Science.gov

Sample records for structures conspicuously absent

  1. Absent Apologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Paul; Hepburn, Alexa

    2016-01-01

    Absent apologies--apologies that were expected but are not forthcoming--are quite frequently identified and commented on, for instance in the media. In this article we discuss two kinds of evidence that apologies can be "noticeably" absent for participants in ordinary interactions. The first kind is the delays that can occur in the…

  2. Conspicuity of moving soldiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beintema, Jaap A.; Toet, Alexander; de Vries, Sjoerd J.

    2011-05-01

    The construction and validation of soldier combat models requires data on the conspicuity of camouflaged targets in the field, and human targets in particular. So far, this data is lacking. Also, it si currently unknown to what degree luminance contrast and motion contribute to target conspicuity. These data are needed to enable the validation and further development of human visual search performance modules in soldier combat models like SCOPE or IWARS. In this study we measured the conspicuity of a person wearing a Dutch army camouflage uniform, while he was either standing still, walking or running along a forest in the background, both for viewing with the naked eye (NE) and for viewing dynamic thermal scene recordings (IR). We varied the viewing distance (80m and 230 m), the camouflage pattern (woodland and desert), the type of background (pine-tree and deciduous forest), and season (summer and winter), The IR (thermal) conspicuity of the person was much larger than his NE (visual) conspicuity. In both cases the effects of movement were large and saturated as a function of retinal target speed. For NE, we find large effects of shading that can not explained by local luminance contrast variations. Also for NE, conspicuity was reduced in winter, probably as a result of an increase in scene clutter. The results suggest that conspicuity is not only a function of retinal target motion and global luminance contrast, but also depends on the amount of clutter in the scene.

  3. PHACE without face? Infantile hemangiomas of the upper body region with minimal or absent facial hemangiomas and associated structural malformations.

    PubMed

    Nabatian, Adam S; Milgraum, Sandy S; Hess, Christopher P; Mancini, Anthony J; Krol, Alfons; Frieden, Ilona J

    2011-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas can be associated with congenital anomalies such as PHACE syndrome with facial hemangiomas and genitourinary and spinal anomalies in the setting of lower body hemangiomas. We describe five infants in whom segmental hemangiomas involving the upper torso and extremities with absent or small facial hemangiomas were associated with structural anomalies similar to those reported with PHACE syndrome, including three with structural arterial anomalies of the subclavian arteries, three with aortic arch anomalies (right sided or narrowed arch), two with congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect; tetralogy of Fallot), one with a retinal scar, and one with a sternal defect (scar). Two of five had small facial hemangiomas of the lower lip, but none had large segmental hemangiomas of the face. Three of five would have met diagnostic criteria for PHACE but lacked a facial hemangioma of 5 cm in diameter or greater. Patients with segmental arm and thorax hemangiomas may have associated structural abnormalities with overlapping features of PHACE, suggesting that a similar syndrome can occur in this clinical setting.

  4. Absent menstrual periods - secondary

    MedlinePlus

    Amenorrhea - secondary; No periods - secondary; Absent periods - secondary; Absent menses - secondary; Absence of periods - secondary ... bleeding. When they stop taking these hormones, their periods may not return for more than 6 months. ...

  5. 14 CFR 31.83 - Conspicuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Operating Limitations and Information § 31.83 Conspicuity. The exterior... enough, and there are enough of them of contrasting color, to make the balloon conspicuous during flight....

  6. 14 CFR 31.83 - Conspicuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Operating Limitations and Information § 31.83 Conspicuity. The exterior... enough, and there are enough of them of contrasting color, to make the balloon conspicuous during flight....

  7. 14 CFR 31.83 - Conspicuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Operating Limitations and Information § 31.83 Conspicuity. The exterior... enough, and there are enough of them of contrasting color, to make the balloon conspicuous during flight....

  8. 14 CFR 31.83 - Conspicuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Operating Limitations and Information § 31.83 Conspicuity. The exterior... enough, and there are enough of them of contrasting color, to make the balloon conspicuous during flight....

  9. 14 CFR 31.83 - Conspicuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Operating Limitations and Information § 31.83 Conspicuity. The exterior... enough, and there are enough of them of contrasting color, to make the balloon conspicuous during flight....

  10. Fathers absent and present.

    PubMed

    Adams, P L

    1984-04-01

    Hindering and obfuscating psychiatric scholarship about the father's role, whether he is present or absent, are several widespread notions and practices--including conceptual, assumptive, attitudinal, methodologic and technical matters. Discussed are eleven barriers to research: patriarchal ideology, preference for studying individual and dyad instead of family systems, preference for considering adults not children, overly rigid definition of parental roles, choosing not longitudinal but one-time cross-sectional study, reasoning about linear cause and effect, focus on attitudes not overt behavior, failure to control for adequate number of variables, neglect of adequate sampling procedures, confusing correlation with causation and an overemphasis on obvious pathology. The father, present or absent, may be salient or insignificant in the life of a child. If salient, the father's role may promote health and growth or may be largely pathogenic. The conclusion holds that an irreducible family unit may consist of only one pair: caretaker/child.

  11. Visual conspicuity of objects in complex scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersema, Theo; Zwaga, Harm J. G.

    2000-06-01

    In many everyday situations people have to locate a particular object in a cluttered environment, for instance a routing sign among commercial signs in an airport terminal. The object's conspicuity determines the efficiency of the search. The literature on human visual search does not unequivocally answer the question how a cluttered environment affects target conspicuity. A method was developed and validated to measure target conspicuity and the effect of distractors, using the case of routing signs (blue with white lettering) and commercial signs (non-blue) in large public buildings as a vehicle. The stimulus fields are complex, computer-generated images, which mimic natural scenes in public buildings but have no apparent meaning. Target conspicuity is operationalized as the time a subject needs to locate the target; this search time is derived from the subject's eye movements. To avoid artifacts of perceptual learning, the number of trials per subject is limited. Experiments in which this method was used clearly demonstrated that conspicuity results from the combined action of the object's own physical properties in relation to those of its environment and of the observer's perceptual and cognitive properties and current intention. Thus, conspicuity never depends merely on the characteristics of the visual stimulus.

  12. Pyrazine odour makes visually conspicuous prey aversive.

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, L; Rowe, C; Guilford, T

    2001-01-01

    Unpalatable insects frequently adopt multimodal signals to ward off predators, incorporating sounds and odours into their colourful displays. Pyrazine is an odour commonly used in insect warning displays, and has previously been shown to elicit unlearned biases against common warning colours, e.g. yellow and red in naive predators. We designed two experiments to test for similar effects of pyrazine on the conspicuousness of prey, perhaps the most ubiquitous aspect of aposematic coloration. In the first experiment, we offered predators (Gallus gallus domesticus) a choice between conspicuous crumbs and cryptic crumbs in the presence or absence of pyrazine. In the second experiment, we manipulated the birds' experience of conspicuous prey during an initial training phase. Only in the presence of pyrazine did birds show a bias against conspicuously coloured food, and this occurred whether or not they had previously experienced food that contrasted with the background. This emergent behaviour relied upon the visual and odorous signal components being presented together. These unlearned, yet hidden, responses against conspicuousness demonstrate that there are initial benefits to prey being conspicuous when the multimodal nature of warning signals is accounted for. PMID:11209885

  13. The fish eye view: are cichlids conspicuous?

    PubMed

    Dalton, Brian E; Cronin, Thomas W; Marshall, N Justin; Carleton, Karen L

    2010-07-01

    The extent of animal colouration is determined by an interplay between natural and sexual selection. Both forces probably shape colouration in the speciose, rock-dwelling cichlids of Lake Malawi. Sexual selection is thought to drive male colouration, overcoming natural selection to create conspicuous colour patterns via female mate choice and male-male competition. However, natural selection should make female cichlids cryptic because they mouthbrood their young. We hypothesize that as a result of both sexual and natural selection, males will have colours that are more conspicuous than female colours. Cichlid spectral sensitivity, especially in the ultraviolet, probably influences how colours appear to them. Here we use simple models of the trichromatic colour space of cichlid visual systems to compare the conspicuousness of male and female nuptial colours of nine species. Conspicuousness of colours was evaluated as their Euclidian distance in colour space from environmental backgrounds and from other colours on the same fish. We find in six of the nine species that breeding males have colours that are statistically more conspicuous than female colours. These colours contrast strongly with each other or with the backgrounds, and they fall within a range of spectra best transmitted in the habitat. Female colour distances were sometimes smaller, suggesting that females of some species are more cryptic than males. Therefore, selection can differentially act to generate male colours that are more conspicuous than those in females. However, in two species, females had colours that were more conspicuous than male colours, suggesting that other selective forces and possibly sexual conflicts are acting in this system.

  14. Absent Fathers in the Inner City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Mercer L.

    The influences of structural economic factors, social ecology, and culture in producing young absent fathers in the inner city and in defining relationships with their children are examined. Ethnographic data on three low income urban neighborhoods in Brooklyn (New York) are reported and compared with respect to the careers of young males,…

  15. Conspicuous and aposematic spines in the animal kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbar, Moshe; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2005-04-01

    Spines serve as a common physical defence mechanism in both the plant and animal kingdoms. Here we argue that as in plants, defensive animal spines are often conspicuous (shape and colour) and should be considered aposematic. Conspicuous spines may evolve as signals or serve as a cue for potential predators. Spine conspicuousness in animals has evolved independently across and within phyla occupying aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, indicating that this convergent phenomenon is highly adaptive. Still, many spines are cryptic, suggesting that conspicuity is not simply constrained by developmental factors such as differences in the chemical composition of the integument. Aposematism does not preclude the signalling role of conspicuous spines in the sexual arena.

  16. Conspicuous and aposematic spines in the animal kingdom.

    PubMed

    Inbar, Moshe; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2005-04-01

    Spines serve as a common physical defence mechanism in both the plant and animal kingdoms. Here we argue that as in plants, defensive animal spines are often conspicuous (shape and colour) and should be considered aposematic. Conspicuous spines may evolve as signals or serve as a cue for potential predators. Spine conspicuousness in animals has evolved independently across and within phyla occupying aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, indicating that this convergent phenomenon is highly adaptive. Still, many spines are cryptic, suggesting that conspicuity is not simply constrained by developmental factors such as differences in the chemical composition of the integument. Aposematism does not preclude the signalling role of conspicuous spines in the sexual arena.

  17. "Absent Data, Absent Women": Gender and Higher Education Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiston, Sarah Jane; Yang, Zi

    2017-01-01

    The study of the position, status and experience of women academics has in recent decades attracted a great deal of scholarly attention. The literature is characterized by what might be referred to as the "absent women" discourse, namely the underrepresentation of women in the highest positions in the sector, and is dominated by research…

  18. Aposematic signals and the relationship between conspicuousness and distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Merilaita, Sami; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2007-03-21

    It has long been recognized that prey that invest in toxic or other defenses often advertise these defenses by means of conspicuously coloured signals. One question that remains unanswered is why conspicuousness is such a universal trait of aposematic signals. Conspicuousness may allow more rapid avoidance learning by predators or improved retention of such learning. An alternative or complementary explanation is that defended species should adopt a conspicuous signal of their defence to make them visually distinct from inconspicuous undefended prey. Here, we use a neural network model of prey detection and attack decision making by a predator in combination with evolving, virtual prey to shed light on the relative importance of conspicuousness against the background and distinctiveness from other species as mechanisms underlying aposematic signalling. Our model suggests that prey conspicuousness may result from selection for distinctiveness, but that selection for distinctiveness does not result in maximization of conspicuousness. On the other hand, our model does not justify the exclusion of the possibility that conspicuousness as such may be a beneficial attribute of warning coloration. It is likely that the relative importance of the two selective forces (for conspicuousness and for distinctiveness) will differ on a case-by-case basis, however there is no empirical or logical reason for the current neglect of evolutionary pressure for distinctiveness. Thus, we suggest that description of aposematism as the teaming of a secondary defence with a conspicuous signal may be overly simplistic; we would rather that the signal were described as conspicuous and/or distinctive.

  19. Decoration Increases the Conspicuousness of Raptor Nests.

    PubMed

    Canal, David; Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Negro, Juan José; Sergio, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Avian nests are frequently concealed or camouflaged, but a number of species builds noticeable nests or use conspicuous materials for nest decoration. In most cases, nest decoration has a role in mate choice or provides thermoregulatory or antiparasitic benefits. In territorial species however, decorations may serve additional or complementary functions, such as extended phenotypic signaling of nest-site occupancy and social status to potential intruders. The latter may benefit both signaler and receiver by minimizing the risk of aggressive interactions, especially in organisms with dangerous weaponry. Support for this hypothesis was recently found in a population of black kites (Milvus migrans), a territorial raptor that decorates its nest with white artificial materials. However, the crucial assumption that nest decorations increased nest-site visibility to conspecifics was not assessed, a key aspect given that black kite nests may be well concealed within the canopy. Here, we used an unmanned aircraft system to take pictures of black kite nests, with and without an experimentally placed decoration, from different altitudes and distances simulating the perspective of a flying and approaching, prospecting intruder. The pictures were shown to human volunteers through a standardized routine to determine whether detection rates varied according the nest decoration status and distance. Decorated nests consistently showed a higher detection frequency and a lower detection-latency, compared to undecorated versions of the same nests. Our results confirm that nest decoration in this species may act as a signaling medium that enhances nest visibility for aerial receivers, even at large distances. This finding complements previous work on this communication system, which showed that nest decoration was a threat informing trespassing conspecifics on the social dominance, territory quality and fighting capabilities of the signaler.

  20. Decoration Increases the Conspicuousness of Raptor Nests

    PubMed Central

    Canal, David; Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Negro, Juan José; Sergio, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Avian nests are frequently concealed or camouflaged, but a number of species builds noticeable nests or use conspicuous materials for nest decoration. In most cases, nest decoration has a role in mate choice or provides thermoregulatory or antiparasitic benefits. In territorial species however, decorations may serve additional or complementary functions, such as extended phenotypic signaling of nest-site occupancy and social status to potential intruders. The latter may benefit both signaler and receiver by minimizing the risk of aggressive interactions, especially in organisms with dangerous weaponry. Support for this hypothesis was recently found in a population of black kites (Milvus migrans), a territorial raptor that decorates its nest with white artificial materials. However, the crucial assumption that nest decorations increased nest-site visibility to conspecifics was not assessed, a key aspect given that black kite nests may be well concealed within the canopy. Here, we used an unmanned aircraft system to take pictures of black kite nests, with and without an experimentally placed decoration, from different altitudes and distances simulating the perspective of a flying and approaching, prospecting intruder. The pictures were shown to human volunteers through a standardized routine to determine whether detection rates varied according the nest decoration status and distance. Decorated nests consistently showed a higher detection frequency and a lower detection-latency, compared to undecorated versions of the same nests. Our results confirm that nest decoration in this species may act as a signaling medium that enhances nest visibility for aerial receivers, even at large distances. This finding complements previous work on this communication system, which showed that nest decoration was a threat informing trespassing conspecifics on the social dominance, territory quality and fighting capabilities of the signaler. PMID:27455066

  1. Denoised and texture enhanced MVCT to improve soft tissue conspicuity

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Ke Qi, Sharon X.; Gou, Shuiping; Wu, Jiaolong

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: MVCT images have been used in TomoTherapy treatment to align patients based on bony anatomies but its usefulness for soft tissue registration, delineation, and adaptive radiation therapy is limited due to insignificant photoelectric interaction components and the presence of noise resulting from low detector quantum efficiency of megavoltage x-rays. Algebraic reconstruction with sparsity regularizers as well as local denoising methods has not significantly improved the soft tissue conspicuity. The authors aim to utilize a nonlocal means denoising method and texture enhancement to recover the soft tissue information in MVCT (DeTECT). Methods: A block matching 3D (BM3D) algorithm was adapted to reduce the noise while keeping the texture information of the MVCT images. Following imaging denoising, a saliency map was created to further enhance visual conspicuity of low contrast structures. In this study, BM3D and saliency maps were applied to MVCT images of a CT imaging quality phantom, a head and neck, and four prostate patients. Following these steps, the contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were quantified. Results: By applying BM3D denoising and saliency map, postprocessed MVCT images show remarkable improvements in imaging contrast without compromising resolution. For the head and neck patient, the difficult-to-see lymph nodes and vein in the carotid space in the original MVCT image became conspicuous in DeTECT. For the prostate patients, the ambiguous boundary between the bladder and the prostate in the original MVCT was clarified. The CNRs of phantom low contrast inserts were improved from 1.48 and 3.8 to 13.67 and 16.17, respectively. The CNRs of two regions-of-interest were improved from 1.5 and 3.17 to 3.14 and 15.76, respectively, for the head and neck patient. DeTECT also increased the CNR of prostate from 0.13 to 1.46 for the four prostate patients. The results are substantially better than a local denoising method using anisotropic diffusion

  2. 21 CFR 369.10 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Conspicuousness of warning statements. 369.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.10 Conspicuousness of warning statements....

  3. 21 CFR 369.10 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Conspicuousness of warning statements. 369.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.10 Conspicuousness of warning statements....

  4. 21 CFR 369.10 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conspicuousness of warning statements. 369.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.10 Conspicuousness of warning statements....

  5. 21 CFR 369.10 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conspicuousness of warning statements. 369.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.10 Conspicuousness of warning statements....

  6. Change of region conspicuity in bilateral mammograms: potential impact on CAD performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Wang, Xiao Hui; Chang, Yuan-Hsiang; Hardesty, Lara A.; Ganott, Marie A.; Good, Walter F.; Gur, David

    2002-05-01

    In this study, we test a new method to automatically search for matched regions in bilateral digitized mammograms and to compute differences in region conspicuities in pairs of matched regions. One hundred pairs of bilateral images of the same view were selected for the experiment. Each pair of images depicted one verified mass. These 100 mass regions, along with 356 suspicious but actually negative mass regions, were first detected by a single-image-based CAD scheme. To find the matched regions in the corresponding bilateral images, a Procrustean-type technique was used to register the two images, which corrects the deformation of tissue structure between images by guaranteeing the registration of nipples, skin lines, and chest walls. Then, a region growth algorithm was applied to generate a growth region in the matched area, which has the same effective size as the suspicious region in the abnormal image. The conspicuities in the two matched regions, as well as their differences, were computed. Using the conspicuity in the original mass regions and the difference of conspicuities in the two matched regions as two identification indices to classify this set of 456 suspicious regions, the computed areas under the ROC curves (Az) were 0.77 and 0.75, respectively. This preliminary study indicates that by comparing the difference of conspicuities in two matched regions that a very useful feature for the CAD schemes can be extracted.

  7. Absent or occult pulmonary artery.

    PubMed Central

    Presbitero, P; Bull, C; Haworth, S G; de Leval, M R

    1984-01-01

    Of 12 patients with angiographically absent pulmonary artery, 11 were investigated surgically. The previously occult pulmonary artery was found in 10 patients, in five of whom a vestige of an intrapericardial artery was present and in five the artery was patent only at the hilus, a gap existing between the main pulmonary artery and the hilar vessel, and no artery was found in one. All patients with an intrapericardial artery had right ventricular outflow tract obstruction and a ductus descending vertically from underneath the aortic arch. In those without an intrapericardial vessel the occult artery was on the side opposite the aortic arch, and there was evidence of a ductus coming from the innominate artery on the side of the interruption. The occult pulmonary artery, where identified at operation, was usually joined initially to the systemic circulation. Ultimately, continuity between the hilar and main pulmonary artery may be established surgically. Where no intrapericardial vessel exists, however, a conduit may be required to bridge the gap. It seems advisable to search for the occult artery as early in life as is feasible in the hope that providing a blood supply will ensure development of the vessel and normal lung growth. Images PMID:6743435

  8. Predator feeding choice on conspicuous and non-conspicuous carabid beetles: first results.

    PubMed

    Bonacci, Teresa; Brandmayr, Pietro; Zetto Brandmayr, Tullia

    2011-01-01

    Insects use various types of behaviour, chemical defences, mimetic, aposematic or cryptic appearances as anti-predatory strategies. Among insects, carabid beetles of the genus Brachinus are distasteful prey because they discharge an irritating "cloud" of quinones when threatened. These beetles live in aggregations and adopt warning (conspicuous pattern) colours and chemicals to create a template that is easily learnt by predators. Another carabid beetle, Anchomenus dorsalis, mimics the colours and cuticular profile of Brachinus and is usually found in Brachinus aggregations. In this paper we report results from laboratory observations on feeding choice of the following natural predators - Crocidura leucodon (Insectivora: Soricidae), Ocypus olens (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and Podarcis sicula (Reptilia: Lacertidae) - on carabid beetle species. Comparing the number of attacks of predators towards aposematic and non-aposematic prey, there was a statistically significant preference towards non-aposematic prey.

  9. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness of warning... exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package...

  10. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness of warning... exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package...

  11. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness of warning... exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package...

  12. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness of warning... exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package...

  13. 21 CFR 740.2 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS General § 740.2 Conspicuousness of warning... exemption pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section is established. (b) If the label of any cosmetic package...

  14. Examining the impact of age and multitasking on motorcycle conspicuity.

    PubMed

    Ledbetter, Jonathan L; Boyce, Michael W; Fekety, Drea K; Sawyer, Ben; Smither, Janan A

    2012-01-01

    This poster presents a study to assess one's ability to detect motorcycles under different conditions of conspicuity while performing a secondary visual load task. Previous research in which participants were required to detect motorcycles revealed differences in age (young adults/older adult) as well as differences associated with motorcycle conspicuity conditions. Past research has specifically found motorcycles with headlights ON and modulating headlights (flashing) to be more conspicuous than motorcycles with headlights OFF within traffic conditions. The present study seeks to provide more information on the effects of multitasking on motorcycle conspicuity and safety. The current study seeks to determine the degree to which multitasking limits the conspicuity of a motorcycle within traffic. We expect our results will indicate main effects for distraction task, age, gender, motorcycle lighting conditions, and vehicular DRLs on one's ability to effectively detect a motorcycle. The results have implications for motorcycle safety in general and through this research, a better understanding of motorcycle conspicuity can be established so as to minimize the risk involved with motorcycle operation.

  15. Using biological motion to enhance the conspicuity of roadway workers.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joanne M; Tyrrell, Richard A; Marszalek, Ralph; Lacherez, Philippe; Chaparro, Alex; Britt, Thomas W

    2011-05-01

    This study examined whether the conspicuity of road workers at night can be enhanced by distributing retroreflective strips across the body to present a pattern of biological motion (biomotion). Twenty visually normal drivers (mean age = 40.3 years) participated in an experiment conducted at two open-road work sites (one suburban and one freeway) at night-time. At each site, four road workers walked in place wearing a standard road worker night vest either (a) alone, (b) with additional retroreflective strips on thighs, (c) with additional retroreflective strips on ankles and knees, or (d) with additional retroreflective strips on eight moveable joints (full biomotion). Participants, seated in stationary vehicles at three different distances (80 m, 160 m, 240 m), rated the relative conspicuity of the four road workers. Road worker conspicuity was maximized by the full biomotion configuration at all distances and at both sites. The addition of ankle and knee markings also provided significant benefits relative to the standard vest alone. The effects of clothing configuration were more evident at the freeway site and at shorter distances. Overall, the full biomotion configuration was ranked to be most conspicuous and the vest least conspicuous. These data provide the first evidence that biomotion effectively enhances conspicuity of road workers at open-road work sites. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The incidence of congenitally absent foot pulses.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, G. S.; Ristic, C. D.; Bullen, B. R.

    1990-01-01

    The pedal pulses of 547 young healthy subjects were examined using digital palpation and a Doppler probe to determine the incidence of congenitally absent foot pulses. The posterior tibial (PT) pulse was absent in only one subject (0.18%), while the dorsalis pedis (DP) pulse was bilaterally absent in nine subjects (1.8%) and unilaterally absent in a further six subjects. The low incidence of congenital absence makes the clinical finding of an absent pedal pulse in later life a more significant marker of peripheral vascular disease than current surgical texts would have us believe. PMID:2185683

  17. Infants Interpret Ambiguous Requests for Absent Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Megan M.; Ganea, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The current studies investigated 2 skills involved in 14- to 20-month-olds' ability to interpret ambiguous requests for absent objects: tracking others' experiences (Study 1) and representing links between speakers and object features across present and absent reference episodes (Study 2). In the basic task, 2 experimenters played separately with…

  18. Motorcycle conspicuity: effects of age and daytime running lights.

    PubMed

    Smither, Janan Al-Awar; Torrez, Lorenzo I

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated variables that may contribute to motorcycle conspicuity within a high-fidelity simulated environment. The variables included motorcycle lighting, vehicular daytime running lights (DRLs), and age of the driver of the other vehicle. Research suggests that decreased levels of conspicuity associated with riding a small two-wheeled vehicle reduce the ability of other drivers to detect and respond to that vehicle effectively. This lack of conspicuity is often responsible for the frequent injuries and fatalities incurred by motorcycle riders. The 75 participants who took part in this study watched a series of video clips of roadway traffic and were asked to indicate when they saw a hazardous situation, such as the presence of pedestrians, motorcycles, or traffic cones. Both motorcycle and following-vehicle lights were manipulated, and participant reaction times were collected and analyzed. Analyses indicated main effects for all three variables as well as interaction effects between motorcycle lighting and vehicle-following conditions. Overall, findings showed a link between DRLs and the effective detection of motorcycles and suggested that age-related changes affect the ability to detect and respond to a motorcycle effectively. Although our laboratory findings corroborated previous correlational studies, further research in real-world settings, such as those with high-density traffic or under adverse environmental conditions, needs to be conducted. Potential applications of this research include the assessment of appropriate lighting technology to enhance conspicuity of motorcycles and reduce the high rate of fatalities and injuries related to motorcycle crashes.

  19. Predator mimicry, not conspicuousness, explains the efficacy of butterfly eyespots

    PubMed Central

    De Bona, Sebastiano; Valkonen, Janne K.; López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Mappes, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Large conspicuous eyespots on butterfly wings have been shown to deter predators. This has been traditionally explained by mimicry of vertebrate eyes, but recently the classic eye-mimicry hypothesis has been challenged. It is proposed that the conspicuousness of the eyespot, not mimicry, is what causes aversion due to sensory biases, neophobia or sensory overloads. We conducted an experiment to directly test whether the eye-mimicry or the conspicuousness hypothesis better explain eyespot efficacy. We used great tits (Parus major) as model predator, and tested their reaction towards animated images on a computer display. Birds were tested against images of butterflies without eyespots, with natural-looking eyespots, and manipulated spots with the same contrast but reduced resemblance to an eye, as well as images of predators (owls) with and without eyes. We found that mimetic eyespots were as effective as true eyes of owls and more efficient in eliciting an aversive response than modified, less mimetic but equally contrasting eyespots. We conclude that the eye-mimicry hypothesis explains our results better than the conspicuousness hypothesis and is thus likely to be an important mechanism behind the evolution of butterfly eyespots. PMID:25854889

  20. 21 CFR 369.10 - Conspicuousness of warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Conspicuousness of warning statements. 369.10 Section 369.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... labeling in juxtaposition with the directions for use and, in any case, should appear on the label...

  1. The conspicuity of pedestrians at night: a review.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Richard A; Wood, Joanne M; Owens, D Alfred; Whetsel Borzendowski, Stephanie; Stafford Sewall, Ashley

    2016-09-01

    Drivers' visual limitations are a leading contributor to night-time traffic crashes involving pedestrians. This paper reviews the basic changes in vision that occur at night for young and old visually healthy drivers, as well as those with common ocular pathology. To maximise their safety at night, pedestrians should be conspicuous. That is, beyond being simply visible (detectable as an ambiguous object), they should attract the attention of drivers and be readily perceivable as pedestrians. Research has established that the conspicuity of pedestrians can be optimised by attaching retroreflective markings to the pedestrian's extremities. Doing so highlights the pedestrian's 'biological motion,' which facilitates the accurate perception of a person; however, retroreflective markings on the torso (for example, vests) are less effective. Importantly, behavioural evidence indicates that most road users - drivers and pedestrians alike - are not aware of the limitations of night vision. For example, drivers typically 'overdrive' the useful range of their headlight beams and under-use their high beam headlight setting. Further, pedestrians overestimate their own conspicuity at night and fail to appreciate the extent to which their own conspicuity depends on their clothing. The widespread misunderstanding of the challenges associated with night driving reflects a lack of awareness of the fundamental limitations of night vision. Educational interventions are needed to ameliorate these dangerous misunderstandings and to improve the safety of all road users at night. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  2. Predator perception of Batesian mimicry and conspicuousness in a salamander.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Andrew C; Adams, Dean C

    2014-04-01

    In Batesian mimicry a palatable mimic deceives predators by resembling an unpalatable model. The evolution of Batesian mimicry relies on the visual capabilities of the potential predators, as prey detection provides the selective force driving evolutionary change. We compared the visual capabilities of several potential predators to test predictions stemming from the hypothesis of Batesian mimicry between two salamanders: the model species Notophthalmus viridescens, and polymorphic mimic, Plethodon cinereus. First, we found mimicry to be restricted to coloration, but not brightness. Second, only bird predators appeared able to discriminate between the colors of models and nonmimic P. cinereus. Third, estimates of salamander conspicuousness were background dependent, corresponding to predictions only for backgrounds against which salamanders are most active. These results support the hypothesis that birds influence the evolution of Batesian mimicry in P. cinereus, as they are the only group examined capable of differentiating N. viridescens and nonmimetic P. cinereus. Additionally, patterns of conspicuousness suggest that selection from predators may drive the evolution of conspicuousness in this system. This study confirms the expectation that the visual abilities of predators may influence the evolution of Batesian mimicry, but the role of conspicuousness may be more complex than previously thought. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Predator mimicry, not conspicuousness, explains the efficacy of butterfly eyespots.

    PubMed

    De Bona, Sebastiano; Valkonen, Janne K; López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Mappes, Johanna

    2015-05-07

    Large conspicuous eyespots on butterfly wings have been shown to deter predators. This has been traditionally explained by mimicry of vertebrate eyes, but recently the classic eye-mimicry hypothesis has been challenged. It is proposed that the conspicuousness of the eyespot, not mimicry, is what causes aversion due to sensory biases, neophobia or sensory overloads. We conducted an experiment to directly test whether the eye-mimicry or the conspicuousness hypothesis better explain eyespot efficacy. We used great tits (Parus major) as model predator, and tested their reaction towards animated images on a computer display. Birds were tested against images of butterflies without eyespots, with natural-looking eyespots, and manipulated spots with the same contrast but reduced resemblance to an eye, as well as images of predators (owls) with and without eyes. We found that mimetic eyespots were as effective as true eyes of owls and more efficient in eliciting an aversive response than modified, less mimetic but equally contrasting eyespots. We conclude that the eye-mimicry hypothesis explains our results better than the conspicuousness hypothesis and is thus likely to be an important mechanism behind the evolution of butterfly eyespots. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Does avian conspicuous colouration increase or reduce predation risk?

