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Sample records for structure-guided mutational analysis

  1. Structure-guided mutational analysis of the OB, HhH, and BRCT domains of Escherichia coli DNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li Kai; Nair, Pravin A; Shuman, Stewart

    2008-08-22

    NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases (LigAs) are ubiquitous in bacteria and essential for growth. LigA enzymes have a modular structure in which a central catalytic core composed of nucleotidyltransferase and oligonucleotide-binding (OB) domains is linked via a tetracysteine zinc finger to distal helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) and BRCT (BRCA1-like C-terminal) domains. The OB and HhH domains contribute prominently to the protein clamp formed by LigA around nicked duplex DNA. Here we conducted a structure-function analysis of the OB and HhH domains of Escherichia coli LigA by alanine scanning and conservative substitutions, entailing 43 mutations at 22 amino acids. We thereby identified essential functional groups in the OB domain that engage the DNA phosphodiester backbone flanking the nick (Arg(333)); penetrate the minor grove and distort the nick (Val(383) and Ile(384)); or stabilize the OB fold (Arg(379)). The essential constituents of the HhH domain include: four glycines (Gly(455), Gly(489), Gly(521), Gly(553)), which bind the phosphate backbone across the minor groove at the outer margins of the LigA-DNA interface; Arg(487), which penetrates the minor groove at the outer margin on the 3 (R)-OH side of the nick; and Arg(446), which promotes protein clamp formation via contacts to the nucleotidyltransferase domain. We find that the BRCT domain is required in its entirety for effective nick sealing and AMP-dependent supercoil relaxation. PMID:18515356

  2. Structure-Guided Mutations in the Terminal Organelle Protein MG491 Cause Major Motility and Morphologic Alterations on Mycoplasma genitalium

    PubMed Central

    Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume; Fita, Ignacio; Calisto, Bárbara M.

    2016-01-01

    The emergent human pathogen Mycoplasma genitalium, with one of the smallest genomes among cells capable of growing in axenic cultures, presents a flask-shaped morphology due to a protrusion of the cell membrane, known as the terminal organelle, that is involved in cell adhesion and motility and is an important virulence factor of this microorganism. The terminal organelle is supported by a cytoskeleton complex of about 300 nm in length that includes three substructures: the terminal button, the rod and the wheel complex. The crystal structure of the MG491 protein, a proposed component of the wheel complex, has been determined at ~3 Å resolution. MG491 subunits are composed of a 60-residue N-terminus, a central three-helix-bundle spanning about 150 residues and a C-terminal region that appears to be quite flexible and contains the region that interacts with MG200, another key protein of the terminal organelle. The MG491 molecule is a tetramer presenting a unique organization as a dimer of asymmetric pairs of subunits. The asymmetric arrangement results in two very different intersubunit interfaces between the central three-helix-bundle domains, which correlates with the formation of only ~50% of the intersubunit disulfide bridges of the single cysteine residue found in MG491 (Cys87). Moreover, M. genitalium cells with a point mutation in the MG491 gene causing the change of Cys87 to Ser present a drastic reduction in motility (as determined by microcinematography) and important alterations in morphology (as determined by electron microscopy), while preserving normal levels of the terminal organelle proteins. Other variants of MG491, designed also according to the structural information, altered significantly the motility and/or the cell morphology. Together, these results indicate that MG491 plays a key role in the functioning, organization and stabilization of the terminal organelle. PMID:27082435

  3. Structure-Guided Mutations in the Terminal Organelle Protein MG491 Cause Major Motility and Morphologic Alterations on Mycoplasma genitalium.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Luca; García-Morales, Luis; Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume; Fita, Ignacio; Calisto, Bárbara M

    2016-04-01

    The emergent human pathogen Mycoplasma genitalium, with one of the smallest genomes among cells capable of growing in axenic cultures, presents a flask-shaped morphology due to a protrusion of the cell membrane, known as the terminal organelle, that is involved in cell adhesion and motility and is an important virulence factor of this microorganism. The terminal organelle is supported by a cytoskeleton complex of about 300 nm in length that includes three substructures: the terminal button, the rod and the wheel complex. The crystal structure of the MG491 protein, a proposed component of the wheel complex, has been determined at ~3 Å resolution. MG491 subunits are composed of a 60-residue N-terminus, a central three-helix-bundle spanning about 150 residues and a C-terminal region that appears to be quite flexible and contains the region that interacts with MG200, another key protein of the terminal organelle. The MG491 molecule is a tetramer presenting a unique organization as a dimer of asymmetric pairs of subunits. The asymmetric arrangement results in two very different intersubunit interfaces between the central three-helix-bundle domains, which correlates with the formation of only ~50% of the intersubunit disulfide bridges of the single cysteine residue found in MG491 (Cys87). Moreover, M. genitalium cells with a point mutation in the MG491 gene causing the change of Cys87 to Ser present a drastic reduction in motility (as determined by microcinematography) and important alterations in morphology (as determined by electron microscopy), while preserving normal levels of the terminal organelle proteins. Other variants of MG491, designed also according to the structural information, altered significantly the motility and/or the cell morphology. Together, these results indicate that MG491 plays a key role in the functioning, organization and stabilization of the terminal organelle. PMID:27082435

  4. Structure-guided mutational analysis of a yeast DEAD-box protein involved in mitochondrial RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Bifano, Abby L; Turk, Edward M; Caprara, Mark G

    2010-05-01

    DEAD-box proteins are RNA-dependent ATPase enzymes that have been implicated in nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism. Since many of these enzymes have been shown to possess common biochemical properties in vitro, including the ability to bind and hydrolyze ATP, to bind nucleic acid, and to promote helix unwinding, DEAD-box proteins are generally thought to modulate RNA structure in vivo. However, the extent to which these enzymatic properties are important for the in vivo functions of DEAD-box proteins remains unclear. To evaluate how these properties influence DEAD-box protein native function, we probed the importance of several highly conserved residues in the yeast DEAD-box protein Mss116p, which is required for the splicing of all mitochondrial catalytic introns in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using an MSS116 deletion strain, we have expressed plasmid-borne variants of MSS116 containing substitutions in residues predicted to be important for extensive networks of interactions required for ATP hydrolysis and helix unwinding. We have analyzed the importance of these residues to the splicing functions of Mss116p in vivo and compared these results with the biochemical properties of recombinant proteins determined here and in previously published work. We observed that the efficiency by which an Mss116p variant catalyzes ATP hydrolysis correlates with facilitating mitochondrial splicing, while efficient helix unwinding appears to be insufficient for splicing. In addition, we show that each splicing-defective variant affects the splicing of structurally diverse introns to the same degree. Together, these observations suggest that the efficiency by which Mss116p catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP is critical for all of its splicing functions in vivo. Given that ATP hydrolysis stimulates the recycling of DEAD-box proteins, these observations support a model in which enzyme turnover is a crucial factor in Mss116p splicing function. These results are discussed in the context of current models of Mss116p-facilitated splicing.

  5. Structure-Guided Mutational Analysis of a Yeast DEAD-box Protein Involved in Mitochondrial RNA Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Bifano, Abby L.; Turk, Edward M.; Caprara, Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary DEAD-box proteins are RNA-dependent ATPase enzymes that have been implicated in nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism. Since many of these enzymes have been shown to possess common biochemical properties in vitro, including the ability to bind and hydrolyze ATP, bind nucleic acid, and promote helix unwinding, DEAD-box proteins are generally thought to modulate RNA structure in vivo. However, the extent to which these enzymatic properties are important for the in vivo functions of DEAD-box proteins remains unclear. To evaluate how these properties influence DEAD-box protein native function, we probe the importance of several highly conserved residues in the yeast DEAD-box protein, Mss116p, which is required for the splicing of all mitochondrial catalytic introns in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a MSS116 deletion strain, we have expressed plasmid-borne variants of MSS116 containing substitutions in residues predicted to be important for extensive networks of interactions required for ATP hydrolysis and helix unwinding. We have analyzed the importance of these residues to the splicing functions of Mss116p in vivo and compared these results with the biochemical properties of recombinant proteins determined here and in previously published work. We observe that the efficiency by which an Mss116p variant catalyzes ATP hydrolysis correlates with facilitating mitochondrial splicing, while efficient helix unwinding appears to be insufficient for splicing. In addition, we show that each splicing-defective variant affects the splicing of structurally diverse introns to the same degree. Together, these observations suggest that the efficiency by which Mss116p catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP is critical for all of its splicing functions in vivo. Given that ATP hydrolysis stimulates the recycling of DEAD-box proteins, these observations support a model in which enzyme turnover is a crucial factor in Mss116p splicing function. These results are discussed in the context of current models of Mss116p-facilitated splicing. PMID:20307546

  6. Big Blue Transgenic Mouse lacl mutation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stiegler, G.L.; Stillwell, L.C. )

    1993-01-01

    In this report the authors describe a rapid general method for mutant blue plaque molecular analysis. The mutant analysis discussed here resulted from radon inhalation exposure. The described method circumvents Stratagene's plasmid isolation and ensuing sequence analysis of the entire lac1 gene. The authors have adapted the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis for localizing mutations within the lac1 coding region. Three overlapping PCR products of approximately 450 bp representing the entire lac1 coding region are used for SSCP analysis. Those PCR products with an altered SSCP electrophoretic migration focus the mutation to a smaller region of the lac1 gene that is analyzed by direct cycle sequencing. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Integrative visual analysis of protein sequence mutations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An important aspect of studying the relationship between protein sequence, structure and function is the molecular characterization of the effect of protein mutations. To understand the functional impact of amino acid changes, the multiple biological properties of protein residues have to be considered together. Results Here, we present a novel visual approach for analyzing residue mutations. It combines different biological visualizations and integrates them with molecular data derived from external resources. To show various aspects of the biological information on different scales, our approach includes one-dimensional sequence views, three-dimensional protein structure views and two-dimensional views of residue interaction networks as well as aggregated views. The views are linked tightly and synchronized to reduce the cognitive load of the user when switching between them. In particular, the protein mutations are mapped onto the views together with further functional and structural information. We also assess the impact of individual amino acid changes by the detailed analysis and visualization of the involved residue interactions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach and the developed software on the data provided for the BioVis 2013 data contest. Conclusions Our visual approach and software greatly facilitate the integrative and interactive analysis of protein mutations based on complementary visualizations. The different data views offered to the user are enriched with information about molecular properties of amino acid residues and further biological knowledge. PMID:25237389

  8. Spectrum of mutations and genotype-phenotype analysis in Noonan syndrome patients with RIT1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Yaoita, Masako; Niihori, Tetsuya; Mizuno, Seiji; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Hayashi, Shion; Watanabe, Atsushi; Yokozawa, Masato; Suzumura, Hiroshi; Nakahara, Akihiko; Nakano, Yusuke; Hokosaki, Tatsunori; Ohmori, Ayumi; Sawada, Hirofumi; Migita, Ohsuke; Mima, Aya; Lapunzina, Pablo; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; García-Miñaúr, Sixto; Ogata, Tsutomu; Kawame, Hiroshi; Kurosawa, Kenji; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Inoue, Shin-Ichi; Matsubara, Yoichi; Kure, Shigeo; Aoki, Yoko

    2016-02-01

    RASopathies are autosomal dominant disorders caused by mutations in more than 10 known genes that regulate the RAS/MAPK pathway. Noonan syndrome (NS) is a RASopathy characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, musculoskeletal abnormalities, and congenital heart defects. We have recently identified mutations in RIT1 in patients with NS. To delineate the clinical manifestations in RIT1 mutation-positive patients, we further performed a RIT1 analysis in RASopathy patients and identified 7 RIT1 mutations, including two novel mutations, p.A77S and p.A77T, in 14 of 186 patients. Perinatal abnormalities, including nuchal translucency, fetal hydrops, pleural effusion, or chylothorax and congenital heart defects, are observed in all RIT1 mutation-positive patients. Luciferase assays in NIH 3T3 cells demonstrated that the newly identified RIT1 mutants, including p.A77S and p.A77T, and the previously identified p.F82V, p.T83P, p.Y89H, and p.M90I, enhanced Elk1 transactivation. Genotype-phenotype correlation analyses of previously reported NS patients harboring RIT1, PTPN11, SOS1, RAF1, and KRAS revealed that hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (56 %) was more frequent in patients harboring a RIT1 mutation than in patients harboring PTPN11 (9 %) and SOS1 mutations (10 %). The rates of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were similar between patients harboring RIT1 mutations and patients harboring RAF1 mutations (75 %). Short stature (52 %) was less prevalent in patients harboring RIT1 mutations than in patients harboring PTPN11 (71 %) and RAF1 (83 %) mutations. These results delineate the clinical manifestations of RIT1 mutation-positive NS patients: high frequencies of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, atrial septal defects, and pulmonary stenosis; and lower frequencies of ptosis and short stature. PMID:26714497

  9. Pan-Cancer Analysis of Mutation Hotspots in Protein Domains.

    PubMed

    Miller, Martin L; Reznik, Ed; Gauthier, Nicholas P; Aksoy, Bülent Arman; Korkut, Anil; Gao, Jianjiong; Ciriello, Giovanni; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sander, Chris

    2015-09-23

    In cancer genomics, recurrence of mutations in independent tumor samples is a strong indicator of functional impact. However, rare functional mutations can escape detection by recurrence analysis owing to lack of statistical power. We enhance statistical power by extending the notion of recurrence of mutations from single genes to gene families that share homologous protein domains. Domain mutation analysis also sharpens the functional interpretation of the impact of mutations, as domains more succinctly embody function than entire genes. By mapping mutations in 22 different tumor types to equivalent positions in multiple sequence alignments of domains, we confirm well-known functional mutation hotspots, identify uncharacterized rare variants in one gene that are equivalent to well-characterized mutations in another gene, detect previously unknown mutation hotspots, and provide hypotheses about molecular mechanisms and downstream effects of domain mutations. With the rapid expansion of cancer genomics projects, protein domain hotspot analysis will likely provide many more leads linking mutations in proteins to the cancer phenotype. PMID:27135912

  10. Gigaxonin mutation analysis in patients with NIFID.

    PubMed

    Dequen, Florence; Cairns, Nigel J; Bigio, Eileen H; Julien, Jean-Pierre

    2011-08-01

    Neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID) is a frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) characterized by frontotemporal dementia (FTD), pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs. The disease is histologically characterized by the presence of abnormal neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) which contain α-internexin and other neuronal intermediate filament (IF) proteins. Gigaxonin (GAN) is a cytoskeletal regulating protein and the genetic cause of giant axonal neuropathy. Since the immunoreactive profile of NCIs in NIFID is similar to that observed in brain sections from Gan(Δex1/Δex1) mice, we speculated that GAN could be a candidate gene causing NIFID. Therefore, we performed a mutation analysis of GAN in NIFID patients. Although the NCIs of NIFID and Gan(Δex1/Δex1) mice were immunohistochemically similar, no GAN variant was identified in DNA obtained from well-characterized cases of NIFID. PMID:19782434

  11. Phenylketonuria mutation analysis in Northern Ireland: A rapid stepwise approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zschocke, J.; Graham, C.A.; Nevin, N.C.

    1995-12-01

    We present a multistep approach for the rapid analysis of phenylketonuria (PKU) mutations. In the first step, three common mutations and a polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) system are rapidly analyzed with a fluorescent multiplex assay. In the second step, minihaplotypes combining STR and VNTR data are used to determine rare mutations likely to be present in an investigated patient, which are then confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis. The remaining mutations are analyzed with denaturant gradient-gel electrophoresis and sequencing. The first two steps together identify both mutations in 90%-95% of PKU patients, and results can be obtained within 2 d. We have investigated 121 Northern Irish families with hyperphenylalaninemia, including virtually all patients born since 1972, and have found 34 different mutations on 241 of the 242 mutant alleles. Three mutations (R408W, 165T, and F39L) account for 57.5% of mutations, while 14 mutations occur with a frequency of 1%-6%. The present analysis system is efficient and inexpensive and is particularly well suited to routine mutation analysis in a diagnostic setting. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. Structure-guided Mutational Analysis of Gene Regulation by the Bacillus subtilis pbuE Adenine-responsive Riboswitch in a Cellular Context*

    PubMed Central

    Marcano-Velázquez, Joan G.; Batey, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Riboswitches are a broadly distributed form of RNA-based gene regulation in Bacteria and, more rarely, Archaea and Eukarya. Most often found in the 5′-leader sequence of bacterial mRNAs, they are generally composed of two functional domains: a receptor (aptamer) domain that binds an effector molecule and a regulatory domain (or expression platform) that instructs the expression machinery. One of the most studied riboswitches is the Bacillus subtilis adenine-responsive pbuE riboswitch, which regulates gene expression at the transcriptional level, up-regulating expression in response to increased intracellular effector concentrations. In this work, we analyzed sequence and structural elements that contribute to efficient ligand-dependent regulatory activity in a co-transcriptional and cellular context. Unexpectedly, we found that the P1 helix, which acts as the antitermination element of the switch in this RNA, supported ligand-dependent activation of a reporter gene over a broad spectrum of lengths from 3 to 10 bp. This same trend was also observed using a minimal in vitro single-turnover transcription assay, revealing that this behavior is intrinsic to the RNA sequence. We also found that the sequences at the distal tip of the terminator not directly involved in alternative secondary structure formation are highly important for efficient regulation. These data strongly support a model in which the switch is highly localized to the P1 helix adjacent to the ligand-binding pocket that likely presents a local kinetic block to invasion of the aptamer by the terminator. PMID:25550163

  13. Mutational analysis of patients with neurofibromatosis 2

    SciTech Connect

    MacCollin, M.; Ramesh, V.; Pulaski, K.; Trofatter, J.A.; Short, M.P.; Bove, C.; Jacoby, L.B.; Louis, D.N.; Rubio, M.P.; Eldridge, R.

    1994-08-01

    Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) is a genetic disorder characterized by the development of multiple nervous-system tumors in young adulthood. The NF2 gene has recently been isolated and found to encode a new member, merlin, of the protein 4.1 family of cytoskeleton-associated proteins. To define the molecular basis of NF2 in affected individuals, the authors have used SSCP analysis to scan the exons of the NF2 gene from 33 unrelated patients with NF2. Twenty unique SSCP variants were seen in 21 patients; 10 of these individuals were known to be the only affected person in their kindred, while 7 had at least one other known affected relative. In all cases in which family members were available, the SSCP variant segregated with the disease; comparison of sporadic cases with their parents confirmed the de novo variants. DNA sequence analysis revealed that 19 of the 20 variants observed are predicted to lead to a truncated protein due to frameshift, creation of a stop codon, or interference with normal RNA splicing. A single patient carried a 3-bp deletion removing a phenylalanine residue. The authors conclude that the majority of NF2 patients carry an inactivating mutation of the NF2 gene and that neutral polymorphism in the gene is rare. 18 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Mutation analysis of 28 gaucher disease patients: The Australasian experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, B.D.; Nelson, P.V.; Robertson, E.F.; Morris, C.P.

    1994-01-15

    Gaucher disease is the most common lysomal storage disease. It is an autosomal recessive disorder that results from a deficiency of {beta}-glucocerrebrosidase. Three clinical phenotypes have been described: non-neuronopathic, acute neuronopathic, and subacuteneuronopathic. Genomic DNA from 28 Australasian patients of diverse ethnic origin with Gaucher disease was screened for 3 common mutations (1226G, 1448C and 84GG) using the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), and one uncommon mutation (1504T) by restriction enzyme digestion. Thirty-eight of the 56 independent alleles in these patients were characterized, with 1448C present in 42% and 1226G in 28% of the alleles. The 1226G mutation was associated only with the nonneuronopathic phenotype and 7 of the 15 patients who carried the 1448C mutation developed neuronopathic disease. Three infants who died in the neonatal period following a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative course carried no identifiable mutations. The 84GG mutation was carried by 2 Jewish patients and 1504T was present in one patient. It is now possible to rapidly identify the common Gaucher mutations using ARMS and restriction enzyme digestion, and our findings confirm the heterogeneity of mutations in Gaucher disease. It is also possible to predict in part the phenotypic outcome when screening patients for these mutations. The authors consider mutation analysis to be of most use in prenatal diagnosis and for carrier detection within affected families. 27 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. DMD mutation spectrum analysis in 613 Chinese patients with dystrophinopathy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruolan; Zhu, Guosheng; Zhu, Huimin; Ma, Ruiyu; Peng, Ying; Liang, Desheng; Wu, Lingqian

    2015-08-01

    Dystrophinopathy is a group of inherited diseases caused by mutations in the DMD gene. Within the dystrophinopathy spectrum, Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies are common X-linked recessive disorders that mainly feature striated muscle necrosis. We combined multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification with Sanger sequencing to detect large deletions/duplications and point mutations in the DMD gene in 613 Chinese patients. A total of 571 (93.1%) patients were diagnosed, including 428 (69.8%) with large deletions/duplications and 143 (23.3%) with point mutations. Deletion/duplication breakpoints gathered mostly in introns 44-55. Reading frame rules could explain 88.6% of deletion mutations. We identified seventy novel point mutations that had not been previously reported. Spectrum expansion and genotype-phenotype analysis of DMD mutations on such a large sample size in Han Chinese population would provide new insights into the pathogenic mechanism underlying dystrophinopathies.

  16. PAH Mutation Analysis Consortium Database: 1997. Prototype for relational locus-specific mutation databases.

    PubMed Central

    Nowacki, P M; Byck, S; Prevost, L; Scriver, C R

    1998-01-01

    PAHdb (http://www.mcgill.ca/pahdb ) is a curated relational database (Fig. 1) of nucleotide variation in the human PAH cDNA (GenBank U49897). Among 328 different mutations by state (Fig. 2) the majority are rare mutations causing hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) (OMIM 261600), the remainder are polymorphic variants without apparent effect on phenotype. PAHdb modules contain mutations, polymorphic haplotypes, genotype-phenotype correlations, expression analysis, sources of information and the reference sequence; the database also contains pages of clinical information and data on three ENU mouse orthologues of human HPA. Only six different mutations account for 60% of human HPA chromosomes worldwide, mutations stratify by population and geographic region, and the Oriental and Caucasian mutation sets are different (Fig. 3). PAHdb provides curated electronic publication and one third of its incoming reports are direct submissions. Each different mutation receives a systematic (nucleotide) name and a unique identifier (UID). Data are accessed both by a Newsletter and a search engine on the website; integrity of the database is ensured by keeping the curated template offline. There have been >6500 online interrogations of the website. PMID:9399840

  17. Identification and functional analysis of novel THAP1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Katja; Uflacker, Nils; Erogullari, Alev; Lohnau, Thora; Winkler, Susen; Dendorfer, Andreas; Schneider, Susanne A; Osmanovic, Alma; Svetel, Marina; Ferbert, Andreas; Zittel, Simone; Kühn, Andrea A; Schmidt, Alexander; Altenmüller, Eckart; Münchau, Alexander; Kamm, Christoph; Wittstock, Matthias; Kupsch, Andreas; Moro, Elena; Volkmann, Jens; Kostic, Vladimir; Kaiser, Frank J; Klein, Christine; Brüggemann, Norbert

    2012-02-01

    Mutations in THAP1 have been associated with dystonia 6 (DYT6). THAP1 encodes a transcription factor that represses the expression of DYT1. To further evaluate the mutational spectrum of THAP1 and its associated phenotype, we sequenced THAP1 in 567 patients with focal (n = 461), segmental (n = 68), or generalized dystonia (n = 38). We identified 10 novel variants, including six missense substitutions within the DNA-binding Thanatos-associated protein domain (Arg13His, Lys16Glu, His23Pro, Lys24Glu, Pro26Leu, Ile80Val), a 1bp-deletion downstream of the nuclear localization signal (Asp191Thrfs*9), and three alterations in the untranslated regions. The effect of the missense variants was assessed using prediction tools and luciferase reporter gene assays. This indicated the Ile80Val substitution as a benign variant. The subcellular localization of Asp191Thrfs*9 suggests a disturbed nuclear import for this mutation. Thus, we consider six of the 10 novel variants as pathogenic mutations accounting for a mutation frequency of 1.1%. Mutation carriers presented mainly with early onset dystonia (<12 years in five of six patients). Symptoms started in an arm or neck and spread to become generalized in three patients or segmental in two patients. Speech was affected in four mutation carriers. In conclusion, THAP1 mutations are rare in unselected dystonia patients and functional analysis is necessary to distinguish between benign variants and pathogenic mutations. PMID:21847143

  18. Identification and functional analysis of novel THAP1 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Lohmann, Katja; Uflacker, Nils; Erogullari, Alev; Lohnau, Thora; Winkler, Susen; Dendorfer, Andreas; Schneider, Susanne A; Osmanovic, Alma; Svetel, Marina; Ferbert, Andreas; Zittel, Simone; Kühn, Andrea A; Schmidt, Alexander; Altenmüller, Eckart; Münchau, Alexander; Kamm, Christoph; Wittstock, Matthias; Kupsch, Andreas; Moro, Elena; Volkmann, Jens; Kostic, Vladimir; Kaiser, Frank J; Klein, Christine; Brüggemann, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in THAP1 have been associated with dystonia 6 (DYT6). THAP1 encodes a transcription factor that represses the expression of DYT1. To further evaluate the mutational spectrum of THAP1 and its associated phenotype, we sequenced THAP1 in 567 patients with focal (n=461), segmental (n=68), or generalized dystonia (n=38). We identified 10 novel variants, including six missense substitutions within the DNA-binding Thanatos-associated protein domain (Arg13His, Lys16Glu, His23Pro, Lys24Glu, Pro26Leu, Ile80Val), a 1bp-deletion downstream of the nuclear localization signal (Asp191Thrfs*9), and three alterations in the untranslated regions. The effect of the missense variants was assessed using prediction tools and luciferase reporter gene assays. This indicated the Ile80Val substitution as a benign variant. The subcellular localization of Asp191Thrfs*9 suggests a disturbed nuclear import for this mutation. Thus, we consider six of the 10 novel variants as pathogenic mutations accounting for a mutation frequency of 1.1%. Mutation carriers presented mainly with early onset dystonia (<12 years in five of six patients). Symptoms started in an arm or neck and spread to become generalized in three patients or segmental in two patients. Speech was affected in four mutation carriers. In conclusion, THAP1 mutations are rare in unselected dystonia patients and functional analysis is necessary to distinguish between benign variants and pathogenic mutations. PMID:21847143

  19. Molecular analysis of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA: Common mutations and racial difference

    SciTech Connect

    Tomatsu, S.; Hori, T.; Nakashima, Y.

    1994-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in N-acetylgalactosamine -6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). Studies on the molecular basis of MPS IVA have been facilitated following cloning of the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA. In this study we detected mutations from 20 Caucasian and 19 Japanese MPS IVA patients using SSCP system and compared mutations of Caucasian origin with those of Japanese origin. The results showed the presence of 16 various mutations (3 small, deletions, 2 nonsense and 11 missense mutations) for Caucasian patients and 15 (1 deletion, 1 large alteration and 13 missense mutations) for Japanese. Moreover, two common mutations existed; one is double gene deletion characteristic for Japanese (6 alleles; 15%) and the other is a point mutation (1113F A{yields}T transition) characteristic for Caucasian (9 alleles; 22.5%). And the clear genotype/phenotype relationship among 1342delCA, IVS1(-2), P151S, Q148X, R386C, I113F, Q473X, W220G, P151L, A291T, R90W, and P77R, for a severe type, G96B N204K and V138A for a milder type, was observed. Only R386 mutation was seen in both of the populations. Further, the precise DNA analysis for double gene deletion of a common double gene deletion has been performed by defining the breakpoints and the results showed that one deletion was caused by homologous recombination due to Alu repetitive sequences and the other was due to nonhomologous recombination of short direct repeat. Haplotype analysis for six alleles with double deletion were different, indicating the different origin of this mutation or the frequent recombination events before a mutational event. Thus the mutations in GALNS gene are very heterogeneous and the racial difference is characteristic.

  20. Mutational Analysis of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Erstad, Derek J.; Cusack, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine malignancy that is associated with a poor prognosis. The pathogenesis of MCC is not well understood, and despite a recent plethora of mutational analyses, we have yet to find a set of signature mutations implicated in the majority of cases. Mutations, including TP53, Retinoblastoma and PIK3CA, have been documented in subsets of patients. Other mechanisms are also likely at play, including infection with the Merkel cell polyomavirus in a subset of patients, dysregulated immune surveillance, epigenetic alterations, aberrant protein expression, posttranslational modifications and microRNAs. In this review, we summarize what is known about MCC genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities, and their clinical significance. We also examine aberrant protein function and microRNA expression, and discuss the therapeutic and prognostic implications of these findings. Multiple clinical trials designed to selectively target overexpressed oncogenes in MCC are currently underway, though most are still in early phases. As we accumulate more molecular data on MCC, we will be better able to understand its pathogenic mechanisms, develop libraries of targeted therapies, and define molecular prognostic signatures to enhance our clinicopathologic knowledge. PMID:25329450

  1. RPGR mutation analysis and disease: an update.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xinhua; Black, Graeme C; Rice, Jacqueline M; Hart-Holden, Niki; Jones, Alison; O'Grady, Anna; Ramsden, Simon; Wright, Alan F

    2007-04-01

    Mutations in the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) gene are the most common single cause of retinitis pigmentosa, accounting for up to 15 to 20% of cases in Caucasians. A total of 240 different RPGR mutations have been reported, including 24 novel ones in this work, which are associated with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) (95%), cone, cone-rod dystrophy, or atrophic macular atrophy (3%), and syndromal retinal dystrophies with ciliary dyskinesia and hearing loss (2%). All disease-causing mutations occur in one or more RPGR isoforms containing the carboxyl-terminal exon open reading frame 15 (ORF15), which are widely expressed but show their highest expression in the connecting cilia of rod and cone photoreceptors. Of reported RPGR mutations, 55% occur in a glutamic acid-rich domain within exon ORF15, which accounts for only 31% of the protein. RPGR forms complexes with a variety of other proteins and appears to have a role in microtubular organization and transport between photoreceptor inner and outer segments.

  2. Mutational Spectrum Analysis of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Its Pathogenic Implication.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2015-10-14

    One of the most conspicuous features of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) is the occurrence of dramatic conformation change of individual proteins. We performed a mutational spectrum analysis of disease-causing missense mutations in seven types of NDs at nucleotide and amino acid levels, and compared the results with those of non-NDs. The main findings included: (i) The higher mutation ratio of G:C→T:A transversion to G:C→A:T transition was observed in NDs than in non-NDs, interpreting the excessive guanine-specific oxidative DNA damage in NDs; (ii) glycine and proline had highest mutability in NDs than in non-NDs, which favor the protein conformation change in NDs; (iii) surprisingly low mutation frequency of arginine was observed in NDs. These findings help to understand how mutations may cause NDs.

  3. Structure-guided sequence specificity engineering of the modification-dependent restriction endonuclease LpnPI.

    PubMed

    Sasnauskas, Giedrius; Zagorskaitė, Evelina; Kauneckaitė, Kotryna; Tamulaitiene, Giedre; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2015-07-13

    The eukaryotic Set and Ring Associated (SRA) domains and structurally similar DNA recognition domains of prokaryotic cytosine modification-dependent restriction endonucleases recognize methylated, hydroxymethylated or glucosylated cytosine in various sequence contexts. Here, we report the apo-structure of the N-terminal SRA-like domain of the cytosine modification-dependent restriction enzyme LpnPI that recognizes modified cytosine in the 5'-C(mC)DG-3' target sequence (where mC is 5-methylcytosine or 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and D = A/T/G). Structure-guided mutational analysis revealed LpnPI residues involved in base-specific interactions and demonstrated binding site plasticity that allowed limited target sequence degeneracy. Furthermore, modular exchange of the LpnPI specificity loops by structural equivalents of related enzymes AspBHI and SgrTI altered sequence specificity of LpnPI. Taken together, our results pave the way for specificity engineering of the cytosine modification-dependent restriction enzymes.

  4. Polygenic mutation in Droosophila melanogaster: Genetic analysis of selection lines

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, J.D.; deRonde, K.A.; Mackay, T.F.C.

    1995-03-01

    The authors have conducted genetic analyses of 12 long-term selection lines of Drosophila melanogaster derived from a highly inbred base population, containing new mutations affecting abdominal and sternopleural bristle number. Biometric analysis of the number of effective factors differentiating the selected lines from the base inbred indicated that with the exception of the three lines selected for increased number of abdominal bristles, three or more mutations contributed to the responses of the selection lines. Analysis of the chromosomal distribution of effects revealed that mutations affecting abdominal bristle number occurred on all three major chromosomes. In addition, Y-linked mutations with effects ranging from one to three bristles occurred in all three lines selected for decreased number of abdominal bristles, as well as in one line selected for increased abdominal bristle number. Mutations affecting sternopleural bristle number were mainly on the X and third chromosomes. One abdominal and one sternopleural selection line showed evidence of a segregating lethal with large effects on bristle number. As an indirect test for allelism of mutations occurring in different selection lines, the three lines selected in the same direction for the same trait were crossed in all possible combinations, and selection continued from the F{sub 2} hybrides. Responses of the hybrid lines usually did not exceed those of the most extreme parental lines, indicating that the responses of the parental lines may have been partly due to mutations at the same loci, although other interpretations are possible.

  5. Patient-oriented gene set analysis for cancer mutation data.

    PubMed

    Boca, Simina M; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Velculescu, Victor E; Vogelstein, Bert; Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has revealed complex heterogeneous genomic landscapes in human cancers. However, mutations tend to occur within a core group of pathways and biological processes that can be grouped into gene sets. To better understand the significance of these pathways, we have developed an approach that initially scores each gene set at the patient rather than the gene level. In mutation analysis, these patient-oriented methods are more transparent, interpretable, and statistically powerful than traditional gene-oriented methods.

  6. Structural and mutational analysis of archaeal ATP-dependent RNA ligase identifies amino acids required for RNA binding and catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Huiqiong; Yoshinari, Shigeo; Ghosh, Raka; Ignatochkina, Anna V.; Gollnick, Paul D.; Murakami, Katsuhiko S.; Ho, C. Kiong

    2016-01-01

    An ATP-dependent RNA ligase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (MthRnl) catalyzes intramolecular ligation of single-stranded RNA to form a closed circular RNA via covalent ligase-AMP and RNA-adenylylate intermediate. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of an MthRnl•ATP complex as well as the covalent MthRnl–AMP intermediate. We also performed structure-guided mutational analysis to survey the functions of 36 residues in three component steps of the ligation pathway including ligase-adenylylation (step 1), RNA adenylylation (step 2) and phosphodiester bond synthesis (step 3). Kinetic analysis underscored the importance of motif 1a loop structure in promoting phosphodiester bond synthesis. Alanine substitutions of Thr117 or Arg118 favor the reverse step 2 reaction to deadenylate the 5′-AMP from the RNA-adenylate, thereby inhibiting step 3 reaction. Tyr159, Phe281 and Glu285, which are conserved among archaeal ATP-dependent RNA ligases and are situated on the surface of the enzyme, are required for RNA binding. We propose an RNA binding interface of the MthRnl based on the mutational studies and two sulfate ions that co-crystallized at the active site cleft in the MthRnl–AMP complex. PMID:26896806

  7. Comprehensive mutational analysis of primary and relapse acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Madan, V; Shyamsunder, P; Han, L; Mayakonda, A; Nagata, Y; Sundaresan, J; Kanojia, D; Yoshida, K; Ganesan, S; Hattori, N; Fulton, N; Tan, K-T; Alpermann, T; Kuo, M-C; Rostami, S; Matthews, J; Sanada, M; Liu, L-Z; Shiraishi, Y; Miyano, S; Chendamarai, E; Hou, H-A; Malnassy, G; Ma, T; Garg, M; Ding, L-W; Sun, Q-Y; Chien, W; Ikezoe, T; Lill, M; Biondi, A; Larson, R A; Powell, B L; Lübbert, M; Chng, W J; Tien, H-F; Heuser, M; Ganser, A; Koren-Michowitz, M; Kornblau, S M; Kantarjian, H M; Nowak, D; Hofmann, W-K; Yang, H; Stock, W; Ghavamzadeh, A; Alimoghaddam, K; Haferlach, T; Ogawa, S; Shih, L-Y; Mathews, V; Koeffler, H P

    2016-08-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of myeloid leukemia characterized by differentiation block at the promyelocyte stage. Besides the presence of chromosomal rearrangement t(15;17), leading to the formation of PML-RARA (promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha) fusion, other genetic alterations have also been implicated in APL. Here, we performed comprehensive mutational analysis of primary and relapse APL to identify somatic alterations, which cooperate with PML-RARA in the pathogenesis of APL. We explored the mutational landscape using whole-exome (n=12) and subsequent targeted sequencing of 398 genes in 153 primary and 69 relapse APL. Both primary and relapse APL harbored an average of eight non-silent somatic mutations per exome. We observed recurrent alterations of FLT3, WT1, NRAS and KRAS in the newly diagnosed APL, whereas mutations in other genes commonly mutated in myeloid leukemia were rarely detected. The molecular signature of APL relapse was characterized by emergence of frequent mutations in PML and RARA genes. Our sequencing data also demonstrates incidence of loss-of-function mutations in previously unidentified genes, ARID1B and ARID1A, both of which encode for key components of the SWI/SNF complex. We show that knockdown of ARID1B in APL cell line, NB4, results in large-scale activation of gene expression and reduced in vitro differentiation potential. PMID:27063598

  8. Comprehensive mutational analysis of primary and relapse acute promyelocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Madan, V; Shyamsunder, P; Han, L; Mayakonda, A; Nagata, Y; Sundaresan, J; Kanojia, D; Yoshida, K; Ganesan, S; Hattori, N; Fulton, N; Tan, K-T; Alpermann, T; Kuo, M-C; Rostami, S; Matthews, J; Sanada, M; Liu, L-Z; Shiraishi, Y; Miyano, S; Chendamarai, E; Hou, H-A; Malnassy, G; Ma, T; Garg, M; Ding, L-W; Sun, Q-Y; Chien, W; Ikezoe, T; Lill, M; Biondi, A; Larson, R A; Powell, B L; Lübbert, M; Chng, W J; Tien, H-F; Heuser, M; Ganser, A; Koren-Michowitz, M; Kornblau, S M; Kantarjian, H M; Nowak, D; Hofmann, W-K; Yang, H; Stock, W; Ghavamzadeh, A; Alimoghaddam, K; Haferlach, T; Ogawa, S; Shih, L-Y; Mathews, V; Koeffler, H P

    2016-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of myeloid leukemia characterized by differentiation block at the promyelocyte stage. Besides the presence of chromosomal rearrangement t(15;17), leading to the formation of PML-RARA (promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha) fusion, other genetic alterations have also been implicated in APL. Here, we performed comprehensive mutational analysis of primary and relapse APL to identify somatic alterations, which cooperate with PML-RARA in the pathogenesis of APL. We explored the mutational landscape using whole-exome (n=12) and subsequent targeted sequencing of 398 genes in 153 primary and 69 relapse APL. Both primary and relapse APL harbored an average of eight non-silent somatic mutations per exome. We observed recurrent alterations of FLT3, WT1, NRAS and KRAS in the newly diagnosed APL, whereas mutations in other genes commonly mutated in myeloid leukemia were rarely detected. The molecular signature of APL relapse was characterized by emergence of frequent mutations in PML and RARA genes. Our sequencing data also demonstrates incidence of loss-of-function mutations in previously unidentified genes, ARID1B and ARID1A, both of which encode for key components of the SWI/SNF complex. We show that knockdown of ARID1B in APL cell line, NB4, results in large-scale activation of gene expression and reduced in vitro differentiation potential. PMID:27063598

  9. FRAXE mutation analysis in three Spanish families

    SciTech Connect

    Carbonell, P.; Lopez, I.; Gabarron, J.

    1996-08-09

    Very little is known about the phenotype of FRAXE-positive individuals and the relation between the genotype/phenotype and genotype/cytogenetic expression. We describe three families with normal and mildly affected individuals and a severely retarded male expressing fragility at the FRAXE locus or presenting different expansions at the CGG FRAXE triplet. In addition, we analyze the FRAXE mutation in sperm DNA from a retarded male carrier with a handicapped daughter expressing fragility at the FRAXE locus. Mental status in FRAXE individuals is highly variable and, although mild mental retardation is observed in most cases, several carrier males are apparently normal. It seems that methylation is not as strictly associated with size of CGG triplets in the FRAXE locus as in FRAXA, and it is possible that normal carrier individuals with fully methylated increments in lymphocytes have a certain proportion of unmethylated alleles in the critical (i.e., neural) tissues. FRAXE mutation is apparently similar to FRAXA in that males with somatic large methylated increments are carriers of small unmethylated ones in germinal cells. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Analysis of 16 cystic fibrosis mutations in Mexican patients

    SciTech Connect

    Villalobos-Torres, C.; Rojas-Martinez, A.; Barrera-Saldana, H.A.

    1997-04-14

    We carried out molecular analysis of 80 chromosomes from 40 unrelated Mexican patients with a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. The study was performed in two PCR steps: a preliminary one to identify mutation AF508, the most frequent cause of cystic fibrosis worldwide, and the second a reverse dot-blot with allele-specific oligonucleotide probes to detect 15 additional common mutations in the Caucasian population. A frequency of 45% for AF508 was found, making it the most common in our sample of Mexican patients. Another five mutations (G542X, 3849 + 10 kb C{r_arrow}T, N1303K, S549N, and 621 + 1 G{r_arrow}T) were detected, and these accounted for 11.25%. The remaining mutations (43.75%) were undetectable with the methodology used. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Analysis of any point mutation in DNA. The amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS).

    PubMed Central

    Newton, C R; Graham, A; Heptinstall, L E; Powell, S J; Summers, C; Kalsheker, N; Smith, J C; Markham, A F

    1989-01-01

    We have improved the "polymerase chain reaction" (PCR) to permit rapid analysis of any known mutation in genomic DNA. We demonstrate a system, ARMS (Amplification Refractory Mutation System), that allows genotyping solely by inspection of reaction mixtures after agarose gel electrophoresis. The system is simple, reliable and non-isotopic. It will clearly distinguish heterozygotes at a locus from homozygotes for either allele. The system requires neither restriction enzyme digestion, allele-specific oligonucleotides as conventionally applied, nor the sequence analysis of PCR products. The basis of the invention is that unexpectedly, oligonucleotides with a mismatched 3'-residue will not function as primers in the PCR under appropriate conditions. We have analysed DNA from patients with alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, from carriers of the disease and from normal individuals. Our findings are in complete agreement with allele assignments derived by direct sequencing of PCR products. Images PMID:2785681

  12. Mutational analysis of the human MAOA gene

    SciTech Connect

    Tivol, E.A.; Shalish, C.; Schuback, D.E.; Breakefield, X.O.; Hsu, Yun-Pung

    1996-02-16

    The monoamine oxidases (MAO-A and MAO-B) are the enzymes primarily responsible for the degradation of amine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. Wide variations in activity of these isozymes have been reported in control humans. The MAOA and MAOB genes are located next to each other in the p11.3-11.4 region of the human X chromosome. Our recent documentation of an MAO-A-deficiency state, apparently associated with impulsive aggressive behavior in males, has focused attention on genetic variations in the MAOA gene. In the present study, variations in the coding sequence of the MAOA gene were evaluated by RT-PCR, SSCP, and sequencing of mRNA or genomic DNA in 40 control males with >100-fold variations in MAOA activity, as measured in cultured skin fibroblasts. Remarkable conservation of the coding sequence was found, with only 5 polymorphisms observed. All but one of these were in the third codon position and thus did not alter the deduced amino acid sequence. The one amino acid alteration observed, lys{r_arrow}arg, was neutral and should not affect the structure of the protein. This study demonstrates high conservation of coding sequence in the human MAOA gene in control males, and provides primer sets which can be used to search genomic DNA for mutations in this gene in males with neuropsychiatric conditions. 47 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. The Energy Landscape Analysis of Cancer Mutations in Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Anshuman; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2011-01-01

    The growing interest in quantifying the molecular basis of protein kinase activation and allosteric regulation by cancer mutations has fueled computational studies of allosteric signaling in protein kinases. In the present study, we combined computer simulations and the energy landscape analysis of protein kinases to characterize the interplay between oncogenic mutations and locally frustrated sites as important catalysts of allostetric kinase activation. While structurally rigid kinase core constitutes a minimally frustrated hub of the catalytic domain, locally frustrated residue clusters, whose interaction networks are not energetically optimized, are prone to dynamic modulation and could enable allosteric conformational transitions. The results of this study have shown that the energy landscape effect of oncogenic mutations may be allosteric eliciting global changes in the spatial distribution of highly frustrated residues. We have found that mutation-induced allosteric signaling may involve a dynamic coupling between structurally rigid (minimally frustrated) and plastic (locally frustrated) clusters of residues. The presented study has demonstrated that activation cancer mutations may affect the thermodynamic equilibrium between kinase states by allosterically altering the distribution of locally frustrated sites and increasing the local frustration in the inactive form, while eliminating locally frustrated sites and restoring structural rigidity of the active form. The energy landsape analysis of protein kinases and the proposed role of locally frustrated sites in activation mechanisms may have useful implications for bioinformatics-based screening and detection of functional sites critical for allosteric regulation in complex biomolecular systems. PMID:21998754

  14. Mutation analysis in 600 French cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier-Porst, F; Bonardot, A M; Gilly, R; Chazalette, J P; Mathieu, M; Bozon, D

    1994-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene of 600 unrelated cystic fibrosis (CF) patients living in France (excluding Brittany) was screened for 105 different mutations. This analysis resulted in the identification of 86% of the CF alleles and complete genotyping of 76% of the patients. The most frequent mutations in this population after delta F508 (69% of the CF chromosomes) are G542X (3.3%), N1303K (1.8%), W1282X (1.5%), 1717-1G-->A (1.3%), 2184delA + 2183 A-->G (0.9%), and R553X (0.8%). Images PMID:7525963

  15. Analysis of APC mutation in human ameloblastoma and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Liu, Bing; Sui, Chengguang; Jiang, Youhong

    2016-01-01

    As a highly conserved signaling pathway, Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction pathway plays an important role in many processes. Either in the occurrence or development of tumor, activation of this pathway takes an important place. APC inhibits Wnt/β-catenin pathway to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. This study aimed to investigate the function of cancer suppressor gene. PCR amplification and sequencing method was used to analyze APC mutations of human clinical specimens. The pathological specimens were collected for PCR and clear electrophoretic bands were obtained after electrophoresis. The gene sequence obtained after purification and sequencing analysis was compared with the known APC gene sequence (NM_000038.5). Base mutations at APC 1543 (T → C), APC-4564 (G → A), APC-5353 (T → G), APC-5550 (T → A) and APC-5969 (G → A) locus existed in 22 (27.5 %), 12 (15 %), 5 (6.25 %), 13 (16.25 %) and 12 patients (15 %), respectively. Gene mutations existed in ameloblastoma, and the mutation loci were 1543 locus (T → C), 4564 locus (G → A), 5353 locus (T → G), 5550 locus (T → A) and 5969 locus (G → A) 15 %, respectively. APC mutation plays a certain role in monitoring the tumor malignant degree as it may indicate the transition process of ameloblastoma malignant phenotype. PMID:27065015

  16. Linkage and mutation analysis of Thomsen and Becker myotonia families

    SciTech Connect

    Koty, P.P.; Pegoraro, E.; Hoffman, E.P.

    1994-09-01

    Thomsen (autosomal dominant) and Becker (autosomal recessive) myotonias are characterized by the inability for muscle relaxation after voluntary, mechanical, or electrical stimulation. Families with both diseases have been linked to the skeletal muscle chloride channel (CLC1) on chromosome 7q35; however, only 2 gene mutations have been identified, and the reasons underlying the alternative dominant or recessive inheritance are not clear. We used linkage analysis and SSCP of 23 exons to screen 8 families (56 individuals) and 7 isolated cases with the diagnosis of Thomsen/Becker myotonia. A novel mutation (1290M) in exon 8 was detected in a family with Thomsen disease. Three additional families showed the previously described G230E change. Thus, chloride channel mutations could be identified in 4/5 families showing dominant inheritance. We were able to exclude linkage to the CLC1 gene in the fifth family. In patients with recessive Becker disease, an isolated case had two unique conformers, one causing a novel A437T change in exon 12. We also identified the previously reported F413C change in a second family. We found significant differences in the clinical picture between families with different mutations but also in families with the same mutation. Our data indicates that DNA studies are critical for correct diagnosis of the myotonias.

  17. A mutational analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans in space.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Lai, Kenneth; Cheung, Iris; Youds, Jillian; Tarailo, Maja; Tarailo, Sanja; Rose, Ann

    2006-10-10

    The International Caenorhabditis elegans Experiment First Flight (ICE-First) was a project using C. elegans as a model organism to study the biological effects of short duration spaceflight (11 days in the International Space Station). As a member of the ICE-First research team, our group focused on the mutational effects of spaceflight. Several approaches were taken to measure mutational changes that occurred during the spaceflight including measurement of the integrity of poly-G/poly-C tracts, determination of the mutation frequency in the unc-22 gene, analysis of lethal mutations captured by the genetic balancer eT1(III;V), and identification of alterations in telomere length. By comparing the efficiency, sensitivity, and convenience of these methods, we deduced that the eT1 balancer system is well-suited for capturing, maintaining and recovering mutational events that occur over several generations during spaceflight. In the course of this experiment, we have extended the usefulness of the eT1 balancer system by identifying the physical breakpoints of the eT1 translocation and have developed a PCR assay to follow the eT1 chromosomes. C. elegans animals were grown in a defined liquid media during the spaceflight. This is the first analysis of genetic changes in C. elegans grown in the defined media. Although no significant difference in mutation rate was detected between spaceflight and control samples, which is not surprising given the short duration of the spaceflight, we demonstrate here the utility of worms as an integrating biological dosimeter for spaceflight. PMID:16765996

  18. Mutational analysis of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) gene in Japanese ALD patients

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, R.; Onodera, O.; Tabe, H.

    1994-09-01

    Recently a putative ALD gene containing a striking homology with peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) has been identified. Besides childhood ALD, various clinical phenotypes have been identified with the onset in adolescence or adulthood (adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), adult cerebral ALD or cerebello-brainstem dominant type). The different clinical phenotypes occasionally coexist even in the same family. To investigate if there is a correlation between the clinical phenotypes and genotypes of the mutations in the ALD gene, we have analyzed 43 Japanese ALD patients. By Southern blot analysis, we identified non-overlapping deletions of 0.5 kb to 10.4 kb involving the ALD gene in 3 patients with adult onset cerebello-brainstem dominant type. By detailed direct sequence analysis, we found 4 patients who had point mutations in the coding region. An AMN patient had a point mutation leading to {sup 266}Gly{r_arrow}Arg change, and another patient with adult cerebral ALD had a 3 bp deletion resulting in the loss of glutamic acid at codon 291, which is a conserved amino acid both in ALD protein and PMP70. Two patients with childhood ALD had point mutations leading to {sup 507}Gly{r_arrow}Val, and {sup 518}Arg{r_arrow}Gln, respectively. Since amino acids from 507 to 520 are highly conserved as ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins, mutations in this region are expected to result in dramatic changes of the function of this protein. Although there is a tendancy for mutation in childhood ALD to be present within the ATP-binding site motif, we found two adult patients who had large deletions involving the region. Taken together, strong correlation between genotypes and clinical phenotypes is unlikely to exist, and some other modifying factors might well play an important role for the clinical manifestations of ALD.

  19. A mutational analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans in space.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Lai, Kenneth; Cheung, Iris; Youds, Jillian; Tarailo, Maja; Tarailo, Sanja; Rose, Ann

    2006-10-10

    The International Caenorhabditis elegans Experiment First Flight (ICE-First) was a project using C. elegans as a model organism to study the biological effects of short duration spaceflight (11 days in the International Space Station). As a member of the ICE-First research team, our group focused on the mutational effects of spaceflight. Several approaches were taken to measure mutational changes that occurred during the spaceflight including measurement of the integrity of poly-G/poly-C tracts, determination of the mutation frequency in the unc-22 gene, analysis of lethal mutations captured by the genetic balancer eT1(III;V), and identification of alterations in telomere length. By comparing the efficiency, sensitivity, and convenience of these methods, we deduced that the eT1 balancer system is well-suited for capturing, maintaining and recovering mutational events that occur over several generations during spaceflight. In the course of this experiment, we have extended the usefulness of the eT1 balancer system by identifying the physical breakpoints of the eT1 translocation and have developed a PCR assay to follow the eT1 chromosomes. C. elegans animals were grown in a defined liquid media during the spaceflight. This is the first analysis of genetic changes in C. elegans grown in the defined media. Although no significant difference in mutation rate was detected between spaceflight and control samples, which is not surprising given the short duration of the spaceflight, we demonstrate here the utility of worms as an integrating biological dosimeter for spaceflight.

  20. Mutation analysis in patients with Wilson disease: identification of 4 novel mutations. Mutation in brief no. 250. Online.

    PubMed

    Haas, R; Gutierrez-Rivero, B; Knoche, J; Böker, K; Manns, M P; Schmidt, H H

    1999-01-01

    In order to obtain novel mutations in the recently discovered Wilson disease gene, we screened 5 unrelated German individuals for mutations in the 21 exons and their flanking intronic sequences. We detected 9 mutations affecting the Wilson disease gene. Four of those, designated 802-808delTGTAAGT, 2008-2013delTATATG, Cys985Thr, and Ile1148Thr have not yet been reported. One patient had a homozygous mutation whereas the remaining four subjects were compound heterozygous. Therefore these data confirm, that mutations causing Wilson disease are frequently found in affected subjects and they are very heterogenous. PMID:10447265

  1. Biomedical Mutation Analysis (BMA): A software tool for analyzing mutations associated with antiviral resistance

    PubMed Central

    Salvatierra, Karina; Florez, Hector

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered a major public health problem, with 200 million people infected worldwide. The treatment for HCV chronic infection with pegylated interferon alpha plus ribavirin inhibitors is unspecific; consequently, the treatment is effective in only 50% of patients infected. This has prompted the development of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) that target virus proteins. These DAA have demonstrated a potent effect in vitro and in vivo; however, virus mutations associated with the development of resistance have been described. Objective: To design and develop an online information system for detecting mutations in amino acids known to be implicated in resistance to DAA. Materials and methods:    We have used computer applications, technological tools, standard languages, infrastructure systems and algorithms, to analyze positions associated with resistance to DAA for the NS3, NS5A, and NS5B genes of HCV. Results: We have designed and developed an online information system named Biomedical Mutation Analysis (BMA), which allows users to calculate changes in nucleotide and amino acid sequences for each selected sequence from conventional Sanger and cloning sequencing using a graphical interface. Conclusion: BMA quickly, easily and effectively analyzes mutations, including complete documentation and examples. Furthermore, the development of different visualization techniques allows proper interpretation and understanding of the results. The data obtained using BMA will be useful for the assessment and surveillance of HCV resistance to new antivirals, and for the treatment regimens by selecting those DAA to which the virus is not resistant, avoiding unnecessary treatment failures. The software is available at: http://bma.itiud.org. PMID:27547378

  2. Analysis of gene mutations among South Indian patients with maple syrup urine disease: identification of four novel mutations.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, M P; Menon, Krishnakumar N; Vasudevan, D M

    2013-10-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is predominantly caused by mutations in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes, which encode for the E1alpha, E1beta and E2 subunits of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, respectively. Because disease causing mutations play a major role in the development of the disease, prenatal diagnosis at gestational level may have significance in making decisions by parents. Thus, this study was aimed to screen South Indian MSUD patients for mutations and assess the genotype-phenotype correlation. Thirteen patients diagnosed with MSUD by conventional biochemical screening such as urine analysis by DNPH test, thin layer chromatography for amino acids and blood amino acid quantification by HPLC were selected for mutation analysis. The entire coding regions of the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes were analyzed for mutations by PCR-based direct DNA sequencing. BCKDHA and BCKDHB mutations were seen in 43% of the total ten patients, while disease-causing DBT gene mutation was observed only in 14%. Three patients displayed no mutations. Novel mutations were c.130C>T in BCKDHA gene, c. 599C>T and c.121_122delAC in BCKDHB gene and c.190G>A in DBT gene. Notably, patients harbouring these mutations were non-responsive to thiamine supplementation and other treatment regimens and might have a worse prognosis as compared to the patients not having such mutations. Thus, identification of these mutations may have a crucial role in the treatment as well as understanding the molecular mechanisms in MSUD. PMID:24772966

  3. Polar body mutation load analysis in a patient with A3243G tRNALeu(UUR) point mutation.

    PubMed

    Vandewoestyne, Mado; Heindryckx, Björn; Lepez, Trees; Van Coster, Rudy; Gerris, Jan; De Sutter, Petra; Deforce, Dieter

    2011-07-01

    Diseases associated with point mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are maternally inherited. We evaluated whether pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, based on polar body mutation load detection could be used to distinguish healthy from affected oocytes. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was used and validated, to determine A3243G tRNA(Leu(UUR)) mutation load in metaphase II oocytes and their respective first polar bodies. The results of this study show for the first time that the mutation load measured in the polar bodies correlates well with the mutation load in the respective oocytes. Therefore, human polar body analysis can be used as diagnostic tool to prevent transmission of mitochondrial disorders.

  4. Hereditary hemochromatosis: HFE mutation analysis in Greeks reveals genetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, G; Politou, M; Terpos, E; Fourlemadis, S; Sakellaropoulos, N; Loukopoulos, D

    2000-04-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is common among Caucasians; reported disease frequencies vary from 0.3 to 0.8%. Identification of a candidate HFE gene in 1996 was soon followed by the description of two ancestral mutations, i.e., c.845G-->A (C282Y) and c.187C-->G (H63D). To these was recently added the mutation S65C, which may represent a simple polymorphism. The incidence of HH in Greece is unknown but clinical cases are rare. Also unknown is the carrier frequency of the two mutant alleles. A first estimate of the latter is given in the present report. It is based on data from the genetic analysis of 10 unrelated patients of Greek origin who were referred to our center for genotyping and 158 unselected male blood donors. The allele frequencies for the C282Y and H63D mutations were 0.003 and 0.145, respectively. The C282Y allele was detected in 50% of HH patients. This is considerably lower than the frequencies reported for HH patients in the U.S.A. (82%) and France (91 %) and closer to that reported in Italy (64%). Five patients did not carry any known HFE mutation; three may represent cases of juvenile hemochromatosis, given their early onset with iron overload, hypogonadism, and heart disease. We suggest that genetic heterogeneity is more prominent in Southern Europe. It is also possible that the penetrance of the responsible genes is different across the Mediterranean.

  5. Mutational analysis of a histone deacetylase in Drosophila melanogaster: missense mutations suppress gene silencing associated with position effect variegation.

    PubMed Central

    Mottus, R; Sobel, R E; Grigliatti, T A

    2000-01-01

    For many years it has been noted that there is a correlation between acetylation of histones and an increase in transcriptional activity. One prediction, based on this correlation, is that hypomorphic or null mutations in histone deacetylase genes should lead to increased levels of histone acetylation and result in increased levels of transcription. It was therefore surprising when it was reported, in both yeast and fruit flies, that mutations that reduced or eliminated a histone deacetylase resulted in transcriptional silencing of genes subject to telomeric and heterochromatic position effect variegation (PEV). Here we report the first mutational analysis of a histone deacetylase in a multicellular eukaryote by examining six new mutations in HDAC1 of Drosophila melanogaster. We observed a suite of phenotypes accompanying the mutations consistent with the notion that HDAC1 acts as a global transcriptional regulator. However, in contrast to recent findings, here we report that specific missense mutations in the structural gene of HDAC1 suppress the silencing of genes subject to PEV. We propose that the missense mutations reported here are acting as antimorphic mutations that "poison" the deacetylase complex and propose a model that accounts for the various phenotypes associated with lesions in the deacetylase locus. PMID:10655219

  6. High-Throughput Mutational Analysis of a Twister Ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Kobori, Shungo; Yokobayashi, Yohei

    2016-08-22

    Recent discoveries of new classes of self-cleaving ribozymes in diverse organisms have triggered renewed interest in the chemistry and biology of ribozymes. Functional analysis and engineering of ribozymes often involve performing biochemical assays on multiple ribozyme mutants. However, because each ribozyme mutant must be individually prepared and assayed, the number and variety of mutants that can be studied are severely limited. All of the single and double mutants of a twister ribozyme (a total of 10 296 mutants) were generated and assayed for their self-cleaving activity by exploiting deep sequencing to count the numbers of cleaved and uncleaved sequences for every mutant. Interestingly, we found that the ribozyme is highly robust against mutations such that 71 % and 30 % of all single and double mutants, respectively, retain detectable activity under the assay conditions. It was also observed that the structural elements that comprise the ribozyme exhibit distinct sensitivity to mutations. PMID:27461281

  7. Mutational Analysis of the Cyanobacterial Nitrogen Regulator PipX

    PubMed Central

    Laichoubi, Karim Boumediene; Espinosa, Javier; Castells, Miguel Angel; Contreras, Asunción

    2012-01-01

    PipX provides a functional link between the cyanobacterial global transcriptional regulator NtcA and the signal transduction protein PII, a protein found in all three domains of life as integrators of signals of the nitrogen and carbon balance. PipX, which is toxic in the absence of PII, can form alternative complexes with NtcA and PII and these interactions are respectively stimulated and inhibited by 2-oxoglutarate, providing a mechanism by which PII can modulate expression at the NtcA regulon. Structural information on PipX-NtcA complexes suggests that PipX coactivates NtcA controlled genes by stabilizing the active conformation of NtcA bound to 2-oxoglutarate and by possibly helping recruit RNA polymerase. To get insights into PipX functions, we perform here a mutational analysis of pipX informed by the structures of PipX-PII and PipX-NtcA complexes and evaluate the impact of point mutations on toxicity and gene expression. Two amino acid substitutions (Y32A and E4A) were of particular interest, since they increased PipX toxicity and activated NtcA dependent genes in vivo at lower 2-oxoglutarate levels than wild type PipX. While both mutations impaired complex formation with PII, only Y32A had a negative impact on PipX-NtcA interactions. PMID:22558239

  8. Mutation analysis of the Fanconi Anemia Gene FACC

    SciTech Connect

    Verlander, P.C.; Lin, J.D.; Udono, M.U.; Zhang, Q.; Auerbach, A.D. ); Gibson, R.A.; Mathew, C.G. )

    1994-04-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a unique hypersensitivity of cells to DNA cross-linking agents; a gene for complementation group C (FACC) has recently been cloned. The authors have amplified FACC exons with their flanking intron sequences from genomic DNA from 174 racially and ethnically diverse families in the International Fanconi Anemia Registry and have screened for mutations by using SSCP analysis. They have identified eight different variants in 32 families; three were detected in exon 1, one in exon 4, one in intron 4, two in exon 6, and one in exon 14. Two of the eight variants, in seven families, did not segregate with the disease allele in multiplex families, suggesting that these variants represented benign polymorphisms. Disease-associated mutations in FACC were detected in a total of 25 (14.4%) of 174 families screened. The most frequent mutations were IVS4 + 4 A [yields] T (intron 4; 12 families) and 322delG (exon 1; 9 families). Other, less common mutations include Q13X in exon 1, R185X and D195V in exon 6, and L554P in exon 14. The polymorphisms were S26F in exon 1 and G139E in exon 4. All patients in the study with 322delG, Q13X, R185X, and D195V are of northern or eastern European or southern Italian ancestry, and 18 of 19 have a mild form of the disease, while the 2 patients with L554P, both from the same family, have a severe phenotype. All 19 patients with IVS4 + 4 A [yields] T have Jewish ancestry and have a severe phenotype. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Splicing mutation analysis reveals previously unrecognized pathways in lymph node-invasive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dorman, Stephanie N.; Viner, Coby; Rogan, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    Somatic mutations reported in large-scale breast cancer (BC) sequencing studies primarily consist of protein coding mutations. mRNA splicing mutation analyses have been limited in scope, despite their prevalence in Mendelian genetic disorders. We predicted splicing mutations in 442 BC tumour and matched normal exomes from The Cancer Genome Atlas Consortium (TCGA). These splicing defects were validated by abnormal expression changes in these tumours. Of the 5,206 putative mutations identified, exon skipping, leaky or cryptic splicing was confirmed for 988 variants. Pathway enrichment analysis of the mutated genes revealed mutations in 9 NCAM1-related pathways, which were significantly increased in samples with evidence of lymph node metastasis, but not in lymph node-negative tumours. We suggest that comprehensive reporting of DNA sequencing data should include non-trivial splicing analyses to avoid missing clinically-significant deleterious splicing mutations, which may reveal novel mutated pathways present in genetic disorders. PMID:25394353

  10. Systematic analysis of somatic mutations impacting gene expression in 12 tumour types

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jiarui; McConechy, Melissa K.; Horlings, Hugo M.; Ha, Gavin; Chun Chan, Fong; Funnell, Tyler; Mullaly, Sarah C.; Reimand, Jüri; Bashashati, Ali; Bader, Gary D.; Huntsman, David; Aparicio, Samuel; Condon, Anne; Shah, Sohrab P.

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel hierarchical Bayes statistical model, xseq, to systematically quantify the impact of somatic mutations on expression profiles. We establish the theoretical framework and robust inference characteristics of the method using computational benchmarking. We then use xseq to analyse thousands of tumour data sets available through The Cancer Genome Atlas, to systematically quantify somatic mutations impacting expression profiles. We identify 30 novel cis-effect tumour suppressor gene candidates, enriched in loss-of-function mutations and biallelic inactivation. Analysis of trans-effects of mutations and copy number alterations with xseq identifies mutations in 150 genes impacting expression networks, with 89 novel predictions. We reveal two important novel characteristics of mutation impact on expression: (1) patients harbouring known driver mutations exhibit different downstream gene expression consequences; (2) expression patterns for some mutations are stable across tumour types. These results have critical implications for identification and interpretation of mutations with consequent impact on transcription in cancer. PMID:26436532

  11. Integrative analysis of mutational and transcriptional profiles reveals driver mutations of metastatic breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Zhao, Xing-Ming; Yoon, Ina; Lee, Jin Young; Kwon, Nam Hoon; Wang, Yin-Ying; Lee, Kyung-Min; Lee, Min-Joo; Kim, Jisun; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; In, Yongho; Hao, Jin-Kao; Park, Kyung-Mii; Noh, Dong-Young; Han, Wonshik; Kim, Sunghoon

    2016-01-01

    Despite the explosion in the numbers of cancer genomic studies, metastasis is still the major cause of cancer mortality. In breast cancer, approximately one-fifth of metastatic patients survive 5 years. Therefore, detecting the patients at a high risk of developing distant metastasis at first diagnosis is critical for effective treatment strategy. We hereby present a novel systems biology approach to identify driver mutations escalating the risk of metastasis based on both exome and RNA sequencing of our collected 78 normal-paired breast cancers. Unlike driver mutations occurring commonly in cancers as reported in the literature, the mutations detected here are relatively rare mutations occurring in less than half metastatic samples. By supposing that the driver mutations should affect the metastasis gene signatures, we develop a novel computational pipeline to identify the driver mutations that affect transcription factors regulating metastasis gene signatures. We identify driver mutations in ADPGK, NUP93, PCGF6, PKP2 and SLC22A5, which are verified to enhance cancer cell migration and prompt metastasis with in vitro experiments. The discovered somatic mutations may be helpful for identifying patients who are likely to develop distant metastasis. PMID:27625789

  12. Integrative analysis of mutational and transcriptional profiles reveals driver mutations of metastatic breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Zhao, Xing-Ming; Yoon, Ina; Lee, Jin Young; Kwon, Nam Hoon; Wang, Yin-Ying; Lee, Kyung-Min; Lee, Min-Joo; Kim, Jisun; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; In, Yongho; Hao, Jin-Kao; Park, Kyung-Mii; Noh, Dong-Young; Han, Wonshik; Kim, Sunghoon

    2016-01-01

    Despite the explosion in the numbers of cancer genomic studies, metastasis is still the major cause of cancer mortality. In breast cancer, approximately one-fifth of metastatic patients survive 5 years. Therefore, detecting the patients at a high risk of developing distant metastasis at first diagnosis is critical for effective treatment strategy. We hereby present a novel systems biology approach to identify driver mutations escalating the risk of metastasis based on both exome and RNA sequencing of our collected 78 normal-paired breast cancers. Unlike driver mutations occurring commonly in cancers as reported in the literature, the mutations detected here are relatively rare mutations occurring in less than half metastatic samples. By supposing that the driver mutations should affect the metastasis gene signatures, we develop a novel computational pipeline to identify the driver mutations that affect transcription factors regulating metastasis gene signatures. We identify driver mutations in ADPGK, NUP93, PCGF6, PKP2 and SLC22A5, which are verified to enhance cancer cell migration and prompt metastasis with in vitro experiments. The discovered somatic mutations may be helpful for identifying patients who are likely to develop distant metastasis.

  13. Integrative analysis of mutational and transcriptional profiles reveals driver mutations of metastatic breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Zhao, Xing-Ming; Yoon, Ina; Lee, Jin Young; Kwon, Nam Hoon; Wang, Yin-Ying; Lee, Kyung-Min; Lee, Min-Joo; Kim, Jisun; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; In, Yongho; Hao, Jin-Kao; Park, Kyung-Mii; Noh, Dong-Young; Han, Wonshik; Kim, Sunghoon

    2016-01-01

    Despite the explosion in the numbers of cancer genomic studies, metastasis is still the major cause of cancer mortality. In breast cancer, approximately one-fifth of metastatic patients survive 5 years. Therefore, detecting the patients at a high risk of developing distant metastasis at first diagnosis is critical for effective treatment strategy. We hereby present a novel systems biology approach to identify driver mutations escalating the risk of metastasis based on both exome and RNA sequencing of our collected 78 normal-paired breast cancers. Unlike driver mutations occurring commonly in cancers as reported in the literature, the mutations detected here are relatively rare mutations occurring in less than half metastatic samples. By supposing that the driver mutations should affect the metastasis gene signatures, we develop a novel computational pipeline to identify the driver mutations that affect transcription factors regulating metastasis gene signatures. We identify driver mutations in ADPGK, NUP93, PCGF6, PKP2 and SLC22A5, which are verified to enhance cancer cell migration and prompt metastasis with in vitro experiments. The discovered somatic mutations may be helpful for identifying patients who are likely to develop distant metastasis. PMID:27625789

  14. Control of pT181 replication II. Mutational analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Carleton, S; Projan, S J; Highlander, S K; Moghazeh, S M; Novick, R P

    1984-01-01

    We describe the isolation and analysis of mutations affecting the regulation of Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pT181 replication. Previous results suggested that regulation is achieved by control of the synthesis of RepC, a plasmid-coded replication protein and that the primary negative control element is CopA RNA, which consists of two transcripts that are complementary to the 5' region of the repC mRNA leader. CopA inhibition probably involves a base pairing interaction with the complementary region of the RepC mRNA leader which would facilitate the formation of a downstream stem-loop in the leader that occludes the repC ribosome binding site. RepC is freely diffusible so that regulation of pT181 replication is indirect. Both CopA RNA-sensitive (recessive) and -insensitive (dominant) mutants were isolated. The recessives have defects in CopA RNA structure or activity, the dominants have defects in the site of action (target) of the inhibitor. Some dominants were located within the copA coding sequence. These therefore affect the structure of CopA RNA as well as that of its target. Other dominant mutations mapped outside of the copA gene and therefore produced wild-type CopA RNA. In contrast to directly regulated plasmids, pT181 copy mutants producing wild-type inhibitor could be co-maintained with the wild-type plasmid and mutational changes in inhibitor-target specificity did not change incompatibility specificity. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. PMID:6437809

  15. Isolation and Analysis of a Novel Class of Suppressor of Ty Insertion Mutations in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Fassler, J. S.; Winston, F.

    1988-01-01

    Using a new scheme for the isolation of suppressor of Ty insertion mutations (spt mutations) in yeast, we have identified six new SPT genes. Mutations in two of these genes, SPT13 and SPT14, exhibit a novel suppression pattern: suppression of complete Ty insertion mutations, but not of solo δ insertion mutations. Transcriptional analysis shows that spt13- and spt14-mediated suppression of Ty insertion mutations is the result of an elevation in the levels of adjacent gene transcription. In spite of the failure of these mutations to suppress solo δ insertion mutations, they do cause changes in transcription of at least one solo δ insertion mutation. In addition, spt13 and spt14 mutations are epistatic to mutations in certain other SPT genes that do suppress solo δ insertion mutations. These results suggest that the SPT13 and SPT14 gene products may act via sequences in both the δ and ε regions of Ty elements. Finally, mutations in SPT13 cause sporulation and mating defects and SPT14 is essential for growth, suggesting that these two genes have important roles in general cellular functions. PMID:2834263

  16. Identification of eight novel mutations and transcript analysis of two splicing mutations in Chinese newborns with MCC deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Yang, J; Zhang, T; Weng, C; Hong, F; Tong, F; Yang, R; Yin, X; Yu, P; Huang, X; Qi, M

    2015-11-01

    3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of leucine metabolism, caused by mutations in either MCCC1 or MCCC2 gene. We identified eight novel mutations of MCCC1 or MCCC2 in six Chinese newborns screened by tandem mass spectrometry. Transcript analysis revealed that the novel splice mutation c.639+5G>T produced a normal transcript and a transcript of exon 6 skipping which led to truncated MCCC1 protein. The remaining seven novel mutations may cause structure damage and dysfunction of MCC as predicted by in silico analysis. In conclusion, our study expands the spectrum of mutations found in MCCC1 and MCCC2 and provides a rough prevalence of 1 of 68,333 in Chinese population. Although the affected patients remained asymptomatic during follow-up, we hold the view that early detection through newborn screening, early intervention and follow-up may provide an important guidance to prevent subsequent metabolic disorders and deal with crisis later in life.

