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Sample records for structured reminiscence therapy

  1. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Effects of Reminiscence Group Therapy on Demented Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldwasser, A. Norman; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assigned 27 demented elderly nursing home residents to either reminiscence group therapy, supportive group therapy, or a no-treatment control group. Results showed the self-reported level of depression in participants given reminiscence therapy was positively affected compared with participants in the supportive therapy and control groups.…

  2. A systematic review of the use of technology for reminiscence therapy.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Amanda; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2014-10-01

    As the segment of the population 65 years of age or older continues to grow, the number of individuals with dementia increases proportionally, highlighting the need to design therapies that meet the social and emotional needs of people with dementia. Information and communication technologies (ICT) are potential venues for supporting the delivery of such therapies, including reminiscence therapy (RT), which is a non-pharmacological intervention involving the prompting of past memories, often with artifacts such as old photographs or music for therapeutic benefits such as the facilitation of social interactions or the increase of self-esteem. This paper systematically examines the scientific literature on the use of ICT for facilitating RT to assess the current state of the evidence and identify future trends. We searched the PubMed (1966-2013), ACM (1954-2013), and PsycINFO (1908-2013) repositories using the keywords dementia and reminiscence. Three hundred eighty-six articles were retrieved, 44 of which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Findings of the systematic review include that there are benefits to using ICT for RT interventions. Some of these benefits are access to rich and engaging multimedia reminiscence materials, opportunities for people with dementia to participate in social interactions and take ownership of conversations, and a reduction of barriers due to motor deficits during interactions with media. Future studies should explore the types and content of media beneficial to individuals at different stages of dementia.

  3. A Systematic Review of the Use of Technology for Reminiscence Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Amanda; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2016-01-01

    As the segment of the population 65 years of age or older continues to grow, the number of individuals with dementia increases proportionally, highlighting the need to design therapies that meet the social and emotional needs of people with dementia. Information and communication technologies (ICT) are potential venues for supporting the delivery of such therapies, including reminiscence therapy (RT), which is a non-pharmacological intervention involving the prompting of past memories, often with artifacts such as old photographs or music for therapeutic benefits such as the facilitation of social interactions or the increase of self-esteem. This paper systematically examines the scientific literature on the use of ICT for facilitating RT to assess the current state of the evidence and identify future trends. We searched the PubMed (1966–2013), ACM (1954–2013), and PsycINFO (1908–2013) repositories using the keywords dementia and reminiscence. Three hundred eighty-six articles were retrieved, 44 of which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Findings of the systematic review include that there are benefits to using ICT for RT interventions. Some of these benefits are access to rich and engaging multimedia reminiscence materials, opportunities for people with dementia to participate in social interactions and take ownership of conversations, and a reduction of barriers due to motor deficits during interactions with media. Future studies should explore the types and content of media beneficial to individuals at different stages of dementia. PMID:25274711

  4. The effects of reminiscence therapy on depressive symptoms of Chinese elderly: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Depression is one of the most common mental disorders with a high prevalence among the older adults. In recent years, after realizing some side effects of the antidepressants, non-pharmacological psychological treatments begin to attract accruing attention. Reminiscence therapy is one of the psychological treatments that specially designed for the elderly to improve their mental health status by recalling and assessing their existing memory. Though some studies indicate reminiscence therapy can be effective and beneficial for the mental health of elderly, the conclusions are not consistent yet. The aim of this research is to assess the effectiveness of reminiscence therapy for Chinese elderly. Methods Sixty older adults (≥60 years of age) with mild to moderate depression will be randomly assigned to an experimental or a control condition. The participants in the experiment group will receive the reminiscence therapy under the Watt’s protocol with adaptation to Chinese Culture which consists of six weekly sessions of 90 minutes each. The control group will be treated as before. An assessor who is blind to intervention will conduct the measures before treatment, after treatment immediately, and three months after treatment. Discussion This study will provide the evidence whether the reminiscence therapy is effective to treat depressive symptoms of Chinese elderly. This research has been registered in the clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01553669). PMID:23126676

  5. The effects of group reminiscence therapy on depression, self esteem, and life satisfaction of elderly nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Chao, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Hsing-Yuan; Wu, Chiu-Yen; Jin, Suh-Fen; Chu, Tsung-Lan; Huang, Tzu-Shin; Clark, Mary Jo

    2006-03-01

    The need to provide quality mental health care for elders in nursing home settings has been a critical issue, as the aging population grows rapidly and institutional care becomes a necessity for some elders. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to describe the effect of participation in reminiscence group therapy on older nursing home residents' depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants who met the study criteria. Residents of one ward were assigned to the reminiscence therapy group intervention, while residents of the other ward served as controls. Nine weekly one-hour sessions were designed to elicit reminiscence as group therapy for 12 elders in the experimental group. Another 12 elders were recruited for a control group matched to experimental subjects on relevant criteria. Depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction were measured one week before and after the therapy. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, Version 10.0) was used to analyze data. Results indicated that group reminiscence therapy significantly improved self-esteem, although effects on depression and life satisfaction were not significant. Reminiscence groups could enhance elders' social interaction with one another in nursing home settings and become support groups for participants. The model we created here can serve as a reference for future application in institutional care.

  6. The effectiveness of group reminiscence therapy for loneliness, anxiety and depression in older adults in long-term care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Syed Elias, Sharifah Munirah; Neville, Christine; Scott, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Loneliness, anxiety and depression are common problems for older adults in long-term care. Reminiscence therapy is a non-pharmacological intervention that may be of some benefit. In comparison to individual reminiscence therapy, group reminiscence therapy is a preferred option when dealing with the resource constraints of long-term care. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature in order to explore the effectiveness of group reminiscence therapy for older adults with loneliness, anxiety and depression in long-term care. Results indicated that group reminiscence therapy is an effective treatment for depression in older adults, however to date, there is limited research support for its effectiveness to treat loneliness and anxiety. Further research and an improvement in methodological quality, such as using qualitative and mixed methods approaches, is recommended to help establish an evidence base and provide better understanding of the effectiveness of group reminiscence therapy.

  7. Auto Therapy: Using Automobiles as Vehicles for Reminiscence With Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Keith A; Weber, Katherine V

    2015-01-01

    Reminiscence can be beneficial for older adults and contribute to well-being and ego integrity. In this exploratory pilot study, researchers assessed the feasibility and tolerability of a novel reminiscence intervention using automobiles as the focal point. Nineteen older adults (N = 19) were asked to reminisce using photographs of automobiles from across their lifespan. The RE-AIM framework was used to assess the intervention in terms of reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. The intervention was well-received, quickly established rapport, and effectively fostered reminiscence. Social workers may find this intervention useful in helping older adults to explore their lives.

  8. The Effect of Reminiscence Therapy on Cognition, Depression, and Activities of Daily Living for Patients With Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Duru Aşiret, Güler; Kapucu, Sevgisun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was, conducted with experimental design, to investigate the effect of reminiscence therapy on cognition, depression, activities of daily living of institutionalized mild and moderate Alzheimer patients. The study was conducted with a total of 62 patients (31 intervention group and 31 control group) in four home care in Ankara, Turkey. Study was done between the July 1, 2013 and December 20, 2014. Reminiscence therapy sessions were held with groups consists of 4-5 patients, once a week with 30-35 minute duration for 12 weeks. Standardized Mini Mental Test was used in sample selection. Patients were listed through their mini mental test scores, and randomized as odd numbers to control group and even numbers to intervention group. Data were collected with forms developed by researcher 'Data Sheet' and 'Activities of Daily Living Follow-up Form' as well as scales 'Standardized Mini Mental Test' and 'Geriatric Depression Scale'. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U test, variance analyses in repeated measures and Bonferroni tests were used for analysis. The increase in mean Standardized Mini Mental Test score and the decrease in mean Geriatric Depression Scale score of the individuals in the intervention group compared to the control group at the end of the reminiscence therapy was statistically significant (P < 0.05). At the end of reminiscence therapy sessions, increase in cognition and decrease in depression were found statistically significant in intervention group.

  9. Personalized reminiscence therapy M-health application for patients living with dementia: Innovating using open source code repository.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ho, Roger C M

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is known to be an illness which brings forth marked disability amongst the elderly individuals. At times, patients living with dementia do also experience non-cognitive symptoms, and these symptoms include that of hallucinations, delusional beliefs as well as emotional liability, sexualized behaviours and aggression. According to the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines, non-pharmacological techniques are typically the first-line option prior to the consideration of adjuvant pharmacological options. Reminiscence and music therapy are thus viable options. Lazar et al. [3] previously performed a systematic review with regards to the utilization of technology to delivery reminiscence based therapy to individuals who are living with dementia and has highlighted that technology does have benefits in the delivery of reminiscence therapy. However, to date, there has been a paucity of M-health innovations in this area. In addition, most of the current innovations are not personalized for each of the person living with Dementia. Prior research has highlighted the utility for open source repository in bioinformatics study. The authors hoped to explain how they managed to tap upon and make use of open source repository in the development of a personalized M-health reminiscence therapy innovation for patients living with dementia. The availability of open source code repository has changed the way healthcare professionals and developers develop smartphone applications today. Conventionally, a long iterative process is needed in the development of native application, mainly because of the need for native programming and coding, especially so if the application needs to have interactive features or features that could be personalized. Such repository enables the rapid and cost effective development of application. Moreover, developers are also able to further innovate, as less time is spend in the iterative process.

  10. The Effects of Intermittent Reminiscence Therapy on Nursing Home Residents' Depression Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Patricia

    Depression is regarded as the most prevalent mental health disorder in the elderly. Reminiscence, a normative and universal process which can facilitate the resolution, integration, and reorganization of past conflicts can have positive or negative effects on depression. One environment where the elderly are particularly at risk for the negative…

  11. Peer support and reminiscence therapy for people with dementia and their family carers: a factorial pragmatic randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Burnell, Karen; Crellin, Nadia; Hoare, Zoe; Hoe, Juanita; Knapp, Martin; Russell, Ian; Wenborn, Jennifer; Woods, Bob; Orrell, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate peer support and reminiscence therapy, separately and together, in comparison with usual care for people with dementia and their family carers. Design Factorial pragmatic randomised trial, analysed by treatment allocated, was used for this study. Setting The trial ran in Community settings in England. Participants People with dementia and their family carers were the participants. Interventions Treatment as usual (TAU) plus one of the following: one-to-one peer support to family carers from experienced carers (Carer Supporter Programme; CSP), group reminiscence therapy (Remembering Yesterday, Caring Today; RYCT) for people with dementia and carers, both or neither. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes included health-related quality of life (SF-12) for carers and quality of life (QoL-AD) for people with dementia; secondary outcomes included quality of relationship for carers and people with dementia; both were collected by blinded assessors at baseline, 5 and 12 months (primary end point). Results Of 291 pairs recruited, we randomised 145 (50%) to CSP (71% uptake) and 194 (67%) to RYCT (61% uptake). CSP and RYCT, separately or together, were not effective in improving primary outcomes or most secondary outcomes. For CSP versus ‘no CSP’, adjusted difference in means was 0.52 points on the SF-12 (95% CI −1.28 to 2.32) and −0.08 points on the QoL-AD (95% CI −1.70 to 1.56). For RYCT versus ‘no RYCT’, the difference was 0.10 points on the SF-12 (95% CI −1.72 to 1.93) and 0.51 points on the QoL-AD (95% CI −1.17 to 2.08). However, carers reported better relationships with the people with dementia (difference 1.11, 95% CI 0.00 to 2.21, p=0.05). Comparison of combined intervention with TAU, and of intervention received, suggested differential impacts for carers and persons with dementia. Conclusions There is no evidence from the trial that either peer support or reminiscence is effective in

  12. A Systematic Review of the Use of Technology for Reminiscence Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazar, Amanda; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2014-01-01

    As the segment of the population 65 years of age or older continues to grow, the number of individuals with dementia increases proportionally, highlighting the need to design therapies that meet the social and emotional needs of people with dementia. Information and communication technologies (ICT) are potential venues for supporting the delivery…

  13. Reminiscences of Stanley Mandelstam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, John H.

    2017-01-01

    I reminisce about my interactions with Stanley Mandelstam during my years as a graduate student at UC Berkeley (1962-66) and afterwards. His contributions to S-matrix theory, quantum field theory, and string theory are also discussed.

  14. Reminiscence in dementia: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Laura; Murphy, Kathy; Cooney, Adeline; Casey, Dympna; O'Shea, Eamon; Devane, Declan; Jordan, Fionnuala; Hunter, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept of reminiscence in dementia and highlights its uses as a therapeutic intervention used on individuals with dementia. No single definition of reminiscence exists in healthcare literature; however, definitions offered have similar components. The term life review is commonly used when discussing reminiscence; however, both terms are quite different in their goals, theory base and content. This concept analysis identified reminiscence as a process which occurs in stages, involving the recalling of early life events and interaction between individuals. The antecedents of reminiscence are age, life transitions, attention span, ability to recall, ability to vocalise and stressful situations. Reminiscence can lead to positive mental health, enhanced self esteem and improved communication skills. It also facilitates preparation for death, increases interaction between people, prepares for the future and evaluates a past life. Reminiscence therapy is used extensively in dementia care and evidence shows when used effectively it helps individuals retain a sense of self worth, identity and individuality.

  15. Themes in Reminiscence Groups with Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnside, Irene

    1993-01-01

    Examined use of themes in reminiscence therapy groups for older women. Themes used in protocols for three research studies were analyzed. Results revealed that, for one of the three studies, the female participants' (n=67) most-discussed themes were favorite holiday, first pet, and first job. (Author/NB)

  16. Structural Features Reminiscent of ATP-Driven Protein Translocases Are Essential for the Function of a Type III Secretion-Associated ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Junya; Lefebre, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many bacterial pathogens and symbionts utilize type III secretion systems to interact with their hosts. These machines have evolved to deliver bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic target cells to modulate a variety of cellular functions. One of the most conserved components of these systems is an ATPase, which plays an essential role in the recognition and unfolding of proteins destined for secretion by the type III pathway. Here we show that structural features reminiscent of other ATP-driven protein translocases are essential for the function of InvC, the ATPase associated with a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium type III secretion system. Mutational and functional analyses showed that a two-helix-finger motif and a conserved loop located at the entrance of and within the predicted pore formed by the hexameric ATPase are essential for InvC function. These findings provide mechanistic insight into the function of this highly conserved component of type III secretion machines. IMPORTANCE Type III secretion machines are essential for the virulence or symbiotic relationships of many bacteria. These machines have evolved to deliver bacterial effector proteins into host cells to modulate cellular functions, thus facilitating bacterial colonization and replication. An essential component of these machines is a highly conserved ATPase, which is necessary for the recognition and secretion of proteins destined to be delivered by the type III secretion pathway. Using modeling and structure and function analyses, we have identified structural features of one of these ATPases from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium that help to explain important aspects of its function. PMID:26170413

  17. Narrative Structure and Emotional References in Parent-Child Reminiscing: Associations with Child Gender, Temperament, and the Quality of Parent-Child Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bost, Kelly K.; Choi, Eunsil; Wong, Maria S.

    2010-01-01

    The present research examined child gender, temperament, and the quality of parent-child interactions as predictors of narrative style and references to emotion during mother-child and father-child reminiscing. Although models predicting parents' narrative styles were non-significant, results revealed significant interactions between parental…

  18. The Role of Reminiscence in Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Fred B.; And Others

    Although the role of reminiscence in subjective adjustment has been studied among older adults, very little research has examined the functions of reminiscence in the everyday lives of younger people. A study was conducted to extend previous work on reminiscence in the elderly to younger populations by exploring the relationship between…

  19. Reminiscence through the Lens of Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Lisa; Briggs, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Reminiscence is used to support and create new social bonds and give meaning to life. Originally perceived as a preoccupation of the aged, we now recognize that reminiscence has value throughout the lifespan. Increasingly, social media can be used to both support and prompt reminiscence, with Facebook’s Lookback or Year in Review as recent examples. This work takes prompted reminiscence further, asking what forms and functions of reminiscence are supported by social media. Utilizing the online service MySocialBook, we invited participants to curate content from their personal Facebook account to then be transformed into a printed book. We used that book as a prompt for discussion of the reminiscence function of the curated material, using Westerhof and Bohlmeijer’s (2014) reminiscence framework as a starting point. We conclude that this framework is valuable in understanding the role of social media in reminiscence, but note that earlier models, such as Webster’s Reminiscence Functions Scale, are also relevant. We contribute to the reminiscence debate by adding a technological lens to the process of life review, whilst concurring with other researchers in this field that a robust conceptual framework is lacking, particularly when considering the forms of reminiscence that are most salient for younger people. PMID:27378971

  20. A Method for Producing Reminiscence Videos by Using Photo Annotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Noriaki; Kuwabara, Kazuhiro; Abe, Shinji; Susami, Kenji; Yasuda, Kiyoshi

    Providing good home-based care to people with dementia is becoming an important issue as the size of the elderly population increases. One of the main problems in providing such care is that it must be constantly provided without interruption, and this puts a great burden on caregivers, who are often family members. Networked Interaction Therapy is the name we call our methods designed to relieve the stress of people suffering from dementia as well as that of their family members. This therapy aims to provide a system that interacts with people with dementia by utilizing various engaging stimuli. One such stimulus is a reminiscence video created from old photo albums, which is a promising way to hold a dementia sufferer's attention for a long time. In this paper, we present an authoring tool to assist in the production of a reminiscence video by using photo annotations. We conducted interviews with several video creators on how they used photo annotations such as date, title and subject of photos when they produced the reminiscence videos. According to the creators' comments, we have defined an ontology for representing the creators' knowledge of how to add visual effects to a reminiscence video. Subsequently, we developed an authoring tool that automatically produces a reminiscence video from the annotated photos. Subjective evaluation of the quality of reminiscence videos produced with our tool indicates that they give impressions similar to those produced by creators using conventional video editing software. The effectiveness of presenting such a video to people with dementia is also discussed.

  1. Reminiscence and Hypermnesia in Children's Eyewitness Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooy, D.L.; Pipe, M.E.; Murray, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments examined reminiscence and hypermnesia in 5- and 6-year-olds' memory for an event across repeated interviews that occurred either immediately afterward (Experiment 1) or after a 6-month delay (Experiments 2 and 3). Reminiscence (recall of new information) was reliably obtained in all of the experiments, although the numbers of new…

  2. Does Pedagogical Documentation Support Maternal Reminiscing Conversations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleck, Bethany; Richmond, Aaron S.; Sanderson, Jordace; Yacovetta, Sara

    2015-01-01

    When parents talk with their children about lessons learned in school, they are participating in reminiscing of an unshared event. This study sought to understand if pedagogical documentation, from the Reggio Approach to early childhood education, would support and enhance the conversation. Mother-child dyads reminisced two separate times about…

  3. The experience of family carers attending a joint reminiscence group with people with dementia: A thematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Melunsky, Nina; Crellin, Nadia; Dudzinski, Emma; Orrell, Martin; Wenborn, Jennifer; Poland, Fiona; Woods, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Reminiscence therapy has the potential to improve quality of life for people with dementia. In recent years reminiscence groups have extended to include family members, but carers’ experience of attending joint sessions is undocumented. This qualitative study explored the experience of 18 family carers attending ‘Remembering Yesterday Caring Today’ groups. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Five themes were identified: experiencing carer support; shared experience; expectations (met and unmet), carer perspectives of the person with dementia’s experience; and learning and comparing. Family carers’ experiences varied, with some experiencing the intervention as entirely positive whereas others had more mixed feelings. Negative aspects included the lack of respite from their relative, the lack of emphasis on their own needs, and experiencing additional stress and guilt through not being able to implement newly acquired skills. These findings may explain the failure of a recent trial of joint reminiscence groups to replicate previous findings of positive benefit. More targeted research within subgroups of carers is required to justify the continued use of joint reminiscence groups in dementia care. PMID:24381218

  4. The Uses of Reminiscence in Older Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B.

    1993-01-01

    Results of the Uses of Reminiscence Scale completed by 89 60-year olds, 95 80-year olds, and 104 centenarians identified 17 reasons for thinking or talking about the past. Three factors were most important: therapeutic, informative, and enjoyment. (SK)

  5. Collage as a Therapeutic Modality for Reminiscence in Patients with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolhiser Stallings, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Traditional therapy, with its emphasis on verbal communication between therapist and client, may not be appropriate for patients with dementia due to impaired cognitive and verbal abilities. This brief report presents a qualitative study on the use of collage in art therapy to aid in the process of reminiscence in individuals with dementia. Data…

  6. [Exploration of life experiences of an aged woman in a military housing community through reminiscing on photos].

    PubMed

    Ku, Ya-Lie; Ku, Chao-Kuang; Ku, Ju-Li

    2009-02-01

    Reminiscence therapy helps elders recall memories of old times through activities designed to achieve self-healing. The qualitative case in this research was a 70 year-old woman who had lived in a military village for 40 years. Semi-structured questionnaires were used for the interview and data was recorded and transcribed word for word. Analytical methods used the three major patterns of reminiscing over objects, vertical and horizontal life. In reminiscing over objects, the author performed interconnected analysis using selected objects that were beloved and/or had special meaning to the subject. In the perspective of vertical life, the author explored the subject's life experiences through each life stage (childhood, adolescence, middle age, and aged). Themes examined included the Confucian ethical code and patriarch, marriage, economic life, and living alone with loneliness. In the perspective of horizontal life, the author described and analyzed special events in the subject's life, including themes of illness and death, serving in the KMT (Kuomintang) political party and women's organizations, and the contribution of medical treatment. Life experience stories from the subject's four decades living in a military housing community was shared through personal photos. Such a process was targeted to help integrate the life experience of an aged woman in a military housing community and confirm the meaning, value, and contribution of her own life.

  7. Mother-child reminiscing at risk: Maternal attachment, elaboration, and child autobiographical memory specificity.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Christina G; Valentino, Kristin; Comas, Michelle; Nuttall, Amy K

    2016-03-01

    Mother-child reminiscing, the process by which mothers and their children discuss past events and emotional experiences, has been robustly linked with child outcomes, including autobiographical memory. To advance previous work linking elaborative maternal reminiscing with child autobiographical memory specificity, the ability to generate and retrieve specific memories from one's past, it is essential to make distinctions among aspects of elaboration and to consider how maternal risk factors may influence the reminiscing context. The current study evaluated (a) an interaction between emotional and structural elaboration predicting child autobiographical memory specificity and (b) the potential moderating role of maternal adult attachment. Participants consisted of 95 preschool-aged children and their mothers. The sample was predominantly low income and racially diverse. Dyads completed a reminiscing task that was coded for emotional and structural elaboration. Mothers completed the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR-R) to assess attachment-related avoidance and anxiety, and children completed the Autobiographical Memory Test-Preschool Version (AMT-PV) to assess memory specificity. Results indicated that the association between structural reminiscing and child memory specificity was moderated by emotional elements of reminiscing. At high levels of emotional elaboration, mothers with high levels of structural elaboration had children with more specific memory than mothers with low levels of structural elaboration. Moreover, emotional elaboration (a) predicted less specific child memory without high structural support and (b) negatively predicted child specificity at high levels of maternal attachment avoidance and anxiety, a profile associated with fearful avoidance. Future directions and implications are discussed.

  8. The Effect of Narrative Reminiscence on Happiness of Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Zahra; Sharifi, Khadijeh; Tagharrobi, Zahra; Akbari, Hossien

    2015-01-01

    Background: Happiness has a considerable impact on elderly quality of life. Reminiscence therapy can be an effective intervention in increasing the positive emotions among elderly. Objectives: This study was performed to investigate the effect of reminiscence therapy on Iranian elderly women’s happiness. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial conducted on 32 elderly women (census sampling) attending the jahandidegan daycare elderly center IN Gorgan city, Iran, in 2013. Happiness scores of 4 phases were measured: before, the third session, the sixth session and one month after the intervention. Three instruments were used in this study including a demographic questionnaire, the mini mental state examination test, and Oxford happiness questionnaire. The intervention group participated in six sessions of narrative group reminiscence that were held in three consecutive weeks, two sessions per week. The control group was also participated in six sessions of group discussions that were held in three consecutive weeks, two sessions per week. Data analysis was performed the chi-square, independent t-test, Paired t-test. Results: From a total of 32 elderly women, 29 cases completed the study. No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics. The mean happiness scores before the intervention between the two groups were not significantly different (P = 0.824). Comparison of the mean happiness scores of the intervention group in the four measurement times revealed a significant difference only after the third and sixth sessions (P = 0.03), and no significant difference was found between the mean happiness scores of the control group in the four measurement times. Conclusions: The elderly participating in the matched group sessions can be effective in increasing positive emotions. PMID:26734470

  9. How Collaborative Is Structural Family Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Ryan T.; Nichols, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the charge by "collaborative" therapies, such as solution focused and narrative, that structural family therapy is an aggressive, confrontational, and impositional approach, this investigation examines the role of therapist empathy in creating a collaborative partnership in structural family therapy. Twenty-four videotaped therapy…

  10. Reminiscence functions over time: consistency of self functions and variation of prosocial functions.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Norm; King, David B; Cappeliez, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    The current study examines the temporal stability of the tripartite model of reminiscence functions in which eight separate reminiscence functions map onto three second-order factors which contribute significantly to measurement of an overarching reminiscence latent construct. We collected online responses from 411 adults 50+ years of age. Confirmatory factor analytic models were computed at three points of data collection over 16 months. Invariance analyses were next undertaken to simultaneously compare the measurement properties to assess within-person stability of reminiscence functions over time. The tripartite structure of reminiscence functions was replicated at each point of data collection. As hypothesised, self-positive and self-negative functions are consistent across points of data collection, whereas prosocial functions vary over time. The temporal stability of the self functions may be attributed to enduring characteristics of the individual such as personality traits and life attitudes, as well as their solitary nature. Previous research indicates that consistency of self-positive reminiscence functions has ensuing benefits for physical health and psychological well-being; the opposite is true for self-negative functions. The temporal variation of prosocial functions may be due to the varying availability of others to share memories and their responsiveness to the emotional context.

  11. Cascading reminiscence bumps in popular music.

    PubMed

    Krumhansl, Carol Lynne; Zupnick, Justin Adam

    2013-10-01

    Autobiographical memories are disproportionately recalled for events in late adolescence and early adulthood, a phenomenon called the reminiscence bump. Previous studies on music have found autobiographical memories and life-long preferences for music from this period. In the present study, we probed young adults' personal memories associated with top hits over 5-and-a-half decades, as well as the context of their memories and their recognition of, preference for, quality judgments of, and emotional reactions to that music. All these measures showed the typical increase for music released during the two decades of their lives. Unexpectedly, we found that the same measures peaked for the music of participants' parents' generation. This finding points to the impact of music in childhood and suggests that these results reflect the prevalence of music in the home environment. An earlier peak occurred for 1960s music, which may be explained by its quality or by its transmission through two generations. We refer to this pattern of musical cultural transmission over generations as cascading reminiscence bumps.

  12. Early Reminiscing in Cultural Contexts: Cultural Models, Maternal Reminiscing Styles, and Children's Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Lisa; Keller, Heidi; Kartner, Joscha; Kleis, Astrid; Abels, Monika; Yovsi, Relindis D.; Chaudhary, Nandita; Jensen, Henning; Papaligoura, Zaira

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined conversations of 164 mothers from seven different cultural contexts when reminiscing with their 3-year-old children. We chose samples based on their sociodemographic profiles, which represented three different cultural models: (1) autonomy (urban middle-class families from Western societies), (2) relatedness (rural…

  13. Crafts as memory triggers in reminiscence: a case study of older women with dementia.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, Sinikka Hannele; Hirsimäki, Reetta Marja

    2014-10-01

    This case study explored the benefits of crafts as memory triggers in reminiscence sessions with older women in residential care who had severe symptoms of dementia and had enjoyed crafting as a leisure activity during their lifetime. Three structured reminiscence sessions, involving different kinds of handicrafts, craft material, and craft tools, were used to trigger memories and offer multisensory stimuli. Thematization, quantification, and theory-based reasoning were employed for content analysis. Multisensory triggers activated nonverbal and verbal reactions, sustaining attention and prompting interaction and nonverbal communication. The most interesting triggers stimulated recall of forgotten, pleasing craft experiences.

  14. Mother-Child Reminiscing and Children's Understanding of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Cleveland, Emily Sutcliffe

    2006-01-01

    Children's autobiographical memory is hypothesized to be a function of their understanding of mind (Perner & Ruffman, 1995; Welch-Ross, 1995). In the context of mother-child reminiscing, children may learn about and display their understanding of mind (Nelson, 1999; Welch-Ross, 1997). We studied links among maternal reminiscing style,…

  15. Using social reminiscence to teach therapeutic communication skills.

    PubMed

    Puentes, W J

    2000-01-01

    The nursing profession universally accepts the premise that effective communication skills are essential for RNs to function in any health care environment. This article discusses the use of social reminiscence as a teaching tool to encourage the development of these skills. Various approaches to teaching effective communication skills that have been discussed in the literature are described and evaluated. The rationale for social reminiscence to enhance communication is presented, and the teaching/learning experience is described. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of using social reminiscence as a teaching tool are discussed.

  16. A quasi-experimental study of a reminiscence program focused on autobiographical memory in institutionalized older adults with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Teresa Silveira; Afonso, Rosa Marina Lopes Brás Martins; Ribeiro, Óscar Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Working with past memories through reminiscence interventions has been practiced for several decades with successful outcomes on mental health in older adults. Few studies however have focused on autobiographical memory recall in older individuals with cognitive impairment. This study aims to analyze the impact of an individual reminiscence program in a group of older persons with cognitive decline living in nursing homes on the dimensions of cognition, autobiographical memory, mood, behavior and anxiety. A two-group pre-test and post-test design with single blinded assessment was conducted. Forty-one participants were randomized to an experimental group (n=20) and a control group (n=21). The first group attended five weekly individual reminiscence sessions. Changes in the outcome measures were examined for cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment; Autobiographical Memory Test), behavior (Alzheimer Disease Assessment Subscale Non-Cog) and emotional status (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia; Geriatric Depression Scale, and Geriatric Anxiety Inventory). Participants attending reminiscence sessions exhibited better outcomes compared to the control group in cognition, anxiety and depression (p<0.001), and presented a higher number of retrieved autobiographical events, specificity of evoked memories and positive valence of events (p<0.001), and also presented lower latency time for recalling events, and lower negative recalled events (p<0.01). This study supports the potential value of reminiscence therapy in improving the recall of autobiographical memory. Reminiscence therapy can be helpful to maintain or improve cognitive function, decrease anxiety and manage depressive symptoms and altered behavior, but further investigation is needed to clarify long-term effects.

  17. A computer-aided program for helping patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease engage in verbal reminiscence.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Ferlisi, Gabriele; Zullo, Valeria; Schirone, Simona; Prisco, Raffaella; Denitto, Floriana

    2014-11-01

    This study assessed a simple computer-aided program for helping patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease engage in verbal reminiscence. In practice, the program was aimed at fostering the patient's verbal engagement on a number of life experiences/topics previously selected for him or her and introduced in the sessions through a friendly female, who appeared on the computer screen. The female asked the patient about the aforementioned experiences/topics, and provided him or her with positive attention, and possibly verbal guidance (i.e., prompts/encouragements). Eight patients were involved in the study, which was carried out according to non-concurrent multiple baseline designs across participants. Seven of them showed clear improvement during the intervention phase (i.e., with the program). Their mean percentages of intervals with verbal engagement/reminiscence ranged from close to zero to about 15 during the baseline and from above 50 to above 75 during the intervention. The results were discussed in relation to previous literature on reminiscence therapy, with specific emphasis on the need for (a) replication studies and (b) the development of new versions of the technology-aided program to improve its impact and reach a wider number of patients.

  18. Chronic myeloid leukemia: reminiscences and dreams

    PubMed Central

    Mughal, Tariq I.; Radich, Jerald P.; Deininger, Michael W.; Apperley, Jane F.; Hughes, Timothy P.; Harrison, Christine J.; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Saglio, Giuseppe; Cortes, Jorge; Daley, George Q.

    2016-01-01

    With the deaths of Janet Rowley and John Goldman in December 2013, the world lost two pioneers in the field of chronic myeloid leukemia. In 1973, Janet Rowley, unraveled the cytogenetic anatomy of the Philadelphia chromosome, which subsequently led to the identification of the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene and its principal pathogenetic role in the development of chronic myeloid leukemia. This work was also of major importance to support the idea that cytogenetic changes were drivers of leukemogenesis. John Goldman originally made seminal contributions to the use of autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation from the late 1970s onwards. Then, in collaboration with Brian Druker, he led efforts to develop ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the late 1990s. He also led the global efforts to develop and harmonize methodology for molecular monitoring, and was an indefatigable organizer of international conferences. These conferences brought together clinicians and scientists, and accelerated the adoption of new therapies. The abundance of praise, tributes and testimonies expressed by many serve to illustrate the indelible impressions these two passionate and affable scholars made on so many people’s lives. This tribute provides an outline of the remarkable story of chronic myeloid leukemia, and in writing it, it is clear that the historical triumph of biomedical science over this leukemia cannot be considered without appreciating the work of both Janet Rowley and John Goldman. PMID:27132280

  19. Reminiscences of my work with Richard Lewis Arnowitt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Pran

    2015-06-01

    This article contains reminiscences of the collaborative work that Richard Arnowitt and I did together which stretched over many years and encompasses several areas of particle theory. The article is an extended version of my talk at the Memorial Symposium in honor of Richard Arnowitt at Texas A&M, College Station, Texas, 19-20 September 2014.

  20. Personal reminiscences of ophthalmology giants of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Tasman, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper records personal reminiscences of seven 20th century ophthalmologists who each in his own way metaphorically split the atom and, thereby, changed ophthalmology forever. In addition to their major contributions, they each shared some very desirable traits. They were gentlemen who were devoted to their families and their families to them.

  1. Parent-Child Reminiscing Locates the Self in the Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fivush, Robyn; Nelson, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we extend our social-cultural developmental model of autobiographical memory development (Nelson & Fivush, 2004) to discuss children's developing understanding of self and other as temporally extended in time. Parent-guided reminiscing about past events that includes discussion, comparison, and negotiation of internal states of self…

  2. Jacob L. Moreno and "Sociometry": A Mid-Century Reminiscence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgatta, Edgar F.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he first met Jacob L. Moreno, the founder of "Social Psychology Quarterly," through the intervention of Professor Wellman J. Warner, then the chairman of New York University's Department of Sociology. He then reminisces about his experience of working with Moreno on the journal "Sociometry."

  3. Connecting with the Well-Elderly through Reminiscence: Analysis of Lived Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Peg; Carey, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Reminiscing is a therapeutic nursing intervention for older adults. Nursing students and elders who participated in reminiscing interviews were excited by this activity. Researchers across disciplines collaborated in this qualitative research project to clarify the meaning and experience of reminiscing for the student and the diverse elder.…

  4. Effects of hormone therapy on brain structure

    PubMed Central

    Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Lesnick, Timothy G.; Zuk, Samantha M.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Gleason, Carey E.; Wharton, Whitney; Dowling, N. Maritza; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Senjem, Matthew L.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Bailey, Kent R.; Rocca, Walter A.; Jack, Clifford R.; Asthana, Sanjay; Miller, Virginia M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of hormone therapy on brain structure in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in recently postmenopausal women. Methods: Participants (aged 42–56 years, within 5–36 months past menopause) in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study were randomized to (1) 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), (2) 50 μg/d transdermal 17β-estradiol, or (3) placebo pills and patch for 48 months. Oral progesterone (200 mg/d) was given to active treatment groups for 12 days each month. MRI and cognitive testing were performed in a subset of participants at baseline, and at 18, 36, and 48 months of randomization (n = 95). Changes in whole brain, ventricular, and white matter hyperintensity volumes, and in global cognitive function, were measured. Results: Higher rates of ventricular expansion were observed in both the CEE and the 17β-estradiol groups compared to placebo; however, the difference was significant only in the CEE group (p = 0.01). Rates of ventricular expansion correlated with rates of decrease in brain volume (r = −0.58; p ≤ 0.001) and with rates of increase in white matter hyperintensity volume (r = 0.27; p = 0.01) after adjusting for age. The changes were not different between the CEE and 17β-estradiol groups for any of the MRI measures. The change in global cognitive function was not different across the groups. Conclusions: Ventricular volumes increased to a greater extent in recently menopausal women who received CEE compared to placebo but without changes in cognitive performance. Because the sample size was small and the follow-up limited to 4 years, the findings should be interpreted with caution and need confirmation. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that brain ventricular volume increased to a greater extent in recently menopausal women who received oral CEE compared to placebo. PMID:27473135

  5. Personality traits and existential concerns as predictors of the functions of reminiscence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cappeliez, Philippe; O'Rourke, Norm

    2002-03-01

    This study examines to what extent personality and existential constructs predict the frequency of reminiscence, in general, and its various functions, in particular. Eighty-nine older adults completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Life Attitude Profile--Revised, and the Reminiscence Functions Scale. Neuroticism predicted total reminiscence frequency, as well as reminiscence for self-understanding and ruminating about a negative past. Extraversion predicted total reminiscence frequency, as well as reminiscence for generating stimulation, conversation, and maintaining memories of departed loved ones. Openness to experience predicted total reminiscence frequency and reminiscence for addressing life meaning and death. Existential concerns, and in particular low desire to seek new challenges, added significant additional predictive power for total reminiscence frequency and for such uses as generating stimulation, preparing for death, and ruminating about the past. The discussion draws the implications of the finding that the combination of personality traits and existential concerns predicted the overall reminiscence frequency together with the intrapersonal functions of reminiscence.

  6. DOING THERAPY: A POST-STRUCTURAL RE-VISION.

    PubMed

    de Shazer, S; Berg, I K

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to develop a way to look at doing therapy based on (a) Wittgenstein's concept of "language game"; (b) the relationship between Wittgenstein's "private language" argument, language games, and constructivism; and (c) post-structural thinking about language, how therapy works within language, and how language works within therapy. Case material is used to illustrate the usefulness of this approach.

  7. Gestalt and psychoanalytic therapies: structural analysis and rapprochement.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A C

    1980-10-01

    This paper examines the psychoanalytic concepts of interpretation, resistance, and transference as manifest in gestalt therapy. Although these concepts are de-emphasized, criticized, and disavowed in gestalt theoretical writings, they are actually fundamental to the underlying or "deep" structure of gestalt therapy. Examples of gestalt interventions are described and indications for their use suggested.

  8. Training maltreating parents in elaborative and emotion-rich reminiscing with their preschool-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Kristin; Comas, Michelle; Nuttall, Amy K.; Thomas, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Objective In the current study, the effects of training maltreating parents and their preschool-aged children in elaborative and emotion-rich reminiscing were examined. Method 44 parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to a training (reminiscing) or wait-list (control) condition. All participating parents had substantiated maltreatment and were involved with the Department of Child Services at the time of enrollment. Children were 3–6 years old (M = 4.88, SD = .99) and living in the custody of the participating parent. Dyads in the reminiscing condition received four, weekly, in-home sessions in elaborative and emotion rich reminiscing. Results At a follow-up assessment, maltreating parents in the reminiscing condition provided more high-elaborative utterances, references to children’s negative emotions, and explanations of children’s emotion during reminiscing than did parents in the control condition. Children in the reminiscing condition had richer memory recall and made more emotion references than did children in the control condition during reminiscing with their mothers, but not with an experimenter. Conclusion The findings suggest that maltreating parents can be taught elaborative and emotion-rich reminiscing skills, with benefits for child cognitive and emotional development. The potential clinical utility of a reminiscing-based training for maltreating families with young children is discussed. PMID:23548682

  9. Preparation of reminiscent aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce.

    PubMed

    Bonkohara, Kaori; Fuji, Maiko; Nakao, Akito; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya

    2016-01-01

    To prepare an aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce by fewest components, the aroma concentrate of good sensory attributes was prepared by polyethylene membrane extraction, which could extract only the volatiles with diethyl ether. GC-MS-Olfactometry was done with the aroma concentrate, and 28 odor-active compounds were detected. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis to the separated fraction revealed high flavor dilution factors with respect to acetic acid, 4-hydroxy-2(or5)-ethyl-5(or2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol), and 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional). A model aroma mixture containing above four odorants showed a good similarity with the aroma of the soy sauce itself. Consequently, the reminiscent aroma mixture of soy sauce was prepared in water. The ratio of acetic acid, HEMF, isoamyl alcohol, and methional was 2500:300:100:1.

  10. Nanoscience and Reminiscences of a Woman in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresselhaus, Mildred

    My entry into carbon science and nanoscience at an early stage in my career occurred in part because I was a woman in physics. In these reminiscences I will relate why working on carbon science started because I was a woman interested in working on a topic that interested me greatly, but was unpopular at the time; carbon science and thermoelectricity are two examples. I will elaborate on how our research system allows safe study of unpopular topics so that both the researcher and research sponsor are satisfied with outcomes. I also learned a lot from my family and acknowledge their contributions as well as those of sponsors who supported high-risk projects.

  11. Including social factors in the analysis of reminiscence in elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Lamme, S; Baars, J

    1993-01-01

    Developmental psychologists have studied reminiscence in elderly individuals using widely varied conceptions of adult development. Determinist psychologists conceived of reminiscent behavior in elderly individuals as constituting the last phase in normal development. Contextualist psychologists have pointed to the historical and cultural relativity of adult development, and highlighted the variation in elderly persons with respect to reminiscent behavior. However, they do not fully acknowledge the role the environment plays in establishing reminiscent behavior in elderly people. Therefore, sociological life course theory should be included in the analyses and interpretation of this behavior.

  12. The functions and value of reminiscence for older adults in long-term residential care facilities.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Linda A; Kris, Alison; Birney, Sarah; Krauss, Kaitlyn

    2017-03-01

    For the many older adults living in long-term care facilities, the ability to connect with others, as well as with one's own personal past, may be of particular value. Reflecting on the past and sharing reminiscences with others serves different psychosocial functions in various settings. This study examined the functions of reminiscence for long-term care residents in the United States (Mage = 86.5) by addressing the self-reported frequency of reminiscence, the counterparties involved, the overall purpose and value of reminiscence, and the relation to residents' mental health and well-being. Results demonstrated that although some functions of reminiscence were comparable to those found in community-dwelling older adults, others were unique to the long-term care setting. Residents were most likely to reminisce alone and they found the experience enjoyable. They reported engaging in and enjoying reminiscence with family more than with fellow residents, and a subset desired increased opportunities to share memories with healthcare providers. Residents with lower morale and more depressive symptoms were more likely to engage in unhealthy styles of reminiscence. These findings suggest that interventions shaping reminiscence encounters may have positive outcomes for long-term care residents.

  13. Reminiscence Activity and Increased Communication Interaction among Cognitively Disabled Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupar, Karen R.; Smith, N. Richmond

    Designed as the first phase of a larger project to explore the relationships between the possible impact of reminiscence on memory deterioration in elderly women confined to nursing home environments, a study demonstrated that reminiscence activity is positively correlated with increases in communication interactions. Women were chosen as the…

  14. Scenario-Based Design of a Digital Reminiscing System for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiry, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01

    Reminiscing--"the act or process of recalling the past (Butler, 1963, p. 66)"--is a core activity for any society. Research shows that the desire and tradition for reminiscing can be traced back to early civilizations where the elders of the community were responsible to know and share the history of their community (Butler, 1995;…

  15. Two Is the Beginning of the End: "Peter Pan" and the Doctrine of Reminiscence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Glenda A.

    2006-01-01

    This article considers J.M. Barrie's satirical treatment of the Platonic doctrine of reminiscence in "Peter Pan," and how Barrie's work both honors and undercuts it. It will first analyze the Platonic notion of the doctrine of reminiscence in Wordsworth's "Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood" (1807). It will then…

  16. Maternal Elaborative Reminiscing Increases Low-Income Children's Narrative Skills Relative to Dialogic Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Leyva, Diana; Sparks, Alison; Grolnick, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: This study compared the unique effects of training low-income mothers in dialogic reading versus elaborative reminiscing on children's oral language and emergent literacy. Thirty-three low-income parents of 4-year-old children attending Head Start were randomly assigned to either dialogic reading, elaborative reminiscing, or a…

  17. Functions of parent-child reminiscing about emotionally negative events.

    PubMed

    Fivush, Robyn; Berlin, Lisa J; Sales, Jessica McDermott; Mennuti-Washburn, Jean; Cassidy, Jude

    2003-03-01

    Parent-child reminiscing about negative experiences influences children's developing "emotional self-concept", which comprises three interrelated functions: self-defining (this is the kind of emotional person I am), self-in-relation (this is how I express and share my emotions with others), and coping (this is how I cope with and resolve negative emotion). In this study, we examined how 70 mostly white, middle-class mothers discuss three negative experiences (fear, anger, and sadness) with their 4-year-old children. Conversations about fear elaborate on the facts of the event and emotional resolutions, thus focusing on coping. Conversations about sadness contain evaluative feedback and emotional resolutions, thus focusing on self-in-relation and coping. Finally, conversations about anger highlight the emotional state itself, thus focusing on self-definition. Mothers are also more elaborative and more evaluative with daughters than with sons, and place emotional events in a more interpersonal context with daughters than sons. Thus girls may be forming a more elaborated and more interpersonal emotional self-concept than boys.

  18. SenseCam reminiscence and action recall in memory-unimpaired people.

    PubMed

    Seamon, John G; Moskowitz, Tacie N; Swan, Ashley E; Zhong, Boyuan; Golembeski, Amy; Liong, Christopher; Narzikul, Alexa C; Sosan, Olumide A

    2014-01-01

    Case studies of memory-impaired individuals consistently show that reminiscing with SenseCam images enhances event recall. This exploratory study examined whether a similar benefit would occur for the consolidation of memories in memory-unimpaired people. We tested delayed recall for atypical actions observed on a lengthy walk. Participants used SenseCam, a diary, or no external memory aid while walking, followed by reminiscence with SenseCam images, diary entries, or no aid, either alone (self-reminiscence) or with the experimenter (social reminiscence). One week later, when tested without SenseCam images or diary entries, prior social reminiscence produced greater recall than self-reminiscence, but there were no differences between memory aid conditions for action free recall or action order recall. When methodological variables were controlled, there was no recall advantage for SenseCam reminiscence with memory-unimpaired participants. The case studies and present study differ in multiple ways, making direct comparisons problematic. SenseCam is a valuable aid to the memory impaired, but its mnemonic value for non-clinical populations remains to be determined.

  19. Living in aged care: using spiritual reminiscence to enhance meaning in life for those with dementia.

    PubMed

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth; Trevitt, Corinne

    2010-12-01

    Spiritual reminiscence is a way of telling a life story with emphasis on meaning. Spiritual reminiscence can identify meaning associated with joy, sadness, anger, guilt, or regret. Exploring these issues in older age can help people to reframe some of these events and come to new understanding of the meaning and purpose of their lives. A total of 113 older adults with dementia, living in aged-care facilities, participated in this study. They were allocated to small groups for spiritual reminiscence, to meet weekly over 6weeks or 6months. Quantitative data were gathered using a behavioural scale before and after each spiritual reminiscence session. Qualitative data included taped and transcribed reminiscence sessions, individual interviews, and observer journals. A facilitator led the small-group discussion based on spiritual reminiscence. New relationships were developed among group members that improved life for these people in aged care. This paper examines aspects of the qualitative data around the themes of 'meaning in life' and 'vulnerability and transcendence'. Spiritual reminiscence offers nursing staff a way of knowing those with dementia in a deeper and more meaningful way.

  20. Profiles of reminiscence among older adults: perceived stress, life attitudes, and personality variables.

    PubMed

    Cappeliez, Philippe; O'Rourke, Norm

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify subgroups of older participants on the basis of unique configurations of variables among functions of reminiscence, personality traits, life attitudes, and perceived stress by means of cluster analysis. Ninety-three older adults (M = 66.7 years of age) completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Life Attitude Profile-Revised, the Reminiscence Functions Scale, and the Psychological State of Stress Measure. Cluster membership was determined on the basis of intra-personal functions of reminiscence (Boredom Reduction, Death Preparation, Identity, Bitterness Revival). These groups were subsequently compared on personality traits (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience), life attitudes (Existential Vacuum, Goal Seeking), and perceived stress. Three distinct groupings emerged. A greater tendency to ruminate about negative memories and lower extraversion characterized the negative reminiscers. Higher frequency of reminiscence related to issues of identity, life meaning and death, together with a tendency toward openness to experience, typified the meaning seekers. Lower reminiscence frequency for each of the four functions, combined with lower perceived stress and neuroticism, characterized the infrequent reminiscers. These results are interpreted in terms of differential patterns of coping and adaptation.

  1. Structured dyadic behavior therapy processes for ADHD intervention.

    PubMed

    Curtis, David F

    2014-03-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) present significant problems with behavioral disinhibition that often negatively affect their peer relationships. Although behavior therapies for ADHD have traditionally aimed to help parents and teachers better manage children's ADHD-related behaviors, therapy processes seldom use peer relationships to implement evidence-based behavioral principles. This article introduces Structured Dyadic Behavior Therapy as a milieu for introducing effective behavioral techniques within a socially meaningful context. Establishing collaborative behavioral goals, benchmarking, and redirection strategies are discussed to highlight how in-session dyadic processes can be used to promote more meaningful reinforcement and change for children with ADHD. Implications for improving patient care, access to care, and therapist training are also discussed.

  2. [Structure and process quality of multimodal pain therapy. Results of a survey of pain therapy clinics].

    PubMed

    Nagel, B; Pfingsten, M; Brinkschmidt, T; Casser, H-R; Gralow, I; Irnich, D; Klimczyk, K; Sabatowski, R; Schiltenwolf, M; Sittl, R; Söllner, W; Arnold, B

    2012-12-01

    Multimodal therapy has demonstrated good clinical effectiveness in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. However, within the German health system a comprehensive and nationwide access to multimodal therapy is not available and further improvement is therefore necessary. In order to analyze the current status of multimodal therapy and specifically its structural and procedural requirements and qualities, a survey was carried out in 37 pain clinics with established multimodal treatment programs. An anonymous questionnaire was used for data collection. Results demonstrated that a substantial accordance was found between all pain clinics concerning requirements for space, facilities and staff. Structured multidisciplinary assessments were carried out by all pain clinics even though the amount of time allocated for this varied widely. The main focus of multimodal therapy in all facilities was based on a common philosophy with a cognitive-behavioral approach to reduce patient helplessness and avoidance behavior and to increase physical and psychosocial activities as well as to strengthen self-efficacy. Some differences in the ways and means to achieve these goals could be demonstrated in the various programs.