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, M; Avilés, J M; Cuervo, J J; Parejo, D; Ruano, F; Zamora-Muñoz, C; Sergio, F; López-Jiménez, L; Tanferna, A; Martín-Vivaldi, M

    2013-09-01

    Animals often announce their unprofitability to predators through conspicuous coloured signals. Here we tested whether the apparently conspicuous colour designs of the four European Coraciiformes and Upupiformes species may have evolved as aposematic signals, or whether instead they imply a cost in terms of predation risk. Because previous studies suggested that these species are unpalatable, we hypothesized that predators could avoid targeting them based on their colours. An experiment was performed where two artificial models of each bird species were exposed simultaneously to raptor predators, one painted so as to resemble the real colour design of these birds, and the other one painted using cryptic colours. Additionally, we used field data on the black kite's diet to compare the selection of these four species to that of other avian prey. Conspicuous models were attacked in equal or higher proportions than their cryptic counterparts, and the attack rate on the four species increased with their respective degree of contrast against natural backgrounds. The analysis of the predator's diet revealed that the two least attacked species were negatively selected in nature despite their abundance. Both conspicuous and cryptic models of one of the studied species (the hoopoe) received fewer attacks than cryptic models of the other three species, suggesting that predators may avoid this species for characteristics other than colour. Globally, our results suggest that the colour of coraciiforms and upupiforms does not function as an aposematic signal that advises predators of their unprofitability, but also that conspicuous colours may increase predation risk in some species, supporting thus the handicap hypothesis.

  5. Congenitally absent lumbar pedicle: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Wortzman, G.; Steinhardt, M.I.

    1984-09-01

    Three patients who had a diagnosis of congenitally absent lumbar pedicle underwent CT examination. Findings showed that each patient had an aberrant hypoplastic pedicle plus a retroisthmic defect in their ipsilateral lamina rather than an absent pedicle. Axial CT was the diagnostic modality of choice; reformated images were of little value. The differential diagnosis to be considered from the findings of plain film radiography includes pediculate thinning, neoplastic disease, neurofibroma, mesodermal dysplasia associated with neurofibromatosis, and vascular anomalies.

  6. Imperfect Batesian mimicry and the conspicuousness costs of mimetic resemblance.

    PubMed

    Speed, Michael P; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2010-07-01

    We apply signal detection methodology to make predictions about the evolution of Batesian mimicry. Our approach is novel in three ways. First, we applied a deterministic evolutionary modeling system that allows a large number of alternative mimetic morphs to coexist and compete. Second, we considered that there may be natural boundaries to phenotypic expression. Finally, we allowed increasing conspicuousness to impose an increasing detection cost on mimics. In some instances, the model predicts widespread variation in mimetic forms at evolutionary stability. In other situations, rather than a polymorphism the model predicts dimorphisms in which some prey were maximally cryptic and had minimal resemblance to the model, whereas many others were more conspicuous than the model. The biological implications of these results, particularly for our understanding of imperfect mimicry, are discussed.

  7. Conspicuity of target lights: The influence of color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, M. M.

    1975-01-01

    The conspicuity (or attention-getting qualities) were investigated of foveally-equated, colored lights, when seen against a star background. Subjects who were periodically engaged in a distracting cockpit task were required to search a large visual field and report the appearance of a target light as quickly as possible. Targets were red, yellow, white, green, and blue, and appeared either as steady or as flashing lights. Results indicate that red targets were missed more frequently and responded to more slowly than lights of other hues. Yellow targets were acquired more slowly than white, green, or blue targets; responses to white targets were significantly slower than responses to green or blue targets. In general, flashing lights were superior to steady lights, but this was not found for all hues. For red, the 2 Hz flash was superior to all other flash rates and to the steady light, none of which differed significantly from each other. Over all hues, conspicuity was found to peak at 2-3 Hz. Response time was found to be fastest, generally, for targets appearing at between 3 and 8 from the center of the visual field. However, this pattern was not repeated for every hue. Conspicuity response times suggest a complex relationship between hue and position in the visual field that is explained only partially by retinal sensitivity.

  8. Two notions of conspicuity and the classification of phyllotaxis.

    PubMed

    Reick, Christian H

    2002-04-07

    Invoking cylindrical Bravais lattices, Adler (1974, 1977) proposed a mathematically precise definition for the botanical classification of phyllotaxis. It is based on opposed pairs of parastichy families, that are conspicuous and visible. Jean (1988) generalized this concept to non-opposed pairs of parastichy families. In the present paper it is shown that this generalization implies a notion of conspicuity different from Adler's. This is made obvious by redefining the key terms of the two approaches. Both classifications are well defined. For Adler's, this is shown by presenting a general proof for his conjecture that conspicuous (in the sense of Adler) opposed pairs of parastichy families are visible. There are indications that in applications to models of phyllotaxis (van Iterson model, inhibitor models) their solutions are better characterized by Jean's classification. The differences between Adler's and Jean's classification show up only in very rare cases, so that the practice of pattern determination is only insignificantly touched by the present results. It turns out that the widely used contact parastichy method to determine phyllotactic patterns gives results according to Jean's classification rather than Adler's. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. emMAW: computing minimal absent words in external memory.

    PubMed

    Héliou, Alice; Pissis, Solon P; Puglisi, Simon J

    2017-09-01

    The biological significance of minimal absent words has been investigated in genomes of organisms from all domains of life. For instance, three minimal absent words of the human genome were found in Ebola virus genomes. There exists an O(n) -time and O(n) -space algorithm for computing all minimal absent words of a sequence of length n on a fixed-sized alphabet based on suffix arrays. A standard implementation of this algorithm, when applied to a large sequence of length n , requires more than 20 n  bytes of RAM. Such memory requirements are a significant hurdle to the computation of minimal absent words in large datasets. We present emMAW, the first external-memory algorithm for computing minimal absent words. A free open-source implementation of our algorithm is made available. This allows for computation of minimal absent words on far bigger data sets than was previously possible. Our implementation requires less than 3 h on a standard workstation to process the full human genome when as little as 1 GB of RAM is made available. We stress that our implementation, despite making use of external memory, is fast; indeed, even on relatively smaller datasets when enough RAM is available to hold all necessary data structures, it is less than two times slower than state-of-the-art internal-memory implementations. https://github.com/solonas13/maw (free software under the terms of the GNU GPL). alice.heliou@lix.polytechnique.fr or solon.pissis@kcl.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. Making the most of conspicuous production in hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Kassaye, W W; Mirmirani, S

    1994-01-01

    In today's marketplace, having an effective marketing strategy is key to changing a hospital's image as well as the nature of the product/service. To make the strategy effective, the focus of hospital administrators should be on getting the most out of the hospital's budget, and making a socially responsible decision that can maximize the contribution margin of all marketing expenditures. This article presents a model which attempts to maximize the contribution of various inputs toward a better image and conspicuousness of a hospital.

  11. Lesion conspicuity and AFROC performance in pulmonary nodule detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, David; Ethell, Susan C.

    2002-04-01

    A test bank of verified chest radiographs was compiled for visual search experiments. The purpose was to investigate human performance in the detection of significant pulmonary nodules. Synthesized nodules supplemented native lesions. The distribution of all the lesions in the lung fields was consistent with the naturally occurring locations of these features. A measure of the physical characteristics of the lesions was derived in order to approximate the conspicuity of the synthetic to the natural nodules. The measure of conspicuity was given as (chi) =Tan(theta-1)S/N where (theta) is the maximum slope angle to the edge of the lesion profile, S is the mean pixel value of the lesion profile taken in four orientations, and N is the mean background pixel value taken in four orientations over one lesion dimension adjacent to the lesion. The variation in (chi) for each of the 81 lesions (46 natural and 35 synthetic) was plotted against SNR and edge angle. The influence of edge angle on the resulting (chi) values was more powerful than SNR for all the lesions in this experiment. Although there was an overall significant difference in (chi) values (p=0.015), observers were unable to distinguish synthetic from native lesions. Observer performance in nodule detection was measured by AFROC and supplemented with visual search recording. Correlation of AFROC scores and the (chi) values has shown no overall relationship (R2=0.0452) and this surprising result may be partly explained through inspection of the visual search recordings.

  12. Batesian mimics influence the evolution of conspicuousness in an aposematic salamander.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, A C; Serb, J M; Adams, D C

    2015-05-01

    Conspicuousness, or having high contrast relative to the surrounding background, is a common feature of unpalatable species. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the occurrence of conspicuousness, and while most involve the role of conspicuousness as a direct signal of unpalatability to potential predators, one hypothesis suggests that exaggerated conspicuousness may evolve in unpalatable species to reduce predator confusion with palatable species (potential Batesian mimics). This hypothesis of antagonistic coevolution between palatable and unpalatable species hinges on the 'cost of conspicuousness', in which conspicuousness increases the likelihood of predation more in palatable species than in unpalatable species. Under this mimicry scenario, four patterns are expected: (i) mimics will more closely resemble local models than models from other localities, (ii) there will be a positive relationship between mimic and model conspicuousness, (iii) models will be more conspicuous in the presence of mimics, and (iv) when models and mimics differ in conspicuousness, mimics will be less conspicuous than models. We tested these predictions in the salamander mimicry system involving Notophthalmus viridescens (model) and one colour morph of Plethodon cinereus (mimic). All predictions were supported, indicating that selection for Batesian mimicry not only influences the evolution of mimics, but also the evolution of the models they resemble. These findings indicate that mimicry plays a large role in the evolution of model warning signals, particularly influencing the evolution of conspicuousness. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Conspicuity and bicycle crashes: preliminary findings of the Taupo Bicycle Study.

    PubMed

    Thornley, S J; Woodward, A; Langley, J D; Ameratunga, S N; Rodgers, A

    2008-02-01

    To describe the methods, characteristics of participants, and report on the preliminary findings of a longitudinal study of cyclists. Web-based survey to establish a cohort of cyclists. Participants in the largest mass-participation bicycle event in New Zealand, the Wattyl Lake Taupo Cycle Challenge. 2469 riders who had enrolled online in the 2006 Wattyl Lake Taupo Cycle Challenge. Self-reported crashes in preceding 12 months. Of 5653 eligible riders, 2469 (44%) completed the study questionnaire. Mean age was 44 years, 73% were male, and the average number of kilometers cycled per week in the preceding 12 months was 130. The annual incidence of crashes leading to injury that disrupted usual daily activities for at least 24 h was 0.5 per cyclist/year. About one-third of these crashes resulted in presentation to a health professional. The mean number of days absent from work attributable to bicycle crashes was 0.39 per cyclist/year. After adjustment for potential confounders and exposure (kilometers cycled per year), the rate of days off work from bicycle crash injury was substantially lower among riders who reported always wearing fluorescent colors (multivariate incidence rate ratio 0.23, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.59). Low cyclist conspicuity may increase the risk of crash-related injury and subsequent time off work. Increased use of high-visibility clothing is a simple intervention that may have a large impact on the safety of cycling.

  14. Fusion of digital breast tomosynthesis images via wavelet synthesis for improved lesion conspicuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariharan, Harishwaran; Pomponiu, Victor; Zheng, Bin; Whiting, Bruce; Gur, David

    2014-03-01

    Full-field digital mammography (FFDM) is the most common screening procedure for detecting early breast cancer. However, due to complications such as overlapping breast tissue in projection images, the efficacy of FFDM reading is reduced. Recent studies have shown that digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), in combination with FFDM, increases detection sensitivity considerably while decreasing false-positive, recall rates. There is a huge interest in creating diagnostically accurate 2-D interpretations from the DBT slices. Most of the 2-D syntheses rely on visualizing the maximum intensities (brightness) from each slice through different methods. We propose a wavelet based fusion method, where we focus on preserving holistic information from larger structures such as masses while adding high frequency information that is relevant and helpful for diagnosis. This method enables the spatial generation of a 2D image from a series of DBT images, each of which contains both smooth and coarse structures distributed in the wavelet domain. We believe that the wavelet-synthesized images, generated from their DBT image datasets, provide radiologists with improved lesion and micro-calcification conspicuity as compared with FFDM images. The potential impact of this fusion method is (1) Conception of a device-independent, data-driven modality that increases the conspicuity of lesions, thereby facilitating early detection and potentially reducing recall rates; (2) Reduction of the accompanying radiation dose to the patient.

  15. Importance of absent ductus arteriosus in tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve syndrome.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Yasir; Burkhart, Harold M; Julsrud, Paul; Cetta, Frank

    2014-12-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot without pulmonary valve syndrome is almost always associated with an absent ductus arteriosus. Patients with right aortic arch and retroesophageal left subclavian artery have a vascular ring if the left ductus arteriosus or its remnant and the Kommerell diverticulum are present. We report the cases of 2 infants in whom the role of an absent ductus arteriosus or its remnant is noteworthy. Both patients had a combination of tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve syndrome and right aortic arch with retroesophageal left subclavian artery without a vascular ring. The absence of the ductus arteriosus has a role in the pathogenesis of tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve syndrome. The absence of a ductus arteriosus in the right aortic arch with retroesophageal left subclavian artery precludes a vascular ring.

  16. Conspicuous, ultraviolet-rich mouth colours in begging chicks.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Sarah; Kilner, Rebecca M; Langmore, Naomi E; Bennett, Andrew T D

    2003-01-01

    There is as yet no clear consensus on the function of vivid mouth colours in begging chicks. A major obstacle to our understanding has been that no studies have measured gape colours independently of human colour perception. Here, we present the first study, to our knowledge, to use UV-VIS spectrometry to quantify the gape colour, background nest colour and nest light environment of eight European passerines. Both mouths and the surrounding flanges show striking and previously unreported peaks of reflectance in the ultraviolet, coupled with high long-wavelength reflectance responsible for the human-visible appearance of the gape. High ultraviolet reflectance is likely to have an important effect on the conspicuousness of nestling mouths, since contrast with the nest background is maximal in the ultraviolet. Furthermore, the dual-peak nature of the spectra suggests that gapes are avian non-spectral colours analogous to human purple. PMID:12952627

  17. Predator experience on cryptic prey affects the survival of conspicuous aposematic prey.

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, L.; Alatalo, R. V.; Lyytinen, A.; Mappes, J.

    2001-01-01

    Initially, aposematism, which is an unprofitable trait, e.g. noxiousness conspicuously advertised to predators, appears to be a paradox since conspicuousness should increase predation by naive predators. However, reluctance of predators for eating novel prey (e.g. neophobia) might balance the initial predation caused by inexperienced predators. We tested the novelty effects on initial predation and avoidance learning in two separate conspicuousness levels of aposematic prey by using a 'novel world' method. Half of the wild great tits (Parus major) were trained to eat cryptic prey prior to the introduction of an aposematic prey, which potentially creates a bias against the aposematic morph. Both prey types were equally novel for control birds and they should not have shown any biased reluctance for eating an aposematic prey. Knowledge of cryptic prey reduced the expected initial mortality of the conspicuous morph to a random level whereas control birds initially ate the conspicuous morph according to the visibility risk. Birds learned to avoid conspicuous prey in both treatments but knowledge of cryptic prey did not increase the rate of avoidance learning. Predators' knowledge of cryptic prey did not reduce the predation of the less conspicuous aposematic prey and additionally predators did not learn to avoid the less conspicuous prey. These results indicate that predator psychology, which was shown as reluctance for attacking novel conspicuous prey, might have been important in the evolution of aposematism. PMID:11270431

  18. Genetic Architecture of Conspicuous Red Ornaments in Female Threespine Stickleback

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Lengxob; Peichel, Catherine L.; McKinnon, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the presence of conspicuous female ornaments that take the form of male-typical traits has been a longstanding challenge in evolutionary biology. Such female ornaments have been proposed to evolve via both adaptive and nonadaptive evolutionary processes. Determining the genetic underpinnings of female ornaments is important for elucidating the mechanisms by which such female traits arise and persist in natural populations, but detailed information about their genetic basis is still scarce. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of two ornaments, the orange-red throat and pelvic spine, in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Throat coloration is male-specific in ancestral marine populations but has evolved in females in some derived stream populations, whereas sexual dimorphism in pelvic spine coloration is variable among populations. We find that ornaments share a common genetic architecture between the sexes. At least three independent genomic regions contribute to red throat coloration, and harbor candidate genes related to pigment production and pigment cell differentiation. One of these regions is also associated with spine coloration, indicating that both ornaments might be mediated partly via pleiotropic genetic mechanisms. PMID:26715094

  19. Genetic Influences Are Virtually Absent for Trust

    PubMed Central

    Van Lange, Paul A. M.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Posthuma, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, numerous twin studies have revealed moderate to high heritability estimates for individual differences in a wide range of human traits, including cognitive ability, psychiatric disorders, and personality traits. Even factors that are generally believed to be environmental in nature have been shown to be under genetic control, albeit modest. Is such heritability also present in social traits that are conceptualized as causes and consequences of social interactions or in other ways strongly shaped by behavior of other people? Here we examine a population-based sample of 1,012 twins and relatives. We show that the genetic influence on generalized trust in other people (trust-in-others: h2 = 5%, ns), and beliefs regarding other people’s trust in the self (trust-in-self: h2 = 13%, ns), is virtually absent. As test-retest reliability for both scales were found to be moderate or high (r = .76 and r = .53, respectively) in an independent sample, we conclude that all variance in trust is likely to be accounted for by non-shared environmental influences. We show that, relative to cognitive abilities, psychiatric disorders, and classic personality variables, genetic influences are smaller for trust, and propose that experiences with or observations of the behavior of other people shape trust more strongly than other traits. PMID:24709897

  20. Absent in Melanoma 2 proteins in SLE.

    PubMed

    Choubey, Divaker; Panchanathan, Ravichandran

    2017-03-01

    Type I interferons (IFN-α/β)-inducible PYRIN and HIN domain-containing protein family includes Absent in Melanoma 2 (murine Aim2 and human AIM2), murine p202, and human PYRIN-only protein 3 (POP3). The generation of Aim2-deficient mice indicated that the Aim2 protein is essential for inflammasome activation, resulting in the secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 and cell death by pyroptosis. Further, Aim2-deficiency also increased constitutive expression of the IFN-β and expression of the p202 protein. Notably, an increased expression of p202 protein in female mice associated with the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE in patients is characterized by a constitutive increase in serum levels of IFN-α and an increase in the expression IFN-stimulated genes. Recent studies indicate that p202 and POP3 proteins inhibit activation of the Aim2/AIM2 inflammasome and promote IFN-β expression. Therefore, we discuss the role of Aim2/AIM2 proteins in the suppression of type I IFNs production and lupus susceptibility.

  1. A different perspective on conspicuity related motorcycle crashes.

    PubMed

    de Craen, Saskia; Doumen, Michelle J A; van Norden, Yvette

    2014-02-01

    The most common type of conflict in which a motorcyclist is injured or killed is a collision between a motorcycle and a car, often in priority situations. Many studies on motorcycle safety focus on the question why car drivers fail to give priority and on the poor conspicuity of motorcycles. The concept of 'looked-but-failed-to-see' crashes is a recurring item. On the other hand, it is not entirely unexpected that motorcycles have many conflicts with cars; there simply are so many cars on the road. This paper tries to unravel whether - acknowledging the differences in exposure - car drivers indeed fail to yield for motorcycles more often than for other cars. For this purpose we compared the causes of crashes on intersections (e.g. failing to give priority, speeding, etc.) between different crash types (car-motorcycle or car-car). In addition, we compared the crash causes of dual drivers (i.e. car drivers who also have their motorcycle licence) with regular car drivers. Our crash analysis suggests that car drivers do not fail to give priority to motorcycles relatively more often than to another car when this car/motorcycle approaches from a perpendicular angle. There is only one priority situation where motorcycles seem to be at a disadvantage compared to cars. This is when a car makes a left turn, and fails to give priority to an oncoming motorcycle. This specific crash scenario occurs more often when the oncoming vehicle is a motorcycle than when it is a car. We did not find a significant difference between dual drivers and regular car drivers in how often they give priority to motorcycles compared to cars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Conspicuous Veils Formed by Vibrioid Bacteria on Sulfidic Marine Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Thar, Roland; Kühl, Michael

    2002-01-01

    We describe the morphology and behavior of a hitherto unknown bacterial species that forms conspicuous veils (typical dimensions, 30 by 30 mm) on sulfidic marine sediment. The new bacteria were enriched on complex sulfidic medium within a benthic gradient chamber in oxygen-sulfide countergradients, but the bacteria have so far not been isolated in pure culture, and a detailed characterization of their metabolism is still lacking. The bacteria are colorless, gram-negative, and vibrioid-shaped (1.3- to 2.5- by 4- to 10-μm) cells that multiply by binary division and contain several spherical inclusions of poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid. The cells have bipolar polytrichous flagella and exhibit a unique swimming pattern, rotating and translating along their short axis. Free-swimming cells showed aerotaxis and aggregated at ca. 2 μM oxygen within opposing oxygen-sulfide gradients, where they were able to attach via a mucous stalk, forming a cohesive whitish veil at the oxic-anoxic interface. Bacteria attached to the veil kept rotating and adapted their stalk lengths dynamically to changing oxygen concentrations. The joint action of rotating bacteria on the veil induced a homogeneous water flow from the oxic water region toward the veil, whereby the oxygen uptake rate could be enhanced up to six times, as shown by model calculations. The veils showed a pronounced succession pattern. New veils were generated de novo within 24 h and had a homogeneous whitish translucent appearance. Bacterial competitors or eukaryotic predators were apparently kept away by the low oxygen concentration prevailing at the veil surface. Frequently, within 2 days the veil developed a honeycomb pattern of regularly spaced holes. After 4 days, most veils were colonized by grazing ciliates, leading to the fast disappearance of the new bacteria. Several-week-old veils finally developed into microbial mats consisting of green, purple, and colorless sulfur bacteria. PMID:12450856

  3. Subjective Well-Being in Rural India: The Curse of Conspicuous Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linssen, Rik; van Kempen, Luuk; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2011-01-01

    Using data on 697 individuals from 375 rural low income households in India, we test expectations on the effects of relative income and conspicuous consumption on subjective well-being. The results of the multi-level regression analyses show that individuals who spent more on conspicuous consumption report lower levels of subjective well-being.…

  4. 49 CFR 229.133 - Interim locomotive conspicuity measures-auxiliary external lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim locomotive conspicuity measures-auxiliary external lights. 229.133 Section 229.133 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... STANDARDS Safety Requirements Cabs and Cab Equipment § 229.133 Interim locomotive conspicuity measures...

  5. Subjective Well-Being in Rural India: The Curse of Conspicuous Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linssen, Rik; van Kempen, Luuk; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2011-01-01

    Using data on 697 individuals from 375 rural low income households in India, we test expectations on the effects of relative income and conspicuous consumption on subjective well-being. The results of the multi-level regression analyses show that individuals who spent more on conspicuous consumption report lower levels of subjective well-being.…

  6. 16 CFR 14.9 - Requirements concerning clear and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. 14.9 Section 14.9 Commercial... and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. The Federal Trade... language-speaking consumers. As part of this special effort, advertisements, brochures and sales documents...

  7. Pedestrians' estimates of their own nighttime conspicuity are unaffected by severe reductions in headlight illumination.

    PubMed

    Whetsel Borzendowski, Stephanie A; Rosenberg, Rachel L; Sewall, Ashley Stafford; Tyrrell, Richard A

    2013-12-01

    At night pedestrians tend to overestimate their conspicuity to oncoming drivers, but little is known about factors affecting pedestrians' conspicuity estimates. This study examines how headlamp intensity and pedestrians' clothing influence judgments of their own conspicuity. Forty-eight undergraduate students estimated their own conspicuity on an unilluminated closed road by walking in front of a stationary vehicle to the point at which they judged that they were just recognizable to the driver. Unknown to the participants, high beam intensity was manipulated between subjects by placing neutral density filters on the headlamps. Estimated conspicuity distances did not significantly vary with changes in headlamp intensity even when only 3% of the illumination from the headlamps was present. These findings underscore the need to educate pedestrians about the visual challenges that drivers face at night and the need to minimize pedestrians' exposure to traffic flow at night. © 2013.

  8. Semen searching when sperm is absent.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Pilar; Santiago, Begoña; Alcalá, Belén; Atienza, Inmaculada

    2015-03-01

    Sexual assault cases have varying factors that may mask semen findings when analysing evidence at the forensic laboratory. Semenogelin (Sg) is a potential marker for the identification of semen even at azoospermy or when few sperm cells are found. The current study examined Sg in normospermic and azoospermic donors as an internal evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and interference. The impact of a historical review of 53 judicial sexual assault cases over a five-year period was also analysed. The use of varying tests was of importance to prioritize certain samples within cases. Semen findings by Sg were then compared to prostate-specific antigen (PSA), phosphatase enzyme (AP) and Y-chromosome presence, the latter being used in an attempt to link semen fluid identification with obtaining a male DNA profile. Test findings were the highest ever registered for Sg (1:400,000), PSA (1:800,000), AP (1:25,000) and sperm cytology (SC) (1:50,000). Our results demonstrated the usefulness of using the Sg marker to avoid a false semen-negative result (6% cases), particularly in cases where sperm was absent or scarce (11% spermatozoa positive cases). Results were expressed in categories according to the set: Sg-PSA-AP. Thus, categories I (full positive, 46%), VI (full negative, 27%) and III (Sg/PSA positive; 11%) were the most frequent and Y-chromosome was obtained in 59%, 12% and 12% ratios, respectively. In conclusion, Sg was recommended for the workflow procedure of semen investigation when sperm absence is expected either from azoospermic/oligospermic or normospermic semen, especially before/after ejaculation.

  9. Isolated unilateral absent patella and contralateral small patella.

    PubMed

    Duygun, Fatih; Sertkaya, Omer; Aldemir, Cengiz; Doğan, Ali

    2013-09-03

    Isolated bilateral absent patella is seen very rarely. It is generally encountered as a part of nail-patella syndrome. An 18-year-old male patient presented with left absent patella and right small patella.

  10. Subjective Well-being in Rural India: The Curse of Conspicuous Consumption

    PubMed Central

    van Kempen, Luuk; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2010-01-01

    Using data on 697 individuals from 375 rural low income households in India, we test expectations on the effects of relative income and conspicuous consumption on subjective well-being. The results of the multi-level regression analyses show that individuals who spent more on conspicuous consumption report lower levels of subjective well-being. Surprisingly an individual’s relative income position does not affect feelings of well-being. Motivated by positional concerns, people do not passively accept their relative rank but instead consume conspicuous goods to keep up with the Joneses. Conspicuous consumption always comes at the account of the consumption of basic needs. Our analyses point at a positional treadmill effect of the consumption of status goods. PMID:21423323

  11. Absent Aortic Valve in DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, Elizabeth C; Minturn, Lucy; Gotteiner, Nina L; Ernst, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    A 20-week-old fetus with the 22q11.2 deletion characteristic of DiGeorge syndrome is described with vertebral segmentation abnormalities and complex cardiovascular anomalies including an absent aortic valve. This is only the second known case of absent aortic valve in association with DiGeorge syndrome. We discuss the association of absent aortic valve with other conotruncal defects and the utility of fetal echocardiography in the diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome.

  12. The role of conspicuity in preventing bicycle crashes involving a motor vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Alistair; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bicycle use, despite its proven health and other benefits, is rarely part of everyday travel for many people due to the perceived risk of injury from collision crashes. This article investigated the role of physical vs. attention conspicuity in preventing bicycle crashes involving a motor vehicle in New Zealand. Methods: The Taupo Bicycle Study involved 2590 adult cyclists recruited in 2006 (43.1% response rate) and followed for bicycle crash outcomes through linkage to four national databases. A composite measure of physical conspicuity was created using latent class analysis based on the use of fluorescent colours, lights and reflective materials, and the main colour of top, helmet and bike frame. Attention conspicuity was assessed based on regional differences in travel patterns and the amount of riding in a bunch. Cox regression modelling for repeated events was performed with multivariate adjustments. Results: During a median follow-up period of 6.4 years, 162 participants experienced 187 bicycle–motor vehicle crashes. The crash risk was not predicted by the four latent classes identified and the amount of bunch riding but was higher in Auckland, the region with the lowest level of bicycle use relative to car use. In subgroup analyses, compared to other latent classes, the most physically conspicuous group had a higher risk in Auckland but a lower risk in other regions. Conclusion: Conspicuity aids may not be effective in preventing bicycle–motor vehicle crashes in New Zealand, particularly in Auckland, where attention conspicuity is low. PMID:25085469

  13. Communication about absent entities in great apes and human infants.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Manuel; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-12-01

    There is currently debate about the extent to which non-linguistic beings such as human infants and great apes are capable of absent reference. In a series of experiments we investigated the flexibility and specificity of great apes' (N=36) and 12 month-old infants' (N=40) requests for absent entities. Subjects had the choice between requesting visible objects directly and using the former location of a depleted option to request more of these now-absent entities. Importantly, we systematically varied the quality of the present and absent options. We found that great apes as well as human infants flexibly adjusted their requests for absent entities to these contextual variations and only requested absent entities when the visible option was of lower quality than the absent option. These results suggest that the most basic cognitive capacities for absent reference do not depend on language and are shared by humans and their closest living relatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Percutaneous Thermal Ablation with Ultrasound Guidance. Fusion Imaging Guidance to Improve Conspicuity of Liver Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hakime, Antoine; Yevich, Steven; Tselikas, Lambros; Deschamps, Frederic; Petrover, David; De Baere, Thierry

    2017-05-01

    To assess whether fusion imaging-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) can improve visibility and targeting of liver metastasis that were deemed inconspicuous on ultrasound (US). MWA of liver metastasis not judged conspicuous enough on US was performed under CT/US fusion imaging guidance. The conspicuity before and after the fusion imaging was graded on a five-point scale, and significance was assessed by Wilcoxon test. Technical success, procedure time, and procedure-related complications were evaluated. A total of 35 patients with 40 liver metastases (mean size 1.3 ± 0.4 cm) were enrolled. Image fusion improved conspicuity sufficiently to allow fusion-targeted MWA in 33 patients. The time required for image fusion processing and tumors' identification averaged 10 ± 2.1 min (range 5-14). Initial conspicuity on US by inclusion criteria was 1.2 ± 0.4 (range 0-2), while conspicuity after localization on fusion imaging was 3.5 ± 1 (range 1-5, p < 0.001). Technical success rate was 83% (33/40) in intention-to-treat analysis and 100% in analysis of treated tumors. There were no major procedure-related complications. Fusion imaging broadens the scope of US-guided MWA to metastasis lacking adequate conspicuity on conventional US. Fusion imaging is an effective tool to increase the conspicuity of liver metastases that were initially deemed non visualizable on conventional US imaging.

