important cause of diarrhea in neonatal and recently weaned pigs. Adherence of F4 ETEC to the small intestine by binding to specific receptors is mediated by F4 fimbriae. Porcine aminopeptidase N (ANPEP) was recently identified as a new F4 receptor. In this study, 7 coding mutations and 1 mutation in the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR)were identified in ANPEP by reverse transcriptase (RT-) PCR and sequencing using 3 F4 receptor-positive (F4R+) and 2 F4 receptor-negative (F4R-) pigs, which were F4 phenotyped based on the MUC4 TaqMan, oral immunization, and the in vitro villous adhesion assay. Three potential differential mutations (g.2615C > T, g.8214A > G, and g.16875C > G) identified by comparative analysis between the 3 F4R+ and 2 F4R- pigs were genotyped in 41 additional F4 phenotyped pigs. However, none of these 3 mutations could be associated with F4 ETEC susceptibility. In addition, the RT-PCR experiments did not reveal any differential expression or alternative splicing in the small intestine of F4R+ and F4R- pigs. In conclusion, we hypothesize that the difference in F4 binding to ANPEP is due to modifications in its carbohydrate moieties.

  2. Potential ligand-binding residues in rat olfactory receptors identified by correlated mutation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, M. S.; Oliveira, L.; Vriend, G.; Shepherd, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    A family of G-protein-coupled receptors is believed to mediate the recognition of odor molecules. In order to identify potential ligand-binding residues, we have applied correlated mutation analysis to receptor sequences from the rat. This method identifies pairs of sequence positions where residues remain conserved or mutate in tandem, thereby suggesting structural or functional importance. The analysis supported molecular modeling studies in suggesting several residues in positions that were consistent with ligand-binding function. Two of these positions, dominated by histidine residues, may play important roles in ligand binding and could confer broad specificity to mammalian odor receptors. The presence of positive (overdominant) selection at some of the identified positions provides additional evidence for roles in ligand binding. Higher-order groups of correlated residues were also observed. Each group may interact with an individual ligand determinant, and combinations of these groups may provide a multi-dimensional mechanism for receptor diversity.

  3. Overcoming Cost Implications of Mutational Analysis in Patients with Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Pragmatic Approach.

    PubMed

    Schöffski, Patrick; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Schöffski, Oliver; van Eycken, Liesbet; Debiec-Rychter, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Genetic analysis of tissue derived from patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is not uniformly applied on a national and international level, even though mutational data can provide clinically relevant prognostic and predictive information, especially in patients qualifying for treatment with expensive targeted agents. The current article describes the rationale for genetic testing of GIST tissue, looks at financial implications associated with such analysis and speculates on potential cost savings introduced by routine mutational testing and tailored use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors based on genotyping. This work is based on a hypothetical analysis of epidemiological data, drug costs, reimbursement criteria and market research figures. The cost burden for routine genotyping of important genes in GISTs, especially in patients at high risk for relapse after primary surgery and in advanced, inoperable metastatic disease, is relatively low. The early identification of GISTs with primary resistance mutations should be the basis for personalized GIST treatment and reimbursement of drugs. As illustrated by Belgian figures, the exclusive use of a drug such as imatinib in patients who are likely to benefit from the agent based on genetic information can lead to significant cost savings, which outweigh the costs for testing. Mutational analysis of GIST should be considered early in all patients at risk for relapse after curative surgery and in the case of advanced, inoperable, metastatic disease. The costs for the actual genotyping should not be used as an argument against profiling of the tumor. The adjuvant and palliative systemic treatment of GISTs should be personalized based on the genotype and other known prognostic and predictive factors. Reimbursement criteria for essential agents such as imatinib should be adapted accordingly. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  4. A protein domain-centric approach for the comparative analysis of human and yeast phenotypically relevant mutations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The body of disease mutations with known phenotypic relevance continues to increase and is expected to do so even faster with the advent of new experimental techniques such as whole-genome sequencing coupled with disease association studies. However, genomic association studies are limited by the molecular complexity of the phenotype being studied and the population size needed to have adequate statistical power. One way to circumvent this problem, which is critical for the study of rare diseases, is to study the molecular patterns emerging from functional studies of existing disease mutations. Current gene-centric analyses to study mutations in coding regions are limited by their inability to account for the functional modularity of the protein. Previous studies of the functional patterns of known human disease mutations have shown a significant tendency to cluster at protein domain positions, namely position-based domain hotspots of disease mutations. However, the limited number of known disease mutations remains the main factor hindering the advancement of mutation studies at a functional level. In this paper, we address this problem by incorporating mutations known to be disruptive of phenotypes in other species. Focusing on two evolutionarily distant organisms, human and yeast, we describe the first inter-species analysis of mutations of phenotypic relevance at the protein domain level. Results The results of this analysis reveal that phenotypic mutations from yeast cluster at specific positions on protein domains, a characteristic previously revealed to be displayed by human disease mutations. We found over one hundred domain hotspots in yeast with approximately 50% in the exact same domain position as known human disease mutations. Conclusions We describe an analysis using protein domains as a framework for transferring functional information by studying domain hotspots in human and yeast and relating phenotypic changes in yeast to diseases in

  5. High Resolution Melt analysis for mutation screening in PKD1 and PKD2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary kidney disorder. It is characterized by focal development and progressive enlargement of renal cysts leading to end-stage renal disease. PKD1 and PKD2 have been implicated in ADPKD pathogenesis but genetic features and the size of PKD1 make genetic diagnosis tedious. Methods We aim to prove that high resolution melt analysis (HRM), a recent technique in molecular biology, can facilitate molecular diagnosis of ADPKD. We screened for mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 with HRM in 37 unrelated patients with ADPKD. Results We identified 440 sequence variants in the 37 patients. One hundred and thirty eight were different. We found 28 pathogenic mutations (25 in PKD1 and 3 in PKD2 ) within 28 different patients, which is a diagnosis rate of 75% consistent with literature mean direct sequencing diagnosis rate. We describe 52 new sequence variants in PKD1 and two in PKD2. Conclusion HRM analysis is a sensitive and specific method for molecular diagnosis of ADPKD. HRM analysis is also costless and time sparing. Thus, this method is efficient and might be used for mutation pre-screening in ADPKD genes. PMID:22008521

  6. Amniotic fluid digestive enzyme analysis is useful for identifying CFTR gene mutations of unclear significance.

    PubMed

    Oca, Florine; Dreux, Sophie; Gérard, Bénédicte; Simon-Bouy, Brigitte; de Becdelièvre, Alix; Ferec, Claude; Girodon, Emmanuelle; Muller, Françoise

    2009-12-01

    The large number of CFTR [cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (ATP-binding cassette sub-family C, member 7)] mutations and the existence of variants of unclear significance complicate the prenatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this study was to determine whether the pattern of amniotic fluid digestive enzymes (AF-DEs) could be correlated with the severity of CFTR mutations. The AF-DE pattern (gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, aminopeptidase M, and the intestinal isoform of alkaline phosphatase) was retrospectively analyzed in 43 AF samples. All fetuses presented 2 CFTR mutations, which were classified according to the severity of the disease: CF/CF (n = 38); CF/CFTR-related disorders (n = 1); and CF/unknown variant (n = 4). The relationships between clinical CF status, CFTR mutations, and AF-DE pattern were studied. Of 38 severely affected CF fetuses, an "obstructive" AF-DE pattern was observed in 15 of 15 samples collected before 22 weeks, irrespective of the CFTR mutation (diagnostic sensitivity, 100%; diagnostic specificity, 99.8%). In the 23 fetuses evaluated after 22 weeks, the AF-DE pattern was abnormal in 7 cases and noncontributive in 16 (diagnostic sensitivity, 30.4%; diagnostic specificity, 99.8%). Of the 5 questionable cases (F508del/N1224K, F508del/L73F, 3849+10kbC>T/G1127E, F508del/S1235R, F508del/G622D), all were CF symptom free at 2-4 years of follow-up. The AF-DE pattern (<22 weeks) was typical in 3 cases but abnormal in the last 2 cases. AF-DE analysis is of value for prenatal CF diagnosis in classic forms of CF and could be helpful in nonclassic CF.

  7. RNA2DMut: a web tool for the design and analysis of RNA structure mutations.

    PubMed

    Moss, Walter N

    2018-03-01

    With the widespread application of high-throughput sequencing, novel RNA sequences are being discovered at an astonishing rate. The analysis of function, however, lags behind. In both the cis - and trans -regulatory functions of RNA, secondary structure (2D base-pairing) plays essential regulatory roles. In order to test RNA function, it is essential to be able to design and analyze mutations that can affect structure. This was the motivation for the creation of the RNA2DMut web tool. With RNA2DMut, users can enter in RNA sequences to analyze, constrain mutations to specific residues, or limit changes to purines/pyrimidines. The sequence is analyzed at each base to determine the effect of every possible point mutation on 2D structure. The metrics used in RNA2DMut rely on the calculation of the Boltzmann structure ensemble and do not require a robust 2D model of RNA structure for designing mutations. This tool can facilitate a wide array of uses involving RNA: for example, in designing and evaluating mutants for biological assays, interrogating RNA-protein interactions, identifying key regions to alter in SELEX experiments, and improving RNA folding and crystallization properties for structural biology. Additional tools are available to help users introduce other mutations (e.g., indels and substitutions) and evaluate their effects on RNA structure. Example calculations are shown for five RNAs that require 2D structure for their function: the MALAT1 mascRNA, an influenza virus splicing regulatory motif, the EBER2 viral noncoding RNA, the Xist lncRNA repA region, and human Y RNA 5. RNA2DMut can be accessed at https://rna2dmut.bb.iastate.edu/. © 2018 Moss; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  8. An integrative somatic mutation analysis to identify pathways linked with survival outcomes across 19 cancer types

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunho; Kim, Seung-Jun; Yu, Donghyeon; Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Gao, Jianjiong; Park, Jin Suk; Chen, Beibei; Norris, Jessie; Wang, Xinlei; Chen, Min; Kim, Minsoo; Yong, Jeongsik; Wardak, Zabi; Choe, Kevin; Story, Michael; Starr, Timothy; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Hwang, Tae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Identification of altered pathways that are clinically relevant across human cancers is a key challenge in cancer genomics. Precise identification and understanding of these altered pathways may provide novel insights into patient stratification, therapeutic strategies and the development of new drugs. However, a challenge remains in accurately identifying pathways altered by somatic mutations across human cancers, due to the diverse mutation spectrum. We developed an innovative approach to integrate somatic mutation data with gene networks and pathways, in order to identify pathways altered by somatic mutations across cancers. Results: We applied our approach to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset of somatic mutations in 4790 cancer patients with 19 different types of tumors. Our analysis identified cancer-type-specific altered pathways enriched with known cancer-relevant genes and targets of currently available drugs. To investigate the clinical significance of these altered pathways, we performed consensus clustering for patient stratification using member genes in the altered pathways coupled with gene expression datasets from 4870 patients from TCGA, and multiple independent cohorts confirmed that the altered pathways could be used to stratify patients into subgroups with significantly different clinical outcomes. Of particular significance, certain patient subpopulations with poor prognosis were identified because they had specific altered pathways for which there are available targeted therapies. These findings could be used to tailor and intensify therapy in these patients, for whom current therapy is suboptimal. Availability and implementation: The code is available at: http://www.taehyunlab.org. Contact: jhcheong@yuhs.ac or taehyun.hwang@utsouthwestern.edu or taehyun.cs@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26635139

  9. Quantitative metabolome analysis profiles activation of glutaminolysis in glioma with IDH1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Ohka, Fumiharu; Ito, Maki; Ranjit, Melissa; Senga, Takeshi; Motomura, Ayako; Motomura, Kazuya; Saito, Kaori; Kato, Keiko; Kato, Yukinari; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Natsume, Atsushi

    2014-06-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), which localizes to the cytosol and peroxisomes, catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and in parallel converts NADP(+) to NADPH. IDH1 mutations are frequently detected in grades 2-4 gliomas and in acute myeloid leukemias (AML). Mutations of IDH1 have been identified at codon 132, with arginine being replaced with histidine in most cases. Mutant IDH1 gains novel enzyme activity converting α-KG to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) which acts as a competitive inhibitor of α-KG. As a result, the activity of α-KG-dependent enzyme is reduced. Based on these findings, 2-HG has been proposed to be an oncometabolite. In this study, we established HEK293 and U87 cells that stably expressed IDH1-WT and IDH1-R132H and investigated the effect of glutaminase inhibition on cell proliferation with 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON). We found that cell proliferation was suppressed in IDH1-R132H cells. The addition of α-KG restored cell proliferation. The metabolic features of 33 gliomas with wild type IDH1 (IDH1-WT) and with IDH1-R132H mutation were examined by global metabolome analysis using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). We showed that the 2-HG levels were highly elevated in gliomas with IDH1-R132H mutation. Intriguingly, in gliomas with IDH1-R132H, glutamine and glutamate levels were significantly reduced which implies replenishment of α-KG by glutaminolysis. Based on these results, we concluded that glutaminolysis is activated in gliomas with IDH1-R132H mutation and that development of novel therapeutic approaches targeting activated glutaminolysis is warranted.

  10. Molecular Analysis of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene Mutations in Bangladeshi Individuals.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Suprovath Kumar; Islam, Md Tarikul; Eckhoff, Grace; Hossain, Mohammad Amir; Qadri, Syeda Kashfi; Muraduzzaman, A K M; Bhuyan, Golam Sarower; Shahidullah, Mohammod; Mannan, Mohammad Abdul; Tahura, Sarabon; Hussain, Manzoor; Akhter, Shahida; Nahar, Nazmun; Shirin, Tahmina; Qadri, Firdausi; Mannoor, Kaiissar

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common X-linked human enzyme defect of red blood cells (RBCs). Individuals with this gene defect appear normal until exposed to oxidative stress which induces hemolysis. Consumption of certain foods such as fava beans, legumes; infection with bacteria or virus; and use of certain drugs such as primaquine, sulfa drugs etc. may result in lysis of RBCs in G6PD deficient individuals. The genetic defect that causes G6PD deficiency has been identified mostly as single base missense mutations. One hundred and sixty G6PD gene mutations, which lead to amino acid substitutions, have been described worldwide. The purpose of this study was to detect G6PD gene mutations in hospital-based settings in the local population of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Qualitative fluorescent spot test and quantitative enzyme activity measurement using RANDOX G6PDH kit were performed for analysis of blood specimens and detection of G6PD-deficient participants. For G6PD-deficient samples, PCR was done with six sets of primers specific for G6PD gene. Automated Sanger sequencing of the PCR products was performed to identify the mutations in the gene. Based on fluorescence spot test and quantitative enzyme assay followed by G6PD gene sequencing, 12 specimens (11 males and one female) among 121 clinically suspected patient-specimens were found to be deficient, suggesting a frequency of 9.9% G6PD deficiency. Sequencing of the G6PD-deficient samples revealed c.C131G substitution (exon-3: Ala44Gly) in six samples, c.G487A substitution (exon-6:Gly163Ser) in five samples and c.G949A substitution (exon-9: Glu317Lys) of coding sequence in one sample. These mutations either affect NADP binding or disrupt protein structure. From the study it appears that Ala44Gly and Gly163Ser are the most common G6PD mutations in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This is the first study of G6PD mutations in Bangladesh.

  11. Molecular Analysis of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene Mutations in Bangladeshi Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Suprovath Kumar; Hossain, Mohammad Amir; Qadri, Syeda Kashfi; Muraduzzaman, A. K. M.; Bhuyan, Golam Sarower; Shahidullah, Mohammod; Mannan, Mohammad Abdul; Tahura, Sarabon; Hussain, Manzoor; Akhter, Shahida; Nahar, Nazmun; Shirin, Tahmina; Qadri, Firdausi; Mannoor, Kaiissar

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common X-linked human enzyme defect of red blood cells (RBCs). Individuals with this gene defect appear normal until exposed to oxidative stress which induces hemolysis. Consumption of certain foods such as fava beans, legumes; infection with bacteria or virus; and use of certain drugs such as primaquine, sulfa drugs etc. may result in lysis of RBCs in G6PD deficient individuals. The genetic defect that causes G6PD deficiency has been identified mostly as single base missense mutations. One hundred and sixty G6PD gene mutations, which lead to amino acid substitutions, have been described worldwide. The purpose of this study was to detect G6PD gene mutations in hospital-based settings in the local population of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Qualitative fluorescent spot test and quantitative enzyme activity measurement using RANDOX G6PDH kit were performed for analysis of blood specimens and detection of G6PD-deficient participants. For G6PD-deficient samples, PCR was done with six sets of primers specific for G6PD gene. Automated Sanger sequencing of the PCR products was performed to identify the mutations in the gene. Based on fluorescence spot test and quantitative enzyme assay followed by G6PD gene sequencing, 12 specimens (11 males and one female) among 121 clinically suspected patient-specimens were found to be deficient, suggesting a frequency of 9.9% G6PD deficiency. Sequencing of the G6PD-deficient samples revealed c.C131G substitution (exon-3: Ala44Gly) in six samples, c.G487A substitution (exon-6:Gly163Ser) in five samples and c.G949A substitution (exon-9: Glu317Lys) of coding sequence in one sample. These mutations either affect NADP binding or disrupt protein structure. From the study it appears that Ala44Gly and Gly163Ser are the most common G6PD mutations in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This is the first study of G6PD mutations in Bangladesh. PMID:27880809

  12. Mutation Analysis of IDH1/2 Genes in Unselected De novo Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Patients in India - Identification of A Novel IDH2 Mutation.

    PubMed

    Raveendran, Sureshkumar; Sarojam, Santhi; Vijay, Sangeetha; Geetha, Aswathy Chandran; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Narayanan, Geetha; Sreedharan, Hariharan

    2015-01-01

    IDH1/2 mutations which result in alternation in DNA methylation pattern are one of the most common methylation associated mutations in Acute myeloid leukaemia. IDH1/2 mutations frequently associated with higher platelet level, normal cytogentics and NPM1 mutations. Here we analyzed IDH1/2 mutations in 200 newly diagnosed unselected Indian adult AML patients and investigated their correlation with clinical, cytogenetic parameters along with cooperating NPM1 mutation. We detected 5.5% and 4% mutations in IDH1/2 genes, respectively. Except IDH2 c.515_516GG>AA mutation, all the other identified mutations were reported mutations. Similar to reported c.515G>A mutation, the novel c.515_516GG>AA mutation replaces 172nd arginine to lysine in the active site of the enzyme. Even though there was a preponderance of IDH1/2 mutations in NK-AML, cytogenetically abnormal patients also harboured IDH1/2 mutations. IDH1 mutations showed significant higher platelet count and NPM1 mutations. IDH2 mutated patients displayed infrequent NPM1 mutations and lower WBC count. All the NPM1 mutations in the IDH1/2 mutated cases showed type A mutation. The present data suggest that IDH1/2 mutations are associated with normal cytogenetics and type A NPM1 mutations in adult Indian AML patients.

  13. Mutational analysis of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes among Estonian osteogenesis imperfecta patients.

    PubMed

    Zhytnik, Lidiia; Maasalu, Katre; Reimann, Ene; Prans, Ele; Kõks, Sulev; Märtson, Aare

    2017-08-15

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare bone disorder. In 90% of cases, OI is caused by mutations in the COL1A1/2 genes, which code procollagen α1 and α2 chains. The main aim of the current research was to identify the mutational spectrum of COL1A1/2 genes in Estonian patients. The small population size of Estonia provides a unique chance to explore the collagen I mutational profile of 100% of OI families in the country. We performed mutational analysis of peripheral blood gDNA of 30 unrelated Estonian OI patients using Sanger sequencing of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes, including all intron-exon junctions and 5'UTR and 3'UTR regions, to identify causative OI mutations. We identified COL1A1/2 mutations in 86.67% of patients (26/30). 76.92% of discovered mutations were located in the COL1A1 (n = 20) and 23.08% in the COL1A2 (n = 6) gene. Half of the COL1A1/2 mutations appeared to be novel. The percentage of quantitative COL1A1/2 mutations was 69.23%. Glycine substitution with serine was the most prevalent among missense mutations. All qualitative mutations were situated in the chain domain of pro-α1/2 chains. Our study shows that among the Estonian OI population, the range of collagen I mutations is quite high, which agrees with other described OI cohorts of Northern Europe. The Estonian OI cohort differs due to the high number of quantitative variants and simple missense variants, which are mostly Gly to Ser substitutions and do not extend the chain domain of COL1A1/2 products.

  14. Selected AGXT gene mutations analysis provides a genetic diagnosis in 28% of Tunisian patients with primary hyperoxaluria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by allelic and clinical heterogeneity. Four mutations (G170R, 33_34insC, I244T and F152I) account for more than 50% of PH1 alleles and form the basis for diagnostic genetic screening for PH1. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of these specific mutations causing PH1, and to provide an accurate tool for diagnosis of presymptomatic patients as well as for prenatal diagnosis in the affected families. Methods Polymerase chain reaction/Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, were used to detect the four mutations in the AGXT gene in DNA samples from 57 patients belonging to 40 families. Results Two mutations causing PH1 were detected in 24 patients (42.1%), with a predominance of the I244T mutation (68% of patients) and 33_34insC (in the remaining 32%). In 92% of cases, mutated alleles were in homozygous state. The presented clinical features were similar for the two mutations. The age of onset was heterogeneous with a higher frequency of the pediatric age. In 58.3% of cases, the presentation corresponded to advanced renal disease which occurred early (< 5 years) in the two mutations. In adolescents, only the I244T mutation was detected (41.1%). I244T and 33_34insC mutations were observed in adult patients, with 17.6% and 12.5% respectively. Conclusion Limited mutation analysis can provide a useful first line investigation for PH1. I244T and 33_34insC presented 28.2% of identified mutations causing disease in our cohort. This identification could provide an accurate tool for prenatal diagnosis in the affected families, for genetic counselling and for detection of presymptomatic individuals. PMID:21612638

  15. Selected AGXT gene mutations analysis provides a genetic diagnosis in 28% of Tunisian patients with primary hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Benhaj Mbarek, Ibtihel; Abroug, Saoussen; Omezzine, Asma; Zellama, Dorsaf; Achour, Abdellatif; Harbi, Abdelaziz; Bouslama, Ali

    2011-05-25

    Primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by allelic and clinical heterogeneity. Four mutations (G170R, 33_34insC, I244T and F152I) account for more than 50% of PH1 alleles and form the basis for diagnostic genetic screening for PH1. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of these specific mutations causing PH1, and to provide an accurate tool for diagnosis of presymptomatic patients as well as for prenatal diagnosis in the affected families. Polymerase chain reaction/Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, were used to detect the four mutations in the AGXT gene in DNA samples from 57 patients belonging to 40 families. Two mutations causing PH1 were detected in 24 patients (42.1%), with a predominance of the I244T mutation (68% of patients) and 33_34insC (in the remaining 32%). In 92% of cases, mutated alleles were in homozygous state. The presented clinical features were similar for the two mutations. The age of onset was heterogeneous with a higher frequency of the pediatric age. In 58.3% of cases, the presentation corresponded to advanced renal disease which occurred early (< 5 years) in the two mutations. In adolescents, only the I244T mutation was detected (41.1%). I244T and 33_34insC mutations were observed in adult patients, with 17.6% and 12.5% respectively. Limited mutation analysis can provide a useful first line investigation for PH1. I244T and 33_34insC presented 28.2% of identified mutations causing disease in our cohort. This identification could provide an accurate tool for prenatal diagnosis in the affected families, for genetic counselling and for detection of presymptomatic individuals.

  16. Rapid Detection Method for the Four Most Common CHEK2 Mutations Based on Melting Profile Analysis.

    PubMed

    Borun, Pawel; Salanowski, Kacper; Godlewski, Dariusz; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Plawski, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    CHEK2 is a tumor suppressor gene, and the mutations affecting the functionality of the protein product increase cancer risk in various organs. The elevated risk, in a significant percentage of cases, is determined by the occurrence of one of the four most common mutations in the CHEK2 gene, including c.470T>C (p.I157T), c.444+1G>A (IVS2+1G>A), c.1100delC, and c.1037+1538_1224+328del5395 (del5395). We have developed and validated a rapid and effective method for their detection based on high-resolution melting analysis and comparative-high-resolution melting, a novel approach enabling simultaneous detection of copy number variations. The analysis is performed in two polymerase chain reactions followed by melting analysis, without any additional reagents or handling other than that used in standard high-resolution melting. Validation of the method was conducted in a group of 103 patients with diagnosed breast cancer, a group of 240 unrelated patients with familial history of cancer associated with the CHEK2 gene mutations, and a 100-person control group. The results of the analyses for all three groups were fully consistent with the results from other methods. The method we have developed improves the identification of the CHEK2 mutation carriers, reduces the cost of such analyses, as well as facilitates their implementation. Along with the increased efficiency, the method maintains accuracy and reliability comparable to other more labor-consuming techniques.

  17. Identification of somatic mutations in cancer through Bayesian-based analysis of sequenced genome pairs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The field of cancer genomics has rapidly adopted next-generation sequencing (NGS) in order to study and characterize malignant tumors with unprecedented resolution. In particular for cancer, one is often trying to identify somatic mutations – changes specific to a tumor and not within an individual’s germline. However, false positive and false negative detections often result from lack of sufficient variant evidence, contamination of the biopsy by stromal tissue, sequencing errors, and the erroneous classification of germline variation as tumor-specific. Results We have developed a generalized Bayesian analysis framework for matched tumor/normal samples with the purpose of identifying tumor-specific alterations such as single nucleotide mutations, small insertions/deletions, and structural variation. We describe our methodology, and discuss its application to other types of paired-tissue analysis such as the detection of loss of heterozygosity as well as allelic imbalance. We also demonstrate the high level of sensitivity and specificity in discovering simulated somatic mutations, for various combinations of a) genomic coverage and b) emulated heterogeneity. Conclusion We present a Java-based implementation of our methods named Seurat, which is made available for free academic use. We have demonstrated and reported on the discovery of different types of somatic change by applying Seurat to an experimentally-derived cancer dataset using our methods; and have discussed considerations and practices regarding the accurate detection of somatic events in cancer genomes. Seurat is available at https://sites.google.com/site/seuratsomatic. PMID:23642077

  18. Identification of somatic mutations in cancer through Bayesian-based analysis of sequenced genome pairs.

    PubMed

    Christoforides, Alexis; Carpten, John D; Weiss, Glen J; Demeure, Michael J; Von Hoff, Daniel D; Craig, David W

    2013-05-04

    The field of cancer genomics has rapidly adopted next-generation sequencing (NGS) in order to study and characterize malignant tumors with unprecedented resolution. In particular for cancer, one is often trying to identify somatic mutations--changes specific to a tumor and not within an individual's germline. However, false positive and false negative detections often result from lack of sufficient variant evidence, contamination of the biopsy by stromal tissue, sequencing errors, and the erroneous classification of germline variation as tumor-specific. We have developed a generalized Bayesian analysis framework for matched tumor/normal samples with the purpose of identifying tumor-specific alterations such as single nucleotide mutations, small insertions/deletions, and structural variation. We describe our methodology, and discuss its application to other types of paired-tissue analysis such as the detection of loss of heterozygosity as well as allelic imbalance. We also demonstrate the high level of sensitivity and specificity in discovering simulated somatic mutations, for various combinations of a) genomic coverage and b) emulated heterogeneity. We present a Java-based implementation of our methods named Seurat, which is made available for free academic use. We have demonstrated and reported on the discovery of different types of somatic change by applying Seurat to an experimentally-derived cancer dataset using our methods; and have discussed considerations and practices regarding the accurate detection of somatic events in cancer genomes. Seurat is available at https://sites.google.com/site/seuratsomatic.

  19. PMS2 gene mutational analysis: direct cDNA sequencing to circumvent pseudogene interference.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Katharina; Wernstedt, Annekatrin

    2014-01-01

    The presence of highly homologous pseudocopies can compromise the mutation analysis of a gene of interest. In particular, when using PCR-based strategies, pseudogene co-amplification has to be effectively prevented. This is often achieved by using primers designed to be parental gene specific according to the reference sequence and by applying stringent PCR conditions. However, there are cases in which this approach is of limited utility. For example, it has been shown that the PMS2 gene exchanges sequences with one of its pseudogenes, named PMS2CL. This results in functional PMS2 alleles containing pseudogene-derived sequences at their 3'-end and in nonfunctional PMS2CL pseudogene alleles that contain gene-derived sequences. Hence, the paralogues cannot be distinguished according to the reference sequence. This shortcoming can be effectively circumvented by using direct cDNA sequencing. This approach is based on the selective amplification of PMS2 transcripts in two overlapping 1.6-kb RT-PCR products. In addition to avoiding pseudogene co-amplification and allele dropout, this method has also the advantage that it allows to effectively identify deletions, splice mutations, and de novo retrotransposon insertions that escape the detection of most DNA-based mutation analysis protocols.

  20. Prognostic significance of SRSF2 mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Arbab Jafari, Pourya; Ayatollahi, Hossein; Sadeghi, Ramin; Sheikhi, Maryam; Asghari, Amir

    2018-05-14

    Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 (SRSF2) mutations were detected frequently in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) patients. However, its prognostic value has not yet been fully clarified. In this meta-analysis, Hazard Ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for overall-survival (OS) were chosen to evaluate the prognostic impact of SRSF2 mutations and to compare SRSF2 mutations to those with wild-type. A total of 2056 patients from 12 studies were obtained. The pooled HRs for OSsuggested that patients with MDS had a poorer prognosis (HR = 1.780, 95% CI (1.410-2.249)), while analysis on SRSF2 mutations revealed no significant effect on the prognosis of CMML patients (HR = 1.091, 95% CI (0.925-1.286)). The frequency of SRSF2 mutations was found to be 11.5% and 39.8% in patients with MDS and CMML, respectively. This meta-analysis suggests that SRSF2 has a poor prognosis in patients with MDS, but no prognosis impact on patients with CMML. In conclusion, SRSF2 mutations were significantly related to the shorter OS in patients with MDS which may consider as an adverse prognostic risk factor. Whereas, analysis did not show any prognostic effect on OS of CMML patients with SRSF2 mutations.

  1. Structure-guided fragment-based in silico drug design of dengue protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Knehans, Tim; Schüller, Andreas; Doan, Danny N; Nacro, Kassoum; Hill, Jeffrey; Güntert, Peter; Madhusudhan, M S; Weil, Tanja; Vasudevan, Subhash G

    2011-03-01

    An in silico fragment-based drug design approach was devised and applied towards the identification of small molecule inhibitors of the dengue virus (DENV) NS2B-NS3 protease. Currently, no DENV protease co-crystal structure with bound inhibitor and fully formed substrate binding site is available. Therefore a homology model of DENV NS2B-NS3 protease was generated employing a multiple template spatial restraints method and used for structure-based design. A library of molecular fragments was derived from the ZINC screening database with help of the retrosynthetic combinatorial analysis procedure (RECAP). 150,000 molecular fragments were docked to the DENV protease homology model and the docking poses were rescored using a target-specific scoring function. High scoring fragments were assembled to small molecule candidates by an implicit linking cascade. The cascade included substructure searching and structural filters focusing on interactions with the S1 and S2 pockets of the protease. The chemical space adjacent to the promising candidates was further explored by neighborhood searching. A total of 23 compounds were tested experimentally and two compounds were discovered to inhibit dengue protease (IC(50) = 7.7 μM and 37.9 μM, respectively) and the related West Nile virus protease (IC(50) = 6.3 μM and 39.0 μM, respectively). This study demonstrates the successful application of a structure-guided fragment-based in silico drug design approach for dengue protease inhibitors providing straightforward hit generation using a combination of homology modeling, fragment docking, chemical similarity and structural filters.

  2. Structure-guided fragment-based in silico drug design of dengue protease inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knehans, Tim; Schüller, Andreas; Doan, Danny N.; Nacro, Kassoum; Hill, Jeffrey; Güntert, Peter; Madhusudhan, M. S.; Weil, Tanja; Vasudevan, Subhash G.

    2011-03-01

    An in silico fragment-based drug design approach was devised and applied towards the identification of small molecule inhibitors of the dengue virus (DENV) NS2B-NS3 protease. Currently, no DENV protease co-crystal structure with bound inhibitor and fully formed substrate binding site is available. Therefore a homology model of DENV NS2B-NS3 protease was generated employing a multiple template spatial restraints method and used for structure-based design. A library of molecular fragments was derived from the ZINC screening database with help of the retrosynthetic combinatorial analysis procedure (RECAP). 150,000 molecular fragments were docked to the DENV protease homology model and the docking poses were rescored using a target-specific scoring function. High scoring fragments were assembled to small molecule candidates by an implicit linking cascade. The cascade included substructure searching and structural filters focusing on interactions with the S1 and S2 pockets of the protease. The chemical space adjacent to the promising candidates was further explored by neighborhood searching. A total of 23 compounds were tested experimentally and two compounds were discovered to inhibit dengue protease (IC50 = 7.7 μM and 37.9 μM, respectively) and the related West Nile virus protease (IC50 = 6.3 μM and 39.0 μM, respectively). This study demonstrates the successful application of a structure-guided fragment-based in silico drug design approach for dengue protease inhibitors providing straightforward hit generation using a combination of homology modeling, fragment docking, chemical similarity and structural filters.

  3. Functional analysis of mutations in SLC7A9, and genotype-phenotype correlation in non-Type I cystinuria.

    PubMed

    Font, M A; Feliubadaló, L; Estivill, X; Nunes, V; Golomb, E; Kreiss, Y; Pras, E; Bisceglia, L; d'Adamo, A P; Zelante, L; Gasparini, P; Bassi, M T; George , A L; Manzoni, M; Riboni, M; Ballabio, A; Borsani, G; Reig, N; Fernández, E; Zorzano, A; Bertran, J; Palacín, M

    2001-02-15

    Cystinuria (OMIM 220100) is a common recessive disorder of renal reabsorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids that results in nephrolithiasis of cystine. Mutations in SLC3A1, which encodes rBAT, cause Type I cystinuria, and mutations in SLC7A9, which encodes a putative subunit of rBAT (b(o,+)AT), cause non-Type I cystinuria. Here we describe the genomic structure of SLC7A9 (13 exons) and 28 new mutations in this gene that, together with the seven previously reported, explain 79% of the alleles in 61 non-Type I cystinuria patients. These data demonstrate that SLC7A9 is the main non-Type I cystinuria gene. Mutations G105R, V170M, A182T and R333W are the most frequent SLC7A9 missense mutations found. Among heterozygotes carrying these mutations, A182T heterozygotes showed the lowest urinary excretion values of cystine and dibasic amino acids. Functional analysis of mutation A182T after co-expression with rBAT in HeLa cells revealed significant residual transport activity. In contrast, mutations G105R, V170M and R333W are associated to a complete or almost complete loss of transport activity, leading to a more severe urinary phenotype in heterozygotes. SLC7A9 mutations located in the putative transmembrane domains of b(o,+)AT and affecting conserved amino acid residues with a small side chain generate a severe phenotype, while mutations in non-conserved residues give rise to a mild phenotype. These data provide the first genotype-phenotype correlation in non-Type I cystinuria, and show that a mild urinary phenotype in heterozygotes may associate with mutations with significant residual transport activity.

  4. Functional analysis of ‘a’ determinant mutations associated with occult HBV in HIV-positive South Africans

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Eleanor A.; Boyce, Ceejay L.; Gededzha, Maemu P.; Selabe, Selokela G.; Mphahlele, M. Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B is defined by the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Occult HBV is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, reactivation during immune suppression, and virus transmission. Viral mutations contribute significantly to the occult HBV phenotype. Mutations in the ‘a’ determinant of HBsAg are of particular interest, as these mutations are associated with immune escape, vaccine escape and diagnostic failure. We examined the effects of selected occult HBV-associated mutations identified in a population of HIV-positive South Africans on HBsAg production in vitro. Mutations were inserted into two different chronic HBV backbones and transfected into a hepatocyte-derived cell line. HBsAg levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the detectability of mutant HBsAg was determined using an HA-tagged HBsAg expression system. Of the seven mutations analysed, four (S132P, C138Y, N146D and C147Y) resulted in decreased HBsAg expression in one viral background but not in the second viral background. One mutation (N146D) led to a decrease in HBsAg detected as compared to HA-tag, indicating that this mutation compromises the ability of the ELISA to detect HBsAg. The contribution of occult-associated mutations to the HBsAg-negative phenotype of occult HBV cannot be determined adequately by testing the effect of the mutation in a single viral background, and rigorous analysis of these mutations is required. PMID:27031988

  5. Analysis of ESR1 mutation in circulating tumor DNA demonstrates evolution during therapy for metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schiavon, Gaia; Hrebien, Sarah; Garcia-Murillas, Isaac; Cutts, Rosalind J; Pearson, Alex; Tarazona, Noelia; Fenwick, Kerry; Kozarewa, Iwanka; Lopez-Knowles, Elena; Ribas, Ricardo; Nerurkar, Ashutosh; Osin, Peter; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Martin, Lesley-Ann; Dowsett, Mitch; Smith, Ian E; Turner, Nicholas C.

    2016-01-01

    Acquired ESR1 mutations are a major mechanism of resistance to aromatase inhibitors (AI). We developed ultra-high sensitivity multiplexed digital PCR assays for ESR1 mutations in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and used these to investigate the clinical relevance and origin of ESR1 mutations in a cohort of 171 women with advanced breast cancer. ESR1 mutation status in ctDNA showed high concordance with contemporaneous tumor biopsies, and could be assessed in samples shipped at room temperature in preservative tubes without loss of accuracy. ESR1 mutations were found exclusively in patients with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer previously exposed to AI. Patients with ESR1 mutations had a substantially shorter progression-free survival on subsequent AI-based therapy (HR 3.1, 95%CI 1.9-23.1, log rank p=0.0041). ESR1 mutation prevalence differed markedly between patients that were first exposed to AI during the adjuvant and metastatic settings (5.8% (3/52) vs 36.4% (16/44) respectively, p=0.0002). In an independent cohort, ESR1 mutations were identified in 0% (0/32, 95%CI 0-10.9%) tumor biopsies taken after progression on adjuvant AI. In a patient with serial samples taken during metastatic treatment, ESR1 mutation was selected during metastatic AI therapy, to become the dominant clone in the cancer. ESR1 mutations can be robustly identified with ctDNA analysis and predict for resistance to subsequent AI therapy. ESR1 mutations are rarely acquired during adjuvant AI therapy, but are commonly selected by therapy for metastatic disease, providing evidence that the mechanisms of resistance to targeted therapy may be substantially different between the treatment of micro-metastatic and overt metastatic cancer. PMID:26560360

  6. Analysis of ESR1 mutation in circulating tumor DNA demonstrates evolution during therapy for metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Schiavon, Gaia; Hrebien, Sarah; Garcia-Murillas, Isaac; Cutts, Rosalind J; Pearson, Alex; Tarazona, Noelia; Fenwick, Kerry; Kozarewa, Iwanka; Lopez-Knowles, Elena; Ribas, Ricardo; Nerurkar, Ashutosh; Osin, Peter; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Martin, Lesley-Ann; Dowsett, Mitch; Smith, Ian E; Turner, Nicholas C

    2015-11-11

    Acquired ESR1 mutations are a major mechanism of resistance to aromatase inhibitors (AIs). We developed ultra high-sensitivity multiplex digital polymerase chain reaction assays for ESR1 mutations in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and investigated the clinical relevance and origin of ESR1 mutations in 171 women with advanced breast cancer. ESR1 mutation status in ctDNA showed high concordance with contemporaneous tumor biopsies and was accurately assessed in samples shipped at room temperature in preservative tubes. ESR1 mutations were found exclusively in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients previously exposed to AI. Patients with ESR1 mutations had a substantially shorter progression-free survival on subsequent AI-based therapy [hazard ratio, 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.9 to 23.1; P = 0.0041]. ESR1 mutation prevalence differed markedly between patients who were first exposed to AI during the adjuvant and metastatic settings [5.8% (3 of 52) versus 36.4% (16 of 44), respectively; P = 0.0002]. In an independent cohort, ESR1 mutations were identified in 0% (0 of 32; 95% CI, 0 to 10.9) tumor biopsies taken after progression on adjuvant AI. In a patient with serial sampling, ESR1 mutation was selected during metastatic AI therapy to become the dominant clone in the cancer. ESR1 mutations can be robustly identified with ctDNA analysis and predict for resistance to subsequent AI therapy. ESR1 mutations are rarely acquired during adjuvant AI but are commonly selected by therapy for metastatic disease, providing evidence that mechanisms of resistance to targeted therapy may be substantially different between the treatment of micrometastatic and overt metastatic cancer. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Mutational analysis of amino acid residues involved in catalytic activity of a family 18 chitinase from tulip bulbs.