  3. Attachment-Focused Integrative Reminiscence with Older African-Americans: A Randomized Controlled Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Charles R.; Kang, Suk-Young; Pillemer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Prior integrative reminiscence interventions have had a limited focus on attachment themes. The Attachment-Focused Integrative Reminiscence (AFIR) intervention differs from these in its central emphasis on attachment themes. The wide range of health benefits resulting from integrative reminiscence may be due in part to reminiscing about, mourning, and integrating unresolved attachment experiences. Method Participants were randomized into treatment and wait-list control conditions; completed a pre-test; met for 8 consecutive weekly 2-hour sessions of largely attachment-focused reminiscence; then completed post-tests immediately following the intervention and again 6 months later. Results Results show treatment effects for depression (p = .01 and .05 at 8 weeks and 6 months), perceived stress (p = .01 and .04), and emergency room (ER) visits at 6 months (p = .04), with the intervention group showing lower depression and stress and fewer ER visits. Conclusion Integrative reminiscence interventions are cost-effective, have rapid impact, and carry a certain appeal to older adults. Augmenting such interventions with a focus on attachment experiences may reduce perceived stress, an important health risk factor. Wider application of AFIRs may further reduce health disparities among U.S. older adults. PMID:25812080

  4. Maternal Elaborative Reminiscing Mediates the Effect of Child Maltreatment on Behavioral and Physiological Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Kristin; Hibel, Leah C; Cummings, E. Mark; Nuttall, Amy K.; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence suggest that the way in which parents discuss everyday emotional experiences with their young children (i.e., elaborative reminiscing) has significant implications for child cognitive and socio-emotional functioning, and that maltreating parents have a particularly difficult time in engaging in this type of dialogue. This dyadic interactional exchange, therefore, has the potential to be an important process variable linking child maltreatment to developmental outcomes at multiple levels of analysis. The current investigation evaluated the role of maternal elaborative reminiscing in associations between maltreatment and child cognitive, emotional, and physiological functioning. Participants included 43 maltreated and 49 nonmaltreated children (aged 3–6) and their mothers. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about four past emotional events, and children participated in assessments of receptive language and emotion knowledge. Child salivary cortisol was also collected from children three times a day (waking, midday, and bedtime) on two consecutive days to assess daily levels and diurnal decline. Results indicated that maltreating mothers engaged in significantly less elaborative reminiscing than nonmaltreating mothers. Maternal elaborative reminiscing mediated associations between child maltreatment and child receptive language and child emotion knowledge. Additionally, there was support for an indirect pathway between child maltreatment and child cortisol diurnal decline through maternal elaborative reminiscing. Directions for future research are discussed and potential clinical implications are addressed. PMID:26535941

  5. Eukaryotic GPN-loop GTPases paralogs use a dimeric assembly reminiscent of archeal GPN.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Béatrice; Beraud, Carole; Meguellati, Sarra; Chen, Shu W; Pellequer, Jean Luc; Armengaud, Jean; Godon, Christian

    2013-02-01

    GTPases are molecular switches that regulate a wide-range of cellular processes. The GPN-loop GTPase (GPN) is a sub-family of P-loop NTPase that evolved from a single gene copy in archaea to triplicate paralog genes in eukaryotes, each having a non-redundant essential function in cell. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yGPN1 and yGPN2 are involved in sister chromatid cohesion mechanism, whereas nothing is known regarding yGPN3 function. Previous high-throughput experiments suggested that GPN paralogs interaction may occur. In this work, GPN|GPN contact was analyzed in details using TAP-Tag approach, yeast two-hybrid assay, in silico energy computation and site-directed mutagenesis of a conserved Glu residue located at the center of the interaction interface. It is demonstrated that this residue is essential for cell viability. A chromatid cohesion assay revealed that, like yGPN1 and yGPN2, yGPN3 also plays a role in sister chromatid cohesion. These results suggest that all three GPN proteins act at the molecular level in sister chromatid cohesion mechanism as a GPN|GPN complex reminiscent of the homodimeric structure of PAB0955, an archaeal member of GPN-loop GTPase.

  6. Life scripts for emotionally charged autobiographical memories: A cultural explanation of the reminiscence bump.

    PubMed

    Haque, Shamsul; Hasking, Penelope A

    2010-10-01

    Two studies examined the ability of the life script account to explain the reminiscence bump for emotionally charged autobiographical memories among Malaysian participants. In Study 1 volunteers, aged 50-90 years, participated in a two-phased task. In the first phase, participants estimated the timing of 11 life events (both positive and negative) that may occur in a prototypical life course within their own culture. Two weeks later the participants retrieved the same set of events from their lives and reported how old they were when those events occurred. In the second study 92 undergraduate students produced life scripts for the same 11 events. The findings revealed reminiscence bumps in both life script and retrieval curves for the memories judged happiest, most important, most in love, and most jealous. A reminiscence bump was also noted for success, although this was later in the lifespan than other reminiscence bumps. It was suggested that the life scripts can be used as an alternative account for the reminiscence bump, for highly positive and occasionally for negative autobiographical memories.

  7. Hydrogen bonding in protic ionic liquids: reminiscent of water.

    PubMed

    Fumino, Koichi; Wulf, Alexander; Ludwig, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Similarities and differences: Far-infrared spectra of protic ionic liquids could be assigned to intermolecular bending and stretching modes of hydrogen bonds. The characteristics of the low-frequency spectra resemble those of water. Both liquids form three-dimensional network structures, but only water is capable of building tetrahedral configurations. EAN: ethylammonium nitrate, PAN: propylammonium nitrate, DMAN: dimethylammonium nitrate.

  8. Maternal Reminiscing Style during Early Childhood Predicts the Age of Adolescents' Earliest Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…

  9. Functions of Memory Sharing and Mother-Child Reminiscing Behaviors: Individual and Cultural Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkofsky, Sarah; Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim

    2009-01-01

    This study examined maternal beliefs about the functions of memory sharing and the relations between these beliefs and mother-child reminiscing behaviors in a cross-cultural context. Sixty-three European American and 47 Chinese mothers completed an open-ended questionnaire concerning their beliefs about the functions of parent-child memory…

  10. How to Make Reminiscence Movies: A Project-Based Gerontology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yancura, Loriena A.

    2013-01-01

    One key to successful gerontological education lies in teaching students to integrate information from diverse academic disciplines into practical contexts. This article describes a project-based course within which students learn to integrate theories by working with older adult partners to make reminiscence movies based on an important event or…

  11. Reminiscence, Psychological Well-Being, and Ego Integrity in Portuguese Elderly People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afonso, Rosa Maria; Bueno, Belen; Loureiro, Manuel Joachim; Pereira, Henrique

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of a reminiscence program on the psychological well-being and ego integrity of elderly people with depressive symptomatology. Ninety people aged 65 and over participated in a quasi-experimental design with pretest and posttest evaluations. They were assigned to one of three groups: (a) experimental group…

  12. A Controlled Evaluation of Reminiscence and Current Topics Discussion Groups in a Nursing Home Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattenbury, Christine; Stones, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Compared psychological well-being of elderly nursing home residents who participated in reminiscence and current topics group discussions with control group of residents. Rated participants' happiness/depression, activity, mood, and functional levels before and after intervention. Intervention had significant effect only on happiness/depression…

  13. Psychometric Properties of the "Reminiscence Functions Scale" for the Portuguese Population: A Preliminary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goncalves, Daniela C.; Guedes, Joana Martins; Fonseca, Antonio M.; Martin, Inacio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of a version in Portuguese of the "Reminiscence Functions Scale." Total sample was composed of 628 participants aged between 18 and 92 years, divided into three groups according to their age (18-24 years, "n" = 249; 26-54 years, "n" = 174; 55 and…

  14. Socialization of Past Event Talk: Cultural Differences in Maternal Elaborative Reminiscing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tougu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Schroder, Lisa; Keller, Heidi; De Geer, Boel

    2011-01-01

    This study examines mother-child reminiscing conversations with respect to variation in use and function of mothers' elaborations, the nature of children's memory elaborations, and the connections between the two, in three Western middle-class cultures where autonomy is valued over relatedness. Mothers participated with their 4-year-old children…

  15. Mother-child reminiscing and autobiographical memory specificity among preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G; Piper, Brianna; Thomas, Taylor E; Fanuele, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall is more commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared with those without. Despite significant advances in theory and identification of mechanisms that underlie the etiology of OGM, there has been little integration between normative research on the development of autobiographical memory and research on OGM. Informed by a developmental psychopathology perspective and drawing on normative developmental research on the social construction of autobiographical memory, the current investigation examined whether the elaborative quantity and elaborative quality of maternal reminiscing are predictive of preschool-age children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, this investigation tested whether children's positive self-representations may explain these hypothesized associations. Participants consisted of 95 mother-child dyads. Children's ages ranged between 3.5 and 6 years, and the sample was predominantly low income and of minority race/ethnicity. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about 4 past events, and children participated in assessments of autobiographical memory specificity and self-representations. Results indicated that the elaborative quality, defined by maternal-sensitive guidance and emotional narrative coherence, but not the elaborative quantity, of maternal reminiscing style was significantly associated with children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, there was support for an indirect pathway between maternal reminiscing quality and child memory specificity through children's positive self-representations. Directions for future research are discussed, and potential clinical implications are addressed.

  16. Profiles of Reminiscence among Older Adults: Perceived Stress, Life Attitudes, and Personality Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappeliez, Philippe; O'Rourke, Norm

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify subgroups of older participants on the basis of unique configurations of variables among functions of reminiscence, personality traits, life attitudes, and perceived stress by means of cluster analysis. Ninety-three older adults (M = 66.7 years of age) completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Life…

  17. The Theory and Practice of Structural and Strategic Family Therapies: A Delphi Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Linda Stone; Piercy, Fred P.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the similarities and differences in the theory and practice of structural and strategic family therapy. A national panel of structural and strategic therapists identified items they thought important to a profile of either structural or strategic family therapy. Mental Research Institute, Haley/Madanes, and Milan/Ackerman approaches to…

  18. Doing Therapy: A Post-Structural Re-Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Shazer, Steve; Berg, Insoo Kim

    1992-01-01

    Develops way to look at doing therapy based on Wittgenstein's concept of "language game"; relationship between Wittgenstein's "private language" argument, language games, and constructivism; and poststructural thinking about language, how therapy works within language, and how language works within therapy. Uses case material to illustrate…

  19. The Effect of Reminiscence Group Work on Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem and Mood of Ageing People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Puyenbroeck, Joris; Maes, Bea

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the effects of reminiscence group work on the subjective well-being of ageing people with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The content of the successive group work sessions was manipulated as follows: a control-phase with three "current topics" sessions, an experimental phase with six "reminiscence" sessions and…

  20. A Reminiscence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobind Khorana, H.

    1997-12-01

    Leslie Orgel and Francis Crick with Gobind Khorana in Madison, Wisconsin (December 1965). I first met Leslie at the Endicott House (MIT) in February 1964. Leslie was then spending a period of time at MIT and the occasion was a party for him. During our conversation, Leslie talked about starting some experimental work. He seemed to be particularly interested in polyphosphates and the chemical activation of small molecules (building blocks). Shortly after his move to the Salk Institute in the Fall of 1964 I visited him in January 1965. He already had a lab going. I remember meeting Jim Ferris, in particular, and John Sulston sometime later. That particular time was exciting for my research as well. We had the first results on the Genetic Code using the chemical-biochemical approach that my lab had developed. Francis Crick was also at the Salk Institute during the time of my visit. Both Leslie and Francis were very excited by my results and they began to ask a lot of questions and gave me a whole lot of suggestions about further experiments. In fact, my thinking and planning of things that we were doing were so scrutinized and clarified during these discussions that, it seemed to me, my own group had only to turn out all the experiments that were needed. These interactions with Francis and Leslie continued intensively throughout that year and later. In fact, both Leslie and Francis accepted my invitation to Madison in December 1965 for more discussions. Since those early days of the Salk Institute, I have made numerous visits over the years to Leslie and his research group. It has always been very exciting to learn about the many discoveries bearing on chemical evolution that have unfolded from Leslie's research group. In addition, I have always benefitted from the insightful comments that Leslie invariably provided on my own research. I look forward to our continued interactions and friendship in the future. Leslie, A Happy Birthday!

  1. Apical regional wall motion abnormalities reminiscent to Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy following consumption of psychoactive fungi.

    PubMed

    Nef, Holger M; Möllmann, Helge; Hilpert, Pirmin; Krause, Nicola; Troidl, Christian; Weber, Michael; Rolf, Andreas; Dill, Thorsten; Hamm, Christian; Elsässer, A

    2009-05-01

    Consumption of natural hallucinogenic substances continues to be a problem. In this case we report from a young male patient presenting with an acute coronary syndrome with significant ST-elevation after the abuse of psychoactive fungi, commonly referred to as "magic mushrooms". Coronary angiography excludes relevant coronary artery disease. In ventriculography contractile dysfunction with hypokinesia in the apical segments could be documented reminiscent to wall motion abnormalities in Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging showed no pathological signal activity in the late-enhancement sequences ruling out myocardial infarction or inflammatory processes. Ventricular function normalized within several days. The active metabolite of psychoactive fungi psilocybin is known to interact with several different dopaminergic, adrenergic and serotonergic receptors. Thus, the pathomechanisms leading to contractile dysfunction after consumption of psychoactive fungi are reminiscent to those documented in TTC.

  2. Training Mothers in Elaborative Reminiscing Enhances Children's Autobiographical Memory and Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal intervention assessed children's memory at 2-1/2 years (short-term posttest; N = 115) and their memory and narrative at 3-1/2 years (long-term posttest; N = 100) as a function of maternal training in elaborative reminiscing when children were 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 years. At both posttests, trained mothers were more elaborative in their…

  3. Manualized Therapy for PTSD: Flexing the Structure of Cognitive Processing Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galovski, Tara E.; Blain, Leah M.; Mott, Juliette M.; Elwood, Lisa; Houle, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested a modified cognitive processing therapy (MCPT) intervention designed as a more flexible administration of the protocol. Number of sessions was determined by client progress toward a priori defined end-state criteria, "stressor sessions" were inserted when necessary, and therapy was conducted by novice CPT clinicians.…

  4. Complementarity as a Function of Stage in Therapy: An Analysis of Minuchin's Structural Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Heather; Vande Kemp, Hendrika

    1987-01-01

    Explored the level of family therapist complementarity in the early, middle and late stages of therapy performing a micro-analysis of Salvador Minuchin with one family in successful therapy. Level of therapist complementarity was signficantly greater in the early and late stages than in the middle stage, and was significantly correlated with…

  5. Development of Dual-Retrieval Processes in Recall: Learning, Forgetting, and Reminiscence

    PubMed Central

    Brainerd, C. J.; Aydin, C.; Reyna, V. F.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the development of dual-retrieval processes with a low-burden paradigm that is suitable for research with children and neurocognitively impaired populations (e.g., older adults with mild cognitive impairment or dementia). Rich quantitative information can be obtained about recollection, reconstruction, and familiarity judgment by defining a Markov model over simple recall tasks like those that are used in clinical neuropsychology batteries. The model measures these processes separately for learning, forgetting, and reminiscence. We implemented this procedure in some developmental experiments, whose aims were (a) to measure age changes in recollective and nonrecollective retrieval during learning, forgetting, and reminiscence and (b) to measure age changes in content dimensions (e.g., taxonomic relatedness) that affect the two forms of retrieval. The model provided excellent fits in all three domains. Concerning (a), recollection, reconstruction, and familiarity judgment all improved during the child-to-adolescent age range in the learning domain, whereas only recollection improved in the forgetting domain, and the processes were age-invariant in the reminiscence domain. Concerning (b), although some elements of the adult pattern of taxonomic relatedness effects were detected by early adolescence, the adult pattern differs qualitatively from corresponding patterns in children and adolescents. PMID:22778491

  6. John Widdicombe’s contribution to respiratory physiology and cough: reminiscences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    John Widdicombe has made substantial contributions to respiratory physiology and to the field of cough particularly. He was one of the first to characterise Aδ-myelinated fibres in the airways that could mediate cough and increased breathing. Later on, he initiated the series of international London Cough Symposia that gathered researchers and clinicians on a two-yearly basis to discuss recent results and concepts regarding cough. John Widdicombe was interested in all aspects of cough from the definition to potential new antitussives. This article will focus on his contributions and on his generous personality through reminiscences from three friends. PMID:23497652

  7. Max Graf's "Reminiscences of Professor Sigmund Freud" revisited: new evidence from the Freud archives.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Jerome C

    2007-01-01

    Recently derestricted Freud Archive interviews with Max and Herbert Graf and Herbert's wife shed new light on Max Graf's article, "Reminiscences of Professor Sigmund Freud," published in The Psychoanalytic Quarterly in 1942. To explain discrepancies between the interviews and the earlier article, the author postulates that, in the article, Max Graf purposely distorted or omitted certain details in order not to reveal Herbert's identity as "Little Hans" (Freud 1909). The interviews place incidents reported in the article in a new and more complex light, and also underscore the intensely personal nature of the intellectual development of the psychoanalytic movement.

  8. [Multimodal pain therapy in Germany: structure and quality].

    PubMed

    Casser, Hans-Raimund; Nagel, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal Pain Management is a comprehensive treatment of complex chronic pain syndromes. In addition to medical therapy various other specialized therapeutical interventions based on the biopsychosocial model of pain origin and chronic pain development are added.Medical indications are given for patients with chronic pain syndromes, but also if there is an elevated risk of chronic pain in the early stadium of the disease and aiming at delaying the process of chronification. Multimodal pain management has been included in the official catalogue of the recognized medical procedure for day clinic units as well as for inpatients pain management. As there is still a lack of clarity and of consistency about the implementation of multimodal pain management the ad-hoc-Kommission on multimodal interdisciplinary pain management of the German Pain Society has proposed a position paper that has been worked out in a multilevel and interdisciplinary consensus process. Moreover a basic tool for documentation and quality management of pain therapy was developed by the German Pain Society (KEDOQ-Schmerz) as the data basis for nationwide, cross-sectional and independent scientific research in health services in Germany. In future KEDOQ-Schmerz will also used as a method for external quality management in chronic pain therapy in Germany.

  9. Manualized Therapy for PTSD: Flexing the Structure of Cognitive Processing Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Galovski, Tara E.; Blain, Leah M.; Mott, Juliette M.; Elwood, Lisa; Houle, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study tested a modified Cognitive Processing Therapy intervention (MCPT) designed as a more flexible administration of the protocol. Number of sessions was determined by client progress toward a priori defined end-state criteria, “stressor sessions” were inserted when necessary, and therapy was conducted by novice CPT clinicians. Method A randomized, controlled, repeated measures, semi-crossover design was utilized to 1) test the relative efficacy of the MCPT intervention compared to a Symptom-Monitoring Delayed Treatment (SMDT) condition and 2) to assess within-group variation in change with a sample of 100 male and female interpersonal trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results Hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that MCPT evidenced greater improvement on all primary (PTSD and depression) and secondary (guilt, quality of life, general mental health, social functioning, and health perceptions) outcomes compared with SMDT. After the conclusion of SMDT, participants crossed over to MCPT, resulting in a Combined MCPT sample (n = 69). Of the 50 participants who completed MCPT, 58% reached end-state criteria prior to the 12th session, 8% at session 12, and 34% between sessions 12-18. Maintenance of treatment gains was found at the 3-month follow-up, with only two of the treated sample meeting criteria for PTSD. The use of stressor sessions did not result in poorer treatment outcomes. Conclusions Findings suggest that individuals respond at a variable rate to CPT, with significant benefit from additional therapy when indicated and excellent maintenance of gains. The insertion of stressor sessions did not alter the efficacy of the therapy. PMID:23106761

  10. Salvador Minuchin's structural family therapy and its application to multicultural family systems.

    PubMed

    Navarre, S E

    1998-01-01

    The structural approach to family therapy offers a useful perspective to the nurse therapist working with families with various cultural backgrounds. Asian and Hispanic families are examined to illustrate using Minuchin's approach to family counseling. The rationale for the structural approach is explored, and specific therapeutic techniques for practice are described. Nurses who work with culturally diverse families might profit by using this approach.

  11. Autonomy Support and Structure Enhance Children's Memory and Motivation to Reminisce: A Parental Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Emily Sutcliffe; Morris, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Thirty parents observed their preschoolers (M [subscript age] = 4;2) experience a standardized laboratory event and discussed the event with their child later that day. Children's memory for this event was subsequently tested at two delay intervals. Prior to the laboratory event, parents were randomly assigned to receive either autonomy-support…

  12. The theory, structure, and techniques for the inclusion of children in family therapy: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lund, Lori K; Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Haddock, Shelley A

    2002-10-01

    Many barriers prevent therapists from including young children in family therapy, despite the theoretical belief that every family member should be present. Although there is a wealth of literature describing how to include children, the information has not been compiled in a way that is easily accessible to therapists. In this article, we report the findings of an exhaustive and systematic literature review of 64 publications, published between 1972 and 1999, related to including children in family therapy. The purpose of this article is to offer therapists a succinct compilation of theoretical, structural, and practical aspects as well as a comprehensive listing of specific techniques for including children in family therapy.

  13. Microcirculation and structural reorganization of the bladder mucosa in chronic cystitis under conditions of ozone therapy.

    PubMed

    Neimark, A I; Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Lushnikova, E L; Bakarev, M A; Abdullaev, N A; Sizov, K A

    2014-01-01

    Structural reorganization of the bladder mucosa in chronic cystitis and its correction by ozone therapy were studied. A relationship between the epithelial layer restructuring of different kinds (dystrophy, metaplasia, and degeneration), level of cell proliferation, and ultrastructural organization of urotheliocytes was detected. This complex of structural reactions was combined with dysregulation of tissue bloodflow in the bladder mucosa, shown by laser Doppler flowmetry. Positive structural changes were most marked in intravesical and less so in parenteral ozone therapy added to the therapeutic complex and manifested in reduction of inflammation and alteration in parallel with more intense reparative reactions. A special feature of parenteral ozone therapy was a significant improvement of microcirculation in the bladder mucosa.

  14. Structural and Physical Basis for Anti-IgE Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jon D.; Chu, Hsing-Mao; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Ma, Che; Wen Chang, Tse; Lim, Carmay

    2015-01-01

    Omalizumab, an anti-IgE antibody, used to treat severe allergic asthma and chronic idiopathic urticaria, binds to IgE in blood or membrane-bound on B lymphocytes but not to IgE bound to its high (FcεRI) or low (CD23) affinity receptor. Mutagenesis studies indicate overlapping FcεRI and omalizumab-binding sites in the Cε3 domain, but crystallographic studies show FcεRI and CD23-binding sites that are far apart, so how can omalizumab block IgE from binding both receptors? We report a 2.42-Å omalizumab-Fab structure, a docked IgE-Fc/omalizumab-Fab structure consistent with available experimental data, and the free energy contributions of IgE residues to binding omalizumab, CD23, and FcεRI. These results provide a structural and physical basis as to why omalizumab cannot bind receptor-bound IgE and why omalizumab-bound IgE cannot bind to CD23/FcεRI. They reveal the key IgE residues and their roles in binding omalizumab, CD23, and FcεRI. PMID:26113483

  15. Structural and Physical Basis for Anti-IgE Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jon D.; Chu, Hsing-Mao; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Ma, Che; Wen Chang, Tse; Lim, Carmay

    2015-06-01

    Omalizumab, an anti-IgE antibody, used to treat severe allergic asthma and chronic idiopathic urticaria, binds to IgE in blood or membrane-bound on B lymphocytes but not to IgE bound to its high (FcɛRI) or low (CD23) affinity receptor. Mutagenesis studies indicate overlapping FcɛRI and omalizumab-binding sites in the Cɛ3 domain, but crystallographic studies show FcɛRI and CD23-binding sites that are far apart, so how can omalizumab block IgE from binding both receptors? We report a 2.42-Å omalizumab-Fab structure, a docked IgE-Fc/omalizumab-Fab structure consistent with available experimental data, and the free energy contributions of IgE residues to binding omalizumab, CD23, and FcɛRI. These results provide a structural and physical basis as to why omalizumab cannot bind receptor-bound IgE and why omalizumab-bound IgE cannot bind to CD23/FcɛRI. They reveal the key IgE residues and their roles in binding omalizumab, CD23, and FcɛRI.

  16. Structured parallel therapy with parents in time-limited psychotherapy with children experiencing difficult family situations.

    PubMed

    Haugvik, Marianne

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how parallel therapy work with parents can be structured to achieve the goals of therapy with their children. Time-limited psychotherapy with children is a structured therapeutic method, where the goal and the number of sessions are contracted together with the child and parents. In this study, we focus on parallel parental therapy for three separate families whose children are experiencing difficult family situations. Six main themes emerge from our interviews with the parents and an analysis of session notes: The parents expressed positive experiences with the therapy; their perspectives about the family situation changed; they reported positive changes on behalf of the children, and they reported an increasing number of factors to explain these changes. In addition, a number of positive changes in the family situation itself were reported, and the parents were increasingly concerned with understanding their children's expressions. Our findings indicate that this therapy method gives parents an opportunity for reflection and mentalization, which is found to be crucial to the child's mental health. Based on these findings, we suggest some guidelines for effectively engaging in therapy work with parents.

  17. Controlled therapy by imaging of functional structures of intact liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Zhuang, Feng Y.; Ruan, G.; Kakihana, Yasuyuki; Krug, A.; Kessler, Manfred D.

    2000-04-01

    Ligustrazine, a Chinese herb medicine has been used to treat the diseases of cardiovascular and cerebral vascular diseases in China by Chinese traditional physicians or many years. Recently, results showed that ligustrazine is a powerful hepatic vasodilator. It can greatly change the blood supply of the tissues. Due to micro-optical tissue sensor developed recently it became possible to image functional structures of tissue on the level of intact blood capillaries. In our experiment we used the Oxyscan in order to study the effect of Ligustrazine on the oxygen supply of rat liver.

  18. The Bonds That Remind Us: Maternal Reminiscing for Bonding Purposes in Relation to Children's Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkofsky, Sarah; Behrens, Kazuko Y.; Battin, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation between characteristics of mother-child reminiscing and children's perceived competence and social acceptance. We focused specifically on conversations for bonding purposes (i.e., conversations that serve the function of maintaining or strengthening the relationship between the child and the mother) as…

  19. Talking about Internal States in Mother-Child Reminiscing Influences Children's Self-Representations: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Doan, Stacey N.; Song, Qingfang

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relation of mother-child discussions of internal states during reminiscing to the development of trait and evaluative self-representations in 131 European American and Chinese immigrant 3-year olds. Mothers and children discussed one positive and one negative event, and children were interviewed for self-descriptions.…

  20. Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral, Reminiscence, and Activity Treatments on Life Satisfaction and Anxiety in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scates, Sharon K. Harp; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined effects of a cognitive-behavioral group condition, a reminiscence treatment group condition, and an activity group condition on anxiety and life satisfaction for senior citizens. No significant differences on life satisfaction and trait anxiety were found. (Author/ABL)

  1. On the Eicosanoid Trail with John Vane and Jack McGiff: 1974-1976. A personal reminiscence.

    PubMed

    Flower, R J

    2015-07-01

    In this brief personal reminiscence I comment upon the friendship and mutual understanding that arose between two great scientists and co-travellers, John Vane and Jack McGiff. I relate the events that led up to their meeting and focus on the brief period of time when they worked together on eicosanoid pharmacology in the UK.

  2. Recent versus Remote: Flashbulb Memory for 9/11 and Self-Selected Events from the Reminiscence Bump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver, Jenny Y.; Lane, Sean M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2010-01-01

    In two related studies, we examined flashbulb memories acquired from different points in the lifespan in younger and older adults. When asked to remember flashbulb memories from their lives, older adults were most likely to recall events from the reminiscence bump (Study 1A). In Study 1B, younger and older adults recalled 9/11 and a personal…

  3. Effects of Structural Family Therapy on Child and Maternal Mental Health Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G.; Marcus, Steven C.; Fusco, Rachel A.; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of structural family therapy (SFT) on children's impairment and depressive symptomatology and mothers' depressive symptomatology and anxiety for 31 families served by a community mental health clinic. Method: A one group predesign/postdesign, with a baseline and two follow-up time points, was used.…

  4. Brief Structural/Strategic Family Therapy with African American and Hispanic High Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santisteban, Daniel A.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Perez-Vidal, Angel; Mitrani, Victoria; Jean-Gilles, Michele; Szapocnik, Jose

    The intervention described in this paper used Brief Strategic/Structural Family Therapy (BSFT) to reduce the likelihood that African American and Hispanic youth would initiate drug use by decreasing existing behavior problems at the individual level and improving maladaptive family functioning at the family level. The program targeted African…

  5. Competency-Based Training: Objective Structured Clinical Exercises (OSCE) in Marriage and Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John K.

    2010-01-01

    The field of marriage and family therapy (MFT) has recently engaged in the process of defining core competencies for the profession. Many MFT training programs are adapting their curriculum to develop more competency-based training strategies. The Objective Structured Clinical "Examination" (OSCE) is widely used in the medical profession to assess…

  6. Teaching Interpersonal Skills to Psychiatric Outpatients: Using Structured Learning Therapy in a Community-Based Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprafkin, Robert P.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The Structured Learning Therapy (SLT), a type of treatment used to assist psychiatric patients to learn skills they need for effective and satisfying living in the community, is described in this article. A description of the community-based treatment facility in which SLT may be utilized and the results of the evaluation studies are also…

  7. Polymeric micelles encapsulating photosensitizer: structure/photodynamic therapy efficiency relation.

    PubMed

    Gibot, Laure; Lemelle, Arnaud; Till, Ugo; Moukarzel, Béatrice; Mingotaud, Anne-Françoise; Pimienta, Véronique; Saint-Aguet, Pascale; Rols, Marie-Pierre; Gaucher, Mireille; Violleau, Frédéric; Chassenieux, Christophe; Vicendo, Patricia

    2014-04-14

    Various polymeric micelles were formed from amphiphilic block copolymers, namely, poly(ethyleneoxide-b-ε-caprolactone), poly(ethyleneoxide-b-d,l-lactide), and poly(ethyleneoxide-b-styrene). The micelles were characterized by static and dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation. They all displayed a similar size close to 20 nm. The influence of the chemical structure of the block copolymers on the stability upon dilution of the polymeric micelles was investigated to assess their relevance as carriers for nanomedicine. In the same manner, the stability upon aging was assessed by FRET experiments under various experimental conditions (alone or in the presence of blood proteins). In all cases, a good stability over 48 h for all systems was encountered, with PDLLA copolymer-based systems being the first to release their load slowly. The cytotoxicity and photocytotoxicity of the carriers were examined with or without their load. Lastly, the photodynamic activity was assessed in the presence of pheophorbide a as photosensitizer on 2D and 3D tumor cell culture models, which revealed activity differences between the 2D and 3D systems.

  8. Surface reconstruction from structured-light images for radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshko, Olesya; Anand, Christopher K.; Terlaky, Tamás

    2005-09-01

    To design and deliver proper radiation treatment for cancer patients, knowledge of the body's surface in the affected area is required. Currently, surface information is obtained by using a manually operated tracer. The drawbacks of this contact method include slow operation, and errors in repositioning the patient in an x-ray machine. Utilization of MRI or CT is also possible but expensive. We propose a non-contact, quick, inexpensive method to reconstruct the surface. In our non-contact method, a mask with transparent circular coloured spots and a black background, and an incoherent light source are used to create structured-light images. Colour coding is necessary to establish the correspondence between the projected and the observed patterns, which is essential for surface reconstruction. The deformed light pattern is photographed by an offset camera and analyzed. First, noise reduction is performed because images are noisy due to the low-light conditions and low sensitivity of an off-the-shelf camera. Then, pattern elements (light elliptical spots) are found in the image. We use an inverse polynomial to model the intensity of a light spot, which results in a non-convex, least-squares optimization problem. Next, spots are assigned to a grid according to their colours and location, and errors are corrected using the relative position of the spots. Finally, spatial coordinates of the surface points are computed and surface reconstruction is performed. The described algorithms are implemented as a MATLAB package, which converts the acquired images into a three-dimensional surface. The developed system is inexpensive, and it can easily be mounted on an x-ray machine. The software package can run on any standard PC.

  9. The reminiscence bump in autobiographical memory and for public events: A comparison across different cueing methods.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    The reminiscence bump has been found for both autobiographical memories and memories of public events. However, there have been few comparisons of the bump across each type of event. In the current study, therefore, we compared the bump for autobiographical memories versus the bump for memories of public events. We did so between-subjects, through two cueing methods administered within-subjects, the cue word method and the important memories method. For word-cued memories, we found a similar bump from ages 5 to 19 for both types of memories. However, the bump was more pronounced for autobiographical memories. For most important memories, we found a bump from ages 20 to 29 in autobiographical memory, but little discernible age pattern for public events. Rather, specific public events (e.g., the Fall of the Berlin Wall) dominated recall, producing a chronological distribution characterised by spikes in citations according to the years these events occurred. Follow-up analyses suggested that the bump in most important autobiographical memories was a function of the cultural life script. Our findings did not yield support for any of the dominant existing accounts of the bump as underlying the bump in word-cued memories.

  10. Reminiscing my sixty year pursuit of the physics of the Sun and the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Eugene N.

    2014-01-01

    Reminiscing begins with childhood and passes on to student days through graduate school and the first real contact with research. Then early academic positions and stumbling efforts to pursue my ideas. The first significant progress came as a research associate with Prof. W. M. Elsasser at the University of Utah, beginning with an introduction to magnetohydrodynamics and the generation of the geomagnetic field through induction in the liquid metal core of Earth. A move to the University of Chicago to work with Prof. J. A. Simpson, on the implications of cosmic ray variations and interplanetary magnetic fields, led to the theory of coronal expansion and the solar wind and then to exploring the dynamical effects of cosmic rays on the galactic magnetic field. Spontaneous current sheets and intrinsic rapid reconnection in interlaced magnetic field line topologies were the next big project, leading up to retirement. Finally, it is a pleasure to recall my many associates, whose fresh thinking helped stimulate the daily research activities.

  11. Does recall of a past music event invoke a reminiscence bump in young adults?

    PubMed

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-08-01

    Many studies of the reminiscence bump (RB) in music invoke memories from different autobiographical times by using stimulus specific prompts (SSPs). This study investigated the utility of a non-SSP paradigm to determine whether the RB would emerge when participants were asked to recall a single memorable musical event from "a time long ago". The presence of a RB in response to music has not been obtained in such a manner for younger participants. Eighty-eight 20-22 year olds reported music episodes that peaked when their autobiographical age was 13-14 years. Self-selected stimuli included a range of musical styles, including classical and non-Western pop forms, such as J-pop and K-pop, as well as generational pop music, such as the Beatles. However, most participants reported pop/rock music that was contemporaneous with encoding age, providing support for the utility of published SSP paradigms using pop music. Implications for and limitations of SSP paradigms are discussed. Participants were also asked to relate the selected musical piece to current musical tastes. Most participants liked the music that they selected, with many continuing to like the music, but most also reported a general broadening of their taste, consistent with developmental literature on open-earedness.

  12. Considering psychoeducation on structural dissociation for dialectical behavior therapy patients experiencing high-risk dissociative behaviors.

    PubMed

    Shabb, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) programs, particularly for low-functioning individuals at the safety and stabilization phase of therapy, work with a variety of high-risk and often complex cases, with a curriculum consisting primarily of concrete skill acquisition and application. A significant subset of individuals in DBT programs, however, may suffer high-risk dissociative episodes in which skill application may be less available to them, contributing to further destabilization, demoralization, and thoughts of self-inefficacy in treatment. This article evaluates the potential benefits of complementing traditional DBT with psychoeducation on structural dissociation for such patients, acknowledging and addressing some of the concerns that might accompany such a consideration.

  13. [Comparison of patient therapy adherence of two structural different memory clinics].

    PubMed

    Weih, M; Sulimma, A-K; Lehfeld, H; Niklewski, G; Sonnenberg, M; Richter-Schmidinger, T; Alexopoulos, P; Grässel, E; Kornhuber, J

    2009-04-01

    There are more than 100 memory clinics established in Germany, Austria and German-speaking Switzerland. We compared the impact of the structure of two German memory clinics (Erlangen and Nuremberg) on therapeutic outcome. 483 patients suffering from dementia with indication for antidementive therapy were included in this study. The data ascertainment included patient-related data, the mini mental score, comorbidity as well as psychiatric drug therapy. After a mean follow-up of 3.7 years, we performed a single cross-sectional survey covering over 90 % of patients to assess clinical course and adherence to therapy. The patients of the Erlangen University Memory Clinic were significantly younger (69.8 +/- 9.49 vs. 74.6 +/- 10.7 years; p = 0.01) and had a better mini mental score at their first presentation (20.9 +/- 9.4 vs. 19.5 +/- 5.9; p = 0.02). They showed a non-significantly faster disease progression (as measured by mini mental decline per year), than the patients from Nuremberg. Concerning the allocation of diagnosis, more late onset-dementias and dementias of a mixed type were treated at the Nuremberg clinic. At the university clinic, more dementias were of unclassified origin. Concomitant drug therapies, death rates and therapy adherence (53 %) were not different between the two clinics. The two memory clinics under investigation differed in patient age, disease severity and diagnostic assessment. Still, parameters of therapeutic outcome showed converging results.

  14. Monte Carlo modelling of photodynamic therapy treatments comparing clustered three dimensional tumour structures with homogeneous tissue structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, C. L.; Wood, K.; Brown, C. T. A.; Moseley, H.

    2016-07-01

    We explore the effects of three dimensional (3D) tumour structures on depth dependent fluence rates, photodynamic doses (PDD) and fluorescence images through Monte Carlo radiation transfer modelling of photodynamic therapy. The aim with this work was to compare the commonly used uniform tumour densities with non-uniform densities to determine the importance of including 3D models in theoretical investigations. It was found that fractal 3D models resulted in deeper penetration on average of therapeutic radiation and higher PDD. An increase in effective treatment depth of 1 mm was observed for one of the investigated fractal structures, when comparing to the equivalent smooth model. Wide field fluorescence images were simulated, revealing information about the relationship between tumour structure and the appearance of the fluorescence intensity. Our models indicate that the 3D tumour structure strongly affects the spatial distribution of therapeutic light, the PDD and the wide field appearance of surface fluorescence images.

  15. Life Review: Implementation, Theory, Research, and Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2006-01-01

    A selective literature review of publications on life review generated ideas on implementation, theory, research, and therapy. The review begins by differentiating life review from reminiscence, and summarizing ways to conduct a life review. A dozen theories that have been influenced by the life review technique are presented, with a focus placed…

  16. Recent Advances in Understanding the Reminiscence Bump: The Importance of Cues in Guiding Recall from Autobiographical Memory.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Jonathan; Rubin, David C

    2016-04-01

    The reminiscence bump is the increased proportion of autobiographical memories from youth and early adulthood observed in adults over 40. It is one of the most robust findings in autobiographical memory research. Although described as a single period of increased memories, a recent meta-analysis which reported the beginning and ending ages of the bump from individual studies found that different classes of cues produce distinct bumps that vary in size and temporal location. The bump obtained in response to cue words is both smaller and located earlier in the lifespan than the bump obtained when important memories are requested. The bump obtained in response to odor cues is even earlier. This variation in the size and location of the reminiscence bump argues for theories based primarily on retrieval rather than encoding and retention, which most current theories stress. Furthermore, it points to the need to develop theories of autobiographical memory that account for this flexibility in the memories retrieved.

  17. Sticking out and fitting in: culture-specific predictors of 3-year-olds' autobiographical memories during joint reminiscing.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Lisa; Kärtner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi; Chaudhary, Nandita

    2012-12-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between mother-child interaction styles with 19 months and children's autobiographical memory with 3 years of age in two cultural contexts: New Delhi, India (n = 25) and Berlin, Germany (n = 33). Results demonstrate similarities as well as culture specificities. In both contexts, maternal elaborations during reminiscing were related to children's memory contributions. Over time, maternal support for toddlers' self-expression during free play at 19 months predicted their children's memory elaborations at 3 years in the Berlin context. In the Delhi context, toddlers' willingness to carry out their mothers' requests at 19 months predicted their memory elaborations at 3 years. These results suggest different motivational bases underlying children's autobiographical memory contributions during mother-child reminiscing related to different cultural orientations.

  18. Structure and Function of the Non-Structural Protein of Dengue Virus and its Applications in Antiviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qian; Zhang, Bao; Yu, JianHai; Wu, Qinghua; Yang, Fangji; Cao, Hong; Zhao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Dengue fever, a type of global and tropical infectious disease, and its prevention has become a challenging issue worldwide. Antibody-dependent enhancement effects and the virus pathogenic mechanism have not yet been fully elucidated, hindering the development of dengue fever prevention and suitable drug treatment. There is currently no specific prevention and therapy in clinical trials, however, in recent years, studies have focused on the pathogenesis and treatment of dengue. Research focusing on dengue virus nonstructural protein in special drugs for the prevention and control of dengue fever is a new progress leading to improved understanding regarding the prevention and control of dengue fever and suitable drugs for the treatment. The main challenges regarding the structure of dengue virus nonstructural protein and the drugs for antiviral therapy are summarized in this paper.

  19. Let's kōrero (talk): the practice and functions of reminiscing among mothers and children in Māori families.

    PubMed

    Reese, Elaine; Neha, Tia

    2015-01-01

    Māori adults recall earlier memories than New Zealand European or Chinese adults, highlighting the importance of memory in Māori culture. In this study, Māori preschool children and their mothers (N = 41) reminisced about a diverse range of past events, including everyday events, the child's birth, cultural rituals and the child's misbehaviour. Mothers also reported how frequently they discussed past events with their children, as well as their level of affiliation with Māori culture. Mothers who reported higher levels of cultural affiliation also reported reminiscing more frequently about a diverse range of past events. Mothers reminisced in more elaborative ways about everyday events with their children compared to birth stories, cultural rituals and misbehaviours. Maternal reminiscing about cultural rituals and misbehaviours, however, along with maternal reminiscing about everyday events and birth stories, were significantly correlated with children's memory across conversations. These results underscore the continued importance of reminiscing about culturally relevant events in Māori culture, and the newfound importance for Māori families of reminiscing about everyday events.

  20. [Reminiscence with different types of autobiographical memories: Effects on the reduction of depressive symptomatology in old age].

    PubMed

    Afonso, Rosa; Bueno, Belén

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the role of the type of autobiographical memories reported by an individual reminiscence program to explain the decrease of depressive symptomatology found in elderly Portuguese people. A quasi-experimental design was used with pre- and post-test evaluations of the type of autobiographical memories. In this study, participants were 90 people over 65 years old with depressive symptoms, no antidepressive medication, and no signs of dementia. The participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: experimental group (exposed to the program), control group or placebo-control group. The results of the study indicated that, in the participants of the experimental group, along with significant improvements in depressive symptomatology, significant increase in the number of specific autobiographical memories and positive autobiographical memories was recorded. The study also stresses the strong negative associations between depressive symptomatology and the specificity of the memories and their positive nature. The recovery and reconstruction of specific positive and negative autobiographical memories, using the reminiscence program, may be inherent to the reminiscence program developed that explain its efficiency as a therapeutic tool for psychological intervention aimed at the reduction of depressive symptomatology in old age.

  1. Celebrating fifty years of research and applications in reminiscence and life review: state of the art and new directions.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, Gerben J; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T

    2014-04-01

    Fifty years ago, psychiatrist Robert Butler (1963) published an influential article on the recollection and evaluation of personal memories in later life. We discuss the major insights and applications in psychological gerontology that were inspired by Butler. Reminiscence and life review serve to create bonds between people, to cope with important life events, and to attribute meaning to life. We discuss a heuristic framework that relates reminiscence and life review to individual and contextual characteristics as well as to psychological resources and mental health and well-being. The increasing evidence is discussed that different types of interventions can effectively promote mental health and well-being in later life. We propose that processes of reminiscence and life review need further study. This can partly be achieved within the current research tradition by longitudinal studies and good trials that also address the processes accounting for effects of interventions. Synergy with psychological studies on autobiographical remembering and life stories will provide further innovation in the field, as these studies provide new methods and evidence of processes linked to the recollection and evaluation of personal memories.

  2. Non-swarming grasshoppers exhibit density-dependent phenotypic plasticity reminiscent of swarming locusts.

    PubMed

    Gotham, Steven; Song, Hojun

    2013-11-01

    Locusts are well known for exhibiting an extreme form of density-dependent phenotypic plasticity known as locust phase polyphenism. At low density, locust nymphs are cryptically colored and shy, but at high density they transform into conspicuously colored and gregarious individuals. Most of what we know about locust phase polyphenism come from the study of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål), which is a devastating pest species affecting many countries in North Africa and the Middle East. The desert locust belongs to the grasshopper genus Schistocerca Stål, which includes mostly non-swarming, sedentary species. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest that the desert locust is the earliest branching lineage within Schistocerca, which raises a possibility that the presence of density-dependent phenotypic plasticity may be a plesiomorphic trait for the whole genus. In order to test this idea, we have quantified the effect of rearing density in terms of the resulting behavior, color, and morphology in two non-swarming Schistocerca species native to Florida. When reared in both isolated and crowded conditions, the two non-swarming species, Schistocerca americana (Drury) and Schistocerca serialis cubense (Saussure) clearly exhibited plastic reaction norms in all traits measured, which were reminiscent of the desert locust. Specifically, we found that both species were more active and more attracted to each other when reared in a crowded condition than in isolation. They were mainly bright green in color when isolated, but developed strong black patterns and conspicuous background colors when crowded. We found a strong effect of rearing density in terms of size. There were also more mechanoreceptor hairs on the outer face of the hind femora in the crowded nymphs in both species. Although both species responded similarly, there were some clear species-specific differences in terms of color and behavior. Furthermore, we compare and contrast our findings with

  3. Developmental trajectories of amphibian microbiota: response to bacterial therapy depends on initial community structure.

    PubMed

    Davis, Leyla R; Bigler, Laurent; Woodhams, Douglas C

    2017-02-22

    Improving host health through microbial manipulation requires untangling factors that shape the microbiome. There is currently little understanding of how initial community structure may drive the microbiota trajectory across host development or influence bacterial therapy outcomes. Probiotic baths of surface symbionts, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Flavobacterium johnsoniae were administered to 240 tadpoles of the midwife toad, Alytes obstetricans in semi-natural outdoor mesocosms originating from geographically and genetically distinct populations in Switzerland. Host bacterial and fungal assemblages were compared in tadpoles from the pond of origin, across metamorphosis, and in toadlets via microbial fingerprinting. Bacterial and fungal community structures differed significantly among populations and a microbial population signature persisted from the tadpole stage, through metamorphosis, and following probiotic treatment. A minimal core surface microbiota is described by persistence through development and by shared membership across populations. The impact of F. johnsoniae on the tadpole surface microbiome was assessed with shotgun metagenomics. Bacterial therapy reduced abundance, diversity, and functional repertoire compared to untreated controls. A correlation between host skin peptides and microbiota suggests a mechanism of host-directed symbiosis throughout development. Early developmental stages are ideal targets for amphibian bacterial therapy that can govern a microbiome trajectory at critical timepoints and may impact susceptibility to disease.

  4. Optimizing insulin pump therapy: the potential advantages of using a structured diabetes management program.

    PubMed

    Lange, Karin; Ziegler, Ralph; Neu, Andreas; Reinehr, Thomas; Daab, Iris; Walz, Marion; Maraun, Michael; Schnell, Oliver; Kulzer, Bernhard; Reichel, Andreas; Heinemann, Lutz; Parkin, Christopher G; Haak, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy improves glycemic control, reduces hypoglycemia and increases treatment satisfaction in individuals with diabetes. As a number of patient- and clinician-related factors can hinder the effectiveness and optimal usage of CSII therapy, new approaches are needed to address these obstacles. Ceriello and colleagues recently proposed a model of care that incorporates the collaborative use of structured SMBG into a formal approach to personalized diabetes management within all diabetes populations. We adapted this model for use in CSII-treated patients in order to enable the implementation of a workflow structure that enhances patient-physician communication and supports patients' diabetes self-management skills. We recognize that time constraints and current reimbursement policies pose significant challenges to healthcare providers integrating the Personalised Diabetes Management (PDM) process into clinical practice. We believe, however, that the time invested in modifying practice workflow and learning to apply the various steps of the PDM process will be offset by improved workflow and more effective patient consultations. This article describes how to implement PDM into clinical practice as a systematic, standardized process that can optimize CSII therapy.

  5. Combination radiation-adriamycin therapy: renoprival growth, functional and structural effects in the immature mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, S.S.; Moskowitz, P.S.; Canty, E.L.; Fajardo, L.F.

    1980-07-01

    The normal tissue effects of radiation-adriamycin combination therapy were studied in the renoprival weanling mouse in an attempt to determine whether compensatory renal growth inhibition from radiation and chemotherapy could be associated with structural or functional abnormalities. Weanling BLc/sub Fl/ mice underwent unilateral nephrectomy, then single fraction renal irradiation, LD 1/21 doses of adriamycin in 5 daily doses, or combination therapy with radiation and adriamycin. Animals were sacrificed at 3, 12, and 24 weeks. Compensatory renal growth, body growth, serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and renal morphology by light microscopy were evaluated. Significant compensatory renal growth inhibition from radiation-adriamycin therapy exceeded that produced by adriamycin alone and radiation alone, at all time periods (p < 0.005). Body growth inhibition from radiation-adriamycin therapy or adriamycin alone significantly exceeded that produced by radiation alone (p < 0.005). Kidney and body growth inhibition from radiation-adriamycin therapy was proportionately severe. Kidney growth inhibition proportionately exceeded body growth inhibition with radiation alone; body growth inhibition proportionately exceeded kidney growth inhibition with adriamycin alone. Comparable azotemia developed by 24 weeks in both the radiation alone (p < .005) and radiation-adriamycin animals (p < 0.005), but not in the adriamycin only animals. Morphologic alterations consisting of increased glomerular density, tubular atrophy, and stromal fibrosis occurred with greater severity in the radiation-adriamycin animals than in the radiation only animals by 24 weeks; no alterations were seen in the adriamycin only animals. Using histologic criteria 750 rad plus adriamycin produced comparable injury as seen with 1000 rad alone, thus adriamycin produced an apparent dose-modifying factor of 1.33.

  6. Improvements in Bone Density and Structure during Anti-TNF-α Therapy in Pediatric Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Thayu, Meena; Baldassano, Robert N.; DeBoer, Mark D.; Zemel, Babette S.; Denburg, Michelle R.; Denson, Lee A.; Shults, Justine; Herskovitz, Rita; Long, Jin; Leonard, Mary B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pediatric Crohn's Disease (CD) is associated with deficits in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical structure, potentially related to TNF-α effects to decrease bone formation and promote bone resorption. Objective: This study aimed to examine changes in bone density and structure in children and adolescents with CD following initiation of anti-TNF-α therapy. Design and Participants: Participants (n = 74; age 5–21 years) with CD completed a 12-month prospective cohort study. Main Outcome Measures: Tibia peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans were obtained at initiation of anti-TNF-α therapy and 12 months later. Musculoskeletal outcomes were expressed as sex-and race-specific z scores relative to age, based on >650 reference participants. Results: At baseline, CD participants had lower height, trabecular BMD, cortical area (due to smaller periosteal and larger endocortical circumferences), and muscle area z scores, compared with reference participants (all P < .01). Pediatric CD activity index decreased during the 10-week induction (P < .001), in association with subsequent gains in height, trabecular BMD, cortical area (due to recovery of endocortical bone), and muscle area z scores over 12 months (height P < .05; others P < .001). Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels, a biomarker of bone formation, increased a median of 75% (P < .001) during induction with associated 12-month improvements in trabecular BMD and cortical area z scores (both P < .001). Younger age was associated with greater increases in trabecular BMD z scores (P < .001) and greater linear growth with greater recovery of cortical area (P < .001). Conclusions: Anti-TNF-α therapy was associated with improvements in trabecular BMD and cortical structure. Improvements were greater in younger and growing participants, suggesting a window of opportunity for treatment of bone deficits. PMID:25919459

  7. Flexibility and structure may enhance implementation of family-focused therapy in community mental health settings.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bowen; Mikesell, Lisa; Miklowitz, David

    2014-10-01

    This study elicited provider and administrator preferences in implementing an evidence-based practice (EBP) for bipolar disorder or psychosis, family-focused therapy (FFT). Providers (n = 35) and administrators (n = 5) from three community mental health centers took part in FFT training and participated in pre- and post-training focus groups. Transcripts were examined using conventional content analysis. Providers and administrators discussed barriers to implementing EBPs. Successful EBPs were described as incorporating flexibility and close supervision to maximize provider adherence. Providers expressed preferences for structured EBPs like FFT that have both explicit implementation steps and built-in flexibility.