  15. Breast mass detection using slice conspicuity in 3D reconstructed digital breast volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Tae; Kim, Dae Hoe; Ro, Yong Man

    2014-09-01

    In digital breast tomosynthesis, the three dimensional (3D) reconstructed volumes only provide quasi-3D structure information with limited resolution along the depth direction due to insufficient sampling in depth direction and the limited angular range. The limitation could seriously hamper the conventional 3D image analysis techniques for detecting masses because the limited number of projection views causes blurring in the out-of-focus planes. In this paper, we propose a novel mass detection approach using slice conspicuity in the 3D reconstructed digital breast volumes to overcome the above limitation. First, to overcome the limited resolution along the depth direction, we detect regions of interest (ROIs) on each reconstructed slice and separately utilize the depth directional information to combine the ROIs effectively. Furthermore, we measure the blurriness of each slice for resolving the degradation of performance caused by the blur in the out-of-focus plane. Finally, mass features are extracted from the selected in focus slices and analyzed by a support vector machine classifier to reduce the false positives. Comparative experiments have been conducted on a clinical data set. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the conventional 3D approach by achieving a high sensitivity with a small number of false positives.

  16. Numerical solution of a conspicuous consumption model with constant control delay☆

    PubMed Central

    Huschto, Tony; Feichtinger, Gustav; Hartl, Richard F.; Kort, Peter M.; Sager, Sebastian; Seidl, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    We derive optimal pricing strategies for conspicuous consumption products in periods of recession. To that end, we formulate and investigate a two-stage economic optimal control problem that takes uncertainty of the recession period length and delay effects of the pricing strategy into account. This non-standard optimal control problem is difficult to solve analytically, and solutions depend on the variable model parameters. Therefore, we use a numerical result-driven approach. We propose a structure-exploiting direct method for optimal control to solve this challenging optimization problem. In particular, we discretize the uncertainties in the model formulation by using scenario trees and target the control delays by introduction of slack control functions. Numerical results illustrate the validity of our approach and show the impact of uncertainties and delay effects on optimal economic strategies. During the recession, delayed optimal prices are higher than the non-delayed ones. In the normal economic period, however, this effect is reversed and optimal prices with a delayed impact are smaller compared to the non-delayed case. PMID:22267871

  17. Electroluminescent Materials Can Further Enhance the Nighttime Conspicuity of Pedestrians Wearing Retroreflective Materials.

    PubMed

    Fekety, Drea K; Edewaard, Darlene E; Stafford Sewall, Ashley A; Tyrrell, Richard A

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the nighttime conspicuity benefits of adding electroluminescent (EL) panels to pedestrian clothing that contains retroreflective elements. Researchers have repeatedly documented that pedestrians are too often not sufficiently conspicuous to drivers at night and that retroreflective materials can enhance the conspicuity of pedestrians. However, because retroreflective elements in clothing are effective only when they are illuminated by the headlamps of an approaching driver, they are not useful for pedestrians who are positioned outside the beam pattern of an approaching vehicle's headlamps. Electroluminescent materials-flexible luminous panels that can be attached to clothing-have the potential to be well suited for these conditions. Using an open-road course at night, we compared the distances at which observers responded to pedestrians who were positioned at one of three lateral positions (relative to the vehicle's path) wearing one of two high-visibility garments. The garment that included both EL and retroreflective materials yielded longer response distances than the retroreflective-only garment. This effect was particularly strong when the test pedestrian was positioned farthest outside of the area illuminated by headlamps. These findings suggest that EL materials can further enhance the conspicuity of pedestrians who are wearing retroreflective materials. EL materials can be applied to garments. They may be especially valuable to enhance the conspicuity of roadway workers, emergency responders, and traffic control officers. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  18. Food quality and conspicuousness shape improvements in olfactory discrimination by mice.

    PubMed

    Price, Catherine J; Banks, Peter B

    2017-01-25

    How animals locate nutritious but camouflaged prey items with increasing accuracy is not well understood. Olfactory foraging is common in vertebrates and the nutritional desirability of food should influence the salience of odour cues. We used signal detection analysis to test the effect of nutritional value relative to the conspicuousness of food patches on rates of foraging improvement of wild house mice Mus musculus searching for buried food (preferred peanuts or non-preferred barley). Olfactory cues were arranged to make food patches conspicuous or difficult to distinguish using a novel form of olfactory camouflage. Regardless of food type or abundance, mice searching for conspicuous food patches performed significantly better than mice searching for camouflaged patches. However, food type influenced how mice responded to different levels of conspicuousness. Mice searching for peanuts improved by similar rates regardless of whether food was easy or hard to find, but mice searching for barley showed significant differences, improving rapidly when food was conspicuous but declining in accuracy when food was camouflaged. Our results demonstrate a fundamental tenet of olfactory foraging that nutritional desirability influences rates of improvement in odour discrimination, enabling nutritious but camouflaged prey to be located with increasing efficiency.

  19. Sibling Competition and Conspicuousness of Nestling Gapes in Altricial Birds: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Juan J.; Avilés, Jesús M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Nestlings of altricial birds capture parents' attention through conspicuous visual displays, including exposure of their gape coloration which informs parents about their level of need, competitive ability or health; information that parents use for deciding food allocation among their offspring. Thus, because nestlings compete with nest mates for parental care, nestling conspicuousness is expected to increase with level of sibling competition along bird phylogeny. Methodology/Principal Findings We test this prediction by jointly using information of brood reduction, clutch size and duration of nestling period as proxies for intensity of sibling competition, and visual models that assess detectability of nestlings by adult birds. As predicted, we found a positive association between nestling conspicuousness and intensity of brood reduction, while clutch size and duration of nestling period did not enter in the best models. Level of brood reduction was positively related with the achromatic component of nestling conspicuousness and body mass was negatively related with the chromatic component. Conclusions These associations are in agreement with the hypothesis that sibling competition for parental attention has driven the evolution of visual nestling conspicuousness in a context of parent-offspring communication in altricial birds. PMID:20463902

  20. The role of social status and testosterone in human conspicuous consumption.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yin; Eisenegger, Christoph; Sivanathan, Niro; Crockett, Molly J; Clark, Luke

    2017-09-18

    Conspicuous consumption refers to the phenomenon where individuals purchase goods for signalling social status, rather than for its inherent functional value. This study (n = 166 male participants) investigated how the outcome of a social competition influenced conspicuous consumption, and its association with competition-induced testosterone reactivity. Winning a competition increased both explicit and implicit preferences for higher-status vs. lower-status products, using both natural stimuli (prestigious cars) and laboratory-tagged stimuli of matched value (university T-shirts). Competition also influenced behaviour in an Ultimatum Game, such that winners were more likely to reject unfair offers. Competition outcomes had no discernible influence upon salivary testosterone levels, and neither basal testosterone levels nor testosterone reactivity induced by competition predicted the conspicuous consumption measures. Our data indicate that winning a competition lead to more dominant behaviour, albeit in a manner that is not statistically regulated by testosterone, possibly through increased feeling of entitlement.

  1. The role of conspicuity in preventing bicycle crashes involving a motor vehicle.

    PubMed

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2015-06-01

    Bicycle use, despite its proven health and other benefits, is rarely part of everyday travel for many people due to the perceived risk of injury from collision crashes. This article investigated the role of physical vs. attention conspicuity in preventing bicycle crashes involving a motor vehicle in New Zealand. The Taupo Bicycle Study involved 2590 adult cyclists recruited in 2006 (43.1% response rate) and followed for bicycle crash outcomes through linkage to four national databases. A composite measure of physical conspicuity was created using latent class analysis based on the use of fluorescent colours, lights and reflective materials, and the main colour of top, helmet and bike frame. Attention conspicuity was assessed based on regional differences in travel patterns and the amount of riding in a bunch. Cox regression modelling for repeated events was performed with multivariate adjustments. During a median follow-up period of 6.4 years, 162 participants experienced 187 bicycle-motor vehicle crashes. The crash risk was not predicted by the four latent classes identified and the amount of bunch riding but was higher in Auckland, the region with the lowest level of bicycle use relative to car use. In subgroup analyses, compared to other latent classes, the most physically conspicuous group had a higher risk in Auckland but a lower risk in other regions. Conspicuity aids may not be effective in preventing bicycle-motor vehicle crashes in New Zealand, particularly in Auckland, where attention conspicuity is low. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  2. Inferring Predator Behavior from Attack Rates on Prey-Replicas That Differ in Conspicuousness

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral ecologists and evolutionary biologists have long studied how predators respond to prey items novel in color and pattern. Because a predatory response is influenced by both the predator’s ability to detect the prey and a post-detection behavioral response, variation among prey types in conspicuousness may confound inference about post-prey-detection predator behavior. That is, a relatively high attack rate on a given prey type may result primarily from enhanced conspicuousness and not predators’ direct preference for that prey. Few studies, however, account for such variation in conspicuousness. In a field experiment, we measured predation rates on clay replicas of two aposematic forms of the poison dart frog Dendrobates pumilio, one novel and one familiar, and two cryptic controls. To ask whether predators prefer or avoid a novel aposematic prey form independently of conspicuousness differences among replicas, we first modeled the visual system of a typical avian predator. Then, we used this model to estimate replica contrast against a leaf litter background to test whether variation in contrast alone could explain variation in predator attack rate. We found that absolute predation rates did not differ among color forms. Predation rates relative to conspicuousness did, however, deviate significantly from expectation, suggesting that predators do make post-detection decisions to avoid or attack a given prey type. The direction of this deviation from expectation, though, depended on assumptions we made about how avian predators discriminate objects from the visual background. Our results show that it is important to account for prey conspicuousness when investigating predator behavior and also that existing models of predator visual systems need to be refined. PMID:23119039

  3. Inferring predator behavior from attack rates on prey-replicas that differ in conspicuousness.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Yoel E; Dappen, Nathan; Losin, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral ecologists and evolutionary biologists have long studied how predators respond to prey items novel in color and pattern. Because a predatory response is influenced by both the predator's ability to detect the prey and a post-detection behavioral response, variation among prey types in conspicuousness may confound inference about post-prey-detection predator behavior. That is, a relatively high attack rate on a given prey type may result primarily from enhanced conspicuousness and not predators' direct preference for that prey. Few studies, however, account for such variation in conspicuousness. In a field experiment, we measured predation rates on clay replicas of two aposematic forms of the poison dart frog Dendrobates pumilio, one novel and one familiar, and two cryptic controls. To ask whether predators prefer or avoid a novel aposematic prey form independently of conspicuousness differences among replicas, we first modeled the visual system of a typical avian predator. Then, we used this model to estimate replica contrast against a leaf litter background to test whether variation in contrast alone could explain variation in predator attack rate. We found that absolute predation rates did not differ among color forms. Predation rates relative to conspicuousness did, however, deviate significantly from expectation, suggesting that predators do make post-detection decisions to avoid or attack a given prey type. The direction of this deviation from expectation, though, depended on assumptions we made about how avian predators discriminate objects from the visual background. Our results show that it is important to account for prey conspicuousness when investigating predator behavior and also that existing models of predator visual systems need to be refined.

  4. Use of retroreflective material to enhance the conspicuity of coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Beith, B.H.

    1982-12-01

    A study was carried out on the use of retroreflective material to increase the conspicuousness of miners. A scaled simulation was created using dolls to act as miners. Observers viewed different configurations of material on dolls in various body postures at different locations in the visual field. The results confirmed the poor conspicuousness of the configuration currently required in US mines, which features retroreflective tape on the helmet only. All experimental retroflective configurations significantly improved detectability over this configuration. The most cost-effective configurations were found to be those in which the belt and/or armbands were covered with retroflective material.

  5. Detriangulation of Absent Fathers in Single-Parent Black Families: Techniques of Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Walter, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Projection of mothers' unresolved feelings onto their children about absent fathers is frequently encountered in therapy with single-parent Black families. The empty chair procedure and the use of family photographs are interventions used, within the context of structural and transgenerational therapies, that help mothers separate feelings about…

  6. 16 CFR 1500.121 - Labeling requirements; prominence, placement, and conspicuousness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., layout, or color with other printed matter on the label. This regulation contains the Commission's... all sides from other printed or graphic matter, with the exception of the declaration of net contents... any other printed matter in the accompanying literature and must be in conspicuous and legible type...

  7. Conspicuousness, color resemblance, and toxicity in geographically diverging mimicry: The pan-Amazonian frog Allobates femoralis.

    PubMed

    Amézquita, Adolfo; Ramos, Óscar; González, Mabel Cristina; Rodríguez, Camilo; Medina, Iliana; Simões, Pedro Ivo; Lima, Albertina Pimentel

    2017-04-01

    Predation risk is allegedly reduced in Batesian and Müllerian mimics, because their coloration resembles the conspicuous coloration of unpalatable prey. The efficacy of mimicry is thought to be affected by variation in the unpalatability of prey, the conspicuousness of the signals, and the visual system of predators that see them. Many frog species exhibit small colorful patches contrasting against an otherwise dark body. By measuring toxicity and color reflectance in a geographically variable frog species and the syntopic toxic species, we tested whether unpalatability was correlated with between-species color resemblance and whether resemblance was highest for the most conspicuous components of coloration pattern. Heterospecific resemblance in colorful patches was highest between species at the same locality, but unrelated to concomitant variation in toxicity. Surprisingly, resemblance was lower for the conspicuous femoral patches compared to the inconspicuous dorsum. By building visual models, we further tested whether resemblance was affected by the visual system of model predators. As predicted, mimic-model resemblance was higher under the visual system of simulated predators compared to no visual system at all. Our results indicate that femoral patches are aposematic signals and support a role of mimicry in driving phenotypic divergence or mimetic radiation between localities. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Heavy trucks, conspicuity treatment, and the decline of collision risk in darkness.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, John M; Flannagan, Michael J

    2012-07-01

    The influence of amendments to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 108, requiring conspicuity treatments on heavy tractors and trailers, was determined in analyses of the odds of fatal collisions in darkness. Comparisons were made between crashes in which conspicuity treatment was likely relevant, and those in which it was likely irrelevant. Over 23years, the odds that a fatal collision involving a heavy truck occurred in darkness declined by 58% among relevant crashes, while little decline was observed for irrelevant crashes. Disaggregation into crash types revealed the largest declines occurred in fatal rear-end and angle collisions. A parallel analysis of light vehicles also found declines but no differences among crash type. Similar trends were also observed for nonfatal rear end collisions. The results suggest that detection failure may have contributed to the risk of striking a tractor-semitrailer in darkness, and that conspicuity treatments have reduced this risk. Conspicuity treatments appear to reduce risk of collision into heavy trucks in darkness. It is likely that this benefit would also extend to other vehicles that are not included in the FMVSS 108 regulation (e.g., buses, single unit trucks, recreational vehicles), although many are so equipped, regardless of the regulation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. An evaluation of the hypothesis that laser light is more conspicuous than incandescent light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winslow, T. S.; Mandler, M. B.

    1986-05-01

    It has been thought that laser aids to navigation might appear more conspicuous than aids employing conventional light sources. Two experiments rigorously tested the hypothesis that laser light is more conspicuous than incandescent light. Incandescent and Helium Neon laser sources were optically filtered and adjusted to present the same illuminance and color to distant observers. Thirty-seven observers viewed 60 random presentations (2 source types, 2 illuminance levels) from a distance of 1500 yards. Group correct source discrimination percentages were 52.6 and 55.2 for the low and high illuminance levels, respectively. The experiment was repeated indoors at higher illuminances with resultant group correct source discrimination percentages of 57, 67.5, and 66 for the low, medium, and high illuminances, respectively. It was concluded that at practical design illuminance levels, no significant conspicuity advantage would be gained by replacing existing navigational aids with laser aids-to-navigation. Calculations show that a significant conspicuity advantage is likely to be obtained if the mariner uses a narrow bandpass filter (3 to 10 nm) centered at the laser wavelength. The illuminance from the laser will be relatively unaffected, while the illuminances from all background lights will be dramatically diminished. An additional section compares the electrical efficiency of a standard Coast Guard FA-240 range light with a laser aid configured for the same application. For equal input power, the FA-240 is shown to produce 10 times the luminous intensity of the laser aid.

  10. Minimal Absent Words in Four Human Genome Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Sara P.; Pinho, Armando J.

    2011-01-01

    Minimal absent words have been computed in genomes of organisms from all domains of life. Here, we aim to contribute to the catalogue of human genomic variation by investigating the variation in number and content of minimal absent words within a species, using four human genome assemblies. We compare the reference human genome GRCh37 assembly, the HuRef assembly of the genome of Craig Venter, the NA12878 assembly from cell line GM12878, and the YH assembly of the genome of a Han Chinese individual. We find the variation in number and content of minimal absent words between assemblies more significant for large and very large minimal absent words, where the biases of sequencing and assembly methodologies become more pronounced. Moreover, we find generally greater similarity between the human genome assemblies sequenced with capillary-based technologies (GRCh37 and HuRef) than between the human genome assemblies sequenced with massively parallel technologies (NA12878 and YH). Finally, as expected, we find the overall variation in number and content of minimal absent words within a species to be generally smaller than the variation between species. PMID:22220210

  11. Predicting species establishment using absent species and functional neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jonathan A; Pärtel, Meelis

    2017-04-01

    Species establishment within a community depends on their interactions with the local environment and resident community. Such environmental and biotic filtering is frequently inferred from functional trait and phylogenetic patterns within communities; these patterns may also predict which additional species can establish. However, differentiating between environmental and biotic filtering can be challenging, which may complicate establishment predictions. Creating a habitat-specific species pool by identifying which absent species within the region can establish in the focal habitat allows us to isolate biotic filtering by modeling dissimilarity between the observed and biotically excluded species able to pass environmental filters. Similarly, modeling the dissimilarity between the habitat-specific species pool and the environmentally excluded species within the region can isolate local environmental filters. Combined, these models identify potentially successful phenotypes and why certain phenotypes were unsuccessful. Here, we present a framework that uses the functional dissimilarity among these groups in logistic models to predict establishment of additional species. This approach can use multivariate trait distances and phylogenetic information, but is most powerful when using individual traits and their interactions. It also requires an appropriate distance-based dissimilarity measure, yet the two most commonly used indices, nearest neighbor (one species) and mean pairwise (all species) distances, may inaccurately predict establishment. By iteratively increasing the number of species used to measure dissimilarity, a functional neighborhood can be chosen that maximizes the detection of underlying trait patterns. We tested this framework using two seed addition experiments in calcareous grasslands. Although the functional neighborhood size that best fits the community's trait structure depended on the type of filtering considered, selecting these functional

  12. Vampire Selfie: A Curious Case of an Absent Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a puzzle for the optics section of an introductory course on reflections. A teacher could ask students to explain the phenomenon of the "vampire selfie" or the absent reflection. How could that be? What physics caused this curious phenomenon? The article explains light refraction and its effect on what we see and…

  13. Vampire Selfie: A Curious Case of an Absent Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a puzzle for the optics section of an introductory course on reflections. A teacher could ask students to explain the phenomenon of the "vampire selfie" or the absent reflection. How could that be? What physics caused this curious phenomenon? The article explains light refraction and its effect on what we see and…

  14. The Production of Present and Absent Presences in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frelin, Anneli; Grannäs, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the distinction between absent and present presences, this article contributes to our understanding of how new managerial and performative discourses are played out in a secondary school context in Sweden. The consequences of numerous educational reforms during the last 20 years include a surge of new independent schools and increased…

  15. The Production of Present and Absent Presences in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frelin, Anneli; Grannäs, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the distinction between absent and present presences, this article contributes to our understanding of how new managerial and performative discourses are played out in a secondary school context in Sweden. The consequences of numerous educational reforms during the last 20 years include a surge of new independent schools and increased…

  16. Investigating Whether Contacting Absent Students Increases Course Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stucky, Thomas D.

    2008-01-01

    Studies suggest that student attendance in college classes increases course success. Yet, surprisingly few studies have examined strategies to increase student attendance. The goal of the current study is to consider whether contacting consistently absent students increases success in an undergraduate research methods course. Results of this…

  17. Absent and Accounted For: Absenteeism and Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppenhaver, G. D.

    2006-01-01

    In a small section collaborative learning environment where student work teams promote mutual learning about investments, students limit the opportunity to learn from other students if they are absent from class. Absenteeism not only denies the student the opportunity to learn from others but also denies other members of the student's work team…

  18. PHACE syndrome and congenitally absent thyroid gland at MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Mamlouk, Mark D; Yu, John-Paul J; Asch, Sarah; Mathes, Erin F

    2016-01-01

    PHACE syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous disorder characterized by posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, cardiac defects, and abnormalities of the eye. Thyroid disorders associated with PHACE syndrome have been described, although there are limited reports of this rare occurrence. We report a case of PHACE syndrome with congenital hypothyroidism in an infant, for which absent thyroid gland was diagnosed at magnetic resonance imaging.

  19. Discussing Those Not Present: Comprehension of References to Absent Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Megan M.; Baldwin, Dare A.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to understand references to the absent enables conversation to move beyond the here-and-now to matters distant in both space and time. Such understanding requires appreciating the relation between language and communicative intent: one must recognize speakers' intentions to use language to converge on a shared conversational focus that…

  20. IMPROVING CONSPICUITY OF THE CANINE GASTROINTESTINAL WALL USING DUAL PHASE CONTRAST-ENHANCED COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY: A RETROSPECTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Ella; Lam, Richard; Drees, Randi

    2017-03-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) disease is a common clinical complaint in small animal patients; computed tomography (CT) examinations enable a global overview of the GI tract and associated structures. Previously, the GI wall has been reportedly identified from serosa to mucosa in 77% of standard postcontrast CT studies and wall layers seen in ultrasound have not been distinguished. Inconsistent strong contrast enhancement of the inner layer of the GI mucosal surface was noted on dual phase CT studies acquired in our institution, which increased the visibility of the GI tract and disease processes. The aim of this retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study was to determine the optimal portal vein attenuation for maximizing GI wall conspicuity using dual phase contrast-enhanced CT. Patients with abdominal CT for a non-GI related disease were included. In a pilot study, 175 GI segments from 35 CT studies were graded for presence of mucosal surface enhancement (MSE). The strongest mucosal surface enhancement grade correlated with portal vein attenuation of 43-150 HU; this value was used as inclusion criterion in the main study. A total of 441 GI segments were evaluated in 42 CT studies postcontrast for GI wall conspicuity. The GI wall was conspicuous in 56.7% precontrast, 84.5% at 30s, and 77.3% late postcontrast; 4.7% of segments were removed due to motion blur. At 30 s distinct mucosal surface enhancement was seen in the small intestine and gastric mucosal surface enhancement was poor. Findings supported the use of dual phase contrast-enhanced CT for improving conspicuity of the GI wall. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  1. Differences in color vision make passerines less conspicuous in the eyes of their predators

    PubMed Central

    Håstad, Olle; Victorsson, Jonas; Ödeen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Sexual selection often favors brighter and exaggerated traits, which also increase the risk of detection by predators. Signals that are preferentially conspicuous to conspecifics would reduce the predation cost of signaling and, therefore, might facilitate the evolution of stronger sexual and social signals. This selective signaling is possible if predators and prey have differently tuned sensory systems. By using a retinal model to compare reflectance from the plumages of Swedish songbirds to the reflectance of their natural backgrounds, we found their color badges to be significantly more conspicuous to other songbirds (which have a UV-tuned visual system) than to raptors and corvids (which have a violet-tuned system) in both coniferous and deciduous forests, consistent with an adaptive private communication system. PMID:15851662

  2. Differences in color vision make passerines less conspicuous in the eyes of their predators.

    PubMed

    Håstad, Olle; Victorsson, Jonas; Odeen, Anders

    2005-05-03

    Sexual selection often favors brighter and exaggerated traits, which also increase the risk of detection by predators. Signals that are preferentially conspicuous to conspecifics would reduce the predation cost of signaling and, therefore, might facilitate the evolution of stronger sexual and social signals. This selective signaling is possible if predators and prey have differently tuned sensory systems. By using a retinal model to compare reflectance from the plumages of Swedish songbirds to the reflectance of their natural backgrounds, we found their color badges to be significantly more conspicuous to other songbirds (which have a UV-tuned visual system) than to raptors and corvids (which have a violet-tuned system) in both coniferous and deciduous forests, consistent with an adaptive private communication system.

  3. Local adaptation and divergence in colour signal conspicuousness between monomorphic and polymorphic lineages in a lizard.

    PubMed

    McLean, C A; Moussalli, A; Stuart-Fox, D

    2014-12-01

    Population differences in visual environment can lead to divergence in multiple components of animal coloration including signalling traits and colour patterns important for camouflage. Divergence may reflect selection imposed by different receivers (conspecifics, predators), which depends in turn on the location of the colour patch. We tested for local adaptation of two genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages of a rock-inhabiting lizard, Ctenophorus decresii, by comparing the visual contrast of colour patches to different receivers in native and non-native environments. The lineages differ most notably in male throat coloration, which is polymorphic in the northern lineage and monomorphic in the southern lineage, but also differ in dorsal and lateral coloration, which is visible to both conspecifics and potential predators. Using models of animal colour vision, we assessed whether lineage-specific throat, dorsal and lateral coloration enhanced conspicuousness to conspecifics, increased crypsis to birds or both, respectively, when viewed against the predominant backgrounds from each lineage. Throat colours were no more conspicuous against native than non-native rock but contrasted more strongly with native lichen, which occurs patchily on rocks inhabited by C. decresii. Conversely, neck coloration (lateral) more closely matched native lichen. Furthermore, although dorsal coloration of southern males was consistently more conspicuous to birds than that of northern males, both lineages had similar absolute conspicuousness against their native backgrounds. Combined, our results are consistent with local adaptation of multiple colour traits in relation to multiple receivers, suggesting that geographic variation in background colour has influenced the evolution of lineage-specific coloration in C. decresii.

  4. Reflective Tape Applied to Bicycle Frame and Conspicuity Enhancement at Night.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marco; Bonetti, Leonardo; Bellelli, Manuela; Lantieri, Claudio; Vignali, Valeria; Simone, Andrea

    2017-05-01

    Four studies were conducted to assess bicyclist conspicuity enhancement at night by the application of reflective tape (ECE/ONU 104) to the bicycle rear frame and to pedal cranks. Previous studies have tested the benefits of reflective markings applied to bicyclist clothing. Reflective jackets however need to be available and worn while reflective markings enhance conspicuity without any active behavior by the bicyclist. In the first study, reflective tape was applied to the rear frame. Detection distance was compared in four conditions: control, rear red reflector, high visibility jacket, and reflective tape. In the second study, the same conditions were studied with night street lighting on and off. In the third study, detection and recognition distances were evaluated in rainy conditions. In the fourth study, visibility was assessed with the reflective tape applied to pedal cranks. In the first study, the application of reflective markings resulted in a detection distance of 168.28 m. In the second study, the detection distance with reflective markings was 229.74 m with public street light on and 256.41 m with public street light off. In rainy conditions, detection distance using the reflective markings was 146.47 m. Reflective tape applied to pedal cracks resulted in a detection distance of 168.60 m. Reflective tape applied to the rear bicycle frame can considerably increase bicyclist conspicuity and safety at night. Reflective tape is highly recommended to complement anterior and rear lights in bicycle riding at night.

  5. Wall lizards display conspicuous signals to conspecifics and reduce detection by avian predators

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Visual signals are often under conflicting selection to be hidden from predators while being conspicuous to mates and rivals. Here, we investigated whether 3 different island populations of Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) with variable coloration among diverse island habitats exhibit simultaneous camouflage and sexual signals. We examined whether signals appear better tuned to conspecific vision as opposed to that of avian predators, and whether background-matching camouflage and sexual signals are partitioned to specific body regions. This could facilitate both covert sexual signaling and camouflage according to the viewing perspectives of predators and conspecifics. We found that lizards typically appeared twice as conspicuous to conspecifics than to avian predators against the same visual background, largely due to lizards’ enhanced sensitivity to ultraviolet, suggesting that P. erhardii signals are tuned to conspecific vision to reduce detection by predators. Males were more conspicuous than females to both predators and conspecifics. In 2 populations, male backs were relatively more camouflaged to predators compared to signaling flanks, whereas in females, exposed and concealed surfaces were camouflaged to predators and generally did not differ in background matching. These findings indicate that lizard coloration evolves under the competing demands of natural and sexual selection to promote signals that are visible to conspecifics while being less perceptible to avian predators. They also elucidate how interactions between natural and sexual selection influence signal detectability and partitioning to different body regions, highlighting the importance of considering receiver vision, viewing perspectives, and signaling environments in studies of signal evolution. PMID:25419083

  6. Examining the conspicuousness and prominence of two required warnings on OTC pain relievers

    PubMed Central

    Bix, Laura; Bello, Nora M.; Auras, Rafael; Ranger, Jon; Lapinski, Maria K.

    2009-01-01

    The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs is critical to their safe and effective use, and certain warnings are meant to be read at the point of purchase (POP). Examples include (i) warnings that alert consumers to the fact that the package is not child-resistant and (ii) warnings that alert consumers to potential product tampering. U.S. law mandates these warnings be “conspicuous” and “prominent” so that it is likely that consumers will read them before leaving the store. Our objective was to quantify the relative prominence and conspicuousness of these warnings. Sixty-one participants reviewed the packages of 5 commercially available analgesics to evaluate the prominence and conspicuousness of these warnings. Evaluated data included (i) the time spent examining the warnings compared with other areas of the label (using a bright pupil eye tracker), (ii) the ability to recall information from the OTCs viewed, and (iii) the legibility of the warnings relative to other elements of the labels (as measured by ASTM D7298-06). Eye-tracking data indicated that warnings were viewed by fewer participants and for less time than other elements of the packages. Recall and legibility data also indicated that the warning statements compared unfavorably with other elements of the labels tested. Evidence presented in this study suggests that 2 required warnings on 5 different OTCs are not prominent or conspicuous when compared with other elements of tested labels. PMID:19332798

  7. On the relationship between human search strategies, conspicuity, and search performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Bijl, Piet; Toet, Alexander

    2005-05-01

    We determined the relationship between search performance with a limited field of view (FOV) and several scanning- and scene parameters in human observer experiments. The observers (38 trained army scouts) searched through a large search sector for a target (a camouflaged person) on a heath. From trial to trial the target appeared at a different location. With a joystick the observers scanned through a panoramic image (displayed on a PC-monitor) while the scan path was registered. Four conditions were run differing in sensor type (visual or thermal infrared) and window size (large or small). In conditions with a small window size the zoom option could be used. Detection performance was highly dependent on zoom factor and deteriorated when scan speed increased beyond a threshold value. Moreover, the distribution of scan speeds scales with the threshold speed. This indicates that the observers are aware of their limitations and choose a (near) optimal search strategy. We found no correlation between the fraction of detected targets and overall search time for the individual observers, indicating that both are independent measures of individual search performance. Search performance (fraction detected, total search time, time in view for detection) was found to be strongly related to target conspicuity. Moreover, we found the same relationship between search performance and conspicuity for visual and thermal targets. This indicates that search performance can be predicted directly by conspicuity regardless of the sensor type.