  17. Direct mutation analysis by high-throughput sequencing: from germline to low-abundant, somatic variants

    PubMed Central

    Gundry, Michael; Vijg, Jan

    2011-01-01

    DNA mutations are the source of genetic variation within populations. The majority of mutations with observable effects are deleterious. In humans mutations in the germ line can cause genetic disease. In somatic cells multiple rounds of mutations and selection lead to cancer. The study of genetic variation has progressed rapidly since the completion of the draft sequence of the human genome. Recent advances in sequencing technology, most importantly the introduction of massively parallel sequencing (MPS), have resulted in more than a hundred-fold reduction in the time and cost required for sequencing nucleic acids. These improvements have greatly expanded the use of sequencing as a practical tool for mutation analysis. While in the past the high cost of sequencing limited mutation analysis to selectable markers or small forward mutation targets assumed to be representative for the genome overall, current platforms allow whole genome sequencing for less than $5,000. This has already given rise to direct estimates of germline mutation rates in multiple organisms including humans by comparing whole genome sequences between parents and offspring. Here we present a brief history of the field of mutation research, with a focus on classical tools for the measurement of mutation rates. We then review MPS, how it is currently applied and the new insight into human and animal mutation frequencies and spectra that has been obtained from whole genome sequencing. While great progress has been made, we note that the single most important limitation of current MPS approaches for mutation analysis is the inability to address low-abundance mutations that turn somatic tissues into mosaics of cells. Such mutations are at the basis of intra-tumor heterogeneity, with important implications for clinical diagnosis, and could also contribute to somatic diseases other than cancer, including aging. Some possible approaches to gain access to low-abundance mutations are discussed, with a

  18. Analysis of Dominant Mutations Affecting Muscle Excitation in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, D. J.; Weinshenker, D.; Thomas, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    We examined mutations that disrupt muscle activation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Fifteen of 17 of these genes were identified previously and we describe new mutations in three of them. We also describe mutations in two new genes, exp-3 and exp-4. We assessed the degree of defect in pharyngeal, body-wall, egg-laying, and enteric muscle activation in animals mutant for each gene. Mutations in all 17 genes are semidominant and, in cases that could be tested, appear to be gain-of-function. Based on their phenotypes, the genes fall into three broad categories: mutations in 11 genes cause defective muscle activation, mutations in four genes cause hyperactivated muscle, and mutations in two genes cause defective activation in some muscle types and hyperactivation in others. In all testable cases, the mutations blocked response to pharmacological activators of egg laying, but did not block muscle activation by irradiation with a laser microbeam. The data suggest that these mutations affect muscle excitation, but not the capacity of the muscle fibers to contract. For most of the genes, apparent loss-of-function mutants have a grossly wild-type phenotype. These observations suggest that there is a large group of genes that function in muscle excitation that can be identified primarily by dominant mutations. PMID:8582640

  19. Novel pathogenic mutations and skin biopsy analysis in Knobloch syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Oscar; Kague, Erika; Bagatini, Kelly; Tu, Hongmin; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Carvalhaes, Lorenza; Gava, Elisandra; de Oliveira, Gisele; Godoi, Paulo; Oliva, Glaucius; Kitten, Gregory; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Passos-Bueno, Maria-Rita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To facilitate future diagnosis of Knobloch syndrome (KS) and better understand its etiology, we sought to identify not yet described COL18A1 mutations in KS patients. In addition, we tested whether mutations in this gene lead to absence of the COL18A1 gene product and attempted to better characterize the functional effect of a previously reported missense mutation. Methods Direct sequencing of COL18A1 exons was performed in KS patients from four unrelated pedigrees. We used immunofluorescent histochemistry in skin biopsies to evaluate the presence of type XVIII collagen in four KS patients carrying two already described mutations: c.3277C>T, a nonsense mutation, and c.3601G>A, a missense mutation. Furthermore, we determined the binding properties of the mutated endostatin domain p.A1381T (c.3601G>A) to extracellular matrix proteins using ELISA and surface plasmon resonance assays. Results We identified four novel mutations in COL18A1, including a large deletion involving exon 41. Skin biopsies from KS patients revealed lack of type XVIII collagen in epithelial basement membranes and blood vessels. We also found a reduced affinity of p.A1381T endostatin to some extracellular matrix components. Conclusions COL18A1 mutations involved in Knobloch syndrome have a distribution bias toward the coding exons of the C-terminal end. Large deletions must also be considered when point mutations are not identified in patients with characteristic KS phenotype. We report, for the first time, lack of type XVIII collagen in KS patients by immunofluorescent histochemistry in skin biopsy samples. As a final point, we suggest the employment of this technique as a preliminary and complementary test for diagnosis of KS in cases when mutation screening either does not detect mutations or reveals mutations of uncertain effect, such as the p.A1381T change. PMID:19390655

  20. PCR-sequencing is a complementary method to amplification refractory mutation system for EGFR gene mutation analysis in FFPE samples.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junchang; Wang, Chunhua; Yu, Xiaoli; Sheng, Danli; Zuo, Chen; Ren, Minpu; Wu, Yaqin; Shen, Jie; Jin, Mei; Xu, Songxiao

    2015-12-01

    Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) is the most popular technology for EGFR gene mutation analysis in China. Cutoff Ct or ΔCt values were used to differentiate low mutation abundance cases from no mutation cases. In this study, all of 359 NSCLC samples were tested by ARMS. Seventeen samples with larger Ct or ΔCt than cutoff values were retested by PCR-sequencing. TKI treatment responses were monitored on the cases with ARMS negative and PCR-sequencing positive results. One exon 18 G719X case, 67 exon 19 deletion cases, 2 exon 20 insertion cases, 1 exon 20 T790M case, 60 exon 21 L858R cases, 5 exon 21 L861Q cases and 201 wild type cases were identified by ARMS. Another 22 cases were evaluated as wild type but had later amplification fluorescent curves. Seventeen out of these 22 cases were retested by PCR-sequencing. It turns out that 3 out of 3 cases with exon 19 deletion later amplifications, 2 out of 2 cases with L858R later amplifications and 4 out of 12 cases with T790M later amplifications were identified as mutation positive. Two cases with exon 19 deletion and L858R respectively were treated by TKI and got responses. Our study indicated that PCR-sequencing might be a complementary way to confirm ARMS results with later amplifications.

  1. PCR-sequencing is a complementary method to amplification refractory mutation system for EGFR gene mutation analysis in FFPE samples.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junchang; Wang, Chunhua; Yu, Xiaoli; Sheng, Danli; Zuo, Chen; Ren, Minpu; Wu, Yaqin; Shen, Jie; Jin, Mei; Xu, Songxiao

    2015-12-01

    Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) is the most popular technology for EGFR gene mutation analysis in China. Cutoff Ct or ΔCt values were used to differentiate low mutation abundance cases from no mutation cases. In this study, all of 359 NSCLC samples were tested by ARMS. Seventeen samples with larger Ct or ΔCt than cutoff values were retested by PCR-sequencing. TKI treatment responses were monitored on the cases with ARMS negative and PCR-sequencing positive results. One exon 18 G719X case, 67 exon 19 deletion cases, 2 exon 20 insertion cases, 1 exon 20 T790M case, 60 exon 21 L858R cases, 5 exon 21 L861Q cases and 201 wild type cases were identified by ARMS. Another 22 cases were evaluated as wild type but had later amplification fluorescent curves. Seventeen out of these 22 cases were retested by PCR-sequencing. It turns out that 3 out of 3 cases with exon 19 deletion later amplifications, 2 out of 2 cases with L858R later amplifications and 4 out of 12 cases with T790M later amplifications were identified as mutation positive. Two cases with exon 19 deletion and L858R respectively were treated by TKI and got responses. Our study indicated that PCR-sequencing might be a complementary way to confirm ARMS results with later amplifications. PMID:26477713

  2. High Resolution Melting Analysis: A Rapid and Accurate Method to Detect CALR Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Melania; Torres, Laura; Santana-Lopez, Gonzalo; Rodriguez-Medina, Carlos; Perera, María; Bellosillo, Beatriz; de la Iglesia, Silvia; Molero, Teresa; Gomez-Casares, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent discovery of CALR mutations in essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) patients without JAK2/MPL mutations has emerged as a relevant finding for the molecular diagnosis of these myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). We tested the feasibility of high-resolution melting (HRM) as a screening method for rapid detection of CALR mutations. Methods CALR was studied in wild-type JAK2/MPL patients including 34 ET, 21 persistent thrombocytosis suggestive of MPN and 98 suspected secondary thrombocytosis. CALR mutation analysis was performed through HRM and Sanger sequencing. We compared clinical features of CALR-mutated versus 45 JAK2/MPL-mutated subjects in ET. Results Nineteen samples showed distinct HRM patterns from wild-type. Of them, 18 were mutations and one a polymorphism as confirmed by direct sequencing. CALR mutations were present in 44% of ET (15/34), 14% of persistent thrombocytosis suggestive of MPN (3/21) and none of the secondary thrombocytosis (0/98). Of the 18 mutants, 9 were 52 bp deletions, 8 were 5 bp insertions and other was a complex mutation with insertion/deletion. No mutations were found after sequencing analysis of 45 samples displaying wild-type HRM curves. HRM technique was reproducible, no false positive or negative were detected and the limit of detection was of 3%. Conclusions This study establishes a sensitive, reliable and rapid HRM method to screen for the presence of CALR mutations. PMID:25068507

  3. Complementation analysis of eleven tryptophanase mutations in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    White, M K; Yudkin, M D

    1979-10-01

    Nine independent mutants deficient in tryptophanase activity were isolated. Each mutation was transferred to a specialized transducing phage that carries the tryptophanase region of the Escherichia coli chromosome. The nine phages thus produced, and a tenth carrying a previously characterized tryptophanase mutation, were used to lysogenize a bacterial strain harbouring a mutation in the tryptophanase structural gene and also a suppressor of polarity. In no case was complementation observed; we conclude that there is no closely linked positive regulatory gene for tryptophanase.

  4. RFLP analysis for APP 717 mutations associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zeldenrust, S R; Murrell, J; Farlow, M; Ghetti, B; Roses, A D; Benson, M D

    1993-06-01

    Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) has been shown to be associated with three distinct point mutations within the same codon of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene. The mutation identified in the Indiana kindred is a G-->T transversion at the first position of the codon for amino acid 717, resulting in a substitution of phenylalanine for valine in the APP protein. Screening of persons at risk for the APP Phe-717 mutation using a variation of the polymerase chain reaction identified nine positives among 34 tested. In addition, DNA from 145 FAD subjects were tested for the three known APP 717 mutations.

  5. OGG1 Mutations and Risk of Female Breast Cancer: Meta-Analysis and Experimental Data

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Kashif; Mahjabeen, Ishrat; Sabir, Maimoona; Mehmood, Humera; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    In first part of this study association between OGG1 polymorphisms and breast cancer susceptibility was explored by meta-analysis. Second part of the study involved 925 subjects, used for mutational analysis of OGG1 gene using PCR-SSCP and sequencing. Fifteen mutations were observed, which included five intronic mutations, four splice site mutations, two 3′UTR mutations, three missense mutations, and a nonsense mutation. Significantly (p < 0.001) increased (~29 fold) breast cancer risk was associated with a splice site variant g.9800972T>G and 3′UTR variant g.9798848G>A. Among intronic mutations, highest (~15 fold) increase in breast cancer risk was associated with g.9793680G>A (p < 0.009). Similarly ~14-fold increased risk was associated with Val159Gly (p < 0.01), ~17-fold with Gly221Arg (p < 0.005), and ~18-fold with Ser326Cys (p < 0.004) in breast cancer patients compared with controls, whereas analysis of nonsense mutation showed that ~13-fold (p < 0.01) increased breast cancer risk was associated with Trp375STOP in patients compared to controls. In conclusion, a significant association was observed between OGG1 germ line mutations and breast cancer risk. These findings provide evidence that OGG1 may prove to be a good candidate of better diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer. PMID:26089588

  6. DNA sequence analysis of X-ray induced Adh null mutations in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoud, J.; Fossett, N.G.; Arbour-Reily, P.; McDaniel, M.; Tucker, A.; Chang, S.H.; Lee, W.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The mutational spectrum for 28 X-ray induced mutations and 2 spontaneous mutations, previously determined by genetic and cytogenetic methods, consisted of 20 multilocus deficiencies (19 induced and 1 spontaneous) and 10 intragenic mutations (9 induced and 1 spontaneous). One of the X-ray induced intragenic mutations was lost, and another was determined to be a recombinant with the allele used in the recovery scheme. The DNA sequence of two X-ray induced intragenic mutations has been published. This paper reports the results of DNA sequence analysis of the remaining intragenic mutations and a summary of the X-ray induced mutational spectrum. The combination of DNA sequence analysis with genetic complementation analysis shows a continuous distribution in size of deletions rather than two different types of mutations consisting of deletions and point mutations'. Sequencing is shown to be essential for detecting intragenic deletions. Of particular importance for future studies is the observation that all of the intragenic deletions consist of a direct repeat adjacent to the breakpoint with one of the repeats deleted.

  7. The application of a linear algebra to the analysis of mutation rates.

    PubMed

    Jones, M E; Thomas, S M; Clarke, K

    1999-07-01

    Cells and bacteria growing in culture are subject to mutation, and as this mutation is the ultimate substrate for selection and evolution, the factors controlling the mutation rate are of some interest. The mutational event is not observed directly, but is inferred from the phenotype of the original mutant or of its descendants; the rate of mutation is inferred from the number of such mutant phenotypes. Such inference presumes a knowledge of the probability distribution for the size of a clone arising from a single mutation. We develop a mathematical formulation that assists in the design and analysis of experiments which investigate mutation rates and mutant clone size distribution, and we use it to analyse data for which the classical Luria-Delbrück clone-size distribution must be rejected.

  8. Germline mutation analysis of MLH1 and MSH2 in Malaysian Lynch syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Zahary, Mohd Nizam; Kaur, Gurjeet; Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi; Singh, Harjinder; Naik, Venkatesh R; Ankathil, Ravindran

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protein expression profile of mismatch repair (MMR) genes in suspected cases of Lynch syndrome and to characterize the associated germline mutations. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor samples was performed to determine the protein expression profile of MMR protein. Germline mutation screening was carried out on peripheral blood samples. The entire exon regions of MLH1 and MSH2 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, screened by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) and analyzed by DNA sequencing to characterize the germline mutations. RESULTS: Three out of 34 tissue samples (8.8%) and four out of 34 tissue samples (11.8%) showed loss of nuclear staining by immunohistochemistry, indicating the absence of MLH1 and MSH2 protein expression in carcinoma cells, respectively. dHPLC analysis followed by DNA sequencing showed these samples to have germline mutations of MSH2 gene. However, no deleterious mutations were identified in any of the 19 exons or coding regions of MLH1 gene, but we were able to identify MLH1 promoter polymorphism, -93G > A (rs1800734), in 21 out of 34 patients (61.8%). We identified one novel mutation, transversion mutation c.2005G > C, which resulted in a missense mutation (Gly669Arg), a transversion mutation in exon 1, c.142G > T, which resulted in a nonsense mutation (Glu48Stop) and splice-site mutation, c.2006-6T > C, which was adjacent to exon 13 of MSH2 gene. CONCLUSION: Germline mutations were identified in four Malaysian Lynch syndrome patients. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissue proved to be a good pre-screening test before proceeding to germline mutation analysis of DNA MMR genes. PMID:22371642

  9. Geographic distribution and regional origin of 272 cystic fibrosis mutations in European populations. The Biomed CF Mutation Analysis Consortium.

    PubMed

    Estivill, X; Bancells, C; Ramos, C

    1997-01-01

    C (Sweden) and R560T (northern Ireland). Most of these mutations must have an origin and diffusion in the specific European population subgroup. Overall 55 mutations are common in one or several countries or regions of Europe and 217 mutations are rare with relative frequencies of lower than 1% in any of these regions and countries. This information might facilitate mutation analysis of CF in the different regions of Europe.

  10. The RNAmute web server for the mutational analysis of RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Churkin, Alexander; Gabdank, Idan; Barash, Danny

    2011-07-01

    RNA mutational analysis at the secondary-structure level can be useful to a wide-range of biological applications. It can be used to predict an optimal site for performing a nucleotide mutation at the single molecular level, as well as to analyze basic phenomena at the systems level. For the former, as more sequence modification experiments are performed that include site-directed mutagenesis to find and explore functional motifs in RNAs, a pre-processing step that helps guide in planning the experiment becomes vital. For the latter, mutations are generally accepted as a central mechanism by which evolution occurs, and mutational analysis relating to structure should gain a better understanding of system functionality and evolution. In the past several years, the program RNAmute that is structure based and relies on RNA secondary-structure prediction has been developed for assisting in RNA mutational analysis. It has been extended from single-point mutations to treat multiple-point mutations efficiently by initially calculating all suboptimal solutions, after which only the mutations that stabilize the suboptimal solutions and destabilize the optimal one are considered as candidates for being deleterious. The RNAmute web server for mutational analysis is available at http://www.cs.bgu.ac.il/~xrnamute/XRNAmute.

  11. Heteroduplex analysis of the dystrophin gene: Application to point mutation and carrier detection

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, T.W.; Papp, A.C.; Snyder, P.J.; Sedra, M.S.; Western, L.M.; Bartolo, C.; Mendell, J.R.; Moxley, R.T.

    1994-03-01

    Approximately one-third of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients have undefined mutations in the dystrophin gene. For carrier and prenatal studies in families without detectable mutations, the indirect restriction fragment length polymorphism linkage approach is used. Using a multiplex amplification and heteroduplex analysis of dystrophin exons, the authors identified nonsense mutations in two DMD patients. Although the nonsense mutations are predicted to severely truncate the dystrophin protein, both patients presented with mild clinical courses of the disease. As a result of identifying the mutation in the affected boys, direct carrier studies by heteroduplex analysis were extended to other relatives. The authors conclude that the technique is not only ideal for mutation detection but is also useful for diagnostic testing. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Novel mutation in SUCLA2 identified on sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Güngör, Olcay; Özkaya, Ahmet Kağan; Güngör, Gülay; Karaer, Kadri; Dilber, Cengiz; Aydin, Kürşad

    2016-07-01

    Succinate-CoA ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit (SUCLA2)-related mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome is caused by mutations affecting the ADP-using isoform of the beta subunit in succinyl-CoA synthase, which is involved in the Krebs cycle. The SUCLA2 protein is found mostly in heart, skeletal muscle, and brain tissues. SUCLA2 mutations result in a mitochondrial disorder that manifests as deafness, lesions in the basal ganglia, and encephalomyopathy accompanied by dystonia. Such mutations are generally associated with mildly increased plasma methylmalonic acid, increased plasma lactate, elevated plasma carnitine esters, and the presence of methylmalonic acid in urine. In this case report, we describe a new mutation in a patient with a succinyl-CoA synthase deficiency caused by an SUCLA2 defect. PMID:26952923

  13. Single-molecule PCR: an artifact-free PCR approach for the analysis of somatic mutations.

    PubMed

    Kraytsberg, Yevgenya; Khrapko, Konstantin

    2005-09-01

    A critical review of the clone-by-clone approach to the analysis of complex spectra of somatic mutations is presented. The study of a priori unknown somatic mutations requires painstaking analysis of complex mixtures of multiple mutant and non-mutant DNA molecules. If mutant fractions are sufficiently high, these mixtures can be dissected by the cloning of individual DNA molecules and scanning of the individual clones for mutations (e.g., by sequencing). Currently, the majority of such cloning is performed using PCR fragments. However, post-PCR cloning may result in various PCR artifacts - PCR errors and jumping PCR - and preferential amplification of certain mutations. This review argues that single-molecule PCR is a simple alternative that promises to evade the disadvantages inherent to post-PCR cloning and enhance mutational analysis in the future. PMID:16149882

  14. Genomic, transcriptional and mutational analysis of the mouse microphthalmia locus.

    PubMed Central

    Hallsson, J H; Favor, J; Hodgkinson, C; Glaser, T; Lamoreux, M L; Magnúsdóttir, R; Gunnarsson, G J; Sweet, H O; Copeland, N G; Jenkins, N A; Steingrímsson, E

    2000-01-01

    Mouse microphthalmia transcription factor (Mitf) mutations affect the development of four cell types: melanocytes, mast cells, osteoclasts, and pigmented epithelial cells of the eye. The mutations are phenotypically diverse and can be arranged in an allelic series. In humans, MITF mutations cause Waardenburg syndrome type 2A (WS2A) and Tietz syndrome, autosomal dominant disorders resulting in deafness and hypopigmentation. Mitf mice thus represent an important model system for the study of human disease. Here we report the complete exon/intron structure of the mouse Mitf gene and show it to be similar to the human gene. We also found that the mouse gene is transcriptionally complex and is capable of generating at least 13 different Mitf isoforms. Some of these isoforms are missing important functional domains of the protein, suggesting that they might play an inhibitory role in Mitf function and signal transduction. In addition, we determined the molecular basis for six microphthalmia mutations. Two of the mutations are reported for the first time here (Mitf(mi-enu198) and Mitf(mi-x39)), while the others (Mitf(mi-ws), Mitf(mi-bws), Mitf(mi-ew), and Mitf(mi-di)) have been described but the molecular basis for the mutation not determined. When analyzed in terms of the genomic and transcriptional data presented here, it is apparent that these mutations result from RNA processing or transcriptional defects. Interestingly, three of the mutations (Mitf(mi-x39), Mitf(mi-bws), and Mitf(mi-ws)) produce proteins that are missing important functional domains of the protein identified in in vitro studies, further confirming a biological role for these domains in the whole animal. PMID:10790403

  15. Multi-center analysis of glucocerebrosidase mutations in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Sidransky, Ellen; Nalls, Michael A.; Aasly, Jan O.; Aharon-Peretz, Judith; Annesi, Grazia; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Bar-Shira, Anat; Berg, Daniela; Bras, Jose; Brice, Alexis; Chen, Chiung-Mei; Clark, Lorraine N.; Condroyer, Christel; De Marco, Elvira Valeria; Dürr, Alexandra; Eblan, Michael J.; Fahn, Stanley; Farrer, Matthew; Fung, Hon-Chung; Gan-Or, Ziv; Gasser, Thomas; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Giladi, Nir; Griffith, Alida; Gurevich, Tanya; Januario, Cristina; Kropp, Peter; Lang, Anthony E.; Lee-Chen, Guey-Jen; Lesage, Suzanne; Marder, Karen; Mata, Ignacio F.; Mirelman, Anat; Mitsui, Jun; Mizuta, Ikuko; Nicoletti, Giuseppe; Oliveira, Catarina; Ottman, Ruth; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Pereira, Lygia V.; Quattrone, Aldo; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Rolfs, Arndt; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Rozenberg, Roberto; Samii, Ali; Samaddar, Ted; Schulte, Claudia; Sharma, Manu; Singleton, Andrew; Spitz, Mariana; Tan, Eng-King; Tayebi, Nahid; Toda, Tatsushi; Troiano, André; Tsuji, Shoji; Wittstock, Matthias; Wolfsberg, Tyra G.; Wu, Yih-Ru; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Zhao, Yi; Ziegler, Shira G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies indicate an increased frequency of mutations in the gene for Gaucher disease, glucocerebrosidase (GBA), among patients with Parkinson disease. An international collaborative study was conducted to ascertain the frequency of GBA mutations in ethnically diverse patients with Parkinson disease. Methods Sixteen centers participated, including five from the Americas, six from Europe, two from Israel and three from Asia. Each received a standard DNA panel to compare genotyping results. Genotypes and phenotypic data from patients and controls were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models and the Mantel Haenszel procedure to estimate odds ratios (ORs) across studies. The sample included 5691 patients (780 Ashkenazi Jews) and 4898 controls (387 Ashkenazi Jews). Results All 16 centers could detect GBA mutations, L444P and N370S, and the two were found in 15.3% of Ashkenazi patients with Parkinson disease (ORs = 4.95 for L444P and 5.62 for N370S), and in 3.2% of non-Ashkenazi patients (ORs = 9.68 for L444P and 3.30 for N370S). GBA was sequenced in 1642 non-Ashkenazi subjects, yielding a frequency of 6.9% for all mutations, demonstrate that limited mutation screens miss half the mutant alleles. The presence of any GBA mutation was associated with an OR of 5.43 across studies. Clinically, although phenotypes varied, subjects with a GBA mutation presented earlier, and were more likely to have affected relatives and atypical manifestations. Conclusion Data collected from sixteen centers demonstrate that there is a strong association between GBA mutations and Parkinson disease. PMID:19846850

  16. Single Quantum Dot Analysis Enables Multiplexed Point Mutation Detection by Gap Ligase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yunke; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2014-01-01

    Gene point mutations present important biomarkers for genetic diseases. However, existing point mutation detection methods suffer from low sensitivity, specificity, and tedious assay processes. In this report, we propose an assay technology which combines the outstanding specificity of gap ligase chain reaction (Gap-LCR), the high sensitivity of single molecule coincidence detection and superior optical properties of quantum dots (QDs) for multiplexed detection of point mutations in genomic DNA. Mutant-specific ligation products are generated by Gap-LCR and subsequently captured by QDs to form DNA-QD nanocomplexes that are detected by single molecule spectroscopy (SMS) through multi-color fluorescence burst coincidence analysis, allowing for multiplexed mutation detection in a separation-free format. The proposed assay is capable of detecting zeptomoles of KRAS codon 12 mutation variants with near 100% specificity. Its high sensitivity allows direct detection of KRAS mutation in crude genomic DNA without PCR pre-amplification. PMID:23239594

  17. CFTR mutation analysis and haplotype associations in CF patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Cordovado, S.K.; Hendrix, M.; Greene, C.N.; Mochal, S.; Earley, M.C.; Farrell, P.M.; Kharrazi, M.; Hannon, W.H.; Mueller, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Most newborn screening (NBS) laboratories use second-tier molecular tests for cystic fibrosis (CF) using dried blood spots (DBS). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s NBS Quality Assurance Program offers proficiency testing (PT) in DBS for CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection. Extensive molecular characterization on 76 CF patients, family members or screen positive newborns was performed for quality assurance. The coding, regulatory regions and portions of all introns were sequenced and large insertions/deletions were characterized as well as two intronic di-nucleotide microsatellites. For CF patient samples, at least two mutations were identified/verified and four specimens contained three likely CF-associated mutations. Thirty-four sequence variations in 152 chromosomes were identified, five of which were not previously reported. Twenty-seven of these variants were used to predict haplotypes from the major haplotype block defined by HapMap data that spans the promoter through intron 19. Chromosomes containing the F508del (p.Phe508del), G542X (p.Gly542X) and N1303K (p.Asn1303Lys) mutations shared a common haplotype subgroup, consistent with a common ancient European founder. Understanding the haplotype background of CF-associated mutations in the U.S. population provides a framework for future phenotype/genotype studies and will assist in determining a likely cis/trans phase of the mutations without need for parent studies. PMID:22137130

  18. Mutational analysis of primary central nervous system lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Aurélie; Boisselier, Blandine; Labreche, Karim; Marie, Yannick; Polivka, Marc; Jouvet, Anne; Adam, Clovis; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Miquel, Catherine; Eimer, Sandrine; Houillier, Caroline; Soussain, Carole; Mokhtari, Karima; Daveau, Romain; Hoang-Xuan, Khê

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the genomic basis of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) tumorigenesis. To investigate the mutational profile of PCNSL, we analyzed nine paired tumor and germline DNA samples from PCNSL patients by high throughput exome sequencing. Eight genes of interest have been further investigated by focused resequencing in 28 additional PCNSL tumors to better estimate their incidence. Our study identified recurrent somatic mutations in 37 genes, some involved in key signaling pathways such as NFKB, B cell differentiation and cell cycle control. Focused resequencing in the larger cohort revealed high mutation rates for genes already described as mutated in PCNSL such as MYD88 (38%), CD79B (30%), PIM1 (22%) and TBL1XR1 (19%) and for genes not previously reported to be involved in PCNSL tumorigenesis such as ETV6 (16%), IRF4 (14%), IRF2BP2 (11%) and EBF1 (11%). Of note, only 3 somatically acquired SNVs were annotated in the COSMIC database. Our results demonstrate a high genetic heterogeneity of PCNSL and mutational pattern similarities with extracerebral diffuse large B cell lymphomas, particularly of the activated B-cell (ABC) subtype, suggesting shared underlying biological mechanisms. The present study provides new insights into the mutational profile of PCNSL and potential targets for therapeutic strategies. PMID:24970810

  19. Aceruloplasminemia in an asymptomatic patient with a new mutation. Diagnosis and family genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Aguilar, Fernando; Burguera, Juan A; Benlloch, Salvador; Berenguer, Marina; Rayón, Jose M

    2005-06-01

    A 39-year-old asymptomatic man showed elevated serum ferritin levels, mild hypertransaminasemia and serum ceruloplasmin almost undetectable. There was histological iron accumulation within the hepatocytes and also in the central nervous system (MRI). A genetic analysis revealed a new missense mutation in the ceruloplasmin gene. Two of the other four siblings were also affected by this mutation.

  20. Mutation detection in autosomal dominant Hirschsprung disease: SSCP analysis of the RET proto-oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Angrist, M.; Bolk, S.; Chakravarti, A.

    1994-09-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), or congenital aganglionic megacolon, is the most common cause of congenital bowel obstruction, with an incidence of 1 in 5000. Recently, linkage of an incompletely penetrant, dominant form of HSCR to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 10 was reported, followed by identification of mutations in the RET proto-oncogene in HSCR patients. RET mutations have also been reported in both sporadic and familial forms of three neuroendrocrine tumor syndromes. Unlike the clustered RET mutations observed in these syndromes, the 18 reported HSCR mutations are distributed throughout the extracellular and tryosine kinase domains of RET. In an effort to determine the frequency of RET mutations in HSCR and correlate genotype with phenotype, we have begun to screen for mutations among 80 HSCR probands representing a wide range of phenotypes and pedigree structures. Non-isotopic single strand conformation of polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was carried out using the Pharmacia PhastSystem{trademark}. Initial screening of exons 2 through 6 detected variants in 11 patients not seen in 24 controls. One additional band shift in exon 6 has been observed in both patients and controls. Preliminary sequence analysis has revealed two putative familial mutations in exon 2: a single base pair deletion (49Pro del C 296) and a point mutation that leads to a conservative amino acid substitution (93Gly{r_arrow}Ser). These results suggest that HSCR may be associated with a range of alterations in the coding sequence of the RET extracellular domain. Additional mutations will be described.

  1. Mutational dichotomy in desmoplastic malignant melanoma corroborated by multigene panel analysis.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Stephan W; Kashofer, Karl; Halbwedl, Iris; Winter, Gerlinde; El-Shabrawi-Caelen, Laila; Mentzel, Thomas; Hoefler, Gerald; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette

    2015-07-01

    Desmoplastic malignant melanoma is a distinct melanoma entity histologically subtyped into mixed and pure forms due to significantly reduced lymph node metastases in the pure form. Recent reports investigating common actionable driver mutations have demonstrated a lack of BRAF, NRAS, and KIT mutation in pure desmoplastic melanoma. In search for alternative driver mutations next generation amplicon sequencing for hotspot mutations in 50 genes cardinal to tumorigenesis was performed and in addition the RET G691S polymorphism was investigated. Data from 21 desmoplastic melanomas (12 pure and 9 mixed) were retrieved. Pure desmoplastic melanomas were either devoid of mutations (50%) or displayed mutations in tumor suppressor genes (TP53, CDKN2A, and SMAD4) singularly or in combination with the exception of a PIK3CA double-mutation lacking established biological relevance. Mixed desmoplastic melanomas on the contrary were frequently mutated (89%), and 67% exhibited activating mutations similar to common-type cutaneous malignant melanomas (BRAF, NRAS, FGFR2, and ERBB2). Separate analysis of morphologically heterogeneous tumor areas in four mixed desmoplastic malignant melanomas displayed no difference in mutation status and RET G691 status. GNAQ and GNA11, two oncogenes in BRAF and NRAS wild-type uveal melanomas, were not mutated in our cohort. The RET G691S polymorphism was found in 25% of pure and 38% of mixed desmoplastic melanomas. Apart from RET G691S our findings demonstrate absence of activating driver mutations in pure desmoplastic melanoma beyond previously investigated oncogenes (BRAF, NRAS, and KIT). The findings underline the therapeutic dichotomy of mixed versus pure desmoplastic melanoma with regard to activating mutations primarily of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

  2. The age of human mutation: Genealogical and linkage disequilibrium analysis of the CLN5 mutation in the Finnish population

    SciTech Connect

    Varilo, T; Savukoski, M.; Peltonen, L.

    1996-03-01

    Variant late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (vLINCL) is an autosomal recessive progressive encephalopathy of childhood enriched in the western part of Finland, with a local incidence of 1/1,500. We recently assigned the locus for vLINCL, CLN5, to 13q21.1-q32. In the present study, the haplotype analysis of Finnish CLN5 chromosomes provides evidence that one single mutation causes vLINCL in the Finnish population. Eight microsatellite markers closely linked to the CLN5 gene on chromosome 13q were analyzed, to study identity by descent by shared haplotype analysis. One single haplotype formed by flanking markers D13S160 and D13S162 in strong linkage disequilibrium (P < .0001) was present in 81% of disease-bearing chromosomes. Allele 4 at the marker locus D13S162 was detected in 94% of disease-bearing chromosomes. To evaluate the age of the CLN5 mutation by virtue of its restricted geographical distribution, church records were used to identify the common ancestors for 18 vLINCL families diagnosed in Finland. The pedigrees of the vLINCL ancestors merged on many occasions, which also supports a single founder mutation that obviously happened 20-30 generations ago (i.e., {approximately}500 years ago) in this isolated population. Linkage disequilibrium was detected with seven markers covering an extended genetic distance of 11 cM, which further supports the young age of the CLN5 mutation. When the results of genealogical and linkage disequilibrium studies were combined, the CLN5 gene was predicted to lie {approximately}200-400 kb (total range 30-1,360 kb) from the closest marker D13S162. 29 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Mutational Analysis of Oculocutaneous Albinism: A Compact Review

    PubMed Central

    Kamaraj, Balu

    2014-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by either complete lack of or a reduction of melanin biosynthesis in the melanocytes. The OCA1A is the most severe type with a complete lack of melanin production throughout life, while the milder forms OCA1B, OCA2, OCA3, and OCA4 show some pigment accumulation over time. Mutations in TYR, OCA2, TYRP1, and SLC45A2 are mainly responsible for causing oculocutaneous albinism. Recently, two new genes SLC24A5 and C10orf11 are identified that are responsible to cause OCA6 and OCA7, respectively. Also a locus has been mapped to the human chromosome 4q24 region which is responsible for genetic cause of OCA5. In this paper, we summarized the clinical and molecular features of OCA genes. Further, we reviewed the screening of pathological mutations of OCA genes and its molecular mechanism of the protein upon mutation by in silico approach. We also reviewed TYR (T373K, N371Y, M370T, and P313R), OCA2 (R305W), TYRP1 (R326H and R356Q) mutations and their structural consequences at molecular level. It is observed that the pathological genetic mutations and their structural and functional significance of OCA genes will aid in development of personalized medicine for albinism patients. PMID:25093188

  4. System analysis of gene mutations and clinical phenotype in Chinese patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Meiling; Xie, Yuansheng; Chen, Zhiqiang; Liao, Yujie; Li, Zuoxiang; Hu, Panpan; Qi, Yan; Yin, Zhiwei; Li, Qinggang; Fu, Ping; Chen, Xiangmei

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited kidney disorder mainly caused by mutation in PKD1/PKD2. However, ethnic differences in mutations, the association between mutation genotype/clinical phenotype, and the clinical applicable value of mutation detection are poorly understood. We made systematically analysis of Chinese ADPKD patients based on a next-generation sequencing platform. Among 148 ADPKD patients enrolled, 108 mutations were detected in 127 patients (85.8%). Compared with mutations in Caucasian published previously, the PKD2 mutation detection rate was lower, and patients carrying the PKD2 mutation invariably carried the PKD1 mutation. The definite pathogenic mutation detection rate was lower, whereas the multiple mutations detection rate was higher in Chinese patients. Then, we correlated PKD1/PKD2 mutation data and clinical data: patients with mutation exhibited a more severe phenotype; patients with >1 mutations exhibited a more severe phenotype; patients with pathogenic mutations exhibited a more severe phenotype. Thus, the PKD1/PKD2 mutation status differed by ethnicity, and the PKD1/PKD2 genotype may affect the clinical phenotype of ADPKD. Furthermore, it makes sense to detect PKD1/PKD2 mutation status for early diagnosis and prognosis, perhaps as early as the embryo/zygote stage, to facilitate early clinical intervention and family planning. PMID:27782177

  5. Analysis of HBV genotype, drug resistant mutations, and pre-core/basal core promoter mutations in Korean patients with acute hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Ho; Hong, Sun Pyo; Jang, Eun Sun; Park, Sang Jong; Hwang, Seong Gyu; Kang, Sook-Kyoung; Jeong, Sook-Hyang

    2015-06-01

    Acute hepatitis B, caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains with drug resistant mutations or pre-core/basal core promoter (PC/BCP) mutations, is a public health concern, because this infection is often associated with poor disease outcome or difficulty in therapeutic choice. The HBV genotype, the prevalence of drug resistant mutations, and PC/BCP mutations in Korean patients with acute hepatitis B were studied. From 2006 to 2008, 36 patients with acute hepatitis B were enrolled prospectively in four general hospitals. Among them, 20 showed detectable HBV DNA (median value was 4.8 log copies/mL). HBV genotyping and analysis of HBV mutations that conferred resistance against lamivudine, adefovir, or entecavir and of PC/BCP mutations were performed using highly sensitive restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP) analysis. All 20 patients were infected with HBV genotype C, which causes almost all cases of chronic hepatitis B in Korea. No patient showed mutations that conferred resistance against lamivudine (L180M, M204V/I), adefovir (A181T, N236S), or entecavir (I169M, A184T/V, S202I/G, M250V/I/L). However, four patients had BCP mutations, and two had PC mutations. Platelet counts were significantly lower in the four patients with PC/BCP mutations compared to those with wild type. In this study, all acute hepatitis B patients had genotype C HBV strains with no drug resistant mutations. However, 20% showed PC/BCP mutations. This highlights the need for further study on the significance of PC/BCP mutations.

  6. A meta-analysis of prognostic value of KIT mutation status in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jian; Li, Zhi; Liu, Yingjun; Wang, Daohai; Han, Guangsen

    2016-01-01

    Numerous types of KIT mutations have been reported in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs); however, controversy still exists regarding their clinicopathological significance. In this study, we reviewed the publicly available literature to assess the data by a meta-analysis to characterize KIT mutations and different types of KIT mutations in prognostic prediction in patients with GISTs. Twenty-eight studies that included 4,449 patients were identified and analyzed. We found that KIT mutation status was closely correlated with size of tumors and different mitosis indexes, but not with tumor location. KIT mutation was also observed to be significantly correlated with tumor recurrence, metastasis, as well as the overall survival of patients. Interestingly, there was higher risk of progression in KIT exon 9-mutated patients than in exon 11-mutated patients. Five-year relapse-free survival (RFS) rate was significantly higher in KIT exon 11-deleted patients than in those with other types of KIT exon 11 mutations. In addition, RFS for 5 years was significantly worse in patients bearing KIT codon 557–558 deletions than in those bearing other KIT exon 11 deletions. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that KIT mutation status is another evaluable factor for prognosis prediction in GISTs. PMID:27350754

  7. Laminin-5 mutational analysis in an Italian cohort of patients with junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Posteraro, Patrizia; De Luca, Naomi; Meneguzzi, Guerrino; El Hachem, May; Angelo, Corrado; Gobello, Tommaso; Tadini, Gianluca; Zambruno, Giovanna; Castiglia, Daniele

    2004-10-01

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by dermal-epidermal separation that is caused by mutations in the genes encoding hemidesmosomal components and laminin-5, the major epithelial adhesion ligand. Here, we report on the mutational analysis of LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2 genes encoding laminin-5 chains in 19 Italian patients, 11 affected with the severe Herlitz (H JEB) and eight with the mild non-Herlitz variant of JEB (non-H JEB). Eighteen mutations, seven of which were novel, were identified and their consequences analyzed at the mRNA and protein level. Premature termination codon mutations in both alleles of LAMB3 or LAMC2 genes were found in nine of the 11 H JEB patients, with a prevalence of mutations in LAMC2. In one case, a homozygous frameshift mutation in LAMB3 was associated to illegitimate splicing leading to non-H JEB. One H JEB patient showed a large intragenic duplication within LAMC2, a genetic defect so far uncovered in laminin-5 genes. Splicing or missense mutations, were prevalent in non-H JEB patients. Collectively, five mutations appeared to be frequent in laminin-5 JEB patients: R635X, 29insC, E210K, W143X in LAMB3 and R95X in LAMC2. These recurrent mutations account for approximately 44% of laminin-5 JEB alleles in Italian patients. PMID:15373767

  8. Systematic analysis of mutation distribution in three dimensional protein structures identifies cancer driver genes

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Akihiro; Okada, Yukinori; Boroevich, Keith A.; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Hidewaki

    2016-01-01

    Protein tertiary structure determines molecular function, interaction, and stability of the protein, therefore distribution of mutation in the tertiary structure can facilitate the identification of new driver genes in cancer. To analyze mutation distribution in protein tertiary structures, we applied a novel three dimensional permutation test to the mutation positions. We analyzed somatic mutation datasets of 21 types of cancers obtained from exome sequencing conducted by the TCGA project. Of the 3,622 genes that had ≥3 mutations in the regions with tertiary structure data, 106 genes showed significant skew in mutation distribution. Known tumor suppressors and oncogenes were significantly enriched in these identified cancer gene sets. Physical distances between mutations in known oncogenes were significantly smaller than those of tumor suppressors. Twenty-three genes were detected in multiple cancers. Candidate genes with significant skew of the 3D mutation distribution included kinases (MAPK1, EPHA5, ERBB3, and ERBB4), an apoptosis related gene (APP), an RNA splicing factor (SF1), a miRNA processing factor (DICER1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase (CUL1) and transcription factors (KLF5 and EEF1B2). Our study suggests that systematic analysis of mutation distribution in the tertiary protein structure can help identify cancer driver genes. PMID:27225414

  9. Systematic analysis of mutation distribution in three dimensional protein structures identifies cancer driver genes.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Akihiro; Okada, Yukinori; Boroevich, Keith A; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Hidewaki

    2016-01-01

    Protein tertiary structure determines molecular function, interaction, and stability of the protein, therefore distribution of mutation in the tertiary structure can facilitate the identification of new driver genes in cancer. To analyze mutation distribution in protein tertiary structures, we applied a novel three dimensional permutation test to the mutation positions. We analyzed somatic mutation datasets of 21 types of cancers obtained from exome sequencing conducted by the TCGA project. Of the 3,622 genes that had ≥3 mutations in the regions with tertiary structure data, 106 genes showed significant skew in mutation distribution. Known tumor suppressors and oncogenes were significantly enriched in these identified cancer gene sets. Physical distances between mutations in known oncogenes were significantly smaller than those of tumor suppressors. Twenty-three genes were detected in multiple cancers. Candidate genes with significant skew of the 3D mutation distribution included kinases (MAPK1, EPHA5, ERBB3, and ERBB4), an apoptosis related gene (APP), an RNA splicing factor (SF1), a miRNA processing factor (DICER1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase (CUL1) and transcription factors (KLF5 and EEF1B2). Our study suggests that systematic analysis of mutation distribution in the tertiary protein structure can help identify cancer driver genes. PMID:27225414

  10. Extended RAS and BRAF Mutation Analysis Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kazuko; Tsurutani, Junji; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Yoneshige, Azusa; Ito, Akihiko; Togashi, Yosuke; De Velasco, Marco A; Terashima, Masato; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Tomida, Shuta; Tamura, Takao; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Nishio, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutations in KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF genes are related to resistance to anti-EGFR antibodies in colorectal cancer. We have established an extended RAS and BRAF mutation assay using a next-generation sequencer to analyze these mutations. Multiplexed deep sequencing was performed to detect somatic mutations within KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF, including minor mutated components. We first validated the technical performance of the multiplexed deep sequencing using 10 normal DNA and 20 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples. To demonstrate the potential clinical utility of our assay, we profiled 100 FFPE tumor samples and 15 plasma samples obtained from colorectal cancer patients. We used a variant calling approach based on a Poisson distribution. The distribution of the mutation-positive population was hypothesized to follow a Poisson distribution, and a mutation-positive status was defined as a value greater than the significance level of the error rate (α = 2 x 10(-5)). The cut-off value was determined to be the average error rate plus 7 standard deviations. Mutation analysis of 100 clinical FFPE tumor specimens was performed without any invalid cases. Mutations were detected at a frequency of 59% (59/100). KRAS mutation concordance between this assay and Scorpion-ARMS was 92% (92/100). DNA obtained from 15 plasma samples was also analyzed. KRAS and BRAF mutations were identified in both the plasma and tissue samples of 6 patients. The genetic screening assay using next-generation sequencer was validated for the detection of clinically relevant RAS and BRAF mutations using FFPE and liquid samples.

  11. Mutation analysis and molecular genetics of epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, L; Uitto, J

    1999-02-01

    Cutaneous basement membrane zone (BMZ) consists of a number of attachment structures that are critical for stable association of the epidermis to the underlying dermis. These include hemidesmosomes, anchoring filaments and anchoring fibrils which form an interconnecting network extending from the intracellular milieu of basal keratinocytes across the dermal-epidermal basement membrane to the underlying dermis. Aberrations in this network structure, e.g. due to genetic lesions in the corresponding genes, can result in fragility of the skin at the level of the cutaneous BMZ. The prototype of such diseases is epidermolysis bullosa (EB), a heterogeneous group of genodermatoses characterized by fragility and blistering of the skin, often associated with extracutaneous manifestations, and inherited either in an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive manner. Based on constellations of the phenotypic manifestations, severity of the disease, and the level of tissue separation within the cutaneous BMZ, EB has been divided into clinically distinct subcategories, including the simplex, hemidesmosomal, junctional and dystrophic variants. Elucidation of BMZ gene/protein systems and development of mutation detection strategies have allowed identification of mutations in 10 different BMZ genes which can explain the clinical heterogeneity of EB. These include mutations in the type VII collagen gene (COL7A1) in the dystrophic (severely scarring) forms of EB; mutations in the laminin 5 genes (LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2) in a lethal (Herlitz) variant of junctional EB; aberrations in the type XVII collagen gene (COL17A1) in non-lethal forms of junctional EB; mutations in the alpha6 and beta4 integrin genes in a distinct hemidesmosomal variant of EB with congenital pyloric atresia; and mutations in the plectin gene (PLEC1) in a form of EB associated with late-onset muscular dystrophy. Identification of mutations in these gene/protein systems attests to their critical importance in the

  12. Mutational analysis of Btk, the defective gene in X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, M.E.; Fitch-Hilgenberg, M.E.; Rohrer, J.

    1994-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), a disorder of B cell development, is due to mutations in an scr-like cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, Btk. Thus far, mutations in this gene have been identified by sequencing of cDNA. To permit the detection of mutations in genomic DNA, we determined the structure of Btk and identified 19 exons in 37 kb of DNA. PCR primers were designed to amplify each exon with its splice sites. Two overlapping PCR products were employed for exons longer than 230 base pairs. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was used to screen genomic DNA from 30 unrelated families presumed to carry a mutation in Btk. It was possible to amplify DNA in every reaction from every patient. None of the DNA samples demonstrated more than one aberrant SSCP pattern. Twenty three mutations were detected in 25 families. Seven point mutations resulting in amino acid substitutions were seen. An additional 7 base pair substitutions gave rise to premature stop codons. Two splice defects were noted. Small insertions or deletions, all resulting in frameshifts and premature stop codons were seen in eight patients. One patient had an A to G transition in the ATG start codon. Two mutations, both at CpG dinucleotides, were seen in more than one family. Haplotype analysis, using CA repeats closely linked to Btk, demonstrated that the mutations in these families arose independently. We conclude from these studies that the mutations in Btk in patients with XLA are highly variable. Large deletions are uncommon, although small 1 to 4 bp insertions or deletions constitute as many as one third of the mutations. Further analysis of patients with amino acid substitutions will permit structure/function correlations.

  13. DETECTION OF K-RAS AND P53 MUTATIONS IN SPUTUM SAMPLES OF LUNG CANCER PATIENTS USING LASER CAPTURE MICRODISSECTION MICROSCOPE AND MUTATION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of K-ras and p53 Mutations in Sputum Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Using Laser Capture Microdissection Microscope and Mutation Analysis

    Phouthone Keohavong a,*, Wei-Min Gao a, Kui-Cheng Zheng a, Hussam Mady b, Qing Lan c, Mona Melhem b, and Judy Mumford d.
    <...

  14. Novel Aromatase Inhibitors by Structure-Guided Design

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Debashis; Lo, Jessica; Morton, Daniel; Valette, Damien; Xi, Jingle; Griswold, Jennifer; Hubbell, Susan; Egbuta, Chinaza; Jiang, Wenhua; An, Jing; Davies, Huw M. L.

    2012-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 aromatase catalyzes with high specificity the synthesis of estrogens from androgens. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) such as exemestane, 6-methylideneandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione, are preeminent drugs for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. The crystal structure of human placental aromatase has shown an androgen-specific active site. By utilization of the structural data, novel C6-substituted androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione inhibitors have been designed. Several of the C6-substituted 2-alkynyloxy compounds inhibit purified placental aromatase with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. Antiproliferation studies in a MCF-7 breast cancer cell line demonstrate that some of these compounds have EC50 values better than 1 nM, exceeding that for exemestane. X-ray structures of aromatase complexes of two potent compounds reveal that, per their design, the novel side groups protrude into the opening to the access channel unoccupied in the enzyme–substrate/exemestane complexes. The observed structure–activity relationship is borne out by the X-ray data. Structure-guided design permits utilization of the aromatase-specific interactions for the development of next generation AIs. PMID:22951074

  15. Structure-guided development of heterodimer-selective GPCR ligands

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Harald; Schellhorn, Tamara; Gienger, Marie; Schaab, Carolin; Kaindl, Jonas; Leeb, Laurin; Clark, Timothy; Möller, Dorothee; Gmeiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Crystal structures of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligand complexes allow a rational design of novel molecular probes and drugs. Here we report the structure-guided design, chemical synthesis and biological investigations of bivalent ligands for dopamine D2 receptor/neurotensin NTS1 receptor (D2R/NTS1R) heterodimers. The compounds of types 1–3 consist of three different D2R pharmacophores bound to an affinity-generating lipophilic appendage, a polyethylene glycol-based linker and the NTS1R agonist NT(8-13). The bivalent ligands show binding affinity in the picomolar range for cells coexpressing both GPCRs and unprecedented selectivity (up to three orders of magnitude), compared with cells that only express D2Rs. A functional switch is observed for the bivalent ligands 3b,c inhibiting cAMP formation in cells singly expressing D2Rs but stimulating cAMP accumulation in D2R/NTS1R-coexpressing cells. Moreover, the newly synthesized bivalent ligands show a strong, predominantly NTS1R-mediated β-arrestin-2 recruitment at the D2R/NTS1R-coexpressing cells. PMID:27457610

  16. Analysis of the mutations inducedd by conazole fungicides in vivo

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mouse liver tumorigenic conazo1e fungicides triadimefon and propiconazo1e have previously been shown to be in vivo mouse liver mutagens in the Big Blue" transgenic mutation assay when administered in feed at tumorigenic doses, whereas the nontumorigenic conazo1e myc1obutani1 ...

  17. Sequence analysis of mutations and translocations across breast cancer subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Banerji, Shantanu; Cibulskis, Kristian; Rangel-Escareno, Claudia; Brown, Kristin K.; Carter, Scott L.; Frederick, Abbie M.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Sivachenko, Andrey Y.; Sougnez, Carrie; Zou, Lihua; Cortes, Maria L.; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan C.; Peng, Shouyong; Ardlie, Kristin G.; Auclair, Daniel; Bautista-Piña, Veronica; Duke, Fujiko; Francis, Joshua; Jung, Joonil; Maffuz-Aziz, Antonio; Onofrio, Robert C.; Parkin, Melissa; Pho, Nam H.; Quintanar-Jurado, Valeria; Ramos, Alex H.; Rebollar-Vega, Rosa; Rodriguez-Cuevas, Sergio; Romero-Cordoba, Sandra L.; Schumacher, Steven E.; Stransky, Nicolas; Thompson, Kristin M.; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Baselga, Jose; Beroukhim, Rameen; Polyak, Kornelia; Sgroi, Dennis C.; Richardson, Andrea L.; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Lander, Eric S.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Garraway, Levi A.; Golub, Todd R.; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Toker, Alex; Getz, Gad; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Meyerson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Breast carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide with an estimated 1.38 million new cases and 458,000 deaths in 2008 alone1. This malignancy represents a heterogeneous group of tumours with characteristic molecular features, prognosis, and responses to available therapy2–4. Recurrent somatic alterations in breast cancer have been described including mutations and copy number alterations, notably ERBB2 amplifications, the first successful therapy target defined by a genomic aberration5. Prior DNA sequencing studies of breast cancer genomes have revealed additional candidate mutations and gene rearrangements 6–10. Here we report the whole-exome sequences of DNA from 103 human breast cancers of diverse subtypes from patients in Mexico and Vietnam compared to matched-normal DNA, together with whole-genome sequences of 22 breast cancer/normal pairs. Beyond confirming recurrent somatic mutations in PIK3CA11, TP536, AKT112, GATA313, and MAP3K110, we discovered recurrent mutations in the CBFB transcription factor gene and deletions of its partner RUNX1. Furthermore, we have identified a recurrent MAGI3-AKT3 fusion enriched in triple-negative breast cancer lacking estrogen and progesterone receptors and ERBB2 expression. The Magi3-Akt3 fusion leads to constitutive activation of Akt kinase, which is abolished by treatment with an ATP-competitive Akt small-molecule inhibitor. PMID:22722202

  18. Sensitive and specific KRAS somatic mutation analysis on whole-genome amplified DNA from archival tissues.

    PubMed

    van Eijk, Ronald; van Puijenbroek, Marjo; Chhatta, Amiet R; Gupta, Nisha; Vossen, Rolf H A M; Lips, Esther H; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Morreau, Hans; van Wezel, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Kirsten RAS (KRAS) is a small GTPase that plays a key role in Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling; somatic mutations in KRAS are frequently found in many cancers. The most common KRAS mutations result in a constitutively active protein. Accurate detection of KRAS mutations is pivotal to the molecular diagnosis of cancer and may guide proper treatment selection. Here, we describe a two-step KRAS mutation screening protocol that combines whole-genome amplification (WGA), high-resolution melting analysis (HRM) as a prescreen method for mutation carrying samples, and direct Sanger sequencing of DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, from which limited amounts of DNA are available. We developed target-specific primers, thereby avoiding amplification of homologous KRAS sequences. The addition of herring sperm DNA facilitated WGA in DNA samples isolated from as few as 100 cells. KRAS mutation screening using high-resolution melting analysis on wgaDNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is highly sensitive and specific; additionally, this method is feasible for screening of clinical specimens, as illustrated by our analysis of pancreatic cancers. Furthermore, PCR on wgaDNA does not introduce genotypic changes, as opposed to unamplified genomic DNA. This method can, after validation, be applied to virtually any potentially mutated region in the genome.

  19. Novel Cystic Fibrosis mutation L1093P: functional analysis and possible Native American origin.

    PubMed

    Yee, K; Robinson, C; Hurlock, G; Moss, R B; Wine, J J

    2000-02-01

    A novel mutation was detected using single-strand conformation polymorphism and heteroduplex analysis in a cystic fibrosis subject of mixed ancestry. Mutation 3410T-->C in exon 17b caused the novel missense mutation L1093P; the other chromosome has mutation N1303K. The 31-year-old subject is pancreatic insufficient, had an FEV(1) score that was 33% of normal prior to a heart/lung transplant, and sweat chloride values of 116 and 95 mM when tested at ages 1 and 11. Functional analysis using forskolin-stimulated efflux of (125)I in HEK cells transfected with an ABCC7 construct harboring the L1093P mutation confirmed that cAMP-mediated anion efflux was abnormal, but some function was preserved. Analysis of parental DNA established that N1303K was of English origin, while L1093P was of Greek, Irish or Native American (Cherokee) origin. Given the intensive screening for CF mutations in European populations, we hypothesize that L1093P is of Native American origin. Hum Mutat 15:208, 2000. PMID:10649505

  20. Functional analysis of 'a' determinant mutations associated with occult HBV in HIV-positive South Africans.

    PubMed

    Powell, Eleanor A; Boyce, Ceejay L; Gededzha, Maemu P; Selabe, Selokela G; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Blackard, Jason T

    2016-07-01

    Occult hepatitis B is defined by the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Occult HBV is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, reactivation during immune suppression, and virus transmission. Viral mutations contribute significantly to the occult HBV phenotype. Mutations in the 'a' determinant of HBsAg are of particular interest, as these mutations are associated with immune escape, vaccine escape and diagnostic failure. We examined the effects of selected occult HBV-associated mutations identified in a population of HIV-positive South Africans on HBsAg production in vitro. Mutations were inserted into two different chronic HBV backbones and transfected into a hepatocyte-derived cell line. HBsAg levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the detectability of mutant HBsAg was determined using an HA-tagged HBsAg expression system. Of the seven mutations analysed, four (S132P, C138Y, N146D and C147Y) resulted in decreased HBsAg expression in one viral background but not in the second viral background. One mutation (N146D) led to a decrease in HBsAg detected as compared to HA-tag, indicating that this mutation compromises the ability of the ELISA to detect HBsAg. The contribution of occult-associated mutations to the HBsAg-negative phenotype of occult HBV cannot be determined adequately by testing the effect of the mutation in a single viral background, and rigorous analysis of these mutations is required.

  1. Predictive and Prognostic Analysis of PIK3CA Mutation in Stage III Colon Cancer Intergroup Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xiaoyun; Imamura, Yu; Yamauchi, Mai; McCleary, Nadine J.; Ng, Kimmie; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Saltz, Leonard B.; Mayer, Robert J.; Whittom, Renaud; Hantel, Alexander; Benson, Al B.; Mowat, Rex B.; Spiegelman, Donna; Goldberg, Richard M.; Bertagnolli, Monica M.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Fuchs, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Somatic mutations in PIK3CA (phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphonate 3-kinase [PI3K], catalytic subunit alpha gene) activate the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway and contribute to pathogenesis of various malignancies, including colorectal cancer. Methods We examined associations of PIK3CA oncogene mutation with relapse, survival, and treatment efficacy in 627 stage III colon carcinoma case subjects within a randomized adjuvant chemotherapy trial (5-fluorouracil and leucovorin [FU/LV] vs irinotecan [CPT11], fluorouracil and leucovorin [IFL]; Cancer and Leukemia Group B 89803 [Alliance]). We detected PIK3CA mutation in exons 9 and 20 by polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess prognostic and predictive role of PIK3CA mutation, adjusting for clinical features and status of routine standard molecular pathology features, including KRAS and BRAF mutations and microsatellite instability (mismatch repair deficiency). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Compared with PIK3CA wild-type cases, overall status of PIK3CA mutation positivity or the presence of PIK3CA mutation in either exon 9 or 20 alone was not statistically significantly associated with recurrence-free, disease-free, or overall survival (log-rank P > .70; P > .40 in multivariable regression models). There was no statistically significant interaction between PIK3CA and KRAS (or BRAF) mutation status in survival analysis (P interaction > .18). PIK3CA mutation status did not appear to predict better or worse response to IFL therapy compared with FU/LV therapy (P interaction > .16). Conclusions Overall tumor PIK3CA mutation status is not associated with stage III colon cancer prognosis. PIK3CA mutation does not appear to serve as a predictive tumor molecular biomarker for response to irinotecan-based adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:24231454

  2. Functional analysis of 'a' determinant mutations associated with occult HBV in HIV-positive South Africans.

    PubMed

    Powell, Eleanor A; Boyce, Ceejay L; Gededzha, Maemu P; Selabe, Selokela G; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Blackard, Jason T

    2016-07-01

    Occult hepatitis B is defined by the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Occult HBV is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, reactivation during immune suppression, and virus transmission. Viral mutations contribute significantly to the occult HBV phenotype. Mutations in the 'a' determinant of HBsAg are of particular interest, as these mutations are associated with immune escape, vaccine escape and diagnostic failure. We examined the effects of selected occult HBV-associated mutations identified in a population of HIV-positive South Africans on HBsAg production in vitro. Mutations were inserted into two different chronic HBV backbones and transfected into a hepatocyte-derived cell line. HBsAg levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the detectability of mutant HBsAg was determined using an HA-tagged HBsAg expression system. Of the seven mutations analysed, four (S132P, C138Y, N146D and C147Y) resulted in decreased HBsAg expression in one viral background but not in the second viral background. One mutation (N146D) led to a decrease in HBsAg detected as compared to HA-tag, indicating that this mutation compromises the ability of the ELISA to detect HBsAg. The contribution of occult-associated mutations to the HBsAg-negative phenotype of occult HBV cannot be determined adequately by testing the effect of the mutation in a single viral background, and rigorous analysis of these mutations is required. PMID:27031988

  3. A comprehensive functional analysis of PTEN mutations: implications in tumor- and autism-related syndromes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Escudero, Isabel; Oliver, María D; Andrés-Pons, Amparo; Molina, María; Cid, Víctor J; Pulido, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    The PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) phosphatase is unique in mammals in terms of its tumor suppressor activity, exerted by dephosphorylation of the lipid second messenger PIP(3) (phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate), which activates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) oncogenic pathway. Loss-of-function mutations in the PTEN gene are frequent in human cancer and in the germline of patients with PTEN hamartoma tumor-related syndromes (PHTSs). In addition, PTEN is mutated in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), although no functional information on these mutations is available. Here, we report a comprehensive in vivo functional analysis of human PTEN using a heterologous yeast reconstitution system. Ala-scanning mutagenesis at the catalytic loops of PTEN outlined the critical role of residues within the P-catalytic loop for PIP(3) phosphatase activity in vivo. PTEN mutations that mimic the P-catalytic loop of mammalian PTEN-like proteins (TPTE, TPIP, tensins and auxilins) affected PTEN function variably, whereas tumor- or PHTS-associated mutations targeting the PTEN P-loop produced complete loss of function. Conversely, Ala-substitutions, as well as tumor-related mutations at the WPD- and TI-catalytic loops, displayed partial activity in many cases. Interestingly, a tumor-related D92N mutation was partially active, supporting the notion that the PTEN Asp92 residue might not function as the catalytic general acid. The analysis of a panel of ASD-associated hereditary PTEN mutations revealed that most of them did not substantially abrogate PTEN activity in vivo, whereas most of PHTS-associated mutations did. Our findings reveal distinctive functional patterns among PTEN mutations found in tumors and in the germline of PHTS and ASD patients, which could be relevant for therapy.

  4. Mutation analysis of the STRA6 gene in isolated and non-isolated anophthalmia/microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Chassaing, N; Ragge, N; Kariminejad, A; Buffet, A; Ghaderi-Sohi, S; Martinovic, J; Calvas, P

    2013-03-01

    PDAC syndrome [Pulmonary hypoplasia/agenesis, Diaphragmatic hernia/eventration, Anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M) and Cardiac Defect] is a condition associated with recessive mutations in the STRA6 gene in some of these patients. Recently, cases with isolated anophthalmia have been associated with STRA6 mutations. To determine the minimal findings associated with STRA6 mutations, we performed mutation analysis of the STRA6 gene in 28 cases with anophthalmia. In 7 of the cases the anophthalmia was isolated, in 14 cases it was associated with one of the major features included in PDAC and 7 had other abnormalities. Mutations were identified in two individuals: one with bilateral anophthalmia and some features included in PDAC, who was a compound heterozygote for a missense mutation and a large intragenic deletion, and the second case with all the major features of PDAC and who had a homozygous splicing mutation. This study suggests that STRA6 mutations are more likely to be identified in individuals with A/M and other abnormalities included in the PDAC spectrum, rather than in isolated A/M cases.

  5. Mutational analysis of the androgen receptor gene in two Chinese families with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome

    PubMed Central

    WANG, SONG; XU, HAIKUN; AN, WEI; ZHU, DECHUN; LI, DEJUN

    2016-01-01

    Androgens are essential for normal male sex differentiation and are responsible for the normal development of male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty. The physiological effects of androgens are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR). Mutations in the AR gene are the most common cause of androgen insensitivity syndrome. The present study undertook a genetic analysis of the AR gene in two unrelated families affected by complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) in China. In family 1, a previously reported nonsense mutation (G-to-A; p.W751X) was identified in exon 5 of the AR gene. In addition, a novel missense mutation was detected in exon 6 of the AR gene from family 2; this mutation resulted in a predicted amino acid change from phenylalanine to serine at codon 804 (T-to-C; p.F804S) in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of AR. Computer simulation of the structural changes generated by the p.F804S substitution revealed marked conformational alterations in the hydrophobic core responsible for the stability and function of the AR-LBD. In conclusion, the present study identified two mutations from two unrelated Chinese families affected by CAIS. The novel mutation (p.F804S) may provide insights into the molecular mechanism underlying CAIS. Furthermore, it expands on the number of mutational hot spots in the international AR mutation database, which may be useful in the future for prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling. PMID:27284311

  6. Pan-cancer network analysis identifies combinations of rare somatic mutations across pathways and protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Leiserson, Mark D M; Vandin, Fabio; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Dobson, Jason R; Eldridge, Jonathan V; Thomas, Jacob L; Papoutsaki, Alexandra; Kim, Younhun; Niu, Beifang; McLellan, Michael; Lawrence, Michael S; Gonzalez-Perez, Abel; Tamborero, David; Cheng, Yuwei; Ryslik, Gregory A; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Getz, Gad; Ding, Li; Raphael, Benjamin J

    2015-02-01

    Cancers exhibit extensive mutational heterogeneity, and the resulting long-tail phenomenon complicates the discovery of genes and pathways that are significantly mutated in cancer. We perform a pan-cancer analysis of mutated networks in 3,281 samples from 12 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) using HotNet2, a new algorithm to find mutated subnetworks that overcomes the limitations of existing single-gene, pathway and network approaches. We identify 16 significantly mutated subnetworks that comprise well-known cancer signaling pathways as well as subnetworks with less characterized roles in cancer, including cohesin, condensin and others. Many of these subnetworks exhibit co-occurring mutations across samples. These subnetworks contain dozens of genes with rare somatic mutations across multiple cancers; many of these genes have additional evidence supporting a role in cancer. By illuminating these rare combinations of mutations, pan-cancer network analyses provide a roadmap to investigate new diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities across cancer types.

  7. Analysis of in vivo mutation data can inform cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Moore, Martha M; Heflich, Robert H; Haber, Lynne T; Allen, Bruce C; Shipp, Annette M; Kodell, Ralph L

    2008-07-01

    Under the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Cancer Risk Assessment Guidelines [U.S. EPA, 2005. Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. EPA/630/P-03/001B, March 2005], the quantitative model chosen for cancer risk assessment is based on the mode-of-action (MOA) of the chemical under consideration. In particular, the risk assessment model depends on whether or not the chemical causes tumors through a direct DNA-reactive mechanism. It is assumed that direct DNA-reactive carcinogens initiate carcinogenesis by inducing mutations and have low-dose linear dose-response curves, whereas carcinogens that operate through a nonmutagenic MOA may have nonlinear dose-responses. We are currently evaluating whether the analysis of in vivo gene mutation data can inform the risk assessment process by better defining the MOA for cancer and thus influencing the choice of the low-dose extrapolation model. This assessment includes both a temporal analysis of mutation induction and a dose-response concordance analysis of mutation with tumor incidence. Our analysis of published data on riddelliine in rats and dichloroacetic acid in mice indicates that our approach has merit. We propose an experimental design and graphical analysis that allow for assessing time-to-mutation and dose-response concordance, thereby optimizing the potential for in vivo mutation data to inform the choice of the quantitative model used in cancer risk assessment.

  8. Identification of gene mutation in patients with osteogenesis imperfect using high resolution melting analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianhai; Ren, Xiuzhi; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Tianke; Wang, Yi; Li, Keqiu; Li, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), a congenital bone disorder, is caused by mutations in COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes, leading to deficiency of type I collagen. The high resolution melting (HRM) analysis has been used for detecting mutations, polymorphisms and epigenetic alteration in double-stranded DNAs. This study was to evaluate the potential application of HRM analysis for identifying gene mutations in patients with OI. This study included four children with OI and their parents and fifty normal people as controls. Blood samples were collected for HRM analysis of PCR-amplified exons and flanking DNA sequences of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes. Direct gene sequencing was performed to validate HRM-identified gene mutations. As compared to controls, HRM analysis of samples form children with OI showed abnormal melting curves in exons 11 and 33–34 of the COL1A1 gene and exons 19 and 48 of the COL1A2 gene, which indicates the presence of heterozygous mutations in COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes. In addition to two known mutations in the COL1A2 gene, c.982G > A and c.3197G > T, sequencing analysis identified two novel mutations in the COL1A1 gene, c.2321delC and c.768dupC mutations, which function as premature stop codons. These results support future studies of applying HRM analysis as a diagnostic approach for OI. PMID:26307460

  9. Identification of gene mutation in patients with osteogenesis imperfect using high resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhai; Ren, Xiuzhi; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Tianke; Wang, Yi; Li, Keqiu; Li, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), a congenital bone disorder, is caused by mutations in COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes, leading to deficiency of type I collagen. The high resolution melting (HRM) analysis has been used for detecting mutations, polymorphisms and epigenetic alteration in double-stranded DNAs. This study was to evaluate the potential application of HRM analysis for identifying gene mutations in patients with OI. This study included four children with OI and their parents and fifty normal people as controls. Blood samples were collected for HRM analysis of PCR-amplified exons and flanking DNA sequences of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes. Direct gene sequencing was performed to validate HRM-identified gene mutations. As compared to controls, HRM analysis of samples form children with OI showed abnormal melting curves in exons 11 and 33-34 of the COL1A1 gene and exons 19 and 48 of the COL1A2 gene, which indicates the presence of heterozygous mutations in COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes. In addition to two known mutations in the COL1A2 gene, c.982G > A and c.3197G > T, sequencing analysis identified two novel mutations in the COL1A1 gene, c.2321delC and c.768dupC mutations, which function as premature stop codons. These results support future studies of applying HRM analysis as a diagnostic approach for OI. PMID:26307460

  10. Mutational analysis of human papillomavirus type 16 E7 functions.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, S; Kanda, T; Sato, H; Furuno, A; Yoshiike, K

    1990-01-01

    The human papillomavirus type 16 E7 gene encodes a nuclear oncoprotein (98 amino acids [AAs] long) consisting of three regions: regions 1 (AAs 1 to 20) and 2 (AAs 21 to 40), which show high homology to the sequences of conserved domains 1 and 2, respectively, of adenovirus E1A; and region 3 (AAs 41 to 98) containing two metal-binding motifs Cys-X-X-Cys (AAs 58 and 91 to 94). We constructed AA deletion (substitution) mutants and single-AA substitution mutants of E7 placed under the control of the simian virus 40 promoter and examined their biological functions. Stable expression of E7 protein in monkey COS-1 cells required almost the entire length of E7 and was markedly lowered by the mutations in region 3. Transactivation of the adenovirus E2 promoter in monkey CV-1 cells was lowered by the mutations. It was abolished by changing Cys-24 to Gly and markedly decreased by a mutation at His-2 or at the metal-binding motifs in region 3. Focal transformation of rat 3Y1 cells by E7 was eliminated by changing His-2 to Asp or Cys-24 to Gly and was greatly impaired by changing Cys-61 or Cys-94 to Gly. The transforming function survived mutations at Leu-13 and Cys-68 and deletion of Asp-Ser-Ser (AAs 30 to 32). The data suggest that regions 1 to 3 are required for its functions and that the meta-binding motifs in region 3 are required to maintain a stable or functional structure of the E7 protein. Images PMID:2152813

  11. Genetic analysis of transcription-associated mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Morey, N J; Greene, C N; Jinks-Robertson, S

    2000-01-01

    High levels of transcription are associated with elevated mutation rates in yeast, a phenomenon referred to as transcription-associated mutation (TAM). The transcription-associated increase in mutation rates was previously shown to be partially dependent on the Rev3p translesion bypass pathway, thus implicating DNA damage in TAM. In this study, we use reversion of a pGAL-driven lys2DeltaBgl allele to further examine the genetic requirements of TAM. We find that TAM is increased by disruption of the nucleotide excision repair or recombination pathways. In contrast, elimination of base excision repair components has only modest effects on TAM. In addition to the genetic studies, the lys2DeltaBgl reversion spectra of repair-proficient low and high transcription strains were obtained. In the low transcription spectrum, most of the frameshift events correspond to deletions of AT base pairs whereas in the high transcription strain, deletions of GC base pairs predominate. These results are discussed in terms of transcription and its role in DNA damage and repair. PMID:10628973

  12. Molecular analysis of rice plant mutated after space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Z.; Li, C.; Wei, L.; Xu, D.; Gu, D.; Guan, S.; Zhao, H.; Xin, P.; Sun, Y.

    We have obtained several rice mutants planted from seeds flown on recoverable satellites. Some new traits, such as good yields, diseases resistances and higher nutrient values, have been identified, putatively as consequences of the space environment. Radiation inside the Chinese recoverable satellite was composed of low flux of high energy particles (>40 Mev/u). To study the mechanisms of plant mutations induced by the space environment, we used dry rice seeds as a model to identify the phenotype of mutations, and used the wealth of the rice genome to identify the mutated genes in the mutants. The research included collecting rice plant mutants in the seeds flown on the satellites, identifying the nature of genomic and proteomic alterations, modifications and identifying the functional changes of the specific genes. The study showed that the rice seeds are a good model for exploring biological effect of space environment since 1) it is easy fly the seeds without specific hardware and crew work, 2) it is easy to obtain pure mutant breed lines for cloning DNA sequence in order to compare with the sequence in the wild type, and 3) it is easy to quantitatively analyze genetics using advanced molecular techniques.

  13. Structural Analysis of Single-Point Mutations Given an RNA Sequence: A Case Study with RNAMute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churkin, Alexander; Barash, Danny

    2006-12-01

    We introduce here for the first time the RNAMute package, a pattern-recognition-based utility to perform mutational analysis and detect vulnerable spots within an RNA sequence that affect structure. Mutations in these spots may lead to a structural change that directly relates to a change in functionality. Previously, the concept was tried on RNA genetic control elements called "riboswitches" and other known RNA switches, without an organized utility that analyzes all single-point mutations and can be further expanded. The RNAMute package allows a comprehensive categorization, given an RNA sequence that has functional relevance, by exploring the patterns of all single-point mutants. For illustration, we apply the RNAMute package on an RNA transcript for which individual point mutations were shown experimentally to inactivate spectinomycin resistance in Escherichia coli. Functional analysis of mutations on this case study was performed experimentally by creating a library of point mutations using PCR and screening to locate those mutations. With the availability of RNAMute, preanalysis can be performed computationally before conducting an experiment.

  14. A novel missense mutation in Van der Woude syndrome: usefulness of fingernail DNA for genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, N; Shimozato, K; Natsume, N; Niikawa, N; Yoshiura, K

    2006-12-01

    Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is an autosomal-dominant oral facial disorder. To find a gene mutation in a Japanese family using fingernail DNA samples, we performed this study. We hypothesized that a gene mutation in IRF6 might be involved in VWS, and that fingernail DNA samples may be valuable for detecting such mutations. Linkage and haplotype analyses of the family mapped the disease locus to the 1q32-q41 region. Mutation analysis with an improved extraction method for fingernail DNA detected a novel missense mutation (1046A>T, E349V) in exon 7 of IRF6 in all the affected members of the family. Since the E349V change may disturb the hydrophobic core and affect regulatory activity of IRF6, it is most likely that the mutation is causative for VWS in this family. Fingernail DNA is thus useful for linkage and mutation analyses, since the fingernail can be easily obtained non-invasively, sent through the mail, and stored for a long period. We emphasize here the usefulness of fingernail DNA for the genetic analysis of a disease. PMID:17122170

  15. Mutational and Functional Analysis of the Tumor-Suppressor PTPRD in Human Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Walia, Vijay; Prickett, Todd D.; Kim, Jung-Sik; Gartner, Jared J.; Lin, Jimmy C.; Zhou, Ming; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Elble, Randolph C.; Solomon, David A.; Waldman, Todd; Samuels, Yardena

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) tightly regulate tyrosine phosphorylation essential for cell growth, adhesion, migration, and survival. We performed a mutational analysis of the PTP gene family in cutaneous metastatic melanoma and identified 23 phosphatase genes harboring somatic mutations. Among these, receptor-type tyrosine–protein phosphatase delta (PTPRD) was one of the most highly mutated genes, harboring 17 somatic mutations in 79 samples, a prevalence of 21.5%. Functional evaluation of six PTPRD mutations revealed enhanced anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth. Interestingly, melanoma cells expressing mutant PTPRD were significantly more migratory than cells expressing wild-type PTPRD or vector alone, indicating a novel gain-of-function associated with mutant PTPRD. To understand the molecular mechanisms of PTPRD mutations, we searched for its binding partners by converting the active PTPRD enzyme into a “substrate trap” form. Using mass spectrometry and coimmunoprecipitation, we report desmoplakin, a desmosomal protein that is implicated in cell–cell adhesion, as a novel PTPRD substrate. Further analysis showed reduced phosphatase activity of mutant PTPRD against desmoplakin. Our findings identify an essential signaling cascade that is disrupted in melanoma. Moreover, because PTPRD is also mutated in glioblastomas and adenocarcinoma of the colon and lung, our data might be applicable to a large number of human cancers. PMID:25113440

  16. Mutational and functional analysis of the tumor-suppressor PTPRD in human melanoma.

    PubMed

    Walia, Vijay; Prickett, Todd D; Kim, Jung-Sik; Gartner, Jared J; Lin, Jimmy C; Zhou, Ming; Rosenberg, Steven A; Elble, Randolph C; Solomon, David A; Waldman, Todd; Samuels, Yardena

    2014-11-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) tightly regulate tyrosine phosphorylation essential for cell growth, adhesion, migration, and survival. We performed a mutational analysis of the PTP gene family in cutaneous metastatic melanoma and identified 23 phosphatase genes harboring somatic mutations. Among these, receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase delta (PTPRD) was one of the most highly mutated genes, harboring 17 somatic mutations in 79 samples, a prevalence of 21.5%. Functional evaluation of six PTPRD mutations revealed enhanced anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth. Interestingly, melanoma cells expressing mutant PTPRD were significantly more migratory than cells expressing wild-type PTPRD or vector alone, indicating a novel gain-of-function associated with mutant PTPRD. To understand the molecular mechanisms of PTPRD mutations, we searched for its binding partners by converting the active PTPRD enzyme into a "substrate trap" form. Using mass spectrometry and coimmunoprecipitation, we report desmoplakin, a desmosomal protein that is implicated in cell-cell adhesion, as a novel PTPRD substrate. Further analysis showed reduced phosphatase activity of mutant PTPRD against desmoplakin. Our findings identify an essential signaling cascade that is disrupted in melanoma. Moreover, because PTPRD is also mutated in glioblastomas and adenocarcinoma of the colon and lung, our data might be applicable to a large number of human cancers.