  8. Talking therapy groups on acute psychiatric wards: patients' experience of two structured group formats.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, Jonathan; Bird, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Aims and method We report the results of a clinical audit of patients' reactions to two types of talking therapy groups facilitated by assistant psychologists and psychology graduates on three acute wards. Patients' experiences of problem-solving and interpersonal group formats were explored via focus groups and structured interviews with 29 group participants. Results Both group formats generated high satisfaction ratings, with benefits related mostly to generic factors. Clinical implications Adequately trained and supported assistant psychologists and psychology graduates can provide supportive talking groups that patients find helpful.

  9. Structural Insights on the Role of Antibodies in HIV-1 Vaccine and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    West, Anthony P.; Scharf, Louise; Scheid, Johannes F.; Klein, Florian; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite 30 years of effort, there is no effective vaccine for HIV-1. However, antibodies can prevent HIV-1 infection in humanized mice and macaques when passively transferred. New single-cell-based methods have uncovered many broad and potent donor-derived antibodies, and structural studies have revealed the molecular bases for their activities. The new data suggest why such antibodies are difficult to elicit and inform HIV-1 vaccine development efforts. In addition to protecting against infection, the newly identified antibodies can suppress active infections in mice and macaques, suggesting they could be valuable additions to anti-HIV-1 therapies and to strategies to eradicate HIV-1 infection. PMID:24529371

  10. Teaching ill-structured problem solving using occupational therapy practice epistemology.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Anita Witt

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epistemic and ontological cognition (EOC) have to do with an individual's beliefs about knowledge and knowing. Research has shown that EOC have an influence on learning and achievement. EOC may be discipline-specific with a profession being defined by its practice epistemology. If an individual's EOC is inconsistent with the profession's practice epistemology, the student or practitioner may struggle with effectively solving ill-structured occupational performance problems. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the constructs of EOC, to describe its importance to occupational therapy education and practice, and to provide recommendations for educators and researchers. Specific examples are detailed and recommendations for future research are proposed.

  11. Differentiating incretin therapies based on structure, activity, and metabolism: focus on liraglutide.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Samuel

    2009-12-01

    The incretin effect, mediated by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), plays an important role in the regulation of insulin secretion in response to oral glucose. The discovery of deficiencies in incretin pathways associated with development of type 2 diabetes mellitus has propelled the growth of incretin-based therapies in patients with this disease. The basic rationale for incretin-based therapies, including both GLP-1-receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors is reviewed, focusing on their roles in glucose regulation and potential therapeutic benefits. Increased awareness of the differences among incretin mimetics, GLP-1 analogs, and DPP-4 inhibitors, including their structures, half-lives, dosages, hemoglobin A(1c)-lowering capacities, effects on weight, and adverse events will help shape the future of these therapeutic agents. Improved understanding of the mechanism of action and clinical effects of incretin-based therapies will help advance their appropriate use within clinical practice.

  12. Blood pressure, arterial function, structure, and aging: the role of hormonal replacement therapy in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Scuteri, Angelo; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of natural menopause may indicate that a woman is entering a period of increased risk for cardiovascular disease, due to both chronologic aging and lower levels of estrogen. This brief review aims to demonstrate the relevance of changes in blood pressure and large artery structure and function occurring after menopause. These changes, i.e., thickening and stiffening of large arteries (which, in turn would also result in increased systolic and pulse pressures), were found to predict subsequent cardiovascular events, independently of other known cardiovascular risk. The benefits of early hormone replacement therapy on the life expectancy of women have dramatically lost consensus since publication of the Womens Health Initiative study results. However, the authors believe that those results should increase the attention paid by clinicians and public health researchers to the individualization of hormone replacement therapy prescription for postmenopausal women, and to a better characterization of those vascular parameters and profiles identifying postmenopausal women who are most likely to benefit from specific hormone replacement therapy in terms of cardiovascular protection.

  13. Hormonal therapy in the senescence: Prostatic microenvironment structure and adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Montico, Fábio; Hetzl, Amanda Cia; Cândido, Eduardo Marcelo; Fávaro, Wagner José; Cagnon, Valéria Helena Alves

    2011-08-01

    Hormonal replacement has been utilized to minimize the harmful effects of hormonal imbalance in elderly men. The development and progression of prostatic diseases and their relation to hormone therapy is still unclear. Thus, the aim herewith was to characterize the structure and dystroglycan molecule (DGs) reactivities in the ventral prostatic lobe from elderly rats submitted to steroid hormone replacement. Male rats (Sprague-Dawley) were divided into one Young group and six senile groups. The Young group (YNG) (4 months old) received peanut oil (5mL/kg, s.c.). The senile rats (10 months old) were submitted to the following treatments: Senile group (SEN) (5mL/kg peanut oil, s.c.); Testosterone group (TEST) (5mg/kg testosterone cipionate, s.c.); Estrogen group (EST) (25μg/kg 17β-estradiol, s.c.); Castrated group (CAS) (surgical castration); Castrated-Testosterone (CT) (surgical castration and treatment similar to TEST group); and Castrated-Estrogen (CE) (surgical castration and treatment similar to EST group). After 30 days treatment, blood samples were collected for hormonal analysis and ventral prostate samples were processed for light and transmission electron microscopies, morphometrical analysis, immunohistochemistry and Western Blotting. The results showed decreased serum testosterone levels in the senescence and increased testosterone and estrogen plasmatic levels after hormone administration in the TEST and EST groups, respectively, highlighting the therapy efficiency. Hypertrophied stroma and inflammatory cells were verified in the SEN group. After hormone replacement in the senescence or following castration, atrophic epithelium, epithelial cells with clear cytoplasmic halo around the nucleus, microacini and maintenance of hypertrophied stroma were seen. Decreased DG levels were verified in the senescence. After hormonal therapy, increased protein levels of these molecules were observed, especially in those groups which received estradiol. Thus, the

  14. Competency-based training: objective structured clinical exercises (OSCE) in marriage and family therapy.

    PubMed

    Miller, John K

    2010-07-01

    The field of marriage and family therapy (MFT) has recently engaged in the process of defining core competencies for the profession. Many MFT training programs are adapting their curriculum to develop more competency-based training strategies. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is widely used in the medical profession to assess clinical competence. These examinations involve using simulated clinical situations as a tool in conducting summative evaluations of trainee competence. This article describes an adaptation of the OSCE procedures for competency-based training of MFT students. Instead of using the procedures as a summative examination as is typical in medical education, this article proposes how to use them as formative exercises in the development of student competence. The development of the OSCE is discussed, including "blueprinting," focused competencies, procedures, and feedback protocols. The article concludes with suggestions of how to continue the development of the OSCE for evaluation in MFT education.

  15. Electroconvulsive Therapy-Induced Brain Structural and Functional Changes in Major Depressive Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Haitang; Li, Xirong; Zhao, Wenjing; Du, Lian; Huang, Peiyu; Fu, Yixiao; Qiu, Tian; Xie, Peng; Meng, Huaqing; Luo, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to study the brain structural and functional changes after 8 courses of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Material/Methods MRI scans were performed on 12 depressive patients before and after 8 courses of ECT and compared with those of 15 normal controls. Data were analyzed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) using SPM8 software. Functional MRI (fMRI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) analyses were used to assess the functional changes after ECT. Results Grey matter volumes were smaller in the right cingulate gyrus of depressive patients before ECT compared with normal controls. After false discovery rate (FDR) correction, post-ECT grey matter volumes were increased in bilateral amygdala and hippocampus compared with pre-ECT. Resting-state ReHo maps showed significant differences in brain activity pre- and post-ECT. Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients treated with 8 courses of ECT showed higher ReHo values in the bilateral frontal lobe, bilateral parietal lobe, and right caudate nucleus. Decreased ReHo values were observed in the right medial temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, and left anterior cerebellar lobe. Conclusions Results suggested that there were both structural and functional differences between the brains of MDD patients and healthy controls. After ECT, both structural and functional changes occurred, but without complete recovery to normal. ECT may display effects through regulating other brain regions to compensate for the original defects. PMID:27888657

  16. Enhancing sexual desire and intimacy via the metaphor of a problem child: utilizing structural-strategic family therapy.

    PubMed

    Young, Teresa L; Negash, Sesen M; Long, Rhonda M

    2009-01-01

    This article explores structural-strategic family therapy as a treatment modality for couples with problems of intimacy and sexual desire. Parents whose presenting problem involves a child with problematic behavior may also struggle with problems in their intimate relationship. Instead of speaking to these problems directly, however, the couple may communicate about their intimate problems via the metaphor of their "problem" child. Structural-strategic family therapy can then be utilized to strengthen the parental subsystem by establishing a parenting team, which in turn nourishes the partner subsystem. Success is then measured not only by improvements in the child's behavior, but also by the enhancement of intimacy and sexual desire between partners.

  17. Reminiscence of Dr. Emanuel Luxardo (1848-1905) and the family of Miho Klaić (1829-1896).

    PubMed

    Marinovic, Ivo

    2008-01-01

    This article is a reminiscence of four distinctive public figures who were related by family and who played key roles in the development of public health in Dalmatia in the second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. Dr Emanuel Luxardo (1848-1905) was a prominent physician and an able manager of the Dubrovnik and Zadar hospitals. In spite of his Italian origin, he championed the Croatian national reformation in Dalmatia. His father-in-law Miho Klaić (1829- 1896), as one of the most prominent Dalmatian politicians and champions of the national reformation movement, greatly contributed to the building of new hospitals in Zadar (1882), Sibenik (1883), and Dubrovnik (1888). The older of his two sons, Petar (1862-1910) was a lawyer and very active in the Dalmatian parliament, while the younger son Ljubo (1871-?) was a successful surgeon in Zadar and Split.

  18. Recent versus remote: flashbulb memory for 9/11 and self-selected events from the reminiscence bump.

    PubMed

    Denver, Jenny Y; Lane, Sean M; Cherry, Katie E

    2010-01-01

    In two related studies, we examined flashbulb memories acquired from different points in the lifespan in younger and older adults. When asked to remember flashbulb memories from their lives, older adults were most likely to recall events from the reminiscence bump (Study 1A). In Study 1B, younger and older adults recalled 9/11 and a personal flashbulb event that occurred between ages 10 and 30. Older adults' memories of a recent event (9/11) were less likely than younger adults' to be classified as flashbulb memories; however, when memories were examined in their entirety, these age-related declines disappeared. Older adults' memories for a remote flashbulb event appeared to be quite similar, if not more detailed than their memories for the recent event, suggesting that remote flashbulb memories are relatively stable over time. Implications of these data for current views of flashbulb memory in late adulthood are discussed.

  19. Crystal structure and interaction of phycocyanin with β-secretase: A putative therapy for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Singh, Niraj Kumar; Hasan, Syed S; Kumar, Jitendra; Raj, Isha; Pathan, Amrin A; Parmar, Asha; Shakil, Shazi; Gourinath, Samudrala; Madamwar, Datta

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents a neurological disorder, which is caused by enzymatic degradation of an amyloid precursor protein into short peptide fragments that undergo association to form insoluble plaques. Preliminary studies suggest that cyanobacterial extracts, especially the light-harvesting protein phycocyanin, may provide a means to control the progression of the disease. However, the molecular mechanism of disease control remains elusive. In the present study, intact hexameric phycocyanin was isolated and crystallized from the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. N62DM, and the structure was solved to a resolution of 2.6 A. Molecular docking studies show that the phycocyanin αβ-dimer interacts with the enzyme β-secretase, which catalyzes the proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein to form plaques. The molecular docking studies suggest that the interaction between phycocyanin and β-secretase is energetically more favorable than previously reported inhibitor-β-secretase interactions. Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans worms, with a genotype to serve as an AD-model, were significantly protected by phycocyanin. Therefore, the present study provides a novel structure-based molecular mechanism of phycocyanin-mediated therapy against AD.

  20. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy with Functionalized Fullerenes: Quantitative Structure-activity Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Kazue; Zhiyentayev, Timur; Huang, Liyi; Khalil, Sarwat; Nasim, Faria; Tegos, George P; Gali, Hariprasad; Jahnke, Ashlee; Wharton, Tim; Hamblin, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Photosensitive dyes or photo sensitizers (PS) in combination with visible light and oxygen produce reactive oxygen species that kill cells in the process known as photodynamic therapy (PDT). Antimicrobial PDT employs PS that is selective for microbial cells and is a new treatment for infections. Most antimicrobial PS is based on tetrapyrrole or phenothiazinium structures that have been synthesized to carry quaternary cationic charges or basic amino groups. However we recently showed that cationic-substituted fullerene derivative were highly effective in killing a broad spectrum of microbial cells after illumination with white light. In the present report we compared a new group of synthetic fullerene derivatives that possessed either basic or quaternary amino groups as antimicrobial PS against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and fungi (Candida albicans). Quantitative structure-function relationships were derived with LogP and hydrophilic lipophilic balance parameters. Compounds with non-quaternary amino groups tended to form nanoaggregates in water and were only effective against S. aureus. The most important determinant of effectiveness was an increased number of quaternary cationic groups that were widely dispersed around the fullerene cage to minimize aggregation. S. aureus was most susceptible; E. coli was intermediate, while C. albicans was the most resistant species tested. The high effectiveness of antimicrobial PDT with quaternized fullerenes suggest they may have applications in treatment of superficial infections (for instance in wounds and burns) where light penetration into tissue is not problematic. PMID:21743839

  1. Measuring Professional Behaviour in Canadian Physical Therapy Students' Objective Structured Clinical Examinations: An Environmental Scan

    PubMed Central

    Ellerton, Cindy; Evans, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify professional behaviours measured in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) by Canadian university physical therapy (PT) programs. Method: A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted to review current practice and determine which OSCE items Canadian PT programs are using to measure PT students' professional behaviours. Telephone interviews using semi-structured questions were conducted with individual instructors responsible for courses that included an OSCE as part of the assessment component. Results: Nine PT programmes agreed to take part in the study, and all reported conducting at least one OSCE. The number and characteristics of OSCEs varied both within and across programs. Participants identified 31 professional behaviour items for use in an OSCE; these items clustered into four categories: communication (n=14), respect (n=10), patient safety (n=4), and physical therapists' characteristics (n=3). Conclusions: All Canadian entry-level PT programmes surveyed assess professional behaviours in OSCE-type examinations; however, the content and style of assessment is variable. The local environment should be considered when determining what professional behaviours are appropriate to assess in the OSCE context in individual programmes. PMID:25931656

  2. Current and future trends in antibiotic therapy of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections.

    PubMed

    Russo, A; Concia, E; Cristini, F; De Rosa, F G; Esposito, S; Menichetti, F; Petrosillo, N; Tumbarello, M; Venditti, M; Viale, P; Viscoli, C; Bassetti, M

    2016-04-01

    In 2013 the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued recommendations and guidance on developing drugs for treatment of skin infection using a new definition of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infection (ABSSSI). The new classification includes cellulitis, erysipelas, major skin abscesses and wound infection with a considerable extension of skin involvement, clearly referring to a severe subset of skin infections. The main goal of the FDA was to better identify specific infections where the advantages of a new antibiotic could be precisely estimated through quantifiable parameters, such as improvement of the lesion size and of systemic signs of infection. Before the spread and diffusion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in skin infections, antibiotic therapy was relatively straightforward. Using an empiric approach, a β-lactam was the preferred therapy and cultures from patients were rarely obtained. With the emergence of MRSA in the community setting, initial ABSSSI management has been changed and readdressed. Dalbavancin, oritavancin and tedizolid are new drugs, approved or in development for ABSSSI treatment, that also proved to be efficient against MRSA. Dalbavancin and oritavancin have a long half-life and can be dosed less frequently. This in turn makes it possible to treat patients with ABSSSI in an outpatient setting, avoiding hospitalization or potentially allowing earlier discharge, without compromising efficacy. In conclusion, characteristics of long-acting antibiotics could represent an opportunity for the management of ABSSSI and could profoundly modify the management of these infections by reducing or in some cases eliminating both costs and risks of hospitalization.

  3. Self-similar mesostructure evolution of the growing mollusc shell reminiscent of thermodynamically driven grain growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayerlein, Bernd; Zaslansky, Paul; Dauphin, Yannicke; Rack, Alexander; Fratzl, Peter; Zlotnikov, Igor

    2014-12-01

    Significant progress has been made in understanding the interaction between mineral precursors and organic components leading to material formation and structuring in biomineralizing systems. The mesostructure of biological materials, such as the outer calcitic shell of molluscs, is characterized by many parameters and the question arises as to what extent they all are, or need to be, controlled biologically. Here, we analyse the three-dimensional structure of the calcite-based prismatic layer of Pinna nobilis, the giant Mediterranean fan mussel, using high-resolution synchrotron-based microtomography. We show that the evolution of the layer is statistically self-similar and, remarkably, its morphology and mesostructure can be fully predicted using classical materials science theories for normal grain growth. These findings are a fundamental step in understanding the constraints that dictate the shape of these biogenic minerals and shed light on how biological organisms make use of thermodynamics to generate complex morphologies.

  4. Self-similar mesostructure evolution of the growing mollusc shell reminiscent of thermodynamically driven grain growth.

    PubMed

    Bayerlein, Bernd; Zaslansky, Paul; Dauphin, Yannicke; Rack, Alexander; Fratzl, Peter; Zlotnikov, Igor

    2014-12-01

    Significant progress has been made in understanding the interaction between mineral precursors and organic components leading to material formation and structuring in biomineralizing systems. The mesostructure of biological materials, such as the outer calcitic shell of molluscs, is characterized by many parameters and the question arises as to what extent they all are, or need to be, controlled biologically. Here, we analyse the three-dimensional structure of the calcite-based prismatic layer of Pinna nobilis, the giant Mediterranean fan mussel, using high-resolution synchrotron-based microtomography. We show that the evolution of the layer is statistically self-similar and, remarkably, its morphology and mesostructure can be fully predicted using classical materials science theories for normal grain growth. These findings are a fundamental step in understanding the constraints that dictate the shape of these biogenic minerals and shed light on how biological organisms make use of thermodynamics to generate complex morphologies.

  5. Factor Structure and Validity of the Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy--Alliance Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjermestad, Krister W.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Heiervang, Einar R.; Havik, Odd E.; Ost, Lars-Goran; Haugland, Bente S. M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of an observer-rated youth alliance measure, the Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Alliance scale (TPOCS-A). The sample was 52 youth diagnosed with anxiety disorders ("M" age = 12.43, "SD" = 2.23, range = 15;…

  6. Changes in Self-Schema Structure in Cognitive Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozois, David J. A.; Bieling, Peter J.; Patelis-Siotis, Irene; Hoar, Lori; Chudzik, Susan; McCabe, Katie; Westra, Henny A.

    2009-01-01

    Negative cognitive structure (particularly for interpersonal content) has been shown in some research to persist past a current episode of depression and potentially to be a stable marker of vulnerability for depression (D. J. A. Dozois, 2007; D. J. A. Dozois & K. S. Dobson, 2001a). Given that cognitive therapy (CT) is highly effective for…

  7. Structural Ecosystems Therapy for HIV-Seropositive African American Women: Effects on Psychological Distress, Family Hassles, and Family Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; Feaster, Daniel J.; Mitrani, Victoria B.; Prado, Guillermo; Smith, Lila; Robinson-Batista, Carleen; Schwartz, Seth J.; Mauer, Magaly H.; Robbins, Michael S.

    2004-01-01

    This study tests the efficacy of Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET), a family-ecological intervention, in improving psychosocial functioning when compared with an attention-comparison person-centered condition and a community control condition. A sample of 209 HIV-seropositive, urban, low-income, African American women was randomized into 1 of…

  8. Long-term proteasomal inhibition in transgenic mice by UBB(+1) expression results in dysfunction of central respiration control reminiscent of brainstem neuropathology in Alzheimer patients.

    PubMed

    Irmler, Martin; Gentier, Romina J G; Dennissen, Frank J A; Schulz, Holger; Bolle, Ines; Hölter, Sabine M; Kallnik, Magdalena; Cheng, Jing Jun; Klingenspor, Martin; Rozman, Jan; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Hermes, Denise J H P; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Meyer, Helmut E; Hopkins, David A; Van Leeuwen, Fred W; Beckers, Johannes

    2012-08-01

    Aging and neurodegeneration are often accompanied by a functionally impaired ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). In tauopathies and polyglutamine diseases, a mutant form of ubiquitin B (UBB(+1)) accumulates in disease-specific aggregates. UBB(+1) mRNA is generated at low levels in vivo during transcription from the ubiquitin B locus by molecular misreading. The resulting mutant protein has been shown to inhibit proteasome function. To elucidate causative effects and neuropathological consequences of UBB(+1) accumulation, we used a UBB(+1) expressing transgenic mouse line that models UPS inhibition in neurons and exhibits behavioral phenotypes reminiscent of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to reveal affected organs and functions, young and aged UBB(+1) transgenic mice were comprehensively phenotyped for more than 240 parameters. This revealed unexpected changes in spontaneous breathing patterns and an altered response to hypoxic conditions. Our findings point to a central dysfunction of respiratory regulation in transgenic mice in comparison to wild-type littermate mice. Accordingly, UBB(+1) was strongly expressed in brainstem regions of transgenic mice controlling respiration. These regions included, e.g., the medial part of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius and the lateral subdivisions of the parabrachial nucleus. In addition, UBB(+1) was also strongly expressed in these anatomical structures of AD patients (Braak stage #6) and was not expressed in non-demented controls. We conclude that long-term UPS inhibition due to UBB(+1) expression causes central breathing dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of AD. The UBB(+1) expression pattern in humans is consistent with the contribution of bronchopneumonia as a cause of death in AD patients.

  9. Gold conjugate-based liposomes with hybrid cluster bomb structure for liver cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Chen, Huan; Liu, Ai-Yun; Shen, Jia-Jia; Shah, Vishva; Zhang, Can; Hong, Jin; Ding, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid drug delivery system containing both organic and inorganic nanocarriers is expected to achieve its complementary advantages for the aim of improving the performance of antineoplastic drugs in tumor therapy. Here we report the use of liposomes and gold nanoparticles to construct a liposome with a hybrid Cluster Bomb structure and discuss its unique multi-order drug release property for liver tumor treatment. A very simple method is used for the hybrid liposome preparation and involves mixing two solutions containing liposomes loaded with either non-covalent or covalent Paclitaxel (PTX, namely free PTX or PTX-conjugated GNPs, respectively) by different ratio of volume (25:75, 50:50, 25:75, v/v). Various mixed liposomes were tested to determine the optimal conditions for maximum drug delivery. The optimized liposome was then tested using xenograft Heps tumor-bearing mice and showed the best efficacy for chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumor at PTX liposome: PTX-conjugated GNP liposome of 25:75 ratio (v/v). This system allows for simple and easy preparation while providing a more accurate site- and time-release mode for tumor treatment using antitumor drugs.

  10. Modulation of Epigenetic Targets for Anticancer Therapy: Clinicopathological Relevance, Structural Data and Drug Discovery Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Andreol, Federico; Barbosa, Arménio Jorge Moura; Daniele Parenti, Marco; Rio, Alberto Del

    2013-01-01

    Research on cancer epigenetics has flourished in the last decade. Nevertheless growing evidence point on the importance to understand the mechanisms by which epigenetic changes regulate the genesis and progression of cancer growth. Several epigenetic targets have been discovered and are currently under validation for new anticancer therapies. Drug discovery approaches aiming to target these epigenetic enzymes with small-molecules inhibitors have produced the first pre-clinical and clinical outcomes and many other compounds are now entering the pipeline as new candidate epidrugs. The most studied targets can be ascribed to histone deacetylases and DNA methyltransferases, although several other classes of enzymes are able to operate post-translational modifications to histone tails are also likely to represent new frontiers for therapeutic interventions. By acknowledging that the field of cancer epigenetics is evolving with an impressive rate of new findings, with this review we aim to provide a current overview of pre-clinical applications of small-molecules for cancer pathologies, combining them with the current knowledge of epigenetic targets in terms of available structural data and drug design perspectives. PMID:23016851

  11. Structural Ecosystems Therapy for Recovering HIV-Positive Women: Child, Mother, and Parenting Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mitrani, Victoria B.; McCabe, Brian E.; Robinson, Carleen; Weiss-Laxer, Nomi S.; Feaster, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents results of a subgroup analysis from a randomized trial to examine whether Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET), a family intervention intended to improve medication adherence and reduce drug relapse of HIV-seropositive (HIV+) women recovering from drug abuse, provided benefits for families with children. Data from 42 children and 25 mothers were analyzed at baseline, and 4, 8, and 12 months post-baseline. Results of longitudinal Generalized Estimating Equations analyses suggested that SET was more efficacious than the Health Group (HG) control condition in decreasing children's internalizing and externalizing problems and reducing mothers' psychological distress and drug relapse. Children in SET reported improvements in positive parenting as compared to the children in HG, but there were no differences in mother-reported positive parenting, or parental involvement as reported by either the children or mothers. These findings suggest that family interventions such as SET may be beneficial for mothers and children. An adaptation of SET specifically for families with children could further enhance benefits and improve acceptability and cost-effectiveness. PMID:21171773

  12. Monitoring the influence of compression therapy on pathophysiology and structure of a swine scar model using multispectral imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Travis, Taryn E.; Shuppa, Jeffrey W.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Ramella-Romana, Jessica C.

    2014-03-01

    Scar contractures can lead to significant reduction in function and inhibit patients from returning to work, participating in leisure activities and even render them unable to provide care for themselves. Compression therapy has long been a standard treatment for scar prevention but due to the lack of quantifiable metrics of scar formation scant evidence exists of its efficacy. We have recently introduced a multispectral imaging system to quantify pathophysiology (hemoglobin, blood oxygenation, melanin, etc) and structural features (roughness and collagen matrix) of scar. In this study, hypertrophic scars are monitored in-vivo in a porcine model using the imaging system to investigate influence of compression therapy on its quality.

  13. Chemokines: structure, receptors and functions. A new target for inflammation and asthma therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Voss, H-P.; Timmerman, H.

    1996-01-01

    Five to 10% of the human population have a disorder of the respiratory tract called ‘asthma’. It has been known as a potentially dangerous disease for over 2000 years, as it was already described by Hippocrates and recognized as a disease entity by Egyptian and Hebrew physicians. At the beginning of this decade, there has been a fundamental change in asthma management. The emphasis has shifted from symptom relief with bronchodilator therapies (e.g. β2-agonists) to a much earlier introduction of anti-inflammatory treatment (e.g. corticosteroids). Asthma is now recognized to be a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, involving various inflammatory cells and their mediators. Although asthma has been the subject of many investigations, the exact role of the different inflammatory cells has not been elucidated completely. Many suggestions have been made and several cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, such as the eosinophils, the mast cells, the basophils and the lymphocytes. To date, however, the relative importance of these cells is not completely understood. The cell type predominantly found in the asthmatic lung is the eosinophil and the recruitment of these eosinophils can be seen as a characteristic of asthma. In recent years much attention is given to the role of the newly identified chemokines in asthma pathology. Chemokines are structurally and functionally related 8–10 kDa peptides that are the products of distinct genes clustered on human chromosomes 4 and 17 and can be found at sites of inflammation. They form a superfamily of proinflammatory mediators that promote the recruitment of various kinds of leukocytes and lymphocytes. The chemokine superfamily can be divided into three subgroups based on overall sequence homology. Although the chemokines have highly conserved amino acid sequences, each of the chemokines binds to and induces the chemotaxis of particular classes of white blood cells. Certain chemokines stimulate the

  14. Glucocorticoid receptor gene haplotype structure and steroid therapy outcome in IBD patients

    PubMed Central

    Mwinyi, Jessica; Wenger, Christa; Eloranta, Jyrki J; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study whether the glucocorticoid receptor (GR/NR3C1) gene haplotypes influence the steroid therapy outcome in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: We sequenced all coding exons and flanking intronic sequences of the NR3C1 gene in 181 IBD patients, determined the single nucleotide polymorphisms, and predicted the NR3C1 haplotypes. Furthermore, we investigated whether certain NR3C1 haplotypes are significantly associated with steroid therapy outcomes. RESULTS: We detected 13 NR3C1 variants, which led to the formation of 17 different haplotypes with a certainty of > 95% in 173 individuals. The three most commonly occurring haplotypes were included in the association analysis of the influence of haplotype on steroid therapy outcome or IBD activity. None of the NR3C1 haplotypes showed statistically significant association with glucocorticoid therapy success. CONCLUSION: NR3C1 haplotypes are not related to steroid therapy outcome. PMID:20712049

  15. Improved social interaction and increased anterior cingulate metabolism after group reminiscence with reality orientation approach for vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Akanuma, Kyoko; Meguro, Kenichi; Meguro, Mitsue; Sasaki, Eriko; Chiba, Kentaro; Ishii, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Naofumi

    2011-06-30

    A group reminiscence approach (GRA) with reality orientation (RO) is widely used as a psychosocial intervention for dementia. Since clinical effectiveness was reported for the intervention, interest has been directed toward areas of the neuronal network that might be being stimulated. We hypothesized that the frontal lobe associated with social interaction was being stimulated. To test this hypothesis, we studied 24 patients with vascular dementia. In addition to conventional care, a 1-h session of GRA with RO was provided once a week for 3 months in the GRA-RO arm (n=12). Only supportive care was provided in the control arm (n=12). Before and after the interventions, cognitive function, depressive state, and social activities were assessed. Since glucose metabolism is associated with brain function, cerebral glucose metabolism was measured by positron emission tomography (PET). Regarding behavioral improvement, 10 patients in the GRA-RO arm showed improvement compared with only two patients in the control arm, a significant difference. PET demonstrated that metabolism in the anterior cingulate was increased in the GRA-RO arm, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control arm. These results suggest that GRA-RO stimulates the anterior cingulate and has a positive effect on social interaction.

  16. Toward a Molecular Understanding of the Typicality of Chardonnay Wines: Identification of Powerful Aromatic Compounds Reminiscent of Hazelnut.

    PubMed

    Gros, Jacques; Lavigne, Valérie; Thibaud, Fannie; Gammacurta, Marine; Moine, Virginie; Dubourdieu, Denis; Darriet, Philippe; Marchal, Axel

    2017-02-08

    Chardonnay wines impart a unique complex aroma characterized by its buttery, yellow stone fruit, melon, bready, and woody notes. Among the terms used in the sensory analysis of these wines, this study investigated hazelnut-like attributes. Multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry identified five pyrroles reminiscent of hazelnut: 1-ethylpyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, 1H-pyrrole, 2-acetyl-1H-pyrrole (first identification in wine), 1-methylpyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, and 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde. Quantitative analyses demonstrated their significantly higher abundance in Chardonnay wines. However, they proved irrelevant in sensory terms, given the low amounts measured in wine compared to their olfactory detection threshold. Nevertheless, the presence of methanethiol derivatives from these pyrroles was investigated in wine. 1-Methylpyrrole-2-methanethiol and 1-ethylpyrrole-2-methanethiol were identified and exhibited hazelnut-like aroma. These compounds, which have not been observed in natural products to date, are potent volatile compounds with detection thresholds of 0.7 and 1.4 ng/L, respectively, in model wine. These findings open up promising perspectives concerning the interpretation of the typical aromatic nuances of some Chardonnay wines.

  17. Persistence of HIV-1 structural proteins and glycoproteins in lymph nodes of patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Mikulas; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Pelser, Colleen; Stellbrink, Hans-Jurgen; van Lunzen, Jan; Lewis, George; Kalyanaraman, Vaniambadi S; Gallo, Robert C; Racz, Paul

    2005-10-11

    Here we report a long-term persistence of HIV-1 structural proteins and glycoproteins in germinal centers (GCs) of lymph nodes (LNs) in the absence of detectable virus replication in patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The persistence of viral structural proteins and glycoproteins in GCs was accompanied by specific antibody responses to HIV-1. Seven patients during the chronic phase of HIV-1 infection were analyzed for the presence of the capsid protein (HIV-1p24), matrix protein (HIV-1p17), and envelope glycoproteins (HIV-1gp120/gp41), as well as for viral RNA (vRNA) in biopsy specimens from LNs obtained before initiation of therapy and during HAART that lasted from 5 to 13 months. In parallel, these patients were also monitored for viremia and specific anti-HIV-1 antibody responses to structural proteins and glycoproteins both before and during treatment. Before-therapy viral levels, as determined by RT-PCR, ranged from 3 x 10(3) to 6.3 x 10(5) copies of vRNA per ml, whereas during treatment, vRNA was under detectable levels (<25 copies per ml). The pattern of vRNA detection in peripheral blood was concordant with in situ hybridization results of LN specimens. Before treatment, vRNA associated with follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) was readily detected in GCs of LNs of the patients, whereas during therapy, vRNA was consistently absent in the GCs of LN biopsies of treated patients. In contrast to vRNA hybridization results, viral structural proteins and glycoproteins, evaluated by immunohistochemical staining, were present and persisted in the GC light zone of LNs in abundant amounts not only before initiation of therapy but also during HAART, when no vRNA was detected in GCs. Consistent with immunohistochemical findings, specific antibody responses to HIV-1p17, -p24, and -gp120/gp41, as evaluated by ELISA and virus neutralization, persisted in patients under therapy for up to 13 months of follow-up. The implications of these findings are

  18. Plasmodium falciparum population structure in Sudan post artemisinin-based combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Bakhiet, Amani M A; Abdel-Muhsin, Abdel-Muhsin A; Elzaki, Salah-Eldin G; Al-Hashami, Zainab; Albarwani, Hamida S; AlQamashoui, Badar A; Al-Hamidhi, Salama; Idris, Mohamed A; Elagib, Atif A; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Babiker, Hamza A

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, Sudan has stepped up malaria control backed by WHO, and this has resulted in significant reduction in parasite rate, malaria morbidity and mortality. The present study analyzed Plasmodium falciparum parasites in four geographical separated areas, to examine whether the success in malaria control following the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has disrupted the population structure and evolution of the parasite. We examined 319 P. falciparum isolates collected between October 2009 and October 2012 in four different areas in Sudan (Jazira [central Sudan], Southern Darfur [western Sudan], Upper Nile [southern Sudan] and Kasala [eastern Sudan]). Twelve microsatellites were analyzed for allelic diversity, multi-locus haplotype and inter-population differentiation. Level of diversity was compared to that detected for three of the above microsatellites among P. falciparum parasites in central and eastern Sudan in 1999, prior to introduction of ACT. Diversity at each locus (unbiased heterozygosity [H]) was high in all areas (Jazira, H=0.67), (Southern Darfur, H=0.71), (Upper Nile, H=0.71), and (Kasala, H=0.63). Microsatellites were distributed widely and private alleles, detected in a single population, were rare. The extent of diversity in the above sites was similar to that seen, in 1999, in central (Khartoum, H=0.73) and eastern Sudan (Gedaref, H=0.75). Significant Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed between the microsatellites in all populations. Pairwise FST analysis revealed that parasites in the four areas could be considered as one population. However, the parasites in Sudan clustered away from parasites in West Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Despite marked reduction in malaria risk in Sudan, the extent of diversity and parasite genetic structure are indicative of a large population size. Further considerable reduction in transmission would be needed before fragmented sub-population can be seen. In addition, the large

  19. Reminiscing on School Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Charles C.

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper examines how former and current school health programs differ (e.g., school nurses moved from simply treating minor injuries and communicable diseases to working cooperatively with physicians and school staff to develop policies and procedures, and health education moved from simple anatomy and physiology to broader personal and…

  20. Can Senior Volunteers Deliver Reminiscence and Creative Activity Interventions? Results of the Legacy Intervention Family Enactment (LIFE) Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Rebecca S.; Harris, Grant M.; Burgio, Louis D.; Azuero, Casey B.; Miller, Leslie A.; Shin, Hae Jung; Eichorst, Morgan K.; Csikai, Ellen L.; DeCoster, Jamie; Dunn, Linda L.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Parmelee, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Context Palliative care patients and their family caregivers may have a foreshortened perspective of time left to live, or the expectation of the patient’s death in the near future. Patients and caregivers may report distress in physical, psychological, or existential/spiritual realms. Objectives To conduct a randomized controlled trial examining the effectiveness of retired senior volunteers (RSVs) in delivering a reminiscence and creative activity intervention aimed at alleviating palliative care patient and caregiver distress. Methods Of the 45 dyads that completed baseline, 28 completed post-intervention and 24 completed follow-up. The intervention group received three home visits by RSVs; control group families received three supportive telephone calls by research staff. Measures included symptom assessment and associated burden, depression, religiousness/spirituality, and meaning in life. Results Patients in the intervention group reported a significantly greater reduction in frequency of emotional symptoms (P = 0.02) and emotional symptom bother (P = 0.04) than the control group, as well as improved spiritual functioning. Family caregivers in the intervention group were more likely than control caregivers to endorse items on the Meaning in Life Scale (P = 0.02). Only improvement in intervention patients’ emotional symptom bother maintained at follow-up after discontinuing RSV contact (P = 0.024). Conclusion Delivery of the intervention by RSVs had a positive impact on palliative care patients’ emotional symptoms and burden and caregivers’ meaning in life. Meaningful prolonged engagement with palliative care patients and caregivers, possibly through alternative modes of treatment delivery such as continued RSV contact, may be necessary for maintenance of therapeutic effects. PMID:24667180

  1. The reminiscence bump without memories: The distribution of imagined word-cued and important autobiographical memories in a hypothetical 70-year-old.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-08-01

    The reminiscence bump is the disproportionate number of autobiographical memories dating from adolescence and early adulthood. It has often been ascribed to a consolidation of the mature self in the period covered by the bump. Here we stripped away factors relating to the characteristics of autobiographical memories per se, most notably factors that aid in their encoding or retention, by asking students to generate imagined word-cued and imagined 'most important' autobiographical memories of a hypothetical, prototypical 70-year-old of their own culture and gender. We compared the distribution of these fictional memories with the distributions of actual word-cued and most important autobiographical memories in a sample of 61-70-year-olds. We found a striking similarity between the temporal distributions of the imagined memories and the actual memories. These results suggest that the reminiscence bump is largely driven by constructive, schematic factors at retrieval, thereby challenging most existing theoretical accounts.

  2. Regulatory structures for gene therapy medicinal products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Klug, Bettina; Celis, Patrick; Carr, Melanie; Reinhardt, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Taking into account the complexity and technical specificity of advanced therapy medicinal products: (gene and cell therapy medicinal products and tissue engineered products), a dedicated European regulatory framework was needed. Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007, the "ATMP Regulation" provides tailored regulatory principles for the evaluation and authorization of these innovative medicines. The majority of gene or cell therapy product development is carried out by academia, hospitals, and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Thus, acknowledging the particular needs of these types of sponsors, the legislation also provides incentives for product development tailored to them. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and, in particular, its Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) provide a variety of opportunities for early interaction with developers of ATMPs to enable them to have early regulatory and scientific input. An important tool to promote innovation and the development of new medicinal products by micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises is the EMA's SME initiative launched in December 2005 to offer financial and administrative assistance to smaller companies. The European legislation also foresees the involvement of stakeholders, such as patient organizations, in the development of new medicines. Considering that gene therapy medicinal products are developed in many cases for treatment of rare diseases often of monogenic origin, the involvement of patient organizations, which focus on rare diseases and genetic and congenital disorders, is fruitful. Two such organizations are represented in the CAT. Research networks play another important role in the development of gene therapy medicinal products. The European Commission is funding such networks through the EU Sixth Framework Program.

  3. Patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease engage in verbal reminiscence with the support of a computer-aided program: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; D'Amico, Fiora; Ferlisi, Gabriele; Denitto, Floriana; De Vanna, Floriana; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the assessment of a program recently developed for helping patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease engage in computer-mediated verbal reminiscence (Lancioni et al., 2014a). Sixteen participants were involved in the study. Six of them used the original program version with the computer showing a virtual partner posing questions and providing attention and guidance. The other 10 used a slightly modified program version with the computer presenting photos and videos and providing encouragements to talk as well as attention and guidance. Participants were exposed to brief program sessions individually. The results showed that 15 participants (five of those using the first version and all of those using the second version) had a clear and lasting increase in verbal engagement/reminiscence during the intervention sessions with the program. Those 15 participants had mean percentages of intervals with verbal engagement/reminiscence below 10 during baseline and between about 45 and 75 during the intervention. The results' implications and the need for new research were discussed.

  4. Patients with moderate Alzheimer’s disease engage in verbal reminiscence with the support of a computer-aided program: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O’Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; D’Amico, Fiora; Ferlisi, Gabriele; Denitto, Floriana; De Vanna, Floriana; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the assessment of a program recently developed for helping patients with moderate Alzheimer’s disease engage in computer-mediated verbal reminiscence (Lancioni et al., 2014a). Sixteen participants were involved in the study. Six of them used the original program version with the computer showing a virtual partner posing questions and providing attention and guidance. The other 10 used a slightly modified program version with the computer presenting photos and videos and providing encouragements to talk as well as attention and guidance. Participants were exposed to brief program sessions individually. The results showed that 15 participants (five of those using the first version and all of those using the second version) had a clear and lasting increase in verbal engagement/reminiscence during the intervention sessions with the program. Those 15 participants had mean percentages of intervals with verbal engagement/reminiscence below 10 during baseline and between about 45 and 75 during the intervention. The results’ implications and the need for new research were discussed. PMID:26089797

  5. The Theory, Structure, and Techniques for the Inclusion of Children in Family Therapy: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Lori K.; Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Haddock, Shelley A.

    2002-01-01

    Many barriers prevent therapists from including young children in family therapy, despite the theoretical belief that every family member should be present. Although there is a wealth of literature describing how to include children, the information has not been compiled in a way that is easily accessible to therapists. In this article, we report…

  6. A pilot study for a structured, time-limited therapy group for sexually abused pre-adolescent children.

    PubMed

    Corder, B F; Haizlip, T; DeBoer, P

    1990-01-01

    The critical role of specific types of mastery skill development in the treatment of sexually abused children is explored, and defense mechanisms of "invulnerable children," who function adequately despite trauma and stress, are described. The authors describe their development of structured group therapy techniques designed to foster these types of mastery skills with sexually abused children aged 6 to 8. These techniques include development of intellectualization defenses through original coloring books and therapeutic board games, cathartic exploration of feelings through structured art and storytelling exercises, cognitive relabeling and self-esteem building through role-play, "chants and cheers," homework shared with mothers, and other structured group procedures designed to develop specific coping skills.

  7. Associations between alcohol use, other psychosocial factors, structural factors and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among South African ART recipients.

    PubMed

    Morojele, Neo K; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Nkosi, Sebenzile

    2014-03-01

    We examined whether alcohol use is associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence independently of structural and psychosocial factors among 304 male and female ART recipients in ART sites in Tshwane, South Africa. ART adherence was assessed by the CASE Adherence Index. Independent variables were demographic, structural, psycho-social, and alcohol use (AUDIT score) factors. In hierarchical multiple regression, demographic variables (Step 1) explained 4 % of variance in ART adherence (p ≤ 0.01). Variance explained increased to 16 % (p ≤ 0.001) after entering structural variables (Step 2); 19 % (p ≤ 0.001) after entering psychosocial variables (Step 3); and 24 % (p ≤ 0.001) after entering AUDIT score (Step 4). Alcohol use is independently associated with ART adherence.

  8. REMCARE: Pragmatic Multi-Centre Randomised Trial of Reminiscence Groups for People with Dementia and their Family Carers: Effectiveness and Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Orrell, Martin; Bruce, Errollyn; Edwards, Rhiannon T.; Hounsome, Barry; Keady, John; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Rees, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Background Joint reminiscence groups, involving people with dementia and family carers together, are popular, but the evidence-base is limited. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of joint reminiscence groups as compared to usual care. Methods This multi-centre, pragmatic randomised controlled trial had two parallel arms: intervention group and usual-care control group. A restricted dynamic method of randomisation was used, with an overall allocation ratio of 1:1, restricted to ensure viable sized intervention groups. Assessments, blind to treatment allocation, were carried out at baseline, three months and ten months (primary end-point), usually in the person's home. Participants were recruited in eight centres, mainly through NHS Memory Clinics and NHS community mental health teams. Included participants were community resident people with mild to moderate dementia (DSM-IV), who had a relative or other care-giver in regular contact, to act as informant and willing and able to participate in intervention. 71% carers were spouses. 488 people with dementia (mean age 77.5)were randomised: 268 intervention, 220 control; 350 dyads completed the study (206 intervention, 144 control). The intervention evaluated was joint reminiscence groups (with up to 12 dyads) weekly for twelve weeks; monthly maintenance sessions for further seven months. Sessions followed a published treatment manual and were held in a variety of community settings. Two trained facilitators in each centre were supported by volunteers. Primary outcome measures were self-reported quality of life for the person with dementia (QoL-AD), psychological distress for the carer (General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-28). Secondary outcome measures included: autobiographical memory and activities of daily living for the person with dementia; carer stress for the carer; mood, relationship quality and service use and costs for both. Results The intention to treat analysis (ANCOVA

  9. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy associated with endurance exercise training: Effects on the structural and functional remodeling of infarcted rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Lavorato, Victor Neiva; Del Carlo, Ricardo Junqueira; da Cunha, Daise Nunes Queiroz; Okano, Barbara Silva; Belfort, Felipe Gomes; de Freitas, Juliana Silveira; da Mota, Gloria de Fatima Alves; Quintão-Júnior, Judson Fonseca; Silame-Gomes, Luis Henrique Lobo; Drummond, Filipe Rios; Carneiro-Júnior, Miguel Araújo; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Monteiro, Betania Souza; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau; Natali, Antônio José

    2016-01-01

    We tested the effects of early mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy associated with endurance exercise on the structural and functional cardiac remodeling of rats with myocardial infarctation (MI). Male Wistar rats (40 days old) were divided into 6 groups: control and exercise sham; control and exercise MI; and control and exercise MI MSC. MI was surgically induced and bone marrow-derived MSCs were immediately injected via caudal vein (concentration: 1 × 10(6 )cells). Twenty-four hours later ET groups exercised on a treadmill (5 days/week; 60 min/day; 60% of maximal running velocity) for 12 weeks. Structural and functional changes were determined by echocardiography. Contractility and intracellular global calcium ([Ca(2 +)]i) transient were measured in myocytes from the left ventricular (LV) non-infarcted area. Calcium regulatory proteins were measured by Western blot. MI increased (p < 0.05) heart, ventricular and LV weights and its ratios to body weight; LV internal dimension in diastole (LVID-D) and in systole (LVID-S) and LV free wall in diastole (LVFW-D), but reduced the thickness of interventricular septum in systole (IVS-S), ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS). MI augmented (p < 0.05) the times to peak and to half relaxation of cell shortening as well as the amplitude of the [Ca(2 +)]i transient and the times to peak and to half decay. Early MSCs therapy restored LVFW-D, IVS-S and the amplitude and time to half decay of the [Ca(2 +)]i transient. Early endurance exercise intervention increased (p < 0.05) LVFW-S, IVS-S, EF and FS, and reduced the times to peak and to half relaxation of cell shortening, and the amplitude of the [Ca(2 +)]i transient. Exercise training also increased the expression of left ventricular SERCA2a and PLBser16. Nevertheless, the combination of these therapies did not cause additive effects. In conclusion, combining early MSCs therapy and endurance exercise does not potentiate the benefits of such treatments to

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi infection and benznidazole therapy independently stimulate oxidative status and structural pathological remodeling of the liver tissue in mice.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Santos, Eliziária C; Cupertino, Marli C; Bastos, Daniel S S; Oliveira, Jerusa M; Carvalho, Thaís V; Neves, Mariana M; Oliveira, Leandro L; Talvani, André

    2015-08-01

    This study used a murine model of Chagas disease to investigate the isolated and combined impact of Trypanosoma cruzi infection and benznidazole (BZ) therapy on liver structure and function. Male C57BL/6 mice were challenged with T. cruzi and BZ for 15 days. Serum levels of cytokines and hepatic enzymes, liver oxidative stress, morphology, collagen, and glycogen content were monitored. Separately, T. cruzi infection and BZ treatment resulted in a pro-oxidant status and hepatic reactive damage. Concurrently, both T. cruzi infection and BZ treatment induced upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and pathological reorganization of the liver parenchyma and stroma. T. cruzi infection increased serum levels of Th1 cytokines, which were reduced by BZ in both infected and non-infected animals. BZ also induced functional organ damage, increasing serum levels of liver enzymes. When combined, T. cruzi infection and BZ therapy elicited intense hepatic reactive damage that was not compensated by antioxidant enzymatic reaction, subsequently culminating in more severe morphofunctional hepatic injury. Taken together, these findings indicate that during specific treatment of Chagas disease, hepatic pathology may be a result of an interaction between BZ metabolism and specific mechanisms activated during the natural course of T. cruzi infection, rather than an isolated toxic effect of BZ on liver structure and function.

  11. Singlet oxygen generation in PUVA therapy studied using electronic structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Pérez, Juan José; Olaso-González, Gloria; Merchán, Manuela; Serrano-Andrés, Luis

    2009-06-01

    The ability of furocoumarins to participate in the PUVA (Psoralen + UV-A) therapy against skin disorders and some types of cancer, is analyzed on quantum chemical grounds. The efficiency of the process relies on its capability to populate its lowest triplet excited state, and then either form adducts with thymine which interfere DNA replication or transfer its energy, generating singlet molecular oxygen damaging the cell membrane in photoactivated tissues. By determining the spin-orbit couplings, shown to be the key property, in the intersystem crossing yielding the triplet state of the furocoumarin, the electronic couplings in the triplet-triplet energy transfer process producing the singlet oxygen, and the reaction rates and lifetimes, the efficiency in the phototherapeutic action of the furocoumarin family is predicted as: khellin < 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) < 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) < psoralen < 4,5‧,8-trimethylpsoralen (TMP) < 3-carbethoxypsoralen (3-CPS), the latter being the most efficient photosensitizer and singlet oxygen generator.