  8. Kaufman oculo-cerebro-facial syndrome in a child with small and absent terminal phalanges and absent nails.

    PubMed

    Kariminejad, Ariana; Ajeawung, Norbert Fonya; Bozorgmehr, Bita; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Molidperee, Sirinart; Najafi, Kimia; Gibbs, Richard A; Lee, Brendan H; Hennekam, Raoul C; Campeau, Philippe M

    2017-04-01

    Kaufman oculo-cerebro-facial syndrome (KOS) is caused by recessive UBE3B mutations and presents with microcephaly, ocular abnormalities, distinctive facial morphology, low cholesterol levels and intellectual disability. We describe a child with microcephaly, brachycephaly, hearing loss, ptosis, blepharophimosis, hypertelorism, cleft palate, multiple renal cysts, absent nails, small or absent terminal phalanges, absent speech and intellectual disability. Syndromes that were initially considered include DOORS syndrome, Coffin-Siris syndrome and Dubowitz syndrome. Clinical investigations coupled with karyotype analysis, array-comparative genomic hybridization, exome and Sanger sequencing were performed to characterize the condition in this child. Sanger sequencing was negative for the DOORS syndrome gene TBC1D24 but exome sequencing identified a homozygous deletion in UBE3B (NM_183415:c.3139_3141del, p.1047_1047del) located within the terminal portion of the HECT domain. This finding coupled with the presence of characteristic features such as brachycephaly, ptosis, blepharophimosis, hypertelorism, short palpebral fissures, cleft palate and developmental delay allowed us to make a diagnosis of KOS. In conclusion, our findings highlight the importance of considering KOS as a differential diagnosis for patients under evaluation for DOORS syndrome and expand the phenotype of KOS to include small or absent terminal phalanges, nails, and the presence of hallux varus and multicystic dysplastic kidneys.

  9. Apes Communicate about Absent and Displaced Objects: Methodology Matters

    PubMed Central

    Lyn, Heidi; Russell, Jamie L.; Leavens, David A.; Bard, Kim A.; Boysen, Sarah T.; Schaeffer, Jennifer A.; Hopkins, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Displaced reference is the ability to refer to an item that has been moved (displaced) in space and/or time, and has been called one of the true hallmarks of referential communication. Several studies suggest that nonhuman primates have this capability, but a recent experiment concluded that in a specific situation (absent entities) human infants display displaced reference but chimpanzees do not. Here we show that chimpanzees and bonobos of diverse rearing histories are capable of displaced reference to absent and displaced objects. It is likely that some of the conflicting findings from animal cognition studies are due to relatively minor methodological differences, but are compounded by interpretation errors. Comparative studies are of great importance in elucidating the evolution of human cognition, however, greater care must be taken with methodology and interpretation for these studies to accurately reflect species differences. PMID:23681052

  10. Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: implications of absent mini-puberty.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Andrew A; Jayasena, Channa N; Quinton, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The phenomenon known as "mini-puberty" refers to activation of the neonatal hypothalamo-pituitary axis causing serum concentrations of gonadotrophins and testosterone (T) to approach adult male levels. This early neonatal period is a key proliferative window for testicular germ cells and immature Sertoli cells. Although failure to spontaneously initiate (adolescent) puberty is the most evident consequence of a defective gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory network, absent mini-puberty is also likely to have a major impact on the reproductive phenotype of men with congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (CHH). Furthermore, the phase of male mini-puberty represents a key window-of-opportunity to identify congenital GnRH deficiency (either isolated CHH, or as part of combined pituitary hormone deficiency) in childhood. Among male neonates exhibiting "red flag" indicators for CHH (i.e. maldescended testes with or without cryptorchidism) a single serum sample (between 4-8 weeks of life) can pinpoint congenital GnRH deficiency far more rapidly and with much greater accuracy than dynamic tests performed in later childhood or adolescence. Potential consequences for missing absent mini-puberty in a male neonate include the lack of monitoring of pubertal progression/lack of progression, and the missed opportunity for early therapeutic intervention. This article will review our current understanding of the mechanisms and clinical consequences of mini-puberty. Furthermore, evidence for the optimal clinical management of patients with absent mini-puberty will be discussed.

  11. Motorcycle rider conspicuity and crash related injury: case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wells, Susan; Mullin, Bernadette; Norton, Robyn; Langley, John; Connor, Jennie; Lay-Yee, Roy; Jackson, Rod

    2004-04-10

    To investigate whether the risk of motorcycle crash related injuries is associated with the conspicuity of the driver or vehicle. Population based case-control study. Auckland region of New Zealand from February 1993 to February 1996. 463 motorcycle drivers (cases) involved in crashes leading to hospital treatment or death; 1233 motorcycle drivers (controls) recruited from randomly selected roadside survey sites. Estimates of relative risk of motorcycle crash related injury and population attributable risk associated with conspicuity measures, including the use of reflective or fluorescent clothing, headlight operation, and colour of helmet, clothing, and motorcycle. Crash related injuries occurred mainly in urban zones with 50 km/h speed limit (66%), during the day (63%), and in fine weather (72%). After adjustment for potential confounders, drivers wearing any reflective or fluorescent clothing had a 37% lower risk (multivariate odds ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.94) than other drivers. Compared with wearing a black helmet, use of a white helmet was associated with a 24% lower risk (multivariate odds ratio 0.76, 0.57 to 0.99). Self reported light coloured helmet versus dark coloured helmet was associated with a 19% lower risk. Three quarters of motorcycle riders had their headlight turned on during the day, and this was associated with a 27% lower risk (multivariate odds ratio 0.73, 0.53 to 1.00). No association occurred between risk and the frontal colour of drivers' clothing or motorcycle. If these odds ratios are unconfounded, the population attributable risks are 33% for wearing no reflective or fluorescent clothing, 18% for a non-white helmet, 11% for a dark coloured helmet, and 7% for no daytime headlight operation. Low conspicuity may increase the risk of motorcycle crash related injury. Increasing the use of reflective or fluorescent clothing, white or light coloured helmets, and daytime headlights are simple, cheap interventions that

  12. Eyes absent: a gene family found in several metazoan phyla.

    PubMed

    Duncan, M K; Kos, L; Jenkins, N A; Gilbert, D J; Copeland, N G; Tomarev, S I

    1997-07-01

    Genes related to the Drosophila eyes absent gene were identified in vertebrates (mouse and human), mollusks (squid), and nematodes (C. elegans). Proteins encoded by these genes consist of conserved C-terminal and variable N-terminal domains. In the conserved 271-amino acid C-terminal region, Drosophila and vertebrate proteins are 65-67% identical. A vertebrate homolog of eyes absent, designated Eya2, was mapped to Chromosome (Chr) 2 in the mouse and to Chr 20q13.1 in human. Eya2 shows a dynamic pattern of expression during development. In the mouse, expression of Eya2 was first detected in 8.5-day embryos in the region of head ectoderm fated to become the forebrain. At later stages of development, Eya2 is expressed in the olfactory placode and in a variety of neural crest derivatives. In the eye, expression of Eya2 was first detected after formation of the lens vesicle. At day 17.5, the highest level of Eya2 mRNA was observed in primary lens fibers. Low levels of Eya2 expression was detected in retina, sclera, and cornea. By postnatal day 10, Eya2 was expressed in secondary lens fibers, cornea, and retina. Although Eya2 is expressed relatively late in eye development, it belongs to the growing list of factors that may be essential for eye development across metazoan phyla. Like members of the Pax-6 gene family, eyes absent gene family members were probably first involved in functions not related to vision, with recruitment for visual system formation and function occurring later.

  13. Vampire Selfie: A Curious Case of an Absent Reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Joshua M.

    2014-11-01

    During a recent ride in an elevator, I was startled by an observation. Once the door closed, the features on the back wall of the elevator were evident in a reflection on the door; however, my own reflection appeared absent (see Fig. 1). How could that be? What physics caused this curious phenomenon? The elevator had wooden molding, including horizontal strips that ran all the way around the back and sides (see Fig. 2). These horizontal strips were what showed up most clearly in the reflection. The door's surface was brushed metal with the brush marks all running vertically. Therein lay the solution.

  14. Effects of increased compression with an ultrasound transducer on the conspicuity of breast lesions in a phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepura, Katy; Faqir, Tahreem; Manning, David

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging of the breast is highly operator dependent. The amount of pressure applied with the transducer has a direct impact on the lesion visibility in breast ultrasound. The conspicuity index is a quantitative measure of lesion visibility, taking into account more parameters than standard measures that impact on lesion detection. This study assessed the conspicuity of lesions within a breast phantom using increased transducer compression in breast ultrasound. Methods A phantom was constructed of gelatine to represent adipose tissue, steel wool for glandular/blood vessels and silicone spheres to represent lesions, this meant that the lesions were also compressible, but less than the surrounding tissue. The phantom was imaged under increasing transducer compression. The conspicuity index was measured using the Conspicuity Index Software. The distance between the transducer surface and lesion surface was measured as an indication of increased compression. Results When moderate compression (17mm) was applied, the conspicuity index increased resulting in better visualisation of the silicone lesions. However, with increased compression the conspicuity index decreased. New work to be presented The conspicuity index has never been demonstrated in ultrasound imaging before. This is preliminary phantom work to demonstrate the impact of increased transducer compression on quantitative lesion visibility assessment. Conclusion The compression applied should be considered for optimum visualisation, as excessive pressure decreases conspicuity. However, further work needs to be conducted in order to consider other factors, such as density of the breast and lesion location, for a better understanding of the effect of compression on the visualisation of the lesion. A human study is planned.

  15. [Termites that build conspicuous nests in two areas of Atlantic Forest under different levels of anthropogenic disturbance].

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Alexandre; Bandeira, Adelmar G; Almeida, Waltécio O; Moura, Flávia M S

    2008-01-01

    The effects of selective logging on termite assemblages that build conspicuous nests were studied in two areas of semideciduous Atlantic Forest, located in the Reserva Biológica Guaribas, Northeastern Brazil. The two study areas went through selective logging until 1985 (A17) and 1972 (A30). In 2002, termite nests were studied in two plots of 1 ha (100 x 100 m), being one plot in each area. The nests were placed in each plot and the species were categorized in feeding groups. The structure of the study assemblages was different between the two areas. Diversity and richness of builder species were greater in the A30 area. Species that consume humus were more sensitive to selective logging. Nest abundance of humus feeding species was significantly higher in the A30 area, whereas nests of wood feeding species were significantly more abundant in the area A17. Nest ratio between humus and wood feeding species was 1:3 in the A30 area and 1:12 in the A17 area. Nests with greater volume were observed in the area A30, whereas abundance of inactive nests was significantly higher in A17. The time for habitat resilience after the selective logging influenced patterns of assemblage structure of termites in similar ways as described in other studies in tropical forests.

  16. Absent without leave; a neuroenergetic theory of mind wandering

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Absent minded people are not under the control of task-relevant stimuli. According to the Neuroenergetics Theory of attention (NeT), this lack of control is often due to fatigue of the relevant processing units in the brain caused by insufficient resupply of the neuron's preferred fuel, lactate, from nearby astrocytes. A simple drift model of information processing accounts for response-time statistics in a paradigm often used to study inattention, the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). It is suggested that errors and slowing in this fast-paced, response-engaging task may have little to due with inattention. Slower-paced and less response-demanding tasks give greater license for inattention—aka absent-mindedness, mind-wandering. The basic NeT is therefore extended with an ancillary model of attentional drift and recapture. This Markov model, called NEMA, assumes probability λ of lapses of attention from 1 s to the next, and probability α of drifting back to the attentional state. These parameters measure the strength of attraction back to the task (α), or away to competing mental states or action patterns (λ); their proportion determines the probability of the individual being inattentive at any point in time over the long run. Their values are affected by the fatigue of the brain units they traffic between. The deployment of the model is demonstrated with a data set involving paced responding. PMID:23847559

  17. The Absent Interpreter in Administrative Detention Center Medical Units.

    PubMed

    Rondeau-Lutz, Murielle; Weber, Jean-Christophe

    2017-03-01

    The particular situation of the French administrative detention center (ADC) medical units appears to be an exemplary case to study the difficulties facing medical practice. Indeed, the starting point of our inquiry was an amazing observation that needed to be addressed and understood: why are professional interpreters so seldom requested in ADC medical units, where one would expect that they would be "naturally" present? Aiming to fully explore the meanings of the "absent interpreter", this article takes into account the possible meanings of this situation: the recourse to professional interpreters in France is far from expected given cumulative evidence of its benefits; perceptions of illegal immigrants and medical habitus itself may both hamper the use of a third party; the ADCs are a very stressful place for healthcare professionals, with conflicting missions, political issues enmeshed with medical goals, and heavy affective burden that may lead to self-protection. Silencing voices of suffering others might be seen as the hidden indecent truth of the "absent interpreter". These reflections open a window to a larger issue with regard to the full range of medicine: what are the place, the role and the function of patient's words and narratives in contemporary medicine? The highly invested somatic perspective and its political corollary giving primacy to bare life harbor potential risks of obscuring speeches and undervaluing narratives.

  18. Mechanisms underlying cognitive conspicuity in the detection of cyclists by car drivers.

    PubMed

    Rogé, Joceline; Ndiaye, Daniel; Aillerie, Isabelle; Aillerie, Stéphane; Navarro, Jordan; Vienne, Fabrice

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the visibility of cyclists for motorists in a simulated car driving task. In several cases involving collisions between cars and cyclists, car drivers failed to detect the latter in time to avoid collision because of their low conspicuity. 2 groups of motorists (29.2 years old), including 12 cyclist-motorists and 13 non-cyclist-motorists, performed a vulnerable road user detection task in a car-driving simulator. They had to detect cyclists and pedestrians in an urban setting and evaluate the realism of the cyclists, the traffic, the city, the infrastructure, the car driven and the situations. Cyclists appeared in critical situations derived from previous accounts given by injured cyclists and from cyclists' observations in real-life situations. Cyclist's levels of visibility for car drivers were either high or low in these situations according to the cyclists. Realism scores were similar and high in both groups. Cyclist-motorists had fewer collisions with cyclists and detected cyclists at a greater distance in all situations, irrespective of cyclist visibility. Several mechanisms underlying the cognitive conspicuity of cyclists for car drivers were considered. The attentional selection of a cyclist in the road environment during car driving depends on top-down processing. We consider the practical implications of these results for the safety of vulnerable road users and future directions of research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of prey density on predators: conspicuousness and attack success are sensitive to spatial scale.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Christos C; Morrell, Lesley J; Ruxton, Graeme D; Krause, Jens

    2009-04-01

    In contrast to the numerous studies that have examined the response of predators to prey group size, little is known about how prey density affects prey detection and the accuracy of attacks. We demonstrate that increasing the density of Daphnia magna swarms increases conspicuousness to a natural predator, the three-spined stickleback. Denser areas of groups were more conspicuous, as the fish attacked prey in denser parts of the group than would be expected if they attacked the nearest prey upon entering the feeding chamber. The spatial error of attacks also increased with the density around the target; hence, different stages of predation (searching for vs. successfully attacking prey) seem to select for opposing responses to prey density. However, whereas the effect of density on target selection only occurred using a global measure of density (average interindividual distance), the effect on attack error was only significant using a local measure of density (Voronoi polygon area). We believe this effect of spatial scale reflects the reduction in the number of prey in the visual field of the predator as an attack progresses, providing a perceptual basis for the importance of spatial scale in density-dependent processes.

  20. Influence of front light configuration on the visual conspicuity of motorcycles.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Maria; Cavallo, Viola; Saint-Pierre, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    A recent study (Cavallo and Pinto, 2012) showed that daytime running lights (DRLs) on cars create "visual noise" that interferes with the lighting of motorcycles and affects their visual conspicuity. In the present experiment, we tested three conspicuity enhancements designed to improve motorcycle detectability in a car-DRL environment: a triangle configuration (a central headlight plus two lights located on the rearview mirrors), a helmet configuration (a light located on the motorcyclist's helmet in addition to the central headlight), and a single central yellow headlight. These three front-light configurations were evaluated in comparison to the standard configuration (a single central white headlight). Photographs representing complex urban traffic scenes were presented briefly (for 250ms). The results revealed better motorcycle-detection performance for both the yellow headlight and the helmet configuration than for the standard configuration. The findings suggest some avenues for defining a new visual signature for motorcycles in car-DRL environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of tube current modulation on lesion conspicuity index in hi-resolution chest computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepura, Katy; Tomkinson, David; Manning, David

    2017-03-01

    Tube current modulation is a method employed in the use of CT in an attempt to optimize radiation dose to the patient. The acceptable noise (noise index) can be varied, based on the level of optimization required; higher accepted noise reduces the patient dose. Recent research [1] suggests that measuring the conspicuity index (C.I.) of focal lesions within an image is more reflective of a clinical reader's ability to perceive focal lesions than traditional physical measures such as contrast to noise (CNR) and signal to noise ratio (SNR). Software has been developed and validated to calculate the C.I. in DICOM images. The aim of this work is assess the impact of tube current modulation on conspicuity index and CTDIvol, to indicate the benefits and limitations of tube current modulation on lesion detectability. Method An anthropomorphic chest phantom was used "Lungman" with inserted lesions of varying size and HU (see table below) a range of Hounsfield units and sizes were used to represent the variation in lesion Hounsfield units found. This meant some lesions had negative Hounsfield unit values.

  2. Role of sensory and cognitive conspicuity in the prevention of collisions between motorcycles and trucks at T-intersections.

    PubMed

    Law, Teik Hua; Ghanbari, Mahshid; Hamid, Hussain; Abdul-Halin, Alfian; Ng, Choy Peng

    2016-11-01

    Motorcyclists are particularly vulnerable to injury in crashes with heavy vehicles due to substantial differences in vehicle mass, the degree of protection and speed. There is a considerable difference in height between motorcycles and trucks; motorcycles are viewed by truck drivers from downward angles, and shorter distances between them mean steeper downward angles. Hence, we anticipated that the effects of motorcycle conspicuity treatments would be different for truck drivers. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effects of motorcycle conspicuity treatments on the identification and detection of motorcycles by truck drivers. Two complementary experiments were performed; the first experiment assessed the impact of motorcycle sensory conspicuity on the ability of un-alerted truck drivers to detect motorcycles, and the second experiment assessed the motorcycle cognitive conspicuity to alerted truck drivers. The sensory conspicuity was measured in terms of motorcycle detection rates by un-alerted truck drivers when they were not anticipating a motorcycle within a realistic driving scene, while the cognitive conspicuity was determined by the time taken by alerted truck drivers to actively search for a motorcycle. In the first experiment, the participants were presented with 10 pictures and were instructed to report the kinds of vehicles that were presented in the pictures. Each picture was shown to the participants for 600ms. In the second experiment, the participants were presented with the same set of pictures and were instructed to respond by clicking the right button on a mouse as soon as they detected a motorcycle in the picture. The results indicate that the motorcycle detection rate increases, and the response time to search for a motorcycle decreases, as the distance between the targeted motorcycle and the viewer decreases. This is true regardless of the type of conspicuity treatment used. The use of daytime running headlights (DRH) was found to

  3. Formation of excitatory and inhibitory associations between absent events

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Peter C.; Sherwood, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that associations may be formed between two events even when one or both of them is absent at the time of learning. Previously, some researchers asserted that excitatory associations are formed when associatively-activated representations for two events are paired, whereas others claimed that inhibitory associations are formed. In three experiments we investigated the nature of tone-sucrose learning when associatively-activated representations of those events were paired in the absence of either of the events themselves. Experiment 1 found substantial excitatory learning when the tone surrogate preceded the sucrose surrogate in training. Experimental 2 evaluated other accounts for the results of Experiment 1, and Experiment 3 found evidence for inhibitory tone-sucrose learning when the tone and sucrose surrogates were presented in simultaneous or backward order. The results indicated that the nature of representation-mediated learning is influenced by some of the same variables as more standard associative learning. PMID:18665716

  4. Is it safe to nest near conspicuous neighbours? Spatial patterns in predation risk associated with the density of American Golden-Plover nests

    PubMed Central

    Trottier-Paquet, Myriam; Bêty, Joël; Lamarre, Vincent; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is one of the main factors explaining nesting mortality in most bird species. Birds can avoid nest predation or reduce predation pressure by breeding at higher latitude, showing anti-predator behaviour, selecting nest sites protected from predators, and nesting in association with protective species. American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) defend their territory by using various warning and distraction behaviours displayed at varying levels of intensity (hereafter “conspicuous behaviour”), as well as more aggressive behaviours such as aerial attacks, but only in some populations. Such antipredator behaviour has the potential to repel predators and thus benefit the neighbouring nests by decreasing their predation risk. Yet, conspicuous behaviour could also attract predators by signalling the presence of a nest. To test for the existence of a protective effect associated with the conspicuous antipredator behaviour of American Golden-Plovers, we studied the influence of proximity to plover nests on predation risk of artificial nests on Igloolik Island (Nunavut, Canada) in July 2014. We predicted that the predation risk of artificial nests would decrease with proximity to and density of plover nests. We monitored 18 plover nests and set 35 artificial nests at 30, 50, 100, 200, and 500 m from seven of those plover nests. We found that the predation risk of artificial nests increases with the density of active plover nests. We also found a significant negative effect of the distance to the nearest active protector nest on predation risk of artificial nests. Understanding how the composition and structure of shorebird communities generate spatial patterns in predation risks represents a key step to better understand the importance of these species of conservation concern in tundra food webs. PMID:27602257

  5. Is it safe to nest near conspicuous neighbours? Spatial patterns in predation risk associated with the density of American Golden-Plover nests.

    PubMed

    Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Trottier-Paquet, Myriam; Bêty, Joël; Lamarre, Vincent; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is one of the main factors explaining nesting mortality in most bird species. Birds can avoid nest predation or reduce predation pressure by breeding at higher latitude, showing anti-predator behaviour, selecting nest sites protected from predators, and nesting in association with protective species. American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) defend their territory by using various warning and distraction behaviours displayed at varying levels of intensity (hereafter "conspicuous behaviour"), as well as more aggressive behaviours such as aerial attacks, but only in some populations. Such antipredator behaviour has the potential to repel predators and thus benefit the neighbouring nests by decreasing their predation risk. Yet, conspicuous behaviour could also attract predators by signalling the presence of a nest. To test for the existence of a protective effect associated with the conspicuous antipredator behaviour of American Golden-Plovers, we studied the influence of proximity to plover nests on predation risk of artificial nests on Igloolik Island (Nunavut, Canada) in July 2014. We predicted that the predation risk of artificial nests would decrease with proximity to and density of plover nests. We monitored 18 plover nests and set 35 artificial nests at 30, 50, 100, 200, and 500 m from seven of those plover nests. We found that the predation risk of artificial nests increases with the density of active plover nests. We also found a significant negative effect of the distance to the nearest active protector nest on predation risk of artificial nests. Understanding how the composition and structure of shorebird communities generate spatial patterns in predation risks represents a key step to better understand the importance of these species of conservation concern in tundra food webs.

  6. Motorcycle rider conspicuity and crash related injury: case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Susan; Mullin, Bernadette; Norton, Robyn; Langley, John; Connor, Jennie; Lay-Yee, Roy; Jackson, Rod

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the risk of motorcycle crash related injuries is associated with the conspicuity of the driver or vehicle. Design Population based case-control study. Setting Auckland region of New Zealand from February 1993 to February 1996. Participants 463 motorcycle drivers (cases) involved in crashes leading to hospital treatment or death; 1233 motorcycle drivers (controls) recruited from randomly selected roadside survey sites. Main outcome measures Estimates of relative risk of motorcycle crash related injury and population attributable risk associated with conspicuity measures, including the use of reflective or fluorescent clothing, headlight operation, and colour of helmet, clothing, and motorcycle. Results Crash related injuries occurred mainly in urban zones with 50 km/h speed limit (66%), during the day (63%), and in fine weather (72%). After adjustment for potential confounders, drivers wearing any reflective or fluorescent clothing had a 37% lower risk (multivariate odds ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.94) than other drivers. Compared with wearing a black helmet, use of a white helmet was associated with a 24% lower risk (multivariate odds ratio 0.76, 0.57 to 0.99). Self reported light coloured helmet versus dark coloured helmet was associated with a 19% lower risk. Three quarters of motorcycle riders had their headlight turned on during the day, and this was associated with a 27% lower risk (multivariate odds ratio 0.73, 0.53 to 1.00). No association occurred between risk and the frontal colour of drivers' clothing or motorcycle. If these odds ratios are unconfounded, the population attributable risks are 33% for wearing no reflective or fluorescent clothing, 18% for a non-white helmet, 11% for a dark coloured helmet, and 7% for no daytime headlight operation. Conclusions Low conspicuity may increase the risk of motorcycle crash related injury. Increasing the use of reflective or fluorescent clothing, white or light

  7. Social power, product conspicuousness, and the demand for luxury brand counterfeit products.

    PubMed

    Bian, Xuemei; Haque, Sadia; Smith, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: (1) to achieve a better understanding of the psychological determinants of the demand for luxury brand counterfeit products (LBCP) through exploring the effects of social power; (2) to extend power literature by identifying boundary conditions of the relationship between social power and compensatory consumption identified by Rucker and Galinsky (2008, J. Consum. Res., 35, 257-267) and Rucker and Galinsky (2009, J. Exp. Soc. Psychol., 45, 549-555). Findings from three experiments demonstrate that social power holds key insights into understanding consumers' purchase propensity for LBCP; product conspicuousness moderates the effects of social power on purchase propensity for status products; these moderation effects are only observed when the status products are LBCP but not genuine products. This article, therefore, contributes to the literature regarding the demand for counterfeits as well as the social power and compensatory consumption literature.

  8. EFFECTS OF FLUID AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL FACTORS ON CONSPICUITY OF CANINE AND FELINE NASAL TURBINATES

    PubMed Central

    Uosyte, Raimonda; Shaw, Darren J; Gunn-Moore, Danielle A; Fraga-Manteiga, Eduardo; Schwarz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Turbinate destruction is an important diagnostic criterion in canine and feline nasal computed tomography (CT). However decreased turbinate visibility may also be caused by technical CT settings and nasal fluid. The purpose of this experimental, crossover study was to determine whether fluid reduces conspicuity of canine and feline nasal turbinates in CT and if so, whether CT settings can maximize conspicuity. Three canine and three feline cadaver heads were used. Nasal slabs were CT-scanned before and after submerging them in a water bath; using sequential, helical, and ultrahigh resolution modes; with images in low, medium, and high frequency image reconstruction kernels; and with application of additional posterior fossa optimization and high contrast enhancing filters. Visible turbinate length was measured by a single observer using manual tracing. Nasal density heterogeneity was measured using the standard deviation (SD) of mean nasal density from a region of interest in each nasal cavity. Linear mixed-effect models using the R package ‘nlme’, multivariable models and standard post hoc Tukey pair-wise comparisons were performed to investigate the effect of several variables (nasal content, scanning mode, image reconstruction kernel, application of post reconstruction filters) on measured visible total turbinate length and SD of mean nasal density. All canine and feline water-filled nasal slabs showed significantly decreased visibility of nasal turbinates (P < 0.001). High frequency kernels provided the best turbinate visibility and highest SD of aerated nasal slabs, whereas medium frequency kernels were optimal for water-filled nasal slabs. Scanning mode and filter application had no effect on turbinate visibility. PMID:25867935

  9. EFFECTS OF FLUID AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL FACTORS ON CONSPICUITY OF CANINE AND FELINE NASAL TURBINATES.

    PubMed

    Uosyte, Raimonda; Shaw, Darren J; Gunn-Moore, Danielle A; Fraga-Manteiga, Eduardo; Schwarz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Turbinate destruction is an important diagnostic criterion in canine and feline nasal computed tomography (CT). However decreased turbinate visibility may also be caused by technical CT settings and nasal fluid. The purpose of this experimental, crossover study was to determine whether fluid reduces conspicuity of canine and feline nasal turbinates in CT and if so, whether CT settings can maximize conspicuity. Three canine and three feline cadaver heads were used. Nasal slabs were CT-scanned before and after submerging them in a water bath; using sequential, helical, and ultrahigh resolution modes; with images in low, medium, and high frequency image reconstruction kernels; and with application of additional posterior fossa optimization and high contrast enhancing filters. Visible turbinate length was measured by a single observer using manual tracing. Nasal density heterogeneity was measured using the standard deviation (SD) of mean nasal density from a region of interest in each nasal cavity. Linear mixed-effect models using the R package 'nlme', multivariable models and standard post hoc Tukey pair-wise comparisons were performed to investigate the effect of several variables (nasal content, scanning mode, image reconstruction kernel, application of post reconstruction filters) on measured visible total turbinate length and SD of mean nasal density. All canine and feline water-filled nasal slabs showed significantly decreased visibility of nasal turbinates (P < 0.001). High frequency kernels provided the best turbinate visibility and highest SD of aerated nasal slabs, whereas medium frequency kernels were optimal for water-filled nasal slabs. Scanning mode and filter application had no effect on turbinate visibility.

  10. Distinct Biochemical Activities of Eyes absent During Drosophila Eye Development.

    PubMed

    Jin, Meng; Mardon, Graeme

    2016-03-16

    Eyes absent (Eya) is a highly conserved transcriptional coactivator and protein phosphatase that plays vital roles in multiple developmental processes from Drosophila to humans. Eya proteins contain a PST (Proline-Serine-Threonine)-rich transactivation domain, a threonine phosphatase motif (TPM), and a tyrosine protein phosphatase domain. Using a genomic rescue system, we find that the PST domain is essential for Eya activity and Dac expression, and the TPM is required for full Eya function. We also find that the threonine phosphatase activity plays only a minor role during Drosophila eye development and the primary function of the PST and TPM domains is transactivation that can be largely substituted by the heterologous activation domain VP16. Along with our previous results that the tyrosine phosphatase activity of Eya is dispensable for normal Eya function in eye formation, we demonstrate that a primary function of Eya during Drosophila eye development is as a transcriptional coactivator. Moreover, the PST/TPM and the threonine phosphatase activity are not required for in vitro interaction between retinal determination factors. Finally, this work is the first report of an Eya-Ey physical interaction. These findings are particularly important because they highlight the need for an in vivo approach that accurately dissects protein function.