  17. A comparison of ARMS and DNA sequencing for mutation analysis in clinical biopsy samples

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We have compared mutation analysis by DNA sequencing and Amplification Refractory Mutation System™ (ARMS™) for their ability to detect mutations in clinical biopsy specimens. Methods We have evaluated five real-time ARMS assays: BRAF 1799T>A, [this includes V600E and V600K] and NRAS 182A>G [Q61R] and 181C>A [Q61K] in melanoma, EGFR 2573T>G [L858R], 2235-2249del15 [E746-A750del] in non-small-cell lung cancer, and compared the results to DNA sequencing of the mutation 'hot-spots' in these genes in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour (FF-PET) DNA. Results The ARMS assays maximised the number of samples that could be analysed when both the quality and quantity of DNA was low, and improved both the sensitivity and speed of analysis compared with sequencing. ARMS was more robust with fewer reaction failures compared with sequencing and was more sensitive as it was able to detect functional mutations that were not detected by DNA sequencing. DNA sequencing was able to detect a small number of lower frequency recurrent mutations across the exons screened that were not interrogated using the specific ARMS assays in these studies. Conclusions ARMS was more sensitive and robust at detecting defined somatic mutations than DNA sequencing on clinical samples where the predominant sample type was FF-PET. PMID:20925915

  18. Genetic and molecular analysis of chlorambucil-induced germ-line mutations in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Rinchik, E.M.; Bangham, J.W.; Hunsicker, P.R.; Cacheiro, N.L.A.; Russell, L.B. ); Kwon, B.S. ); Jackson, I.J. )

    1990-02-01

    Eighteen variants recovered from specific locus mutation rate experiments involving the mutagen chlorambucil were subjected to several genetic and molecular analyses. Most mutations were found to be homozygous lethal. Because lethality is often presumptive evidence for multilocus-deletion events, 10 mutations were analyzed by Southern blot analysis with probes at, or closely linked to, several of the specific locus test markers, namely, albino (c), brown (b), and dilute (d). All eight mutations (two c; three b; two d; and one dilute-short ear (Df(d se))) that arose in post-spermatogonial germ cells were deleted for DNA sequences. No evidence for deletion of two d-se region probes was obtained for the remaining two d mutations that arose in stem-cell spermatogonia. Six of the primary mutants also produced low litter sizes (semisterility). Karyotypic analysis has, to date, confirmed the presence of reciprocal translocations in four of the six. The high frequency of deletions and translocations among the mutations induced in post-spermatogonial stages by chlorambucil, combined with its overall high efficiency in inducing mutations in these stages, should make chlorambucil mutagenesis useful for generating experimentally valuable germ-line deletions throughout the mouse genome.

  19. The TREAT-NMD DMD Global Database: Analysis of More than 7,000 Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Bladen, Catherine L; Salgado, David; Monges, Soledad; Foncuberta, Maria E; Kekou, Kyriaki; Kosma, Konstantina; Dawkins, Hugh; Lamont, Leanne; Roy, Anna J; Chamova, Teodora; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Chan, Sophelia; Korngut, Lawrence; Campbell, Craig; Dai, Yi; Wang, Jen; Barišić, Nina; Brabec, Petr; Lahdetie, Jaana; Walter, Maggie C; Schreiber-Katz, Olivia; Karcagi, Veronika; Garami, Marta; Viswanathan, Venkatarman; Bayat, Farhad; Buccella, Filippo; Kimura, En; Koeks, Zaïda; van den Bergen, Janneke C; Rodrigues, Miriam; Roxburgh, Richard; Lusakowska, Anna; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Zimowski, Janusz; Santos, Rosário; Neagu, Elena; Artemieva, Svetlana; Rasic, Vedrana Milic; Vojinovic, Dina; Posada, Manuel; Bloetzer, Clemens; Jeannet, Pierre-Yves; Joncourt, Franziska; Díaz-Manera, Jordi; Gallardo, Eduard; Karaduman, A Ayşe; Topaloğlu, Haluk; El Sherif, Rasha; Stringer, Angela; Shatillo, Andriy V; Martin, Ann S; Peay, Holly L; Bellgard, Matthew I; Kirschner, Jan; Flanigan, Kevin M; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Kate; Verschuuren, Jan; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Béroud, Christophe; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the type and frequency of patient-specific mutations that give rise to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an invaluable tool for diagnostics, basic scientific research, trial planning, and improved clinical care. Locus-specific databases allow for the collection, organization, storage, and analysis of genetic variants of disease. Here, we describe the development and analysis of the TREAT-NMD DMD Global database (http://umd.be/TREAT_DMD/). We analyzed genetic data for 7,149 DMD mutations held within the database. A total of 5,682 large mutations were observed (80% of total mutations), of which 4,894 (86%) were deletions (1 exon or larger) and 784 (14%) were duplications (1 exon or larger). There were 1,445 small mutations (smaller than 1 exon, 20% of all mutations), of which 358 (25%) were small deletions and 132 (9%) small insertions and 199 (14%) affected the splice sites. Point mutations totalled 756 (52% of small mutations) with 726 (50%) nonsense mutations and 30 (2%) missense mutations. Finally, 22 (0.3%) mid-intronic mutations were observed. In addition, mutations were identified within the database that would potentially benefit from novel genetic therapies for DMD including stop codon read-through therapies (10% of total mutations) and exon skipping therapy (80% of deletions and 55% of total mutations). PMID:25604253

  20. Rapid detection of regionally clustered germ-line BRCA1 mutations by multiplex heteroduplex analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gayther, S.A.; Harrington, P.; Russell, P.

    1996-03-01

    Germ-line mutations of the BRCA1 gene are responsible for a substantial proportion of families with multiple cases of early-onset breast and/or ovarian cancer. Since the isolation of BRCA1 last year, >65 distinct mutations scattered throughout the coding region have been detected, making analysis of the gene time consuming and technically challenging. We have developed a multiplex heteroduplex analysis that is designed to analyze one-quarter of the coding sequence in a single-step screening procedure and that will detect {approximately}50% of all BRCA1 mutations so far reported in breast/ovarian cancer families. We have used this technique to analyze BRCA1 in 162 families with a history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and identified 12 distinct mutations in 35 families. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Mutational analysis of ATP7B in Chinese Wilson disease patients.

    PubMed

    Hua, Rui; Hua, Fang; Jiao, Yonggeng; Pan, Yu; Yang, Xu; Peng, Shanshan; Niu, Junqi

    2016-01-01

    Wilson Disease (WD) is an inborn error of copper metabolism inherited in an autosomal recessive manner caused by the mutations in the P-type ATPase gene (ATP7B). In this study, we screen and detect the mutations of the ATP7B gene in unrelated Chinese WD patients. A total of 68 individuals from ten provinces of China with WD were recruited. Of them, 43 were males and 25 were females, and their onset ages were from 1 to 48 years with a median onset age of 22.2 years. All the exons and exon/intron boundaries of ATP7B gene of the patients were sequenced and aligned to the referred ATP7B gene sequence. The results suggested that 66 of the 68 patents carried with at least one mutation and 48 different mutations were identified including 34 missense, one synonymous, two nonsense, two splicing, and nine frameshift mutations (five insertion and four deletion). Among these mutations, c.2333G>T, c.2310C>G, c.2975C>T, and c.3443T>C were the most prevalent mutants and c.2310C>G always linked with c.2333G>T. The eighth, 11(th), and 18(th) exons carried more mutations (6/48, 5/48, and 5/48, respectively) than others. After comparing with the mutations reported previously, 22 out of the 48 mutations were identified as novel mutations. A popular algorithm, Polyphen-2, was used to predict the effects of the amino-acid substitution due to the mutations on the structure and function of ATP7B function and the predicted results indicated that all the missense mutations were unfavorable except c.121A>G and c.748G>A. Phenotype/genotype correlation analysis suggested that the patients with c.2975C>T or c.3809A>G often presented WD features before 12 years old while the patients with c.3443T>C almost presented WD after 12 years old. This is the first time to identify the common mutations contributing to early onset age in Chinese WD patients. Our study will broaden our knowledge about ATP7B mutations in WD patients.

  2. Mutational analysis of ATP7B in Chinese Wilson disease patients.

    PubMed

    Hua, Rui; Hua, Fang; Jiao, Yonggeng; Pan, Yu; Yang, Xu; Peng, Shanshan; Niu, Junqi

    2016-01-01

    Wilson Disease (WD) is an inborn error of copper metabolism inherited in an autosomal recessive manner caused by the mutations in the P-type ATPase gene (ATP7B). In this study, we screen and detect the mutations of the ATP7B gene in unrelated Chinese WD patients. A total of 68 individuals from ten provinces of China with WD were recruited. Of them, 43 were males and 25 were females, and their onset ages were from 1 to 48 years with a median onset age of 22.2 years. All the exons and exon/intron boundaries of ATP7B gene of the patients were sequenced and aligned to the referred ATP7B gene sequence. The results suggested that 66 of the 68 patents carried with at least one mutation and 48 different mutations were identified including 34 missense, one synonymous, two nonsense, two splicing, and nine frameshift mutations (five insertion and four deletion). Among these mutations, c.2333G>T, c.2310C>G, c.2975C>T, and c.3443T>C were the most prevalent mutants and c.2310C>G always linked with c.2333G>T. The eighth, 11(th), and 18(th) exons carried more mutations (6/48, 5/48, and 5/48, respectively) than others. After comparing with the mutations reported previously, 22 out of the 48 mutations were identified as novel mutations. A popular algorithm, Polyphen-2, was used to predict the effects of the amino-acid substitution due to the mutations on the structure and function of ATP7B function and the predicted results indicated that all the missense mutations were unfavorable except c.121A>G and c.748G>A. Phenotype/genotype correlation analysis suggested that the patients with c.2975C>T or c.3809A>G often presented WD features before 12 years old while the patients with c.3443T>C almost presented WD after 12 years old. This is the first time to identify the common mutations contributing to early onset age in Chinese WD patients. Our study will broaden our knowledge about ATP7B mutations in WD patients. PMID:27398169

  3. Mutational analysis of ATP7B in Chinese Wilson disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Rui; Hua, Fang; Jiao, Yonggeng; Pan, Yu; Yang, Xu; Peng, Shanshan; Niu, Junqi

    2016-01-01

    Wilson Disease (WD) is an inborn error of copper metabolism inherited in an autosomal recessive manner caused by the mutations in the P-type ATPase gene (ATP7B). In this study, we screen and detect the mutations of the ATP7B gene in unrelated Chinese WD patients. A total of 68 individuals from ten provinces of China with WD were recruited. Of them, 43 were males and 25 were females, and their onset ages were from 1 to 48 years with a median onset age of 22.2 years. All the exons and exon/intron boundaries of ATP7B gene of the patients were sequenced and aligned to the referred ATP7B gene sequence. The results suggested that 66 of the 68 patents carried with at least one mutation and 48 different mutations were identified including 34 missense, one synonymous, two nonsense, two splicing, and nine frameshift mutations (five insertion and four deletion). Among these mutations, c.2333G>T, c.2310C>G, c.2975C>T, and c.3443T>C were the most prevalent mutants and c.2310C>G always linked with c.2333G>T. The eighth, 11th, and 18th exons carried more mutations (6/48, 5/48, and 5/48, respectively) than others. After comparing with the mutations reported previously, 22 out of the 48 mutations were identified as novel mutations. A popular algorithm, Polyphen-2, was used to predict the effects of the amino-acid substitution due to the mutations on the structure and function of ATP7B function and the predicted results indicated that all the missense mutations were unfavorable except c.121A>G and c.748G>A. Phenotype/genotype correlation analysis suggested that the patients with c.2975C>T or c.3809A>G often presented WD features before 12 years old while the patients with c.3443T>C almost presented WD after 12 years old. This is the first time to identify the common mutations contributing to early onset age in Chinese WD patients. Our study will broaden our knowledge about ATP7B mutations in WD patients. PMID:27398169

  4. Mutation analysis of 13 driver genes of colorectal cancer-related pathways in Taiwanese patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yuli Christine; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Liu, Ta-Chih; Lin, Chien-Yu; Yang, Shu-Fen; Ho, Cheng-Mao; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Chang, Ya-Sian

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the driver gene mutations associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) in the Taiwanese population. METHODS: In this study, 103 patients with CRC were evaluated. The samples consisted of 66 men and 37 women with a median age of 59 years and an age range of 26-86 years. We used high-resolution melting analysis (HRM) and direct DNA sequencing to characterize the mutations in 13 driver genes of CRC-related pathways. The HRM assays were conducted using the LightCycler® 480 Instrument provided with the software LightCycler® 480 Gene Scanning Software Version 1.5. We also compared the clinicopathological data of CRC patients with the driver gene mutation status. RESULTS: Of the 103 patients evaluated, 73.79% had mutations in one of the 13 driver genes. We discovered 18 novel mutations in APC, MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, SMAD4 and TP53 that have not been previously reported. Additionally, we found 16 de novo mutations in APC, BMPR1A, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, MUTYH and PMS2 in cancerous tissues previously reported in the dbSNP database; however, these mutations could not be detected in peripheral blood cells. The APC mutation correlates with lymph node metastasis (34.69% vs 12.96%, P = 0.009) and cancer stage (34.78% vs 14.04%, P = 0.013). No association was observed between other driver gene mutations and clinicopathological features. Furthermore, having two or more driver gene mutations correlates with the degree of lymph node metastasis (42.86% vs 24.07%, P = 0.043). CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm the importance of 13 CRC-related pathway driver genes in the development of CRC in Taiwanese patients. PMID:26900293

  5. Structure-Based Analysis Reveals Cancer Missense Mutations Target Protein Interaction Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Engin, H. Billur; Kreisberg, Jason F.; Carter, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that cancer mutations selectively target protein-protein interactions. We hypothesized that mutations affecting distinct protein interactions involving established cancer genes could contribute to tumor heterogeneity, and that novel mechanistic insights might be gained into tumorigenesis by investigating protein interactions under positive selection in cancer. To identify protein interactions under positive selection in cancer, we mapped over 1.2 million nonsynonymous somatic cancer mutations onto 4,896 experimentally determined protein structures and analyzed their spatial distribution. In total, 20% of mutations on the surface of known cancer genes perturbed protein-protein interactions (PPIs), and this enrichment for PPI interfaces was observed for both tumor suppressors (Odds Ratio 1.28, P-value < 10−4) and oncogenes (Odds Ratio 1.17, P-value < 10−3). To study this further, we constructed a bipartite network representing structurally resolved PPIs from all available human complexes in the Protein Data Bank (2,864 proteins, 3,072 PPIs). Analysis of frequently mutated cancer genes within this network revealed that tumor-suppressors, but not oncogenes, are significantly enriched with functional mutations in homo-oligomerization regions (Odds Ratio 3.68, P-Value < 10−8). We present two important examples, TP53 and beta-2-microglobulin, for which the patterns of somatic mutations at interfaces provide insights into specifically perturbed biological circuits. In patients with TP53 mutations, patient survival correlated with the specific interactions that were perturbed. Moreover, we investigated mutations at the interface of protein-nucleotide interactions and observed an unexpected number of missense mutations but not silent mutations occurring within DNA and RNA binding sites. Finally, we provide a resource of 3,072 PPI interfaces ranked according to their mutation rates. Analysis of this list highlights 282 novel candidate cancer

  6. Mudi, a web tool for identifying mutations by bioinformatics analysis of whole-genome sequence.

    PubMed

    Iida, Naoko; Yamao, Fumiaki; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Iida, Tetsushi

    2014-06-01

    In forward genetics, identification of mutations is a time-consuming and laborious process. Modern whole-genome sequencing, coupled with bioinformatics analysis, has enabled fast and cost-effective mutation identification. However, for many experimental researchers, bioinformatics analysis is still a difficult aspect of whole-genome sequencing. To address this issue, we developed a browser-accessible and easy-to-use bioinformatics tool called Mutation discovery (Mudi; http://naoii.nig.ac.jp/mudi_top.html), which enables 'one-click' identification of causative mutations from whole-genome sequence data. In this study, we optimized Mudi for pooled-linkage analysis aimed at identifying mutants in yeast model systems. After raw sequencing data are uploaded, Mudi performs sequential analysis, including mapping, detection of variant alleles, filtering and removal of background polymorphisms, prioritization, and annotation. In an example study of suppressor mutants of ptr1-1 in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, pooled-linkage analysis with Mudi identified mip1(+) , a component of Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1), as a novel component involved in RNA interference (RNAi)-related cell-cycle control. The accessibility of Mudi will accelerate systematic mutation analysis in forward genetics.

  7. Genetic analysis and SOD1 mutation screening in Iranian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afagh; Nafissi, Shahriar; Rohani, Mohammad; Zamani, Babak; Sedighi, Behnaz; Shamshiri, Hosein; Fan, Jian-Bing; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Elahi, Elahe

    2013-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease, and the most common in European populations. Results of genetic analysis and mutation screening of SOD1 in a cohort of 60 Iranian ALS patients are here reported. Initially, linkage analysis in 4 families identified a disease-linked locus that included the known ALS gene, SOD1. Screening of SOD1 identified homozygous p.Asp90Ala causing mutations in all the linked families. Haplotype analysis suggests that the p.Asp90Ala alleles in the Iranian patients might share a common founder with the renowned Scandinavian recessive p.Asp90Ala allele. Subsequent screening in all the patients resulted in identification of 3 other mutations in SOD1, including p.Leu84Phe in the homozygous state. Phenotypic features of the mutation-bearing patients are presented. SOD1 mutations were found in 11.7% of the cohort, 38.5% of the familial ALS probands, and 4.25% of the sporadic ALS cases. SOD1 mutations contribute significantly to ALS among Iranians.

  8. Mutation analysis with random DNA identifiers (MARDI) catalogs Pig-a mutations in heterogeneous pools of CD48-deficient T cells derived from DMBA-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Revollo, Javier R; Crabtree, Nathaniel M; Pearce, Mason G; Pacheco-Martinez, M Monserrat; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N

    2016-03-01

    Identification of mutations induced by xenotoxins is a common task in the field of genetic toxicology. Mutations are often detected by clonally expanding potential mutant cells and genotyping each viable clone by Sanger sequencing. Such a "clone-by-clone" approach requires significant time and effort, and sometimes is even impossible to implement. Alternative techniques for efficient mutation identification would greatly benefit both basic and regulatory genetic toxicology research. Here, we report the development of Mutation Analysis with Random DNA Identifiers (MARDI), a novel high-fidelity Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approach that circumvents clonal expansion and directly catalogs mutations in pools of mutant cells. MARDI uses oligonucleotides carrying Random DNA Identifiers (RDIs) to tag progenitor DNA molecules before PCR amplification, enabling clustering of descendant DNA molecules and eliminating NGS- and PCR-induced sequencing artifacts. When applied to the Pig-a cDNA analysis of heterogeneous pools of CD48-deficient T cells derived from DMBA-treated rats, MARDI detected nearly all Pig-a mutations that were previously identified by conventional clone-by-clone analysis and discovered many additional ones consistent with DMBA exposure: mostly A to T transversions, with the mutated A located on the non-transcribed DNA strand. PMID:26683280

  9. Design and analysis issues in genome-wide somatic mutation studies of cancer.

    PubMed

    Parmigiani, Giovanni; Boca, Simina; Lin, Jimmy; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Velculescu, Victor; Vogelstein, Bert

    2009-01-01

    The availability of the human genome sequence and progress in sequencing and bioinformatic technologies have enabled genome-wide investigation of somatic mutations in human cancers. This article briefly reviews challenges arising in the statistical analysis of mutational data of this kind. A first challenge is that of designing studies that efficiently allocate sequencing resources. We show that this can be addressed by two-stage designs and demonstrate via simulations that even relatively small studies can produce lists of candidate cancer genes that are highly informative for future research efforts. A second challenge is to distinguish mutated genes that are selected for by cancer (drivers) from mutated genes that have no role in the development of cancer and simply happened to mutate (passengers). We suggest that this question is best approached as a classification problem and discuss some of the difficulties of more traditional testing-based approaches. A third challenge is to identify biologic processes affected by the driver genes. This can be pursued by gene set analyses. These can reliably identify functional groups and pathways that are enriched for mutated genes even when the individual genes involved in those pathways or sets are not mutated at sufficient frequencies to provide conclusive evidence as drivers.

  10. Comprehensive analysis of cancer-associated somatic mutations in class I HLA genes

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Sachet A.; Rooney, Michael S.; Rajasagi, Mohini; Tiao, Grace; Dixon, Philip M.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Stevens, Jonathan; Lane, William J.; Dellagatta, Jamie L.; Steelman, Scott; Sougnez, Carrie; Cibulskis, Kristian; Kiezun, Adam; Brusic, Vladimir; Wu, Catherine J.; Getz, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Detection of somatic mutations in HLA genes using whole-exome sequencing (WES) is hampered by the high polymorphism of the HLA loci, which prevents alignment of sequencing reads to the human reference genome. We describe a computational pipeline that enables accurate inference of germline alleles of class I HLA-A, -B and -C genes and subsequent detection of mutations in these genes using the inferred alleles as a reference. Analysis of WES data from 7,930 pairs of tumor and healthy tissue from the same patient revealed 298 non-silent HLA mutations in tumors from 266 patients. These 298 mutations are enriched for likely functional mutations, including putative loss-of-function events. Recurrence of mutations suggested that these ‘hotspot’ sites were positively selected. Cancers with recurrent somatic HLA mutations were associated with upregulation of signatures of cytolytic activity characteristic of tumor infiltration by effector lymphocytes, supporting immune evasion by altered HLA function as a contributory mechanism in cancer. PMID:26372948

  11. Mutation analysis of PALB2 gene in French breast cancer families.

    PubMed

    Damiola, Francesca; Schultz, Inès; Barjhoux, Laure; Sornin, Valérie; Dondon, Marie-Gabrielle; Eon-Marchais, Séverine; Marcou, Morgane; Caron, Olivier; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; de Pauw, Antoine; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Berthet, Pascaline; Delnatte, Capucine; Bonadona, Valérie; Maugard, Christine; Pujol, Pascal; Lasset, Christine; Longy, Michel; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Andrieu, Nadine; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Muller, Danièle

    2015-12-01

    Several population-based and family-based studies have demonstrated that germline mutations of the PALB2 gene (Partner and Localizer of BRCA2) are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Distinct mutation frequencies and spectrums have been described depending on the population studied. Here we describe the first complete PALB2 coding sequence screening in the French population. We screened the complete coding sequence and intron-exon boundaries of PALB2, using the EMMA technique, to assess the contribution of pathogenic mutations in a set of 835 familial breast cancer cases and 662 unrelated controls from the French national study GENESIS and the Paul Strauss Cancer Centre, all previously tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic mutations. Our analysis revealed the presence of four novel deleterious mutations: c.1186insT, c.1857delT and c.2850delC in three cases, c.3418dupT in one control. In addition, we identified two in-frame insertion/deletion, 19 missense substitutions (two of them predicted as pathogenic), 9 synonymous variants, 28 variants located in introns and 2 in UTRs, as well as frequent variants. Truncating PALB2 mutations were found in 0.36% of familial breast cancer cases, a frequency lower than the one detected in comparable studies in other populations (0.73-3.40%). This suggests a small but significant contribution of PALB2 mutations to the breast cancer susceptibility in the French population. PMID:26564480

  12. WISP3 mutational analysis in Indian patients diagnosed with progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia and report of a novel mutation at p.Y198*

    PubMed Central

    Santhanam, M.; Rajagopal, K.; Sugumar, L. K.; Balaji, V.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the pattern of mutations of the WISP3 gene in clinically identified progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPD) in an Indian population. Patients and Methods A total of 15 patients with clinical features of PPD were enrolled in this study. Genomic DNA was isolated and polymerase chain reaction performed to amplify the WISP3 gene. Screening for mutations was done by conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis, beginning with the fifth exon and subsequently proceeding to the remaining exons. Sanger sequencing was performed for both forward and reverse strands to confirm the mutations. Results In all, two of the 15 patients had compound heterozygous mutations: one a nonsense mutation c.156C>A (p.C52*) in exon 2, and the other a missense mutation c.677G>T (p.G226V) in exon 4. All others were homozygous, with three bearing a nonsense mutation c.156C>A (p.C52*) in exon 2, three a missense mutation c.233G>A (p.C78Y) in exon 2, five a missense mutation c.1010G>A (p.C337Y) in exon 5, one a nonsense mutation c.348C>A (p.Y116*) in exon 3, and one with a novel deletion mutation c.593_597delATAGA (p.Y198*) in exon 4. Conclusion We identified a novel mutation c.593_597delATAGA (p.Y198*) in the fourth exon of the WISP3 gene. We also confirmed c.1010G>A as one of the common mutations in an Indian population with progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia. Cite this article: V. Madhuri, M. Santhanam, K. Rajagopal, L. K. Sugumar, V. Balaji. WISP3 mutational analysis in Indian patients diagnosed with progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia and report of a novel mutation at p.Y198* Bone Joint Res 2016;5:301–306. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.57.2000520. PMID:27436824

  13. Intragenic single nucleotide polymorphism haplotype analysis of SUR1 mutations in familial hyperinsulinism.

    PubMed

    Glaser, B; Furth, J; Stanley, C A; Baker, L; Thornton, P S; Landau, H; Permutt, M A

    1999-01-01

    Familial hyperinsulinism (HI; MIM# 256450) is an autosomal recessive disorder of pancreatic beta-cell function, characterized by inadequate suppression of insulin secretion despite severe recurrent fasting hypoglycemia. Subtotal pancreatectomy is frequently required to prevent permanent neurologic sequelae. The incidence of HI in the Caucasian population is estimated at 1:50,000, however an apparent increased incidence among Ashkenazi Jews and Saudi Arabian Arabs has been reported. A locus for HI was assigned by linkage analyses to human chromosome 11p15.1. The sulfonylurea receptor (MIM# 600509, SUR1) and the potassium channel, inwardly rectifying, subfamily J member 11 (MIM# 600937, KIR6.2) genes, 2 components of the beta-cell K(ATP) channel, are clustered in this chromosomal region, and mutations in these genes have been implicated in HI. We previously demonstrated that two mutations in the SUR1 gene are present on approximately 88% of HI-associated chromosomes in Ashkenazi Jewish patients. Haplotype analysis with microsatellite markers flanking the gene revealed that one mutation (delF1388), reported only in Ashkenazi probands, occurred on two related extended haplotypes. By contrast, the second, more common mutation (3992-9g-->a) was associated with nine different intergenic haplotypes and has been reported in non-Jewish HI patients as well. In this study, we evaluated disease-associated chromosomes from 41 Ashkenazi Jewish and 2 non-Jewish HI patients carrying the 3992-9g-->a mutation by assessing haplotypes defined by nine common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), six in the SUR1 gene, and three in the KIR6.2 gene. Our results indicate that all 54 chromosomes carrying the 3992-9g-->a mutation in the Jewish patients appear to have originated from one founder mutation, whereas the same mutation on chromosomes from non-Jewish patients originated independently. Furthermore, our findings have implications concerning the HI-associated chromosomes on which no

  14. Molecular Analysis of CYP21A2 Gene Mutations among Iraqi Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Obaidi, Ruqayah G. Y.; Al-Zubaidi, Munib Ahmed K.; Oberkanins, Christian; Németh, Stefan; Al-Obaidi, Yusra G. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of autosomal recessive disorders. The most frequent one is 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Analyzing CYP21A2 gene mutations was so far not reported in Iraq. This work aims to analyze the spectrum and frequency of CYP21A2 mutations among Iraqi CAH patients. Sixty-two children were recruited from the Pediatric Endocrine Consultation Clinic, Children Welfare Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq, from September 2014 till June 2015. Their ages ranged between one day and 15 years. They presented with salt wasting, simple virilization, or pseudoprecocious puberty. Cytogenetic study was performed for cases with ambiguous genitalia. Molecular analysis of CYP21A2 gene was done using the CAH StripAssay (ViennaLab Diagnostics) for detection of 11 point mutations and >50% of large gene deletions/conversions. Mutations were found in 42 (67.7%) patients; 31 (50%) patients were homozygotes, 9 (14.5%) were heterozygotes, and 2 (3.2%) were compound heterozygotes with 3 mutations, while 20 (32.3%) patients had none of the tested mutations. The most frequently detected mutations were large gene deletions/conversions found in 12 (19.4%) patients, followed by I2Splice and Q318X in 8 (12.9%) patients each, I172N in 5 (8.1%) patients, and V281L in 4 (6.5%) patients. Del 8 bp, P453S, and R483P were each found in one (1.6%) and complex alleles were found in 2 (3.2%). Four point mutations (P30L, Cluster E6, L307 frameshift, and R356W) were not identified in any patient. In conclusion, gene deletions/conversions and 7 point mutations were recorded in varying proportions, the former being the commonest, generally similar to what was reported in regional countries. PMID:27777794

  15. Comparing analysis methods for mutation-accumulation data: a simulation study.

    PubMed Central

    García-Dorado, Aurora; Gallego, Araceli

    2003-01-01

    We simulated single-generation data for a fitness trait in mutation-accumulation (MA) experiments, and we compared three methods of analysis. Bateman-Mukai (BM) and maximum likelihood (ML) need information on both the MA lines and control lines, while minimum distance (MD) can be applied with or without the control. Both MD and ML assume gamma-distributed mutational effects. ML estimates of the rate of deleterious mutation had larger mean square error (MSE) than MD or BM had due to large outliers. MD estimates obtained by ignoring the mean decline observed from comparison to a control are often better than those obtained using that information. When effects are simulated using the gamma distribution, reducing the precision with which the trait is assayed increases the probability of obtaining no ML or MD estimates but causes no appreciable increase of the MSE. When the residual errors for the means of the simulated lines are sampled from the empirical distribution in a MA experiment, instead of from a normal one, the MSEs of BM, ML, and MD are practically unaffected. When the simulated gamma distribution accounts for a high rate of mild deleterious mutation, BM detects only approximately 30% of the true deleterious mutation rate, while MD or ML detects substantially larger fractions. To test the robustness of the methods, we also added a high rate of common contaminant mutations with constant mild deleterious effect to a low rate of mutations with gamma-distributed deleterious effects and moderate average. In that case, BM detects roughly the same fraction as before, regardless of the precision of the assay, while ML fails to provide estimates. However, MD estimates are obtained by ignoring the control information, detecting approximately 70% of the total mutation rate when the mean of the lines is assayed with good precision, but only 15% for low-precision assays. Contaminant mutations with only tiny deleterious effects could not be detected with acceptable

  16. Identification and characterization of NF1 mutations using single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenhiser, D.I.; Hovland, K.; Singh, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common human genetic disorders with a constellation of cutaneous and skeletal manifestations, intellectual impairment, and an increased risk for a variety of malignancies. The neurofibromin gene is also considered a tumor-suppressor gene since its loss of function is associated with a variety of sporadic cancers in the general population. The NF1 gene has a high spontaneous mutation rate, and while a number of laboratories are involved in a coordinated effort to identify NF1 mutations, only a small number of mutations have been characterized. Despite considerable efforts no high frequency or recurrent mutation has been found. We report the application of single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and heteroduplex analysis on the Phastgel system to identify mutations in the neurofibromin gene. A DNA panel of patients representing 100 families from Ontario, Canada was used to screen fourteen NF1 exons encompassing 30% of the NF1 gene: the 5{prime} exons 1, 17, 24 and the 3{prime} exons 28-33, 39-42 and 49. SSCP and heteroduplex variants were identified in PCR products amplified from 8 exons and mutations were identified in 10% of patients. Three RFLPs also have been identified and three other SSCP variants are being characterized. While most small deletions and insertions form heteroduplexes readily detectable on native gels, our results suggest that the detection of heteroduplexes resulting from point mutations is best facilitated on native Phastgels at low temperature. Our results suggest that as point mutations comprise a significant proportion of NF1 mutations, optimization of the SSCP protocol is critical to ensure the detection of all sequence variants.

  17. Alanine-Scanning Mutational Analysis of Durancin GL Reveals Residues Important for Its Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    Ju, Xingrong; Chen, Xinquan; Du, Lihui; Wu, Xueyou; Liu, Fang; Yuan, Jian

    2015-07-22

    Durancin GL is a novel class IIa bacteriocin with 43 residues produced by Enterococcus durans 41D. This bacteriocin demonstrates narrow inhibition spectrum and potent antimicrobial activity against several Listeria monocytogenes strains, including nisin-resistant L. monocytogenes NR30. A systematic alanine-scanning mutational analysis with site-directed mutagenesis was performed to analyze durancin GL residues important for antimicrobial activity and specificity. Results showed that three mutations lost their antimicrobial activity, ten mutations demonstrated a decreased effect on the activity, and seven mutations exhibited relatively high activity. With regard to inhibitory spectrum, four mutants demonstrated a narrower antimicrobial spectrum than wild-type durancin GL. Another four mutants displayed a broader target cell spectrum and increased potency relative to wild-type durancin GL. These findings broaden our understanding of durancin GL residues important for its antimicrobial activity and contribute to future rational design of variants with increased potency.

  18. Mutational analysis of human bone morphogenetic protein 15 in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Wang, Binbin; Wei, Zhaolian; Zhou, Ping; Zu, Yuping; Zhou, Sirui; Wen, Qiaolian; Wang, Jing; Cao, Yunxia; Ma, Xu

    2011-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the common defects that cause ovary dysfunction and link to the aberrant process of folliculogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) is expressed in human oocytes and functions importantly to regulate early follicle growth and fertility. Previous studies have discovered several mutations in the screening of BMP15 in premature ovarian failure but none in PCOS. In this current study, we focused on the mutational analysis of the coding region of BMP15 among 216 Chinese PCOS patients. Five novel missense mutations in BMP15 were discovered, namely, c.34C>G, c.109G>C, c.169C>G, c.288G>C, and c.598C>T. These results are the first to indicate that BMP15 gene mutations may be potentially associated with PCOS patients.

  19. Alanine-Scanning Mutational Analysis of Durancin GL Reveals Residues Important for Its Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    Ju, Xingrong; Chen, Xinquan; Du, Lihui; Wu, Xueyou; Liu, Fang; Yuan, Jian

    2015-07-22

    Durancin GL is a novel class IIa bacteriocin with 43 residues produced by Enterococcus durans 41D. This bacteriocin demonstrates narrow inhibition spectrum and potent antimicrobial activity against several Listeria monocytogenes strains, including nisin-resistant L. monocytogenes NR30. A systematic alanine-scanning mutational analysis with site-directed mutagenesis was performed to analyze durancin GL residues important for antimicrobial activity and specificity. Results showed that three mutations lost their antimicrobial activity, ten mutations demonstrated a decreased effect on the activity, and seven mutations exhibited relatively high activity. With regard to inhibitory spectrum, four mutants demonstrated a narrower antimicrobial spectrum than wild-type durancin GL. Another four mutants displayed a broader target cell spectrum and increased potency relative to wild-type durancin GL. These findings broaden our understanding of durancin GL residues important for its antimicrobial activity and contribute to future rational design of variants with increased potency. PMID:26168032

  20. Sequence analysis of tyrosinase gene in ocular and oculocutaneous albinism patients: introducing three novel mutations

    PubMed Central

    Khordadpoor-Deilamani, Faravareh; Karimipoor, Morteza; Javadi, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Albinism is a heterogeneous genetic disorder of melanin synthesis that results in hypopigmented eyes (in patients with ocular albinism) or hair, skin, and eyes (in individuals with oculocutaneous albinism). It is associated with decreased visual acuity, nystagmus, strabismus, and photophobia. The tyrosinase gene is known to be involved in both oculocutaneous albinism and autosomal recessive ocular albinism. In this study, we aimed to screen the mutations in the TYR gene in the nonsyndromic OCA and autosomal recessive ocular albinism patients from Iran. Methods The tyrosinase gene was examined in 23 unrelated patients with autosomal recessive ocular albinism or nonsyndromic OCA using DNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Results TYR gene mutations were identified in 14 (app. 60%) albinism patients. Conclusions We found 10 mutations, 3 of which were novel. No mutation was found in our ocular albinism patients, but one of them was heterozygous for the p.R402Q polymorphism. PMID:26167114

  1. Identification of mutations by RNA conformational polymorphism {open_quotes}bar code{close_quotes} analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, H.J.; Danenberg, K.D.; Schnieders, B. |

    1995-11-01

    DNA single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis is widely used for detection of point mutations in clinical specimens. Performing SSCP analysis with cRNA instead of DNA has been shown to improve mutation detection frequency. RNA can exist in numerous metastable conformations, which appear as patterns of bands on nondenaturing electrophoresis gels. Single base mutations can cause not only mobility shifts of major bands, but also loss of some conformations and appearance of new conformations. Unique RNA SSCP patterns associated with specific base sequences in many cases allow visual identification of point mutations. However, in some cases, the RNA SSCP pattern of a single base change in a sequence is not sufficiently different for a positive identification of the mutation. Improvement in the detection capability of RNA SSCP was obtained by adding 3{prime}-deoxy-nucleotides to the transcription reaction. The presence of chain-terminating nucleotides in the transcription reaction formed numerous new RNA fragments, thereby generating complex band patterns ({open_quotes}bar codes{close_quotes}) unique to each RNA sequence. This method was applied to analyzing p53 mutations in patients with colon cancer. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Analysis of mutational and clinicopathologic characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma with clear cell component

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Shen, Xuxia; Shi, Jianxin; Chen, Haiquan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lung adenocarcinoma with clear cell component is extremely rare and the cases reported in literature remain scarce. The biological behaviors, clinicopathologic characteristics, mutational status and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma with clear cell component are still uncertain. Methods Thirty-eight lung adenocarcinomas with clear cell component and 1659 lung adenocarcinomas were subjected to the study. All the corresponding clinicopathologic data, the distributions of relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS), and the status of gene mutations were investigated. Results Of 1697 adenocarcinomas, 38 (2.2%) had clear cell component. Fifty percent of adenocarcinomas with clear cell component (11/22) harbored EGFR mutation, 41 percent (9/22) harbored KRAS mutation and 5 percent (1/22) harbored AKT1 mutation. Univariable analysis revealed that sex, age, tumor stage, tumor size, nodal stage and pathology were all significant predictors of RFS and OS while the tumor size and nodal stage were still significant predictors in multivariable analysis. There were significantly differences in RFS and OS for lung adenocarcinomas with clear cell component compared with those lung adenocarcinomas. Conclusions Lung adenocarcinoma with clear cell component is a rare, malignant tumor with poor prognosis and displays more frequent EGFR and KRAS mutations. PMID:27013585

  3. Metabolomic analysis of exercise effects in the POLG mitochondrial DNA mutator mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Clark-Matott, Joanne; Saleem, Ayesha; Dai, Ying; Shurubor, Yevgeniya; Ma, Xiaoxing; Safdar, Adeel; Beal, Myron Flint; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Simon, David K

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutator mice express a mutated form of mtDNA polymerase gamma that results an accelerated accumulation of somatic mtDNA mutations in association with a premature aging phenotype. An exploratory metabolomic analysis of cortical metabolites in sedentary and exercised mtDNA mutator mice and wild-type littermate controls at 9-10 months of age was performed. Pathway analysis revealed deficits in the neurotransmitters acetylcholine, glutamate, and aspartate that were ameliorated by exercise. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) depletion and evidence of increased poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1)activity were apparent in sedentary mtDNA mutator mouse cortex, along with deficits in carnitine metabolites and an upregulated antioxidant response that largely normalized with exercise. These data highlight specific pathways that are altered in the brain in association with an accelerated age-related accumulation of somatic mtDNA mutations. These results may have relevance to age-related neurodegenerative diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease and provide insights into potential mechanisms of beneficial effects of exercise on brain function.

  4. Mutation analysis of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene in native American populations of the southwest

    SciTech Connect

    Grebe, T.A. Maricopa Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ ); Doane, W.W.; Norman, R.A.; Rhodes, S.N. ); Richter, S.F. ); Clericuzio, C. ); Seltzer, W.K. ); Goldberg, B.E. ); Hernried, L.S. ); McClure, M.; Kaplan, G.

    1992-10-01

    The authors report DNA and clinical analysis of cystic fibrosis (CF) in two previously unstudied, genetically isolated populations: Pueblo and Navajo Native Americans. Direct mutation analysis of six mutations of the CFTR gene - namely, [Delta]F508, G542X, G551D, R553X, N1303K, and W1282X - was performed on PCR-amplified genomic DNA extracted from blood samples. Haplotype analyses with marker/enzyme pairs XV2c/TaqI and KM29/PstI were performed as well. Of the 12 affected individuals studied, no [Delta]F508 mutation was detected; only one G542X mutation was found. None of the other mutations was detected. All affected individuals have either an AA, AC, or CC haplotype, except for the one carrying the G542X mutation, who has the haplotye AB. Clinically, six of the affected individuals examined exhibit growth deficiency, and five (all from the Zuni Pueblo) have a severe CF phenotype. Four of the six Zunis with CF are also microcephalic, a finding not previously noted in CF patients. The DNA data have serious implications for risk assessment of CF carrier status for these people. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Mutation Analysis of Nine Chordoma Specimens by Targeted Next-Generation Cancer Panel Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Carina; Scheipl, Susanne; Zopf, Agnes; Niklas, Norbert; Deutsch, Alexander; Jorgensen, Mette; Lohberger, Birgit; Froehlich, Elke Verena; Leithner, Andreas; Gabriel, Christian; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Rinner, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chordoma is a rare primary malignant bone tumour. Treatment options are mainly restricted to surgical excision, since chordomas are largely resistant to conventional ionising radiation and chemotherapy. Thus, there is a strong need to gain more thorough insights into the molecular biology and genetics of chordoma to allow for the development of new therapeutic options. We performed an ultra-deep sequencing analysis to find novel mutations in cancer associated genes in chordomas to date unseen with Sanger sequencing. Material and Methods: Nine chordomas (skull base (n=3), mobile spine (n=4), and sacrum/coccyx (n=2) were screened for mutations in 48 cancer genes using the Hot Spot Cancer Panel (Illumina). All putative mutations were compared against multiple databases (e.g. NCBI, COSMIC, PolyPhen, EGB, SIFT) and published Copy Number Variation (CNV) data for chordoma. Results: Our results showed mutations with a frequency above 5% in tumorsuppressor- and onco-genes, revealing new possible driver genes for chordomas. We detected three different variants accounting for 11 point mutations in three cancer associated genes (KIT, KDR and TP53). None of the detected mutations was found in all samples investigated. However, all genes affected interact or are connected in pathway analysis. There were no correlations to already reported CNVs in the samples analysed. Conclusions: We identified mutations in the associated genes KIT, KDR, and TP53. These mutations have been described previously and have been predicted to be tolerated. Further results on a larger series are warranted. The driver mechanisms of chordoma still have to be identified. PMID:26366211

  6. Analysis of PIK3CA Mutations and Activation Pathways in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Muroni, Maria Rosaria; Sanges, Francesca; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Ena, Sara; Pira, Giovanna; Murgia, Luciano; Manca, Alessandra; Uras, Maria Gabriela; Sarobba, Maria Giuseppina; Urru, Silvana; De Miglio, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Background Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) accounts for 12–24% of all breast carcinomas, and shows worse prognosis compared to other breast cancer subtypes. Molecular studies demonstrated that TNBCs are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different clinical and pathologic features, prognosis, genetic-molecular alterations and treatment responsivity. The PI3K/AKT is a major pathway involved in the regulation of cell survival and proliferation, and is the most frequently altered pathway in breast cancer, apparently with different biologic impact on specific cancer subtypes. The most common genetic abnormality is represented by PIK3CA gene activating mutations, with an overall frequency of 20–40%. The aims of our study were to investigate PIK3CA gene mutations on a large series of TNBC, to perform a wider analysis on genetic alterations involving PI3K/AKT and BRAF/RAS/MAPK pathways and to correlate the results with clinical-pathologic data. Materials and Methods PIK3CA mutation analysis was performed by using cobas® PIK3CA Mutation Test. EGFR, AKT1, BRAF, and KRAS genes were analyzed by sequencing. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to identify PTEN loss and to investigate for PI3K/AKT pathways components. Results PIK3CA mutations were detected in 23.7% of TNBC, whereas no mutations were identified in EGFR, AKT1, BRAF, and KRAS genes. Moreover, we observed PTEN loss in 11.3% of tumors. Deregulation of PI3K/AKT pathways was revealed by consistent activation of pAKT and p-p44/42 MAPK in all PIK3CA mutated TNBC. Conclusions Our data shows that PIK3CA mutations and PI3K/AKT pathway activation are common events in TNBC. A deeper investigation on specific TNBC genomic abnormalities might be helpful in order to select patients who would benefit from current targeted therapy strategies. PMID:26540293

  7. Dysferlin expression in monocytes: a source of mRNA for mutation analysis.

    PubMed

    De Luna, N; Freixas, A; Gallano, P; Caselles, L; Rojas-García, R; Paradas, C; Nogales, G; Dominguez-Perles, R; Gonzalez-Quereda, L; Vílchez, J J; Márquez, C; Bautista, J; Guerrero, A; Salazar, J A; Pou, A; Illa, I; Gallardo, E

    2007-01-01

    Dysferlin protein is expressed in peripheral blood monocytes. The genomic analysis of the DYSF gene has proved to be time consuming because it has 55 exons. We designed a mutational screening strategy based on cDNA from monocytes to find out whether the mutational analysis could be performed in mRNA from a source less invasive than the muscle biopsy. We studied 34 patients from 23 families diagnosed with dysferlinopathy. The diagnosis was based on clinical findings and on the absence of protein expression using either immunohistochemistry or Western blot of skeletal muscle and/or monocytes. We identified 28 different mutations, 13 of which were novel. The DYSF mutations in both alleles were found in 30 patients and only in one allele in four. The results were confirmed using genomic DNA in 26/34 patients. This is the first report to furnish evidence of reliable mutational analysis using monocytes cDNA and constitutes a good alternative to genomic DNA analysis.

  8. CDKN2A and CDK4 mutation analysis in Italian melanoma-prone families: functional characterization of a novel CDKN2A germ line mutation.

    PubMed

    Della Torre, G; Pasini, B; Frigerio, S; Donghi, R; Rovini, D; Delia, D; Peters, G; Huot, T J; Bianchi-Scarra, G; Lantieri, F; Rodolfo, M; Parmiani, G; Pierotti, M A

    2001-09-14

    Physical interaction between CDKN2A/p16 and CDK4 proteins regulates the cell cycle progression through the G1 phase and dysfunction of these proteins by gene mutation is implicated in genetic predisposition to melanoma. We analysed 15 Italian melanoma families for germ line mutations in the coding region of the CDKN2A gene and exon 2 of the CDK4 gene. One novel disease-associated mutation (P48T), 3 known pathological mutations (R24P, G101W and N71S) and 2 common polymorphisms (A148T and Nt500 G>C) were identified in the CDKN2A gene. In a family harbouring the R24P mutation, an intronic variant (IVS1, +37 G>C) of uncertain significance was detected in a non-carrier melanoma case. The overall incidence of CDKN2A mutations was 33.3%, but this percentage was higher in families with 3 or more melanoma cases (50%) than in those with only 2 affected relatives (25%). Noteworthy, functional analysis established that the novel mutated protein, while being impaired in cell growth and inhibition assays, retains some in vitro binding to CDK4/6. No variant in the p16-binding region of CDK4 was identified in our families. Our results, obtained in a heterogeneous group of families, support the view that inactivating mutations of CDKN2A contribute to melanoma susceptibility more than activating mutations of CDK4 and that other genetic factors must be responsible for melanoma clustering in a high proportion of families. In addition, they indicate the need for a combination of functional assays to determine the pathogenetic nature of new CDKN2A mutations.

  9. Frequency of Calreticulin (CALR) Mutation and Its Clinical Prognostic Significance in Essential Thrombocythemia and Primary Myelofibrosis: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hao; Liu, Yancheng; Luo, Sai; Li, Qiaoqiao; Wang, Qinglu

    2016-01-01

    Objective As the calreticulin (CALR) mutation frequency is significantly associated with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF), this mutation may be an important biomarker in patients with ET and PMF. Methods We performed a literature search until April 2015 and obtained 21 relevant studies. The outcome was pooled as the effect size by using the Stata software program. Results The CALR mutation frequencies in patients with ET and PMF were 19% and 22%, respectively. The CALR mutation ratio in Asian patients with ET was 23% and higher than that in European-American patients (16%). Moreover, the mutation ratio in Asian patients with PMF was lower (21%) than that in European-American patients (23%). A slight trend toward fibrotic transformation was found in ET with CALR mutations, whereas leukemic transformation was not significant in patients with ET or PMF with CALR mutations. Conclusion CALR mutations significantly influence the incident of ET as demonstrated by the meta-analysis. PMID:27477402

  10. Identification of novel BRCA founder mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients using capture and Sanger sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Bu, Rong; Siraj, Abdul K; Al-Obaisi, Khadija A S; Beg, Shaham; Al Hazmi, Mohsen; Ajarim, Dahish; Tulbah, Asma; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2016-09-01

    Ethnic differences of breast cancer genomics have prompted us to investigate the spectra of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in different populations. The prevalence and effect of BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutations in Middle Eastern population is not fully explored. To characterize the prevalence of BRCA mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients, BRCA mutation screening was performed in 818 unselected breast cancer patients using Capture and/or Sanger sequencing. 19 short tandem repeat (STR) markers were used for founder mutation analysis. In our study, nine different types of deleterious mutation were identified in 28 (3.4%) cases, 25 (89.3%) cases in BRCA 1 and 3 (10.7%) cases in BRCA 2. Seven recurrent mutations identified accounted for 92.9% (26/28) of all the mutant cases. Haplotype analysis was performed to confirm c.1140 dupG and c.4136_4137delCT mutations as novel putative founder mutation, accounting for 46.4% (13/28) of all BRCA mutant cases and 1.6% (13/818) of all the breast cancer cases, respectively. Moreover, BRCA 1 mutation was significantly associated with BRCA 1 protein expression loss (p = 0.0005). Our finding revealed that a substantial number of BRCA mutations were identified in clinically high risk breast cancer from Middle East region. Identification of the mutation spectrum, prevalence and founder effect in Middle Eastern population facilitates genetic counseling, risk assessment and development of cost-effective screening strategy.

  11. Mutation analysis of tuberous sclerosis families using the chromosome 16 (TSC2) tuberin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, J.; Wolpert, C.; Kumar, A.

    1994-09-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder which affects numerous body systems, especially brain and kidneys. The estimated prevalence of TSC is 1 per 10,000 population and the disease occurs in all racial groups. TSC exhibits both incomplete penetrance and variable expression and it is estimated that approximately 50% of affected individuals are the result of new mutations. TSC is a heterogeneous disorder with at least two disease loci which linkage studies have mapped to chromosomes 9q34 (TSC1) and 16p13.3 (TSC2). The chromosome 16 TSC gene, a 5.5 kb transcript which has been named tuberin, has recently been isolated and the characterization of the gene and mutational analysis of chromosome 16 families are presently underway. Using cDNA clones which cover approximately 90%, including the 3{prime} end, of the tuberin gene, we have screened Southern blots of 44 confirmed familial and sporadic TSC cases using the restriction enzymes Bam HI, Hind III and Taq I. To date, we have detected no confirmed deletions in any of these cases. We are in the process of screening using Pvu II blots. In addition, our laboratory is beginning to screen the TSC cases for mutations using SSCP in conjunction with RT-PCR of lymphoblast RNA and PCR of lymphoblast DNA using primers prepared from the gene sequence. We have recently ascertained an additional 20 sproadic TSC cases which will be subjected to analysis and these results together with our mutation findings will be presented. Our results would indicate that the number of mutations detectable using Southern blotting is small, especially in the larger chromosome 16 TSC families as opposed to sporadic mutations, and that more detailed technical analysis will be necessary to determine the full range of mutations in the large majority of TSC cases.

  12. TP53 Mutational Analysis Enhances the Prognostic Accuracy of IHC4 and PAM50 Assays

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Hung; Chen, I-Chiun; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Hu, Fu-Chang; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Kuo, Kuan-Ting; Wang, Chung-Chieh; Wu, Pei-Fang; Chang, Dwan-Ying; Wang, Ming-Yang; Chang, Chin-Hao; Chen, Wei-Wu; Lu, Yen-Shen; Cheng, Ann-Lii

    2015-01-01

    IHC4 and PAM50 assays have been shown to provide additional prognostic information for patients with early breast cancer. We evaluated whether incorporating TP53 mutation analysis can further enhance their prognostic accuracy. We examined TP53 mutation and the IHC4 score in tumors of 605 patients diagnosed with stage I–III breast cancer at National Taiwan University Hospital (the NTUH cohort). We obtained information regarding TP53 mutation and PAM50 subtypes in 699 tumors from the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC) cohort. We found that TP53 mutation was significantly associated with high-risk IHC4 group and with luminal B, HER2-enriched, and basal-like subtypes. Despite the strong associations, TP53 mutation independently predicted shorter relapse-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.63, P = 0.007) in the NTUH cohort and shorter breast cancer-specific survival (HR = 2.35, P = <0.001) in the METABRIC cohort. TP53 mutational analysis added significant prognostic information in addition to the IHC4 score (∆ LR-χ2 = 8.61, P = 0.002) in the NTUH cohort and the PAM50 subtypes (∆ LR-χ2 = 18.9, P = <0.001) in the METABRIC cohort. We conclude that incorporating TP53 mutation analysis can enhance the prognostic accuracy of the IHC4 and PAM50 assays. PMID:26671300

  13. A single center analysis of nucleophosmin in acute myeloid leukemia: value of combining immunohistochemistry with molecular mutation analysis.

    PubMed

    Woolthuis, Carolien M; Mulder, André B; Verkaik-Schakel, Rikst Nynke; Rosati, Stefano; Diepstra, Arjan; van den Berg, Eva; Schuringa, Jan Jacob; Vellenga, Edo; Kluin, Philip M; Huls, Gerwin

    2013-10-01

    Mutations of nucleophosmin 1 are frequently found in acute myeloid leukemia and lead to aberrant cytoplasmic accumulation of nucleophosmin protein. Immunohistochemical staining is therefore recommended as the technique of choice in front-line screening. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity and specificity of immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed bone marrow biopsies compared with gold standard molecular analysis to predict nucleophosmin 1 mutation status in 119 patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Discrepant cases were further characterized by gene expression analyses and fluorescence in situ hybridization. A large overlap between both methods was observed. Nevertheless, nine patients demonstrated discordant results at initial screening. Five cases demonstrated nuclear staining of nucleophosmin 1 by immunohistochemistry, but a nucleophosmin 1 mutation by molecular analysis. In two cases this could be attributed to technical issues and in three cases minor subpopulations of myeloblasts had not been discovered initially. All tested cases exhibited the characteristic nucleophosmin-mutated gene expression pattern. Four cases had cytoplasmic nucleophosmin 1 staining and a nucleophosmin-mutated gene expression pattern without a detectable nucleophosmin 1 mutation. In two of these cases we found the chromosomal translocation t(3;5)(q25;q35) encoding the NPM-MLF1 fusion protein. In the other discrepant cases the aberrant cytoplasmic nucleophosmin staining and gene expression could not be explained. In total six patients (5%) had true discordant results between immunohistochemistry and mutation analysis. We conclude that cytoplasmic nucleophosmin localization is not always caused by a conventional nucleophosmin 1 mutation and that in the screening for nucleophosmin 1 abnormalities, most information will be obtained by combining immunohistochemistry with molecular analysis. PMID:23716555

  14. Detection of Indel Mutations in Drosophila by High-Resolution Melt Analysis (HRMA).

    PubMed

    Housden, Benjamin E; Perrimon, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Although CRISPR technology allows specific genome alterations to be created with relative ease, detection of these events can be problematic. For example, CRISPR-induced double-strand breaks are often repaired imprecisely to generate unpredictable short indel mutations. Detection of these events requires the use of molecular screening techniques such as endonuclease assays, restriction profiling, or high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA). Here, we provide detailed protocols for HRMA-based mutation screening in Drosophila and analysis of the resulting data using the online tool HRMAnalyzer. PMID:27587781

  15. A cautionary lesson on the use of targeted methods for EGFR mutation analysis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Walsh, K; Wallace, W A; Butler, R; Mackean, M J; Harrison, D J; Stirling, D; Oniscu, A

    2014-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation analysis is recommended for lung cancer patients prior to the prescription of first-line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in order to predict response to treatment. There are many methods available to identify mutations in the EGFR gene; a large number of clinical laboratories use the therascreen EGFR RGQ PCR kit (Qiagen). We report a case where this kit detected an exon 19 deletion, predicting sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which on further analysis was found to be a 2 bp indel (c.2239_2240delinsCC, p.(Leu747Pro)). Two of four published cases with this mutation were found to be associated with resistance to EGFR TKI. The sample was also tested using two other commercial kits, one of which indicated a deletion. This is a rare mutation making the erroneous detection of a deletion unlikely; however, it is important that clinical laboratories are aware of the potential failings of two commercial kits for EGFR mutation analysis. PMID:24811487

  16. MECP2 mutations in Czech patients with Rett syndrome and Rett-like phenotypes: novel mutations, genotype-phenotype correlations and validation of high-resolution melting analysis for mutation scanning.

    PubMed

    Zahorakova, Daniela; Lelkova, Petra; Gregor, Vladimir; Magner, Martin; Zeman, Jiri; Martasek, Pavel

    2016-07-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental regression with loss of motor, communication and social skills, onset of stereotypic hand movements and often seizures. RTT is primarily caused by de novo mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene (MECP2). We established a high-resolution melting (HRM) technique for mutation scanning of the MECP2 gene and performed analyses in Czech patients with RTT, autism spectrum conditions and intellectual disability with Rett-like features. In the cases with confirmed MECP2 mutations, we determined X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), examined the relationships between genotype and clinical severity and evaluated the modifying influence of XCI. Our results demonstrate that HRM analysis is a reliable method for the detection of point mutations, small deletions and duplications in the MECP2 gene. We identified 29 pathogenic mutations in 75 girls, including four novel mutations: c.155_1189del1035;909_932inv;insC, c.573delC, c.857_858dupAA and c.1163_1200del38. Skewed XCI (ratio >75%) was found in 19.3% of the girls, but no gross divergence in clinical severity was observed. Our findings confirm a high mutation frequency in classic RTT (92%) and a correlation between the MECP2 mutation type and clinical severity. We also demonstrate limitations of XCI in explaining all of the phenotypic differences in RTT.

  17. Comprehensive genetic analysis and structural characterization of CYP21A2 mutations in CAH patients.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, B; Pereira, M; Marques, C J; Carvalho, D; Leão, M; Oliveira, J P; Barros, A; Carvalho, F

    2012-10-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2). Complete DNA sequencing of CYP21A2 was performed in 5 patients, 3 non-classic and 2 classic forms of the disease, that were previously screened for the 10 most common mutations, in order to detect additional mutations that could justify the phenotype of the patients. 5 mutations were identified with the whole gene extended analysis. The mutations, p.Pro432Leu and p.Ala434Glu, the first previously reported by our group and the second a novel one were structurally analyzed with ICM-Pro software regarding biochemical properties such as protein stability, accessibility to surface and hydrophobicity, in order to elucidate their effects on the CYP21A2 protein. The 2 affected residues, Pro432 and Ala434, were also studied for conservation purposes in order to predict the severity of both mutations with PolyPhen-2 software and were considered as "probably damaging". Prediction of clinical severity, based on molecular modelling and sequence conservation, was in accordance with the patient's clinical diagnosis.

  18. Analysis of mutations in the entire coding sequence of the factor VIII gene

    SciTech Connect

    Bidichadani, S.I.; Lanyon, W.G.; Connor, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    Hemophilia A is a common X-linked recessive disorder of bleeding caused by deleterious mutations in the gene for clotting factor VIII. The large size of the factor VIII gene, the high frequency of de novo mutations and its tissue-specific expression complicate the detection of mutations. We have used a combination of RT-PCR of ectopic factor VIII transcripts and genomic DNA-PCRs to amplify the entire essential sequence of the factor VIII gene. This is followed by chemical mismatch cleavage analysis and direct sequencing in order to facilitate a comprehensive search for mutations. We describe the characterization of nine potentially pathogenic mutations, six of which are novel. In each case, a correlation of the genotype with the observed phenotype is presented. In order to evaluate the pathogenicity of the five missense mutations detected, we have analyzed them for evolutionary sequence conservation and for their involvement of sequence motifs catalogued in the PROSITE database of protein sites and patterns.

  19. A mutational analysis of the acetylcholine receptor channel transmitter binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Akk, G; Zhou, M; Auerbach, A

    1999-01-01

    Mutagenesis and single-channel kinetic analysis were used to investigate the roles of four acetylcholine receptor channel (AChR) residues that are candidates for interacting directly with the agonist. The EC50 of the ACh dose-response curve was increased following alpha-subunit mutations Y93F and Y198F and epsilon-subunit mutations D175N and E184Q. Single-channel kinetic modeling indicates that the increase was caused mainly by a reduced gating equilibrium constant (Theta) in alphaY198F and epsilonD175N, by an increase in the equilibrium dissociation constant for ACh (KD) and a reduction in Theta in alphaY93F, and only by a reduction in KD in epsilonE184Q. This mutation altered the affinity of only one of the two binding sites and was the only mutation that reduced competition by extracellular K+. Additional mutations of epsilonE184 showed that K+ competition was unaltered in epsilonE184D and was virtually eliminated in epsilonE184K, but that neither of these mutations altered the intrinsic affinity for ACh. Thus there is an apparent electrostatic interaction between the epsilonE184 side chain and K+ ( approximately 1.7kBT), but not ACh+. The results are discussed in terms of multisite and induced-fit models of ligand binding to the AChR. PMID:9876135

  20. Identification and functional analysis of two novel connexin 50 mutations associated with autosome dominant congenital cataracts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yinhui; Wu, Menghan; Chen, Xinyi; Zhu, Yanan; Gong, Xiaohua; Yao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant congenital cataracts (ADCC) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases. The present study recruited two Chinese families with bilateral nuclear cataract or zonular pulverulent phenotype. Direct sequencing of candidate genes identified two novel missense mutations of Cx50, Cx50P59A (c.175C > G) and Cx50R76H (c.227G > A), both co-segregated well with all affected individuals. Bioinformatics analysis predicted deleterious for both mutations. Functional and cellular behaviors of wild type and mutant Cx50 examined by stably transfecting recombinant systems revealed similar protein expression levels. Protein distribution pattern by fluorescence microscopy showed that Cx50R76H localized at appositional membranes forming gap junctions with enormous cytoplasmic protein accumulation, whereas the Cx50P59A mutation was found inefficient at forming detectable plaques. Cell growth test by MTT assay showed that induction of Cx50P59A decreased cell viability. Our study constitutes the first report that the Cx50P59A and Cx50R76H mutations are associated with ADCC and expands the mutation spectrum of Cx50 in association with congenital cataracts. The genetic, cellular, and functional data suggest that the altered intercellular communication governed by mutated Cx50 proteins may act as the molecular mechanism underlying ADCC, which further confirms the role of Cx50 in the maintenance of human lens transparency. PMID:27216975

  1. Identification and functional analysis of two novel connexin 50 mutations associated with autosome dominant congenital cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yinhui; Wu, Menghan; Chen, Xinyi; Zhu, Yanan; Gong, Xiaohua; Yao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant congenital cataracts (ADCC) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases. The present study recruited two Chinese families with bilateral nuclear cataract or zonular pulverulent phenotype. Direct sequencing of candidate genes identified two novel missense mutations of Cx50, Cx50P59A (c.175C > G) and Cx50R76H (c.227G > A), both co-segregated well with all affected individuals. Bioinformatics analysis predicted deleterious for both mutations. Functional and cellular behaviors of wild type and mutant Cx50 examined by stably transfecting recombinant systems revealed similar protein expression levels. Protein distribution pattern by fluorescence microscopy showed that Cx50R76H localized at appositional membranes forming gap junctions with enormous cytoplasmic protein accumulation, whereas the Cx50P59A mutation was found inefficient at forming detectable plaques. Cell growth test by MTT assay showed that induction of Cx50P59A decreased cell viability. Our study constitutes the first report that the Cx50P59A and Cx50R76H mutations are associated with ADCC and expands the mutation spectrum of Cx50 in association with congenital cataracts. The genetic, cellular, and functional data suggest that the altered intercellular communication governed by mutated Cx50 proteins may act as the molecular mechanism underlying ADCC, which further confirms the role of Cx50 in the maintenance of human lens transparency. PMID:27216975

  2. IGF1R mutation analysis in short children with Silver-Russell syndrome features

    PubMed Central

    Soellner, Lukas; Spengler, Sabrina; Begemann, Matthias; Wollmann, Hartmut A.; Binder, Gerhard; Eggermann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is a key factor in intrauterine and postnatal growth by mediating the biological function of IGF-I. Mutations of IGF1R gene are usually associated with growth retardation, but the clinical picture of IGF1R mutation carriers is heterogeneous. Indeed, these patients show clinical signs compatible with Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), and some IGF1R mutation carriers have been identified in SRS cohorts. We therefore investigated deoxyribonucleic acid samples of 19 growth-retarded patients with SRS features. Apart from 8 non-pathogenic variants, we detected heterozygosity for the unknown duplication, c.1056_1057dup, leading to a premature termination in one patient and his growth retarded sister. Due to its nature, we assumed that this variant is probably pathogenic. However, the patient and his sister exhibited spontaneous catch-up growth in later life. We therefore hypothesize that the c.1056_1057dup does not result in a significant disruption to the GH-IGFI axis. Thus, this IGF1R mutation without obvious clinical consequence might challenge the actual concept of IGF1R haploinsufficiency as a general cause for disturbed growth in IGF1R mutation carriers. In the future, mutation analysis of IGF1R should be considered in growth-retarded patients with microcephaly and minor SRS features, but not in probands with the characteristic SRS phenotype including macrocephaly. PMID:27625849

  3. IGF1R mutation analysis in short children with Silver-Russell syndrome features.

    PubMed

    Soellner, Lukas; Spengler, Sabrina; Begemann, Matthias; Wollmann, Hartmut A; Binder, Gerhard; Eggermann, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is a key factor in intrauterine and postnatal growth by mediating the biological function of IGF-I. Mutations of IGF1R gene are usually associated with growth retardation, but the clinical picture of IGF1R mutation carriers is heterogeneous. Indeed, these patients show clinical signs compatible with Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), and some IGF1R mutation carriers have been identified in SRS cohorts. We therefore investigated deoxyribonucleic acid samples of 19 growth-retarded patients with SRS features. Apart from 8 non-pathogenic variants, we detected heterozygosity for the unknown duplication, c.1056_1057dup, leading to a premature termination in one patient and his growth retarded sister. Due to its nature, we assumed that this variant is probably pathogenic. However, the patient and his sister exhibited spontaneous catch-up growth in later life. We therefore hypothesize that the c.1056_1057dup does not result in a significant disruption to the GH-IGFI axis. Thus, this IGF1R mutation without obvious clinical consequence might challenge the actual concept of IGF1R haploinsufficiency as a general cause for disturbed growth in IGF1R mutation carriers. In the future, mutation analysis of IGF1R should be considered in growth-retarded patients with microcephaly and minor SRS features, but not in probands with the characteristic SRS phenotype including macrocephaly. PMID:27625849

  4. Mutation analysis of the PALB2 gene in unselected pancreatic cancer patients in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Borecka, M; Zemankova, P; Vocka, M; Soucek, P; Soukupova, J; Kleiblova, P; Sevcik, J; Kleibl, Z; Janatova, M

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has the worst prognosis among common solid cancer diagnoses. It has been shown that up to 10% of PDAC cases have a familial component. Characterization of PDAC-susceptibility genes could reveal high-risk individuals and patients that may benefit from tailored therapy. Hereditary mutations in PALB2 (Partner and Localizer of BRCA2) gene has been shown to predispose, namely to PDAC and breast cancers; however, frequencies of mutations vary among distinct geographical populations. Using the combination of sequencing, high-resolution melting and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analyses, we screened the entire PALB2 gene in 152 unselected Czech PDAC patients. Truncating mutations were identified in three (2.0%) patients. Genotyping of found PALB2 variants in 1226 control samples revealed one carrier of PALB2 truncating variant (0.08%; P = 0.005). The mean age at PDAC diagnosis was significantly lower among PALB2 mutation carriers (51 years) than in non-carriers (63 years; P = 0.016). Only one patient carrying germline PALB2 mutation had a positive family breast cancer history. Our results indicate that hereditary PALB2 mutation represents clinically considerable genetic factor increasing PDAC susceptibility in our population and that analysis of PALB2 should be considered not only in PDAC patients with familial history of breast or pancreatic cancers but also in younger PDAC patients without family cancer history. PMID:27106063

  5. Identification of novel KIF11 mutations in patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and a phenotypic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia-Kai; Fei, Ping; Li, Yian; Huang, Qiu-Jing; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Xiang; Rao, Yu-Qing; Li, Jing; Zhao, Peiquan

    2016-01-01

    KIF11 gene mutations cause a rare autosomal dominant inheritable disease called microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphedema, or mental retardation (MCLMR). Recently, such mutations were also found to be associated with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). Here, we report 7 novel KIF11 mutations identified by targeted gene capture in a cohort of 142 probands with FEVR who were diagnosed in our clinic between March 2015 and November 2015. These mutations were: p.L171V, c.790-2A>C, p.Q525*, p.Q842*, p.S936*, p.L983fs and p.R1025G. Phenotypic analysis revealed that all of the affected probands had advanced FEVR (stage 4 or above). Three had microcephaly, and one had chorioretinopathy, which indicated a phenotypic overlap with MCLMR. Two mutations were also found in the families of the affected probands. One parent with a p.R1025G mutation had an avascular peripheral retina and abnormal looping vessels. However, one parent with p.L983fs had normal retina, which indicated incomplete penetration of the genotype. Our results further confirmed that KIF11 is causative of FEVR in an autosomal dominant manner. We also suggest the examination of MCLMR-like features, such as microcephaly, chorioretinopathy, for patients with FEVR and wide-field fundus photography for patients with MCLMR in future practice. PMID:27212378

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Screening for KRAS and BRAF Mutations in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2009, the American Society of Clinical Oncology recommended that patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who are candidates for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy have their tumors tested for KRAS mutations because tumors with such mutations do not respond to anti-EGFR therapy. Limiting anti-EGFR therapy to those without KRAS mutations will reserve treatment for those likely to benefit while avoiding unnecessary costs and harm to those who would not. Similarly, tumors with BRAF genetic mutations may not respond to anti-EGFR therapy, though this is less clear. Economic analyses of mutation testing have not fully explored the roles of alternative therapies and resection of metastases. Methods This paper is based on a decision analytic framework that forms the basis of a cost-effectiveness analysis of screening for KRAS and BRAF mutations in mCRC in the context of treatment with cetuximab. A cohort of 50 000 patients with mCRC is simulated 10 000 times, with attributes randomly assigned on the basis of distributions from randomized controlled trials. Results Screening for both KRAS and BRAF mutations compared with the base strategy (of no anti-EGFR therapy) increases expected overall survival by 0.034 years at a cost of $22 033, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of approximately $650 000 per additional year of life. Compared with anti-EGFR therapy without screening, adding KRAS testing saves approximately $7500 per patient; adding BRAF testing saves another $1023, with little reduction in expected survival. Conclusions Screening for KRAS and BFAF mutation improves the cost-effectiveness of anti-EGFR therapy, but the incremental cost effectiveness ratio remains above the generally accepted threshold for acceptable cost effectiveness ratio of $100 000/quality adjusted life year. PMID:23197490

  7. High Resolution Melting Analysis for JAK2 Exon 14 and Exon 12 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Rapado, Inmaculada; Grande, Silvia; Albizua, Enriqueta; Ayala, Rosa; Hernández, José-Angel; Gallardo, Miguel; Gilsanz, Florinda; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin

    2009-01-01

    JAK2 mutations are important criteria for the diagnosis of Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. We aimed to assess JAK2 exon 14 and exon 12 mutations by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis, which allows variation screening. The exon 14 analysis included 163 patients with polycythemia vera, secondary erythrocytoses, essential thrombocythemia, or secondary thrombocytoses, and 126 healthy subjects. The study of exon 12 included 40 JAK2 V617F-negative patients (nine of which had polycythemia vera, and 31 with splanchnic vein thrombosis) and 30 healthy subjects. HRM analyses of JAK2 exons 14 and 12 gave analytical sensitivities near 1% and both intra- and interday coefficients of variation of less than 1%. For HRM analysis of JAK2 exon 14 in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia, clinical sensitivities were 93.5% and 67.9%, clinical specificities were 98.8% and 97.0%, positive predictive values were 93.5% and 79.2%, and negative predictive values were 98.8% and 94.6, respectively. Correlations were observed between the results from HRM and three commonly used analytical methods. The JAK2 exon 12 HRM results agreed completely with those from sequencing analysis, and the three mutations in exon 12 were detected by both methods. Hence, HRM analysis of exons 14 and 12 in JAK2 shows better diagnostic values than three other routinely used methods against which it was compared. In addition, HRM analysis has the advantage of detecting unknown mutations. PMID:19225136

  8. Chitosan-Modified Graphene Electrodes for DNA Mutation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alwarappan, Subbiah; Cissell, Kyle; Dixit, Suraj; Mohapatra, Shyam; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Graphene has remarkable electrochemical properties that make it an ideal material for constructing biosensors,however it has not been explored for DNA biosensing. Herein, we report on a chitosan-modified graphene platform for the electrochemical detection of changes in DNA sequences. For this purpose, graphene synthesized chemically and characterized by Raman spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy, was covalently modified with positively charged chitosan to facilitate the immobilization of a single-stranded DNA `capture' oligonucleotide. The covalent attachment of chitosan to graphene was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy and then the capture DNA was immobilized on to the chitosan modified graphene electrode. Then, the target DNA (complementary or mismatched `mutant' DNA) was applied to the electrode and cyclic voltammetry was performed. The results of the voltammetric experiments indicate that the chitosan modified graphene electrodes immobilized with ssDNA+complementary DNA exhibit a significantly higher magnitude of redox peak current than the chitosan modified graphene electrodes immobilized with the non-complementary mutant DNAs. Together, these results demonstrate that the chitosan-graphene platform provides a rapid, stable and sensitive detection of mismatched DNA and has the potential to be used for point-of-care diagnostic tests for specific DNA mutations associated with disease conditions. PMID:23472058

  9. Structural analysis of thermostabilizing mutations of cocaine esterase

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, Diwahar; Nance, Mark R.; Gao, Daquan; Ko, Mei-Chuan; Macdonald, Joanne; Tamburi, Patricia; Yoon, Dan; Landry, Donald M.; Woods, James H.; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Tesmer, John J.G.; Sunahara, Roger K.

    2010-09-03

    Cocaine is considered to be the most addictive of all substances of abuse and mediates its effects by inhibiting monoamine transporters, primarily the dopamine transporters. There are currently no small molecules that can be used to combat its toxic and addictive properties, in part because of the difficulty of developing compounds that inhibit cocaine binding without having intrinsic effects on dopamine transport. Most of the effective cocaine inhibitors also display addictive properties. We have recently reported the use of cocaine esterase (CocE) to accelerate the removal of systemic cocaine and to prevent cocaine-induced lethality. However, wild-type CocE is relatively unstable at physiological temperatures ({tau}{sub 1/2} {approx} 13 min at 37 C), presenting challenges for its development as a viable therapeutic agent. We applied computational approaches to predict mutations to stabilize CocE and showed that several of these have increased stability both in vitro and in vivo, with the most efficacious mutant (T172R/G173Q) extending half-life up to 370 min. Here we present novel X-ray crystallographic data on these mutants that provide a plausible model for the observed enhanced stability. We also more extensively characterize the previously reported variants and report on a new stabilizing mutant, L169K. The improved stability of these engineered CocE enzymes will have a profound influence on the use of this protein to combat cocaine-induced toxicity and addiction in humans.