    PubMed

    Suzukawa, Keisuke; Yamagami, Takeshi; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kuhara, Satoru; Aso, Yoichi; Ishiguro, Masatsune

    2003-02-01

    We expressed chitinase-1 (TBC-1) from tulip bulbs (Tulipa bakeri) in E. coli cells and used site-directed mutagenesis to identify amino acid residues essential for catalytic activity. Mutations at Glu-125 and Trp-251 completely abolished enzyme activity, and activity decreased with mutations at Asp-123 and Trp-172 when glycolchitin was the substrate. Activity changed with the mutations of Trp-251 to one of several amino acids with side-chains of little hydrophobicity, suggesting that hydrophobic interaction of Trp-251 is important for the activity. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis with hevamine as the model compound showed that the distance between Asp-123 and Glu-125 was extended by mutation of Trp-251. Kinetic studies of Trp-251-mutated chitinases confirmed these various phenomena. The results suggested that Glu-125 and Trp-251 are essential for enzyme activity and that Trp-251 had a direct role in ligand binding.

  8. Genetic diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia: the importance of functional analysis of potential splice-site mutations.

    PubMed

    Bourbon, M; Duarte, M A; Alves, A C; Medeiros, A M; Marques, L; Soutar, A K

    2009-05-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) results from defective low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) activity, mainly due to LDLR gene defects. Of the many different LDLR mutations found in patients with FH, about 6% of single base substitutions are located near or within introns, and are predicted to result in exon skipping, retention of an intron, or activation of cryptic sites during mRNA splicing. This paper reports on the Portuguese FH Study, which found 10 such mutations, 6 of them novel. For the mutations that have not been described before or those whose effect on function have not been analysed, their effect on splicing was investigated, using reverse transcriptase PCR analysis of LDLR mRNA from freshly isolated blood mononuclear cells. Two of these variants (c.313+6 T-->C, c.2389G-->T (p.V776L)) caused exon skipping, and one caused retention of an intron (c.1359-5C-->G), whereas two others (c.2140+5 G-->A and c.1061-8T-->C) had no apparent effect. Any effect of c.1185G-->C (p.V374V) on splicing could not be determined because it was on an allele with a promoter mutation (-42C-->G) that was probably not transcribed. Variants in four patients lost to follow-up could not be tested experimentally, but they almost certainly affect splicing because they disrupt the invariant AG or GT in acceptor (c.818-2A-->G) or donor (c.1060+1G-->A, c.1845+1delG and c.2547+1G-->A) spice sites. These findings emphasise that care must be taken before reporting the presence or absence of a splice-site mutation in the LDLR gene for diagnostic purposes. The study also shows that relatively simple, quick and inexpensive RNA assays can evaluate putative splicing mutations that are not always predictable by available software, thereby reducing genetic misdiagnosis of patients with FH.

  9. Structure-Guided Engineering of α-Keto Acid Decarboxylase for the Production of Higher Alcohols at Elevated Temperature.

    PubMed

    Sutiono, Samuel; Carsten, Jörg; Sieber, Volker

    2018-06-28

    Branched chain keto acid decarboxylases (KDCs) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decarboxylation of α-keto acids. It is a key enzyme for production of higher alcohols in vivo and in vitro. However, the two most active KDCs (KivD and KdcA) have only moderate thermostability (<55 °C) hindering the production of the alcohols at high temperatures. In this study, structure-guided engineering toward improved thermostability of KdcA is outlined. Several strategies such as, stabilization of the catalytic center, surface engineering, and optimization of dimer interactions were applied. With 7 point mutations, our mutant (7M.D) showed an increase of T501h by 14.8 °C without compromising its substrate specificity. 7M.D exhibited >400-fold improvement of half-life at 70 °C and >600-fold increase in process stability in the presence of 4 % isobutanol at 50 °C. 7M.D is more promising for the production of higher alcohols in thermophiles (>65 °C) as well as in cell-free applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Integrated Analysis of Mutation Data from Various Sources Identifies Key Genes and Signaling Pathways in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lin; Tang, Ruqi; Lian, Baofeng; Zhao, Yingjun; He, Xianghuo; Xie, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, a number of studies have performed genome or exome sequencing of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and identified hundreds or even thousands of mutations in protein-coding genes. However, these studies have only focused on a limited number of candidate genes, and many important mutation resources remain to be explored. Principal Findings In this study, we integrated mutation data obtained from various sources and performed pathway and network analysis. We identified 113 pathways that were significantly mutated in HCC samples and found that the mutated genes included in these pathways contained high percentages of known cancer genes, and damaging genes and also demonstrated high conservation scores, indicating their important roles in liver tumorigenesis. Five classes of pathways that were mutated most frequently included (a) proliferation and apoptosis related pathways, (b) tumor microenvironment related pathways, (c) neural signaling related pathways, (d) metabolic related pathways, and (e) circadian related pathways. Network analysis further revealed that the mutated genes with the highest betweenness coefficients, such as the well-known cancer genes TP53, CTNNB1 and recently identified novel mutated genes GNAL and the ADCY family, may play key roles in these significantly mutated pathways. Finally, we highlight several key genes (e.g., RPS6KA3 and PCLO) and pathways (e.g., axon guidance) in which the mutations were associated with clinical features. Conclusions Our workflow illustrates the increased statistical power of integrating multiple studies of the same subject, which can provide biological insights that would otherwise be masked under individual sample sets. This type of bioinformatics approach is consistent with the necessity of making the best use of the ever increasing data provided in valuable databases, such as TCGA, to enhance the speed of deciphering human cancers. PMID:24988079

  11. Integrated analysis of mutation data from various sources identifies key genes and signaling pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuannv; Qiu, Zhaoping; Wei, Lin; Tang, Ruqi; Lian, Baofeng; Zhao, Yingjun; He, Xianghuo; Xie, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a number of studies have performed genome or exome sequencing of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and identified hundreds or even thousands of mutations in protein-coding genes. However, these studies have only focused on a limited number of candidate genes, and many important mutation resources remain to be explored. In this study, we integrated mutation data obtained from various sources and performed pathway and network analysis. We identified 113 pathways that were significantly mutated in HCC samples and found that the mutated genes included in these pathways contained high percentages of known cancer genes, and damaging genes and also demonstrated high conservation scores, indicating their important roles in liver tumorigenesis. Five classes of pathways that were mutated most frequently included (a) proliferation and apoptosis related pathways, (b) tumor microenvironment related pathways, (c) neural signaling related pathways, (d) metabolic related pathways, and (e) circadian related pathways. Network analysis further revealed that the mutated genes with the highest betweenness coefficients, such as the well-known cancer genes TP53, CTNNB1 and recently identified novel mutated genes GNAL and the ADCY family, may play key roles in these significantly mutated pathways. Finally, we highlight several key genes (e.g., RPS6KA3 and PCLO) and pathways (e.g., axon guidance) in which the mutations were associated with clinical features. Our workflow illustrates the increased statistical power of integrating multiple studies of the same subject, which can provide biological insights that would otherwise be masked under individual sample sets. This type of bioinformatics approach is consistent with the necessity of making the best use of the ever increasing data provided in valuable databases, such as TCGA, to enhance the speed of deciphering human cancers.

  12. Functional and splicing defect analysis of 23 ACVRL1 mutations in a cohort of patients affected by Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Alaa el Din, Ferdos; Patri, Sylvie; Thoreau, Vincent; Rodriguez-Ballesteros, Montserrat; Hamade, Eva; Bailly, Sabine; Gilbert-Dussardier, Brigitte; Abou Merhi, Raghida; Kitzis, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia syndrome (HHT) or Rendu-Osler-Weber (ROW) syndrome is an autosomal dominant vascular disorder. Two most common forms of HHT, HHT1 and HHT2, have been linked to mutations in the endoglin (ENG) and activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ACVRL1or ALK1) genes respectively. This work was designed to examine the pathogenicity of 23 nucleotide variations in ACVRL1 gene detected in more than 400 patients. Among them, 14 missense mutations and one intronic variant were novels, and 8 missense mutations were previously identified with questionable implication in HHT2. The functionality of missense mutations was analyzed in response to BMP9 (specific ligand of ALK1), the maturation of the protein products and their localization were analyzed by western blot and fluorescence microscopy. The splicing impairment of the intronic and of two missense mutations was examined by minigene assay. Functional analysis showed that 18 out of 22 missense mutations were defective. Splicing analysis revealed that one missense mutation (c.733A>G, p.Ile245Val) affects the splicing of the harboring exon 6. Similarly, the intronic mutation outside the consensus splicing sites (c.1048+5G>A in intron 7) was seen pathogenic by splicing study. Both mutations induce a frame shift creating a premature stop codon likely resulting in mRNA degradation by NMD surveillance mechanism. Our results confirm the haploinsufficiency model proposed for HHT2. The affected allele of ACVRL1 induces mRNA degradation or the synthesis of a protein lacking the receptor activity. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that functional and splicing analyses together, represent two robust diagnostic tools to be used by geneticists confronted with novel or conflicted ACVRL1 mutations. PMID:26176610

  13. Next Generation MUT-MAP, a High-Sensitivity High-Throughput Microfluidics Chip-Based Mutation Analysis Panel

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rajesh; Tsan, Alison; Sumiyoshi, Teiko; Fu, Ling; Desai, Rupal; Schoenbrunner, Nancy; Myers, Thomas W.; Bauer, Keith; Smith, Edward; Raja, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Molecular profiling of tumor tissue to detect alterations, such as oncogenic mutations, plays a vital role in determining treatment options in oncology. Hence, there is an increasing need for a robust and high-throughput technology to detect oncogenic hotspot mutations. Although commercial assays are available to detect genetic alterations in single genes, only a limited amount of tissue is often available from patients, requiring multiplexing to allow for simultaneous detection of mutations in many genes using low DNA input. Even though next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms provide powerful tools for this purpose, they face challenges such as high cost, large DNA input requirement, complex data analysis, and long turnaround times, limiting their use in clinical settings. We report the development of the next generation mutation multi-analyte panel (MUT-MAP), a high-throughput microfluidic, panel for detecting 120 somatic mutations across eleven genes of therapeutic interest (AKT1, BRAF, EGFR, FGFR3, FLT3, HRAS, KIT, KRAS, MET, NRAS, and PIK3CA) using allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) and Taqman technology. This mutation panel requires as little as 2 ng of high quality DNA from fresh frozen or 100 ng of DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Mutation calls, including an automated data analysis process, have been implemented to run 88 samples per day. Validation of this platform using plasmids showed robust signal and low cross-reactivity in all of the newly added assays and mutation calls in cell line samples were found to be consistent with the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database allowing for direct comparison of our platform to Sanger sequencing. High correlation with NGS when compared to the SuraSeq500 panel run on the Ion Torrent platform in a FFPE dilution experiment showed assay sensitivity down to 0.45%. This multiplexed mutation panel is a valuable tool for high-throughput biomarker discovery in personalized

  14. Mutational analysis of the TCOF1 gene in 11 Japanese patients with Treacher Collins Syndrome and mechanism of mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Katsumi; Ariga, Tadashi; Fujioka, Hirotaka; Kawashima, Kunihiro; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Igawa, Hiroharu; Sugihara, Tsuneki; Sakiyama, Yukio

    2005-05-01

    Treacher Collins Syndrome (TCS) (OMIM 154500) is a congenital, craniofacial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The responsible gene for TCS, TCOF1, was mapped to 5q32-33.1 and identified in 1996. Since then, TCOF1 mutations in patients with TCS have been reported from Europe, North and South America, however, no TCS cases from an Asian country have been molecularly characterized. Here we report mutational analysis for 11 Japanese patients with TCS for the first time, and have identified TCOF1 mutations in 9 of them. The mutations detected were various, but most likely all the mutations are predicted to result in a truncated gene product, known as treacle. One mutation frequently reported was included in our cases, but no missense mutations were detected. These findings are similar to those for the previous studies for TCS in other races. We have speculated about the molecular mechanisms of the mutations in most cases. Collectively, we have defined some of the characteristic molecular features commonly observed in TCS patients, irrespective of racial difference. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Frameshift mutational target gene analysis identifies similarities and differences in constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency and Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maletzki, Claudia; Huehns, Maja; Bauer, Ingrid; Ripperger, Tim; Mork, Maureen M; Vilar, Eduardo; Klöcking, Sabine; Zettl, Heike; Prall, Friedrich; Linnebacher, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Mismatch-repair deficient (MMR-D) malignancies include Lynch Syndrome (LS), which is secondary to germline mutations in one of the MMR genes, and the rare childhood-form of constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMR-D); caused by bi-allelic MMR gene mutations. A hallmark of LS-associated cancers is microsatellite instability (MSI), characterized by coding frameshift mutations (cFSM) in target genes. By contrast, tumors arising in CMMR-D patients are thought to display a somatic mutation pattern differing from LS. This study has the main goal to identify cFSM in MSI target genes relevant in CMMR-D and to compare the spectrum of common somatic mutations, including alterations in DNA polymerases POLE and D1 between LS and CMMR-D. CMMR-D-associated tumors harbored more somatic mutations compared to LS cases, especially in the TP53 gene and in POLE and POLD1, where novel mutations were additionally identified. Strikingly, MSI in classical mononucleotide markers BAT40 and CAT25 was frequent in CMMR-D cases. MSI-target gene analysis revealed mutations in CMMR-D-associated tumors, some of them known to be frequently hit in LS, such as RNaseT2, HT001, and TGFβR2. Our results imply a general role for these cFSM as potential new drivers of MMR-D tumorigenesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Computational Analysis of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutations Predicts Differential Drug Sensitivity Profiles toward Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Akula, Sravani; Kamasani, Swapna; Sivan, Sree Kanth; Manga, Vijjulatha; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Kancha, Rama Krishna

    2018-05-01

    A significant proportion of patients with lung cancer carry mutations in the EGFR kinase domain. The presence of a deletion mutation in exon 19 or L858R point mutation in the EGFR kinase domain has been shown to cause enhanced efficacy of inhibitor treatment in patients with NSCLC. Several less frequent (uncommon) mutations in the EGFR kinase domain with potential implications in treatment response have also been reported. The role of a limited number of uncommon mutations in drug sensitivity was experimentally verified. However, a huge number of these mutations remain uncharacterized for inhibitor sensitivity or resistance. A large-scale computational analysis of clinically reported 298 point mutants of EGFR kinase domain has been performed, and drug sensitivity profiles for each mutant toward seven kinase inhibitors has been determined by molecular docking. In addition, the relative inhibitor binding affinity toward each drug as compared with that of adenosine triphosphate was calculated for each mutant. The inhibitor sensitivity profiles predicted in this study for a set of previously characterized mutants correlated well with the published clinical, experimental, and computational data. Both the single and compound mutations displayed differential inhibitor sensitivity toward first- and next-generation kinase inhibitors. The present study provides predicted drug sensitivity profiles for a large panel of uncommon EGFR mutations toward multiple inhibitors, which may help clinicians in deciding mutant-specific treatment strategies. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Crystal structural analysis of protein–protein interactions drastically destabilized by a single mutation

    PubMed Central

    Urakubo, Yoshiaki; Ikura, Teikichi; Ito, Nobutoshi

    2008-01-01

    The complex of barnase (bn) and barstar (bs), which has been widely studied as a model for quantitative analysis of protein–protein interactions, is significantly destabilized by a single mutation, namely, bs Asp39 → Ala, which corresponds to a change of 7.7 kcal·mol−1 in the free energy of binding. However, there has been no structural information available to explain such a drastic destabilization. In the present study, we determined the structure of the mutant complex at 1.58 Å resolution by X-ray crystallography. The complex was similar to the wild-type complex in terms of overall and interface structures; however, the hydrogen bond network mediated by water molecules at the interface was significantly different. Several water molecules filled the cavity created by the mutation and consequently caused rearrangement of the hydrated water molecules at the interface. The water molecules were redistributed into a channel-like structure that penetrated into the complex. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations showed that the mutation increased the mobility of water molecules at the interface. Since such a drastic change in hydration was not observed in other mutant complexes of bn and bs, the significant destabilization of the interaction may be due to this channel-like structure of hydrated water molecules. PMID:18441234

  18. Mutational analysis of the PTPN11 gene in Egyptian patients with Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Essawi, Mona L; Ismail, Manal F; Afifi, Hanan H; Kobesiy, Maha M; El Kotoury, Ahmed; Barakat, Maged M

    2013-11-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder with dysmorphic facies, short stature, and cardiac defects, which can be caused by missense mutations in the protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 11 (PTPN11) gene, which encodes src homology region 2 domain containing tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2), a protein tyrosine phosphatase that acts in signal transduction downstream to growth factors and cytokines. The current study aimed to study the molecular characterization of the PTPN11 gene among Egyptian patients with Noonan syndrome. Eleven exons of the PTPN11 gene were amplified and screened by single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP). DNA samples showing band shift in SSCP were subjected to sequencing. Mutational analysis of the PTPN11 gene revealed T→C transition at position 854 in exon 8, predicting Phe285Ser substitution within PTP domain of SHP-2 protein, in one NS patient and -21C→T polymorphism in intron 7 in four other cases. Knowing that NS is phenotypically heterogeneous, molecular characterization of the PTPN11 gene should serve to establish NS diagnosis in patients with atypical features, although lack of a mutation does not exclude the possibility of NS. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Rapid detection of G6PD mutations by multicolor melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhongmin; Chen, Ping; Tang, Ning; Yan, Tizhen; Zhou, Yuqiu; Xiao, Qizhi; Huang, Qiuying; Li, Qingge

    2016-09-01

    The MeltPro G6PD assay is the first commercial genetic test for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. This multicolor melting curve analysis-based real-time PCR assay is designed to genotype 16 G6PD mutations prevalent in the Chinese population. We comprehensively evaluated both the analytical and clinical performances of this assay. All 16 mutations were accurately genotyped, and the standard deviation of the measured Tm was <0.3°C. The limit of detection was 1.0ng/μL human genomic DNA. The assay could be run on four mainstream models of real-time PCR machines. The shortest running time (150min) was obtained with LightCycler 480 II. A clinical study using 763 samples collected from three hospitals indicated that, of 433 samples with reduced G6PD activity, the MeltPro assay identified 423 samples as mutant, yielding a clinical sensitivity of 97.7% (423/433). Of the 117 male samples with normal G6PD activity, the MeltPro assay confirmed that 116 samples were wild type, yielding a clinical specificity of 99.1% (116/117). Moreover, the MeltPro assay demonstrated 100% concordance with DNA sequencing for all targeted mutations. We concluded that the MeltPro G6PD assay is useful as a diagnostic or screening tool for G6PD deficiency in clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mutation analysis of aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene in colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers

    PubMed Central

    Georgitsi, M; Karhu, A; Winqvist, R; Visakorpi, T; Waltering, K; Vahteristo, P; Launonen, V; Aaltonen, L A

    2007-01-01

    Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene were recently identified in individuals with pituitary adenoma predisposition (PAP). These patients have prolactin (PRL) or growth hormone (GH) oversecreting pituitary adenomas, the latter exhibiting acromegaly or gigantism. Loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) analysis revealed that AIP is lost in PAP tumours, suggesting that it acts as a tumour-suppressor gene. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein is involved in several pathways, but it is best characterised as a cytoplasmic partner of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). To examine the possible role of AIP in the genesis of common cancers, we performed somatic mutation screening in a series of 373 colorectal cancers (CRCs), 82 breast cancers, and 44 prostate tumour samples. A missense R16H (47G>A) change was identified in two CRC samples, as well as in the respective normal tissues, but was absent in 209 healthy controls. The remaining findings were silent, previously unreported, changes of the coding, non-coding, or untranslated regions of AIP. These results suggest that somatic AIP mutations are not common in CRC, breast, and prostate cancers. PMID:17242703

  1. Early development of the zebrafish pronephros and analysis of mutations affecting pronephric function.

    PubMed

    Drummond, I A; Majumdar, A; Hentschel, H; Elger, M; Solnica-Krezel, L; Schier, A F; Neuhauss, S C; Stemple, D L; Zwartkruis, F; Rangini, Z; Driever, W; Fishman, M C

    1998-12-01

    The zebrafish pronephric kidney provides a simplified model of nephron development and epithelial cell differentiation which is amenable to genetic analysis. The pronephros consists of two nephrons with fused glomeruli and paired pronephric tubules and ducts. Nephron formation occurs after the differentiation of the pronephric duct with both the glomeruli and tubules being derived from a nephron primordium. Fluorescent dextran injection experiments demonstrate that vascularization of the zebrafish pronephros and the onset of glomerular filtration occurs between 40 and 48 hpf. We isolated fifteen recessive mutations that affect development of the pronephros. All have visible cysts in place of the pronephric tubule at 2-2.5 days of development. Mutants were grouped in three classes: (1) a group of twelve mutants with defects in body axis curvature and manifesting the most rapid and severe cyst formation involving the glomerulus, tubule and duct, (2) the fleer mutation with distended glomerular capillary loops and cystic tubules, and (3) the mutation pao pao tang with a normal glomerulus and cysts limited to the pronephric tubules. double bubble was analyzed as a representative of mutations that perturb the entire length of the pronephros and body axis curvature. Cyst formation begins in the glomerulus at 40 hpf at the time when glomerular filtration is established suggesting a defect associated with the onset of pronephric function. Basolateral membrane protein targeting in the pronephric duct epithelial cells is also severely affected, suggesting a failure in terminal epithelial cell differentiation and alterations in electrolyte transport. These studies reveal the similarity of normal pronephric development to kidney organogenesis in all vertebrates and allow for a genetic dissection of genes needed to establish the earliest renal function.

  2. Methylation, expression, and mutation analysis of the cell cycle control genes in human brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dong; Xie, Dong; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Miller, Carl W; Black, Keith L; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2002-11-28

    Methylation status of the p15(INK4B), p16(INK4A), p14(ARF) and retinoblastoma (RB) genes was studied using methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) in 85 human brain tumors of various subtypes and four normal brain samples. These genes play an important role in the control of the cell cycle. Twenty-four out of 85 cases (28%) had at least one of these genes methylated. The frequency of p14(ARF) methylation was 15 out of 85 (18%) cases, and the expression of p14(ARF) in methylated gliomas was significantly lower than in unmethylated gliomas. The incidence of methylation of p15(INK4B), p16(INK4A) and RB gene was 4%, 7%, and 4%, respectively. Samples with p14(ARF) methylation did not have p16(INK4A) methylation even though both genes physically overlap. None of the target genes was methylated in the normal brain samples. In addition, the p53 gene was mutated in 19 out of 85 (22%) samples as determined by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and DNA sequencing. Thirty out of 85 (35%) brain tumors had either a p53 mutation or methylation of p14(ARF). Also, the p14(ARF) expression in p53 wild-type gliomas was lower than levels in p53 mutated gliomas. This finding is consistent with wild-type p53 being able to autoregulate its levels by down-regulating expression of p14(ARF). In summary, inactivation of the apoptosis pathway that included the p14(ARF) and p53 genes by hypermethylation and mutation, respectively, occurred frequently in human brain tumors. Down-regulation of p14(ARF) in gliomas was associated with hypermethylation of its promoter and the presence of a wild-type p53 in these samples.

  3. Genetic counseling in Usher syndrome: linkage and mutational analysis of 10 Colombian families.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, M L; Lopez, G; Gelvez, N; Medina, D; Kimberling, W J; Rodríguez, V; Tamayo, G E; Bernal, J E

    2008-01-01

    Usher Syndrome (US), an autosomal recessive disease, is characterized by retinitis pigmentosa (RP), vestibular dysfunction, and congenital sensorineural deafness. There are three recognized clinical types of the disorder. In order to improve genetic counseling for affected families, we conducted linkage analysis and DNA sequencing in 10 Colombian families with confirmed diagnosis of US (4 type I and 6 type II). Seventy-five percent of the US1 families showed linkage to locus USH1B, while the remaining 25% showed linkage to loci USH1B and USH1C. Among families showing linkage to USH1B we found two different mutations in the MYO7A gene: IVS42-26insTTGAG in exon 43 (heterozygous state) and R634X (CGA-TGA) in exon 16 (homozygous state). All six US2 families showed linkage to locus USH2A. Of them, 4 had c.2299delG mutation (1 homozygote state and 3 heterozygous); in the remaining 2 we did not identify any pathologic DNA variant. USH2A individuals with a 2299delG mutation presented a typical and homogeneous retinal phenotype with bilateral severe hearing loss, except for one individual with a heterozygous 2299delG mutation, whose hearing loss was asymmetric, but more profound than in the other cases. The study of these families adds to the genotype-phenotype characterization of the different types and subtypes of US and facilitates genetic counseling in these families. We would like to emphasize the need to perform DNA studies as a prerequisite for genetic counseling in affected families.

  4. Competitive amplification of differentially melting amplicons (CADMA) enables sensitive and direct detection of all mutation types by high-resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Lasse S; Andersen, Gitte B; Hager, Henrik; Hansen, Lise Lotte

    2012-01-01

    Sensitive and specific mutation detection is of particular importance in cancer diagnostics, prognostics, and individualized patient treatment. However, the majority of molecular methodologies that have been developed with the aim of increasing the sensitivity of mutation testing have drawbacks in terms of specificity, convenience, or costs. Here, we have established a new method, Competitive Amplification of Differentially Melting Amplicons (CADMA), which allows very sensitive and specific detection of all mutation types. The principle of the method is to amplify wild-type and mutated sequences simultaneously using a three-primer system. A mutation-specific primer is designed to introduce melting temperature decreasing mutations in the resulting mutated amplicon, while a second overlapping primer is designed to amplify both wild-type and mutated sequences. When combined with a third common primer very sensitive mutation detection becomes possible, when using high-resolution melting (HRM) as detection platform. The introduction of melting temperature decreasing mutations in the mutated amplicon also allows for further mutation enrichment by fast coamplification at lower denaturation temperature PCR (COLD-PCR). For proof-of-concept, we have designed CADMA assays for clinically relevant BRAF, EGFR, KRAS, and PIK3CA mutations, which are sensitive to, between 0.025% and 0.25%, mutated alleles in a wild-type background. In conclusion, CADMA enables highly sensitive and specific mutation detection by HRM analysis. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Expression and mutational analysis of Cip/Kip family in early glottic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, D-K; Lee, J H; Lee, O J; Park, C H

    2015-02-01

    Genetic alteration of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors has been associated with carcinogenesis mechanisms in various organs. This study aimed to evaluate the expression and mutational analysis of Cip/Kip family cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p21CIP1/WAF1, p27KIP1 and p57KIP2) in early glottic cancer. Expressions of Cip/Kip family and p53 were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and densitometry. For the analysis of p21 inactivation, sequence alteration was assessed using single-strand conformational polymorphism polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, the inactivation mechanism of p27 and p57 were investigated using DNA methylation analysis. Reduced expression of p27 and p57 were detected in all samples, whereas the expression of p21 was incompletely down-regulated in 6 of 11 samples. Additionally, single-strand conformational polymorphism polymerase chain reaction analysis showed the p53 mutation at exon 6. Methylation of p27 and p57 was detected by DNA methylation assay. Our results suggest that the Cip/Kip family may have a role as a molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis in early glottic cancer.

  6. Analysis of correlated mutations in HIV-1 protease using spectral clustering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Eyal, Eran; Bahar, Ivet

    2008-05-15

    The ability of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) protease to develop mutations that confer multi-drug resistance (MDR) has been a major obstacle in designing rational therapies against HIV. Resistance is usually imparted by a cooperative mechanism that can be elucidated by a covariance analysis of sequence data. Identification of such correlated substitutions of amino acids may be obscured by evolutionary noise. HIV-1 protease sequences from patients subjected to different specific treatments (set 1), and from untreated patients (set 2) were subjected to sequence covariance analysis by evaluating the mutual information (MI) between all residue pairs. Spectral clustering of the resulting covariance matrices disclosed two distinctive clusters of correlated residues: the first, observed in set 1 but absent in set 2, contained residues involved in MDR acquisition; and the second, included those residues differentiated in the various HIV-1 protease subtypes, shortly referred to as the phylogenetic cluster. The MDR cluster occupies sites close to the central symmetry axis of the enzyme, which overlap with the global hinge region identified from coarse-grained normal-mode analysis of the enzyme structure. The phylogenetic cluster, on the other hand, occupies solvent-exposed and highly mobile regions. This study demonstrates (i) the possibility of distinguishing between the correlated substitutions resulting from neutral mutations and those induced by MDR upon appropriate clustering analysis of sequence covariance data and (ii) a connection between global dynamics and functional substitution of amino acids.

  7. Developments for Personalized Medicine of Lung Cancer Subtypes: Mass Spectrometry-Based Clinical Proteogenomic Analysis of Oncogenic Mutations.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Toshihide; Nakamura, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Molecular therapies targeting lung cancers with mutated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by EGFR-tyrosin kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), gefitinib and erlotinib, changed the treatment system of lung cancer. It was revealed that drug efficacy differs by race (e.g., Caucasians vs. Asians) due to oncogenic driver mutations specific to each race, exemplified by gefitinib / erlotinib. The molecular target drugs for lung cancer with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene translocation (the fusion gene, EML4-ALK) was approved, and those targeting lung cancers addicted ROS1, RET, and HER2 have been under development. Both identification and quantification of gatekeeper mutations need to be performed using lung cancer tissue specimens obtained from patients to improve the treatment for lung cancer patients: (1) identification and quantitation data of targeted mutated proteins, including investigation of mutation heterogeneity within a tissue; (2) exploratory mass spectrometry (MS)-based clinical proteogenomic analysis of mutated proteins; and also importantly (3) analysis of dynamic protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of proteins significantly related to a subgroup of patients with lung cancer not only with good efficacy but also with acquired resistance. MS-based proteogenomics is a promising approach to directly capture mutated and fusion proteins expressed in a clinical sample. Technological developments are further expected, which will provide a powerful solution for the stratification of patients and drug discovery (Precision Medicine).

  8. The use of high resolution melting analysis to detect Fabry mutations in heterozygous females via dry bloodspots.

    PubMed

    Tai, Chang-Long; Liu, Mei-Ying; Yu, Hsiao-Chi; Chiang, Chiang-Chuan; Chiang, Hung; Suen, Jeng-Hung; Kao, Shu-Min; Huang, Yu-Hsiu; Wu, Tina Jui-Ting; Yang, Chia-Feng; Tsai, Fang-Chih; Lin, Ching-Yuang; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Chen, Hong-Duo; Niu, Dau-Ming

    2012-02-18

    As an X-linked genetic disorder, Fabry disease was first thought to affect males only, and females were generally considered to be asymptomatic carriers. However, recent research suggests that female carriers of Fabry disease may still develop vital organ damage causing severe morbidity and mortality. In the previous newborn screening, from 299,007 newborns, we identified a total of 20 different Fabry mutations and 121 newborns with Fabry mutations. However, we found that most female carriers are not detected by enzyme assays. A streamlined method for high resolution melting (HRM) analysis was designed to screen for GLA gene mutations using a same PCR and melting program. Primer sets were designed to cover the 7 exons and the Chinese common intronic mutation, IVS4+919G>A of GLA gene. The HRM analysis was successful in identifying heterozygous and hemizygous patients with the 20 surveyed mutations. We were also successful in using this method to test dry blood spots of newborns afflicted with Fabry mutations without having to determine DNA concentration before PCR amplification. The results of this study show that HRM could be a reliable and sensitive method for use in the rapid screening of females for GLA mutations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mutation analysis of the MYO7A and CDH23 genes in Japanese patients with Usher syndrome type 1.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Ohtsubo, Masafumi; Iwasaki, Satoshi; Hotta, Yoshihiro; Takizawa, Yoshinori; Hosono, Katsuhiro; Mizuta, Kunihiro; Mineta, Hiroyuki; Minoshima, Shinsei

    2010-12-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by retinitis pigmentosa and hearing loss. USH type 1 (USH1), the second common type of USH, is frequently caused by MYO7A and CDH23 mutations, accounting for 70-80% of the cases among various ethnicities, including Caucasians, Africans and Asians. However, there have been no reports of mutation analysis for any responsible genes for USH1 in Japanese patients. This study describes the first mutation analysis of MYO7A and CDH23 in Japanese USH1 patients. Five mutations (three in MYO7A and two in CDH23) were identified in four of five unrelated patients. Of these mutations, two were novel. One of them, p.Tyr1942SerfsX23 in CDH23, was a large deletion causing the loss of 3 exons. This is the first large deletion to be found in CDH23. The incidence of the MYO7A and CDH23 mutations in the study population was 80%, which is consistent with previous findings. Therefore, mutation screening for these genes is expected to be a highly sensitive method for diagnosing USH1 among the Japanese.

  10. Nras and Kras mutation in Japanese lung cancer patients: Genotyping analysis using LightCycler.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hidefumi; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Kawano, Osamu; Endo, Katsuhiko; Yukiue, Haruhiro; Yokoyama, Tomoki; Yano, Motoki; Fujii, Yoshitaka

    2007-09-01

    Activating mutations of Ras gene families have been found in a variety of human malignancies, including lung cancer, suggesting their dominant role in tumorigenesis. Many studies have showed that the Kras gene is activated by point mutations in approximately 15-20% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), however, there are only a few reports on Nras mutations in NSCLC. We have genotyped Nras mutation status (n=195) and Kras mutation status (n=190) in surgically treated lung adenocarcinoma cases. The presence or absence of Nras and Kras mutations was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with mutation-specific sensor and anchor probes. EGFR mutation status at kinase domain has already been reported. Nras mutation was found in 1 of 195 patients. This mutation was a G-to-T transversion, involving the substitution of the normal glycine (GGT) with cystein (TGT) and thought to be a somatic mutation. The patient was male and a smoker. Kras mutant patients (11.1%; 21/190) had a significantly worse prognosis than wild-type patients (p=0.0013). Eighty-two EGFR mutations at kinase domain had exclusively Nras or Kras mutations. Although Nras gene mutation might be one of the mechanisms of oncogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma, this was a very rare event. Further studies are needed to confirm the mechanisms of Nras mutations for the sensitivity of molecular target therapy for lung cancer.

  11. Prognostic role of tumor PIK3CA mutation in colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mei, Z B; Duan, C Y; Li, C B; Cui, L; Ogino, S

    2016-10-01

    Somatic mutations in the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/AKT pathway play a vital role in carcinogenesis. Approximately 15%-20% of colorectal cancers (CRCs) harbor activating mutations in PIK3CA, making it one of the most frequently mutated genes in CRC. We thus carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the prognostic significance of PIK3CA mutations in CRC. Electronic databases were searched from inception through May 2015. We extracted the study characteristics and prognostic data of each eligible study. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were derived and pooled using the random-effects Mantel-Haenszel model. Twenty-eight studies enrolling 12 747 patients were eligible for inclusion. Data on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were available from 19 and 10 studies, respectively. Comparing PIK3CA-mutated CRC patients with PIK3CA-wild-type CRC patients, the summary HRs for OS and PFS were 0.96 (95% CI 0.83-1.12) and 1.20 (95% CI 0.98-1.46), respectively. The trim-and-fill, Copas model and subgroup analyses stratified by the study characteristics confirmed the robustness of the results. Five studies reported the CRC prognosis for PIK3CA mutations in exons 9 and 20 separately; neither exon 9 mutation nor exon 20 mutation in PIK3CA was significantly associated with patient survival. Our findings suggest that PIK3CA mutation has the neutral prognostic effects on CRC OS and PFS. Evidence was accumulating for the establishment of CRC survival between PIK3CA mutations and patient-specific clinical or molecular profiles. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Computational Analysis of KRAS Mutations: Implications for Different Effects on the KRAS p.G12D and p.G13D Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yen-Yi; Hwang, Jenn-Kang; Barrio, Maria Jesus; Rodrigo, Maximiliano; Garcia-Toro, Enrique; Herreros-Villanueva, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Background The issue of whether patients diagnosed with metastatic colorectal cancer who harbor KRAS codon 13 mutations could benefit from the addition of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy remains under debate. The aim of the current study was to perform computational analysis to investigate the structural implications of the underlying mutations caused by c.38G>A (p.G13D) on protein conformation. Methods Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to understand the plausible structural and dynamical implications caused by c.35G>A (p.G12D) and c.38G>A (p.G13D). The potential of mean force (PMF) simulations were carried out to determine the free energy profiles of the binding processes of GTP interacting with wild-type (WT) KRAS and its mutants (MT). Results Using MD simulations, we observed that the root mean square deviation (RMSD) increased as a function of time for the MT c.35G>A (p.G12D) and MT c.38G>A (p.G13D) when compared with the WT. We also observed that the GTP-binding pocket in the c.35G>A (p.G12D) mutant is more open than that of the WT and the c.38G>A (p.G13D) proteins. Intriguingly, the analysis of atomic fluctuations and free energy profiles revealed that the mutation of c.35G>A (p.G12D) may induce additional fluctuations in the sensitive sites (P-loop, switch I and II regions). Such fluctuations may promote instability in these protein regions and hamper GTP binding. Conclusions Taken together with the results obtained from MD and PMF simulations, the present findings implicate fluctuations at the sensitive sites (P-loop, switch I and II regions). Our findings revealed that KRAS mutations in codon 13 have similar behavior as KRAS WT. To gain a better insight into why patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and the KRAS c.38G>A (p.G13D) mutation appear to benefit from anti-EGFR therapy, the role of the KRAS c.38G>A (p.G13D) mutation in mCRC needs to be further investigated. PMID:23437064

  13. Detection of PIK3CA gene mutations with HRM analysis and association with IGFBP-5 expression levels in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dirican, Ebubekir; Kaya, Zehra; Gullu, Gokce; Peker, Irem; Ozmen, Tolga; Gulluoglu, Bahadir M; Kaya, Handan; Ozer, Ayse; Akkiprik, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway mutations are associated with cancer and phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) gene mutations have been observed in 25-45% of breast cancer samples. Insulin growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) can show different effects on apoptosis, cell motility and survival in breast cancer. We here aimed to determine the association between PIK3CA gene mutations and IGFBP-5 expressions for the first time in breast cancer patients. Frozen tumor samples from 101 Turkish breast cancer patients were analyzed with high resolution melting (HRM) for PIK3CA mutations (exon 9 and exon 20) and 37 HRM positive tumor samples were analyzed by DNA sequencing, mutations being found in 31. PIK3CA exon 9 mutations (Q546R, E542Q, E545K, E542K and E545D) were found in 10 tumor samples, exon 20 mutations (H1047L, H1047R, T1025T and G1049R) in 21, where only 1 tumor sample had two exon 20 mutations (T1025T and H1047R). Moreover, we detected one sample with both exon 9 (E542Q) and exon 20 (H1047R) mutations. 35% of the tumor samples with high IGFBP-5 mRNA expression and 29.4% of the tumor samples with low IGFBP-5 mRNA expression had PIK3CA mutations (p=0.9924). This is the first study of PIK3CA mutation screening results in Turkish breast cancer population using HRM analysis. This approach appears to be a very effective and reliable screening method for the PIK3CA exon 9 and 20 mutation detection. Further analysis with a greater number of samples is needed to clarify association between PIK3CA gene mutations and IGFBP-5 mRNA expression, and also clinical outcome in breast cancer patients.