  12. Structure of solid tumors and their vasculature: Implications for therapy with monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, H.F.; Nagy, J.A.; Dvorak, A.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Delivery of monoclonal antibodies to solid tumors is a vexing problem that must be solved if these antibodies are to realize their promise in therapy. Such success as has been achieved with monoclonal antibodies is attributable to the local hyperpermeability of the tumor vasculature, a property that favors antibody extravasation at tumor sites and that is mediated by a tumor-secreted vascular permeability factor. However, leaky tumor blood vessels are generally some distance removed from target tumor cells, separated by stroma and by other tumor cells that together represent significant barriers to penetration by extravasated monoclonal antibodies. For this reason, alternative approaches may be attractive. These include the use of antibody-linked cytotoxins, which are able to kill tumor cells without immediate contact, and direction of antibodies against nontumor cell targets, for example, antigens unique to the tumor vascular endothelium or to tumor stroma. 50 refs.

  13. Visualization and attributation of vascular structures for diagnostics and therapy planning.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Tobias; Thorn, Matthias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2002-01-01

    In various medical fields vascular structures have to be examined with usually two-dimensional views which present imaging techniques produce. The interpretation of the data can be supported by 3-dimensional visualization techniques. The further analysis requires often the attributation of the particular functional or anatomical entities. To attribute these interactively we developed two different visualization strategies. In the first one the shape of the structures is modelled with OpenGL achieving very fast response times, most notably during the navigation. The second strategy, the direct rendering of the volume, benefits from the accurate reproduction of the vascular structures. Although the rendering needs much more time, the strategy provides similar response times for the attributation. Thus, the strategies complement one another.

  14. Efficiency of photodynamic therapy on WM35 melanoma with synthetic porphyrins: Role of chemical structure, intracellular targeting and antioxidant defense.

    PubMed

    Baldea, Ioana; Olteanu, Diana Elena; Bolfa, Pompei; Ion, Rodica Mariana; Decea, Nicoleta; Cenariu, Mihai; Banciu, Manuela; Sesarman, Alina Viorica; Filip, Adriana Gabriela

    2015-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) could be an adjuvant therapy in melanoma, an aggressive cancer that arises from melanocytes. Several reports showed encouraging results of the efficacy of PDT in melanoma on experimental models and in clinical trials. Therefore, we studied the efficacy of two derivatives of tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP): meso-5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-hydroxyphenyl) porphyrin (THOPP) and meso-5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris (4-methoxyphenyl) porphyrin (THOMPP) as photosensitizers for PDT, compared to FDA approved delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA) against a lightly pigmented, melanoma cell line, WM35, in vitro. Both porphyrins were more efficient as photosensitizers, compared to ALA, without dark toxicity. The efficiency depended on the intracellular localization and the molecule structure. THOPP, the most efficient porphyrin localized mainly in mitochondria, while THOMPP accumulated in lysosomes; both showed melanosomal localization. The symmetric THOPP molecule was able to generate increased oxidative stress damage and apoptosis. THOPP also induced a low effect on the defense mechanisms like antioxidant enzyme SOD (superoxide dismutase), NF-kB (nuclear transcription factor kB) activation and MITF (microphthalmia transcription factor). The lower efficiency of the asymmetric molecule, THOMPP was probably due to a diminished photoactivation, which led to a lower ROS induced damage, combined with higher activation of the defense mechanisms.

  15. Structural basis of omalizumab therapy and omalizumab-mediated IgE exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, Luke F.; Tarchevskaya, Svetlana; Brigger, Daniel; Sathiyamoorthy, Karthik; Graham, Michelle T.; Nadeau, Kari Christine; Eggel, Alexander; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2016-05-19

    Omalizumab is a widely used therapeutic anti-IgE antibody. Here we report the crystal structure of the omalizumab–Fab in complex with an IgE-Fc fragment. This structure reveals the mechanism of omalizumab-mediated inhibition of IgE interactions with both high- and low-affinity IgE receptors, and explains why omalizumab selectively binds free IgE. The structure of the complex also provides mechanistic insight into a class of disruptive IgE inhibitors that accelerate the dissociation of the high-affinity IgE receptor from IgE. We use this structural data to generate a mutant IgE-Fc fragment that is resistant to omalizumab binding. Treatment with this omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragment, in combination with omalizumab, promotes the exchange of cell-bound full-length IgE with omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragments on human basophils. Furthermore, this combination treatment also blocks basophil activation more efficiently than either agent alone, providing a novel approach to probe regulatory mechanisms underlying IgE hypersensitivity with implications for therapeutic interventions.

  16. Multimodal luminescent-magnetic boron nitride nanotubes@NaGdF₄:Eu structures for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Wang, Xuebin; Yamaguchi, Maho; Yi, Wei; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2014-04-28

    Boron nitride nanotubes@NaGdF4:Eu composites with core@shell structures were fabricated giving the opportunity to trace, target and thus to manipulate BNNTs in vitro. The composites show a significantly higher cellular uptake and chemotherapy drug intracellular delivery ability in the presence of an external magnetic field than that in its absence.

  17. Structural basis of omalizumab therapy and omalizumab-mediated IgE exchange

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Luke F.; Tarchevskaya, Svetlana; Brigger, Daniel; Sathiyamoorthy, Karthik; Graham, Michelle T.; Nadeau, Kari Christine; Eggel, Alexander; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2016-01-01

    Omalizumab is a widely used therapeutic anti-IgE antibody. Here we report the crystal structure of the omalizumab–Fab in complex with an IgE-Fc fragment. This structure reveals the mechanism of omalizumab-mediated inhibition of IgE interactions with both high- and low-affinity IgE receptors, and explains why omalizumab selectively binds free IgE. The structure of the complex also provides mechanistic insight into a class of disruptive IgE inhibitors that accelerate the dissociation of the high-affinity IgE receptor from IgE. We use this structural data to generate a mutant IgE-Fc fragment that is resistant to omalizumab binding. Treatment with this omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragment, in combination with omalizumab, promotes the exchange of cell-bound full-length IgE with omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragments on human basophils. This combination treatment also blocks basophil activation more efficiently than either agent alone, providing a novel approach to probe regulatory mechanisms underlying IgE hypersensitivity with implications for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27194387

  18. Structural basis of omalizumab therapy and omalizumab-mediated IgE exchange

    DOE PAGES

    Pennington, Luke F.; Tarchevskaya, Svetlana; Brigger, Daniel; ...

    2016-05-19

    Omalizumab is a widely used therapeutic anti-IgE antibody. Here we report the crystal structure of the omalizumab–Fab in complex with an IgE-Fc fragment. This structure reveals the mechanism of omalizumab-mediated inhibition of IgE interactions with both high- and low-affinity IgE receptors, and explains why omalizumab selectively binds free IgE. The structure of the complex also provides mechanistic insight into a class of disruptive IgE inhibitors that accelerate the dissociation of the high-affinity IgE receptor from IgE. We use this structural data to generate a mutant IgE-Fc fragment that is resistant to omalizumab binding. Treatment with this omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragment, inmore » combination with omalizumab, promotes the exchange of cell-bound full-length IgE with omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragments on human basophils. Furthermore, this combination treatment also blocks basophil activation more efficiently than either agent alone, providing a novel approach to probe regulatory mechanisms underlying IgE hypersensitivity with implications for therapeutic interventions.« less

  19. Beam Path Toxicities to Non-Target Structures During Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, David I. Chambers, Mark S.; Fuller, Clifton D.; Kies, Merrill S.

    2008-11-01

    Background: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beams traverse nontarget normal structures not irradiated during three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). This study estimates the doses and toxicities to nontarget structures during IMRT. Materials and Methods: Oropharyngeal cancer IMRT and 3D-CRT cases were reviewed. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were used to evaluate radiation dose to the lip, cochlea, brainstem, occipital scalp, and segments of the mandible. Toxicity rates were compared for 3D-CRT, IMRT alone, or IMRT with concurrent cisplatin. Descriptive statistics and exploratory recursive partitioning analysis were used to estimate dose 'breakpoints' associated with observed toxicities. Results: A total of 160 patients were evaluated for toxicity; 60 had detailed DVH evaluation and 15 had 3D-CRT plan comparison. Comparing IMRT with 3D-CRT, there was significant (p {<=} 0.002) nonparametric differential dose to all clinically significant structures of interest. Thirty percent of IMRT patients had headaches and 40% had occipital scalp alopecia. A total of 76% and 38% of patients treated with IMRT alone had nausea and vomiting, compared with 99% and 68%, respectively, of those with concurrent cisplatin. IMRT had a markedly distinct toxicity profile than 3D-CRT. In recursive partitioning analysis, National Cancer Institute's Common Toxicity Criteria adverse effects 3.0 nausea and vomiting, scalp alopecia and anterior mucositis were associated with reconstructed mean brainstem dose >36 Gy, occipital scalp dose >30 Gy, and anterior mandible dose >34 Gy, respectively. Conclusions: Dose reduction to specified structures during IMRT implies an increased beam path dose to alternate nontarget structures that may result in clinical toxicities that were uncommon with previous, less conformal approaches. These findings have implications for IMRT treatment planning and research, toxicity assessment, and multidisciplinary patient

  20. Assessment of the changes in alveolar bone quality after fixed orthodontic therapy: A trabecular structure analysis

    PubMed Central

    Haghnegahdar, Abdolaziz; Zarif Najafi, Hooman; Sabet, Maryam; Saki, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background. Tooth displacement changes the periodontium. The aim of orthodontic treatment is desired tooth movement with minimum side effects on the alveolar bone quality. The aim of the present study was to assess changes of alveolar trabeculation in children, young adults and adults and the two genders. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 63 patients who had been treated in Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, were chosen with convenient sampling method. They were divided into three groups based on their age. Their digitized panoramic radiographs (PRs) were evaluated at six interdental sites from the mesial aspect of the mandibular second molars to the distal aspect of the mandibular first premolars using a visual index. The trabeculation pattern was assigned as either dense (score 3), dense-sparse (score 2) or sparse (score 1). Data were imported to SPSS. Mean of the scores before treatment (score B) and mean of them after treatment (score A) were compared for each group with paired t-test. Changes between score B and sore A of the groups were compared using one-way ANOVA and post hoc tests. Results. Mean score A was significantly higher than mean score B in children (P = 0.001). In contrast, mean score A was significantly lower than mean score B in young adults (P = 0.003). Conclusion. Orthodontists should be cautious when treating young adults and adults regarding the probable, yet possibly temporary, negative effects of orthodontic therapy on the alveolar bone quality. PMID:28096944

  1. Electroconvulsive therapy and structural neuroplasticity in neocortical, limbic and paralimbic cortex

    PubMed Central

    Pirnia, T; Joshi, S H; Leaver, A M; Vasavada, M; Njau, S; Woods, R P; Espinoza, R; Narr, K L

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective and rapidly acting treatment for severe depression. To understand the biological bases of therapeutic response, we examined variations in cortical thickness from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 29 patients scanned at three time points during an ECT treatment index series and in 29 controls at two time points. Changes in thickness across time and with symptom improvement were evaluated at high spatial resolution across the cortex and within discrete cortical regions of interest. Patients showed increased thickness over the course of ECT in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), inferior and superior temporal, parahippocampal, entorhinal and fusiform cortex and in distributed prefrontal areas. No changes across time occurred in controls. In temporal and fusiform regions showing significant ECT effects, thickness differed between patients and controls at baseline and change in thickness related to therapeutic response in patients. In the ACC, these relationships occurred in treatment responders only, and thickness measured soon after treatment initiation predicted the overall ECT response. ECT leads to widespread neuroplasticity in neocortical, limbic and paralimbic regions and changes relate to the extent of antidepressant response. Variations in ACC thickness, which discriminate treatment responders and predict response early in the course of ECT, may represent a biomarker of overall clinical outcome. Because post-mortem studies show focal reductions in glial density and neuronal size in patients with severe depression, ECT-related increases in thickness may be attributable to neuroplastic processes affecting the size and/or density of neurons and glia and their connections. PMID:27271858

  2. Crystal structure of poxvirus thymidylate kinase: An unexpected dimerization has implications for antiviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Caillat, Christophe; Topalis, Dimitri; Agrofoglio, Luigi A.; Pochet, Sylvie; Balzarini, Jan; Deville-Bonne, Dominique; Meyer, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Unlike most DNA viruses, poxviruses replicate in the cytoplasm of host cells. They encode enzymes needed for genome replication and transcription, including their own thymidine and thymidylate kinases. Some herpes viruses encode only 1 enzyme catalyzing both reactions, a peculiarity used for prodrug activation to obtain maximum specificity. We have solved the crystal structures of vaccinia virus thymidylate kinase bound to TDP or brivudin monophosphate. Although the viral and human enzymes have similar sequences (42% identity), they differ in their homodimeric association and active-site geometry. The vaccinia TMP kinase dimer arrangement is orthogonal and not antiparallel as in human enzyme. This different monomer orientation is related to the presence of a canal connecting the edge of the dimer interface to the TMP base binding pocket. Consequently, the pox enzyme accommodates nucleotides with bulkier bases, like brivudin monophosphate and dGMP; these are efficiently phosphorylated and stabilize the enzyme. The brivudin monophosphate-bound structure explains the structural basis for this specificity, opening the way to the rational development of specific antipox agents that may also be suitable for poxvirus TMP kinase gene-based chemotherapy of cancer. PMID:18971333

  3. Crystal structure of poxvirus thymidylate kinase: an unexpected dimerization has implications for antiviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Caillat, Christophe; Topalis, Dimitri; Agrofoglio, Luigi A; Pochet, Sylvie; Balzarini, Jan; Deville-Bonne, Dominique; Meyer, Philippe

    2008-11-04

    Unlike most DNA viruses, poxviruses replicate in the cytoplasm of host cells. They encode enzymes needed for genome replication and transcription, including their own thymidine and thymidylate kinases. Some herpes viruses encode only 1 enzyme catalyzing both reactions, a peculiarity used for prodrug activation to obtain maximum specificity. We have solved the crystal structures of vaccinia virus thymidylate kinase bound to TDP or brivudin monophosphate. Although the viral and human enzymes have similar sequences (42% identity), they differ in their homodimeric association and active-site geometry. The vaccinia TMP kinase dimer arrangement is orthogonal and not antiparallel as in human enzyme. This different monomer orientation is related to the presence of a canal connecting the edge of the dimer interface to the TMP base binding pocket. Consequently, the pox enzyme accommodates nucleotides with bulkier bases, like brivudin monophosphate and dGMP; these are efficiently phosphorylated and stabilize the enzyme. The brivudin monophosphate-bound structure explains the structural basis for this specificity, opening the way to the rational development of specific antipox agents that may also be suitable for poxvirus TMP kinase gene-based chemotherapy of cancer.

  4. Building the rationale and structure for a complex physical therapy intervention within the context of a clinical trial: a multimodal individualized treatment for patients with hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Bennell, Kim L; Egerton, Thorlene; Pua, Yong-Hao; Abbott, J Haxby; Sims, Kevin; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2011-10-01

    Evaluating the efficacy of complex interventions such as multimodal, impairment-based physical therapy treatments in randomized controlled trials is essential to inform practice and compare relative benefits of available treatment options. Studies of physical therapy interventions using highly standardized intervention protocols, although methodologically rigorous, do not necessarily reflect "real-world" clinical practice, and in many cases results have been disappointing. Development of a complex intervention that includes multiple treatment modalities and individualized treatment technique selection requires a systematic approach to designing all aspects of the intervention based on theory, evidence, and practical constraints. This perspective article outlines the development of the rationale and structure of a multimodal physical therapy program for painful hip osteoarthritis to be assessed in a clinical trial. The resulting intervention protocol comprises a semi-structured program of exercises and manual therapy, advice, physical activity, and optional prescription of a gait aid that is standardized, yet can be individualized according to physical assessment and radiographic findings. The program is evidence based and reflects contemporary physical therapist practice, while also being reproducible and reportable. This perspective article aims to encourage physical therapy researchers involved in evaluation of complex interventions to better document their own intervention development, as well as the outcomes, thus generating a body of knowledge about the development processes and protocols that is generalizable to the real-world complexity of providing physical therapy to individual patients.

  5. Pharmacogenomics of the RNA World: Structural RNA Polymorphisms in Drug Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sadee, W; Wang, D; Papp, AC; Pinsonneault, JK; Smith, RM; Moyer, RA; Johnson, AD

    2011-01-01

    The use of pharmacogenomic biomarkers can enhance treatment outcomes. Regulatory polymorphisms are promising biomarkers that have proven difficult to uncover. They come in two flavors: those that affect transcription (regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rSNPs)) and those that affect RNA functions such as splicing, turnover, and translation (termed structural RNA SNPs (srSNPs)). This review focuses on the role of srSNPs in drug metabolism, transport, and response. An understanding of the nature and diversity of srSNPs and rSNPs enables clinical scientists to evaluate genetic biomarkers. PMID:21289622

  6. [Reparative regeneration of connective tissue structures of mammals under antioxidant therapy conditions].

    PubMed

    Belova, S V; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M

    2015-01-01

    The influence of administration of the antioxidant complexes consisting of nonenzymatic antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol acetate preparation) and enzymatic antioxidants (ceruloplasmin) has been studied in rabbits with experimental arthritis. The introduction of alpha-tocopherol acetate (at a daily dose of 4 mg) improved metabolic processes in the organism (decreased in the rate of erythrocyte precipitation, total leukocytes and their stub and segmental forms; increased in erythrocyte count; reduced the glycosaminoglycan content as determined from uronic acid and hexose level; decreased ceruloplasmin activity and malonic dialdehyde level ion blood serum, all at p < 0.05), thus favoring reduction in the total activity of the inflammatory process as judged from hematological and biochemical data. Intra-articular introduction of ceruloplasmin (1.5 mg/kg, once per week) positively influenced the state of joint structures in damaged knee joints of the animals: decreased the activity of ceruloplasmin (from 5.28 ± 0.06 to 3.94 ± 0.01 AU), and malonic dialdehyde level (0.18 ± 0.02 to 0.08 ± 0.01 μM) in the articular fluid (all at p < 0.05). These effects are probably related to the elimination of inefficiency of the antioxidant system in the synovial medium, thus preventing inflammatory destruction of articular tissues, hindering the development of pannus, and assisting the activation of reparative regeneration of connective tissue structures.

  7. Improved Structure and Function in Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Rat Kidneys with Renal Tubular Cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kelly, K J; Zhang, Jizhong; Han, Ling; Kamocka, Malgorzata; Miller, Caroline; Gattone, Vincent H; Dominguez, Jesus H

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease is a truly catastrophic monogenetic disease, causing death and end stage renal disease in neonates and children. Using PCK female rats, an orthologous model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease harboring mutant Pkhd1, we tested the hypothesis that intravenous renal cell transplantation with normal Sprague Dawley male kidney cells would improve the polycystic kidney disease phenotype. Cytotherapy with renal cells expressing wild type Pkhd1 and tubulogenic serum amyloid A1 had powerful and sustained beneficial effects on renal function and structure in the polycystic kidney disease model. Donor cell engraftment and both mutant and wild type Pkhd1 were found in treated but not control PCK kidneys 15 weeks after the final cell infusion. To examine the mechanisms of global protection with a small number of transplanted cells, we tested the hypothesis that exosomes derived from normal Sprague Dawley cells can limit the cystic phenotype of PCK recipient cells. We found that renal exosomes originating from normal Sprague Dawley cells carried and transferred wild type Pkhd1 mRNA to PCK cells in vivo and in vitro and restricted cyst formation by cultured PCK cells. The results indicate that transplantation with renal cells containing wild type Pkhd1 improves renal structure and function in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and may provide an intra-renal supply of normal Pkhd1 mRNA.

  8. Modification of Structural and Luminescence Properties of Graphene Quantum Dots by Gamma Irradiation and Their Application in a Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Svetlana P; Syrgiannis, Zois; Marković, Zoran M; Bonasera, Aurelio; Kepić, Dejan P; Budimir, Milica D; Milivojević, Dušan D; Spasojević, Vuk D; Dramićanin, Miroslav D; Pavlović, Vladimir B; Todorović Marković, Biljana M

    2015-11-25

    Herein, the ability of gamma irradiation to enhance the photoluminescence properties of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) was investigated. Different doses of γ-irradiation were used on GQDs to examine the way in which their structure and optical properties can be affected. The photoluminescence quantum yield was increased six times for the GQDs irradiated with high doses compared to the nonirradiated material. Both photoluminescence lifetime and values of optical band gap were increased with the dose of applied gamma irradiation. In addition, the exploitation of the gamma-irradiated GQDs as photosensitizers was examined by monitoring the production of singlet oxygen under UV illumination. The main outcome was that the GQDs irradiated at lower doses act as better photoproducers than the ones irradiated at higher doses. These results corroborate that the structural changes caused by gamma irradiation have a direct impact on GQD ability to produce singlet oxygen and their photostability under prolonged UV illumination. This makes low-dose irradiated GQDs promising candidates for photodynamic therapy.

  9. Variability of Target and Normal Structure Delineation Using Multimodality Imaging for Radiation Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dalah, Entesar; Moraru, Ion; Paulson, Eric; Erickson, Beth; Li, X. Allen

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To explore the potential of multimodality imaging (dynamic contrast–enhanced magnetic resonance imaging [DCE-MRI], apparent diffusion-coefficient diffusion-weighted imaging [ADC-DWI], fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography [FDG-PET], and computed tomography) to define the gross tumor volume (GTV) and organs at risk in radiation therapy planning for pancreatic cancer. Delineated volumetric changes of DCE-MRI, ADC-DWI, and FDG-PET were assessed in comparison with the finding on 3-dimensional/4-dimensional CT with and without intravenous contrast, and with pathology specimens for resectable and borderline resectable cases of pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: We studied a total of 19 representative patients, whose DCE-MRI, ADC-DWI, and FDG-PET data were reviewed. Gross tumor volume and tumor burden/active region inside pancreatic head/neck or body were delineated on MRI (denoted GTV{sub DCE}, and GTV{sub ADC}), a standardized uptake value (SUV) of 2.5, 40%SUVmax, and 50%SUVmax on FDG-PET (GTV2.5, GTV{sub 40%}, and GTV{sub 50%}). Volumes of the pancreas, duodenum, stomach, liver, and kidneys were contoured according to CT (V{sub CT}), T1-weighted MRI (V{sub T1}), and T2-weighted MRI (V{sub T2}) for 7 patients. Results: Significant statistical differences were found between the GTVs from DCE-MRI, ADC-DW, and FDG-PET, with a mean and range of 4.73 (1.00-9.79), 14.52 (3.21-25.49), 22.04 (1.00-45.69), 19.10 (4.84-45.59), and 9.80 (0.32-35.21) cm{sup 3} for GTV{sub DCE}, GTV{sub ADC}, GTV2.5, GTV{sub 40%}, and GTV{sub 50%}, respectively. The mean difference and range in the measurements of maximum dimension of tumor on DCE-MRI, ADC-DW, SUV2.5, 40%SUVmax, and 50%SUVmax compared with pathologic specimens were −0.84 (−2.24 to 0.9), 0.41 (−0.15 to 2.3), 0.58 (−1.41 to 3.69), 0.66 (−0.67 to 1.32), and 0.15 (−1.53 to 2.38) cm, respectively. The T1- and T2-based volumes for pancreas, duodenum, stomach, and liver were generally smaller

  10. Structural Integration, an Alternative Method of Manual Therapy and Sensorimotor Education

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The objectives of this report are to review the clinical practice of Structural Integration (SI), an alternative method of soft-tissue manipulation and sensorimotor education, and to summarize the evidence to date for mechanism and clinical efficacy. Methods The author's personal knowledge of SI literature, theory, and practice was supplemented by a database search, consultation with other senior SI practitioners, and examination of published bibliographies and websites that archive SI literature. Results SI purports to improve biomechanical functioning as a whole by progressively approximating specific ideals of posture and movement, rather than to treat particular symptoms. Hypothesized mechanisms at the level of local tissue change include increases in soft-tissue pliability, release of adhesions between adjacent soft-tissue structures, and increased interstitial fluid flow with consequently improved clearance of nociceptive potentiators. Hypothesized mechanisms for more global changes include improved biomechanical organization leading to reductions in mechanical stress and nociceptive irritation, a perception of improved biomechanical efficiency and coordination that generalizes to the self, and improvements in sensory processing and vagal tone. Emotional catharsis is also thought to contribute to psychologic changes. Limited preliminary evidence exists for improvements in neuromotor coordination, sensory processing, self-concept and vagal tone, and for reductions in state anxiety. Preliminary, small sample clinical studies with cerebral palsy, chronic musculoskeletal pain, impaired balance, and chronic fatigue syndrome have reported improvements in gait, pain and range-of-motion, impaired balance, functional status, and well-being. Adverse events are thought to be mild and transient, although survey data are not available. Contraindications are thought to be the same as for massage. Conclusions Evidence for clinical effectiveness and

  11. Structural and functional evolution of jejunal allograft rejection in rats and the ameliorating effects of cyclosporine therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Madara, J L; Kirkman, R L

    1985-01-01

    injury or decreased epithelial regenerative ability secondary to crypt injury. Last, we show that the detrimental structural and functional sequellae of jejunal transplantation across the major histocompatibility complex in this model is strikingly ameliorated with cyclosporine therapy. Images PMID:3973015

  12. Theranostic Self-Assembly Structure of Gold Nanoparticles for NIR Photothermal Therapy and X-Ray Computed Tomography Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Heng; Zhong, Yanqi; Du, Meihong; Liu, Qinjun; Fan, Zhanming; Dai, Fengying; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The controllable self-assembly of amphiphilic mixed polymers grafted gold nanoparitcles (AuNPs) leads to strong interparticle plasmonic coupling, which can be tuned to the near-infrared (NIR) region for enhanced photothermal therapy (PTT). In this study, an improved thiolation method was adopted for ATRP and ROP polymer to obtain amphiphilic brushes of PMEO2MA-SH and PCL-SH. By anchoring PCL-SH and PMEO2MA-SH onto the 14 nm AuNPs, a smart hybrid building block for self-assembly was obtained. Increasing the PCL/PMEO2MA chain ratio from 0.8:1, 2:1 and 3:1 to 7:1, the structure of gold assemblies (GAs) was observed to transfer from vesicle to large compound micelle (LCM). Contributed to the special dense packed structure of gold nanoparticles in LCM, the absorption spectrometry of gold nanoparticles drastically red-shifted from 520 nm to 830 nm, which endowed the GAs remarkable NIR photothermal conversion ability. In addition, gold has high X-ray absorption coefficient which qualifies gold nanomaterial a potential CT contrast agent Herein, we obtain a novel gold assembly structure which can be utilized as potential photothermal therapeutic and CT contrast agents. In vitro and In vivo studies testified the excellent treatment efficacy of optimum GAs as a PTT and CT contrast agent. In vitro degradation test, MTT assay and histology study indicated that GAs was a safe, low toxic reagent with good biodegradability. Therefore, the optimum GAs with strong NIR absorption and high X-ray absorption coefficient could be used as a theranostic agent and the formation of novel gold large compound micelle might offers a new theory foundation for engineering design and synthesis of polymer grafted AuNPs for biomedical applications. PMID:25057315

  13. Structural recovery of the retina in a retinoschisin-deficient mouse after gene replacement therapy by solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Apaolaza, P S; Del Pozo-Rodríguez, A; Solinís, M A; Rodríguez, J M; Friedrich, U; Torrecilla, J; Weber, B H F; Rodríguez-Gascón, A

    2016-06-01

    X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is a retinal degenerative disorder caused by mutations in the RS1 gene encoding a protein termed retinoschisin. The disease is an excellent candidate for gene replacement therapy as the majority of mutations have been shown to lead to a complete deficiency of the secreted protein in the retinal structures. In this work, we have studied the ability of non-viral vectors based on solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) to induce the expression of retinoschisin in photoreceptors (PR) after intravitreal administration to Rs1h-deficient mice. We designed two vectors prepared with SLN, protamine, and dextran (DX) or hyaluronic acid (HA), bearing a plasmid containing the human RS1 gene under the control of the murin opsin promoter (mOPS). In vitro, the nanocarriers were able to induce the expression of retinoschisin in a PR cell line. After injection into the murine vitreous, the formulation prepared with HA induced a higher transfection level in PR than the formulation prepared with DX. Moreover, the level of retinoschisin in the inner nuclear layer (INL), where bipolar cells are located, was also higher. Two weeks after vitreal administration into Rs1h-deficient mice, both formulations showed significant improvement of the retinal structure by inducing a decrease of cavities and PR loss, and an increase of retinal and outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness. HA-SLN resulted in a significant higher increase in the thickness of both retina and ONL, which can be explained by the higher transfection level of PR. In conclusion, we have shown the structural improvement of the retina of Rs1h-deficient mice with PR specific expression of the RS1 gene driven by the specific promoter mOPS, after successful delivery via SLN-based non-viral vectors.

  14. Optimal structure of particles-based superparamagnetic microrobots: application to MRI guided targeted drug therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellal, Lyès; Belharet, Karim; Folio, David; Ferreira, Antoine

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an optimal design strategy for therapeutic magnetic micro carriers (TMMC) guided in real time by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. As aggregates of TMMCs must be formed to carry the most amount of drug and magnetic actuation capability, different clustering agglomerations could be arranged. Nevertheless, its difficult to predict the hydrodynamic behavior of any arbitrary-shaped object due to the nonlinear hydrodynamic effects. Indeed, the drag effect is related not only to the properties of the bolus but also to its interaction with the fluid viscosity, the free-stream velocity and the container geometry. In this work, we propose a mathematical framework to optimize the TMMC aggregates to improve the steering efficiency in experimental endovascular conditions. The proposed analysis is carried out on various sizes and geometries of microcarrier: spherical, ellipsoid-like, and chain-like of microsphere structures. We analyze the magnetophoretic behavior of such designs to exhibit the optimal configuration. Based on the optimal design of the boluses, experimental investigations were carried out in mm-sized fluidic artery phantoms to demonstrate the steerability of the magnetic bolus using a proof-of-concept setup. The experiments demonstrate the steerability of the magnetic bolus under different velocity, shear-stress, and trajectory constraints with a laminar viscous fluidic environment. Preliminary experiments with a MRI system confirm the feasibility of the steering of these TMMCs in hepatic artery microchannel phantom.

  15. REVIEW: The contribution of medical physics to the development of psoralen photochemotherapy (PUVA) in the UK: a personal reminiscence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffey, Brian

    2006-07-01

    Psoralen photochemotherapy (PUVA) is the combined treatment of skin disorders with a photosensitizing drug (Psoralen) and UltraViolet A radiation. The introduction of PUVA therapy has arguably been the most important development in dermatology over the past 30 years and from the first days of the treatment being introduced in the UK, British medical physicists were an integral part of the effort to establish it. Medical physicists have contributed to this development in a number of ways, from designing irradiation units in the early days of the technique, through to collaborating with dermatologists in prosecuting clinical and experimental studies aimed at improving patient outcomes. That the dose of UVA radiation is administered quantitatively, and not qualitatively, has probably been the single most important contribution made by several medical physicists over this period. However, despite concerns that were expressed almost 30 years ago about the accuracy with which UVA doses are administered to patients, the medical physics community still has some way to go before we can be satisfied that statements about UVA irradiance and dose can be made with confidence.

  16. Studies of the significance of functional and structural changes in mitochondria in PhotofrinTM-photodynamic-therapy-resistant cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brian C.; Olivo, Malini; Moorehead, Roger; Singh, Gurmit

    1994-07-01

    This paper reports further studies of Radiation Induced Fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) tumor cells which have been made resistant to Photodynamic Therapy by multiple treatment and regrowth in vitro using the hematoporphyrin derivative photosensitizer Photofrin. Previous work has shown both structural and functional changes in the mitochondria of the resistant (RIF-8A) cells. Colocalization of Photofrin and the mitochondrial localizer Rhodamine-123 was assessed by double-label confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM). At 18h Photofrin incubation, there was strong correlation in discrete subcellular sites between Photofrin and Rhodamine fluorescence. However, in RIF-8A cells there were also discrete regions of Rhodamine localization which showed weak or no Photofrin fluorescence. This was not observed in RIF-1 cells. CFM measurements also showed that the Photofrin fluorescence after 18h incubation was reduced by increasing concentration of Rhodamine (30 min. incubation), and that this dependence was different for the two cell types. The RIF-8A cells were also shown to be cross-resistant to cisplatin and to have an associated reduced level of Pt-DNA adducts, suggesting the possibility of increased repair capacity. Cross-resistance was not observed, however, with a ruthenium phthalocyanine photosensitizer nor, as previously reported, with other chemotherapeutic agents such as Adriamcyin. Thus, there is a complex pattern of cross-resistance with these cells. Preliminary observations of the effects of a respiratory chain inhibitor (oligomycin) and an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation (FCCP) indicate differences between RIF-8A and RIF-1 which may be related to the condensed mitochondrial structure of the RIF-8A cells.

  17. Long-term efficacy of empirical chronic amiodarone therapy in patients with sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia and structural heart disease.

    PubMed

    Aiba, Takeshi; Kurita, Takashi; Taguchi, Atsushi; Shimizu, Wataru; Suyama, Kazuhiro; Aihara, Naohiko; Kamakura, Shiro

    2002-04-01

    The efficacy of empirical chronic oral amiodarone therapy in 129 patients with sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VTNVF) and structural heart disease is evaluated. Twenty-nine patients were treated with class I drugs and monitored by electrophysiological study (EPS) and Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) (class I). The remaining 100 non-responders to the class I drugs were treated with oral amiodarone, of whom 70 were tolerant (AMD+) and 30 were intolerant (AMD-). Patients were followed up to 36 months. The primary and secondary end-points were recurrence of VT/VF and hypothetical death, respectively; whereby, hypothetical death was defined as actual death and the event of rapid VT.VF (heart rate >240beats/min) in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Class I and AMD+ patients showed a better prognosis than AMD- patients. The VT/VF event free at 36 months in class I (64.8%) and AMD+ (56.1%) patients were significantly higher than that in AMD- (27.2%) (p<0.01) patients. Hypothetical survival rates in class I (92.0%) and AMD+ (83.6%) patients were significantly higher than that in AMD- (57.0%) (p<0.001) patients, but there were no significant differences in the actual survival rate among the 3 patient groups. The independent clinical factors suppressing the recurrence of VT/VF (Cox hazard) were treatment with amiodarone (p=0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.19-0.86) and EPS/Holter ECG-guided Class I drugs (p=0.04, 95% CI=0.14-0.94). The results demonstrate that empirical amiodarone has a substantial long-term benefit that is comparable to EPS/Holter ECG-guided class I drugs in the treatment of high-risk patients with VT/VF and structural heart disease.

  18. Fabrication of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle with Well-Defined Multicompartment Structure as Efficient Drug Carrier for Cancer Therapy in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anhe; Yang, Yang; Qi, Yanfei; Qi, Wen; Fei, Jinbo; Ma, Hongchao; Zhao, Jie; Cui, Wei; Li, Junbai

    2016-04-13

    Vaterite particles are composed of particulate CaCO3 nanoparticles, which offer an ideal platform to synthesize architectures with hierarchical structure. Herein we show that mesoporous silica particles with well-defined multicompartment structure are fabricated by employing vaterite particles as templates. The obtained silica particles inherited the structure feature of vaterite and had excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. Moreover, the silica particles were established as an efficient anticancer drugs carrier compared with hollow silica particles, which could be applied in cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo. The silica particles obtained here offer a cheap, facile, environmentally friendly avenue to assembly of hierarchical drugs carriers.

  19. Changes in Choroidal Structures in Eyes with Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy after Half-Dose Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Mori, Terumi; Akaiwa, Kei; Semba, Kentaro; Egawa, Mariko; Mori, Junya; Sonoda, Shozo; Sakamoto, Taiji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the structural changes in the choroid after half-dose photodynamic therapy (hPDT) in eyes with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods This was a retrospective interventional study of 29 eyes of 29 patients who underwent hPDT for chronic CSC with serous retinal detachment (SRD) and were followed for ≥3 months. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomographic (EDI-OCT) images of the subfoveal choroid were converted to binary images. The central choroidal thickness (CCT), the cross sectional subfoveal choroidal area, the hyporeflective and hyperreflective areas of the inner, outer, and whole choroid were determined at the baseline, and at 1, 3, and 12 months after the hPDT. Results The SRDs were resolved in 26 (89.7%) eyes at 3 months after the hPDT. The mean CCT (P = 0.001), the total choroidal area (P = 0.001), and the hypo-reflective area (P = 0.003) of the whole choroid were significantly decreased from the baseline at 3 months. The hyperreflective area of whole choroid was not significantly changed during the study period (P = 0.083). The hyperreflective but not the hyporeflective area of the inner choroid was significantly decreased at 3 months (P = 0.001, P = 1.000, respectively). The hyporeflective but not the hyperreflective area of the outer choroid was significantly decreased at 3 months (P = 0.001, P = 1.000, respectively). Conclusions The hyperreflective area of the inner choroid and hyporeflective area of the outer choroid were significantly decreased after hPDT for chronic CSC. Because the hyperreflective and hyporeflective area correspond to the choroidal stroma and vessels, respectively, the decreased CCT and subfoveal choroidal area after hPDT may be attributed to a decrease in the exudative changes in the inner choroidal stroma and the reduction of the dilation of the outer choroidal vessels. PMID:27636093

  20. Towards the Determination of the Structure of HIV-1 p24: A Possible Target for Antiviral Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prongay, Andrew J.

    1991-01-01

    The importance of targeting certain stages in the life cycle of the virus for antiviral therapy is discussed with reference to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1. Research conducted on a core antigen, p24, is described. (MSE)

  1. Content of maternal open-ended questions and statements in reminiscing with their 4-year-olds: links with independence and interdependence orientation in European contexts.

    PubMed

    Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Schröder, Lisa; Keller, Heidi; De Geer, Boel

    2012-07-01

    Mother's open-ended questions and elaborative statements during reminiscing were analysed for their content (child agency, co-agency, non-social, and social context) in three cultural contexts. Participants were 115 mothers and their 4-year-old children: 35 dyads from Berlin, Germany, 42 from Stockholm, Sweden, and 38 from Tallinn, Estonia. Across samples the most prominent content was talk about non-social context followed by co-agency and child agency. Tallinn mothers asked the children to talk about themselves, and Berlin mothers asked the children to talk about themselves together with other people, more frequently than they talked about these contents themselves. The content was related to the cultural orientations of mothers assessed through questionnaires: the Berlin mothers whose independence/ interdependence ratio was higher talked less about other people and asked the children fewer questions about other people; the Stockholm mothers with a higher independence/interdependence ratio talked more about child agency. In Tallinn both correlations existed on a trend level. The results are discussed in the light of common conversational practices and mothers' orientation to independence and interdependence in these cultural contexts.

  2. TOPOS: A new topometric patient positioning and tracking system for radiation therapy based on structured white light

    SciTech Connect

    Lindl, Bastian L.; Mueller, Reinhold G.; Lang, Stephanie; Herraiz Lablanca, Maria D.; Kloeck, Stephan

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: A patient positioning system for radiation therapy based on structured white light and using off-the-shelf hardware components for flexibility and cost-effectiveness has been developed in house. Increased accuracy, patient comfort, abandonment of any skin marks, accelerated workflow, objective reading/recording, better usability and robust sensor design, compared to other positioning approaches, were the main goals of this work. Another aim was the application of a 6 degrees of freedom tracking system working without dose deposition. Methods: Two optical sensors are the main parts of the TOPOS Registered-Sign system (Topometrical Positioning, cyberTECHNOLOGIES, Germany). The components: cameras, projectors, and computers are commercial off-the-shelf products, allowing for low production costs. The black/white cameras of the prototype are capable of taking up to 240 frames per second (resolution: 640 Multiplication-Sign 488 pixels). The projector has a resolution of 1024 Multiplication-Sign 768 and a refresh rate of 120 Hz. The patient's body surface is measured continuously and registered to a reference surface, providing a transformation to superimpose the patient's surface to the reference (planning CT) surface as best as possible. The execution of the calculated transformation provides the correct patient position before the treatment starts. Due to the high-speed acquisition of the surfaces, a surveillance of the patient's (respiration) motion during treatment is also accomplished. The accuracy of the system was determined using a male mannequin. Two treatment sites were evaluated: one simulating a head and neck treatment and the other simulating a thoracic wall treatment. The mannequin was moved to predefined positions, and shift vectors given by the surface registration were evaluated. Additionally manual positioning using a color-coding system was evaluated. Results: Two prototypes have been developed, each allowing a continuous high density scan of

  3. Structural Determinants of Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV Care Attendance, and Viral Suppression among Adolescents and Young Adults Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kahana, Shoshana Y.; Jenkins, Richard A.; Bruce, Douglas; Fernandez, Maria I.; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The authors examined associations between structural characteristics and HIV disease management among a geographically diverse sample of behaviorally and perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and young adults in the United States. Methods The sample included 1891 adolescents and young adults living with HIV (27.8% perinatally infected; 72.2% behaviorally infected) who were linked to care through 20 Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions Units. All completed audio computer–assisted self-interview surveys. Chart abstraction or blood draw provided viral load data. Geographic-level variables were extracted from the United States Census Bureau (e.g., socioeconomic disadvantage, percent of Black and Latino households, percent rural) and Esri Crime (e.g., global crime index) databases as Zip Code Tabulation Areas. AIDSVu data (e.g., prevalence of HIV among youth) were extracted at the county-level. Using HLM v.7, the authors conducted means-as-outcomes random effects multi-level models to examine the association between structural-level and individual-level factors and (1) being on antiretroviral therapy (ART) currently; (2) being on ART for at least 6 months; (3) missed HIV care appointments (not having missed any vs. having missed one or more appointments) over the past 12 months; and (4) viral suppression (defined by the corresponding assay cutoff for the lower limit of viral load at each participating site which denoted nondetectability vs. detectability). Results Frequencies for the 4 primary outcomes were as follows: current ART use (n = 1120, 59.23%); ART use for ≥6 months (n = 861, 45.53%); at least one missed HIV care appointment (n = 936, 49.50); and viral suppression (n = 577, 30.51%). After adjusting for individual-level factors, youth living in more disadvantaged areas (defined by a composite score derived from 2010 Census indicators including percent poverty, percent receiving public assistance, percent of female, single

  4. Mistletoe lectin has a shiga toxin-like structure and should be combined with other Toll-like receptor ligands in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Maletzki, Claudia; Linnebacher, Michael; Savai, Rajkumar; Hobohm, Uwe

    2013-08-01

    Mistletoe extract (ME) is applied as an adjuvant treatment in cancer therapy in thousands of patients each year in Europe. The main immunostimulating component of mistletoe extract, mistletoe lectin, recently has been shown to be a pattern recognition receptor ligand and hence is binding to an important class of pathogen-sensing receptors. Pattern recognition receptor ligands are potent activators of dendritic cells. This activation is a prerequisite for a full-blown T-cell response against cancer cells. Pattern recognition receptor ligands are increasingly recognized as important players in cancer immunotherapy. We collect evidence from case studies on spontaneous regression, from epidemiology, from experiments in a mouse cancer model, and from protein structure comparisons to argue that a combination of mistletoe therapy with other pattern recognition receptor ligand substances leads to an increased immune stimulatory effect. We show that mistletoe lectin is a plant protein of bacterial origin with a 3D structure very similar to shiga toxin from Shigella dysenteriae, which explains the remarkable immunogenicity of mistletoe lectin. Secondly, we show that a combination of pattern recognition receptor ligands applied metronomically in a cancer mouse model leads to complete remission, while single pattern recognition receptor ligands slowed tumor growth. Taken together, we propose to combine mistletoe drugs with other pattern recognition receptor ligand drugs to increase its efficacy in adjuvant or even primary cancer therapy.

  5. John Swales: Some Personal Reminiscences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Vijay

    1998-01-01

    The first doctoral student of linguist John Swales comments on three aspects of their advisor/advisee relationship: the relaxed atmosphere in which work was done; the collegial style of interaction; and the advisor's active participation with the student in the research process. (MSE)

  6. Reminiscences from an Expatriate Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, C.

    The Workshop "A WEEK OF SCIENCE" celebrating the 70th birthday (September 7th, real; 14th, legal; 2011) of Prof. Manuel G. Velarde, was an outstanding meeting. For me, Carlos Montes, Directeur de Recherche au CNRS (emeritus since 2006), was the best opportunity to embrace my friend Manuel. I know him from the early seventeens because we have a strong common history. We are both Spanish physicists emigrating from our country in order to carry out research in physics. At the end of the sixteens this was not possible in Spain.

  7. Can Dialectical Behavior Therapy Be Learned in Highly Structured Learning Environments? Results from a Randomized Controlled Dissemination Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeff, Linda A.; Woodcock, Eric A.; Harned, Melanie S.; Beadnell, Blair

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of methods of training community mental health providers (N=132) in dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) distress tolerance skills, including (a) Linehan's (1993a) Skills Training Manual for Borderline Personality Disorder (Manual), (b) a multimedia e-Learning course covering the same content (e-DBT), and (c) a…

  8. A Monte Carlo study of the relationship between the time structures of prompt gammas and the in-vivo radiation dose in proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Wook-Geun; Min, Chul Hee; Shin, Jae-Ik; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Lee, Se Byeong

    2015-07-01

    For in-vivo range verification in proton therapy, attempts have been made to measure the spatial distribution of the prompt gammas generated by the proton-induced interactions and to determine the proton dose distribution. However, the high energies of prompt gammas and background gammas are still problematic in measuring the distribution. In this study, we suggested a new method for determining the in-vivo range by utilizing the time structure of the prompt gammas formed during the rotation of a range modulation wheel (RMW) in passive scattering proton therapy. To validate the Monte Carlo code simulating the proton beam nozzle, we compared the axial percent depth doses (PDDs) with the measured PDDs for varying beam range from 4.73 to 24.01 cm. Also, we assessed the relationship between the proton dose rate and the time structure of the prompt gammas in a water phantom. The results of the PDD showed agreement within relative errors of 1.1% in the distal range and 2.9% in the modulation width. The average dose difference in the modulation was assessed as less than 1.3% by comparison with the measurements. The time structure of prompt gammas was well-matched, within 0.39 ms, with the proton dose rate, and this enabled an accurate prediction of the in-vivo range.

  9. Automatic Atlas Based Electron Density and Structure Contouring for MRI-based Prostate Radiation Therapy on the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, J. A.; Burdett, N.; Greer, P. B.; Sun, J.; Parker, J.; Pichler, P.; Stanwell, P.; Chandra, S.; Rivest-Hénault, D.; Ghose, S.; Salvado, O.; Fripp, J.

    2014-03-01

    Our group have been developing methods for MRI-alone prostate cancer radiation therapy treatment planning. To assist with clinical validation of the workflow we are investigating a cloud platform solution for research purposes. Benefits of cloud computing can include increased scalability, performance and extensibility while reducing total cost of ownership. In this paper we demonstrate the generation of DICOM-RT directories containing an automatic average atlas based electron density image and fast pelvic organ contouring from whole pelvis MR scans.

  10. HIV-1 Proviral DNA Loads (as Determined by Quantitative PCR) in Patients Subjected to Structured Treatment Interruption after Antiretroviral Therapy Failure

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Domingos E. M.; Santos, Carlos; Oliveros, Márcia P. R.; Sanabani, Sabri; Diaz, Ricardo S.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of Structured Treatment Interruption (STI) in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proviral reservoirs in 41 highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated viremic individuals at baseline and 12 weeks after STI was determined using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Viral load increased 0.7 log10 and CD4 decreased 97.5 cells/mm3 after 12 weeks. A total of 28 of the 41 individuals showed an increased proviral load, 19 with a statistically significant increase above 10%. An increase in active viral replication is an important factor in the replenishment of the proviral reservoir even for short time periods. PMID:22422851

  11. SU-F-BRD-14: Dose Weighted Linear Energy Transfer Analysis of Critical Structures in Proton Therapy of Pediatric Brain Tumor Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Pirlepesov, F.; Shin, J.; Moskvin, V. P.; Gray, J.; Hua, C.; Gajjar, A.; Krasin, M. J.; Merchant, T. E.; Farr, J. B.; Li, Z.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Dose weighted Linear Energy Transfer (LETd) analysis of critical structures may be useful in understanding the side effects of the proton therapy. The objective is to analyze the differences between LETd and dose distributions in brain tumor patients receiving double scattering proton therapy, to quantify LETd variation in critical organs, and to identify beam arrangements contributing to high LETd in critical organs. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of 9 pediatric brain tumor patients were performed. The treatment plans were reconstructed with the TOPAS Monte Carlo code to calculate LETd and dose. The beam data were reconstructed proximal to the aperture of the double scattering nozzle. The dose and LETd to target and critical organs including brain stem, optic chiasm, lens, optic nerve, pituitary gland, and hypothalamus were computed for each beam. Results: Greater variability in LETd compared to dose was observed in the brainstem for patients with a variety of tumor types including 5 patients with tumors located in the posterior fossa. Approximately 20%–44% brainstem volume received LETd of 5kev/µm or greater from beams within gantry angles 180°±30° for 5 patients treated with a 3 beam arrangement. Critical organs received higher LETd when located in the vicinity of the beam distal edge. Conclusion: This study presents a novel strategy in the evaluation of the proton treatment impact on critical organs. While the dose to critical organs is confined below the required limits, the LETd may have significant variation. Critical organs in the vicinity of beam distal edge receive higher LETd and depended on beam arrangement, e.g. in posterior fossa tumor treatment, brainstem receive higher LETd from posterior-anterior beams. This study shows importance of the LETd analysis of the radiation impact on the critical organs in proton therapy and may be used to explain clinical imaging observations after therapy.

  12. Family Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Tests and Procedures Family therapy By Mayo Clinic Staff Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that helps family members improve communication and resolve conflicts. Family therapy is usually provided ...

  13. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Radiation Therapy KidsHealth > For Teens > Radiation Therapy A A ... how to cope with side effects. What Is Radiation Therapy? Cancer is a disease that causes cells ...

  14. The development of an inventory to assess the structural barriers to clinic attendance and pill-taking amongst users of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Bronwyne; Kagee, Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    In addition to personal and psychological factors, structural factors may reduce the likelihood of optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among persons living with HIV. In this mixed-method study we report on the development of a scale to assess the salience of various structural barriers to ART adherence. After following conventional guidelines for scale development, two scales measuring structural barriers to adherence to clinic attendance and pill-taking were administered to 291 patients receiving ART at a public hospital in South Africa. Both exploratory and higher order factor analysis indicated that a single underlying general factor was appropriate for both scales. The final scales consisted of 12 items for the structural barriers to clinic attendance scale and 13 items for the structural barriers to medication-taking scale. Both scales displayed excellent internal consistency with Cronbach alpha coefficients above 0.80. Research to determine the construct validity of the scales may be a next step in this line of research.