  10. Mutational Analysis of the Chlamydia muridarum Plasticity Zone

    PubMed Central

    Rajaram, Krithika; Giebel, Amanda M.; Toh, Evelyn; Hu, Shuai; Newman, Jasmine H.; Morrison, Sandra G.; Kari, Laszlo; Morrison, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenically diverse Chlamydia spp. can have surprisingly similar genomes. Chlamydia trachomatis isolates that cause trachoma, sexually transmitted genital tract infections (chlamydia), and invasive lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and the murine strain Chlamydia muridarum share 99% of their gene content. A region of high genomic diversity between Chlamydia spp. termed the plasticity zone (PZ) may encode niche-specific virulence determinants that dictate pathogenic diversity. We hypothesized that PZ genes might mediate the greater virulence and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) resistance of C. muridarum compared to C. trachomatis in the murine genital tract. To test this hypothesis, we isolated and characterized a series of C. muridarum PZ nonsense mutants. Strains with nonsense mutations in chlamydial cytotoxins, guaBA-add, and a phospholipase D homolog developed normally in cell culture. Two of the cytotoxin mutants were less cytotoxic than the wild type, suggesting that the cytotoxins may be functional. However, none of the PZ nonsense mutants exhibited increased IFN-γ sensitivity in cell culture or were profoundly attenuated in a murine genital tract infection model. Our results suggest that C. muridarum PZ genes are transcribed—and some may produce functional proteins—but are dispensable for infection of the murine genital tract. PMID:25939505

  11. Mutation analysis of the CYP21A2 gene in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Forouzanfar, K; Seifi, M; Hashemi-Gorji, F; Karimi, N; Estiar, M A; Karimoei, M; Sakhinia, E; Karimipour, M; Ghergherehchi, R

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an inherited autosomal recessive enzymatic disorder involving the synthesis of adrenal corticosteroids. 21-Hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is the most common form of the disease which is observed in more than 90% of patients with CAH. Early identification of mutations in the genes involved in this disease is critical. A marker of the disease, errors in the CYP21A2 gene, is thought to be part of the pathophysiology of CAH. Therefore, the identification of gene mutations would be very beneficial in the early detection of CAH. This research was a descriptive epidemiological study conducted on individuals elected by the inclusion criteria whom were referred to the Genetic Diagnosis Center of Tabriz during 2012 to 2013. After sampling and DNA extraction, PCR for the detection of mutations in the CYP21A2 gene was performed followed by sequencing. For data analysis, the results of sequencing were compared with the reference gene by blast, Gene Runner and MEGA-5 software. Obtained changes were compared with NCBI databases. The analysis of the sequencing determined the mutations located in Exons 6, 7, 8 and 10. The most frequent findings were Q318X (53%) and R356W (28%). Exon 6 cluster (7%), E431k (4%), V237E (2%), V281L (2%), E351K (2%), R426C (2%) were also frequent in our patients. The most frequent genotype was compound heterozygote, Q318X/R356W. Three rare mutations in our study were E431K, E351K and R426C. Observed mutation frequencies in this study were much higher than those reported in previous studies in Iranian populations. Thus, it seems that it is necessary to follow-up screening programs and use sequencing methods to better identify mutations in the development of the disease.

  12. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome: Mutation analysis of the receptor tyrosine kinase RET

    SciTech Connect

    Bolk, S.; Angrist, M.; Schwartz, S.; Chakravarti, A. |

    1996-06-28

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) usually occurs as an isolated phenotype. However, 16% of the index cases are also affected with Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). Complex segregation analysis suggests that CCHS is familial and has the same inheritance pattern with or without HSCR. We postulate that alteration of normal function of the receptor tyrosine kinase, RET, may contribute to CCHS based on RET`s expression pattern and the identification of RET mutations in HSCR patients. To further explore the nature of the inheritance of CCHS, we have undertaken two main routes of investigation: cytogenetic analysis and mutation detection. Cytogenetic analysis of metaphase chromosomes showed normal karyotypes in 13 of the 14 evaluated index cases; one index case carried a familial pericentric inversion on chromosome 2. Mutation analysis showed no sequence changes unique to index cases, as compared to control individuals, and as studied by single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the coding region of RET. We conclude that point mutations in the RET coding region cannot account for a substantial fraction of CCHS in this patient population, and that other candidate genes involved in neural crest cell differentiation and development must be considered. 54 refs.

  13. The Clinical Value of Oxymatrine in Preventing Lamivudine Induced YMDD Mutation: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Wu, Yu; Wang, Mengmeng; Chen, Wenwen; Yuan, Weian; Jiang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Oxymatrine (OMTR) is widely used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China. Several reports revealed that combination of OMTR and lamivudine reduced the incidence of tyrosine- (Y-) methionine- (M-) aspartic acid- (D-) aspartic acid (D) (YMDD) mutations in CHB patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of oxymatrine in preventing lamivudine induced YMDD mutation using meta-analysis of data from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and to provide some useful information for clinical treatment and future research of YMDD mutation. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Science Citation Index, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, and China Biomedical Database were searched to identify RCTs that evaluated the incidence of YMDD-motif mutation to lamivudine therapy and lamivudine plus OMTR therapies in CHB patients. Data analysis was carried out with the use of RevMan 5.3.2. The literature search yielded 324 studies, and 16 RCTs matched the selection criteria. Overall, the incidence of YMDD mutation was significantly lower in patients treated with lamivudine plus OMTR than in patients treated with lamivudine alone (11.14% versus 28.18%; RR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.33-0.52; p < 0.05). The exact outcome needs to perform rigorously designed, multicenter, and large randomized controlled trials. PMID:26508988

  14. Limited diagnostic value of enzyme analysis in patients with mitochondrial tRNA mutations.

    PubMed

    Wibrand, Flemming; Jeppesen, Tina D; Frederiksen, Anja L; Olsen, David B; Duno, Morten; Schwartz, Marianne; Vissing, John

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic value of respiratory chain (RC) enzyme analysis of muscle in adult patients with mitochondrial myopathy (MM). RC enzyme activity was measured in muscle biopsies from 39 patients who carry either the 3243A>G mutation, other tRNA point mutations, or single, large-scale deletions of mtDNA. Findings were compared with those obtained from asymptomatic relatives with the 3243A>G mutation, myotonic dystrophy patients, and healthy subjects. Plasma lactate concentration, maximal oxygen uptake, and ragged-red fibers/cytochrome c-negative fibers in muscle were also determined. Only 10% of patients with the 3243A>G point mutation had decreased enzyme activity of one or more RC complexes, whereas this was the case for 83% of patients with other point mutations and 62% of patients with deletions. Abnormal muscle histochemistry was found in 65%, 100%, and 85% of patients, respectively, in these three groups. The results indicate that RC enzyme analysis in muscle is not a sensitive test for MM in adults. In these patients, abnormal muscle histochemistry appears to be a better predictor ofMM.

  15. Topological and mutational analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fks1.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael E; Edlind, Thomas D

    2012-07-01

    Fks1, with orthologs in nearly all fungi as well as plants and many protists, plays a central role in fungal cell wall formation as the putative catalytic component of β-1,3-glucan synthase. It is also the target for an important new antifungal group, the echinocandins, as evidenced by the localization of resistance-conferring mutations to Fks1 hot spots 1, 2, and 3 (residues 635 to 649, 1354 to 1361, and 690 to 700, respectively). Since Fks1 is an integral membrane protein and echinocandins are cyclic peptides with lipid tails, Fks1 topology is key to understanding its function and interaction with echinocandins. We used hemagglutinin (HA)-Suc2-His4C fusions to C-terminally truncated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fks1 to experimentally define its topology and site-directed mutagenesis to test function of selected residues. Of the 15 to 18 transmembrane helices predicted in silico for Fks1 from evolutionarily diverse fungi, 13 were experimentally confirmed. The N terminus (residues 1 to 445) is cytosolic and the C terminus (residues 1823 to 1876) external; both are essential to Fks1 function. The cytosolic central domain (residues 715 to 1294) includes newly recognized homology to glycosyltransferases, and residues potentially involved in substrate UDP-glucose binding and catalysis are essential. All three hot spots are external, with hot spot 1 adjacent to and hot spot 3 largely embedded within the outer leaflet of the membrane. This topology suggests a model in which echinocandins interact through their lipid tails with hot spot 3 and through their cyclic peptides with hot spots 1 and 2.

  16. Topological and Mutational Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fks1

    PubMed Central

    Edlind, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Fks1, with orthologs in nearly all fungi as well as plants and many protists, plays a central role in fungal cell wall formation as the putative catalytic component of β-1,3-glucan synthase. It is also the target for an important new antifungal group, the echinocandins, as evidenced by the localization of resistance-conferring mutations to Fks1 hot spots 1, 2, and 3 (residues 635 to 649, 1354 to 1361, and 690 to 700, respectively). Since Fks1 is an integral membrane protein and echinocandins are cyclic peptides with lipid tails, Fks1 topology is key to understanding its function and interaction with echinocandins. We used hemagglutinin (HA)-Suc2-His4C fusions to C-terminally truncated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fks1 to experimentally define its topology and site-directed mutagenesis to test function of selected residues. Of the 15 to 18 transmembrane helices predicted in silico for Fks1 from evolutionarily diverse fungi, 13 were experimentally confirmed. The N terminus (residues 1 to 445) is cytosolic and the C terminus (residues 1823 to 1876) external; both are essential to Fks1 function. The cytosolic central domain (residues 715 to 1294) includes newly recognized homology to glycosyltransferases, and residues potentially involved in substrate UDP-glucose binding and catalysis are essential. All three hot spots are external, with hot spot 1 adjacent to and hot spot 3 largely embedded within the outer leaflet of the membrane. This topology suggests a model in which echinocandins interact through their lipid tails with hot spot 3 and through their cyclic peptides with hot spots 1 and 2. PMID:22581527

  17. CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-1-METHIONINE: ARSENIC (III) METHYLTRANSFERASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF RAT
    S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC(III) METHYLTRANSFERASE

    Stephen B. Waters, Ph.D., Miroslav Styblo, Ph.D., Melinda A. Beck, Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; David J. Thomas, Ph.D., U.S. Environmental...

  18. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS INDUCED BY MUTAGENS IN THE TK GENE OF MOUSE LYMPHOMA CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS INDUCED BY BROMATE AND N- ETHYL-N-NITROSOUREA IN THE TK GENE OF MOUSE L YMPHOMA CELLS

    The mouse lymphoma assay is widely used to identify chemical mutagens The Tk +1- gene located on an autosome in mouse lymphoma cells may recover a wide ra...

  19. PTEN gene mutations correlate to poor prognosis in glioma patients: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Feng; Hu, Rong; Yang, Hua; Liu, Jian; Sui, Jianmei; Xiang, Xin; Wang, Fan; Chu, Liangzhao; Song, Shibin

    2016-01-01

    Background We conducted this meta-analysis based on eligible trials to investigate the relationship between phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) genetic mutation and glioma patients’ survival. Methods PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE were searched for eligible studies regarding the relationship between PTEN genetic mutation and glioma patients’ survival. The primary outcome was the overall survival of glioma patient with or without PTEN genetic mutation, and second outcome was prognostic factors for the survival of glioma patient. A fixed-effects or random-effects model was used to pool the estimates according to the heterogeneity among the included studies. Results Nine cohort studies, involving 1,173 patients, were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled results suggested that glioma patients with PTEN genetic mutation had a significant shorter overall survival than those without PTEN genetic mutation (hazard ratio [HR] =2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35, 3.67; P=0.002). Furthermore, subgroup analysis indicated that this association was only observed in American patients (HR =2.19, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.89; P=0.008), but not in Chinese patients (HR =1.44, 95% CI: 0.29, 7.26; P=0.657). Histopathological grade (HR =1.42, 95% CI: 0.07, 28.41; P=0.818), age (HR =0.94, 95% CI: 0.43, 2.04; P=0.877), and sex (HR =1.28, 95% CI: 0.55, 2.98; P=0.564) were not significant prognostic factors for the survival of patients with glioma. Conclusion Current evidence indicates that PTEN genetic mutation is associated with poor prognosis in glioma patients. However, this finding is derived from data in observational studies, potentially subject to selection bias, and hence well conducted, high-quality randomized controlled trials are warranted. PMID:27366085

  20. Reproducible Analysis of Post-Translational Modifications in Proteomes—Application to Human Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Holehouse, Alex S.; Naegle, Kristen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) are an important aspect of protein regulation. The number of PTMs discovered within the human proteome, and other proteomes, has been rapidly expanding in recent years. As a consequence of the rate in which new PTMs are identified, analysis done in one year may result in different conclusions when repeated in subsequent years. Among the various functional questions pertaining to PTMs, one important relationship to address is the interplay between modifications and mutations. Specifically, because the linear sequence surrounding a modification site often determines molecular recognition, it is hypothesized that mutations near sites of PTMs may be more likely to result in a detrimental effect on protein function, resulting in the development of disease. Methods and Results We wrote an application programming interface (API) to make analysis of ProteomeScout, a comprehensive database of PTMs and protein information, easy and reproducible. We used this API to analyze the relationship between PTMs and human mutations associated with disease (based on the ‘Clinical Significance’ annotation from dbSNP). Proteins containing pathogenic mutations demonstrated a significant study bias which was controlled for by analyzing only well-studied proteins, based on their having at least one pathogenic mutation. We found that pathogenic mutations are significantly more likely to lie within eight amino acids of a phosphoserine, phosphotyrosine or ubiquitination site when compared to mutations in general, based on a Fisher’s Exact test. Despite the skew of pathogenic mutations occurring on positively charged arginines, we could not account for this relationship based only on residue type. Finally, we hypothesize a potential mechanism for a pathogenic mutation on RAF1, based on its proximity to a phosphorylation site, which represents a subtle regulation difference that may explain why its biochemical effect has failed to

  1. Systematic Analysis Reveals that Cancer Mutations Converge on Deregulated Metabolism of Arachidonate and Xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Francesco; Schulze, Almut; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-07-19

    Mutations are the basis of the clonal evolution of most cancers. Nevertheless, a systematic analysis of whether mutations are selected in cancer because they lead to the deregulation of specific biological processes independent of the type of cancer is still lacking. In this study, we correlated the genome and transcriptome of 1,082 tumors. We found that nine commonly mutated genes correlated with substantial changes in gene expression, which primarily converged on metabolism. Further network analyses circumscribed the convergence to a network of reactions, termed AraX, that involves the glutathione- and oxygen-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid and xenobiotics. In an independent cohort of 4,462 samples, all nine mutated genes were consistently correlated with the deregulation of AraX. Among all of the metabolic pathways, AraX deregulation represented the strongest predictor of patient survival. These findings suggest that oncogenic mutations drive a selection process that converges on the deregulation of the AraX network. PMID:27396332

  2. AB036. Analysis of human mitochondrial genome mutations of Vietnamese patients tentatively diagnosed with encephalomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nghia, Phan Tuan; Thai, Trinh Hong; Hue, Truong Thi; Van Minh, Nguyen; Khanh, Phung Bao; Hiep, Tran Duc; Anh, Tran Kieu; Loan, Nguyen Thi Hong; Van, Nguyen Thi Hong; Anh, Pham Van; Hung, Cao Vu; Anh, Le Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    Human mitochondrial genome consists of 16,569 bp, and replicates independently from the nuclear genome. Mutations in mitochondrial genome are usually causative factors of various metabolic disorders, especially those of encephalomyopathy. DNA analysis is the most reliable method for detection of mitochondrial genome mutations, and accordingly an excellent diagnostic tool for mitochondrial mutation-related diseases. In this study, 19 different mitochondrial genome mutations including A3243G, A3251G, T3271C and T3291C (MELAS); A8344G, T8356C and G8363A (MERRF); G3460A, G11778A and T14484C (LHON); T8993G/C and T9176G (Leigh); A1555G (deafness) and A4225G, G4298A, T10010C, T14727C, T14728C, T14709C (encephalomyopathy in general) were analyzed using PCR-RFLP in combination with DNA sequencing. In addition, a real-time PCR method using locked nucleic acid (LNA) Taqman probe was set up for heteroplasmy determination. Screening of 283 tentatively diagnosed encephalomyopathy patients revealed 7 cases of A3243G, 1 case of G11778A, 1 case of A1555G, 1 case of A4225G, 1 case G4298A, and 1 case of 6 bp (ACTCCT/CTCCTA) deletion. Using the LNA Taqman probe real-time PCR, the heteroplasmy of some point mutations was determined and the results support a potential relationship between heteroplasmy level and severity of the disease.

  3. Expanding the mutation spectrum in 130 probands with ARPKD: identification of 62 novel PKHD1 mutations by sanger sequencing and MLPA analysis.

    PubMed

    Melchionda, Salvatore; Palladino, Teresa; Castellana, Stefano; Giordano, Mario; Benetti, Elisa; De Bonis, Patrizia; Zelante, Leopoldo; Bisceglia, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a rare severe genetic disorder arising in the perinatal period, although a late-onset presentation of the disease has been described. Pulmonary hypoplasia is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn period. ARPKD is caused by mutations in the PKHD1 (polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1) gene that is among the largest human genes. To achieve a molecular diagnosis of the disease, a large series of Italian affected subjects were recruited. Exhaustive mutation analysis of PKHD1 gene was carried out by Sanger sequencing and multiple ligation probe amplification (MLPA) technique in 110 individuals. A total of 173 mutations resulting in a detection rate of 78.6% were identified. Additional 20 unrelated patients, in whom it was not possible to analyze the whole coding sequence, have been included in this study. Taking into account the total number (n=130) of this cohort of patients, 107 different types of mutations have been detected in 193 mutated alleles. Out of 107 mutations, 62 were novel: 11 nonsense, 6 frameshift, 7 splice site mutations, 2 in-frame deletions and 2 multiexon deletion detected by MLPA. Thirty-four were missense variants. In conclusion, our report expands the spectrum of PKHD1 mutations and confirms the heterogeneity of this disorder. The population under study represents the largest Italian ARPKD cohort reported to date. The estimated costs and the time invested for molecular screening of genes with large size and allelic heterogeneity such as PKHD1 demand the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies for a faster and cheaper screening of the affected subjects. PMID:27225849

  4. Expanding the mutation spectrum in 130 probands with ARPKD: identification of 62 novel PKHD1 mutations by sanger sequencing and MLPA analysis.

    PubMed

    Melchionda, Salvatore; Palladino, Teresa; Castellana, Stefano; Giordano, Mario; Benetti, Elisa; De Bonis, Patrizia; Zelante, Leopoldo; Bisceglia, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a rare severe genetic disorder arising in the perinatal period, although a late-onset presentation of the disease has been described. Pulmonary hypoplasia is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn period. ARPKD is caused by mutations in the PKHD1 (polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1) gene that is among the largest human genes. To achieve a molecular diagnosis of the disease, a large series of Italian affected subjects were recruited. Exhaustive mutation analysis of PKHD1 gene was carried out by Sanger sequencing and multiple ligation probe amplification (MLPA) technique in 110 individuals. A total of 173 mutations resulting in a detection rate of 78.6% were identified. Additional 20 unrelated patients, in whom it was not possible to analyze the whole coding sequence, have been included in this study. Taking into account the total number (n=130) of this cohort of patients, 107 different types of mutations have been detected in 193 mutated alleles. Out of 107 mutations, 62 were novel: 11 nonsense, 6 frameshift, 7 splice site mutations, 2 in-frame deletions and 2 multiexon deletion detected by MLPA. Thirty-four were missense variants. In conclusion, our report expands the spectrum of PKHD1 mutations and confirms the heterogeneity of this disorder. The population under study represents the largest Italian ARPKD cohort reported to date. The estimated costs and the time invested for molecular screening of genes with large size and allelic heterogeneity such as PKHD1 demand the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies for a faster and cheaper screening of the affected subjects.

  5. Identification of novel, in vivo active Chk1 inhibitors utilizing structure guided drug design.

    PubMed

    Massey, Andrew J; Stokes, Stephen; Browne, Helen; Foloppe, Nicolas; Fiumana, Andreá; Scrace, Simon; Fallowfield, Mandy; Bedford, Simon; Webb, Paul; Baker, Lisa; Christie, Mark; Drysdale, Martin J; Wood, Mike

    2015-11-01

    Chk1 kinase is a critical component of the DNA damage response checkpoint especially in cancer cells and targeting Chk1 is a potential therapeutic opportunity for potentiating the anti-tumor activity of DNA damaging chemotherapy drugs. Fragment elaboration by structure guided design was utilized to identify and develop a novel series of Chk1 inhibitors culminating in the identification of V158411, a potent ATP-competitive inhibitor of the Chk1 and Chk2 kinases. V158411 abrogated gemcitabine and camptothecin induced cell cycle checkpoints, resulting in the expected modulation of cell cycle proteins and increased cell death in cancer cells. V158411 potentiated the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine, cisplatin, SN38 and camptothecin in a variety of p53 deficient human tumor cell lines in vitro, p53 proficient cells were unaffected. In nude mice, V158411 showed minimal toxicity as a single agent and in combination with irinotecan. In tumor bearing animals, V158411 was detected at high levels in the tumor with a long elimination half-life; no pharmacologically significant in vivo drug-drug interactions with irinotecan were identified through analysis of the pharmacokinetic profiles. V158411 potentiated the anti-tumor activity of irinotecan in a variety of human colon tumor xenograft models without additional systemic toxicity. These results demonstrate the opportunity for combining V158411 with standard of care chemotherapeutic agents to potentiate the therapeutic efficacy of these agents without increasing their toxicity to normal cells. Thus, V158411 would warrant further clinical evaluation. PMID:26437226

  6. Expanding the chemical space of polyketides through structure-guided mutagenesis of Vitis vinifera stilbene synthase.

    PubMed

    Bhan, Namita; Cress, Brady F; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos

    2015-08-01

    Several natural polyketides (PKs) have been associated with important pharmaceutical properties. Type III polyketide synthases (PKS) that generate aromatic PK polyketides have been studied extensively for their substrate promiscuity and product diversity. Stilbene synthase-like (STS) enzymes are unique in the type III PKS class as they possess a hydrogen bonding network, furnishing them with thioesterase-like properties, resulting in aldol condensation of the polyketide intermediates formed. Chalcone synthases (CHS) in contrast, lack this hydrogen-bonding network, resulting primarily in the Claisen condensation of the polyketide intermediates formed. We have attempted to expand the chemical space of this interesting class of compounds generated by creating structure-guided mutants of Vitis vinifera STS. Further, we have utilized a previously established workflow to quickly compare the wild-type reaction products to those generated by the mutants and identify novel PKs formed by using XCMS analysis of LC-MS and LC-MS/MS data. Based on this approach, we were able to generate 15 previously unreported PK molecules by exploring the substrate promiscuity of the wild-type enzyme and all mutants using unnatural substrates. These structures were specific to STSs and cannot be formed by their closely related CHS-like counterparts. PMID:26048582

  7. Identification of novel, in vivo active Chk1 inhibitors utilizing structure guided drug design

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Andrew J.; Stokes, Stephen; Browne, Helen; Foloppe, Nicolas; Fiumana, Andreá; Scrace, Simon; Fallowfield, Mandy; Bedford, Simon; Webb, Paul; Baker, Lisa; Christie, Mark; Drysdale, Martin J.; Wood, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Chk1 kinase is a critical component of the DNA damage response checkpoint especially in cancer cells and targeting Chk1 is a potential therapeutic opportunity for potentiating the anti-tumor activity of DNA damaging chemotherapy drugs. Fragment elaboration by structure guided design was utilized to identify and develop a novel series of Chk1 inhibitors culminating in the identification of V158411, a potent ATP-competitive inhibitor of the Chk1 and Chk2 kinases. V158411 abrogated gemcitabine and camptothecin induced cell cycle checkpoints, resulting in the expected modulation of cell cycle proteins and increased cell death in cancer cells. V158411 potentiated the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine, cisplatin, SN38 and camptothecin in a variety of p53 deficient human tumor cell lines in vitro, p53 proficient cells were unaffected. In nude mice, V158411 showed minimal toxicity as a single agent and in combination with irinotecan. In tumor bearing animals, V158411 was detected at high levels in the tumor with a long elimination half-life; no pharmacologically significant in vivo drug-drug interactions with irinotecan were identified through analysis of the pharmacokinetic profiles. V158411 potentiated the anti-tumor activity of irinotecan in a variety of human colon tumor xenograft models without additional systemic toxicity. These results demonstrate the opportunity for combining V158411 with standard of care chemotherapeutic agents to potentiate the therapeutic efficacy of these agents without increasing their toxicity to normal cells. Thus, V158411 would warrant further clinical evaluation. PMID:26437226

  8. Mutation analysis of the NSD1 gene in patients with autism spectrum disorders and macrocephaly

    PubMed Central

    Buxbaum, Joseph D; Cai, Guiqing; Nygren, Gudrun; Chaste, Pauline; Delorme, Richard; Goldsmith, Juliet; Råstam, Maria; Silverman, Jeremy M; Hollander, Eric; Gillberg, Christopher; Leboyer, Marion; Betancur, Catalina

    2007-01-01

    Background Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by macrocephaly, advanced bone age, characteristic facial features, and learning disabilities, caused by mutations or deletions of the NSD1 gene, located at 5q35. Sotos syndrome has been described in a number of patients with autism spectrum disorders, suggesting that NSD1 could be involved in other cases of autism and macrocephaly. Methods We screened the NSD1 gene for mutations and deletions in 88 patients with autism spectrum disorders and macrocephaly (head circumference 2 standard deviations or more above the mean). Mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of all exons and flanking regions. Dosage analysis of NSD1 was carried out using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Results We identified three missense variants (R604L, S822C and E1499G) in one patient each, but none is within a functional domain. In addition, segregation analysis showed that all variants were inherited from healthy parents and in two cases were also present in unaffected siblings, indicating that they are probably nonpathogenic. No partial or whole gene deletions/duplications were observed. Conclusion Our findings suggest that Sotos syndrome is a rare cause of autism spectrum disorders and that screening for NSD1 mutations and deletions in patients with autism and macrocephaly is not warranted in the absence of other features of Sotos syndrome. PMID:18001468

  9. Analysis of Founder Mutations in Rare Tumors Associated With Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer Reveals a Novel Association of BRCA2 Mutations with Ampulla of Vater Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Pedro; Peixoto, Ana; Santos, Catarina; Rocha, Patrícia; Pinto, Carla; Pinheiro, Manuela; Leça, Luís; Martins, Ana Teresa; Ferreira, Verónica; Bartosch, Carla; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2016-01-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are responsible for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, but they also confer an increased risk for the development of rarer cancers associated with this syndrome, namely, cancer of the pancreas, male breast, peritoneum, and fallopian tube. The objective of this work was to quantify the contribution of the founder mutations BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu and BRCA1 c.3331_3334del for cancer etiology in unselected hospital-based cohorts of Portuguese patients diagnosed with these rarer cancers, by using a strategy that included testing of archival tumor tissue. A total of 102 male breast, 68 pancreatic and 33 peritoneal/fallopian tube carcinoma cases were included in the study. The BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu mutation was observed with a frequency of 7.8% in male breast cancers, 3.0% in peritoneal/fallopian tube cancers, and 1.6% in pancreatic cancers, with estimated total contributions of germline BRCA2 mutations of 14.3%, 5.5%, and 2.8%, respectively. No carriers of the BRCA1 c.3331_3334del mutation were identified. During our study, a patient with an ampulla of Vater carcinoma was incidentally found to carry the BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu mutation, so we decided to test a consecutive series of additional 15 ampullary carcinomas for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations using a combination of direct founder mutation testing and full gene analysis with next generation sequencing. BRCA2 mutations were observed with a frequency of 14.3% in ampulla of Vater carcinomas. In conclusion, taking into account the implications for both the individuals and their family members, we recommend that patients with these neoplasias should be offered BRCA1/BRCA2 genetic testing and we here show that it is feasible to test for founder mutations in archival tumor tissue. Furthermore, we identified for the first time a high frequency of germline BRCA2 mutations in ampullary cancers. PMID:27532258

  10. Analysis of Founder Mutations in Rare Tumors Associated With Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer Reveals a Novel Association of BRCA2 Mutations with Ampulla of Vater Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Pedro; Peixoto, Ana; Santos, Catarina; Rocha, Patrícia; Pinto, Carla; Pinheiro, Manuela; Leça, Luís; Martins, Ana Teresa; Ferreira, Verónica; Bartosch, Carla

    2016-01-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are responsible for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, but they also confer an increased risk for the development of rarer cancers associated with this syndrome, namely, cancer of the pancreas, male breast, peritoneum, and fallopian tube. The objective of this work was to quantify the contribution of the founder mutations BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu and BRCA1 c.3331_3334del for cancer etiology in unselected hospital-based cohorts of Portuguese patients diagnosed with these rarer cancers, by using a strategy that included testing of archival tumor tissue. A total of 102 male breast, 68 pancreatic and 33 peritoneal/fallopian tube carcinoma cases were included in the study. The BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu mutation was observed with a frequency of 7.8% in male breast cancers, 3.0% in peritoneal/fallopian tube cancers, and 1.6% in pancreatic cancers, with estimated total contributions of germline BRCA2 mutations of 14.3%, 5.5%, and 2.8%, respectively. No carriers of the BRCA1 c.3331_3334del mutation were identified. During our study, a patient with an ampulla of Vater carcinoma was incidentally found to carry the BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu mutation, so we decided to test a consecutive series of additional 15 ampullary carcinomas for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations using a combination of direct founder mutation testing and full gene analysis with next generation sequencing. BRCA2 mutations were observed with a frequency of 14.3% in ampulla of Vater carcinomas. In conclusion, taking into account the implications for both the individuals and their family members, we recommend that patients with these neoplasias should be offered BRCA1/BRCA2 genetic testing and we here show that it is feasible to test for founder mutations in archival tumor tissue. Furthermore, we identified for the first time a high frequency of germline BRCA2 mutations in ampullary cancers. PMID:27532258

  11. Mutational analysis of COQ2 in patients with MSA in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Dario; Di Biase, Ernesto; Franco, Giulia; Melzi, Valentina; Del Sorbo, Francesca; Elia, Antonio; Barzaghi, Chiara; Garavaglia, Barbara; Bergamini, Christian; Fato, Romana; Mora, Gabriele; Del Bo, Roberto; Fortunato, Francesco; Borellini, Linda; Trezzi, Ilaria; Compagnoni, Giacomo Monzio; Monfrini, Edoardo; Frattini, Emanuele; Bonato, Sara; Cogiamanian, Filippo; Ardolino, Gianluca; Priori, Alberto; Bresolin, Nereo; Corti, Stefania; Comi, Giacomo Pietro; Di Fonzo, Alessio

    2016-09-01

    COQ2 mutations have been implicated in the etiology of multiple system atrophy (MSA) in Japan. However, several genetic screenings have not confirmed the role of its variants in the disease. We performed COQ2 sequence analysis in 87 probable MSA. A homozygous change p.A43G was found in an MSA-C patient. Cosegregation analysis and the evaluation of CoQ10 content in muscle and fibroblasts did not support the pathogenic role of this variant. PMID:27394078

  12. Mutational analysis of BRAF and KRAS in ovarian serous borderline (atypical proliferative) tumours and associated peritoneal implants

    PubMed Central

    Ardighieri, Laura; Zeppernick, Felix; Hannibal, Charlotte G; Vang, Russell; Cope, Leslie; Junge, Jette; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kurman, Robert J; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2014-01-01

    There is debate as to whether peritoneal implants associated with serous borderline tumours/atypical proliferative serous tumours (SBT/APSTs) of the ovary are derived from the primary ovarian tumour or arise independently in the peritoneum. We analysed 57 SBT/APSTs from 45 patients with advanced-stage disease identified from a nation-wide tumour registry in Denmark. Mutational analysis for hotspots in KRAS and BRAF was successful in 55 APSTs and demonstrated KRAS mutations in 34 (61.8%) and BRAF mutations in eight (14.5%). Mutational analysis was successful in 56 peritoneal implants and revealed KRAS mutations in 34 (60.7%) and BRAF mutations in seven (12.5%). Mutational analysis could not be performed in two primary tumours and in nine implants, either because DNA amplification failed or because there was insufficient tissue for mutational analysis. For these specimens we performed VE1 immunohistochemistry, which was shown to be a specific and sensitive surrogate marker for a V600E BRAF mutation. VE1 staining was positive in one of two APSTs and seven of nine implants. Thus, among 63 implants for which mutation status was known (either by direct mutational analysis or by VE1 immunohistochemistry), 34 (53.9%) had KRAS mutations and 14 (22%) had BRAF mutations, of which identical KRAS mutations were found in 34 (91%) of 37 SBT/APST–implant pairs and identical BRAF mutations in 14 (100%) of 14 SBT/APST–implant pairs. Wild-type KRAS and BRAF (at the loci investigated) were found in 11 (100%) of 11 SBT/APST–implant pairs. Overall concordance of KRAS and BRAF mutations was 95% in 59 of 62 SBT/APST–implant (non-invasive and invasive) pairs (p < 0.00001). This study provides cogent evidence that the vast majority of peritoneal implants, non-invasive and invasive, harbour the identical KRAS or BRAF mutations that are present in the associated SBT/APST, supporting the view that peritoneal implants are derived from the primary ovarian tumour. PMID:24307542

  13. A comparison of ARMS and mutation specific IHC for common activating EGFR mutations analysis in small biopsy and cytology specimens of advanced non small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Guoqing; Hao, Yueyue; Xu, Yinhong; Zhang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    We have compared mutation analysis by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant-specific antibodies for their ability to detect two common activating EGFR mutations in a cohort of 115 advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including cytology material, core biopsy, and bronchoscopic biopsies. Assessment of EGFR mutation status was performed by using antibodies and ARMS assay specific to the two major forms of mutant EGFR, exon 19 deletion E746-A750 (c.2235_2249del15 or c.2236_2250del15, p. Glu746_Ala750 del) and exon 21 L858R point mutation (c.2573T>G, p.Leu858Arg). In this study the optimal buffer for antigen retrieval was sodium citrate (pH 6.0). Q score was used to evaluate the specific mutant EGFR proteins expression. Validation using clinical material showed deletions in exon 19 were detected in 19.1% and L858R mutation in 20% of all cases by ARMS assay. A cutoff value of score 1 was used as positive by IHC. No wild type cases were immuno-reactive. The antibodies performed well in cytology, core biopsies and bronchoscopic biopsies. There were only one false positive case using L858R IHC (sensitivity 100%, specificity 98.5%, positive predictive value 96%, negative predictive value 100%). All 23 E746-A750 exon 19 deletions identified by mutation analysis were positive by IHC. The sensitivity of exon 19 IHC for E746-A750 was 100%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 100%. The result of the IHC stains was finely correlated with mutations status determined by ARMS assay. Although inferior to molecular genetic analysis of the EGFR gene, IHC is highly specific and sensitive for the targeted EGFR mutations. The antibodies are likely to be of clinical value in cases especially where limited tumor material is available, or in situations where molecular genetic analysis is not readily available.

  14. Automated extraction and semantic analysis of mutation impacts from the biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Open Mutation Miner (OMM), the first comprehensive, fully open-source approach to automatically extract impacts and related relevant information from the biomedical literature. We assessed the performance of our work on manually annotated corpora and the results show the reliability of our approach. The representation of the extracted information into a structured format facilitates knowledge management and aids in database curation and correction. Furthermore, access to the analysis results is provided through multiple interfaces, including web services for automated data integration and desktop-based solutions for end user interactions. PMID:22759648

  15. Mutational Analysis of TCOF1, GSC, and HOXA2 in Patients With Treacher Collins Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shaojuan; Jin, Lei; Wang, Huijun; Li, Chenlong; Zheng, Fengyun; Ma, Duan; Zhang, Tianyu

    2016-09-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome is an autosomal dominant craniofacial malformation mainly caused by mutations in the TCOF1 gene. Few cases have been observed in the Chinese population. Herein, the authors report the mutational analysis of TCOF1, GSC, and HOXA2 to determine the mutational features of the 3 genes in Chinese patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. Genomic DNA of the patients and their parents was extracted from peripheral blood following a standard protocol. DNA sequencing analysis was performed on all exons and the exon-intron borders of TCOF1, GSC, and HOXA2 in addition to the 1200-bp upstream of TCOF1. Four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in TCOF1, one of which was in the promoter region. Mutations in GSC and HOXA2 were not found in the 3 patients. Our results suggest the possibility of genetic heterogeneity or different mechanisms leading to the disease. Further functional study of the alteration is necessary to obtain more definitive information.

  16. Mutational Analysis of TCOF1, GSC, and HOXA2 in Patients With Treacher Collins Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shaojuan; Jin, Lei; Wang, Huijun; Li, Chenlong; Zheng, Fengyun; Ma, Duan; Zhang, Tianyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Treacher Collins syndrome is an autosomal dominant craniofacial malformation mainly caused by mutations in the TCOF1 gene. Few cases have been observed in the Chinese population. Herein, the authors report the mutational analysis of TCOF1, GSC, and HOXA2 to determine the mutational features of the 3 genes in Chinese patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. Genomic DNA of the patients and their parents was extracted from peripheral blood following a standard protocol. DNA sequencing analysis was performed on all exons and the exon-intron borders of TCOF1, GSC, and HOXA2 in addition to the 1200-bp upstream of TCOF1. Four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in TCOF1, one of which was in the promoter region. Mutations in GSC and HOXA2 were not found in the 3 patients. Our results suggest the possibility of genetic heterogeneity or different mechanisms leading to the disease. Further functional study of the alteration is necessary to obtain more definitive information. PMID:27526242

  17. Phenotype characterization and DSPP mutational analysis of three Brazilian dentinogenesis imperfecta type II families.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, A C; Santos, L J S; Paula, L M; Dong, J; MacDougall, M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform phenotype analysis and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) mutational analysis on 3 Brazilian families diagnosed with dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DGI-II) attending the Dental Anomalies Clinic in Brasilia, Brazil. Physical and oral examinations, as well as radiographic and histopathological analyses, were performed on 28 affected and unaffected individuals. Clinical, radiographic and histopathological analyses confirmed the diagnosis of DGI-II in 19 individuals. Pulp stones were observed in ground sections of several teeth in 2 families, suggesting that obliteration of pulp chambers and root canals results from the growth of these nodular structures. Mutational DSPP gene analysis of representative affected family members revealed 7 various non-disease-causing alterations in exons 1-4 within the dentin sialoprotein domain. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to elucidate the progression of pulpal obliteration in the DGI-II patients studied as well as the molecular basis of their disease.

  18. Analysis of phenotype and outcome in essential thrombocythemia with CALR or JAK2 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Al Assaf, Carla; Van Obbergh, Florence; Billiet, Johan; Lierman, Els; Devos, Timothy; Graux, Carlos; Hervent, Anne-Sophie; Emmerechts, Jan; Tousseyn, Thomas; De Paepe, Pascale; Papadopoulos, Petros; Michaux, Lucienne; Vandenberghe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The JAK2 V617F mutation, the thrombopoietin receptor MPL W515K/L mutation and calreticulin (CALR) mutations are mutually exclusive in essential thrombocythemia and support a novel molecular categorization of essential thrombocythemia. CALR mutations account for approximately 30% of cases of essential thrombocythemia. In a retrospective study, we examined the frequency of MPL and CALR mutations in JAK2 V617F-negative cases of essential thrombocythemia (n=103). In addition, we compared the clinical phenotype and outcome of CALR mutant cases of essential thrombocythemia with a cohort of JAK2 V617F-positive essential thrombocythemia (n=57). CALR-positive cases represented 63.7% of double-negative cases of essential thrombocythemia, and most carried CALR type 1 or type 2 indels. However, we also identified one patient who was positive for both the JAK2 V617F and the CALR mutations. This study revealed that CALR mutant essential thrombocythemia is associated with younger age, higher platelet counts, lower erythrocyte counts, leukocyte counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and increased risk of progression to myelofibrosis in comparison with JAK2 V617F-positive essential thrombocythemia. Analysis of the CALR mutant group according to indel type showed that CALR type 1 deletion is strongly associated with male gender. CALR mutant patients had a better overall survival than JAK2 V617F-positive patients, in particular patients of age 60 years or younger. In conclusion, this study in a Belgian cohort of patients supports and extends the growing body of evidence that CALR mutant cases of essential thrombocythemia are phenotypically distinct from JAK2 V617F-positive cases, with regards to clinical and hematologic presentation as well as overall survival. PMID:25934766

  19. Linkage and mutational analysis of familial Alzheimer disease kindreds for the APP gene region

    PubMed Central

    Kamino, Kouzin; Orr, Harry T.; Payami, Haydeh; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Alonso, Ma. Elisa; Pulst, Stefan M.; Anderson, Leojean; O'dahl, Sheldon; Nemens, Ellen; White, June A.; Sadovnick, Adele D.; Ball, Melvyn J.; Kaye, Jeffery; Warren, Andrew; McInnis, Melvin; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Korenberg, Julie R.; Sharma, Vikram; Kukull, Walter; Larson, Eric; Heston, Leonard L.; Martin, George M.; Bird, Thomas D.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.

    1992-01-01

    A large number of familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) kindreds were examined to determine whether mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene could be responsible for the disease. Previous studies have identified three mutations at APP codon 717 which are pathogenic for Alzheimer disease (AD). Samples from affected subjects were examined for mutations in exons 16 and 17 of the APP gene. A combination of direct sequencing and single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis was used. Sporadic AD and normal controls were also examined by the same methods. Five sequence variants were identified. One variant at APP codon 693 resulted in a Glu→Gly change. This is the same codon as the hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis–Dutch type Glu→Gln mutation. Another single-base change at APP codon 708 did not alter the amino acid encoded at this site. Two point mutations and a 6-bp deletion were identified in the intronic sequences surrounding exon 17. None of the variants could be unambiguously determined to be responsible for FAD. The larger families were also analyzed by testing for linkage of FAD to a highly polymorphic short tandem repeat marker (D21S210) that is tightly linked to APP. Highly negative LOD scores were obtained for the family groups tested, and linkage was formally excluded beyond θ = .10 for the Volga German kindreds, θ = .20 for early-onset non-Volga Germans, and θ = .10 for late-onset families. LOD scores for linkage of FAD to markers centromeric to APP (D21S1/S11, D21S13, and D21S215) were also negative in the three family groups. These studies show that APP mutations account for AD in only a small fraction of FAD kindreds. ImagesFigure 4p1009-a PMID:1415269

  20. Linkage and mutational analysis of familial Alzheimer disease kindreds for the APP gene region

    SciTech Connect

    Kamino, K.; Anderson, L.; O'dahl, S.; Nemens, E.; Bird, T.D.; Schellenberg, G.D.; Wijsman, E.M.; Kukall, W.; Larson, E. ); Heston, L.L.

    1992-11-01

    A large number of familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) kindreds were examined to determine whether mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene could be responsible for the disease. Previous studies have identified three mutations at APP codon 717 which are pathogenic for Alzheimer disease (AD). Samples from affected subjects were examined for mutations in exons 16 and 17 of the APP gene. A combination of direct sequencing and single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis was used. Sporadic AD and normal controls were also examined by the same methods. Five sequence variants were identified. One variant at APP codon 693 resulted in a Glu[yields]Gly change. This is the same codon as the hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type Glu[yields]Gln mutation. Another single-base change at APP codon 708 did not alter the amino acid encoded at this site. Two point mutations and a 6-bp deletion were identified in the intronic sequences surrounding exon 17. None of the variants could be unambigously determined to be responsible for FAD. The larger families were also analyzed by testing for linkage of FAD to a highly polymorphic short tandem repeat marker (D21S210) that is tightly linked to APP. Highly negative LOD scores were obtained for the family groups tested, and linkage was formally excluded beyond [theta] = .10 for the Volga German kindreds, [theta] = .20 for early-onset non-Volga Germans, and [theta] = .10 for late-onset families. LOD scores for linkage of FAD to markers centromeric to APP (D21S1/S11, D21S13, and D21S215) were also negative in the three family groups. These studies show that APP mutations account for AD in only a small fraction of FAD kindreds. 49 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Functional Analysis of A Novel Splicing Mutation in The Mutase Gene of Two Unrelated Pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Miryounesi, Mohammad; Pasalar, Parvin; Keramatipour, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Methylmalonic acidura (MMA) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism. In this study we present a novel nucleotide change in the mutase (MUT) gene of two unrelated Iranian pedigrees and introduce the methods used for its functional analysis. Materials and Methods Two probands with definite diagnosis of MMA and a common novel variant in the MUT were included in a descriptive study. Bioinformatic prediction of the splicing variant was done with different prediction servers. Reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was done for splicing analysis and the products were analyzed by sequencing. Results The included index patients showed elevated levels of propionylcarnitine (C3). Urine organic acid analysis confirmed the diagnosis of MMA, and screening for mutations in the MUT revealed a novel C to G variation at the 3´ splice acceptor site in intron 12. In silico analysis suggested the change as a mutation in a conserved sequence. The splicing analysis showed that the C to G nucleotide change at position -3 in the acceptor splice site can lead to retention of the intron 12 sequence. Conclusion This is the first report of a mutation at the position -3 in the MUT intron 12 (c.2125-3C>G). The results suggest that the identified variation can be associated with the typical clinical manifestations of MMA. PMID:27602322

  2. Functional Analysis of A Novel Splicing Mutation in The Mutase Gene of Two Unrelated Pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Miryounesi, Mohammad; Pasalar, Parvin; Keramatipour, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Methylmalonic acidura (MMA) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism. In this study we present a novel nucleotide change in the mutase (MUT) gene of two unrelated Iranian pedigrees and introduce the methods used for its functional analysis. Materials and Methods Two probands with definite diagnosis of MMA and a common novel variant in the MUT were included in a descriptive study. Bioinformatic prediction of the splicing variant was done with different prediction servers. Reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was done for splicing analysis and the products were analyzed by sequencing. Results The included index patients showed elevated levels of propionylcarnitine (C3). Urine organic acid analysis confirmed the diagnosis of MMA, and screening for mutations in the MUT revealed a novel C to G variation at the 3´ splice acceptor site in intron 12. In silico analysis suggested the change as a mutation in a conserved sequence. The splicing analysis showed that the C to G nucleotide change at position -3 in the acceptor splice site can lead to retention of the intron 12 sequence. Conclusion This is the first report of a mutation at the position -3 in the MUT intron 12 (c.2125-3C>G). The results suggest that the identified variation can be associated with the typical clinical manifestations of MMA.

  3. Effective epitope identification employing phylogenetic, mutational variability, sequence entropy, and correlated mutation analysis targeting NS5B protein of hepatitis C virus: from bioinformatics to therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Meshram, Rohan J; Gacche, Rajesh N

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered as a foremost cause affecting numerous human liver-related disorders. An effective immuno-prophylactic measure (like stable vaccine) is still unavailable for HCV. We perform an in silico analysis of nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) based CD4 and CD8 epitopes that might be implicated in improvement of treatment strategies for efficient vaccine development programs against HCV. Here, we report on effective utilization of knowledge obtained from multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis for investigation and evaluation of candidate epitopes that have enormous potential to be used in formulating proficient vaccine, embracing multiple strains prevalent among major geographical locations. Mutational variability data discussed herein focus on discriminating the region under active evolutionary pressure from those having lower mutational potential in existing experimentally verified epitopes, thus, providing a concrete framework for designing an effective peptide-based vaccine against HCV. Additionally, we measured entropy distribution in NS5B residues and pinpoint the positions in epitopes that are more susceptible to mutations and, thus, account for virus strategy to evade the host immune system. Findings from this study are expected to add more details on the sequence and structural aspects of NS5B protein, ultimately facilitating our understanding about the pathophysiology of HCV and assisting advance studies on the function of NS5B antigen on the epitope level. We also report on the mutational crosstalk between functionally important coevolving residues, using correlated mutation analysis, and identify networks of coupled mutations that represent pathways of allosteric communication inside and among NS5B thumb, finger, and palm domains. PMID:25727409

  4. Diversity, Mutation and Recombination Analysis of Cotton Leaf Curl Geminiviruses

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Huma; Nahid, Nazia; Shakir, Sara; Ijaz, Sehrish; Murtaza, Ghulam; Khan, Asif Ali; Mubin, Muhammad; Nawaz-ul-Rehman, Muhammad Shah

    2016-01-01

    The spread of cotton leaf curl disease in China, India and Pakistan is a recent phenomenon. Analysis of available sequence data determined that there is a substantial diversity of cotton-infecting geminiviruses in Pakistan. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that recombination between two major groups of viruses, cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) and cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV), led to the emergence of several new viruses. Recombination detection programs and phylogenetic analyses showed that CLCuMuV and CLCuKoV are highly recombinant viruses. Indeed, CLCuKoV appeared to be a major donor virus for the coat protein (CP) gene, while CLCuMuV donated the Rep gene in the majority of recombination events. Using recombination free nucleotide datasets the substitution rates for CP and Rep genes were determined. We inferred similar nucleotide substitution rates for the CLCuMuV-Rep gene (4.96X10-4) and CLCuKoV-CP gene (2.706X10-4), whereas relatively higher substitution rates were observed for CLCuMuV-CP and CLCuKoV-Rep genes. The combination of sequences with equal and relatively low substitution rates, seemed to result in the emergence of viral isolates that caused epidemics in Pakistan and India. Our findings also suggest that CLCuMuV is spreading at an alarming rate, which can potentially be a threat to cotton production in the Indian subcontinent. PMID:26963635

  5. Platelet hexosaminidase a enzyme assay effectively detects carriers missed by targeted DNA mutation analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Sachiko; Zhan, Jie; Sun, Wei; Ferreira, Jose Carlos; Keiles, Steven; Hambuch, Tina; Kammesheidt, Anja; Mark, Brian L; Schneider, Adele; Gross, Susan; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Biochemical testing of hexosaminidase A (HexA) enzyme activity has been available for decades and has the ability to detect almost all Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carriers, irrespective of ethnic background. This is increasingly important, as the gene pool of those who identify as Ashkenazi Jewish is diversifying. Here we describe the analysis of a cohort of 4,325 individuals arising from large carrier screening programs and tested by the serum and/or platelet HexA enzyme assays and by targeted DNA mutation analysis. Our results continue to support the platelet assay as a highly effective method for TSD carrier screening, with a low inconclusive rate and the ability to detect possible disease-causing mutation carriers that would have been missed by targeted DNA mutation analysis. Sequence analysis performed on one such platelet assay carrier, who had one non-Ashkenazi Jewish parent, identified the amino acid change Thr259Ala (A775G). Based on crystallographic modeling, this change is predicted to be deleterious, as threonine 259 is positioned proximal to the HexA alpha subunit active site and helps to stabilize key residues therein. Accordingly, if individuals are screened for TSD in broad-based programs by targeted molecular testing alone, they must be made aware that there is a more sensitive and inexpensive test available that can identify additional carriers. Alternatively, the enzyme assays can be offered as a first tier test, especially when screening individuals of mixed or non-Jewish ancestry. PMID:23430931

  6. A Structured Guide for Selecting Training Materials in Adjustment Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Thomas J.

    This guide identifies existing materials which form a nucleus of information in the adjustment services field. Five sub-processes within the larger adjustment services process are used as the framework by which this information is structured in the guide. They are (1) behavior observation, identification, and analysis; (2) developing the…

  7. ZMYND10 - Mutation Analysis in Slavic Patients with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Kurkowiak, Małgorzata; Ziętkiewicz, Ewa; Greber, Agnieszka; Voelkel, Katarzyna; Wojda, Alina; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Witt, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare recessive disease with a prevalence of 1/10,000; its symptoms are caused by a kinetic dysfunction of motile cilia in the respiratory epithelium, flagella in spermatozoids, and primary cilia in the embryonic node. PCD is genetically heterogeneous: genotyping the already known PCD-related genes explains the genetic basis in 60–65% of the cases, depending on the population. While identification of new genes involved in PCD pathogenesis remains crucial, the search for new, population-specific mutations causative for PCD is equally important. The Slavs remain far less characterized in this respect compared to West European populations, which significantly limits diagnostic capability. The main goal of this study was to characterize the profile of causative genetic defects in one of the PCD-causing genes, ZMYND10, in the cohort of PCD patients of Slavic origin. The study was carried out using biological material from 172 unrelated PCD individuals of Polish origin, with no causative mutation found in nine major PCD genes. While none of the previously described mutations was found using the HRM-based screening, a novel frameshift mutation (c.367delC) in ZMYND10, unique for Slavic PCD population, was found in homozygous state in two unrelated PCD patients. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the absence of outer and inner dynein arms from the ciliary axoneme, consistent with the already published ZMYND10-mutated phenotype; cDNA analysis revealed the lack of ZMYND10 mRNA, indicating nonsense-mediated decay of the truncated transcript. PMID:26824761

  8. ZMYND10--Mutation Analysis in Slavic Patients with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Kurkowiak, Małgorzata; Ziętkiewicz, Ewa; Greber, Agnieszka; Voelkel, Katarzyna; Wojda, Alina; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Witt, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare recessive disease with a prevalence of 1/10,000; its symptoms are caused by a kinetic dysfunction of motile cilia in the respiratory epithelium, flagella in spermatozoids, and primary cilia in the embryonic node. PCD is genetically heterogeneous: genotyping the already known PCD-related genes explains the genetic basis in 60-65% of the cases, depending on the population. While identification of new genes involved in PCD pathogenesis remains crucial, the search for new, population-specific mutations causative for PCD is equally important. The Slavs remain far less characterized in this respect compared to West European populations, which significantly limits diagnostic capability. The main goal of this study was to characterize the profile of causative genetic defects in one of the PCD-causing genes, ZMYND10, in the cohort of PCD patients of Slavic origin. The study was carried out using biological material from 172 unrelated PCD individuals of Polish origin, with no causative mutation found in nine major PCD genes. While none of the previously described mutations was found using the HRM-based screening, a novel frameshift mutation (c.367delC) in ZMYND10, unique for Slavic PCD population, was found in homozygous state in two unrelated PCD patients. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the absence of outer and inner dynein arms from the ciliary axoneme, consistent with the already published ZMYND10-mutated phenotype; cDNA analysis revealed the lack of ZMYND10 mRNA, indicating nonsense-mediated decay of the truncated transcript. PMID:26824761

  9. Mutational analysis of the human mitochondrial genome branches into the realm of bacterial genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, N.

    1996-10-01

    This is shaping up as a vintage year for studies of the genetics and evolution of the human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). In a theoretical and experimental tour de force, Shenkar et al. (1996), on pages 772-780 of this issue, derive the mutation rate of the 4,977-bp (or {open_quotes}common{close_quotes}) deletion in the human mtDNA through refinement and extension of fluctuation analysis, a technique that was first used >50 years ago. Shenkar et al., in essence, have solved or bypassed many of the difficulties that are inherent in the application of fluctuation analysis to human mitochondrial gene mutations. Their study is important for two principal reasons. In the first place, high levels of this deletion cause a variety of pathological disorders, including Kearns-Sayre syndrome and chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia. Their current report, therefore, is a major step in the elucidation of the molecular genetic pathogenesis of this group of mitochondrial disorders. For example, it now may be feasible to analyze the effects of selection on transmission and segregation of this deletion and, perhaps, other mtDNA mutations as well. Second, and at a broader level, the approach of Shenkar et al. should find widespread applicability to the study of other mtDNA mutations. It has been recognized for several years that mammalian mtDNA mutates much more rapidly than nuclear DNA, a phenomenon with potentially profound evolutionary implications. It is exciting and useful, both experimentally and theoretically, that this {open_quotes}old{close_quotes} approach can be used for {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} applications. 56 refs.

  10. [Phenogenetic analysis of pigmentation of a new coat color mutation of American mink (Mustela vison. Schr. L.) and its combination with some of the known mutations].

    PubMed

    Prasolova, L A; Tikhomirov, I B; Vsevolodov, E B; Latypov, I F; Trapezov, O V

    1994-02-01

    A new dominant coat color mutation "talitsa" was revealed in the mink population of "Znamenskii" state fur farm (Tverskaya region', Russia). Qualitative analysis and quantitative assessment of the hair pigment of minks with the standard coat color, Talitsa, Royal-Pastel and American pearl mutations, as well as Talitsa x Royal-Pastel and Talitsa x American Pearl hybrids were conducted. It was shown that hair of all genotypes studied contained only one pigment type, namely, eumelanin. Hair of the standard-colored minks showed the greatest eumelanin content, whereas hair of Talitsa x Royal-Pastel and Talitsa x American Pearl hybrids showed the least content. The morphologic patterns of pigmentation of the mutant minks studied was described, including the shapes, dimensions and color of the pigment granules, as well as their distributions throughout the length and layers of the hair. Talitsa mutation was demonstrated to behave as a strong coloration attenuator in combinations with the Royal-Pastel and American Pearl mutations. It was proposed that the main mechanism determining the phenotypic expression of the Talitsa mutation is the reduction of number of melanocytes in the hair bulbs.

  11. Clinical and mutation analysis of 51 probands with anophthalmia and/or severe microphthalmia from a single center

    PubMed Central

    Gerth-Kahlert, Christina; Williamson, Kathleen; Ansari, Morad; Rainger, Jacqueline K; Hingst, Volker; Zimmermann, Theodor; Tech, Stefani; Guthoff, Rudolf F; van Heyningen, Veronica; FitzPatrick, David R

    2013-01-01

    Clinical evaluation and mutation analysis was performed in 51 consecutive probands with severe eye malformations – anophthalmia and/or severe microphthalmia – seen in a single specialist ophthalmology center. The mutation analysis consisted of bidirectional sequencing of the coding regions of SOX2, OTX2, PAX6 (paired domain), STRA6, BMP4, SMOC1, FOXE3, and RAX, and genome-wide array-based copy number assessment. Fifteen (29.4%) of the 51 probands had likely causative mutations affecting SOX2 (9/51), OTX2 (5/51), and STRA6 (1/51). Of the cases with bilateral anophthalmia, 9/12 (75%) were found to be mutation positive. Three of these mutations were large genomic deletions encompassing SOX2 (one case) or OTX2 (two cases). Familial inheritance of three intragenic, plausibly pathogenic, and heterozygous mutations was observed. An unaffected carrier parent of an affected child with an identified OTX2 mutation confirmed the previously reported nonpenetrance for this disorder. Two families with SOX2 mutations demonstrated a parent and child both with significant but highly variable eye malformations. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in SOX2 and OTX2 are the most common genetic pathology associated with severe eye malformations and bi-allelic loss-of-function in STRA6 is confirmed as an emerging cause of nonsyndromal eye malformations. PMID:24498598

  12. Clinical and mutation analysis of 51 probands with anophthalmia and/or severe microphthalmia from a single center.

    PubMed

    Gerth-Kahlert, Christina; Williamson, Kathleen; Ansari, Morad; Rainger, Jacqueline K; Hingst, Volker; Zimmermann, Theodor; Tech, Stefani; Guthoff, Rudolf F; van Heyningen, Veronica; Fitzpatrick, David R

    2013-05-01

    Clinical evaluation and mutation analysis was performed in 51 consecutive probands with severe eye malformations - anophthalmia and/or severe microphthalmia - seen in a single specialist ophthalmology center. The mutation analysis consisted of bidirectional sequencing of the coding regions of SOX2, OTX2, PAX6 (paired domain), STRA6, BMP4, SMOC1, FOXE3, and RAX, and genome-wide array-based copy number assessment. Fifteen (29.4%) of the 51 probands had likely causative mutations affecting SOX2 (9/51), OTX2 (5/51), and STRA6 (1/51). Of the cases with bilateral anophthalmia, 9/12 (75%) were found to be mutation positive. Three of these mutations were large genomic deletions encompassing SOX2 (one case) or OTX2 (two cases). Familial inheritance of three intragenic, plausibly pathogenic, and heterozygous mutations was observed. An unaffected carrier parent of an affected child with an identified OTX2 mutation confirmed the previously reported nonpenetrance for this disorder. Two families with SOX2 mutations demonstrated a parent and child both with significant but highly variable eye malformations. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in SOX2 and OTX2 are the most common genetic pathology associated with severe eye malformations and bi-allelic loss-of-function in STRA6 is confirmed as an emerging cause of nonsyndromal eye malformations.

  13. K-ras genetic mutation and influencing factor analysis for Han and Uygur nationality colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Eli, Mayinur; Mollayup, Ablikim; Muattar; Liu, Chao; Zheng, Chao; Bao, Yong-Xing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the K-ras genetic mutation status in colorectal cancer patients, compare the difference of K-ras genetic mutation rate in Han and Uygur nationality and analyze the influencing factor. 91 cases (52 cases of Han nationality and 39 cases of Uygur nationality) of colorectal biopsy or surgical ablation pathology specimen from the first affiliated hospital of Xinjiang Medical University during January, 2010 to March, 2013 were collected to detect the 12th and 13th code mutation status of K-ras gene exon 2 with pyrosequencing method and compare the difference of K-ras gene mutation rate between Han and Uygur nationality patients. Single factor analysis and multiple factor logistic regression analysis were utilized to analyze the influencing factor for K-ras genetic mutation. 33 cases of patients with K-ras genetic mutation were found from the 91 cases colorectal cancer patients and the total mutation rate was 36.3%. Among them, 24 cases (72.7%) were found with mutation only in the 12th code, 9 cases (27.3%) were found with mutation only in the 13th code and no one case was found with mutation in both the two codes. Mutation rate of the 12th code in the Uygur nationality was significantly higher than that in the Han nationality (P<0.05), but there were no significant difference in the comparison of the total mutation rate and the 13th code mutation rate between the two groups (P>0.05). There were no associativity (P>0.05) between the K-ras genetic mutation and sex, age, smoking history, drinking history, tumor location, macropathology type, differentiation level, staging, invasive depth, lymph nodes transferring and metastasis in colorectal cancer patients (P>0.05). K-ras genetic mutation rate is high in colorectal cancer patients. The mutation rate of 12th code in Uygur nationality is higher than that in Han nationality. There is no significant associativity between K-ras genetic mutation rate and patients' clinical pathology characteristic.

  14. Sensitive cytometry based system for enumeration, capture and analysis of gene mutations of circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Takeshi; Watanabe, Masaru; Fujimura, Yuu; Yagishita, Shigehiro; Shimoyama, Tatsu; Maeda, Yoshiharu; Kanda, Shintaro; Yunokawa, Mayu; Tamura, Kenji; Tamura, Tomohide; Minami, Hironobu; Koh, Yasuhiro; Koizumi, Fumiaki

    2016-03-01

    Methods for the enumeration and molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTC) have been actively investigated. However, such methods are still technically challenging. We have developed a novel epithelial cell adhesion molecule independent CTC enumeration system integrated with a sorting system using a microfluidics chip. We compared the number of CTC detected using our system with those detected using the CellSearch system in 46 patients with various cancers. We also evaluated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and PIK3CA mutations of captured CTC in a study of 4 lung cancer and 4 breast cancer patients. The percentage of samples with detected CTC was significantly higher with our system (65.2%) than with CellSearch (28.3%). The number of detected CTC per patient using our system was statistically higher than that using CellSearch (median 5, 0; P = 0.000172, Wilcoxon test). In the mutation analysis study, the number of detected CTC per patient was low (median for lung, 4.5; median for breast, 5.5); however, it was easy to detect EGFR and PIK3CA mutations in the CTC of 2 lung and 1 breast cancer patient, respectively, using a commercially available kit. Our system is more sensitive than CellSearch in CTC enumeration of various cancers and is also capable of detecting EGFR and PIK3CA mutations in the CTC of lung and breast cancer patients, respectively. PMID:26708016

  15. Genetic analysis of suppressors of the PF10 mutation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Dutcher, S.K.; Gibbons, W.; Inwood, W.B.

    1988-12-01

    A mutation at the PF10 locus of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii leads to abnormal cell motility. The asymmetric form of the ciliary beat stroke characteristic of wild-type flagella is modified by this mutation to a nearly symmetric beat. We report here that this abnormal motility is a conditional phenotype that depends on light intensity. In the absence of light or under low light intensities, the motility is more severely impaired than at higher light intensities. By UV mutagenesis we obtained 11 intragenic and 70 extragenic strains that show reversion of the pf10 motility phenotype observed in low light. The intragenic events reverted the motility phenotype of the pf10 mutation completely. The extragenic events define at least seven suppressor loci; these map to linkage groups IV, VII, IX, XI, XII and XVII. Suppressor mutations at two of the seven loci (LIS1 and LIS2) require light for their suppressor activity. Forty-eight of the 70 extragenic suppressors were examined in heterozygous diploid cells; 47 of these mutants were recessive to the wild-type allele and one mutant (bop5-1) was dominant to the wild-type allele. Complementation analysis of the 47 recessive mutants showed unusual patterns. Most mutants within a recombinationally defined group failed to complement one another, although there were pairs that showed intra-allelic complementation. Additionally, some of the mutants at each recombinationally defined locus failed to complement mutants at other loci. They define dominant enhancers of one another.

  16. Sensitive cytometry based system for enumeration, capture and analysis of gene mutations of circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Takeshi; Watanabe, Masaru; Fujimura, Yuu; Yagishita, Shigehiro; Shimoyama, Tatsu; Maeda, Yoshiharu; Kanda, Shintaro; Yunokawa, Mayu; Tamura, Kenji; Tamura, Tomohide; Minami, Hironobu; Koh, Yasuhiro; Koizumi, Fumiaki

    2016-03-01

    Methods for the enumeration and molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTC) have been actively investigated. However, such methods are still technically challenging. We have developed a novel epithelial cell adhesion molecule independent CTC enumeration system integrated with a sorting system using a microfluidics chip. We compared the number of CTC detected using our system with those detected using the CellSearch system in 46 patients with various cancers. We also evaluated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and PIK3CA mutations of captured CTC in a study of 4 lung cancer and 4 breast cancer patients. The percentage of samples with detected CTC was significantly higher with our system (65.2%) than with CellSearch (28.3%). The number of detected CTC per patient using our system was statistically higher than that using CellSearch (median 5, 0; P = 0.000172, Wilcoxon test). In the mutation analysis study, the number of detected CTC per patient was low (median for lung, 4.5; median for breast, 5.5); however, it was easy to detect EGFR and PIK3CA mutations in the CTC of 2 lung and 1 breast cancer patient, respectively, using a commercially available kit. Our system is more sensitive than CellSearch in CTC enumeration of various cancers and is also capable of detecting EGFR and PIK3CA mutations in the CTC of lung and breast cancer patients, respectively.

  17. bz-rates: A Web Tool to Estimate Mutation Rates from Fluctuation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gillet-Markowska, Alexandre; Louvel, Guillaume; Fischer, Gilles

    2015-11-01

    Fluctuation analysis is the standard experimental method for measuring mutation rates in micro-organisms. The appearance of mutants is classically described by a Luria-Delbrück distribution composed of two parameters: the number of mutations per culture (m) and the differential growth rate between mutant and wild-type cells (b). A precise estimation of these two parameters is a prerequisite to the calculation of the mutation rate. Here, we developed bz-rates, a Web tool to calculate mutation rates that provides three useful advances over existing Web tools. First, it allows taking into account b, the differential growth rate between mutant and wild-type cells, in the estimation of m with the generating function. Second, bz-rates allows the user to take into account a deviation from the Luria-Delbrück distribution called z, the plating efficiency, in the estimation of m. Finally, the Web site provides a graphical visualization of the goodness-of-fit between the experimental data and the model. bz-rates is accessible at http://www.lcqb.upmc.fr/bzrates. PMID:26338660

  18. Analysis of common mitochondrial DNA mutations by allele-specific oligonucleotide and Southern blot hybridization.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sha; Halberg, Michelle C; Floyd, Kristen C; Wang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. There are a set of recurrent point mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that are responsible for common mitochondrial diseases, including MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like episodes), MERRF (myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers), LHON (Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy), NARP (neuropathy, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa), and Leigh syndrome. Most of the pathogenic mtDNA point mutations are present in the heteroplasmic state, meaning that the wild-type and mutant-containing mtDNA molecules are coexisting. Clinical heterogeneity may be due to the degree of mutant load (heteroplasmy) and distribution of heteroplasmic mutations in affected tissues. Additionally, Kearns-Sayre syndrome and Pearson syndrome are caused by large mtDNA deletions. In this chapter, we describe a multiplex PCR/allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization method for the screening of 13 common point mutations. This method allows the detection of low percentage of mutant heteroplasmy. In addition, a nonradioactive Southern blot hybridization protocol for the analysis of mtDNA large deletions is also described. PMID:22215554

  19. A transposon-based analysis of gene mutations related to skin cancer development.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Rita M; Dupuy, Adam J; Bravo, Ana; Casanova, M Llanos; Alameda, Josefa P; Page, Angustias; Sánchez-Viera, Miguel; Ramírez, Angel; Navarro, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is by far the most frequent type of cancer in humans. NMSC includes several types of malignancies with different clinical outcomes, the most frequent being basal and squamous cell carcinomas. We have used the Sleeping Beauty transposon/transposase system to identify somatic mutations associated with NMSC. Transgenic mice bearing multiple copies of a mutagenic Sleeping Beauty transposon T2Onc2 and expressing the SB11 transposase under the transcriptional control of regulatory elements from the keratin K5 promoter were treated with TPA, either in wild-type or Ha-ras mutated backgrounds. After several weeks of treatment, mice with transposition developed more malignant tumors with decreased latency compared with control mice. Transposon/transposase animals also developed basal cell carcinomas. Genetic analysis of the transposon integration sites in the tumors identified several genes recurrently mutated in different tumor samples, which may represent novel candidate cancer genes. We observed alterations in the expression levels of some of these genes in human tumors. Our results show that inactivating mutations in Notch1 and Nsd1, among others, may have an important role in skin carcinogenesis. PMID:22832494

  20. bz-rates: A Web Tool to Estimate Mutation Rates from Fluctuation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gillet-Markowska, Alexandre; Louvel, Guillaume; Fischer, Gilles

    2015-11-01

    Fluctuation analysis is the standard experimental method for measuring mutation rates in micro-organisms. The appearance of mutants is classically described by a Luria-Delbrück distribution composed of two parameters: the number of mutations per culture (m) and the differential growth rate between mutant and wild-type cells (b). A precise estimation of these two parameters is a prerequisite to the calculation of the mutation rate. Here, we developed bz-rates, a Web tool to calculate mutation rates that provides three useful advances over existing Web tools. First, it allows taking into account b, the differential growth rate between mutant and wild-type cells, in the estimation of m with the generating function. Second, bz-rates allows the user to take into account a deviation from the Luria-Delbrück distribution called z, the plating efficiency, in the estimation of m. Finally, the Web site provides a graphical visualization of the goodness-of-fit between the experimental data and the model. bz-rates is accessible at http://www.lcqb.upmc.fr/bzrates.

  1. Potential ligand-binding residues in rat olfactory receptors identified by correlated mutation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, M. S.; Oliveira, L.; Vriend, G.; Shepherd, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    A family of G-protein-coupled receptors is believed to mediate the recognition of odor molecules. In order to identify potential ligand-binding residues, we have applied correlated mutation analysis to receptor sequences from the rat. This method identifies pairs of sequence positions where residues remain conserved or mutate in tandem, thereby suggesting structural or functional importance. The analysis supported molecular modeling studies in suggesting several residues in positions that were consistent with ligand-binding function. Two of these positions, dominated by histidine residues, may play important roles in ligand binding and could confer broad specificity to mammalian odor receptors. The presence of positive (overdominant) selection at some of the identified positions provides additional evidence for roles in ligand binding. Higher-order groups of correlated residues were also observed. Each group may interact with an individual ligand determinant, and combinations of these groups may provide a multi-dimensional mechanism for receptor diversity.

  2. Identification of novel BRCA founder mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients using capture and Sanger sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Bu, Rong; Siraj, Abdul K; Al-Obaisi, Khadija A S; Beg, Shaham; Al Hazmi, Mohsen; Ajarim, Dahish; Tulbah, Asma; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2016-09-01

    Ethnic differences of breast cancer genomics have prompted us to investigate the spectra of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in different populations. The prevalence and effect of BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutations in Middle Eastern population is not fully explored. To characterize the prevalence of BRCA mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients, BRCA mutation screening was performed in 818 unselected breast cancer patients using Capture and/or Sanger sequencing. 19 short tandem repeat (STR) markers were used for founder mutation analysis. In our study, nine different types of deleterious mutation were identified in 28 (3.4%) cases, 25 (89.3%) cases in BRCA 1 and 3 (10.7%) cases in BRCA 2. Seven recurrent mutations identified accounted for 92.9% (26/28) of all the mutant cases. Haplotype analysis was performed to confirm c.1140 dupG and c.4136_4137delCT mutations as novel putative founder mutation, accounting for 46.4% (13/28) of all BRCA mutant cases and 1.6% (13/818) of all the breast cancer cases, respectively. Moreover, BRCA 1 mutation was significantly associated with BRCA 1 protein expression loss (p = 0.0005). Our finding revealed that a substantial number of BRCA mutations were identified in clinically high risk breast cancer from Middle East region. Identification of the mutation spectrum, prevalence and founder effect in Middle Eastern population facilitates genetic counseling, risk assessment and development of cost-effective screening strategy. PMID:27082205

  3. Genome Analysis of 17 Extensively Drug-Resistant Strains Reveals New Potential Mutations for Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Tarazona, D.; Galarza, M.; Borda, V.; Curitomay, R.

    2014-01-01

    We report the whole-genome sequence of an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) strain of Latin American–Mediterranean (LAM) lineage. This strain is phenotypically resistant to aminoglycosides, but carries no related mutations in rrs, tlyA, and eis. Through genome analysis comparison with 16 XDR strains, we found 218 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shared that could confer resistance. PMID:25081269

  4. Quantitative metabolome analysis profiles activation of glutaminolysis in glioma with IDH1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Ohka, Fumiharu; Ito, Maki; Ranjit, Melissa; Senga, Takeshi; Motomura, Ayako; Motomura, Kazuya; Saito, Kaori; Kato, Keiko; Kato, Yukinari; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Natsume, Atsushi

    2014-06-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), which localizes to the cytosol and peroxisomes, catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and in parallel converts NADP(+) to NADPH. IDH1 mutations are frequently detected in grades 2-4 gliomas and in acute myeloid leukemias (AML). Mutations of IDH1 have been identified at codon 132, with arginine being replaced with histidine in most cases. Mutant IDH1 gains novel enzyme activity converting α-KG to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) which acts as a competitive inhibitor of α-KG. As a result, the activity of α-KG-dependent enzyme is reduced. Based on these findings, 2-HG has been proposed to be an oncometabolite. In this study, we established HEK293 and U87 cells that stably expressed IDH1-WT and IDH1-R132H and investigated the effect of glutaminase inhibition on cell proliferation with 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON). We found that cell proliferation was suppressed in IDH1-R132H cells. The addition of α-KG restored cell proliferation. The metabolic features of 33 gliomas with wild type IDH1 (IDH1-WT) and with IDH1-R132H mutation were examined by global metabolome analysis using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). We showed that the 2-HG levels were highly elevated in gliomas with IDH1-R132H mutation. Intriguingly, in gliomas with IDH1-R132H, glutamine and glutamate levels were significantly reduced which implies replenishment of α-KG by glutaminolysis. Based on these results, we concluded that glutaminolysis is activated in gliomas with IDH1-R132H mutation and that development of novel therapeutic approaches targeting activated glutaminolysis is warranted.