  11. Beyond re-membering: Phantom sensations of congenitally absent limbs

    PubMed Central

    Brugger, Peter; Kollias, Spyros S.; Müri, René M.; Crelier, Gérard; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Regard, Marianne

    2000-01-01

    Phantom limbs are traditionally conceptualized as the phenomenal persistence of a body part after deafferentation. Previous clinical observations of subjects with phantoms of congenitally absent limbs are not compatible with this view, but, in the absence of experimental work, the neural basis of such “aplasic phantoms” has remained enigmatic. In this paper, we report a series of behavioral, imaging, and neurophysiological experiments with a university-educated woman born without forearms and legs, who experiences vivid phantom sensations of all four limbs. Visuokinesthetic integration of tachistoscopically presented drawings of hands and feet indicated an intact somatic representation of these body parts. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of phantom hand movements showed no activation of primary sensorimotor areas, but of premotor and parietal cortex bilaterally. Movements of the existing upper arms produced activation expanding into the hand territories deprived of afferences and efferences. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the sensorimotor cortex consistently elicited phantom sensations in the contralateral fingers and hand. In addition, premotor and parietal stimulation evoked similar phantom sensations, albeit in the absence of motor evoked potentials in the stump. These data indicate that body parts that have never been physically developed can be represented in sensory and motor cortical areas. Both genetic and epigenetic factors, such as the habitual observation of other people moving their limbs, may contribute to the conscious experience of aplasic phantoms. PMID:10801982

  12. Absent in melanoma 2 proteins in the development of cancer.

    PubMed

    Choubey, Divaker

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies utilizing chemical-induced colitis-associated and sporadic colon cancer in mouse models indicated a protective role for absent in melanoma 2 (Aim2) in colon epithelial cells. Accordingly, mutations in the human AIM2 gene have been found in colorectal cancer (CRC), and reduced expression of AIM2 in CRC is associated with its progression. Furthermore, the overexpression of AIM2 protein in human cancer cell lines inhibits cell proliferation. Interferon-inducible Aim2 and AIM2 are members of the PYHIN (PYRIN and HIN domain-containing) protein family and share ~57 % amino acid identity. The family also includes murine p202, human PYRIN-only protein 3, and IFI16, which negatively regulate Aim2/AIM2 functions. Because the CRC incidence and mortality rates are higher among men compared with women and the expression of Aim2/AIM2 proteins and their regulators is dependent upon age, gender, and sex hormones, we discuss the potential roles of Aim2/AIM2 in the development of cancer. An improved understanding of the biological functions of the AIM2 in the development of CRC will likely identify new therapeutic approaches to treat patients.

  13. Thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome: a clinical genetic study

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, K; Howell, R; Bottani, A; Ancliff, P; Brunner, H; Verschuuren-Bemel..., C; Vernon, E; Brown, K; Newbury-Ecob, R

    2002-01-01

    The thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome characterised by bilateral absence of the radii and a thrombocytopenia. The lower limbs, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and other systems may also be involved. Shaw and Oliver in 1959 were the first to describe this condition, but it was Hall et al in 1969 who reported the first major series of patients. Since then most reports have been based on single or small numbers of cases. We report the results of a clinical study looking at the phenotype of 34 patients with TAR syndrome. All cases had a documented thrombocytopenia and bilateral radial aplasia, 47% had lower limb anomalies, 47% cow's milk intolerance, 23% renal anomalies, and 15% cardiac anomalies. Congenital anomalies not previously described in association with TAR syndrome included facial capillary haemangiomata, intracranial vascular malformation, sensorineural hearing loss, and scoliosis. Karyotype analysis, chromosome breakage studies including premature centromeric separation and fluorescence in situ hybridisation studies looking for a deletion of chromosome 22q11 were undertaken. Two abnormal karyotypes were identified. PMID:12471199

  14. Absent recruitment of capillaries in brain tissue recovering from stroke.

    PubMed

    Gjedde, A; Kuwabara, H

    1993-01-01

    The density of perfused capillaries (dCAP), defined as capillaries that transport glucose, as well as the volume fraction of these capillaries in the vascular bed (fCAP), and the mean transit time of blood through the capillaries (tCAP), were calculated from hemodynamic variables obtained in vivo by positron tomography of brains of six patients affected by stroke. Each patient was studied twice, within 38 hrs of the insult, and one week later. 38 ischemic and 38 contralateral mirror regions were compared. The metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) was determined on the basis of regional calculations of the lumped constant. No significant change of the lumped constant was observed in any region. In normal regions, no significant differences of any variables existed between the first and second studies. In the infarct regions of the first study, CMRglc and CMRO2 (cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen) were 30-50% of control (deactivation) and CBF (cerebral blood flow), capillary density, and the capillary diffusion capacity for fluorodeoxyglucose (K1) were similarly reduced, although the oxygen/glucose ratio was only 3.75 in the ischemic regions. While fCAP decreased, tCAP doubled. One week after the first study, blood flow returned to normal in the infarct regions despite continued depression of metabolism. Capillary density and diffusion capacity remained low, indicating absent recruitment of nutrition vessels (perfusion capillaries).

  15. Absent circle of Willis with vascular pollarding in an adult with colpocephaly: A developmental perspective

    PubMed Central

    Verghese, Renjan; Paul, Divyan

    2015-01-01

    Absent circle of Willis (COW) has been described in cases of severe forms of cerebral developmental anomalies such as alobar prosencephaly. However, there are no reports of absent COW in patients with a milder form of cerebral abnormality such as colpocephaly. We report a unique case of an adult with colpocephaly and absent COW and discuss their association from a developmental perspective. PMID:26443299

  16. Twelve- and 16-Month-Old Infants Recognize Properties of Mentioned Absent Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Megan M.

    2004-01-01

    Absent reference comprehension is a critical achievement of early development, yet little is known about its emergence. In the current study, 12- and 16-month-old infants' recognition of properties of mentioned absent things was used as an index of absent reference comprehension. Infants were presented with displays matching the color and prior…

  17. Twelve- and 16-Month-Old Infants Recognize Properties of Mentioned Absent Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Megan M.

    2004-01-01

    Absent reference comprehension is a critical achievement of early development, yet little is known about its emergence. In the current study, 12- and 16-month-old infants' recognition of properties of mentioned absent things was used as an index of absent reference comprehension. Infants were presented with displays matching the color and prior…

  18. Understanding Conspicuous Gravity Low Over the Koyna-Warna Seismogenic Region (Maharashtra, India) and Earthquake Nucleation: A Paradigm Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasanthi, A.; Satish Kumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    The continued seismicity in Koyna-Warna region of the western part of Maharastra (India) and its relationship with subsurface structures, concealed below thick volcanic sequences, are studied in detail using gravity field along with newly available deep scientific drilling results. This seismically active zone is marked by a large conspicuous negative gravity anomaly, the causes of which are yet to be fully understood. Recent findings from the boreholes drilled in the Koyna (G upta et al. in Int J Earth Sci 104:1511-1522, 2015) and Killari seismic zones, both of which penetrated the thick Deccan volcanic cover and the underlying Archean crystalline basement, have motivated us to revisit the Bouguer gravity field over this region, using a newly developed finite element method of regional-residual separation. Our study reveals the presence of two thick low-density/low-velocity crustal zones below the Koyna-Warna region, the shallower one between 5 and 13 km depth and the deeper one between 35 and 43 km depth just above the Moho. Both of these zones appear to contain mantle-metasomatised and fractionated magmatic material, respectively. Interestingly, the hypocenters of all M ≥ 5 Koyna earthquakes occur within the upper low-velocity/low-density zone. We also suggest high-order crustal exhumation below this region, which led to the removal of the entire sedimentary and granitic upper crustal column. This process has brought denser mid-crustal lithological facies close to the surface. Quaternary uplifting and movement of fault blocks along the old as well as newly created fault planes seem to be still continuing. A paleo-rift may have existed beneath this region below which Moho temperatures (~600 °C) and mantle heat flow (~31 mW/m2) are still high.

  19. Cytochrome 572 is a conspicuous membrane protein with iron oxidation activity purified directly from a natural acidophilic microbial community.

    PubMed

    Jeans, Chris; Singer, Steven W; Chan, Clara S; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Shah, Manesh; Hettich, Robert L; Banfield, Jillian F; Thelen, Michael P

    2008-05-01

    Recently, there has been intense interest in the role of electron transfer by microbial communities in biogeochemical systems. We examined the process of iron oxidation by microbial biofilms in one of the most extreme environments on earth, where the inhabited water is pH 0.5-1.2 and laden with toxic metals. To approach the mechanism of Fe(II) oxidation as a means of cellular energy acquisition, we isolated proteins from natural samples and found a conspicuous and novel cytochrome, Cyt(572), which is unlike any known cytochrome. Both the character of its covalently bound prosthetic heme group and protein sequence are unusual. Extraction of proteins directly from environmental biofilm samples followed by membrane fractionation, detergent solubilization and gel filtration chromatography resulted in the purification of an abundant yellow-red protein. The purified protein has a cytochrome c-type heme binding motif, CxxCH, but a unique spectral signature at 572 nm, and thus is called Cyt(572). It readily oxidizes Fe(2+) in the physiologically relevant acidic regime, from pH 0.95-3.4. Other physical characteristics are indicative of a membrane-bound multimeric protein. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicates that the protein is largely beta-stranded, and 2D Blue-Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and chemical crosslinking independently point to a multi-subunit structure for Cyt(572). By analyzing environmental genomic information from biofilms in several distinctly different mine locations, we found multiple genetic variants of Cyt(572). MS proteomics of extracts from these biofilms substantiated the prevalence of these variants in the ecosystem. Due to its abundance, cellular location and Fe(2+) oxidation activity at very low pH, we propose that Cyt(572) provides a critical function for fitness within the ecological niche of these acidophilic microbial communities.

  20. A Conspicuous Clay Ovoid in Nakhla: Evidence for Subsurface Hydrothermal Alteration on Mars with Implications for Astrobiology

    PubMed Central

    Haigh, Sarah; Lyon, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A conspicuous biomorphic ovoid structure has been discovered in the Nakhla martian meteorite, made of nanocrystalline iron-rich saponitic clay and amorphous material. The ovoid is indigenous to Nakhla and occurs within a late-formed amorphous mesostasis region of rhyolitic composition that is interstitial to two clinopyroxene grains with Al-rich rims, and contains acicular apatite crystals, olivine, sulfides, Ti-rich magnetite, and a new mineral of the rhoenite group. To infer the origin of the ovoid, a large set of analytical tools was employed, including scanning electron microscopy and backscattered electron imaging, wavelength-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray mapping, Raman spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscope imaging, and atomic force microscope topographic mapping. The concentric wall of the ovoid surrounds an originally hollow volume and exhibits internal layering of contrasting nanotextures but uniform chemical composition, and likely inherited its overall shape from a preexisting vesicle in the mesostasis glass. A final fibrous layer of Fe-rich phases blankets the interior surfaces of the ovoid wall structure. There is evidence that the parent rock of Nakhla has undergone a shock event from a nearby bolide impact that melted the rims of pyroxene and the interstitial matter and initiated an igneous hydrothermal system of rapidly cooling fluids, which were progressively mixed with fluids from the melted permafrost. Sharp temperature gradients were responsible for the crystallization of Al-rich clinopyroxene rims, rhoenite, acicular apatites, and the quenching of the mesostasis glass and the vesicle. During the formation of the ovoid structure, episodic fluid infiltration events resulted in the precipitation of saponite rinds around the vesicle walls, altered pyrrhotite to marcasite, and then isolated the ovoid wall structure from the rest of the system by depositing a

  1. A conspicuous clay ovoid in Nakhla: evidence for subsurface hydrothermal alteration on Mars with implications for astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Chatzitheodoridis, Elias; Haigh, Sarah; Lyon, Ian

    2014-08-01

    Abstract A conspicuous biomorphic ovoid structure has been discovered in the Nakhla martian meteorite, made of nanocrystalline iron-rich saponitic clay and amorphous material. The ovoid is indigenous to Nakhla and occurs within a late-formed amorphous mesostasis region of rhyolitic composition that is interstitial to two clinopyroxene grains with Al-rich rims, and contains acicular apatite crystals, olivine, sulfides, Ti-rich magnetite, and a new mineral of the rhoenite group. To infer the origin of the ovoid, a large set of analytical tools was employed, including scanning electron microscopy and backscattered electron imaging, wavelength-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray mapping, Raman spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscope imaging, and atomic force microscope topographic mapping. The concentric wall of the ovoid surrounds an originally hollow volume and exhibits internal layering of contrasting nanotextures but uniform chemical composition, and likely inherited its overall shape from a preexisting vesicle in the mesostasis glass. A final fibrous layer of Fe-rich phases blankets the interior surfaces of the ovoid wall structure. There is evidence that the parent rock of Nakhla has undergone a shock event from a nearby bolide impact that melted the rims of pyroxene and the interstitial matter and initiated an igneous hydrothermal system of rapidly cooling fluids, which were progressively mixed with fluids from the melted permafrost. Sharp temperature gradients were responsible for the crystallization of Al-rich clinopyroxene rims, rhoenite, acicular apatites, and the quenching of the mesostasis glass and the vesicle. During the formation of the ovoid structure, episodic fluid infiltration events resulted in the precipitation of saponite rinds around the vesicle walls, altered pyrrhotite to marcasite, and then isolated the ovoid wall structure from the rest of the system by depositing a

  2. Tetralogy of Fallot with unilateral absent pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Ugurlucan, Murat; Arslan, Ahmet H; Yildiz, Yahya; Ay, Sibel; Besikci, Resmiye T; Cicek, Sertac

    2013-06-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot is a common congenital cardiac malformation. A rare subgroup includes unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery, either the left or the right main branch. The literature lacks an established treatment for these cases, and surgical options carry certain mortality and morbidity. There were five patients who had single pulmonary artery and received surgical treatment among the 126 patients with the diagnosis of Tetralogy of Fallot, who were admitted to our institution between July, 2010 and November, 2011. All the patients were male. Ages ranged between 12 months and 8 years. The mean body mass index was 17.1 plus or minus 3.4 kilograms per square metre. Pulmonary artery Nakata index, Nakata index Z-score, and the McGoon index were used for the quantitative assessment of the pulmonary artery and to determine the surgical strategy. Urgent modified Blalock-Taussig shunt operations were performed in two patients with very low oxygen saturation and haemodynamic instability. These patients are scheduled for corrective procedures on an elective basis. There was one patient who received an elective shunt procedure; however, the post-operative course was complicated with the overflow phenomenon and the patient underwent total correction with a check-valved patch used to close the ventricular septal defect. The patient required extracorporeal membrane oxygenator support in the post-operative period. There were two patients who underwent total correction of the pathology uneventfully. Mortality did not occur. Mean durations of hospital stay and follow-up were 14 plus or minus 13.4 days and 184.5 plus or minus 89.3 days, respectively. Our modest series with Tetralogy of Fallot with unilateral absent pulmonary artery indicates the feasibility of surgical correction in patients with appropriate unilateral pulmonary artery size and palliative procedures when the pulmonary artery size is smaller than that predicted for the age. Multi-centre long-term data of

  3. An experimental and theoretical model of children’s search behavior in relation to target conspicuity and spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosetti, Marcos Francisco; Pacheco-Cobos, Luis; Larralde, Hernán; Hudson, Robyn

    2010-11-01

    This work explores search trajectories of children attempting to find targets distributed on a playing field. This task, of ludic nature, was developed to test the effect of conspicuity and spatial distribution of targets on the searcher’s performance. The searcher’s path was recorded by a Global Positioning System (GPS) device attached to the child’s waist. Participants were not rewarded nor their performance rated. Variation in the conspicuity of the targets influenced search performance as expected; cryptic targets resulted in slower searches and longer, more tortuous paths. Extracting the main features of the paths showed that the children: (1) paid little attention to the spatial distribution and at least in the conspicuous condition approximately followed a nearest neighbor pattern of target collection, (2) were strongly influenced by the conspicuity of the targets. We implemented a simple statistical model for the search rules mimicking the children’s behavior at the level of individual (coarsened) steps. The model reproduced the main features of the children’s paths without the participation of memory or planning.

  4. Detectability matters: conspicuous nestling mouth colours make prey transfer easier for parents in a cavity nesting bird.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Matthew B

    2015-11-01

    An often underappreciated function of signals is to notify receivers of the presence and position of senders. The colours that ornament the mouthparts of nestling birds, for example, have been hypothesized to evolve via selective pressure generated by parents' inability to efficiently detect and feed nestlings without such visually conspicuous targets. This proposed mechanism has primarily been evaluated with comparative studies and experimental tests for parental allocation bias, leaving untested the central assumption of this detectability hypothesis, that provisioning offspring is a visually challenging task for avian parents and conspicuous mouths help. To test this assumption, I manipulated the mouths of nestling house sparrows to appear minimally and maximally conspicuous, and quantified prey transfer difficulty as the total duration of a feeding event and the number of transfer attempts required. Prey transfer to inconspicuous nestlings was, as predicted, more difficult. While this suggests that detectability constraints could shape nestling mouth colour evolution, even minimally conspicuous nestlings were not prohibitively difficult for parents to feed, indicating that a more nuanced explanation for interspecific diversity in this trait is needed. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. Reduction of conspicuous facial pores by topical fullerene: possible role in the suppression of PGE2 production in the skin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Conspicuous facial pores are therapeutic targets for cosmeceuticals. Here we examine the effect of topical fullerene on conspicuous facial pores using a new image analyser called the VISIA® system. Ten healthy Japanese females participated in this study, and they received applications of 1% fullerene lotion to the face twice a day for 8 weeks. Findings Fullerene lotion significantly decreased conspicuous pores by 17.6% (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test) after an 8-week treatment. A self-administered questionnaire indicated that this reduction achieved cosmetically appreciable effects. In addition, to investigate the mechanism of effect of fullerene, we examined its effect on UVB-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in reconstructed human epidermis (RhE). The results showed that irradiation of RhE with 1000 mJ/cm2 increased PGE2 production by 62.3% (p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) and the addition of 28 μM fullerene significantly suppressed the UVB-induced PGE2 production by 18.3% (p < 0.05). Conclusions Fullerene lotion significantly decreases conspicuous facial pores after an 8-week treatment possibly through the suppression of PGE2 production in the epidermis. PMID:24559044

  6. Detectability matters: conspicuous nestling mouth colours make prey transfer easier for parents in a cavity nesting bird

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    An often underappreciated function of signals is to notify receivers of the presence and position of senders. The colours that ornament the mouthparts of nestling birds, for example, have been hypothesized to evolve via selective pressure generated by parents' inability to efficiently detect and feed nestlings without such visually conspicuous targets. This proposed mechanism has primarily been evaluated with comparative studies and experimental tests for parental allocation bias, leaving untested the central assumption of this detectability hypothesis, that provisioning offspring is a visually challenging task for avian parents and conspicuous mouths help. To test this assumption, I manipulated the mouths of nestling house sparrows to appear minimally and maximally conspicuous, and quantified prey transfer difficulty as the total duration of a feeding event and the number of transfer attempts required. Prey transfer to inconspicuous nestlings was, as predicted, more difficult. While this suggests that detectability constraints could shape nestling mouth colour evolution, even minimally conspicuous nestlings were not prohibitively difficult for parents to feed, indicating that a more nuanced explanation for interspecific diversity in this trait is needed. PMID:26538540

  7. Human search with a limited field of view: effects of scan speed, aperture size, and target conspicuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Toet, Alexander; Bijl, Piet

    2013-04-01

    We investigate how human visual search performance with field of view (FOV) restrictions depends on scan speed, zoom factor, target location, and conspicuity. First, observers search a FOV that moves at a constant speed along a predefined path over a visual search scene (the field of regard, or FOR), and we measure the effects of scan speed, zoom factor, FOV size, target location, and conspicuity on search performance (detection time and probability). Then observers search either visual or thermal scenes by freely moving a joystick-controlled FOV over the FOR, while freely selecting the zoom factor in some conditions, and we measure the effects of the scan path characteristics and the use of different strategies on search performance. Search performance depends on the effective FOV size (the area where targets are expected to occur), but is largely independent of the display area. Both for visual and thermal imagery, various search performance measures correlate with target conspicuity. The results of both experiments suggest that observers can optimize their performance by adjusting their scanning behavior both to their visual limitations and to the expected target conspicuity. We present the outlines of a simple search model based on these current findings.

  8. The Structure of the Elusive Simplest Dipeptide Gly-Gly.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, Carlos; Varela, Marcelino; Alonso, José L

    2017-06-01

    Among the hundreds of peptide compounds for which conformations have been determined by using different spectroscopic techniques, the structure of the simplest dipeptide glycylglycine (Gly-Gly) is conspicuously absent. Herein, for the first time, solid samples of Gly-Gly have been vaporized by laser ablation and three different structures have been revealed in a supersonic expansion by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions that stabilize the observed forms have been established based on the (14) N nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure. We have illustrated how conformer interconversion distorts the equilibrium conformational distribution, giving rise to missing conformers in the conformational landscape. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Making the invisible visible: improving conspicuity of noncalcified gallstones using dual-energy CT.

    PubMed

    Uyeda, Jennifer W; Richardson, Ian J; Sodickson, Aaron D

    2017-06-28

    To determine whether virtual monochromatic imaging (VMI) increases detectability of noncalcified gallstones on dual-energy CT (DECT) compared with conventional CT imaging. This retrospective IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study included consecutive patients who underwent DECT of the abdomen in the Emergency Department during a 30-month period (July 1, 2013-December 31, 2015), with a comparison US or MR within 1-year. 51 patients (36F, 15M; mean age 52 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All DECT were acquired on a dual-source 128 × 2 slice scanner using either 80/Sn140 or 100/Sn140 kVp pairs. Source images at high and low kVp were used for DE post-processing with VMI. Within 3 mm reconstructed images, regions of interest of 0.5 cm(2) were placed on noncalcified gallstones and bile to record hounsfield units (HU) at VMI energy levels ranging between 40 and 190 keV. Noncalcified gallstones uniformly demonstrated lowest HU at 40 keV and increase at higher keV; the HU of bile varied at higher keV. Few of the noncalcified stones are visible at 70 keV (simulating a conventional 120 kVp scan), with measured contrast (bile-stone HU difference) <10 HU in 78%, 10-20 HU in 20%, and >20 HU in 2%. Contrast was maximal at 40 keV, where 100% demonstrated >20 HU difference from surrounding bile, 75% >44 HU difference, and 50% >60 HU difference. A paired t test demonstrated a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between this stone-bile contrast at 40 vs. 70 keV and 70 vs. 190 keV. Low keV virtual monochromatic imaging increased conspicuity of noncalcified gallstones, improving their detectability.

  10. Combination of conspicuity improved synthetic mammograms and digital breast tomosynthesis: a promising approach for mass detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Tae; Kim, Dae Hoe; Ro, Yong Man

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a novel mass detection framework that utilizes the information from synthetic mammograms has been developed for detecting masses in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In clinical study, it is demonstrated that the combination of DBT and full field digital mammography (FFDM) increases the reader performance. To reduce the radiation dose in this approach, synthetic mammogram has been developed in previous researches and it is demonstrated that synthetic mammogram can alternate the FFDM when it is used with DBT. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of the combined approach of DBT and synthetic mammogram in point of computer-aided detection (CAD). As a synthetic mammogram, two-dimensional image was generated by adopting conspicuous voxels of three-dimensional DBT volume in our study. The mass likelihood scores estimated for each mass candidates in synthetic mammogram and DBT are merged to differentiate masses and false positives (FPs) in combined approach. We compared the performance of detecting masses in the proposed combined approach and DBT alone. A clinical data set of 196 DBT volumes was used to evaluate the different detection schemes. The combined approach achieved sensitivity of 80% and 89% with 1.16 and 2.37 FPs per DBT volume. The DBT alone approach achieved same sensitivities with 1.61 and 3.46 FPs per DBT volume. Experimental results show that statistically significant improvement (p = 0.002) is achieved in combined approach compared to DBT alone. These results imply that the information fusion of synthetic mammogram and DBT is a promising approach to detect masses in DBT.

  11. The effect of metapopulation dynamics on the survival and spread of a novel, conspicuous prey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Thomas J; Speed, Michael P

    2010-12-07

    Animals that deploy chemical defences against predators often signal their unprofitability using bright colouration. This pairing of toxicity and conspicuous patterning is known as aposematism. Explaining the evolution and spread of aposematic traits in previously cryptic species has been the focus of much empirical and theoretical work over the last two decades. Existing research concerning the initial evolution of aposematism does not however properly consider that many aposematic species (such as members of the hymenoptera, the lepidoptera, and amphibia) are highly mobile. We argue in this paper that the evolution of aposematic displays is therefore often best understood within a metapopulation framework; hence in this paper we present the first explicit metapopulation model of the evolution of aposematism. Our most general finding is that migration tends to reduce the probability that an aposematic prey can increase from rarity and spread across a large population. Hence, the best case scenarios for the spread of aposematism required fixation of the aposematic form in one or more isolated sub-habitats prior to some event which subsequently enabled migration. We observed that changes in frequency of new aposematic forms within source habitats are likely to be nonmonotonic. First, aposematic prey tend to decline in frequency as they migrate outwards from the source habitat to neighbouring sink habitats, but subsequently they increase in relative abundance in the source, as the descendents of earlier migrants migrate back from newly converted sub-populations. This pattern of initial loss and subsequent gain between new source and neighbouring sink habitats is then repeated as the aposematic form spreads via a moving cline.

  12. The carotenoid-continuum: carotenoid-based plumage ranges from conspicuous to cryptic and back again

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are frequently used by birds to colour their plumage with green, yellow, orange or red hues, and carotenoid-based colours are considered honest signals of quality, although they may have other functions, such as crypsis. It is usually assumed that red through yellow colours have a signalling function while green is cryptic. Here we challenge this notion using the yellow and green colouration of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), great tits (Parus major) and greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) as a model. Results The relationship between colouration (chroma, computed using visual sensitivities of conspecifics) and detectability (contrast against natural backgrounds as perceived by conspecifics and avian predators) followed a similar curvilinear pattern for yellow and green plumage with minimum detectability at intermediate levels of carotenoid deposition. Thus, for yellow and green plumage, colours at or close to the point of minimum detectability may aid in crypsis. This may be the case for blue and great tit green and yellow plumage, and greenfinch green plumage, all of which had comparably low levels of detectability, while greenfinch yellow plumage was more chromatic and detectable. As yellow and green blue tit colouration are strongly affected by carotenoid availability during moult, variation in pigment availability between habitats may affect the degree of background-matching or the costliness of producing cryptic plumage. Conclusions Increasing carotenoid-deposition in the integument does not always lead to more conspicuous colours. In some cases, such as in blue or great tits, carotenoid deposition may be selected through enhanced background-matching, which in turn suggests that producing cryptic plumage may entail costs. We stress however, that our data do not rule out a signalling function of carotenoid-based plumage in tits. Rather, it shows that alternative functions are plausible and that assuming a signalling function based solely on

  13. The Economic Consequences of Absent Parents. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Marianne E.; Stevens, Ann Huff

    In recent years, the belief that marriage bestows large economic gains has generated enthusiasm for policy proposals that encourage the formation and continuation of two-parent families. This study examined the effects of family structure on economic resources, controlling for unobservable family background characteristics. Data were drawn from…

  14. Why are spicules absent over plages and long under coronal holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, K.; Suematsu, Y.

    1982-06-01

    One-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations are performed in order to examine the influence of initial atmospheric structures on the dynamics of spicules. This is an extended version of a previous spicule theory: spicules are produced by the shock wave which originates from a bright point appearance at the network in the photosphere or in the low chromosphere. Simulation results well reproduce the observational facts that spicules are absent over plages and long under coronal holes. The physical reason is that the growth of a shock wave during its propagation through the chromosphere is small in plage regions and large in coronal hole regions, since the growth of a shock is determined by the density ratio between the bright point and the corona. An empirical formula is obtained for the maximum height of spicules above the transition region. The cross-section of the vertical magnetic flux tube is assumed to be constant in the numerical simulations.

  15. Renal tubular dysgenesis, absent nipples, and multiple malformations in three brothers: a new, lethal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hisama, F M; Reyes-Mugica, M; Wargowski, D S; Thompson, K J; Mahoney, M J

    1998-12-04

    We report on three brothers with renal tubular dysgenesis and absent nipples, each also had other malformations including pre-auricular pits and a preauricular tag, branchial clefts, choanal atresia, pulmonary lobation anomaly, ventricular septal defect, type IIB interrupted aortic arch, absent gallbladder, absent thymus, parathyroid gland, accessory spleen, imperforate anus, clinodactyly, and broad digits and small nails. All three infants died neonatally. This pattern of clinical malformations appears to be a previously unreported syndrome.

  16. Absent circle of Willis with vascular pollarding in an adult with colpocephaly: A developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Peruvumba N; Verghese, Renjan; Paul, Divyan

    2015-12-01

    Absent circle of Willis (COW) has been described in cases of severe forms of cerebral developmental anomalies such as alobar prosencephaly. However, there are no reports of absent COW in patients with a milder form of cerebral abnormality such as colpocephaly. We report a unique case of an adult with colpocephaly and absent COW and discuss their association from a developmental perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Higher breast cancer conspicuity on dbPET compared to WB-PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Nishimatsu, Kayo; Nakamoto, Yuji; Miyake, Kanae K; Ishimori, Takayoshi; Kanao, Shotaro; Toi, Masakazu; Togashi, Kaori

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate lesion detectability of a dedicated breast positron-emission tomography (dbPET) scanner for breast cancers with an updated reconstruction mode, comparing it to whole-body positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (WB-PET/CT). A total of 179 histologically-proven breast cancer lesions in 150 females who underwent both WB-PET/CT and dbPET with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose were retrospectively analyzed. The patient/breast/lesion-based sensitivities based on visual analysis were compared between dbPET and WB-PET/CT. For lesions visible on both PET images, SUVmax values of the tumors were measured, and tumor-to-background ratios (T/B ratios) of SUVmax were compared between the two scans. Subgroup analyses according to clinical tumor stage, histopathology and histological grade were also performed. Patient/breast/lesion-based sensitivities were 95%, 95%, and 92%, respectively, for dbPET, and 95%, 94%, and 88%, respectively, for WB-PET/CT. Mean±standard deviation SUVmax values of FDG-avid tumors were 13.0±9.7 on dbPET and 6.4±4.8 on WB-PET. T/B ratios were also significantly higher in dbPET than in WB-PET/CT (8.1±7.1 vs. 5.1±4.5). In the subgroup analysis, no significant differences in sensitivities between dbPET and WB-PET/CT were found. However, T/B ratios of dbPET were significantly higher than those of WB-PET/CT in cT1c, cT2, cT3, invasive cancer, invasive carcinoma of no special type, mucinous carcinoma and Grades 1-3. No significant differences in sensitivities were identified between dbPET using an updated reconstruction mode and WB-PET/CT; however, T/B ratios of dbPET were significantly higher than those of WB-PET/CT, indicating higher tumor conspicuity on dbPET. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Turner Syndrome and apparent absent uterus: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Akierman, Sarah V; Skappak, Christopher D; Girgis, Rose; Ho, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    We report on a patient who initially presented with delayed puberty and an absent uterus on imaging with ultrasound and MRI. She was subsequently diagnosed with Turner Syndrome. Turner Syndrome typically presents with early loss of ovarian function and should be considered when primary ovarian insufficiency is present with apparent absent uterus on imaging. Follow-up imaging of the apparent absent uterus post-estrogen replacement therapy is important to confirm a normal uterus. A diagnosis of an absent uterus can be psychologically traumatic for patients and families, and can have significant implications for future fertility options.