  15. [Physical therapy in osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Gnjidić, Zoja

    2010-01-01

    Physical therapy has an important role in treating rheumatic diseases; its goal is to reduced pain, swelling and to keep joints mobile. The properly manage osteoarthritis is nonpharmacological and pharmacological modalities. Physical therapy applied as a remedy for osteoarthritis is a part of multimodal therapy. The basis for physical therapy management is determined by the recommendation of the physical therapeutic science and evidence-based medicine. When making a decision about application of different methods of treatment in physical therapy, it is important to correctly diagnose a structural transformation and functional problem. Systematic review of the scientific, evidence-based, international concensus recommendations for the management of the osteoarthritis published between 2000 and 2010 were identified high-quality evidence therapy practice that is efficient and effective in increasing movement capability function, and reduce pain, disability, medical intake and improved physical function for patients with osteoarthritis

  16. Psychodynamic therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Rachel; Moore, Theresa HM; Davies, Philippa; Caldwell, Deborah; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all psychodynamic therapy approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different psychodynamic therapy approaches (drive/structural, relational and integrative analytic models) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all psychodynamic therapy approaches compared with different psychological therapy approaches (behavioural, humanistic, integrative, cognitive-behavioural, ‘third-wave’ CBT) for acute depression. PMID:25267905

  17. Brief Therapy: An Adolescent Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Article states that brief, effective therapy with adolescents can occur by integrating the structure of solution-focused approaches with expressive qualities of art therapy within the framework of adolescent development. The three fundamentals of successful adolescent therapy are addressed. (Author/JDM)

  18. Binary and ternary crystal structure analyses of a novel inhibitor with 17beta-HSD type 1: a lead compound for breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Mausumi; Fournier, Diane; Zhu, Dao-Wei; Cadot, Christine; Poirier, Donald; Lin, Sheng-Xiang

    2009-12-10

    Oestradiol is a well-characterized sex hormone that stimulates breast cancer and other oestrogen-related diseases. 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD1) catalyses the last step in the synthesis of oestradiol and androstenediol in breast tumour tissue. The enzyme's high expression and activity after simultaneous blockade of oestrogen receptors and inhibition of aromatase in the tumour shows the necessity for its inhibition as a requirement for breast cancer therapy. In the present paper, we report structures of the binary and ternary complexes of 17beta-HSD1 with a new inhibitor E2B {3-[3',17'beta-dihydroxyestra-1',3',5'(10')-trien-16'beta-methyl]benzamide}, and the enzyme inhibition by the later. The IC50 value for E2B was determined to be 42 nM in T47D cells. Multiple interactions between E2B and the enzyme include hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions, as well as pi-pi interactions. A kinetic study demonstrated that E2B inhibits the enzyme's reduction forming oestradiol from oestrone, with a Ki of 0.9+/-0.15 nM. Such strong inhibition is in agreement with its extensive interaction with the enzyme, suggesting its potential as a lead compound for breast cancer therapy. In fact, this possibility is enhanced by its capacity for cell penetration similar to natural steroids. Such inhibitors that block oestrogen synthesis to suppress the sulfatase pathway producing oestradiol can be used in adjuvant therapies with oestrogen receptor blockade, opening a new orientation of breast cancer treatment.

  19. The fall of the postural-structural-biomechanical model in manual and physical therapies: exemplified by lower back pain.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Eyal

    2011-04-01

    Manual and physical therapists often use a postural-structural-biomechanical (PSB) model to ascertain the causes of various musculoskeletal conditions. It is believed that postural deviations, body asymmetries and pathomechanics are the predisposing/maintaining factors for many musculoskeletal conditions. The PSB model also plays an important role in clinical assessment and management, including the choice of manual techniques and the exercise prescribed. However, the most important question is consistently being ignored--can a person's physical shape/posture/structure/biomechanics be the cause of their lower back pain?

  20. Bioactive glasses as potential radioisotope vectors for in situ cancer therapy: investigating the structural effects of yttrium.

    PubMed

    Christie, Jamieson K; Malik, Jahangir; Tilocca, Antonio

    2011-10-21

    The incorporation of yttrium in bioactive glasses (BGs) could lead to a new generation of radionuclide vectors for cancer therapy, with high biocompatibility, controlled biodegradability and the ability to enhance the growth of new healthy tissues after the treatment with radionuclides. It is essential to assess whether and to what extent yttrium incorporation affects the favourable properties of the BG matrix: ideally, one would like to combine the high surface reactivity typical of BGs with a slow release of radioactive yttrium. Molecular Dynamics simulations show that, compared to a BG composition with the same silica fraction, incorporation of yttrium results in two opposing effects on the glass durability: a more fragmented silicate network (leading to lower durability) and a stronger yttrium-mediated association between separate silicate fragments (leading to higher durability). The simulations also highlight a high site-selectivity and some clustering of yttrium cations, which are likely linked to the observed slow rate of yttrium released from related Y-BG compositions. Optimisation of yttrium BG compositions for radiotherapy applications thus depends on the delicate balance between these effects.

  1. Structural divergence of essential triad ribbon synapse proteins among placental mammals - Implications for preclinical trials in photoreceptor transplantation therapy.

    PubMed

    Laver, Christopher R J; Matsubara, Joanne A

    2017-03-18

    As photoreceptor transplantation rapidly moves closer to the clinic, verifying graft efficacy in animal models may have unforeseen xenogeneic barriers. Although photoreceptor transplants have most convincingly exhibited functional synaptogenesis in conspecific studies, such evidence (while ruling out false-positives due to: viral graft labeling, fusion/cytosolic transfer, or neuroprotection) has not yet been shown for discordant xenografts. From this, a fundamental question should be raised: is useful xenosynaptogenesis likely between human photoreceptors and mouse retina? The triad ribbon synapse (TRS) that would normally form is unique and contains trans-synaptic proteins essential to its formation and function. Thus, could interspecific structural divergence be present that may inhibit this trans-synaptic bridge in discordant xenografts? In an effort to address this question computationally, we compared eight recently confirmed (including subcellular location) TRS specific (or predominantly expressed at the TRS) proteins among placental mammals (1-to-1 orthologs) using HyPhy selection analysis (a predictive measure of structural divergence) and by using Phyre2 tertiary structural modeling. Here, selection analysis revealed strong positive (diversifying) selection acting on a particularly important TRS protein: pikachurin. This positive selection was localized to its second Laminin-G (LG)-like domain and on its N-terminal domain - a putative region of trans-synaptic interaction. Localization of structural divergence to the N-terminus of each putative post-translational cleavage (PTC) product may suggest neofunctionalization from ancestral uncleaved pikachurin - this would be consistent with a recent counter-paradigm report of pikachurin cleavage predominating at the TRS. From this, we suggest a dual role after cleavage where the N-terminal fragment can still mediate the trans-synaptic bridge, while the C-terminal fragment may act as a diffusible trophic or

  2. Brain structural connectivity increases concurrent with functional improvement: Evidence from diffusion tensor MRI in children with cerebral palsy during therapy

    PubMed Central

    Englander, Zoë A.; Sun, Jessica; Laura Case; Mikati, Mohamad A.; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Song, Allen W.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) refers to a heterogeneous group of permanent but non-progressive movement disorders caused by injury to the developing fetal or infant brain (Bax et al., 2005). Because of its serious long-term consequences, effective interventions that can help improve motor function, independence, and quality of life are critically needed. Our ongoing longitudinal clinical trial to treat children with CP is specifically designed to meet this challenge. To maximize the potential for functional improvement, all children in this trial received autologous cord blood transfusions (with order randomized with a placebo administration over 2 years) in conjunction with more standard physical and occupational therapies. As a part of this trial, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to improve our understanding of how these interventions affect brain development, and to develop biomarkers of treatment efficacy. In this report, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and subsequent brain connectome analyses were performed in a subset of children enrolled in the clinical trial (n = 17), who all exhibited positive but varying degrees of functional improvement over the first 2-year period of the study. Strong correlations between increases in white matter (WM) connectivity and functional improvement were demonstrated; however no significant relationships between either of these factors with the age of the child at time of enrollment were identified. Thus, our data indicate that increases in brain connectivity reflect improved functional abilities in children with CP. In future work, this potential biomarker can be used to help differentiate the underlying mechanisms of functional improvement, as well as to identify treatments that can best facilitate functional improvement upon un-blinding of the timing of autologous cord blood transfusions at the completion of this study. PMID:25610796

  3. Brain structural connectivity increases concurrent with functional improvement: evidence from diffusion tensor MRI in children with cerebral palsy during therapy.

    PubMed

    Englander, Zoë A; Sun, Jessica; Laura Case; Mikati, Mohamad A; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Song, Allen W

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) refers to a heterogeneous group of permanent but non-progressive movement disorders caused by injury to the developing fetal or infant brain (Bax et al., 2005). Because of its serious long-term consequences, effective interventions that can help improve motor function, independence, and quality of life are critically needed. Our ongoing longitudinal clinical trial to treat children with CP is specifically designed to meet this challenge. To maximize the potential for functional improvement, all children in this trial received autologous cord blood transfusions (with order randomized with a placebo administration over 2 years) in conjunction with more standard physical and occupational therapies. As a part of this trial, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to improve our understanding of how these interventions affect brain development, and to develop biomarkers of treatment efficacy. In this report, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and subsequent brain connectome analyses were performed in a subset of children enrolled in the clinical trial (n = 17), who all exhibited positive but varying degrees of functional improvement over the first 2-year period of the study. Strong correlations between increases in white matter (WM) connectivity and functional improvement were demonstrated; however no significant relationships between either of these factors with the age of the child at time of enrollment were identified. Thus, our data indicate that increases in brain connectivity reflect improved functional abilities in children with CP. In future work, this potential biomarker can be used to help differentiate the underlying mechanisms of functional improvement, as well as to identify treatments that can best facilitate functional improvement upon un-blinding of the timing of autologous cord blood transfusions at the completion of this study.

  4. Test–Retest Variability of Functional and Structural Parameters in Patients with Stargardt Disease Participating in the SAR422459 Gene Therapy Trial

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Maria A.; Choi, Dongseok; Erker, Laura R.; Pennesi, Mark E.; Yang, Paul; Chegarnov, Elvira N.; Steinkamp, Peter N.; Schlechter, Catherine L.; Dhaenens, Claire-Marie; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Audo, Isabelle; Sahel, Jose; Weleber, Richard G.; Wilson, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this analysis was to determine the test–retest variability of functional and structural measures from a cohort of patients with advanced forms of Stargardt Disease (STGD) participating in the SAR422459 (NCT01367444) gene therapy clinical trial. Methods Twenty-two participants, aged 24 to 66, diagnosed with advanced forms of STGD, with at least one pathogenic ABCA4 mutation on each chromosome participating in the SAR422459 (NCT01367444) gene therapy clinical trial, were screened over three visits within 3 weeks or less. Functional visual evaluations included: best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letter score, semiautomated kinetic perimetry (SKP) using isopters I4e, III4e, and V4e, hill of vision (HOV) calculated from static visual fields (SVF) by using a 184n point centrally condensed grid with the stimulus size V test target. Retinal structural changes such as central macular thickness and macular volume were assessed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Repeatability coefficients (RC) and 95% confidential intervals (CI) were calculated for each parameter using a hierarchical mixed-effects model and bootstrapping. Results Criteria for statistically significant changes for various parameters were found to be the following: BCVA letter score (8 letters), SKP isopters I4e, III4e, and V4e (3478.85; 2488.02 and 2622.46 deg2, respectively), SVF full volume HOV (VTOT, 14.62 dB-sr), central macular thickness, and macular volume (4.27 μm and 0.15 mm3, respectively). Conclusions This analysis provides important information necessary to determine if significant changes are occurring in structural and functional assessments commonly used to measure disease progression in this cohort of patients with STGD. Moreover, this information is useful for future trials assessing safety and efficacy of treatments in STGD. Translational Relevance Determination of variability of functional and

  5. Bone-tissue engineering: complex tunable structural and biological responses to injury, drug delivery, and cell-based therapies.

    PubMed

    Alghazali, Karrer M; Nima, Zeid A; Hamzah, Rabab N; Dhar, Madhu S; Anderson, David E; Biris, Alexandru S

    2015-01-01

    Bone loss and failure of proper bone healing continues to be a significant medical condition in need of solutions that can be implemented successfully both in human and veterinary medicine. This is particularly true when large segmental defects are present, the bone has failed to return to normal form or function, or the healing process is extremely prolonged. Given the inherent complexity of bone tissue - its unique structural, mechanical, and compositional properties, as well as its ability to support various cells - it is difficult to find ideal candidate materials that could be used as the foundation for tissue regeneration from technological platforms. Recently, important developments have been made in the implementation of complex structures built both at the macro- and the nano-level that have been shown to positively impact bone formation and to have the ability to deliver active biological molecules (drugs, growth factors, proteins, cells) for controlled tissue regeneration and the prevention of infection. These materials are diverse, ranging from polymers to ceramics and various composites. This review presents developments in this area with a focus on the role of scaffold structure and chemistry on the biologic processes that influence bone physiology and regeneration.

  6. Unraveling the structure of the variola topoisomerase IB-DNA complex: a possible new twist on smallpox therapy.

    PubMed

    Osheroff, Neil

    2006-10-01

    Smallpox is a serious and highly contagious disease that is caused by the variola virus. It is one of the most severe infectious human diseases known, with mortality rates as high as 30%. A successful worldwide vaccination program led to the eradication of smallpox in 1980. However, the high transmission rate of variola virus, coupled with the deadly nature of smallpox, makes this virus a potentially devastating weapon for bioterrorism. Currently, there is no specific treatment for smallpox. However, a recent article on the structure of a variola topoisomerase IB-DNA complex provides an intriguing starting point for the rational design of drugs with potential activity against smallpox.

  7. Structure-based Engineering of Species Selectivity in the Interaction Between Urokinase and its Receptor: Implication for Preclinical Cancer Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.; Gardsvoll, H; Huai, Q; Huang, M; Ploug, M

    2010-01-01

    The high affinity interaction between the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its glycolipid-anchored receptor (uPAR) is decisive for cell surface-associated plasminogen activation. Because plasmin activity controls fibrinolysis in a variety of pathological conditions, including cancer and wound healing, several intervention studies have focused on targeting the uPA {center_dot} uPAR interaction in vivo. Evaluations of such studies in xenotransplanted tumor models are, however, complicated by the pronounced species selectivity in this interaction. We now report the molecular basis underlying this difference by solving the crystal structure for the murine uPA {center_dot} uPAR complex and demonstrate by extensive surface plasmon resonance studies that the kinetic rate constants for this interaction can be swapped completely between these orthologs by exchanging only two residues. This study not only discloses the structural basis required for a successful rational design of the species selectivity in the uPA {center_dot} uPAR interaction, which is highly relevant for functional studies in mouse models, but it also suggests the possible development of general inhibitors that will target the uPA {center_dot} uPAR interaction across species barriers.

  8. Radiation therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) Proton therapy is another kind of radiation used to ... than using x-rays to destroy cancer cells, proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called ...

  9. Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Alternative Therapies Alternative therapies, also called complementary, can support ... of motion, pain, and fatigue are often reported. Energy work includes acupuncture and acupressure, traditional Chinese medicine ...

  10. Myofascial Structural Integration Therapy on Gross Motor Function and Gait of Young Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Loi, Elizabeth C; Buysse, Christina A; Price, Karen S; Jaramillo, Theresa M; Pico, Elaine L; Hansen, Alexis B; Feldman, Heidi M

    2015-01-01

    Though the cause of motor abnormalities in cerebral palsy is injury to the brain, structural changes in muscle and fascia may add to stiffness and reduced function. This study examined whether myofascial structural integration therapy, a complementary treatment that manipulates muscle and fascia, would improve gross motor function and gait in children <4 years with cerebral palsy. Participants (N = 29) were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (NCT01815814, https://goo.gl/TGxvwd) or Open Label Extension. The main outcome was the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 assessed at 3-month intervals. Gait (n = 8) was assessed using the GAITRite(®) electronic walkway. Parents completed a survey at study conclusion. Comparing Treatment (n = 15) and Waitlist-Control groups (n = 9), we found a significant main effect of time but no effect of group or time × group interaction. The pooled sample (n = 27) showed a main effect of time, but no significantly greater change after treatment than between other assessments. Foot length on the affected side increased significantly after treatment, likely indicating improvement in the children's ability to approach a heel strike. Parent surveys indicated satisfaction and improvements in the children's quality of movement. MSI did not increase the rate of motor skill development, but was associated with improvement in gait quality.

  11. Play Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kool, Ritesh

    2010-01-01

    Play therapy represents a unique form of treatment that is not only geared toward young children, but is translated into a language children can comprehend and utilize—the language of play. For the referring provider or practitioner, questions may remain regarding the nature, course, and efficacy of play therapy. This article reviews the theoretical underpinnings of play therapy, some practical considerations, and finally a summary of the current state of research in regard to play therapy. The authors present the practicing psychiatrist with a road map for referring a patient to play therapy or initiating it in appropriate cases. PMID:21103141

  12. Heterogeneity of EGFR Aberrations and Correlation with Histological Structures: Analyses of Therapy-Naive Isogenic Lung Cancer Lesions with EGFR Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Kenichi; Murakami, Isao; Yu, Hui; Ellison, Kim; Shimoji, Masaki; Genova, Carlo; Rivard, Christopher J.; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Hirsch, Fred R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction EGFR gene somatic mutation is reportedly homogeneous. However, there are few data regarding the heterogeneity of expression of mutant EGFR protein and EGFR gene copy number, especially in extrathoracic lesions. These types of data may enhance our understanding of the biology of EGFR-mutated lung cancer and our understanding of the heterogeneous response patterns to EGFR TKIs. Methods An 81-year-old never-smoking female with lung adenocarcinoma could not receive any systemic therapy because of her poor performance status. After her death, 15 tumor specimens from different sites were obtained by autopsy. Expression of mutant EGFR protein and EGFR gene copy numbers were assessed by immunohistochemical analysis and by silver in situ hybridization, respectively. Heterogeneity in these EGFR aberrations was compared between metastatic sites (distant versus lymph node) or histological structures (micropapillary versus nonmicropapillary). Results All lesions showed positive staining for mutant EGFR protein, except for 40% of the papillary component in one of the pulmonary metastases (weak staining below the 1+ threshold). Expression of mutant-specific EGFR protein, evaluated by H-score, was significantly higher in the micropapillary components than in the nonmicropapillary components (Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.014). EGFR gene copy number was quite different between lesions but not correlated with histological structure or metastatic form. However, EGFR gene copy numbers were similar between histological structures in each lesion. Conclusion These data indicate that expression of EGFR mutant protein and EGFR gene copy number do not change as a consequence of tumor progression. This also justifies using the biopsy specimens from metastases as a surrogate for primary tumors. PMID:27257133

  13. Global connectivity of hub residues in Oncoprotein structures encodes genetic factors dictating personalized drug response to targeted Cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soundararajan, Venky; Aravamudan, Murali

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy and mechanisms of therapeutic action are largely described by atomic bonds and interactions local to drug binding sites. Here we introduce global connectivity analysis as a high-throughput computational assay of therapeutic action - inspired by the Google page rank algorithm that unearths most ``globally connected'' websites from the information-dense world wide web (WWW). We execute short timescale (30 ps) molecular dynamics simulations with high sampling frequency (0.01 ps), to identify amino acid residue hubs whose global connectivity dynamics are characteristic of the ligand or mutation associated with the target protein. We find that unexpected allosteric hubs - up to 20Å from the ATP binding site, but within 5Å of the phosphorylation site - encode the Gibbs free energy of inhibition (ΔGinhibition) for select protein kinase-targeted cancer therapeutics. We further find that clinically relevant somatic cancer mutations implicated in both drug resistance and personalized drug sensitivity can be predicted in a high-throughput fashion. Our results establish global connectivity analysis as a potent assay of protein functional modulation. This sets the stage for unearthing disease-causal exome mutations and motivates forecast of clinical drug response on a patient-by-patient basis. We suggest incorporation of structure-guided genetic inference assays into pharmaceutical and healthcare Oncology workflows.

  14. Global connectivity of hub residues in Oncoprotein structures encodes genetic factors dictating personalized drug response to targeted Cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Venky; Aravamudan, Murali

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy and mechanisms of therapeutic action are largely described by atomic bonds and interactions local to drug binding sites. Here we introduce global connectivity analysis as a high-throughput computational assay of therapeutic action – inspired by the Google page rank algorithm that unearths most “globally connected” websites from the information-dense world wide web (WWW). We execute short timescale (30 ps) molecular dynamics simulations with high sampling frequency (0.01 ps), to identify amino acid residue hubs whose global connectivity dynamics are characteristic of the ligand or mutation associated with the target protein. We find that unexpected allosteric hubs – up to 20Å from the ATP binding site, but within 5Å of the phosphorylation site – encode the Gibbs free energy of inhibition (ΔGinhibition) for select protein kinase-targeted cancer therapeutics. We further find that clinically relevant somatic cancer mutations implicated in both drug resistance and personalized drug sensitivity can be predicted in a high-throughput fashion. Our results establish global connectivity analysis as a potent assay of protein functional modulation. This sets the stage for unearthing disease-causal exome mutations and motivates forecast of clinical drug response on a patient-by-patient basis. We suggest incorporation of structure-guided genetic inference assays into pharmaceutical and healthcare Oncology workflows. PMID:25465236

  15. What Is Music Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is ...

  16. Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate therapy: assessment of the alveolar bone structure in rats – a blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Viviane N; Langie, Renan; Etges, Adriana; Ponzoni, Deise; Puricelli, Edela

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of zoledronic acid exposure on structures of the alveolar bone of rats. The sample was composed of 42 male Wistar rats. Animals in the T1 and T2 groups received weekly doses of 0.2 mg/kg intraperitoneal zoledronic acid for 3 weeks, while animals in the T3 group received the same treatment for 8 weeks. The control groups C1, C2 and C3 received equivalent doses of saline. The first upper molars of Wistar rats in the C2, T2, C3 and T3 groups were extracted. Cone-beam computerized tomography scans were performed, and the image density was analysed by grey levels. The presence and type of inflammatory infiltrate, vascularization and bone necrosis were assigned by histological qualitative scores. Histomorphometric analysis of bone density was performed in the groups without extraction. No significant differences were found in the bone grey density estimated by grey-level value and histomorphometric analysis between the C1 and T1 groups (P > 0.05). The grey levels in the T3 group were lower (P < 0.05) than in the C3 group, corresponding to the bone defect. Histological assessments showed the presence of bone necrosis in the T3 group and lower levels of bone remodelling in the test groups (T2 and T3) compared to the control groups (C2 and C3). The results of qualitative analyses did not differ significantly between the groups (P > 0.05). Zoledronic acid-exposed animals showed maxillary changes including reduced grey levels, the presence of bone necrosis and a higher prevalence of inflammatory signs. PMID:26119047

  17. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and simultaneous integrated boost in head-and-neck cancer: is there a place for critical swallowing structures dose sparing?

    PubMed Central

    Deodato, Francesco; Macchia, Gabriella; Digesù, Cinzia; Ianiro, Anna; Piermattei, Angelo; Valentini, Vincenzo; Morganti, Alessio G

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the potential of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to reduce the risk of swallowing problems after curative chemoradiotherapy. Methods: 20 patients with head and neck cancer who previously underwent radiotherapy were selected. Radiotherapy was prescribed according to simultaneous integrated boost technique with all targets irradiated simultaneously over 30 daily fractions. Doses of 70.5 (67.5), 60.0 and 55.5 Gy were prescribed to primary tumour, high-risk nodal regions and low-risk nodal regions, respectively. Pharyngeal constrictor muscles (PCM) and glottic and supraglottic larynx (SGL) were considered organs at risk related to swallowing dysfunction (SW-OARs). Upper pharyngeal constrictor muscles (uPCM), middle pharyngeal constrictor muscles (mPCM) and lower pharyngeal constrictor muscles (lPCM) part of PCM were also outlined separately. Clinical standard plans (standard-VMAT) and plans aiming to spare SW-OARs (swallowing dysfunction-VMAT) were also created. Normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) for physician-rated swallowing dysfunction were calculated using a recently predictive model developed by Christianen et al. Results: Planning with two strategies demonstrated comparable planning target volume coverage and no differences in sparing of parotid glands and other non-swallowing organs at risk. SW-VMAT plans provided mean dose reduction for uPCM and SGL by 3.9 and 4.5 Gy, respectively. NTCP values for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 2–4 swallowing dysfunction was decreased by 9.2%. Dose reductions with SW-VMAT depended on tumour location and overlap with SW-OARs. Conclusion: VMAT plans aiming at sparing swallowing structures are feasible, providing a significant reduction in NTCP swallowing dysfunction with respect to conventional VMAT. Advances in knowledge: Dysphagia is today considered one of the dose-limiting toxicities of chemoradiotherapy. The dose sparing of swallowing structures represents a major

  18. Marathon Group Therapy with Female Narcotic Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.

    This study evaluated the impact of structured and unstructured marathon therapy on institutionalized female narcotic addicts. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups: two structured therapy groups, two unstructured therapy groups, and a no-treatment control group. The Personal Orientation Inventory, the Adjective Check List, and a…

  19. The effects of vitamin D therapy on left ventricular structure and function - are these the underlying explanations for improved CKD patient survival?

    PubMed

    Covic, Adrian; Voroneanu, Luminita; Goldsmith, David

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death among patients with chronic kidney disease and vitamin D deficiency is a common problem also among these patients. Abnormalities in left ventricular size and function are frequent, as they are encountered in 70-80% of incident dialysis patients. These alterations develop early in the course of renal disease and their prevalence progresses in parallel with the decline in renal function. This process of left ventricular dilatation with compensatory hypertrophy continues after the institution of dialysis therapy, especially in the first year. The main factors responsible for the progression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are considered to be blood pressure and anemia, and in patients receiving hemodialysis, the arteriovenous fistula, volume overload and abnormalities in mineral metabolism. This additional potential set of factors related to LVH - mineral and bone metabolism - is intriguing and begs an immediate question: by what possible mechanism can these factors be linked to cardiac morphology? Recent observational studies have indeed indicated that vitamin D treatment was associated with a significant reduction of cardiovascular death among dialysis patients, and a reduction in LVH; in contrast, other studies suggested that excess vitamin D contributes to risk of hypercalcemia and vascular calcification, which is associated with reduced survival and morbidity. This review examines the evidence linking vitamin D with cardiac structure and function.

  20. Blended nanoparticle system based on miscible structurally similar polymers: a safe, simple, targeted, and surprisingly high efficiency vehicle for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wei; Zhang, Jinxie; Zeng, Xiaowei; Liu, Danny; Liu, Gan; Zhu, Xi; Liu, Yanlan; Yu, Qingtong; Huang, Laiqiang; Mei, Lin

    2015-06-03

    A novel blended nanoparticle (NP) system for the delivery of anticancer drugs and its surprisingly high efficacy for cancer chemotherapy by blending a targeting polymer folic acid-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (FA-PEG-b-PLGA) and a miscible structurally similar polymer D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (TPGS-PLGA) is reported. This blended NP system can be achieved through a simple and effective nanoprecipitation technique, and possesses unique properties: i) improved long-term compatibility brought by PEG-based polymers; ii) reduced multidrug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in tumor cells and increased bioavailability of anticancer drugs by incorporation of TPGS; iii) the regulation of controlled release through polymer ratios and active targeting by FA. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo antitumor assays demonstrated the reported blended NP system can achieve the best therapeutic efficiency in an extremely safe, simple and highly efficient process for cancer therapy. Moreover, this NP system is highly efficient in forming NPs with multiple functions, without repeated chemical modification of polymers, which is sometimes complex, inefficient and high cost. Therefore, the development of this novel blended NP concept is extremely meaningful for the application of pharmaceutical nanotechnology in recent studies.

  1. Relationship between the tautomeric structures of curcumin derivatives and their Abeta-binding activities in the context of therapies for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Daijiro; Shirai, Nobuaki; Amatsubo, Tomone; Taguchi, Hiroyasu; Hirao, Koichi; Urushitani, Makoto; Morikawa, Shigehiro; Inubushi, Toshiro; Kato, Masanari; Kato, Fuminori; Morino, Kyuya; Kimura, Hirohiko; Nakano, Ichiro; Yoshida, Chikako; Okada, Takashi; Sano, Mitsuo; Wada, Yoshiko; Wada, Ken-nosuke; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2010-05-01

    Curcumin, which can exist in an equilibrium between keto and enol tautomers, binds to beta-amyloid (Abeta) fibrils/aggregates. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the tautomeric structures of curcumin derivatives and their Abeta-binding activities. Curcumin derivatives with keto-enol tautomerism showed high levels of binding to Abeta aggregates but not to Abeta monomers. The binding activity of the keto form analogue of curcumin to Abeta aggregates was found to be much weaker than that of curcumin derivatives with keto-enol tautomerism. The color of a curcumin derivative with keto-enol tautomerism, which was substituted at the C-4 position, changed from yellow to orange within 30 min of being combined with Abeta aggregates in physiological buffer. This resulted from a remarkable increase in the enol form with extended conjugation of double bonds upon binding. These findings suggest that curcumin derivatives exist predominantly in the enol form during binding to Abeta aggregates, and that the enolization of curcumin derivatives is crucial for binding to Abeta aggregates. The keto-enol tautomerism of curcumin derivatives may be a novel target for the design of amyloid-binding agents that can be used both for therapy and for amyloid detection in Alzheimer's disease.

  2. The Effect of Cognitive Therapy on Structural Social Capital: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial Among Sexual Violence Survivors in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Paul A.; Annan, Jeannie; Kaysen, Debra; Robinette, Katie; Cetinoglu, Talita; Wachter, Karin; Bass, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated changes in social capital following group-based cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for female survivors of sexual violence. Methods. We compared CPT with individual support in a cluster-randomized trial in villages in South Kivu province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Local psychosocial assistants delivered the interventions from April through July 2011. We evaluated differences between CPT and individual support conditions for structural social capital (i.e., time spent with nonkin social network, group membership and participation, and the size of financial and instrumental support networks) and emotional support seeking. We analyzed intervention effects with longitudinal random effects models. Results. We obtained small to medium effect size differences for 2 study outcomes. Women in the CPT villages increased group membership and participation at 6-month follow-up and emotional support seeking after the intervention compared with women in the individual support villages. Conclusions. Results support the efficacy of group CPT to increase dimensions of social capital among survivors of sexual violence in a low-income conflict-affected context. PMID:25033113

  3. The use of a rigid disc to protect exposed structures in wounds treated with negative pressure wound therapy: effects on wound bed pressure and microvascular blood flow.

    PubMed

    Anesäter, Erik; Borgquist, Ola; Torbrand, Christian; Roupé, K Markus; Ingemansson, Richard; Lindstedt, Sandra; Malmsjö, Malin

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing reports of deaths and serious complications associated with the use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Bleeding may occur in patients when NPWT is applied to a wound with exposed blood vessels or vascular grafts, possibly due to mechanical deformation and hypoperfusion of the vessel walls. Recent evidence suggests that using a rigid barrier disc to protect underlying tissue can prevent this mechanical deformation. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of rigid discs on the tissue exposed to negative pressure with regard to tissue pressure and microvascular blood flow. Peripheral wounds were created on the backs of eight pigs. The pressure and microvascular blood flow in the wound bed were measured when NPWT was applied. The wound was filled with foam, and rigid discs of different designs were inserted between the wound bed and the foam. The discs were created with or without channels (to accommodate exposed sensitive structures such as blood vessels and nerves), perforations, or a porous dressing that covered the underside of the discs (to facilitate pressure transduction and fluid evacuation). When comparing the results for pressure transduction to the wound bed, no significant differences were found using different discs covered with dressing, whereas pressure transduction was lower with bare discs. Microvascular blood flow in the wound bed decreased by 49 ± 7% when NPWT was applied to control wounds. The reduction in blood flow was less in the presence of a protective disc (e.g., -6 ± 5% for a dressing-covered, perforated disc, p = 0.006). In conclusion, NPWT causes hypoperfusion of superficial tissue in the wound bed. The insertion of a rigid barrier counteracts this effect. The placement of a rigid disc over exposed blood vessels or nerves may protect these structures from rupture and damage.

  4. Psychosexual therapy.

    PubMed

    Gregory, P

    Sexual problems are more likely to originate from psychological or relationship difficulties rather than 'mechanical failure'. Here Peter Gregory reveals the often closed world of psychosexual therapy.

  5. Electroconvulsive therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Shock treatment; Shock therapy; ECT; Depression - ECT; Bipolar - ECT ... ECT is a highly effective treatment for depression, most commonly ... who: Are having delusions or other psychotic symptoms with ...

  6. [Physiotherapy as manual therapy].

    PubMed

    Torstensen, T A; Nielsen, L L; Jensen, R; Reginiussen, T; Wiesener, T; Kirkesola, G; Mengshoel, A M

    1999-05-30

    Manual therapy includes methods where the therapist's hands are used to stretch, mobilize or manipulate the spinal column, paravertebral structures or extremity joints. The aims of these methods are to relieve pain and improve function. In Norway only specially qualified physiotherapists and chiropractors are authorized to perform manipulation of joints (high velocity thrust techniques). To become a qualified manual therapist in Norway one must have a minimum of two years of clinical practice as physiotherapist followed by two year full time postgraduate training in manual therapy (a total of six years). Historically the Norwegian manual therapy system was developed in the 1950s by physiotherapists and medical doctors in England (James Cyriax and James Mennell) and Norway. As a result doctors allowed physiotherapists to use manipulation as a treatment method of both spinal and peripheral joints. In 1957 the Norwegian health authorities introduced reimbursement for manual therapy performed by physiotherapists.

  7. Structural white matter changes in descending motor tracts correlate with improvements in motor impairment after undergoing a treatment course of tDCS and physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Motor impairment after stroke has been related to the structural and functional integrity of corticospinal tracts including multisynaptic motor fibers and tracts such as the cortico-rubral-spinal and the cortico-tegmental-spinal tract. Furthermore, studies have shown that the concurrent use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with peripheral sensorimotor activities can improve motor impairment. We examined microstructural effects of concurrent non-invasive bihemispheric stimulation and physical/occupational therapy for 10 days on the structural components of the CST as well as other descending motor tracts which will be referred to here as alternate motor fibers (aMF). In this pilot study, ten chronic patients with a uni-hemispheric stroke underwent Upper-Extremity Fugl-Meyer assessments (UE-FM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for determining diffusivity measures such as fractional anisotropy (FA) before and after treatment in a section of the CST and aMF that spanned between the lower end of the internal capsule (below each patient's lesion) and the upper pons region on the affected and unaffected hemisphere. The treated group (tDCS + PT/OT) showed significant increases in the proportional UE-FM scores (+21%; SD 10%), while no significant changes were observed in an untreated comparison group. Significant increases in FA (+0.007; SD 0.0065) were found in the ipsilesional aMF in the treated group while no significant changes were found in the contralesional aMF, in either CST, or in any tracts in the untreated group. The FA changes in the ipsilesional aMF significantly correlated with the proportional change in the UE-FM (r = 0.65; p < 0.05). The increase in FA might indicate an increase in motor fiber alignment, myelination, and overall fiber integrity. Crossed and uncrossed fibers from multiple cortical regions might be one reason why the aMF fiber system showed more plastic structural changes that correlate with motor improvements than the CST.

  8. Sweat Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    A study combined group sweating and group counseling. Four adolescent boys with disruptive behavior disorders participated in 12 sweat therapy sessions. They reported the sessions useful for sharing personal concerns and receiving assistance with problem solving. Three boys showed improvement in self-esteem. Advantages of sweat therapy over other…

  9. Intravenous Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliart, Barbara

    Intended for teaching licensed practical nurses, this curriculum guide provides information related to the equipment and skills required for nursing care of patients needing intravenous (IV) therapy. It also explains the roles and responsibilities of the licensed practical nurse with regard to intravenous therapy. Each of the 15 instructional…

  10. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Breast Esophagus Rectum Skull base sarcomas Pediatric brain tumors Head and neck - see the Head and Neck Cancer page Eye ... Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Brain Tumor Treatment Brain Tumors Prostate Cancer Lung Cancer ... related to Proton Therapy Videos related ...

  11. Poetry Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ronald V.

    Poetry therapy is the method of therapy based on the principle that a poem is a special medium for expressing emotions and that this expression can have psychotherapeutic value. A survey taken in 1973 showed there were over 400 therapists treating 3,500 drug addicts, alcoholics, and mental retardates around the country. Poetry therapists…

  12. Structuralism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piaget, Jean

    Provided is an overview of the analytical method known as structuralism. The first chapter discusses the three key components of the concept of a structure: the view of a system as a whole instead of so many parts; the study of the transformations in the system; and the fact that these transformations never lead beyond the system but always…

  13. A backward view from 16S rRNA to archaea to the universal tree of life to progenotes: reminiscences of Carl Woese.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    I first became aware of Carl Woese in the mid-1970s when he and George Fox criticized a few of the 16S rRNA oligonucleotide sequences emerging from Strasbourg in the 10-12 y RNA sequencing project of the first 16S rRNA from Escherichia coli, some of which we were using for assembling RNA binding sites of ribosomal proteins. When I realized that they were attempting to sequence 16S rRNAs from a range of bacteria to classify them phylogenetically, I seriously questioned their sanity. Not because of the goal, which was admirable, but because of the sheer technical difficulty, and slowness, of sequencing large RNA molecules using the original Sanger RNA sequencing method, not to mention the health hazards of regularly preparing rRNA using 20-30 mCi [ (32)P]. My view changed radically, however, with their subsequent prediction of 5S rRNA secondary structures using a phylogenetic approach. Previously, the molecular biology community had been competing to generate the maximum numbers of base pairs in the model RNA molecule E. coli 5S RNA when Fox and Woese introduced the concept of compensatory base changes based on phylogeny for defining secondary structure and applied it to 5S RNA, they found evidence for only about 50% base pairing. This approach had previously been used for tRNA secondary structure predictions but its more general significance had never been acknowledged. Carl subsequently persuaded Harry Noller to apply the same method to predicting secondary structures of the large rRNAs.

  14. Some reminiscences on studies of age-dependent and activity-dependent degeneration of sensory and motor endings in mammalian skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ribchester, Richard R

    2015-01-01

    I present here an overview of research on the biology of neuromuscular sensory and motor endings that was inspired and influenced partly by my educational experience in the Department of Zoology at the University of Durham, from 1971 to 1974. I allude briefly to neuromuscular synaptic structure and function in dystrophic mice, influences of activity on synapse elimination in development and regeneration, and activity-dependent protection and degeneration of neuromuscular junctions in WldS mice. PMID:26179026

  15. Triple-functional core-shell structured upconversion luminescent nanoparticles covalently grafted with photosensitizer for luminescent, magnetic resonance imaging and photodynamic therapy in vitro.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xiao-Fei; Zhou, Jia-Cai; Xiao, Jia-Wen; Wang, Ye-Fu; Sun, Ling-Dong; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2012-08-07

    Upconversion luminescent nanoparticles (UCNPs) have been widely used in many biochemical fields, due to their characteristic large anti-Stokes shifts, narrow emission bands, deep tissue penetration and minimal background interference. UCNPs-derived multifunctional materials that integrate the merits of UCNPs and other functional entities have also attracted extensive attention. Here in this paper we present a core-shell structured nanomaterial, namely, NaGdF(4):Yb,Er@CaF(2)@SiO(2)-PS, which is multifunctional in the fields of photodynamic therapy (PDT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence/luminescence imaging. The NaGdF(4):Yb,Er@CaF(2) nanophosphors (10 nm in diameter) were prepared via sequential thermolysis, and mesoporous silica was coated as shell layer, in which photosensitizer (PS, hematoporphyrin and silicon phthalocyanine dihydroxide) was covalently grafted. The silica shell improved the dispersibility of hydrophobic PS molecules in aqueous environments, and the covalent linkage stably anchored the PS molecules in the silica shell. Under excitation at 980 nm, the as-fabricated nanomaterial gave luminescence bands at 550 nm and 660 nm. One luminescent peak could be used for fluorescence imaging and the other was suitable for the absorption of PS to generate singlet oxygen for killing cancer cells. The PDT performance was investigated using a singlet oxygen indicator, and was investigated in vitro in HeLa cells using a fluorescent probe. Meanwhile, the nanomaterial displayed low dark cytotoxicity and near-infrared (NIR) image in HeLa cells. Further, benefiting from the paramagnetic Gd(3+) ions in the core, the nanomaterial could be used as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared with the clinical commercial contrast agent Gd-DTPA, the as-fabricated nanomaterial showed a comparable longitudinal relaxivities value (r(1)) and similar imaging effect.

  16. Antiparasitic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kappagoda, Shanthi; Singh, Upinder; Blackburn, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic diseases affect more than 2 billion people globally and cause substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly among the world's poorest people. This overview focuses on the treatment of the major protozoan and helminth infections in humans. Recent developments in antiparasitic therapy include the expansion of artemisinin-based therapies for malaria, new drugs for soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa, expansion of the indications for antiparasitic drug treatment in patients with Chagas disease, and the use of combination therapy for leishmaniasis and human African trypanosomiasis. PMID:21628620

  17. Colon Cancer Survival With Herbal Medicine and Vitamins Combined With Standard Therapy in a Whole-Systems Approach: Ten-Year Follow-up Data Analyzed With Marginal Structural Models and Propensity Score Methods

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, Michael; Broffman, Michael; van der Laan, Mark; Hubbard, Alan; Kushi, Lawrence; Abrams, Donald I.; Gao, Jin; Colford, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Although localized colon cancer is often successfully treated with surgery, advanced disease requires aggressive systemic therapy that has lower effectiveness. Approximately 30% to 75% of patients with colon cancer use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), but there is limited formal evidence of survival efficacy. In a consecutive case series with 10-year follow-up of all colon cancer patients (n = 193) presenting at a San Francisco Bay-Area center for Chinese medicine (Pine Street Clinic, San Anselmo, CA), the authors compared survival in patients choosing short-term treatment lasting the duration of chemotherapy/radiotherapy with those continuing long-term. To put these data into the context of treatment responses seen in conventional medical practice, they also compared survival with Pan-Asian medicine + vitamins (PAM+V) with that of concurrent external controls from Kaiser Permanente Northern California and California Cancer Registries. Kaplan-Meier, traditional Cox regression, and more modern methods were used for causal inference—namely, propensity score and marginal structural models (MSMs), which have not been used before in studies of cancer survival and Chinese herbal medicine. PAM+V combined with conventional therapy, compared with conventional therapy alone, reduced the risk of death in stage I by 95%, stage II by 64%, stage III by 29%, and stage IV by 75%. There was no significant difference between short-term and long-term PAM+V. Combining PAM+V with conventional therapy improved survival, compared with conventional therapy alone, suggesting that prospective trials combining PAM+V with conventional therapy are justified. PMID:21964510

  18. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... for e-updates Please leave this field empty Proton Therapy SHARE Home > Treatment and Care > Treatments Listen ... a nucleus, which holds two types of particles—protons and neutrons. The nucleus is surrounded by electrons. ...

  19. Play Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lawver, Timothy; Blankenship, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Play therapy is a treatment modality in which the therapist engages in play with the child. Its use has been documented in a variety of settings and with a variety of diagnoses. Treating within the context of play brings the therapist and the therapy to the level of the child. By way of an introduction to this approach, a case is presented of a six-year-old boy with oppositional defiant disorder. The presentation focuses on the events and interactions of a typical session with an established patient. The primary issues of the session are aggression, self worth, and self efficacy. These themes manifest themselves through the content of the child’s play and narration of his actions. The therapist then reflects these back to the child while gently encouraging the child toward more positive play. Though the example is one of nondirective play therapy, a wide range of variation exists under the heading of play therapy. PMID:19724720

  20. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects of the treatment. top of page What equipment is used? Proton beam therapy uses special machines, ... tumor cells. top of page Who operates the equipment? With backgrounds in mechanical, electrical, software, hardware and ...

  1. Hand Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guide Journal of Hand Surgery (JHS) Home Anatomy Hand Therapy Email to a friend * required fields From * ... ensure a healthy style of work. Find a Hand Therapist Search for a hand therapist in your ...

  2. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  3. The Deinococcus radiodurans DR1245 Protein, a DdrB Partner Homologous to YbjN Proteins and Reminiscent of Type III Secretion System Chaperones

    PubMed Central

    Bouthier-de-la-Tour, Claire; Coureux, Pierre-Damien; Ithurbide, Solenne; Vannier, Françoise; Guerin, Philippe P.; Dulberger, Charles L.; Satyshur, Kenneth A.; Keck, James L.; Armengaud, Jean; Cox, Michael M.; Sommer, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans exhibits an extreme resistance to ionizing radiation. A small subset of Deinococcus genus-specific genes were shown to be up-regulated upon exposure to ionizing radiation and to play a role in genome reconstitution. These genes include an SSB-like protein called DdrB. Here, we identified a novel protein encoded by the dr1245 gene as an interacting partner of DdrB. A strain devoid of the DR1245 protein is impaired in growth, exhibiting a generation time approximately threefold that of the wild type strain while radioresistance is not affected. We determined the three-dimensional structure of DR1245, revealing a relationship with type III secretion system chaperones and YbjN family proteins. Thus, DR1245 may display some chaperone activity towards DdrB and possibly other substrates. PMID:23441204

  4. Radionuclide Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalutsky, M. R.

    Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of β and α particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

  5. Proton therapy in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Chang, Joe Y.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation dose escalation and acceleration improves local control but also increases toxicity. Proton radiation is an emerging therapy for localized cancers that is being sought with increasing frequency by patients. Compared with photon therapy, proton therapy spares more critical structures due to its unique physics. The physical properties of a proton beam make it ideal for clinical applications. By modulating the Bragg peak of protons in energy and time, a conformal radiation dose with or without intensity modulation can be delivered to the target while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Thus, proton therapy is ideal when organ preservation is a priority. However, protons are more sensitive to organ motion and anatomy changes compared with photons. In this article, we review practical issues of proton therapy, describe its image-guided treatment planning and delivery, discuss clinical outcome for cancer patients, and suggest challenges and the future development of proton therapy. PMID:21527064

  6. Antiviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stalder, Hans

    1977-01-01

    The current status of antiviral therapy is reviewed, including discussion of older approaches together with more recently developed chemotherapy. Following the introduction dealing with pathophysiological aspects of virus disease, the different approaches to antiviral therapy are presented. The reasons for the slow progress in antiviral therapy are discussed. These include: 1. the necessity of intracellular penetration of drugs acting on viral replication; 2. the severe toxicity of most antiviral drugs; 3. the narrow antiviral spectrum of most of these agents; 4. the difficulty of making a rapid etiological diagnosis in view of the necessity of starting (specific?) treatment early in the course of the disease; 5. the difficult evaluation of beneficial as compared with deleterious effects of antiviral therapy. After a detailed review of clinically tested substances, including immunoglobulins, synthetic antiviral drugs (amantadine, nucleoside analogs, thiosemicarbazones and photodynamic dyes) and interferon, a guide concerning indications and application of specific antiviral therapy is presented. Although at present there are few indications, clinicians should be aware of the (present and future) possibilities of antiviral therapy. PMID:341538

  7. A novel scandium fluoride, [C2N2H10]0.5[ScF4], with an unprecedented tungsten bronze-related layer structure.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Nicholas F; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Lightfoot, Philip

    2004-03-07

    [C(2)N(2)H(10)](0.5)[ScF(4)] exhibits isolated anionic layers of corner-linked ScF(6) octahedra enclosing 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-membered rings, with features reminiscent of both hexagonal and tetragonal tungsten bronze-type structures.

  8. Development and application of pulmonary structure-function registration methods: towards pulmonary image-guidance tools for improved airway targeted therapies and outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fumin; Pike, Damien; Svenningsen, Sarah; Coxson, Harvey O.; Drozd, John J.; Yuan, Jing; Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace

    2014-03-01

    Objectives: We aimed to develop a way to rapidly generate multi-modality (MRI-CT) pulmonary imaging structurefunction maps using novel non-rigid image registration methods. This objective is part of our overarching goal to provide an image processing pipeline to generate pulmonary structure-function maps and guide airway-targeted therapies. Methods: Anatomical 1H and functional 3He MRI were acquired in 5 healthy asymptomatic ex-smokers and 7 ex-smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at inspiration breath-hold. Thoracic CT was performed within ten minutes of MRI using the same breath-hold volume. Landmark-based affine registration methods previously validated for imaging of COPD, was based on corresponding fiducial markers located in both CT and 1H MRI coronal slices and compared with shape-based CT-MRI non-rigid registration. Shape-based CT-MRI registration was developed by first identifying the shapes of the lung cavities manually, and then registering the two shapes using affine and thin-plate spline algorithms. We compared registration accuracy using the fiducial localization error (FLE) and target registration error (TRE). Results: For landmark-based registration, the TRE was 8.4±5.3 mm for whole lung and 7.8±4.6 mm for the R and L lungs registered independently (p=0.4). For shape-based registration, the TRE was 8.0±4.6 mm for whole lung as compared to 6.9±4.4 mm for the R and L lung registered independently and this difference was significant (p=0.01). The difference for shape-based (6.9±4.4 mm) and landmark-based R and L lung registration (7.8±4.6 mm) was also significant (p=.04) Conclusion: Shape-based registration TRE was significantly improved compared to landmark-based registration when considering L and R lungs independently.

  9. Triple-functional core-shell structured upconversion luminescent nanoparticles covalently grafted with photosensitizer for luminescent, magnetic resonance imaging and photodynamic therapy in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Xiao-Fei; Zhou, Jia-Cai; Xiao, Jia-Wen; Wang, Ye-Fu; Sun, Ling-Dong; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2012-07-01

    Upconversion luminescent nanoparticles (UCNPs) have been widely used in many biochemical fields, due to their characteristic large anti-Stokes shifts, narrow emission bands, deep tissue penetration and minimal background interference. UCNPs-derived multifunctional materials that integrate the merits of UCNPs and other functional entities have also attracted extensive attention. Here in this paper we present a core-shell structured nanomaterial, namely, NaGdF4:Yb,Er@CaF2@SiO2-PS, which is multifunctional in the fields of photodynamic therapy (PDT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence/luminescence imaging. The NaGdF4:Yb,Er@CaF2 nanophosphors (10 nm in diameter) were prepared via sequential thermolysis, and mesoporous silica was coated as shell layer, in which photosensitizer (PS, hematoporphyrin and silicon phthalocyanine dihydroxide) was covalently grafted. The silica shell improved the dispersibility of hydrophobic PS molecules in aqueous environments, and the covalent linkage stably anchored the PS molecules in the silica shell. Under excitation at 980 nm, the as-fabricated nanomaterial gave luminescence bands at 550 nm and 660 nm. One luminescent peak could be used for fluorescence imaging and the other was suitable for the absorption of PS to generate singlet oxygen for killing cancer cells. The PDT performance was investigated using a singlet oxygen indicator, and was investigated in vitro in HeLa cells using a fluorescent probe. Meanwhile, the nanomaterial displayed low dark cytotoxicity and near-infrared (NIR) image in HeLa cells. Further, benefiting from the paramagnetic Gd3+ ions in the core, the nanomaterial could be used as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared with the clinical commercial contrast agent Gd-DTPA, the as-fabricated nanomaterial showed a comparable longitudinal relaxivities value (r1) and similar imaging effect.Upconversion luminescent nanoparticles (UCNPs) have been widely used in many biochemical

  10. IGF-1 Signaling Plays an Important Role in the Formation of Three-Dimensional Laminated Neural Retina and Other Ocular Structures From Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Mellough, Carla B; Collin, Joseph; Khazim, Mahmoud; White, Kathryn; Sernagor, Evelyne; Steel, David H W; Lako, Majlinda

    2015-08-01

    We and others have previously demonstrated that retinal cells can be derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells under defined culture conditions. While both cell types can give rise to retinal derivatives in the absence of inductive cues, this requires extended culture periods and gives lower overall yield. Further understanding of this innate differentiation ability, the identification of key factors that drive the differentiation process, and the development of clinically compatible culture conditions to reproducibly generate functional neural retina is an important goal for clinical cell based therapies. We now report that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) can orchestrate the formation of three-dimensional ocular-like structures from hESCs which, in addition to retinal pigmented epithelium and neural retina, also contain primitive lens and corneal-like structures. Inhibition of IGF-1 receptor signaling significantly reduces the formation of optic vesicle and optic cups, while exogenous IGF-1 treatment enhances the formation of correctly laminated retinal tissue composed of multiple retinal phenotypes that is reminiscent of the developing vertebrate retina. Most importantly, hESC-derived photoreceptors exhibit advanced maturation features such as the presence of primitive rod- and cone-like photoreceptor inner and outer segments and phototransduction-related functional responses as early as 6.5 weeks of differentiation, making these derivatives promising candidates for cell replacement studies and in vitro disease modeling.