  5. Analysis and application of ATP7B gene mutations in 35 patients with hepatolenticular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Zong, Y N; Kong, X D

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the genetic mutations involved in Wilson's disease to improve prenatal genetic diagnosis and presymptomatic diagnosis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the exons and exon-intron boundaries of the ATP7B gene in 35 Wilson's disease pedigrees. The PCR products were further analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Prenatal genetic diagnoses were performed by chorionic villus sampling after the genotypes of parents of the probands were identified. The overall mutation detection frequency was 92.9%. A total of 24 distinct mutations were detected, seven of which are novel: A1291T (c.3871G>A), c.2593_2594insGTCA, c.2790_2792delCAT, c.3661_3663delGGG, c.3700delG, c.4094_4097delCTGT, and IVS6+1G>A. Three mutations, R778L (c.2333G>T) (45.7%), A874V (c.2621C>T) (7.1%), and P992L (c.2975C>T) (7.1%) are relatively frequent. Two presymptomatic patients were detected through familial screening, and they began taking medicine after diagnosis. Of the subjects with Wilson's disease pedigrees who had received a prenatal genetic diagnosis, three fetuses were normal and one was a carrier. Twenty-four distinct mutations were identified, and our knowledge of the population genetics of Wilson's disease in China has therefore improved. For pedigrees with the Wilson's disease, genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis, and presymptomatic diagnosis by Sanger sequencing and haplotype analysis are feasible. PMID:26782526

  6. Value of TIRADS, BSRTC and FNA-BRAFV600E mutation analysis in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-zhi; Xu, Ting; Cui, Dai; Li, Xiao; Yao, Qing; Gong, Hai-yan; Liu, Xiao-yun; Chen, Huan-huan; Jiang, Lin; Ye, Xin-hua; Zhang, Zhi-hong; Shen, Mei-ping; Duan, Yu; Yang, Tao; Wu, Xiao-hong

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TIRADS) and Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology (BSRTC) have been used for interpretation of ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) results of thyroid nodules. BRAFV600E mutation analysis is a molecular tool in diagnosing thyroid carcinoma. Our objective was to compare the diagnostic value of these methods in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules. Total 220 patients with high-risk thyroid nodules were recruited in this prospective study. They all underwent ultrasound, FNAC and BRAFV600E mutation analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of TIRADS were 73.1% and 88.4%. BSRTC had higher specificity (97.7%) and similar sensitivity (77.6%) compared with TIRADS. The sensitivity and specificity of BRAFV600E mutation (85.1%, 100%) were the highest. The combination of BSRTC and BRAFV600E mutation analysis significantly increased the efficiency, with 97.8% sensitivity, 97.7% specificity. In patients with BSRTC I-III, the mutation rate of BRAFV600E was 64.5% in nodules with TIRADS 4B compared with 8.4% in nodules with TIRADS 3 or 4A (P < 0.001). Our study indicated that combination of BSRTC and BRAFV600E mutation analysis bears a great value in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules. The TIRADS is useful in selecting high-risk patients for FNAB and patients with BSRTC I-III for BRAFV600E mutation analysis. PMID:26597052

  7. The role of targeted BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation analysis in hereditary breast/ovarian cancer families of Portuguese ancestry.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, A; Santos, C; Pinto, P; Pinheiro, M; Rocha, P; Pinto, C; Bizarro, S; Veiga, I; Principe, A S; Maia, S; Castro, F; Couto, R; Gouveia, A; Teixeira, M R

    2015-07-01

    We report the analysis of altogether 1050 suspected hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) families, 524 fully screened for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations and 526 tested only for the most common mutations. Of the 119 families with pathogenic mutations, 40 (33.6%) had the BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu rearrangement and 15 (12.6%) the BRCA1 c.3331_3334del mutation, the former being specific of Portuguese ancestry and the latter showing a founder effect in Portugal. Interestingly, the two most common mutations were found in a significant proportion of the HBOC families with an a priori BRCAPRO mutation probability <10%. We recommend that all suspected HBOC families from Portugal or with Portuguese ancestry, even those fulfilling moderately stringent clinical-criteria for genetic testing, should be specifically analyzed for the two most common BRCA1/BRCA2 founder mutations, and we here present a simple method for this first tier test. Screening of the entire coding regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 should subsequently be offered to those families with a mutation probability ≥10% if none of those founder mutations are found. PMID:24916970

  8. The role of targeted BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation analysis in hereditary breast/ovarian cancer families of Portuguese ancestry.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, A; Santos, C; Pinto, P; Pinheiro, M; Rocha, P; Pinto, C; Bizarro, S; Veiga, I; Principe, A S; Maia, S; Castro, F; Couto, R; Gouveia, A; Teixeira, M R

    2015-07-01

    We report the analysis of altogether 1050 suspected hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) families, 524 fully screened for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations and 526 tested only for the most common mutations. Of the 119 families with pathogenic mutations, 40 (33.6%) had the BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu rearrangement and 15 (12.6%) the BRCA1 c.3331_3334del mutation, the former being specific of Portuguese ancestry and the latter showing a founder effect in Portugal. Interestingly, the two most common mutations were found in a significant proportion of the HBOC families with an a priori BRCAPRO mutation probability <10%. We recommend that all suspected HBOC families from Portugal or with Portuguese ancestry, even those fulfilling moderately stringent clinical-criteria for genetic testing, should be specifically analyzed for the two most common BRCA1/BRCA2 founder mutations, and we here present a simple method for this first tier test. Screening of the entire coding regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 should subsequently be offered to those families with a mutation probability ≥10% if none of those founder mutations are found.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of high resolution melting analysis for detection of KRAS mutations: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue-Ping; Wu, Hai-Yan; Yang, Xiang; Xu, Han-Qing; Chen, Dong; Huang, Qing; Fu, Wei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to a negative correlation between KRAS mutations and patients' responses to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody treatment. Therefore, patients must undergo KRAS mutation detection to be eligible for treatment. High resolution melting analysis (HRM) is gaining increasing attention in KRAS mutation detection. However, its accuracy has not been systematically evaluated. We conducted a meta-analysis of published articles, involving 13 articles with 1,520 samples, to assess its diagnostic accuracy compared with DNA sequencing. The quality of included articles was assessed using the revised Quality Assessment for Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy (QUADAS-2) tools. Random effects models were applied to analyze the performance of pooled characteristics. The overall sensitivity and specificity of HRM were 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98-1.00) and 0.96 (95%CI: 0.94-0.97), respectively. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.996. High sensitivity and specificity, less labor, rapid turn-around and the closed-tube format of HRM make it an attractive choice for rapid detection of KRAS mutations in clinical practice. The burden of DNA sequencing can be reduced dramatically by the implementation of HRM, but positive results still need to be sequenced for diagnostic confirmation. PMID:25515911

  10. Mutation Analysis of the LH Receptor Gene in Leydig Cell Adenoma and Hyperplasia and Functional and Biochemical Studies of Activating Mutations of the LH Receptor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Lumbroso, Serge; Verhoef-Post, Miriam; Richter-Unruh, Annette; Looijenga, Leendert H. J.; Funaro, Ada; Beishuizen, Auke; van Marle, André; Drop, Stenvert L. S.; Themmen, Axel P. N.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Germline and somatic activating mutations in the LH receptor (LHR) gene have been reported. Objective: Our objective was to perform mutation analysis of the LHR gene of patients with Leydig cell adenoma or hyperplasia. Functional studies were conducted to compare the D578H-LHR mutant with the wild-type (WT)-LHR and the D578G-LHR mutant, a classic cause of testotoxicosis. The three main signal transduction pathways in which LHR is involved were studied. Patients: We describe eight male patients with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty due to Leydig cell adenoma or hyperplasia. Results: The D578H-LHR mutation was found in the adenoma or nodule with hyperplasia in all but two patients. D578H-LHR displayed a constitutively increased but noninducible production of cAMP, led to a very high production of inositol phosphates, and induced a slight phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK in the absence of human chorionic gonadotropin. The D578G-LHR showed a response intermediate between WT-LHR and the D578H-LHR. Subcellular localization studies showed that the WT-LHR was almost exclusively located at the cell membrane, whereas the D578H-LHR showed signs of internalization. D578H-LHR was the only receptor to colocalize with early endosomes in the absence of human chorionic gonadotropin. Conclusions: Although several LHR mutations have been reported in testotoxicosis, the D578H-LHR mutation, which has been found only as a somatic mutation, appears up until now to be specifically responsible for Leydig cell adenomas. This is reflected by the different activation of the signal transduction pathways, when compared with the WT-LHR or D578G-LHR, which may explain the tumorigenesis in the D578H mutant. PMID:21490077

  11. Mutation analysis of the phospholamban gene in 315 South Africans with dilated, hypertrophic, peripartum and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Fish, Maryam; Shaboodien, Gasnat; Kraus, Sarah; Sliwa, Karen; Seidman, Christine E; Burke, Michael A; Crotti, Lia; Schwartz, Peter J; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is an important cause of heart failure in Sub-Saharan Africa, accounting for up to 30% of adult heart failure hospitalisations. This high prevalence poses a challenge in societies without access to resources and interventions essential for disease management. Over 80 genes have been implicated as a cause of cardiomyopathy. Mutations in the phospholamban (PLN) gene are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and severe heart failure. In Africa, the prevalence of PLN mutations in cardiomyopathy patients is unknown. Our aim was to screen 315 patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (n = 111), DCM (n = 95), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 40) and peripartum cardiomyopathy (n = 69) for disease-causing PLN mutations by high resolution melt analysis and DNA sequencing. We detected the previously reported PLN c.25C > T (p.R9C) mutation in a South African family with severe autosomal dominant DCM. Haplotype analysis revealed that this mutation occurred against a different haplotype background to that of the original North American family and was therefore unlikely to have been inherited from a common ancestor. No other mutations in PLN were detected (mutation prevalence = 0.2%). We conclude that PLN is a rare cause of cardiomyopathy in African patients. The PLN p.R9C mutation is not well-tolerated, emphasising the importance of this gene in cardiac function. PMID:26917049

  12. Mutation analysis of the phospholamban gene in 315 South Africans with dilated, hypertrophic, peripartum and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Maryam; Shaboodien, Gasnat; Kraus, Sarah; Sliwa, Karen; Seidman, Christine E.; Burke, Michael A.; Crotti, Lia; Schwartz, Peter J.; Mayosi, Bongani M.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is an important cause of heart failure in Sub-Saharan Africa, accounting for up to 30% of adult heart failure hospitalisations. This high prevalence poses a challenge in societies without access to resources and interventions essential for disease management. Over 80 genes have been implicated as a cause of cardiomyopathy. Mutations in the phospholamban (PLN) gene are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and severe heart failure. In Africa, the prevalence of PLN mutations in cardiomyopathy patients is unknown. Our aim was to screen 315 patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (n = 111), DCM (n = 95), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 40) and peripartum cardiomyopathy (n = 69) for disease-causing PLN mutations by high resolution melt analysis and DNA sequencing. We detected the previously reported PLN c.25C > T (p.R9C) mutation in a South African family with severe autosomal dominant DCM. Haplotype analysis revealed that this mutation occurred against a different haplotype background to that of the original North American family and was therefore unlikely to have been inherited from a common ancestor. No other mutations in PLN were detected (mutation prevalence = 0.2%). We conclude that PLN is a rare cause of cardiomyopathy in African patients. The PLN p.R9C mutation is not well-tolerated, emphasising the importance of this gene in cardiac function. PMID:26917049

  13. Bayesian analysis of complex interacting mutations in HIV drug resistance and cross-resistance.

    PubMed

    Kozyryev, Ivan; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A successful treatment of AIDS world-wide is severely hindered by the HIV virus' drug resistance capability resulting from complicated mutation patterns of viral proteins. Such a system of mutations enables the virus to survive and reproduce despite the presence of various antiretroviral drugs by disrupting their binding capability. Although these interacting mutation patterns are extremely difficult to efficiently uncover and interpret, they contribute valuable information to personalized therapeutic regimen design. The use of Bayesian statistical modeling provides an unprecedented opportunity in the field of anti-HIV therapy to understand detailed interaction structures of drug resistant mutations. Multiple Bayesian models equipped with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods have been recently proposed in this field (Zhang et al. in PNAS 107:1321, 2010 [1]; Zhang et al. in J Proteome Sci Comput Biol 1:2, 2012 [2]; Svicher et al. in Antiviral Res 93(1):86-93, 2012 [3]; Svicher et al. in Antiviral Therapy 16(7):1035-1045, 2011 [4]; Svicher et al. in Antiviral Ther 16(4):A14-A14, 2011 [5]; Svicher et al. in Antiviral Ther 16(4):A85-A85, 2011 [6]; Alteri et al. in Signature mutations in V3 and bridging sheet domain of HIV-1 gp120 HIV-1 are specifically associated with dual tropism and modulate the interaction with CCR5 N-Terminus, 2011 [7]). Probabilistically modeling mutations in the HIV-1 protease or reverse transcriptase (RT) isolated from drug-treated patients provides a powerful statistical procedure that first detects mutation combinations associated with single or multiple-drug resistance, and then infers detailed dependence structures among the interacting mutations in viral proteins (Zhang et al. in PNAS 107:1321, 2010 [1]; Zhang et al. in J Proteome Sci Comput Biol 1:2, 2012 [2]). Combined with molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations, Bayesian analysis predictions help to uncover genetic and structural mechanisms in the HIV treatment

  14. Structure-Guided Engineering of Lactococcus lactis Alcohol Dehydrogenase LlAdhA for Improved Conversion of Isobutyraldehyde to Isobutanol

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang; Bastian, Sabine; Snow, Christopher D.; Brustad, Eric M.; Saleski, Tatyana E.; Xu, Jian-He; Meinhold, Peter; Arnold, Frances H.

    2012-01-01

    We have determined the X-ray crystal structures of the NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase LlAdhA from Lactococcus lactis and its laboratory-evolved variant LlAdhARE1 at 1.9 Å and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. LlAdhARE1, which contains three amino acid mutations (Y50F, I212T, and L264V), was engineered to increase the microbial production of isobutanol (2-methylpropan-1-ol) from isobutyraldehyde (2-methylpropanal). Structural comparison of LlAdhA and LlAdhARE1 indicates that the enhanced activity on isobutyraldehyde stems from increases in the protein’s active site size, hydrophobicity, and substrate access. Further structure-guided mutagenesis generated a quadruple mutant (Y50F/N110S/I212T/L264V), whose KM for isobutyraldehyde is ~17-fold lower and catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) is ~160-fold higher than wild-type LlAdhA. Combining detailed structural information and directed evolution, we have achieved significant improvements in non-native alcohol dehydrogenase activity that will facilitate the production of next-generation fuels such as isobutanol from renewable resources. PMID:22974724

  15. Genomic structure of the choroideremia (CHM) gene and mutation analysis in CHM patients

    SciTech Connect

    Bokhoven, H. van; Hurk, J. van den; Bogerd, L.

    1994-09-01

    We have isolated the complete open reading frame (ORF) of the choroideremia (CHM) gene and elucidated its exon-intron structure. The ORF of the CHM gene is located on 15 exons and encodes a protein of 653 amino acids. Among 75 CHM patients investigated for large structural abnormalities, 15 (20%) showed deletions of one or more exons of the gene. The deletions vary in size from a few kb spanning one exon to more than 10 megabases encompassing a large part of Xq21. In addition, we have positioned the X-chromosomal breakpoint in a CHM female with an X;7 translocation between exons 3 and 4. Fine mapping of the deletions indicates that there is no clustering of deletion breakpoints. Moreover, only 2 deletions are located entirely within the CHM gene, indicating that most deletions can be detected by PCR amplification of exons 1 and 15. From within the CHM gene we identified two microsatellite markers, a (CA){sub n}- and a [(TA){sub 4-12}C]{sub n}-like repeat, which should be very valuable for CHM diagnostics in clear-cut CHM families. In patients in which the diagnosis of choroideremia is less obvious, mutation analysis can be performed by PCR-SSCP analysis and direct sequencing. The feasibility of this approach was illustrated by the finding of 10 causative mutations in 12 Danish CHM families investigated. Interestingly, all CHM gene mutations detected thus far give rise to the introduction of a premature stop codon. Missense mutations thus far have not been found.

  16. Detection of somatic BRCA1/2 mutations in ovarian cancer - next-generation sequencing analysis of 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Koczkowska, Magdalena; Zuk, Monika; Gorczynski, Adam; Ratajska, Magdalena; Lewandowska, Marzena; Biernat, Wojciech; Limon, Janusz; Wasag, Bartosz

    2016-07-01

    The overall prevalence of germline BRCA1/2 mutations is estimated between 11% and 15% of all ovarian cancers. Individuals with germline BRCA1/2 alterations treated with the PARP1 inhibitors (iPARP1) tend to respond better than patients with wild-type BRCA1/2. Additionally, also somatic BRCA1/2 alterations induce the sensitivity to iPARP1. Therefore, the detection of both germline and somatic BRCA1/2 mutations is required for effective iPARP1 treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency and spectrum of germline and somatic BRCA1/2 alterations in a group of Polish patients with ovarian serous carcinoma. In total, 100 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) ovarian serous carcinoma tissues were enrolled to the study. Mutational analysis of BRCA1/2 genes was performed by using next-generation sequencing. The presence of pathogenic variants was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In addition, to confirm the germline or somatic status of the mutation, the nonneoplastic tissue was analyzed by bidirectional Sanger sequencing. In total, 27 (28% of patient samples) mutations (20 in BRCA1 and 7 in BRCA2) were identified. For 22 of 27 patients, nonneoplastic cells were available and sequencing revealed the somatic character of two BRCA1 (2/16; 12.5%) and two BRCA2 (2/6; 33%) mutations. Notably, we identified six novel frameshift or nonsense BRCA1/2 mutations. The heterogeneity of the detected mutations confirms the necessity of simultaneous analysis of BRCA1/2 genes in all patients diagnosed with serous ovarian carcinoma. Moreover, the use of tumor tissue for mutational analysis allowed the detection of both somatic and germline BRCA1/2 mutations. PMID:27167707

  17. Detection of somatic BRCA1/2 mutations in ovarian cancer - next-generation sequencing analysis of 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Koczkowska, Magdalena; Zuk, Monika; Gorczynski, Adam; Ratajska, Magdalena; Lewandowska, Marzena; Biernat, Wojciech; Limon, Janusz; Wasag, Bartosz

    2016-07-01

    The overall prevalence of germline BRCA1/2 mutations is estimated between 11% and 15% of all ovarian cancers. Individuals with germline BRCA1/2 alterations treated with the PARP1 inhibitors (iPARP1) tend to respond better than patients with wild-type BRCA1/2. Additionally, also somatic BRCA1/2 alterations induce the sensitivity to iPARP1. Therefore, the detection of both germline and somatic BRCA1/2 mutations is required for effective iPARP1 treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency and spectrum of germline and somatic BRCA1/2 alterations in a group of Polish patients with ovarian serous carcinoma. In total, 100 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) ovarian serous carcinoma tissues were enrolled to the study. Mutational analysis of BRCA1/2 genes was performed by using next-generation sequencing. The presence of pathogenic variants was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In addition, to confirm the germline or somatic status of the mutation, the nonneoplastic tissue was analyzed by bidirectional Sanger sequencing. In total, 27 (28% of patient samples) mutations (20 in BRCA1 and 7 in BRCA2) were identified. For 22 of 27 patients, nonneoplastic cells were available and sequencing revealed the somatic character of two BRCA1 (2/16; 12.5%) and two BRCA2 (2/6; 33%) mutations. Notably, we identified six novel frameshift or nonsense BRCA1/2 mutations. The heterogeneity of the detected mutations confirms the necessity of simultaneous analysis of BRCA1/2 genes in all patients diagnosed with serous ovarian carcinoma. Moreover, the use of tumor tissue for mutational analysis allowed the detection of both somatic and germline BRCA1/2 mutations.

  18. Comprehensive genetic and epigenetic analysis of sporadic meningioma for macro-mutations on 22q and micro-mutations within the NF2 locus

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Caisa M; Buckley, Patrick G; Grigelioniene, Giedre; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Hellström, Anders R; Mantripragada, Kiran; Jarbo, Caroline; Mathiesen, Tiit; Dumanski, Jan P

    2007-01-01

    Background Meningiomas are the most common intracranial neoplasias, representing a clinically and histopathologically heterogeneous group of tumors. The neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor is the only gene known to be frequently involved in early development of meningiomas. The objective of this study was to identify genetic and/or epigenetic factors contributing to the development of these tumors. A large set of sporadic meningiomas were analyzed for presence of 22q macro-mutations using array-CGH in order to identify tumors carrying gene dosage aberrations not encompassing NF2. The NF2 locus was also comprehensively studied for point mutations within coding and conserved non-coding sequences. Furthermore, CpG methylation within the NF2 promoter region was thoroughly analyzed. Results Monosomy 22 was the predominant finding, detected in 47% of meningiomas. Thirteen percent of the tumors contained interstitial/terminal deletions and gains, present singly or in combinations. We defined at least two minimal overlapping regions outside the NF2 locus that are small enough (~550 kb and ~250 kb) to allow analysis of a limited number of candidate genes. Bialleinactivationo the NF2 gne was detected in 36% of meningiomas. Among the monosomy 22 cases, no additional NF2 mutations could be identified in 35% (17 out of 49) of tumors. Furthermore, the majority of tumors (9 out of 12) with interstitial/terminal deletions did not have any detectable NF2 mutations. Methylation within the NF2 promoter region was only identified at a single CpG site in one tumor sample. Conclusion We confirmed previous findings of pronounced differences in mutation frequency between different histopathological subtypes. There is a higher frequency of biallelic NF2 inactivation in fibroblastic (52%) compared to meningothelial (18%) tumors. The presence of macro-mutations on 22q also shows marked differences between fibroblastic (86%) and meningothelial (39%) subtypes. Thus, inactivation of

  19. DNA analysis of renal electrolyte transporter genes among patients suffering from Bartter and Gitelman syndromes: summary of mutation screening.

    PubMed

    Urbanová, M; Reiterová, J; Stěkrová, J; Lněnička, P; Ryšavá, R

    2011-01-01

    Patients with renal diseases associated with salt-losing tubulopathies categorized as Gitelman and classic form of Bartter syndrome have undergone genetic screening for possible mutation capture in two different genes: SLC12A3 and CLCNKB. Clinical symptoms of these two diseases may overlap. Patients with clinical symptoms of antenatal form of Bartter syndrome were screened for mutations in two different genes: KCNJ1 and SLC12A1. The aim was to establish genetic mutation screening of Bartter/Gitelman syndrome and to confirm the proposed diagnosis. We have identified seven different causative mutations in the SLC12A3 gene, four in the CLCNKB gene, two in the SLC12A1 gene, and none in the KCNJ1 gene. Nine of these mutations are novel. In one case, genetic analysis led to re-evaluation of diagnosis between the Gitelman and classic form of Bartter syndrome. PMID:21631963

  20. Mutational analysis of amino acid residues involved in catalytic activity of a family 18 chitinase from tulip bulbs.

    PubMed

    Suzukawa, Keisuke; Yamagami, Takeshi; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kuhara, Satoru; Aso, Yoichi; Ishiguro, Masatsune

    2003-02-01

    We expressed chitinase-1 (TBC-1) from tulip bulbs (Tulipa bakeri) in E. coli cells and used site-directed mutagenesis to identify amino acid residues essential for catalytic activity. Mutations at Glu-125 and Trp-251 completely abolished enzyme activity, and activity decreased with mutations at Asp-123 and Trp-172 when glycolchitin was the substrate. Activity changed with the mutations of Trp-251 to one of several amino acids with side-chains of little hydrophobicity, suggesting that hydrophobic interaction of Trp-251 is important for the activity. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis with hevamine as the model compound showed that the distance between Asp-123 and Glu-125 was extended by mutation of Trp-251. Kinetic studies of Trp-251-mutated chitinases confirmed these various phenomena. The results suggested that Glu-125 and Trp-251 are essential for enzyme activity and that Trp-251 had a direct role in ligand binding.

  1. Analysis of mutations and bone marrow micronuclei in Big Blue rats fed leucomalachite green.

    PubMed

    Manjanatha, M G; Shelton, S D; Bishop, M; Shaddock, J G; Dobrovolsky, V N; Heflich, R H; Webb, P J; Blankenship, L R; Beland, F A; Greenlees, K J; Culp, S J

    2004-03-22

    Leucomalachite green (LMG) is the major metabolite of malachite green (MG), a triphenylmethane dye that has been used widely as an antifungal agent in the fish industry. Concern over MG and LMG is due to the potential for consumer exposure, suggestive evidence of tumor promotion in rodent liver, and suspicion of carcinogenicity based on structure-activity relationships. In order to evaluate the risks associated with exposure to LMG, female Big Blue rats were fed up to 543 ppm LMG; groups of these rats were killed after 4, 16, or 32 weeks of exposure and evaluated for genotoxicity. We previously reported that this treatment resulted in a dose-dependent induction of liver DNA adducts, and that the liver lacI mutant frequency (MF) was increased, but only in rats fed 543 ppm LMG for 16 weeks. In the present study, we report the results from lymphocyte Hprt mutant assays and bone marrow micronucleus assays performed on these same rats. In addition, we have determined the types of lacI mutations induced in the rats fed 543 ppm LMG for 16 weeks and the rats fed control diet. No significant increases in the frequency of micronuclei or Hprt mutants were observed for any of the doses or time points assayed. Molecular analysis of 80 liver lacI mutants from rats fed 543 ppm LMG for 16 weeks revealed that 21% (17/80) were clonal in origin and that most (55/63) of the independent mutations were base pair substitutions. The predominant type of mutation was G:C --> A:T transition (31/63) and the majority (68%) of these involved CpG sites. When corrected for clonality, the 16-week lacI mutation frequency (36 +/- 10) x 10(-6) in treated rats was not significantly different from the clonally corrected control frequency (17 +/- 9 x 10(-6); P = 0.06). Furthermore, the lacI mutational spectrum in treated rats was not significantly different from that found for control rats (P = 0.09). Taken together, these data indicate that the DNA adducts produced by LMG in female rats do not result

  2. Comparative study of IDH1 mutations in gliomas by high resolution melting analysis, immunohistochemistry and direct DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Li; Yang, Chuanhong; Lai, Huangwen; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xiaodong; Wang, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Patients with glioblastomas with a specific mutation in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene have a better prognosis than those with gliomas with wild‑type IDH1. IDH1 analysis has become part of the standard diagnostic procedure and a promising tool used for stratification in clinical trials. The present study aimed to compare high resolution melting (HRM) analysis, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and direct DNA sequencing for the detection of IDH mutations in gliomas. Fifty‑one formalin‑fixed paraffin‑embedded tumor samples were selected. For the HRM analysis and direct DNA sequencing, DNA was extracted from the tissues. For IHC, sections were stained with an anti‑IDH1‑R132H specific antibody. The HRM analysis method identified 33 cases of IDH1 gene mutations, and all mutations occurred at the R132H site. There were 33 cases of IDH1 gene mutations found by IHC, which was consistent with that identified using the HRM analysis method. However, only 30 IDH1 samples were confirmed by sequencing, in which mutations occurred at the IDH1 exon 4 R132H site. No mutation was detected in the other three of these 33 cases (two grade II oligodendroglioma and one grade II diffuse astrocytoma) by sequencing, while IHC was positive for IDH1‑R132H. The results showed that the mutation detection rate was not identified to be significantly different (P=0.250) when determined by the HRM analysis method or by direct DNA sequencing, as the concordant rate between the two methods was high (κ=0.866). The HRM analysis method in glioma IDH1 gene mutation detection has advantages of high sensitivity, good repeatability, simple operation and accurate results. It provides a novel method for detecting mutations of the IDH1 gene in paraffin embedded tissue samples of clinical glioma. Related to a small amount of sample, there was no evidence showing that HRM analysis method is superior to IHC. Direct DNA sequencing, HRM analysis and IHC results were consistent; however, HRM and

  3. Mutation analysis of the RET gene in individuals with sporadic and familial pheochromocytoma

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, S.; Sirugo, G.; Bale, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    Pheochromocytoma is common to many familial cancer syndromes including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) and neurofibromatosis (NF). Although sporadic cases of pheochromocytoma have been examined for mutations in exons 10, 11 and 16 of the RET gene, only one case with a mutation in exon 16 has been reported thus far. We are performing systematic examination of exons of the RET gene, which has previously been associated with mutation in both MEN2 A and B, to determine the role RET may play in the etiology of pheochromocytoma. Seventeen cases of sporadic pheochromocytoma and 3 cases of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma were obtained from the pathology archives. Histopathology of all specimens was confirmed to be either pheochromocytoma or medullary thyroid carcinoma before DNA was extracted from 0.5{mu} thin sections of paraffin-embedded tissue. DNA from familial pheochromocytoma patients was also available for analysis. All sporadic and familial cases were amplified for exons 2, 6 and 16 of the RET gene. Single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was performed for exons 2 and 6. On finding a variation in the SSCP pattern in the pheochromocytoma kindred we sequenced all the samples for exon 2. A single base pair variation was found, which did not segregate with pheochromocytoma in the family. No variant SSCP patterns have been observed with the exon 6 PCR products thus far. Exon 16 PCR products were subjected to DNA restriction analysis with Fok I. This enzyme detects a single base pair change associated with MEN2 B. With the exception of one sample with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma, all samples showed the normal pattern on DNA restriction analysis. Thus we can exclude exons 2 and 6 of the RET gene in the pathogenesis of pheochromocytoma. SSCP analyses with other exons in the RET gene are underway.

  4. ARMC5 mutation analysis in patients with primary aldosteronism and bilateral adrenal lesions.

    PubMed

    Mulatero, P; Schiavi, F; Williams, T A; Monticone, S; Barbon, G; Opocher, G; Fallo, F

    2016-06-01

    Idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) due to bilateral adrenal hyperplasia is the most common subtype of primary aldosteronism (PA). The pathogenesis of IHA is still unknown, but the bilateral disease suggests a potential predisposing genetic alteration. Heterozygous germline mutations of armadillo repeat containing 5 (ARMC5) have been shown to be associated with hypercortisolism due to sporadic primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia and are also observed in African-American PA patients. We investigated the presence of germline ARMC5 mutations in a group of PA patients who had bilateral computed tomography-detectable adrenal alterations. We sequenced the entire coding region of ARMC5 and all intron/exon boundaries in 39 patients (37 Caucasians and 2 black Africans) with confirmed PA (8 unilateral, 27 bilateral and 4 undetermined subtype) and bilateral adrenal lesions. We identified 11 common variants, 5 rare variants with a minor allele frequency <1% and 2 new variants not previously reported in public databases. We did not detect by in silico analysis any ARMC5 sequence variations that were predicted to alter protein function. In conclusion, ARMC5 mutations are not present in a fairly large series of Caucasian patients with PA associated to bilateral adrenal disease. Further studies are required to definitively clarify the role of ARMC5 in the pathogenesis of adrenal nodules and aldosterone excess in patients with PA. PMID:26446392

  5. Molecular analysis of EMS-induced frizzled mutations in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Jones, K H; Liu, J; Adler, P N

    1996-01-01

    The frizzled (fz) gene of Drosophila is essential for the development of normal tissue polarity in the adult cuticle of Drosophila. In fz mutants the parallel array of hairs and bristles that decorate the cuticle is disrupted. Previous studies have shown the fz encodes a membrane protein with seven putative transmembrane domains, and that it has a complex role in the development of tissue polarity, as there exist both cell-autonomous and cell nonautonomous alleles. We have now examined a larger number of alleles and found that 15 of 19 alleles display cell nonautonomy. We have examined these and other alleles by Western blot analysis and found that most fz mutations result in altered amounts of Fz protein, and many also result in a Fz protein that migrates aberrantly in SDS-PAGE. We have sequenced a subset of these alleles. Cell nonautonomous fz alleles were found to be associated with mutations that altered amino acids in all regions of the Fz protein. Notably, the four cell-autonomous mutations were all in a proline residue located in the presumptive first cytoplasmic loop of the protein. We have also cloned and sequenced the fz gene from D. virilis. Conceptual translation of the D. virilis open reading frame indicates that the Fz protein is unusually well conserved. Indeed, in the putative cytoplasmic domains the Fz proteins of the two species are identical.

  6. Mutation analysis of aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene in colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers.

    PubMed

    Georgitsi, M; Karhu, A; Winqvist, R; Visakorpi, T; Waltering, K; Vahteristo, P; Launonen, V; Aaltonen, L A

    2007-01-29

    Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene were recently identified in individuals with pituitary adenoma predisposition (PAP). These patients have prolactin (PRL) or growth hormone (GH) oversecreting pituitary adenomas, the latter exhibiting acromegaly or gigantism. Loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) analysis revealed that AIP is lost in PAP tumours, suggesting that it acts as a tumour-suppressor gene. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein is involved in several pathways, but it is best characterised as a cytoplasmic partner of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). To examine the possible role of AIP in the genesis of common cancers, we performed somatic mutation screening in a series of 373 colorectal cancers (CRCs), 82 breast cancers, and 44 prostate tumour samples. A missense R16H (47G>A) change was identified in two CRC samples, as well as in the respective normal tissues, but was absent in 209 healthy controls. The remaining findings were silent, previously unreported, changes of the coding, non-coding, or untranslated regions of AIP. These results suggest that somatic AIP mutations are not common in CRC, breast, and prostate cancers. PMID:17242703

  7. Mutational analysis of PVX TGBp3 links subcellular accumulation and protein turnover

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, H.-J.; Ye, C.-M.; Verchot-Lubicz, Jeanmarie

    2008-05-25

    Potato virus X (PVX) TGBp3 is required for virus cell-to-cell transport, has an N-terminal transmembrane domain, and a C-terminal cytosolic domain. In the absence of virus infection TGBp3:GFP is seen in the cortical and perinuclear ER. In PVX infected cells the TGBp3:GFP fusion is also seen in the nucleoplasm indicating that events during PVX infection trigger entry into the nucleus. Mutational analysis failed to identify a nuclear targeting domain. Mutations inhibiting TGBp3 association with the ER and inhibiting virus movement did not block TGBp3:GFP in the nucleoplasm. A mutation disrupting the N-terminal transmembrane domain of TGBp3 caused the fusion to accumulate in the nucleus indicating that nuclear import is regulated by ER interactions. Tunicamycin, an ER-stress inducing chemical, caused lower levels of GFP and TGBp3:GFP to accumulate in virus infected protoplasts. MG115 and MG132 were used to demonstrate that wild-type and mutant TGBp3:GFP fusions were degraded by the 26S proteasome. These observations are consistent with an ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway suggesting that PVX TGBp3, similar to aberrant ER proteins, is translocate to the cytoplasm for degradation. Nuclear accumulation of mutant and wild-type TGBp3:GFP is independent of other PVX proteins and may be another feature of an ERAD pathway.

  8. MtDNA analysis reveals enriched pathogenic mutations in Tibetan highlanders.

    PubMed

    Kang, Longli; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Menghan; Yan, Shi; Li, Lei; Liu, Lijun; Liu, Kai; Hu, Kang; Chen, Feng; Ma, Lifeng; Qin, Zhendong; Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Jin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Tibetan highlanders, including Tibetans, Monpas, Lhobas, Dengs and Sherpas, are considered highly adaptive to severe hypoxic environments. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) might be important in hypoxia adaptation given its role in coding core subunits of oxidative phosphorylation. In this study, we employed 549 complete highlander mtDNA sequences (including 432 random samples) to obtain a comprehensive view of highlander mtDNA profile. In the phylogeny of a total of 36,914 sequences, we identified 21 major haplogroups representing founding events of highlanders, most of which were coalesced in 10 kya. Through founder analysis, we proposed a three-phase model of colonizing the plateau, i.e., pre-LGM Time (30 kya, 4.68%), post-LGM Paleolithic Time (16.8 kya, 29.31%) and Neolithic Time (after 8 kya, 66.01% in total). We observed that pathogenic mutations occurred far more frequently in 22 highlander-specific lineages (five lineages carrying two pathogenic mutations and six carrying one) than in the 6,857 haplogroups of all the 36,914 sequences (P = 4.87 × 10(-8)). Furthermore, the number of possible pathogenic mutations carried by highlanders (in average 3.18 ± 1.27) were significantly higher than that in controls (2.82 ± 1.40) (P = 1.89 × 10(-4)). Considering that function-altering and pathogenic mutations are enriched in highlanders, we therefore hypothesize that they may have played a role in hypoxia adaptation. PMID:27498855

  9. MtDNA analysis reveals enriched pathogenic mutations in Tibetan highlanders

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Longli; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Menghan; Yan, Shi; Li, Lei; Liu, Lijun; Liu, Kai; Hu, Kang; Chen, Feng; Ma, Lifeng; Qin, Zhendong; Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Jin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Tibetan highlanders, including Tibetans, Monpas, Lhobas, Dengs and Sherpas, are considered highly adaptive to severe hypoxic environments. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) might be important in hypoxia adaptation given its role in coding core subunits of oxidative phosphorylation. In this study, we employed 549 complete highlander mtDNA sequences (including 432 random samples) to obtain a comprehensive view of highlander mtDNA profile. In the phylogeny of a total of 36,914 sequences, we identified 21 major haplogroups representing founding events of highlanders, most of which were coalesced in 10 kya. Through founder analysis, we proposed a three-phase model of colonizing the plateau, i.e., pre-LGM Time (30 kya, 4.68%), post-LGM Paleolithic Time (16.8 kya, 29.31%) and Neolithic Time (after 8 kya, 66.01% in total). We observed that pathogenic mutations occurred far more frequently in 22 highlander-specific lineages (five lineages carrying two pathogenic mutations and six carrying one) than in the 6,857 haplogroups of all the 36,914 sequences (P = 4.87 × 10−8). Furthermore, the number of possible pathogenic mutations carried by highlanders (in average 3.18 ± 1.27) were significantly higher than that in controls (2.82 ± 1.40) (P = 1.89 × 10−4). Considering that function-altering and pathogenic mutations are enriched in highlanders, we therefore hypothesize that they may have played a role in hypoxia adaptation. PMID:27498855

  10. A novel MIP gene mutation analysis in a Chinese family affected with congenital progressive punctate cataract.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuchen; Zhou, Nan; Lin, Hui; Chen, Jianjun; Zhao, Chunyuan; Zhou, Guangkai; Hejtmancik, J Fielding; Qi, Yanhua

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cataracts are one of the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness in children, and genetic factors play an important role in their development. This study aimed to identify the genetic defects associated with autosomal dominant congenital progressive punctate cataracts in a Chinese family and to explore the potential pathogenesis. Detailed family history and clinical data were recorded, and all the family members' blood samples were collected for DNA extraction. Linkage analysis was performed by microsatellite markers that are associated with punctate cataracts, and logarithm (base 10) of odds (LOD) scores were calculated using the LINKAGE program. Positive two-point LOD scores were obtained at markers D12S1622 (Zmax = 2.71 at θ = 0.0), D12S1724 (Zmax = 2.71 at θ = 0.0), and D12S90 (Zmax = 2.71 at θ = 0.0), which flank the major intrinsic protein of lens fiber (MIP) gene on chromosomal region 12q13. Direct sequencing of the encoding region of the MIP gene revealed a novel mutation (G>D) in exon 4 at nucleotide 644, which caused a substitution of glycine to aspartic acid at codon 215 (p.G215D) for the MIP protein. The mutation cosegregated with all patients with congenital progressive punctate cataracts, but it was absent in the healthy members. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that the mutation affects the function of the MIP protein. The wild type (WT) and G215D mutant of MIP were transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) into Hela cells separately, and it was found that the G215D mutant was aberrantly located in the cytoplasm instead of in the plasma membrane. In summary, our study presented genetic and functional evidence linking the new MIP mutation of G215D to autosomal dominant congenital cataracts, which adds to the list of MIP mutations linked to congenital progressive punctate cataracts.

  11. Mutation and association analysis of GEN1 in breast cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Clare; Hines, Sarah; Renwick, Anthony; Hughes, Deborah; Pernet, David; Elliott, Anna; Seal, Sheila; Warren-Perry, Margaret; Gareth Evans, D; Eccles, Diana; Stratton, Michael R; Rahman, Nazneen

    2010-11-01

    GEN1 was recently identified as a key Holliday junction resolvase involved in homologous recombination. Somatic truncating GEN1 mutations have been reported in two breast cancers. Together these data led to the proposition that GEN1 is a breast cancer predisposition gene. In this article we have formally investigated this hypothesis. We performed full-gene mutational analysis of GEN1 in 176 BRCA1/2-negative familial breast cancer samples and 159 controls. We genotyped six SNPs tagging the 30 common variants in the transcribed region of GEN1 in 3,750 breast cancer cases and 4,907 controls. Mutation analysis revealed one truncating variant, c.2515_2519delAAGTT, which was present in 4% of cases and 4% of controls. We identified control individuals homozygous for the deletion, demonstrating that the last 69 amino acids of GEN1 are dispensable for its function. We identified 17 other variants, but their frequency did not significantly differ between cases and controls. Analysis of 3,750 breast cancer cases and 4,907 controls demonstrated no evidence of significant association with breast cancer for six SNPs tagging the 30 common GEN1 variants. These data indicate that although it also plays a key role in double-strand DNA break repair, GEN1 does not make an appreciable contribution to breast cancer susceptibility by acting as a high- or intermediate-penetrance breast cancer predisposition gene like BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, ATM, BRIP1 and PALB2 and that common GEN1 variants do not act as low-penetrance susceptibility alleles analogous to SNPs in FGFR2. Furthermore, our analyses demonstrate the importance of undertaking appropriate genetic investigations, typically full gene screening in cases and controls together with large-scale case-control association analyses, to evaluate the contribution of genes to cancer susceptibility. PMID:20512659

  12. Mutation and association analysis of GEN1 in breast cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Clare; Hines, Sarah; Renwick, Anthony; Hughes, Deborah; Pernet, David; Elliott, Anna; Seal, Sheila; Warren-Perry, Margaret; Evans, D. Gareth; Eccles, Diana; Stratton, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    GEN1 was recently identified as a key Holliday junction resolvase involved in homologous recombination. Somatic truncating GEN1 mutations have been reported in two breast cancers. Together these data led to the proposition that GEN1 is a breast cancer predisposition gene. In this article we have formally investigated this hypothesis. We performed full-gene mutational analysis of GEN1 in 176 BRCA1/2-negative familial breast cancer samples and 159 controls. We genotyped six SNPs tagging the 30 common variants in the transcribed region of GEN1 in 3,750 breast cancer cases and 4,907 controls. Mutation analysis revealed one truncating variant, c.2515_2519del-AAGTT, which was present in 4% of cases and 4% of controls. We identified control individuals homozygous for the deletion, demonstrating that the last 69 amino acids of GEN1 are dispensable for its function. We identified 17 other variants, but their frequency did not significantly differ between cases and controls. Analysis of 3,750 breast cancer cases and 4,907 controls demonstrated no evidence of significant association with breast cancer for six SNPs tagging the 30 common GEN1 variants. These data indicate that although it also plays a key role in double-strand DNA break repair, GEN1 does not make an appreciable contribution to breast cancer susceptibility by acting as a high- or intermediate-penetrance breast cancer predisposition gene like BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, ATM, BRIP1 and PALB2 and that common GEN1 variants do not act as low-penetrance susceptibility alleles analogous to SNPs in FGFR2. Furthermore, our analyses demonstrate the importance of undertaking appropriate genetic investigations, typically full gene screening in cases and controls together with large-scale case–control association analyses, to evaluate the contribution of genes to cancer susceptibility. PMID:20512659

  13. The HIVToolbox 2 web system integrates sequence, structure, function and mutation analysis.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, David P; Deverasetty, Sandeep; Strong, Christy L; Alaniz, Izua J; Bartlett, Alexandria; Brandon, Nicholas R; Brooks, Steven B; Brown, Frederick A; Bufi, Flaviona; Chakarova, Monika; David, Roxanne P; Dobritch, Karlyn M; Guerra, Horacio P; Hedden, Michael W; Kumra, Rma; Levitt, Kelvy S; Mathew, Kiran R; Matti, Ray; Maza, Dorothea Q; Mistry, Sabyasachy; Novakovic, Nemanja; Pomerantz, Austin; Portillo, Josue; Rafalski, Timothy F; Rathnayake, Viraj R; Rezapour, Noura; Songao, Sarah; Tuggle, Sean L; Yousif, Sandy; Dorsky, David I; Schiller, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    There is enormous interest in studying HIV pathogenesis for improving the treatment of patients with HIV infection. HIV infection has become one of the best-studied systems for understanding how a virus can hijack a cell. To help facilitate discovery, we previously built HIVToolbox, a web system for visual data mining. The original HIVToolbox integrated information for HIV protein sequence, structure, functional sites, and sequence conservation. This web system has been used for almost 40,000 searches. We report improvements to HIVToolbox including new functions and workflows, data updates, and updates for ease of use. HIVToolbox2, is an improvement over HIVToolbox with new functions. HIVToolbox2 has new functionalities focused on HIV pathogenesis including drug-binding sites, drug-resistance mutations, and immune epitopes. The integrated, interactive view enables visual mining to generate hypotheses that are not readily revealed by other approaches. Most HIV proteins form multimers, and there are posttranslational modification and protein-protein interaction sites at many of these multimerization interfaces. Analysis of protease drug binding sites reveals an anatomy of drug resistance with different types of drug-resistance mutations regionally localized on the surface of protease. Some of these drug-resistance mutations have a high prevalence in specific HIV-1 M subtypes. Finally, consolidation of Tat functional sites reveals a hotspot region where there appear to be 30 interactions or posttranslational modifications. A cursory analysis with HIVToolbox2 has helped to identify several global patterns for HIV proteins. An initial analysis with this tool identifies homomultimerization of almost all HIV proteins, functional sites that overlap with multimerization sites, a global drug resistance anatomy for HIV protease, and specific distributions of some DRMs in specific HIV M subtypes. HIVToolbox2 is an open-access web application available at [http://hivtoolbox2

  14. Mutation analysis of the base-pair connecting two functional modules in the DSL ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Junya; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Ikawa, Yoshiya

    2008-01-01

    The class DSL ribozyme is one of artificial RNA enzymes generated by module-based molecular design. In the structure of this ribozyme, two most important functional modules are connected by a U-A base-pair. We have examined the possible importance of this base-pair by site-directed mutation experiments using the DSL-1S ribozyme and its derivative possessing altered modular organization. The analysis indicated that the DSL-1S ribozyme preferred U-A pair at the positions whereas the derivative preferred A-U pair.

  15. [A diagnostic analysis of a genetic mutation associated with a deficiency of leukocyte adhesion in cattle].

    PubMed

    Kostetskiĭ, I E; Kirilenko, S M; Glazko, V I; Sozinov, A A

    1996-01-01

    Bovine leukocyte adhesion (BLAD) is a recessive autosomal disease in Holstein-Friesian cattle caused by point mutation in CD18 gene encoding neutrophil-surface glycoprotein. To determine BLAD carriers, the convenient primers were chosen to amplify the mutant region of gene with the following restriction analysis. A screening program for BLAD has been initiated. Among 190 animals from different Ukrainian farms 6 were heterozygous according to the tested trait, i.e., BLAD deficient. No homozygous BLAD carriers were detected. PMID:9281202

  16. Comparison of Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing, and melting curve analysis for the detection of KRAS mutations: diagnostic and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Tsiatis, Athanasios C; Norris-Kirby, Alexis; Rich, Roy G; Hafez, Michael J; Gocke, Christopher D; Eshleman, James R; Murphy, Kathleen M

    2010-07-01

    Mutations in codons 12 and 13 of the KRAS oncogene are relatively common in colorectal and lung adenocarcinomas. Recent data indicate that these mutations result in resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. Therefore, we assessed Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing, and melting curve analysis for the detection of KRAS codon 12/13 mutations in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, including 58 primary and 42 metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas, 63 primary and 17 metastatic lung adenocarcinomas, and 20 normal colon samples. Of 180 tumor samples, 62.2% were KRAS mutant positive, and 37.8% were negative. Melting curve analysis yielded no false positive or false negative results, but had 10% equivocal calls. Melting curve analysis also resulted in 4 cases with melting curves inconsistent with either wild-type or codon 12/13 mutations. These patterns were generated from samples with double mutants in codons 12/13 and with mutations outside of codons 12/13. Pyrosequencing yielded no false positive or false negative results as well. However, two samples from one patient yielded a pyrogram that was flagged as abnormal, but the mutation subtype could not be determined. Finally, using an electronic cutoff of 10%, Sanger sequencing showed 11.1% false positives and 6.1% false negatives. In our hands, the limit of detection for Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing, and melting curve analysis was approximately 15 to 20%, 5%, and 10% mutant alleles, respectively. PMID:20431034

  17. Insights into the structure and function of HV1 from a meta-analysis of mutation studies.

    PubMed

    DeCoursey, Thomas E; Morgan, Deri; Musset, Boris; Cherny, Vladimir V

    2016-08-01

    The voltage-gated proton channel (HV1) is a widely distributed, proton-specific ion channel with unique properties. Since 2006, when genes for HV1 were identified, a vast array of mutations have been generated and characterized. Accessing this potentially useful resource is hindered, however, by the sheer number of mutations and interspecies differences in amino acid numbering. This review organizes all existing information in a logical manner to allow swift identification of studies that have characterized any particular mutation. Although much can be gained from this meta-analysis, important questions about the inner workings of HV1 await future revelation. PMID:27481712

  18. Meta-analysis of SHANK Mutations in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Gradient of Severity in Cognitive Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Leblond, Claire S.; Nava, Caroline; Polge, Anne; Gauthier, Julie; Huguet, Guillaume; Lumbroso, Serge; Giuliano, Fabienne; Stordeur, Coline; Depienne, Christel; Mouzat, Kevin; Pinto, Dalila; Howe, Jennifer; Lemière, Nathalie; Durand, Christelle M.; Guibert, Jessica; Ey, Elodie; Toro, Roberto; Peyre, Hugo; Mathieu, Alexandre; Amsellem, Frédérique; Rastam, Maria; Gillberg, I. Carina; Rappold, Gudrun A.; Holt, Richard; Monaco, Anthony P.; Maestrini, Elena; Galan, Pilar; Heron, Delphine; Jacquette, Aurélia; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rastetter, Agnès; Brice, Alexis; Devillard, Françoise; Assouline, Brigitte; Laffargue, Fanny; Lespinasse, James; Chiesa, Jean; Rivier, François; Bonneau, Dominique; Regnault, Beatrice; Zelenika, Diana; Delepine, Marc; Lathrop, Mark; Sanlaville, Damien; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Edery, Patrick; Perrin, Laurence; Tabet, Anne Claude; Schmeisser, Michael J.; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Coleman, Mary; Sato, Daisuke; Szatmari, Peter; Scherer, Stephen W.; Rouleau, Guy A.; Betancur, Catalina; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    SHANK genes code for scaffold proteins located at the post-synaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. In neurons, SHANK2 and SHANK3 have a positive effect on the induction and maturation of dendritic spines, whereas SHANK1 induces the enlargement of spine heads. Mutations in SHANK genes have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but their prevalence and clinical relevance remain to be determined. Here, we performed a new screen and a meta-analysis of SHANK copy-number and coding-sequence variants in ASD. Copy-number variants were analyzed in 5,657 patients and 19,163 controls, coding-sequence variants were ascertained in 760 to 2,147 patients and 492 to 1,090 controls (depending on the gene), and, individuals carrying de novo or truncating SHANK mutations underwent an extensive clinical investigation. Copy-number variants and truncating mutations in SHANK genes were present in ∼1% of patients with ASD: mutations in SHANK1 were rare (0.04%) and present in males with normal IQ and autism; mutations in SHANK2 were present in 0.17% of patients with ASD and mild intellectual disability; mutations in SHANK3 were present in 0.69% of patients with ASD and up to 2.12% of the cases with moderate to profound intellectual disability. In summary, mutations of the SHANK genes were detected in the whole spectrum of autism with a gradient of severity in cognitive impairment. Given the rare frequency of SHANK1 and SHANK2 deleterious mutations, the clinical relevance of these genes remains to be ascertained. In contrast, the frequency and the penetrance of SHANK3 mutations in individuals with ASD and intellectual disability—more than 1 in 50—warrant its consideration for mutation screening in clinical practice. PMID:25188300

  19. Meta-analysis of SHANK Mutations in Autism Spectrum Disorders: a gradient of severity in cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Leblond, Claire S; Nava, Caroline; Polge, Anne; Gauthier, Julie; Huguet, Guillaume; Lumbroso, Serge; Giuliano, Fabienne; Stordeur, Coline; Depienne, Christel; Mouzat, Kevin; Pinto, Dalila; Howe, Jennifer; Lemière, Nathalie; Durand, Christelle M; Guibert, Jessica; Ey, Elodie; Toro, Roberto; Peyre, Hugo; Mathieu, Alexandre; Amsellem, Frédérique; Rastam, Maria; Gillberg, I Carina; Rappold, Gudrun A; Holt, Richard; Monaco, Anthony P; Maestrini, Elena; Galan, Pilar; Heron, Delphine; Jacquette, Aurélia; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rastetter, Agnès; Brice, Alexis; Devillard, Françoise; Assouline, Brigitte; Laffargue, Fanny; Lespinasse, James; Chiesa, Jean; Rivier, François; Bonneau, Dominique; Regnault, Beatrice; Zelenika, Diana; Delepine, Marc; Lathrop, Mark; Sanlaville, Damien; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Edery, Patrick; Perrin, Laurence; Tabet, Anne Claude; Schmeisser, Michael J; Boeckers, Tobias M; Coleman, Mary; Sato, Daisuke; Szatmari, Peter; Scherer, Stephen W; Rouleau, Guy A; Betancur, Catalina; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher; Delorme, Richard; Bourgeron, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    SHANK genes code for scaffold proteins located at the post-synaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. In neurons, SHANK2 and SHANK3 have a positive effect on the induction and maturation of dendritic spines, whereas SHANK1 induces the enlargement of spine heads. Mutations in SHANK genes have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but their prevalence and clinical relevance remain to be determined. Here, we performed a new screen and a meta-analysis of SHANK copy-number and coding-sequence variants in ASD. Copy-number variants were analyzed in 5,657 patients and 19,163 controls, coding-sequence variants were ascertained in 760 to 2,147 patients and 492 to 1,090 controls (depending on the gene), and, individuals carrying de novo or truncating SHANK mutations underwent an extensive clinical investigation. Copy-number variants and truncating mutations in SHANK genes were present in ∼1% of patients with ASD: mutations in SHANK1 were rare (0.04%) and present in males with normal IQ and autism; mutations in SHANK2 were present in 0.17% of patients with ASD and mild intellectual disability; mutations in SHANK3 were present in 0.69% of patients with ASD and up to 2.12% of the cases with moderate to profound intellectual disability. In summary, mutations of the SHANK genes were detected in the whole spectrum of autism with a gradient of severity in cognitive impairment. Given the rare frequency of SHANK1 and SHANK2 deleterious mutations, the clinical relevance of these genes remains to be ascertained. In contrast, the frequency and the penetrance of SHANK3 mutations in individuals with ASD and intellectual disability-more than 1 in 50-warrant its consideration for mutation screening in clinical practice.

  20. DNA analysis of an uncommon missense mutation in a Gaucher disease patient of Jewish-Polish-Russian descent

    SciTech Connect

    Choy, F.Y.M.; Wei, C.; Applegarth, D.A.; McGillivray, B.C.

    1994-06-01

    Gaucher disease is the most frequent lysosomal lipid storage disease. It results from deficient glucocerebrosidase activity and is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. Three clinical forms of Gaucher disease have been described: type 1, non-neuronopathic; type 2, acute neuronopathic; and type 3, subacute neuronopathic. We have sequenced the full length cDNA of the glucocerebrosidase gene and identified an uncommon mutation in nucleotide position 1604 (genoma DNA nucleotide position 6683) from a Gaucher disease patient of Jewish-Polish-Russian descent with type 1 Gaucher disease. It is a G{yields}A transition in exon 11 that results in {sup 496}Arg{yields}{sup 496}His of glucocerebrosidase. This missense mutation is present in the heterozygous form and creates a new cleavage site for the endonuclease HphI. We have developed a simple method to detect the presence of this mutation by using HphI restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of glucocerebrosidase genomic DNA or cDNA. The mutation in the other Gaucher allele of this patient is an A{yields}G transition at cDNA nucleotide position 1226 which creates an XhoI cleavage site after PCR mismatch amplification. The presence of this mutation was also confirmed by sequence analysis. Based on previous reports that mutation 1226 is present only in type 1 Gaucher disease and the observation that there is no neurological involvement in this patient, we conclude that our patient with the 1226/1604 genotype is diagnosed as having type 1 Gaucher disease. Since it was also postulated that mutation 1226 in the homozygous form will usually result in a good prognosis, we speculate that the orthopedic complications and the unusual presence of glomerulosclerosis in this patient may be attributable to the mutation at nucleotide 1604. This speculation will require a description of more patients with this mutation for confirmation. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  1. A microsphere-based assay for mutation analysis of the biotinidase gene using dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Lindau-Shepard, Barbara; Janik, David K; Pass, Kenneth A

    2012-09-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive syndrome caused by defects in the biotinidase gene, the product of which affects biotin metabolism. Newborn screening (NBS) for biotinidase deficiency can identify affected infants prior to onset of symptoms; biotin supplementation can resolve or prevent the clinical features. In NBS, dry blood spots (DBS) are usually tested for biotinidase enzyme activity by colorimetric analysis. By taking advantage of the multiplexing capabilities of the Luminex platform, we have developed a microsphere-based array genotyping method for the simultaneous detection of six disease causing mutations in the biotinidase gene, thereby permitting a second tier of molecular analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from 3.2 mm DBS. Biotinidase gene sequences, containing the mutations of interest, were amplified by multiplexed polymerase chain reaction, followed by multiplexed allele-specific primer extension using universally tagged genotyping primers. The products were then hybridized to anti-tag carrying xTAG microspheres and detected on the Luminex platform. Genotypes were verified by sequencing. Genotyping results of 22 known biotinidase deficient samples by our xTAG biotinidase assay was in concordance with the results obtained from DNA sequencing, for all 6 mutations used in our panel. These results indicate that genotyping by an xTAG microsphere-based array is accurate, flexible, and can be adapted for high-throughput. Since NBS for biotinidase deficiency is by enzymatic assay, less than optimal quality of the DBS itself can compromise enzyme activity, while the DNA from these samples mostly remains unaffected. This assay warrants evaluation as a viable complement to the biotinidase semi-quantitative colorimetric assay. PMID:27625817

  2. Cancer mutation screening: Comparison of high-resolution melt analysis between two platforms.

    PubMed

    Ebili, Henry O; Ilyas, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) is a cheap and reliable post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cancer mutation screening technique, which is fast gaining clinical relevance. The HRMA capabilities of the LightScanner (Idaho Technology) have been severally studied. However, the ABI 7500 HRM has not been tested against the purpose-built HRM instrument such as the LightScanner. DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, and normal tissue as well as from colorectal cancer cell lines were amplified at exons 2, 3, and 4 of KRAS, and at exons 11 and 15 of BRAF in the ABI 7500 fast real-time PCR machine and subjected to melting both on the ABI and on the LightScanner. HRMA data were analysed with the ABI HRM software v2.0.1 and the LightScanner Call-IT 2.5. We tested the ABI 7500 HRM for internal precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity at mutation screening relative to the LightScanner, using crude percentage concordance, kappa statistics, and the area under the receiver operator characteristics (AUROC) curve on SPSS version 19. The results show that the ABI 7500 HRMA has a high internal precision, and excellent concordance, sensitivity, and specificity at mutation screening compared with the LightScanner. However, in contrast to the LightScanner HRM software analysis, the ABI HRM software v.2.0.1, cannot distinguish real from certain pseudovariations in PCR amplicons that are sometimes brought about by the artefacts of the melting process. In conclusion, the ABI HRM has a comparable performance level with the LightScanner, although in certain respects mentioned previously, the LightScanner has an edge over the ABI. PMID:25932046

  3. Mutation analysis by direct and whole exome sequencing in familial and sporadic tooth agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Alessandro; Giacopuzzi, Edoardo; Bardellini, Elena; Amadori, Francesca; Ferrari, Lia; De Petro, Giuseppina; Borsani, Giuseppe; Majorana, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Dental agenesis is one of the most common congenital craniofacial abnormalities. Dental agenesis can be classified, relative to the number of missing teeth (excluding third molars), as hypodontia (1 to 5 missing teeth), oligodontia (6 or more missing teeth), or anodontia (lack of all teeth). Tooth agenesis may occur either in association with genetic syndromes, based on the presence of other inherited abnormalities, or as a non-syndromic trait, with both familiar and sporadic cases reported. In this study, we enrolled 16 individuals affected by tooth agenesis, prevalently hypodontia, and we carried out direct Sanger sequencing of paired box 9 (PAX9) and Msh homeobox 1 (MSX1) genes in 9 subjects. Since no mutations were identified, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) in the members of 5 families to identify causative gene mutations either novel or previously described. Three individuals carried a known homozygous disease mutation in the Wnt family member 10A (WNT10A) gene (rs121908120). Interestingly, two of these individuals were siblings and also carried a heterozygous functional variant in EDAR-associated death domain (EDARADD) (rs114632254), another disease causing gene, generating a combination of genetic variants never described until now. The analysis of exome sequencing data in the members of other 3 families highlighted new candidate genes potentially involved in tooth agenesis and considered suitable for future studies. Overall, our study confirmed the major role played by WNT10A in tooth agenesis and the genetic heterogeneity of this disease. Moreover, as more genes are shown to be involved in tooth agenesis, WES analysis may be an effective approach to search for genetic variants in familiar or sporadic tooth agenesis, at least in more severe clinical manifestations. PMID:27665865

  4. A microsphere-based assay for mutation analysis of the biotinidase gene using dried blood spots

    PubMed Central

    Lindau-Shepard, Barbara; Janik, David K.; Pass, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive syndrome caused by defects in the biotinidase gene, the product of which affects biotin metabolism. Newborn screening (NBS) for biotinidase deficiency can identify affected infants prior to onset of symptoms; biotin supplementation can resolve or prevent the clinical features. In NBS, dry blood spots (DBS) are usually tested for biotinidase enzyme activity by colorimetric analysis. By taking advantage of the multiplexing capabilities of the Luminex platform, we have developed a microsphere-based array genotyping method for the simultaneous detection of six disease causing mutations in the biotinidase gene, thereby permitting a second tier of molecular analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from 3.2 mm DBS. Biotinidase gene sequences, containing the mutations of interest, were amplified by multiplexed polymerase chain reaction, followed by multiplexed allele-specific primer extension using universally tagged genotyping primers. The products were then hybridized to anti-tag carrying xTAG microspheres and detected on the Luminex platform. Genotypes were verified by sequencing. Genotyping results of 22 known biotinidase deficient samples by our xTAG biotinidase assay was in concordance with the results obtained from DNA sequencing, for all 6 mutations used in our panel. These results indicate that genotyping by an xTAG microsphere-based array is accurate, flexible, and can be adapted for high-throughput. Since NBS for biotinidase deficiency is by enzymatic assay, less than optimal quality of the DBS itself can compromise enzyme activity, while the DNA from these samples mostly remains unaffected. This assay warrants evaluation as a viable complement to the biotinidase semi-quantitative colorimetric assay.

  5. Cancer mutation screening: Comparison of high-resolution melt analysis between two platforms.

    PubMed

    Ebili, Henry O; Ilyas, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) is a cheap and reliable post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cancer mutation screening technique, which is fast gaining clinical relevance. The HRMA capabilities of the LightScanner (Idaho Technology) have been severally studied. However, the ABI 7500 HRM has not been tested against the purpose-built HRM instrument such as the LightScanner. DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, and normal tissue as well as from colorectal cancer cell lines were amplified at exons 2, 3, and 4 of KRAS, and at exons 11 and 15 of BRAF in the ABI 7500 fast real-time PCR machine and subjected to melting both on the ABI and on the LightScanner. HRMA data were analysed with the ABI HRM software v2.0.1 and the LightScanner Call-IT 2.5. We tested the ABI 7500 HRM for internal precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity at mutation screening relative to the LightScanner, using crude percentage concordance, kappa statistics, and the area under the receiver operator characteristics (AUROC) curve on SPSS version 19. The results show that the ABI 7500 HRMA has a high internal precision, and excellent concordance, sensitivity, and specificity at mutation screening compared with the LightScanner. However, in contrast to the LightScanner HRM software analysis, the ABI HRM software v.2.0.1, cannot distinguish real from certain pseudovariations in PCR amplicons that are sometimes brought about by the artefacts of the melting process. In conclusion, the ABI HRM has a comparable performance level with the LightScanner, although in certain respects mentioned previously, the LightScanner has an edge over the ABI.

  6. Single-cell mutation analysis of tumors from stained histologic slides.

    PubMed

    Becker, I; Becker, K F; Röhrl, M H; Minkus, G; Schütze, K; Höfler, H

    1996-12-01

    Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues are a valuable resource for diagnosis and research. PCR is one of the most powerful methods of retrospective analysis of the DNA present in fixed tissues. One major problem with the molecular analysis of tissue samples, however, is cellular heterogeneity, ie, the large variety of cell types usually present in these specimens can mask cell-specific genetic alterations associated with disease. Herein we describe a procedure for obtaining and analyzing single cells recovered from stained histologic tissue sections without risking contamination from neighboring cells. An ultraviolet laser microbeam was used to physically destroy the tissue surrounding the single cells of interest. These cells, now freed from adjacent cells, were then easily retrieved with a motorized, computer-controlled micromanipulator and molecularly characterized through the use of PCR-based microanalysis. This accurate microdissection technique, followed by DNA amplification and direct sequencing, revealed a novel mutation in the gene coding for the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin in single tumor cells that was absent in the adjacent single epithelial cells of a patient with early gastric cancer of the diffuse type. In this form of malignancy, tumor cells lose homophilic cell-to-cell interactions and invade the connective tissue as single cells. E-cadherin gene mutations have previously been detected in advanced diffuse-type gastric cancer and gastric carcinoma cell lines. The present study suggests that E-cadherin gene mutations may be an early event in gastric tumorigenesis. The laser-based isolation and subsequent molecular characterization of individual cells, as described herein, allows for micrometer-sized precision and should prove useful in detecting the nucleic acid abnormalities that underlie cancer, infection, and genetic disease. PMID:8973475

  7. Screening of MAMLD1 Mutations in 70 Children with 46,XY DSD: Identification and Functional Analysis of Two New Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Kalfa, Nicolas; Fukami, Maki; Philibert, Pascal; Audran, Francoise; Pienkowski, Catherine; Weill, Jacques; Pinto, Graziella; Manouvrier, Sylvie; Polak, Michel; Ogata, Totsumo; Sultan, Charles

    2012-01-01

    More than 50% of children with severe 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD) do not have a definitive etiological diagnosis. Besides gonadal dysgenesis, defects in androgen biosynthesis, and abnormalities in androgen sensitivity, the Mastermind-like domain containing 1 (MAMLD1) gene, which was identified as critical for the development of male genitalia, may be implicated. The present study investigated whether MAMLD1 is implicated in cases of severe 46,XY DSD and whether routine sequencing of MAMLD1 should be performed in these patients. Seventy children with severe non-syndromic 46,XY DSD of unknown etiology were studied. One hundred and fifty healthy individuals were included as controls. Direct sequencing of the MAMLD1, AR, SRD5A2 and NR5A1 genes was performed. The transactivation function of the variant MAMLD1 proteins was quantified by the luciferase method. Two new mutations were identified: p.S143X (c.428C>A) in a patient with scrotal hypospadias with microphallus and p.P384L (c.1151C>T) in a patient with penile hypospadias with microphallus. The in vitro functional study confirmed no residual transactivating function of the p.S143X mutant and a significantly reduced transactivation function of the p.P384L protein (p = 0.0032). The p.P359S, p.N662S and p.H347Q variants are also reported with particularly high frequency of the p.359T- p.662G haplotype in the DSD patients. Severe undervirilization in XY newborns can reveal mutations of MAMLD1. MAMLD1 should be routinely sequenced in these patients with otherwise normal AR, SRD5A2 and NR5A1genes. PMID:22479329

  8. Is the rate of insertion and deletion mutation male biased?: Molecular evolutionary analysis of avian and primate sex chromosome sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Sundström, Hannah; Webster, Matthew T; Ellegren, Hans

    2003-01-01

    The rate of mutation for nucleotide substitution is generally higher among males than among females, likely owing to the larger number of DNA replications in spermatogenesis than in oogenesis. For insertion and deletion (indel) mutations, data from a few human genetic disease loci indicate that the two sexes may mutate at similar rates, possibly because such mutations arise in connection with meiotic crossing over. To address origin- and sex-specific rates of indel mutation we have conducted the first large-scale molecular evolutionary analysis of indels in noncoding DNA sequences from sex chromosomes. The rates are similar on the X and Y chromosomes of primates but about twice as high on the avian Z chromosome as on the W chromosome. The fact that indels are not uncommon on the nonrecombining Y and W chromosomes excludes meiotic crossing over as the main cause of indel mutation. On the other hand, the similar rates on X and Y indicate that the number of DNA replications (higher for Y than for X) is also not the main factor. Our observations are therefore consistent with a role of both DNA replication and recombination in the generation of short insertion and deletion mutations. A significant excess of deletion compared to insertion events is observed on the avian W chromosome, consistent with gradual DNA loss on a nonrecombining chromosome. PMID:12750337

  9. Deciphering KRAS and NRAS mutated clone dynamics in MLL-AF4 paediatric leukaemia by ultra deep sequencing analysis

    PubMed Central

    Trentin, Luca; Bresolin, Silvia; Giarin, Emanuela; Bardini, Michela; Serafin, Valentina; Accordi, Benedetta; Fais, Franco; Tenca, Claudya; De Lorenzo, Paola; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Kronnie, Geertruy te; Basso, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    To induce and sustain the leukaemogenic process, MLL-AF4+ leukaemia seems to require very few genetic alterations in addition to the fusion gene itself. Studies of infant and paediatric patients with MLL-AF4+ B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL) have reported mutations in KRAS and NRAS with incidences ranging from 25 to 50%. Whereas previous studies employed Sanger sequencing, here we used next generation amplicon deep sequencing for in depth evaluation of RAS mutations in 36 paediatric patients at diagnosis of MLL-AF4+ leukaemia. RAS mutations including those in small sub-clones were detected in 63.9% of patients. Furthermore, the mutational analysis of 17 paired samples at diagnosis and relapse revealed complex RAS clone dynamics and showed that the mutated clones present at relapse were almost all originated from clones that were already detectable at diagnosis and survived to the initial therapy. Finally, we showed that mutated patients were indeed characterized by a RAS related signature at both transcriptional and protein levels and that the targeting of the RAS pathway could be of beneficial for treatment of MLL-AF4+ BCP-ALL clones carrying somatic RAS mutations. PMID:27698462

  10. [The mutation site analysis on CAPN1 gene of Wild boar, Min pig and Yorkshire].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiu-Qin; Liu, Hui; Guo, Li-Juan; Xu, Yao; Liu, Di

    2007-05-01

    In order to further evaluate the relationship between the variations of CAPN1 gene and meat tenderness, the CAPN1 genomic sequences were cloned and sequenced, its CDS was analyzed with PCR-SSCP, and the genotype analyses covered 109 individuals from Wild boar, Min pig and Yorkshire. Fifteen of total 21 introns were cloned. Five pairs polymorphic primers for PCR-SSCP analysis were designed based on the CDS of CAPN1 from GenBank and the cloned introns. Eight SNPs, resulting from single point mutation G to C, C to T, T to C, G to A, G to A, G to A, C to T and C to T at the base position 161 in exon2, 60 in exon5, 96 in exon5, 119 in exon5, 270 in intron8, 83 in exon10, 126 in exon13 and 138 in exon13 respectively, were identified, and 3 of which are missense mutations resulting to amino acid substitutions of S/T, G/E, V/I at the amino acid position of 54, 192 and 363 respectively. chi2 analysis showed that the distribution of genotypes among Yorkshire, Min pig and Wild boar are extremely significant difference, while there are no significant difference be-tween Min pig and Wild boar except in the S1 primer. The polymorphic sites may be used as molecular markers for meat tenderness and pork quality.

  11. Bone marrow fibrosis in myelodysplastic syndromes: a prospective evaluation including mutational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Fernando; Robledo, Cristina; Izquierdo-García, Francisco Miguel; Suárez-Vilela, Dimas; Benito, Rocío; Fuertes, Marta; Insunza, Andrés; Barragán, Eva; del Rey, Mónica; de Morales, José María García-Ruiz; Tormo, Mar; Salido, Eduardo; Zamora, Lurdes; Pedro, Carmen; Sánchez-del-Real, Javier; Díez-Campelo, María; del Cañizo, Consuelo; Sanz, Guillermo F.; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús María

    2016-01-01

    The biological and molecular events that underlie bone marrow fibrosis in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes are poorly understood, and its prognostic role in the era of the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) is not yet fully determined. We have evaluated the clinical and biological events that underlie bone marrow fibrotic changes, as well as its prognostic role, in a well-characterized prospective patient cohort (n=77) of primary MDS patients. The degree of marrow fibrosis was linked to parameters of erythropoietic failure, marrow cellularity, p53 protein accumulation, WT1 gene expression, and serum levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10, but not to other covariates including the IPSS-R score. The presence of bone marrow fibrosis grade 2 or higher was associated with the presence of mutations in cohesin complex genes (31.5% vs. 5.4%, p=0.006). By contrast, mutations in CALR, JAK2, PDGFRA, PDGFRB, and TP53 were very rare. Survival analysis showed that marrow fibrosis grade 2 or higher was a relevant significant predictor for of overall survival, and independent of age, performance status, and IPSS-R score in multivariate analysis. PMID:27127180

  12. Consensus on the use and interpretation of cystic fibrosis mutation analysis in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Castellani, C.; Cuppens, H.; Macek, M.; Cassiman, J.J.; Kerem, E.; Durie, P.; Tullis, E.; Assael, B.M.; Bombieri, C.; Brown, A.; Casals, T.; Claustres, M.; Cutting, G.R.; Dequeker, E.; Dodge, J.; Doull, I.; Farrell, P.; Ferec, C.; Girodon, E.; Johannesson, M.; Kerem, B.; Knowles, M.; Munck, A.; Pignatti, P.F.; Radojkovic, D.; Rizzotti, P.; Schwarz, M.; Stuhrmann, M.; Tzetis, M.; Zielenski, J.; Elborn, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    It is often challenging for the clinician interested in cystic fibrosis (CF) to interpret molecular genetic results, and to integrate them in the diagnostic process. The limitations of genotyping technology, the choice of mutations to be tested, and the clinical context in which the test is administered can all influence how genetic information is interpreted. This paper describes the conclusions of a consensus conference to address the use and interpretation of CF mutation analysis in clinical settings. Although the diagnosis of CF is usually straightforward, care needs to be exercised in the use and interpretation of genetic tests: genotype information is not the final arbiter of a clinical diagnosis of CF or CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein related disorders. The diagnosis of these conditions is primarily based on the clinical presentation, and is supported by evaluation of CFTR function (sweat testing, nasal potential difference) and genetic analysis. None of these features are sufficient on their own to make a diagnosis of CF or CFTR-related disorders. Broad genotype/phenotype associations are useful in epidemiological studies, but CFTR genotype does not accurately predict individual outcome. The use of CFTR genotype for prediction of prognosis in people with CF at the time of their diagnosis is not recommended. The importance of communication between clinicians and medical genetic laboratories is emphasized. The results of testing and their implications should be reported in a manner understandable to the clinicians caring for CF patients. PMID:18456578

  13. Bone marrow fibrosis in myelodysplastic syndromes: a prospective evaluation including mutational analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Fernando; Robledo, Cristina; Izquierdo-García, Francisco Miguel; Suárez-Vilela, Dimas; Benito, Rocío; Fuertes, Marta; Insunza, Andrés; Barragán, Eva; Del Rey, Mónica; García-Ruiz de Morales, José María; Tormo, Mar; Salido, Eduardo; Zamora, Lurdes; Pedro, Carmen; Sánchez-Del-Real, Javier; Díez-Campelo, María; Del Cañizo, Consuelo; Sanz, Guillermo F; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús María

    2016-05-24

    The biological and molecular events that underlie bone marrow fibrosis in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes are poorly understood, and its prognostic role in the era of the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) is not yet fully determined. We have evaluated the clinical and biological events that underlie bone marrow fibrotic changes, as well as its prognostic role, in a well-characterized prospective patient cohort (n=77) of primary MDS patients. The degree of marrow fibrosis was linked to parameters of erythropoietic failure, marrow cellularity, p53 protein accumulation, WT1 gene expression, and serum levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10, but not to other covariates including the IPSS-R score. The presence of bone marrow fibrosis grade 2 or higher was associated with the presence of mutations in cohesin complex genes (31.5% vs. 5.4%, p=0.006). By contrast, mutations in CALR, JAK2, PDGFRA, PDGFRB,and TP53 were very rare. Survival analysis showed that marrow fibrosis grade 2 or higher was a relevant significant predictor for of overall survival, and independent of age, performance status, and IPSS-R score in multivariate analysis. PMID:27127180

  14. MUFFINN: cancer gene discovery via network analysis of somatic mutation data.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ara; Shim, Jung Eun; Kim, Eiru; Supek, Fran; Lehner, Ben; Lee, Insuk

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge for distinguishing cancer-causing driver mutations from inconsequential passenger mutations is the long-tail of infrequently mutated genes in cancer genomes. Here, we present and evaluate a method for prioritizing cancer genes accounting not only for mutations in individual genes but also in their neighbors in functional networks, MUFFINN (MUtations For Functional Impact on Network Neighbors). This pathway-centric method shows high sensitivity compared with gene-centric analyses of mutation data. Notably, only a marginal decrease in performance is observed when using 10 % of TCGA patient samples, suggesting the method may potentiate cancer genome projects with small patient populations. PMID:27333808

  15. Immunohistochemical Determination of p53 Protein Overexpression for Predicting p53 Gene Mutations in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Miao; Liu, Dechun; Ma, Qingyong; Feng, Xiaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether increased expression of the tumor suppressor protein p53 indicates a p53 gene mutation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether p53 protein overexpression detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) offers a diagnostic prediction for p53 gene mutations in HCC patients. Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted with an end date of December 2015. A meta-analysis was performed to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of IHC-determined p53 protein overexpression in the prediction of p53 gene mutations in HCC. Sensitivity, subgroup, and publication bias analyses were also conducted. Results Thirty-six studies were included in the meta-analysis. The results showed that the overall sensitivity and specificity for IHC-determined p53 overexpression in the diagnostic prediction of p53 mutations in HCC were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.80–0.86) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.71–0.76), respectively. The summary positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were 2.65 (95% CI: 2.21–3.18) and 0.36 (95% CI: 0.26–0.50), respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of IHC-determined p53 overexpression in predicting p53 mutations ranged from 0.56 to 105.00 (pooled, 9.77; 95% CI: 6.35–15.02), with significant heterogeneity between the included studies (I2 = 40.7%, P = 0.0067). Moreover, subgroup and sensitivity analyses did not alter the results of the meta-analysis. However, potential publication bias was present in the current meta-analysis. Conclusion The upregulation of the tumor suppressor protein p53 was indeed linked to p53 gene mutations. IHC determination of p53 overexpression can predict p53 gene mutations in HCC patients. PMID:27428001

  16. MEGA-MD: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis software with mutational diagnosis of amino acid variation.