  14. Mutation analysis of β-thalassemia in East-Western Indian population: a recent molecular approach

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Parth S; Shah, Nidhi D; Ray, Hari Shankar P; Khatri, Nikunj B; Vaghasia, Ketan K; Raval, Rutvik J; Shah, Sandip C; Rao, Mandava V

    2017-01-01

    Background β-Thalassemia is the most prevalent genetic disorder in India. Its traits and coinheritance vary from mild to severe conditions, resulting in thalassemia minor, intermediate, and major, depending upon many factors. Purpose The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of β-thalassemia traits, their coinheritance, and mutations, as well as to support the patients already diagnosed with β-thalassemia in East-Western Indian population for better management. Patients and methods Seventy-five referral cases for β-thalassemia were analyzed for various β-thalassemia traits, heterozygosity, and homozygosity conditions. Blood phenotypic parameters using cell counter and capillary electrophoresis were investigated. Analyses of eight common mutations of thalassemia in India were carried out using polymerase chain reaction-amplification refractory mutation system, end point polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing methods. Results Of these (75) referral cases from East-Western Indian region, 68 were positive for β-thalassemia (90.67%). The majority of case types were of β-thalassemia minor (49, 65.33%), followed by HbE traits (6, 8.0%) and β-thalassemia major, including heterozygous and homozygous (5, 6.66%; 4, 5.33%) types and then HbE homozygous (2, 2.66%), as well as one each of the HbE/β-thalassemia and HbD/β-thalassemia (1, 1.34%) combination. Mutation analysis also revealed that the highest frequency of mutation was c.92+5G>C (41, 60.29%) followed by deletion 619bp (9, 13.23%) and c.79G>A (8, 11.76%) in our study group. Five cases (nos. 24, 27, 33, 58, and 71) exhibited coinheritance between β0/β+ (2), β0/β D (1), and c.124_127delTTCT/β+ or β0(2) affecting the Rajasthani and Gujarati populations in our study of the Western region of India. Conclusion We strongly recommend these Western populations for genetic screening before adopting reproductive technologies and interracial marital relations. PMID:28546763

  15. Detection of Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Drug Resistance Mutations Based on Multicolor Melting Curve Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mou, Yi; Athar, Muhammad Ammar; Wu, Yuzhen; Xu, Ye; Wu, Jianhua; Xu, Zhenxing; Hayder, Zulfiqar; Khan, Saeed; Idrees, Muhammad; Nasir, Muhammad Israr; Liao, Yiqun; Li, Qingge

    2016-11-01

    Detection of anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) drug resistance mutations is critical for therapeutic decisions for chronic hepatitis B virus infection. We describe a real-time PCR-based assay using multicolor melting curve analysis (MMCA) that could accurately detect 24 HBV nucleotide mutations at 10 amino acid positions in the reverse transcriptase region of the HBV polymerase gene. The two-reaction assay had a limit of detection of 5 copies per reaction and could detect a minor mutant population (5% of the total population) with the reverse transcriptase M204V amino acid mutation in the presence of the major wild-type population when the overall concentration was 10 4 copies/μl. The assay could be finished within 3 h, and the cost of materials for each sample was less than $10. Clinical validation studies using three groups of samples from both nucleos(t)ide analog-treated and -untreated patients showed that the results for 99.3% (840/846) of the samples and 99.9% (8,454/8,460) of the amino acids were concordant with those of Sanger sequencing of the PCR amplicon from the HBV reverse transcriptase region (PCR Sanger sequencing). HBV DNA in six samples with mixed infections consisting of minor mutant subpopulations was undetected by the PCR Sanger sequencing method but was detected by MMCA, and the results were confirmed by coamplification at a lower denaturation temperature-PCR Sanger sequencing. Among the treated patients, 48.6% (103/212) harbored viruses that displayed lamivudine monoresistance, adefovir monoresistance, entecavir resistance, or lamivudine and adefovir resistance. Among the untreated patients, the Chinese group had more mutation-containing samples than did the Pakistani group (3.3% versus 0.56%). Because of its accuracy, rapidness, wide-range coverage, and cost-effectiveness, the real-time PCR assay could be a robust tool for the detection if anti-HBV drug resistance mutations in resource-limited countries. Copyright © 2016, American Society for

  16. BRAFV600E mutation and its association with clinicopathological features of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Huang, Jun-Fu; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Li-Qun; Yang, Zhao; Chuai, Zheng-Ran; Wang, Yun-Xia; Shi, Da-Chuan; Huang, Qing; Fu, Wei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease with multiple underlying causative genetic mutations. The B-type Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF) plays an important role in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade during CRC. The presence of BRAFV600E mutation can determine the response of a tumor to chemotherapy. However, the association between the BRAFV600E mutation and the clinicopathological features of CRC remains controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the effect of BRAFV600E mutation on the clinicopathological characteristics of CRC. We identified studies that examined the effect of BRAFV600E mutation on CRC within the PubMed, ISI Science Citation Index, and Embase databases. The effect of BRAFV600E on outcome parameters was estimated by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each study using a fixed effects or random effects model. 25 studies with a total of 11,955 CRC patients met inclusion criteria. The rate of BRAFV600 was 10.8% (1288/11955). The BRAFV600E mutation in CRC was associated with advanced TNM stage, poor differentiation, mucinous histology, microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). This mutation was also associated with female gender, older age, proximal colon, and mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) methylation. This meta-analysis demonstrated that BRAFV600E mutation was significantly correlated with adverse pathological features of CRC and distinct clinical characteristics. These data suggest that BRAFV600E mutation could be used to supplement standard clinical and pathological staging for the better management of individual CRC patients, and could be considered as a poor prognostic marker for CRC.

  17. DNA analysis of an uncommon missense mutation in a Gaucher disease patient of Jewish-Polish-Russian descent

    SciTech Connect

    Choy, F.Y.M.; Wei, C.; Applegarth, D.A.

    1994-06-01

    Gaucher disease is the most frequent lysosomal lipid storage disease. It results from deficient glucocerebrosidase activity and is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. Three clinical forms of Gaucher disease have been described: type 1, non-neuronopathic; type 2, acute neuronopathic; and type 3, subacute neuronopathic. We have sequenced the full length cDNA of the glucocerebrosidase gene and identified an uncommon mutation in nucleotide position 1604 (genoma DNA nucleotide position 6683) from a Gaucher disease patient of Jewish-Polish-Russian descent with type 1 Gaucher disease. It is a G{yields}A transition in exon 11 that results in {sup 496}Arg{yields}{sup 496}His of glucocerebrosidase. Thismore » missense mutation is present in the heterozygous form and creates a new cleavage site for the endonuclease HphI. We have developed a simple method to detect the presence of this mutation by using HphI restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of glucocerebrosidase genomic DNA or cDNA. The mutation in the other Gaucher allele of this patient is an A{yields}G transition at cDNA nucleotide position 1226 which creates an XhoI cleavage site after PCR mismatch amplification. The presence of this mutation was also confirmed by sequence analysis. Based on previous reports that mutation 1226 is present only in type 1 Gaucher disease and the observation that there is no neurological involvement in this patient, we conclude that our patient with the 1226/1604 genotype is diagnosed as having type 1 Gaucher disease. Since it was also postulated that mutation 1226 in the homozygous form will usually result in a good prognosis, we speculate that the orthopedic complications and the unusual presence of glomerulosclerosis in this patient may be attributable to the mutation at nucleotide 1604. This speculation will require a description of more patients with this mutation for confirmation. 32 refs., 5 figs.« less

  18. Analysis of the Effects of a gerP Mutation on the Germination of Spores of Bacillus subtilis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    REPORT Analysis of the effects of a gerP mutation on the germination of spores of Bacillus subtilis 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF... Bacillus subtilis spores with a gerP mutation triggered spore germination via nutrient germinant receptors (GRs) slowly, although this defect was...gerP, Bacillus subtilis , dipicolinic acid Xuan Y. Butzin, Anthony J. Troiano, William H. Coleman, Keren K. Griffiths, Christopher J. Doona, Florence E

  19. Mutation analysis of the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes in Vietnamese patients with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Ho Duy, Binh; Zhytnik, Lidiia; Maasalu, Katre; Kändla, Ivo; Prans, Ele; Reimann, Ene; Märtson, Aare; Kõks, Sulev

    2016-08-12

    The genetics of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have not been studied in a Vietnamese population before. We performed mutational analysis of the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes in 91 unrelated OI patients of Vietnamese origin. We then systematically characterized the mutation profiles of these two genes which are most commonly related to OI. Genomic DNA was extracted from EDTA-preserved blood according to standard high-salt extraction methods. Sequence analysis and pathogenic variant identification was performed with Mutation Surveyor DNA variant analysis software. Prediction of the pathogenicity of mutations was conducted using Alamut Visual software. The presence of variants was checked against Dalgleish's osteogenesis imperfecta mutation database. The sample consisted of 91 unrelated osteogenesis imperfecta patients. We identified 54 patients with COL1A1/2 pathogenic variants; 33 with COL1A1 and 21 with COL1A2. Two patients had multiple pathogenic variants. Seventeen novel COL1A1 and 10 novel COL1A2 variants were identified. The majority of identified COL1A1/2 pathogenic variants occurred in a glycine substitution (36/56, 64.3 %), usually serine (23/36, 63.9 %). We found two pathogenic variants of the COL1A1 gene c.2461G > A (p.Gly821Ser) in four unrelated patients and one, c.2005G > A (p.Ala669Thr), in two unrelated patients. Our data showed a lower number of collagen OI pathogenic variants in Vietnamese patients compared to reported rates for Asian populations. The OI mutational profile of the Vietnamese population is unique and related to the presence of a high number of recessive mutations in non-collagenous OI genes. Further analysis of OI patients negative for collagen mutations, is required.

  20. Pitfalls in molecular analysis for mismatch repair deficiency in a family with biallelic pms2 germline mutations.

    PubMed

    Leenen, C H M; Geurts-Giele, W R R; Dubbink, H J; Reddingius, R; van den Ouweland, A M; Tops, C M J; van de Klift, H M; Kuipers, E J; van Leerdam, M E; Dinjens, W N M; Wagner, A

    2011-12-01

    Heterozygous germline mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome. Biallelic mutations in the MMR genes are associated with a childhood cancer syndrome [constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D)]. This is predominantly characterized by hematological malignancies and tumors of the bowel and brain, often associated with signs of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Diagnostic strategies for selection of patients for MMR gene analysis include analysis of microsatellite instability (MSI) and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of MMR proteins in tumor tissue. We report the clinical characterization and molecular analyses of tumor specimens from a family with biallelic PMS2 germline mutations. This illustrates the pitfalls of present molecular screening strategies. Tumor tissues of five family members were analyzed for MSI and IHC. MSI was observed in only one of the analyzed tissues. However, IHC analysis of brain tumor tissue of the index patient and his sister showed absence of PMS2 expression, and germline mutation analyses showed biallelic mutations in PMS2: p.Ser46IIe and p.Pro246fs. The same heterozygous mutations were confirmed in the father and mother, respectively. These data support the conclusion that in case of a clinical phenotype of CMMR-D, it is advisable to routinely combine MSI analysis with IHC analysis for the expression of MMR proteins. With inconclusive or conflicting results, germline mutation analysis of the MMR genes should be considered after thorough counselling of the patients and/or their relatives. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. [Value of Immunohistochemical Methods in Detecting EML4-ALK Fusion Mutations: A Meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Cai, Lu; Zhong, Diansheng; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The fusion between echinoderm microtubule-associated protein 4 (EML4) and anaplastic lymphatic tumor kinase (ALK) rearrangement is present in approximately 5% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. It has been regarded as another new target gene after epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and K-ras. Figures showed that the disease control rate could reach up to 80% in NSCLC patients with EML4-ALK fusion gene after treated with ALK inhibitors. Thus, exploring an accurate and rapid detecting method is the key in screening NSCLC patients with EML4-ALK expressions. The aim of this study is to analyze the specificity and sensitivity of IHC in detecting EML4-ALK fusion mutations. To evaluate the accuracy and clinical value of this method, and then provide basis for individual molecular therapy of NSCLC patients. Using Pubmed database to search all documents required. The deadline of retrieval was February 25, 2015. Then further screening the articles according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Using diagnostic test meta-analysis methods to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of the immunohistochemistry (IHC) method compared with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method. Eleven literatures were added into the meta analysis, there were 3,234 of total cases. The diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 1,135.00 (95%CI: 337.10-3,821.46); the area under curve (AUC) of summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) curve was 0.992,3 (SEAUC=0.003,2), the Q* was 0.964,4 (SEQ*=0.008,7). Immunohistochemical detection of EML4-ALK fusion gene mutation with specific antibody is feasible. It has high sensitivity and specificity. IHC can be a simple and rapid way in screening EML4-ALK fusion gene mutation and exhibits important clinical values.

  2. A microsphere-based assay for mutation analysis of the biotinidase gene using dried blood spots

    PubMed Central

    Lindau-Shepard, Barbara; Janik, David K.; Pass, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive syndrome caused by defects in the biotinidase gene, the product of which affects biotin metabolism. Newborn screening (NBS) for biotinidase deficiency can identify affected infants prior to onset of symptoms; biotin supplementation can resolve or prevent the clinical features. In NBS, dry blood spots (DBS) are usually tested for biotinidase enzyme activity by colorimetric analysis. By taking advantage of the multiplexing capabilities of the Luminex platform, we have developed a microsphere-based array genotyping method for the simultaneous detection of six disease causing mutations in the biotinidase gene, thereby permitting a second tier of molecular analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from 3.2 mm DBS. Biotinidase gene sequences, containing the mutations of interest, were amplified by multiplexed polymerase chain reaction, followed by multiplexed allele-specific primer extension using universally tagged genotyping primers. The products were then hybridized to anti-tag carrying xTAG microspheres and detected on the Luminex platform. Genotypes were verified by sequencing. Genotyping results of 22 known biotinidase deficient samples by our xTAG biotinidase assay was in concordance with the results obtained from DNA sequencing, for all 6 mutations used in our panel. These results indicate that genotyping by an xTAG microsphere-based array is accurate, flexible, and can be adapted for high-throughput. Since NBS for biotinidase deficiency is by enzymatic assay, less than optimal quality of the DBS itself can compromise enzyme activity, while the DNA from these samples mostly remains unaffected. This assay warrants evaluation as a viable complement to the biotinidase semi-quantitative colorimetric assay. PMID:27625817

  3. Optimizing high-resolution melting analysis for the detection of mutations of GPR30/GPER-1 in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Masamune; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Nishioka, Hiroko; Inoue, Yutaro; Hamano, Kimikazu; Oka, Masaaki; Mizukami, Yoichi

    2012-06-15

    G protein-coupled receptor 30/G protein estrogen receptor-1 (GPR30/GPER-1) is a novel membrane receptor for estrogen whose mRNA is expressed at high levels in estrogen-dependent cells such as breast cancer cell lines. However, mutations in GRP30 related to diseases remain unreported. To detect unknown mutations in the GPR30 open reading frame (ORF) quickly, the experimental conditions for high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis were examined for PCR primers, Taq polymerases, saturation DNA binding dyes, Mg(2+) concentration, and normalized temperatures. Nine known SNPs and 13 artificial point mutations within the GPR30 ORF, as well as single nucleotide variants in DNA extracted from subjects with breast cancers were tested under the optimal experimental conditions. The combination of Expand High Fidelity(PLUS) and SYTO9 in the presence of 2.0 mM MgCl(2) produced the best separation in melting curves of mutations in all regions of the GPR30 ORF. Under these experimental conditions, the mutations were clearly detected in both heterozygotes and homozygotes. HRM analysis of GPR30 using genomic DNA from subjects with breast cancers showed a novel single nucleotide variant, 111C>T in GPR30 and 4 known SNPs. The experimental conditions determined in this study for HRM analysis are useful for high throughput assays to detect unknown mutations within the GPR30 ORF. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. MUFFINN: cancer gene discovery via network analysis of somatic mutation data.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ara; Shim, Jung Eun; Kim, Eiru; Supek, Fran; Lehner, Ben; Lee, Insuk

    2016-06-23

    A major challenge for distinguishing cancer-causing driver mutations from inconsequential passenger mutations is the long-tail of infrequently mutated genes in cancer genomes. Here, we present and evaluate a method for prioritizing cancer genes accounting not only for mutations in individual genes but also in their neighbors in functional networks, MUFFINN (MUtations For Functional Impact on Network Neighbors). This pathway-centric method shows high sensitivity compared with gene-centric analyses of mutation data. Notably, only a marginal decrease in performance is observed when using 10 % of TCGA patient samples, suggesting the method may potentiate cancer genome projects with small patient populations.

  5. High Resolution Melting Analysis for Rapid Mutation Screening in Gyrase and Topoisomerase IV Genes in Quinolone-Resistant Salmonella enterica

    PubMed Central

    Thong, Kwai Lin

    2014-01-01

    The increased Salmonella resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones is a public health concern in the Southeast Asian region. The objective of this study is to develop a high resolution melt curve (HRM) assay to rapidly screen for mutations in quinolone-resistant determining region (QRDR) of gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes. DNA sequencing was performed on 62 Salmonella strains to identify mutations in the QRDR of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes. Mutations were detected in QRDR of gyrA (n = 52; S83F, S83Y, S83I, D87G, D87Y, and D87N) and parE (n = 1; M438I). Salmonella strains with mutations within QRDR of gyrA are generally more resistant to nalidixic acid (MIC 16 > 256 μg/mL). Mutations were uncommon within the QRDR of gyrB, parC, and parE genes. In the HRM assay, mutants can be distinguished from the wild-type strains based on the transition of melt curves, which is more prominent when the profiles are displayed in difference plot. In conclusion, HRM analysis allows for rapid screening for mutations at the QRDRs of gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes in Salmonella. This assay markedly reduced the sequencing effort involved in mutational studies of quinolone-resistance genes. PMID:25371903

  6. Deciphering KRAS and NRAS mutated clone dynamics in MLL-AF4 paediatric leukaemia by ultra deep sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Trentin, Luca; Bresolin, Silvia; Giarin, Emanuela; Bardini, Michela; Serafin, Valentina; Accordi, Benedetta; Fais, Franco; Tenca, Claudya; De Lorenzo, Paola; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Kronnie, Geertruy Te; Basso, Giuseppe

    2016-10-04

    To induce and sustain the leukaemogenic process, MLL-AF4+ leukaemia seems to require very few genetic alterations in addition to the fusion gene itself. Studies of infant and paediatric patients with MLL-AF4+ B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL) have reported mutations in KRAS and NRAS with incidences ranging from 25 to 50%. Whereas previous studies employed Sanger sequencing, here we used next generation amplicon deep sequencing for in depth evaluation of RAS mutations in 36 paediatric patients at diagnosis of MLL-AF4+ leukaemia. RAS mutations including those in small sub-clones were detected in 63.9% of patients. Furthermore, the mutational analysis of 17 paired samples at diagnosis and relapse revealed complex RAS clone dynamics and showed that the mutated clones present at relapse were almost all originated from clones that were already detectable at diagnosis and survived to the initial therapy. Finally, we showed that mutated patients were indeed characterized by a RAS related signature at both transcriptional and protein levels and that the targeting of the RAS pathway could be of beneficial for treatment of MLL-AF4+ BCP-ALL clones carrying somatic RAS mutations.

  7. High resolution melting analysis for rapid mutation screening in gyrase and Topoisomerase IV genes in quinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Ngoi, Soo Tein; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2014-01-01

    The increased Salmonella resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones is a public health concern in the Southeast Asian region. The objective of this study is to develop a high resolution melt curve (HRM) assay to rapidly screen for mutations in quinolone-resistant determining region (QRDR) of gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes. DNA sequencing was performed on 62 Salmonella strains to identify mutations in the QRDR of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes. Mutations were detected in QRDR of gyrA (n = 52; S83F, S83Y, S83I, D87G, D87Y, and D87N) and parE (n = 1; M438I). Salmonella strains with mutations within QRDR of gyrA are generally more resistant to nalidixic acid (MIC 16 > 256 μg/mL). Mutations were uncommon within the QRDR of gyrB, parC, and parE genes. In the HRM assay, mutants can be distinguished from the wild-type strains based on the transition of melt curves, which is more prominent when the profiles are displayed in difference plot. In conclusion, HRM analysis allows for rapid screening for mutations at the QRDRs of gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes in Salmonella. This assay markedly reduced the sequencing effort involved in mutational studies of quinolone-resistance genes.

  8. [Mutation analysis of FAH gene in patients with tyrosinemia type 1].

    PubMed

    Dou, Li-Min; Fang, Ling-Juan; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Lu, Wei; Chen, Rui; Li, Li-Ting; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Jian-She

    2013-04-01

    . Alpha-fetoprotein 412.8 µg/L, levels of tyrosine in blood and succinylacetone in urine were 835.8 µmol/L and 27.48 µmol/L. Rickets did not improve after administration of calcium and vitamine D3. She is homozygous for the mutation c.1027G > A/c.1027G > A, which predicts G343R. The parents were mutation carriers. Analysis by Clustal X on the alignment of amino acids residual reservation among different species showed that the locative amino acid was highly conserved. Polyphen software predicted G343R was probably damaging (PISC score 3.235). Children with tyrosinemia type 1 can have manifestations of persistent diarrhea or late-onset rickets. Physical examination can reveal hepatosplenomegaly, laboratory tests indicate markedly elevated serum concentration of alpha-fetoprotein and alkaline phosphatase in plasma and succinylacetone in urine, other members in family may have tyrosinemias or parents are consanguineous. Mutations c.455G > A and c.1027G > A can be detected in FAH gene of Chinese children.

  9. Bone marrow fibrosis in myelodysplastic syndromes: a prospective evaluation including mutational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Fernando; Robledo, Cristina; Izquierdo-García, Francisco Miguel; Suárez-Vilela, Dimas; Benito, Rocío; Fuertes, Marta; Insunza, Andrés; Barragán, Eva; del Rey, Mónica; de Morales, José María García-Ruiz; Tormo, Mar; Salido, Eduardo; Zamora, Lurdes; Pedro, Carmen; Sánchez-del-Real, Javier; Díez-Campelo, María; del Cañizo, Consuelo; Sanz, Guillermo F.; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús María

    2016-01-01

    The biological and molecular events that underlie bone marrow fibrosis in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes are poorly understood, and its prognostic role in the era of the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) is not yet fully determined. We have evaluated the clinical and biological events that underlie bone marrow fibrotic changes, as well as its prognostic role, in a well-characterized prospective patient cohort (n=77) of primary MDS patients. The degree of marrow fibrosis was linked to parameters of erythropoietic failure, marrow cellularity, p53 protein accumulation, WT1 gene expression, and serum levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10, but not to other covariates including the IPSS-R score. The presence of bone marrow fibrosis grade 2 or higher was associated with the presence of mutations in cohesin complex genes (31.5% vs. 5.4%, p=0.006). By contrast, mutations in CALR, JAK2, PDGFRA, PDGFRB, and TP53 were very rare. Survival analysis showed that marrow fibrosis grade 2 or higher was a relevant significant predictor for of overall survival, and independent of age, performance status, and IPSS-R score in multivariate analysis. PMID:27127180

  10. LKB1/STK11 mutations in non-small cell lung cancer patients: Descriptive analysis and prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, Francesco; Bluthgen, Maria Virginia; Tergemina-Clain, Gabrielle; Faivre, Laura; Pignon, Jean-Pierre; Planchard, David; Remon, Jordi; Soria, Jean-Charles; Lacroix, Ludovic; Besse, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    LKB1/STK11 (STK11) is among the most inactivated tumor-suppressor genes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While evidence concerning the biologic role of STK11 is accumulating, its prognostic significance in advanced NSCLC has not been envisaged yet. This retrospective analysis included consecutive NSCLC patients with available STK11 information who underwent a platinum-based chemotherapy. STK11 mutational status was correlated to clinico-pathological and mutational features. Kaplan-Meier and Cox models were used for survival curves and multivariate analyses, respectively. Among the 302 patients included, 267 (89%) were diagnosed with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC and 25 (8%) harbored a STK11 mutation (STK11mut). No statistical differences were observed between STK11 status and clinico-pathological variables. We detected a significant correlation between STK11 and KRAS status (p=0.008); among the 25 STK11mut patients, 13 (52%) harbored a concomitant KRAS mutation. Overall survival (OS) was shorter for STK11mut (median OS=10.4months) compared to wild-type patients (STK11wt; median OS=17.3months) in univariate analysis (p=0.085). STK11 status did not impact upon OS in multivariate analysis (p=0.45) and non-significant results were observed for progression-free survival. The co-occurrence of KRAS and STK11 mutations suggest a trend toward detrimental effect in OS (p=0.12). In our cohort enriched for advanced NSCLC patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy, STK11 mutations were not specifically associated with clinico-pathological features and they did not impact upon survival. We confirm the positive correlation between STK11 and KRAS mutations. The co-occurrence of KRAS and STK11 mutations could label a more aggressive molecular subtype of NSCLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In Vitro Mutational Analysis of the β2 Adrenergic Receptor, an In Vivo Surrogate Odorant Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, Patrick; Tomoiaga, Delia; Rogers, Matthew E.; Feinstein, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Many G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as odorant receptors (ORs), cannot be characterized in heterologous cells because of their difficulty in trafficking to the plasma membrane. In contrast, a surrogate OR, the GPCR mouse β2-adrenergic-receptor (mβ2AR), robustly traffics to the plasma membrane. We set out to characterize mβ2AR mutants in vitro for their eventual use in olfactory axon guidance studies. We performed an extensive mutational analysis of mβ2AR using a Green Fluorescent Protein-tagged mβ2AR (mβ2AR::GFP) to easily assess the extent of its plasma membrane localization. In order to characterize mutants for their ability to successfully transduce ligand-initiated signal cascades, we determined the half maximal effective concentrations (EC50) and maximal response to isoprenaline, a known mβ2AR agonist. Our analysis reveals that removal of amino terminal (Nt) N-glycosylation sites and the carboxy terminal (Ct) palmitoylation site of mβ2AR do not affect its plasma membrane localization. By contrast, when both the Nt and Ct of mβ2AR are replaced with those of M71 OR, plasma membrane trafficking is impaired. We further analyze three mβ2AR mutants (RDY, E268A, and C327R) used in olfactory axon guidance studies and are able to decorrelate their plasma membrane trafficking with their capacity to respond to isoprenaline. A deletion of the Ct prevents proper trafficking and abolishes activity, but plasma membrane trafficking can be selectively rescued by a Tyrosine to Alanine mutation in the highly conserved GPCR motif NPxxY. This new loss-of-function mutant argues for a model in which residues located at the end of transmembrane domain 7 can act as a retention signal when unmasked. Additionally, to our surprise, amongst our set of mutations only Ct mutations appear to lower mβ2AR EC50s revealing their critical role in G-protein coupling. We propose that an interaction between the Nt and Ct is necessary for proper folding and/or transport of GPCRs

  12. Novel Compound Heterozygous Mutations Expand the Recognized Phenotypes of FARS2-Linked Disease.

    PubMed

    Walker, Melissa A; Mohler, Kyle P; Hopkins, Kyle W; Oakley, Derek H; Sweetser, David A; Ibba, Michael; Frosch, Matthew P; Thibert, Ronald L

    2016-08-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are an increasingly recognized cause of human diseases, often arising in individuals with compound heterozygous mutations and presenting with system-specific phenotypes, frequently neurologic. FARS2 encodes mitochondrial phenylalanyl transfer ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthetase (mtPheRS), perturbations of which have been reported in 6 cases of an infantile, lethal disease with refractory epilepsy and progressive myoclonus. Here the authors report the case of juvenile onset refractory epilepsy and progressive myoclonus with compound heterozygous FARS2 mutations. The authors describe the clinical course over 6 years of care at their institution and diagnostic studies including electroencephalogram (EEG), brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), serum and cerebrospinal fluid analyses, skeletal muscle biopsy histology, and autopsy gross and histologic findings, which include features shared with Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome, Leigh syndrome, and a previously published case of FARS2 mutation associated infantile onset disease. The authors also present structure-guided analysis of the relevant mutations based on published mitochondrial phenylalanyl transfer RNA synthetase and related protein crystal structures as well as biochemical analysis of the corresponding recombinant mutant proteins. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Genotype-phenotype analysis of a rare type of osteogenesis imperfecta in four Chinese families with WNT1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Song, Lijie; Ma, Doudou; Lv, Fang; Xu, Xiaojie; Wang, Jianyi; Xia, Weibo; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Ou; Song, Yuwen; Xing, Xiaoping; Asan; Li, Mei

    2016-10-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare inherited disease characterized by increased bone fragility and vulnerability to fractures. Recently, WNT1 is identified as a new candidate gene for OI, here we detect pathogenic mutations in WNT1 and analyze the genotype-phenotype association in four Chinese families with OI. We designed a targeted next generation sequencing panel with known fourteen OI-related genes. We applied the approach to detect pathogenic mutations in OI patients and confirmed the mutations with Sanger sequencing and cosegregation analysis. Clinical fractures, bone mineral density (BMD) and the other clinical manifestations were evaluated. We also observed the effects of bisphosphonates in OI patients with WNT1 mutations. Four compound heterozygous mutations (c.110T>C; c.505 G>T; c. 385G>A; c.506 G>A) in WNT1 were detected in three unrelated families. These four mutations had not been reported yet. A recurrent homozygous mutation (c.506dupG) was identified in the other two families. These patients had moderate to severe OI, white to blue sclera, absence of dentinogenesis imperfecta and no brain malformation. We did not observe clear genotype-phenotype correlation in WNT1 mutated OI patients. Though bisphosphonates increased BMD in WNT1 related OI patients, height did not increase and fracture continued. We reported four novel heterozygous variants and confirmed a previous reported WNT1 mutation in four Chinese families with a clinical diagnosis of OI. Our study expanded OI spectrum and confirmed moderate to severe bone fragility induced by WNT1 defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of EGFR, EML4-ALK, KRAS, and c-MET mutations in Chinese lung adenocarcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ning; An, Jian; Jiang, Qing-qing; Li, Min; Tan, Jun; Hu, Cheng-ping

    2013-10-01

    Mutation analysis of cancer driver genes is helpful for determining an optimal treatment strategy. We evaluated mutations in four driver genes, namely epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Kirsten ras oncogene (KRAS), c-MET, and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK), in Chinese lung adenocarcinoma patients from Hunan Province. We enrolled 110 lung adenocarcinoma patients in a single institution. EGFR and KRAS mutations were examined by direct sequencing, the EML4-ALK fusion gene was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and c-MET amplification and c-Met protein expression were detected by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. EGFR and KRAS mutations were observed in 52.7% (58/110) and 3.6% (4/106) of patients, respectively. c-MET amplification was detected in 5.5% (6/110) of patients. In addition, 30% (33/110) of the cases expressed c-Met protein, including all of the patients harboring c-MET amplification. Ten percent (11/110) of patients harbored the EML4-ALK fusion gene, and the frequency of ALK rearrangement was higher than that of other cohort analyses involving patients from other regions in China. Almost all of these gene mutations were exclusive except that in two female non-smoking patients, who harbored an EGFR mutation and EML4-ALK rearrangement simultaneously. In total, 70% of patients in the study harbored one of the four gene mutations. Most Chinese lung adenocarcinoma patients harbor driver gene mutations, among which ALK rearrangements were more common in Hunan patients than in previously reported populations. Future clinical trials should be conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of drug combination targeting different driver mutations.

  15. Impact of fixation artifacts and threshold selection on high resolution melting analysis for KRAS mutation screening.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Báez, Wendy; García-Latorre, Ethel A; Maldonado-Martínez, Héctor Aquiles; Coronado-Martínez, Iris; Flores-García, Leonardo; Taja-Chayeb, Lucía

    2017-10-01

    Treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has expanded with monoclonal antibodies targeting epidermal growth factor receptor, but is restricted to patients with a wild-type (WT) KRAS mutational status. The most sensitive assays for KRAS mutation detection in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues are based on real-time PCR. Among them, high resolution melting analysis (HRMA), is a simple, fast, highly sensitive, specific and cost-effective method, proposed as adjunct for KRAS mutation detection. However the method to categorize WT vs mutant sequences in HRMA is not clearly specified in available studies, besides the impact of FFPE artifacts on HRMA performance hasn't been addressed either. Avowedly adequate samples from 104 consecutive mCRC patients were tested for KRAS mutations by Therascreen™ (FDA Validated test), HRMA, and HRMA with UDG pre-treatment to reverse FFPE fixation artifacts. Comparisons of KRAS status allocation among the three methods were done. Focusing on HRMA as screening test, ROC curve analyses were performed for HRMA and HMRA-UDG against Therascreen™, in order to evaluate their discriminative power and to determine the threshold of profile concordance between WT control and sample for KRAS status determination. Comparing HRMA and HRMA-UDG against Therascreen™ as surrogate gold standard, sensitivity was 1 for both HRMA and HRMA-UDG; and specificity and positive predictive values were respectively 0.838 and 0.939; and 0.777 and 0.913. As evaluated by the McNemar test, HRMA-UDG allocated samples to a WT/mutated genotype in a significatively different way from HRMA (p > 0.001). On the other hand HRMA-UDG did not differ from Therascreen™ (p = 0.125). ROC-curve analysis showed a significant discriminative power for both HRMA and HRMA-UDG against Therascreen™ (respectively, AUC of 0.978, p > 0.0001, CI 95% 0.957-0.999; and AUC of 0.98, p > 0.0001, CI 95% 0.000-1.0). For HRMA as a screening tool, the best threshold

  16. In silico mutation analysis of non-structural protein-5 (NS5) dengue virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puspitasari, R. D.; Tambunan, U. S. F.

    2017-04-01

    Dengue fever is a world disease. It is endemic in more than 100 countries. Information about the effect of mutations in the virus is important in drug design and development. In this research, we studied the effect of mutation on NS5 dengue virus. NS5 is the large protein containing 67% amino acid similarity in DENV 1-4 and has multifunctional enzymatic activities. Dengue virus is an RNA virus that has very high mutation frequency with an average of 100 times higher than DNA mutations, and the accumulation of mutations will be possible to generate the new serotype. In this study, we report that mutation occurs in NS5 of DENV serotype 3, glutamine mutates into methionine at position 10 and threonine mutates into isoleucine at position 55. These residues are part of the domain named S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine-Dependent Methyltransferase (IPR029063).

  17. Metastatic site location influences the diagnostic accuracy of ctDNA EGFR- mutation testing in NSCLC patients: a pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    Passiglia, Francesco; Rizzo, Sergio; Rolfo, Christian; Galvano, Antonio; Bronte, Enrico; Incorvaia, Lorena; Listi, Angela; Barraco, Nadia; Castiglia, Marta; Calo, Valentina; Bazan, Viviana; Russo, Antonio

    2018-03-08

    Recent studies evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations from plasma of NSCLC patients, overall showing a high concordance as compared to standard tissue genotyping. However it is less clear if the location of metastatic site may influence the ability to identify EGFR mutations in plasma. This pooled analysis aims to evaluate the association between the metastatic site location and the sensitivity of ctDNA analysis in detecting EGFR mutations in NSCLC patients. Data from all published studies, evaluating the sensitivity of plasma-based EGFR-mutation testing, stratified by metastatic site location (extrathoracic (M1b) vs intrathoracic (M1a)) were collected by searching in PubMed, Cochrane Library, American Society of Clinical Oncology, and World Conference of Lung Cancer, meeting proceedings. Pooled Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for the ctDNA analysis sensitivity, according to metastatic site location. A total of ten studies, with 1425 patients, were eligible. Pooled analysis showed that the sensitivity of ctDNA-based EGFR-mutation testing is significantly higher in patients with M1b vs M1a disease (OR: 5.09; 95% CIs: 2.93 - 8.84). A significant association was observed for both EGFR-activating (OR: 4.30, 95% CI: 2.35-7.88) and resistant T790M mutations (OR: 11.89, 95% CI: 1.45-97.22), regardless of the use of digital-PCR (OR: 5.85, 95% CI: 3.56-9.60) or non-digital PCR technologies (OR: 2.96, 95% CI: 2.24-3.91). These data suggest that the location of metastatic sites significantly influences the diagnostic accuracy of ctDNA analysis in detecting EGFR mutations in NSCLC patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Computational Analysis Reveals the Association of Threonine 118 Methionine Mutation in PMP22 Resulting in CMT-1A

    PubMed Central

    Swetha, Rayapadi G.

    2014-01-01

    The T118M mutation in PMP22 gene is associated with Charcot Marie Tooth, type 1A (CMT1A). CMT1A is a form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, the most common inherited disorder of the peripheral nervous system. Mutations in CMT related disorder are seen to increase the stability of the protein resulting in the diseased state. We performed SNP analysis for all the nsSNPs of PMP22 protein and carried out molecular dynamics simulation for T118M mutation to compare the stability difference between the wild type protein structure and the mutant protein structure. The mutation T118M resulted in the overall increase in the stability of the mutant protein. The superimposed structure shows marked structural variation between the wild type and the mutant protein structures. PMID:25400662

  19. A9 region in EPHB2 mutation is frequent in tumors with microsatellite instability. Analysis of prognosis.

    PubMed

    Rafael, Sara; Vidaurreta, Marta; Veganzones, Silvia; De La Orden, Virgnia; Mediero, Beatriz; Gutierrez, Maria Luisa; Maestro, Maria Luisa

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relation of EPH tyrosine kinase receptor B2 (EPHB2) A9 region mutation and microsatellite instability (MSI); and to analyze their influence in prognosis of patients with sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). A total of 481 patients with CRC were examined. MSI (NCI criteria) and EPHB2 were analyzed using PCR and fragment analysis software. EPHB2 mutation was detected in 3.1% of patients. Mutation of EPHB2 was associated with location and with MSI status. We considered low instability (L-MSI) when only one marker showed instability, high instability (H-MSI) when two or more markers were positive and microsatelllite stable (MSS) when no instability was detected. The stratified analysis of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in MSI according to EPHB2 status revealed no statistically significant differences. However, the risk of recurrence of H-MSI tumors with EPHB2 mutation carriers was 3.6-times higher than in non-mutation carriers. The frequency of EPHB2 mutation is higher in patients with H-MSI than MSS tumors. Promising results were found regarding the prognostic influence of EPHB2 in H-MSI.