  11. IGF‐1 Signaling Plays an Important Role in the Formation of Three‐Dimensional Laminated Neural Retina and Other Ocular Structures From Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mellough, Carla B.; Collin, Joseph; Khazim, Mahmoud; White, Kathryn; Sernagor, Evelyne; Steel, David H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We and others have previously demonstrated that retinal cells can be derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells under defined culture conditions. While both cell types can give rise to retinal derivatives in the absence of inductive cues, this requires extended culture periods and gives lower overall yield. Further understanding of this innate differentiation ability, the identification of key factors that drive the differentiation process, and the development of clinically compatible culture conditions to reproducibly generate functional neural retina is an important goal for clinical cell based therapies. We now report that insulin‐like growth factor 1 (IGF‐1) can orchestrate the formation of three‐dimensional ocular‐like structures from hESCs which, in addition to retinal pigmented epithelium and neural retina, also contain primitive lens and corneal‐like structures. Inhibition of IGF‐1 receptor signaling significantly reduces the formation of optic vesicle and optic cups, while exogenous IGF‐1 treatment enhances the formation of correctly laminated retinal tissue composed of multiple retinal phenotypes that is reminiscent of the developing vertebrate retina. Most importantly, hESC‐derived photoreceptors exhibit advanced maturation features such as the presence of primitive rod‐ and cone‐like photoreceptor inner and outer segments and phototransduction‐related functional responses as early as 6.5 weeks of differentiation, making these derivatives promising candidates for cell replacement studies and in vitro disease modeling. Stem Cells 2015;33:2416–2430 PMID:25827910

  12. [Testosterone therapy].

    PubMed

    Diemer, T; Hauptmann, A; Wagenlehner, F M E

    2016-04-01

    Hormone replacement therapy with testosterone has become well-established over the course of time. The initial substantial concerns with respect to complications and potential adverse events, particularly in older patients, were proven to be unfounded over time. Testosterone therapy has therefore gradually become a regular treatment modality in urological practice. It has also been shown to represent a valuable tool as supportive treatment for patients with erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism. A variety of testosterone preparations are available for treatment. Recent pharmaceutical developments have greatly improved the practicability and ease of administration for patients. Several guidelines have been developed that provide clearly formulated standards and instructions for indications, contraindications, application, risk factors and monitoring of testosterone therapy. Adverse events affecting the cardiovascular system and especially diseases of the prostate gland are of great importance, thus making the urologist the primary partner in the treatment of patients with testosterone deficiency.

  13. Anticoagulant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Teitel, Jerome M.

    1984-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic diseases are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in Canada. Agents which interfere with the coagulation mechanism are highly effective in treating these disorders, but at the potentially high cost of serious hemorrhagic complications. The optimal prevention of both serious outcomes and complications of therapy can be achieved by prophylactic treatment of high risk patients. Heparin and vitamin K antagonists remain the mainstays of antithrombotic therapy. The pharmacology of these agents is reviewed, and a rational approach to their clinical use is presented. PMID:21279098

  14. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... can watch you during the procedure. As you go through radiation treatment, you may feel like you're all ... treatment. Avoid exposing the treated area to the sun during the weeks you're getting radiation therapy. And when the treatment's over, wear sunscreen ...

  15. Dance Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Marcia B.

    1980-01-01

    Dance therapy deals with personal growth via body-mind interaction. A change in movement expression is believed to result in a personality or behavior change. The therapist is trained to become sensitive to movement expression as it relates to the psychological, motor, and cognitive development of the child. (JN)

  16. Gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Williamson, B

    1982-07-29

    Gene therapy is not yet possible, but may become feasible soon, particularly for well understood gene defects. Although treatment of a patient raises no ethical problems once it can be done well, changing the genes of an early embryo is more difficult, controversial and unlikely to be required clinically.

  17. Sex Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective for individuals of any age, sex or sexual orientation. Sex therapy is usually provided by psychologists, social workers, physicians or licensed therapists who have special training in issues related to sex ... do not have sexual contact with clients, in the office or anywhere ...

  18. Pet Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Kim

    1994-01-01

    This resource guide presents information on a variety of ways that animals can be used as a therapeutic modality with people having disabilities. Aspects addressed include: pet ownership and selection criteria; dogs (including service dogs, hearing/signal dogs, seeing leader dogs, and social/specialty dogs); horseriding for both therapy and fun;…

  19. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... them from spreading. About half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, from radioactive substances that a doctor places inside your body. The type of radiation therapy you receive depends on many factors, including The ...

  20. Gene Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells in an effort to treat or stop disease. Genes contain your DNA — the code that controls much of your body's form and function, from making you grow taller to regulating your body systems. Genes that don't work properly can cause disease. Gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds ...

  1. Deciding about hormone therapy

    MedlinePlus

    HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT- deciding; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding; Menopause - deciding; HT - deciding; Menopausal hormone therapy - deciding; MHT - deciding

  2. Anecdotal therapies.

    PubMed

    Millikan, L E

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, many advances in medicine have been serendipitous. Are serendipitous and anecdotal synonymous? Many of our materia medica today relate to initial probes and anecdotal reports that matured to full investigation and therapeutic indications. The recent situation regarding Skin Cap is one that highlights the downside of this scenario. Several drugs in the US continue usage largely related to anecdotal indications, and anecdotal extension of legend indications is a standard for American Dermatology. The situation with systemic drugs, such as Trental, zinc preparations, imidazoles for extended indications, lysine and melatonin, all will be discussed. Topical preparations such as skin cap, cantharone, Vioform, all also are included in this category. It is important to place this topic in perspective in regards to geographic variation and therapeutic need. Many diseases lacking specific therapy are important targets for anecdotal therapy, and this will foster continued approaches in this area. The growing standardization of medicine and pharmaceutical regulation, threatens the anecdotal approach, but it provides still an important link to the future for some forms of therapy in diseases that are difficult to treat. Traditionally, the anecdote has been the first step in the therapeutic chain. Withering discovery of the benefits of the common fox glove in dropsy, was followed by many other anecdotes arriving via folk-medicine in the New World. This approach of utilizing folk medicine has now reached new heights, with very active searches by major pharmaceutical companies throughout the third world for remedies that may have potential. Couched with this is the history of anecdotal "snake-oil" remedies, that clearly had no benefit to anyone except the huckster marketing same. The excesses in this area of unproven and false therapies, led to the gradual organization of therapeutic trials and the Food and Drug Administration in the US as we know it today. The

  3. Reminiscences on the study of wind waves.

    PubMed

    Mitsuyasu, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    The wind blowing over sea surface generates tiny wind waves. They develop with time and space absorbing wind energy, and become huge wind waves usually referred to ocean surface waves. The wind waves cause not only serious sea disasters but also take important roles in the local and global climate changes by affecting the fluxes of momentum, heat and gases (e.g. CO2) through the air-sea boundary. The present paper reviews the selected studies on wind waves conducted by our group in the Research Institute for Applied Mechanics (RIAM), Kyushu University. The themes discussed are interactions between water waves and winds, the energy spectrum of wind waves, nonlinear properties of wind waves, and the effects of surfactant on some air-sea interaction phenomena.

  4. Notes on Soho and a Reminiscence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Hollis

    1992-01-01

    Discusses George Maciunas' pivotal contributions to the renaissance of SoHo, the New York City community south of Houston Street. Recounts the establishment of Fluxus cooperatives, the history of the FilmMakers' Cinematheque, Maciunas' long struggle with the Attorney General's office, and closes with a description of the February 1978 erotic Flux…

  5. Revolt, Reminiscence, and Renewal: June 4, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raxxano, Elaine

    1999-01-01

    Presents an essay written soon after the author's return to the United States after teaching at a University in China at the time of the Tiananmen Square tragedy. Explores issues of teaching overseas and the reality of Americans being caught in the midst of political turmoil. Remembers sacrifices made by Chinese students and teachers to test the…

  6. Reminiscences From a Career in Geomicrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, Henry L.

    2012-05-01

    This is a memoir relating how the author became a geomicrobiologist and how he practiced his specialty. Born in Germany and receiving his early schooling in Berlin, he completed his secondary education, followed by college and graduate school training, after emigration to the United States in 1940. After attaining a PhD degree in 1951, he spent his entire professional career as a faculty member of the Department of Biology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in Troy, New York. He was introduced to geomicrobiology in 1959 by a question from a colleague in the Department of Geology at RPI concerning the recent discovery of acidophilic iron-oxidizing, autotrophic bacteria in acid coal mine drainage. This led him to investigate bacterial interaction with metal sulfides, Mn(II) and Mn(IV) on land and in the sea, chromate, and bauxite; to teach a course in geomicrobiology; and to write a textbook on the subject, first published in 1981.

  7. Reminiscing about 15 years of interoperability efforts

    DOE PAGES

    Van de Sompel, Herbert; Nelson, Michael L.

    2015-11-01

    Over the past fifteen years, our perspective on tackling information interoperability problems for web-based scholarship has evolved significantly. In this opinion piece, we look back at three efforts that we have been involved in that aptly illustrate this evolution: OAI-PMH, OAI-ORE, and Memento. Understanding that no interoperability specification is neutral, we attempt to characterize the perspectives and technical toolkits that provided the basis for these endeavors. With that regard, we consider repository-centric and web-centric interoperability perspectives, and the use of a Linked Data or a REST/HATEAOS technology stack, respectively. In addition, we lament the lack of interoperability across nodes thatmore » play a role in web-based scholarship, but end on a constructive note with some ideas regarding a possible path forward.« less

  8. Reminiscing about 15 years of interoperability efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Sompel, Herbert; Nelson, Michael L.

    2015-11-01

    Over the past fifteen years, our perspective on tackling information interoperability problems for web-based scholarship has evolved significantly. In this opinion piece, we look back at three efforts that we have been involved in that aptly illustrate this evolution: OAI-PMH, OAI-ORE, and Memento. Understanding that no interoperability specification is neutral, we attempt to characterize the perspectives and technical toolkits that provided the basis for these endeavors. With that regard, we consider repository-centric and web-centric interoperability perspectives, and the use of a Linked Data or a REST/HATEAOS technology stack, respectively. In addition, we lament the lack of interoperability across nodes that play a role in web-based scholarship, but end on a constructive note with some ideas regarding a possible path forward.

  9. Reminiscences of cosmic ray research in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Peraza, Jorge

    2009-11-01

    Cosmic ray research in Mexico dates from the early 1930s with the work of the pioneering physicist, Manuel Sandoval Vallarta and his students from Mexico. Several experiments of international significance were carried out during that period in Mexico: they dealt with the geomagnetic latitude effect, the north-south and west-east asymmetry of cosmic ray intensity, and the sign of the charge of cosmic rays. The international cosmic ray community has met twice in Mexico for the International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC): the fourth was held in Guanajuato in 1955, and the 30th took place in Mérida, in 2007. In addition, an international meeting on the Pierre Auger Collaboration was held in Morelia in 1999, and the International Workshop on Observing UHE Cosmic Rays took place in Metepec in 2000. A wide range of research topics has been developed, from low-energy Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) to the UHE. Instrumentation has evolved since the early 1950s, from a Simpson type neutron monitor installed in Mexico City (2300 m asl) to a solar neutron telescope and an EAS Cherenkov array, (within the framework of the Auger International Collaboration), both at present operating on Mt. Sierra La Negra in the state of Puebla (4580 m asl). Research collaboration has been undertaken with many countries; in particular, the long-term collaboration with Russian scientists has been very fruitful.

  10. Reminiscence of phospholipase B in Penicillium notatum.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kunihiko

    2014-01-01

    Since the phospholipase B (PLB) was reported as a deacylase of both lecithin and lysolecithin yielding fatty acids and glycerophosphocholine (GPC), there was a question as to whether it is a single enzyme or a mixture of a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and a lysophospholipase (LPL). We purified the PLB in Penicillium notatum and showed that it catalyzed deacylation of sn-1 and sn-2 fatty acids of 1,2-diacylphospholipids and also sn-1 or sn-2 fatty acids of 1- or 2-monoacylphospholipids (lysophospholipids). Further, it also has a monoacyllipase activity. The purified PLB is a glycoprotein with m.w. of 91,300. The sugar moiety is M9 only and the protein moiety consists of 603 amino acids. PLB, different from PLA2, shows other enzymatic activities, such as transacylase, lipase and acylesterase. PLB activity is influenced by various substances, e.g. detergents, deoxycholate, diethylether, Fe(3+), and endogenous protease. Therefore, PLB might have broader roles than PLA2 in vivo. The database shows an extensive sequence similarity between P. notatum PLB and fungal PLB, cPLA2 and patatin, suggesting a homologous relationship. The catalytic triad of cPLA2, Ser, Asp and Arg, is also present in P. notatum PLB. Other related PLBs, PLB/Lipases are discussed.

  11. Memories of home: reminiscences of Ellenton

    SciTech Connect

    Browder, T.A.; Brooks, R.D.

    1996-08-01

    It was announced on Nov. 28, 1950, that the federal government was going to take over parts of Barnwell, Aiken, and Allendale counties, to form the Savannah River Plant. Ellenton was one of the six small towns and hamlets thus displaced. This second volume in the Savannah River Archaeological Research Heritage Series examines Ellenton, a town rich in history (the first volume discusses Dunbarton and Meyers Mill, and the interview procedure used in both volumes). Ellenton was about 25 miles SE of Augusta, Georgia; in 1950 it contained 739 people. The data, gathered through a combination of mail-in questionnaires and oral interviews, are presented here on the basis of coresident families to reduce redundancy. Purpose of the Community History project (begun in 1990) is to record respondent data regarding everyday life in Aiken and Barnwell counties in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The data will be used to model the material culture and spatial layout of this time period archaeological sites for compliance purposes. This volume is intended for a general readership (especially those who once lived this area) and thus has emphasis on archival photographs, etc.

  12. Reminiscences on the study of wind waves

    PubMed Central

    MITSUYASU, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    The wind blowing over sea surface generates tiny wind waves. They develop with time and space absorbing wind energy, and become huge wind waves usually referred to ocean surface waves. The wind waves cause not only serious sea disasters but also take important roles in the local and global climate changes by affecting the fluxes of momentum, heat and gases (e.g. CO2) through the air-sea boundary. The present paper reviews the selected studies on wind waves conducted by our group in the Research Institute for Applied Mechanics (RIAM), Kyushu University. The themes discussed are interactions between water waves and winds, the energy spectrum of wind waves, nonlinear properties of wind waves, and the effects of surfactant on some air-sea interaction phenomena. PMID:25864467

  13. Reminiscences regarding Professor R.N. Christiansen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarup, Govind

    2008-11-01

    In this short paper I describe my initiation into the field of radio astronomy fifty years ago, under the guidance of Professor W.N. ('Chris') Christiansen, soon after I joined the C.S.I.R.O.'s Division of Radiophysics (RP) in Sydney, Australia, in 1953 under a 2-year Colombo Plan Fellowship. During the early 1950s Christiansen had developed a remarkable 21 cm interferometric grating array of 32 east-west aligned parabolic dishes and another array of 16 dishes in a north-south direction at Potts Hill. Christiansen and Warburton used these two arrays to scan the Sun strip-wise yielding radio brightness distribution at various position angles. During a three month period I assisted them in making a 2-dimensional map of the Sun by a complex Fourier transform process. In the second year of my Fellowship, Parthasarathy and I converted the 32-antenna east-west grating array to study solar radio emission at 60cm. During this work, I noticed that the procedure adopted by Christiansen for phase adjustment of the grating array was time consuming. Based on this experience, I later developed an innovative technique at Stanford in 1959 for phase adjustment of long transmission lines and paths in space. In a bid to improve on the method used by Christiansen to make a 2-dimensional map of the Sun from strip scans, I suggested to R.N. Bracewell in 1962 a revolutionary method for direct 2-dimensional imaging without Fourier transforms. Bracewell and Riddle developed the method for making a 2-dimensional map of the Moon using strip scans obtained with the 32 element interferometer at Stanford. The method has since revolutionized medical tomography. I describe these developments here to highlight my initial work with Christiansen and to show how new ideas often are developed by necessity and have their origin in prior experience! The 32 Potts Hill solar grating array dishes were eventually donated by the C.S.I.R.0. to India and were set up by me at Kalyan near Mumbai, forming the core of the first radio astronomy group in India. This group went on to construct two of the world's largest radio telescopes, the Ooty Radio Telescope and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. Chris Christiansen was not only my guru but also a mentor and a friend for more than fifty years. I fondly remember his very warm personality.

  14. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Music therapists work with children and adults with developmental ...

  15. Conversations from the Classroom: Reflections on Feminist Music Therapy Pedagogy in Teaching Music Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahna, Nicole D.

    2011-01-01

    Four music therapy educators participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews as part of a qualitative study. The purpose of this study was to explore the phenomena of feminist pedagogy as experienced by music therapy educators using phenomenological inquiry. The study examined the following research questions: (a) do music therapy educators…

  16. Particle therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  17. Gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Drugan, A; Miller, O J; Evans, M I

    1987-01-01

    Severe genetic disorders are potentially correctable by the addition of a normal gene into tissues. Although the technical problems involving integration, stable expression, and insertional damage to the treated cell are not yet fully solved, enough scientific progress has already been made to consider somatic cell gene therapy acceptable from both the ethical and scientific viewpoints. The resolutions to problems evolving from somatic cell gene therapy will help to overcome the technical difficulties encountered presently with germ line gene manipulation. This procedure would then become morally permissible as it will cause, in time, a reduction in the pool of abnormal genes in the population. Enhancement genetic engineering is technically feasible but morally unacceptable. Eugenic genetic engineering is not technically possible or ethically permissible in the foreseeable future.

  18. Art Therapy: What Is Art Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from art therapy? Art therapy is practiced in mental health, rehabilitation, medical, educational, forensic, wellness, private practice and community settings with diverse client populations in ...

  19. Digoxin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, J. K.; Grahame-Smith, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    1 Recommendations for correct therapy with digoxin from twenty-five sources are reviewed. 2 Some recommendations may be unsuitable for use with high bioavailability tablets; some are accompanied by insufficient data relating to factors affecting both the response to digoxin and its handling by the body. 3 Guidelines based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles are suggested to help decide optimal digoxin treatment schedules in the presence and absence of non-cardiac disease. PMID:22216507

  20. Gene Therapy Rescues Cone Structure and Function in the 3-Month-Old rd12 Mouse: A Model for Midcourse RPE65 Leber Congenital Amaurosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Li, Wensheng; Dai, Xufeng; Kong, Fansheng; Zheng, Qinxiang; Zhou, Xiangtian; Lü, Fan; Chang, Bo; Rohrer, Bärbel; Hauswirth, William. W.; Qu, Jia; Pang, Ji-jing

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. RPE65 function is necessary in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to generate chromophore for all opsins. Its absence results in vision loss and rapid cone degeneration. Recent Leber congenital amaurosis type 2 (LCA with RPE65 mutations) phase I clinical trials demonstrated restoration of vision on RPE65 gene transfer into RPE cells overlying cones. In the rd12 mouse, a naturally occurring model of RPE65-LCA early cone degeneration was observed; however, some peripheral M-cones remained. A prior study showed that AAV-mediated RPE65 expression can prevent early cone degeneration. The present study was conducted to test whether the remaining cones in older rd12 mice can be rescued. Methods. Subretinal treatment with the scAAV5-smCBA-hRPE65 vector was initiated at postnatal day (P)14 and P90. After 2 months, electroretinograms were recorded, and cone morphology was analyzed by using cone-specific peanut agglutinin and cone opsin–specific antibodies. Results. Cone degeneration started centrally and spread ventrally, with cells losing cone-opsin staining before that for the PNA-lectin–positive cone sheath. Gene therapy starting at P14 resulted in almost wild-type M- and S-cone function and morphology. Delaying gene-replacement rescued the remaining M-cones, and most important, more M-cone opsin–positive cells were identified than were present at the onset of gene therapy, suggesting that opsin expression could be reinitiated in cells with cone sheaths. Conclusions. The results support and extend those of the previous study that gene therapy can stop early cone degeneration, and, more important, they provide proof that delayed treatment can restore the function and morphology of the remaining cones. These results have important implications for the ongoing LCA2 clinical trials. PMID:21169527

  1. [Peculiarities of the ovary structure in the rat offspring developing under conditions of the removed thyroid gland of female rat with the thyroxine replacement therapy and external radiation exposure in utero].

    PubMed

    Konoplia, E F; Pavlenko, V S; Banetskaia, N V; Krylova, I I

    2011-01-01

    The influence of a single external gamma-radiation at a dose of 1.0 Gy (dose rate 9.08 x 10(-4) Gy/sec) on the 15th day of gestation in case of the removed complex of thyroid and parathyroid glands (thyroidparathyroidectomy) on the first day of gestation, as well as introduction of thyroxin and CaC12 on the structure of offspring ovary in postnatal ontogenesis (30-day old animals) was studied. It has been shown that thyroidparathyroidectomy of a female mother rat with thyroxine replacement therapy and irradiation, as well as the combination of these factors disturb the structure of ovarian tissues of the offspring. A single external irradiation on the 15th day of embryogenesis causes death of a considerable part of primordial follicles in the offspring ovary and growth of follicular layers in the secondary follicles. Thyroidparathyroidectomy of female rat on the first day of gestation with thyroxine replacement therapy causes delay in the development of follicles in the ovary at the early stages of maturation of 30-day old animals. The radiosensitivity of the ovarian tissues of the offspring that has been developed under the combined effect of the factors studied increases and results in an almost full loss of pool cells in the ovary of infant rats.

  2. Cancer Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The patient shown is undergoing cancer radiation treatment in a hospital-like atmosphere but he is not in a hospital. The treatment room is at NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. It is a converted portion of the Center's cyclotron facility, originally designed for radiation studies related to nuclear propulsion for aircraft and spacecraft. Under an agreement between the Center and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, the 50 million volt cyclotron is now being used to evaluate the effectiveness of "fast neutron" therapy in the treatment of cancerous tumors.

  3. [Gestalt therapy.].

    PubMed

    Corbeil, J; Poupard, D

    1978-01-01

    The authors describe Gestalt Therapy. They retrace its fundamental theoretical axes. These are psychoanalysis, character analysis, the german Gestalt theory of perception, existentialism, and the Orient. Some principal concepts are then elaborated more fully such as the cycle of awareness, desensitization, excitation anxiety and the five defense mechanisms: retroflection, introjection, projection, deflection, and confluence. The nature and goals of the therapeutic process are also described before the presentation of some techniques specific to this approach such as enactment and role playing. Finally, certain basic Gestalt rules, which aim at facilitating and intensifying the communication process among group members, are enunciated.

  4. Existential boredom: the experience of living on haemodialysis therapy.

    PubMed

    Moran, A; Scott, P A; Darbyshire, P

    2009-12-01

    Empathy is an essential component of professional nursing practice. In order to empathise appropriately with patients, it is crucial that nurses appreciate, understand and respond to their patients' experience of illness. This study sought to explore the experiences of 16 people with end stage renal disease on haemodialysis therapy in Ireland. A hermeneutical phenomenological methodology was employed incorporating qualitative interviews. The data were analysed using qualitative interpretive analysis. The experience of waiting was significant for the participants in the study. The experience of waiting was constituted by two themes labelled killing time and wasting time. It is suggested that the participants' experience of waiting is reminiscent of Heidegger's existential account of boredom. Moreover, the existential perspective of boredom contained within the participants' accounts is also depicted by Beckett in his play Waiting for Godot. Consequently, the literature of both existential writers is incorporated to provide a more in-depth description of the participants' experience of waiting. It is hoped that the insights provided in this paper will enable practitioners to gain a new awareness and understanding of patients' experiences of end stage renal disease and haemodialysis therapy. This would subsequently enable these professionals to empathise more effectively with their patients' situation and respond more appropriately to their care needs.

  5. Update in rheumatoid arthritis therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim-Howard, Xana R; Staudt, Leslie; James, Judith A

    2005-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by polyarticular symmetrical arthritis. Inflammatory mediators targeting joint structures produce joint inflammation with pain, functional loss, joint destruction and permanent deformity. Currently, no cure for RA exists but the increasing use of combination therapy and immunomodulatory agents has led to improved quality of life and long-term outlook for many of these patients. While traditionally employed therapies have provided limited disease suppression, advances in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of RA have resulted in new therapies targeting very specific components of the inflammatory process. These new treatments have shown very promising results with improved efficacy and an overall decreased toxicity profile. This review provides an overview for practicing clinicians of the current immunosuppressive therapies in RA with an emphasis on newer biological agents regarding their mechanisms of action, efficacy, side effects and monitoring recommendations. Developing therapeutics will be briefly discussed.

  6. Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapy for Kidney Cancer Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer Chemotherapy for Kidney Cancer Pain ... Therapy for Kidney Cancer Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer Chemotherapy for Kidney Cancer Pain ...

  7. Cellular genetic therapy.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, F; Filareto, A; Spitalieri, P; Sangiuolo, F; Novelli, G

    2005-01-01

    Cellular genetic therapy is the ultimate frontier for those pathologies that are consequent to a specific nonfunctional cellular type. A viable cure for there kinds of diseases is the replacement of sick cells with healthy ones, which can be obtained from the same patient or a different donor. In fact, structures can be corrected and strengthened with the introduction of undifferentiated cells within specific target tissues, where they will specialize into the desired cellular types. Furthermore, consequent to the recent results obtained with the transdifferentiation experiments, a process that allows the in vitro differentiation of embryonic and adult stem cells, it has also became clear that many advantages may be obtained from the use of stem cells to produce drugs, vaccines, and therapeutic molecules. Since stem cells can sustain lineage potentials, the capacity for differentiation, and better tolerance for the introduction of exogenous genes, they are also considered as feasible therapeutic vehicles for gene therapy. In fact, it is strongly believed that the combination of cellular genetic and gene therapy approaches will definitely allow the development of new therapeutic strategies as well as the production of totipotent cell lines to be used as experimental models for the cure of genetic disorders.

  8. Circumferential or sectored beam arrangements for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of primary lung tumors: Effect on target and normal-structure dose-volume metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Mara W.; Kato, Catherine M.; Carson, Kelly M.P.; Matsunaga, Nathan M.; Arao, Robert F.; Doss, Emily J.; McCracken, Charles L.; Meng, Lu Z.; Chen, Yiyi; Laub, Wolfram U.; Fuss, Martin; Tanyi, James A.

    2013-01-01

    To compare 2 beam arrangements, sectored (beam entry over ipsilateral hemithorax) vs circumferential (beam entry over both ipsilateral and contralateral lungs), for static-gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery techniques with respect to target and organs-at-risk (OAR) dose-volume metrics, as well as treatment delivery efficiency. Data from 60 consecutive patients treated using stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for primary non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) formed the basis of this study. Four treatment plans were generated per data set: IMRT/VMAT plans using sectored (-s) and circumferential (-c) configurations. The prescribed dose (PD) was 60 Gy in 5 fractions to 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) (maximum PTV dose ∼ 150% PD) for a 6-MV photon beam. Plan conformality, R{sub 50} (ratio of volume circumscribed by the 50% isodose line and the PTV), and D{sub 2} {sub cm} (D{sub max} at a distance ≥2 cm beyond the PTV) were evaluated. For lungs, mean doses (mean lung dose [MLD]) and percent V{sub 30}/V{sub 20}/V{sub 10}/V{sub 5} Gy were assessed. Spinal cord and esophagus D{sub max} and D{sub 5}/D{sub 50} were computed. Chest wall (CW) D{sub max} and absolute V{sub 30}/V{sub 20}/V{sub 10}/V{sub 5} {sub Gy} were reported. Sectored SBRT planning resulted in significant decrease in contralateral MLD and V{sub 10}/V{sub 5} {sub Gy}, as well as contralateral CW D{sub max} and V{sub 10}/V{sub 5} {sub Gy} (all p < 0.001). Nominal reductions of D{sub max} and D{sub 5}/D{sub 50} for the spinal cord with sectored planning did not reach statistical significance for static-gantry IMRT, although VMAT metrics did show a statistically significant decrease (all p < 0.001). The respective measures for esophageal doses were significantly lower with sectored planning (p < 0.001). Despite comparable dose conformality, irrespective of planning configuration, R{sub 50} significantly improved with IMRT

  9. ‘Not Until I'm Absolutely Half-Dead and Have To:’ Accounting for Non-Use of Antiretroviral Therapy in Semi-Structured Interviews with People Living with HIV in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Limin; Persson, Asha; Holt, Martin; Slavin, Sean; Kidd, Michael R.; Post, Jeffrey J.; Wright, Edwina; de Wit, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Current debates regarding the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to promote both individual- and population-level health benefits underscore the importance of understanding why a subpopulation of people with diagnosed HIV and access to treatment choose not to use it. Semi-structured interviews were conducted between 2012 and 2014 with 27 people living with HIV in Australia who were not using ART at the time of interview. Analytic triangulation permitted an appreciation of not only the varied personal reasons for non-use of treatment, but also underlying views on HIV treatment, and the ideal conditions imagined necessary for treatment initiation. Policy goals to increase the number of people with HIV using ART must recognize the diverse explanations for non-use of ART, which include concerns about the various impacts of committing to lifelong pharmaceutical treatment use. Our research identified distinctive subgroups among people who are not using antiretroviral therapy, with a range of individual and social needs that may affect treatment decisions. These findings challenge assumptions about treatment non-use in resource-rich settings, revealing persistent consumer fears about the potent and unknown effects of HIV medications that deserve greater recognition in policy debate on treatment uptake. PMID:25806574

  10. Lead Structures for Applications in Photodynamic Therapy. 6. Temoporfin Anti-Inflammatory Conjugates to Target the Tumor Microenvironment for In Vitro PDT.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Luke; Sergeeva, Natalia N; Paszko, Edyta; Vaz, Gisela M F; Senge, Mathias O

    2015-01-01

    Due to the ongoing development of clinical photodynamic therapy (PDT), the search continues for optimized photosensitizers that can overcome some of the side effects associated with this type of treatment modality. The main protagonists being: post-treatment photosensitivity, due to only limited cellular selectivity and post-treatment tumor regrowth, due to the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory agents within the tumor microenvironment. A photosensitizer that could overcome one or both of these drawbacks would be highly attractive to those engaged in clinical PDT. Certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) when used in combination with PDT have shown to increase the cytotoxicity of the treatment modality by targeting the tumor microenvironment. Temoporfin (m-THPC), the gold standard chlorin-based photosensitizer (PS) since its discovery in the 1980's, has successfully been conjugated to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds, in an attempt to address the issue of post-treatment tumor regrowth. Using a modified Steglich esterification reaction, a library of "iPorphyrins" was successfully synthesized and evaluated for their PDT efficacy.

  11. Lead Structures for Applications in Photodynamic Therapy. 6. Temoporfin Anti-Inflammatory Conjugates to Target the Tumor Microenvironment for In Vitro PDT

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Luke; Sergeeva, Natalia N.; Paszko, Edyta; Vaz, Gisela M. F.; Senge, Mathias O.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the ongoing development of clinical photodynamic therapy (PDT), the search continues for optimized photosensitizers that can overcome some of the side effects associated with this type of treatment modality. The main protagonists being: post-treatment photosensitivity, due to only limited cellular selectivity and post-treatment tumor regrowth, due to the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory agents within the tumor microenvironment. A photosensitizer that could overcome one or both of these drawbacks would be highly attractive to those engaged in clinical PDT. Certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) when used in combination with PDT have shown to increase the cytotoxicity of the treatment modality by targeting the tumor microenvironment. Temoporfin (m-THPC), the gold standard chlorin-based photosensitizer (PS) since its discovery in the 1980’s, has successfully been conjugated to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds, in an attempt to address the issue of post-treatment tumor regrowth. Using a modified Steglich esterification reaction, a library of “iPorphyrins” was successfully synthesized and evaluated for their PDT efficacy. PMID:25992651

  12. Implementation of an Electronic Objective Structured Clinical Exam for Assessing Practical Skills in Pre-Professional Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Programs: Examiner and Course Coordinator Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Suzanne J.; Ashby, Samantha E.; Rivett, Darren A.; Russell, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of practical clinical skills is essential in the health fields. Objective Structured Clinical Exams (OSCEs), where examiners assess students performing clinical procedures on simulated patients (actors), are central to the evaluation of practical skills. However, traditional OSCEs require considerable time-investment to administer, and…

  13. Muslim Families and Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneshpour, Manijeh

    1998-01-01

    Examines the applicability of the Anglo-American models of family therapy to Muslim immigrant families. The differences in value systems are the Muslim families' preferences for greater connectedness, a less flexible and more hierarchical family structure, and an implicit communication style. Suggests that directions for change for Muslims need to…

  14. Laser therapy for cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000905.htm Laser therapy for cancer To use the sharing features ... Lasers are also used on the skin. How Laser Therapy is Used Laser therapy can be used ...

  15. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  16. American Art Therapy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... more My AATA Collaborate Types & Benefits Local Chapters Education Art Therapy Education ...Read more Educational Standards Approved Art Therapy Master’s ... Art Therapy Credentials Board (ATCB) Institute for Continuing Education (ICE) Ethics Multicultural Conference Conference Information ...Read more ...

  17. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ON THIS TOPIC Who's Who in the Hospital Speech-Language Therapy Managing Home Health Care Physical Therapy Caring for a Seriously Ill Child Word! Occupational Therapist Word! Occupational Therapy Wheelchairs Going to an Occupational ...

  18. [Physical therapy].

    PubMed

    Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2008-01-01

    Recently, pulmonary rehabilitation program is widely considered one of the most effective and evidence-based treatment for not only chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but many clinical situations including neuro-muscular disease, post-operative status and weaning period from the ventilator, etc. The essential components of a pulmonary rehabilitation program are team assessment, patient training, psycho-social intervention, exercise, and follow-up. In 2003, Japanese medical societies (J. Thoracic Society, J. Pul. Rehabilitation Society and J. Physiotherapist Society) made a new guideline for pulmonary rehabilitation, especially how to aproach the execise training. As for the duration after surgical operation, airway cleaning is the important technique to prevent post-operative complications including pneumonia. Postural dranage technique is well known for such condition, at the same time, several instruments (flutter vulve, positive expiratory mask, high frequecy oscillation, etc) were also used for the patient to expectrate airway mucus easier. Lung transplantation is a new method of treatment for the critically-ill patients with chronic respiratoy failure. Several techniques of physical therapy are must be needed before and after lung transplantation to prevent both pulmonary infection and osteoporosis.

  19. Proton therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Bradford; Henderson, Randal; Mendenhall, William M; Nichols, Romaine C; Li, Zuofeng; Mendenhall, Nancy P

    2011-06-01

    Proton therapy has been used in the treatment of cancer for over 50 years. Due to its unique dose distribution with its spread-out Bragg peak, proton therapy can deliver highly conformal radiation to cancers located adjacent to critical normal structures. One of the important applications of its use is in prostate cancer, since the prostate is located adjacent to the rectum and bladder. Over 30 years of data have been published on the use of proton therapy in prostate cancer; these data have demonstrated high rates of local and biochemical control as well as low rates of urinary and rectal toxicity. Although before 2000 proton therapy was available at only a couple of centers in the United States, several new proton centers have been built in the last decade. With the increased availability of proton therapy, research on its use for prostate cancer has accelerated rapidly. Current research includes explorations of dose escalation, hypofractionation, and patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes. Early results from these studies are promising and will likely help make proton therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer more cost-effective.

  20. Clinicopathological correlates in HIV seropositive tuberculosis cases presenting with jaundice after initiating antiretroviral therapy with a structured review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of jaundice after initiation of HAART in HIV-TB co-infected patients is a challenging presentation in resource constrained settings, and is often attributed to drug induced liver injury (DILI).Some investigators have described hepatic tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (TB-IRIS) as a cause of liver disease in patients initiating HAART, which could also cause jaundice. Case presentations We report the clinical and histopathological features of five HIV-TB co-infected patients presenting with a syndrome of jaundice, tender hepatomegaly, bile canalicular enzyme rise and return of constitutional symptoms within 8 weeks of initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for advanced HIV infection at a rural clinic in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. All five patients had been diagnosed with tuberculosis infection prior to HAART initiation and were on antituberculous medication at time of developing jaundice. There was evidence of multiple aetiologies of liver injury in all patients. However, based on clinical course and pathological findings, predominant hepatic injury was thought to be drug induced in one case and hepatic tuberculosis associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in the other four. In these later 4 patients, liver biopsy findings included necrotising and non-necrotising granulomatous inflammation in the lobules and portal tracts. The granulomas demonstrated – in addition to epithelioid histiocytes and Langhans giant cells – neutrophils, plasma cells and large numbers of lymphocytes, which are not features of a conventional untreated tuberculous response. Conclusion In this high TB prevalent, low resource setting, TB-IRIS may be an important cause of jaundice post-HAART initiation. Clinicopathological correlation is essential for optimal diagnosis. Further multi-organ based histopathological studies in the context of immune reconstitution would be useful to clinicians in low

  1. The Crystal Structure of the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase from Human Rhinovirus: A Dual Function Target for Common Cold Antiviral Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Robert A.; Maegley, Karen A.; Yu, Xiu; Ferre, RoseAnn; Lingardo, Laura K.; Diehl, Wade; Parge, Hans E.; Dragovich, Peter S.; Fuhrman, Shella A.

    2010-11-16

    Human rhinoviruses (HRV), the predominant members of the Picornaviridae family of positive-strand RNA viruses, are the major causative agents of the common cold. Given the lack of effective treatments for rhinoviral infections, virally encoded proteins have become attractive therapeutic targets. The HRV genome encodes an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) denoted 3D{sup pol}, which is responsible for replicating the viral genome and for synthesizing a protein primer used in the replication. Here the crystal structures for three viral serotypes (1B, 14, and 16) of HRV 3D{sup pol} have been determined. The three structures are very similar to one another, and to the closely related poliovirus (PV) 3D{sup pol} enzyme. Because the reported PV crystal structure shows significant disorder, HRV 3D{sup pol} provides the first complete view of a picornaviral RdRp. The folding topology of HRV 3D{sup pol} also resembles that of RdRps from hepatitis C virus (HCV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) despite very low sequence homology.

  2. A fine structural modification of glycosaminoglycans is correlated with the progression of muscle regeneration after ischaemia: towards a matrix-based therapy?

    PubMed

    Chevalier, F; Arnaud, D; Henault, E; Guillevic, O; Siñeriz, F; Ponsen, A C; Papy-Garcia, D; Barritault, D; Letourneur, D; Uzan, G; Meddahi-Pellé, A; Hlawaty, H; Albanese, P

    2015-09-04

    Critical limb ischaemia often leads to amputation of the limb and potential mortality. Moreover, there are still significant problems with current therapeutic treatments, according to poor revascularisation of degenerated tissue probably due to modifications within the microenvironment. This study is focused on the changes of structure and bioactivity of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), especially heparan sulphate (HS) and chondroitin sulphate (CS) in rat Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL) muscle after ischaemia. Male Wistar rats were subjected to ischaemic-injury by ligation of the neurovascular trunk accompanying EDL-tendon. After 4, 8, 15, 21, 60 and 90 d, the rats were sacrificed and the muscles were collected and submitted to histological, biochemical and gene expression assays. We demonstrated that ischaemia induced modification of expression of enzymes involved in GAG biosynthesis which correlated with significant changes in HS and CS structural features such as size and sulphation pattern. These major structural changes are associated to modifications of GAG abilities to bind growth factors and to modulate cell activity. Moreover, a CS hallmark of injury is maintained as well after the regeneration process. Finally, we showed the relevance of the role of this glycanic matrix remodelling, since a GAG mimetic treatment accelerated muscle repair after ischaemia.

  3. Water-mediated structuring of bone apatite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Von Euw, Stanislas; Fernandes, Francisco M; Cassaignon, Sophie; Selmane, Mohamed; Laurent, Guillaume; Pehau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Coelho, Cristina; Bonhomme-Coury, Laure; Giraud-Guille, Marie-Madeleine; Babonneau, Florence; Azaïs, Thierry; Nassif, Nadine

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that organic molecules from the vertebrate extracellular matrix of calcifying tissues are essential in structuring the apatite mineral. Here, we show that water also plays a structuring role. By using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, wide-angle X-ray scattering and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy to characterize the structure and organization of crystalline and biomimetic apatite nanoparticles as well as intact bone samples, we demonstrate that water orients apatite crystals through an amorphous calcium phosphate-like layer that coats the crystalline core of bone apatite. This disordered layer is reminiscent of those found around the crystalline core of calcified biominerals in various natural composite materials in vivo. This work provides an extended local model of bone biomineralization.

  4. Structure of the LINGO-1-anti-LINGO-1 Li81 antibody complex provides insights into the biology of LINGO-1 and the mechanism of action of the antibody therapy.

    PubMed

    Pepinsky, R Blake; Arndt, Joseph W; Quan, Chao; Gao, Yan; Quintero-Monzon, Omar; Lee, Xinhua; Mi, Sha

    2014-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune-inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with prominent demyelination and axonal injury. While most MS therapies target the immunologic response, there is a large unmet need for treatments that can promote CNS repair. LINGO-1 (leucine-rich repeat and Ig-containing Nogo receptor interacting protein-1) is a membrane protein selectively expressed in the CNS that suppresses myelination, preventing the repair of damaged axons. We are investigating LINGO-1 antagonist antibodies that lead to remyelination as a new paradigm for treatment of individuals with MS. The anti-LINGO-1 Li81 antibody,BIIB033, is currently in clinical trials and is the first MS treatment targeting CNS repair. Here, to elucidate the mechanism of action of the antibody, we solved the crystal structure of the LINGO-1-Li81 Fab complex and used biochemical and functional studies to investigate structure-function relationships. Li81 binds to the convex surface of the leucine-rich repeat domain of LINGO-1 within repeats 4-8. Fab binding blocks contact points used in the oligomerization of LINGO-1 and produces a stable complex containing two copies each of LINGO-1 and Fab that results from a rearrangement of contacts stabilizing the quaternary structure of LINGO-1. The formation of the LINGO-1-Li81 Fab complex masks functional epitopes within the Ig domain of LINGO-1 that are important for its biologic activity in oligodendrocyte differentiation. These studies provide new insights into the structure and biology of LINGO-1 and how Li81 monoclonal antibody can block its function.

  5. Examining the Factor Structure of the 39-Item and 15-Item Versions of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire Before and After Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for People With Recurrent Depression

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Research into the effectiveness and mechanisms of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) requires reliable and valid measures of mindfulness. The 39-item Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-39) is a measure of mindfulness commonly used to assess change before and after MBIs. However, the stability and invariance of the FFMQ factor structure have not yet been tested before and after an MBI; pre to post comparisons may not be valid if the structure changes over this period. Our primary aim was to examine the factor structure of the FFMQ-39 before and after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in adults with recurrent depression in remission using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Additionally, we examined whether the factor structure of the 15-item version (FFMQ-15) was consistent with that of the FFMQ-39, and whether it was stable over MBCT. Our secondary aim was to assess the general psychometric properties of both versions. CFAs showed that pre-MBCT, a 4-factor hierarchical model (excluding the “observing” facet) best fit the FFMQ-39 and FFMQ-15 data, whereas post-MBCT, a 5-factor hierarchical model best fit the data for both versions. Configural invariance across the time points was not supported for both versions. Internal consistency and sensitivity to change were adequate for both versions. Both FFMQ versions did not differ significantly from each other in terms of convergent validity. Researchers should consider excluding the Observing subscale from comparisons of total scale/subscale scores before and after mindfulness interventions. Current findings support the use of the FFMQ-15 as an alternative measure in research where briefer forms are needed. PMID:27078186

  6. Muslim families and family therapy.

    PubMed

    Daneshpour, M

    1998-07-01

    Muslim immigrant families living in the United States may well come to the attention of mental health professionals. This article examines the applicability of the Anglo-American models of family therapy to Muslim immigrant families. The most significant differences in value systems between the Muslim and Anglo-American cultures is Muslim families' preference for greater connectedness, a less flexible and more hierarchical family structure, and an implicit communication style. Systemic thinking, which deals with the pattern of relationships, is valid for all families regardless of cultural differences. However, the preferred directions of change for Muslim families need to be integrated into the assessment and goals for family therapy.

  7. Trends in accelerator technology for hadron therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostromin, S. A.; Syresin, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Hadron therapy with protons and carbon ions is one of the most effective branches in radiation oncology. It has advantages over therapy using gamma radiation and electron beams. Fifty thousand patients a year need such treatment in Russia. A review of the main modern trends in the development of accelerators for therapy and treatment techniques concerned with respiratory gated irradiation and scanning with the intensity modulated pencil beams is given. The main stages of formation, time structure, and the main parameters of the beams used in proton therapy, as well as the requirements for medicine accelerators, are considered. The main results of testing with the beam of the C235-V3 cyclotron for the first Russian specialized hospital proton therapy center in Dimitrovgrad are presented. The use of superconducting accelerators and gantry systems for hadron therapy is considered.

  8. Spacetime structures of continuous-time quantum walks.

    PubMed

    Mülken, Oliver; Blumen, Alexander

    2005-03-01

    The propagation by continuous-time quantum walks (CTQWs) on one-dimensional lattices shows structures in the transition probabilities between different sites reminiscent of quantum carpets. For a system with periodic boundary conditions, we calculate the transition probabilities for a CTQW by diagonalizing the transfer matrix and by a Bloch function ansatz. Remarkably, the results obtained for the Bloch function ansatz can be related to results from (discrete) generalized coined quantum walks. Furthermore, we show that here the first revival time turns out to be larger than for quantum carpets.

  9. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  10. Marriage or Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Jay

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the differences between family therapy and marriage counseling in terms of professional organization, theory, and practice. Suggests that training in marriage therapy does not appear adequate for family therapy. The goal of the therapy field should be more consensus in theory and a single profession of therapists. (JAC)

  11. Art Therapy Verses Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giacco, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of my paper is to identify the difference between psychotherapy and art therapy. Then to introduce a technique within the field of art therapy that is relevant to neuro-plasticity Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy. The paper identifies the importance of the amygdala and the hippocampus within the role of art therapy. Supporting…

  12. Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

  13. Development of beryllium-based neutron target system with three-layer structure for accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Kurihara, Toshikazu; Yoshioka, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Sugano, Tomei; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Takeji; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-12-01

    The iBNCT project team with University of Tsukuba is developing an accelerator-based neutron source. Regarding neutron target material, our project has applied beryllium. To deal with large heat load and blistering of the target system, we developed a three-layer structure for the target system that includes a blistering mitigation material between the beryllium used as the neutron generator and the copper heat sink. The three materials were bonded through diffusion bonding using a hot isostatic pressing method. Based on several verifications, our project chose palladium as the intermediate layer. A prototype of the neutron target system was produced. We will verify that sufficient neutrons for BNCT treatment are generated by the device in the near future.

  14. Multimodal Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Dementia: A Multi- Center, Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji Won; Lee, Hyeonggon; Hong, Jong Woo; Kim, Kayoung; Kim, Taehyun; Byun, Hye Jin; Ko, Ji Won; Youn, Jong Chul; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Lee, Nam-Jin; Pae, Chi-Un; Kim, Ki Woong

    2017-01-01

    We developed and evaluated the effect of Multimodal Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (MCET) consisting of cognitive training, cognitive stimulations, reality orientation, physical therapy, reminiscence therapy, and music therapy in combination in older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia. This study was a multi-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period cross-over study (two 8-week treatment phases separated by a 4-week wash-out period). Sixty-four participants with MCI or dementia whose Clinical Dementia Rating was 0.5 or 1 were randomized to the MCET group or the mock-therapy (placebo) group. Outcomes were measured at baseline, week 9, and week 21. Fifty-five patients completed the study. Mini-Mental State Examination (effect size = 0.47, p = 0.013) and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (effect size = 0.35, p = 0.045) scores were significantly improved in the MCET compared with mock-therapy group. Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist frequency (effect size = 0.38, p = 0.046) and self-rated Quality of Life - Alzheimer's Disease (effect size = 0.39, p = 0.047) scores were significantly improved in the MCET compared with mock-therapy. MCET improved cognition, behavior, and quality of life in people with MCI or mild dementia more effectively than conventional cognitive enhancing activities did.

  15. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CANCER THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Burcu; Ozpolat, Bulent; Sood, Anil K.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide and advanced techniques for therapy are urgently needed. The development of novel nanomaterials and nanocarriers has allowed a major drive to improve drug delivery in cancer. The major aim of most nanocarrier applications has been to protect the drug from rapid degradation after systemic delivery and allowing it to reach tumor site at therapeutic concentrations, meanwhile avoiding drug delivery to normal sites as much as possible to reduce adverse effects. These nanocarriers are formulated to deliver drugs either by passive targeting, taking advantage of leaky tumor vasculature or by active targeting using ligands that increase tumoral uptake potentially resulting in enhanced antitumor efficacy, thus achieving a net improvement in therapeutic index. The rational design of nanoparticles plays a critical role since structural and physical characteristics, such as size, charge, shape, and surface characteristics determine the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, internalization and safety of the drugs. In this review, we focus on several novel and improved strategies in nanocarrier design for cancer therapy. PMID:24079419

  16. Tracks to therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of the structure of particle tracks have led to models of track effects based on radial dose and radiobiological target theory that have been very successful in describing and predicting track effects in physical, chemical, and biological systems. For describing mammalian cellular inactivation two inactivation modes are required, called gamma-kill and ion-kill, the first due to synergistic effects of delta rays from adjacent ion paths thus resembling the effects from gamma rays, and the second to the effects of single ion transits through a cell nucleus. The ion-kill effect is more severe, where the fraction of cells experiencing ion kill is responsible for a decrease in the oxygen enhancement ratio, and an increase in relative biological effectiveness, but these are accompanied by loss of repair, hence to a reduction in the efficiency of fractionation in high LET therapy, as shown by our calculations for radiobiological effects in the "spread out Bragg Peak".