    PubMed

    Stecher, Glen; Liu, Li; Sanderford, Maxwell; Peterson, Daniel; Tamura, Koichiro; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-05-01

    Computational diagnosis of amino acid variants in the human exome is the first step in assessing the disruptive impacts of non-synonymous single nucleotide variants (nsSNVs) on human health and disease. The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis software with mutational diagnosis (MEGA-MD) is a suite of tools developed to forecast the deleteriousness of nsSNVs using multiple methods and to explore nsSNVs in the context of the variability permitted in the long-term evolution of the affected position. In its graphical interface for use on desktops, it enables interactive computational diagnosis and evolutionary exploration of nsSNVs. As a web service, MEGA-MD is suitable for diagnosing variants on an exome scale. The MEGA-MD suite intends to serve the needs for conducting low- and high-throughput analysis of nsSNVs in diverse applications.

  17. Evolution of Mutation Rates: Phylogenomic Analysis of the Photolyase/Cryptochrome Family

    PubMed Central

    Lucas-Lledó, José Ignacio; Lynch, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Photoreactivation, one of the first DNA repair pathways to evolve, is the direct reversal of premutagenic lesions caused by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, catalyzed by photolyases in a light-dependent, single-enzyme reaction. It has been experimentally shown that photoreactivation prevents UV mutagenesis in a broad range of species. In the absence of photoreactivation, UV-induced photolesions are repaired by the more complex and much less efficient nucleotide excision repair pathway. Despite their obvious beneficial effects, several lineages, including placental mammals, lost photolyase genes during evolution. In this study, we ask why photolyase genes have been lost in those lineages and discuss the significance of these losses in the context of the evolution of the genomic mutation rates. We first perform an extensive phylogenomic analysis of the photolyase/cryptochrome family, to assess what species lack each kind of photolyase gene. Then, we estimate the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates in several groups of photolyase genes, as a proxy of the strength of purifying natural selection, and we ask whether less evolutionarily constrained photolyase genes are more likely lost. We also review functional data and compare the efficiency of different kinds of photolyases. We find that eukaryotic photolyases are, on average, less evolutionarily constrained than eubacterial ones and that the strength of natural selection is correlated with the affinity of photolyases for their substrates. We propose that the loss of photolyase genes in eukaryotic species may be due to weak natural selection and may result in a deleterious increase of their genomic mutation rates. In contrast, the loss of photolyase genes in prokaryotes may not cause an increase in the mutation rate and be neutral in most cases. PMID:19228922

  18. Rich RNA Structure Landscapes Revealed by Mutate-and-Map Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Pablo; Das, Rhiju

    2015-11-01

    Landscapes exhibiting multiple secondary structures arise in natural RNA molecules that modulate gene expression, protein synthesis, and viral infection [corrected]. We report herein that high-throughput chemical experiments can isolate an RNA's multiple alternative secondary structures as they are stabilized by systematic mutagenesis (mutate-and-map, M2) and that a computational algorithm, REEFFIT, enables unbiased reconstruction of these states' structures and populations. In an in silico benchmark on non-coding RNAs with complex landscapes, M2-REEFFIT recovers 95% of RNA helices present with at least 25% population while maintaining a low false discovery rate (10%) and conservative error estimates. In experimental benchmarks, M2-REEFFIT recovers the structure landscapes of a 35-nt MedLoop hairpin, a 110-nt 16S rRNA four-way junction with an excited state, a 25-nt bistable hairpin, and a 112-nt three-state adenine riboswitch with its expression platform, molecules whose characterization previously required expert mutational analysis and specialized NMR or chemical mapping experiments. With this validation, M2-REEFFIT enabled tests of whether artificial RNA sequences might exhibit complex landscapes in the absence of explicit design. An artificial flavin mononucleotide riboswitch and a randomly generated RNA sequence are found to interconvert between three or more states, including structures for which there was no design, but that could be stabilized through mutations. These results highlight the likely pervasiveness of rich landscapes with multiple secondary structures in both natural and artificial RNAs and demonstrate an automated chemical/computational route for their empirical characterization.

  19. Rich RNA Structure Landscapes Revealed by Mutate-and-Map Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Pablo; Das, Rhiju

    2015-01-01

    Landscapes exhibiting multiple secondary structures arise in natural RNA molecules that modulate gene expression, protein synthesis, and viral. We report herein that high-throughput chemical experiments can isolate an RNA’s multiple alternative secondary structures as they are stabilized by systematic mutagenesis (mutate-and-map, M2) and that a computational algorithm, REEFFIT, enables unbiased reconstruction of these states’ structures and populations. In an in silico benchmark on non-coding RNAs with complex landscapes, M2-REEFFIT recovers 95% of RNA helices present with at least 25% population while maintaining a low false discovery rate (10%) and conservative error estimates. In experimental benchmarks, M2-REEFFIT recovers the structure landscapes of a 35-nt MedLoop hairpin, a 110-nt 16S rRNA four-way junction with an excited state, a 25-nt bistable hairpin, and a 112-nt three-state adenine riboswitch with its expression platform, molecules whose characterization previously required expert mutational analysis and specialized NMR or chemical mapping experiments. With this validation, M2-REEFFIT enabled tests of whether artificial RNA sequences might exhibit complex landscapes in the absence of explicit design. An artificial flavin mononucleotide riboswitch and a randomly generated RNA sequence are found to interconvert between three or more states, including structures for which there was no design, but that could be stabilized through mutations. These results highlight the likely pervasiveness of rich landscapes with multiple secondary structures in both natural and artificial RNAs and demonstrate an automated chemical/computational route for their empirical characterization. PMID:26566145

  20. Screening of point mutations by multiple SSCP analysis in the dystrophin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Lasa, A.; Baiget, M.; Gallano, P.

    1994-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, X-linked neuromuscular disorder. The population frequency of DMD is one in approximately 3500 boys, of which one third is thought to be a new mutant. The DMD gene is the largest known to date, spanning over 2,3 Mb in band Xp21.2; 79 exons are transcribed into a 14 Kb mRNA coding for a protein of 427 kD which has been named dystrophin. It has been shown that about 65% of affected boys have a gene deletion with a wide variation in localization and size. The remaining affected individuals who have no detectable deletions or duplications would probably carry more subtle mutations that are difficult to detect. These mutations occur in several different exons and seem to be unique to single patients. Their identification represents a formidable goal because of the large size and complexity of the dystrophin gene. SSCP is a very efficient method for the detection of point mutations if the parameters that affect the separation of the strands are optimized for a particular DNA fragment. The multiple SSCP allows the simultaneous study of several exons, and implies the use of different conditions because no single set of conditions will be optimal for all fragments. Seventy-eight DMD patients with no deletion or duplication in the dystrophin gene were selected for the multiple SSCP analysis. Genomic DNA from these patients was amplified using the primers described for the diagnosis procedure (muscle promoter and exons 3, 8, 12, 16, 17, 19, 32, 45, 48 and 51). We have observed different mobility shifts in bands corresponding to exons 8, 12, 43 and 51. In exons 17 and 45, altered electrophoretic patterns were found in different samples identifying polymorphisms already described.

  1. Rare variants analysis of neurexin-1β in autism reveals a novel start codon mutation affecting protein levels at synapses.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Garcia, Rafael J; Hervás, Amaia; Toma, Claudio; Balmaña, Noemí; Cormand, Bru; Martinez-Mir, Amalia; Scholl, Francisco G

    2013-12-01

    Neurexins are synaptic plasma membrane proteins encoded by three genes (NRXN1, -2, -3) with alternative promoters. Mutations in neurexin genes have been identified in different neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism. Recently, two point mutations altering the translation initiation site of NRXN1β (c.-3G>T and c.3G>T) have been described in patients with autism and mental retardation. In this study, we analyzed the NRXN1β gene in a sample of 153 patients with autism. We report the identification of a novel mutation, c.3G>A (p.Met1), affecting the translation initiation site. Expression analysis showed that the c.3G>A mutation switches the translation start site of NRXN1β to an in-frame downstream methionine and decreases synaptic levels of the mutant protein in cultured neurons. These data reinforce a role for synaptic defects of NRXN1β in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  2. Codon-level information improves predictions of inter-residue contacts in proteins by correlated mutation analysis.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Etai; Unger, Ron; Horovitz, Amnon

    2015-09-15

    Methods for analysing correlated mutations in proteins are becoming an increasingly powerful tool for predicting contacts within and between proteins. Nevertheless, limitations remain due to the requirement for large multiple sequence alignments (MSA) and the fact that, in general, only the relatively small number of top-ranking predictions are reliable. To date, methods for analysing correlated mutations have relied exclusively on amino acid MSAs as inputs. Here, we describe a new approach for analysing correlated mutations that is based on combined analysis of amino acid and codon MSAs. We show that a direct contact is more likely to be present when the correlation between the positions is strong at the amino acid level but weak at the codon level. The performance of different methods for analysing correlated mutations in predicting contacts is shown to be enhanced significantly when amino acid and codon data are combined.

  3. Codon-level information improves predictions of inter-residue contacts in proteins by correlated mutation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Etai; Unger, Ron; Horovitz, Amnon

    2015-01-01

    Methods for analysing correlated mutations in proteins are becoming an increasingly powerful tool for predicting contacts within and between proteins. Nevertheless, limitations remain due to the requirement for large multiple sequence alignments (MSA) and the fact that, in general, only the relatively small number of top-ranking predictions are reliable. To date, methods for analysing correlated mutations have relied exclusively on amino acid MSAs as inputs. Here, we describe a new approach for analysing correlated mutations that is based on combined analysis of amino acid and codon MSAs. We show that a direct contact is more likely to be present when the correlation between the positions is strong at the amino acid level but weak at the codon level. The performance of different methods for analysing correlated mutations in predicting contacts is shown to be enhanced significantly when amino acid and codon data are combined. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08932.001 PMID:26371555

  4. Computational Analysis Reveals the Association of Threonine 118 Methionine Mutation in PMP22 Resulting in CMT-1A

    PubMed Central

    Swetha, Rayapadi G.

    2014-01-01

    The T118M mutation in PMP22 gene is associated with Charcot Marie Tooth, type 1A (CMT1A). CMT1A is a form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, the most common inherited disorder of the peripheral nervous system. Mutations in CMT related disorder are seen to increase the stability of the protein resulting in the diseased state. We performed SNP analysis for all the nsSNPs of PMP22 protein and carried out molecular dynamics simulation for T118M mutation to compare the stability difference between the wild type protein structure and the mutant protein structure. The mutation T118M resulted in the overall increase in the stability of the mutant protein. The superimposed structure shows marked structural variation between the wild type and the mutant protein structures. PMID:25400662

  5. KRAS mutational analysis in ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Miglio, Umberto; Oldani, Alberto; Mezzapelle, Rosanna; Veggiani, Claudia; Paganotti, Alessia; Garavoglia, Marcello; Boldorini, Renzo

    2014-05-01

    Mutations of KRAS are detectable in 70-90% of pancreatic duct adenocarcinomas (PDAC), using direct sequencing. We used a highly sensitive molecular method in order to investigate: (a) the frequency and prognostic significance of different KRAS mutations and, (b) whether the presence of KRAS mutations in histologically-negative resection margins of PDAC could explain local tumor recurrence after surgery. Twenty-seven patients with histologic diagnosis of PDAC, radical pancreaticoduodenectomy and histologically-negative margins were evaluated. KRAS mutations were searched for mutant-enriched PCR in tumor and negative resection margins. KRAS mutations were detected in 85.2% of the cases; the most frequent mutation was G12D (48.1%). Shorter OS was found in patients with G12D (25 months; 95% CI, 20.5-29.5), vs patients with other mutations (31.5 months; 95% CI, 25.6-37.1) (N.S.). KRAS mutation in histologically-negative margins was detected in one patient who died of locoregional recurrence; six patients had tumor recurrence but no mutations in surgical margins. The high frequency of KRAS mutations suggests a search for KRAS status to improve the diagnosis in suspected cases; the G12D mutation could be related to poor prognosis, but without statistical significance. No correlation was found between the frequency of cancer recurrence and KRAS mutations in surgical margins.

  6. High-throughput Linkage Analysis of Mutator Insertion Sites in Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insertional mutagenesis is a cornerstone of functional genomics. High copy transposable element systems such as Mutator (Mu) in maize afford the advantage of high forward mutation rates but pose a challenge for identifying the particular element responsible for a given mutation. Several large mutant...

  7. [Mutation analysis of the pathogenic gene in a Chinese family with hereditary hemochromatosis].

    PubMed

    Yuanfeng, Li; Hongxing, Zhang; Haitao, Zhang; Xiaobo, Peng; Lili, Bai; Fuchu, He; Zewu, Qiu; Gangqiao, Zhou

    2014-11-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HHC) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. We recruited a consanguineous Chinese family including the proband with HHC and other four members without HHC. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified two homozygous mutations (c.G18C [p.Q6H] and c.GC962_963AA [p.C321X]) in the hemojuvelin gene (HJV) in the proband with HHC. No mutation was found in other four previously identified HHC related genes, HAMP, TFR2, FPN and HFE. The functional impact of p.Q6H mutation is weak whereas p.C321X, a premature termination mutation, results in a truncated HJV protein, which lacks the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor domain. In addition to the mutations in HJV, other 12 homozygous mutations were identified in this patient. However, none of these mutations showed strong damaging impact and the mutated genes are not related to iron metabolism. Our in-house data further demonstrated that p.C321X is absent in the general Chinese population, suggesting that the homozygous mutation p.C321X in HJV is causative in the patient with HHC. Accordingly, all of the four members without HHC from the same family carried wild-type alleles or heterozygous mutations, but not the homozygous mutation in this site. Thus, we found for the first time that the homozygous mutation p.C321X in HJV can result in HHC, which will help genetic diagnosis and prenatal counseling for HHC.

  8. Rapid targeted somatic mutation analysis of solid tumors in routine clinical diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Francaviglia, Ilaria; Dal Cin, Elena; Barbieri, Gianluca; Arrigoni, Gianluigi; Pecciarini, Lorenza; Doglioni, Claudio; Cangi, Maria Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Tumor genotyping is an essential step in routine clinical practice and pathology laboratories face a major challenge in being able to provide rapid, sensitive and updated molecular tests. We developed a novel mass spectrometry multiplexed genotyping platform named PentaPanel to concurrently assess single nucleotide polymorphisms in 56 hotspots of the 5 most clinically relevant cancer genes, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, EGFR and PIK3CA for a total of 221 detectable mutations. To both evaluate and validate the PentaPanel performance,we investigated 1025 tumor specimens of 6 different cancer types (carcinomas of colon, lung, breast, pancreas, and biliary tract, and melanomas), systematically addressing sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of our platform. Sanger sequencing was also performed for all the study samples. Our data showed that PentaPanel is a high throughput and robust tool, allowing genotyping for targeted therapy selection of 10 patients in the same run, with a practical turnaround time of 2 working days. Importantly, it was successfully used to interrogate different DNAs isolated from routinely processed specimens (formalin-fixed paraffin embedded, frozen, and cytological samples), covering all the requirements of clinical tests. In conclusion, the PentaPanel platform can provide an immediate, accurate and cost effective multiplex approach for clinically relevant gene mutation analysis in many solid tumors and its utility across many diseases can be particularly relevant in multiple clinical trials, including the new basket trial approach, aiming to identify appropriate targeted drug combination strategies. PMID:26435479

  9. Domain structure of phage P4 alpha protein deduced by mutational analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Ziegelin, G; Linderoth, N A; Calendar, R; Lanka, E

    1995-01-01

    Bacteriophage P4 DNA replication depends on the product of the alpha gene, which has origin recognition ability, DNA helicase activity, and DNA primase activity. One temperature-sensitive and four amber mutations that eliminate DNA replication in vivo were sequenced and located in the alpha gene. Sequence analysis of the entire gene predicted a domain structure for the alpha polypeptide chain (777 amino acid residues, M(r) 84,900), with the N terminus providing the catalytic activity for the primase and the middle part providing that for the helicase/nucleoside triphosphatase. This model was confirmed experimentally in vivo and in vitro. In addition, the ori DNA recognition ability was found to be associated with the C-terminal third of the alpha polypeptide chain. The type A nucleotide-binding site is required for P4 replication in vivo, as shown for alpha mutations at G-506 and K-507. In the absence of an active DnaG protein, the primase function is also essential for P4 replication. Primase-null and helicase-null mutants retain the two remaining activities functionally in vitro and in vivo. The latter was demonstrated by trans complementation studies, indicating the assembly of active P4 replisomes by a primase-null and a helicase-null mutant. PMID:7635818

  10. Spectral Analysis of EEG in Familial Alzheimer's Disease with E280A Presenilin-1 Mutation Gene

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Rene; Lopera, Francisco; Alvarez, Alfredo; Fernandez, Yuriem; Galan, Lidice; Quiroz, Yakeel; Bobes, Maria Antonieta

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that quantitative EEG (qEEG) analysis is susceptible to detect early functional changes in familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) preclinical stages. Three groups of subjects were selected from five extended families with hereditary AD: a Probable AD group (18 subjects), an asymptomatic carrier (ACr) group (21 subjects), with the mutation but without any clinical symptoms of dementia, and a normal group of 18 healthy subjects. In order to reveal significant differences in the spectral parameter, the Mahalanobis distance (D2) was calculated between groups. To evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of this statistic D2, the ROC models were used. The ROC curve was summarized by accuracy index and standard deviation. The D2 using the parameters of the energy in the fast frequency bands shows accurate discrimination between normal and ACr groups (area ROC = 0.89) and between AD probable and ACr groups (area ROC = 0.91). This is more significant in temporal regions. Theses parameters could be affected before the onset of the disease, even when cognitive disturbance is not clinically evident. Spectral EEG parameter could be firstly used to evaluate subjects with E280A Presenilin-1 mutation without impairment in cognitive function. PMID:24551475

  11. Spectral Analysis of EEG in Familial Alzheimer's Disease with E280A Presenilin-1 Mutation Gene.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Rene; Lopera, Francisco; Alvarez, Alfredo; Fernandez, Yuriem; Galan, Lidice; Quiroz, Yakeel; Bobes, Maria Antonieta

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that quantitative EEG (qEEG) analysis is susceptible to detect early functional changes in familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) preclinical stages. Three groups of subjects were selected from five extended families with hereditary AD: a Probable AD group (18 subjects), an asymptomatic carrier (ACr) group (21 subjects), with the mutation but without any clinical symptoms of dementia, and a normal group of 18 healthy subjects. In order to reveal significant differences in the spectral parameter, the Mahalanobis distance (D (2)) was calculated between groups. To evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of this statistic D (2), the ROC models were used. The ROC curve was summarized by accuracy index and standard deviation. The D (2) using the parameters of the energy in the fast frequency bands shows accurate discrimination between normal and ACr groups (area ROC = 0.89) and between AD probable and ACr groups (area ROC = 0.91). This is more significant in temporal regions. Theses parameters could be affected before the onset of the disease, even when cognitive disturbance is not clinically evident. Spectral EEG parameter could be firstly used to evaluate subjects with E280A Presenilin-1 mutation without impairment in cognitive function.

  12. A mutational analysis defines Vibrio fischeri LuxR binding sites.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Luis Caetano M; Ferreira, Rosana B R; Lostroh, C Phoebe; Greenberg, E Peter

    2008-07-01

    Vibrio fischeri quorum sensing involves the LuxI and LuxR proteins. The LuxI protein generates the quorum-sensing signal N-3-oxohexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3OC6-HSL), and LuxR is a signal-responsive transcriptional regulator which activates the luminescence (lux) genes and 17 other V. fischeri genes. For activation of the lux genes, LuxR binds to a 20-base-pair inverted repeat, the lux box, which is centered 42.5 base pairs upstream of the transcriptional start of the lux operon. Similar lux box-like elements have been identified in only a few of the LuxR-activated V. fischeri promoters. To better understand the DNA sequence elements required for LuxR binding and to identify binding sites in LuxR-regulated promoters other than the lux operon promoter, we have systematically mutagenized the lux box and evaluated the activity of many mutants. By doing so, we have identified nucleotides that are critical for promoter activity. Interestingly, certain lux box mutations allow a 3OC6-HSL-independent LuxR activation of the lux operon promoter. We have used the results of the mutational analysis to create a consensus lux box, and we have used this consensus sequence to identify LuxR binding sites in 3OC6-HSL-activated genes for which lux boxes could not be identified previously.

  13. Mutational analysis of the N-methyltransferase domain of the multifunctional enzyme enniatin synthetase.

    PubMed

    Hacker, C; Glinski, M; Hornbogen, T; Doller, A; Zocher, R

    2000-10-01

    N-Methylcyclopeptides like cyclosporins and enniatins are synthesized by multifunctional enzymes representing hybrid systems of peptide synthetases and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet)-dependent N-methyltransferases. The latter constitute a new family of N-methyltransferases sharing high homology within procaryotes and eucaryotes. Here we describe the mutational analysis of the N-methyltransferase domain of enniatin synthetase from Fusarium scirpi to gain insight into the assembly of the AdoMet-binding site. The role of four conserved motifs (I, (2085)VLEIGTGSGMIL; II/Y, (2105)SYVGLDPS; IV, (2152)DLVVFNSVVQYFTPPEYL; and V, (2194)ATNGHFLAARA) in cofactor binding as measured by photolabeling was studied. Deletion of the first 21 N-terminal amino acid residues of the N-methyltransferase domain did not affect AdoMet binding. Further shortening close to motif I resulted in loss of binding activity. Truncation of 38 amino acids from the C terminus and also internal deletions containing motif V led to complete loss of AdoMet-binding activity. Point mutations converting the conserved Tyr(223) (corresponding to position 2106 in enniatin synthetase) in motif II/Y (close to motif I) into Val, Ala, and Ser, respectively, strongly diminished AdoMet binding, whereas conversion of this residue to Phe restored AdoMet-binding activity to approximately 70%, indicating that Tyr(223) is important for AdoMet binding and that the aromatic Tyr(223) may be crucial for AdoMet binding in N-methylpeptide synthetases.

  14. Mutational Analysis of Bovine Leukemia Virus Rex: Identification of a Dominant-Negative Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-A; Hope, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    The Rex proteins of the delta-retroviruses act to facilitate the export of intron-containing viral RNAs. The Rex of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is poorly characterized. To gain a better understanding of BLV Rex, we generated a reporter assay to measure BLV Rex function and used it to screen a series of point and deletion mutations. Using this approach, we were able to identify the nuclear export signal of BLV Rex. Further, we identified a dominant-negative form of BLV Rex. Protein localization analysis revealed that wild-type BLV Rex had a punctate nuclear localization and was associated with nuclear pores. In contrast, the dominant-negative BLV Rex mutation had a diffuse nuclear localization and no nuclear pore association. Overexpression of the dominant-negative BLV Rex altered the localization of the wild-type protein. This dominant-negative derivative of BLV Rex could be a useful tool to test the concept of intracellular immunization against viral infection in a large animal model. PMID:15890956

  15. GPR143 mutational analysis in two Italian families with X-linked ocular albinism.

    PubMed

    Micale, Lucia; Augello, Bartolomeo; Fusco, Carmela; Turturo, Maria Giuseppina; Granatiero, Matteo; Piemontese, Maria Rosaria; Zelante, Leopoldo; Cecconi, Antonella; Merla, Giuseppe

    2009-08-01

    X-linked ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) is caused by mutations in G protein-coupled receptor 143 (GPR143) gene, which encodes a membrane glycoprotein localized to melanosomes. GPR143 mainly affects pigment production in the eye, resulting in optic changes associated with albinism, including hypopigmentation of the retina, nystagmus, strabismus, foveal hypoplasia, abnormal crossing of the optic fibers, and reduced visual acuity. We report the mutational analysis of the GPR143 gene on two unrelated families with OA1 using direct sequencing and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We identified the c.564_565delCT, a 2-bp deletion in family 1, and we mapped the breakpoints at nucleotide level of the novel intragenic deletion g.5360_6371del1012, encompassing exon 2, in family 2. Our results confirm that GPR143 is the major locus for OA1 and that exon 2 is a region of high susceptibility to deletions. Finally, we emphasize the quantitative polymerase chain reaction as a valid tool for diagnosis of deletions in the GPR143 gene. PMID:19604113

  16. Antiherpetic properties of acyclovir 5'-hydrogenphosphonate and the mutation analysis of herpes virus resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Gus'kova, Anna A; Skoblov, Mikhail Yu; Korovina, Anna N; Yasko, Maxim V; Karpenko, Inna L; Kukhanova, Marina K; Andronova, Valeria L; Galegov, George A; Skoblov, Yuri S

    2009-10-01

    In this study, we continued to study antiherpetic properties of acyclovir 5'-hydrogenphosphonate (Hp-ACV) in cell cultures and animal models. Hp-ACV was shown to inhibit the development of herpetic infection in mice induced by the HSV-1/L(2) strain. The compound suppressed replication of both ACV-sensitive HSV-1/L(2) and ACV-resistant HSV-1/L(2)/R strains in Vero cell culture. Viral population resistant to Hp-ACV (HSV-1/L(2)/R(Hp-ACV)) was developed much slower than ACV-resistant population. The analysis of Hp-ACV-resistant clones isolated from the HSV-1/L(2)/R(Hp-ACV) population demonstrated their partial cross-resistance to ACV. The mutations determining the resistance of HSV-1 clones to Hp-ACV were partly overlapped with mutations defining ACV resistance but did not always coincide. HSV-1/L(2)/R(Hp-ACV) herpes virus thymidine kinase is shortened from the C-terminus by 100 amino acid residues in length.

  17. An efficient estimator of the mutation parameter and analysis of polymorphism from the 1000 genomes project.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yunxin

    2014-01-01

    The mutation parameter θ is fundamental and ubiquitous in the analysis of population samples of DNA sequences. This paper presents a new highly efficient estimator of θ by utilizing the phylogenetic information among distinct alleles in a sample of DNA sequences. The new estimator, called Allelic BLUE, is derived from a generalized linear model about the mutations in the allelic genealogy. This estimator is not only highly accurate, but also computational efficient, which makes it particularly useful for estimating θ for large samples, as well as for a large number of cases, such as the situation of analyzing sequence data from a large genome project, such as the 1000 Genomes Project. Simulation shows that Allelic BLUE is nearly unbiased, with variance nearly as small as the minimum achievable variance, and in many situations, it can be hundreds- or thousands-fold more efficient than a previous method, which was already quite efficient compared to other approaches. One useful feature of the new estimator is its applicability to collections of distinct alleles without detailed frequencies. The utility of the new estimator is demonstrated by analyzing the pattern of θ in the data from the 1000 Genomes Project. PMID:25055200

  18. Comparative analysis of charged particle-induced autosomal mutations in murine cells and tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberg, Amy; Gauny, Stacey; Turker, Mitchell; Dan, Cristian; Kwoh, Ely

    exposed to 2 Gy of Fe ions. Mutant spectra were analyzed via PCR using a series of heterozygous markers along mouse chromosome 8. Cytotoxicity assays were performed immediately after Fe ion exposure of cells from two primary clones. Cells irradiated in vitro demonstrated a dose-dependent decrement in cloning efficiency with no evidence of a shoulder. The results demonstrate the two clones behave similarly (unpaired t-test, p>0.3) with a D0 of 84.3 cGy for the combined data set. Mutation data were obtained using cells from one of the primary clones. In three experiments, we observed a linear dose-response for Aprt mutation with an induced mutant frzction of 1.06 x 10-3 /Gy. Kidney epithelial cells irradiated in vivo and incubated for 2-4 months in situ prior to harvest also showed an exponential reduction of cloning efficiency. Cells harvested 8-10 months postirradiation showed evidence of recovery for doses up to 1.5 Gy, but there was no improvement in cloning efficiency for kidney cells exposed to 2 Gy Fe ions in vivo evaluated at the late time point. Results for Aprt mutation induction in vivo indicated considerable inter-animal variation within each dose group (0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 Gy). Fe ion exposures were mutagenic to the kidney, even at the lowest dose (p<0.01). A comparison of the mutant frequency results at the two harvest times indicates that the dose response did not vary with incubation time in vivo. Analysis of the pooled data from the 2-4 months harvests and the 8-10 month harvests indicated an increase in mutant frequency of 1.49 fold per Gy (p=0.01, CI 1.11-2.01). Molecular analysis of Aprtdeficient cells collected after a 2 Gy exposure to Fe ions in vitro showed an increased proportion of mutants arising via interstitial deletion or mitotic recombination, with an indication of an increase in chromosome loss. Similar results have been obtained for Aprt mutants isolated from mice exposed to 2 Gy of Fe ions, as compared with mutants collected from sham

  19. Mutational analysis of RUNX2 gene in Chinese patients with cleidocranial dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenying; Zheng, Shuguo; Wang, Yixiang; Zhao, Yuming; Zhu, Junxia; Ge, Lihong

    2010-11-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a dominantly inherited skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in the osteoblast-specific transcription factor-encoding gene, RUNX2. To correlate different RUNX2 mutations with CCD clinical spectrum, we studied six independent Chinese CCD patients. In five patients, mutations were detected in the coding region of the RUNX2 gene, including two frameshift mutations and three missense mutations. Of these mutations, four were novel and one had previously been reported. All the detected mutations were exclusively clustered within the Runt domain that affected conserved residues in the Runt domain. In vitro green fluorescent protein fusion studies showed that the three mutations--R225L, 214fs and 172fs--interfered with nuclear accumulation of RUNX2 protein, while T200I mutation had no effect on the subcellular distribution of RUNX2. There was no marked phenotypic difference between patients in craniofacial and clavicles features, while the expressivity of supernumerary teeth in our patient cohort had a striking variation, even among family members. The occurrence of intrafamilial clinical variability raises the view that hypomorphic effects and genetic modifiers may alter the clinical expressivity of these mutations. Our results provide new genetic evidence that mutations involved in RUNX2 contribute to CCD. PMID:20702542

  20. [Mutational Analysis of Hemophilia B in Russia: Molecular-Genetic Study].

    PubMed

    Surin, V L; Demidova, E Yu; Selivanova, D S; Luchinina, Yu A; Salomashkina, V V; Pshenichnikova, O S; Likhacheva, E A

    2016-04-01

    Hemophilia B is a hereditary X-linked coagulation disorder. This pathology is caused by various defects in the factor IX gene, which is, being about 34 kb long and consisting of eight exons, localized in the Xq27 locus of the. X-chromosome long arm. Mutations were revealed in 56 unrelated patients with hemophilia B in this study by using direct sequencing of factor IX gene functionally important fragments. Forty-six mutations were found with prevailing missense mutations (n = 30). The rest of the mutations were nonsense (n = 4) and splicing (n = 4) mutations, large deletions (n = 3), microdeletions (n = 2), microinsertions (n = 2), and promoter mutations (n = 1). Eleven of 46 mutations were previously unknown for human populations.

  1. Mutational analysis of primary and metastatic colorectal cancer samples underlying the resistance to cetuximab-based therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nemecek, Radim; Berkovcova, Jitka; Radova, Lenka; Kazda, Tomas; Mlcochova, Jitka; Vychytilova-Faltejskova, Petra; Slaby, Ondrej; Svoboda, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although several molecular markers predicting resistance to cetuximab- or panitumumab-based therapy of metastatic colorectal cancer were described, mutations in RAS proto-oncogenes remain the only predictors being used in daily clinical practice. However, 35%–45% of wild-type RAS patients still do not respond to this anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) monoclonal antibody-based therapy, and therefore the definition of other predictors forms an important clinical need. The aim of the present retrospective single-institutional study was to evaluate potential genes responsible for resistance to anti-EGFR therapy in relation to mutational analysis of primary versus metastatic lesions. Patients and methods Twenty-four paired primary and corresponding metastatic tissue samples from eight nonresponding and four responding metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with cetuximab-based therapy were sequenced using a next-generation sequencing panel of 26 genes involved in EGFR signaling pathway and colorectal carcinogenesis. Results Mutational status of primary tumors and metastatic lesions was highly concordant in TP53, APC, CTNNB1, KRAS, PIK3CA, PTEN, and FBXW7 genes. Metastatic samples harbor significantly more mutations than primary tumors. Potentially negative predictive value of FBXW7 mutations in relationship to anti-EGFR treatment outcomes was confirmed. Finally, new occurrences of activating KRAS mutations were identified in a group of patients initially determined as wild-type RAS by routinely used qPCR-based RAS mutational tests. All newly detected activating KRAS mutations most likely led to cetuximab treatment failure. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest a need of careful consideration of previously published results of anti-EGFR-targeted therapy with regard to potentially inaccurate diagnostic tools used in the past. Based on our findings, we recommend more extensive use of next-generation sequencing testing in daily

  2. An alternative novel tool for DNA editing without target sequence limitation: the structure-guided nuclease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shu; Cao, Shasha; Zou, Bingjie; Yue, Yunyun; Gu, Chun; Chen, Xin; Wang, Pei; Dong, Xiaohua; Xiang, Zheng; Li, Kai; Zhu, Minsheng; Zhao, Qingshun; Zhou, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Engineered endonucleases are a powerful tool for editing DNA. However, sequence preferences may limit their application. We engineer a structure-guided endonuclease (SGN) composed of flap endonuclease-1 (FEN-1), which recognizes the 3' flap structure, and the cleavage domain of Fok I (Fn1), which cleaves DNA strands. The SGN recognizes the target DNA on the basis of the 3' flap structure formed between the target and the guide DNA (gDNA) and cut the target through its Fn1 dimerization. Our results show that the SGN, guided by a pair of gDNAs, cleaves transgenic reporter gene and endogenous genes in zebrafish embryonic genome. PMID:27634179

  3. Comparative analysis of charged particle-induced autosomal mutations in murine cells and tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberg, Amy; Gauny, Stacey; Turker, Mitchell; Dan, Cristian; Kwoh, Ely

    exposed to 2 Gy of Fe ions. Mutant spectra were analyzed via PCR using a series of heterozygous markers along mouse chromosome 8. Cytotoxicity assays were performed immediately after Fe ion exposure of cells from two primary clones. Cells irradiated in vitro demonstrated a dose-dependent decrement in cloning efficiency with no evidence of a shoulder. The results demonstrate the two clones behave similarly (unpaired t-test, p>0.3) with a D0 of 84.3 cGy for the combined data set. Mutation data were obtained using cells from one of the primary clones. In three experiments, we observed a linear dose-response for Aprt mutation with an induced mutant frzction of 1.06 x 10-3 /Gy. Kidney epithelial cells irradiated in vivo and incubated for 2-4 months in situ prior to harvest also showed an exponential reduction of cloning efficiency. Cells harvested 8-10 months postirradiation showed evidence of recovery for doses up to 1.5 Gy, but there was no improvement in cloning efficiency for kidney cells exposed to 2 Gy Fe ions in vivo evaluated at the late time point. Results for Aprt mutation induction in vivo indicated considerable inter-animal variation within each dose group (0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 Gy). Fe ion exposures were mutagenic to the kidney, even at the lowest dose (p<0.01). A comparison of the mutant frequency results at the two harvest times indicates that the dose response did not vary with incubation time in vivo. Analysis of the pooled data from the 2-4 months harvests and the 8-10 month harvests indicated an increase in mutant frequency of 1.49 fold per Gy (p=0.01, CI 1.11-2.01). Molecular analysis of Aprtdeficient cells collected after a 2 Gy exposure to Fe ions in vitro showed an increased proportion of mutants arising via interstitial deletion or mitotic recombination, with an indication of an increase in chromosome loss. Similar results have been obtained for Aprt mutants isolated from mice exposed to 2 Gy of Fe ions, as compared with mutants collected from sham

  4. 5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase from yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus): molecular characterization and mutational analysis.

    PubMed

    Bretes, Ewa; Guranowski, Andrzej; Nuc, Katarzyna

    2011-08-01

    This is report of mutational analysis of higher plant 5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase (MTAN). We identified and characterized the gene encoding yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus) MTAN (LlMTAN). The role of active site amino acids residues Glu24, Phe134, Glu188 and Asp211 was analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis. The Glu24Gln and Asp211Asn substitutions completely abolished the enzyme activity. The Glu188Gln mutant showed only trace activity toward 5'-methylthioadenosine. These results indicate that these three amino acid residues are necessary for enzyme activity. Furthermore, as the result of replacement of Phe134 by less bulky leucine, LlMTAN acquired the ability to bind and hydrolyze S-adenosylhomocysteine. We also analyzed the sequence of the LlMTAN promoter region. It appeared that there may be a direct link between LlMTAN expression regulation and sulfate metabolism.

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of Targeted Mouse Mutations Reveals the Topography of Local Changes in Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Adkisson, Michael; Nava, A. J.; Kirov, Julia V.; Cipollone, Andreanna; Willis, Brandon; Rapp, Jared; de Jong, Pieter J.; Lloyd, Kent C.

    2016-01-01

    The unintended consequences of gene targeting in mouse models have not been thoroughly studied and a more systematic analysis is needed to understand the frequency and characteristics of off-target effects. Using RNA-seq, we evaluated targeted and neighboring gene expression in tissues from 44 homozygous mutants compared with C57BL/6N control mice. Two allele types were evaluated: 15 targeted trap mutations (TRAP); and 29 deletion alleles (DEL), usually a deletion between the translational start and the 3’ UTR. Both targeting strategies insert a bacterial beta-galactosidase reporter (LacZ) and a neomycin resistance selection cassette. Evaluating transcription of genes in +/- 500 kb of flanking DNA around the targeted gene, we found up-regulated genes more frequently around DEL compared with TRAP alleles, however the frequency of alleles with local down-regulated genes flanking DEL and TRAP targets was similar. Down-regulated genes around both DEL and TRAP targets were found at a higher frequency than expected from a genome-wide survey. However, only around DEL targets were up-regulated genes found with a significantly higher frequency compared with genome-wide sampling. Transcriptome analysis confirms targeting in 97% of DEL alleles, but in only 47% of TRAP alleles probably due to non-functional splice variants, and some splicing around the gene trap. Local effects on gene expression are likely due to a number of factors including compensatory regulation, loss or disruption of intragenic regulatory elements, the exogenous promoter in the neo selection cassette, removal of insulating DNA in the DEL mutants, and local silencing due to disruption of normal chromatin organization or presence of exogenous DNA. An understanding of local position effects is important for understanding and interpreting any phenotype attributed to targeted gene mutations, or to spontaneous indels. PMID:26839965

  6. Mutation scanning-based analysis of Theileria orientalis populations in cattle following an outbreak.

    PubMed

    Cufos, Nadia; Jabbar, Abdul; de Carvalho, Luís M; Gasser, Robin B

    2012-07-01

    Bovine theileriosis is a tick-borne disease caused by one or more hemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Theileria. In the past, Theileria infection in cattle in Australia was largely asymptomatic and recognized to be associated with Theileria buffeli. However, outbreaks of theileriosis have occurred in beef and dairy cattle in subtropical climatic regions (New South Wales) of Australia. There is also one published report of a recent theileriosis outbreak in a beef farm near Seymour in the southeastern state of Victoria. In order to gain an improved insight into the genetic composition of Theileria populations following this outbreak, we undertook herein an integrated PCR-coupled mutation scanning-sequencing-phylogenetic analysis of sequence variation in part of the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene within and among samples from cattle involved in the outbreak. Theileria DNA was detected in 89.4% of 94 cattle in the Seymour farm; the genetic analysis showed that the ikeda and chitose genotypes representing the Theileria orientalis complex were detected in 75 and 4.8% of 84 infected cattle, respectively, and that mixed populations of these two genotypes were found in 20.2% of infected cattle. Given unpublished reports of a significant increase in the number of outbreaks in Victoria, future investigations should focus sharply on elucidating the epidemiology of Theileria to subvert the economic impact on the cattle industry in this state. Although used here to explore genetic variation within the T. orientalis complex in Australia, a mutation scanning-based approach has broad applicability to other species of Theileria in other countries.

  7. Molecular analysis of the PAX6 gene in Mexican patients with congenital aniridia: report of four novel mutations

    PubMed Central

    Villarroel, Camilo E.; Villanueva-Mendoza, Cristina; Orozco, Lorena; Alcántara-Ortigoza, Miguel Angel; Jiménez, Diana F.; Ordaz, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Paired box gene 6 (PAX6) heterozygous mutations are well known to cause congenital non-syndromic aniridia. These mutations produce primarily protein truncations and have been identified in approximately 40%–80% of all aniridia cases worldwide. In Mexico, there is only one previous report describing three intragenic deletions in five cases. In this study, we further analyze PAX6 variants in a group of Mexican aniridia patients and describe associated ocular findings. Methods We evaluated 30 nonrelated probands from two referral hospitals. Mutations were detected by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and direct sequencing, and novel missense mutations and intronic changes were analyzed by in silico analysis. One intronic variation (IVS2+9G>A), which in silico analysis suggested had no pathological effects, was searched in 103 unaffected controls. Results Almost all cases exhibited phenotypes that were at the severe end of the aniridia spectrum with associated ocular alterations such as nystagmus, macular hypoplasia, and congenital cataracts. The mutation detection rate was 30%. Eight different mutations were identified: four (c.184_188dupGAGAC, c.361T>C, c.879dupC, and c.277G>A) were novel, and four (c.969C>T, IVS6+1G>C, c.853delC, and IVS7–2A>G) have been previously reported. The substitution at position 969 was observed in two patients. None of the intragenic deletions previously reported in Mexican patients were found. Most of the mutations detected predict either truncation of the PAX6 protein or conservative amino acid changes in the paired domain. We also detected two intronic non-pathogenic variations, IVS9–12C>T and IVS2+9G>A, that had been previously reported. Because the latter variation was considered potentially pathogenic, it was analyzed in 103 healthy Mexican newborns where we found an allelic frequency of 0.1116 for the A allele. Conclusions This study adds four novel mutations to the worldwide PAX6 mutational spectrum, and

  8. Genetic analysis and functional characterization of novel mutations in a series of patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Szarvas, Nóra; Szilágyi, Ágnes; Csuka, Dorottya; Takács, Beáta; Rusai, Krisztina; Müller, Thomas; Arbeiter, Klaus; Réti, Marienn; Haris, Ágnes; Wagner, László; Török, Szilárd; Kelen, Kata; Szabó, Attila J; Reusz, György S; Morgan, B Paul; Prohászka, Zoltán

    2016-03-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare disorder caused by dysregulation of the complement alternative pathway, and associated with mutations in genes of complement components and regulators. In the recent years several studies have been published describing these mutations, however, no data is available from the Central and Eastern European region. In this study we present a detailed genetic analysis of our 30 patients, hospitalized with the diagnosis of aHUS in the past 7 years. We analyzed the genetic variants of genes CFH, CFI, CD46, THBD, CFB and C3; furthermore the possible effect of mutations that may alter the function or level of factor H protein was also investigated. We identified 27 (12 novel and 15 previously described) potentially disease-causing mutations in the candidate genes in 23 patients. Genetic analysis of family members revealed that in most cases the disease develops in individuals with multiple genetic risk factors, which may explain the low penetrance of the mutations. Here we showed that two novel mutations (p.W198R, p.P1161T) and a previously reported one (p.R1215Q) in CFH caused impaired regulation as indicated by increased lysis in hemolytic test, while four CFH mutations (p.V609D, p.S722X, p.T1216del and p.C448Y) were associated with decreased factor H protein level in serum as determined by allele-specific immunoassay. These results further point to the necessity of complete genetic workup of patients with aHUS and to the importance of functional characterization of novel variations. PMID:26826462

  9. Mutational analysis of the myelin protein zero (MPZ) gene associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 1B

    SciTech Connect

    Roa, B.B.; Warner, L.E.; Lupski, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    The MPZ gene that maps to chromosome 1q22q23 encodes myelin protein zero, which is the most abundant peripheral nerve myelin protein that functions as a homophilic adhesion molecule in myelin compaction. Association of the MPZ gene with the dysmyelinating peripheral neuropathies Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B (CMT1B) and the more severe Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS) was previously demonstrated by MPZ mutations identified in CMT1B and in rare DSS patients. In this study, the coding region of the MPZ gene was screened for mutations in a cohort of 74 unrelated patients with either CMT type 1 or DSS who do not carry the most common CMT1-associated molecular lesion of a 1.5 Mb DNA duplication on 17p11.2-p12. Heteroduplex analysis detected base mismatches in ten patients that were distributed over three exons of MPZ. Direct sequencing of PCR-amplified genomic DNA identified a de novo MPZ mutation associated with CMT1B that predicts an Ile(135)Thr substitution. This finding further confirms the role of MPZ in the CMT1B disease process. In addition, two polymorphisms were identified within the Gly(200) and Ser(228) codons that do not alter the respective amino acid residues. A fourth base mismatch in MPZ exon 3 detected by heteroduplex analysis is currently being characterized by direct sequence determination. Previously, four unrelated patients in this same cohort were found to have unique point mutations in the coding region of the PMP22 gene. The collective findings on CMT1 point mutations could suggest that regulatory region mutations, and possibly mutations in CMT gene(s) apart from the MPZ, PMP22 and Cx32 genes identified thus far, may prove to be significant for a number of CMT1 cases that do not involve DNA duplication.

  10. Domain-dependent clustering and genotype-phenotype analysis of LGI1 mutations in ADPEAF

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yuan-Yuan; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In families with autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF) with mutations in the LGI1 gene, we evaluated clustering of mutations within the gene and associations of penetrance and phenotypic features with mutation location and predicted effect (truncation or missense). Methods: We abstracted clinical and molecular information from the literature for all 36 previously published ADPEAF families with LGI1 mutations. We used a sliding window approach to analyze mutation clustering within the gene. Each mutation was mapped to one of the gene's 2 major functional domains, N-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and C-terminal epitempin (EPTP) repeats, and classified according to predicted effect on the encoded protein (truncation vs missense). Analyses of phenotypic features (age at onset and occurrence of auditory symptoms) in relation to mutation site and predicted effect included 160 patients with idiopathic focal unprovoked seizures from the 36 families. Results: ADPEAF-causing mutations clustered significantly in the LRR domain (exons 3–5) of LGI1 (p = 0.026). Auditory symptoms were less frequent in individuals with truncation mutations in the EPTP domain than in those with other mutation type/domain combinations (58% vs 80%, p = 0.018). Conclusion: The LRR region of the LGI1 gene is likely to play a major role in pathogenesis of ADPEAF. PMID:22323750

  11. Whole exome analysis identifies dominant COL4A1 mutations in patients with complex ocular phenotypes involving microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Deml, B; Reis, L M; Maheshwari, M; Griffis, C; Bick, D; Semina, E V

    2014-11-01

    Anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M) is a developmental ocular malformation defined as complete absence or reduction in size of the eye. A/M is a heterogenous disorder with numerous causative genes identified; however, about half the cases lack a molecular diagnosis. We undertook whole exome sequencing in an A/M family with two affected siblings, two unaffected siblings, and unaffected parents; the ocular phenotype was isolated with only mild developmental delay/learning difficulties reported and a normal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the proband at 16 months. No pathogenic mutations were identified in 71 known A/M genes. Further analysis identified a shared heterozygous mutation in COL4A1, c.2317G>A, p.(Gly773Arg) that was not seen in the unaffected parents and siblings. Analysis of 24 unrelated A/M exomes identified a novel c.2122G>A, p.(Gly708Arg) mutation in an additional patient with unilateral microphthalmia, bilateral microcornea and Peters anomaly; the mutation was absent in the unaffected mother and the unaffected father was not available. Mutations in COL4A1 have been linked to a spectrum of human disorders; the most consistent feature is cerebrovascular disease with variable ocular anomalies, kidney and muscle defects. This study expands the spectrum of COL4A1 phenotypes and indicates screening in patients with A/M regardless of MRI findings or presumed inheritance pattern.

  12. Genetic diagnosis of Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy using next-generation sequencing: validation analysis of DMD mutations

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Mariko; Minami, Narihiro; Goto, Kanako; Goto, Yuichi; Noguchi, Satoru; Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Nishino, Ichizo

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD/BMD) are the most common inherited neuromuscular disease. The genetic diagnosis is not easily made because of the large size of the dystrophin gene, complex mutational spectrum and high number of tests patients undergo for diagnosis. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) has been used as the initial diagnostic test of choice. Although MLPA can diagnose 70% of DMD/BMD patients having deletions/duplications, the remaining 30% of patients with small mutations require further analysis, such as Sanger sequencing. We applied a high-throughput method using Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing technology and diagnosed 92% of patients with DMD/BMD in a single analysis. We designed a multiplex primer pool for DMD and sequenced 67 cases having different mutations: 37 with deletions/duplications and 30 with small mutations or short insertions/deletions in DMD, using an Ion PGM sequencer. The results were compared with those from MLPA or Sanger sequencing. All deletions were detected. In contrast, 50% of duplications were correctly identified compared with the MLPA method. Small insertions in consecutive bases could not be detected. We estimated that Ion Torrent sequencing could diagnose ~92% of DMD/BMD patients according to the mutational spectrum of our cohort. Our results clearly indicate that this method is suitable for routine clinical practice providing novel insights into comprehensive genetic information for future molecular therapy. PMID:26911353

  13. Mutational analysis of PKD1 gene in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyan; Li, Lanrong; Liu, Qingmin

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a hereditary disease and common renal disease. Mutations of PKD genes are responsible for this disease. We analyzed a large Chinese family with ADPKD using Sanger sequencing to identify the mutation responsible for this disease. The family comprised 27 individuals including 10 ADPKD patients. These ADPKD patients had severe renal disease and most of them died very young. We analyzed 6 survival patients gene and found they all had C10529T mutation in exon 35 of PKD1 gene. We did not found gene mutation in any unaffected relatives or 300 unrelated controls. These findings suggested that the C10529T mutation in PKD1 gene might be the pathogenic mutation responsible for the disease in this family. PMID:26722532

  14. Mutational analysis of PKD1 gene in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingyan; Li, Lanrong; Liu, Qingmin

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a hereditary disease and common renal disease. Mutations of PKD genes are responsible for this disease. We analyzed a large Chinese family with ADPKD using Sanger sequencing to identify the mutation responsible for this disease. The family comprised 27 individuals including 10 ADPKD patients. These ADPKD patients had severe renal disease and most of them died very young. We analyzed 6 survival patients gene and found they all had C10529T mutation in exon 35 of PKD1 gene. We did not found gene mutation in any unaffected relatives or 300 unrelated controls. These findings suggested that the C10529T mutation in PKD1 gene might be the pathogenic mutation responsible for the disease in this family. PMID:26722532

  15. Micropenis and the AR Gene: mutation and CAG repeat-length analysis.

    PubMed

    Ishii, T; Sato, S; Kosaki, K; Sasaki, G; Muroya, K; Ogata, T; Matsuo, N

    2001-11-01

    Various mutations of the AR gene and expanded CAG repeats at exon 1 of that gene have been reported in patients with hypospadias or genital ambiguity. However, the role of the AR gene has not been systemically studied in those with isolated micropenis lacking hypospadias or genital ambiguity. We studied 64 Japanese boys with isolated micropenis (age, 0-14 yr; median, 7 yr), whose stretched penile lengths were between -2.5 and -2.0 SD (borderline micropenis) in 31 patients (age, 0-13 yr; median, 8 yr) and below -2.5 SD (definite micropenis) in 33 patients (age, 0-14 yr; median, 6 yr). Mutation analysis of the AR gene was performed for exons 1-8 and their flanking introns, except for the CAG and GGC repeat regions at exon 1, by denaturing HPLC and direct sequencing, identifying a substitution of cytosine to thymine at a position -3 in the 3' splice site of intron 1 in a patient with definite micropenis. CAG repeat length at exon 1 was determined by electrophoresis with internal size markers and direct sequencing, revealing no statistically significant difference in the distribution of CAG repeat lengths [median (range) and mean +/- SE: total patients with isolated micropenis, 24 (14-34) and 23.5 +/- 0.38; patients with borderline micropenis, 24 (15-29) and 23.5 +/- 0.53; patients with definite micropenis, 23 (14-34) and 23.5 +/- 0.56; and 100 control males, 23 (16-32) and 23.5 +/- 0.29] or in the frequency of long CAG repeats (percentage of CAG repeats > or =26 and > or =28: total patients with isolated micropenis, 17.2 and 4.7%; patients with borderline micropenis, 19.4 and 6.5%; patients with definite micropenis, 15.2 and 3.0%; and 100 control males, 21.0 and 10.0%). These results suggest that an AR gene mutation is rare and that CAG repeat length is not expanded in children with isolated micropenis.

  16. Thermodynamics of antibody-antigen interaction revealed by mutation analysis of antibody variable regions.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Hiroki; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2015-07-01

    Antibodies (immunoglobulins) bind specific molecules (i.e. antigens) with high affinity and specificity. In order to understand their mechanisms of recognition, interaction analysis based on thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, as well as structure determination is crucial. In this review, we focus on mutational analysis which gives information about the role of each amino acid residue in antibody-antigen interaction. Taking anti-hen egg lysozyme antibodies and several anti-small molecule antibodies, the energetic contribution of hot-spot and non-hot-spot residues is discussed in terms of thermodynamics. Here, thermodynamics of the contribution from aromatic, charged and hydrogen bond-forming amino acids are discussed, and their different characteristics have been elucidated. The information gives fundamental understanding of the antibody-antigen interaction. Furthermore, the consequences of antibody engineering are analysed from thermodynamic viewpoints: humanization to reduce immunogenicity and rational design to improve affinity. Amino acid residues outside hot-spots in the interface play important roles in these cases, and thus thermodynamic and kinetic parameters give much information about the antigen recognition. Thermodynamic analysis of mutant antibodies thus should lead to advanced strategies to design and select antibodies with high affinity.

  17. [Mutation analysis of the pathogenic gene in a Chinese family with hereditary hemochromatosis].

    PubMed

    Yuanfeng, Li; Hongxing, Zhang; Haitao, Zhang; Xiaobo, Peng; Lili, Bai; Fuchu, He; Zewu, Qiu; Gangqiao, Zhou

    2014-11-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HHC) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. We recruited a consanguineous Chinese family including the proband with HHC and other four members without HHC. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified two homozygous mutations (c.G18C [p.Q6H] and c.GC962_963AA [p.C321X]) in the hemojuvelin gene (HJV) in the proband with HHC. No mutation was found in other four previously identified HHC related genes, HAMP, TFR2, FPN and HFE. The functional impact of p.Q6H mutation is weak whereas p.C321X, a premature termination mutation, results in a truncated HJV protein, which lacks the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor domain. In addition to the mutations in HJV, other 12 homozygous mutations were identified in this patient. However, none of these mutations showed strong damaging impact and the mutated genes are not related to iron metabolism. Our in-house data further demonstrated that p.C321X is absent in the general Chinese population, suggesting that the homozygous mutation p.C321X in HJV is causative in the patient with HHC. Accordingly, all of the four members without HHC from the same family carried wild-type alleles or heterozygous mutations, but not the homozygous mutation in this site. Thus, we found for the first time that the homozygous mutation p.C321X in HJV can result in HHC, which will help genetic diagnosis and prenatal counseling for HHC. PMID:25567873

  18. Comprehensive Analysis of the Transcriptional and Mutational Landscape of Follicular and Papillary Thyroid Cancers.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seong-Keun; Lee, Seungbok; Kim, Su-Jin; Jee, Hyeon-Gun; Kim, Byoung-Ae; Cho, Hyesun; Song, Young Shin; Cho, Sun Wook; Won, Jae-Kyung; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Park, Do Joon; Kim, Jong-Il; Lee, Kyu Eun; Park, Young Joo; Seo, Jeong-Sun

    2016-08-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and benign follicular adenoma (FA) are indistinguishable by preoperative diagnosis due to their similar histological features. Here we report the first RNA sequencing study of these tumors, with data for 30 minimally invasive FTCs (miFTCs) and 25 FAs. We also compared 77 classical papillary thyroid carcinomas (cPTCs) and 48 follicular variant of PTCs (FVPTCs) to observe the differences in their molecular properties. Mutations in H/K/NRAS, DICER1, EIF1AX, IDH1, PTEN, SOS1, and SPOP were identified in miFTC or FA. We identified a low frequency of fusion genes in miFTC (only one, PAX8-PPARG), but a high frequency of that in PTC (17.60%). The frequencies of BRAFV600E and H/K/NRAS mutations were substantially different in miFTC and cPTC, and those of FVPTC were intermediate between miFTC and cPTC. Gene expression analysis demonstrated three molecular subtypes regardless of their histological features, including Non-BRAF-Non-RAS (NBNR), as well as BRAF-like and RAS-like. The novel molecular subtype, NBNR, was associated with DICER1, EIF1AX, IDH1, PTEN, SOS1, SPOP, and PAX8-PPARG. The transcriptome of miFTC or encapsulated FVPTC was indistinguishable from that of FA, providing a molecular explanation for the similarly indolent behavior of these tumors. We identified upregulation of genes that are related to mitochondrial biogenesis including ESRRA and PPARGC1A in oncocytic follicular thyroid neoplasm. Arm-level copy number variations were correlated to histological and molecular characteristics. These results expanded the current molecular understanding of thyroid cancer and may lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the disease.

  19. Comprehensive Analysis of the Transcriptional and Mutational Landscape of Follicular and Papillary Thyroid Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Hyeon-Gun; Kim, Byoung-Ae; Cho, Hyesun; Song, Young Shin; Cho, Sun Wook; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Il; Lee, Kyu Eun; Seo, Jeong-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and benign follicular adenoma (FA) are indistinguishable by preoperative diagnosis due to their similar histological features. Here we report the first RNA sequencing study of these tumors, with data for 30 minimally invasive FTCs (miFTCs) and 25 FAs. We also compared 77 classical papillary thyroid carcinomas (cPTCs) and 48 follicular variant of PTCs (FVPTCs) to observe the differences in their molecular properties. Mutations in H/K/NRAS, DICER1, EIF1AX, IDH1, PTEN, SOS1, and SPOP were identified in miFTC or FA. We identified a low frequency of fusion genes in miFTC (only one, PAX8–PPARG), but a high frequency of that in PTC (17.60%). The frequencies of BRAFV600E and H/K/NRAS mutations were substantially different in miFTC and cPTC, and those of FVPTC were intermediate between miFTC and cPTC. Gene expression analysis demonstrated three molecular subtypes regardless of their histological features, including Non–BRAF–Non–RAS (NBNR), as well as BRAF–like and RAS–like. The novel molecular subtype, NBNR, was associated with DICER1, EIF1AX, IDH1, PTEN, SOS1, SPOP, and PAX8–PPARG. The transcriptome of miFTC or encapsulated FVPTC was indistinguishable from that of FA, providing a molecular explanation for the similarly indolent behavior of these tumors. We identified upregulation of genes that are related to mitochondrial biogenesis including ESRRA and PPARGC1A in oncocytic follicular thyroid neoplasm. Arm-level copy number variations were correlated to histological and molecular characteristics. These results expanded the current molecular understanding of thyroid cancer and may lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the disease. PMID:27494611

  20. Pedigree analysis in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy families with a pathogenic mtDNA mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Harding, A E; Sweeney, M G; Govan, G G; Riordan-Eva, P

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine index patients from 85 families were defined as having Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) by the presence of one of the mtDNA mutations at positions 11778 (66 families), 3460 (8 families), or 14484 (11 families). There were 62 secondary cases. Overall, 64% of index cases had a history of similarly affected relatives. The ratios of affected males to affected females were 3.7:1 (11778), 4.3:1 (3460), and 7.7:1 (14484). The 95th centile for age at onset of symptoms was close to 50 years in index, secondary, male, and female patients. There were no differences in the distributions of age at onset between different mutation groups, between index and secondary cases, or between males and females, apart from this being slightly later in all female patients than in male 11778 patients. There was no significant correlation between age at onset in index cases and that in their affected siblings or cousins. Heteroplasmy (< 96% mutant mtDNA) was detected in 4% of affected subjects (67%-90% mutant mtDNA) and in 13.6% of 140 unaffected relatives (< 5%-90% mutant mtDNA). Analysis of all pedigrees, excluding sibships < 50 years of age and index cases, indicated recurrence risks of 30%, 8%, 46%, 10%, 31%, and 6%, respectively, to the brothers, sisters, nephews, nieces, and male and female matrilineal first cousins of index cases. Affected females were more likely to have affected children, particularly daughters, than were unaffected female carriers. The pedigree data were entirely compatible with the previously proposed X-linked susceptibility locus, with a gene frequency of .08, penetrance of .11 in heterozygous females, and 40% of affected females being homozygous, the remainder being explained by heterozygosity and disadvantageous X inactivation. PMID:7611298

  1. An analysis of substitution, deletion and insertion mutations in cancer genes.

    PubMed

    Iengar, Prathima

    2012-08-01

    Cancer-associated mutations in cancer genes constitute a diverse set of mutations associated with the disease. To gain insight into features of the set, substitution, deletion and insertion mutations were analysed at the nucleotide level, from the COSMIC database. The most frequent substitutions were c → t, g → a, g → t, and the most frequent codon changes were to termination codons. Deletions more than insertions, FS (frameshift) indels more than I-F (in-frame) ones, and single-nucleotide indels, were frequent. FS indels cause loss of significant fractions of proteins. The 5'-cut in FS deletions, and 5'-ligation in FS insertions, often occur between pairs of identical bases. Interestingly, the cut-site and 3'-ligation in insertions, and 3'-cut and join-pair in deletions, were each found to be the same significantly often (p < 0.001). It is suggested that these features aid the incorporation of indel mutations. Tumor suppressors undergo larger numbers of mutations, especially disruptive ones, over the entire protein length, to inactivate two alleles. Proto-oncogenes undergo fewer, less-disruptive mutations, in selected protein regions, to activate a single allele. Finally, catalogues, in ranked order, of genes mutated in each cancer, and cancers in which each gene is mutated, were created. The study highlights the nucleotide level preferences and disruptive nature of cancer mutations.

  2. [Analysis of PTPN11 mutation in children leukemia and its clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Yang, San-Zhen; Chen, Bing-Qiang; Lu, Su-Ying; Zhang, Bi-Hong; Xue, Hong-Man; Chen, Chun

    2012-02-01

    This study was aimed to explore the frequency of PTPN11 mutation in children with leukemia and its clinical significance. Genomic DNAs were extracted from peripheral leukocytes of 131 patients with leukemia, including 101 cases of ALL, 26 cases of AML, 3 cases of CML and 1 case of juvenil myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). The sequences of PTPN11 exons 3, 8, 13 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the clinical characteristics of positive patients were analyzed. The results indicated that the PTPN11 mutation was found in 10 cases (9.9%) from newly diagnosed 101 cases of ALL. Grouping the newly diagnosed ALL children by various clinical features, it was found that the PTPN11 mutation did not show associations with sex, age, white blood cell (WBC) count, prednisone test sensitivity, clinical risk and disease recurrences at the first visit (P > 0.05). PTPN11 mutations were found in 2 cases out of 26 AML patients, including one AML-M(2) and one AML-M(4). No PTPN11 mutation in 3 CML patients was found. Exon 13 mutation of PTPN11 gene was found in 1 case of JMML. It is concluded that the E76 of exon 3 is the hot spot of PTPN11 mutation in children leukemia. The novel G503E (1508G > A) mutation is detected in one JMML patient. The PTPN11 mutation does not associate with the sex, age, WBC count, prednisone sensitive test and early recurrence.

  3. EGFR Mutation Analysis of Circulating Tumor DNA Using an Improved PNA-LNA PCR Clamp Method

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kana; Fukuhara, Tatsuro; Tsukita, Yoko; Morita, Mami; Suzuki, Aya; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Terasaki, Hiroshi; Nukiwa, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Rebiopsies have become more crucial in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Instead of invasive biopsies, development of collecting biological data of the tumor from blood samples is expected. We conducted a prospective study to assess the feasibility of detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation in plasma samples. Method. NSCLC patients harboring EGFR activating mutations, who were going to receive EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as first-line treatment, were enrolled in this study. Plasma EGFR activating mutations and the T790M resistance mutation were analyzed by an improved PNA-LNA PCR clamp method, characterized by a 10-fold or more sensitivity compared with the original methods. Result. Six patients with wild-type EGFR and 24 patients with EGFR mutations were enrolled in this study. Pretreatment plasma samples achieved sensitivity of 79%. The 6 patients with wild-type EGFR were all negative for plasma EGFR mutations. At the time of disease progression, plasma T790M mutation was detected in 8 of 16 cases. Absence of T790M before and during TKI treatment and disappearance of activating mutations during TKI treatment were considered as predictors of EGFR-TKIs efficacy. Conclusion. We were able to detect EGFR mutations in plasma samples by using an improved PNA-LNA PCR clamp method. PMID:27478396

  4. Rapid deoxyribonucleic acid analysis by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction for detection of mutations in the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.C.; Wei, J.Q.; Cheng, K.C.

    1995-05-01

    Rapid DNA analysis based on allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mutation site-specific primers was developed to detect mutations in the CYP21 gene known to cause steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency. In contrast to the previous method, in which PCR of genomic DNA was followed by dot blot analysis with radio active probes and multiple rounds of stripping and reprobing for each of the 8 most common mutation sites, the results using this new method were immediately visualized after the PCR run by ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel electrophoresis. Using allele-specific PCR, mutation(s) were identified on 148 affected chromosomes out of 160 tested. Although mutation(s) were identified on only one chromosome of 11 of these patients, their parents showed a consistent pattern on DNA analysis. The only exception was that in one family, in which the parents each had a detectable mutation, a mutation was detected on only one allele of the patient. Most likely there is a mutation in the patient`s other allele that could have arisen de novo or was inherited from the parent and was not evident in the transmitting parent`s phenotype. When compared with the dot blot procedure, allele-specific PCR is more rapid, less labor-intensive, and avoids the use of radioactivity. 26 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Biochemical and structural analysis of missense mutations in N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase causing mucopolysaccharidosis IVA phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Sukegawa, K; Nakamura, H; Kato, Z; Tomatsu, S; Montaño, A M; Fukao, T; Toietta, G; Tortora, P; Orii, T; Kondo, N

    2000-05-22

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; OMIM#253000), a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of N -acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS), has variable clinical phenotypes. To date we have identified 65 missense mutations in the GALNS gene from MPS IVA patients, but the correlation between genotype and phenotype has remained unclear. We studied 17 missense mutations using biochemical approaches and 32 missense mutations, using structural analyses. Fifteen missense mutations and two newly engineered active site mutations (C79S, C79T) were characterized by transient expression analysis. Mutant proteins, except for C79S and C79T, were destabilized and detected as insoluble precursor forms while the C79S and C79T mutants were of a soluble mature size. Mutants found in the severe phenotype had no activity. Mutants found in the mild phenotype had a considerable residual activity (1.3-13.3% of wild-type GALNS activity). Sulfatases, including GALNS, are members of a highly conserved gene family sharing an extensive sequence homology. Thus, a tertiary structural model of human GALNS was constructed from the X-ray crystal structure of N -acetylgalacto-samine-4-sulfatase and arylsulfatase A, using homology modeling, and 32 missense mutations were investigated. Consequently, we propose that there are at least three different reasons for the severe phenotype: (i) destruction of the hydrophobic core or modification of the packing; (ii) removal of a salt bridge to destabilize the entire conformation; (iii) modification of the active site. In contrast, mild mutations were mostly located on the surface of the GALNS protein. These studies shed further light on the genotype-phenotype correlation of MPS IVA and structure-function relationship in the sulfatase family. PMID:10814710

  6. Effect of BRCA2 mutation on familial breast cancer survival: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jun; Yang, Jie; Wang, Jun-nai; Qiao, Long; Fan, Wei; Gao, Qing-lei; Feng, Yao-jun

    2015-10-01

    Reports of BRCA2 genetic mutations on the prognosis of familial breast cancer (BC) patients have been contradictory. True difference in survival, if it exists, would have important implications for genetic counseling and in treatment of hereditary BC. The purpose of this study was to compare overall survival rate (OSR) among BRCA2 mutation carriers, non-carriers and sporadic BC patients. We searched the PUBMED and EMBASE databases and retrieved 4529 articles using keywords that included breast cancer, BRCA, prognosis and survival. Nine articles were selected for systematic review and among them 6 were included in our meta-analysis. We used the fixed and random effect models to calculate the summary odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). BRCA2 mutation carriers had significantly higher long-term OSR than non-carriers (OR=0.69 [95% CI=0.5-0.95]), while both short-term and long-term OSR of BRCA2 mutation carriers did not differ from those of patients with sporadic disease (OR=1.11 [95% CI=0.74-1.65]; 0.85 [95% CI=0.38-1.94], respectively). For BC-specific survival rate (BCSSR), BRCA2 mutation carriers had a similar BCSSR to the non-carriers (OR=0.61 [95% CI=0.28-1.34]). There was no significant difference in disease-free survival (DFS) between BRCA2 mutation carriers and patients with sporadic disease. Our results suggest that BRCA2 mutation increases long-term OSR in hereditary BC, which reminds us a new prospect of management of the disease.

  7. Natural polymorphisms and unusual mutations in HIV-1 protease with potential antiretroviral resistance: a bioinformatic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The correlations of genotypic and phenotypic tests with treatment, clinical history and the significance of mutations in viruses of HIV-infected patients are used to establish resistance mutations to protease inhibitors (PIs). Emerging mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease confer resistance to PIs by inducing structural changes at the ligand interaction site. The aim of this study was to establish an in silico structural relationship between natural HIV-1 polymorphisms and unusual HIV-1 mutations that confer resistance to PIs. Results Protease sequences isolated from 151 Mexican HIV-1 patients that were naïve to, or subjected to antiretroviral therapy, were examined. We identified 41 unrelated resistance mutations with a prevalence greater than 1%. Among these mutations, nine exhibited positive selection, three were natural polymorphisms (L63S/V/H) in a codon associated with drug resistance, and six were unusual mutations (L5F, D29V, L63R/G, P79L and T91V). The D29V mutation, with a prevalence of 1.32% in the studied population, was only found in patients treated with antiretroviral drugs. Using in silico modelling, we observed that D29V formed unstable protease complexes when were docked with lopinavir, saquinavir, darunavir, tipranavir, indinavir and atazanavir. Conclusions The structural correlation of natural polymorphisms and unusual mutations with drug resistance is useful for the identification of HIV-1 variants with potential resistance to PIs. The D29V mutation likely confers a selection advantage in viruses; however, in silico, presence of this mutation results in unstable enzyme/PI complexes, that possibly induce resistance to PIs. PMID:24629078

  8. Network Analysis of Genome-Wide Selective Constraint Reveals a Gene Network Active in Early Fetal Brain Intolerant of Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jinmyung; Samocha, Kaitlin E.; Daly, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Using robust, integrated analysis of multiple genomic datasets, we show that genes depleted for non-synonymous de novo mutations form a subnetwork of 72 members under strong selective constraint. We further show this subnetwork is preferentially expressed in the early development of the human hippocampus and is enriched for genes mutated in neurological Mendelian disorders. We thus conclude that carefully orchestrated developmental processes are under strong constraint in early brain development, and perturbations caused by mutation have adverse outcomes subject to strong purifying selection. Our findings demonstrate that selective forces can act on groups of genes involved in the same process, supporting the notion that purifying selection can act coordinately on multiple genes. Our approach provides a statistically robust, interpretable way to identify the tissues and developmental times where groups of disease genes are active. PMID:27305007

  9. Inherent Structure-Guided Multi-view Learning for Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment Classification

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingxia; Zhang, Daoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Multi-atlas based morphometric pattern analysis has been recently proposed for the automatic diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and its early stage, i.e., mild cognitive impairment (MCI), where multi-view feature representations for subjects are generated by using multiple atlases. However, existing multi-atlas based methods usually assume that each class is represented by a specific type of data distribution (i.e., a single cluster), while the underlying distribution of data is actually a prior unknown. In this paper, we propose an inherent structure-guided multi-view leaning (ISML) method for AD/MCI classification. Specifically, we first extract multi-view features for subjects using multiple selected atlases, and then cluster subjects in the original classes into several sub-classes (i.e., clusters) in each atlas space. Then, we encode each subject with a new label vector, by considering both the original class labels and the coding vectors for those sub-classes, followed by a multi-task feature selection model in each of multi-atlas spaces. Finally, we learn multiple SVM classifiers based on the selected features, and fuse them together by an ensemble classification method. Experimental results on the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database demonstrate that our method achieves better performance than several state-of-the-art methods in AD/MCI classification. PMID:27088137

  10. Analysis by illegitimate transcription of a mutation in the 5{prime} splice site in exon 8 of the PAH gene

    SciTech Connect

    Desviat, L.R.; Perez, B.; Ugarte, M.

    1994-09-01

    Up to now, 12 splice defects have been described within the PAH gene. Using PCR-SSCP and sequence analysis we have found a point mutation involving the last nucleotide in exon 8 (CAG/CAA). The G to A substitution does not alter the amino acid (Q204Q), but it may cause a splice defect, as it is included in the 5{prime} splice donor site, and the G at this position is highly conserved (80%) in all eukaryotic genes. We have analyzed by illegitimate transcription the PAH mRNA in lymphocytes of a patient bearing the mutation in a heterozygous fashion. After RT-PCR we observed once the appearance of an extra larger band, which could be due to the use of a cryptic splice site instead of the mutated one. Furthermore, sequencing of 6 clones of the band of expected size in the patient revealed that all had the normal sequence, in spite of the G to A substitution being found in the genomic DNA. In view of these results, we believe that the larger extra band represents the allele with the mutation which causes a highly unstable mis-spliced RNA. This splice defect could be, therefore, the disease causing mutation in the patient.

  11. Identification of Novel Mutations in ABCA4 Gene: Clinical and Genetic Analysis of Indian Patients with Stargardt Disease

    PubMed Central

    Battu, Rajani; Verma, Anshuman; Hariharan, Ramesh; Krishna, Shuba; Kiran, Ravi; Jacob, Jemima; Ganapathy, Aparna; Ramprasad, Vedam L.; Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy; Jeyabalan, Nallathambi; Ghosh, Arkasubhra

    2015-01-01

    Stargardt disease (STGD) is the leading cause of juvenile macular degeneration associated with progressive central vision loss, photophobia, and colour vision abnormalities. In this study, we have described the clinical and genetic features of Stargardt patients from an Indian cohort. The next generation sequencing was carried out in five clinically confirmed unrelated patients and their family members using a gene panel comprising 184 retinal specific genes. Sequencing results were analyzed by read mapping and variant calling in genes of interest, followed by their verification and interpretation. Genetic analysis revealed ABCA4 mutations in all of the five unrelated patients. Among these, four patients were found with compound heterozygous mutations and another one had homozygous mutation. All the affected individuals showed signs and symptoms consistent with the disease phenotype. We report two novel ABCA4 mutations in Indian patients with STGD disease, which expands the existing spectrum of disease-causing variants and the understanding of phenotypic and genotypic correlations. Screening for causative mutations in patients with STGD using panel of targeted gene sequencing by NGS would be a cost effective tool, might be helpful in confirming the precise diagnosis, and contributes towards the genetic counselling of asymptomatic carriers and isolated patients. PMID:25922843

  12. Comprehensive analysis of the gene encoding filaggrin uncovers prevalent and rare mutations in ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Sandilands, Aileen; Terron-Kwiatkowski, Ana; Hull, Peter R; O'Regan, Gráinne M; Clayton, Timothy H; Watson, Rosemarie M; Carrick, Thomas; Evans, Alan T; Liao, Haihui; Zhao, Yiwei; Campbell, Linda E; Schmuth, Matthias; Gruber, Robert; Janecke, Andreas R; Elias, Peter M; van Steensel, Maurice A M; Nagtzaam, Ivo; van Geel, Michel; Steijlen, Peter M; Munro, Colin S; Bradley, Daniel G; Palmer, Colin N A; Smith, Frances J D; McLean, W H Irwin; Irvine, Alan D

    2007-05-01

    We recently reported two common filaggrin (FLG) null mutations that cause ichthyosis vulgaris and predispose to eczema and secondary allergic diseases. We show here that these common European mutations are ancestral variants carried on conserved haplotypes. To facilitate comprehensive analysis of other populations, we report a strategy for full sequencing of this large, highly repetitive gene, and we describe 15 variants, including seven that are prevalent. All the variants are either nonsense or frameshift mutations that, in representative cases, resulted in loss of filaggrin production in the epidermis. In an Irish case-control study, the five most common European mutations showed a strong association with moderate-to-severe childhood eczema (chi2 test: P = 2.12 x 10(-51); Fisher's exact test: heterozygote odds ratio (OR) = 7.44 (95% confidence interval (c.i.) = 4.9-11.3), and homozygote OR = 151 (95% c.i. = 20-1,136)). We found three additional rare null mutations in this case series, suggesting that the genetic architecture of filaggrin-related atopic dermatitis consists of both prevalent and rare risk alleles.