  20. Mutation Analysis of SLC26A4 for Pendred Syndrome and Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss by High-Resolution Melting

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Neng; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl; Schrijver, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Pendred syndrome and DFNB4 (autosomal recessive nonsyndromic congenital deafness, locus 4) are associated with autosomal recessive congenital sensorineural hearing loss and mutations in the SLC26A4 gene. Extensive allelic heterogeneity, however, necessitates analysis of all exons and splice sites to identify mutations for individual patients. Although Sanger sequencing is the gold standard for mutation detection, screening methods supplemented with targeted sequencing can provide a cost-effective alternative. One such method, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, was developed for clinical mutation detection in SLC26A4. However, this method inherently cannot distinguish homozygous changes from wild-type sequences. High-resolution melting (HRM), on the other hand, can detect heterozygous and homozygous changes cost-effectively, without any post-PCR modifications. We developed a closed-tube HRM mutation detection method specific for SLC26A4 that can be used in the clinical diagnostic setting. Twenty-eight primer pairs were designed to cover all 21 SLC26A4 exons and splice junction sequences. Using the resulting amplicons, initial HRM analysis detected all 45 variants previously identified by sequencing. Subsequently, a 384-well plate format was designed for up to three patient samples per run. Blinded HRM testing on these plates of patient samples collected over 1 year in a clinical diagnostic laboratory accurately detected all variants identified by sequencing. In conclusion, HRM with targeted sequencing is a reliable, simple, and cost-effective method for SLC26A4 mutation screening and detection. PMID:21704276

  1. PolyPhred analysis software for mutation detection from fluorescence-based sequence data.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kate T; Iartchouck, Oleg; Li, Li; Loomis, Stephanie; Obourn, Vanessa; Kucherlapati, Raju

    2008-10-01

    The ability to search for genetic variants that may be related to human disease is one of the most exciting consequences of the availability of the sequence of the human genome. Large cohorts of individuals exhibiting certain phenotypes can be studied and candidate genes resequenced. However, the challenge of analyzing sequence data from many individuals with accuracy, speed, and economy is great. This unit describes one set of software tools: Phred, Phrap, PolyPhred, and Consed. Coverage includes the advantages and disadvantages of these analysis tools, details for obtaining and using the software, and the results one may expect. The software is being continually updated to permit further automation of mutation analysis. Currently, however, at least some manual review is required if one wishes to identify 100% of the variants in a sample set.

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mutation analysis, gene expression profiling and EGFR protein expression in primary prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Activating mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) confer sensitivity to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKi), gefitinib and erlotinib. We analysed EGFR expression, EGFR mutation status and gene expression profiles of prostate cancer (PC) to supply a rationale for EGFR targeted therapies in this disease. Methods Mutational analysis of EGFR TK domain (exons from 18 to 21) and immunohistochemistry for EGFR were performed on tumour tissues derived from radical prostatectomy from 100 PC patients. Gene expression profiling using oligo-microarrays was also carried out in 51 of the PC samples. Results EGFR protein overexpression (EGFRhigh) was found in 36% of the tumour samples, and mutations were found in 13% of samples. Patients with EGFRhigh tumours experienced a significantly increased risk of biochemical relapse (hazard ratio-HR 2.52, p=0.02) compared with patients with tumours expressing low levels of EGFR (EGFRlow). Microarray analysis did not reveal any differences in gene expression between EGFRhigh and EGFRlow tumours. Conversely, in EGFRhigh tumours, we were able to identify a 79 gene signature distinguishing mutated from non-mutated tumours. Additionally, 29 genes were found to be differentially expressed between mutated/EGFRhigh (n=3) and mutated/EGFRlow tumours (n=5). Four of the down-regulated genes, U19/EAF2, ABCC4, KLK3 and ANXA3 and one of the up-regulated genes, FOXC1, are involved in PC progression. Conclusions Based on our findings, we hypothesize that accurate definition of the EGFR status could improve prognostic stratification and we suggest a possible role for EGFR-directed therapies in PC patients. Having been generated in a relatively small sample of patients, our results warrant confirmation in larger series. PMID:21266046

  3. Somatic mutation load of estrogen receptor-positive breast tumors predicts overall survival: an analysis of genome sequence data.

    PubMed

    Haricharan, Svasti; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Scheet, Paul; Brown, Powel H

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in women. While there are several effective therapies for breast cancer and important single gene prognostic/predictive markers, more than 40,000 women die from this disease every year. The increasing availability of large-scale genomic datasets provides opportunities for identifying factors that influence breast cancer survival in smaller, well-defined subsets. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genomic landscape of various breast cancer subtypes and its potential associations with clinical outcomes. We used statistical analysis of sequence data generated by the Cancer Genome Atlas initiative including somatic mutation load (SML) analysis, Kaplan-Meier survival curves, gene mutational frequency, and mutational enrichment evaluation to study the genomic landscape of breast cancer. We show that ER(+), but not ER(-), tumors with high SML associate with poor overall survival (HR = 2.02). Further, these high mutation load tumors are enriched for coincident mutations in both DNA damage repair and ER signature genes. While it is known that somatic mutations in specific genes affect breast cancer survival, this study is the first to identify that SML may constitute an important global signature for a subset of ER(+) tumors prone to high mortality. Moreover, although somatic mutations in individual DNA damage genes affect clinical outcome, our results indicate that coincident mutations in DNA damage response and signature ER genes may prove more informative for ER(+) breast cancer survival. Next generation sequencing may prove an essential tool for identifying pathways underlying poor outcomes and for tailoring therapeutic strategies.

  4. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mutation analysis, gene expression profiling and EGFR protein expression in primary prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Peraldo-Neia, Caterina; Migliardi, Giorgia; Mello-Grand, Maurizia; Montemurro, Filippo; Segir, Raffaella; Pignochino, Ymera; Cavalloni, Giuliana; Torchio, Bruno; Mosso, Luciano; Chiorino, Giovanna; Aglietta, Massimo

    2011-01-25

    Activating mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) confer sensitivity to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKi), gefitinib and erlotinib. We analysed EGFR expression, EGFR mutation status and gene expression profiles of prostate cancer (PC) to supply a rationale for EGFR targeted therapies in this disease. Mutational analysis of EGFR TK domain (exons from 18 to 21) and immunohistochemistry for EGFR were performed on tumour tissues derived from radical prostatectomy from 100 PC patients. Gene expression profiling using oligo-microarrays was also carried out in 51 of the PC samples. EGFR protein overexpression (EGFRhigh) was found in 36% of the tumour samples, and mutations were found in 13% of samples. Patients with EGFRhigh tumours experienced a significantly increased risk of biochemical relapse (hazard ratio-HR 2.52, p=0.02) compared with patients with tumours expressing low levels of EGFR (EGFRlow). Microarray analysis did not reveal any differences in gene expression between EGFRhigh and EGFRlow tumours. Conversely, in EGFRhigh tumours, we were able to identify a 79 gene signature distinguishing mutated from non-mutated tumours. Additionally, 29 genes were found to be differentially expressed between mutated/EGFRhigh (n=3) and mutated/EGFRlow tumours (n=5). Four of the down-regulated genes, U19/EAF2, ABCC4, KLK3 and ANXA3 and one of the up-regulated genes, FOXC1, are involved in PC progression. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that accurate definition of the EGFR status could improve prognostic stratification and we suggest a possible role for EGFR-directed therapies in PC patients. Having been generated in a relatively small sample of patients, our results warrant confirmation in larger series.

  5. Lung cancer mutation profile of EGFR, ALK, and KRAS: Meta-analysis and comparison of never and ever smokers.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Aaron M; Sun, Kathie Y; Ruestow, Peter; Cowan, Dallas M; Madl, Amy K

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. While the majority of lung cancers are associated with tobacco smoke, approximately 10-15% of U.S. lung cancers occur in never smokers. Evidence suggests that lung cancer in never smokers appears to be a distinct disease caused by driver mutations which are different than the genetic pathways observed with lung cancer in smokers. A meta-analysis of human epidemiologic data was conducted to evaluate the profile of common or therapy-targetable mutations in lung cancers of never and ever smokers. Epidemiologic studies (N=167) representing over 63,000 lung cancer cases were identified and used to calculate summary odds ratios for lung cancer in never and ever smokers containing gene mutations: EGFR, chromosomal rearrangements and fusion of EML4 and ALK, and KRAS. This analysis also considered the effect of histopathology, smoking status, sex, and ethnicity. There were significantly increased odds of presenting the EGFR and ALK-EML4 mutations in 1) adenocarcinomas compared to non-small cell lung cancer and 2) never smokers compared to ever smokers. The prevalence of EGFR mutations was higher in Asian women as compared to women of Caucasian/Mixed ethnicity. As the smoking history increased, there was a decreased odds for exhibiting the EGFR mutation, particularly for cases >30 pack-years. Compared to ever smokers, never smokers had a decreased odds of KRAS mutations among those of Caucasian/Mixed ethnicity (OR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.17-0.29) and those of Asian ethnicity (OR=0.39, 95% CI: 0.30-0.50). Our findings show that key driver mutations and several patient features are highly prevalent in lung cancers of never smokers. These associations may be helpful as patient demographic models are developed to predict successful outcomes of targeted therapeutic interventions NSCLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Children with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: clinical data analysis and mutations analysis of KAL1 and FGFR1 gene].

    PubMed

    Qin, Miao; Gong, Chunxiu; Qi, Zhan; Wu, Di; Liu, Min; Gu, Yi; Cao, Bingyan; Li, Wenjing; Liang, Xuejun

    2014-12-01

    delayed puberty, involving only one parent in 6 families, involving both in 2 families and the other one was an uncle having micropenis with a child. Among these 21 cases, only one boy's father had hyposmia and his first emission age was 14-15 years. Eleven patients accompanied abnormal sense of smelling and the olfactory organ abnormalities on MRI, 4 had olfactory organ abnormalities on MRI while they had good smelling function self-reportedly. We got 15 samples (12 KS and 3 nIHH cases) to screen the mutation of KAL1 (14 exons) and FGFR1 (18 exons). A splicing mutation c.1062+1G>A in KAL1 is identified in case 17 with IHH. One novel heterozygous FGFR1 mutation, a single base deletion mutation on the exon 1 c.27delC is identified in case 14. This mutation causes the premature termination codons. This pilot research showed that IHH/KS diagnosis in children depends on clinical manifestation rather than gene analysis. Small penis or cryptorchidism, smelling abnormality and positive familial history may contribute to the KS/HH diagnosis. MRI of olfactory bulb acts as important proof for diagnosis of KS. Mutations in KAL1 and FGFR1 gene are not main causes of Kallmann syndrome.

  7. Genetic analysis of a four generation Indian family with Usher syndrome: a novel insertion mutation in MYO7A.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Babu, Mohan; Kimberling, William J; Venkatesh, Conjeevaram P

    2004-11-24

    Usher syndrome (USH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by deafness and retinitis pigmentosa. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic cause of USH in a four generation Indian family. Peripheral blood samples were collected from individuals for genomic DNA isolation. To determine the linkage of this family to known USH loci, microsatellite markers were selected from the candidate regions of known loci and used to genotype the family. Exon specific intronic primers for the MYO7A gene were used to amplify DNA samples from one affected individual from the family. PCR products were subsequently sequenced to detect mutation. PCR-SSCP analysis was used to determine if the mutation segregated with the disease in the family and was not present in 50 control individuals. All affected individuals had a classic USH type I (USH1) phenotype which included deafness, vestibular dysfunction and retinitis pigmentosa. Pedigree analysis suggested an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance of USH in the family. Haplotype analysis suggested linkage of this family to the USH1B locus on chromosome 11q. DNA sequence analysis of the entire coding region of the MYO7A gene showed a novel insertion mutation c.2663_2664insA in a homozygous state in all affected individuals, resulting in truncation of MYO7A protein. This is the first study from India which reports a novel MYO7A insertion mutation in a four generation USH family. The mutation is predicted to produce a truncated MYO7A protein. With the novel mutation reported here, the total number of USH causing mutations in the MYO7A gene described to date reaches to 75.

  8. Mutation analysis of the PAH gene in phenylketonuria patients from Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira Neto, Eduardo; Laranjeira, Francisco; Quelhas, Dulce; Ribeiro, Isaura; Seabra, Alexandre; Mineiro, Nicole; D M Carvalho, Lilian; Lacerda, Lúcia; G Ribeiro, Márcia

    2018-05-10

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disease resulting from mutations in the PAH gene. Most of the patients are compound heterozygotes, and genotype is a major factor in determining the phenotypic variability of PKU. More than 1,000 variants have been described in the PAH gene. Rio de Janeiro's population has a predominance of Iberian, followed by African and Amerindian ancestries. It is expected that most PKU variants in this Brazilian state have originated in the Iberian Peninsula. However, rare European, African or pathogenic variants that are characteristic of the admixed population of the state might also be found. A total of 102 patients were included in this study. Genomic DNA was isolated from dried blood spots. Sanger sequencing was used for PAH gene variant identification. Deletions and duplications were also screened using MLPA analysis. Haplotypes were also determined. Nine (8.8%) homozygous and 93 (91.2%) compound heterozygous patients were found. The spectrum included 37 causative mutations. Missense, nonsense, and splicing pathogenic variants corresponded to 63.7%, 2.9%, and 22.6% of the mutant alleles, respectively. Large (1.5%), and small deletions, inframe (5.4%) and with frameshift (3.9%), comprised the remainder. The most frequent pathogenic variants were: p.V388M (12.7%), p.R261Q (11.8%), IVS10-11G>A (10.3%), IVS2+5G>C (6.4%), p.S349P (6.4%), p.R252W (5.4%), p.I65T (4.4%), p.T323del (4.4%), and p.P281L (3.4%). One novel variant was detected: c.934G>T (p.G312C) [rs763115697]. The three most frequent pathogenic variants in our study (34.8% of the alleles) were also the most common in other Brazilian states, Portugal, and Spain (p.V388M, p.R261Q, IVS10-11G>A), corroborating that the Iberian Peninsula is the major source of PAH mutations in Rio de Janeiro. Pathogenic variants that have other geographical origins, such IVS2+5G>C, p.G352Vfs*48, and IVS12+1G>A were also detected. Genetic drift and founder effect may have also played a role

  9. Comparative analysis of charged particle-induced autosomal mutations in murine cells and tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberg, Amy; Gauny, Stacey; Turker, Mitchell; Dan, Cristian; Kwoh, Ely

    exposed to 2 Gy of Fe ions. Mutant spectra were analyzed via PCR using a series of heterozygous markers along mouse chromosome 8. Cytotoxicity assays were performed immediately after Fe ion exposure of cells from two primary clones. Cells irradiated in vitro demonstrated a dose-dependent decrement in cloning efficiency with no evidence of a shoulder. The results demonstrate the two clones behave similarly (unpaired t-test, p>0.3) with a D0 of 84.3 cGy for the combined data set. Mutation data were obtained using cells from one of the primary clones. In three experiments, we observed a linear dose-response for Aprt mutation with an induced mutant frzction of 1.06 x 10-3 /Gy. Kidney epithelial cells irradiated in vivo and incubated for 2-4 months in situ prior to harvest also showed an exponential reduction of cloning efficiency. Cells harvested 8-10 months postirradiation showed evidence of recovery for doses up to 1.5 Gy, but there was no improvement in cloning efficiency for kidney cells exposed to 2 Gy Fe ions in vivo evaluated at the late time point. Results for Aprt mutation induction in vivo indicated considerable inter-animal variation within each dose group (0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 Gy). Fe ion exposures were mutagenic to the kidney, even at the lowest dose (p<0.01). A comparison of the mutant frequency results at the two harvest times indicates that the dose response did not vary with incubation time in vivo. Analysis of the pooled data from the 2-4 months harvests and the 8-10 month harvests indicated an increase in mutant frequency of 1.49 fold per Gy (p=0.01, CI 1.11-2.01). Molecular analysis of Aprtdeficient cells collected after a 2 Gy exposure to Fe ions in vitro showed an increased proportion of mutants arising via interstitial deletion or mitotic recombination, with an indication of an increase in chromosome loss. Similar results have been obtained for Aprt mutants isolated from mice exposed to 2 Gy of Fe ions, as compared with mutants collected from sham

  10. Mutational analysis of the human nucleotide excision repair gene ERCC1.

    PubMed Central

    Sijbers, A M; van der Spek, P J; Odijk, H; van den Berg, J; van Duin, M; Westerveld, A; Jaspers, N G; Bootsma, D; Hoeijmakers, J H

    1996-01-01

    The human DNA repair protein ERCC1 resides in a complex together with the ERCC4, ERCC11 and XP-F correcting activities, thought to perform the 5' strand incision during nucleotide excision repair (NER). Its yeast counterpart, RAD1-RAD10, has an additional engagement in a mitotic recombination pathway, probably required for repair of DNA cross-links. Mutational analysis revealed that the poorly conserved N-terminal 91 amino acids of ERCC1 are dispensable for both repair functions, in contrast to a deletion of only four residues from the C-terminus. A database search revealed a strongly conserved motif in this C-terminus sharing sequence homology with many DNA break processing proteins, indicating that this part is primarily required for the presumed structure-specific endonuclease activity of ERCC1. Most missense mutations in the central region give rise to an unstable protein (complex). Accordingly, we found that free ERCC1 is very rapidly degraded, suggesting that protein-protein interactions provide stability. Survival experiments show that the removal of cross-links requires less ERCC1 than UV repair. This suggests that the ERCC1-dependent step in cross-link repair occurs outside the context of NER and provides an explanation for the phenotype of the human repair syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum group F. PMID:8811092

  11. Single-Cell Analysis of Human Pancreas Reveals Transcriptional Signatures of Aging and Somatic Mutation Patterns.

    PubMed

    Enge, Martin; Arda, H Efsun; Mignardi, Marco; Beausang, John; Bottino, Rita; Kim, Seung K; Quake, Stephen R

    2017-10-05

    As organisms age, cells accumulate genetic and epigenetic errors that eventually lead to impaired organ function or catastrophic transformation such as cancer. Because aging reflects a stochastic process of increasing disorder, cells in an organ will be individually affected in different ways, thus rendering bulk analyses of postmitotic adult cells difficult to interpret. Here, we directly measure the effects of aging in human tissue by performing single-cell transcriptome analysis of 2,544 human pancreas cells from eight donors spanning six decades of life. We find that islet endocrine cells from older donors display increased levels of transcriptional noise and potential fate drift. By determining the mutational history of individual cells, we uncover a novel mutational signature in healthy aging endocrine cells. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data from primary cells to derive insights into genetic and transcriptional processes that operate on aging human tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid targeted somatic mutation analysis of solid tumors in routine clinical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Magliacane, Gilda; Grassini, Greta; Bartocci, Paola; Francaviglia, Ilaria; Dal Cin, Elena; Barbieri, Gianluca; Arrigoni, Gianluigi; Pecciarini, Lorenza; Doglioni, Claudio; Cangi, Maria Giulia

    2015-10-13

    Tumor genotyping is an essential step in routine clinical practice and pathology laboratories face a major challenge in being able to provide rapid, sensitive and updated molecular tests. We developed a novel mass spectrometry multiplexed genotyping platform named PentaPanel to concurrently assess single nucleotide polymorphisms in 56 hotspots of the 5 most clinically relevant cancer genes, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, EGFR and PIK3CA for a total of 221 detectable mutations. To both evaluate and validate the PentaPanel performance, we investigated 1025 tumor specimens of 6 different cancer types (carcinomas of colon, lung, breast, pancreas, and biliary tract, and melanomas), systematically addressing sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of our platform. Sanger sequencing was also performed for all the study samples. Our data showed that PentaPanel is a high throughput and robust tool, allowing genotyping for targeted therapy selection of 10 patients in the same run, with a practical turnaround time of 2 working days. Importantly, it was successfully used to interrogate different DNAs isolated from routinely processed specimens (formalin-fixed paraffin embedded, frozen, and cytological samples), covering all the requirements of clinical tests. In conclusion, the PentaPanel platform can provide an immediate, accurate and cost effective multiplex approach for clinically relevant gene mutation analysis in many solid tumors and its utility across many diseases can be particularly relevant in multiple clinical trials, including the new basket trial approach, aiming to identify appropriate targeted drug combination strategies.

  13. Toward the Mutational Landscape of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa: A Comprehensive Analysis of 258 Spanish Families.

    PubMed

    Martin-Merida, Inmaculada; Aguilera-Garcia, Domingo; Jose, Patricia Fernandez-San; Blanco-Kelly, Fiona; Zurita, Olga; Almoguera, Berta; Garcia-Sandoval, Blanca; Avila-Fernandez, Almudena; Arteche, Ana; Minguez, Pablo; Carballo, Miguel; Corton, Marta; Ayuso, Carmen

    2018-05-01

    To provide a comprehensive overview of the molecular basis of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) in Spanish families. Thus, we established the molecular characterization rate, gene prevalence, and mutational spectrum in the largest European cohort reported to date. A total of 258 unrelated Spanish families with a clinical diagnosis of RP and suspected autosomal dominant inheritance were included. Clinical diagnosis was based on complete ophthalmologic examination and family history. Retrospective and prospective analysis of Spanish adRP families was carried out using a combined strategy consisting of classic genetic techniques and next-generation sequencing (NGS) for single-nucleotide variants and copy number variation (CNV) screening. Overall, 60% of our families were genetically solved. Interestingly, 3.1% of the cohort carried pathogenic CNVs. Disease-causing variants were found in an autosomal dominant gene in 55% of the families; however, X-linked and autosomal recessive forms were also identified in 3% and 2%, respectively. Four genes (RHO, PRPF31, RP1, and PRPH2) explained up to 62% of the solved families. Missense changes were most frequently found in adRP-associated genes; however, CNVs represented a relevant disease cause in PRPF31- and CRX-associated forms. Implementation of NGS technologies in the adRP study clearly increased the diagnostic yield compared with classic approaches. Our study outcome expands the spectrum of disease-causing variants, provides accurate data on mutation gene prevalence, and highlights the implication of CNVs as important contributors to adRP etiology.

  14. Mutation scanning analysis of genetic variation within and among Echinococcus species: implications and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Abdul; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-07-01

    Adult tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus (family Taeniidae) occur in the small intestines of carnivorous definitive hosts and are transmitted to particular intermediate mammalian hosts, in which they develop as fluid-filled larvae (cysts) in internal organs (usually lung and liver), causing the disease echinococcosis. Echinococcus species are of major medical importance and also cause losses to the meat and livestock industries, mainly due to the condemnation of infected offal. Decisions regarding the treatment and control of echinococcosis rely on the accurate identification of species and population variants (strains). Conventional, phenetic methods for specific identification have some significant limitations. Despite advances in the development of molecular tools, there has been limited application of mutation scanning methods to species of Echinococcus. Here, we briefly review key genetic markers used for the identification of Echinococcus species and techniques for the analysis of genetic variation within and among populations, and the diagnosis of echinococcosis. We also discuss the benefits of utilizing mutation scanning approaches to elucidate the population genetics and epidemiology of Echinococcus species. These benefits are likely to become more evident following the complete characterization of the genomes of E. granulosus and E. multilocularis.

  15. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between FGFR3 and TP53 Mutations in Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ouerhani, Slah; Mongiat-Artus, Pierre; Soliman, Hany; de The, Hugues; Sibony, Mathilde; Denoux, Yves; Molinie, Vincent; Herault, Aurélie; Lepage, May-Linda; Maille, Pascale; Renou, Audrey; Vordos, Dimitri; Abbou, Claude-Clément; Bakkar, Ashraf; Asselain, Bernard; Kourda, Nadia; El Gaaied, Amel; Leroy, Karen; Laplanche, Agnès; Benhamou, Simone; Lebret, Thierry; Allory, Yves; Radvanyi, François

    2012-01-01

    TP53 and FGFR3 mutations are the most common mutations in bladder cancers. FGFR3 mutations are most frequent in low-grade low-stage tumours, whereas TP53 mutations are most frequent in high-grade high-stage tumours. Several studies have reported FGFR3 and TP53 mutations to be mutually exclusive events, whereas others have reported them to be independent. We carried out a meta-analysis of published findings for FGFR3 and TP53 mutations in bladder cancer (535 tumours, 6 publications) and additional unpublished data for 382 tumours. TP53 and FGFR3 mutations were not independent events for all tumours considered together (OR = 0.25 [0.18–0.37], p = 0.0001) or for pT1 tumours alone (OR = 0.47 [0.28–0.79], p = 0.0009). However, if the analysis was restricted to pTa tumours or to muscle-invasive tumours alone, FGFR3 and TP53 mutations were independent events (OR = 0.56 [0.23–1.36] (p = 0.12) and OR = 0.99 [0.37–2.7] (p = 0.35), respectively). After stratification of the tumours by stage and grade, no dependence was detected in the five tumour groups considered (pTaG1 and pTaG2 together, pTaG3, pT1G2, pT1G3, pT2-4). These differences in findings can be attributed to the putative existence of two different pathways of tumour progression in bladder cancer: the CIS pathway, in which FGFR3 mutations are rare, and the Ta pathway, in which FGFR3 mutations are frequent. TP53 mutations occur at the earliest stage of the CIS pathway, whereas they occur would much later in the Ta pathway, at the T1G3 or muscle-invasive stage. PMID:23272046

  16. A meta-analysis of the relationship between FGFR3 and TP53 mutations in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Neuzillet, Yann; Paoletti, Xavier; Ouerhani, Slah; Mongiat-Artus, Pierre; Soliman, Hany; de The, Hugues; Sibony, Mathilde; Denoux, Yves; Molinie, Vincent; Herault, Aurélie; Lepage, May-Linda; Maille, Pascale; Renou, Audrey; Vordos, Dimitri; Abbou, Claude-Clément; Bakkar, Ashraf; Asselain, Bernard; Kourda, Nadia; El Gaaied, Amel; Leroy, Karen; Laplanche, Agnès; Benhamou, Simone; Lebret, Thierry; Allory, Yves; Radvanyi, François

    2012-01-01

    TP53 and FGFR3 mutations are the most common mutations in bladder cancers. FGFR3 mutations are most frequent in low-grade low-stage tumours, whereas TP53 mutations are most frequent in high-grade high-stage tumours. Several studies have reported FGFR3 and TP53 mutations to be mutually exclusive events, whereas others have reported them to be independent. We carried out a meta-analysis of published findings for FGFR3 and TP53 mutations in bladder cancer (535 tumours, 6 publications) and additional unpublished data for 382 tumours. TP53 and FGFR3 mutations were not independent events for all tumours considered together (OR = 0.25 [0.18-0.37], p = 0.0001) or for pT1 tumours alone (OR = 0.47 [0.28-0.79], p = 0.0009). However, if the analysis was restricted to pTa tumours or to muscle-invasive tumours alone, FGFR3 and TP53 mutations were independent events (OR = 0.56 [0.23-1.36] (p = 0.12) and OR = 0.99 [0.37-2.7] (p = 0.35), respectively). After stratification of the tumours by stage and grade, no dependence was detected in the five tumour groups considered (pTaG1 and pTaG2 together, pTaG3, pT1G2, pT1G3, pT2-4). These differences in findings can be attributed to the putative existence of two different pathways of tumour progression in bladder cancer: the CIS pathway, in which FGFR3 mutations are rare, and the Ta pathway, in which FGFR3 mutations are frequent. TP53 mutations occur at the earliest stage of the CIS pathway, whereas they occur would much later in the Ta pathway, at the T1G3 or muscle-invasive stage.

  17. [Clinical investigation and mutation analysis of a child with citrin deficiency complicated with purpura, convulsive seizures and methioninemia].

    PubMed

    Wen, Peng-qiang; Wang, Guo-bing; Chen, Zhan-ling; Liu, Xiao-hong; Cui, Dong; Shang, Yue; Li, Cheng-rong

    2013-12-01

    To analyze the clinical features and SLC25A13 gene mutations of a child with citrin deficiency complicated with purpura, convulsive seizures and methioninemia. The patient was subjected to physical examination and routine laboratory tests. Blood amino acids and acylcarnitines, and urine organic acids and galactose were analyzed respectively with tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatographic mass spectrometry. SLC25A13 gene mutation screening was conducted by high resolution melt (HRM) analysis. The petechiae on the patient's face and platelet count (27×10(9)/L, reference range 100×10(9)/L-300×10(9)/L) supported the diagnosis of immunologic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Laboratory tests found that the patient have abnormal coagulation, cardiac enzyme, liver function and liver enzymes dysfunction. Tandem mass spectrometry also found methionine to be increased (286 μmol/L, reference ranges 8-35 μmol/L). The patient did not manifest any galactosemia, citrullinemia and tyrosinemia. Analysis of SLC25A13 gene mutation found that the patient has carried IVS16ins3kb, in addition with abnormal HRM result for exon 6. Direct sequencing of exon 6 revealed a novel mutation c.495delA. The same mutation was not detected in 100 unrelated healthy controls. Further analysis of her family has confirmed that the c.495delA mutation has derived from her farther, and that the IVS16ins3kb was derived from her mother. The clinical features and metabolic spectrum of citrin deficiency can be variable. The poor prognosis and severity of clinical symptoms of the patient may be attributed to the novel c.495delA mutation.

  18. Germ line mutation analysis in families with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A or familial medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Karga, H J; Karayianni, M K; Linos, D A; Tseleni, S C; Karaiskos, K D; Papapetrou, P D

    1998-10-01

    The RET proto-oncogene has been identified as the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 disease gene. An association between specific RET mutation and disease phenotype has been reported. We present the phenotype-genotype of 12 Greek families with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) or familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). Seventy members were studied and DNA analysis for RET mutations was performed in fifty-eight of them. Exons 10, 11, 13, 14 and 16 of the RET proto-oncogene were analyzed by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis, direct DNA sequencing and/or restriction enzyme analysis. No mutations of the RET proto-oncogene were identified in 1 of 9 families with MEN 2A and in the 3 families with FMTC. In 7 MEN 2A families, the mutation was demonstrated in codon 634 and in 1 family it was demonstrated in codon 620. There was a low frequency, about 8%, of hyperparathyroidism associated with MEN 2A. The specific causative mutations for pararthyroid disease were C634R or C634Y. Among the MEN 2A individuals there was one case with de novo C634R mutation and one case, C634Y, with cutaneous lichen amyloidosis which predated by 24 years the diagnosis of MEN 2A. In 2 children who were MEN 2A gene carriers, microscopic medullary thyroid carcinomas were found. These data show a low frequency of hyperparathyroidism in our cases and provide further evidence that individuals with C634R as well as with C634Y mutations of the RET proto-oncogene could be at risk for parathyroid disease. Cutaneous lichen amyloidosis could be an early feature of MEN 2A. Additionally, direct DNA testing provided an opportunity to resect medullary thyroid carcinoma at an early stage.

  19. Establishing high resolution melting analysis: method validation and evaluation for c-RET proto-oncogene mutation screening.

    PubMed

    Benej, Martin; Bendlova, Bela; Vaclavikova, Eliska; Poturnajova, Martina

    2011-10-06

    Reliable and effective primary screening of mutation carriers is the key condition for common diagnostic use. The objective of this study is to validate the method high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for routine primary mutation screening and accomplish its optimization, evaluation and validation. Due to their heterozygous nature, germline point mutations of c-RET proto-oncogene, associated to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), are suitable for HRM analysis. Early identification of mutation carriers has a major impact on patients' survival due to early onset of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and resistance to conventional therapy. The authors performed a series of validation assays according to International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) guidelines for validation of analytical procedures, along with appropriate design and optimization experiments. After validated evaluation of HRM, the method was utilized for primary screening of 28 pathogenic c-RET mutations distributed among nine exons of c-RET gene. Validation experiments confirm the repeatability, robustness, accuracy and reproducibility of HRM. All c-RET gene pathogenic variants were detected with no occurrence of false-positive/false-negative results. The data provide basic information about design, establishment and validation of HRM for primary screening of genetic variants in order to distinguish heterozygous point mutation carriers among the wild-type sequence carriers. HRM analysis is a powerful and reliable tool for rapid and cost-effective primary screening, e.g., of c-RET gene germline and/or sporadic mutations and can be used as a first line potential diagnostic tool.

  20. Mutation analysis of HIF prolyl hydroxylases (PHD/EGLN) in individuals with features of phaeochromocytoma and renal cell carcinoma susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Astuti, Dewi; Ricketts, Christopher J; Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; McDonough, Michael A; Gentle, Dean; Kirby, Gail; Schlisio, Susanne; Kenchappa, Rajappa S; Carter, Bruce D; Kaelin, William G; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Schofield, Christopher J; Latif, Farida; Maher, Eamonn R

    2011-02-01

    Germline mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) and succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) genes can cause inherited phaeochromocytoma and/or renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Dysregulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factors has been linked to VHL and SDHB-related RCC; both HIF dysregulation and disordered function of a prolyl hydroxylase domain isoform 3 (PHD3/EGLN3)-related pathway of neuronal apoptosis have been linked to the development of phaeochromocytoma. The 2-oxoglutarate-dependent prolyl hydroxylase enzymes PHD1 (EGLN2), PHD2 (EGLN1) and PHD3 (EGLN3) have a key role in regulating the stability of HIF-α subunits (and hence expression of the HIF-α transcription factors). A germline PHD2 mutation has been reported in association with congenital erythrocytosis and recurrent extra-adrenal phaeochromocytoma. We undertook mutation analysis of PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3 in two cohorts of patients with features of inherited phaeochromocytoma (n=82) and inherited RCC (n=64) and no evidence of germline mutations in known susceptibility genes. No confirmed pathogenic mutations were detected suggesting that mutations in these genes are not a frequent cause of inherited phaeochromocytoma or RCC.

  1. [Analysis of clinical phenotype and CGH1 gene mutations in a family affected with dopa-responsive dystonia].

    PubMed

    Yan, Yaping; Chen, Xiaohong; Luo, Wei

    2017-04-10

    To explore genetic mutations and clinical features of a pedigree affected with dopa-responsive dystonia. PCR and Sanger sequencing were applied to detect mutations of the GCH1 gene among 7 members from the pedigree. The family was detected to have a known heterozygous mutation of the GCH1 gene (c.550C>T). For the 7 members from the pedigree, the age of onset has ranged from 13 to 60 years. The mother of the proband has carried the same mutation but was still healthy at 80. The symptoms of the other three patients were in slow progression, with diurnal fluctuation which can be improved with sleeping, dystonias of lower limbs, and tremor of both hands. Treatment with small dose of levodopa has resulted in significant improvement of clinical symptoms. By database analysis, the c.550C>T mutation was predicted as probably pathological. The c.550C>T mutation probably underlies the disease in this pedigree. The clinical phenotypes of family members may be variable for their ages of onset. Some may even be symptom free.

  2. Mutation analysis of GLDC, AMT and GCSH in cataract captive-bred vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    PubMed

    Chauke, Chesa G; Magwebu, Zandisiwe E; Sharma, Jyoti R; Arieff, Zainunisha; Seier, Jürgen V

    2016-08-01

    Non-ketotic hyperglycinaemia (NKH) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of glycine metabolism characterized by accumulation of glycine in body fluids and various neurological symptoms. This study describes the first screening of NKH in cataract captive-bred vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). Glycine dehydrogenase (GLDC), aminomethyltransferase (AMT) and glycine cleavage system H protein (GCSH) were prioritized. Mutation analysis of the complete coding sequence of GLDC and AMT revealed six novel single-base substitutions, of which three were non-synonymous missense and three were silent nucleotide changes. Although deleterious effects of the three amino acid substitutions were not evaluated, one substitution of GLDC gene (S44R) could be disease-causing because of its drastic amino acid change, affecting amino acids conserved in different primate species. This study confirms the diagnosis of NKH for the first time in vervet monkeys with cataracts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Infantile hypophosphatasia caused by a novel compound heterozygous mutation: a case report and pedigree analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Deng-Feng; Lan, Dan; Zhong, Jing-Zi; Dewan, Roma Kajal; Xie, Yan-Shu; Yang, Ying

    2017-05-01

    This article reported the clinical features of one child with infantile hypophosphatasia (HPP) and his pedigree information. The proband was a 5-month-old boy with multiple skeletal dysplasia (koilosternia, bending deformity of both radii, and knock-knee deformity of both knees), feeding difficulty, reduction in body weight, developmental delay, recurrent pneumonia and respiratory failure, and a significant reduction in blood alkaline phosphatase. Among his parents, sister, uncle, and aunt (other family members did not cooperate with us in the examination), his parents and aunt had a slight reduction in alkaline phosphatase and his aunt had scoliosis; there were no other clinical phenotypes or abnormal laboratory testing results. His ALPL gene mutation came from c.228delG mutation in his mother and c.407G>A compound heterozygous mutation in his father. His aunt carried c.228delG mutation. The c.407G>A mutation had been reported as the pathogenic mutation of HPP, and c.228delG mutation was a novel pathogenic mutation. Hypophosphatasia is caused by ALPL gene mutation, and ALPL gene detection is an effective diagnostic method. This study expands the mutation spectrum of ALPL gene and provides a theoretical basis for genetic diagnosis of this disease.

  4. Mutation analysis of Leber congenital amaurosis‑associated genes in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Guan, Liping; Li, Shiqiang; Zhang, Jianguo; Xiao, Xueshan; Jiang, Hui; Yang, Jianhua; Guo, Xiangming; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Qingjiong

    2015-03-01

    The genetic defects underlying approximately half of all retinitis pigmentosa (RP) cases are unknown. A number of genes responsible for Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) may also cause RP when they are mutated. Our previous study revealed that variants in the most frequently mutated nine exons accounted for approximately half of the mutations detected in a cohort of patients with LCA. The aim of the present study was to detect mutations in LCA-associated genes in patients with RP using two different strategies. Sanger sequencing was used to screen mutations in the nine exons in 293 patients with RP and exome sequencing was used to detect variants in 12 LCA-associated genes in 157 of the 293 patients with RP and then to validate the variants by Sanger sequencing. Potential pathogenic mutations were identified in four patients with early onset RP, including homozygous CRB1 mutations in two patients, compound heterozygous CRB1 mutations in one patient and compound heterozygous CEP290 mutations in one patient. The present study indicated that mutations in CEP290 may also be associated with RP but not with LCA. With the exception of CEP290, the remaining 11 genes known to be associated with LCA but not with RP are unlikely to be a common cause of RP.

  5. Droplet digital PCR analysis of NOTCH1 gene mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Angela; Francesco Minervini, Crescenzio; Anelli, Luisa; Zagaria, Antonella; Casieri, Paola; Coccaro, Nicoletta; Cumbo, Cosimo; Tota, Giuseppina; Impera, Luciana; Orsini, Paola; Brunetti, Claudia; Giordano, Annamaria; Specchia, Giorgina; Albano, Francesco

    2016-12-27

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), NOTCH1 gene mutations (NOTCH1mut) have been associated with adverse prognostic features but the independence of these as a prognostic factor is still controversial. In our study we validated a c.7541-7542delCT NOTCH1 mutation assay based on droplet digital PCR (ddPCR); we also analyzed the NOTCH1mut allelic burden, expressed as fractional abundance (FA), in 88 CLL patients at diagnosis to assess its prognostic role and made a longitudinal ddPCR analysis in 10 cases harboring NOTCH1mut to verify the FA variation over time. Our data revealed that with the ddPCR approach the incidence of NOTCH1mut in CLL was much higher (53.4%) than expected. However, longitudinal ddPCR analysis of CLL cases showed a statistically significant reduction of the NOTCH1mut FA detected at diagnosis after treatment (median FA 11.67 % vs 0.09 %, respectively, p = 0.01); the same difference, in terms of NOTCH1mut FA, was observed in the relapsed cases compared to the NOTCH1mut allelic fraction observed in patients in complete or partial remission (median FA 4.75% vs 0.43%, respectively, p = 0.007). Our study demonstrated a much higher incidence of NOTCH1mut in CLL than has previously been reported, and showed that the NOTCH1mut allelic burden evaluation by ddPCR might identify patients in need of a closer clinical follow-up during the "watch and wait" interval and after standard chemotherapy.