  19. Disneyland Dads, Disneyland Moms? How Nonresident Parents Spend Time with Absent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Susan D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines gender differences in how nonresident parents spend time with their absent children. Results suggest that nonresident mothers and fathers exhibit a similar pattern of participation in activities with their absent children. Most nonresident parents either engage in only leisure activities with their children or have no contact. (Author/MKA)

  20. 42 CFR 410.175 - Alien absent from the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alien absent from the United States. 410.175... Alien absent from the United States. (a) Medicare does not pay Part B benefits for services furnished to... during the first full calendar month the alien is back in the United States. ...

  1. 42 CFR 410.175 - Alien absent from the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alien absent from the United States. 410.175... Alien absent from the United States. (a) Medicare does not pay Part B benefits for services furnished to... during the first full calendar month the alien is back in the United States. ...

  2. 42 CFR 410.175 - Alien absent from the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alien absent from the United States. 410.175... Alien absent from the United States. (a) Medicare does not pay Part B benefits for services furnished to... during the first full calendar month the alien is back in the United States. ...

  3. 42 CFR 410.175 - Alien absent from the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alien absent from the United States. 410.175... Alien absent from the United States. (a) Medicare does not pay Part B benefits for services furnished to... during the first full calendar month the alien is back in the United States....

  4. 42 CFR 410.175 - Alien absent from the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alien absent from the United States. 410.175... Alien absent from the United States. (a) Medicare does not pay Part B benefits for services furnished to... during the first full calendar month the alien is back in the United States....

  5. Successful Black Men from Absent-Father Homes and Their Resilient Single Mothers: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Angie D.; Henriksen, Richard C.; Bustamante, Rebecca; Irby, Beverly

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of absent fathers is a common occurrence in today's homes that appears to be escalating, especially in Black households across the United States. The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experiences of successful Black men who were raised in absent-father homes as well as the lived experiences of their resilient single…

  6. Asymmetrical Sample Training Produces Asymmetrical Retention Functions in Feature-Present/Feature-Absent Matching in Pigeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Douglas S.; Blatz, Craig W.

    2004-01-01

    Pigeons were trained in a matching task in which samples involved presentation of a white line on a green background (feature-present) or on an otherwise dark key (feature-absent). After asymmetrical training in which one group was initially trained with the feature-present sample and another was initially trained with the feature-absent sample,…

  7. Causal Attributions as Predictors of Academic Achievement in Father-Absent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Stephanie A.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential impact of maternal attributions and self-attributions on the academic achievement of father-absent children in comparison to commonly identified family interaction and demographic variables. Subjects included 33 male and 34 female father-absent sixth graders (mean age of 11.6 years) and their…

  8. Disneyland Dads, Disneyland Moms? How Nonresident Parents Spend Time with Absent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Susan D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines gender differences in how nonresident parents spend time with their absent children. Results suggest that nonresident mothers and fathers exhibit a similar pattern of participation in activities with their absent children. Most nonresident parents either engage in only leisure activities with their children or have no contact. (Author/MKA)

  9. Successful Black Men from Absent-Father Homes and Their Resilient Single Mothers: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Angie D.; Henriksen, Richard C.; Bustamante, Rebecca; Irby, Beverly

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of absent fathers is a common occurrence in today's homes that appears to be escalating, especially in Black households across the United States. The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experiences of successful Black men who were raised in absent-father homes as well as the lived experiences of their resilient single…

  10. Richat Structure, Mauritania

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-06-17

    This prominent circular feature, known as the Richat Structure, in the Sahara desert of Mauritania is often noted by astronauts because it forms a conspicuous bull-eye on the otherwise rather featureless expanse of the desert.

  11. Sweating - absent

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases or scarring of the skin that block sweat glands Trauma to sweat glands Use of certain drugs Home Care If there ... Miller JL. Diseases of the eccrine and apocrine sweat glands. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. ...

  12. Thirst - absent

    MedlinePlus

    ... to drink fluids, even when the body is low on water or has too much salt. ... do a detailed nervous system exam if a head injury or problem ... are dehydrated, fluids will likely be given through a vein (IV).

  13. Serum levels of IGF-1 are related to human skin characteristics including the conspicuousness of facial pores.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Y; Naoe, A; Ohuchi, A; Kitahara, T

    2011-04-01

    Conspicuous facial pores are one type of serious aesthetic defects for many women. However, the mechanism(s) that underlie the conspicuousness of facial pores remains unclear. We previously characterized the epidermal architecture around facial pores that correlates with the appearance of those pores in various ethnic groups including Japanese. The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible relationships between facial pore size, the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores and sebum output levels to investigate the possible role of IGF-1 in the pathogenesis of conspicuous facial pores. The subjects consisted of 38 healthy Japanese women (aged 22-41 years). IGF-1 was measured using immunoradiometric assay. Surface replicas were collected to compare pore sizes of cheek skin and horizontal cross-section images of cheek skin were obtained non-invasively from the same subjects using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy and the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores was determined. The skin surface lipids of each subject were collected from their cheeks and lipid classes were determined using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. The serum level of IGF-1 correlated significantly with total pore area (R = 0.36, P < 0.05), with the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores (R = 0.43, P < 0.05) and with sebum output levels (R = 0.41, P < 0.01). The sebum output levels correlated with total pore area (R = 0.32, P < 0.05). Our study found that serum levels of IGF-1 are correlated with facial skin characteristics including facial pore size and with the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores.

  14. Low conspicuity of motorcycles for car drivers: dominant role of bottom-up control of visual attention or deficit of top-down control?

    PubMed

    Rogé, Joceline; Douissembekov, Evgueni; Vienne, Fabrice

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the low visibility of motorcycles is the result of their low cognitive conspicuity and/or their low sensory conspicuity for car drivers. In several cases of collision between a car and a motorcycle, the car driver failed to detect the motorcyclist in time to avoid the collision. To test the low cognitive conspicuity hypothesis, 42 car drivers (32.02 years old) including 21 motorcyclist motorists and 21 non-motorcyclist motorists carried out a motorcycle detection task in a car-driving simulator.To test the low sensory conspicuity hypothesis, the authors studied the effect of the color contrast between motorcycles and the road surface on the ability of car drivers to detect motorcycles when they appear from different parts of the road. A high level of color contrast enhanced the visibility of motorcycles when they appeared in front of the participants. Moreover, when motorcyclists appeared from behind the participants,the motorcyclist motorists detected oncoming motorcycles at a greater distance than did the non-motorcyclist motorists. Motorcyclist motorists carry out more saccades and rapidly capture information (on their rearview mirrors and on the road in front of them). The results related to the sensory conspicuity and cognitive conspicuity of motorcycles for car drivers are discussed from the viewpoint of visual attention theories. The practical implications of these results and future lines of research related to training methods for car drivers are considered.

  15. Deceived by stripes: conspicuous patterning on vital anterior body parts can redirect predatory strikes to expendable posterior organs

    PubMed Central

    Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa

    2016-01-01

    Conspicuous coloration, which presumably makes prey more visible to predators, has intrigued researchers for long. Contrastingly coloured, conspicuous striped patterns are common among lizards and other animals, but their function is not well known. We propose and test a novel hypothesis, the ‘redirection hypothesis’, wherein longitudinal striped patterns, such as those found on the anterior body parts of most lacertilians, redirect attacks away from themselves during motion towards less vulnerable posterior parts, for example, the autotomous tail. In experiments employing human ‘predators’ attacking virtual prey on a touchscreen, we show that longitudinal striped patterns on the anterior half of prey decreased attacks to the anterior and increased attacks to the posterior. The position of stripes mattered—they worked best when they were at the anterior. By employing an adaptive psychophysical procedure, we show that prey with striped patterning are perceived to move slower, offering a mechanistic explanation for the redirective effect. In summary, our results suggest that the presence of stripes on the body (i.e. head and trunk) of lizards in combination with caudal autotomy can work as an effective anti-predator strategy during motion. PMID:27429765

  16. The role of nocturnal vision in mate choice: females prefer conspicuous males in the European tree frog (Hyla arborea)

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Doris; Richardson, Christina; Lengagne, Thierry; Plenet, Sandrine; Joly, Pierre; Léna, Jean-Paul; Théry, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Nocturnal frog species rely extensively on vocalization for reproduction. But recent studies provide evidence for an important, though long overlooked, role of visual communication. In many species, calling males exhibit a conspicuous pulsing vocal sac, a signal bearing visually important dynamic components. Here, we investigate female preference for male vocal sac coloration—a question hitherto unexplored—and male colour pattern in the European tree frog (Hyla arborea). Under nocturnal conditions, we conducted two-choice experiments involving video playbacks of calling males with identical calls and showing various naturally encountered colour signals, differing in their chromatic and brightness components. We adjusted video colours to match the frogs' visual perception, a crucial aspect not considered in previous experiments. Females prefer males with a colourful sac and a pronounced flank stripe. Both signals probably enhance male conspicuousness and facilitate detection and localization by females. This study provides the first experimental evidence of a preference for specific vocal sac spectral properties in a nocturnal anuran species. Vocal sac coloration is based on carotenoids and may convey information about male quality worthwhile for females to assess. The informative content of the flank stripe remains to be demonstrated. PMID:19324736

  17. Colonic polyps: effect of attenuation of tagged fluid and viewing window on conspicuity and measurement--in vitro experiment with porcine colonic specimen.

    PubMed

    Slater, Andrew; Taylor, Stuart A; Burling, David; Gartner, Louise; Scarth, Julia; Halligan, Steve

    2006-07-01

    To investigate effect of attenuation of tagged fluid and viewing window on polyp conspicuity and measurement with porcine colonic specimen. Eleven (3-10-mm-diameter) polyps were created in porcine colon and the specimen submerged in saline. Four-detector row CT was performed after gas distension and after filling with six barium sulfate suspensions (attenuation, 100-1000 HU). Two readers independently measured maximal two-dimensional polyp diameter on each data set with the following four viewing windows and window levels and window widths, respectively: colon (-150 HU, 1500 HU), lung (-500 HU, 1500 HU), bone (500 HU, 2500 HU), and abdomen (40 HU, 400 HU). In consensus, polyp conspicuity (compared with air data set) was assigned a grade of 1-4 for each viewing window (grade 1, not seen or barely visible; grade 4, optimally seen). For statistical analysis, conspicuity grades were collapsed to a two-point scale. Data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and chi2 tests. Accuracy of polyp measurement was independent of viewing window for attenuation of tagged fluid of 100-300 HU but differed significantly for 500-1000 HU (P < .001); that for colonic and bone viewing windows was superior (median size difference, 1.0 mm; interquartile range, 0.5-1.5). Conspicuity differed significantly according to viewing window at all attenuation values (P < .001). For 100-300 HU with abdominal viewing window, 83% (24 of 29) of observations were assigned grade 3 or 4 (best). For 500-1000 HU with bone viewing window, 94% (30 of 32) of observations were assigned grade 3 or 4 (superior). Overall conspicuity was best with bone viewing windows at 700 HU. Polyp conspicuity and measurement in tagged data sets were optimized at 700 HU with bone viewing windows. At less than 300 HU, conspicuity improved with abdominal viewing windows. RSNA, 2006

  18. Linear-time computation of minimal absent words using suffix array.

    PubMed

    Barton, Carl; Heliou, Alice; Mouchard, Laurent; Pissis, Solon P

    2014-12-20

    An absent word of a word y of length n is a word that does not occur in y. It is a minimal absent word if all its proper factors occur in y. Minimal absent words have been computed in genomes of organisms from all domains of life; their computation also provides a fast alternative for measuring approximation in sequence comparison. There exists an [Formula: see text]-time and [Formula: see text]-space algorithm for computing all minimal absent words on a fixed-sized alphabet based on the construction of suffix automata (Crochemore et al., 1998). No implementation of this algorithm is publicly available. There also exists an [Formula: see text]-time and [Formula: see text]-space algorithm for the same problem based on the construction of suffix arrays (Pinho et al., 2009). An implementation of this algorithm was also provided by the authors and is currently the fastest available. Our contribution in this article is twofold: first, we bridge this unpleasant gap by presenting an [Formula: see text]-time and [Formula: see text]-space algorithm for computing all minimal absent words based on the construction of suffix arrays; and second, we provide the respective implementation of this algorithm. Experimental results, using real and synthetic data, show that this implementation outperforms the one by Pinho et al. The open-source code of our implementation is freely available at http://github.com/solonas13/maw . Classical notions for sequence comparison are increasingly being replaced by other similarity measures that refer to the composition of sequences in terms of their constituent patterns. One such measure is the minimal absent words. In this article, we present a new linear-time and linear-space algorithm for the computation of minimal absent words based on the suffix array.

  19. An epidemiological study of the risk of cycling in the dark: the role of visual perception, conspicuity and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Twisk, D A M; Reurings, Martine

    2013-11-01

    To curtail the rising numbers of cyclists seriously injured in road crashes, more insights are needed into the factors that contribute to these crashes. For instance, darkness is known to be associated with higher injury rates, but little is known about the relative influence of factors such as poor conspicuity, impaired perception and alcohol use among cyclists. To examine these factors, the present study analyzed the epidemiological crash data for three meteorological light conditions: daylight, late evening darkness and early morning darkness; for two crash types: crashes with (M-crashes) and without motorized traffic (NM-crashes); and for different age groups. The relative injury rates (injury risk per distance travelled in darkness corrected for daylight injury risks for each age group) confirmed findings from earlier studies that cycling in late evening darkness is associated with higher injury rates than cycling in daylight conditions. This is the case for both crash types with only small differences between the age groups suggesting that poor conspicuity (M-crashes) and impaired perception (NM-crashes) may play a role. In comparison to late evening darkness, relative injury rates in early morning darkness are much higher. This is the case for both crash types with large differences among the age groups, suggesting that in addition to the absence of daylight also age related risk factors are at play. Support for this hypothesis was found from the analyses of hospital records, showing that the proportion of seriously injured cyclists who have been drinking is highest in early morning darkness and has strongly increased over the last decades. These insights provide input for the selection of countermeasures such as improved lighting (both street and bicycle lights) and interventions targeting alcohol use among cyclists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Amine templating effect absent in uranyl sulfates synthesized with 1,4-n-butyldiamine

    SciTech Connect

    Jouffret, Laurent J.; Wylie, Ernest M.; Burns, Peter C.

    2013-01-15

    Two new uranyl sulfates, (C{sub 4}H{sub 14}N{sub 2})[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O (NDUS2) and (C{sub 4}H{sub 14}N{sub 2})[(UO{sub 2})(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O (NDUS3), were synthesized and their crystal structures determined. NDUS2 was obtained in highly acidic media heat-treated at 373 K and subsequently maintained at 278 K until crystals formed after two months. NDUS3 results from the degradation of NDUS2 over the course of a few days. NDUS2 and NDUS3 crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n, a=10.9075(4) A, b=10.4513(4) A, c=17.7881(7) A, {beta}=97.908(2) Degree-Sign , V=2008.52(13) A{sup 3}, Z=4, at 140 K and a=8.8570(4) A, b=7.3299(3) A, c=20.4260(9) A, {beta}=95.140(2) Degree-Sign , V=1320.74(10) A{sup 3}, Z=4, at 140 K, respectively. The compounds contain interlayer 1,4-n-butyldiammonium cations that charge-balance the anionic structural units. - Graphical abstract: Amine templating effect absent in uranyl sulfates synthesized with 1,4-diaminobutane, as shown by the synthesis of two new uranyl sulfates, (C{sub 4}H{sub 14}N{sub 2})[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O (NDUS2) and (C{sub 4}H{sub 14}N{sub 2})[(UO{sub 2})(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O (NDUS3). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two layered uranyl sulfates were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amine molecules are located in the interlayers of the compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No templating effect of the amine was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amine molecules are only charge balancing cations in the structures.

  1. The effect of breast compression on mass conspicuity in digital mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, Robert S. Jr; Samei, Ehsan

    2008-10-15

    This study analyzed how the inherent quality of diagnostic information in digital mammography could be affected by breast compression. A digital mammography system was modeled using a Monte Carlo algorithm based on the Penelope program, which has been successfully used to model several medical imaging systems. First, the Monte Carlo program was validated against previous measurements and simulations. Once validated, the Monte Carlo software modeled a digital mammography system by tracking photons through a voxelized software breast phantom, containing anatomical structures and breast masses, and following photons until they were absorbed by a selenium-based flat-panel detector. Simulations were performed for two compression conditions (standard compression and 12.5% reduced compression) and three photon flux conditions (constant flux, constant detector signal, and constant glandular dose). The results showed that reduced compression led to higher scatter fractions, as expected. For the constant photon flux condition, decreased compression also reduced glandular dose. For constant glandular dose, the SdNR for a 4 cm breast was 0.60{+-}0.11 and 0.62{+-}0.11 under standard and reduced compressions, respectively. For the 6 cm case with constant glandular dose, the SdNR was 0.50{+-}0.11 and 0.49{+-}0.10 under standard and reduced compressions, respectively. The results suggest that if a particular imaging system can handle an approximately 10% increase in total tube output and 10% decrease in detector signal, breast compression can be reduced by about 12% in terms of breast thickness with little impact on image quality or dose.

  2. Fourteen-Month-Olds' Decontextualized Understanding of Words for Absent Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Kristi; Sundara, Megha

    2017-01-01

    The majority of research examining infants' decontextualized word knowledge comes from studies in which words and pictures are presented simultaneously. However, comprehending utterances about unseen objects is a hallmark of language. Do infants demonstrate decontextualized absent object knowledge early in the second year of life? Further, to what…

  3. When Familiar Is Not Better: 12-Month-Old Infants Respond to Talk about Absent Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osina, Maria A.; Saylor, Megan M.; Ganea, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments that demonstrate a novel constraint on infants' language skills are described. Across the experiments it is shown that as babies near their 1st birthday, their ability to respond to talk about an absent object is influenced by a referent's spatiotemporal history: familiarizing infants with an object in 1 or several nontest…

  4. Reconstruction of a congenitally absent flexor pollicis longus in an adult

    PubMed Central

    Shamsian, Negin; Exton, Rebecca; Shibu, MM

    2010-01-01

    Congenital absence of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) is an unusual finding that is frequently associated with thumb hypoplasia. Isolated FPL absence is the rarest of the congenital thumb anomalies. The present article describes a patient with a congenitally absent FPL, and discusses the chosen method of reconstruction. PMID:22131842

  5. Fourteen-Month-Olds' Decontextualized Understanding of Words for Absent Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Kristi; Sundara, Megha

    2017-01-01

    The majority of research examining infants' decontextualized word knowledge comes from studies in which words and pictures are presented simultaneously. However, comprehending utterances about unseen objects is a hallmark of language. Do infants demonstrate decontextualized absent object knowledge early in the second year of life? Further, to what…

  6. Equality, Difference and the Absent Presence of "Race" in Citizenship Education in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garratt, Dean

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the political and historical antecedents of the absent presence of "race" in successive policies for citizenship education in contemporary Britain. It questions the possibility of embracing an emerging cosmopolitanism and politics of difference, within the limiting frame of the nation state and its overarching appeal…

  7. Eyeless initiates the expression of both sine oculis and eyes absent during Drosophila compound eye development.

    PubMed

    Halder, G; Callaerts, P; Flister, S; Walldorf, U; Kloter, U; Gehring, W J

    1998-06-01

    The Drosophila Pax-6 gene eyeless acts high up in the genetic hierarchy involved in compound eye development and can direct the formation of extra eyes in ectopic locations. Here we identify sine oculis and eyes absent as two mediators of the eye-inducing activity of eyeless. We show that eyeless induces and requires the expression of both genes independently during extra eye development. During normal eye development, eyeless is expressed earlier than and is required for the expression of sine oculis and eyes absent, but not vice versa. Based on the results presented here and those of others, we propose a model in which eyeless induces the initial expression of both sine oculis and eyes absent in the eye disc. sine oculis and eyes absent then appear to participate in a positive feedback loop that regulates the expression of all three genes. In contrast to the regulatory interactions that occur in the developing eye disc, we also show that in the embryonic head, sine oculis acts in parallel to eyeless and twin of eyeless, a second Pax-6 gene from Drosophila. Recent studies in vertebrate systems indicate that the epistatic relationships among the corresponding vertebrate homologs are very similar to those observed in Drosophila.

  8. Case Study: The Perception of Online Tutorials--Habitually Absent Students with Familial or Socioeconomic Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Glyniss A.

    2013-01-01

    This case study explored the perception of online tutorials by habitually absent students with familial or socioeconomic circumstances. Researched literature confirmed a link between absenteeism, and academic achievement. Research Questions were designed to determine (a) student perception of online tutorials, and (b) motivation to achieve…

  9. When Familiar Is Not Better: 12-Month-Old Infants Respond to Talk about Absent Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osina, Maria A.; Saylor, Megan M.; Ganea, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments that demonstrate a novel constraint on infants' language skills are described. Across the experiments it is shown that as babies near their 1st birthday, their ability to respond to talk about an absent object is influenced by a referent's spatiotemporal history: familiarizing infants with an object in 1 or several nontest…

  10. Force production and flow structure of the leading edge vortex on flapping wings at high and low Reynolds numbers.

    PubMed

    Birch, James M; Dickson, William B; Dickinson, Michael H

    2004-03-01

    The elevated aerodynamic performance of insects has been attributed in part to the generation and maintenance of a stable region of vorticity known as the leading edge vortex (LEV). One explanation for the stability of the LEV is that spiraling axial flow within the vortex core drains energy into the tip vortex, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex analogous to the flow structure generated by delta wing aircraft. However, whereas spiral flow is a conspicuous feature of flapping wings at Reynolds numbers (Re) of 5000, similar experiments at Re=100 failed to identify a comparable structure. We used a dynamically scaled robot to investigate both the forces and the flows created by a wing undergoing identical motion at Re of approximately 120 and approximately 1400. In both cases, motion at constant angular velocity and fixed angle of attack generated a stable LEV with no evidence of shedding. At Re=1400, flow visualization indicated an intense narrow region of spanwise flow within the core of the LEV, a feature conspicuously absent at Re=120. The results suggest that the transport of vorticity from the leading edge to the wake that permits prolonged vortex attachment takes different forms at different Re.

  11. Sensory exploitation of prey: manipulation of the initial direction of prey escapes by a conspicuous "rare enemy".

    PubMed

    Jabłonski, P G

    2001-05-22

    The painted redstart (Myioborus pictus) represents a group of non-cryptic predators, the flush pursuers, who visually trigger prey escapes by spreading and pivoting their conspicuously patterned tails and wings. The prey are then chased in aerial pursuits. Such an exploitation of prey may be possible because the predation risk from redstarts is smaller than that from the predatory guild of insectivores and their neural pathways are adapted to helping prey avoid common predators rather than "rare enemies". I propose that the pivoting movements of flush pursuers direct insect escapes across the central field of vision of a predator, where it is easier to track and intercept the prey. Eighty per cent of chases by wild redstarts were in a direction suggesting that prey were entering the birds' area of stereoscopic vision. The redstart's fanned and raised tail creates a stronger visual stimulus than a redstart's head. Flies escaped away from the section of the fly's field of vision in which the model's tail was located and towards the area where the predator's stereoscopic vision is likely to be located, in front of a bird's forehead. The experiments suggested that redstarts may not only exploit the sensitivity of typical neural escape pathways, which are non-directionally sensitive, but that they may also exploit the sensitivity of some directionally sensitive neural pathways in prey.

  12. Conspicuity of target lights: The influence of flash rate and brightness. [collision avoidance - visual discrimination/pilot performance, aircraft lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, M. M.

    1975-01-01

    The stimulus characteristics of lights that might aid a pilot to see and avoid, by alerting him to a potential threat were studied. The relative conspicuity of foveally equated, point-source, steady and flashing lights of several brightnesses, seen against a star background was examined. From the subject's viewpoint, these target lights could appear anywhere within a large (40 deg horizontal by 35 deg vertical) field of view. The lights appeared at random time intervals while the subject was periodically distracted by a simulated cockpit task. The results indicate that correct target detection increases and reaction time decreases with increased target intensity. Steady lights are missed more frequently and acquired more slowly than flashing lights, but no significant differences are found among the wide range of flash rates employed. The intensity of the light has a greater effect on both detection and reaction time to steady lights than to flashing lights. These results are compared with results of other researchers who used targets which appeared at fixed locations. The longest reaction times were recorded to lights which appeared either at the extremes or at the very center of the visual field.

  13. Conspicuous carotenoid-based pelvic spine ornament in three-spined stickleback populations—occurrence and inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Amundsen, CR; Gjøen, HM; Larsen, B; Egeland, ES

    2015-01-01

    Reports on reddish carotenoid-based ornaments in female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are few, despite the large interest in the species’ behaviour, ornamentation, morphology and evolution. We sampled sticklebacks from 17 sites in north-western Europe in this first extensive study on the occurrence of carotenoid-based female pelvic spines and throat ornaments. The field results showed that females, and males, with reddish spines were found in all 17 populations. Specimens of both sexes with conspicuous red spines were found in several of the sites. The pelvic spines of males were more intensely red compared to the females’ spines, and large specimens were more red than small ones. Fish infected with the tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) had drabber spines than uninfected fish. Both sexes had red spines both during and after the spawning period, but the intensity of the red colour was more exaggerated during the spawning period. As opposed to pelvic spines, no sign of red colour at the throat was observed in any female from any of the 17 populations. A rearing experiment was carried out to estimate a potential genetic component of the pelvic spine ornament by artificial crossing and rearing of 15 family groups during a 12 months period. The results indicated that the genetic component of the red colour at the spines was low or close to zero. Although reddish pelvic spines seem common in populations of stickleback, the potential adaptive function of the reddish pelvic spines remains largely unexplained. PMID:25861558

  14. The roles of garment design and scene complexity in the daytime conspicuity of high-visibility safety apparel.

    PubMed

    Sayer, James R; Buonarosa, Mary Lynn

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the effects of high-visibility garment design on daytime pedestrian conspicuity in work zones. Factors assessed were garment color, amount of background material, pedestrian arm motion, scene complexity, and driver age. The study was conducted in naturalistic conditions on public roads in real traffic. Drivers drove two passes on a 31-km route and indicated when they detected pedestrians outfitted in the fluorescent garments. The locations of the vehicle and the pedestrian were recorded. Detection distances between fluorescent yellow-green and fluorescent red-orange garments were not significantly different, nor were there any significant two-way interactions involving garment color. Pedestrians were detected at longer distances in lower complexity scenes. Arm motion significantly increased detection distances for pedestrians wearing a Class 2 vest, but had little added benefit on detection distances for pedestrians wearing a Class 2 jacket. Daytime detection distances for pedestrians wearing Class 2 or Class 3 garments are longest when the complexity of the surround is low. The more background information a driver has to search through, the longer it is likely to take the driver to locate a pedestrian--even when wearing a high-visibility garment. These findings will provide information to safety garment manufacturers about characteristics of high-visibility safety garments which make them effective for daytime use.

  15. Discrete colour polymorphism in the tawny dragon lizard (Ctenophorus decresii) and differences in signal conspicuousness among morphs.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, L C; Stevens, M; Stuart-Fox, D

    2013-05-01

    Intraspecific colour variation is common in nature and can vary from the coexistence of discrete colour variants in polymorphic species to continuous variation. Whether coloration is continuous or discrete is often ambiguous and many species exhibit a combination of the two. The nature of the variation (discrete or continuous) has implications for both the genetic basis of the colour variation and the evolutionary processes generating and maintaining it. Consequently, it is important to qualify the existence of discrete morphs, particularly in relation to the animal's visual system. In this study, we quantified male throat colour variation in Ctenophorus decresii tawny dragon lizard and tested for morphological and ecological correlates of the colour variants. We confirmed that discrete throat colour morphs can be defined based on colour and pattern analyses independent of the human visual system. We also found that the colour variants differed in their conspicuousness from the background, to the lizard's visual system, which has implications for signalling. However, the morphs did not differ in morphology or microhabitat use, which suggests that these characteristics are not involved in the evolutionary maintenance of the polymorphism.

  16. Increased conspicuousness can explain the match between visual sensitivities and blue plumage colours in fairy-wrens.

    PubMed

    Delhey, Kaspar; Hall, Michelle; Kingma, Sjouke A; Peters, Anne

    2013-01-07

    Colour signals are expected to match visual sensitivities of intended receivers. In birds, evolutionary shifts from violet-sensitive (V-type) to ultraviolet-sensitive (U-type) vision have been linked to increased prevalence of colours rich in shortwave reflectance (ultraviolet/blue), presumably due to better perception of such colours by U-type vision. Here we provide the first test of this widespread idea using fairy-wrens and allies (Family Maluridae) as a model, a family where shifts in visual sensitivities from V- to U-type eyes are associated with male nuptial plumage rich in ultraviolet/blue colours. Using psychophysical visual models, we compared the performance of both types of visual systems at two tasks: (i) detecting contrast between male plumage colours and natural backgrounds, and (ii) perceiving intraspecific chromatic variation in male plumage. While U-type outperforms V-type vision at both tasks, the crucial test here is whether U-type vision performs better at detecting and discriminating ultraviolet/blue colours when compared with other colours. This was true for detecting contrast between plumage colours and natural backgrounds (i), but not for discriminating intraspecific variability (ii). Our data indicate that selection to maximize conspicuousness to conspecifics may have led to the correlation between ultraviolet/blue colours and U-type vision in this clade of birds.