  13. The TP53 website: an integrative resource centre for the TP53 mutation database and TP53 mutant analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Bernard; Fournier, Jean Louis; Ishioka, Chikashi; Monti, Paola; Inga, Alberto; Fronza, Gilberto; Soussi, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    A novel resource centre for TP53 mutations and mutants has been developed (http://p53.fr). TP53 gene dysfunction can be found in the majority of human cancer types. The potential use of TP53 mutation as a biomarker for clinical studies or exposome analysis has led to the publication of thousands of reports describing the TP53 gene status in >10 000 tumours. The UMD TP53 mutation database was created in 1990 and has been regularly updated. The 2012 release of the database has been carefully curated, and all suspicious reports have been eliminated. It is available either as a flat file that can be easily manipulated or as novel multi-platform analytical software that has been designed to analyse various aspects of TP53 mutations. Several tools to ascertain TP53 mutations are also available for download. We have developed TP53MULTLoad, a manually curated database providing comprehensive details on the properties of 2549 missense TP53 mutants. More than 100 000 entries have been arranged in 39 different activity fields, such as change of transactivation on various promoters, apoptosis or growth arrest. For several hot spot mutants, multiple gain of function activities are also included. The database can be easily browsed via a graphical user interface. PMID:23161690

  14. Mutational Analysis of Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma Using Targeted Sequencing with a Comprehensive Cancer Panel

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seungkyu; Go, Jai Hyang; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Hojung; Lee, Won Mi; Cho, Chun-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (NKTCL), is a malignant disorder of cytotoxic lymphocytes of NK or T cells. It is an aggressive neoplasm with a very poor prognosis. Although extranodal NKTCL reportedly has a strong association with Epstein-Barr virus, the molecular pathogenesis of NKTCL has been unexplored. The recent technological advancements in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have made DNA sequencing cost- and time-effective, with more reliable results. Using the Ion Proton Comprehensive Cancer Panel, we sequenced 409 cancer-related genes to identify somatic mutations in five NKTCL tissue samples. The sequencing analysis detected 25 mutations in 21 genes. Among them, KMT2D, a histone modification-related gene, was the most frequently mutated gene (four of the five cases). This result was consistent with recent NGS studies that have suggested KMT2D as a novel driver gene in NKTCL. Mutations were also found in ARID1A, a chromatin remodeling gene, and TP53, which also recurred in recent NGS studies. We also found mutations in 18 novel candidate genes, with molecular functions that were potentially implicated in cancer development. We suggest that these genes may result in multiple oncogenic events and may be used as potential bio-markers of NKTCL in the future. PMID:27729836

  15. Large-scale mutational analysis of Kv11.1 reveals molecular insights into type 2 long QT syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Corey L.; Kuzmicki, Catherine E.; Childs, Ryan R.; Hintz, Caleb J.; Delisle, Brian P.; January, Craig T.

    2014-11-01

    It has been suggested that deficient protein trafficking to the cell membrane is the dominant mechanism associated with type 2 Long QT syndrome (LQT2) caused by Kv11.1 potassium channel missense mutations, and that for many mutations the trafficking defect can be corrected pharmacologically. However, this inference was based on expression of a small number of Kv11.1 mutations. We performed a comprehensive analysis of 167 LQT2-linked missense mutations in four Kv11.1 structural domains and found that deficient protein trafficking is the dominant mechanism for all domains except for the distal carboxy-terminus. Also, most pore mutations—in contrast to intracellular domain mutations—were found to have severe dominant-negative effects when co-expressed with wild-type subunits. Finally, pharmacological correction of the trafficking defect in homomeric mutant channels was possible for mutations within all structural domains. However, pharmacological correction is dramatically improved for pore mutants when co-expressed with wild-type subunits to form heteromeric channels.

  16. Exhaustive mutation scanning by fluorescence-assisted mismatch analysis discloses new genotype-phenotype correlations in angiodema.

    PubMed Central

    Verpy, E.; Biasotto, M.; Brai, M.; Misiano, G.; Meo, T.; Tosi, M.

    1996-01-01

    A complete mutational scan of the gene coding for the serpin C1 inhibitor, comprising all eight exons and adjacent intron sequences and 550 bp preceding the transcription start site, was rapidly accomplished in 36 unrelated angioedema patients by using fluorescence-assisted mismatch analysis (FAMA). Mutations accounting for C1 inhibitor deficiency were identified in every one of 34 patients, with two failures turning out to be spurious cases. Two new substitution dimorphisms were also detected in introns. Changes affecting the C1 inhibitor protein, distributed throughout the seven coding exons, provide new insights into the molecular pathology of serpins. Six different splice-site and two promoter mutations were also found. Among the latter, a C-->T transition within one of two putative CAAT boxes of this TATA-less promoter, the sole idiomorphic nucleotide change in this kindred, was found homozygous in the proband, at variance with the dominant mode of transmission observed for structural mutations. FAMA, in the chemical probes configuration used in this study, is a rapid and robust mutation-scanning procedure, applicable to large DNA segments or transcripts and proved capable of 100% detection. Moreover, it provides accurate positional information--and hence recognition of multiple substitutions, precise relationship with those already known, and often immediate identification of the nucleotide change. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8755917

  17. Clinical characteristics and mutation analysis of two Chinese children with 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ziyang; Ni, Shining; Gu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Combined with the literature, recognize the clinical features and molecular genetic mechanism of the disease. 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency, a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, is caused by mutations in the cytochrome P450c17 gene (CYP17A1), and characterized by hypertension, hypokalemia, female sexual infantilism or male pseudohermaphroditism. We presented the clinical and biochemical characterization in two patients (a 13 year-old girl (46, XX) with hypokalemia and lack of pubertal development, a 11 year-old girl (46, XY) with female external genitalia and severe hypertension). CYP17A1 mutations were detected by PCR and direct DNA sequencing in patients and their parents. A homozygous mutation c.985_987delTACinsAA (p.Y329KfsX418) in Exon 6 was found in patient 1, and a homozygous deletion mutation c.1459_1467delGACTCTTTC (p.Asp487_Phe489del) in exon 8 in patient 2. The patients manifested with hypertension, hypokalemia, sexual infantilism should be suspected of having 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. Definite diagnosis is depended on mutation analysis. Hydrocortisone treatment in time is crucial to prevent severe hypertension and hypokalemia. PMID:26770544

  18. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis for Kentucky Bluegrass Dwarf Mutants Induced by Space Mutation.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lu; Di, Rong; Chao, Yuehui; Han, Liebao; Chen, Xingwu; Wu, Chao; Yin, Shuxia

    2016-01-01

    Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) is a major cool-season turfgrass requiring frequent mowing. Utilization of cultivars with slow growth is a promising method to decrease mowing frequency. In this study, two dwarf mutant selections of Kentucky bluegrass (A12 and A16) induced by space mutation were analyzed for the differentially expressed genes compared with the wild type (WT) by the high-throughput RNA-Seq technology. 253,909 unigenes were obtained by de novo assembly. 24.20% of the unigenes had a significant level of amino acid sequence identity to Brachypodium distachyon proteins, followed by Hordeum vulgare with 18.72% among the non-redundant (NR) Blastx top hits. Assembled unigenes were associated with 32 pathways using KEGG orthology terms and their respective KEGG maps. Between WT and A16 libraries, 4,203 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, whereas there were 883 DEGs between WT and A12 libraries. Further investigation revealed that the DEG pathways were mainly involved in terpenoid biosynthesis and plant hormone metabolism, which might account for the differences of plant height and leaf blade color between dwarf mutant and WT plants. Our study presents the first comprehensive transcriptomic data and gene function analysis of Poa pratensis L., providing a valuable resource for future studies in plant dwarfing breeding and comparative genome analysis for Pooideae plants.

  19. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis for Kentucky Bluegrass Dwarf Mutants Induced by Space Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lu; Di, Rong; Chao, Yuehui; Han, Liebao; Chen, Xingwu; Wu, Chao; Yin, Shuxia

    2016-01-01

    Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) is a major cool-season turfgrass requiring frequent mowing. Utilization of cultivars with slow growth is a promising method to decrease mowing frequency. In this study, two dwarf mutant selections of Kentucky bluegrass (A12 and A16) induced by space mutation were analyzed for the differentially expressed genes compared with the wild type (WT) by the high-throughput RNA-Seq technology. 253,909 unigenes were obtained by de novo assembly. 24.20% of the unigenes had a significant level of amino acid sequence identity to Brachypodium distachyon proteins, followed by Hordeum vulgare with 18.72% among the non-redundant (NR) Blastx top hits. Assembled unigenes were associated with 32 pathways using KEGG orthology terms and their respective KEGG maps. Between WT and A16 libraries, 4,203 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, whereas there were 883 DEGs between WT and A12 libraries. Further investigation revealed that the DEG pathways were mainly involved in terpenoid biosynthesis and plant hormone metabolism, which might account for the differences of plant height and leaf blade color between dwarf mutant and WT plants. Our study presents the first comprehensive transcriptomic data and gene function analysis of Poa pratensis L., providing a valuable resource for future studies in plant dwarfing breeding and comparative genome analysis for Pooideae plants. PMID:27010560

  20. Genetic mutation analysis in Japanese patients with non-syndromic congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Akiko; Morisaki, Hiroko; Nakaji, Mai; Kitano, Masataka; Kim, Ki-Sung; Sagawa, Koichi; Ishikawa, Shiro; Satokata, Ichiro; Mitani, Yoshihide; Kato, Hitoshi; Hamaoka, Kenji; Echigo, Shigeyuki; Shiraishi, Isao; Morisaki, Takayuki

    2016-02-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect occurring in humans and some transcriptional factors have been identified as causative. However, additional mutation analysis of these genes is necessary to develop effective diagnostic and medical treatment methods. We conducted sequence analysis of the coding regions of NKX2.5, GATA4, TBX1, TBX5, TBX20, CFC1 and ZIC3 in 111 Japanese patients with non-syndromic CHD and 9 of their relatives. All patient samples were also analyzed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification using probes involved in chromosome deletion related to CHD. Five novel variations of TBX5, GATA4 and TBX20 were detected in 6 of the patients, whereas none were found in 200 controls. The TBX5 variation p.Pro108Thr, located in the T-box domain, was identified in a patient with tricuspid atresia, an exon-intron boundary variation of GATA4 (IVS4+5G>A) was detected in a Tetralogy of Fallot patient and an 8p23 microdeletion was detected in one patient with atrioventricular septal defect and psychomotor delay. A total of seven non-synonymous polymorphisms were found in the patients and controls. Accumulation of novel variations of genes involving the cardiac development may be required for better understanding of CHD. PMID:26490186

  1. Integrated sequence analysis pipeline provides one-stop solution for identifying disease-causing mutations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hao; Wienker, Thomas F; Musante, Luciana; Kalscheuer, Vera M; Kahrizi, Kimia; Najmabadi, Hossein; Ropers, H Hilger

    2014-12-01

    Next-generation sequencing has greatly accelerated the search for disease-causing defects, but even for experts the data analysis can be a major challenge. To facilitate the data processing in a clinical setting, we have developed a novel medical resequencing analysis pipeline (MERAP). MERAP assesses the quality of sequencing, and has optimized capacity for calling variants, including single-nucleotide variants, insertions and deletions, copy-number variation, and other structural variants. MERAP identifies polymorphic and known causal variants by filtering against public domain databases, and flags nonsynonymous and splice-site changes. MERAP uses a logistic model to estimate the causal likelihood of a given missense variant. MERAP considers the relevant information such as phenotype and interaction with known disease-causing genes. MERAP compares favorably with GATK, one of the widely used tools, because of its higher sensitivity for detecting indels, its easy installation, and its economical use of computational resources. Upon testing more than 1,200 individuals with mutations in known and novel disease genes, MERAP proved highly reliable, as illustrated here for five families with disease-causing variants. We believe that the clinical implementation of MERAP will expedite the diagnostic process of many disease-causing defects.

  2. Mutational analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease suggests functional homology with aspartic proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, D D; Hutchison, C A; Edgell, M H; Farmerie, W G; Swanstrom, R

    1989-01-01

    Processing of the retroviral gag and pol gene products is mediated by a viral protease. Bacterial expression systems have been developed which permit genetic analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease as measured by cleavage of the pol protein precursor. Deletion analysis of the pol reading frame locates the sequences required to encode a protein with appropriate proteolytic activity near the left end of the pol reading frame but largely outside the gag-pol overlap region, which is at the extreme left end of pol. Most missense mutations within an 11-amino-acid domain highly conserved among retroviral proteases and with sequence similarity to the active site of aspartic proteinases abolish appropriate processing, suggesting that the retrovirus proteases share a catalytic mechanism with aspartic proteinases. Substitution of the amino acids flanking the scissile bond at three of the processing sites encoded by pol demonstrates distinct sequence requirements for cleavage at these different sites. The inclusion of a charged amino acid at the processing site blocks cleavage. A subset of these substitutions also inhibits processing at the nonmutated sites. Images PMID:2642305

  3. Whole-genome mutational burden analysis of three pluripotency induction methods

    PubMed Central

    Bhutani, Kunal; Nazor, Kristopher L.; Williams, Roy; Tran, Ha; Dai, Heng; Džakula, Željko; Cho, Edward H.; Pang, Andy W. C.; Rao, Mahendra; Cao, Han; Schork, Nicholas J.; Loring, Jeanne F.

    2016-01-01

    There is concern that the stresses of inducing pluripotency may lead to deleterious DNA mutations in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines, which would compromise their use for cell therapies. Here we report comparative genomic analysis of nine isogenic iPSC lines generated using three reprogramming methods: integrating retroviral vectors, non-integrating Sendai virus and synthetic mRNAs. We used whole-genome sequencing and de novo genome mapping to identify single-nucleotide variants, insertions and deletions, and structural variants. Our results show a moderate number of variants in the iPSCs that were not evident in the parental fibroblasts, which may result from reprogramming. There were only small differences in the total numbers and types of variants among different reprogramming methods. Most importantly, a thorough genomic analysis showed that the variants were generally benign. We conclude that the process of reprogramming is unlikely to introduce variants that would make the cells inappropriate for therapy. PMID:26892726

  4. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis for Kentucky Bluegrass Dwarf Mutants Induced by Space Mutation.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lu; Di, Rong; Chao, Yuehui; Han, Liebao; Chen, Xingwu; Wu, Chao; Yin, Shuxia

    2016-01-01

    Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) is a major cool-season turfgrass requiring frequent mowing. Utilization of cultivars with slow growth is a promising method to decrease mowing frequency. In this study, two dwarf mutant selections of Kentucky bluegrass (A12 and A16) induced by space mutation were analyzed for the differentially expressed genes compared with the wild type (WT) by the high-throughput RNA-Seq technology. 253,909 unigenes were obtained by de novo assembly. 24.20% of the unigenes had a significant level of amino acid sequence identity to Brachypodium distachyon proteins, followed by Hordeum vulgare with 18.72% among the non-redundant (NR) Blastx top hits. Assembled unigenes were associated with 32 pathways using KEGG orthology terms and their respective KEGG maps. Between WT and A16 libraries, 4,203 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, whereas there were 883 DEGs between WT and A12 libraries. Further investigation revealed that the DEG pathways were mainly involved in terpenoid biosynthesis and plant hormone metabolism, which might account for the differences of plant height and leaf blade color between dwarf mutant and WT plants. Our study presents the first comprehensive transcriptomic data and gene function analysis of Poa pratensis L., providing a valuable resource for future studies in plant dwarfing breeding and comparative genome analysis for Pooideae plants. PMID:27010560

  5. Quantitative approaches to utilizing mutational analysis and disulfide crosslinking for modeling a transmembrane domain.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, G. F.; Hazelbauer, G. L.

    1995-01-01

    The transmembrane domain of chemoreceptor Trg from Escherichia coli contains four transmembrane segments in its native homodimer, two from each subunit. We had previously used mutational analysis and sulfhydryl cross-linking between introduced cysteines to obtain data relevant to the three-dimensional organization of this domain. In the current study we used Fourier analysis to assess these data quantitatively for periodicity along the sequences of the segments. The analyses provided a strong indication of alpha-helical periodicity in the first transmembrane segment and a substantial indication of that periodicity for the second segment. On this basis, we considered both segments as idealized alpha-helices and proceeded to model the transmembrane domain as a unit of four helices. For this modeling, we calculated helical crosslinking moments, parameters analogous to helical hydrophobic moments, as a quantitative way of condensing and utilizing a large body of crosslinking data. Crosslinking moments were used to define the relative separation and orientation of helical pairs, thus creating a quantitatively derived model for the transmembrane domain of Trg. Utilization of Fourier transforms to provide a quantitative indication of periodicity in data from analyses of transmembrane segments, in combination with helical crosslinking moments to position helical pairs should be useful in modeling other transmembrane domains. PMID:7549874

  6. Analysis of ultra-deep targeted sequencing reveals mutation burden is associated with gender and clinical outcome in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuqiang; Wu, Kui; Zhang, Xin; He, Jianxing

    2016-01-01

    Gender-associated difference in incidence and clinical outcomes of lung cancer have been established, but the biological mechanisms underlying these gender-associated differences are less studied. Recently we have characterized the genomic landscape of lung adenocarcinoma derived from Chinese population (Reference [1]). In this study we evaluated the clinical significance of mutation burden in lung adenocarcinoma and found that the male tumors harbored statistically greater burden of genetic alterations than female counterparts (Male median 3 (range 0–34) vs female median = 2 (0–24), male to female ratio = 1.636, 95% CI = 1.343–1.992) after adjustment of age at surgery, stage, smoking status. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that greater burden of genetic alterations was associated with worse overall survival. Moreover, multivariable analysis demonstrated mutation burden was an independent prognostic factor for the patients. Taken together, our analysis demonstrated gender disparity of mutation burden and their prognostic value in lung adenocarcinoma. This gender difference in mutation burden might provide an explanation for the distinct difference in the clinical outcomes between sexes in lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27009843

  7. Pooled analysis of clinical outcome for EGFR TKI-treated patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Paz-Ares, Luis; Soulières, Denis; Moecks, Joachim; Bara, Ilze; Mok, Tony; Klughammer, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) appear to gain particular benefit from treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI) if their disease tests positive for EGFR activating mutations. Recently, several large, controlled, phase III studies have been published in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation-positive tumours. Given the increased patient dataset now available, a comprehensive literature search for EGFR TKIs or chemotherapy in EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC was undertaken to update the results of a previously published pooled analysis. Pooling eligible progression-free survival (PFS) data from 27 erlotinib studies (n = 731), 54 gefitinib studies (n = 1802) and 20 chemotherapy studies (n = 984) provided median PFS values for each treatment. The pooled median PFS was: 12.4 months (95% accuracy intervals [AI] 11.6-13.4) for erlotinib-treated patients; 9.4 months (95% AI 9.0-9.8) for gefitinib-treated patients; and 5.6 months (95% AI 5.3-6.0) for chemotherapy. Both erlotinib and gefitinib resulted in significantly longer PFS than chemotherapy (permutation testing; P = 0.000 and P = 0.000, respectively). Data on more recent TKIs (afatinib, dacomitinib and icotinib) were insufficient at this time-point to carry out a pooled PFS analysis on these compounds. The results of this updated pooled analysis suggest a substantial clear PFS benefit of treating patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC with erlotinib or gefitinib compared with chemotherapy.

  8. Clinical and Mutational Analysis of the GCDH Gene in Malaysian Patients with Glutaric Aciduria Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Yakob, Yusnita; Abdul Azize, Nor Azimah; Md Yunus, Zabedah; Huey Yin, Leong; Mohd Khalid, Mohd Khairul Nizam; Lock Hock, Ngu

    2016-01-01

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase enzyme encoded by the GCDH gene. In this study, we presented the clinical and molecular findings of seven GA1 patients in Malaysia. All the patients were symptomatic from infancy and diagnosed clinically from large excretion of glutaric and 3-hydroxyglutaric acids. Bidirectional sequencing of the GCDH gene revealed ten mutations, three of which were novel (Gln76Pro, Glu131Val, and Gly390Trp). The spectrum of mutations included eight missense mutations, a nonsense mutation, and a splice site mutation. Two mutations (Gln76Pro and Arg386Gln) were homozygous in two patients with parental consanguinity. All mutations were predicted to be disease causing by MutationTaster2. In conclusion, this is the first report of both clinical and molecular aspects of GA1 in Malaysian patients. Despite the lack of genotype and phenotype correlation, early diagnosis and timely treatment remained the most important determinant of patient outcome.

  9. Comprehensive PKD1 and PKD2 Mutation Analysis in Prenatal Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Audrézet, Marie-Pierre; Corbiere, Christine; Lebbah, Said; Morinière, Vincent; Broux, Françoise; Louillet, Ferielle; Fischbach, Michel; Zaloszyc, Ariane; Cloarec, Sylvie; Merieau, Elodie; Baudouin, Véronique; Deschênes, Georges; Roussey, Gwenaelle; Maestri, Sandrine; Visconti, Chiara; Boyer, Olivia; Abel, Carine; Lahoche, Annie; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Bessenay, Lucie; Mekahli, Djalila; Ouertani, Ines; Decramer, Stéphane; Ryckenwaert, Amélie; Cornec-Le Gall, Emilie; Salomon, Rémi; Ferec, Claude; Heidet, Laurence

    2016-03-01

    Prenatal forms of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are rare but can be recurrent in some families, suggesting a common genetic modifying background. Few patients have been reported carrying, in addition to the familial mutation, variation(s) in polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) or HNF1 homeobox B (HNF1B), inherited from the unaffected parent, or biallelic polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (PKHD1) mutations. To assess the frequency of additional variations in PKD1, PKD2, HNF1B, and PKHD1 associated with the familial PKD mutation in early ADPKD, these four genes were screened in 42 patients with early ADPKD in 41 families. Two patients were associated with de novo PKD1 mutations. Forty patients occurred in 39 families with known ADPKD and were associated with PKD1 mutation in 36 families and with PKD2 mutation in two families (no mutation identified in one family). Additional PKD variation(s) (inherited from the unaffected parent when tested) were identified in 15 of 42 patients (37.2%), whereas these variations were observed in 25 of 174 (14.4%, P=0.001) patients with adult ADPKD. No HNF1B variations or PKHD1 biallelic mutations were identified. These results suggest that, at least in some patients, the severity of the cystic disease is inversely correlated with the level of polycystin 1 function.

  10. Mutational analysis of AGXT in two Chinese families with primary hyperoxaluria type 1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is a rare autosomal recessive disease of glyoxylate metabolism caused by a defect in the liver-specific peroxisomal enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) that leads to hyperoxaluria, recurrent urolithiasis, and nephrocalcinosis. Methods Two unrelated patients with recurrent urolithiasis, along with members of their families, exhibited mutations in the AGXT gene by PCR direct sequencing. Results Two heterozygous mutations that predict truncated proteins, p.S81X and p.S275delinsRAfs, were identified in one patient. The p.S81X mutation is novel. Two heterozygous missense mutations, p.M1T and p.I202N, were detected in another patient but were not identified in her sibling. These four mutations were confirmed to be of paternal and maternal origin. Conclusions These are the first cases of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 to be diagnosed by clinical manifestations and AGXT gene mutations in mainland China. The novel p.S81X and p.I202N mutations detected in our study extend the spectrum of known AGXT gene mutations. PMID:24934730

  11. Fifteen novel FBN1 mutations causing Marfan syndrome detected by heteroduplex analysis of genomic amplicons.

    PubMed Central

    Nijbroek, G; Sood, S; McIntosh, I; Francomano, C A; Bull, E; Pereira, L; Ramirez, F; Pyeritz, R E; Dietz, H C

    1995-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin-1 (FBN1), a component of the extracellular microfibril, cause the Marfan syndrome (MFS). This statement is supported by the observations that the classic Marfan phenotype cosegregates with intragenic and/or flanking marker alleles in all families tested and that a significant number of FBN1 mutations have been identified in affected individuals. We have now devised a method to screen the entire coding sequence and flanking splice junctions of FBN1. On completion for a panel of nine probands with classic MFS, six new mutations were identified that accounted for disease in seven (78%) of nine patients. Nine additional new mutations have been characterized in the early stages of a larger screening project. These 15 mutations were equally distributed throughout the gene and, with one exception, were specific to single families. One-third of mutations created premature termination codons, and 6 of 15 substituted residues with putative significance for calcium binding to epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains. Mutations causing severe and rapidly progressive disease that presents in the neonatal period can occur in a larger region of the gene than previously demonstrated, and the nature of the mutation is as important a determinant as its location, in predisposing to this phenotype. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7611299

  12. Computational Simulation and Analysis of Mutations: Nucleotide Fixation, Allelic Age and Rare Genetic Variations in Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Shuhao

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the complexity of mutations, a computational approach named Genome Evolution by Matrix Algorithms ("GEMA") has been implemented. GEMA models genomic changes, taking into account hundreds of mutations within each individual in a population. By modeling of entire human chromosomes, GEMA precisely mimics real…

  13. Detecting somatic mutations in genomic sequences by means of Kolmogorov-Arnold analysis.

    PubMed

    Gurzadyan, V G; Yan, H; Vlahovic, G; Kashin, A; Killela, P; Reitman, Z; Sargsyan, S; Yegorian, G; Milledge, G; Vlahovic, B

    2015-08-01

    The Kolmogorov-Arnold stochasticity parameter technique is applied for the first time to the study of cancer genome sequencing, to reveal mutations. Using data generated by next-generation sequencing technologies, we have analysed the exome sequences of brain tumour patients with matched tumour and normal blood. We show that mutations contained in sequencing data can be revealed using this technique, thus providing a new methodology for determining subsequences of given length containing mutations, i.e. its value differs from those of subsequences without mutations. A potential application for this technique involves simplifying the procedure of finding segments with mutations, speeding up genomic research and accelerating its implementation in clinical diagnostics. Moreover, the prediction of a mutation associated with a family of frequent mutations in numerous types of cancers based purely on the value of the Kolmogorov function indicates that this applied marker may recognize genomic sequences that are in extremely low abundance and can be used in revealing new types of mutations.

  14. Analysis of FOXO1 mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Abstract: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) accounts for 30% to 40% of newly diagnosed lymphomas and has an overall cure rate of approximately 60%. Previously, we observed FOXO1 mutations in non-Hodgkin lymphoma patient samples. To explore the effects of FOXO1 mutations, we assessed FOXO1 status in 279 DLBCL patient samples and 22 DLBCL-derived cell lines.

  15. Mutational load distribution analysis (MLDA) in pancreatic cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Certain p16 mutation carriers showed mutation elevations in the specific Ki-ras and p53 alleles significantly higher than normal, similar to controls with pancreatitis. Two individuals from separate families started out with "low risk" readings subsequently converted to "high risk" categorization and remained there in each sequential exam.

  16. Detecting somatic mutations in genomic sequences by means of Kolmogorov-Arnold analysis.

    PubMed

    Gurzadyan, V G; Yan, H; Vlahovic, G; Kashin, A; Killela, P; Reitman, Z; Sargsyan, S; Yegorian, G; Milledge, G; Vlahovic, B

    2015-08-01

    The Kolmogorov-Arnold stochasticity parameter technique is applied for the first time to the study of cancer genome sequencing, to reveal mutations. Using data generated by next-generation sequencing technologies, we have analysed the exome sequences of brain tumour patients with matched tumour and normal blood. We show that mutations contained in sequencing data can be revealed using this technique, thus providing a new methodology for determining subsequences of given length containing mutations, i.e. its value differs from those of subsequences without mutations. A potential application for this technique involves simplifying the procedure of finding segments with mutations, speeding up genomic research and accelerating its implementation in clinical diagnostics. Moreover, the prediction of a mutation associated with a family of frequent mutations in numerous types of cancers based purely on the value of the Kolmogorov function indicates that this applied marker may recognize genomic sequences that are in extremely low abundance and can be used in revealing new types of mutations. PMID:26361546

  17. Clinical and Mutational Analysis of the GCDH Gene in Malaysian Patients with Glutaric Aciduria Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Yakob, Yusnita; Abdul Azize, Nor Azimah; Md Yunus, Zabedah; Huey Yin, Leong; Mohd Khalid, Mohd Khairul Nizam; Lock Hock, Ngu

    2016-01-01

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase enzyme encoded by the GCDH gene. In this study, we presented the clinical and molecular findings of seven GA1 patients in Malaysia. All the patients were symptomatic from infancy and diagnosed clinically from large excretion of glutaric and 3-hydroxyglutaric acids. Bidirectional sequencing of the GCDH gene revealed ten mutations, three of which were novel (Gln76Pro, Glu131Val, and Gly390Trp). The spectrum of mutations included eight missense mutations, a nonsense mutation, and a splice site mutation. Two mutations (Gln76Pro and Arg386Gln) were homozygous in two patients with parental consanguinity. All mutations were predicted to be disease causing by MutationTaster2. In conclusion, this is the first report of both clinical and molecular aspects of GA1 in Malaysian patients. Despite the lack of genotype and phenotype correlation, early diagnosis and timely treatment remained the most important determinant of patient outcome. PMID:27672653

  18. Detecting somatic mutations in genomic sequences by means of Kolmogorov–Arnold analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gurzadyan, V. G.; Yan, H.; Vlahovic, G.; Kashin, A.; Killela, P.; Reitman, Z.; Sargsyan, S.; Yegorian, G.; Milledge, G.; Vlahovic, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Kolmogorov–Arnold stochasticity parameter technique is applied for the first time to the study of cancer genome sequencing, to reveal mutations. Using data generated by next-generation sequencing technologies, we have analysed the exome sequences of brain tumour patients with matched tumour and normal blood. We show that mutations contained in sequencing data can be revealed using this technique, thus providing a new methodology for determining subsequences of given length containing mutations, i.e. its value differs from those of subsequences without mutations. A potential application for this technique involves simplifying the procedure of finding segments with mutations, speeding up genomic research and accelerating its implementation in clinical diagnostics. Moreover, the prediction of a mutation associated with a family of frequent mutations in numerous types of cancers based purely on the value of the Kolmogorov function indicates that this applied marker may recognize genomic sequences that are in extremely low abundance and can be used in revealing new types of mutations. PMID:26361546

  19. Expression status and mutational analysis of the PTEN and P13K subunit genes in ovarian granulosa cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Bittinger, Sophie; Alexiadis, Maria; Fuller, Peter J

    2009-04-01

    Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) are a unique subset of ovarian tumors which have a molecular phenotype resembling that of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-stimulated pre-ovulatory granulosa cells. FSH acts via its receptor to stimulate signaling pathways including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway. Activation of this pathway occurs in solid tumors, including ovarian epithelial tumors, through mutation of the PI3K subunit genes or inactivation of the tumor suppressor, PTEN. Activation of this pathway would be predicted to be tumorigenic in granulosa cells.Expression of the 2 PI3K subunit genes, PIK3CA, which encodes the catalytic subunit, and PIK3R1, which encodes the regulatory subunit, together with the PTEN gene was determined in a panel of GCT, 2 human GCT-derived cell lines, COV434 and KGN, and normal ovary. Direct sequence analysis was used to screen for mutations. Expression of all 3genes was observed in the GCT without evidence of overexpression for the PI3K subunit genes or loss of expression for PTEN. Sequence analysis of amplicons spanning exons 9and 20, in which greater than 75% of mutations occur in the PIK3CA gene did not identify any missense mutations. Similarly, the previously reported deletions in exons 12 and 13 of the PIK3R1 were not found in the GCT. Three amplicons spanning the entire coding sequence of the PTEN gene were sequenced; neither deletions nor mutations were identified.These findings suggest that activation of PI3K signaling through PI3K/PTEN mutation or altered expression, in contrast to many other types of solid tumor, is not associated with GCT.

  20. Insufficiency of peripheral blood as a substitute tissue for detecting EGFR mutations in lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijun; Zhang, Yongjun; Bao, Wenlong; Jiang, Chuming

    2014-12-01

    The detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small cell lung cancer tissues is necessary for effective treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, tumor tissues may not be available in all situations. Studies have evaluated the potential use of serum or plasma for detecting the EGFR mutation status, but the results have been inconclusive. Here, a meta-analysis was performed to determine whether blood samples could serve as substitutes for tissue specimens in detecting the EGFR mutation status. Databases, including PubMed and Embase, were searched for relevant studies published from 2005 to 2013 that included true-positive, false-positive, true-negative, and false-negative values of the EGFR mutation status of the blood compared with tissue specimens. Summary receiver operating characteristic curves were developed to explore the threshold effect. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to analyze the heterogeneity between studies. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were evaluated using Meta-DiSc version 1.4. Thirteen articles involving 1,591 cases were enrolled, with a pooled sensitivity and specificity of 64.5 % (95 % CI = 0.605-0.683) and 88.5 % (95 % CI = 0.863-0.904), respectively. Heterogeneity among the studies was caused by factors other than threshold effect. The findings were influenced by test method (p = 0.0354). Blood samples had a high specificity and relatively low sensitivity for detecting EGFR mutations compared to tumor tissues. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that peripheral blood is insufficient as a substitute for tumor tissues in detecting EGFR mutations in clinical practice.

  1. Analysis of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 gene mutations in neonates with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Guo, X H; Sun, Y F; Cui, M; Wang, J B; Han, S Z; Miao, J

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to analyze uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) gene mutations in neonates with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, from two different ethnic groups. Polymerase chain reaction and gene sequencing were used to analyze the differences in genotypes and allele frequencies of different gene mutations among the ethnic groups; this was followed by checking their correlation with the serum bilirubin level and the occurrence of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in neonates. Our results reveal that the UGT1A1 mutant genotype, 211G>A, is distributed differently in the case vs control groups, as well as in the Zhuang vs Han ethnic groups. Moreover, this difference is statistically significant (P < 0.05); the total serum bilirubin (TSB) and unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) levels in patients carrying the single homozygous mutation, 211G>A, were markedly higher than that in patients without the mutation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the TSB and UCB levels were significantly different between patients carrying single or compound 211G>A heterozygous mutation, (TA)6/7, and 1941C>G/2042C>G heterozygous mutation, and patients without mutation (P > 0.05). Our findings suggest that the 211G>A mutation in the first exon may be a risk factor for unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in Zhuang and Han neonates. The serum bilirubin levels seem to be affected by the homozygosity or heterozygosity of the UGT1A1 gene mutation; 211G>A homozygous mutation is an important factor that causes a rise in bilirubin in neonates with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. PMID:27323053

  2. Mutational and protein analysis of patients and heterozygous women with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Feigenbaum, V.; Guidoux, S.; Aubourg, P.

    1996-06-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), a neurodegenerative disorder associated with impaired {beta}-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA), is due to mutations in a gene encoding a peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (ALD protein [ALDP]). We analyzed the open reading frame of the ALD gene in 44 French ALD kindred by using SSCP or denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis and studied the effect of mutations on ALDP by immunocytofluorescence and western blotting of fibroblasts and/or white blood cells. Mutations were detected in 37 of 44 kindreds and were distributed over the whole protein-coding region, with the exception of the C terminus encoded in exon 10. Except for two mutations (delAG1801 and P560L) observed four times each, nearly every ALD family has a different mutation. Twenty-four of 37 mutations were missense mutations leading to amino acid changes located in or close to putative transmembrane segments (TMS 2, 3, 4, and 5), in the EAA-like motif and in the nucleotide fold of the ATP-binding domain of ALDP. Of 38 ALD patients tested, 27 (71%) lacked ALDP immunoreactivity in their fibroblasts and/or white blood cells. More than half of missense mutations studied (11 of 21) resulted in a complete lack of ALDP immunoreactivity, and six missense mutations resulted in decreased ALDP expression. The fibroblasts and/or white blood cells of 15 of 15 heterozygous carrier from ALD kindred with no ALDP showed a mixture of positive- and negative-ALDP immunoreactivity due to X-inactivation. Since 5%-15% of heterozygous women have normal VLCFA levels, the immunodetection of ALDP in white blood cells can be applicable in a majority of ALD kindred, to identify heterozygous women, particularly when the ALD gene mutation has not yet been identified. 35 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Analysis of the estimators of the average coefficient of dominance of deleterious mutations.

    PubMed

    Fernández, B; García-Dorado, A; Caballero, A

    2004-10-01

    We investigate the sources of bias that affect the most commonly used methods of estimation of the average degree of dominance (h) of deleterious mutations, focusing on estimates from segregating populations. The main emphasis is on the effect of the finite size of the populations, but other sources of bias are also considered. Using diffusion approximations to the distribution of gene frequencies in finite populations as well as stochastic simulations, we assess the behavior of the estimators obtained from populations at mutation-selection-drift balance under different mutational scenarios and compare averages of h for newly arisen and segregating mutations. Because of genetic drift, the inferences concerning newly arisen mutations based on the mutation-selection balance theory can have substantial upward bias depending upon the distribution of h. In addition, estimates usually refer to h weighted by the homozygous deleterious effect in different ways, so that inferences are complicated when these two variables are negatively correlated. Due to both sources of bias, the widely used regression of heterozygous on homozygous means underestimates the arithmetic mean of h for segregating mutations, in contrast to their repeatedly assumed equality in the literature. We conclude that none of the estimators from segregating populations provides, under general conditions, a useful tool to ascertain the properties of the degree of dominance, either for segregating or for newly arisen deleterious mutations. Direct estimates of the average h from mutation-accumulation experiments are shown to suffer some bias caused by purging selection but, because they do not require assumptions on the causes maintaining segregating variation, they appear to give a more reliable average dominance for newly arisen mutations.

  4. Precise Detection of IDH1/2 and BRAF Hotspot Mutations in Clinical Glioma Tissues by a Differential Calculus Analysis of High-Resolution Melting Data.

    PubMed

    Hatae, Ryusuke; Hata, Nobuhiro; Yoshimoto, Koji; Kuga, Daisuke; Akagi, Yojiro; Murata, Hideki; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Iihara, Koji

    2016-01-01

    High resolution melting (HRM) is a simple and rapid method for screening mutations. It offers various advantages for clinical diagnostic applications. Conventional HRM analysis often yields equivocal results, especially for surgically obtained tissues. We attempted to improve HRM analyses for more effective applications to clinical diagnostics. HRM analyses were performed for IDH1R132 and IDH2R172 mutations in 192 clinical glioma samples in duplicate and these results were compared with sequencing results. BRAFV600E mutations were analyzed in 52 additional brain tumor samples. The melting profiles were used for differential calculus analyses. Negative second derivative plots revealed additional peaks derived from heteroduplexes in PCR products that contained mutations; this enabled unequivocal visual discrimination of the mutations. We further developed a numerical expression, the HRM-mutation index (MI), to quantify the heteroduplex-derived peak of the mutational curves. Using this expression, all IDH1 mutation statuses matched those ascertained by sequencing, with the exception of three samples. These discordant results were all derived from the misinterpretation of sequencing data. The effectiveness of our approach was further validated by analyses of IDH2R172 and BRAFV600E mutations. The present analytical method enabled an unequivocal and objective HRM analysis and is suitable for reliable mutation scanning in surgically obtained glioma tissues. This approach could facilitate molecular diagnostics in clinical environments. PMID:27529619

  5. Precise Detection of IDH1/2 and BRAF Hotspot Mutations in Clinical Glioma Tissues by a Differential Calculus Analysis of High-Resolution Melting Data.

    PubMed

    Hatae, Ryusuke; Hata, Nobuhiro; Yoshimoto, Koji; Kuga, Daisuke; Akagi, Yojiro; Murata, Hideki; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Iihara, Koji

    2016-01-01

    High resolution melting (HRM) is a simple and rapid method for screening mutations. It offers various advantages for clinical diagnostic applications. Conventional HRM analysis often yields equivocal results, especially for surgically obtained tissues. We attempted to improve HRM analyses for more effective applications to clinical diagnostics. HRM analyses were performed for IDH1R132 and IDH2R172 mutations in 192 clinical glioma samples in duplicate and these results were compared with sequencing results. BRAFV600E mutations were analyzed in 52 additional brain tumor samples. The melting profiles were used for differential calculus analyses. Negative second derivative plots revealed additional peaks derived from heteroduplexes in PCR products that contained mutations; this enabled unequivocal visual discrimination of the mutations. We further developed a numerical expression, the HRM-mutation index (MI), to quantify the heteroduplex-derived peak of the mutational curves. Using this expression, all IDH1 mutation statuses matched those ascertained by sequencing, with the exception of three samples. These discordant results were all derived from the misinterpretation of sequencing data. The effectiveness of our approach was further validated by analyses of IDH2R172 and BRAFV600E mutations. The present analytical method enabled an unequivocal and objective HRM analysis and is suitable for reliable mutation scanning in surgically obtained glioma tissues. This approach could facilitate molecular diagnostics in clinical environments.

  6. Precise Detection of IDH1/2 and BRAF Hotspot Mutations in Clinical Glioma Tissues by a Differential Calculus Analysis of High-Resolution Melting Data

    PubMed Central

    Hatae, Ryusuke; Yoshimoto, Koji; Kuga, Daisuke; Akagi, Yojiro; Murata, Hideki; Suzuki, Satoshi O.; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Iihara, Koji

    2016-01-01

    High resolution melting (HRM) is a simple and rapid method for screening mutations. It offers various advantages for clinical diagnostic applications. Conventional HRM analysis often yields equivocal results, especially for surgically obtained tissues. We attempted to improve HRM analyses for more effective applications to clinical diagnostics. HRM analyses were performed for IDH1R132 and IDH2R172 mutations in 192 clinical glioma samples in duplicate and these results were compared with sequencing results. BRAFV600E mutations were analyzed in 52 additional brain tumor samples. The melting profiles were used for differential calculus analyses. Negative second derivative plots revealed additional peaks derived from heteroduplexes in PCR products that contained mutations; this enabled unequivocal visual discrimination of the mutations. We further developed a numerical expression, the HRM-mutation index (MI), to quantify the heteroduplex-derived peak of the mutational curves. Using this expression, all IDH1 mutation statuses matched those ascertained by sequencing, with the exception of three samples. These discordant results were all derived from the misinterpretation of sequencing data. The effectiveness of our approach was further validated by analyses of IDH2R172 and BRAFV600E mutations. The present analytical method enabled an unequivocal and objective HRM analysis and is suitable for reliable mutation scanning in surgically obtained glioma tissues. This approach could facilitate molecular diagnostics in clinical environments. PMID:27529619

  7. Determining structure and function of steroid dehydrogenase enzymes by sequence analysis, homology modeling, and rational mutational analysis.

    PubMed

    Duax, William L; Thomas, James; Pletnev, Vladimir; Addlagatta, Anthony; Huether, Robert; Habegger, Lukas; Weeks, Charles M

    2005-12-01

    The short-chain oxidoreductase (SCOR) family of enzymes includes over 6,000 members identified in sequenced genomes. Of these enzymes, approximately 300 have been characterized functionally, and the three-dimensional crystal structures of approximately 40 have been reported. Since some SCOR enzymes are steroid dehydrogenases involved in hypertension, diabetes, breast cancer, and polycystic kidney disease, it is important to characterize the other members of the family for which the biological functions are currently unknown and to determine their three-dimensional structure and mechanism of action. Although the SCOR family appears to have only a single fully conserved residue, it was possible, using bioinformatics methods, to determine characteristic fingerprints composed of 30-40 residues that are conserved at the 70% or greater level in SCOR subgroups. These fingerprints permit reliable prediction of several important structure-function features including cofactor preference, catalytic residues, and substrate specificity. Human type 1 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isomerase (3beta-HSDI) has 30% sequence identity with a human UDP galactose 4-epimerase (UDPGE), a SCOR family enzyme for which an X-ray structure has been reported. Both UDPGE and 3-HSDI appear to trace their origins back to bacterial 3alpha,20beta-HSD. Combining three-dimensional structural information and sequence data on the 3alpha,20beta-HSD, UDPGE, and 3beta-HSDI subfamilies with mutational analysis, we were able to identify the residues critical to the dehydrogenase function of 3-HSDI. We also identified the residues most probably responsible for the isomerase activity of 3beta-HSDI. We test our predictions by specific mutations based on sequence analysis and our structure-based model.

  8. Determining Structure and Function of Steroid Dehydrogenase Enzymes by Sequence Analysis, Homology Modeling, and Rational Mutational Analysis

    PubMed Central

    DUAX, WILLIAM L.; THOMAS, JAMES; PLETNEV, VLADIMIR; ADDLAGATTA, ANTHONY; HUETHER, ROBERT; HABEGGER, LUKAS; WEEKS, CHARLES M.

    2006-01-01

    The short-chain oxidoreductase (SCOR) family of enzymes includes over 6,000 members identified in sequenced genomes. Of these enzymes, ~300 have been characterized functionally, and the three-dimensional crystal structures of ~40 have been reported. Since some SCOR enzymes are steroid dehydrogenases involved in hypertension, diabetes, breast cancer, and polycystic kidney disease, it is important to characterize the other members of the family for which the biological functions are currently unknown and to determine their three-dimensional structure and mechanism of action. Although the SCOR family appears to have only a single fully conserved residue, it was possible, using bioinformatics methods, to determine characteristic fingerprints composed of 30–40 residues that are conserved at the 70% or greater level in SCOR subgroups. These fingerprints permit reliable prediction of several important structure-function features including cofactor preference, catalytic residues, and substrate specificity. Human type 1 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isomerase (3β-HSDI) has 30% sequence identity with a human UDP galactose 4-epimerase (UDPGE), a SCOR family enzyme for which an X-ray structure has been reported. Both UDPGE and 3-HSDI appear to trace their origins back to bacterial 3α,20β-HSD. Combining three-dimensional structural information and sequence data on the 3α,20β-HSD, UDPGE, and 3β-HSDI subfamilies with mutational analysis, we were able to identify the residues critical to the dehydrogenase function of 3-HSDI. We also identified the residues most probably responsible for the isomerase activity of 3β-HSDI. We test our predictions by specific mutations based on sequence analysis and our structure-based model. PMID:16467263

  9. Segregation analysis of Alzheimer pedigrees: Rare Mendelian dominant mutation(s) explain a minority of early-onset cases

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.; Campion, D.; Babron, M.C.; Darpoux, F.C.

    1996-02-16

    Segregation analysis of Alzheimer disease (AD) in 92 families ascertained through early-onset ({le}age 60 years) AD (EOAD) probands has been carried out, allowing for a mixture in AD inheritance among probands. The goal was to quantify the proportion of probands that could be explained by autosomal inheritance of a rare disease allele {open_quotes}a{close_quotes} at a Mendelian dominant gene (MDG). Our data provide strong evidence for a mixture of two distributions; AD transmission is fully explained by MDG inheritance in <20% of probands. Male and female age-of-onset distributions are significantly different for {open_quotes}AA{close_quote} but not for {open_quotes}aA{close_quote} subjects. For {open_quotes}aA{close_quote} subjects the estimated penetrance value was close to 1 by age 60. For {open_quotes}AA{close_quotes} subjects, it reaches, by age 90, 10% (males) and 30% (females). We show a clear cutoff in the posterior probability of being an MDG case. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Structure-guided development of dual β2 adrenergic/dopamine D2 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Weichert, Dietmar; Stanek, Markus; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter

    2016-06-15

    Aiming to discover dual-acting β2 adrenergic/dopamine D2 receptor ligands, a structure-guided approach for the evolution of GPCR agonists that address multiple targets was elaborated. Starting from GPCR crystal structures, we describe the design, synthesis and biological investigation of a defined set of compounds leading to the identification of the benzoxazinone (R)-3, which shows agonist properties at the adrenergic β2 receptor and substantial G protein-promoted activation at the D2 receptor. This directed approach yielded molecular probes with tuned dual activity. The congener desOH-3 devoid of the benzylic hydroxyl function was shown to be a β2 adrenergic antagonist/D2 receptor agonist with Ki values in the low nanomolar range. The compounds may serve as a promising starting point for the investigation and treatment of neurological disorders. PMID:27132867

  11. Structure Guided Optimization, in Vitro Activity, and in Vivo Activity of Pan-PIM Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Burger, Matthew T; Han, Wooseok; Lan, Jiong; Nishiguchi, Gisele; Bellamacina, Cornelia; Lindval, Mika; Atallah, Gordana; Ding, Yu; Mathur, Michelle; McBride, Chris; Beans, Elizabeth L; Muller, Kristine; Tamez, Victoriano; Zhang, Yanchen; Huh, Kay; Feucht, Paul; Zavorotinskaya, Tatiana; Dai, Yumin; Holash, Jocelyn; Castillo, Joseph; Langowski, John; Wang, Yingyun; Chen, Min Y; Garcia, Pablo D

    2013-12-12

    Proviral insertion of Moloney virus (PIM) 1, 2, and 3 kinases are serine/threonine kinases that normally function in survival and proliferation of hematopoietic cells. As high expression of PIM1, 2, and 3 is frequently observed in many human malignancies, including multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, and myeloid leukemias, there is interest in determining whether selective PIM inhibition can improve outcomes of these human cancers. Herein, we describe our efforts toward this goal. The structure guided optimization of a singleton high throughput screening hit in which the potency against all three PIM isoforms was increased >10,000-fold to yield compounds with pan PIM K is < 10 pM, nanomolar cellular potency, and in vivo activity in an acute myeloid leukemia Pim-dependent tumor model is described. PMID:24900629

  12. Structure-guided design of selective Epac1 and Epac2 agonists.

    PubMed

    Schwede, Frank; Bertinetti, Daniela; Langerijs, Carianne N; Hadders, Michael A; Wienk, Hans; Ellenbroek, Johanne H; de Koning, Eelco J P; Bos, Johannes L; Herberg, Friedrich W; Genieser, Hans-Gottfried; Janssen, Richard A J; Rehmann, Holger

    2015-01-01

    The second messenger cAMP is known to augment glucose-induced insulin secretion. However, its downstream targets in pancreatic β-cells have not been unequivocally determined. Therefore, we designed cAMP analogues by a structure-guided approach that act as Epac2-selective agonists both in vitro and in vivo. These analogues activate Epac2 about two orders of magnitude more potently than cAMP. The high potency arises from increased affinity as well as increased maximal activation. Crystallographic studies demonstrate that this is due to unique interactions. At least one of the Epac2-specific agonists, Sp-8-BnT-cAMPS (S-220), enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion in human pancreatic cells. Selective targeting of Epac2 is thus proven possible and may be an option in diabetes treatment. PMID:25603503

  13. First molecular analysis of F8 gene in algeria: identification of two novel mutations.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Meriem; Zemani-Fodil, Faouzia; Fodil, Mostefa; Aberkane, Meriem Samia; Touhami, Hadj; Saidi-Mehtar, Nadhira; Costa, Catherine; Boudjema, Abdallah

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the genetic alterations in the Factor 8 gene in 26 patients from Western Algeria. We detected the presence of "intron 22 inversion" with long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Negative patients for this inversion were analyzed for "intron 1 inversion" using multiplex PCR. Patients who were negative for both inversions were analyzed using a direct sequencing. Deleterious effects of novel mutations on protein were assayed with bioinformatics tools. Causing mutations were identified in 85.71% of the families, including 11 "intron 22 inversion," 1 "intron 1 inversion," and 6 different point mutations (2 nonsense, 1 splice site, and 3 missense mutations). Among these mutations, c.2189G > A (p.Cys711Tyr) and c.5219+1G>T are novel. This is the first study that reports spectrum of mutations in the Factor 8 gene in the Western Algerian population. Knowledge of these mutations is important for genetic counseling and medical care of affected families.

  14. Mutation analysis of CACNA1S and SCN4A in patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ying; Ren, Bing-Wen; Yong, Zeng-Hua; Xu, Hong-Yan; Fu, Qiu-Xia; Yao, He-Bin

    2015-10-01

    Mutations in CACNA1S (calcium channel, voltage‑dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit) and SCN4A (sodium channel, voltage‑gated, type IV, alpha subunit) are associated with hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP). The aim of the current study was to investigate CACNA1S and SCN4A mutations in patients with HPP. Mutations in CACNA1S and SCN4A were detected in three familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis (FHPP) pedigrees and in two thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (THPP) pedigrees using polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing and sequence alignment with GenBank data. A single base mutation from cytosine to guanine at site 1582 was identified in exon 11 of CACNA1S in one FHPP pedigree, resulting in an arginine to glycine (R528G) substitution. A single base mutation from thymine to cytosine at site 2012 was identified in exon 12 of SCN4A in one THPP pedigree, resulting in a phenylalanine to serine (F671S) substitution. No mutations in CACNA1S or SCN4A were identified in the remaining three pedigrees. The present study indicated that CACNA1S and SCN4A mutations are relatively rare in patients with HPP, and further studies are required to determine whether these mutation‑associated substitutions are representative of patients with HPP. PMID:26252573

  15. Novel pathogenic mechanism suggested by ex vivo analysis of MCT8 (SLC16A2) mutations.

    PubMed

    Visser, W Edward; Jansen, Jurgen; Friesema, Edith C H; Kester, Monique H A; Mancilla, Edna; Lundgren, Johan; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Lunsing, Roelineke J; Brouwer, Oebele F; Visser, Theo J

    2009-01-01

    Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8; approved symbol SLC16A2) facilitates cellular uptake and efflux of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3). Mutations in MCT8 are associated with severe psychomotor retardation, high serum T3 and low 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) levels. Here we report three novel MCT8 mutations. Two subjects with the F501del mutation have mild psychomotor retardation with slightly elevated T3 and normal rT3 levels. T3 uptake was mildly affected in F501del fibroblasts and strongly decreased in fibroblasts from other MCT8 patients, while T3 efflux was always strongly reduced. Moreover, type 3 deiodinase activity was highly elevated in F501del fibroblasts, whereas it was reduced in fibroblasts from other MCT8 patients, probably reflecting parallel variation in cellular T3 content. Additionally, T3-responsive genes were markedly upregulated by T3 treatment in F501del fibroblasts but not in fibroblasts with other MCT8 mutations. In conclusion, mutations in MCT8 result in a decreased T3 uptake in skin fibroblasts. The much milder clinical phenotype of patients with the F501del mutation may be correlated with the relatively small decrease in T3 uptake combined with an even greater decrease in T3 efflux. If fibroblasts are representative of central neurons, abnormal brain development associated with MCT8 mutations may be the consequence of either decreased or increased intracellular T3 concentrations. PMID:18636565

  16. Mutation analysis of PRRT2 in two Chinese BFIS families and nomenclature of PRRT2 related paroxysmal diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Ling; Mao, Xiao; Hu, Zheng-Mao; Li, Jia-Da; Li, Nan; Guo, Ji-Feng; Jiang, Hong; Shen, Lu; Li, Jin; Shi, Yu-Ting; Xia, Kun; Liu, Jing-Yu; Liao, Wei-Ping; Tang, Bei-Sha

    2013-09-27

    Benign familial infantile seizure (BFIS) and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) are autosomal-dominant inherited self-limited neurological disorders. BFIS is characterized by clusters of epileptic seizures in infancy while, in some cases, infantile seizures and adolescent-onset paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis co-occurred, which is called infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis (ICCA) syndrome. We and other researchers have reported the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) as the causative gene of PKD. We and our collaborators also identified PRRT2 mutations in ICCA and other phenotypes. Here we collected two BFIS families of Chinese Han origin. The linkage analysis has mapped the BFIS-causing locus to 16p12.1-q12.2, where PRRT2 is located. We then performed mutation analysis of PRRT2 by direct sequencing and identified c.649-650insC mutation in all BFIS patients. We also noticed that paroxysmal diseases (such as BFIS, PKD and ICCA) with PRRT2 mutations, instead of other forms, share some characteristics like being responded well to anti-epiletic treatment, we thus suggest to name them as PRRT2-related paroxysmal diseases (PRPDs) in order to assist clinical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23896529

  17. In tandem analysis of CLCN1 and SCN4A greatly enhances mutation detection in families with non-dystrophic myotonia.

    PubMed

    Trip, Jeroen; Drost, Gea; Verbove, Dennis J; van der Kooi, Anneke J; Kuks, Jan B M; Notermans, Nicolette C; Verschuuren, Jan J; de Visser, Marianne; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Faber, Carin G; Ginjaar, Ieke B

    2008-08-01

    Non-dystrophic myotonias (NDMs) are caused by mutations in CLCN1 or SCN4A. The purpose of the present study was to optimize the genetic characterization of NDM in The Netherlands by analysing CLCN1 and SCN4A in tandem. All Dutch consultant neurologists and the Dutch Patient Association for Neuromuscular Diseases (Vereniging Spierziekten Nederland) were requested to refer patients with an initial diagnosis of NDM for clinical assessment and subsequent genetic analysis over a full year. Based on clinical criteria, sequencing of either CLCN1 or SCN4A was performed. When previously described mutations or novel mutations were identified in the first gene under study, the second gene was not sequenced. If no mutations were detected in the first gene, the second gene was subsequently also analysed. Underlying NDM mutations were explored in 54 families. In total, 20% (8 of 40) of our probands with suspected chloride channel myotonia showed no CLCN1 mutations but subsequent SCN4A screening revealed mutations in all of them. All 14 probands in whom SCN4A was primarily sequenced showed a mutation. In total, CLCN1 mutations were identified in 32 families (59%) and SCN4A in 22 (41%), resulting in a diagnostic yield of 100%. The yield of mutation detection was 93% with three recessive and three sporadic cases not yielding a second mutation. Among these mutations, 13 in CLCN1 and 3 in SCN4A were novel. In conclusion, the current results show that in tandem analysis of CLCN1 and SCN4A affords high-level mutation ascertainment in families with NDM.

  18. Genetic analysis of new 16S rRNA mutations conferring aminoglycoside resistance in Mycobacterium abscessus

    PubMed Central

    Nessar, Rachid; Reyrat, Jean Marc; Murray, Alan; Gicquel, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We studied the development and fitness cost of 2-deoxystreptamine aminoglycoside resistance of Mycobacterium abscessus. Methods Spontaneous 2-deoxystreptamine aminoglycoside-resistant mutants were selected and the frequency of their appearance was determined. The 3′ part of the rrs gene was sequenced to characterize mutations. Additionally, we determined the MICs of aminoglycoside drugs for the different mutants obtained. The dominance/recessivity traits of the different mutations were examined and we explored the potential cost conferred by the mutations selected in vitro on the fitness of these isolates compared with the wild-type strain. Results The in vitro mutation rate for 2-deoxystreptamine aminoglycoside resistance was ∼10−7 mutations/cell division. In addition to the known rrs A→G substitution at position 1408 (Escherichia coli numbering), which confers kanamycin resistance (KanR), three new substitutions in rrs were identified in M. abscessus KanR mutants, i.e. T→A at 1406, C→T at 1409 and G→T at 1491. Heterodiploids carrying genomic mutations T→A at 1406 and A→G at 1408 with the wild-type rrs gene carried by the pNBV1 vector showed a resistant phenotype. In contrast, heterodiploids carrying genomic mutations C→T at 1409 and G→T at 1491 with the wild-type rrs gene carried by the pNBV1 vector had a susceptible phenotype. No burden on fitness was observed for the different mutations. Conclusion Mutations in the rrs gene that confer high-level 2-deoxystreptamine aminoglycoside resistance on M. abscessus differ in their dominance/recessivity traits and have no biological cost under our experimental conditions. PMID:21652621

  19. Analysis of the Ten-Eleven Translocation 2 (TET2) gene mutation in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jung-Sook; Jeon, Dong-Seok; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Ryoo, Nam-Hee; Suh, Jang-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the putative tumor suppressor gene, Ten-Eleven Ttranslocation 2(TET2), have been identified recently in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The present study analyzed the TET2 gene in 99 MPNs patients. The overall TET2 mutational frequency was 12.1% (22.2% in polycythemia vera (PV), 9.7% in essential thrombocythemia (ET), 18.2% in primary myelofibrosis (PMF,) and 0% in unclassified MPNs), and 11 mutations (p.Lys95Asnfs*18, p.Gln967Asnfs*40, p.Lys1022Glufs*4, p.Asp1314Metfs*49, p.Gln1534Alafs*43, p.Tyr1618Leufs*4, p.Leu1609Glufs*45, p.Gly1735*, Q599R, c.3409+1G>T, c.4044+2insT) were identified. All the patients with TET2 mutation were accompanied by the JAK2 V617F mutation. The existence of the TET2 mutation was not related to the patient's age, hematologic indices, JAK2 V617F allele burden, frequencies of organomegaly, marrow fibrosis, or thrombotic/hemorrhagic complications in entire MPN patients. However, tendencies toward higher JAK2 V617F allele burdens (88.0±4.3% vs. 19.1±28.7%, P=0.034) and higher Hct (47.4±5.4% vs. 25.5±6.2%, P=0.037) were detected in PMF patients harboring TET2 mutations. Moreover, a significantly higher frequency of organomegaly was identified in ET patients harboring the TET2 mutation (50% vs. 19.6%, P=0.018). The TET2 mutation most likely contributes to clinical phenotypes and shows a high accompanying rate with JAK2 V617F; larger scale studies involving more MPN patients are needed. PMID:24795056

  20. Mutational Analysis of Substrate Interactions with the Active Site of Dialkylglycine Decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Fogle, Emily J.; Toney, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) dependent enzymes catalyze many different types of reactions at the α-, β-, and γ-carbons of amine and amino acid substrates. Dialkylglycine decarboxylase (DGD) is an unusual PLP dependent enzyme that catalyzes two reaction types, decarboxylation and transamination, in the same active site. A structurally-based, functional model has been proposed for the DGD active site, which maintains that R406 is important in determining substrate specificity through interactions with the substrate carboxylate while W138 provides specificity for short-chain alkyl groups. The mechanistic roles of R406 and W138 were investigated using site directed mutagenesis, alternate substrates, and analysis of steady-state and half-reaction kinetics. Experiments on the R406M and R406K mutants confirm the importance of R406 in substrate binding. Surprisingly, this work also shows that the positive charge of R406 facilitates catalysis of decarboxylation. The W138F mutant demonstrates that W138 indeed acts to limit the size of the subsite C binding pocket, determining specificity for 2,2-dialkylglycines with small side chains as predicted by the model. Finally, work with the double mutant W138F/M141R shows that these mutations expand substrate specificity to include L-glutamate and lead to an increase in specificity for L-glutamate over 2-aminoisobutyrate of approximately eight orders of magnitude compared to WT DGD. PMID:20540501

  1. Mutational and Biochemical Analysis of the DNA-entry Nuclease EndA from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    M Midon; P Schafer; A Pingoud; M Ghosh; A Moon; M Cuneo; R London; G Meiss

    2011-12-31

    EndA is a membrane-attached surface-exposed DNA-entry nuclease previously known to be required for genetic transformation of Streptococcus pneumoniae. More recent studies have shown that the enzyme also plays an important role during the establishment of invasive infections by degrading extracellular chromatin in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), enabling streptococci to overcome the innate immune system in mammals. As a virulence factor, EndA has become an interesting target for future drug design. Here we present the first mutational and biochemical analysis of recombinant forms of EndA produced either in a cell-free expression system or in Escherichia coli. We identify His160 and Asn191 to be essential for catalysis and Asn182 to be required for stability of EndA. The role of His160 as the putative general base in the catalytic mechanism is supported by chemical rescue of the H160A variant of EndA with imidazole added in excess. Our study paves the way for the identification and development of protein or low-molecular-weight inhibitors for EndA in future high-throughput screening assays.

  2. Analysis of DNAJC13 mutations in French-Canadian/French cohort of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jay P; Dupre, Nicolas; Dauvilliers, Yves; Strong, Stephanie; Ambalavanan, Amirthagowri; Spiegelman, Dan; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Pourcher, Emanuelle; Langlois, Melanie; Boivin, Michel; Leblond, Claire S; Dion, Patrick A; Rouleau, Guy A; Gan-Or, Ziv

    2016-09-01

    DNAJC13 mutations have been suggested to cause Parkinson's disease (PD), yet subsequent studies reported conflicting results on this association. In the present study, we sequenced the coding region of DNAJC13 in a French-Canadian/French cohort of 528 PD patients and 692 controls. A total of 62 (11.7%) carriers of rare DNAJC13 variants were identified among the PD patients compared with 82 (11.8%) among controls (p = 1.0). Two variants that were previously suggested to be associated with PD, p.R1516H and p.L2170W, were identified with similar directions of association as previously reported. The p.R1516H was found in 2 (0.4%) patients versus 6 (0.9%, nonsignificant) controls and the p.L2170W variant was found in 9 (1.7%) patients and 5 (0.7%, nonsignificant) controls. Meta-analysis with previous reports resulted in odds ratios of 0.32 (95% confidence interval = 0.15-0.68, p = 0.0037) and 2.68 (95% confidence interval = 1.32-5.42, p = 0.007), respectively. Our results provide some support for the possibility that specific DNAJC13 variants may play a minor role in PD susceptibility, although studies in additional populations are necessary. PMID:27236598

  3. Mutational analysis of the active site residues of a D: -psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Yeom, Soo-Jin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Rhee, Sangkee; Kim, Dooil; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2010-02-01

    D-Psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefacience catalyzes the conversion of D: -fructose to D-psicose. According to mutational analysis, the ring at position 112, the negative charge at position 156, and the positive charge at position 215 were essential components for enzyme activity and for binding fructose and psicose. The surface contact area and distance to the bound substrate by molecular modeling suggest that the positive charge of Arg215 was involved in stabilization of cis-endiol intermediate. The distances between the catalytic residues (Glu150 and Glu244) and Mn(2+) are critical to the catalysis, and the negative charges of the metal-binding residues are important for interaction with metal ion. The kinetic parameters of the D183E and H209A mutants for metal-binding residues with substrate and the near-UV circular dichroism spectra indicate that the metal ion bound to Asp183 and His209 is involved not only in catalysis but also in substrate binding.

  4. Mutational analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Eli Nef function.

    PubMed Central

    Zazopoulos, E; Haseltine, W A

    1992-01-01

    The studies presented here define an internally consistent experimental system that permits systematic analysis of the effect of nef on the rate of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in a CD4+ tumor T-cell line and in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The parental full-length Nef protein, derived from the Eli strain of HIV-1, accelerates virus replication in both cell types. Mutations that destabilize or alter the intracellular location of the protein affect the ability of the Nef protein to accelerate virus replication. A set of mutants was made in amino acids proposed to be required for Nef function, including threonine and serine residues proposed to be targets for phosphorylation, and in sequences thought to resemble the G-1, G-3, and G-4 sites of the family of G proteins. In most cases alterations of the critical amino acids yield stable Nef proteins of parental phenotype. These results challenge the existing theories for the mechanism of Nef function. The results also identify two residues in the carboxyl half of the protein that are important for Nef function. Images PMID:1631166

  5. Gene Mutation Analysis in 253 Chinese Children with Unexplained Epilepsy and Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Gao, Kai; Xie, Han; Wu, Ye; Zhang, Yuehua; Wang, Jingmin; Gao, Feng; Wu, Xiru; Jiang, Yuwu

    2015-01-01

    Objective Epilepsy and intellectual/developmental disabilities (ID/DD) have a high rate of co-occurrence. Here, we investigated gene mutations in Chinese children with unexplained epilepsy and ID/DD. Methods We used targeted next-generation sequencing to detect mutations within 300 genes related to epilepsy and ID/DD in 253 Chinese children with unexplained epilepsy and ID/DD. A series of filtering criteria was used to find the possible pathogenic variations. Validation and parental origin analyses were performed by Sanger sequencing. We reviewed the phenotypes of patients with each mutated gene. Results We identified 32 novel and 16 reported mutations within 24 genes in 46 patients. The detection rate was 18% (46/253) in the whole group and 26% (17/65) in the early-onset (before three months after birth) epilepsy group. To our knowledge, we are the first to report KCNAB1 is a disease-causing gene of epilepsy by identifying a novel de novo mutation (c.1062dupCA p.Leu355HisfsTer5) within this gene in one patient with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE). Patients with an SCN1A mutation accounted for the largest proportion, 17% (8/46). A total of 38% (9/24) of the mutated genes re-occurred at least 2 times and 63% (15/24) occurred only one time. Ion channel genes are the most common (8/24) and genes related to synapse are the next most common to occur (5/24). Significance We have established genetic diagnosis for 46 patients of our cohort. Early-onset epilepsy had the highest detection rate. KCNAB1 mutation was first identified in EIEE patient. We expanded the phenotype and mutation spectrum of the genes we identified. The mutated genes in this cohort are mostly isolated. This suggests that epilepsy and ID/DD phenotypes occur as a consequence of brain dysfunction caused by a highly diverse population of mutated genes. Ion channel genes and genes related to synapse were more common mutated in this patient cohort. PMID:26544041

  6. Heavy ion induced mutations in mammalian cells: Cross sections and molecular analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoll, U.; Schmidt, P.; Schneider, E.; Kiefer, J.

    1994-01-01

    Our investigations of heavy ion-induced mutations in mammalian cells, which had been begun a few years ago, were systematically continued. For the first time, it was possible to cover a large LET range with a few kinds of ions. To do this, both UNILAC and SIS were used to yield comparable data for a large energy range. This is a necessary condition for a comprehensive description of the influence of such ion parameters as energy and LET. In these experiments, the induced resistance against the poison 6-thioguanin (6-TG), which is linked to the HPRT locus on the genome, is being used as mutation system. In addition to the mutation-induction cross-section measurements, the molecular changes of the DNA are being investigated by means of Multiplex PCR ('Polymerase Chain Reaction') gene amplification. From these experiments we expect further elucidation of the mutation-inducing mechanisms composing the biological action of heavy-ion radiation.

  7. Analysis of the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis kasA gene mutations in isoniazid resistance.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y-J; Lee, A S G; Wong, S-Y; Paton, N I

    2007-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that Mycobacterium tuberculosis kasA G312S and G269S gene mutations may represent sequence polymorphisms of the M. tuberculosis East-African-Indian (EAI) and T families, respectively, rather than relating to isoniazid resistance. The present study examined polymorphisms of these two codons in 98 drug-susceptible M. tuberculosis isolates (68 EAI and 30 T isolates). Twenty-eight isolates belonging to a sub-lineage of the EAI family had the kasA G312S mutation, but none of the 30 T isolates had the G269S mutation. The data suggest that the kasA G312S mutation is not related to isoniazid resistance, but represents a sequence polymorphism in a sub-lineage of the EAI family. PMID:17501974

  8. Haplotype and mutation analysis for newly suggested Y-STRs in Korean father-son pairs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yu Na; Lee, Hwan Young; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Eun Hye; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 363 Korean father-son haplotype transfers in 351 families were analyzed using an in-house multiplex PCR system for 14 Y-STRs (DYS385a/b, DYF387S1, DYS391, DYS449, DYS460, DYS481, DYS518, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, DYS627 and DYS643), that included 11 loci newly added to the PowerPlex Y23 system or the Yfiler Plus system. The Y-STRs showed gene diversity values ranging from 0.2499 to 0.9612; the multicopy Y-STR loci DYS385 and DYF387S1 had high gene diversity of 0.9612 and 0.9457, respectively. In addition, DYF387S1, which has two copies, showed three alleles in seven individuals, and micro-variant alleles were observed in 14 individuals at four loci (DYS448, DYS518, DYS570 and DYS627). Among 351 haplotypes for the 11 newly added Y-STRs, 350 different haplotypes were observed, with an overall haplotype diversity of 0.9999 and discrimination capacity of 99.72%. In 363 haplotype transfers from 351 pedigrees, 29 single-step mutations were observed at 11 Y-STRs. Locus-specific mutation rate estimates varied from 0.0 to 1.93×10(-2), with an average estimated mutation rate of 6.66×10(-3). Two father-son pairs had mutations at two different loci in 11 Y-STRs. The number of pairs with mutations at multiple loci increased to five when the mutation event was investigated for haplotype transfer at 28 Y-STRs including 17 Yfiler loci and 11 Y-STRs examined in this study: four father-son pairs had mutations at two loci, and one pair had mutations at three loci. Overall, mutations were frequently observed at DYS449, DYS576 and DYS627 loci, which are known to be rapidly mutating Y-STRs. Mutation rate estimates at most loci were not significantly different from rates in other populations, but estimates for DYF387S1, DYS518 and DYS570 were considerably lower in the Korean population than in other populations. PMID:25459034

  9. PIK3CA mutation analysis in Chinese patients with surgically resected cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Libing; Jiang, Wei; Li, Jiajia; Shen, Xuxia; Yang, Wentao; Yang, Gong; Wu, Xiaohua; Yang, Huijuan

    2015-09-11

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological and prognostic relevance of PIK3CA mutations in Chinese patients with surgically resected cervical cancer. PIK3CA mutations were screened in 771 cervical cancer specimens using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. In total, 13.6% (105 of 771) of patients harbored non-synonymous PIK3CA mutations. Patients harboring PIK3CA mutations were older than patients with wild-type PIK3CA (mean age: 50.7 years vs. 47.0 years, P < 0.01). PIK3CA mutations were more commonly observed in postmenopausal patients than in premenopausal patients (19.6% vs. 10.2%, P < 0.01). PIK3CA mutations were more common in squamous cell carcinomas than in non-squamous cell tumors (15.3% vs 7.3%, of P < 0.01). The 3-year relapse-free survival was 90.2% for PIK3CA mutant patients and 80.9% for PIK3CA wild-type patients (P = 0.03). PIK3CA mutation was confirmed as an independent predictor for better treatment outcome in the multivariate analyses (HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29-0.99, P = 0.048). PIK3CA mutations were significantly associated with less distant metastases (mutant-type: 8/105, wild-type: 98/666, p = 0.048). Thus, patients with mutant PIK3CA had distinct characteristics in age, menopausal status, and histological subtype and have better treatment outcome and less distant metastasis after surgery-based multimodal therapy.

  10. Mutational analysis of the extracellular Ca{sup 2+}-sensing receptor gene in human parathyroid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, Yoshitaka; Arnold, A.; Pollak, M.R.; Brown, E.M.

    1995-10-01

    Despite recent progress, such as the identification of PRAD1/cyclin D1 as a parathyroid oncogene, it is likely that many genes involved in the molecular pathogenesis of parathyroid tumors remain unknown. Individuals heterozygous for inherited mutations in the extracellular Ca{sup 2+}-sensing receptor gene that reduce its biological activity exhibit a disorder termed familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia or familial benign hypercalcemia, which is characterized by reduced responsiveness of parathyroid and kidney to calcium and by PTH-dependent hypercalcemia. Those who are homozygous for such mutations present with neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism and have marked parathroid hypercellularity. Thus, the Ca{sup 2+}-sensing receptor gene is a candidate parathyroid tumor suppressor gene, with inactivating mutations plausibly explaining set-point abnormalities in the regulation of both parathyroid cellular proliferation and PTH secretion by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} similar to those seen in hyperparathyroidism. Using a ribonuclease A protection assay that has detected multiple mutations in the Ca{sup 2+}-sensing receptor gene in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and covers more than 90% of its coding region, we sought somatic mutations in this gene in a total of 44 human parathyroid tumors (23 adenomas, 4 carcinomas, 5 primary hyperplasias, and 12 secondary hyperplasias). No such mutations were detected in these 44 tumors. Thus, our studies suggest that somatic mutation of the Ca{sup 2+}-sensing receptor gene does not commonly contribute to the pathogenesis of sporadic parathyroid tumors. As such, PTH set-point dysfunction in parathroid tumors may well be secondary to other clonal proliferative defects and/or mutations in other components of the extracellular Ca{sup 2+}-sensing pathway. 29 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Analysis of hemochromatosis gene mutations in 52 consecutive patients with polycythemia vera.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; de Matteis, Giovanna; Federici, Francesca; Solero, Pietro; Veneri, Dino

    2004-01-01

    A literature review reports increased erythrocyte indices [hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), MCH concentration] in subjects with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). We, therefore, screened 52 consecutive patients with polycythemia vera for 12 HH gene mutations, comparing iron status and red cell parameters between patients positive or negative for HH gene mutations. Our results support the evidence that there is no association between these two conditions.