  6. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of 396 individuals with mutations in Sonic Hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Benjamin D; Bear, Kelly A; Wyllie, Adrian; Keaton, Amelia A; Dubourg, Christele; David, Veronique; Mercier, Sandra; Odent, Sylvie; Hehr, Ute; Paulussen, Aimee; Clegg, Nancy J; Delgado, Mauricio R; Bale, Sherri J; Lacbawan, Felicitas; Ardinger, Holly H; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Bhengu, Ntombenhle Louisa; Braddock, Stephen; Brookhyser, Karen; Burton, Barbara; Gaspar, Harald; Grix, Art; Horovitz, Dafne; Kanetzke, Erin; Kayserili, Hulya; Lev, Dorit; Nikkel, Sarah M; Norton, Mary; Roberts, Richard; Saal, Howard; Schaefer, G B; Schneider, Adele; Smith, Erika K; Sowry, Ellen; Spence, M Anne; Shalev, Stavit A; Steiner, Carlos E; Thompson, Elizabeth M; Winder, Thomas L; Balog, Joan Z; Hadley, Donald W; Zhou, Nan; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E; Roessler, Erich; Muenke, Maximilian

    2012-07-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE), the most common malformation of the human forebrain, may result from mutations in over 12 genes. Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) was the first such gene discovered; mutations in SHH remain the most common cause of non-chromosomal HPE. The severity spectrum is wide, ranging from incompatibility with extrauterine life to isolated midline facial differences. To characterise genetic and clinical findings in individuals with SHH mutations. Through the National Institutes of Health and collaborating centres, DNA from approximately 2000 individuals with HPE spectrum disorders were analysed for SHH variations. Clinical details were examined and combined with published cases. This study describes 396 individuals, representing 157 unrelated kindreds, with SHH mutations; 141 (36%) have not been previously reported. SHH mutations more commonly resulted in non-HPE (64%) than frank HPE (36%), and non-HPE was significantly more common in patients with SHH than in those with mutations in the other common HPE related genes (p<0.0001 compared to ZIC2 or SIX3). Individuals with truncating mutations were significantly more likely to have frank HPE than those with non-truncating mutations (49% vs 35%, respectively; p=0.012). While mutations were significantly more common in the N-terminus than in the C-terminus (including accounting for the relative size of the coding regions, p=0.00010), no specific genotype-phenotype correlations could be established regarding mutation location. SHH mutations overall result in milder disease than mutations in other common HPE related genes. HPE is more frequent in individuals with truncating mutations, but clinical predictions at the individual level remain elusive.

  7. Mutation analysis of seven known glaucoma-associated genes in Chinese patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaobo; Li, Miaoling; Guo, Xiangming; Li, Shiqiang; Xiao, Xueshan; Jia, Xiaoyun; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Qingjiong

    2014-05-13

    To evaluate mutations in the MYOC, WDR36, OPTN, OPA1, NTF4, CYP1B1, and LTBP2 genes in a cohort of Chinese patients with primary glaucoma. Genomic DNA was prepared from 683 unrelated patients, including 50 with primary congenital glaucoma, 104 with juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG), 186 with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and 343 with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Mutations in the seven genes in 257 patients (36 with JOAG, 89 with POAG, and 132 with PACG) were initially analyzed by exome sequencing and then confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In addition, Sanger sequencing was used to detect MYOC mutations in the remaining 426 patients. Exome sequencing identified 19 mutations (6 in MYOC, 9 in WDR36, 3 in OPA1, and 1 in OPTN) in 20 of 257 patients, including 4 patients with JOAG, 8 patients with POAG, and 8 patients with PACG. No mutation was detected in the other three genes. In addition, Sanger sequencing detected additional MYOC mutations in 5 of the remaining 426 patients, including 3 patients with JOAG and 2 patients with POAG. Twenty-two mutations in MYOC, WDR36, OPA1, and OPTN were detected in 25 of the 683 patients with primary glaucoma, including nine MYOC mutations in 11 patients, nine WDR36 mutations in 11 patients, three OPA1 mutations in 3 patients, and one OPTN mutation in a patient who also carried a MYOC mutation. Eight mutations in MYOC, WDR36, and OPA1 in 8 of the 343 PACG patients are of uncertain significance and need to be analyzed further. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  8. DNA sequence analysis in 598 individuals with a clinical diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta: diagnostic yield and mutation spectrum.

    PubMed

    Bardai, G; Moffatt, P; Glorieux, F H; Rauch, F

    2016-12-01

    We detected disease-causing mutations in 585 of 598 individuals (98 %) with typical features of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). In mild OI, only collagen type I encoding genes were involved. In moderate to severe OI, mutations in 12 different genes were found; 11 % of these patients had mutations in recessive genes. OI is usually caused by mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2, the genes encoding collagen type I alpha chains, but mutations in at least 16 other genes have also been associated with OI. It is presently unknown what proportion of individuals with clinical features of OI has a disease-causing mutation in one of these genes. DNA sequence analysis was performed on 598 individuals from 487 families who had a typical OI phenotype. OI type I was diagnosed in 43 % of individuals, and 57 % had moderate to severe OI, defined as OI types other than type I. Disease-causing variants were detected in 97 % of individuals with OI type I and in 99 % of patients with moderate to severe OI. All mutations found in OI type I were dominant and exclusively affected COL1A1 or COL1A2. In moderate to severe OI, dominant mutations were found in COL1A1/COL1A2 (77 %), IFITM5 (9 %), and P4HB (0.6 %). Mutations in one of the recessive OI-associated gene were observed in 12 % of individuals with moderate to severe OI. The genes most frequently involved in recessive OI were SERPINF1 (4.0 % of individuals with moderate to severe OI) and CRTAP (2.9 %). DNA sequence analysis of currently known OI-associated genes identifies disease-causing variants in almost all individuals with a typical OI phenotype. About 20 % of individuals with moderate to severe OI had mutations in genes other than COL1A1/COL1A2.

  9. Molecular analysis of the PAX6 gene in Mexican patients with congenital aniridia: report of four novel mutations

    PubMed Central

    Villarroel, Camilo E.; Villanueva-Mendoza, Cristina; Orozco, Lorena; Alcántara-Ortigoza, Miguel Angel; Jiménez, Diana F.; Ordaz, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Paired box gene 6 (PAX6) heterozygous mutations are well known to cause congenital non-syndromic aniridia. These mutations produce primarily protein truncations and have been identified in approximately 40%–80% of all aniridia cases worldwide. In Mexico, there is only one previous report describing three intragenic deletions in five cases. In this study, we further analyze PAX6 variants in a group of Mexican aniridia patients and describe associated ocular findings. Methods We evaluated 30 nonrelated probands from two referral hospitals. Mutations were detected by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and direct sequencing, and novel missense mutations and intronic changes were analyzed by in silico analysis. One intronic variation (IVS2+9G>A), which in silico analysis suggested had no pathological effects, was searched in 103 unaffected controls. Results Almost all cases exhibited phenotypes that were at the severe end of the aniridia spectrum with associated ocular alterations such as nystagmus, macular hypoplasia, and congenital cataracts. The mutation detection rate was 30%. Eight different mutations were identified: four (c.184_188dupGAGAC, c.361T>C, c.879dupC, and c.277G>A) were novel, and four (c.969C>T, IVS6+1G>C, c.853delC, and IVS7–2A>G) have been previously reported. The substitution at position 969 was observed in two patients. None of the intragenic deletions previously reported in Mexican patients were found. Most of the mutations detected predict either truncation of the PAX6 protein or conservative amino acid changes in the paired domain. We also detected two intronic non-pathogenic variations, IVS9–12C>T and IVS2+9G>A, that had been previously reported. Because the latter variation was considered potentially pathogenic, it was analyzed in 103 healthy Mexican newborns where we found an allelic frequency of 0.1116 for the A allele. Conclusions This study adds four novel mutations to the worldwide PAX6 mutational spectrum, and

  10. A Comprehensive Functional Analysis of NTRK1 Missense Mutations Causing Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy Type IV (HSAN IV).

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Samiha S; Chen, Ya-Chun; Halsall, Sally-Anne; Nahorski, Michael S; Omoto, Kiyoyuki; Young, Gareth T; Phelan, Anne; Woods, Christopher Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN IV) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a complete lack of pain perception and anhidrosis. Here, we studied a cohort of seven patients with HSAN IV and describe a comprehensive functional analysis of seven novel NTRK1 missense mutations, c.1550G >A, c.1565G >A, c.1970T >C, c.2096T >C, c.2254T >A, c.2288G >C, and c.2311C >T, corresponding to p.G517E, p.G522E, p.L657P, p.I699T, p.C752S, p.C763S, and p.R771C, all of which were predicted pathogenic by in silico analysis. The results allowed us to assess the pathogenicity of each mutation and to gain novel insights into tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TRKA) downstream signaling. Each mutation was systematically analyzed for TRKA glycosylation states, intracellular and cell membrane expression patterns, nerve growth factor stimulated TRKA autophosphorylation, TRKA-Y496 phosphorylation, PLCγ activity, and neurite outgrowth. We showed a diverse range of functional effects: one mutation appeared fully functional, another had partial activity in all assays, one mutation affected only the PLCγ pathway and four mutations were proved null in all assays. Thus, we conclude that complete abolition of TRKA kinase activity is not the only pathogenic mechanism underlying HSAN IV. By corollary, the assessment of the clinical pathogenicity of HSAN IV mutations is more complex than initially predicted and requires a multifaceted approach. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  11. [Clinical and genetic analysis for two children with congenital disturbance of glycosylation with PMM2 gene mutations].

    PubMed

    Ren, Changhong; Fang, Fang; Huang, Yu; Cheng, Hua; Dai, Lifang

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the clinical and PMM2 gene mutation features of congenital disturbance of glycosylation caused by PMM2 gene mutation (PMM2-CDG, previously known as CDG 1a). The clinical data of two Chinese patients who were clinically diagnosed as PMM2-CDG at neurology department of Beijing Children's Hospital in 2012 were retrospectively collected. The gene mutations were identified by Sanger sequencing. Both patients were female, aged 1 year and 1 month and 8 months respectively. The main clinical features of the two cases were developmental delay after birth, chronic diarrhea and metabolic acidosis, associated with elevated serum transaminases, and decreased antithrombin III activity. Physical examination showed esotropia, inverted nipples, and abnormal subcutaneous fat pads. The cranial MRI showed cerebellar atrophy. Both cases were treated with occupational therapy, physical therapy and speech therapy. The development was gradually improved but also delayed as compared with normal peers during follow-up for more than 3 years. Genetic analysis showed that patient 1 was compound heterozygous for c. 422G>A(p.Arg141His), which was reported for known pathogenic mutation, and c. 669C>A(p.Asp223Glu), was a new mutation. The patient 2 showed compound heterozygous mutation for c. 634A>G (p.Met212Val)and c. 713G>C(p.Arg238Pro), which were both new mutations. PMM2-CDG is a rare metabolic disease, and the diagnosis should be considered in a child with developmental delay, elevated serum transaminases, decreased antithrombin III activity, inverted nipples, abnormal subcutaneous fat pads, esotropia, and cerebellar atrophy on MRI. It can be confirmed by PMM2 gene analysis.

  12. Mutational analysis of the myelin protein zero (MPZ) gene associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 1B

    SciTech Connect

    Roa, B.B.; Warner, L.E.; Lupski, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    The MPZ gene that maps to chromosome 1q22q23 encodes myelin protein zero, which is the most abundant peripheral nerve myelin protein that functions as a homophilic adhesion molecule in myelin compaction. Association of the MPZ gene with the dysmyelinating peripheral neuropathies Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B (CMT1B) and the more severe Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS) was previously demonstrated by MPZ mutations identified in CMT1B and in rare DSS patients. In this study, the coding region of the MPZ gene was screened for mutations in a cohort of 74 unrelated patients with either CMT type 1 or DSS who do not carry themore » most common CMT1-associated molecular lesion of a 1.5 Mb DNA duplication on 17p11.2-p12. Heteroduplex analysis detected base mismatches in ten patients that were distributed over three exons of MPZ. Direct sequencing of PCR-amplified genomic DNA identified a de novo MPZ mutation associated with CMT1B that predicts an Ile(135)Thr substitution. This finding further confirms the role of MPZ in the CMT1B disease process. In addition, two polymorphisms were identified within the Gly(200) and Ser(228) codons that do not alter the respective amino acid residues. A fourth base mismatch in MPZ exon 3 detected by heteroduplex analysis is currently being characterized by direct sequence determination. Previously, four unrelated patients in this same cohort were found to have unique point mutations in the coding region of the PMP22 gene. The collective findings on CMT1 point mutations could suggest that regulatory region mutations, and possibly mutations in CMT gene(s) apart from the MPZ, PMP22 and Cx32 genes identified thus far, may prove to be significant for a number of CMT1 cases that do not involve DNA duplication.« less

  13. [High resolution melting analysis for detecting of JAK2V617F mutation in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-Hua; Yang, Ji-Long; Lu, Hui-Fang; Zhou, Wei-Jun; Yao, Fei; Deng, Lan

    2014-02-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the feasibility of high resolution melting (HRM) in the detection of JAK2V617F mutation in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). The 29 marrow samples randomly selected from patients with clinically diagnosed MPN from January 2008 to January 2011 were detected by HRM method. The results of HRM analysis were compared with that detected by allele specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) and DNA direct sequencing. The results showed that the JAK2V617F mutations were detected in 11 (37.9%, 11/29) cases by HRM, and its comparability with the direct sequencing result was 100%. While the consistency of AS-PCR with the direct sequencing was moderate (Kappa = 0.179, P = 0.316). It is concluded that the HRM analysis may be an optimal method for clinical screening of JAK2V617F mutation due to its simplicity and promptness with a high specificity.

  14. High-Resolution Adaptive Optics Retinal Image Analysis at Early Stage Central Areolar Choroidal Dystrophy With PRPH2 Mutation.

    PubMed

    Gocho, Kiyoko; Akeo, Keiichiro; Itoh, Naoko; Kameya, Shuhei; Hayashi, Takaaki; Katagiri, Satoshi; Gekka, Tamaki; Ohkuma, Yasuhiro; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    To report the clinical features of Japanese patients at Stage 1 and 2 of central areolar choroidal dystrophy (CACD). Five family members had comprehensive ophthalmic examinations including adaptive optics (AO) retinal imaging. Mutation analysis of the PRPH2 gene was performed by Sanger sequencing. The protocol conformed to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the institutional review board of The Jikei University School of Medicine. Four family members had a heterozygous PRPH2 mutation, p.R172Q; however, one member with a mutation did not show any ophthalmological abnormalities. Two patients had mild parafoveal retinal dystrophy and a reduction of cone density determined by AO analysis. The results indicate that the parafoveal cone photoreceptors can be affected even at the early stage of CACD. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:1115-1126.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Molecular genetic analysis of the F11 gene in 14 Turkish patients with factor XI deficiency: identification of novel and recurrent mutations and their inheritance within families.

    PubMed

    Colakoglu, Seyma; Bayhan, Turan; Tavil, Betül; Keskin, Ebru Yılmaz; Cakir, Volkan; Gümrük, Fatma; Çetin, Mualla; Aytaç, Selin; Berber, Ergul

    2018-01-01

    Factor XI (FXI) deficiency is an autosomal bleeding disease associated with genetic defects in the F11 gene which cause decreased FXI levels or impaired FXI function. An increasing number of mutations has been reported in the FXI mutation database, most of which affect the serine protease domain of the protein. FXI is a heterogeneous disorder associated with a variable bleeding tendency and a variety of causative F11 gene mutations. The molecular basis of FXI deficiency in 14 patients from ten unrelated families in Turkey was analysed to establish genotype-phenotype correlations and inheritance of the mutations in the patients' families. Fourteen index cases with a diagnosis of FXI deficiency and family members of these patients were enrolled into the study. The patients' F11 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and subjected to direct DNA sequencing analysis. The findings were analysed statistically using bivariate correlations, Pearson's correlation coefficient and the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Direct DNA sequencing analysis of the F11 genes revealed that all of the 14 patients had a F11 gene mutation. Eight different mutations were identified in the apple 1, apple 2 or serine protease domains, except one which was a splice site mutation. Six of the mutations were recurrent. Two of the mutations were novel missense mutations, p.Val522Gly and p.Cys581Arg, within the catalytic domain. The p.Trp519Stop mutation was observed in two families whereas all the other mutations were specific to a single family. Identification of mutations confirmed the genetic heterogeneity of FXI deficiency. Most of the patients with mutations did not have any bleeding complications, whereas some had severe bleeding symptoms. Genetic screening for F11 gene mutations is important to decrease the mortality and morbidity rate associated with FXI deficiency, which can be life-threatening if bleeding occurs in tissues with high fibrinolytic activity.

  16. Molecular genetic analysis of the F11 gene in 14 Turkish patients with factor XI deficiency: identification of novel and recurrent mutations and their inheritance within families

    PubMed Central

    Colakoglu, Seyma; Bayhan, Turan; Tavil, Betül; Keskin, Ebru Yılmaz; Cakir, Volkan; Gümrük, Fatma; Çetin, Mualla; Aytaç, Selin; Berber, Ergul

    2018-01-01

    Background Factor XI (FXI) deficiency is an autosomal bleeding disease associated with genetic defects in the F11 gene which cause decreased FXI levels or impaired FXI function. An increasing number of mutations has been reported in the FXI mutation database, most of which affect the serine protease domain of the protein. FXI is a heterogeneous disorder associated with a variable bleeding tendency and a variety of causative F11 gene mutations. The molecular basis of FXI deficiency in 14 patients from ten unrelated families in Turkey was analysed to establish genotype-phenotype correlations and inheritance of the mutations in the patients’ families. Material and methods Fourteen index cases with a diagnosis of FXI deficiency and family members of these patients were enrolled into the study. The patients’ F11 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and subjected to direct DNA sequencing analysis. The findings were analysed statistically using bivariate correlations, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Results Direct DNA sequencing analysis of the F11 genes revealed that all of the 14 patients had a F11 gene mutation. Eight different mutations were identified in the apple 1, apple 2 or serine protease domains, except one which was a splice site mutation. Six of the mutations were recurrent. Two of the mutations were novel missense mutations, p.Val522Gly and p.Cys581Arg, within the catalytic domain. The p.Trp519Stop mutation was observed in two families whereas all the other mutations were specific to a single family. Discussion Identification of mutations confirmed the genetic heterogeneity of FXI deficiency. Most of the patients with mutations did not have any bleeding complications, whereas some had severe bleeding symptoms. Genetic screening for F11 gene mutations is important to decrease the mortality and morbidity rate associated with FXI deficiency, which can be life-threatening if bleeding occurs in tissues

  17. Validation of next generation sequencing technologies in comparison to current diagnostic gold standards for BRAF, EGFR and KRAS mutational analysis.

    PubMed

    McCourt, Clare M; McArt, Darragh G; Mills, Ken; Catherwood, Mark A; Maxwell, Perry; Waugh, David J; Hamilton, Peter; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Salto-Tellez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has the potential of becoming an important tool in clinical diagnosis and therapeutic decision-making in oncology owing to its enhanced sensitivity in DNA mutation detection, fast-turnaround of samples in comparison to current gold standard methods and the potential to sequence a large number of cancer-driving genes at the one time. We aim to test the diagnostic accuracy of current NGS technology in the analysis of mutations that represent current standard-of-care, and its reliability to generate concomitant information on other key genes in human oncogenesis. Thirteen clinical samples (8 lung adenocarcinomas, 3 colon carcinomas and 2 malignant melanomas) already genotyped for EGFR, KRAS and BRAF mutations by current standard-of-care methods (Sanger Sequencing and q-PCR), were analysed for detection of mutations in the same three genes using two NGS platforms and an additional 43 genes with one of these platforms. The results were analysed using closed platform-specific proprietary bioinformatics software as well as open third party applications. Our results indicate that the existing format of the NGS technology performed well in detecting the clinically relevant mutations stated above but may not be reliable for a broader unsupervised analysis of the wider genome in its current design. Our study represents a diagnostically lead validation of the major strengths and weaknesses of this technology before consideration for diagnostic use.

  18. Fragment analysis represents a suitable approach for the detection of hotspot c.7541_7542delCT NOTCH1 mutation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Vavrova, Eva; Kantorova, Barbara; Vonkova, Barbara; Kabathova, Jitka; Skuhrova-Francova, Hana; Diviskova, Eva; Letocha, Ondrej; Kotaskova, Jana; Brychtova, Yvona; Doubek, Michael; Mayer, Jiri; Pospisilova, Sarka

    2017-09-01

    The hotspot c.7541_7542delCT NOTCH1 mutation has been proven to have a negative clinical impact in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, an optimal method for its detection has not yet been specified. The aim of our study was to examine the presence of the NOTCH1 mutation in CLL using three commonly used molecular methods. Sanger sequencing, fragment analysis and allele-specific PCR were compared in the detection of the c.7541_7542delCT NOTCH1 mutation in 201 CLL patients. In 7 patients with inconclusive mutational analysis results, the presence of the NOTCH1 mutation was also confirmed using ultra-deep next generation sequencing. The NOTCH1 mutation was detected in 15% (30/201) of examined patients. Only fragment analysis was able to identify all 30 NOTCH1-mutated patients. Sanger sequencing and allele-specific PCR showed a lower detection efficiency, determining 93% (28/30) and 80% (24/30) of the present NOTCH1 mutations, respectively. Considering these three most commonly used methodologies for c.7541_7542delCT NOTCH1 mutation screening in CLL, we defined fragment analysis as the most suitable approach for detecting the hotspot NOTCH1 mutation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Analysis of MAT1A gene mutations in a child affected with simple hypermethioninemia].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yun; Ma, Dingyuan; Wang, Yanyun; Yang, Bin; Jiang, Tao

    2017-02-10

    To detect potential mutations of MAT1A gene in a child suspected with simple hypermethioninemia by MS/MS neonatal screening. Clinical data of the child was collected. Genomic DNA was extracted by a standard method and subjected to targeted sequencing using an Ion Ampliseq TM Inherited Disease Panel. Detected mutations were verified by Sanger sequencing. The child showed no clinical features except evaluated methionine. A novel compound mutation of the MAT1A gene, i.e., c.345delA and c.529C>T, was identified in the child. His father and mother were found to be heterozygous for the c.345delA mutation and c.529C>T mutation, respectively. The compound mutation c.345delA and c.529C>T of the MAT1A gene probably underlie the disease in the child. The semi-conductor sequencing has provided an important means for the diagnosis of hereditary diseases.

  20. Comprehensive Mutation Analysis of PMS2 in a Large Cohort of Probands Suspected of Lynch Syndrome or Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    van der Klift, Heleen M; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Drost, Mark; Bik, Elsa C; Vos, Yvonne J; Gille, Hans J J P; Redeker, Bert E J W; Tiersma, Yvonne; Zonneveld, José B M; García, Encarna Gómez; Letteboer, Tom G W; Olderode-Berends, Maran J W; van Hest, Liselotte P; van Os, Theo A; Verhoef, Senno; Wagner, Anja; van Asperen, Christi J; Ten Broeke, Sanne W; Hes, Frederik J; de Wind, Niels; Nielsen, Maartje; Devilee, Peter; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Wijnen, Juul T; Tops, Carli M J

    2016-11-01

    Monoallelic PMS2 germline mutations cause 5%-15% of Lynch syndrome, a midlife cancer predisposition, whereas biallelic PMS2 mutations cause approximately 60% of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD), a rare childhood cancer syndrome. Recently improved DNA- and RNA-based strategies are applied to overcome problematic PMS2 mutation analysis due to the presence of pseudogenes and frequent gene conversion events. Here, we determined PMS2 mutation detection yield and mutation spectrum in a nationwide cohort of 396 probands. Furthermore, we studied concordance between tumor IHC/MSI (immunohistochemistry/microsatellite instability) profile and mutation carrier state. Overall, we found 52 different pathogenic PMS2 variants explaining 121 Lynch syndrome and nine CMMRD patients. In vitro mismatch repair assays suggested pathogenicity for three missense variants. Ninety-one PMS2 mutation carriers (70%) showed isolated loss of PMS2 in their tumors, for 31 (24%) no or inconclusive IHC was available, and eight carriers (6%) showed discordant IHC (presence of PMS2 or loss of both MLH1 and PMS2). Ten cases with isolated PMS2 loss (10%; 10/97) harbored MLH1 mutations. We confirmed that recently improved mutation analysis provides a high yield of PMS2 mutations in patients with isolated loss of PMS2 expression. Application of universal tumor prescreening methods will however miss some PMS2 germline mutation carriers. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  1. Analysis of HFE and non-HFE gene mutations in Brazilian patients with hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Marin, Maria Lúcia Carnevale; Couto, Cláudia Alves; Cançado, Eduardo Luiz Rachid; Carrilho, Flair José; Goldberg, Anna Carla

    2009-01-01

    Approximately one-half of Brazilian patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) are neither homozygous for the C282Y mutation nor compound heterozygous for the H63D and C282Y mutations that are associated with HH in Caucasians. Other mutations have been described in the HFE gene as well as in genes involved in iron metabolism, such as transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) and ferroportin 1 (SCL40A1). To evaluate the role of HFE, TfR2 and SCL40A1 mutations in Brazilian subjects with HH. Nineteen male subjects (median age 42 [range: 20-72] years) with HH were evaluated using the Haemochromatosis StripAssay A. This assay is capable of detecting twelve HFE mutations, which are V53M, V59M, H63D, H63H, S65C, Q127H, P160delC, E168Q, E168X, W169X, C282Y and Q283, four TfR2 mutations, which are E60X, M172K, Y250X, AVAQ594-597del, and two SCL40A1 mutations, which are N144H and V162del. In our cohort, nine (47%) patients were homozygous for the C282Y mutation, two (11%) were heterozygous for the H63D mutation, and one each (5%) was either heterozygous for C282Y or compound heterozygous for C282Y and H63D. No other mutations in the HFE, TfR2 or SCL40A1 genes were observed in the studied patients. One-third of Brazilian subjects with the classical phenotype of HH do not carry HFE or other mutations that are currently associated with the disease in Caucasians. This observation suggests a role for other yet unknown mutations in the aforementioned genes or in other genes involved in iron homeostasis in the pathogenesis of HH in Brazil.

  2. Mutational analysis of FLASH and PTPN13 genes in colorectal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eun Goo; Lee, Sung Hak; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2008-01-01

    The Fas-Fas ligand system is considered a major pathway for induction of apoptosis in cells and tissues. FLASH was identified as a pro-apoptotic protein that transmits apoptosis signal during Fas-mediated apoptosis. PTPN13 interacts with Fas and functions as both suppressor and inducer of Fas-mediated apoptosis. There are polyadenine tracts in both FLASH (A8 and A9 in exon 8) and PTPN13 (A8 in exon 7) genes that could be frameshift mutation targets in colorectal carcinomas. Because genes encoding proteins in Fas-mediated apoptosis frequently harbor somatic mutations in cancers, we explored the possibility as to whether mutations of FLASH and PTPN13 are a feature of colorectal carcinomas. We analysed human FLASH in exon 8 and PTPN13 in exon 7 for the detection of somatic mutations in 103 colorectal carcinomas by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- based single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). We detected two mutations in FLASH gene, but none in PTPN13 gene. However, the two mutations were not frameshift (deletion or insertion) mutations in the polyadenine tracts of FLASH. The two mutations consisted of a deletion mutation (c.3734-3737delAGAA) and a missense mutation (c.3703A>C). These data indicate that frameshift mutation in the polyadenine tracts in both FLASH and PTPN13 genes is rare in colorectal carcinomas. Also, the data suggest that both FLASH and PTPN13 mutations in the polyadenine tracts may not have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinomas.

  3. Comprehensive analysis of the mutation spectrum in 301 German ALS families.

    PubMed

    Müller, Kathrin; Brenner, David; Weydt, Patrick; Meyer, Thomas; Grehl, Torsten; Petri, Susanne; Grosskreutz, Julian; Schuster, Joachim; Volk, Alexander E; Borck, Guntram; Kubisch, Christian; Klopstock, Thomas; Zeller, Daniel; Jablonka, Sibylle; Sendtner, Michael; Klebe, Stephan; Knehr, Antje; Günther, Kornelia; Weis, Joachim; Claeys, Kristl G; Schrank, Berthold; Sperfeld, Anne-Dorte; Hübers, Annemarie; Otto, Markus; Dorst, Johannes; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M; Andersen, Peter M; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H

    2018-04-12

    Recent advances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) genetics have revealed that mutations in any of more than 25 genes can cause ALS, mostly as an autosomal-dominant Mendelian trait. Detailed knowledge about the genetic architecture of ALS in a specific population will be important for genetic counselling but also for genotype-specific therapeutic interventions. Here we combined fragment length analysis, repeat-primed PCR, Southern blotting, Sanger sequencing and whole exome sequencing to obtain a comprehensive profile of genetic variants in ALS disease genes in 301 German pedigrees with familial ALS. We report C9orf72 mutations as well as variants in consensus splice sites and non-synonymous variants in protein-coding regions of ALS genes. We furthermore estimate their pathogenicity by taking into account type and frequency of the respective variant as well as segregation within the families. 49% of our German ALS families carried a likely pathogenic variant in at least one of the earlier identified ALS genes. In 45% of the ALS families, likely pathogenic variants were detected in C9orf72, SOD1, FUS, TARDBP or TBK1 , whereas the relative contribution of the other ALS genes in this familial ALS cohort was 4%. We identified several previously unreported rare variants and demonstrated the absence of likely pathogenic variants in some of the recently described ALS disease genes. We here present a comprehensive genetic characterisation of German familial ALS. The present findings are of importance for genetic counselling in clinical practice, for molecular research and for the design of diagnostic gene panels or genotype-specific therapeutic interventions in Europe. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Mutational analysis and genotype-phenotype relation in familial hypercholesterolemia: The SAFEHEART registry.

    PubMed

    Bourbon, Mafalda; Alves, Ana Catarina; Alonso, Rodrigo; Mata, Nelva; Aguiar, Pedro; Padró, Teresa; Mata, Pedro

    2017-07-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease of cholesterol metabolism that confers an increased risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Therefore, early identification and treatment of these patients can improve prognosis and reduce the burden of cardiovascular mortality. The aim of this work was to perform the mutational analysis of the SAFEHEART (Spanish Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Cohort Study) registry. The study recruited 2938 individuals with genetic diagnosis of FH belonging to 775 families. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v23. A total of 194 variants have been detected in this study, 24 of them were never described before. About 88% of the patients have a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant. Patients with null variants have a more severe phenotype than patients with defective variants, presenting with significantly higher levels of atherogenic particles (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B). This study shows the molecular characteristics of the FH patients included in the SAFEHEART registry and the relationship with the phenotypic expression. The majority of the genetic variants are considered to be pathogenic or likely pathogenic, which confers a high level of confidence to the entry and follow-up data analysis performed with this registry concerning FH patients' prognosis, treatment and survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermodynamics of antibody-antigen interaction revealed by mutation analysis of antibody variable regions.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Hiroki; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2015-07-01

    Antibodies (immunoglobulins) bind specific molecules (i.e. antigens) with high affinity and specificity. In order to understand their mechanisms of recognition, interaction analysis based on thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, as well as structure determination is crucial. In this review, we focus on mutational analysis which gives information about the role of each amino acid residue in antibody-antigen interaction. Taking anti-hen egg lysozyme antibodies and several anti-small molecule antibodies, the energetic contribution of hot-spot and non-hot-spot residues is discussed in terms of thermodynamics. Here, thermodynamics of the contribution from aromatic, charged and hydrogen bond-forming amino acids are discussed, and their different characteristics have been elucidated. The information gives fundamental understanding of the antibody-antigen interaction. Furthermore, the consequences of antibody engineering are analysed from thermodynamic viewpoints: humanization to reduce immunogenicity and rational design to improve affinity. Amino acid residues outside hot-spots in the interface play important roles in these cases, and thus thermodynamic and kinetic parameters give much information about the antigen recognition. Thermodynamic analysis of mutant antibodies thus should lead to advanced strategies to design and select antibodies with high affinity. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Mutation analysis of FANCD2, BRIP1/BACH1, LMO4 and SFN in familial breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Aaron G; Flanagan, James; Marsh, Anna; Pupo, Gulietta M; Mann, Graham; Spurdle, Amanda B; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Visvader, Jane E; Brown, Melissa A; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in known predisposition genes account for only about a third of all multiple-case breast cancer families. We hypothesized that germline mutations in FANCD2, BRIP1/BACH1, LMO4 and SFN may account for some of the unexplained multiple-case breast cancer families. The families used in this study were ascertained through the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab). Denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) analysis of the coding regions of these four genes was conducted in the youngest affected cases of 30 to 267 non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families. In addition, a further 399 index cases were also screened for mutations in two functionally significant regions of the FANCD2 gene and 253 index cases were screened for two previously reported mutations in BACH1 (p. P47A and p. M299I). DHPLC analysis of FANCD2 identified six silent exonic variants, and a large number of intronic variants, which tagged two common haplotypes. One protein truncating variant was found in BRIP1/BACH1, as well as four missense variants, a silent change and a variant in the 3' untranslated region. No missense or splice site mutations were found in LMO4 or SFN. Analysis of the missense, silent and frameshift variants of FANCD2 and BACH1 in relatives of the index cases, and in a panel of controls, found no evidence suggestive of pathogenicity. There is no evidence that highly penetrant exonic or splice site mutations in FANCD2, BRIP1/BACH1, LMO4 or SFN contribute to familial breast cancer. Large scale association studies will be necessary to determine whether any of the polymorphisms or haplotypes identified in these genes contributes to breast cancer risk.

  7. RNA-based mutation analysis identifies an unusual MSH6 splicing defect and circumvents PMS2 pseudogene interference.

    PubMed

    Etzler, J; Peyrl, A; Zatkova, A; Schildhaus, H-U; Ficek, A; Merkelbach-Bruse, S; Kratz, C P; Attarbaschi, A; Hainfellner, J A; Yao, S; Messiaen, L; Slavc, I; Wimmer, K

    2008-02-01

    Heterozygous germline mutations in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 cause hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch syndrome, a dominantly inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome. Recent reports provide evidence for a novel recessively inherited cancer syndrome with constitutive MMR deficiency due to biallelic germline mutations in one of the MMR genes. MMR-deficiency (MMR-D) syndrome is characterized by childhood brain tumors, hematological and/or gastrointestinal malignancies, and signs of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). We established an RNA-based mutation detection assay for the four MMR genes, since 1) a number of splicing defects may escape detection by the analysis of genomic DNA, and 2) DNA-based mutation detection in the PMS2 gene is severely hampered by the presence of multiple highly similar pseudogenes, including PMS2CL. Using this assay, which is based on direct cDNA sequencing of RT-PCR products, we investigated two families with children suspected to suffer from MMR-D syndrome. We identified a homozygous complex MSH6 splicing alteration in the index patients of the first family and a novel homozygous PMS2 mutation (c.182delA) in the index patient of the second family. Furthermore, we demonstrate, by the analysis of a PMS2/PMS2CL "hybrid" allele carrier, that RNA-based PMS2 testing effectively avoids the caveats of genomic DNA amplification approaches; i.e., pseudogene coamplification as well as allelic dropout, and will, thus, allow more sensitive mutation analysis in MMR deficiency and in HNPCC patients with PMS2 defects. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. MyD88 Mutation in Elderly Predicts Poor Prognosis in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma: Multi-Institutional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Takano, Shingo; Hattori, Keiichiro; Ishikawa, Eiichi; Narita, Yoshitaka; Iwadate, Yasuo; Yamaguchi, Fumio; Nagane, Motoo; Akimoto, Jiro; Oka, Hidehiro; Tanaka, Satoshi; Sakata, Mamiko; Matsuda, Masahide; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Chiba, Shigeru; Matsumura, Akira

    2018-04-01

    Recent genetic analysis of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) showed that the MyD88 L265P mutation, which is related to NF-κB signaling, was a genetic hallmark for PCNSL; thus it could serve as a genetic marker for diagnosis and a potential target for molecular therapy. However, the role of the MyD88 mutation in PCNSL has not been defined. In this study, we investigated the role of the MyD88 mutation and clinical features of PCNSL-treated patients at several institutions to determine its significance as a prognostic factor. Forty-one PCNSL (diffuse large B-cell type) patients from 8 institutions were included in this study. Their median age was 68 years; median follow-up was 26.7 months; median overall survival was 26.7 months; and their 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates were 75.6%, 58.5%, and 43.9%, respectively. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted from frozen tissue, and the MyD88 L265P mutation was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. The MyD88 L265P mutation was found in 61.0% (25/41) of cases. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that neither MyD88 L265P mutation nor age >65 years alone significantly predicted overall survival relative to MyD88 wild type and age <65. The MyD88 L265P mutation was predominantly present in patients aged >65 years. Among age >65 patients, the MyD88 L265P mutation portended a worse overall survival compared with the MyD88 wild type (11.5 vs. 56.2 months P < 0.04). The MyD88 L265P mutation predicted a poor prognosis in elderly PCNSL patients. A new tailor-made treatment strategy might be needed for these patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Analysis of human MutS homolog 2 missense mutations in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Chen, Senqing; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Yuanying; Lv, Min; Zhu, Ming

    2018-05-01

    Germline mutations of DNA mismatch repair gene human MutS homolog 2 ( hMSH2 ) are associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). A total of one-third of these mutations are missense mutations. Several hMSH2 missense mutations have been identified in patients in East Asia, although their function has not been evaluated. In the present study, the role of ten hMSH2 missense mutations in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer was examined. The hMSH2/hMSH6 protein interaction system was established using yeast two-hybrid screening. Next, the missense mutations were analyzed for their ability to affect the protein interaction of hMSH2 with its partner hMSH6. Additionally, the Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant tool was applied to predict the effects of different amino acid substitutions. The results demonstrated that certain hMSH2 mutations (L173R and C199R) caused a significant functional change in the human hMutSα complex and were identified to be pathological mutations. The Y408C, D603Y, P696L and S703Y mutations partially affected interaction and partly affected the function of hMSH2. The remaining four variants, T8M, I169V, A370T and Q419K, may be non-functional polymorphisms or could affect protein function through other molecular mechanisms. The present study evaluated the functional consequences of previously unknown missense mutations in hMSH2 , and may contribute to improved clinical diagnosis and mutation screening of HNPCC.