  17. TU-G-BRA-05: Predicting Volume Change of the Tumor and Critical Structures Throughout Radiation Therapy by CT-CBCT Registration with Local Intensity Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S; Robinson, A; Kiess, A; Quon, H; Wong, J; Lee, J; Plishker, W; Shekhar, R

    2015-06-15

    can accurately predict the tumor volume change with reduced errors. Although demonstrated only on HN nodal GTVs, the results imply improved accuracy for other critical structures. This work was supported by NIH/NCI under grant R42CA137886.

  18. Proton Therapy - Accelerating Protons to Save Lives

    SciTech Connect

    Keppel, Cynthia

    2011-10-25

    In 1946, physicist Robert Wilson first suggested that protons could be used as a form of radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer because of the sharp drop-off that occurs on the distal edge of the radiation dose. Research soon confirmed that high-energy protons were particularly suitable for treating tumors near critical structures, such as the heart and spinal column. The precision with which protons can be delivered means that more radiation can be deposited into the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue receives substantially less or, in some cases, no radiation. Since these times, particle accelerators have continuously been used in cancer therapy and today new facilities specifically designed for proton therapy are being built in many countries. Proton therapy has been hailed as a revolutionary cancer treatment, with higher cure rates and fewer side effects than traditional X-ray photon radiation therapy. Proton therapy is the modality of choice for treating certain small tumors of the eye, head or neck. Because it exposes less of the tissue surrounding a tumor to the dosage, proton therapy lowers the risk of secondary cancers later in life - especially important for young children. To date, over 80,000 patients worldwide have been treated with protons. Currently, there are nine proton radiation therapy facilities operating in the United States, one at the Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute. An overview of the treatment technology and this new center will be presented.

  19. Structure-charge relationship - the case of hematite (001)

    DOE PAGES

    Lutzenkirchen, Johannes; Heberling, Frank; Supljika, Filip; ...

    2015-01-16

    We present a multidisciplinary study on the hematite (001)–aqueous solution interface, in particular the relationship between surface structure (studied via surface diffraction in a humid atmosphere) and the macroscopic charging (studied via surface- and zeta-potential measurements in electrolyte solutions as a function of pH). Upon aging in water changes in the surface structure are observed, that are accompanied by drastic changes in the zeta-potential. Surprisingly the surface potential is not accordingly affected. We interpret our results by increasing hydration of the surface with time and enhanced reactivity of singly-coordinated hydroxyl groups that cause the isoelectric point of the surface tomore » shift to values that are reminiscent of those typically reported for hematite particles. In its initial stages after preparation the hematite surface is very flat and only weakly hydrated. Our model links the entailing weak water structure with the observed low isoelectric point reminiscent of hydrophobic surfaces. The absence of an aging effect on the surface potential vs. pH curves is interpreted as domination of the surface potential by the doubly coordinated hydroxyls, which are present on both surfaces.« less

  20. Structure-charge relationship - the case of hematite (001)

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzenkirchen, Johannes; Heberling, Frank; Supljika, Filip; Preocanin, Tajana; Kallay, Nikola; Johann, Florian

    2015-01-16

    We present a multidisciplinary study on the hematite (001)–aqueous solution interface, in particular the relationship between surface structure (studied via surface diffraction in a humid atmosphere) and the macroscopic charging (studied via surface- and zeta-potential measurements in electrolyte solutions as a function of pH). Upon aging in water changes in the surface structure are observed, that are accompanied by drastic changes in the zeta-potential. Surprisingly the surface potential is not accordingly affected. We interpret our results by increasing hydration of the surface with time and enhanced reactivity of singly-coordinated hydroxyl groups that cause the isoelectric point of the surface to shift to values that are reminiscent of those typically reported for hematite particles. In its initial stages after preparation the hematite surface is very flat and only weakly hydrated. Our model links the entailing weak water structure with the observed low isoelectric point reminiscent of hydrophobic surfaces. The absence of an aging effect on the surface potential vs. pH curves is interpreted as domination of the surface potential by the doubly coordinated hydroxyls, which are present on both surfaces.

  1. Appropriate Antibiotic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; Heil, Emily L; Hayes, Bryan D

    2017-02-01

    Prescribing antibiotics is an essential component of initial therapy in sepsis. Early antibiotics are an important component of therapy, but speed of administration should not overshadow the patient-specific characteristics that determine the optimal breadth of antimicrobial therapy. Cultures should be drawn before antibiotic therapy if it does not significantly delay administration. Combination antibiotic therapy against gram-negative infections is not routinely required, and combination therapy involving vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam is associated with an increase in acute kidney injury. Emergency practitioners should be aware of special considerations in the administration and dosing of antibiotics in order to deliver optimal care to septic patients.

  2. DRUG THERAPY IN KNEE OSTEOARTHROSIS

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende, Márcia Uchôa; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Clinical treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) is very important and is based on patient’s self care and guided by the physician. Drug therapy is additional to losing weight, improving muscular strength, proprioception, flexibility and range of motion. Between the available drugs for osteoarthritis’ treatment, some are basically analgesics and do not interfere on disease’s progression; some are anti-inflammatory with good analgesic power but with side effects that compromise their prolonged usage; and the structure modifying drugs that slow down the progression of OA. The medications are presented in topic, oral, intra-muscular, intra-venous and intra-articular forms. The hyaluronic acid has various presentations with good analgesic effect and some evidence of structure modifying property. There is IA evidence level for the use of diacerhein and of glucosamine to slow down the disease. Still, more technology for diagnosis and therapy control of OA is necessary to define the efficacy of other drugs. PMID:26998447

  3. Structures of cyano-biphenyl liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Yuan-Chao; Tsang, Tung; Rahimzadeh, E.; Yin, L.

    1989-01-01

    The structures of p-alkyl- p'-cyano- bicyclohexanes, C(n)H(2n+1) (C6H10)(C6H10) CN (n-CCH), and p-alkyl- p'-cyano- biphenyls, C(n)H(2n+1) (C6H4)(C6H4) CN (n-CBP), were studied. It is convenient to use an x ray image intensification device to search for symmetric x ray diffraction patterns. Despite the similarities in molecular structures of these compounds, very different crystal structures were found. For the smectic phase of 2CCH, the structure is close to rhombohedral with threefold symmetry. In contrast, the structure is close to hexagonal close-packed with two molecules per unit cell for 4CCH. Since intermolecular forces may be quite weak for these liquid crystals systems, it appears that crystal structures change considerably when the alkyl chain length is slightly altered. Different structures were also found in the crystalline phase of n-CBP for n = 6 to 9. For n = 7 to 9, the structures are close to monclinic. The structures are reminiscent of the smectic-A liquid crystal structures with the linear molecules slightly tilted away from the c-axis. In contrast, the structure is quite different for n = 6 with the molecules nearly perpendicular to the c-axis.

  4. Markov chain models of coupled intracellular calcium channels: Kronecker structured representations and benchmark stationary distribution calculations.

    PubMed

    Deremigio, Hilary; Kemper, Peter; Lamar, M Drew; Smith, Gregory D

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical models of calcium release sites derived from Markov chain models of intracellular calcium channels exhibit collective gating reminiscent of the experimentally observed phenomenon of stochastic calcium excitability (i.e., calcium puffs and sparks). We present a Kronecker structured representation for calcium release site models and perform benchmark stationary distribution calculations using numerical iterative solution techniques that leverage this structure. In this context we find multi-level methods and certain preconditioned projection methods superior to simple Gauss-Seidel type iterations. Response measures such as the number of channels in a particular state converge more quickly using these numerical iterative methods than occupation measures calculated via Monte Carlo simulation.

  5. Genes and Gene Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  6. Gene therapy for blindness.

    PubMed

    Sahel, José-Alain; Roska, Botond

    2013-07-08

    Sight-restoring therapy for the visually impaired and blind is a major unmet medical need. Ocular gene therapy is a rational choice for restoring vision or preventing the loss of vision because most blinding diseases originate in cellular components of the eye, a compartment that is optimally suited for the delivery of genes, and many of these diseases have a genetic origin or genetic component. In recent years we have witnessed major advances in the field of ocular gene therapy, and proof-of-concept studies are under way to evaluate the safety and efficacy of human gene therapies. Here we discuss the concepts and recent advances in gene therapy in the retina. Our review discusses traditional approaches such as gene replacement and neuroprotection and also new avenues such as optogenetic therapies. We conjecture that advances in gene therapy in the retina will pave the way for gene therapies in other parts of the brain.

  7. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002375.htm Hyperbaric oxygen therapy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy uses a special pressure chamber to increase ...

  8. Sexual Health: Testosterone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Sexual health Considering testosterone therapy to help you feel younger and more vigorous as you age? ... 01, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/sexual-health/in-depth/testosterone-therapy/art-20045728 . ...

  9. Targeted Therapy for Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Targeted therapy is a type of cancer treatment that targets the changes in cancer cells that help them grow, divide, and spread. Learn how targeted therapy works against cancer and about side effects that may occur.

  10. Myocardial gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isner, Jeffrey M.

    2002-01-01

    Gene therapy is proving likely to be a viable alternative to conventional therapies in coronary artery disease and heart failure. Phase 1 clinical trials indicate high levels of safety and clinical benefits with gene therapy using angiogenic growth factors in myocardial ischaemia. Although gene therapy for heart failure is still at the pre-clinical stage, experimental data indicate that therapeutic angiogenesis using short-term gene expression may elicit functional improvement in affected individuals.

  11. The Impact of Different CD4 Cell-Count Monitoring and Switching Strategies on Mortality in HIV-Infected African Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy: An Application of Dynamic Marginal Structural Models

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Deborah; Robins, James M.; Petersen, Maya L.; Gibb, Diana M.; Gilks, Charles F.; Mugyenyi, Peter; Grosskurth, Heiner; Hakim, James; Katabira, Elly; Babiker, Abdel G.; Walker, A. Sarah

    2015-01-01

    In Africa, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is delivered with limited laboratory monitoring, often none. In 2003–2004, investigators in the Development of Antiretroviral Therapy in Africa (DART) Trial randomized persons initiating ART in Uganda and Zimbabwe to either laboratory and clinical monitoring (LCM) or clinically driven monitoring (CDM). CD4 cell counts were measured every 12 weeks in both groups but were only returned to treating clinicians for management in the LCM group. Follow-up continued through 2008. In observational analyses, dynamic marginal structural models on pooled randomized groups were used to estimate survival under different monitoring-frequency and clinical/immunological switching strategies. Assumptions included no direct effect of randomized group on mortality or confounders and no unmeasured confounders which influenced treatment switch and mortality or treatment switch and time-dependent covariates. After 48 weeks of first-line ART, 2,946 individuals contributed 11,351 person-years of follow-up, 625 switches, and 179 deaths. The estimated survival probability after a further 240 weeks for post-48-week switch at the first CD4 cell count less than 100 cells/mm3 or non-Candida World Health Organization stage 4 event (with CD4 count <250) was 0.96 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.94, 0.97) with 12-weekly CD4 testing, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.95, 0.97) with 24-weekly CD4 testing, 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.96) with a single CD4 test at 48 weeks (baseline), and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.94) with no CD4 testing. Comparing randomized groups by 48-week CD4 count, the mortality risk associated with CDM versus LCM was greater in persons with CD4 counts of <100 (hazard ratio = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.3) than in those with CD4 counts of ≥100 (hazard ratio = 1.1, 95% CI: 0.8, 1.7; interaction P = 0.04). These findings support a benefit from identifying patients immunologically failing first-line ART at 48 weeks. PMID:26316598

  12. Bronchial hygiene therapy.

    PubMed

    Peruzzi, W T; Smith, B

    1995-01-01

    Bronchial hygiene therapy is useful and effective in the presence of careful patient evaluation, clear definition of therapeutic goals, and application of appropriate modalities. This article defines the variable bronchial hygiene modalities and discusses their indications, contraindications, and applications. Prophylactic and therapeutic bronchial hygiene modalities, diagnostic methods associated with bronchial hygiene therapy, inhaled antibiotic therapy, and therapist driven protocols are also addressed.

  13. Musings on Adventure Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Antonio G.; Stauffer, Gary A.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques various definitions of adventure therapy, then suggests that adventure therapy is any intentional, facilitated use of adventure tools and techniques to guide personal change toward desired therapeutic goals. Reflects on the nature of adventure therapy through a discussion of the application of this definition and its implications for…

  14. The physical therapy prescription.

    PubMed

    Onks, Cayce A; Wawrzyniak, John

    2014-07-01

    Physical therapy was first noted in the time of Hippocrates. The physical therapy visit includes a complete history, physical examination, and development of a treatment plan. Health care providers usually initiate a referral based on physical examination, symptoms, or a specific diagnosis. Physical therapy has been shown to be particularly helpful for musculoskeletal ailments, and has a growing body of evidence for use.

  15. Play Therapy: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

  16. Behavior Therapy of Impotence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dengrove, Edward

    1971-01-01

    Behavior therapy approaches to the treatment of male sexual impotence, specifically premature ejaculation and erective impotence, are discussed. Included in the behavioral therapies are systematic desensitization, active graded therapy, assertive techniques, sexual responses, operant approaches and others. Often marriage counseling is also…

  17. Family Therapy and Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Guillermo; Ysern, Eduardo

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the family and the enterprise of family therapy are social systems and under the influence of the ideology particular to a given society. The strategic family therapy treatment of a family with a drug-addicted member serves as an example to clarify the ideological themes of contemporary family therapy. (Author/BL)

  18. Neutron therapy of cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigerio, N. A.; Nellans, H. N.; Shaw, M. J.

    1969-01-01

    Reports relate applications of neutrons to the problem of cancer therapy. The biochemical and biophysical aspects of fast-neutron therapy, neutron-capture and neutron-conversion therapy with intermediate-range neutrons are presented. Also included is a computer program for neutron-gamma radiobiology.

  19. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  20. Monoclonal Antibodies in Diagnosis and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, Thomas A.

    1991-06-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have been applied clinically to the diagnosis and therapy of an array of human disorders, including cancer and infectious diseases, and have been used for the modulation of immune responses. Effective therapy using unmodified monoclonal antibodies has, however, been elusive. Recently, monoclonal antibody-mediated therapy has been revolutionized by advances such as the definition of cell-surface structures on abnormal cells as targets for effective monoclonal antibody action, genetic engineering to create less immunogenic and more effective monoclonal antibodies, and the arming of such antibodies with toxins or radionuclides to enhance their effector function.

  1. VDAC1: from structure to cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda; Mizrachi, Dario

    2012-01-01

    Here, we review current evidence pointing to the function of VDAC1 in cell life and death, and highlight these functions in relation to cancer. Found at the outer mitochondrial membrane, VDAC1 assumes a crucial position in the cell, controlling the metabolic cross-talk between mitochondria and the rest of the cell. Moreover, its location at the boundary between the mitochondria and the cytosol enables VDAC1 to interact with proteins that mediate and regulate the integration of mitochondrial functions with other cellular activities. As a metabolite transporter, VDAC1 contributes to the metabolic phenotype of cancer cells. This is reflected by VDAC1 over-expression in many cancer types, and by inhibition of tumor development upon silencing VDAC1 expression. Along with regulating cellular energy production and metabolism, VDAC1 is also a key protein in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, participating in the release of apoptotic proteins and interacting with anti-apoptotic proteins. The involvement of VDAC1 in the release of apoptotic proteins located in the inter-membranal space is discussed, as is VDAC1 oligomerization as an important step in apoptosis induction. VDAC also serves as an anchor point for mitochondria-interacting proteins, some of which are also highly expressed in many cancers, such as hexokinase (HK), Bcl2, and Bcl-xL. By binding to VDAC, HK provides both metabolic benefit and apoptosis-suppressive capacity that offers the cell a proliferative advantage and increases its resistance to chemotherapy. VDAC1-based peptides that bind specifically to HK, Bcl2, or Bcl-xL abolished the cell’s abilities to bypass the apoptotic pathway. Moreover, these peptides promote cell death in a panel of genetically characterized cell lines derived from different human cancers. These and other functions point to VDAC1 as a rational target for the development of a new generation of therapeutics. PMID:23233904

  2. Topical Therapies for Pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Elmariah, Sarina B.; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2011-01-01

    Itch, or pruritus, is the predominant symptom associated with acute and chronic cutaneous disease and in some cases, may be debilitating. To date, there is no single universally effective anti-itch treatment. As the pathophysiology of itch in most cutaneous or systemic disorders remains unclear, anti-pruritic therapy is often directed against a variety of targets, including the epidermal barrier, immune system, or the nervous system. Topical therapy is the mainstay of dermatologic management of acute or localized itch or in patients with contraindications to systemic therapies. This review will summarize current topical therapies to treat pruritus and discuss potential future therapies. PMID:21767774

  3. Inhalation Therapy in Horses.

    PubMed

    Cha, Mandy L; Costa, Lais R R

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials.

  4. Gene therapy review.

    PubMed

    Moss, Joseph Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The use of genes to treat disease, more commonly known as gene therapy, is a valid and promising tool to manage and treat diseases that conventional drug therapies cannot cure. Gene therapy holds the potential to control a wide range of diseases, including cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and blood diseases. This review assesses the current status of gene therapy, highlighting therapeutic methodologies and applications, terminology, and imaging strategies. This article presents an overview of roadblocks associated with each therapeutic methodology, along with some of the scientific, social, and ethical issues associated with gene therapy.

  5. Structural and Electronic Properties of the Interface between the High-k Oxide LaAlO3 and Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Först, Clemens J.; Schwarz, Karlheinz; Blöchl, Peter E.

    2005-09-01

    The structural and electronic properties of the LaAlO3/Si(001) interface are determined using state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations. The atomic structure differs from previous proposals, but is reminiscent of La adsorption structures on silicon. A phase diagram of the interface stability is calculated as a function of oxygen and Al chemical potentials. We find that an electronically saturated interface is obtained only if Al atoms substitute some of the interfacial Si atoms. These findings raise serious doubts whether LaAlO3 can be used as an epitaxial gate dielectric.

  6. Art Therapy: What Is Art Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... skills, improve reality orientation, reduce anxiety, and increase self-esteem. A goal in art therapy is to improve ... supports federal and state policies, legislation, regulations, judicial actions, and initiatives that encourage, promote, and support efforts ...

  7. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle pulls in class activities. Depending on a child’s medical status, therapy sessions should include the practice of age appropriate gross motor skills such as running, jumping, climbing, and pedaling ...

  8. New photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Abrahamse, Heidi; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-02-15

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was discovered more than 100 years ago, and has since become a well-studied therapy for cancer and various non-malignant diseases including infections. PDT uses photosensitizers (PSs, non-toxic dyes) that are activated by absorption of visible light to initially form the excited singlet state, followed by transition to the long-lived excited triplet state. This triplet state can undergo photochemical reactions in the presence of oxygen to form reactive oxygen species (including singlet oxygen) that can destroy cancer cells, pathogenic microbes and unwanted tissue. The dual-specificity of PDT relies on accumulation of the PS in diseased tissue and also on localized light delivery. Tetrapyrrole structures such as porphyrins, chlorins, bacteriochlorins and phthalocyanines with appropriate functionalization have been widely investigated in PDT, and several compounds have received clinical approval. Other molecular structures including the synthetic dyes classes as phenothiazinium, squaraine and BODIPY (boron-dipyrromethene), transition metal complexes, and natural products such as hypericin, riboflavin and curcumin have been investigated. Targeted PDT uses PSs conjugated to antibodies, peptides, proteins and other ligands with specific cellular receptors. Nanotechnology has made a significant contribution to PDT, giving rise to approaches such as nanoparticle delivery, fullerene-based PSs, titania photocatalysis, and the use of upconverting nanoparticles to increase light penetration into tissue. Future directions include photochemical internalization, genetically encoded protein PSs, theranostics, two-photon absorption PDT, and sonodynamic therapy using ultrasound.

  9. New photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamse, Heidi; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was discovered more than 100 years ago, and has since become a well-studied therapy for cancer and various non-malignant diseases including infections. PDT uses photosensitizers (PSs, non-toxic dyes) that are activated by absorption of visible light to initially form the excited singlet state, followed by transition to the long-lived excited triplet state. This triplet state can undergo photochemical reactions in the presence of oxygen to form reactive oxygen species (including singlet oxygen) that can destroy cancer cells, pathogenic microbes and unwanted tissue. The dual-specificity of PDT relies on accumulation of the PS in diseased tissue and also on localized light delivery. Tetrapyrrole structures such as porphyrins, chlorins, bacteriochlorins and phthalocyanines with appropriate functionalization have been widely investigated in PDT, and several compounds have received clinical approval. Other molecular structures including the synthetic dyes classes as phenothiazinium, squaraine and BODIPY (boron-dipyrromethene), transition metal complexes, and natural products such as hypericin, riboflavin and curcumin have been investigated. Targeted PDT uses PSs conjugated to antibodies, peptides, proteins and other ligands with specific cellular receptors. Nanotechnology has made a significant contribution to PDT, giving rise to approaches such as nanoparticle delivery, fullerene-based PSs, titania photocatalysis, and the use of upconverting nanoparticles to increase light penetration into tissue. Future directions include photochemical internalization, genetically encoded protein PSs, theranostics, two-photon absorption PDT, and sonodynamic therapy using ultrasound. PMID:26862179

  10. Aphasia Therapy in the Age of Globalization: Cross-Linguistic Therapy Effects in Bilingual Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Ansaldo, Ana Inés; Saidi, Ladan Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Globalization imposes challenges to the field of behavioural neurology, among which is an increase in the prevalence of bilingual aphasia. Thus, aphasiologists have increasingly focused on bilingual aphasia therapy and, more recently, on the identification of the most efficient procedures for triggering language recovery in bilinguals with aphasia. Therapy in both languages is often not available, and, thus, researchers have focused on the transfer of therapy effects from the treated language to the untreated one. Aim. This paper discusses the literature on bilingual aphasia therapy, with a focus on cross-linguistic therapy effects from the language in which therapy is provided to the untreated language. Methods. Fifteen articles including two systematic reviews, providing details on pre- and posttherapy in the adult bilingual population with poststroke aphasia and anomia are discussed with regard to variables that can influence the presence or absence of cross-linguistic transfer of therapy effects. Results and Discussion. The potential for CLT of therapy effects from the treated to the untreated language depends on the word type, the degree of structural overlap between languages, the type of therapy approach, the pre- and postmorbid language proficiency profiles, and the status of the cognitive control circuit. PMID:24825963

  11. Progestogens in menopausal hormone therapy

    PubMed Central

    Woroń, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Progestogens share one common effect: the ability to convert proliferative endometrium to its secretory form. In contrast, their biological activity is varied, depending on the chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, receptor affinity and different potency of action. Progestogens are widely used in the treatment of menstrual cycle disturbances, various gynaecological conditions, contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. The administration of progestogen in menopausal hormone therapy is essential in women with an intact uterus to protect against endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. Progestogen selection should be based on the characteristics available for each progestogen type, relying on the assessment of relative potency of action in experimental models and animal models, and on the indirect knowledge brought by studies of the clinical use of different progestogen formulations. The choice of progestogen should involve the conscious use of knowledge of its benefits, with a focus on minimizing potential side effects. Unfortunately, there are no direct clinical studies comparing the metabolic effects of different progestogens. PMID:26327902

  12. Pharmacogenetics of obesity drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Guzman, A K; Ding, M; Xie, Y; Martin, K A

    2014-01-01

    As the prevalence and severity of obesity and its complications have risen significantly in worldwide populations, behavioral interventions alone have been inconsistent in promoting sufficient, sustained weight loss. Consequently, there has been intense interest in the development of anti-obesity medications as treatment strategies. When coupled with structured lifestyle modifications, pharmacotherapy can enhance weight loss. While less efficacious than bariatric surgery, drug therapy may be an alternative to surgery for some obese patients, and is an emerging strategy for weight maintenance. The goal of pharmacogenetics is to help identify patients who will benefit most from drug therapies while minimizing the risk of adverse effects. In this review, we summarize the pharmacogenetic literature on obesity drugs of the past (sibutramine, rimonabant), present (orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine, topiramate), and future (buprioprion/naltrexone).

  13. Unproven (questionable) cancer therapies.

    PubMed Central

    Brigden, M L

    1995-01-01

    More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects of questionable therapies that make these treatments attractive to patients and that may be perceived as being deficient in the practice of conventional health care professionals. Physicians with patients with cancer should always make sure that unproven therapies are discussed early in the therapeutic relationship. They should also attempt to be aware of alternative therapies that are in vogue in their particular geographic area. PMID:8533410

  14. Gene therapy for inherited retinal degenerations.

    PubMed

    Dalkara, Deniz; Sahel, José-Alain

    2014-03-01

    Gene therapy is quickly becoming a reality applicable in the clinic for inherited retinal diseases. Progress over the past decade has moved proof-of-concept gene therapies from bench to bedside. The remarkable success in safety and efficacy, in the phase I/II clinical trials for the form of the severe childhood-onset blindness, Leber's Congenital Amaurosis (LCA) type II (due to mutations in the RPE65 gene) generated significant interest and opened up possibilities for a new era of retinal gene therapies. Success in these clinical trials was due to combining the favorable features of both the retina as a target organ and adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a vector. The retina offers several advantages for gene therapy approaches. It is an anatomically defined structure that is readily accessible for therapy and has some degree of immune privilege, making it suitable for application of viral vectors. AAV, on the other hand, is a non-pathogenic helper dependent virus that has little immunogenicity. This viral vector transduces quiescent cells efficiently and thanks to its small size diffuses well in the interneural matrix, making it suitable for applications in neural tissue. Building on this initial clinical success with LCA II, we have now many opportunities to extend this proof-of-concept to other retinal diseases. This article will discuss what are some of the most imminent targets for such therapies and what are the challenges that we face in moving these therapies to the clinic.

  15. About Occupational Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ethics Occupational Therapy Assistants Advocacy & Policy New Evaluation Codes Learn how to use the new OT CPT® Evaluation codes correctly . Congressional Affairs AOTPAC Federal Regulatory Affairs Health ...

  16. American Occupational Therapy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ethics Occupational Therapy Assistants Advocacy & Policy New Evaluation Codes Learn how to use the new OT CPT® Evaluation codes correctly . Congressional Affairs AOTPAC Federal Regulatory Affairs Health ...

  17. Therapy and Counseling

    MedlinePlus

    ... trained in psychotherapy include professionals representing psychiatry, clinical psychology, mental health counseling, clinical social work, marriage and family therapy, rehabilitation counseling, and ...

  18. [Cognitive behavior therapy].

    PubMed

    Munezawa, Takeshi

    2009-08-01

    Insomnia is one of the most frequently encountered disorders in general clinical practices. At present, the most commonly used therapy for insomnia is pharmacotherapy. There are some problems in pharmacotherapy such as side effects. Therefore nonpharmacological therapy for insomnia is needed. The cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is a nonpharmacological therapy attracting attention most. CBT-I not only alleviates insomnia symptoms in patients but also enables them to reduce/discontinue the use of hypnotics. I reviewed a study about the effectiveness of CBT-I and commented the future directions of CBT-I.

  19. Biological therapies for spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Vincenzo; Atteno, Mariangela; Spanò, Angelo; Scarpa, Raffaele; Peluso, Rosario

    2014-06-01

    Biological therapies and new imaging techniques have changed the therapeutic and diagnostic approach to spondyloarthritis. In patients with axial spondyloarthritis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitor treatment is currently the only effective therapy in patients for whom conventional therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has failed. TNFα inhibitor treatment is more effective in preventing articular damage in peripheral joints than in axial ones. It is important to treat patients at an early stage of disease to reduce disease progression; moreover it is necessary to identify causes of therapy inefficacy in preventing joint damage in the axial subset.

  20. [Morita therapy over history].

    PubMed

    Usa, Shinichi

    2003-01-01

    At Sansei Hospital in Kyoto we performed Morita Therapy not only for Japanese clients but also foreign clients from several countries, like Germany, Switzerland, U.S.A., China, Korea, India and Indonesia. We could treat those foreign clients using Morita Therapy with good success although they came from various cultural backgrounds. One of the characteristic Approaches of Morita Therapy was that it avoided the conceptualization of self-consciousness and self image as a subjective fiction established by abstract and logical thinking. Secondary Morita Therapy moves clients to deal with activities in real life. These 2 approaches help clients not to be involved in symptom development or fixation mechanisms and break through self-centeredness. At the first stage of Morita Therapy, namely in the bed rest period clients can experience his psychic state as if he were a just born baby. The founder of Gestalt Therapy, Frederick S. Perls experienced by himself Morita Therapy. During bed rest therapy he behaved as if he were a baby. This behavior came out not from conscious abstract and logical thinking but from spontaneous "pre-conscious" state of mind. Morita called this "Jun-na-kokoro" (Pure mind). Morita knew that neurotic symptoms come out from those abstract and logical thinking which could lead to fixation of symptoms so that therapy principle might be the de-centralization of self and the pure mind experience which is found in our daily life and also in daily life of foreign people from various cultural backgrounds.

  1. Cell and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Rao, Rajesh C; Zacks, David N

    2014-01-01

    Replacement or repair of a dysfunctional gene combined with promoting cell survival is a two-pronged approach that addresses an unmet need in the therapy of retinal degenerative diseases. In this chapter, we discuss various strategies toward achieving both goals: transplantation of wild-type cells to replace degenerating cells and to rescue gene function, sequential gene and cell therapy, and in vivo reprogramming of rods to cones. These approaches highlight cutting-edge advances in cell and gene therapy, and cellular lineage conversion in order to devise new therapies for various retinal degenerative diseases.

  2. Physical Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... reviewed: February 2017 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Delayed Speech or Language Development Autism Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Cerebral Palsy Occupational Therapy ...

  3. Medical physics aspects of particle therapy.

    PubMed

    Jäkel, Oliver

    2009-11-01

    Charged particle beams offer an improved dose conformation to the target volume when compared with photon radiotherapy, with better sparing of normal tissue structures close to the target. In addition, beams of heavier ions exhibit a strong increase of the linear energy transfer in the Bragg peak when compared with the entrance region. These physical and biological properties make ion beams more favourable for radiation therapy of cancer than photon beams. As a consequence, particle therapy with protons and heavy ions has gained increasing interest worldwide. This contribution summarises the physical and biological principles of charged particle therapy with ion beams and highlights some of the developments in the field of beam delivery, the principles of treatment planning and the determination of absorbed dose in ion beams. The clinical experience gathered so far with carbon ion therapy is briefly reviewed.

  4. Complementary and alternative therapies for cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Liptak, Gregory S

    2005-01-01

    The optimal practice of medicine includes integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available clinical evidence from systematic research. This article reviews nine treatment modalities used for children who have cerebral palsy (CP), including hyperbaric oxygen, the Adeli Suit, patterning, electrical stimulation, conductive education, equine-assisted therapy, craniosacral therapy, Feldenkrais therapy, and acupuncture. Unfortunately, these modalities have different degrees of published evidence to support or refute their effectiveness. Uncontrolled and controlled trials of hippotherapy have shown beneficial effects on body structures and functioning. Studies of acupuncture are promising, but more studies are required before specific recommendations can be made. Most studies of patterning have been negative and its use cannot be recommended. However, for the other interventions, such as hyperbaric oxygen, more evidence is required before recommendations can be made. The individual with CP and his or her family have a right to full disclosure of all possible treatment options and whatever knowledge currently is available regarding these therapies.

  5. State of the Art in Hadron Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jaekel, Oliver

    2007-11-26

    Charged particle beams offer an improved dose conformation to the target volume as compared to photon radiotherapy, with better sparing of normal tissue structures close to the target. In addition, beams of ions heavier than helium exhibit a strong increase of the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) in the Bragg peak as compared to the entrance region. These physical and biological properties make ion beams more favorable for radiation therapy of cancer than photon beams. As a consequence, particle therapy with protons and heavy ions has gained increasing interest worldwide. This contribution summarizes the physical and biological principles of charged particle therapy with ion beams and highlights some of the developments in the field of beam delivery, the principles of treatment planning and the determination of absorbed dose in ion beams. The clinical experience gathered so far with carbon ion therapy is briefly reviewed.

  6. Antiviral Resistance and Correlates of Virologic Failure in the first Cohort of HIV-Infected Children Gaining Access to Structured Antiretroviral Therapy in Lima, Peru: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of extended use of ART in developing countries has been enormous. A thorough understanding of all factors contributing to the success of antiretroviral therapy is required. The current study aims to investigate the value of cross-sectional drug resistance monitoring using DNA and RNA oligonucleotide ligation assays (OLA) in treatment cohorts in low-resource settings. The study was conducted in the first cohort of children gaining access to structured ART in Peru. Methods Between 2002–5, 46 eligible children started the standard regimen of AZT, 3TC and NFV Patients had a median age of 5.6 years (range: 0.7-14y), a median viral load of 1.7·105 RNA/ml (range: 2.1·103 – 1.2·106), and a median CD4-count of 232 cells/μL (range: 1–1591). Of these, 20 patients were classified as CDC clinical category C and 31/46 as CDC immune category 3. At the time of cross-sectional analysis in 2005, adherence questionnaires were administered. DNA OLAs and RNA OLAs were performed from frozen PBMC and plasma, RNA genotyping from dried blood spots. Results During the first year of ART, 44% of children experienced virologic failure, with an additional 9% failing by the end of the second year. Virologic failure was significantly associated with the number of resistance mutations detected by DNA-OLA (p < 0.001) during cross-sectional analysis, but also with low immunologic CDC-scores at baseline (p < 0.001). Children who had been exposed to unsupervised short-term antiretrovirals before starting structured ART showed significantly higher numbers of resistance mutations by DNA-OLA (p = 0.01). Detection of M184V (3TC resistance) by RNA-OLA and DNA-OLA demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.93 and 0.86 and specificity of 0.67 and 0.7, respectively, for the identification of virologic failure. The RT mutations N88D and L90M (NFV resistance) detected by DNA-OLA correlated with virologic failure, whereas mutations at RT position 215 (AZT resistance) were not associated with

  7. Metalloporphyrins and their uses as radiosensitizers for radiation therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, Michiko; Slatkin, Daniel N.

    2004-07-06

    The present invention covers radiosensitizers containing as an active ingredient halogenated derivatives of boronated porphyrins containing multiple carborane cages having the structure ##STR1## which selectively accumulate in neoplastic tissue within the irradiation volume and thus can be used in cancer therapies including, but not limited to, boron neutron--capture therapy and photodynamic therapy. The present invention also covers methods for using these radiosensitizers in tumor imaging and cancer treatment.

  8. Compact accelerator for medical therapy

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Hawkins, Steven A.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Paul, Arthur C.

    2010-05-04

    A compact accelerator system having an integrated particle generator-linear accelerator with a compact, small-scale construction capable of producing an energetic (.about.70-250 MeV) proton beam or other nuclei and transporting the beam direction to a medical therapy patient without the need for bending magnets or other hardware often required for remote beam transport. The integrated particle generator-accelerator is actuable as a unitary body on a support structure to enable scanning of a particle beam by direction actuation of the particle generator-accelerator.

  9. Radiation Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... alike, but remember that many kids treated with radiation therapy go on to live healthy, full lives. Don't hesitate to discuss your questions and concerns with the doctor. The more you know about how radiation therapy will affect and help your child, the ...

  10. Narrative Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, William M.; Keenan, Robert

    1997-01-01

    States that narrative family therapy is informed by social constructionism and postmodern worldviews, and is a relatively significant departure from mainstream psychotherapy. Discusses the use of narrative family therapy. Uses the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden as an example. (MKA)

  11. Therapy of Lies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Conversion therapy comes in many forms, ranging from informal chats with counselors to aggressive physical coercion, but all are based on the belief that a gay male or a lesbian can be changed "back" to heterosexual behavior. It is not just alarmed parents who turn to this therapy. Many LGBT individuals seek out such treatment in an effort to…

  12. Occupational Therapy Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of occupational therapy assistant, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 16 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of occupational therapy assistant. The…

  13. Update on acne therapy.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, M N

    1999-06-01

    Current therapy of acne vulgaris is very effective. It consists of a combination of topical comedolytic agents, antibacterial agents, and combinations of both. The use of systemic therapy with antibiotics, isotretinoin, and hormones is necessary for cystic acne. The management of patients with the various combinations of topical and systemic medications is discussed.

  14. Antiangiogenic Eye Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Corydon, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    The idea of treating disease in humans with genetic material was conceived over two decades ago and with that a promising journey involving development and efficacy studies in cells and animals of a large number of novel therapeutic reagents unfolded. In the footsteps of this process, successful gene therapy treatment of genetic conditions in humans has shown clear signs of efficacy. Notably, significant advancements using gene supplementation and silencing strategies have been made in the field of ocular gene therapy, thereby pinpointing ocular gene therapy as one of the compelling "actors" bringing gene therapy to the clinic. Most of all, this success has been facilitated because of (1) the fact that the eye is an effortlessly accessible, exceedingly compartmentalized, and immune-privileged organ offering a unique advantage as a gene therapy target, and (2) significant progress toward efficient, sustained transduction of cells within the retina having been achieved using nonintegrating vectors based on recombinant adeno-associated virus and nonintegrating lentivirus vectors. The results from in vivo experiments and trials suggest that treatment of inherited retinal dystrophies, ocular angiogenesis, and inflammation with gene therapy can be both safe and effective. Here, the progress of ocular gene therapy is examined with special emphasis on the potential use of RNAi- and protein-based antiangiogenic gene therapy to treat exudative age-related macular degeneration.

  15. History of gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Thomas; Parker, Nigel; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-08-10

    Two decades after the initial gene therapy trials and more than 1700 approved clinical trials worldwide we not only have gained much new information and knowledge regarding gene therapy in general, but also learned to understand the concern that has persisted in society. Despite the setbacks gene therapy has faced, success stories have increasingly emerged. Examples for these are the positive recommendation for a gene therapy product (Glybera) by the EMA for approval in the European Union and the positive trials for the treatment of ADA deficiency, SCID-X1 and adrenoleukodystrophy. Nevertheless, our knowledge continues to grow and during the course of time more safety data has become available that helps us to develop better gene therapy approaches. Also, with the increased understanding of molecular medicine, we have been able to develop more specific and efficient gene transfer vectors which are now producing clinical results. In this review, we will take a historical view and highlight some of the milestones that had an important impact on the development of gene therapy. We will also discuss briefly the safety and ethical aspects of gene therapy and address some concerns that have been connected with gene therapy as an important therapeutic modality.

  16. Targeted therapies for cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... disables the cancer cells so they cannot spread. How Does Targeted Therapy Work? Targeted therapy drugs work in a few different ways. They may: Turn off the process in cancer cells that causes them to grow and spread Trigger cancer cells to die on their own Kill cancer cells directly People ...

  17. Electroconvulsive Therapy and Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanney, Bryan L.

    1986-01-01

    When the effectiveness and mortality-morbidity of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are compared with those of drug therapies, it appears that ECT is an effective and preferred treatment strategy. It remains underutilized as a modality of suicide prevention. Addresses controversies that presently limit the use of this treatment. (Author/ABB)

  18. Pediatric Music Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathom-Radocy, Wanda B.

    This book on music therapy includes relevant medical, psychological, and developmental information to help service providers, particularly music therapists, and parents to understand children with disabilities. The first two chapters describe the process of assessment and delineation of goals in music therapy that leads to the design of the music…

  19. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  20. Massage Therapy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Massage therapy has been notably effective in preventing prematurity, enhancing growth of infants, increasing attentiveness, decreasing depression and aggression, alleviating motor problems, reducing pain, and enhancing immune function. This review covers massage therapy research from the last decade, as an update to the American Psychologist 1998…

  1. [Conservative Therapy of Osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Krasselt, Marco; Baerwald, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    The therapy of osteoarthritis is based on conservative therapeutic approaches, depending on the disease's severity. In this context, physical therapy and the use of sufficient analgesic regimes are of decisive importance. This article will discuss the current evidence based therapeutic concepts as well as promising new therapeutic approaches.

  2. Art Therapy: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Linda, Comp.; Schmal, Marilyn Strauss, Comp.

    The bibliography on art therapy presents 1175 citations (1940-1973) drawn from searches of the medical indexes, computer systems of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Mental Health, other bibliographies, Centre International de Documentation Concernant les Expressions Plastiques, and the American Journal of Art Therapy.…

  3. Therapy in Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costonis, Maureen Needham, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of articles on the subject of movement therapy. It can be used as a set of supplementary readings for an academic course in dance therapy or a psychiatric residency program. It includes an exhaustive bibliography on this field for students and practioners in this field. Four principal themes have been selected as a…

  4. Experiential Learning and Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatala, Elaine

    This paper describes the experiential therapy program at the Bowling Green Adolescent Center (New Jersey). This model supports the view that the therapeutic process of addiction treatment is accelerated and enhanced by providing the patients with experiential interventions. Experiential therapy includes goal setting, hands-on participation,…

  5. Activity Therapy: An Alternative Therapy for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottman, Terry T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of activity therapy for preteens and adolescents, where the client is engaged in nonverbal modes of relationship--games, free play, movement, drama, music, art or other activities, as the chief therapeutic media in which conflicts are resolved and intellectual and emotional energies freed. Reviews the literature, describes…

  6. [Gene therapy and ethics].

    PubMed

    Müller, H; Rehmann-Sutter, C

    1995-01-10

    Gene therapy represents a new strategy to treat human disorders. It was originally conceived as a cure for severe monogenetic disorders. Since its conception, the spectrum of possible application for gene therapy has been to include the treatment of acquired diseases, such as various forms of cancer and some viral infections, most notably human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus. Since somatic gene therapy does not cause substantially new ethical problems, it has gained broad approval. This is by no means the case with germ-line gene therapy. Practically all bodies who were evaluating the related ethical aspects wanted to ban its medical application on grounds of fundamental and pragmatic considerations. In this review, practical and ethical views concerning gene therapy are summarized which were presented at the "Junitagung 1994" of the Swiss Society for Biomedical Ethics in Basle.

  7. Immune Therapies for Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Navid, Fariba; Armstrong, Michael; Barfield, Raymond C.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, a solid tumor arising from developing cells of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common extracranial tumor in children. The prognosis for high-risk neuroblastoma remains poor with conventional treatment, and new approaches are therefore being explored to treat this disease. One such alternative therapy that holds promise is immune therapy. We review here the recent advances in 4 types of immune therapy – cytokine, vaccine, antibody, and cellular therapy – to treat neuroblastoma. We present preclinical research and clinical trials on several promising candidates such as IL-12, dendritic cell vaccines, anti-GD2 antibodies, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. An optimal treatment plan for neuroblastoma will most likely involve multimodal approaches and combinations of immune therapies. PMID:19342881

  8. Accelerators for Cancer Therapy

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    2000-05-30

    The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas, or carbon, oxygen and neon ions is relatively new. Accelerators for hadron therapy are far from standardized, but the use of hadron therapy as an alternative to conventional radiation has led to significant improvements and refinements in conventional treatment techniques. This paper presents the rationale for radiation therapy, describes the accelerators used in conventional and hadron therapy, and outlines the issues that must still be resolved in the emerging field of hadron therapy.

  9. Animal-assisted therapy: evaluation and implementation of a complementary therapy to improve the psychological and physiological health of critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    DeCourcey, Mary; Russell, Anne C; Keister, Kathy J

    2010-01-01

    Animal-assisted therapy has gained widespread support in a variety of health care settings, including critical care units. This article seeks to review some of the current animal-assisted therapy, define a structured program, and evaluate the potential ability of the therapy to enhance the progress and health of our patients.

  10. Relationship Enhancement Therapy: A Case Study for Treating Vaginismus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Marsha J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A case study of Relationship Enhancement (RE) therapy with a couple, in which the woman was identified as having vaginismus, is presented including excerpts of transcripts from the therapy sessions. RE's effectiveness at improving communication skills and providing structure in which the couple could discuss the intimate issues affecting the…

  11. Exploring Group Activity Therapy with Ethnically Diverse Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paone, Tina R.; Malott, Krista M.; Maldonado, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    Group activity therapy has been promoted as an effective means of providing growth opportunities for adolescents through the use of structured, developmentally appropriate activities in a group setting. This article qualitatively explores outcomes of 12 sessions of group activity therapy with ethnically diverse adolescents in a school setting. The…

  12. Join the Art Club: Exploring Social Empowerment in Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Frances Johanna; Willis-Rauch, Mallori

    2014-01-01

    Social Empowerment Art Therapy (SEAT) aims to address the stigma of mental illness through the artistic empowerment of participants. The model was developed within an inpatient psychiatric setting from observations of a shared governance structure that empowered residents. Incorporating an open art studio approach and social action art therapy,…

  13. Gene therapy: a possible future standard for HIV care.

    PubMed

    Abou-El-Enein, Mohamed; Bauer, Gerhard; Reinke, Petra

    2015-07-01

    Despite undeniable accomplishments in developing cell and gene therapeutic strategies to combat HIV infection, key social, economic, and policy-related challenges still need to be overcome for any future commercialization efforts of these novel therapies to be successful. Here, we address these challenges and structure a framework for eradicating HIV/AIDS using gene therapy.

  14. Altered Books in Art Therapy with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilton, Gioia

    2007-01-01

    This article examines how altered books can be used in art therapy with adolescents. An altered book is a published book that has been changed into a new work of visual art through various art processes such as painting, drawing, collage, writing, and embellishment. Books are discussed as an art canvas on which to provide stimulation, structure,…

  15. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Upper GI What is Radiation Therapy? Find a Radiation Oncologist Last Name: Facility: City: State: Zip Code: ... infections. This is refered to as immunotherapy . Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Radiation therapy given during surgery is called ...

  16. Dynamic molecular graphs: "hopping" structures.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Rocha-Rinza, Tomas; Guevara-Vela, José Manuel; Cuevas, Gabriel; Gómez, Rosa María

    2014-05-05

    This work aims to contribute to the discussion about the suitability of bond paths and bond-critical points as indicators of chemical bonding defined within the theoretical framework of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. For this purpose, we consider the temporal evolution of the molecular structure of [Fe{C(CH2 )3 }(CO)3 ] throughout Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD), which illustrates the changing behaviour of the molecular graph (MG) of an electronic system. Several MGs with significant lifespans are observed across the BOMD simulations. The bond paths between the trimethylenemethane and the metallic core are uninterruptedly formed and broken. This situation is reminiscent of a "hopping" ligand over the iron atom. The molecular graph wherein the bonding between trimethylenemethane and the iron atom takes place only by means of the tertiary carbon atom has the longest lifespan of all the considered structures, which is consistent with the MG found by X-ray diffraction experiments and quantum chemical calculations. In contrast, the η(4) complex predicted by molecular-orbital theory has an extremely brief lifetime. The lifespan of different molecular structures is related to bond descriptors on the basis of the topology of the electron density such as the ellipticities at the FeCH2 bond-critical points and electron delocalisation indices. This work also proposes the concept of a dynamic molecular graph composed of the different structures found throughout the BOMD trajectories in analogy to a resonance hybrid of Lewis structures. It is our hope that the notion of dynamic molecular graphs will prove useful in the discussion of electronic systems, in particular for those in which analysis on the basis of static structures leads to controversial conclusions.

  17. A New Era for Cancer Target Therapies: Applying Systems Biology and Computer-Aided Drug Design to Cancer Therapies.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yung-Hao; Chiu, Chia-Chiun; Lin, Chih-Lung; Chen, Ting-Shou; Jheng, Bo-Ren; Lee, Yu-Ching; Chen, Jeremy; Chen, Bor-Sen

    In recent years, many systems biology approaches have been used with various cancers. The materials described here can be used to build bases to discover novel cancer therapy targets in connection with computer-aided drug design (CADD). A deeper understanding of the mechanisms of cancer will provide more choices and correct strategies in the development of multiple target drug therapies, which is quite different from the traditional cancer single target therapy. Targeted therapy is one of the most powerful strategies against cancer and can also be applied to other diseases. Due to the large amount of progress in computer hardware and the theories of computational chemistry and physics, CADD has been the main strategy for developing novel drugs for cancer therapy. In contrast to traditional single target therapies, in this review we will emphasize the future direction of the field, i.e., multiple target therapies. Structure-based and ligand-based drug designs are the two main topics of CADD. The former needs both 3D protein structures and ligand structures, while the latter only needs ligand structures. Ordinarily it is estimated to take more than 14 years and 800 million dollars to develop a new drug. Many new CADD software programs and techniques have been developed in recent decades. We conclude with an example where we combined and applied systems biology and CADD to the core networks of four cancers and successfully developed a novel cocktail for drug therapy that treats multiple targets.

  18. The oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Corsonello, A; Pedone, C; Scarlata, S; Zito, A; Laino, I; Antonelli-Incalzi, R

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen (O(2)) is a vital element. Shortage of O(2) results in deranged metabolism and important changes in vascular tone with opposite effects on the systemic and pulmonary circulation. During hypoxemia, oxidative stress exposes the organism to a sort of accelerated senescence as well as to several acute untoward effects. Thus, hypoxemia should be promptly recognized and treated, hopefully by measures tailored to the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying hypoxemia. However, O(2) therapy remains the most common therapy of hypoxemia, but it must be carefully tailored to relieve hypoxemia without provoking hyperoxia or hypercarbia. Then, the individual response to O(2) as well as changing needs of O(2) during sleep or exercise must be evaluated to provide the best O(2) therapy. Hyperoxia, the effect of overcorrection of hypoxia, can dramatically impact the health status and threaten the survival of the newborn and, through different mechanisms and effects, the adult. A thorough knowledge of the pathophysiological bases of hypoxemia and O(2) storage and delivery devices is then mandatory to administer O(2) therapy guaranteeing for optimal correction of hypoxemia and minimizing the risk of hyperoxia. Consistent with this aim also is a careful scrutiny of instruments and procedures for monitoring the individual response to O(2) over time. Thus, at variance from classical pharmacological therapy, performing O(2) therapy requires a vast array of clinical and technical competences. The optimal integration of these competences is needed to optimize O(2) therapy on individual bases.

  19. Massage therapy research review.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2016-08-01

    In this review, massage therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects on varying conditions including prenatal depression, preterm infants, full-term infants, autism, skin conditions, pain syndromes including arthritis and fibromyalgia, hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including Parkinson's and dementia. Although many of the studies have involved comparisons between massage therapy and standard treatment control groups, several have compared different forms of massage (e.g. Swedish versus Thai massage), and different active therapies such as massage versus exercise. Typically, the massage therapy groups have experienced more positive effects than the control or comparison groups. This may relate to the massage therapy providing more stimulation of pressure receptors, in turn enhancing vagal activity and reducing cortisol levels. Some of the researchers have assessed physical, physiological and biochemical effects, although most have relied exclusively on self-report measures. Despite these methodological problems and the dearth of research from the U.S., the massage therapy profession has grown significantly and massage therapy is increasingly practiced in traditional medical settings, highlighting the need for more rigorous research.