  12. PIK3CA mutation analysis in Chinese patients with surgically resected cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Libing; Jiang, Wei; Li, Jiajia; Shen, Xuxia; Yang, Wentao; Yang, Gong; Wu, Xiaohua; Yang, Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological and prognostic relevance of PIK3CA mutations in Chinese patients with surgically resected cervical cancer. PIK3CA mutations were screened in 771 cervical cancer specimens using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. In total, 13.6% (105 of 771) of patients harbored non-synonymous PIK3CA mutations. Patients harboring PIK3CA mutations were older than patients with wild-type PIK3CA (mean age: 50.7 years vs. 47.0 years, P < 0.01). PIK3CA mutations were more commonly observed in postmenopausal patients than in premenopausal patients (19.6% vs. 10.2%, P < 0.01). PIK3CA mutations were more common in squamous cell carcinomas than in non-squamous cell tumors (15.3% vs 7.3%, of P < 0.01). The 3-year relapse-free survival was 90.2% for PIK3CA mutant patients and 80.9% for PIK3CA wild-type patients (P = 0.03). PIK3CA mutation was confirmed as an independent predictor for better treatment outcome in the multivariate analyses (HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29–0.99, P = 0.048). PIK3CA mutations were significantly associated with less distant metastases (mutant-type: 8/105, wild-type: 98/666, p = 0.048). Thus, patients with mutant PIK3CA had distinct characteristics in age, menopausal status, and histological subtype and have better treatment outcome and less distant metastasis after surgery-based multimodal therapy. PMID:26358014

  13. IRF6 mutation screening in nonsyndromic orofacial clefting: analysis of 1521 families

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Kang, Chul Joo; Ma, Lian; Hecht, Jacqueline T.; Wehby, George L.; Christensen, Kaare; Czeizel, Andrew E.; Deleyiannis, Frederic W.-B.; Fulton, Robert S.; Wilson, Richard K.; Beaty, Terri H.; Schutte, Brian C.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is an autosomal dominant malformation syndrome characterized by orofacial clefting (OFC) and lower lip pits. The clinical presentation of VWS is variable and can present as an isolated OFC, making it difficult to distinguish VWS cases from individuals with nonsyndromic OFCs. About 70% of causal VWS mutations occur in IRF6, a gene that is also associated with nonsyndromic OFCs. Screening for IRF6 mutations in apparently nonsyndromic cases has been performed in several modestly sized cohorts with mixed results. In the current study we screened 1521 trios with presumed nonsyndromic OFCs to determine the frequency of causal IRF6 mutations. We identified seven likely causal IRF6 mutations, although a posteriori review identified two misdiagnosed VWS families based on the presence of lip pits. We found no evidence for association between rare IRF6 polymorphisms and nonsyndromic OFCs. We combined our results with other similar studies (totaling 2,472 families) and conclude that causal IRF6 mutations are found in 0.24%-0.44% of apparently nonsyndromic OFC families. We suggest that clinical mutation screening for IRF6 be considered for certain family patterns such as families with mixed types of OFCs and/or autosomal dominant transmission. PMID:26346622

  14. IRF6 mutation screening in non-syndromic orofacial clefting: analysis of 1521 families.

    PubMed

    Leslie, E J; Koboldt, D C; Kang, C J; Ma, L; Hecht, J T; Wehby, G L; Christensen, K; Czeizel, A E; Deleyiannis, F W-B; Fulton, R S; Wilson, R K; Beaty, T H; Schutte, B C; Murray, J C; Marazita, M L

    2016-07-01

    Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is an autosomal dominant malformation syndrome characterized by orofacial clefting (OFC) and lower lip pits. The clinical presentation of VWS is variable and can present as an isolated OFC, making it difficult to distinguish VWS cases from individuals with non-syndromic OFCs. About 70% of causal VWS mutations occur in IRF6, a gene that is also associated with non-syndromic OFCs. Screening for IRF6 mutations in apparently non-syndromic cases has been performed in several modestly sized cohorts with mixed results. In this study, we screened 1521 trios with presumed non-syndromic OFCs to determine the frequency of causal IRF6 mutations. We identified seven likely causal IRF6 mutations, although a posteriori review identified two misdiagnosed VWS families based on the presence of lip pits. We found no evidence for association between rare IRF6 polymorphisms and non-syndromic OFCs. We combined our results with other similar studies (totaling 2472 families) and conclude that causal IRF6 mutations are found in 0.24-0.44% of apparently non-syndromic OFC families. We suggest that clinical mutation screening for IRF6 be considered for certain family patterns such as families with mixed types of OFCs and/or autosomal dominant transmission. PMID:26346622

  15. Sequence analysis of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced vermilion mutations in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Pastink, A.; Vreeken, C. J.A. Cohen Institute ); Nivard, M.J.M.; Vogel, E.W. ); Searles, L.L. )

    1989-09-01

    The mutational specificity of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) was determined in Drosophila melanogaster using the vermilion locus as a target gene. 25 mutants (16 F{sub 1} and 9 F{sub 2} mutants) were cloned and sequenced. Only base-pair changes were observed; three of the mutants represented double base substitutions. Transition mutations were the most prominent sequence change: 61% were GC {yields} AT and 18% AT {yields} GC substitutions. Both sequence changes can be explained by the miscoding properties of the modified guanine and thymine bases. A strong bias of neighboring bases on the occurrence of the GC {yields} AT transitions or a strand preference of both types of transition mutations was not observed. The spectrum of ENU mutations in D. melanogaster includes a significant fraction (21%) of transversion mutations. The data indicate that like in other prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems also in D. melanogaster the O{sup 6}-ethylguanine adduct is the most prominent premutational lesion after ENU treatment. The strong contribution of the O{sup 6}-ethylguanine adduct to the mutagenicity of ENU possibly explains the absence of distinct differences between the type of mutations observed in the F{sub 1} and F{sub 2} mutants.

  16. Molecular analysis of mutations in the CSB (ERCC6) gene in patients with Cockayne syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mallery, D L; Tanganelli, B; Colella, S; Steingrimsdottir, H; van Gool, A J; Troelstra, C; Stefanini, M; Lehmann, A R

    1998-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome is a multisystem sun-sensitive genetic disorder associated with a specific defect in the ability to perform transcription-coupled repair of active genes after UV irradiation. Two complementation groups (CS-A and CS-B) have been identified, and 80% of patients have been assigned to the CS-B complementation group. We have analyzed the sites of the mutations in the CSB gene in 16 patients, to determine the spectrum of mutations in this gene and to see whether the nature of the mutation correlates with the type and severity of the clinical symptoms. In nine of the patients, the mutations resulted in truncated products in both alleles, whereas, in the other seven, at least one allele contained a single amino acid change. The latter mutations were confined to the C-terminal two-thirds of the protein and were shown to be inactivating by their failure to restore UV-irradiation resistance to hamster UV61 cells, which are known to be defective in the CSB gene. Neither the site nor the nature of the mutation correlated with the severity of the clinical features. Severe truncations were found in different patients with either classical or early-onset forms of the disease. PMID:9443879

  17. UV Signature Mutations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing complete tumor genomes and exomes has sparked the cancer field's interest in mutation signatures for identifying the tumor's carcinogen. This review and meta-analysis discusses signatures and their proper use. We first distinguish between a mutagen's canonical mutations – deviations from a random distribution of base changes to create a pattern typical of that mutagen – and the subset of signature mutations, which are unique to that mutagen and permit inference backward from mutations to mutagen. To verify UV signature mutations, we assembled literature datasets on cells exposed to UVC, UVB, UVA, or solar simulator light (SSL) and tested canonical UV mutation features as criteria for clustering datasets. A confirmed UV signature was: ≥60% of mutations are C→T at a dipyrimidine site, with ≥5% CC→TT. Other canonical features such as a bias for mutations on the non-transcribed strand or at the 3' pyrimidine had limited application. The most robust classifier combined these features with criteria for the rarity of non-UV canonical mutations. In addition, several signatures proposed for specific UV wavelengths were limited to specific genes or species; non-signature mutations induced by UV may cause melanoma BRAF mutations; and the mutagen for sunlight-related skin neoplasms may vary between continents. PMID:25354245

  18. MEFV Gene Profile in Northwest of Iran, Twelve Common MEFV Gene Mutations Analysis in 216 Patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Salehzadeh, Farhad; Jafari Asl, Mehdi; Hosseini Asl, Saeid; Jahangiri, Sepideh; Habibzadeh, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is a hereditary autoinflammatory disease with autosomal recessive inheritance pattern often seen around the Mediterranean Sea. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and polyserositis and rash. Recently, MEFV gene analysis determines the definitive diagnosis of FMF. In this study, we analyzed 12 MEFV gene mutations in more than 200 FMF patients, previously diagnosed by Tel-Hashomer clinical criteria, in northwest of Iran, located in the proximity of the Mediterranean Sea. In the northwest of Iran (Ardabil), 216 patients with FMF diagnosis, based on Tel-Hashomer criteria, referred to the genetic laboratory to be tested for the following mutations; P369S, F479L, M680I(G/C), M680I(G/A), I692del, M694V, M694I, K695R, V726A, A744S, R761H, E148Q. All patients were screened for MEFV gene mutations by a reverse hybridization assay (FMF Strip Assay, Vienna lab, Vienna, Austria) according to manufacturer’s instructions. Among these FMF patients, no mutation was detected in 51 (23/62%) patients, but 165 (76/38%) patients had one or two mutations, 33 patients (15/28%) homozygous, 86 patients (39/81%) compound heterozygous and 46 patients (21/29%) were heterozygous. The most common mutations were M694V (23/61%), V726A (11/11%) and E148Q (9/95%) respectively. MEFV gene mutations showed similarities and dissimilarities in different ethnic groups, while it is common among Arabs and Armenians genotype. Since common 12 MEFV gene analysis could not detect up to 50% of our patients, who had FMF on the basis of clinical Tel-Hashomer criteria, clinical criteria is still the best way in the diagnosis of FMF in this area. The abstract of this article has been presented in the 7th Congress of International Society of Systemic Auto-Inflammatory Diseases in Lausanne, Switzerland, 22-26 May 2013. PMID:25648235

  19. Functional Analysis of a De Novo GRIN2A Missense Mutation Associated with Early-onset Epileptic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hongjie; Hansen, Kasper B.; Zhang, Jing; Pierson, Tyler Mark; Markello, Thomas C.; Fuentes Fajardo, Karin V.; Holloman, Conisha M.; Golas, Gretchen; Adams, David R.; Boerkoel, Cornelius F.; Gahl, William A.; Traynelis, Stephen F.

    2014-01-01

    NMDA receptors (NMDAR), ligand-gated ion channels, play important roles in various neurological disorders, including epilepsy. Here we show the functional analysis of a de novo missense mutation (L812M) in a gene encoding NMDAR subunit GluN2A (GRIN2A). The mutation, identified in a patient with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy and profound developmental delay, is located in the linker region between the ligand-binding and transmembrane domains. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that the mutation enhances agonist potency, decreases sensitivity to negative modulators including magnesium, protons and zinc, prolongs the synaptic response time course, and increases single channel open probability. The functional changes of this amino acid apply to all other NMDAR subunits, suggesting an important role of this residue on the function of NMDARs. Taken together, these data suggest that the L812M mutation causes over-activation of NMDARs and drives neuronal hyperexcitability. We hypothesize that this mechanism underlies the patient’s epileptic phenotype as well as cerebral atrophy. PMID:24504326

  20. USH1G with unique retinal findings caused by a novel truncating mutation identified by genome-wide linkage analysis

    PubMed Central

    Taibah, Khalid; Bin-Khamis, Ghada; Kennedy, Shelley; Hemidan, Amal; Al-Qahtani, Faisal; Tabbara, Khalid; Mubarak, Bashayer Al; Ramzan, Khushnooda; Meyer, Brian F.; Al-Owain, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive disorder divided into three distinct clinical subtypes based on the severity of the hearing loss, manifestation of vestibular dysfunction, and the age of onset of retinitis pigmentosa and visual symptoms. To date, mutations in seven different genes have been reported to cause USH type 1 (USH1), the most severe form. Patients diagnosed with USH1 are known to be ideal candidates to benefit from cochlear implantation. Methods Genome-wide linkage analysis using Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 10K arrays were performed in three cochlear implanted Saudi siblings born from a consanguineous marriage, clinically diagnosed with USH1 by comprehensive clinical, audiological, and ophthalmological examinations. From the linkage results, the USH1G gene was screened for mutations by direct sequencing of the coding exons. Results We report the identification of a novel p.S243X truncating mutation in USH1G that segregated with the disease phenotype and was not present in 300 ethnically matched normal controls. We also report on the novel retinal findings and the outcome of cochlear implantation in the affected individuals. Conclusions In addition to reporting a novel truncating mutation, this report expands the retinal phenotype in USH1G and presents the first report of successful cochlear implants in this disease. PMID:22876113

  1. 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: mutation analysis in 28 probands, 9 symptomatic and 19 detected by newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Maria Fernanda; Suormala, Terttu; Randolph, Ann; Coelho, David; Fowler, Brian; Valle, David; Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2005-08-01

    Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that appears to be the most frequent organic aciduria detected in tandem mass spectrometry (TMS)-based neonatal screening programs. The phenotype is variable, ranging from neonatal onset with severe neurological involvement to asymptomatic adults. MCC is a heteromeric mitochondrial enzyme composed of biotin containing alpha subunits and smaller beta subunits, encoded by MCCA and MCCB, respectively. We report mutation analysis in 28 MCC-deficient probands, 19 of whom were asymptomatic newborns detected by TMS newborn screening, and nine presented with clinical symptoms. Ten have mutations in MCCA, and 18 in MCCB. We identified 10 novel MCCA and 14 novel MCCB mutant alleles including missense, nonsense, frameshift and splice site mutations, and show that three of the missense mutations result in severely decreased MCC activity when expressed in MCC-deficient cell lines. Our data demonstrate no clear correlation between genotype and phenotype suggesting that factors other than the genotype at the MCC loci have a major influence on the phenotype of MCC deficiency.

  2. Somatic mutation analysis of KRAS, BRAF, HER2 and PTEN in EGFR mutation-negative non-small cell lung carcinoma: determination of frequency, distribution pattern and identification of novel deletion in HER2 gene from Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Bhaumik, Sangeet; Ahmad, Firoz; Das, Bibhu Ranjan

    2016-10-01

    Somatic mutations of KRAS, BRAF, HER2, PTEN genes are the most important molecular markers after the EGFR gene mutation. The current study evaluated the frequency and distribution pattern of KRAS, BRAF, HER2, PTEN mutation in Indian non-small cell lung carcinoma patients. The frequency of KRAS, BRAF, HER2, PTEN mutations was 6.4 % (14/204), 1.5 % (3/204), 1.5 % (3/204), 0 % (0/204), respectively. KRAS, BRAF, HER2 mutations were more prevalent in males than in females. KRAS and HER2 showed a trend of a higher frequency of mutation in the age group of <60 years, whereas BRAF mutations were more frequent in the age group of ≥60 years. Sequencing analysis of KRAS gene revealed c.34G>T (G12C) (n = 8), c.35G>A (G12D) (n = 3), c.35G>T (G12 V) (n = 1) and c.34G>T (G12C)/c.41T>C (V14A) (n = 2) mutations. Three different BRAF mutations (L584P: n = 1, V600E: n = 1, K601E: n = 1) were detected. Two cases harboured c.2324_2325ins12 (ATACGTGATGGC duplication) in HER2 gene, and one case was positive for NG_007503.2 (NM_001005862.2):c.2218-4del. It is less certain, but still quite possible that this mutation will affect splicing as the deletion of one C actually brings in one additional purine into the region. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates an instance of diverse nature of KRAS, BRAF, HER2 and PTEN gene in Indian patients and confirms that the frequency of these gene mutations varies globally. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Indian study to evaluate KRAS, BRAF, HER2 and PTEN gene mutations.

  3. Somatic mutation analysis of KRAS, BRAF, HER2 and PTEN in EGFR mutation-negative non-small cell lung carcinoma: determination of frequency, distribution pattern and identification of novel deletion in HER2 gene from Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Bhaumik, Sangeet; Ahmad, Firoz; Das, Bibhu Ranjan

    2016-10-01

    Somatic mutations of KRAS, BRAF, HER2, PTEN genes are the most important molecular markers after the EGFR gene mutation. The current study evaluated the frequency and distribution pattern of KRAS, BRAF, HER2, PTEN mutation in Indian non-small cell lung carcinoma patients. The frequency of KRAS, BRAF, HER2, PTEN mutations was 6.4 % (14/204), 1.5 % (3/204), 1.5 % (3/204), 0 % (0/204), respectively. KRAS, BRAF, HER2 mutations were more prevalent in males than in females. KRAS and HER2 showed a trend of a higher frequency of mutation in the age group of <60 years, whereas BRAF mutations were more frequent in the age group of ≥60 years. Sequencing analysis of KRAS gene revealed c.34G>T (G12C) (n = 8), c.35G>A (G12D) (n = 3), c.35G>T (G12 V) (n = 1) and c.34G>T (G12C)/c.41T>C (V14A) (n = 2) mutations. Three different BRAF mutations (L584P: n = 1, V600E: n = 1, K601E: n = 1) were detected. Two cases harboured c.2324_2325ins12 (ATACGTGATGGC duplication) in HER2 gene, and one case was positive for NG_007503.2 (NM_001005862.2):c.2218-4del. It is less certain, but still quite possible that this mutation will affect splicing as the deletion of one C actually brings in one additional purine into the region. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates an instance of diverse nature of KRAS, BRAF, HER2 and PTEN gene in Indian patients and confirms that the frequency of these gene mutations varies globally. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Indian study to evaluate KRAS, BRAF, HER2 and PTEN gene mutations. PMID:27637917

  4. Estimation of Mutation Rates Based on the Analysis of Polypeptide Constituents of Cultured Human Lymphoblastoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chu, EHY.; Boehnke, M.; Hanash, S. M.; Kuick, R. D.; Lamb, B. J.; Neel, J. V.; Niezgoda, W.; Pivirotto, S.; Sundling, G.

    1988-01-01

    A subclone of a human diploid lymphoblastoid cell line, TK-6, with consistently high cloning efficiency has been used to estimate the rates of somatic mutations on the basis of protein variation detected by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A panel of 267 polypeptide spots per gel was screened, representing the products of approximately 263 unselected loci. The rate of human somatic mutation in vitro was estimated by measuring the proportion of protein variants among cell clones isolated at various times during continuous exponential growth of a TK-6 cell population. Three mutants of spontaneous origin were observed, giving an estimated spontaneous rate of 6 X 10(-8) electrophoretic mutations per allele per cell generation (i.e., 1.2 X 10(-7) per locus per cell generation). Following treatment of cells with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, a total of 74 confirmed variants at 54 loci were identified among 1143 clones analyzed (approximately 601,000 allele tests). The induced variants include 65 electromorphs which exhibit altered isoelectric charge and/or apparent molecular weight and nine nullimorphs for each of which a gene product was not detected at its usual location on the gel. The induced frequency for these 65 structural gene mutants is 1.1 X 10(-4) per allele. An excess of structural gene mutations at ten known polymorphic loci and repeat mutations at these and other loci suggest nonrandomness of mutation in human somatic cells. Nullimorphs occurring at three heterozygous loci in TK-6 cells may be caused by genetic processes other than structural gene mutation. PMID:3402732

  5. Half-tetrad analysis in zebrafish: Mapping the ros mutation and the centromere of linkage Group 1

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.L.; Africa, D.; Horne, S.

    1995-04-01

    Analysis of meiotic tetrads is routinely used to determine genetic linkage in various fungi. Here we apply tetrad analysis to the study of genetic linkage in a vertebrate. The half-treated genotypes of gynogenesis diploid zebrafish produced by early-pressure (EP) treatment were used to investigate the linkage relationships of two recessive pigment pattern mutations, leopard (leo) and rose (ros). The results showed that ros is tightly linked to its centromere and leo maps 31 cM from its centromere. Analysis of half-tetrads segregating for ros and leo in repulsion revealed no homozygous ros individuals among 32 homozygous leo half-tetrads - i.e., a parental ditype (PD) to nonparental ditype (NPD) ratio of 32:0. This result shows that ros is linked to leo, a mutation previously mapped to Linkage Group I. Investigation of PCR-base DNA polymorphisms on Linkage Group I confirmed the location of ros near the centromere of this linkage group. We propose an efficient, generally useful method to assign new mutations to a linkage group in zebrafish by determining which of 25 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based centromere markers show a significant excess of PD to NPD in half-tetrad fish. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Detection of mutations of the RB1 gene in retinoblastoma patients by using exon-by-exon PCR-SSCP analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Takashi; Toguchida, Junya; Kato, Mitsuo V.; Ishizaki, Kanji; Sasaki, Masao S. ); Kaneko, A. )

    1994-05-01

    Most sporadic cases of retinoblastoma, malignant eye tumor of children, may require the identification of a mutation of the retinoblastoma gene (RB1 gene) for precise genetic counseling. The authors established a mutation detection system of and screened for the RB1 gene mutation in 24 patients with retinoblastoma - 12 bilateral patients and 12 unilateral patients. Mutation analysis was performed by PCR-mediated SSCP analysis in the entire coding region and promoter region, as an initial screening method, followed by direct genomic sequencing. Possible oncogenic mutations were identified in 14 (58%) of 24 tumors, of which 6 were single base substitutions, 4 were small deletions, 3 were small insertions, and 1 was a complex alteration due to deletion-insertion. A constitutional somatic mosaicism was suggested in one bilateral patient. A majority (57%) of mutations were found in E1A binding domains, and all were presumed to truncate the normal gene products. The mutation analysis presented here may provide a basis for the screening system of RB1 gene mutations in retinoblastoma patients. 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Rapid and Reliable Detection of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Gene Mutations in Han Chinese Using High-Resolution Melting Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jing-bin; Xu, Hong-ping; Xiong, Can; Ren, Zhao-rui; Tian, Guo-li; Zeng, Fanyi; Huang, Shu-zhen

    2010-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, an X-linked inherited disease, is one of the most common enzymopathies and affects over 400 million people worldwide. In China at least 21 distinct point mutations have been identified so far. In this study high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was used to screen for G6PD mutations in 260 unrelated Han Chinese individuals, and the rapidity and reliability of this method was investigated. The mutants were readily differentiated by using HRM analysis, which produced distinct melting curves for each tested mutation. Interestingly, G1388A and G1376T, the two most common variants accounting for 50% to 60% of G6PD deficiency mutations in the Chinese population, could be differentiated in a single reaction. Further, two G6PD mutations not previously reported in the Chinese population were identified in this study. One of these mutations, designated “G6PD Jiangxi G1340T,” involved a G1340T substitution in exon 11, predicting a Gly447Val change in the protein. The other mutation involved a C406T substitution in exon 5. The frequencies of the common polymorphism site C1311T/IVS (intervening sequence) XI t93c between patients with G6PD and healthy volunteers were not significantly different. Thus, HRM analysis will be a useful alternative for screening G6PD mutations. PMID:20203002

  8. Rapid and reliable detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene mutations in Han Chinese using high-resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing-bin; Xu, Hong-ping; Xiong, Can; Ren, Zhao-rui; Tian, Guo-li; Zeng, Fanyi; Huang, Shu-zhen

    2010-05-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, an X-linked inherited disease, is one of the most common enzymopathies and affects over 400 million people worldwide. In China at least 21 distinct point mutations have been identified so far. In this study high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was used to screen for G6PD mutations in 260 unrelated Han Chinese individuals, and the rapidity and reliability of this method was investigated. The mutants were readily differentiated by using HRM analysis, which produced distinct melting curves for each tested mutation. Interestingly, G1388A and G1376T, the two most common variants accounting for 50% to 60% of G6PD deficiency mutations in the Chinese population, could be differentiated in a single reaction. Further, two G6PD mutations not previously reported in the Chinese population were identified in this study. One of these mutations, designated "G6PD Jiangxi G1340T," involved a G1340T substitution in exon 11, predicting a Gly447Val change in the protein. The other mutation involved a C406T substitution in exon 5. The frequencies of the common polymorphism site C1311T/IVS (intervening sequence) XI t93c between patients with G6PD and healthy volunteers were not significantly different. Thus, HRM analysis will be a useful alternative for screening G6PD mutations. PMID:20203002

  9. Applications of the method of high resolution melting analysis for diagnosis of Leber's disease and the three primary mutation spectrum of LHON in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guanglin; Ding, Hu; Xu, Yujun; Li, Bin; Wang, Dao Wen

    2013-01-01

    Current screening methods, such as single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP), denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) and direct DNA sequencing that are used for detecting mutation in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) subjects are time consuming and costly. Here we tested high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis for mtDNA primary mutations in LHON patients. In this study, we applied the high resolution melting (HRM) technology to screen mtDNA primary mutations in 50 LHON patients from their peripheral blood. In order to evaluate the reliability of this technique, we compared the results obtained by HRM and direct mtDNA sequencing. We also investigated the spectrum of three most common mtDNA mutations implicated in LHON in the Han Chinese population. The results showed HRM analysis differentiated all of the mtDNA primary mutations and identified 4 additional mtDNA mutations from 50 patients in the blind study. The prevalence of three primary mutations were 11778G>A (87.9%), 14484T>C (6.5%) and 3460G>A (1.7%) in the Han Chinese population. In conclusion, HRM analysis is a rapid, reliable, and low-cost tool for detecting mtDNA primary mutations and has practical applications in molecular genetics.

  10. Mutational analysis of the NF1 GAP-related domain in neuroectodermal tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Vinanzi, C.; Basso, G.; Perilongo, G.

    1994-09-01

    To try to contribute to the more precise characterization of the function of the NF1 gene in tumorigenesis we have analyzed the most conserved region of its coding sequence, the GAP-related domain (NF1 GRD), which is attributed with tumor suppressor function. The rationale for the study was based on the likelihood of finding structural alterations resulting in loss of function of this region, in situations such as tumors of neuroepithelial tissues. In these situations, the activity of the NF1 gene product, neurofibromis, a GTPase activating protein, seems to be crucial in regulating the mechanisms of signal transduction mediated by p21 ras. We have studied the NF1 GRD region by PCR amplification of each exon (exons 21-27a) followed by subsequent PAGE and SSCP analysis of the amplification products in 60 primary sporadic neuroectodermal tumors. Our sample included: 14 neuroblastoma, 11 glioblastoma, 8 medulloblastoma, 7 ependimoma, 6 peripheral PNET, 1 ganglioneuroma, 1 glioma, 1 Ewing sarcoma, 1 meningioma and 1 schwannoma. We have not identified structural alterations of the NF1 GRD region in the tumors analysed, with one possible exception now in the process of being characterized. We can conclude that the loss of the NF1 gene tumor suppressor function that might lead or contribute to the development of malignancies in tissues of neuroectodermal origin is not due to structural abnormalities of the region of the gene interacting with p21 ras, either as a negative regulator or as a downstream effector of it. These data, together with the observation that the oncogene ras 21 is not typically mutated in neuroectodermal tumors, and that GTP-ras has been found normally regulated in neurofibromis-deficient melanoma and neuroblastoma cell lines, seem to support the hypothesis that the antioncogene activity of the NF1 gene could be totally independent from its interaction with ras.

  11. Correlation between the 1.6 A crystal structure and mutational analysis of keratinocyte growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Osslund, T. D.; Syed, R.; Singer, E.; Hsu, E. W.; Nybo, R.; Chen, B. L.; Harvey, T.; Arakawa, T.; Narhi, L. O.; Chirino, A.; Morris, C. F.

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive deletion, mutational, and structural analysis of the native recombinant keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) polypeptide has resulted in the identification of the amino acids responsible for its biological activity. One of these KGF mutants (delta23KGF-R144Q) has biological activity comparable to the native protein, and its crystal structure was determined by the multiple isomorphous replacement plus anomalous scattering method (MIRAS). The structure of KGF reveals that it folds into a beta-trefoil motif similar to other members of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family whose structures have been resolved. This fold consists of 12 anti-parallel beta-strands in which three pairs of the strands form a six-stranded beta-barrel structure and the other three pairs of beta-strands cap the barrel with hairpin triplets forming a triangular array. KGF has 10 well-defined beta strands, which form five double-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheets. A sixth poorly defined beta-strand pair is in the loop between residues 133 and 144, and is defined by only a single hydrogen bond between the two strands. The KGF mutant has 10 additional ordered amino terminus residues (24-33) compared to the other FGF structures, which are important for biological activity. Based on mutagenesis, thermal stability, and structural data we postulate that residues TRP125, THR126, and His127 predominantly confer receptor binding specificity to KGF. Additionally, residues GLN152, GLN138, and THR42 are implicated in heparin binding. The increased thermal stability of delta23KGF-R144Q can structurally be explained by the additional formation of hydrogen bonds between the GLN side chain and a main-chain carbonyl on an adjoining loop. The correlation of the structure and biochemistry of KGF provides a framework for a rational design of this potentially important human therapeutic. PMID:10082365

  12. Proteomic Analysis Reveals a Novel Mutator S (MutS) Partner Involved in Mismatch Repair Pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Tran, Mykim; Tang, Mengfan; Wang, Wenqi; Gong, Zihua; Chen, Junjie

    2016-04-01

    The mismatch repair (MMR) family is a highly conserved group of proteins that function in correcting base-base and insertion-deletion mismatches generated during DNA replication. Disruption of this process results in characteristic microsatellite instability (MSI), repair defects, and susceptibility to cancer. However, a significant fraction of MSI-positive cancers express MMR genes at normal levels and do not carry detectable mutation in known MMR genes, suggesting that additional factors and/or mechanisms may exist to explain these MSI phenotypes in patients. To systematically investigate the MMR pathway, we conducted a proteomic analysis and identified MMR-associated protein complexes using tandem-affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (TAP-MS) method. The mass spectrometry data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003014 and DOI 10.6019/PXD003014. We identified 230 high-confidence candidate interaction proteins (HCIPs). We subsequently focused on MSH2, an essential component of the MMR pathway and uncovered a novel MSH2-binding partner, WDHD1. We further demonstrated that WDHD1 forms a stable complex with MSH2 and MSH3 or MSH6,i.e.the MutS complexes. The specific MSH2/WDHD1 interaction is mediated by the second lever domain of MSH2 and Ala(1123)site of WDHD1. Moreover, we showed that, just like MSH2-deficient cells, depletion of WDHD1 also led to 6-thioguanine (6-TG) resistance, indicating that WDHD1 likely contributes to the MMR pathway. Taken together, our study uncovers new components involved in the MMR pathway, which provides candidate genes that may be responsible for the development of MSI-positive cancers.

  13. Identification and Functional Analysis of Genome Mutations in a Fluoride-Resistant Streptococcus mutans Strain

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Bernd Willem; Zhu, Yuanfang; Li, Jiyao; van Loveren, Cor; Deng, Dong Mei

    2015-01-01

    It is known that fluoride-resistant microorganisms are different from fluoride-sensitive ones in growth, adherence and metabolic activity. It was hypothesized that these phenotypic differences were due to stable genotypic changes in the fluoride-resistant strains. However, until now, no studies have reported these genotypic changes. The aim of this study is to identify such changes in a fluoride-resistant Streptococcus mutans strain (C180-2FR) using whole-genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing and to examine the potential function of the identified mutations by comparing gene expression between the fluoride-sensitive (C180-2) and C180-2FR strains. We performed 50 bp paired-end Illumina shotgun sequencing for both strains. Through extensive bioinformatic analysis, we were able to identify 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genome of C180-2FR, which were further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Expression of the genes containing or in proximity to the SNPs in C180-2 and C180-2FR was then quantified by real-time PCR. A gene cluster containing genes coding for fluoride antiporters was up-regulated 10-fold in C180-2FR when compared to that in C180-2, independent of growth phase. Two SNPs are located in this gene cluster, one in its promoter region and the other in its protein-coding region. In addition, one gene, which codes for a putative glycerol uptake facilitator protein, was found to be down-regulated by 60% in C180-2FR at an early growth phase. The promoter region of this gene contained a SNP. No difference in expression was found for the other SNP-containing genes. In summary, using WGS sequencing, we were able to uncover genetic changes in the genome of a fluoride-resistant strain. These findings can provide new insights into the mechanism of microbial fluoride resistance. PMID:25856576

  14. Molecular analysis of connexin26 asparagine14 mutations associated with syndromic skin phenotypes.

    PubMed

    de Zwart-Storm, Eugene A; Rosa, Rafael F M; Martin, Patricia E; Foelster-Holst, Regina; Frank, Jorge; Bau, Ana E K; Zen, Paulo R G; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio A; Kamps, Miriam A; van Geel, Michel; van Steensel, Maurice A M

    2011-05-01

    Mutations in connexin26, a cutaneous gap junction protein, cause a wide variety of skin disorders including keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome (KID). We previously delineated a phenotype distinct from KID, hypotrichosis-deafness syndrome, caused by the mutation p.Asn14Lys in connexin26. However, a different mutation at the same location, p.Asn14Tyr, was reported to cause a disorder similar to KID. Distinct substitutions cause different conformational changes to the protein, each with unique consequences for its behaviour. This may explain the phenotypic differences. We found the previously described mutation p.Asn14Tyr in connexin26 in two patients from Brazil and Poland, and observe quite distinct phenotypes distinguishable from classical KID syndrome. We assessed functional consequences of p.Asn14Tyr and p.Asn14Lys, using fluorescently labelled proteins and parachute assay, comparing them with the classical KID mutation p.Asp50Asn. Our analyses show that p.Asn14Tyr, p.Asn14Lys and p.Asp50Asn have different consequences for protein localization and gap junction permeability. However, the differences between the phenotypes we observed cannot be readily explained from effects on protein trafficking or gap junction permeability. PMID:21410767

  15. Mutational analysis of single circulating tumor cells by next generation sequencing in metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Galardi, Francesca; Pestrin, Marta; Gabellini, Stefano; Simi, Lisa; Mancini, Irene; Vannucchi, Alessandro Maria; Pazzagli, Mario; Di Leo, Angelo; Pinzani, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) represent a “liquid biopsy” of the tumor potentially allowing real-time monitoring of cancer biology and therapies in individual patients. The purpose of the study was to explore the applicability of a protocol for the molecular characterization of single CTCs by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) in order to investigate cell heterogeneity and provide a tool for a personalized medicine approach. CTCs were enriched and enumerated by CellSearch in blood from four metastatic breast cancer patients and singularly isolated by DEPArray. Upon whole genome amplification 3–5 single CTCs per patient were analyzed by NGS for 50 cancer-related genes. We found 51 sequence variants in 25 genes. We observed inter- and intra-patient heterogeneity in the mutational status of CTCs. The highest number of somatic deleterious mutations was found in the gene TP53, whose mutation is associated with adverse prognosis in breast cancer. The discordance between the mutational status of the primary tumor and CTCs observed in 3 patients suggests that, in advanced stages of cancer, CTC characteristics are more closely linked to the dynamic modifications of the disease status. In one patient the mutational profiles of CTCs before and during treatment shared only few sequence variants. This study supports the applicability of a non-invasive approach based on the liquid biopsy in metastatic breast cancer patients which, in perspective, should allow investigating the clonal evolution of the tumor for the development of new therapeutic strategies in precision medicine. PMID:27034166

  16. Functional analysis and in vitro correction of splicing FAH mutations causing tyrosinemia type I.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Carro, R; Sánchez-Alcudia, R; Pérez, B; Navarrete, R; Pérez-Cerdá, C; Ugarte, M; Desviat, L R

    2014-08-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1) is a rare disease caused by a deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, resulting mainly in hepatic alterations due to accumulation of the toxic metabolites fumarylacetoacetate, maleylacetoacetate and succinylacetone. We have characterized using minigenes four splicing mutations affecting exonic or intronic nucleotides of the FAH gene identified in two HT1 patients. Two of the mutations are novel, c.82-1G>A and c.913G>C and the other two have been previously associated with a splicing defect (c.836A>G and c.1062+5G>A). All mutations were confirmed to affect splicing in minigenes, resulting in exon skipping or activation of a cryptic splice site. We have analyzed the effect of different compounds known to modulate splicing (valproic acid, phenyl butyrate, M344, EIPA, and resveratrol) and the overexpression of splice factors of the SR protein family on the transcriptional profile of the mutant minigenes. For the c.836A>G mutation, a partial recovery of the correctly spliced transcript was observed. These results confirm the relevance of performing functional studies for mutations potentially affecting the splicing process and open the possibility of supplementary therapeutic approaches to diseases caused by splicing defects.

  17. Analysis of fluG mutations that affect light-dependent conidiation in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    Yager, L N; Lee, H O; Nagle, D L; Zimmerman, J E

    1998-01-01

    Conidiation in Aspergillus nidulans is induced by exposure to red light but can also be induced by blue light in certain mutant strains. We have isolated a mutation in the fluG gene that abolishes responsiveness to red light but does not affect the response to blue light. It has been shown that the veA1 (velvet) mutation allows conidiation to occur in the absence of light. We have identified three other fluG mutations that suppress the veA1 phenotype; these double mutants do not conidiate in the dark. The mutations described here define two new phenotypic classes of fluG alleles that display abnormal responses to light. We have characterized these mutations with respect to their molecular identity and to their effect on fluG transcription. Although it has been shown that fluG is required for the synthesis of an extracellular factor that directs conidiation, we do not detect this factor under conditions that promote conidiation in the veA1 suppressors. Furthermore, extracellular rescue is not observed in fluG deletion strains containing the wild-type veA allele. We propose that a genetic interaction between fluG and veA influences the production of the extracellular signal and regulates the initiation of conidiation. PMID:9691036

  18. Mutation analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in a male breast cancer population

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, L.S.; Gayther, S.A.; Ponder, B.A.J.

    1997-02-01

    A population-based series of 54 male breast cancer cases from Southern California were analyzed for germ-line mutations in the inherited breast/ovarian cancer genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Nine (17%) of the patients had a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer in at least one first-degree relative. A further seven (13%) of the patients reported breast/ovarian cancer in at least one second-degree relative and in no first-degree relatives. No germ-line BRCA1 mutations were found. Two male breast cancer patients (4% of the total) were found to carry novel truncating mutations in the BRCA2 gene. Only one of the two male breast cancer patients carrying a BRCA2 mutation had a family history of cancer, with one case of ovarian cancer in a first-degree relative. The remaining eight cases (89%) of male breast cancer with a family history of breast/ovarian cancer in first-degree relatives remain unaccounted for by mutations in either the BRCA1 gene or the BRCA2 gene. 23 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  19. Mutation analysis of hBUB1, human mitotic checkpoint gene in multiple carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Mimori, K; Inoue, H; Alder, H; Ueo, H; Tanaka, Y; Mori, M

    2001-01-01

    hBUB1 is a human homolog of yeast mitotic check point gene that plays an important role in chromosome segregation. Recently mutations of hBUB1 were reported in colorectal cancer cell lines, indicating that inactivation of this gene could be directly involved in aneuploidy in human carcinoma cells. To obtain information of the magnitude of hBUB1 inactivation in multiple carcinomas, we examined mutations in 59 multiple carcinoma cell lines showing single base alteration, however, there was no mutation of hBUB1 with amino acid change in these carcinomas. There were four silent mutations at codon 93, codon 735, codon 430 and codon 98 in KYSE190, TE8 esophageal carcinoma cells, KATOIII gastric carcinoma cells and 697 B cell leukemia cells, respectively. Two candidates of mutation were identified in TE3 esophageal carcinoma cells and 697 B cell leukemia cell line at codon 9 and codon 285, respectively. This result suggests that the inactivation of hBUB1 may be very rare in human carcinomas, or restricted to certain cell lines of colorectal carcinomas. PMID:11115566

  20. Molecular structural analysis of HPRT mutations induced by thermal and epithermal neutrons in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Kinashi, Y; Sakurai, Y; Masunaga, S; Suzuki, M; Takagaki, M; Akaboshi, M; Ono, K

    2000-09-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to thermal and epithermal neutrons, and the occurrence of mutations at the HPRT locus was investigated. The Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), which has been improved for use in neutron capture therapy, was the neutron source. Neutron energy spectra ranging from nearly pure thermal to epithermal can be chosen using the spectrum shifters and thermal neutron filters. To determine mutant frequency and cell survival, cells were irradiated with thermal and epithermal neutrons under three conditions: thermal neutron mode, mixed mode with thermal and epithermal neutrons, and epithermal neutron mode. The mutagenicity was different among the three irradiation modes, with the epithermal neutrons showing a mutation frequency about 5-fold that of the thermal neutrons and about 1.5-fold that of the mixed mode. In the thermal neutron and mixed mode, boron did not significantly increase the frequency of the mutants at the same dose. Therefore, the effect of boron as used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is quantitatively minimal in terms of mutation induction. Over 300 independent neutron-induced mutant clones were isolated from 12 experiments. The molecular structure of HPRT mutations was determined by analysis of all nine exons by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. In the thermal neutron and mixed modes, total and partial deletions were dominant and the fraction of total deletions was increased in the presence of boron. In the epithermal neutron mode, more than half of the mutations observed were total deletions. Our results suggest that there are clear differences between thermal and epithermal neutron beams in their mutagenicity and in the structural pattern of the mutants that they induce. Mapping of deletion breakpoints of 173 partial-deletion mutants showed that regions of introns 3-4, 7/8-9 and 9-0 are sensitive to the induction of mutants by neutron irradiation.

  1. Somatic mutational analysis of FAK in breast cancer: A novel gain-of-function mutation due to deletion of exon 33

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Xu-Qian; Liu, Xiang-Fan; Yao, Ling; Chen, Chang-Qiang; Gu, Zhi-Dong; Ni, Pei-Hua; Zheng, Xin-Min; Fan, Qi-Shi

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •A novel FAK splicing mutation identified in breast tumor. •FAK-Del33 mutation promotes cell migration and invasion. •FAK-Del33 mutation regulates FAK/Src signal pathway. -- Abstract: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and survival. We identified a novel splicing mutant, FAK-Del33 (exon 33 deletion, KF437463), in both breast and thyroid cancers through colony sequencing. Considering the low proportion of mutant transcripts in samples, this mutation was detected by TaqMan-MGB probes based qPCR. In total, three in 21 paired breast tissues were identified with the FAK-Del33 mutation, and no mutations were found in the corresponding normal tissues. When introduced into a breast cell line through lentivirus infection, FAK-Del33 regulated cell motility and migration based on a wound healing assay. We demonstrated that the expression of Tyr397 (main auto-phosphorylation of FAK) was strongly increased in FAK-Del33 overexpressed breast tumor cells compared to wild-type following FAK/Src RTK signaling activation. These results suggest a novel and unique role of the FAK-Del33 mutation in FAK/Src signaling in breast cancer with significant implications for metastatic potential.

  2. Molecular genetic analysis of some mutations in the cystic fibrosis gene in Moldova: Characterization of molecular markers and their linkage to various mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Gimbovskaya, S.D.; Kalinin, V.N.; Ivashchenko, T.E.; Baranov, V.S.

    1994-12-01

    Sixty-one patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) from Moldova were tested for mutations {Delta}F508, G551D, and R553X. Frequencies of various alleles of the repeated GATT sequence in intron 6B of the GFTR gene, their linkage to other polymorphic markers, and various mutations were determined. The frequency of occurrence of mutation {Delta}F508 was only 25%. An absolute majority of CF patients (80%) had pancreatic insufficiency. Mutations G551D and R553X were not found in our sample. Each of 31 chromosomes with mutation {Delta}F508 carry the 6-GATT allele. Most {open_quotes}non {Delta}F508{close_quotes} (78%) and normal (80%) chromosomes were marked by the 7-GATT allele. Twenty-seven {Delta}F508 chromosomes (96.4%) belong to haplotype B6, and only one to D6. Most chromosomes with {open_quotes}non {Delta}F508{close_quotes} mutations are associated with haplotypes D7 (26.3%) and C7 (21%). In addition, a significant portion of chromosomes from this subgroup were associated with haplotypes A7 (23.7%), A6 (10.5%), and C6 (2.7%), which are not yet described for mutant chromosomes. The results obtained demonstrate that CF in Moldova is mainly associated with mutations other than {Delta}F508, G551D, and R553X. Severe forms of the disease, with pancreatic insufficiency, are more frequently caused by these mutations; moreover, our data provides strong evidence for the presence of at least seven additional CF mutations in Moldova, apart from {Delta}F508, G551D, and R553X. Some of these are probably not described.

  3. Rapid growth of a hepatocellular carcinoma and the driving mutations revealed by cell-population genetic analysis of whole-genome data.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yong; Ruan, Jue; Yeh, Shiou-Hwei; Lu, Xuemei; Wang, Yu; Zhai, Weiwei; Cai, Jun; Ling, Shaoping; Gong, Qiang; Chong, Zecheng; Qu, Zhengzhong; Li, Qianqian; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Jin; Zheng, Caihong; Zeng, Changqing; Wang, Hurng-Yi; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Sheng-Han; Hao, Lingtong; Dong, Lili; Li, Wenjie; Sun, Min; Zou, Wei; Yu, Caixia; Li, Chaohua; Liu, Guojing; Jiang, Lan; Xu, Jin; Huang, Huanwei; Li, Chunyan; Mi, Shuangli; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Baoxian; Zhao, Wenming; Hu, Songnian; Zhuang, Shi-Mei; Shen, Yang; Shi, Suhua; Brown, Christopher; White, Kevin P; Chen, Ding-Shinn; Chen, Pei-Jer; Wu, Chung-I

    2011-07-19

    We present the analysis of the evolution of tumors in a case of hepatocellular carcinoma. This case is particularly informative about cancer growth dynamics and the underlying driving mutations. We sampled nine different sections from three tumors and seven more sections from the adjacent nontumor tissues. Selected sections were subjected to exon as well as whole-genome sequencing. Putative somatic mutations were then individually validated across all 9 tumor and 7 nontumor sections. Among the mutations validated, 24 were amino acid changes; in addition, 22 large indels/copy number variants (>1 Mb) were detected. These somatic mutations define four evolutionary lineages among tumor cells. Separate evolution and expansion of these lineages were recent and rapid, each apparently having only one lineage-specific protein-coding mutation. Hence, by using a cell-population genetic definition, this approach identified three coding changes (CCNG1, P62, and an indel/fusion gene) as tumor driver mutations. These three mutations, affecting cell cycle control and apoptosis, are functionally distinct from mutations that accumulated earlier, many of which are involved in inflammation/immunity or cell anchoring. These distinct functions of mutations at different stages may reflect the genetic interactions underlying tumor growth.

  4. A Personalized Approach to Parkinson’s Disease Patients Based on Founder Mutation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Giladi, Nir; Mirelman, Anat; Thaler, Avner; Orr-Urtreger, Avi

    2016-01-01

    While the phenotype of Parkinson disease (PD) is heterogeneous, treatment approaches are mostly uniform. Personalized medicine aims to treat diseases with targeted therapies based on cumulative variables, including genotype. We believe that sufficient evidence has accumulated to warrant the initiation of personalized medicine in PD based on subjects genotype and provide examples for our reasoning from observations of GBA and LRRK2 mutations carriers. While PD patients who carry the G2019S mutation in the LRRK2 gene seem to develop relatively mild disease with more frequent postural instability gait disturbance phenotype, carriers of mutations in the GBA gene tend to have an early onset, rapidly deteriorating disease, with more pronounced cognitive and autonomic impairments. These characteristics have significant implications for treatment and outcome and should be addressed from an early stage in the attempt to improve the patient’s quality of life. PMID:27242656

  5. Mutational analysis of the DTDST gene in a fetus with achondrogenesis type 1B.

    PubMed

    Cai, G; Nakayama, M; Hiraki, Y; Ozono, K

    1998-06-16

    We describe a diastrophic dysplasia (DTDST) gene mutation in a Japanese male fetus with achondrogenesis type 1B and his relatives. Diagnosis in the fetus was based on roentgenographic data and pathological findings of bones and cartilage. Nucleotide sequencing of the DTDST gene demonstrated that the fetus was homozygous for both delVal340 and Thr689Ser and his parents and a healthy brother were heterozygous for the mutations. The former mutation was reported previously in patients with achondrogenesis type 1B, and the latter was detected in 5 alleles of 26 healthy Japanese individuals. These data suggest that delVal340 is associated with achondrogenesis type 1B in the Japanese, whereas a serine to threonine substitution is most likely polymorphic. PMID:9637425

  6. A Mutational Analysis of the Active Site Loop Residues in cis-3-Chloroacrylic Acid Dehalogenase

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Gottfried K.; Huddleston, Jamison P.; Johnson, William H.; Whitman, Christian P.

    2013-01-01

    cis -3-Chloroacrylic acid dehalogenase (cis-CaaD) from Pseudomonas pavonaceae 170 and a homologue from Corynebacterium glutamicum designated Cg10062 share 34% sequence identity (54% similarity). The former catalyzes a key step in a bacterial catabolic pathway for the nematocide 1,3-dichloropropene, whereas the latter has no known biological activity. Although Cg10062 has the six active site residues (Pro-1, His-28, Arg-70, Arg-73, Tyr-103, Glu-114) that are critical for cis-CaaD activity, it shows only a low level cis-CaaD activity and lacks the specificity of cis-CaaD: Cg10062 processes both isomers of 3-chloroacrylate with a preference for the cis-isomer. Although the basis for these differences is unknown, a comparison of the crystal structures of the enzymes covalently modified by an adduct resulting from their incubation with the same inhibitor offers a possible explanation. A 6-residue active site loop in cis-CaaD shows a strikingly different conformation from that observed in Cg10062: the loop closes down on the active site of cis-CaaD, but not on that of Cg10062. In order to examine what this loop might contribute to cis-CaaD catalysis and specificity, the residues were changed individually to those found in Cg10062. Subsequent kinetic and mechanistic analysis suggests that the T34A mutant of cis-CaaD is more Cg10062-like. The mutant enzyme shows a 4-fold increase in Km (using cis-3-bromoacrylate), but not to the degree observed for Cg10062 (687-fold). The mutation also causes a 4-fold decrease in the burst rate (compared to the wild type cis-CaaD), whereas Cg10062 shows no burst rate. More telling is the reaction of the T34A mutant of cis-CaaD with the alternate substrate, 2,3-butadienoate. In the presence of NaBH4 and the allene, cis-CaaD is completely inactivated after one turnover due to the covalent modification of Pro-1. The same experiment with Cg10062 does not result in the covalent modification of Pro-1. The different outcomes are attributed to

  7. Exome Analysis Reveals Differentially Mutated Gene Signatures of Stage, Grade and Subtype in Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Li, You; Wang, Xiaosheng; Vural, Suleyman; Mishra, Nitish K.; Cowan, Kenneth H.; Guda, Chittibabu

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancers exhibit highly heterogeneous molecular profiles. Although gene expression profiles have been used to predict the risks and prognostic outcomes of breast cancers, the high variability of gene expression limits its clinical application. In contrast, genetic mutation profiles would be more advantageous than gene expression profiles because genetic mutations can be stably detected and the mutational heterogeneity widely exists in breast cancer genomes. We analyzed 98 breast cancer whole exome samples that were sorted into three subtypes, two grades and two stages. The sum deleterious effect of all mutations in each gene was scored to identify differentially mutated genes (DMGs) for this case-control study. DMGs were corroborated using extensive published knowledge. Functional consequences of deleterious SNVs on protein structure and function were also investigated. Genes such as ERBB2, ESP8, PPP2R4, KIAA0922, SP4, CENPJ, PRCP and SELP that have been experimentally or clinically verified to be tightly associated with breast cancer prognosis are among the DMGs identified in this study. We also identified some genes such as ARL6IP5, RAET1E, and ANO7 that could be crucial for breast cancer development and prognosis. Further, SNVs such as rs1058808, rs2480452, rs61751507, rs79167802, rs11540666, and rs2229437 that potentially influence protein functions are observed at significantly different frequencies in different comparison groups. Protein structure modeling revealed that many non-synonymous SNVs have a deleterious effect on protein stability, structure and function. Mutational profiling at gene- and SNV-level revealed differential patterns within each breast cancer comparison group, and the gene signatures correlate with expected prognostic characteristics of breast cancer classes. Some of the genes and SNVs identified in this study show high promise and are worthy of further investigation by experimental studies. PMID:25803781

  8. High purity microfluidic sorting and analysis of circulating tumor cells: towards routine mutation detection.

    PubMed

    Autebert, Julien; Coudert, Benoit; Champ, Jérôme; Saias, Laure; Guneri, Ezgi Tulukcuoglu; Lebofsky, Ronald; Bidard, François-Clément; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Farace, Françoise; Descroix, Stéphanie; Malaquin, Laurent; Viovy, Jean-Louis

    2015-05-01

    A new generation of the Ephesia cell capture technology optimized for CTC capture and genetic analysis is presented, characterized in depth and compared with the CellSearch system as a reference. This technology uses magnetic particles bearing tumour-cell specific EpCAM antibodies, self-assembled in a regular array in a microfluidic flow cell. 48,000 high aspect-ratio columns are generated using a magnetic field in a high throughput (>3 ml h(-1)) device and act as sieves to specifically capture the cells of interest through antibody-antigen interactions. Using this device optimized for CTC capture and analysis, we demonstrated the capture of epithelial cells with capture efficiency above 90% for concentrations as low as a few cells per ml. We showed the high specificity of capture with only 0.26% of non-epithelial cells captured for concentrations above 10 million cells per ml. We investigated the capture behavior of cells in the device, and correlated the cell attachment rate with the EpCAM expression on the cell membranes for six different cell lines. We developed and characterized a two-step blood processing method to allow for rapid processing of 10 ml blood tubes in less than 4 hours, and showed a capture rate of 70% for as low as 25 cells spiked in 10 ml blood tubes, with less than 100 contaminating hematopoietic cells. Using this device and procedure, we validated our system on patient samples using an automated cell immunostaining procedure and a semi-automated cell counting method. Our device captured CTCs in 75% of metastatic prostate cancer patients and 80% of metastatic breast cancer patients, and showed similar or better results than the CellSearch device in 10 out of 13 samples. Finally, we demonstrated the possibility of detecting cancer-related PIK3CA gene mutation in 20 cells captured in the chip with a good correlation between the cell count and the quantitation value Cq of the post-capture qPCR. PMID:25815443

  9. MDE heteroduplex analysis of PCR products spanning each exon of the fibrillin (FBN1) gene greatly increases the efficiency of mutation detection in the Marfan syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Nijbroek, G.; Dietz, H.C.; Pereira, L.; Ramirz, F.

    1994-09-01

    Defects in fibrillin (FNB1) cause the Marfan syndrome (MFS). Classic Marfan phenotype cosegregates with intragenic and/or flanking marker alleles in all families tested and a significant number of FBN1 mutations have been identified in affected individuals. Using a standard method of mutation detection, SSCP analysis of overlapping RT-PCR amplimers that span the entire coding sequence, the general experience has been a low yield of identifiable mutations, ranging from 10-20%. Possible explanations included low sensitivity of mutation screening procedures, under-representation of mutant transcript in patient samples either due to deletions or mutant alleles containing premature termination codons, clustering of mutations in yet uncharacterized regions of the gene, including regulatory elements, or genetic heterogeneity. In order to compensate for a potential reduced mutant transcript stability, we have devised a method to screen directly from genomic DNA. The intronic boundaries flanking each of the 65 FBN1 exons were characterized and primer pairs were fashioned such that all splice junctions would be included in the resultant amplimers. The entire gene was screened for a panel of 9 probands with classic Marfan syndrome using mutation detection enhancement (MDE) gel heteroduplex analysis. A mutation was identified in 5/9 (55%) of patient samples. All were either missense mutations involving a cysteine residue or small deletions that did not create a frame shift. In addition, 10 novel polymorphisms were found. We conclude that the majority of mutations causing Marfan syndrome reside in the FBN1 gene and that mutations creating premature termination codons are not the predominant cause of inefficient mutation detection using RT-PCR. We are currently modifying screening methods to increase sensitivity and targeting putative FBN1 gene promoter sequences for study.

  10. Cystic fibrosis (CF) mutation detection and frequencies in central New York state using single strand conformation (SSC) and heteroduplex analysis (HA) gel analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shrimpton, A.E.; Lamberson, C.M.; Hicks, K.E.; Swender, P.T.

    1994-09-01

    Over 100 cystic fibrosis (CF) bearing chromosomes from patients living in central New York state have been screened in order to identify their CF mutations. Ethnic background information and parental samples were also collected when available. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified products from exons 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14B, 15, 17B, 19, 20, 21 and intro 19 have been screened for over 50 known CF mutations by restriction enzyme digest, heteroduplex analysis (HA) and/or single stand conformation (SSC) gel analysis. The exon 9 PCR product was difficult to analyze by HA or SSC gel analysis. Restriction enzyme site generating PCR primers were used to identify the R117H, 711+1,G>T, G542X, 1717-1,G>A, 1898-1,G>A and N1303K CF mutations. Haplotyping at CFTR-linked (xv-2c/Taq I, km19/Pst, I, MP6d.9/Msp I and J3.11/Pst I) and CFTR intragenic markers (intron 6 GATT{sub n}, 1540 A/G, 1898+152,T/A) was performed to aid in CF mutation identification.

  11. Mutational analysis of the Drosophila DNA repair and recombination gene mei-9.

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Ozlem; Kearney, Hutton; Kramer, Benjamin C; Sekelsky, Jeff J

    2004-01-01

    Drosophila mei-9 is essential for several DNA repair and recombination pathways, including nucleotide excision repair (NER), interstrand crosslink repair, and meiotic recombination. To better understand the role of MEI-9 in these processes, we characterized 10 unique mutant alleles of mei-9. These include a P-element insertion that disrupts repair functions but not the meiotic function; three nonsense mutations, one of which has nearly wild-type levels of protein; three missense mutations, one of which disrupts the meiotic function but not repair functions; two small in-frame deletions; and one frameshift. PMID:15166153

  12. Mutational and functional analysis of dominant SPT2 (SIN1) suppressor alleles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, L; Smith, M

    1993-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPT2 gene was identified by genetic screens for mutations which are suppressors of Ty and delta insertional mutations at the HIS4 locus. The ability of spt2 mutations to suppress the transcriptional interference caused by the delta promoter insertion his-4-912 delta correlates with an increase in wild-type HIS4 mRNA levels. The SPT2 gene is identical to SIN1, which codes for a factor genetically defined as a negative regulator of HO transcription. Mutations in SPT2/SIN1 suppress the effects of trans-acting mutations in SWI genes and of partial deletions in the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Nuclear localization and protein sequence similarities suggested that the SPT2/SIN1 protein may be related to the nonhistone chromosomal protein HMG1. To assess the significance of this structural similarity and identify domains of SPT2 functionally important in the regulation of his4-912 delta, we have studied recessive and dominant spt2 mutations created by in vitro mutagenesis. We show here that several alleles carrying C-terminal deletions as well as point mutations in the C-terminal domain of the SPT2 protein exhibit a dominant suppressor phenotype. C-terminal basic residues necessary for wild-type SPT2 protein function which are absent from HMG1 have been identified. The competence of these mutant SPT2 proteins to interfere with the maintenance of the His- (Spt+) phenotype of a his4-912 delta SPT2+ strain is lost by deletion of internal HMG1-like sequences and is sensitive to the wild-type SPT2+ gene dosage. Using cross-reacting antipeptide polyclonal antibodies, we demonstrate that the intracellular level of the wild-type SPT2 protein is not affected in presence of dominant mutations and furthermore that the reversion of the dominance by internal deletion of HMG1-like sequences is not mediated by altered production or stability of the mutant polypeptides. Our results suggest that the products of dominant alleles

  13. Prognostic value of CALR vs. JAK2V617F mutations on splenomegaly, leukemic transformation, thrombosis, and overall survival in patients with primary fibrosis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yu-Qing; Wu, Yue; Wang, Fei; Cui, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The understanding of genetic basis for Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) has got much progress in recent years. But the effect of CALR vs. JAK2V617F mutations on the clinical progression and prognosis of primary fibrosis (PMF) remains relatively obscure. In this meta-analysis, we searched Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for observational studies published until February 2016. Researches that evaluated CALR vs. JAK2V617F mutations on PMF-relevant complications (splenomegaly, leukemic transformation, or thrombosis) and overall survival were selected. Pooled adjust odds ratio (OR), hazard risk (HR), and the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the CALR-mutant versus the JAK2-mutant categories. Twelve studies involving 435 CALR-mutated and 1116 JAK2V617F PMF patients were analyzed. CALR-mutated patients displayed a lower risk of splenomegaly (OR 0.47, 95 % CI 0.29-0.78) and thrombosis (OR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.29-0.92) but showed no significant difference in the risk of leukemic transformation (OR 0.90, 95 % CI 0.55-1.47) when compared with JAK2-mutated patients. CALR mutation favorably affected overall survival while JAK2 mutation led to poorer survival rate (HR 2.58, 95 % CI 2.08-3.20). This meta-analysis confirmed that a genetic classification of PMF by CALR and JAK2 mutations carried significant prognostic relevance. PMID:27376361

  14. Interpretation of mRNA splicing mutations in genetic disease: review of the literature and guidelines for information-theoretical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Caminsky, Natasha; Mucaki, Eliseos J.; Rogan, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of genomic variants has become one of the paramount challenges in the post-genome sequencing era. In this review we summarize nearly 20 years of research on the applications of information theory (IT) to interpret coding and non-coding mutations that alter mRNA splicing in rare and common diseases. We compile and summarize the spectrum of published variants analyzed by IT, to provide a broad perspective of the distribution of deleterious natural and cryptic splice site variants detected, as well as those affecting splicing regulatory sequences. Results for natural splice site mutations can be interrogated dynamically with Splicing Mutation Calculator, a companion software program that computes changes in information content for any splice site substitution, linked to corresponding publications containing these mutations. The accuracy of IT-based analysis was assessed in the context of experimentally validated mutations. Because splice site information quantifies binding affinity, IT-based analyses can discern the differences between variants that account for the observed reduced (leaky) versus abolished mRNA splicing. We extend this principle by comparing predicted mutations in natural, cryptic, and regulatory splice sites with observed deleterious phenotypic and benign effects. Our analysis of 1727 variants revealed a number of general principles useful for ensuring portability of these analyses and accurate input and interpretation of mutations. We offer guidelines for optimal use of IT software for interpretation of mRNA splicing mutations. PMID:25717368

  15. Structure-Guided Control of siRNA Off-Target Effects.

    PubMed

    Suter, Scott R; Sheu-Gruttadauria, Jessica; Schirle, Nicole T; Valenzuela, Rachel; Ball-Jones, Alexi A; Onizuka, Kazumitsu; MacRae, Ian J; Beal, Peter A

    2016-07-20

    Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are promising therapeutics that make use of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, but liabilities arising from the native RNA structure necessitate chemical modification for drug development. Advances in the structural characterization of components of the human RNAi pathway have enabled structure-guided optimization of siRNA properties. Here we report the 2.3 Å resolution crystal structure of human Argonaute 2 (hAgo2), a key nuclease in the RNAi pathway, bound to an siRNA guide strand bearing an unnatural triazolyl nucleotide at position 1 (g1). Unlike natural nucleotides, this analogue inserts deeply into hAgo2's central RNA binding cleft and thus is able to modulate pairing between guide and target RNAs. The affinity of the hAgo2-siRNA complex for a seed-only matched target was significantly reduced by the triazolyl modification, while the affinity for a fully matched target was unchanged. In addition, siRNA potency for off-target repression was reduced (4-fold increase in IC50) by the modification, while on-target knockdown was improved (2-fold reduction in IC50). Controlling siRNA on-target versus microRNA (miRNA)-like off-target potency by projection of substituent groups into the hAgo2 central cleft from g1 is a new approach to enhance siRNA selectivity with a strong structural rationale. PMID:27387838

  16. Structure-Guided Control of siRNA Off-Target Effects.

    PubMed

    Suter, Scott R; Sheu-Gruttadauria, Jessica; Schirle, Nicole T; Valenzuela, Rachel; Ball-Jones, Alexi A; Onizuka, Kazumitsu; MacRae, Ian J; Beal, Peter A

    2016-07-20

    Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are promising therapeutics that make use of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, but liabilities arising from the native RNA structure necessitate chemical modification for drug development. Advances in the structural characterization of components of the human RNAi pathway have enabled structure-guided optimization of siRNA properties. Here we report the 2.3 Å resolution crystal structure of human Argonaute 2 (hAgo2), a key nuclease in the RNAi pathway, bound to an siRNA guide strand bearing an unnatural triazolyl nucleotide at position 1 (g1). Unlike natural nucleotides, this analogue inserts deeply into hAgo2's central RNA binding cleft and thus is able to modulate pairing between guide and target RNAs. The affinity of the hAgo2-siRNA complex for a seed-only matched target was significantly reduced by the triazolyl modification, while the affinity for a fully matched target was unchanged. In addition, siRNA potency for off-target repression was reduced (4-fold increase in IC50) by the modification, while on-target knockdown was improved (2-fold reduction in IC50). Controlling siRNA on-target versus microRNA (miRNA)-like off-target potency by projection of substituent groups into the hAgo2 central cleft from g1 is a new approach to enhance siRNA selectivity with a strong structural rationale.

  17. Structure guided design of biotin protein ligase inhibitors for antibiotic discovery.

    PubMed

    Paparella, Ashleigh S; Soares da Costa, Tatiana P; Yap, Min Y; Tieu, William; Wilce, Matthew C J; Booker, Grant W; Abell, Andrew D; Polyak, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    Biotin protein ligase (BPL) represents a promising target for the discovery of new antibacterial chemotherapeutics. Here we review the central role of BPL for the survival and virulence of clinically important Staphylococcus aureus in support of this claim. X-ray crystallography structures of BPLs in complex with ligands and small molecule inhibitors provide new insights into the mechanism of protein biotinylation, and a template for structure guided approaches to the design of inhibitors for antibacterial discovery. Most BPLs employ an ordered ligand binding mechanism for the synthesis of the reaction intermediate biotinyl-5´-AMP from substrates biotin and ATP. Recent studies reporting chemical analogs of biotin and biotinyl-5´-AMP as BPL inhibitors that represent new classes of anti-S. aureus agents are reviewed. We highlight strategies to selectively inhibit bacterial BPL over the mammalian equivalent using a 1,2,3-triazole isostere to replace the labile phosphoanhydride naturally present in biotinyl-5´-AMP. A novel in situ approach to improve the detection of triazole-based inhibitors is also presented that could potentially be widely applied to other protein targets.

  18. Structure-guided development of specific pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitors targeting the ATP-binding pocket.

    PubMed

    Tso, Shih-Chia; Qi, Xiangbing; Gui, Wen-Jun; Wu, Cheng-Yang; Chuang, Jacinta L; Wernstedt-Asterholm, Ingrid; Morlock, Lorraine K; Owens, Kyle R; Scherer, Philipp E; Williams, Noelle S; Tambar, Uttam K; Wynn, R Max; Chuang, David T

    2014-02-14

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoforms (PDKs 1-4) negatively regulate activity of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by reversible phosphorylation. PDK isoforms are up-regulated in obesity, diabetes, heart failure, and cancer and are potential therapeutic targets for these important human diseases. Here, we employed a structure-guided design to convert a known Hsp90 inhibitor to a series of highly specific PDK inhibitors, based on structural conservation in the ATP-binding pocket. The key step involved the substitution of a carbonyl group in the parent compound with a sulfonyl in the PDK inhibitors. The final compound of this series, 2-[(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]isoindoline-4,6-diol, designated PS10, inhibits all four PDK isoforms with IC50 = 0.8 μM for PDK2. The administration of PS10 (70 mg/kg) to diet-induced obese mice significantly augments pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity with reduced phosphorylation in different tissues. Prolonged PS10 treatments result in improved glucose tolerance and notably lessened hepatic steatosis in the mouse model. The results support the pharmacological approach of targeting PDK to control both glucose and fat levels in obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24356970

  19. PAH Mutation Analysis Consortium Database: a database for disease-producing and other allelic variation at the human PAH locus.

    PubMed

    Hoang, L; Byck, S; Prevost, L; Scriver, C R

    1996-01-01

    The PAH Mutation Analysis Consortium (81 investigators, 26 countries) is engaged in mutation detection at the human PAH locus. Ascertainment of probands occurs largely through newborn screening for hyperphenylalaninemia. A relational database records allelic variation (disease-producing and polymorphic) at the locus. Information is distributed by Newsletter, diskette (WINPAHDB software stand-alone executable on IBM compatible hardware), and at a 'real' site on the Worldwide Web (http://www.mcgill.ca/pahdb). The database presently records (Sept. 27, 1995) 248 alleles in 798 different associations (with polymorphic haplotype, geographic region and population) along with additional information. The database, as a record of human genetic diversity, at a particular locus, contributes to the study of human evolution and demic expansion; it also has medical relevance.

  20. Prognostic Significance of KIT Mutations in Core-Binding Factor Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenlan; Xie, Hui; Wang, Hongxiang; Chen, Li; Sun, Yi; Chen, Zhichao; Li, Qiubai

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic significance of KIT mutations in core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML), including inv(16) and t(8;21) AML, is uncertain. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of KIT mutations on the complete remission (CR) and relapse rates and overall survival (OS) of CBF-AML. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched and relevant studies were included. Negative effect was indicated on relapse risk of CBF-AML (RR [relative risk], 1.43; 95%CI [confidence interval], 1.20-1.70) and t(8;21) AML (RR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.31-2.21), not on OS of CBF-AML (RR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.97-1.23), CR (OR [odds ratio], 0.95; 95% CI, 0.52-1.74), relapse risk (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.90-1.41) or OS (RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.90-1.18) of inv(16) AML. Subgroup analysis of t(8,21) AML showed negative effect of KIT mutations on CR (OR, 2.03; 95%CI: 1.02-4.05), relapse risk (RR, 1.89; 95%CI: 1.51-2.37) and OS (RR, 2.26; 95%CI: 1.35-3,78) of non-Caucasians, not on CR (OR, 0.61; 95%CI: 0.19-1.95) or OS (RR, 1.12; 95%CI: 0.90-1.40) of Caucasians. This study indicates KIT mutations in CBF-AML to be included in the initial routine diagnostic workup and stratification system of t(8,21) AML. Prospective large-scale clinical trials are warranted to evaluate these findings. PMID:26771376

  1. Prognostic Significance of KIT Mutations in Core-Binding Factor Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongxiang; Chen, Li; Sun, Yi; Chen, Zhichao; Li, Qiubai

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic significance of KIT mutations in core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML), including inv(16) and t(8;21) AML, is uncertain. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of KIT mutations on the complete remission (CR) and relapse rates and overall survival (OS) of CBF-AML. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched and relevant studies were included. Negative effect was indicated on relapse risk of CBF-AML (RR [relative risk], 1.43; 95%CI [confidence interval], 1.20–1.70) and t(8;21) AML (RR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.31–2.21), not on OS of CBF-AML (RR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.97–1.23), CR (OR [odds ratio], 0.95; 95% CI, 0.52–1.74), relapse risk (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.90–1.41) or OS (RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.90–1.18) of inv(16) AML. Subgroup analysis of t(8,21) AML showed negative effect of KIT mutations on CR (OR, 2.03; 95%CI: 1.02–4.05), relapse risk (RR, 1.89; 95%CI: 1.51–2.37) and OS (RR, 2.26; 95%CI: 1.35–3,78) of non-Caucasians, not on CR (OR, 0.61; 95%CI: 0.19–1.95) or OS (RR, 1.12; 95%CI: 0.90–1.40) of Caucasians. This study indicates KIT mutations in CBF-AML to be included in the initial routine diagnostic workup and stratification system of t(8,21) AML. Prospective large-scale clinical trials are warranted to evaluate these findings. PMID:26771376

  2. Molecular basis of essential fructosuria: molecular cloning and mutational analysis of human ketohexokinase (fructokinase).

    PubMed

    Bonthron, D T; Brady, N; Donaldson, I A; Steinmann, B

    1994-09-01

    Essential fructosuria is one of the oldest known inborn errors of metabolism. It is a benign condition which is believed to result from deficiency of hepatic fructokinase (ketohexokinase, KHK, E.C.2.7.1.3). This enzyme catalyses the first step of metabolism of dietary fructose, conversion of fructose to fructose-1-phosphate. Despite the early recognition of this disorder, the primary structure of human KHK and the molecular basis of essential fructosuria have not been previously defined. In this report, the isolation and sequencing of full-length cDNA clones encoding human ketohexokinase are described. Alternative mRNA species and alternative KHK isozymes are produced by alternative polyadenylation and splicing of the KHK gene. The KHK proteins show a high level of sequence conservation relative to rat KHK. Direct evidence that mutation of the KHK structural gene is the cause of essential fructosuria was also obtained. In a well-characterized family, in which three of eight siblings have fructosuria, all affected individuals are compound heterozygotes for two mutations Gly40Arg and Ala43Thr. Both mutations result from G-->A transitions, and each alters the same conserved region of the KHK protein. Neither mutation was seen in a sample of 52 unrelated control individuals. An additional conservative amino acid change (Val49IIe) was present on the KHK allele bearing Ala43Thr.

  3. Mutational analysis of centromere DNA from chromosome VI of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Hegemann, J H; Shero, J H; Cottarel, G; Philippsen, P; Hieter, P

    1988-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromeres have a characteristic 120-base-pair region consisting of three distinct centromere DNA sequence elements (CDEI, CDEII, and CDEIII). We have generated a series of 26 CEN mutations in vitro (including 22 point mutations, 3 insertions, and 1 deletion) and tested their effects on mitotic chromosome segregation by using a new vector system. The yeast transformation vector pYCF5 was constructed to introduce wild-type and mutant CEN DNAs onto large, linear chromosome fragments which are mitotically stable and nonessential. Six point mutations in CDEI show increased rates of chromosome loss events per cell division of 2- to 10-fold. Twenty mutations in CDEIII exhibit chromosome loss rates that vary from wild type (10(-4)) to nonfunctional (greater than 10(-1)). These results directly identify nucleotides within CDEI and CDEIII that are required for the specification of a functional centromere and show that the degree of conservation of an individual base does not necessarily reflect its importance in mitotic CEN function. Images PMID:3043181

  4. Analysis of HFE and TFR2 gene mutations in patients with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Veneri, Dino; Franchini, Massimo; Krampera, Mauro; de Matteis, Giovanna; Solero, Pietro; Pizzolo, Giovanni

    2005-06-01

    There are increasing evidences regarding the association between iron overload and extra-hepatic malignancies. We studied the prevalence of 12 hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) gene mutations (C282Y, V53M, V59M, H63D, H63H, S56C, Q127H, E168Q, E168X, W169X and Q283P in the HFE gene and Y250X in the TFR2 gene) and its correlation with the iron status in 82 adult patients with acute leukemia (AL); 48 patients (58.5%) were affected by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 34 patients (41.5%) by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); 27 patients (32.9%) had at least one HH gene mutation (6 heterozygous for C282Y, 6 homozygous for H63D, 13 heterozygous for H63D and 2 heterozygous for S56C). Mean serum ferritin levels at diagnosis were increased (822.5+/-811.4 microg/L). However, there was no difference between patients positive or negative for the HH gene mutations. Similarly, we did not observe any statistically significant difference as far as iron status between AML and ALL patients. Our study does not support the evidence of an association between hemochromatosis gene mutations and iron overload in AL patients.

  5. Likelihood analysis of asymmetrical mutation bias gradients in vertebrate mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed Central

    Faith, Jeremiah J; Pollock, David D

    2003-01-01

    Protein-coding genes in mitochondrial genomes have varying degrees of asymmetric skew in base frequencies at the third codon position. The variation in skew among genes appears to be caused by varying durations of time that the heavy strand spends in the mutagenic single-strand state during replication (D(ssH)). The primary data used to study skew have been the gene-by-gene base frequencies in individual taxa, which provide little information on exactly what kinds of mutations are responsible for the base frequency skew. To assess the contribution of individual mutation components to the ancestral vertebrate substitution pattern, here we analyze a large data set of complete vertebrate mitochondrial genomes in a phylogeny-based likelihood context. This also allows us to evaluate the change in skew continuously along the mitochondrial genome and to directly estimate relative substitution rates. Our results indicate that different types of mutation respond differently to the D(ssH) gradient. A primary role for hydrolytic deamination of cytosines in creating variance in skew among genes was not supported, but rather linearly increasing rates of mutation from adenine to hypoxanthine with D(ssH) appear to drive regional differences in skew. Substitutions due to hydrolytic deamination of cytosines, although common, appear to quickly saturate, possibly due to stabilization by the mitochondrial DNA single-strand-binding protein. These results should form the basis of more realistic models of DNA and protein evolution in mitochondria. PMID:14573484

  6. Analysis of phenotype, enzyme activity and genotype of Chinese patients with POMT1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haipo; Manya, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Jiao, Hui; Fu, Xiaona; Xiao, Jiangxi; Li, Xiaoqing; Wang, Jingmin; Jiang, Yuwu; Toda, Tatsushi; Endo, Tamao; Wu, Xiru; Xiong, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Protein O-mannosyltransferase 1 (POMT1) is a glycosyltransferase involved