  10. The Dynamics of Germinal Centre Selection as Measured by Graph-Theoretical Analysis of Mutational Lineage Trees

    PubMed Central

    Dunn-Walters, Deborah K.; Belelovsky, Alex; Edelman, Hanna; Banerjee, Monica; Mehr, Ramit

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a rigorous graph-theoretical algorithm for quantifying the shape properties of mutational lineage trees. We show that information about the dynamics of hypermutation and antigen-driven clonal selection during the humoral immune response is contained in the shape of mutational lineage trees deduced from the responding clones. Age and tissue related differences in the selection process can be studied using this method. Thus, tree shape analysis can be used as a means of elucidating humoral immune response dynamics in various situations. PMID:15144020

  11. Structure-Activity Relationship in TLR4 Mutations: Atomistic Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Residue Interaction Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Muhammad Ayaz; Choi, Sangdun

    2017-03-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a vital innate immune receptor present on cell surfaces, initiates a signaling cascade during danger and bacterial intrusion. TLR4 needs to form a stable hexamer complex, which is necessary to dimerize the cytoplasmic domain. However, D299G and T399I polymorphism may abrogate the stability of the complex, leading to compromised TLR4 signaling. Crystallography provides valuable insights into the structural aspects of the TLR4 ectodomain; however, the dynamic behavior of polymorphic TLR4 is still unclear. Here, we employed molecular dynamics simulations (MDS), as well as principal component and residue network analyses, to decipher the structural aspects and signaling propagation associated with mutations in TLR4. The mutated complexes were less cohesive, displayed local and global variation in the secondary structure, and anomalous decay in rotational correlation function. Principal component analysis indicated that the mutated complexes also exhibited distinct low-frequency motions, which may be correlated to the differential behaviors of these TLR4 variants. Moreover, residue interaction networks (RIN) revealed that the mutated TLR4/myeloid differentiation factor (MD) 2 complex may perpetuate abnormal signaling pathways. Cumulatively, the MDS and RIN analyses elucidated the mutant-specific conformational alterations, which may help in deciphering the mechanism of loss-of-function mutations.

  12. Functional analysis of LDLR promoter and 5' UTR mutations in subjects with clinical diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    De Castro-Orós, Isabel; Pampín, Sandra; Bolado-Carrancio, Alfonso; De Cubas, Aguirre; Palacios, Lourdes; Plana, Nuria; Puzo, Jose; Martorell, Esperanza; Stef, Marianne; Masana, Luis; Civeira, Fernando; Rodríguez-Rey, Jose Carlos; Pocoví, Miguel

    2011-08-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a dominant disorder due to mutations in the LDLR gene. Several mutations in the LDLR promoter are associated with FH. Screening of 3,705 Spanish FH patients identified 10 variants in the promoter and 5' UTR. Here, we analyse the functionality of six newly identified LDLR variants. Mutations located in the LDLR promoter regulatory elements R2 and R3 (c.-155_-150delACCCCinsTTCTGCAAACTCCTCCC, c.-136C>G, c.-140C>G, and c.-140C>T) resulted in 6 to 15% residual activity in reporter expression experiments and changes in nuclear protein binding affinity compared to wild type. No reduction was observed when cells were transfected with c.-208T, c.-88A, and c.-36G mutant fragments. Our results indicate that mutations localized in R2 and R3 are associated with hypercholesterolemia, whereas mutations outside the LDLR response elements are not a cause of FH. This data emphasizes the importance of functional analysis of variants in the LDLR promoter to determine their association with the FH phenotype. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation analysis of early-onset and familial breast cancer cases in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Flores, Pablo; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Badzioch, Michael; Calderon-Garcidueñas, A L; Chopin, Sandrine; Fabrice, Odefrey; González-Guerrero, J F; Szabo, Csilla; Lenoir, Gilbert; Goldgar, David E; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A

    2002-12-01

    The entire coding regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 were screened for mutations by heteroduplex analysis in 51 Mexican breast cancer patients. One BRCA1 and one BRCA2 truncating mutation each was identified in the group of 32 (6%) early-onset breast cancer patients (< or =35 years). Besides these two likely deleterious mutations, eight rare variants of unknown significance, mostly in the BRCA2 gene, were detected in six of 32 (19%) early-onset breast cancer cases and in three of 17 (18%) site-specific breast cancer families, one containing a male breast cancer case. No mutations or rare sequence variants have been identified in two additional families including each an early-onset breast cancer case and an ovarian cancer patient. The two truncating mutations (BRCA1 3857delT; BRCA2 2663-2664insA) and six of the rare variants have never been reported before and may be of country-specific origin. The majority of the alterations appeared to be distinct, with only one of them being observed in more than one family. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Mutational Analysis of Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma Using Targeted Sequencing with a Comprehensive Cancer Panel.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seungkyu; Go, Jai Hyang; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Hojung; Lee, Won Mi; Cho, Chun-Sung; Han, Kyudong

    2016-09-01

    Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (NKTCL), is a malignant disorder of cytotoxic lymphocytes of NK or T cells. It is an aggressive neoplasm with a very poor prognosis. Although extranodal NKTCL reportedly has a strong association with Epstein-Barr virus, the molecular pathogenesis of NKTCL has been unexplored. The recent technological advancements in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have made DNA sequencing cost- and time-effective, with more reliable results. Using the Ion Proton Comprehensive Cancer Panel, we sequenced 409 cancer-related genes to identify somatic mutations in five NKTCL tissue samples. The sequencing analysis detected 25 mutations in 21 genes. Among them, KMT2D , a histone modification-related gene, was the most frequently mutated gene (four of the five cases). This result was consistent with recent NGS studies that have suggested KMT2D as a novel driver gene in NKTCL. Mutations were also found in ARID1A , a chromatin remodeling gene, and TP53 , which also recurred in recent NGS studies. We also found mutations in 18 novel candidate genes, with molecular functions that were potentially implicated in cancer development. We suggest that these genes may result in multiple oncogenic events and may be used as potential bio-markers of NKTCL in the future.

  15. Clinical and Mutational Analysis of the GCDH Gene in Malaysian Patients with Glutaric Aciduria Type 1.

    PubMed

    Abdul Wahab, Siti Aishah; Yakob, Yusnita; Abdul Azize, Nor Azimah; Md Yunus, Zabedah; Huey Yin, Leong; Mohd Khalid, Mohd Khairul Nizam; Lock Hock, Ngu

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase enzyme encoded by the GCDH gene. In this study, we presented the clinical and molecular findings of seven GA1 patients in Malaysia. All the patients were symptomatic from infancy and diagnosed clinically from large excretion of glutaric and 3-hydroxyglutaric acids. Bidirectional sequencing of the GCDH gene revealed ten mutations, three of which were novel (Gln76Pro, Glu131Val, and Gly390Trp). The spectrum of mutations included eight missense mutations, a nonsense mutation, and a splice site mutation. Two mutations (Gln76Pro and Arg386Gln) were homozygous in two patients with parental consanguinity. All mutations were predicted to be disease causing by MutationTaster2. In conclusion, this is the first report of both clinical and molecular aspects of GA1 in Malaysian patients. Despite the lack of genotype and phenotype correlation, early diagnosis and timely treatment remained the most important determinant of patient outcome.

  16. Clinical and Mutational Analysis of the GCDH Gene in Malaysian Patients with Glutaric Aciduria Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Yakob, Yusnita; Abdul Azize, Nor Azimah; Md Yunus, Zabedah; Huey Yin, Leong; Mohd Khalid, Mohd Khairul Nizam; Lock Hock, Ngu

    2016-01-01

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase enzyme encoded by the GCDH gene. In this study, we presented the clinical and molecular findings of seven GA1 patients in Malaysia. All the patients were symptomatic from infancy and diagnosed clinically from large excretion of glutaric and 3-hydroxyglutaric acids. Bidirectional sequencing of the GCDH gene revealed ten mutations, three of which were novel (Gln76Pro, Glu131Val, and Gly390Trp). The spectrum of mutations included eight missense mutations, a nonsense mutation, and a splice site mutation. Two mutations (Gln76Pro and Arg386Gln) were homozygous in two patients with parental consanguinity. All mutations were predicted to be disease causing by MutationTaster2. In conclusion, this is the first report of both clinical and molecular aspects of GA1 in Malaysian patients. Despite the lack of genotype and phenotype correlation, early diagnosis and timely treatment remained the most important determinant of patient outcome. PMID:27672653

  17. Comprehensive PKD1 and PKD2 Mutation Analysis in Prenatal Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Audrézet, Marie-Pierre; Corbiere, Christine; Lebbah, Said; Morinière, Vincent; Broux, Françoise; Louillet, Ferielle; Fischbach, Michel; Zaloszyc, Ariane; Cloarec, Sylvie; Merieau, Elodie; Baudouin, Véronique; Deschênes, Georges; Roussey, Gwenaelle; Maestri, Sandrine; Visconti, Chiara; Boyer, Olivia; Abel, Carine; Lahoche, Annie; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Bessenay, Lucie; Mekahli, Djalila; Ouertani, Ines; Decramer, Stéphane; Ryckenwaert, Amélie; Cornec-Le Gall, Emilie; Salomon, Rémi; Ferec, Claude; Heidet, Laurence

    2016-03-01

    Prenatal forms of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are rare but can be recurrent in some families, suggesting a common genetic modifying background. Few patients have been reported carrying, in addition to the familial mutation, variation(s) in polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) or HNF1 homeobox B (HNF1B), inherited from the unaffected parent, or biallelic polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (PKHD1) mutations. To assess the frequency of additional variations in PKD1, PKD2, HNF1B, and PKHD1 associated with the familial PKD mutation in early ADPKD, these four genes were screened in 42 patients with early ADPKD in 41 families. Two patients were associated with de novo PKD1 mutations. Forty patients occurred in 39 families with known ADPKD and were associated with PKD1 mutation in 36 families and with PKD2 mutation in two families (no mutation identified in one family). Additional PKD variation(s) (inherited from the unaffected parent when tested) were identified in 15 of 42 patients (37.2%), whereas these variations were observed in 25 of 174 (14.4%, P=0.001) patients with adult ADPKD. No HNF1B variations or PKHD1 biallelic mutations were identified. These results suggest that, at least in some patients, the severity of the cystic disease is inversely correlated with the level of polycystin 1 function. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. Identification and functional analysis of CBLB mutations in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Norihide; Fujiwara, Yuuka; Wang, He-Yao; Kitao, Mai; Hayashi, Chihiro; Someya, Tomohiro; Kanamori, Masao; Oiso, Yutaka; Tajima, Naoko; Yamada, Yuichiro; Seino, Yutaka; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Seino, Susumu

    2008-03-28

    Casitas B-lineage lymphoma b (Cblb) is a negative regulator of T-cell activation and dysfunction of Cblb in rats and mice results in autoimmunity. In particular, a nonsense mutation in Cblb has been identified in a rat model of autoimmune type 1 diabetes. To clarify the possible involvement of CBLB mutation in type 1 diabetes in humans, we performed mutation screening of CBLB and characterized functional properties of the mutations in Japanese subjects. Six missense mutations (A155V, F328L, N466D, K837R, T882A, and R968L) were identified in one diabetic subject each, excepting N466D. Of these mutations, F328L showed impaired suppression of T-cell activation and was a loss-of-function mutation. These data suggest that the F328L mutation is involved in the development of autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes, and also provide insight into the structure-function relationship of CBLB protein.

  19. Mutational load distribution analysis (MLDA) in pancreatic cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Certain p16 mutation carriers showed mutation elevations in the specific Ki-ras and p53 alleles significantly higher than normal, similar to controls with pancreatitis. Two individuals from separate families started out with "low risk" readings subsequently converted to "high risk" categorization and remained there in each sequential exam.

  20. [Analysis of the parental origin of MECP2 mutations in patients with Rett syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-jing; Bao, Xin-hua; Cao, Guang-na; Jiang, Sheng-ling; Zhu, Xing-wang; Lu, Hong-mei; Jia, Li-fang; Pan, Hong; Wu, Xi-ru

    2010-04-01

    To identify the parental origin of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene mutations in Chinese patients with Rett syndrome. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in intron 3 of the MECP2 gene were analyzed by PCR and sequencing in 115 patients with Rett syndrome. Then sequencing of the SNP region was performed for the fathers of the patients who had at least one SNP, to determine which allele was from the father. Then allele-specific PCR was performed and the products were sequenced to see whether the allele from father or mother harbored the mutation. Seventy-six of the 115 patients had at least one SNP. Three hot SNPs were found in these patients. They were: IVS3+22C >G, IVS3+266C >T and IVS3+683C>T. Among the 76 cases, 73 had a paternal origin of MECP2 mutations, and the other 3 had a maternal origin. There were multiple types of MECP2 mutation of the paternal origin, including 4 frame shift, 2 deletion and 67 point (56C >T, 6C >G, 2A >G, 2G >T and 1A >T) mutations. The mutation types of the 3 patients with maternal origin included 2 frame shift and 1 point (C >T) mutation. In Chinese RTT patients, the MECP2 mutations are mostly of paternal origin.

  1. Computational Simulation and Analysis of Mutations: Nucleotide Fixation, Allelic Age and Rare Genetic Variations in Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Shuhao

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the complexity of mutations, a computational approach named Genome Evolution by Matrix Algorithms ("GEMA") has been implemented. GEMA models genomic changes, taking into account hundreds of mutations within each individual in a population. By modeling of entire human chromosomes, GEMA precisely mimics real…

  2. RNA-based analysis of two SMARCB1 mutations associated with familial schwannomatosis with meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Melean, German; Velasco, Ana; Hernández-Imaz, Elisabete; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Francisco Javier; Martín, Yolanda; Valero, Ana; Hernández-Chico, Concepción

    2012-08-01

    Germline mutations in the SMARCB1 gene cause familial schwannomatosis, a condition characterized by the presence of multiple schwannomas, although mutations in SMARCB1 have also been associated with rhadboid tumor predisposition syndrome 1 (RTPS1). Both schwannomatosis and RTPS1 are autosomal dominant conditions that predispose individuals to develop distinct types of tumors. We clinically and genetically characterized two families with schwannomatosis associated with SMARCB1 mutations. Eight affected members of these families developed different numbers of schwannomas and/or meningiomas at distinct ages, evidence that meningiomas are variably expressed in this condition. We identified two germline mutations in SMARCB1 associated with the familial disease, c.233-1G>A and the novel c.207_208dupTA mutation, which both proved to affect the main SMARCB1 isoforms at the RNA level distinctly. Interestingly, the c.207_208dupTA mutation had no effect on the coding sequence, pre-mRNA splicing or the level of expression of the SMARCB1 isoform 2. Furthermore, SMARCB1 isoforms harboring a premature termination codon were largely eliminated via the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. Our results highlight the importance of RNA-based studies to characterize SMARCB1 germline mutations in order to determine their impact on protein expression and gain further insight into the genetic basis of conditions associated with SMARCB1 mutations.

  3. Mutational analysis of AGXT in two Chinese families with primary hyperoxaluria type 1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is a rare autosomal recessive disease of glyoxylate metabolism caused by a defect in the liver-specific peroxisomal enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) that leads to hyperoxaluria, recurrent urolithiasis, and nephrocalcinosis. Methods Two unrelated patients with recurrent urolithiasis, along with members of their families, exhibited mutations in the AGXT gene by PCR direct sequencing. Results Two heterozygous mutations that predict truncated proteins, p.S81X and p.S275delinsRAfs, were identified in one patient. The p.S81X mutation is novel. Two heterozygous missense mutations, p.M1T and p.I202N, were detected in another patient but were not identified in her sibling. These four mutations were confirmed to be of paternal and maternal origin. Conclusions These are the first cases of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 to be diagnosed by clinical manifestations and AGXT gene mutations in mainland China. The novel p.S81X and p.I202N mutations detected in our study extend the spectrum of known AGXT gene mutations. PMID:24934730

  4. Mutational analysis of AGXT in two Chinese families with primary hyperoxaluria type 1.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-min; Xu, Hong; Shen, Qian; Gong, Yi-nv; Fang, Xiao-yan; Sun, Li; Liu, Hai-mei; An, Yu

    2014-06-17

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is a rare autosomal recessive disease of glyoxylate metabolism caused by a defect in the liver-specific peroxisomal enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) that leads to hyperoxaluria, recurrent urolithiasis, and nephrocalcinosis. Two unrelated patients with recurrent urolithiasis, along with members of their families, exhibited mutations in the AGXT gene by PCR direct sequencing. Two heterozygous mutations that predict truncated proteins, p.S81X and p.S275delinsRAfs, were identified in one patient. The p.S81X mutation is novel. Two heterozygous missense mutations, p.M1T and p.I202N, were detected in another patient but were not identified in her sibling. These four mutations were confirmed to be of paternal and maternal origin. These are the first cases of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 to be diagnosed by clinical manifestations and AGXT gene mutations in mainland China. The novel p.S81X and p.I202N mutations detected in our study extend the spectrum of known AGXT gene mutations.

  5. Simultaneous Profiling of DNA Mutation and Methylation by Melting Analysis Using Magnetoresistive Biosensor Array.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Lee, Jung-Rok; Dahl, Christina; Guldberg, Per; Dufva, Martin; Wang, Shan X; Hansen, Mikkel F

    2017-09-26

    Epigenetic modifications, in particular DNA methylation, are gaining increasing interest as complementary information to DNA mutations for cancer diagnostics and prognostics. We introduce a method to simultaneously profile DNA mutation and methylation events for an array of sites with single site specificity. Genomic (mutation) or bisulphite-treated (methylation) DNA is amplified using nondiscriminatory primers, and the amplicons are then hybridized to a giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensor array followed by melting curve measurements. The GMR biosensor platform offers scalable multiplexed detection of DNA hybridization, which is insensitive to temperature variation. The melting curve approach further enhances the assay specificity and tolerance to variations in probe length. We demonstrate the utility of this method by simultaneously profiling five mutation and four methylation sites in human melanoma cell lines. The method correctly identified all mutation and methylation events and further provided quantitative assessment of methylation density validated by bisulphite pyrosequencing.

  6. Mutation analysis of GM1 gangliosidosis in a Siamese cat from Japan in the 1960s.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Mohammad M; Tanimoto, Takeshi; Yabuki, Akira; Kotani, Takao; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Chang, Hye-Sook; Yamato, Osamu

    2012-12-01

    GM1 gangliosidosis is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations of the β-galactosidase (GLB1) gene. In feline GM1 gangliosidosis, a pathogenic mutation (c.1448G>C) of the feline GLB1 gene was identified in Siamese and Korat cats previously diagnosed with the disease in the USA and Italy, respectively. The present study demonstrated the same mutation in a Siamese cat that had been diagnosed with GM1 gangliosidosis in Japan in the 1960s. The mutation was confirmed using DNA extracted from stored paraffin-embedded brain tissue by a direct sequencing method and a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. This pathogenic mutation seems to have been distributed around the world.

  7. Liquid Biopsy Analysis of FGFR3 and PIK3CA Hotspot Mutations for Disease Surveillance in Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Emil; Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Nordentoft, Iver; Høyer, Søren; van der Keur, Kirstin; van Kessel, Kim; Zwarthoff, Ellen; Agerbæk, Mads; Ørntoft, Torben Falck; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard; Dyrskjøt, Lars

    2017-06-01

    Disease surveillance in patients with bladder cancer is important for early diagnosis of progression and metastasis and for optimised treatment. To develop urine and plasma assays for disease surveillance for patients with FGFR3 and PIK3CA tumour mutations. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) assays were developed and tumour DNA from two patient cohorts was screened for FGFR3 and PIK3CA hotspot mutations. One cohort included 363 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). The other cohort included 468 patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy (Cx). Urine supernatants (NMIBC n=216, Cx n=27) and plasma samples (NMIBC n=39, Cx n=27) from patients harbouring mutations were subsequently screened using ddPCR assays. Progression-free survival, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival were measured. Fisher's exact test, the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Cox regression analysis were applied. In total, 36% of the NMIBC patients (129/363) and 11% of the Cx patients (44/403) harboured at least one FGFR3 or PIK3CA mutation. Screening of DNA from serial urine supernatants from the NMIBC cohort revealed that high levels of tumour DNA (tDNA) were associated with later disease progression in NMIBC (p=0.003). Furthermore, high levels of tDNA in plasma samples were associated with recurrence in the Cx cohort (p=0.016). A positive correlation between tDNA levels in urine and plasma was observed (correlation coefficient 0.6). The retrospective study design and low volumes of plasma available for analysis were limitations of the study. Increased levels of FGFR3 and PIK3CA mutated DNA in urine and plasma are indicative of later progression and metastasis in bladder cancer. Urine and plasma from patients with bladder cancer may be monitored for diagnosis of progression and metastasis using mutation assays. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of ESR1 and PIK3CA mutations in plasma cell-free DNA from ER-positive breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Takashi; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Yamamoto-Ibusuki, Mutsuko; Tomiguchi, Mai; Sueta, Aiko; Murakami, Keiichi; Omoto, Yoko; Iwase, Hirotaka

    2017-08-08

    The measurement of ESR1 and PIK3CA mutations in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been studied as a non-invasive method to quickly assess and monitor endocrine therapy (ET) resistant metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients. The subjects of this retrospective study were a total of 185 plasma samples from 86 estrogen receptor-positive BC patients, of which 151 plasma samples were from 69 MBC patients and 34 plasma samples were from 17 primary BC (PBC) patients. We developed multiplex droplet digital PCR assays to verify the clinical significance of ESR1 and PIK3CA mutations both in a snapshot and serially in these patients. cfDNA ESR1 and PIK3CA mutations were found in 28.9% and 24.6 % of MBC patients, respectively. The relation between ESR1 or PIK3CA mutations and clinical features showed that ESR1 mutations occurred mostly in patients previously treated by ET, which was not the case for PIK3CA mutations. The analysis of the clinical impact of those mutations on subsequent lines of treatment for the 69 MBC patients revealed that both ESR1 and PIK3CA mutations detection were related to a shorter duration of ET effectiveness in univariate analysis but only for ESR1 mutations in multivariate analysis. The monitoring of cfDNA in a subset of 52 patients showed that loss of ESR1 mutations was related to a longer duration of response, which was not the case for PIK3CA mutations. We have demonstrated the clinical significance of on-treatment ESR1 mutations both in a snapshot and serially in comparison with PIK3CA mutations.

  9. Analysis of ESR1 and PIK3CA mutations in plasma cell-free DNA from ER-positive breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Takashi; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Yamamoto-Ibusuki, Mutsuko; Tomiguchi, Mai; Sueta, Aiko; Murakami, Keiichi; Omoto, Yoko; Iwase, Hirotaka

    2017-01-01

    Background The measurement of ESR1 and PIK3CA mutations in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been studied as a non-invasive method to quickly assess and monitor endocrine therapy (ET) resistant metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients. Methods The subjects of this retrospective study were a total of 185 plasma samples from 86 estrogen receptor-positive BC patients, of which 151 plasma samples were from 69 MBC patients and 34 plasma samples were from 17 primary BC (PBC) patients. We developed multiplex droplet digital PCR assays to verify the clinical significance of ESR1 and PIK3CA mutations both in a snapshot and serially in these patients. Results cfDNA ESR1 and PIK3CA mutations were found in 28.9% and 24.6 % of MBC patients, respectively. The relation between ESR1 or PIK3CA mutations and clinical features showed that ESR1 mutations occurred mostly in patients previously treated by ET, which was not the case for PIK3CA mutations. The analysis of the clinical impact of those mutations on subsequent lines of treatment for the 69 MBC patients revealed that both ESR1 and PIK3CA mutations detection were related to a shorter duration of ET effectiveness in univariate analysis but only for ESR1 mutations in multivariate analysis. The monitoring of cfDNA in a subset of 52 patients showed that loss of ESR1 mutations was related to a longer duration of response, which was not the case for PIK3CA mutations. Conclusions We have demonstrated the clinical significance of on-treatment ESR1 mutations both in a snapshot and serially in comparison with PIK3CA mutations. PMID:28881720

  10. Integrated sequence analysis pipeline provides one-stop solution for identifying disease-causing mutations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hao; Wienker, Thomas F; Musante, Luciana; Kalscheuer, Vera M; Kahrizi, Kimia; Najmabadi, Hossein; Ropers, H Hilger

    2014-12-01

    Next-generation sequencing has greatly accelerated the search for disease-causing defects, but even for experts the data analysis can be a major challenge. To facilitate the data processing in a clinical setting, we have developed a novel medical resequencing analysis pipeline (MERAP). MERAP assesses the quality of sequencing, and has optimized capacity for calling variants, including single-nucleotide variants, insertions and deletions, copy-number variation, and other structural variants. MERAP identifies polymorphic and known causal variants by filtering against public domain databases, and flags nonsynonymous and splice-site changes. MERAP uses a logistic model to estimate the causal likelihood of a given missense variant. MERAP considers the relevant information such as phenotype and interaction with known disease-causing genes. MERAP compares favorably with GATK, one of the widely used tools, because of its higher sensitivity for detecting indels, its easy installation, and its economical use of computational resources. Upon testing more than 1,200 individuals with mutations in known and novel disease genes, MERAP proved highly reliable, as illustrated here for five families with disease-causing variants. We believe that the clinical implementation of MERAP will expedite the diagnostic process of many disease-causing defects. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  11. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis for Kentucky Bluegrass Dwarf Mutants Induced by Space Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lu; Di, Rong; Chao, Yuehui; Han, Liebao; Chen, Xingwu; Wu, Chao; Yin, Shuxia

    2016-01-01

    Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) is a major cool-season turfgrass requiring frequent mowing. Utilization of cultivars with slow growth is a promising method to decrease mowing frequency. In this study, two dwarf mutant selections of Kentucky bluegrass (A12 and A16) induced by space mutation were analyzed for the differentially expressed genes compared with the wild type (WT) by the high-throughput RNA-Seq technology. 253,909 unigenes were obtained by de novo assembly. 24.20% of the unigenes had a significant level of amino acid sequence identity to Brachypodium distachyon proteins, followed by Hordeum vulgare with 18.72% among the non-redundant (NR) Blastx top hits. Assembled unigenes were associated with 32 pathways using KEGG orthology terms and their respective KEGG maps. Between WT and A16 libraries, 4,203 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, whereas there were 883 DEGs between WT and A12 libraries. Further investigation revealed that the DEG pathways were mainly involved in terpenoid biosynthesis and plant hormone metabolism, which might account for the differences of plant height and leaf blade color between dwarf mutant and WT plants. Our study presents the first comprehensive transcriptomic data and gene function analysis of Poa pratensis L., providing a valuable resource for future studies in plant dwarfing breeding and comparative genome analysis for Pooideae plants. PMID:27010560

  12. Mutational Analysis of Agxt in Tunisian Population with Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1.

    PubMed

    M'dimegh, Saoussen; Omezzine, Asma; M'barek, Ibtihel; Moussa, Amira; Mabrouk, Sameh; Kaarout, Hayet; Souche, Geneviéve; Chemli, Jalel; Aloui, Sabra; Aquaviva-Bourdain, Cécile; Achour, Abdellatif; Abroug, Saoussen; Bouslama, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by inherited mutations in the AGXT gene encoding liver peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT). PH1 is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. The aim of our study was to analyze and characterize the mutational spectrum of PH1 in Tunisian patients. Molecular studies of 146 Tunisian patients suspected with PH were performed by PCR/Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to detect seven mutations described as the most common. Direct sequencing for the 11 exons was performed in patients in whom any mutation was not identified. The genetic diagnosis of PH1 was confirmed in 62.3% of patients. The first molecular approach based on PCR/restriction enzyme test was positive in 37.6% of patients, whereas the second molecular approach based on whole gene sequencing was successful in 24% of cases. Twelve pathogenic mutations were detected in our cohort. Two mutations were novel, and five were detected for the first time in Tunisians. The three most frequent mutations were p.Ile244Thr, p.Gly190Arg, and c.33dupC, with a frequency of 43.4%, 21.4%, and 13.1%, respectively. The two novel mutations detected in our study extend the spectrum of known AGXT gene mutations. The screen for the mutations identified in this study can provide a useful, cost-effective, and first-line investigation in Tunisian PH1 patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  13. Evolutionary Analysis Predicts Sensitive Positions of MMP20 and Validates Newly- and Previously-Identified MMP20 Mutations Causing Amelogenesis Imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Gasse, Barbara; Prasad, Megana; Delgado, Sidney; Huckert, Mathilde; Kawczynski, Marzena; Garret-Bernardin, Annelyse; Lopez-Cazaux, Serena; Bailleul-Forestier, Isabelle; Manière, Marie-Cécile; Stoetzel, Corinne; Bloch-Zupan, Agnès; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) designates a group of genetic diseases characterized by a large range of enamel disorders causing important social and health problems. These defects can result from mutations in enamel matrix proteins or protease encoding genes. A range of mutations in the enamel cleavage enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-20 gene ( MMP20 ) produce enamel defects of varying severity. To address how various alterations produce a range of AI phenotypes, we performed a targeted analysis to find MMP20 mutations in French patients diagnosed with non-syndromic AI. Genomic DNA was isolated from saliva and MMP20 exons and exon-intron boundaries sequenced. We identified several homozygous or heterozygous mutations, putatively involved in the AI phenotypes. To validate missense mutations and predict sensitive positions in the MMP20 sequence, we evolutionarily compared 75 sequences extracted from the public databases using the Datamonkey webserver. These sequences were representative of mammalian lineages, covering more than 150 million years of evolution. This analysis allowed us to find 324 sensitive positions (out of the 483 MMP20 residues), pinpoint functionally important domains, and build an evolutionary chart of important conserved MMP20 regions. This is an efficient tool to identify new- and previously-identified mutations. We thus identified six functional MMP20 mutations in unrelated families, finding two novel mutated sites. The genotypes and phenotypes of these six mutations are described and compared. To date, 13 MMP20 mutations causing AI have been reported, making these genotypes and associated hypomature enamel phenotypes the most frequent in AI.

  14. Precise Detection of IDH1/2 and BRAF Hotspot Mutations in Clinical Glioma Tissues by a Differential Calculus Analysis of High-Resolution Melting Data

    PubMed Central

    Hatae, Ryusuke; Yoshimoto, Koji; Kuga, Daisuke; Akagi, Yojiro; Murata, Hideki; Suzuki, Satoshi O.; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Iihara, Koji

    2016-01-01

    High resolution melting (HRM) is a simple and rapid method for screening mutations. It offers various advantages for clinical diagnostic applications. Conventional HRM analysis often yields equivocal results, especially for surgically obtained tissues. We attempted to improve HRM analyses for more effective applications to clinical diagnostics. HRM analyses were performed for IDH1R132 and IDH2R172 mutations in 192 clinical glioma samples in duplicate and these results were compared with sequencing results. BRAFV600E mutations were analyzed in 52 additional brain tumor samples. The melting profiles were used for differential calculus analyses. Negative second derivative plots revealed additional peaks derived from heteroduplexes in PCR products that contained mutations; this enabled unequivocal visual discrimination of the mutations. We further developed a numerical expression, the HRM-mutation index (MI), to quantify the heteroduplex-derived peak of the mutational curves. Using this expression, all IDH1 mutation statuses matched those ascertained by sequencing, with the exception of three samples. These discordant results were all derived from the misinterpretation of sequencing data. The effectiveness of our approach was further validated by analyses of IDH2R172 and BRAFV600E mutations. The present analytical method enabled an unequivocal and objective HRM analysis and is suitable for reliable mutation scanning in surgically obtained glioma tissues. This approach could facilitate molecular diagnostics in clinical environments. PMID:27529619

  15. Applications of next-generation sequencing analysis for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma-associated hepatitis B virus mutations.

    PubMed

    Wu, I-Chin; Liu, Wen-Chun; Chang, Ting-Tsung

    2018-06-02

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful and high-throughput method for the detection of viral mutations. This article provides a brief overview about optimization of NGS analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-associated hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutations, and hepatocarcinogenesis of relevant mutations. For the application of NGS analysis in the genome of HBV, four noteworthy steps were discovered in testing. First, a sample-specific reference sequence was the most effective mapping reference for NGS. Second, elongating the end of reference sequence improved mapping performance at the end of the genome. Third, resetting the origin of mapping reference sequence could probed deletion mutations and variants at a certain location with common mutations. Fourth, using a platform-specific cut-off value to distinguish authentic minority variants from technical artifacts was found to be highly effective. One hundred and sixty-seven HBV single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were found to be studied previously through a systematic literature review, and 12 SNVs were determined to be associated with HCC by meta-analysis. From comprehensive research using a HBV genome-wide NGS analysis, 60 NGS-defined HCC-associated SNVs with their pathogenic frequencies were identified, with 19 reported previously. All the 12 HCC-associated SNVs proved by meta-analysis were confirmed by NGS analysis, except for C1766T and T1768A which were mainly expressed in genotypes A and D, but including the subgroup analysis of A1762T. In the 41 novel NGS-defined HCC-associated SNVs, 31.7% (13/41) had cut-off values of SNV frequency lower than 20%. This showed that NGS could be used to detect HCC-associated SNVs with low SNV frequency. Most SNV II (the minor strains in the majority of non-HCC patients) had either low (< 20%) or high (> 80%) SNV frequencies in HCC patients, a characteristic U-shaped distribution pattern. The cut-off values of SNV frequency for HCC-associated SNVs represent their

  16. Molecular analysis of beta-globin gene mutations among Thai beta-thalassemia children: results from a single center study

    PubMed Central

    Boonyawat, Boonchai; Monsereenusorn, Chalinee; Traivaree, Chanchai

    2014-01-01

    Background Beta-thalassemia is one of the most common genetic disorders in Thailand. Clinical phenotype ranges from silent carrier to clinically manifested conditions including severe beta-thalassemia major and mild beta-thalassemia intermedia. Objective This study aimed to characterize the spectrum of beta-globin gene mutations in pediatric patients who were followed-up in Phramongkutklao Hospital. Patients and methods Eighty unrelated beta-thalassemia patients were enrolled in this study including 57 with beta-thalassemia/hemoglobin E, eight with homozygous beta-thalassemia, and 15 with heterozygous beta-thalassemia. Mutation analysis was performed by multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (M-ARMS), direct DNA sequencing of beta-globin gene, and gap polymerase chain reaction for 3.4 kb deletion detection, respectively. Results A total of 13 different beta-thalassemia mutations were identified among 88 alleles. The most common mutation was codon 41/42 (-TCTT) (37.5%), followed by codon 17 (A>T) (26.1%), IVS-I-5 (G>C) (8%), IVS-II-654 (C>T) (6.8%), IVS-I-1 (G>T) (4.5%), and codon 71/72 (+A) (2.3%), and all these six common mutations (85.2%) were detected by M-ARMS. Six uncommon mutations (10.2%) were identified by DNA sequencing including 4.5% for codon 35 (C>A) and 1.1% initiation codon mutation (ATG>AGG), codon 15 (G>A), codon 19 (A>G), codon 27/28 (+C), and codon 123/124/125 (-ACCCCACC), respectively. The 3.4 kb deletion was detected at 4.5%. The most common genotype of beta-thalassemia major patients was codon 41/42 (-TCTT)/codon 26 (G>A) or betaE accounting for 40%. Conclusion All of the beta-thalassemia alleles have been characterized by a combination of techniques including M-ARMS, DNA sequencing, and gap polymerase chain reaction for 3.4 kb deletion detection. Thirteen mutations account for 100% of the beta-thalassemia genes among the pediatric patients in our study. PMID:25525381

  17. An analysis of the prognostic value of IDH1 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 1) mutation in Polish glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Marzena Anna; Furtak, Jacek; Szylberg, Tadeusz; Roszkowski, Krzysztof; Windorbska, Wiesława; Rytlewska, Joanna; Jóźwicki, Wojciech

    2014-02-01

    IDH1 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 1) is a potential biomarker and drug target. Genomic and epigenetic data on astrocytoma have demonstrated that the IDH1 mutation is sufficient to establish the glioma hypermethylator phenotype. Furthermore, recent studies have also indicated that a mutant IDH1 inhibitor induced demethylation of histone H3K9me3 and expression of genes associated with gliogenic differentiation. As the presence of the p.R132H mutation in the IDH1 gene seems to be a more powerful prognostic marker than O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter status, we evaluated the presence of IDH1 mutation in Polish patients with astrocytoma, glioblastoma, oligoastrocytoma, ganglioglioma, oligodendroglioma, and ependymoma. The IDH1 mutation status at codon 132 was determined using a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for the R132H mutation, direct sequencing, and Co-amplification at Lower Denaturation Temperature (COLD) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) high-resolution melting-curve analysis (HRM). Wild-type (WT) IDH1 was detected in cases with a World Health Organization (WHO) grade I astrocytoma. The IDH1 c.G395A; p.R132H mutation was observed in 56 and 94 % of grade II and grade III astrocytoma cases, respectively. Significant differences in the median overall survival were observed in astrocytoma patients grouped on the basis of the presence of IDH1 mutation: survival was 24 months longer in grade II astrocytoma and 12 months longer in glioblastoma. Overall survival was compared between grade II astrocytoma patients with low or high expression of the mutant protein. Interestingly, lower R132H expression correlated with better overall survival. Our results indicate the usefulness of assessing the R132H IDH1 mutation in glioma patients: the presence or absence of the R132H mutation can help pathologists to distinguish pilocytic astrocytomas (IDH1 WT) from diffuse ones (R132H IDH1/WT). Moreover, low IDH1 p.R132H expression was related to better prognosis

  18. Clinical and mutation-type analysis from an international series of 198 probands with a pathogenic FBN1 exons 24–32 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Faivre, L; Collod-Beroud, G; Callewaert, B; Child, A; Binquet, C; Gautier, E; Loeys, B L; Arbustini, E; Mayer, K; Arslan-Kirchner, M; Stheneur, C; Kiotsekoglou, A; Comeglio, P; Marziliano, N; Wolf, J E; Bouchot, O; Khau-Van-Kien, P; Beroud, C; Claustres, M; Bonithon-Kopp, C; Robinson, P N; Adès, L; De Backer, J; Coucke, P; Francke, U; De Paepe, A; Jondeau, G; Boileau, C

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in the FBN1 gene cause Marfan syndrome (MFS) and a wide range of overlapping phenotypes. The severe end of the spectrum is represented by neonatal MFS, the vast majority of probands carrying a mutation within exons 24–32. We previously showed that a mutation in exons 24–32 is predictive of a severe cardiovascular phenotype even in non-neonatal cases, and that mutations leading to premature truncation codons are under-represented in this region. To describe patients carrying a mutation in this so-called ‘neonatal' region, we studied the clinical and molecular characteristics of 198 probands with a mutation in exons 24–32 from a series of 1013 probands with a FBN1 mutation (20%). When comparing patients with mutations leading to a premature termination codon (PTC) within exons 24–32 to patients with an in-frame mutation within the same region, a significantly higher probability of developing ectopia lentis and mitral insufficiency were found in the second group. Patients with a PTC within exons 24–32 rarely displayed a neonatal or severe MFS presentation. We also found a higher probability of neonatal presentations associated with exon 25 mutations, as well as a higher probability of cardiovascular manifestations. A high phenotypic heterogeneity could be described for recurrent mutations, ranging from neonatal to classical MFS phenotype. In conclusion, even if the exons 24–32 location appears as a major cause of the severity of the phenotype in patients with a mutation in this region, other factors such as the type of mutation or modifier genes might also be relevant. PMID:19002209

  19. Plasma circulating tumor DNA as an alternative to metastatic biopsies for mutational analysis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rothé, F; Laes, J-F; Lambrechts, D; Smeets, D; Vincent, D; Maetens, M; Fumagalli, D; Michiels, S; Drisis, S; Moerman, C; Detiffe, J-P; Larsimont, D; Awada, A; Piccart, M; Sotiriou, C; Ignatiadis, M

    2014-10-01

    Molecular screening programs use next-generation sequencing (NGS) of cancer gene panels to analyze metastatic biopsies. We interrogated whether plasma could be used as an alternative to metastatic biopsies. The Ion AmpliSeq™ Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 (Ion Torrent), covering 2800 COSMIC mutations from 50 cancer genes was used to analyze 69 tumor (primary/metastases) and 31 plasma samples from 17 metastatic breast cancer patients. The targeted coverage for tumor DNA was ×1000 and for plasma cell-free DNA ×25 000. Whole blood normal DNA was used to exclude germline variants. The Illumina technology was used to confirm observed mutations. Evaluable NGS results were obtained for 60 tumor and 31 plasma samples from 17 patients. When tumor samples were analyzed, 12 of 17 (71%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 44% to 90%) patients had ≥1 mutation (median 1 mutation per patient, range 0-2 mutations) in either p53, PIK3CA, PTEN, AKT1 or IDH2 gene. When plasma samples were analyzed, 12 of 17 (71%, 95% CI: 44-90%) patients had ≥1 mutation (median 1 mutation per patient, range 0-2 mutations) in either p53, PIK3CA, PTEN, AKT1, IDH2 and SMAD4. All mutations were confirmed. When we focused on tumor and plasma samples collected at the same time-point, we observed that, in four patients, no mutation was identified in either tumor or plasma; in nine patients, the same mutations was identified in tumor and plasma; in two patients, a mutation was identified in tumor but not in plasma; in two patients, a mutation was identified in plasma but not in tumor. Thus, in 13 of 17 (76%, 95% CI 50% to 93%) patients, tumor and plasma provided concordant results whereas in 4 of 17 (24%, 95% CI 7% to 50%) patients, the results were discordant, providing complementary information. Plasma can be prospectively tested as an alternative to metastatic biopsies in molecular screening programs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology

  20. Segregation analysis of Alzheimer pedigrees: Rare Mendelian dominant mutation(s) explain a minority of early-onset cases

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.; Campion, D.; Babron, M.C.