  20. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hidekazu; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2010-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the main cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication has been shown to have a prophylactic effect against gastric cancer. According to several international guidelines, the first-line therapy for treating H. pylori infection consists of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or ranitidine bismuth citrate, with any two antibiotics among amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole, given for 7-14 days. However, even with these recommended regimens, H. pylori eradication failure is still seen in more than 20% of patients. The failure rate for first-line therapy may be higher in actual clinical practice, owing to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. The recommended second-line therapy is a quadruple regimen composed of tetracycline, metronidazole, a bismuth salt and a PPI. The combination of PPI-amoxicillin-levofloxacin is a good option as second-line therapy. In the case of failure of second-line therapy, the patients should be evaluated using a case-by-case approach. European guidelines recommend culture before the selection of a third-line treatment based on the microbial antibiotic sensitivity. H. pylori isolates after two eradication failures are often resistant to both metronidazole and clarithromycin. The alternative candidates for third-line therapy are quinolones, tetracycline, rifabutin and furazolidone; high-dose PPI/amoxicillin therapy might also be promising.

  1. Dynamic structural network evolution in compressed granular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Lia; Puckett, James; Daniels, Karen; Bassett, Danielle

    The heterogeneous dynamic behavior of granular packings under shear or compression is not well-understood. In this study, we use novel techniques from network science to investigate the structural evolution that occurs in compressed granular systems. Specifically, we treat particles as network nodes, and pressure-dependent forces between particles as layer-specific network edges. Then, we use a generalization of community detection methods to multilayer networks, and develop quantitative measures that characterize changes in the architecture of the force network as a function of pressure. We observe that branchlike domains reminiscent of force chains evolve differentially as pressure is applied: topological characteristics of these domains at rest predict their coalescence or dispersion under pressure. Our methods allow us to study the dynamics of mesoscale structure in granular systems, and provide a direct way to compare data from systems under different external conditions or with different physical makeup.

  2. Two-dimensional localized structures in harmonically forced oscillatory systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.-P.; Knobloch, E.

    2016-12-01

    Two-dimensional spatially localized structures in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with 1:1 resonance are studied near the simultaneous presence of a steady front between two spatially homogeneous equilibria and a supercritical Turing bifurcation on one of them. The bifurcation structures of steady circular fronts and localized target patterns are computed in the Turing-stable and Turing-unstable regimes. In particular, localized target patterns grow along the solution branch via ring insertion at the core in a process reminiscent of defect-mediated snaking in one spatial dimension. Stability of axisymmetric solutions on these branches with respect to axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric perturbations is determined, and parameter regimes with stable axisymmetric oscillons are identified. Direct numerical simulations reveal novel depinning dynamics of localized target patterns in the radial direction, and of circular and planar localized hexagonal patterns in the fully two-dimensional system.

  3. Congestion Induced by the Structure of Multiplex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Multiplex networks are representations of multilayer interconnected complex networks where the nodes are the same at every layer. They turn out to be good abstractions of the intricate connectivity of multimodal transportation networks, among other types of complex systems. One of the most important critical phenomena arising in such networks is the emergence of congestion in transportation flows. Here, we prove analytically that the structure of multiplex networks can induce congestion for flows that otherwise would be decongested if the individual layers were not interconnected. We provide explicit equations for the onset of congestion and approximations that allow us to compute this onset from individual descriptors of the individual layers. The observed cooperative phenomenon is reminiscent of Braess' paradox in which adding extra capacity to a network when the moving entities selfishly choose their route can in some cases reduce overall performance. Similarly, in the multiplex structure, the efficiency in transportation can unbalance the transportation loads resulting in unexpected congestion.

  4. Medical Therapy of Acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Plöckinger, U.

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the present status of medical therapy of acromegaly. Indications for permanent postoperative treatment, postirradiation treamtent to bridge the interval until remission as well as primary medical therapy are elaborated. Therapeutic efficacy of the different available drugs—somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs), dopamine agonists, and the GH antagonist Pegvisomant—is discussed, as are the indications for and efficacy of their respective combinations. Information on their mechanism of action, and some pharmakokinetic data are included. Special emphasis is given to the difficulties to define remission criteria of acromegaly due to technical assay problems. An algorithm for medical therapy in acromegaly is provided. PMID:22550484

  5. Radiation therapy in horses.

    PubMed

    Fidel, Janean L

    2010-04-01

    Although the diagnosis of cancer is relatively uncommon in horses, tumors do occur in this species. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are traditional cancer treatments in all species. In equine patients, surgery has often been the only treatment offered; however, not all tumors can be controlled with surgery alone. In small animal oncology, newer and better therapies are in demand and available. Radiation therapy is often used to control or palliate tumors locally, especially to satisfy clients who demand sophisticated treatments. The large size of equine patients can make radiation therapy difficult, but it is a valuable tool for treating cancer and should not be overlooked when treating horses.

  6. Collaboration in experiential therapy.

    PubMed

    Berdondini, Lucia; Elliott, Robert; Shearer, Joan

    2012-02-01

    We offer a view of the nature and role of client-therapist collaboration in experiential psychotherapy, focusing on Gestalt and emotion-focused therapy (EFT). We distinguish between the necessary condition of mutual trust (the emotional bond between client and therapist) and effective collaboration (regarding the goals and tasks of therapy). Using a case study of experiential therapy for social anxiety, we illustrate how the development of collaboration can be both complex and pivotal for therapeutic success, and how it can involve client and therapist encountering one another through taking risks by openly and nonjudgementally disclosing difficult experiences in order to enrich and advance the work.

  7. Community intravenous therapy provision.

    PubMed

    O'Hanlon, Sue; McGrail, Pam; Hodgkins, Paul

    2017-03-08

    Many healthcare services that were once only available in acute settings are now common in the community. Intravenous (IV) therapy is increasingly available as a community service. Given the option, most patients would choose to receive their treatment in a community setting, rather than in hospital. This article describes several outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy services, including their advantages and disadvantages. It explores the ways one community NHS trust has developed its community IV therapy service over the past ten years and examines issues pertinent to effective service delivery.

  8. Parenteral iron therapy options.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Scott B; Rodgers, George M

    2004-05-01

    Parenteral iron therapy is occasionally necessary for patients intolerant or unresponsive to oral iron therapy, for receiving recombinant erythropoietin therapy, or for use in treating functional iron deficiency. There are now three parenteral iron products available: iron dextran, ferric gluconate, and iron sucrose. We summarize the advantages and disadvantages of each product, including risk of anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity, dosage regimens, and costs. The increased availability of multiple parenteral iron preparations should decrease the need to use red cell transfusions in patients with iron-deficiency anemia.

  9. Action Technique for Therapy with Families with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Lawrence A.; Collins-Wolfe, Judith A.

    1983-01-01

    Presents some nonverbal activities which counselors can use to encourage participation by all family members, including young children. Timing and ways of using activities to promote communication and structured change in therapy are also discussed. (Author/JAC)

  10. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... being studied as potential radioprotectors. The use of carbon ion beams in radiation therapy is being investigated ... time, the use of these beams remains experimental. Carbon ion beams are available at only a few ...

  11. Magnetic therapy in physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Gail S.

    2000-03-01

    A critical thinking activity focused on students' understanding of magnets is described. The activity includes a short written paper about the validity of advertisements for alternative medical therapy devices based on magnets. It includes also self assessment through peer interaction.

  12. Complementary and Integrative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... correctly • Supplement is free of harmful contents like pesticides and heavy metals (such as lead, arsenic or ... 1-888-644-6226 http://nccam.nih.gov Natural Medicines Information on complementary therapies http://naturaldatabase.therapeuticresearch. ...

  13. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes tissue death Nonhealing wounds, such as a diabetic foot ulcer Radiation injury Skin graft or skin flap ... hyperbaric oxygenation therapy in the management of chronic diabetic foot ulcers. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2013;88:166. Indications ...

  14. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... to locate sleep centers in your area. Search radius (in miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in ... to locate sleep centers in your area. Search radius: Treatment & Therapy CPAP Titration Study This type of ...

  15. Radiation Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... temporary, it can be permanent. Sore Mouth and Tooth Decay The tissues of the mouth may be sore ... and there may be an increased risk of tooth decay if a child received radiation therapy to the ...

  16. Physical Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... PT for kids with: sports injuries developmental delays cerebral palsy genetic disorders orthopedic disabilities/injuries heart and lung ... or Language Development Autism Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Cerebral Palsy Occupational Therapy Broken Bones, Sprains, and Strains Going ...

  17. Therapy of autoinflammatory syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Hal M.

    2015-01-01

    The therapy of autoinflammatory syndromes is an excellent example of the power of translational research. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and immunologic basis of this newly identified classification of disease have allowed for the application of novel, effective, targeted treatments with life-changing effects on patients. Although colchicine and TNF-α inhibitors are important therapies for specific autoinflammatory syndromes, the novel IL-1–targeted drugs are particularly effective for many of these diseases. Recently, the pharmaceutical industry has adopted a strategy of confirming the efficacy of new targeted drugs in often-ignored patients with orphan diseases, and US Food and Drug Administration policies have allowed for accelerated approval of these drugs, creating a win-win situation for patients and industry. This article reviews the general approach to the therapy of autoinflammatory diseases, focusing on current approved therapies and novel approaches that might be used in the future. PMID:20004774

  18. Radioactive Iodine (Radioiodine) Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Stage Thyroid Cancer Treating Thyroid Cancer Radioactive Iodine (Radioiodine) Therapy for Thyroid Cancer Your thyroid gland absorbs nearly all of the iodine in your body. When radioactive iodine (RAI), also ...

  19. American Music Therapy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... needs; & follow up progress. Who Can Benefit from Music Therapy? Children, adolescents, adults, & the elderly with mental health needs, developmental & learning disabilities, Alzheimer's disease, aging related conditions, substance abuse problems, brain ...

  20. [Targeted therapies for melanoma].

    PubMed

    Leiter, U; Meier, F; Garbe, C

    2014-07-01

    Since the discovery of activating mutations in the BRAF oncogene and also stimulation of immune mediated antitumor response in melanoma, there has been remarkable progress in the development of targeted therapies for unresectable and metastatic melanoma. This article addresses the latest developments of BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway signaling. In addition, the development of drugs to attack alternative mutations in melanoma, such as NRAS and KIT is described. Strategies for the management of BRAF inhibitor resistance, such as with combination therapy, are outlined. Antitumor immune therapies with monoclonal antibodies such as ipilimumab which acts by promoting T-cell activation or antibody blockade of programmed death-1 (PD-1) led to a long term response in metastatic melanoma. Results of latest clinical studies including the toxicity profile are described. Due to selective kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint blockade, the therapy of unresectable metastatic melanoma has greatly improved and long-term survival of patients with metastatic melanoma seems a real possibility.

  1. Therapy of Pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Tejesh; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Pruritus is the predominant symptom of skin disease. Due to the poorly understood pathophysiology, the development of effective treatment modalities for pruritus has proven to be particularly difficult. At present, there is no universally accepted therapy for itch. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the treatment of pruritus. Areas covered in this review An overview of current, emerging and possible future therapies for pruritus is provided. What the reader will gain Insights into possible treatment regimes for pruritus in different clinical scenarios. Take home message The therapy of pruritus is challenging and currently takes on an individualistic approach. Recent advancements in the mechanisms that underlie this distressing symptom have identified novel targets for future therapy PMID:20426711

  2. Interactional Gestalt Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warehime, Robert G.

    1981-01-01

    Group gestalt therapy in which the leader facilitates the development of helping capacity in group members is described. The general characteristics of this approach are discussed and ground rules concerning leader and member behaviors are suggested. (RC)

  3. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Learn about the types of radiation, why side effects happen, which ones you might have, and more.

  4. Drug therapy smartens up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The submission of the first 'smart pill' for market approval, combined with progress in the European nanomedicine landscape, illustrates the positive outlook for drug therapy and health monitoring, explains Christian Martin.

  5. Prostate Cancer (Radiation Therapy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to three years. If I choose surgery, will radiation treatment still be required? If your surgery is ... option with your physician team. If I choose radiation therapy, will surgical treatment still be an option? ...

  6. Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) Family Therapy: A Theoretical Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, J. A.; Ward Bailey, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    This case study presents a theoretical analysis of implementing mode deactivation therapy (MDT) (Apsche & Ward Bailey, 2003) family therapy with a 13 year old Caucasian male. MDT is a form of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) that combines the balance of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) (Linehan, 1993), the importance of perception from…

  7. Operation Brain Trauma Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    OBTT consortium as the drug #2 for primary screening . Based on that same review , two doses were selected, namely 5000 or 10,000 IU/kg, by a single IV...in drug screening . This review article discusses a consortium called opera- tion brain trauma therapy (OBTT) that was recently established in attempt...consortium that identifies the most promising therapies and compares them across a spectrum of the state -of-the- art models and injury levels. The most

  8. Psoriasis treatment: traditional therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lebwohl, M; Ting, P; Koo, J

    2005-01-01

    Even before the recent development of biological agents, a long list of effective treatments has been available for patients with psoriasis. Topical therapies such as corticosteroids, vitamin D analogues, and retinoids are used for localised disease. Phototherapy including broadband ultraviolet B (UVB), narrowband UVB, PUVA, and climatotherapy are effective for more extensive disease. Systemic therapies such as methotrexate, retinoids, and ciclosporin are effective for patients with refractory or extensive cutaneous disease. PMID:15708945

  9. Fluid therapy in shock.

    PubMed

    Mandell, D C; King, L G

    1998-05-01

    The goal of treatment for all types of shock is the improvement of tissue perfusion and oxygenation. The mainstay of therapy for hypovolemic and septic shock is the expansion of the intravascular volume by fluid administration, including crystalloids, colloids, and blood products. Frequent physical examinations and monitoring enable the clinician to determine the adequacy of tissue oxygenation and thus the success of the fluid therapy.

  10. Speech therapy with obturator.

    PubMed

    Shyammohan, A; Sreenivasulu, D

    2010-12-01

    Rehabilitation of speech is tantamount to closure of defect in cases with velopharyngeal insufficiency. Often the importance of speech therapy is sidelined during the fabrication of obturators. Usually the speech part is taken up only at a later stage and is relegated entirely to a speech therapist without the active involvement of the prosthodontist. The article suggests a protocol for speech therapy in such cases to be done in unison with a prosthodontist.

  11. Regenerative therapy: a periodontal-endodontic perspective.

    PubMed

    Kinaia, Bassam Michael; Chogle, Sami M A; Kinaia, Atheel M; Goodis, Harold E

    2012-07-01

    Periodontal and endodontic diseases are inflammatory responses leading to periodontal and pulpal tissue loss. Regenerative therapies aim to restore the lost structures to vitality and function. Various materials and treatments methods have been used such as bone grafts, guided tissue regeneration, enamel matrix derivatives, growth and differentiation factors, and stem cells. Although the current materials and methods demonstrated adequate clinical results, true and complete biological tissue regeneration is not yet attainable. The current article reviews chronologically the materials and methods used in periodontal and endodontic regeneration highlighting their clinical success and shortcomings, and discussing future directions in regenerative therapy.

  12. [Substitution therapy tested against amphetamine dependence].

    PubMed

    Bloniecki Kallio, Victor; Guterstam, Joar; Franck, Johan

    2016-01-06

    Amphetamine dependence is relatively common in Sweden and it is the most frequently used substance among patients with intravenous drug abuse. Current treatment options are limited but recently substitution therapy with psychostimulant medication has been evaluated in several clinical trials. Such treatment is controversial in Sweden, perhaps due to the failure of experimental prescription of psychostimulants in the 1960s. Recent clinical trials however indicate that structured treatment programs with psychostimulants might have positive effects, although the results are inconsistent and the evidence base is still limited. Future research is needed in order to determine the potential role of substitution therapy for amphetamine dependence in clinical practice.

  13. Chimaeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for tumour immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Huan-huan; Wang, Dan-dan; Yan, Da-li; Hu, Yong; Yang, Su-jin; Liu, Si-wen

    2017-01-01

    Chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies, as one of the cancer immunotherapies, have heralded a new era of treating cancer. The accumulating data, especially about CAR-modified T cells against CD19 support that CAR T-cell therapy is a highly effective immune therapy for B-cell malignancies. Apart from CD19, there have been many trials of CAR T cells directed other tumour specific or associated antigens (TSAs/TAAs) in haematologic malignancies and solid tumours. This review will briefly summarize basic CAR structure, parts of reported TSAs/TAAs, results of the clinical trials of CAR T-cell therapies as well as two life-threatening side effects. Experiments in vivo or in vitro, ongoing clinical trials and the outlook for CAR T-cell therapies also be included. Our future efforts will focus on identification of more viable cancer targets and more strategies to make CAR T-cell therapy safer. PMID:28053197

  14. Occupational Therapy Students' Perceptions of Spirituality in Training.

    PubMed

    Mthembu, Thuli Godfrey; Ahmed, Firdous; Nkuna, Thembi; Yaca, Khalipha

    2015-12-01

    Spirituality is recognized as an essential and integral component of a holistic approach in occupational therapy practice. However, little is known about occupational therapy students' perceptions regarding spirituality in learning context. This study used qualitative exploratory, descriptive design to explore the occupational therapy students' perceptions about spirituality in training. Using purposive sampling, four semi-structured interviews were conducted with two students, a lecturer and an occupational therapist. In addition, two focus groups were conducted with students in order to collect data. Data collected were audio-taped; transcribed and thematic analysis was used to identify themes. The analysis resulted in emergence of four themes: "Unique to every individual," "Spirituality in occupational therapy," "To be or not to be taught," and "The Real world." Participants perceived spirituality as an individually experienced. The study contributes to the body of knowledge base of occupational therapy education regarding spirituality. However, there is a need for guidelines to integrate spirituality in occupational therapy training.

  15. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  16. Microenvironment and Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Michio; Itasaka, Satoshi; Harada, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Dependency on tumor oxygenation is one of the major features of radiation therapy and this has led many radiation biologists and oncologists to focus on tumor hypoxia. The first approach to overcome tumor hypoxia was to improve tumor oxygenation by increasing oxygen delivery and a subsequent approach was the use of radiosensitizers in combination with radiation therapy. Clinical use of some of these approaches was promising, but they are not widely used due to several limitations. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that is activated by hypoxia and induces the expression of various genes related to the adaptation of cellular metabolism to hypoxia, invasion and metastasis of cancer cells and angiogenesis, and so forth. HIF-1 is a potent target to enhance the therapeutic effects of radiation therapy. Another approach is antiangiogenic therapy. The combination with radiation therapy is promising, but several factors including surrogate markers, timing and duration, and so forth have to be optimized before introducing it into clinics. In this review, we examined how the tumor microenvironment influences the effects of radiation and how we can enhance the antitumor effects of radiation therapy by modifying the tumor microenvironment. PMID:23509762

  17. Cognitive behavioural therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Rachel; Moore, Theresa Hm; Caldwell, Deborah; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Furukawa, Toshi A; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2010-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all CBT approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depressionTo examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different CBT approaches (cognitive therapy, rational emotive behaviour therapy, problem-solving therapy, self-control therapy and Coping with Depression course) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all CBT approaches compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, third wave CBT) for acute depression.

  18. Toward making progress feedback an effective common factor in couple therapy.

    PubMed

    Halford, W Kim; Hayes, Samira; Christensen, Andrew; Lambert, Michael; Baucom, Donald H; Atkins, David C

    2012-03-01

    Systematic monitoring of individual therapy progress, coupled with feedback to the therapist, reliably enhances therapy outcome by alerting therapists to individual clients who are off track to benefit by the end of therapy. The current paper reviews the possibility of using similar systematic monitoring and feedback of therapy progress as a means to enhance couple therapy outcome, including what measures of therapy progress are most likely to be useful, how to structure feedback to be most useful to therapists, and the likely mediators of the effects of therapy progress feedback. One implicit assumption of therapy progress feedback is that clients unlikely to benefit from therapy can be detected early enough in the course of therapy for corrective action to be taken. As a test of this assumption, midtherapy progress was examined as a predictor of final couple therapy outcome in a sample of 134 distressed couples. Either a brief 7- or 32-item assessment of couple therapy progress at midtherapy detected a substantial proportion (46%) of couples who failed to benefit by the end of therapy. Given that failure to benefit from couple therapy is somewhat predictable across the course of therapy, future research should test whether systematic monitoring and feedback of progress could enhance therapy outcome.

  19. Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stage for Kidney Cancer Kidney Cancer Treating Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer The goal of biologic therapy ... Therapy for Kidney Cancer Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer Chemotherapy for Kidney Cancer Pain ...

  20. Guide to conservative, medical, and procedural therapies.

    PubMed

    Cohen, R I; Chopra, P; Upshur, C

    2001-11-01

    For patients without a specific diagnosis, treatment of low back pain begins with strategies to avoid re-injury and exacerbation. Most patients benefit from some form of medical therapy, guided by the three-step World Health Organization analgesic ladder. Opioid therapy is appropriate when needed for low back pain, especially in the acute period. Adjuvant medication (eg, an anticonvulsant or antidepressant) may help reduce or eliminate the need for opioid therapy. Side effects are common with opioid medications, although many resolve with time. Patient education in exercise, back protection, nutrition, and sexual concerns is an important component of treatment. Some patients may benefit from referral to a pain center for multidisciplinary management. Those with a structural or mechanical cause of pain may do well with surgery.

  1. Neoadjuvant Therapy in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Le, Valerie H.; Camille, Nadia; Miles, Brett A.; Teng, Marita S.; Genden, Eric M.; Misiukiewicz, Krzysztof J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Invasion of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) into surrounding structures can lead to morbid procedures such as laryngectomy and tracheal resection. In these patients, there is a potential role for neoadjuvant therapy. Methods. We identified three studies involving the treatment of DTC with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: two from Slovenia and one from Japan. Results. These studies demonstrate that in selected situations, neoadjuvant chemotherapy can have a good response and allow for a more complete surgical resection, the treatment of DTC. Additionally, the SELECT trial shows that the targeted therapy lenvatinib is effective in the treatment of DTC and could be useful as neoadjuvant therapy for this disease due to its short time to response. Pazopanib has also demonstrated promise in phase II data. Conclusions. Thus, chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting could possibly be useful for managing advanced DTC. Additionally, some of the new tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) hold promise for use in the neoadjuvant setting in DTC. PMID:27747102

  2. Hadron Therapy for Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lennox, Arlene

    2003-09-10

    The biological and physical rationale for hadron therapy is well understood by the research community, but hadron therapy is not well established in mainstream medicine. This talk will describe the biological advantage of neutron therapy and the dose distribution advantage of proton therapy, followed by a discussion of the challenges to be met before hadron therapy can play a significant role in treating cancer. A proposal for a new research-oriented hadron clinic will be presented.

  3. Planar-to-Tubular Structural Transition in Boron Clusters: B20 as the Embryo of Single-Walled Boron Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Boggavarapu, Kiran; Bulusu, Satya; Zhai, Hua JIN.; Yoo, Soohaeng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wang, Lai S.

    2005-01-25

    Experimental and computational simulations revealed that boron clusters, which favor planar (2D) structures up to 18 atoms, prefer three-dimensional (3D) structures beginning at 20 atoms. Using global optimization methods, we found that the B20 neutral cluster has a double-ring tubular structure with a diameter of 5.2 ?. In the B20- anion, the tubular structure is shown to be isoenergetic to 2D structures, which were observed and confirmed by photoelectron spectroscopy. The 2D to 3D structural transition observed at B20, reminiscent to the ring-to-fullerene transition at C20 in carbon clusters, suggests it may be considered as the embryo of the thinnest single-walled boron nanotubes.

  4. Multilamellar Structures and Filament Bundles Are Found on the Cell Surface during Bunyavirus Egress

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Sánchez, Laura; Risco, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Inside cells, viruses build specialized compartments for replication and morphogenesis. We observed that virus release associates with specific structures found on the surface of mammalian cells. Cultured adherent cells were infected with a bunyavirus and processed for oriented sectioning and transmission electron microscopy. Imaging of cell basal regions showed sophisticated multilamellar structures (MLS) and extracellular filament bundles with attached viruses. Correlative light and electron microscopy confirmed that both MLS and filaments proliferated during the maximum egress of new viruses. MLS dimensions and structure were reminiscent of those reported for the nanostructures on gecko fingertips, which are responsible for the extraordinary attachment capacity of these lizards. As infected cells with MLS were more resistant to detachment than control cells, we propose an adhesive function for these structures, which would compensate for the loss of adherence during release of new virus progeny. PMID:23799021

  5. Immunotherapy and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elizabeth

    2004-02-01

    The Immunotherapy and Gene Therapy meeting of the Academy of Medical Sciences reviewed the state-of-the-art and translational prospects for therapeutic interventions aimed at killing tumor cells, correcting genetic defects and developing vaccines for chronic infections. Crucial basic science concepts and information about dendritic cells, the structure and function of T-cell receptors, and manipulation of the immune response by cytokine antagonists and peptides were presented. This information underpins vaccine design and delivery, as well as attempts to immunomodulate autoimmune disease. Results from studies using anticancer DNA vaccines, which include appropriate signals for both the innate and adaptive immune response, were presented in several talks. The vaccines incorporated helper epitopes and cancer target epitopes such as immunoglobulin idiotypes (for lymphomas and myelomas), melanoma-associated antigens (for melanoma and other solid tumors) and minor histocompatibility antigens (for leukemia). The results of using vaccines employing similar principles and designed to reduce viral load in HIV/AIDS patients were also presented. The introduction of suicide genes incorporating the bacterial enzyme nitroreductase gene (ntr) targeted at tumor cells prior to administration of the prodrug CB-1954, converted by ntr into a toxic alkylating agent, was discussed against the background of clinical trials and improved suicide gene design. The introduction into hematopoietic stem cells of missing genes for the common gamma-chain, deficiency of which causes severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), used similar retroviral transduction. The outcome of treating six SCID patients in the UK, and ten in France was successful immune reconstitution in the majority of patients, but in two of the French cases a complication of lymphoproliferative disease due to insertional mutagenesis was observed. The adoptive transfer of T-cells specific for minor histocompatibility antigens (for

  6. [Bright light therapy].

    PubMed

    Poirrier, R; Cambron, L

    2007-01-01

    Bright light therapy is a treatment that emerged in the eighties of the last century. It can be used in different pathologies such as seasonal affective disorders, major depressions, and many disorders of the wake-sleep rhythm, whether they are of primary or secondary origin. Important progress made at the basic neuroscience levels, allows today a sound understanding of the bright light mode of action. Moreover, the main indications are now the subject of consensus reports and meta-analyses which show good levels of evidence-based medicine. Bright light therapy constitutes a first choice indication in seasonal affective disorder. It is also perfectly possible to prescribe bright light therapy in the major depression disorders. It has been demonstrated that the effect size is the same as with antidepressants of reference. It is admitted nowadays that bright light therapy may be at least, an adjunct to pharmacotherapy, in order to accelerate the antidepressant effect onset, or to prolong this effect after withdrawal of the drug. Bright light therapy can also be viewed as an alternative to the pharmacological approach especially when this one is impossible, not tolerated or not accepted by the patient. The contraindications are rare.

  7. Hormone therapy in acne.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2013-01-01

    Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  8. Human gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, J S; Keating, A; Hozumi, N

    1997-01-01

    Human gene therapy and its application for the treatment of human genetic disorders, such as cystic fibrosis, cancer, and other diseases, are discussed. Gene therapy is a technique in which a functioning gene is inserted into a human cell to correct a genetic error or to introduce a new function to the cell. Many methods, including retroviral vectors and non-viral vectors, have been developed for both ex vivo and in vivo gene transfer into cells. Vectors need to be developed that efficiently transfer genes to target cells, and promoter systems are required that regulate gene expression according to physiologic needs of the host cell. There are several safety and ethical issues related to manipulating the human genome that need to be resolved. Current gene therapy efforts focus on gene insertion into somatic cells only. Gene therapy has potential for the effective treatment of genetic disorders, and gene transfer techniques are being used for basic research, for example, in cancer, to examine the underlying mechanism of disease. There are still many technical obstacles to be overcome before human gene therapy can become a routine procedure. The current human genome project provides the sequences of a vast number of human genes, leading to the identification, characterization, and understanding of genes that are responsible for many human diseases.

  9. [Dynamic flamingo therapy].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Keizo

    2008-11-01

    A long follow up study of one minute unipedal standing therapy 3 times in a day to prevent femoral neck osteoporosis that have started from 1993 was reported. The registration from July 1993 to March 2004 were 86 cases which measured the femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) according to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR 1000 and 2000) in a follow-up period. Average age at starting exercise was 67.9 years old. All cases were female who were registered in our university hospital. The result of unipedal exercise evaluated by the femoral neck BMD was described as follows : The increased cases of BMD were 15/24 (62.5%) post exercise 3 months, 15/37 (40.5%) post 6 months, and 12/21 (57.1%) post one year, 8/25 (32%) post 3 years, 7/13 (53.8%) post 5 years and 1/3 (33.3%) post 10 years. We have no fracture cases in which continued exercise in follow-up period. According to a randomized controlled study of unipedal standing balance therapy to clinically defined high-risk elderly individuals a therapy group reduced fall times by a significant difference than non-therapy group. We conclude that unipedal standing therapy is efficacious against femoral neck osteoporosis and fractures.

  10. Gene therapy for hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Chuah, M K; Evens, H; VandenDriessche, T

    2013-06-01

    Hemophilia A and B are X-linked monogenic disorders resulting from deficiencies of factor VIII and FIX, respectively. Purified clotting factor concentrates are currently intravenously administered to treat hemophilia, but this treatment is non-curative. Therefore, gene-based therapies for hemophilia have been developed to achieve sustained high levels of clotting factor expression to correct the clinical phenotype. Over the past two decades, different types of viral and non-viral gene delivery systems have been explored for hemophilia gene therapy research with a variety of target cells, particularly hepatocytes, hematopoietic stem cells, skeletal muscle cells, and endothelial cells. Lentiviral and adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are among the most promising vectors for hemophilia gene therapy. In preclinical hemophilia A and B animal models, the bleeding phenotype was corrected with these vectors. Some of these promising preclinical results prompted clinical translation to patients suffering from a severe hemophilic phenotype. These patients receiving gene therapy with AAV vectors showed long-term expression of therapeutic FIX levels, which is a major step forwards in this field. Nevertheless, the levels were insufficient to prevent trauma or injury-induced bleeding episodes. Another challenge that remains is the possible immune destruction of gene-modified cells by effector T cells, which are directed against the AAV vector antigens. It is therefore important to continuously improve the current gene therapy approaches to ultimately establish a real cure for hemophilia.

  11. A pilot usability study of MINWii, a music therapy game for demented patients.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Mélodie; Benveniste, Samuel; Boespflug, Sandra; Jouvelot, Pierre; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2011-01-01

    MINWii is a music therapy game for the renarcissization of demented patients. It lets players improvise or play songs of their choice by pointing at a virtual keyboard with a Wiimote Pistol. We present the results of a three-month usability study we conducted with 7 institutionalized patients suffering from mild to moderately severe Alzheimer's disease at the LUSAGE Living Lab in Paris. We demonstrate that MINWii is indeed usable by AD patients despite their motor and cognitive impairments: our results, which were largely computed automatically thanks to MINWii's extensive logging capabilities, show either an instant mastery or a clear learning effect depending on patients' cognitive abilities. Moreover, patients were overall very satisfied with the game and expressed a desire to repeat the experience: MINWii fosters positive interaction with the caregivers and elicits powerful reminiscence with even the most severely impaired patients. This study justifies future research to assess the lasting effects of playing MINWii on both quality of life and cognitive impairment in demented patients.

  12. Family and family therapy in Russia.

    PubMed

    Bebtschuk, Marina; Smirnova, Daria; Khayretdinov, Oleg

    2012-04-01

    This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family Therapy in improvement of preparing of specialists who can provide qualified psychosocial assistance for the family according to the actual needs of society are noted. The directions of state and private practice of family counselling and therapy both for psychiatric patients and medical patients, for adults and children in a family systemic approach are highlighted with an indication of the spectrum of techniques and methods used by Russian professionals. The main obstacles and perspectives of development of family therapy in Russia are summarized.

  13. Cell Therapy in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Petrof, Gabriela; Abdul-Wahab, Alya; McGrath, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing the regenerative capacity of keratinocytes and fibroblasts from human skin has created new opportunities to develop cell-based therapies for patients. Cultured cells and bioengineered skin products are being used to treat patients with inherited and acquired skin disorders associated with defective skin, and further clinical trials of new products are in progress. The capacity of extracutaneous sources of cells such as bone marrow is also being investigated for its plasticity in regenerating skin, and new strategies, such as the derivation of inducible pluripotent stem cells, also hold great promise for future cell therapies in dermatology. This article reviews some of the preclinical and clinical studies and future directions relating to cell therapy in dermatology, particularly for inherited skin diseases associated with fragile skin and poor wound healing. PMID:24890834

  14. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Domb, William C

    2014-01-01

    Summary The 21st century dental practice is quite dynamic. New treatment protocols and new materials are being developed at a rapid pace. Ozone dental therapy falls into the category of new treatment protocols in dentistry, yet ozone is not new at all. Ozone therapy is already a major treatment modality in Europe, South America and a number of other countries. What is provided here will not be an exhaustive scientific treatise so much as a brief general introduction into what dentists are now doing with ozone therapies and the numerous oral/systemic links that make this subject so important for physicians so that, ultimately, they may serve their patients more effectively and productively. PMID:25363268

  15. Nonpharmacologic therapies in spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Reimold, Andreas M; Chandran, Vinod

    2014-10-01

    It is accepted that the optimal management of spondyloarthritis requires a combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions. Non-pharmacologic therapy in spondyloarthritis has generally focused on the exercise regimens whose purpose is to maintain mobility and strength, relieve symptoms, prevent or decrease spinal deformity, contribute to long-term cardiopulmonary health, and improve overall function and quality of life. Exercise programs such as home exercise, group exercise, inpatient programs, and spa exercise have all been the subject of multiple reports that are reviewed here. Studies reviewed support the use of exercise, spa therapy, manual therapy, and electrotherapeutic modalities. Additional topics that are finding relevance in spondyloarthritis are the behavioral interventions that maximize knowledge, motivation for compliance, and healthy lifestyle choices including smoking cessation, weight management, diet, and probiotics. However, the quality and generalizability of the studies are limited.

  16. [Therapy of postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Keck, E

    2003-12-01

    The therapy of postmenopausal osteoporosis is based on a few comprehensible assumptions. High bone resorption should be reduced by treatment with bisphosphonates, raloxifene or seldom with calcitonins. After reduction of high bone turnover and in low bone turnover situations, an osteoinductive combination therapy should be started, inducing collagen type I with parathyroid hormone or fluorides. This collagen can then be mineralized by calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin D metabolites. In addition, bone resorption should be reduced during menopause with estrogens and gestagens, in the case of a receptor-positive breast cancer with tamoxifen, and after menopause with raloxifene or a bisphosphonate. In elderly patients a depletion of vitamin D often induces an osteoporomalacia instead of an osteoporosis. In this situation, mineralization of the osteoid by calcium and vitamin D is sufficient for therapy. A daily osteoporosis gymnastic program is required and physical activity should be enhanced to increase muscle mass because bone adapts to the individual situation.

  17. [Behcet's disease therapy review].

    PubMed

    Vidaller Palacín, A; Robert Olalla, J; Sanuy Jiménez, B; Rufi Rigau, G; Folch Civit, J; Charte González, A

    2002-11-01

    Behçet's disease is an inflammatory process of unknown origin, which usually presents with recurrent oral ulcers, genital aphthae, uveitis and cutaneous lesions. However, a wide variety of clinical manifestations have been reported, and virtually any organ system may be affected, showing central nervous system, joints, blood vessels or gastrointestinal tract involvement. Therapeutic approach remains complex, and varies in basis of the affected organs. Complex aphthosis may respond to topical therapy, colchicine and dapsone. If this therapy does not result in adequate disease control, thalidomide, oral prednisone and methotrexate may be useful. When severe ocular lesions or systemic manifestations are present, therapies tend to be more aggressive, usually combining corticosteroids with immunosuppressive agents as cyclosporin, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, interferon-alfa-2a, and chlorambucil.

  18. Parkinson's disease: gene therapies.

    PubMed

    Coune, Philippe G; Schneider, Bernard L; Aebischer, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    With the recent development of effective gene delivery systems, gene therapy for the central nervous system is finding novel applications. Here, we review existing viral vectors and discuss gene therapy strategies that have been proposed for Parkinson's disease. To date, most of the clinical trials were based on viral vectors to deliver therapeutic transgenes to neurons within the basal ganglia. Initial trials used genes to relieve the major motor symptoms caused by nigrostriatal degeneration. Although these new genetic approaches still need to prove more effective than existing symptomatic treatments, there is a need for disease-modifying strategies. The investigation of the genetic factors implicated in Parkinson's disease is providing precious insights in disease pathology that, combined with innovative gene delivery systems, will hopefully offer novel opportunities for gene therapy interventions to slow down, or even halt disease progression.

  19. Laser therapy for periodontitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efanov, O. I.

    2001-04-01

    An investigation was made of applying pulsed (lambda) equals 0.89 micrometers laser radiation in the treatment for early diagnosed periodontitis. The investigation was made on 65 patients (47 patients constituted the experimental group and 18 patients constituted a control group) affected by periodontitis. Clinical and functional tests revealed that laser therapy produced a string effect on the course of the illness. It reduced bleeding, inflammation, and pruritus. However, it did not produce an affect on electroexcitation. Biomicroscopic examinations and periodontium rheography revealed that the gingival blood flow became normal after the course of laser therapy. The capillary permeability and venous congestion decreased, which was confirmed by the increased time of vacuum tests, raised gingival temperature, reduced tissue clearance, and increased oxygen tension. Apart from that, laser therapy subsided fibrinolysis, proteolytic tissue activity, and decreased the exudative inflammation of periodontium.

  20. Intraoperative Stem Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Mónica Beato; Cabral, Joaquim M.S.; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells hold significant promise for regeneration of tissue defects and disease-modifying therapies. Although numerous promising stem cell approaches are advancing in clinical trials, intraoperative stem cell therapies offer more immediate hope by integrating an autologous cell source with a well-established surgical intervention in a single procedure. Herein, the major developments in intraoperative stem cell approaches, from in vivo models to clinical studies, are reviewed, and the potential regenerative mechanisms and the roles of different cell populations in the regeneration process are discussed. Although intraoperative stem cell therapies have been shown to be safe and effective for several indications, there are still critical challenges to be tackled prior to adoption into the standard surgical armamentarium. PMID:22809140

  1. [Particle therapy: carbon ions].

    PubMed

    Pommier, Pascal; Hu, Yi; Baron, Marie-Hélène; Chapet, Olivier; Balosso, Jacques

    2010-07-01

    Carbon ion therapy is an innovative radiation therapy. It has been first proposed in the forties by Robert Wilson, however the first dedicated centres for human care have been build up only recently in Japan and Germany. The interest of carbon ion is twofold: 1) the very sharp targeting of the tumour with the so called spread out Bragg peak that delivers most of the beam energy in the tumour and nothing beyond it, sparing very efficiently the healthy tissues; 2) the higher relative biological efficiency compared to X rays or protons, able to kill radioresistant tumour cells. Both properties make carbon ions the elective therapy for non resectable radioresistant tumours loco-regionally threatening. The technical and clinical experience accumulated during the recent decades is summarized in this paper along with a detailed presentation of the elective indications. A short comparison between conventional radiotherapy and hadrontherapy is proposed for the indications which are considered as priority for carbon ions.

  2. Continuous home oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Ortega Ruiz, Francisco; Díaz Lobato, Salvador; Galdiz Iturri, Juan Bautista; García Rio, Francisco; Güell Rous, Rosa; Morante Velez, Fátima; Puente Maestu, Luis; Tàrrega Camarasa, Julia

    2014-05-01

    Oxygen therapy is defined as the therapeutic use of oxygen and consists of administering oxygen at higher concentrations than those found in room air, with the aim of treating or preventing hypoxia. This therapeutic intervention has been shown to increase survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and respiratory failure. Although this concept has been extended by analogy to chronic respiratory failure caused by respiratory and non-respiratory diseases, continuous oxygen therapy has not been shown to be effective in other disorders. Oxygen therapy has not been shown to improve survival in patients with COPD and moderate hypoxaemia, nor is there consensus regarding its use during nocturnal desaturations in COPD or desaturations caused by effort. The choice of the oxygen source must be made on the basis of criteria such as technical issues, patient comfort and adaptability and cost. Flow must be adjusted to achieve appropriate transcutaneous oxyhaemoglobin saturation correction.

  3. Effects of Solution Focused Therapy's "Formula First Session Task" on Compliance and Outcome in Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jerome F.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined differential effects of formula first session task (FFST), FFST plus solution focused therapy, and standard problem focused structural-strategic intervention. At one week, FFST groups were significantly higher on measures of family compliance, clarity of treatment goals, and improvement in presenting problem. Found no significant…

  4. Alternative therapy in pruritus.

    PubMed

    Millikan, Larry E

    2003-01-01

    Because of its multitude of origins, the symptom complex of pruritus has a plethora of purported remedies and few therapeutic indications. Very few topical and systemic FDA approved medications have the indication of pruritus. Specific therapy still awaits a better definition of the exact physiologic events in chronic pruritus. Hence most medications actually focus on the central nervous system--the peripheral receptors--and the lack of specific physiologic targets has inhibited pharmacologic development. The resulting gap has opened the door to a variety of alternative therapies.

  5. Drug therapy in headache.

    PubMed

    Weatherall, Mark W

    2015-06-01

    All physicians will encounter patients with headaches. Primary headache disorders are common, and often disabling. This paper reviews the principles of drug therapy in headache in adults, focusing on the three commonest disorders presenting in both primary and secondary care: tension-type headache, migraine and cluster headache. The clinical evidence on the basis of which choices can be made between the currently available drug therapies for acute and preventive treatment of these disorders is presented, and information given on the options available for the emergency parenteral treatment of refractory migraine attacks and cluster headache.

  6. Art therapy for schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Ruiz, María Isabel; Aceituno, David; Rada, Gabriel

    2017-01-19

    Art therapy is used as a complementary treatment to antipsychotics in schizophrenia. However, its effectiveness is not clear. To answer this question, we searched in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases. We identified five systematic reviews including 20 studies overall, of which four were randomized trials. We extracted data and prepared summary of findings tables using the GRADE method. We concluded it is not clear whether art therapy leads to clinical improvement in schizophrenia because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  7. Structure of Boron Nitride Nanotubes: Tube Closing Vs. Chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Menon, Madhu

    1998-01-01

    The structure of boron nitride nanotubes is investigated using a generalized tight-binding molecular dynamics method. It is shown that dynamic relaxation results in a wavelike or "rippled" surface in which the B atoms rotate inward and the N atoms move outward, reminiscent of the surface relaxation of the III-V semiconductors. More importantly, the three different morphologies of the tube closing with flat, conical and amorphous ends, as observed in experiments, are shown to be directly related to the tube chiralities. The abundance of flat end tubes observed in experiments is, thus, shown to be an indication of the greater stability of "zig-zag" BN tubes over the "arm-chair" tubes under experimental conditions.

  8. Lindbergh and the Biological Sciences (A Personal Reminiscence)

    PubMed Central

    Bing, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    In 1929 Charles Lindbergh became interested in the development of a heart-bypass pump to enable open-heart surgery, and was introduced to Alexis Carrel. Carrel persuaded Lindbergh to work instead on a perfusion system for the culture of whole organs outside the body, and by 1934—when I met Lindbergh in Copenhagen—he already had developed a pump with floating glass valves that allowed precise regulation of perfusion pressure and rate. I joined Lindbergh and Carrel at the Rockefeller Institute to work on organ culture, using the pump. My subsequent contact with Lindbergh came at Columbia, where I experimented with hemocyanin as a blood substitute, and (much later) at Huntington Medical Research Institutes, where I found his pump useful in the study of cholesterol uptake by arteries. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1987; 14:231-237) Images PMID:15227303

  9. The Investment in Education Report 1965--Recollections and Reminiscences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Áine

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on the recollections of its author of the work of the Investment in Education team from its inauguration in summer 1962 until the completion of its work in early 1965. The author was a research assistant to the team throughout the period of the study and was directly involved in the collection and analysis of the data on which…

  10. The reminiscences of a plastic surgeon during World War II.

    PubMed

    Penn, J

    1978-01-01

    The experiences of the author while an Officer in the South African Medical Corps are related. During the battle of Britain he was attached to the R.A.M.C. and observed the work of pioneers in modern military plastic surgery. On his return to South Africa, he set up the Brenthurst Military Red Cross Hospital for Plastic Surgery and dealt with many thousands of allied battle casualties--South African, British, French, and Polish. The injuries treated included aircraft and tank burns, facial destructions (particularly the nose and eyes), extensive facial fractures, and limb amputations. Various procedures are mentioned. The first plastic surgical journal in English, The Brenthurst Papers, was produced describing these innovations.

  11. Reminiscences of a mouse specific-locus test addict.

    PubMed

    Russell, W L

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes some of the historical events surrounding the development of and achievements with the mouse specific-locus test in radiation and chemical mutagenesis. Some ongoing and future contributions of the test to research in molecular genetics are also mentioned.

  12. [Basic study on wartime reminiscences of older adults in Okinawa].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Maiko; Tanaka, Kanji

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated retrospectively the thoughts people had of World War II, especially the Battle of Okinawa at that time, and their current evaluation of their own wartime experience. A questionnaire survey was conducted, and 217 older adults, 114 women and 103 men between 65 and 88 years old, participated. Results indicated that men generally had more negative feelings than women at the end of the war. And psychological damages caused by traumatic war memories seemed to have persisted in not a few individuals in spite of over half a century since the end of the war. However, others had been more positive and accepting toward their wartime experiences. This difference appeared to be related to qualitative differences of various experiences, as well as the person's age. It is argued that a vigorous approach will be necessary for this sort of study of Japanese war victims from a number of viewpoints.

  13. Reminiscence of my Sixty-five year Voyage in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shouguan

    2016-06-01

    I returned to China from the United Kingdom in 1953, then worked in Purple Mountain Observatory. It was the early days of new China. The elder generation of astronomers was undertaking an effort of “repairing broken and filling defect” during those post-war years, and started planning and laying the foundation of modern astronomy. Under their leadership, I started a journey of astronomy whose main task was construction. The journey has been full of twists and turns. As a result of the “Great Leap Forward” in 1958 and the 1966 launch of the decade-long “Cultural Revolution” period, the situation of construction in astronomy was similar to that in other sciences, suffering bad effects. Not until the “Reform and Opening up” period after those events was construction able to continue, and various disciplines and international connections began to open. A “passage” had gradually developed. In this new circumstance, I kept pursuing the pioneers to explore a forward direction. Looking back today, this journey has been three periods of a four generation relay. This article is divided into three sections that describe my research work in these times that I recall: (1) Looking back at the beginning of the return and tracing the footprints of the founders. (2) Recalling my radio astronomy tour. (3) Retrospection and expectation of LAMOST.

  14. Reminiscences from the Field: The Continuing Story of ERIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colker, Laura J.

    The Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) was born in the mid-1960s and is today the world's largest and most popular educational database. The history of ERIC's early development has been told in Del Trester's 1981 narrative, "ERIC--The First Fifteen Years: 1964-1979, A History of the Educational Resources Information Center."…

  15. VOT in speech-disordered individuals: History, theory, data, reminiscence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weismer, Gary

    2001-05-01

    Forty years ago Lisker and Abramson published their landmark paper on VOT; the speech-research world has never been the same. The concept of VOT as a measure relevant to phonology, speech physiology, and speech perception made it a prime choice for scientists who saw an opportunity to exploit the techniques and analytic frameworks of ``speech science'' in the study of speech disorders. Modifications of VOT in speech disorders have been used to draw specific inferences concerning phonological representations, glottal-supraglottal timing, and speech intelligibility. This presentation will provide a review of work on VOT in speech disorders, including (among others) stuttering, hearing impairment, and neurogenic disorders. An attempt will be made to collect published data in summary graphic form, and to discuss their implications. Emphasis will be placed on how VOT has been used to inform theories of disordered speech production. I will close with some personal comments about the influence (unbeknowest to them) these two outstanding scientists had on me in the 1970s, when under the spell of their work I first became aware that the world of speech research did not start and end with moving parts.

  16. Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges: Analyses and Reminiscences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William, Ed.; And Others

    The origins, evolution, and current state of Finnish-American academic and professional exchange are reviewed. Personal evaluations by Finnish scholars are provided as follows: "Scholarly Exchanges with Finland: The Benefits to the United States" (Allan A. Kuusisto); "Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges, A…

  17. The Talking Satellite - A Reminiscence of Project Score

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, D.

    An authentic eye-witness account, from one ultimately involved, of the history and development of PROJECT SCORE which orbited the Earth in 1958, transmitting a recorded message from President Eisenhower and which may thus claim to be the world's first communications satellite.

  18. Why T waves change: a reminiscence and essay.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Michael R

    2009-11-01

    The following article is a personal reflection on my study of a subject which has long interested me. The subject is the T wave, and especially the T wave changes occurring as a marker of cardiac memory. My interest evolved over coffees that Mauricio Rosenbaum and I used to share at the Hotel Algonquin during his frequent trips from Buenos Aires to New York. There is something about the Algonquin, whose scarred wooden tabletops carry the imprints of Robert Benchley, Dorothy Parker, and the 1920's New York literati, and there was something about Mauricio-clinician-scientist, friend, and raconteur extraordinaire-that made his repeated challenges to me to "look at cardiac memory before you begin losing your own" irresistible. So began my personal voyage into trying to understand the T wave. My guideposts were the experiments of Wilson and Finch,(1) the astute observations of a host of investigators who followed, and Mauricio's iconoclastic insights. The story is far from over...I doubt I'll see the end of it in my lifetime. But if the beauty of discovery is in the voyage, then it has been - for me - a memorable trip.

  19. Noela Hogg, Music Educator: Reminiscences of a Past Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Continual changes to Victorian secondary education since the 1990s have severely effected the teaching of classroom music in many schools. Similar to the 1970s-1980s, there is a need for music educators and teachers to develop innovative concepts and insights into teaching school music. From 1975 to 1984, a group of determined women…

  20. Emotional reminiscing and the development of an autobiographical self.

    PubMed

    Bird, Amy; Reese, Elaine

    2006-07-01

    According to autobiographical memory theorists, past event conversations provide children with a framework for evaluating and connecting past events into a coherent autobiography (R. Fivush, 1994; K. Nelson, 1993; M. K. Welch-Ross, 1995). Two studies were conducted to empirically examine the association between past event conversation style and an independent measure of children's self-concept consistency. In Study 1, 50 New Zealand mothers discussed everyday past events with their children at 51 and 65 months of age. In Study 2, 51 New Zealand parents discussed 1 positive and 3 negative past events with their 5- and 6-year-old children. The consistency of children's self-views was assessed in both studies using the Children's Self-View Questionnaire (R. Eder, 1990). Children's self-concept consistency was moderately associated with greater explanation of the causes and consequences of children's negative emotions, resolution through social contact, and evaluation of positive events but not with simple attributions of emotion. These findings implicate parent-child conversations as a medium through which children can begin to understand the personal meaning of past experiences.