  17. Increased conspicuousness can explain the match between visual sensitivities and blue plumage colours in fairy-wrens

    PubMed Central

    Delhey, Kaspar; Hall, Michelle; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Peters, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Colour signals are expected to match visual sensitivities of intended receivers. In birds, evolutionary shifts from violet-sensitive (V-type) to ultraviolet-sensitive (U-type) vision have been linked to increased prevalence of colours rich in shortwave reflectance (ultraviolet/blue), presumably due to better perception of such colours by U-type vision. Here we provide the first test of this widespread idea using fairy-wrens and allies (Family Maluridae) as a model, a family where shifts in visual sensitivities from V- to U-type eyes are associated with male nuptial plumage rich in ultraviolet/blue colours. Using psychophysical visual models, we compared the performance of both types of visual systems at two tasks: (i) detecting contrast between male plumage colours and natural backgrounds, and (ii) perceiving intraspecific chromatic variation in male plumage. While U-type outperforms V-type vision at both tasks, the crucial test here is whether U-type vision performs better at detecting and discriminating ultraviolet/blue colours when compared with other colours. This was true for detecting contrast between plumage colours and natural backgrounds (i), but not for discriminating intraspecific variability (ii). Our data indicate that selection to maximize conspicuousness to conspecifics may have led to the correlation between ultraviolet/blue colours and U-type vision in this clade of birds. PMID:23118438

  18. Comparison of conventional DCE-MRI and a novel golden-angle radial multicoil compressed sensing method for the evaluation of breast lesion conspicuity.

    PubMed

    Heacock, Laura; Gao, Yiming; Heller, Samantha L; Melsaether, Amy N; Babb, James S; Block, Tobias K; Otazo, Ricardo; Kim, Sungheon G; Moy, Linda

    2017-06-01

    To compare a novel multicoil compressed sensing technique with flexible temporal resolution, golden-angle radial sparse parallel (GRASP), to conventional fat-suppressed spoiled three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo (volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination, VIBE) MRI in evaluating the conspicuity of benign and malignant breast lesions. Between March and August 2015, 121 women (24-84 years; mean, 49.7 years) with 180 biopsy-proven benign and malignant lesions were imaged consecutively at 3.0 Tesla in a dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI exam using sagittal T1-weighted fat-suppressed 3D VIBE in this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, retrospective study. Subjects underwent MRI-guided breast biopsy (mean, 13 days [1-95 days]) using GRASP DCE-MRI, a fat-suppressed radial "stack-of-stars" 3D FLASH sequence with golden-angle ordering. Three readers independently evaluated breast lesions on both sequences. Statistical analysis included mixed models with generalized estimating equations, kappa-weighted coefficients and Fisher's exact test. All lesions demonstrated good conspicuity on VIBE and GRASP sequences (4.28 ± 0.81 versus 3.65 ± 1.22), with no significant difference in lesion detection (P = 0.248). VIBE had slightly higher lesion conspicuity than GRASP for all lesions, with VIBE 12.6% (0.63/5.0) more conspicuous (P < 0.001). Masses and nonmass enhancement (NME) were more conspicuous on VIBE (P < 0.001), with a larger difference for NME (14.2% versus 9.4% more conspicuous). Malignant lesions were more conspicuous than benign lesions (P < 0.001) on both sequences. GRASP DCE-MRI, a multicoil compressed sensing technique with high spatial resolution and flexible temporal resolution, has near-comparable performance to conventional VIBE imaging for breast lesion evaluation. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;45:1746-1752. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. A Conspicuous Absence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2006-01-01

    Every major city in every state in the country has a public community college, as do U.S. territories such as Guam and Puerto Rico. President Bush, Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan and civic and business leaders of all stripes are increasingly talking up community colleges as critical to training U.S. workers for ever-changing job needs in…

  20. A Conspicuous Absence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2006-01-01

    Every major city in every state in the country has a public community college, as do U.S. territories such as Guam and Puerto Rico. President Bush, Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan and civic and business leaders of all stripes are increasingly talking up community colleges as critical to training U.S. workers for ever-changing job needs in…

  1. Comparison of hepatocellular carcinoma conspicuity on hepatobiliary phase images with gadoxetate disodium vs. delayed phase images with extracellular cellular contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Yeon; Wu, En-Haw; Park, Seong Ho; Wang, Z Jane; Hope, Thomas A; Yee, Judy; Zhao, Li-Qin; Chang, Wei-Chou; Yeh, Benjamin M

    2016-08-01

    To compare the conspicuity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced vs. delayed phase of gadodiamide-enhanced MR images, relative to liver function. We retrospectively identified 86 patients with newly diagnosed HCC between 2010 and 2013 and recorded the severity of liver disease by Child-Pugh class (CPC). 38 patients had gadodiamide-enhanced 5-min delayed and 48 had gadoxetate disodium-enhanced 20-min delayed hepatobiliary MR images. The conspicuity of 86 HCCs (mean size, 2.7 cm) was graded visually on a 3-point scale and quantified by liver-to-tumor contrast ratios (LTC). The relative liver parenchymal enhancement (RPE) was measured. For different CPCs, we compared the conspicuity of HCC and RPE between gadodiamide and gadoxetate. In patients with CPC A, the visual conspicuity and LTC of the 27 HCCs imaged with gadodiamide were significantly lower than those of the 38 HCCs with gadoxetate (P < 0.01, <0.01, respectively). RPE was lower in gadodiamide scans than gadoxetate scans (P < 0.01). Conversely, in patients with CPC B and C, HCCs appeared more frequently as definite hypointensity when imaged with gadodiamide (72.7%, 8/11) than gadoxetate (20%, 2/10, P = 0.03). LTC (mean 18.1 vs. 7.5, P = 0.04) and RPE (mean 75.5 vs. 45.4, P = 0.04) was significantly higher in the gadodiamide than gadoxetate scans. In patients with compromised liver function, hypointensity of HCC is more conspicuous in the gadodiamide delayed phase than the gadoxetate hepatobiliary phase. This likely reflects the high extracellular accumulation of gadodiamide and poor hepatocyte uptake of gadoxetate in patients with compromised liver function.

  2. Predictors of children's emotional distress in a mother-absent situation: implications for caregiving research.

    PubMed

    O'Laughlin, E M; Meeker, E C; Bischoff, L G

    2000-06-01

    Although many factors have been found to be associated with caregiving behavior among preschool-age siblings, few studies have considered the older child's emotional responses to the distress of a younger sibling in the mother's absence. In this study, the authors considered both individual and family factors that predict older and younger sibling distress in a mother-absent situation designed to elicit caregiving behavior. For both older and younger siblings, the strongest predictor of distress following the mother's departure was distress in the other sibling, suggesting the importance of situational factors. Individual and family factors, however, were also found to predict child distress. Among older siblings, shy and sociable temperaments were associated with greater distress during the mother's absence. Higher levels of parenting stress were found to be associated with less distress among both older and younger siblings in the mother-absent situation. Results are discussed in terms of individual and family environment influences on the sibling relationship.

  3. Absent upper blind Pouch in a case of tracheo-esophageal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Harjai, Man Mohan; Badal, Sachendra; Khanna, Sangeeta; Singh, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A common upper airway and digestive tract is a rare congenital anomaly that is usually fatal and its exact incidence is not known. It is a diagnostic challenge as it requires high index of suspicion. It should be considered in a neonate with respiratory distress in a non-vigorous baby requiring endotracheal intubation, which is difficult even in expert hand. We present a newborn with suspected tracheo-esophageal fistula that was diagnosed intraoperatively to have absent upper blind pouch of the esophagus and on autopsy found to have laryngeal atresia with absent vocal cords and a common aerodigestive tract continuing distally with trachea. The neonate was ventilated with endotracheal tube (ETT) placement which in retrospect we came to know that it was in the esophagus. The neonate also had associated multiple congenital anomalies of VACTERL association. The importance of teamwork between neonatologist, pediatric surgeon, anesthesiologist, and radiologist is highlighted for diagnosis and management of such rare cases. PMID:25552830

  4. Mayer Rokitansky Kuster Hauser (MRKH) syndrome with absent thumbs and big toes.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Mahira

    2014-01-01

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a rare developmental failure of Müllerian ducts. Principle clinical features of MRKH syndrome are primary amenorrhoea associated with congenital absence of vagina, uterine anomalies, normal ovaries, 46 XX karyotype with normal female secondary sexual characteristics and frequent association with renal, skeletal, and other congenital anomalies. A case of a 3-year-old child with congenitally absent thumbs and big toes is reported herein; she was brought in with complaints of urinary incontinence. Radiological investigation (ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan) revealed absent uterus and vagina while both ovaries were normal. Intravenous urography (IVU) study showed bifid pelvicalyceal systems bilaterally. Karyotyping revealed a 46 XX female phenotype. Laparoscopy confirmed normal ovaries bilaterally and small unfused uterine buds lying beside both ovaries on each side of pelvis. Early diagnosis of MRKH syndrome is essential for timely planning of vaginal and (if possible) uterine reconstructive surgeries.

  5. A surviving infant with sirenomelia (Mermaid syndrome) associated with absent bladder.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Michael P; Penington, Elizabeth C; Hutson, John M

    2003-08-01

    The authors report a case of a surviving infant with sirenomelia (Mermaid syndrome). The child is now 4 years of age. The authors believe that this is only the fourth reported case of an infant with sirenomelia surviving beyond the neonatal period and the first associated with absent bladder. The abnormal distal aorta shown in this case supports the theory that sirenomelia is an extreme form of caudal dysgenesis rather than occurring secondary to vascular steal.

  6. Surgical treatment of tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuki; Miyamoto, Takashi; Naito, Yuji; Yoshitake, Shuichi

    2016-06-01

    The patient was a 3-month-old girl weighting 3.6 kg, diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot and absent pulmonary valve syndrome. We surgically repaired the tetralogy of Fallot by patch closure of the ventricular septal defect, right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction using an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene monocusp patch with a bulging sinus, and removal of the bronchial obstruction by anterior translocation of the pulmonary artery using the Lecompte maneuver. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Gender-based violence and absent fathers: a scoping review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Nduna, Mzikazi; Khuzwayo, Nelisiwe; Mthombeni, Andile; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani Phosa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gender-based violence (GBV) and absent fathers are two epidemics that affect women and children in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the understanding of the complex links between GBV and absent fathers is currently inadequate. The aim of the study is to provide an overview of documented evidence that links GBV and absent fathers as well as identifies areas that require systematic review and where more primary research is needed. Methods and analysis The search strategy for this scoping review study will involve electronic databases including: Academic Search Premier, Ingenta, Kluwer Online, PsycARTICLES (EBSCO), PsycINFO (EBSCO), Social Work Abstracts and Sociological Collection. The studies will be mapped in 2 stages: stage 1 will map studies descriptively by focus and method; stage 2 will involve additional inclusion criteria, quality assessment and data extraction undertaken by two reviewers in parallel. A thematic analysis of the studies will be carried out to extract relevant outcomes using NVIVO. Discussion We anticipate finding a large number of studies on GBV diagnostic interventions in sub-Saharan Africa which, once summarised, will be useful to guide future research. The protocol for the scoping review has been registered in PROSPERO. Dissemination The study will be disseminated electronically and in print. It will also be presented to conferences related to GBV, Father Connections and Children's Health. PROSPERO registration number CRD42015022094. PMID:27297007

  8. Gender-based violence and absent fathers: a scoping review protocol.

    PubMed

    Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Nduna, Mzikazi; Khuzwayo, Nelisiwe; Mthombeni, Andile; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani Phosa

    2016-06-13

    Gender-based violence (GBV) and absent fathers are two epidemics that affect women and children in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the understanding of the complex links between GBV and absent fathers is currently inadequate. The aim of the study is to provide an overview of documented evidence that links GBV and absent fathers as well as identifies areas that require systematic review and where more primary research is needed. The search strategy for this scoping review study will involve electronic databases including: Academic Search Premier, Ingenta, Kluwer Online, PsycARTICLES (EBSCO), PsycINFO (EBSCO), Social Work Abstracts and Sociological Collection. The studies will be mapped in 2 stages: stage 1 will map studies descriptively by focus and method; stage 2 will involve additional inclusion criteria, quality assessment and data extraction undertaken by two reviewers in parallel. A thematic analysis of the studies will be carried out to extract relevant outcomes using NVIVO. We anticipate finding a large number of studies on GBV diagnostic interventions in sub-Saharan Africa which, once summarised, will be useful to guide future research. The protocol for the scoping review has been registered in PROSPERO. The study will be disseminated electronically and in print. It will also be presented to conferences related to GBV, Father Connections and Children's Health. CRD42015022094. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Cardiac-locked bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity are absent in familial dysautonomia

    PubMed Central

    Macefield, Vaughan G; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Axelrod, Felicia B; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Familial dysautonomia (Riley–Day syndrome) is an hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN type III), expressed at birth, that is associated with reduced pain and temperature sensibilities and absent baroreflexes, causing orthostatic hypotension as well as labile blood pressure that increases markedly during emotional excitement. Given the apparent absence of functional baroreceptor afferents, we tested the hypothesis that the normal cardiac-locked bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) are absent in patients with familial dysautonomia. Tungsten microelectrodes were inserted percutaneously into muscle or cutaneous fascicles of the common peroneal nerve in 12 patients with familial dysautonomia. Spontaneous bursts of MSNA were absent in all patients, but in five patients we found evidence of tonically firing sympathetic neurones, with no cardiac rhythmicity, that increased their spontaneous discharge during emotional arousal but not during a manoeuvre that unloads the baroreceptors. Conversely, skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), recorded in four patients, appeared normal. We conclude that the loss of phasic bursts of MSNA and the loss of baroreflex modulation of muscle vasoconstrictor drive contributes to the poor control of blood pressure in familial dysautonomia, and that the increase in tonic firing of muscle vasoconstrictor neurones contributes to the increase in blood pressure during emotional excitement. PMID:23165765

  10. Significance of lung anomalies in fetuses affected by tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tenisch, Estelle; Raboisson, Marie-Josée; Rypens, Françoise; Déry, Julie; Grignon, Andrée; Lapierre, Chantale

    2017-07-04

    Tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve syndrome is a rare form of tetralogy of Fallot with dilatation of large pulmonary arteries. Prognosis is related to the severity of the cardiac malformation and to bronchial tree compression by dilated pulmonary arteries. This study analyses the prenatal echographic lung appearance in fetuses with tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve and discusses its significance. We carried out a retrospective review of fetal and postnatal files of nine fetuses diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve syndrome in our institution. Correlations of prenatal ultrasound and cardiac imaging findings were obtained with outcome. Abnormal heterogeneous fetal lung echogenicity was detected in eight cases out of nine, always associated with significant lobar arterial dilatation. This aspect was well correlated with postnatal imaging and outcome in the four neonatal cases. The only fetus with normal lung echogenicity also had lower degree of pulmonary artery dilatation in the series. This study demonstrates that a heterogeneous ultrasound appearance of the fetal lungs can be detected in utero in the most severe cases. This aspect suggests an already significant compression of the fetal bronchial tree by the dilated arteries that may have prognostic implications.

  11. A stationary long-pulse ELM-absent H-mode regime in EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Y.; Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.; Chen, R.; Yan, N.; Guo, H. Y.; Shao, L. M.; Yang, Q. Q.; Wang, H. Q.; Zhang, W.; Xia, T. Y.; Zhang, T.; Li, Y. Y.; Wang, T. F.; Zang, Q.; Hu, Y. J.; Wu, G. J.; Zhang, L.; Hao, B. L.; Wang, L.; Li, Y. L.; Wu, X. Q.; Chen, L.; Lan, H.; Wang, Y. F.; Xu, J. C.; Hu, G. H.; Ding, S. Y.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, N.; Li, J.; The EAST Team

    2017-08-01

    A stationary edge-localized mode (ELM)-absent H-mode regime, with an electrostatic edge coherent mode (ECM) which resides in the pedestal region, has been achieved in the EAST tokamak recently. This regime allows the operation of a nearly fully noninductive long pulse (>15 s), exhibiting a relatively high pedestal and good global energy confinement with {{H}98,y2} near 1.2, and excellent impurity control. Furthermore, this regime is mostly obtained with a 4.6 GHz lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) or counter-current neutral beam injection (NBI), plus electron cyclotron resonance heating, and an extensive lithium wall coating. This stationary ELM-absent H-mode regime transits to a stationary small ELM H-mode regime, and upon additional heating power from the 2.45 GHz LHCD, an ion cyclotron resonant frequency or co-current NBI is applied (under 4.6 GHz LHCD heating background). A slight change of the plasma configuration also makes the small ELMs reappear. The experimental observations suggest that a long-pulse ELM-absent regime can be induced by the ECM, which exhibits strong electrostatic fluctuations and may provide a channel for continuous particle (especially impurities) and heat exhaust across the pedestal. The ECM exists in the collisionality of ν e*   =  2.5-4 and the pressure gradient |\

  12. The bulk and the tail of minimal absent words in genome sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurell, Erik; Innocenti, Nicolas; Zhou, Hai-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Minimal absent words (MAW) of a genomic sequence are subsequences that are absent themselves but the subwords of which are all present in the sequence. The characteristic distribution of genomic MAWs as a function of their length has been observed to be qualitatively similar for all living organisms, the bulk being rather short, and only relatively few being long. It has been an open issue whether the reason behind this phenomenon is statistical or reflects a biological mechanism, and what biological information is contained in absent words. In this work we demonstrate that the bulk can be described by a probabilistic model of sampling words from random sequences, while the tail of long MAWs is of biological origin. We introduce the concept of a core of a MAW, which are sequences present in the genome and closest to a given MAW. We show that in E. faecalis, E. coli and yeast the cores of the longest MAWs, which exist in two or more copies, are located in highly conserved regions the most prominent example being ribosomal RNAs. We also show that while the distribution of the cores of long MAWs is roughly uniform over these genomes on a coarse-grained level, on a more detailed level it is strongly enhanced in 3’ untranslated regions (UTRs) and, to a lesser extent, also in 5’ UTRs. This indicates that MAWs and associated MAW cores correspond to fine-tuned evolutionary relationships, and suggest that they can be more widely used as markers for genomic complexity.

  13. Case report: absent C6 cervical pedicle in a collegiate football player.

    PubMed

    Fowler, John R; Moyer, Ray A

    2010-06-01

    Congenital absence of a cervical pedicle is a rare clinical finding with only 70 reported cases in the literature from 1946 until present. The congenitally absent pedicle has clinical importance owing to the frequency of misdiagnosis and inappropriate invasive treatments. We present the case of a 21-year-old college football player who experienced neck and shoulder pain after violent twisting of his neck by the face mask. The player walked off the field under his own power. He was sent to the locker room, where he underwent right shoulder and cervical spine radiographs. Initial review of the radiographs raised concern for a jumped right C6 facet. The patient then underwent CT and MRI of the cervical spine, confirming the diagnosis of an absent cervical pedicle. He was treated nonoperatively for a short time and completed the season. He had no symptoms at last followup at 8 months. The most frequent location of the absent cervical pedicle is at the C6 level, and the next most common is at the C5 level. Neural compression or instability is uncommon and nonsurgical treatment is the mainstay of treatment. Misdiagnosis can lead to inappropriate treatment such as halo or tong application with traction, which occurred in seven of 57 cases in one series, and exploratory surgery, which occurred in four of 57 cases.

  14. Conspicuity of Malignant Lesions on PET/CT and Simultaneous Time-Of-Flight PET/MRI

    PubMed Central

    Minamimoto, Ryogo; Iagaru, Andrei; Jamali, Mehran; Holley, Dawn; Barkhodari, Amir; Vasanawala, Shreyas; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare the conspicuity of malignant lesions between FDG PET/CT and a new simultaneous, time-of-flight (TOF) enabled PET/MRI scanner. Methods All patients underwent a single-injection of FDG, followed by a dual imaging protocol consisting of PET/CT followed by TOF PET/MRI. PET/CT and PET/MRI images were evaluated by two readers independently for areas of FDG uptake compatible with malignancy, and then categorized into 5 groups (1: PET/MRI and PET/CT positive; 2: PET/MRI positive, PET/CT positive in retrospect; 3: PET/CT positive, PET/MRI positive in retrospect; 4: PET/MRI positive, PET/CT negative; 5: PET/MRI negative, PET/CT positive) by consensus. Patients with no lesions on either study or greater than 10 lesions based on either modality were excluded from the study. Results Fifty-two patients (mean±SD age: 58±14 years) underwent the dual imaging protocol; of these, 29 patients with a total of 93 FDG-avid lesions met the inclusion criteria. The majority of lesions (56%) were recorded prospectively in the same location on PET/CT and PET/MRI. About an equal small fraction of lesions were seen on PET/CT but only retrospectively on PET/MRI (9%) and vice versa (12%). More lesions were identified only on PET/MRI but not on PET/CT, even in retrospect (96% vs. 81%, respectively; p = 0.003). Discrepant lesions had lower maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) than concordant lesions on both modalities (p<0.001). Conclusions While most lesions were identified prospectively on both modalities, significantly more lesions were identified with PET/MRI than with PET/CT. PMID:28103230

  15. Conspicuous variation of the lattice unit cell in the pavonite homologous series and its relation with cation/anion occupational modulations

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Mato, J.M.; Topa, Dan; Petříček, Václav; Madariaga, Gotzon

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Strong non-uniform variation of unit cell parameters in the pavonite homologous series. ► Conspicuous unit cell variation due to an underlying sub-lattice with cation/anion occupation. ► A modulated model common to the whole series using the superspace formalism proposed. ► Model successfully applied to the {sup 7}P pavonite Ag{sub 3}(Bi,Pb){sub 7}S{sub 12}. ► The model can be applied in a predictive way to other members of the family. - Abstract: The pavonites is a homologous series of sulfosalts with galena-like modules of variable size. A survey of their unit cells reveals that they are severely constrained by the metrics of an underlying common average sublattice. The unit cell of any compound of the series accommodates with high precision an integer number of approximately equal subcells. This explains a peculiar non-uniform variation of the unit cell parameters within the series and evidences that the interface between the galena-like modules, despite having a very different topology, approximately maintains the subperiodicity of the modules, and must therefore be subject to strong steric restrictions. It also implies that cations and anions occupy the nodes of the observed common underlying average sublattice according to a striking alternate cation/anion occupational modulation. This is the starting point for a description of these materials as modulated structures, which can make a proficient use of the approximate atomic positional non-crystallographic correlations caused by their modular character. Under this approach only four parameters suffice to define a realistic approximate model of any member of the series. A full structural characterization of any of the compounds only requires the determination of additional small/smooth modulations. As an example, the case of the {sup 7}P pavonite Ag{sub 3}Bi{sub 6.2}Pb{sub 0.8}S{sub 12}, is analyzed.

  16. Examining Clinicians' Experiences Providing Sexual Health Services for LGBTQ Youth: Considering Social and Structural Determinants of Health in Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, R. E.; Shoveller, J. A.; Carson, A. M.; Contreras-Whitney, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Although barriers related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) youth's experiences accessing sexual health services have been examined in detail, research into the experiences and perceptions of clinicians providing these services has been conspicuously absent. The aim of this article is to explore the perceptions and…

  17. Examining Clinicians' Experiences Providing Sexual Health Services for LGBTQ Youth: Considering Social and Structural Determinants of Health in Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, R. E.; Shoveller, J. A.; Carson, A. M.; Contreras-Whitney, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Although barriers related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) youth's experiences accessing sexual health services have been examined in detail, research into the experiences and perceptions of clinicians providing these services has been conspicuously absent. The aim of this article is to explore the perceptions and…

  18. Lateral facial cleft associated with accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and peripheral facial weakness.

    PubMed

    Ozçelik, D; Toplu, G; Türkseven, A; Senses, D A; Yiğit, B

    2014-07-01

    Transverse facial cleft is a very rare malformation. The Tessier no. 7 cleft is a lateral facial cleft which emanates from oral cavity and extends towards the tragus, involving both soft tissue and skeletal components. Here, we present a case having transverse facial cleft, accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and ipsilateral peripheral facial nerve weakness. After surgical repair of the cleft in 2-month of age, improvement of the facial nerve function was detected in 3-year of age. Resection of the accessory mandible was planned in 5-6 years of age. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Profuse congenital familial milia with absent dermatoglyphics (Basan's Syndrome): description of a new family.

    PubMed

    Luna, Paula Carolina; Larralde, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Milia are common, small, keratin-containing cysts frequently seen in all age groups. They may arise spontaneously or develop after a variety of stimuli. They can be found alone or as part of syndromes. We present a female neonate born not only with profuse facial milia, but also with acral bullae and absent dermatoglyphics. Similar features were seen in several members of her family. These findings correspond to the syndrome known as Basan's syndrome, a rare autosomal-dominant inherited dermatosis characterized by profuse congenital milia, transient neonatal acral bullae, and absence of dermatoglyphics. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Anal atresia, abnormal genitalia, and absent thumb: congenital malformations associated with mosaic ring chromosome 13.

    PubMed

    Ocak, Z; Ozlu, T; Vural, M

    2013-01-01

    Because of the deletion of a segment of the chromosome during the formation of a ring, several clinical findings may be associated with ring chromosomes. Ring chromosome 13 is one of such disorders in which the genotype-phenotype correlation is stronger by virtue of the accumulating literature. It can be associated with multiple congenital abnormalities and severe mental retardation. We report a case with mosaic ring chromosome 13 whose prenatal ultrasound revealed bilateral ventriculomegaly. Anal atresia, unidentifiable external genitalia, and an absent thumb were observed in the postmortem examination.

  1. Syndrome of absent abdominal muscles: two cases with microcephaly, polymicrogyria, and cerebellar malformations

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Reid R.

    1970-01-01

    Two unique cases of the syndrome of absent abdominal muscles with central nervous system involvement are presented. Microcephaly, polymicrogyria, and cerebellar heterotopiae were present in both. In case 1 there was also absence of the corpus callosum and agenesis of the cerebellar vermis. In case 2 a count of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord showed a reduction of approximately 50% in the lower thoracic region. The pertinent literature is briefly discussed. The findings in the nervous system suggest that the syndrome is the result of defective embryogenesis during the first trimester. Images PMID:4250700

  2. Diatom assemblage responses to changing environment in the conspicuously eutrophic Kiuruvesi lake route, central-eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammelin, Mira; Kauppila, Tommi

    2016-04-01

    Lakes and their water quality have been affected by anthropogenic actions for centuries. The most intensive changes have often occurred since the mid-19th century. Industrialization, modern agriculture, forest ditching and artificial lowering of water level are examples of these changes that have usually resulted in the deterioration of lake water quality. Many organisms, such as diatoms, are sensitive to these changes in their environmental conditions. Therefore, a marked species turnover is often seen between the pre and post human impact diatom assemblages. This turnover can be rapidly assessed simultaneously from many lakes by using multivariate methods and top-bottom sampling. Our study area consists of three adjacent lake routes in the grass cultivation and dairy production area of central-eastern Finland, where slash-and-burn cultivation and artificial water level lowering were common practice during the past centuries. The centermost Iisalmi lake route is particularly interesting because of the conspicuously eutrophic lakes in its Kiuruvesi subroute. We used the top-bottom approach to sample pre and post human impact samples from 47 lakes (50 sampling sites) located in the three lake routes. In addition, stratigraphic samples from the long cores of three lakes (one larger central basin and two small upstream lakes) in the Kiuruvesi subroute were studied in more detail. Multivariate methods were used to assess diatom assemblage change within the long cores and between the pre-disturbance and modern samples. The results indicate that most study lakes have undergone a marked shift in their diatom assemblages since the onset of human impact in the area. The lake routes are characterized by differing pre-impact diatom assemblages. However, human influence has reduced their natural variation. Similar diatom species are common in the modern samples of the heavily impacted lakes in all three lake routes. The detailed examination of the diatom assemblage turnover in

  3. Group velocity mismatch-absent nonlinear frequency conversions for mid-infrared femtosecond pulses generation

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Haizhe; Zhang, Lifu; Li, Ying; Fan, Dianyuan

    2015-01-01

    A novel group velocity mismatch (GVM) absent scheme for nonlinear optical parametric procedure in mid-infrared was developed with type-I quasi phase matching by use of an off-digital nonlinear optical coefficient d31. This was achieved by matching of the group velocities of the pump and the signal waves, while the phase velocities were quasi phase matched. The system employs MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 as the nonlinear medium. Desired group-velocity dispersion would be obtained via appropriately temperature regulation. To demonstrate its potential applications in ultrafast mid-infrared pulses generation, aiming at a typical mid-infrared wavelength of ~3.2 μm, design examples of two basic nonlinear frequency conversion procedures are studied for both the narrow-band seeding mid-IR optical parametric amplification (OPA) and the synchronously pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillation (SPOPO). Compared with the conventional scheme of type-0 QPM, the quantum-efficiency can be more than doubled with nearly unlimited bandwidth. The proposed GVM- absent phase matching design may provide a promising route to efficient and broadband sub-100 fs mid-infrared ultrafast pulses generation without group-velocity walk-off. PMID:26099837

  4. Distractor Dwelling, Skipping, and Revisiting Determine Target Absent Performance in Difficult Visual Search

    PubMed Central

    Horstmann, Gernot; Herwig, Arvid; Becker, Stefanie I.

    2016-01-01

    Some targets in visual search are more difficult to find than others. In particular, a target that is similar to the distractors is more difficult to find than a target that is dissimilar to the distractors. Efficiency differences between easy and difficult searches are manifest not only in target-present trials but also in target-absent trials. In fact, even physically identical displays are searched through with different efficiency depending on the searched-for target. Here, we monitored eye movements in search for a target similar to the distractors (difficult search) versus a target dissimilar to the distractors (easy search). We aimed to examine three hypotheses concerning the causes of differential search efficiencies in target-absent trials: (a) distractor dwelling (b) distractor skipping, and (c) distractor revisiting. Reaction times increased with target similarity which is consistent with existing theories and replicates earlier results. Eye movement data indicated guidance in target trials, even though search was very slow. Dwelling, skipping, and revisiting contributed to low search efficiency in difficult search, with dwelling being the strongest factor. It is argued that differences in dwell time account for a large amount of total search time differences. PMID:27574510

  5. Absent response to niacin skin patch is specific to schizophrenia and independent of smoking.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chih-Min; Chang, Shu-Sen; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Shieh, Ming-Hsien; Liu, Shi-Kai; Chen, Wei J; Hwu, Hai-Gwo

    2007-08-30

    This study investigated the differences in niacin skin flush responses between patients with schizophrenia, bipolar mania, and normal controls. We applied niacin patches of three concentrations (0.001 M, 0.01 M, and 0.1 M) to the skin of 61 patients with schizophrenia, 18 patients with bipolar mania, and 40 normal controls for 5 min. Flush responses were rated at 5, 10 and 15 min after application. Flush responses were significantly different among three groups at the concentrations of 0.1 M and 0.01 M at all of the three rating time points. The use of nicotine did not have significant influences on the flush responses. Absent response was significantly more prevalent in the schizophrenia group than in the other two groups, but was not significantly different between the bipolar and the control group. The greatest degree of differentiation in flush responses among groups occurred at the 0.01 M concentration, and the rating time point of 10 min with 49.2% of schizophrenic patients but only 7.5% of controls and 11.1% of bipolar patients not showing a flush response. The niacin skin test for schizophrenia had 49.2% sensitivity and 92.5% specificity compared with controls. This study found that absent response to niacin skin patch was specific to schizophrenia and independent of smoking status.