    1996-02-16

    Segregation analysis of Alzheimer disease (AD) in 92 families ascertained through early-onset ({le}age 60 years) AD (EOAD) probands has been carried out, allowing for a mixture in AD inheritance among probands. The goal was to quantify the proportion of probands that could be explained by autosomal inheritance of a rare disease allele {open_quotes}a{close_quotes} at a Mendelian dominant gene (MDG). Our data provide strong evidence for a mixture of two distributions; AD transmission is fully explained by MDG inheritance in <20% of probands. Male and female age-of-onset distributions are significantly different for {open_quotes}AA{close_quote} but not for {open_quotes}aA{close_quote} subjects. For {open_quotes}aA{close_quote} subjectsmore » the estimated penetrance value was close to 1 by age 60. For {open_quotes}AA{close_quotes} subjects, it reaches, by age 90, 10% (males) and 30% (females). We show a clear cutoff in the posterior probability of being an MDG case. 10 refs., 1 tab.« less

  1. KRAS mutation analysis of washing fluid from endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration improves cytologic diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Joo Kyung; Lee, Yoon Jung; Lee, Jong Kyun; Lee, Kyu Taek; Choi, Yoon-La; Lee, Kwang Hyuck

    2017-01-10

    EUS-FNA becomes one of the most important diagnostic modalities for PDACs. However, acquired tissue specimens were sometimes insufficient to make a definite cytological diagnosis. On the other hand, KRAS mutation is the most frequently acquired genetic alteration found more than 90% of PDACs. To investigate the way to improve diagnostic accuracy for PDACs using both cytological examination and KRAS mutation analysis would be a great help. Therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate usefulness of conventional cytological examination combined with KRAS mutation analysis with modified PCR technology to improve the sensitivity and the accuracy. We enrolled 43 patients with solid pancreatic masses and 86 EUS-FNA specimens were obtained. During the EUS-FNA, the needle catheter was flushed with 2 cc of saline and the washed fluid was collected for KRAS mutation analysis for the first 2 passes; PNAClamp™ KRAS Mutation Detection Kit. There were 46 specimens from the 23 PDACs and 40 specimens from the 20 other pancreatic diseases. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were as follows; conventional cytopathologic examination: 63%, 100% and 80%; combination of cytopathologic examination and K-ras mutation analysis: 87%, 100% and 93%. Furthermore, KRAS mutation was detected 11 out of 17 PDAC samples whose cytopathology results were inconclusive. KRAS mutation analysis with PNAClamp™ technique using washing fluid from EUS-FNA along with cytological examination may not only improve the diagnostic accuracy of PDACs, but also establish the platform using genetic analysis which would be helpful as diagnostic modality for PDACs.

  2. Clinical characteristics and mutation analysis of five Chinese patients with maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomei; Yang, Yali; Gao, Qing; Gao, Min; Lv, Yvqiang; Dong, Rui; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Kaihui; Gai, Zhongtao

    2018-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) metabolism and caused by a defect in the thiamine-dependent enzyme branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) with subsequent accumulation of BCAAs and corresponding branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) metabolites. Presently, at least 4 genes of BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DLD and DBT have been reported to cause MSUD. Furthermore, more than 265 mutations have been identified as the cause across different populations worldwide. Some studies have reported the data of gene mutations in Chinese people with MSUD. In this study, we present clinical characteristics and mutational analyses in five Chinese Han child with MSUD, which had been screened out by tandem mass spectrometry detection of amino acids in blood samples. High-throughput sequencing, Sanger sequence and real-time qualitative PCR were performed to detect and verify the genetic mutations. Six different novel genetic variants were validated in BCKDHB gene and BCKDHA gene, including c.523 T > C, c.659delA, c.550delT, c.863G > A and two gross deletions. Interestingly, 3 cases had identical mutation of BCKDHB gene (c.659delA). We predicted the pathogenicity and analyzed the clinical characteristics. The identification of these mutations in this study further expands the mutation spectrum of MSUD and contributes to prenatal molecular diagnosis of MSUD.

  3. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase: Update and Analysis of New Mutations around the World

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; Ortega-Cuellar, Daniel; González-Valdez, Abigail; Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa Angélica; Hernández-Ochoa, Beatriz; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key regulatory enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway which produces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to maintain an adequate reducing environment in the cells and is especially important in red blood cells (RBC). Given its central role in the regulation of redox state, it is understandable that mutations in the gene encoding G6PD can cause deficiency of the protein activity leading to clinical manifestations such as neonatal jaundice and acute hemolytic anemia. Recently, an extensive review has been published about variants in the g6pd gene; recognizing 186 mutations. In this work, we review the state of the art in G6PD deficiency, describing 217 mutations in the g6pd gene; we also compile information about 31 new mutations, 16 that were not recognized and 15 more that have recently been reported. In order to get a better picture of the effects of new described mutations in g6pd gene, we locate the point mutations in the solved three-dimensional structure of the human G6PD protein. We found that class I mutations have the most deleterious effects on the structure and stability of the protein. PMID:27941691

  4. Identification and functional analysis of SOX10 missense mutations in different subtypes of Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chaoui, Asma; Watanabe, Yuli; Touraine, Renaud; Baral, Viviane; Goossens, Michel; Pingault, Veronique; Bondurand, Nadege

    2011-12-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare disorder characterized by pigmentation defects and sensorineural deafness, classified into four clinical subtypes, WS1-S4. Whereas the absence of additional features characterizes WS2, association with Hirschsprung disease defines WS4. WS is genetically heterogeneous, with six genes already identified, including SOX10. About 50 heterozygous SOX10 mutations have been described in patients presenting with WS2 or WS4, with or without myelination defects of the peripheral and central nervous system (PCWH, Peripheral demyelinating neuropathy-Central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy-Waardenburg syndrome-Hirschsprung disease, or PCW, PCWH without HD). The majority are truncating mutations that most often remove the main functional domains of the protein. Only three missense mutations have been thus far reported. In the present study, novel SOX10 missense mutations were found in 11 patients and were examined for effects on SOX10 characteristics and functions. The mutations were associated with various phenotypes, ranging from WS2 to PCWH. All tested mutations were found to be deleterious. Some mutants presented with partial cytoplasmic redistribution, some lost their DNA-binding and/or transactivation capabilities on various tissue-specific target genes. Intriguingly, several mutants were redistributed in nuclear foci. Whether this phenomenon is a cause or a consequence of mutation-associated pathogenicity remains to be determined, but this observation could help to identify new SOX10 modes of action. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Primary hyperoxaluria type 1: update and additional mutation analysis of the AGXT gene.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emma L; Acquaviva, Cecile; Amoroso, Antonio; Chevalier, Francoise; Coulter-Mackie, Marion; Monico, Carla G; Giachino, Daniela; Owen, Tricia; Robbiano, Angela; Salido, Eduardo; Waterham, Hans; Rumsby, Gill

    2009-06-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an autosomal recessive, inherited disorder of glyoxylate metabolism arising from a deficiency of the alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) enzyme, encoded by the AGXT gene. The disease is manifested by excessive endogenous oxalate production, which leads to impaired renal function and associated morbidity. At least 146 mutations have now been described, 50 of which are newly reported here. The mutations, which occur along the length of the AGXT gene, are predominantly single-nucleotide substitutions (75%), 73 are missense, 19 nonsense, and 18 splice mutations; but 36 major and minor deletions and insertions are also included. There is little association of mutation with ethnicity, the most obvious exception being the p.Ile244Thr mutation, which appears to have North African/Spanish origins. A common, polymorphic variant encoding leucine at codon 11, the so-called minor allele, has significantly lower catalytic activity in vitro, and has a higher frequency in PH1 compared to the rest of the population. This polymorphism influences enzyme targeting in the presence of the most common Gly170Arg mutation and potentiates the effect of several other pathological sequence variants. This review discusses the spectrum of AGXT mutations and polymorphisms, their clinical significance, and their diagnostic relevance.

  6. Design and Structure-Guided Development of Novel Inhibitors of the Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A (XPA) Protein-DNA Interaction.

    PubMed

    Gavande, Navnath S; VanderVere-Carozza, Pamela; Mishra, Akaash K; Vernon, Tyler L; Pawelczak, Katherine S; Turchi, John J

    2017-10-12

    XPA is a unique and essential protein required for the nucleotide excision DNA repair pathway and represents a therapeutic target in oncology. Herein, we are the first to develop novel inhibitors of the XPA-DNA interaction through structure-guided drug design efforts. Ester derivatives of the compounds 1 (X80), 22, and 24 displayed excellent inhibitory activity (IC 50 of 0.82 ± 0.18 μM and 1.3 ± 0.22 μM, respectively) but poor solubility. We have synthesized novel amide derivatives that retain potency and have much improved solubility. Furthermore, compound 1 analogs exhibited good specificity for XPA over RPA (replication protein A), another DNA-binding protein that participates in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Importantly, there were no significant interactions observed by the X80 class of compounds directly with DNA. Molecular docking studies revealed a mechanistic model for the interaction, and these studies could serve as the basis for continued analysis of structure-activity relationships and drug development efforts of this novel target.

  7. p53 in pure epithelioid PEComa: an immunohistochemistry study and gene mutation analysis.

    PubMed

    Bing, Zhanyong; Yao, Yuan; Pasha, Theresa; Tomaszewski, John E; Zhang, Paul J

    2012-04-01

    Pure epithelioid PEComa (PEP; so-called epithelioid angiomyolipoma) is rare and is more often associated with aggressive behaviors. The pathogenesis of PEP has been poorly understood. The authors studied p53 expression and gene mutation in PEPs by immunohistochemistry, single-strand conformation polymorphism, and direct sequencing in paraffin material from 8 PEPs. A group of classic angiomyolipomas (AMLs) were also analyzed for comparison. Five PEPs were from kidneys and 1 each from the heart, the liver, and the uterus. PEPs showed much stronger p53 nuclear staining (Allred score 6.4 ± 2.5) than the classic AML (2.3 ± 2.9) (P < .01). There was no p53 single-strand conformation polymorphism identified in either the PEPs or the 8 classic AMLs. p53 mutation analyses by direct sequencing of exons 5 to 9 showed 4 mutations in 3 of 8 PEPs but none in any of the 8 classic AMLs. The mutations included 2 missense mutations in a hepatic PEComa and 2 silent mutations in 2 renal PEPs. Both the missense mutations in the hepatic PEComa involved the exon 5, one involving codon 165, with change from CAG to CAC (coding amino acid changed from glutamine to histidine), and the other involving codon 182, with change from TGC to TAC (coding amino acid changed from cysteine to tyrosine). The finding of stronger p53 expression and mutations in epithelioid angiomyolipomas might have contributed to their less predictable behavior. However, the abnormal p53 expression cannot be entirely explained by p53 mutations in the exons examined in the PEPs.

  8. Analysis of GPR101 and AIP genes mutations in acromegaly: a multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Ferraù, Francesco; Romeo, P D; Puglisi, S; Ragonese, M; Torre, M L; Scaroni, C; Occhi, G; De Menis, E; Arnaldi, G; Trimarchi, F; Cannavò, S

    2016-12-01

    This multicentric study aimed to investigate the prevalence of the G protein-coupled receptor 101 (GPR101) p.E308D variant and aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene mutations in a representative cohort of Italian patients with acromegaly. 215 patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenomas, referred to 4 Italian referral centres for pituitary diseases, have been included. Three cases of gigantism were present. Five cases were classified as FIPA. All the patients have been screened for germline AIP gene mutations and GPR101 gene p.E308D variant. Heterozygous AIP gene variants have been found in 7 patients (3.2 %). Five patients carried an AIP mutation (2.3 %; 4 females): 3 patients harboured the p.R3O4Q mutation, one had the p.R304* mutation and the last one the IVS3+1G>A mutation. The prevalence of AIP mutations was 3.3 % and 2.8 % when considering only the patients diagnosed when they were <30 or <40-year old, respectively. Furthermore, 2.0 % of the patients with a pituitary macroadenoma and 4.2 % of patients resistant to somatostatin analogues treatment were found to harbour an AIP gene mutation. None of the patients was found to carry the GPR101 p.E308D variant. The prevalence of AIP gene mutations among our sporadic and familial acromegaly cases was similar to that one reported in previous studies, but lower when considering only the cases diagnosed before 40 years of age. The GPR101 p.E308D change is unlikely to have a role in somatotroph adenomas tumorigenesis, since none of our sporadic or familial patients tested positive for this variant.

  9. Mutational analysis of a patient with mucopolysaccharidosis type VII, and identification of pseudogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, J.M.; Klinkenberg, M.; Wu, B.M.

    1993-03-01

    PCR of cDNA produced from patient fibroblasts allowed the authors to determine the paternal mutation in the first patient reported with [beta]-glucuronidase-deficiency mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII). The G[r arrow]T transversion 1,881 bp downstream of the ATG translation initiation codon destroys an MboII restriction site and converts Trp627 to Cys (W627C). Digestion of genomic DNA PCR fragments with MboII indicated that the patient and the father were heterozygous for this missense mutation in exon 12. Failure to find cDNAs from patient RNA which did not contain this mutation suggested that the maternal mutation leads to greatly reduced synthesis or reducedmore » stability of mRNA from the mutant allele. In order to identify the maternal mutation, it was necessary to analyze genomic sequences. This approach was complicated by the finding of multiple unprocessed pseudogenes and/or closely related genes. Using PCR with a panel of human/rodent hybrid cell lines, the authors found that these pseudogenes were present over chromosomes 5-7, 20, and 22 and the Y chromosome. Conditions were defined which allowed them to amplify and characterize genomic sequences for the true [beta]-glucuronidase gene despite this background of related sequences. The patient proved to be heterozygous for a second mutation, in which a C[r arrow]T transition introduces a termination codon (R356STOP) in exon 7. The mother was also heterozygous for this mutation. Expression of a cDNA containing the maternal mutation produced no enzyme activity, as expected. Expression of the paternal mutation in COS-7 cells produced a surprisingly high (65% of control) level of activity. However, activity was 13% of control in transiently transfected murine MPS VII cells. The level of activity of this mutant allele appears to correlate with the level of overexpression. 39 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.« less

  10. Multiple malignant extragastrointestinal stromal tumors of the greater omentum and results of immunohistochemistry and mutation analysis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Han; Boo, Yoon-Jung; Jung, Cheol-Woong; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Seung-Joo; Mok, Young-Jae; Kim, Sang-Dae; Chae, Yang-Suk; Kim, Chong-Suk

    2007-01-01

    To report an extragastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST) that occurs outside the gastrointestinal tract and shows unique clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features. In our case, we experienced multiple soft tissue tumors that originate primarily in the greater omentum, and in immunohistochemical analysis, the tumors showed features that correspond to malignant EGIST. Two large omental masses measured 15 cm x 10 cm and 5 cm × 4 cm sized and several small ovoid fragments were attached to small intestine, mesentery and peritoneum. On histologic findings, the masses were separated from small bowel serosa and had high mitotic count (115/50 HPFs). In the results of immunohistochemical stains, the tumor showed CD117 (c-kit) positive reactivity and high Ki-67 labeling index. On mutation analysis, the c-kit gene mutation was found in the juxtamembrane domain (exon 11) and it was heterozygote. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) gene mutation was also found in the juxtamemembrane (exon 12) and it was polymorphism. From above findings, we proposed that there may be several mutational pathways to malignant EGIST, so further investigations could be needed to approach this unfavorable disease entity. PMID:17659683

  11. KRAS and TP53 mutations in inflammatory bowel disease-associated colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lijun; Kim, John J.; Shen, Jinhua; Chen, Binrui; Dai, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Although KRAS and TP53 mutations are common in both inflammatory bowel disease-associated colorectal cancer (IBD-CRC) and sporadic colorectal cancer (S-CRC), molecular events leading to carcinogenesis may be different. Previous studies comparing the frequency of KRAS and TP53 mutations in IBD-CRC and S-CRC were inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the presence of KRAS and TP53 mutations among patients with IBD-CRC, S-CRC, and IBD without dysplasia. A total of 19 publications (482 patients with IBD-CRC, 4,222 with S-CRC, 281 with IBD without dysplasia) met the study inclusion criteria. KRAS mutation was less frequent (RR=0.71, 95%CI 0.56-0.90; P=0.004) while TP53 mutation was more common (RR=1.24, 95%CI 1.10-1.39; P<0.001) in patients with IBD-CRC compared to S-CRC. Both KRAS (RR=3.09, 95%CI 1.47-6.51; P=0.003) and TP53 (RR=2.15, 95%CI 1.07-4.31 P=0.03) mutations were more prevalent in patients with IBD-CRC compared to IBD without dysplasia. In conclusion, IBD-CRC and S-CRC appear to have biologically different molecular pathways. TP53 appears to be more important than KRAS in IBD-CRC compared to S-CRC. Our findings suggest possible roles of TP53 and KRAS as biomarkers for cancer and dysplasia screening among patients with IBD and may also provide targeted therapy in patients with IBD-CRC. PMID:28077799

  12. Expression, prognostic significance and mutational analysis of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Vasiliki; Kontandreopoulou, Elina; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis; Roumelioti, Maria; Angelopoulou, Maria; Kyriazopoulou, Lydia; Diamantopoulos, Panagiotis T; Vaiopoulos, George; Variami, Eleni; Kotsianidis, Ioannis; Athina Viniou, Nora

    2016-05-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 dephosphorylates BCR-ABL1, thereby serving as a potential control mechanism of BCR-ABL1 kinase activity. Pathways regulating SHP-1 expression, which could be exploited in the therapeutics of TKI-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), remain unknown. Moreover, the questions of whether there is any kind of SHP-1 deregulation in CML, contributing to disease initiation or evolution, as well as the question of prognostic significance of SHP-1, have not been definitively answered. This study shows moderately lower SHP-1 mRNA expression in chronic phase CML patients in comparison to healthy individuals and no change in SHP-1 mRNA levels after successful TKI treatment. Mutational analysis of the aminoterminal and phosphatase domains of SHP-1 in patients did not reveal genetic lesions. This study also found no correlation of SHP-1 expression at diagnosis with response to treatment, although a trend for lower SHP-1 expression was noted in the very small non-responders' group of the 3-month therapeutic milestone.

  13. Mutational and Biochemical Analysis of the DNA-entry Nuclease EndA from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    M Midon; P Schafer; A Pingoud

    2011-12-31

    EndA is a membrane-attached surface-exposed DNA-entry nuclease previously known to be required for genetic transformation of Streptococcus pneumoniae. More recent studies have shown that the enzyme also plays an important role during the establishment of invasive infections by degrading extracellular chromatin in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), enabling streptococci to overcome the innate immune system in mammals. As a virulence factor, EndA has become an interesting target for future drug design. Here we present the first mutational and biochemical analysis of recombinant forms of EndA produced either in a cell-free expression system or in Escherichia coli. We identifymore » His160 and Asn191 to be essential for catalysis and Asn182 to be required for stability of EndA. The role of His160 as the putative general base in the catalytic mechanism is supported by chemical rescue of the H160A variant of EndA with imidazole added in excess. Our study paves the way for the identification and development of protein or low-molecular-weight inhibitors for EndA in future high-throughput screening assays.« less

  14. Mutational Analysis of a C-Dependent Late Promoter of Bacteriophage Mu

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, L. W.; Howe, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    Late transcription of bacteriophage Mu initiates at four promoters, P(lys), P(I), P(P) and P(mom), and requires the Mu C protein and the host RNA polymerase. Promoter-containing DNA fragments extending ~200 bp upstream and downstream of the 5' starts of the lys, I and P transcripts were cloned into a multicopy lacZ-expression plasmid. Promoter activity, assayed by β-galactosidase expression, was determined under two different conditions: (1) with C provided from a compatible plasmid in the absence of other Mu factors and (2) with C provided from an induced Mu prophage. β-galactosidase activities were greatest for P(lys), intermediate for P(I), and lowest for P(P). Similar analysis of plasmids containing nested sets of deletions removing 5' or 3' sequences of P(lys) demonstrated that a 68-bp region was sufficient for full activity. Point mutations were generated within the 68-bp region by mutagenic oligonucleotide-directed PCR (Mod-PCR). Properties of the lys promoter mutants indicated that, in addition to the -10 region, a 19-bp region from -52 to -34 containing the C footprint is required for C-dependent promoter activity. PMID:8293968

  15. Mutational analysis of the transcriptional activator VirG of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed Central

    Scheeren-Groot, E P; Rodenburg, K W; den Dulk-Ras, A; Turk, S C; Hooykaas, P J

    1994-01-01

    To find VirG proteins with altered properties, the virG gene was mutagenized. Random chemical mutagenesis of single-stranded DNA containing the Agrobacterium tumefaciens virG gene led with high frequency to the inactivation of the gene. Sequence analysis showed that 29% of the mutants contained a virG gene with one single-base-pair substitution somewhere in the open reading frame. Thirty-nine different mutations that rendered the VirG protein inactive were mapped. Besides these inactive mutants, two mutants in which the vir genes were active even in the absence of acetosyringone were found on indicator plates. A VirG protein with an N54D substitution turned out to be able to induce a virB-lacZ reporter gene to a high level even in the absence of the inducer acetosyringone. A VirG protein with an I77V substitution exhibited almost no induction in the absence of acetosyringone but showed a maximum induction level already at low concentrations of acetosyringone. Images PMID:7961391

  16. Genetic interaction analysis of point mutations enables interrogation of gene function at a residue-level resolution

    PubMed Central

    Braberg, Hannes; Moehle, Erica A.; Shales, Michael; Guthrie, Christine; Krogan, Nevan J.

    2014-01-01

    We have achieved a residue-level resolution of genetic interaction mapping – a technique that measures how the function of one gene is affected by the alteration of a second gene – by analyzing point mutations. Here, we describe how to interpret point mutant genetic interactions, and outline key applications for the approach, including interrogation of protein interaction interfaces and active sites, and examination of post-translational modifications. Genetic interaction analysis has proven effective for characterizing cellular processes; however, to date, systematic high-throughput genetic interaction screens have relied on gene deletions or knockdowns, which limits the resolution of gene function analysis and poses problems for multifunctional genes. Our point mutant approach addresses these issues, and further provides a tool for in vivo structure-function analysis that complements traditional biophysical methods. We also discuss the potential for genetic interaction mapping of point mutations in human cells and its application to personalized medicine. PMID:24842270

  17. KRAS mutation testing of tumours in adults with metastatic colorectal cancer: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Westwood, Marie; van Asselt, Thea; Ramaekers, Bram; Whiting, Penny; Joore, Manuela; Armstrong, Nigel; Noake, Caro; Ross, Janine; Severens, Johan; Kleijnen, Jos

    2014-10-01

    Bowel cancer is the third most common cancer in the UK. Most bowel cancers are initially treated with surgery, but around 17% spread to the liver. When this happens, sometimes the liver tumour can be treated surgically, or chemotherapy may be used to shrink the tumour to make surgery possible. Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS) mutations make some tumours less responsive to treatment with biological therapies such as cetuximab. There are a variety of tests available to detect these mutations. These vary in the specific mutations that they detect, the amount of mutation they detect, the amount of tumour cells needed, the time to give a result, the error rate and cost. To compare the performance and cost-effectiveness of KRAS mutation tests in differentiating adults with metastatic colorectal cancer whose metastases are confined to the liver and are unresectable and who may benefit from first-line treatment with cetuximab in combination with standard chemotherapy from those who should receive standard chemotherapy alone. Thirteen databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE, research registers and conference proceedings were searched to January 2013. Additional data were obtained from an online survey of laboratories participating in the UK National External Quality Assurance Scheme pilot for KRAS mutation testing. A systematic review of the evidence was carried out using standard methods. Randomised controlled trials were assessed for quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Diagnostic accuracy studies were assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. There were insufficient data for meta-analysis. For accuracy studies we calculated sensitivity and specificity together with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Survival data were summarised as hazard ratios and tumour response data were summarised as relative risks, with 95% CIs. The health economic analysis considered the long-term costs and quality-adjusted life-years associated with different tests followed by treatment

  18. Structure-guided development of dual β2 adrenergic/dopamine D2 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Weichert, Dietmar; Stanek, Markus; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter

    2016-06-15

    Aiming to discover dual-acting β2 adrenergic/dopamine D2 receptor ligands, a structure-guided approach for the evolution of GPCR agonists that address multiple targets was elaborated. Starting from GPCR crystal structures, we describe the design, synthesis and biological investigation of a defined set of compounds leading to the identification of the benzoxazinone (R)-3, which shows agonist properties at the adrenergic β2 receptor and substantial G protein-promoted activation at the D2 receptor. This directed approach yielded molecular probes with tuned dual activity. The congener desOH-3 devoid of the benzylic hydroxyl function was shown to be a β2 adrenergic antagonist/D2 receptor agonist with Ki values in the low nanomolar range. The compounds may serve as a promising starting point for the investigation and treatment of neurological disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Crystal-Structure-Guided Design of Self-Assembling RNA Nanotriangles.

    PubMed

    Boerneke, Mark A; Dibrov, Sergey M; Hermann, Thomas

    2016-03-14

    RNA nanotechnology uses RNA structural motifs to build nanosized architectures that assemble through selective base-pair interactions. Herein, we report the crystal-structure-guided design of highly stable RNA nanotriangles that self-assemble cooperatively from short oligonucleotides. The crystal structure of an 81 nucleotide nanotriangle determined at 2.6 Å resolution reveals the so-far smallest circularly closed nanoobject made entirely of double-stranded RNA. The assembly of the nanotriangle architecture involved RNA corner motifs that were derived from ligand-responsive RNA switches, which offer the opportunity to control self-assembly and dissociation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Structure-guided design of novel Trypanosoma brucei Methionyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenlin; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Barros-Álvarez, Ximena; Koh, Cho Yeow; Ranade, Ranae M; Gillespie, J Robert; Creason, Sharon A; Shibata, Sayaka; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Hol, Wim G J; Buckner, Frederick S; Fan, Erkang

    2016-11-29

    A screening hit 1 against Trypanosoma brucei methionyl-tRNA synthetase was optimized using a structure-guided approach. The optimization led to the identification of two novel series of potent inhibitors, the cyclic linker and linear linker series. Compounds of both series were potent in a T. brucei growth inhibition assay while showing low toxicity to mammalian cells. The best compound of each series, 16 and 31, exhibited EC 50 s of 39 and 22 nM, respectively. Compounds 16 and 31 also exhibited promising PK properties after oral dosing in mice. Moreover, compound 31 had moderately good brain permeability, with a brain/plasma ratio of 0.27 at 60 min after IP injection. This study provides new lead compounds for arriving at new treatments of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Biocatalysts for the pharmaceutical industry created by structure-guided directed evolution of stereoselective enzymes.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangyue; Wang, Jian-Bo; Reetz, Manfred T

    2018-04-01

    Enzymes have been used for a long time as catalysts in the asymmetric synthesis of chiral intermediates needed in the production of therapeutic drugs. However, this alternative to man-made catalysts has suffered traditionally from distinct limitations, namely the often observed wrong or insufficient enantio- and/or regioselectivity, low activity, narrow substrate range, and insufficient thermostability. With the advent of directed evolution, these problems can be generally solved. The challenge is to develop and apply the most efficient mutagenesis methods which lead to highest-quality mutant libraries requiring minimal screening. Structure-guided saturation mutagenesis and its iterative form have emerged as the method of choice for evolving stereo- and regioselective mutant enzymes needed in the asymmetric synthesis of chiral intermediates. The number of (industrial) applications in the preparation of chiral pharmaceuticals is rapidly increasing. This review features and analyzes typical case studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Mutation analysis of FGFR3 gene in a family featuring hereditary dwarfism].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiong; Jiang, Hai-ou; Quan, Qing-li; Li, Jun; He, Ting; Huang, Xue-shuang

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the clinical symptoms and potential mutation in FGFR3 gene for a family featuring hereditary dwarfism in order to attain diagnosis and provide prenatal diagnosis. Five patients and two unaffected relatives from the family, in addition with 100 healthy controls, were recruited. Genome DNA was extracted. Exons 10 and 13 of the FGFR3 gene were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR products were sequenced in both directions. All patients had similar features including short stature, short limbs, lumbar hyperlordosis but normal craniofacial features. A heterozygous mutation G1620T (N540K) was identified in the cDNA from all patients but not in the unaffected relatives and 100 control subjects. A heterozygous G380R mutation was excluded. The hereditary dwarfism featured by this family has been caused by hypochondroplasia (HCH) due to a N540K mutation in the FGFR3 gene.

  3. [Analysis of TGFBI gene mutation in a Chinese family affected with Reis-Bucklers corneal dystrophy].

    PubMed

    Guan, Tao; Zhang, Lingjie; Xu, Dejian; Wu, Haijian; Zheng, Libin

    2017-10-10

    To analyze the clinical features and TGFBI gene mutation in a Chinese family affected with Reis-Bucklers corneal dystrophy. Genomic DNA was extracted from 53 members including 9 patients from the family. The 17 exons and splice region of introns of the TGFBI gene were amplified by PCR and directly sequenced. All family members were subjected to ophthalmologic examination. A heterozygous mutation (R124L) was found in exon 4 of the TGFBI gene among all patients from the family. The same mutation was not found among unaffected family members. The inheritance pattern of the family was identified as autosomal dominant, and the Reis-Bucklers corneal dystrophy in the family was diagnosed as the geographic type. The R124L mutation of the TGFBI gene probably underlies the pathogenesis of Reis-Bucklers corneal dystrophy in this Chinese family. Molecular genetic approach is useful for the proper diagnosis of this type of corneal dystrophy.

  4. Heavy ion induced mutations in mammalian cells: Cross sections and molecular analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoll, U.; Schmidt, P.; Schneider, E.; Kiefer, J.

    1994-01-01

    Our investigations of heavy ion-induced mutations in mammalian cells, which had been begun a few years ago, were systematically continued. For the first time, it was possible to cover a large LET range with a few kinds of ions. To do this, both UNILAC and SIS were used to yield comparable data for a large energy range. This is a necessary condition for a comprehensive description of the influence of such ion parameters as energy and LET. In these experiments, the induced resistance against the poison 6-thioguanin (6-TG), which is linked to the HPRT locus on the genome, is being used as mutation system. In addition to the mutation-induction cross-section measurements, the molecular changes of the DNA are being investigated by means of Multiplex PCR ('Polymerase Chain Reaction') gene amplification. From these experiments we expect further elucidation of the mutation-inducing mechanisms composing the biological action of heavy-ion radiation.

  5. [Analysis of SOX10 gene mutation in a family affected with Waardenburg syndrome type II].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; Yan, Yousheng; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Qinghua; Feng, Xuan; Hao, Shen

    2018-02-10

    OBJECTIVE To detect potential mutation of SOX10 gene in a pedigree affected with Warrdenburg syndrome type II. METHODS Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the proband and his family members. Exons and flanking sequences of MITF, PAX3, SOX10, SNAI2, END3 and ENDRB genes were analyzed by chip capturing and high throughput sequencing. Suspected mutations were verified with Sanger sequencing. RESULTS A c.127C>T (p.R43X) mutation of the SOX10 gene was detected in the proband, for which both parents showed a wild-type genotype. CONCLUSION The c.127C>T (p.R43X) mutation of SOX10 gene probably underlies the ocular symptoms and hearing loss of the proband.

  6. [Mutation analysis of beta myosin heavy chain gene in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy families].

    PubMed

    Fan, Xin-ping; Yang, Zhong-wei; Feng, Xiu-li; Yang, Fu-hui; Xiao, Bai; Liang, Yan

    2011-08-01

    To detect the gene mutations of beta-myosin heavy chain gene (MYH7) in Chinese pedigrees with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and to analyze the correlation between the genotype and phenotype. Exons 3, 5, 7-9, 11-16 and 18-23 of the MYH7 gene were amplified with PCR in three Chinese pedigrees with HCM. The products were sequenced. Sequence alignment between the detected and the standard sequences was performed. A missense mutation of Thr441Met in exon 14 was identified in a pedigree, which was not detected in the controls. Several synonymous mutations of MYH7 gene were detected in the three pedigrees. The mutation of Thr441Met, located in the actin binding domain of the globular head, was first identified in Chinese. It probably caused HCM. HCM is a heterogeneous disease. Many factors are involved in the process of its occurrence and development.

  7. Structure-Guided Optimization of HIV Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Integrase mutations can reduce the effectiveness of the first-generation FDA-approved integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), raltegravir (RAL) and elvitegravir (EVG). The second-generation agent, dolutegravir (DTG), has enjoyed considerable clinical success; however, resistancecausing mutations that diminish the efficacy of DTG have appeared. Our current findings

  8. [Clinical Analysis of Driver Mutations in Patients with Ph Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms].

    PubMed

    He, Zhi-Peng; Tian, Hui-Yun; Tan, Ming; Wu, Yong

    2018-06-01

    To explore the relationship between driver mutations and clinical characteristics in patients with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), so as to provide evidence for diagno-sis and treatment of the disease. The clinical data of 410 patients with classic Ph negative MPN including 150 cases of polycythemia vera (PV), 188 cases of essential thrombocythemia (ET) and 72 cases of primary myelofibrosis (PMF) from January 2013 to December 2016 in Fujian Medical University Union Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The PCR or DNA sequencing were used for JAK2 V617F, JAK2 exon12, CALR and MPL W515L/K mutation analyses, and follow-up information on patients was updated by direct phone call or follow-up in outpatient. Among the 410 patients with Ph negative MPN, 136 (33.2%) cases were asymptomatic at diagnosis. 389 cases were sequenced and JAK2 V617F was detected in 87.1% (122/140) of PV, 64.1% (118/184) of ET, 64.6% (42/65) of PMF; JAK2 exon 12 mutation in 1 case of PV; MPL W515L/K mutation in 1 case of ET and PMF, respectively; CALR mutation in 18(9.8%) cases of ET and 5 (7.7%) cases of PMF. JAK2 V617F mutated PV patients ocourred in older age: the white blood cell count, platelet count and incidence of splenomegaly were higher than JAK2-negative PV cases(P<0.05). Compared with JAK2 V617F mutated ET patients, CALR mutated ET cases displayed younger age, lower leukocyte count, higher platelet count and lower incidence of thrombosis; JAK2-negative ET cases had younger age, lower leukocyte count, lower hemoglobin level, higher platelet count and lower incidence of thrombosis(P<0.05). The incidence of splenomegaly in JAK2 V617F or CALR mutated PMF patients was both higher than that in JAK2-negative PMF cases, but the incidence of leukemia transformation in JAK2-negative PMF patients was higher than that in JAK2 V617F mutated cases (P<0.05). The types of driver mutations are closely related with the clinical features and prognosis in Ph

  9. Molecular analysis of mutations in DNA polymerase η in xeroderma pigmentosum-variant patients

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, Bernard C.; Cordonnier, Agnes; Kleijer, Wim J.; Jaspers, Nicolaas G. J.; Fawcett, Heather; Raams, Anja; Garritsen, Victor H.; Stary, Anne; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Boudsocq, François; Masutani, Chikahide; Hanaoka, Fumio; Fuchs, Robert P.; Sarasin, Alain; Lehmann, Alan R.

    2002-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XP-V) cells are deficient in their ability to synthesize intact daughter DNA strands after UV irradiation. This deficiency results from mutations in the gene encoding DNA polymerase η, which is required for effecting translesion synthesis (TLS) past UV photoproducts. We have developed a simple cellular procedure to identify XP-V cell strains, and have subsequently analyzed the mutations in 21 patients with XP-V. The 16 mutations that we have identified fall into three categories. Many of them result in severe truncations of the protein and are effectively null alleles. However, we have also identified five missense mutations located in the conserved catalytic domain of the protein. Extracts of cells falling into these two categories are defective in the ability to carry out TLS past sites of DNA damage. Three mutations cause truncations at the C terminus such that the catalytic domains are intact, and extracts from these cells are able to carry out TLS. From our previous work, however, we anticipate that protein in these cells will not be localized in the nucleus nor will it be relocalized into replication foci during DNA replication. The spectrum of both missense and truncating mutations is markedly skewed toward the N-terminal half of the protein. Two of the missense mutations are predicted to affect the interaction with DNA, the others are likely to disrupt the three-dimensional structure of the protein. There is a wide variability in clinical features among patients, which is not obviously related to the site or type of mutation. PMID:11773631

  10. Functional analysis of Discoidin domain receptor 2 mutation and expression in squamous cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi-Watanabe, Naomi; Sato, Akemi; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Abe, Tomonori; Nakashima, Chiho; Sueoka, Eisaburo; Kimura, Shinya; Sueoka-Aragane, Naoko

    2017-08-01

    Discoidin domain receptor (DDR) 2 mutations have recently been reported to be candidate targets of molecular therapy in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC). However, the status of DDR2 expression and mutations, as well as their precise roles in lung SQCC, have not been clarified. We here report DDR2 mutation and expression status in clinical samples and its role of lung SQCC. We investigated DDR2 expression and mutation status in 44 human clinical samples and 7 cell lines. Biological functions of DDR2 were assessed by in vitro cell invasion assay and animal model experiments. Endogenous DDR2 protein expression levels were high in one cell line, PC-1, and immunohistochemistry of lung cancer tissue array showed high levels of DDR2 protein in 29% of lung SQCC patients. A mutation (T681I) identified in lung SQCC and the cell line EBC-1 was detected among 44 primary lung SQCC samples and 7 lung SQCC cell lines. Although Forced expression of DDR2 and its mutant (T681I) led to induce SQCC cell invasion in vitro, only wild type DDR2 enhanced lung metastasis in an animal model. We also found that ectopic expression of DDR2 induced MMP-1 mRNA expression accompanied by phosphorylation of c-Jun after treatment with its ligand, collagen type I, but DDR2 with the T681I mutation did not, suggesting that T681I mutation is an inactivating mutation. Overexpression of DDR2 might contribute to tumor progression in lung SQCC. The overexpression of DDR2 could be potential molecular target of lung SQCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinic and Functional Analysis of p73R1 Mutations in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    sequence variants in Marfan syndrome and related connective tissue disorders. Genet Test 1:237-42. Matsuoka S, Huang M, Elledge SJ. 1998. Linkage of ATM... Syndrome (LFS; MIM# 151623), a highly penetrant familial cancer phenotype, usually associated with inherited mutations in TP53 (Bell, et al., 1999...TP53 (Table 1). Mutually exclusive mutations of CHEK2 and TP53 have been reported in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) and also in patients

  12. Comparative analysis of primary versus relapse/refractory DLBCL identifies shifts in mutation spectrum.

    PubMed

    Greenawalt, Danielle M; Liang, Winnie S; Saif, Sakina; Johnson, Justin; Todorov, Petar; Dulak, Austin; Enriquez, Daniel; Halperin, Rebecca; Ahmed, Ambar; Saveliev, Vladislav; Carpten, John; Craig, David; Barrett, J Carl; Dougherty, Brian; Zinda, Michael; Fawell, Stephen; Dry, Jonathan R; Byth, Kate

    2017-11-21

    Current understanding of the mutation spectrum of relapsed/refractory (RR) tumors is limited. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on 47 diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) tumors that persisted after R-CHOP treatment, 8 matched to primary biopsies. We compared genomic alterations from the RR cohort against two treatment-naïve DLBCL cohorts (n=112). While the overall number and types of mutations did not differ significantly, we identified frequency changes in DLBCL driver genes. The overall frequency of MYD88 mutant samples increased (12% to 19%), but we noted a decrease in p.L265P (8% to 4%) and increase in p.S219C mutations (2% to 6%). CARD11 p.D230N, PIM1 p.K115N and CD79B p.Y196C mutations were not observed in the RR cohort, although these mutations were prominent in the primary DLBCL samples. We observed an increase in BCL2 mutations (21% to 38% of samples), BCL2 amplifications (3% to 6% of samples) and CREBBP mutations (31% to 42% of samples) in the RR cohort, supported by acquisition of mutations in these genes in relapsed compared to diagnostic biopsies from the same patient. These increases may reflect the genetic characteristics of R-CHOP RR tumors expected to be enriched for during clinical trial enrollment. These findings hold significance for a number of emerging targeted therapies aligned to genetic targets and biomarkers in DLBCL, reinforcing the importance of time-of-treatment biomarker screening during DLBCL therapy selection.

  13. Comparative analysis of primary versus relapse/refractory DLBCL identifies shifts in mutation spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Greenawalt, Danielle M.; Liang, Winnie S.; Saif, Sakina; Johnson, Justin; Todorov, Petar; Dulak, Austin; Enriquez, Daniel; Halperin, Rebecca; Ahmed, Ambar; Saveliev, Vladislav; Carpten, John; Craig, David; Barrett, J. Carl; Dougherty, Brian; Zinda, Michael; Fawell, Stephen; Dry, Jonathan R.; Byth, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Current understanding of the mutation spectrum of relapsed/refractory (RR) tumors is limited. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on 47 diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) tumors that persisted after R-CHOP treatment, 8 matched to primary biopsies. We compared genomic alterations from the RR cohort against two treatment-naïve DLBCL cohorts (n=112). While the overall number and types of mutations did not differ significantly, we identified frequency changes in DLBCL driver genes. The overall frequency of MYD88 mutant samples increased (12% to 19%), but we noted a decrease in p.L265P (8% to 4%) and increase in p.S219C mutations (2% to 6%). CARD11 p.D230N, PIM1 p.K115N and CD79B p.Y196C mutations were not observed in the RR cohort, although these mutations were prominent in the primary DLBCL samples. We observed an increase in BCL2 mutations (21% to 38% of samples), BCL2 amplifications (3% to 6% of samples) and CREBBP mutations (31% to 42% of samples) in the RR cohort, supported by acquisition of mutations in these genes in relapsed compared to diagnostic biopsies from the same patient. These increases may reflect the genetic characteristics of R-CHOP RR tumors expected to be enriched for during clinical trial enrollment. These findings hold significance for a number of emerging targeted therapies aligned to genetic targets and biomarkers in DLBCL, reinforcing the importance of time-of-treatment biomarker screening during DLBCL therapy selection. PMID:29245897

  14. Wide spetcrum mutational analysis of metastatic renal cell cancer: a retrospective next generation sequencing approach

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Gruppioni, Elisa; Massari, Francesco; Giunchi, Francesca; Altimari, Annalisa; Ciccarese, Chiara; Bimbatti, Davide; Scarpa, Aldo; Iacovelli, Roberto; Porta, Camillo; Virinder, Sarhadi; Tortora, Giampaolo; Artibani, Walter; Schiavina, Riccardo; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Brunelli, Matteo; Knuutila, Sakari; Martignoni, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Renal cell cancer (RCC) is characterized by histological and molecular heterogeneity that may account for variable response to targeted therapies. We evaluated retrospectively with a next generation sequencing (NGS) approach using a pre-designed cancer panel the mutation burden of 32 lesions from 22 metastatic RCC patients treated with at least one tyrosine kinase or mTOR inhibitor. We identified mutations in the VHL, PTEN, JAK3, MET, ERBB4, APC, CDKN2A, FGFR3, EGFR, RB1, TP53 genes. Somatic alterations were correlated with response to therapy. Most mutations hit VHL1 (31,8%) followed by PTEN (13,6%), JAK3, FGFR and TP53 (9% each). Eight (36%) patients were wild-type at least for the genes included in the panel. A genotype concordance between primary RCC and its secondary lesion was found in 3/6 cases. Patients were treated with Sorafenib, Sunitinib and Temsirolimus with partial responses in 4 (18,2%) and disease stabilization in 7 (31,8%). Among the 4 partial responders, 1 (25%) was wild-type and 3 (75%) harbored different VHL1 variants. Among the 7 patients with disease stabilization 2 (29%) were wild-type, 2 (29%) PTEN mutated, and single patients (14% each) displayed mutations in VHL1, JAK3 and APC/CDKN2A. Among the 11 non-responders 7 (64%) were wild-type, 2 (18%) were p53 mutated and 2 (18%) VHL1 mutated. No significant associations were found among RCC histotype, mutation variants and response to therapies. In the absence of predictive biomarkers for metastatic RCC treatment, a NGS approach may address single patients to basket clinical trials according to actionable molecular specific alterations. PMID:27741505

  15. [Mutation analysis of the PAH gene in children with phenylketonuria from the Qinghai area of China].

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Wang, Hui-Zhen; Xu, Fa-Liang; Yang, Xi; Wang, Rui; Zou, Hong-Yun; Yu, Wu-Zhong

    2015-11-01

    To study the mutation characteristics of the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene in children with phenylketonuria (PKU) from the Qinghai area of China, in order to provide basic information for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis. Mutations of the PAH gene were detected in the promoter and exons 1-13 and their flanking intronic sequences of PAH gene by PCR and DNA sequencing in 49 children with PKU and their parents from the Qinghai area of China. A total of 30 different mutations were detected in 80 out of 98 mutant alleles (82%), including 19 missense (63%), 5 nonsense (17%), 3 splice-site (10%) and 3 deletions (10%). Most mutations were detected in exons 3, 6, 7, 11 and intron 4 of PAH gene. The most frequent mutations were p.R243Q (19%), IVS4-1G>A (9%), p.Y356X (7%) and p.EX6-96A>G(5%). Two novel mutations p.N93fsX5 (c.279-282delCATC) and p.G171E (c.512G>A) were found. p.H64fsX9(c.190delC) was documented for the second time in Chinese PAH gene. The mutation spectrum of the gene PAH in the Qinghai population was similar to that in other populations in North China while significantly different from that in the populations from some provinces in southern China, Japan and Europe. The mutations of PAH gene in the Qinghai area of China demonstrate a unique diversity, complexity and specificity.

  16. Homoplasy and mutation model at microsatellite loci and their consequences for population genetics analysis.

    PubMed

    Estoup, Arnaud; Jarne, Philippe; Cornuet, Jean-Marie

    2002-09-01

    Homoplasy has recently attracted the attention of population geneticists, as a consequence of the popularity of highly variable stepwise mutating markers such as microsatellites. Microsatellite alleles generally refer to DNA fragments of different size (electromorphs). Electromorphs are identical in state (i.e. have identical size), but are not necessarily identical by descent due to convergent mutation(s). Homoplasy occurring at microsatellites is thus referred to as size homoplasy. Using new analytical developments and computer simulations, we first evaluate the effect of the mutation rate, the mutation model, the effective population size and the time of divergence between populations on size homoplasy at the within and between population levels. We then review the few experimental studies that used various molecular techniques to detect size homoplasious events at some microsatellite loci. The relationship between this molecularly accessible size homoplasy size and the actual amount of size homoplasy is not trivial, the former being considerably influenced by the molecular structure of microsatellite core sequences. In a third section, we show that homoplasy at microsatellite electromorphs does not represent a significant problem for many types of population genetics analyses realized by molecular ecologists, the large amount of variability at microsatellite loci often compensating for their homoplasious evolution. The situations where size homoplasy may be more problematic involve high mutation rates and large population sizes together with strong allele size constraints.

  17. [Analysis of clinical phenotype and genetic mutations of a pedigree of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis].

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuwen; Guo, Xia; Zhu, Yiping; Yang, Xue; Li, Qiang; Gao, Ju

    2014-10-01

    To analyze mutations in a pedigree of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHLH) from Sichuan and provide genetic counseling for the family. Clinical data of a case with FHLH diagnosed at West China Second Hospital was retrospectively analyzed. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the proband and his family members. Eight candidate genes for primary HLH were amplified with PCR and analyzed by direct sequencing. The proband was diagnosed as HLH based on clinical manifestations of recurrent fever for 2 months, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, hyperferritinemia, and decreased fibrinogen and hemophagocytosis in bone marrow. Genetic testing for primary HLH was carried out considering the relapse of illness after hormone therapy for 8 weeks and the family history. The results of gene sequencing showed that the proband has carried compound heterozygous mutations in PRF1 gene (c.1349C> T in exon 3 and c.445G> A in exon 2). His father has carried a heterozygous mutation (c.445G> A in exon 2) and nonsense mutation (c.900C> T in exon 3), and his mother carried a heterozygous mutation (c.1349C> T in exon 3). Both c.1349C> T and c.445G> A have been previously reported as pathogenic mutations. The family has been diagnosed as familial HLH type 2 based on clinical and laboratory examinations and molecular genetic testing. Gene sequencing has indicated that is was a recessive type familial HLH.

  18. A mutation analysis of the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene in the Israeli population.

    PubMed

    Bercovich, D; Elimelech, A; Yardeni, T; Korem, S; Zlotogora, J; Gal, N; Goldstein, N; Vilensky, B; Segev, R; Avraham, S; Loewenthal, R; Schwartz, G; Anikster, Y

    2008-05-01

    Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) is a group of diseases characterized by a persistent elevation of phenylalanine levels in tissues and biological fluids. The most frequent form is phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, causing phenylketonuria (PKU). Among 159 Israeli patients (Jews, Muslim and Christian Arabs and Druze) with HPA, in whom at least one of the mutations was characterized, a total of 43 different mutations were detected, including seven novel ones. PKU was very rare among Ashkenazi Jews and relatively frequent among Jews from Yemen, the Caucasian Mountains, Bukhara and Tunisia. The mutations responsible for the high frequency were: exon3del (Yemenite Jews), L48S (Tunisian Jews) and E178G, P281L and L48S (Jews from the Caucasian Mountains and Bukhara). Among the non-Jewish Israeli citizens, the disease was relatively frequent in the Negev and in the Nazareth vicinity, and in many localities a unique mutation was detected, often in a single family. While marked genetic heterogeneity was observed in the Arab and Jewish populations, only one mutation A300S, was frequent in all of the communities. Several of the other frequent mutations were shared by the non-Ashkenazi Jews and Arabs; none were mutual to Ashkenazi Jews and Arabs.

  19. Biochemical analysis of respiratory function in cybrid cell lines harbouring mitochondrial DNA mutations

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    We analysed key biochemical features that reflect the balance between glycolysis and glucose oxidation in cybrids (cytoplasmic hybrids) harbouring a representative sample of mitochondrial DNA point mutations and deletions. The cybrids analysed had the same 143B cell nuclear background and were isogenic for the mitochondrial background. The 143B cell line and its ρ0 counterpart were used as controls. All cells analysed were in a dynamic state, and cell number, time of plating, culture medium, extracellular volume and time of harvest and assay were strictly controlled. Intra- and extra-cellular lactate and pyruvate levels were measured in homoplasmic wild-type and mutant cells, and correlated with rates of ATP synthesis and O2 consumption. In all mutant cell lines, except those with the T8993C mutation in the ATPase 6 gene, glycolysis was increased even under conditions of low glucose, as demonstrated by increased levels of extracellular lactate and pyruvate. Extracellular lactate levels were strictly and inversely correlated with rates of ATP synthesis and O2 consumption. These results show increased glycolysis and defective oxidative phosphorylation, irrespective of the type or site of the point mutation or deletion in the mitochondrial genome. The different biochemical consequences of the T8993C mutation suggest a uniquely different pathogenic mechanism for this mutation. However, the distinct clinical features associated with some of these mutations still remain to be elucidated. PMID:15324306

  20. Expression, functional analysis and mutation of a novel neutral zearalenone-degrading enzyme.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meixing; Yin, Lifeng; Hu, Huizhen; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Zhou, Yuling; Zhang, Guimin

    2018-06-24

    The crops and grains were often contaminated by high level of mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN). In order to remove ZEN and keep food safe, ZEN-degrading or detoxifying enzymes are urgently needed. Here, a newly identified lactonohydrolase responsible for the detoxification of ZEN, annotated as Zhd518, was expressed and characterized. Zhd518 showed 65% amino acid identity with Zhd101, which was widely studied for its ZEN-degrading ability. A detailed activity measurement method of ZEN-degrading enzyme was provided. Biochemical analysis indicated that the purified recombinant Zhd518 from E. coli exhibited a high activity against ZEN (207.0 U/mg), with the optimal temperature and pH of 40 °C and 8.0, respectively. The Zhd518 can degrade ZEN derivatives, and the specific activities against α-Zearalenol, β-Zearalenol, α-Zearalanol and β-Zearalanol were 23.0 U/mg, 64.7 U/mg, 119.8 U/mg and 66.5 U/mg, respectively. The active sites of Zhd518 were predicted by structure modeling and determined by mutation analysis. A point mutant N156H exhibited 3.3-fold activity against α-Zearalenol comparing to Zhd518. Zhd518 is the first reported neutral and the second characterized ZEN-degrading enzyme, which provides a new and more excellent candidate for ZEN detoxifying in food and feed industry. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Identification and characterization of a translation arrest motif in VemP by systematic mutational analysis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Sakashita, Sohei; Ito, Jun; Ishii, Eiji; Akiyama, Yoshinori

    2018-02-23

    VemP ( V ibrio protein e xport m onitoring p olypeptide) is a secretory protein comprising 159 amino acid residues, which functions as a secretion monitor in Vibrio and regulates expression of the downstream V.secDF2 genes. When VemP export is compromised, its translation specifically undergoes elongation arrest at the position where the Gln 156 codon of vemP encounters the P-site in the translating ribosome, resulting in up-regulation of V.SecDF2 production. Although our previous study suggests that many residues in a highly conserved C-terminal 20-residue region of VemP contribute to its elongation arrest, the exact role of each residue remains unclear. Here, we constructed a reporter system to easily and exactly monitor the in vivo arrest efficiency of VemP. Using this reporter system, we systematically performed a mutational analysis of the 20 residues (His 138 -Phe 157 ) to identify and characterize the arrest motif. Our results show that 15 residues in the conserved region participate in elongation arrest and that multiple interactions between important residues in VemP and in the interior of the exit tunnel contribute to the elongation arrest of VemP. The arrangement of these important residues induced by specific secondary structures in the ribosomal tunnel is critical for the arrest. Pro scanning analysis of the preceding segment (Met 120 -Phe 137 ) revealed a minor role of this region in the arrest. Considering these results, we conclude that the arrest motif in VemP is mainly composed of the highly conserved multiple residues in the C-terminal region. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. [Analysis of genotype and phenotype correlation of MYH7-V878A mutation among ethnic Han Chinese pedigrees affected with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Guo, Ruiqi; Zuo, Lei; Shao, Hong; Liu, Ying; Wang, Yu; Ju, Yan; Sun, Chao; Wang, Lifeng; Zhang, Yanmin; Liu, Liwen

    2017-08-10

    To analyze the phenotype-genotype correlation of MYH7-V878A mutation. Exonic amplification and high-throughput sequencing of 96-cardiovascular disease-related genes were carried out on probands from 210 pedigrees affected with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). For the probands, their family members, and 300 healthy volunteers, the identified MYH7-V878A mutation was verified by Sanger sequencing. Information of the HCM patients and their family members, including clinical data, physical examination, echocardiography (UCG), electrocardiography (ECG), and conserved sequence of the mutation among various species were analyzed. A MYH7-V878A mutation was detected in five HCM pedigrees containing 31 family members. Fourteen members have carried the mutation, among whom 11 were diagnosed with HCM, while 3 did not meet the diagnostic criteria. Some of the fourteen members also carried other mutations. Family members not carrying the mutation had normal UCG and ECG. No MYH7-V878A mutation was found among the 300 healthy volunteers. Analysis of sequence conservation showed that the amino acid is located in highly conserved regions among various species. MYH7-V878A is a hot spot among ethnic Han Chinese with a high penetrance. Functional analysis of the conserved sequences suggested that the mutation may cause significant alteration of the function. MYH7-V878A has a significant value for the early diagnosis of HCM.

  3. Whole exome analysis identifies dominant COL4A1 mutations in patients with complex ocular phenotypes involving microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Deml, B; Reis, L M; Maheshwari, M; Griffis, C; Bick, D; Semina, E V

    2014-11-01

    Anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M) is a developmental ocular malformation defined as complete absence or reduction in size of the eye. A/M is a heterogenous disorder with numerous causative genes identified; however, about half the cases lack a molecular diagnosis. We undertook whole exome sequencing in an A/M family with two affected siblings, two unaffected siblings, and unaffected parents; the ocular phenotype was isolated with only mild developmental delay/learning difficulties reported and a normal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the proband at 16 months. No pathogenic mutations were identified in 71 known A/M genes. Further analysis identified a shared heterozygous mutation in COL4A1, c.2317G>A, p.(Gly773Arg) that was not seen in the unaffected parents and siblings. Analysis of 24 unrelated A/M exomes identified a novel c.2122G>A, p.(Gly708Arg) mutation in an additional patient with unilateral microphthalmia, bilateral microcornea and Peters anomaly; the mutation was absent in the unaffected mother and the unaffected father was not available. Mutations in COL4A1 have been linked to a spectrum of human disorders; the most consistent feature is cerebrovascular disease with variable ocular anomalies, kidney and muscle defects. This study expands the spectrum of COL4A1 phenotypes and indicates screening in patients with A/M regardless of MRI findings or presumed inheritance pattern. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Refining the role of PMS2 in Lynch syndrome: germline mutational analysis improved by comprehensive assessment of variants.

    PubMed

    Borràs, Ester; Pineda, Marta; Cadiñanos, Juan; Del Valle, Jesús; Brieger, Angela; Hinrichsen, Inga; Cabanillas, Ruben; Navarro, Matilde; Brunet, Joan; Sanjuan, Xavier; Musulen, Eva; van der Klift, Helen; Lázaro, Conxi; Plotz, Guido; Blanco, Ignacio; Capellá, Gabriel

    2013-08-01

    The majority of mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations causing Lynch syndrome (LS) occur either in MLH1 or MSH2. However, the relative contribution of PMS2 is less well defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of PMS2 in LS by assessing the pathogenicity of variants of unknown significance (VUS) detected in the mutational analysis of PMS2 in a series of Spanish patients. From a cohort of 202 LS suspected patients, 13 patients showing loss of PMS2 expression in tumours were screened for germline mutations in PMS2, using a long range PCR based strategy and multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Pathogenicity assessment of PMS2 VUS was performed evaluating clinicopathological data, frequency in control population and in silico and in vitro analyses at the RNA and protein level. Overall 25 different PMS2 DNA variants were detected. Fourteen were classified as polymorphisms. Nine variants were classified as pathogenic: seven alterations based on their molecular nature and two after demonstrating a functional defect (c.538-3C>G affected mRNA processing and c.137G>T impaired MMR activity). The c.1569C>G variant was classified as likely neutral while the c.384G>A remained as a VUS. We have also shown that the polymorphic variant c.59G>A is MMR proficient. Pathogenic PMS2 mutations were detected in 69% of patients harbouring LS associated tumours with loss of PMS2 expression. In all, PMS2 mutations account for 6% of the LS cases identified. The comprehensive functional analysis shown here has been useful in the classification of PMS2 VUS and contributes to refining the role of PMS2 in LS.

  5. Analysis of alkaptonuria (AKU) mutations and polymorphisms reveals that the CCC sequence motif is a mutational hot spot in the homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase gene (HGO).

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Valero de Bernabé, D; Jimenez, F J; Aquaron, R; Rodríguez de Córdoba, S

    1999-01-01

    We recently showed that alkaptonuria (AKU) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase gene (HGO). Herein we describe haplotype and mutational analyses of HGO in seven new AKU pedigrees. These analyses identified two novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (INV4+31A-->G and INV11+18A-->G) and six novel AKU mutations (INV1-1G-->A, W60G, Y62C, A122D, P230T, and D291E), which further illustrates the remarkable allelic heterogeneity found in AKU. Reexamination of all 29 mutations and polymorphisms thus far described in HGO shows that these nucleotide changes are not randomly distributed; the CCC sequence motif and its inverted complement, GGG, are preferentially mutated. These analyses also demonstrated that the nucleotide substitutions in HGO do not involve CpG dinucleotides, which illustrates important differences between HGO and other genes for the occurrence of mutation at specific short-sequence motifs. Because the CCC sequence motifs comprise a significant proportion (34.5%) of all mutated bases that have been observed in HGO, we conclude that the CCC triplet is a mutational hot spot in HGO. PMID:10205262

  6. Mutation analysis in a German family identified a new cataract-causing allele in the CRYBB2 gene

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, Silke; Söker, Torben; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Engel, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The study demonstrates the functional candidate gene analysis in a cataract family of German descent. Methods We screened a German family, clinically documented to have congenital cataracts, for mutation in the candidate genes CRYG (A to D) and CRYBB2 through polymerase chain reaction analyses and sequencing. Results Congenital cataract was first observed in a daughter of healthy parents. Her two children (a boy and a girl) also suffer from congenital cataracts and have been operated within the first weeks of birth. Morphologically, the cataract is characterized as nuclear with an additional ring-shaped cortical opacity. Molecular analysis revealed no causative mutation in any of the CRYG genes. However, sequencing of the exons of the CRYBB2 gene identified a sequence variation in exon 5 (383 A>T) with a substitution of Asp to Val at position 128. All three affected family members revealed this change but it was not observed in any of the unaffected persons of the family. The putative mutation creates a restriction site for the enzyme TaiI. This mutation was checked for in controls of randomly selected DNA samples from ophthalmologically normal individuals from the population-based KORA S4 study (n=96) and no mutation was observed. Moreover, the Asp at position 128 is within a stretch of 12 amino acids, which are highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom. For the mutant protein, the isoelectric point is raised from pH 6.50 to 6.75. Additionally, the random coil structure of the protein between the amino acids 126-139 is interrupted by a short extended strand structure. In addition, this region becomes hydrophobic (from neutral to +1) and the electrostatic potential in the region surrounding the exchanged amino acid alters from a mainly negative potential to an enlarged positive potential. Conclusions The D128V mutation segregates only in affected family members and is not seen in representative controls. It represents the first mutation outside exon 6

  7. Clinicopathological analysis of endometrial carcinomas harboring somatic POLE exonuclease domain mutations.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Yaser R; Weigelt, Britta; Levine, Douglas A; Schoolmeester, J Kenneth; Dao, Linda N; Balzer, Bonnie L; Liles, Georgia; Karlan, Beth; Köbel, Martin; Lee, Cheng-Han; Soslow, Robert A

    2015-04-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas described four major genomic groups of endometrial carcinomas, including a POLE ultramutated subtype comprising ∼10% of endometrioid adenocarcinoma, characterized by POLE exonuclease domain mutations, ultrahigh somatic mutation rates, and favorable outcome. Our aim was to examine the morphological and clinicopathological features of ultramutated endometrial carcinomas harboring somatic POLE exonuclease domain mutations. Hematoxylin and eosin slides and pathology reports for 8/17 POLE-mutated endometrial carcinomas described in the Cancer Genome Atlas study were studied; for the remaining cases, virtual whole slide images publicly available at cBioPortal (www.cbioportal.org) were examined. A second cohort of eight POLE mutated endometrial carcinomas from University of Calgary was also studied. Median age was 55 years (range 33-87 years). Nineteen patients presented as stage I, 1 stage II, and 5 stage III. The majority of cases (24 of the 25) demonstrated defining morphological features of endometrioid differentiation. The studied cases were frequently high grade (60%) and rich in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and/or peri-tumoral lymphocytes (84%); many tumors showed morphological heterogeneity (52%) and ambiguity (16%). Foci demonstrating severe nuclear atypia led to concern for serous carcinoma in 28% of cases. At the molecular level, the majority of the Cancer Genome Atlas POLE-mutated tumors were microsatellite stable (65%), and TP53 mutations were present in 35% of cases. They also harbored mutations in PTEN (94%), FBXW7 (82%), ARID1A (76%), and PIK3CA (71%). All patients from both cohorts were alive without disease, and none of the patients developed recurrence at the time of follow-up (median 33 months; range 2-102 months). In conclusion, the recognition of ultramutated endometrial carcinomas with POLE exonuclease domain mutation is important given their favorable outcome. Our histopathological review revealed that these tumors are

  8. Understanding the complex evolution of rapidly mutating viruses with deep sequencing: Beyond the analysis of viral diversity.

    PubMed

    Leung, Preston; Eltahla, Auda A; Lloyd, Andrew R; Bull, Rowena A; Luciani, Fabio

    2017-07-15

    With the advent of affordable deep sequencing technologies, detection of low frequency variants within genetically diverse viral populations can now be achieved with unprecedented depth and efficiency. The high-resolution data provided by next generation sequencing technologies is currently recognised as the gold standard in estimation of viral diversity. In the analysis of rapidly mutating viruses, longitudinal deep sequencing datasets from viral genomes during individual infection episodes, as well as at the epidemiological level during outbreaks, now allow for more sophisticated analyses such as statistical estimates of the impact of complex mutation patterns on the evolution of the viral populations both within and between hosts. These analyses are revealing more accurate descriptions of the evolutionary dynamics that underpin the rapid adaptation of these viruses to the host response, and to drug therapies. This review assesses recent developments in methods and provide informative research examples using deep sequencing data generated from rapidly mutating viruses infecting humans, particularly hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Ebola virus and influenza virus, to understand the evolution of viral genomes and to explore the relationship between viral mutations and the host adaptive immune response. Finally, we discuss limitations in current technologies, and future directions that take advantage of publically available large deep sequencing datasets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of mutation analysis of the APC gene in the management of FAP patients. A controversial issue.

    PubMed

    Dodaro, Concetta; Grifasi, Carlo; Florio, Jole; Santangelo, Michele L; Duraturo, Francesca; De Rosa, Marina; Izzo, Paola; Renda, Andrea

    A correlation between the location of mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene and clinical manifestations of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has repeatedly been reported. Some Authors suggest the use of mutational analysis as a guide to select the best surgical option in FAP patients. However, data coming from studies on large series have raised questions on this issue. The aim of this study is to discuss the role of the genetic tests in the management of FAP. A literature review was performed considering only peer-reviewed articles published between 1991-2015. All the studies examined the role of genetic as a guide for surgical management of FAP. Of 363 articles identified, 21 were selected for full-text review. We found different positions with regard the use of genetic tests to determine surgical management of FAP. In particular, while consistent correlations between the APC mutation site and FAP phenotype were observed in large series, 8 studies reported a wide variation of genotypephenotype correlation in patients with the same mutation and they recommended that decisions regarding surgical strategy should be based not only on genotype but also on the clinical factors and the will of the patient who must be fully informed. The decision on the type and the timing of surgery should be based on the assessment of many factors and genotype assessment should be used in combination with clinical data. Disease severity, Familial adenomatous polyposis, Genetic tests, Genotype-phenotype correlations, Surgical management.

  10. Structural analysis of chromosomal rearrangements associated with the developmental mutations Ph, W19H, and Rw on mouse chromosome 5.

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, D L; Martin-DeLeon, P; Hough, R B; Bućan, M

    1994-01-01

    We are studying the chromosomal structure of three developmental mutations, dominant spotting (W), patch (Ph), and rump white (Rw) on mouse chromosome 5. These mutations are clustered in a region containing three genes encoding tyrosine kinase receptors (Kit, Pdgfra, and Flk1). Using probes for these genes and for a closely linked locus, D5Mn125, we established a high-resolution physical map covering approximately 2.8 Mb. The entire chromosomal segment mapped in this study is deleted in the W19H mutation. The map indicates the position of the Ph deletion, which encompasses not more than 400 kb around and including the Pdgfra gene. The map also places the distal breakpoint of the Rw inversion to a limited chromosomal segment between Kit and Pdgfra. In light of the structure of the Ph-W-Rw region, we interpret the previously published complementation analyses as indicating that the pigmentation defect in Rw/+ heterozygotes could be due to the disruption of Kit and/or Pdgfra regulatory sequences, whereas the gene(s) responsible for the recessive lethality of Rw/Rw embryos is not closely linked to the Ph and W loci and maps proximally to the W19H deletion. The structural analysis of chromosomal rearrangements associated with W19H, Ph, and Rw combined with the high-resolution physical mapping points the way toward the definition of these mutations in molecular terms and isolation of homologous genes on human chromosome 4. Images PMID:8041773

  11. Structure-based analysis of five novel disease-causing mutations in 21-hydroxylase-deficient patients.

    PubMed

    Minutolo, Carolina; Nadra, Alejandro D; Fernández, Cecilia; Taboas, Melisa; Buzzalino, Noemí; Casali, Bárbara; Belli, Susana; Charreau, Eduardo H; Alba, Liliana; Dain, Liliana

    2011-01-11

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent inborn error of metabolism, and accounts for 90-95% of CAH cases. The affected enzyme, P450C21, is encoded by the CYP21A2 gene, located together with a 98% nucleotide sequence identity CYP21A1P pseudogene, on chromosome 6p21.3. Even though most patients carry CYP21A1P-derived mutations, an increasing number of novel and rare mutations in disease causing alleles were found in the last years. In the present work, we describe five CYP21A2 novel mutations, p.R132C, p.149C, p.M283V, p.E431K and a frameshift g.2511_2512delGG, in four non-classical and one salt wasting patients from Argentina. All novel point mutations are located in CYP21 protein residues that are conserved throughout mammalian species, and none of them were found in control individuals. The putative pathogenic mechanisms of the novel variants were analyzed in silico. A three-dimensional CYP21 structure was generated by homology modeling and the protein design algorithm FoldX was used to calculate changes in stability of CYP21A2 protein. Our analysis revealed changes in protein stability or in the surface charge of the mutant enzymes, which could be related to the clinical manifestation found in patients.

  12. Structure-Based Analysis of Five Novel Disease-Causing Mutations in 21-Hydroxylase-Deficient Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Cecilia; Taboas, Melisa; Buzzalino, Noemí; Casali, Bárbara; Belli, Susana; Charreau, Eduardo H.; Alba, Liliana; Dain, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent inborn error of metabolism, and accounts for 90–95% of CAH cases. The affected enzyme, P450C21, is encoded by the CYP21A2 gene, located together with a 98% nucleotide sequence identity CYP21A1P pseudogene, on chromosome 6p21.3. Even though most patients carry CYP21A1P-derived mutations, an increasing number of novel and rare mutations in disease causing alleles were found in the last years. In the present work, we describe five CYP21A2 novel mutations, p.R132C, p.149C, p.M283V, p.E431K and a frameshift g.2511_2512delGG, in four non-classical and one salt wasting patients from Argentina. All novel point mutations are located in CYP21 protein residues that are conserved throughout mammalian species, and none of them were found in control individuals. The putative pathogenic mechanisms of the novel variants were analyzed in silico. A three-dimensional CYP21 structure was generated by homology modeling and the protein design algorithm FoldX was used to calculate changes in stability of CYP21A2 protein. Our analysis revealed changes in protein stability or in the surface charge of the mutant enzymes, which could be related to the clinical manifestation found in patients. PMID:21264314

  13. Molecular analysis of congenital goitres with hypothyroidism caused by defective thyroglobulin synthesis. Identification of a novel c.7006C>T [p.R2317X] mutation and expression of minigenes containing nonsense mutations in exon 7.

    PubMed

    Machiavelli, Gloria A; Caputo, Mariela; Rivolta, Carina M; Olcese, María C; Gruñeiro-Papendieck, Laura; Chiesa, Ana; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Targovnik, Héctor M

    2010-01-01

    Thyroglobulin (TG) deficiency is an autosomal-recessive disorder that results in thyroid dyshormonogenesis. A number of distinct mutations have been identified as causing human hypothyroid goitre. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize new mutations in the TG gene in an attempt to increase the understanding of the genetic mechanism responsible for this disorder. A total of six patients from four nonconsanguineous families with marked impairment of TG synthesis were studied. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, sequencing of DNA, genotyping, expression of chimeric minigenes and bioinformatic analysis were performed. Four different inactivating TG mutations were identified: one novel mutation (c.7006C>T [p.R2317X]) and three previously reported (c.886C>T [p.R277X], c.6701C>A [p.A2215D] and c.6725G>A [p.R2223H]). Consequently, one patient carried a compound heterozygous for p.R2223H/p.R2317X mutations; two brothers showed a homozygous p.A2215D substitution and the remaining three patients, from two families with typical phenotype, had a single p.R277X mutated allele. We also showed functional evidences that premature stop codons inserted at different positions in exon 7, which disrupt exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) sequences, do not interfere with exon definition and processing. In this study, we have identified a novel nonsense mutation p.R2317X in the acetylcholinesterase homology domain of TG. We have also observed that nonsense mutations do not interfere with the pre-mRNA splicing of exon 7. The results are in accordance with previous observations confirming the genetic heterogeneity of TG defects.

  14. p53 expression and mutation analysis of odontogenic cysts with and without dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Cox, Darren P

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of p53 protein is well described in odontogenic cystic lesions (OCLs), including those with epithelial dysplasia; however, most p53 antibodies stain both wild-type and mutated p53 protein and may not reflect genotype. Direct sequencing of the p53 gene has not identified mutations in OCLs with dysplasia. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular basis of p53 expression in several types of OCLs with and without dysplasia. The study material comprised 13 OCLs: odontogenic keratocyst (n = 5), orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (n = 5), dentigerous cyst (n = 2), lateral periodontal cyst (n = 1), and unspecified developmental odontogenic cyst (UDOC) (n = 1). Five of these had features of mild or moderate epithelial dysplasia. One intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that was believed to have arisen from an antecedent dysplastic orthokeratinized OC was also included. Immunohistochemistry was performed using the DO7 monoclonal antibody that recognizes wild-type and mutated p53. DNA was extracted from microdissected tissue for all samples and exons 4 to 8 of the p53 gene direct sequenced. In 4 of 5 OCLs with dysplasia there was strong nuclear staining of basal and suprabasal cells. In all cases without dysplasia, nuclear expression in basal cells was either negative or weak and was absent in suprabasal cell nuclei. A mutation in exon 6 of the p53 gene (E224D) was identified in both the dysplastic orthokeratinized OC and the subsequent intraosseous SCC. OCLs with features of dysplasia show increased expression of p53 protein that does not reflect p53 mutational status. One dysplastic OC shared the same p53 mutation with a subsequent intraosseous SCC, indicating that p53 mutation may be associated with malignant transformation in this case. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. In silico analysis of novel mutations in maple syrup urine disease patients from Iran.

    PubMed

    Abiri, Maryam; Karamzadeh, Razieh; Mojbafan, Marziyeh; Alaei, Mohammad Reza; Jodaki, Atefeh; Safi, Masomeh; Kianfar, Soodeh; Bandehi Sarhaddi, Ameneh; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad Reza; Karimipoor, Morteza; Zeinali, Sirous

    2017-02-01

    Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism. The disease is mainly caused by mutations either in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DBT or DLD genes encoding components of the E1α, E1β, E2 and E3 subunits of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), respectively. BCKDC is a mitochondrial enzyme which is responsible for the normal breakdown of BCAA. The rate of consanguineous marriage in Iran is 38.6 %, so the prevalence of autosomal recessive disorders is higher in comparison to other countries. Consanguinity increases the chance of the presence of pathogenic mutations in a homoallelic state. This phenomenon has made homozygosity mapping a powerful tool for finding the probable causative gene in heterogeneous disorders like IEM (Inborn Errors of Metabolism). In this study, two sets of multiplex polymorphic STR (Short Tandem Repeat) markers linked to the above-mentioned genes were selected to identify the probable pathogenic gene in the studied families. The families who showed a homozygous haplotype for the STR markers of the BCKDHB gene were subsequently sequenced. Four novel mutations including c.633 + 1G > A, c.988G > A, c.833_834insCAC, and a homozygous deletion of whole exon 3 c. (274 + 1_275-1) _(343 + 1_344-1), as well as one recently reported (c. 508G > T) mutation have been identified. Interestingly, three families shared a common haplotype structure along with the c. 508G > T mutation. Also, four other families revealed another similar haplotype with c.988G > A mutation. Founder effect can be a suggestive mechanism for the disease. Additionally, structural models of MSUD mutations have been performed to predict the pathogenesis of the newly identified variants.

  16. Molecular analysis of hprt mutations induced by chromium picolinate in CHO AA8 cells.

    PubMed

    Coryell, Virginia H; Stearns, Diane M

    2006-11-07

    Chromium picolinate (CrPic) is a popular dietary supplement, marketed to the public for weight loss, bodybuilding, and control of blood sugar. Recommendations for long-term use at high dosages have led to questions regarding its safety. Previous studies have reported that CrPic can cause chromosomal aberrations and mutations. The purpose of the current work was to compare the mutagenicity of CrPic as a suspension in acetone versus a solution in DMSO, and to characterize the hprt mutations induced by CrPic in CHO AA8 cells. Treatments of 2% acetone or 2% DMSO alone produced no significant increase in 6-thioguanine (6-TG)-resistant mutants after 48 h exposures. Mutants resistant to 6-TG were generated by exposing cells for 48 h to 80 microg/cm(2) CrPic in acetone or to 1.0mM CrPic in DMSO. CrPic in acetone produced an average induced mutation frequency (MF) of 56 per 10(6) surviving cells relative to acetone solvent. CrPic in acetone was 3.5-fold more mutagenic than CrPic in DMSO, which produced an MF of 16.2. Characterization of 61 total mutations in 48 mutants generated from exposure to CrPic in acetone showed that base substitutions comprised 33% of the mutations, with transversions being predominant; deletions made up 62% of the mutations, with one-exon deletions predominating; and 1-4 bp insertions made up 5% of the characterized