  6. Distractor Dwelling, Skipping, and Revisiting Determine Target Absent Performance in Difficult Visual Search.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, Gernot; Herwig, Arvid; Becker, Stefanie I

    2016-01-01

    Some targets in visual search are more difficult to find than others. In particular, a target that is similar to the distractors is more difficult to find than a target that is dissimilar to the distractors. Efficiency differences between easy and difficult searches are manifest not only in target-present trials but also in target-absent trials. In fact, even physically identical displays are searched through with different efficiency depending on the searched-for target. Here, we monitored eye movements in search for a target similar to the distractors (difficult search) versus a target dissimilar to the distractors (easy search). We aimed to examine three hypotheses concerning the causes of differential search efficiencies in target-absent trials: (a) distractor dwelling (b) distractor skipping, and (c) distractor revisiting. Reaction times increased with target similarity which is consistent with existing theories and replicates earlier results. Eye movement data indicated guidance in target trials, even though search was very slow. Dwelling, skipping, and revisiting contributed to low search efficiency in difficult search, with dwelling being the strongest factor. It is argued that differences in dwell time account for a large amount of total search time differences.

  7. Functional analysis of the role of eyes absent and sine oculis in the developing eye of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Akira; Kurita, Kazuki; Terasawa, Taiki; Nakamura, Taro; Bando, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Yoshiyuki; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2012-02-01

    In the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, a hemimetabolous insect, the compound eyes begin to form in the embryo and increase 5-6 fold in size during the postembryonic development of the nymphal stage. Retinal stem cells in the anteroventral proliferation zone (AVPZ) of the nymphal eye proliferate to increase retinal progenitors, which then differentiate to form new ommatidia in the anterior region of the eye. However, mechanisms underlying this type of eye formation have not been well elucidated yet. Here, we found that the homologues of the retinal determination transcription factor genes of eyes absent (eya) and sine oculis (so) are expressed during the cricket embryonic eye formation. eya is also expressed intensely in the AVPZ of the nymphal eye. To explore their functions, we performed knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi). Knockdown of Gb'eya resulted in loss of the embryonic eye. In the nymphal eye, RNAi against Gb'eya or Gb'so impaired retinal morphology by apparently transforming cornea structures into head cuticle. These results imply that Gb'eya and Gb'so are essential for the differentiation of the retinal progenitor cells and maintaining retinal structures during eye development.

  8. Unrepaired Tetralogy of Fallot with Absent Pulmonary Valve in a Mildly Symptomatic 16-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Drogalis-Kim, Diana E; Reemtsen, Brian L; Reardon, Leigh Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Absent pulmonary valve is a rare and severe variant seen in only 3% to 6% of patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Fetuses with this combined condition who survive through birth typically need intervention in infancy or early childhood because of respiratory distress, heart failure, or failure to thrive. We describe the unusual case of a mildly symptomatic 16-year-old boy with these conditions who underwent successful primary repair. Our search of the medical literature yielded fewer than 5 cases of tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve (or variants with an absent left pulmonary artery) and survival without repair into later adolescence or adulthood.

  9. Unrepaired Tetralogy of Fallot with Absent Pulmonary Valve in a Mildly Symptomatic 16-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Drogalis-Kim, Diana E.; Reemtsen, Brian L.

    2016-01-01

    Absent pulmonary valve is a rare and severe variant seen in only 3% to 6% of patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Fetuses with this combined condition who survive through birth typically need intervention in infancy or early childhood because of respiratory distress, heart failure, or failure to thrive. We describe the unusual case of a mildly symptomatic 16-year-old boy with these conditions who underwent successful primary repair. Our search of the medical literature yielded fewer than 5 cases of tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve (or variants with an absent left pulmonary artery) and survival without repair into later adolescence or adulthood. PMID:28100972

  10. Computerized axial tomography of the chest for visualization of ''absent'' pulmonary arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sondheimer, H.M.; Oliphant, M.; Schneider, B.; Kavey, R.E.W.; Blackman, M.S.; Parker, F.B. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    To expand the search for central pulmonary arteries in six patients with absence of cardiac-pulmonary continuity, computerized axial tomography (CAT) of the chest was performed. The CAT scans were compared with previous arteriograms and pulmonary vein wedge angiograms. Three patients with type IV truncus arteriosus were studied, and none had a central, right or left pulmonary artery on CAT scan. However, two patients with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia and a patent ductus arteriosus to the right lung demonstrated the presence of a left pulmonary artery. In addition, one child with truncus arteriosus with ''absent'' left pulmonary artery demonstrated a left pulmonary artery on the CAT scan. The CAT scan may therefore enhance our ability to search for disconnected pulmonary arteries in children with complex cyanotic congenital heart disease.

  11. Reactogenicity to major tuberculosis antigens absent in BCG is linked to improved protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Aguilo, Nacho; Gonzalo-Asensio, Jesus; Alvarez-Arguedas, Samuel; Marinova, Dessislava; Gomez, Ana Belen; Uranga, Santiago; Spallek, Ralf; Singh, Mahavir; Audran, Regine; Spertini, François; Martin, Carlos

    2017-07-14

    MTBVAC is a live-attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine, currently under clinical development, that contains the major antigens ESAT6 and CFP10. These antigens are absent from the current tuberculosis vaccine, BCG. Here we compare the protection induced by BCG and MTBVAC in several mouse strains that naturally express different MHC haplotypes differentially recognizing ESAT6 and CFP10. MTBVAC induces improved protection in C3H mice, the only of the three tested strains reactive to both ESAT6 and CFP10. Deletion of both antigens in MTBVAC reduces its efficacy to BCG levels, supporting a link between greater efficacy and CFP10- and ESAT6-specific reactogenicity. In addition, MTBVAC (but not BCG) triggers a specific response in human vaccinees against ESAT6 and CFP10. Our results warrant further exploration of this response as potential biomarker of protection in MTBVAC clinical trials.

  12. Ejaculatory ducts opening into accessory urethral channel with hypospadias and absent verumontanum: a rare association.

    PubMed

    Ravi Kumar, Valkodai Ramanthan; Duraisami, Vijayagiri

    2013-12-01

    Ejaculatory ducts draining into accessory urethral channel opening into perineum is rare. This is a case report of a 27-year-old male who had hypospadias surgery at 3 years of age, presenting with discharge of semen through the perineal opening from adolescence. Cystoscopy and dye study showed that it was a short channel communicating with both ejaculatory ducts. Cystoscopy of the native urethra revealed that the vermontanum had not developed. The mucous lined accessory urethra was anastomosed to the bulbar urethra. Urethrogram done after one year showed that the accessory urethra was draining well into the bulbar urethra. Such type of accessory urethral channel communicating with ejaculatory ducts and associated with hypospadias and absent vermontanum has not been reported so far.

  13. Absent or reversed end diastolic flow velocity in the umbilical artery and necrotising enterocolitis.

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, G; Ellwood, D; Devonald, K; Beilby, R; Henderson-Smart, D

    1991-01-01

    Absent or reversed end diastolic flow (AREDF) velocities in the umbilical artery were identified in 25 high risk pregnancies. In six pregnancies the fetus was abnormal and all but one of these ended in perinatal death. Of the 19 morphologically normal fetuses, three died in utero and there were four neonatal or infant deaths. The mortality rate was 48% for all pregnancies and 37% for those with morphologically normal fetuses. There was a highly significant increased risk for the development of necrotising enterocolitis in these morphologically normal fetuses with AREDF (53%) compared with controls (6%) who did have umbilical artery end diastolic flow velocities in fetal life. There were no significant differences between the matched pairs for parameters of neonatal outcome chosen to reflect neonatal morbidity. These findings demonstrate the close association between AREDF and necrotising enterocolitis that appears to be independent of other variables such as degree of growth retardation, prematurity, and perinatal asphyxia. PMID:1863128

  14. The absent father: his role in sexual deviations and in transference.

    PubMed

    Mancia, M

    1993-10-01

    In this paper, sexual perversion is discussed and connected with the absence of the father and with the failure of a primary relationship with a mother who is incapable of leading the child to the threshold of Oedipus. Sexual perversion may be considered as the expression of a narcissistic personality organisation which makes massive use of splitting and projective identification as a defence against separation anxiety. This prevents homosexual perverts from dis-identifying from their mothers and from attaining a distinct gender identity. The clinical case of a homosexual male patient is presented, where the absence of the father underlay his resentment, conveyed in the transference by means of lamentations and boredom, with which the patient sadistically tormented the analyst, thus giving vent to his deep resentment over an absent and unreliable father and over a mother from whom he could only be separated at the cost of persecutory anxiety and feelings of jealousy.

  15. Delayed emergence from anesthesia associated with absent brainstem reflexes following suboccipital craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Munis, James R; Marcukaitis, Anthony W; Sprung, Juraj

    2006-01-01

    One of the most feared complications after intracranial surgery is development of acute intracranial pathology, which may result in hypoperfusion and brain injury. Thus, early neurological assessment, performed in the operating room immediately after emergence from anesthesia, is a practice that may contribute to timely diagnosis of neurosurgical complications. Failure to awake after general anesthesia precludes conductance of neurological assessment. We report a patient who failed to emerge from anesthesia after suboccipital craniotomy and had absent brain-stem reflexes with fixed and dilated pupils consistent with severe brain injury. Approximately 60 minutes after termination of surgery, the patient suddenly woke up. After the fact, we discovered that the neurosurgeon performed a generous field block with bupivacaine along the neck incision line. We presume that our patient's failure to awaken was caused by paralysis of brain-stem caused by migration of bupivacaine from the site of the injection.

  16. Proximal hypospadias with skin-covered shaft of penis and absent urethral plate: An unknown variant and its management

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Kumar A.; Bhat, Nisar A.

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of proximal hypospadias with an absent urethral plate having intact ventral shaft skin with hooded dorsal prepuce and a good glans groove. Such a variant of hypospadias has not been reported in the literature. PMID:22121320

  17. NMR Structure of Conserved Eukaryotic Protein ZK652.3 from C. elegans: a Ubiquitin-like Fold

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, John R. ); Chiang, Yiwen; Zheng, Deyou; Kennedy, Michael A. ); Montelione, Gaetano

    2002-09-01

    Structural proteomics aims to provide one or more representative 3D structures for every structural domain family in nature. As part of an international effort in structural proteomics, the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium has targeted clusters of strongly conserved eukaryotic protein families for structural and functional analysis. On this basis, protein ZK652.3 (nesg WR41 / YOY3{_}CAEEL / Swiss-Prot P34661 / gi|17557033) from Caenorhabditis elegans was selected for structure determination. Expression of the ZK652.3 gene has been observed in a transcriptional profile of C. elegans genes, where it was one of a cluster of 89 genes whose expression levels co-varied during development1. The biochemical function of this protein is presently unknown. Sequencing of cDNA libraries shows that homologues of ZK652.3 occur widely in vertebrates and plants (Fig. 1). However, ZK652.3 homologues are conspicuously absent from the yeast and Drosophila genomes. Here we describe the three-dimensional structure of ZK652.3 determined by NMR spectroscopy and discuss structural similarities with other proteins which provide clues to potential biochemical functions.

  18. Silent dropouts in health surveys: are nonrespondent absent teenagers different from those who participate in school-based health surveys?

    PubMed

    Michaud, P A; Delbos-Piot, I; Narring, F

    1998-04-01

    3324 in-school students aged 15-20 years randomly selected from high schools and professional centers in francophone Switzerland answered a self-administered questionnaire about their health problems, needs, and behavior. Their responses were compared with those of 96 absent students sampled via telephone on a shorter, but similar questionnaire. Relative to the absent students, a significantly higher percentage of in-school students reported skin problems, weight concerns, sleep problems, headaches, stomach aches, and vision or dental problems. The percentages of students reporting a need for help were also higher among present students than among those who were absent: nutrition, 21.8 vs. 9.4; stress, 44.2 vs. 31.3; depression, 28.4 vs. 18.9; sleep problems, 21.3 vs. 12.1; sports, 9.2 vs. 4.2; and love life, 31.5 vs. 14.5. The rates of hospitalization and injuries were lower among absent students, 28.2 vs. 40.1. A higher proportion of absent students were sexually active and they also had a tendency to use tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis more often than did present students. Absent students also more frequently partook of leisure and group activities. Study findings suggest that within the Swiss context, school absenteeism is probably related less to physical or chronic health problems than to hedonistic lifestyles which predispose some students skip part of the school hours.

  19. Don't get the blues: conspicuous nuptial colouration of male moor frogs (Rana arvalis) supports visual mate recognition during scramble competition in large breeding aggregations.

    PubMed

    Sztatecsny, Marc; Preininger, Doris; Freudmann, Anita; Loretto, Matthias-Claudio; Maier, Franziska; Hödl, Walter

    2012-12-01

    Conspicuous male colouration is expected to have evolved primarily through selection by female choice. In what way conspicuous colours could be advantageous to males scrambling for mates remains largely unknown. The moor frog (Rana arvalis) belongs to the so-called explosive breeders in which spawning period is short; intrasexual competition is strong, and males actively search and scramble for females. During breeding, male body colouration changes from a dull brown (similar to females) to a conspicuous blue, and we wanted to test if male blueness influences mating success or facilitates male mate recognition. To do so, we first measured the colour of mated and non-mated males using a spectrophotometer. In an experiment, we then analysed interactions of actual male moor frogs in natural spawning aggregations with a brown (resembling a female or a non-breeding male) and a blue model frog. Mated and non-mated males did not differ in colouration, suggesting that female choice based on colour traits was unlikely. In our behavioural experiment, male moor frogs spent significantly more time in contact and in amplexus with the brown model than with the blue model. Our results suggest that the nuptial colouration in moor frogs can act as a new type of visual signal in anurans evolved to promote instantaneous mate recognition allowing males to quickly move between rivals while scrambling for females. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00265-012-1412-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  20. Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction Versus Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction and Filtered Back Projection in Liver 64-MDCT: Focal Lesion Detection, Lesion Conspicuity, and Image Noise

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, William P.; Green, Doug E.; Busey, Janet M.; Kolokythas, Orpheus; Mitsumori, Lee M.; Koprowicz, Kent M.; Thibault, Jean-Baptiste; Hsieh, Jiang; Alessio, Adam M.; Choi, Eunice; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to compare three CT image reconstruction algorithms for liver lesion detection and appearance, subjective lesion conspicuity, and measured noise. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-six patients with known liver lesions were scanned with a routine clinical three-phase CT protocol using a weight-based noise index of 30 or 36. Image data from each phase were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). Randomized images were presented to two independent blinded reviewers to detect and categorize the appearance of lesions and to score lesion conspicuity. Lesion size, lesion density (in Hounsfield units), adjacent liver density (in Hounsfield units), and image noise were measured. Two different unblinded truth readers established the number, appearance, and location of lesions. RESULTS Fifty-one focal lesions were detected by truth readers. For blinded reviewers compared with truth readers, there was no difference for lesion detection among the reconstruction algorithms. Lesion appearance was statistically the same among the three reconstructions. Although one reviewer scored lesions as being more conspicuous with MBIR, the other scored them the same. There was significantly less background noise in air with MBIR (mean [± SD], 2.1 ± 1.4 HU) than with ASIR (8.9 ± 1.9 HU; p < 0.001) or FBP (10.6 ± 2.6 HU; p < 0.001). Mean lesion contrast-to-noise ratio was statistically significantly higher for MBIR (34.4 ± 29.1) than for ASIR (6.5 ± 4.9; p < 0.001) or FBP (6.3 ± 6.0; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION In routine-dose clinical CT of the liver, MBIR resulted in comparable lesion detection, lesion characterization, and subjective lesion conspicuity, but significantly lower background noise and higher contrast-to-noise ratio compared with ASIR or FBP. This finding suggests that further investigation of the use of MBIR to enable dose

  1. Once a Batesian mimic, not always a Batesian mimic: mimic reverts back to ancestral phenotype when the model is absent.

    PubMed

    Prudic, Kathleen L; Oliver, Jeffrey C

    2008-05-22

    Batesian mimics gain protection from predation through the evolution of physical similarities to a model species that possesses anti-predator defences. This protection should not be effective in the absence of the model since the predator does not identify the mimic as potentially dangerous and both the model and the mimic are highly conspicuous. Thus, Batesian mimics should probably encounter strong predation pressure outside the geographical range of the model species. There are several documented examples of Batesian mimics occurring in locations without their models, but the evolutionary responses remain largely unidentified. A mimetic species has four alternative evolutionary responses to the loss of model presence. If predation is weak, it could maintain its mimetic signal. If predation is intense, it is widely presumed the mimic will go extinct. However, the mimic could also evolve a new colour pattern to mimic another model species or it could revert back to its ancestral, less conspicuous phenotype. We used molecular phylogenetic approaches to reconstruct and test the evolution of mimicry in the North American admiral butterflies (Limenitis: Nymphalidae). We confirmed that the more cryptic white-banded form is the ancestral phenotype of North American admiral butterflies. However, one species, Limenitis arthemis, evolved the black pipevine swallowtail mimetic form but later reverted to the white-banded more cryptic ancestral form. This character reversion is strongly correlated with the geographical absence of the model species and its host plant, but not the host plant distribution of L. arthemis. Our results support the prediction that a Batesian mimic does not persist in locations without its model, but it does not go extinct either. The mimic can revert back to its ancestral, less conspicuous form and persist.

  2. Axillary Meristem Formation in Rice Requires the WUSCHEL Ortholog TILLERS ABSENT1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Wakana; Ohmori, Yoshihiro; Ushijima, Tomokazu; Matsusaka, Hiroaki; Matsushita, Tomonao; Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Kawano, Shigeyuki; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Axillary shoot formation is a key determinant of plant architecture. Formation of the axillary shoot is regulated by initiation of the axillary meristem or outgrowth of the axillary bud. Here, we show that rice (Oryza sativa) TILLERS ABSENT1 (TAB1; also known as Os WUS), an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana WUS, is required to initiate axillary meristem development. We found that formation of the axillary meristem in rice proceeds via a transient state, which we term the premeristem, characterized by the expression of OSH1, a marker of indeterminate cells in the shoot apical meristem. In the tab1-1 (wus-1) mutant, however, formation of the axillary meristem is arrested at various stages of the premeristem zone, and OSH1 expression is highly reduced. TAB1/WUS is expressed in the premeristem zone, where it shows a partially overlapping pattern with OSH1. It is likely, therefore, that TAB1 plays an important role in maintaining the premeristem zone and in promoting the formation of the axillary meristem by promoting OSH1 expression. Temporal expression patterns of WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX4 (WOX4) indicate that WOX4 is likely to regulate meristem maintenance instead of TAB1 after establishment of the axillary meristem. Lastly, we show that the prophyll, the first leaf in the secondary axis, is formed from the premeristem zone and not from the axillary meristem. PMID:25841039

  3. FOXL2 mutation is absent in uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Sarah; Staats, Paul N; Senz, Janine; Kommoss, Friedrich; De Nictolis, Michele; Huntsman, David G; Gilks, C Blake; Oliva, Esther

    2015-05-01

    Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCTs) are rare uterine neoplasms characterized by pure or predominant epithelial-like patterns that share morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features with ovarian sex cord tumors. FOXL2 immunoexpression has recently been found in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary, including granulosa cell tumors, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, thecomas, and fibromas, but mutations have been identified mostly in adult granulosa cell tumors. In this study, we investigated FOXL2 mutation status and protein expression in UTROSCTs. Mutational analysis using a TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction-based allelic discrimination assay was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 15 UTROSCTs. FOXL2 mutation was absent in all tumors. FOXL2 immunoexpression was tested in all 15 tumors. Intensity of staining was scored as weak, moderate, or strong. Percentage of tumor cells with nuclear staining was recorded as follows: 0 (negative); 1+ (1% to 25%); 2+ (26% to 50%); 3+ (51% to 75%); and 4+ (76% to 100%). Nuclear expression of FOXL2 was present in 6 of 15 (40%) UTROSCTs. One tumor demonstrated strong 4+ staining. Moderate expression was seen in 3 cases, including 2 and 1 showing 2+ and 1+ staining, respectively. Weak expression was observed in 2 tumors demonstrating 3+ and 1+ staining. Although UTROSCTs show overlapping morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features with sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary, they do not harbor FOXL2 mutation despite focal immunoreactivity in a subset of these tumors.

  4. Hypoxia Induces an Immunodominant Target of Tuberculosis Specific T Cells Absent from Common BCG Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Gideon, Hannah Priyadarshini; Wilkinson, Katalin Andrea; Rustad, Tige R.; Oni, Tolu; Guio, Heinner; Kozak, Robert Andrew; Sherman, David R.; Meintjes, Graeme; Behr, Marcel A.; Vordermeier, Hans Martin; Young, Douglas Brownlee; Wilkinson, Robert John

    2010-01-01

    M. tuberculosis (MTB) species-specific antigenic determinants of the human T cell response are important for immunodiagnosis and vaccination. As hypoxia is a stimulus in chronic tuberculosis infection, we analyzed transcriptional profiles of MTB subject to 168 hours of hypoxia to test the hypothesis that upregulation by hypoxia might result in gene products being recognized as antigens. We identified upregulation of two region of difference (RD) 11 (Rv2658C and Rv2659c), and one RD2 (Rv1986) absent from commonly used BCG strains. In MTB infected persons, the IL-2 ELISpot response to Rv1986 peptides was several times greater than the corresponding IFN-γ response to the reference immunodominant ESAT-6 or CFP-10 antigens. The IL-2 response was confined to two epitopic regions containing residues 61–80 and 161–180. The biggest population of IL-2 secreting T cells was single cytokine positive central memory T cells. The IL-2 response to live MTB bacilli lacking Rv1986 was significantly lower than the response to wild type or mutant complemented with Rv1986. In addition, the IL-2 response to Rv1986 was significantly lower in HIV-TB co-infected persons than in HIV uninfected persons, and significantly increased during antiretroviral therapy. These findings demonstrate that Rv1986 is an immunodominant target of memory T cells and is therefore of relevance when considering the partial efficacy of currently used BCG vaccines and provide evidence for a clinical trial comparing BCG strains. PMID:21203487

  5. Identification of Transcriptional Targets of the Dual Function Transcription Factor/Phosphatase Eyes Absent

    PubMed Central

    Jemc, Jennifer; Rebay, Ilaria

    2007-01-01

    Drosophila eye specification and development relies on a collection of transcription factors termed the retinal determination gene network (RDGN). Two members of this network, Eyes absent (EYA) and Sine oculis (SO), form a transcriptional complex in which EYA provides the transactivation function while SO provides the DNA binding activity. EYA also functions as a protein tyrosine phosphatase, raising the question of whether transcriptional output is dependent or independent of phosphatase activity. To explore this, we used microarrays together with binding site analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation, genetics and in vivo expression analysis to identify new EYA-SO targets. In parallel, we examined the expression profiles of tissue expressing phosphatase mutant eya and found that reducing phosphatase activity did not globally impair transcriptional output. Among the targets identified by our analysis was the cell cycle regulatory gene, string (stg), suggesting that EYA and SO may influence cell proliferation through transcriptional regulation of stg. Future investigation into the regulation of stg and other EYA-SO targets identified in this study will help elucidate the transcriptional circuitries whereby output from the RDGN integrates with other signaling inputs to coordinate retinal development. PMID:17714699

  6. Effect of absent end diastolic flow velocity in the fetal umbilical artery on subsequent outcome

    PubMed Central

    Adiotomre, P.; Johnstone, F.; Laing, I.

    1997-01-01

    Sixty babies, delivered over a six and a half year period, who had absent end diastolic frequency (AEDF) in the umbilical artery, were studied. Individually matched control pregnancies for gestational age, birthweight, maternal clinical condition and date of delivery, in whom umbilical artery recordings showed end diastolic frequency, were also studied.
  Matching was achieved in 36 cases. Neonates from case pregnancies showed no increase in necrotising enterocolitis, intraventricular haemorrhage, pneumo-thorax, neonatal death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. However, they were significantly less likely to require ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome (P=0.02).
  Although AEDF indicates a fetus under vascular stress, this finding alone will include a spectrum of response in the baby, from the well compensated to the irreversibly damaged. Delivery at different points in the deteriorating fetal environment may explain discrepant study results. This intrauterine stress, by increasing fetal corticosteroid and thyroid hormones, may account for enhanced lung maturity. Predictions of neonatal course need to be based on more comprehensive awareness of fetal status.

 Keywords: high risk pregnancies; end diastolic flow velocity; ventilation; respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:9059184

  7. Terminal hemimelia of the lower extremity: absent lateral ray and a normal fibula

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Chung, Moon Sang; Lee, Sang Ki

    2007-01-01

    Congenital lateral ray deficiency is considered to be a manifestation of fibular hemimelia. However, we have noted patients with absent lateral ray but stable knee and ankle joints, and named this condition terminal hemimelia of the lower extremity. This study was undertaken to further define this group of patients and to compare these patients with fibular hemimelia patients. Four boys and one girl of mean age six years two months were in the terminal hemimelic group and four boys and three girls of mean age eight years seven months in the fibular hemimelic group at the final evaluation. Clinical features commonly observed in the fibular hemimelia such as knee valgus, knee instability, tibial bowing, ball and socket ankle, ankle instability, tarsal coalition, leg length inequality were compared between both groups. Terminal hemimelia of the lower extremity was the same as fibular hemimelia in clinical features below the ankle joint. However, terminal hemimela was found to be milder than fibular hemimelia in terms of limb shortening. The clinical features above the ankle joint were different between both groups. Knees and ankles were stable, and gait disturbance were rarely noticed in patients with terminal hemimelia of the lower extremity. PMID:17558505

  8. Axillary Meristem Formation in Rice Requires the WUSCHEL Ortholog TILLERS ABSENT1.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Wakana; Ohmori, Yoshihiro; Ushijima, Tomokazu; Matsusaka, Hiroaki; Matsushita, Tomonao; Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Kawano, Shigeyuki; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2015-04-01

    Axillary shoot formation is a key determinant of plant architecture. Formation of the axillary shoot is regulated by initiation of the axillary meristem or outgrowth of the axillary bud. Here, we show that rice (Oryza sativa) TILLERS ABSENT1 (TAB1; also known as Os WUS), an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana WUS, is required to initiate axillary meristem development. We found that formation of the axillary meristem in rice proceeds via a transient state, which we term the premeristem, characterized by the expression of OSH1, a marker of indeterminate cells in the shoot apical meristem. In the tab1-1 (wus-1) mutant, however, formation of the axillary meristem is arrested at various stages of the premeristem zone, and OSH1 expression is highly reduced. TAB1/WUS is expressed in the premeristem zone, where it shows a partially overlapping pattern with OSH1. It is likely, therefore, that TAB1 plays an important role in maintaining the premeristem zone and in promoting the formation of the axillary meristem by promoting OSH1 expression. Temporal expression patterns of WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX4 (WOX4) indicate that WOX4 is likely to regulate meristem maintenance instead of TAB1 after establishment of the axillary meristem. Lastly, we show that the prophyll, the first leaf in the secondary axis, is formed from the premeristem zone and not from the axillary meristem. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  9. Ventricular function during supine bicycle exercise in univentricular connection with absent right atrioventricular connection.

    PubMed

    Akagi, T; Benson, L N; Green, M; De Souza, M; Harder, J R; Gilday, D L; Freedom, R M

    1991-06-01

    Fourteen patients with univentricular connection, absent right connection (tricuspid valve atresia) and normally related great arteries underwent rest and supine bicycle exercise equilibrium radionuclide blood pool studies. Ejection fraction, heart rate, systemic blood pressure and oxygen saturation (ear oximetry) were measured. There were 6 male and 8 female patients. Mean age +/- standard error of the mean was 14.5 +/- 1.1 years (range 6.3 to 21.1). Eight patients (group 1) had systemic to pulmonary shunts placed as palliation 8.2 +/- 2.2 years before study and 6 patients (group II) had caval to pulmonary shunts placed 11.8 +/- 1.6 years previously. Ejection fraction at rest was 54 +/- 2% and an abnormal response to exercise (failure of ejection fraction to increase greater than or equal to 5% from rest to peak exercise) was found in 9 of 14 patients. When analyzed separately, ejection fraction at rest in group I was higher than in group II; however, this difference disappeared at peak exercise. There was a significant negative correlation between ejection fraction at peak exercise and the interval since palliative surgery, although it was not apparent at rest. These data suggest that ventricular function is compromised during exercise and that abnormal performance is influenced by long-standing volume overload. Importantly, this abnormal state is concealed at rest and the choice of palliative shunting procedure appears to have little effect on normalizing pump performance.

  10. Molecular genetic analysis of Drosophila eyes absent mutants reveals an eye enhancer element.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, J E; Bui, Q T; Liu, H; Bonini, N M

    2000-01-01

    The eyes absent (eya) gene is critical for normal eye development in Drosophila and is highly conserved to vertebrates. To define regions of the gene critical for eye function, we have defined the mutations in the four viable eya alleles. Two of these mutations are eye specific and undergo transvection with other mutations in the gene. These were found to be deletion mutations that remove regulatory sequence critical for eye cell expression of the gene. Two other viable alleles cause a reduced eye phenotype and affect the function of the gene in additional tissues, such as the ocelli. These mutations were found to be insertion mutations of different transposable elements within the 5' UTR of the transcript. Detailed analysis of one of these revealed that the transposable element has become subject to regulation by eye enhancer sequences of the eya gene, disrupting normal expression of EYA in the eye. More extended analysis of the deletion region in the eye-specific alleles indicated that the deleted region defines an enhancer that activates gene expression in eye progenitor cells. This enhancer is responsive to ectopic expression of the eyeless gene. This analysis has defined a critical regulatory region required for proper eye expression of the eya gene. PMID:10628984

  11. Molecular analysis of Drosophila eyes absent mutants reveals features of the conserved Eya domain.

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Q T; Zimmerman, J E; Liu, H; Bonini, N M

    2000-01-01

    The eyes absent (eya) gene is critical to eye formation in Drosophila; upon loss of eya function, eye progenitor cells die by programmed cell death. Moreover, ectopic eya expression directs eye formation, and eya functionally synergizes in vivo and physically interacts in vitro with two other genes of eye development, sine oculis and dachshund. The Eya protein sequence, while highly conserved to vertebrates, is novel. To define amino acids critical to the function of the Eya protein, we have sequenced eya alleles. These mutations have revealed that loss of the entire Eya Domain is null for eya activity, but that alleles with truncations within the Eya Domain display partial function. We then extended the molecular genetic analysis to interactions within the Eya Domain. This analysis has revealed regions of special importance to interaction with Sine Oculis or Dachshund. Select eya missense mutations within the Eya Domain diminished the interactions with Sine Oculis or Dachshund. Taken together, these data suggest that the conserved Eya Domain is critical for eya activity and may have functional subregions within it. PMID:10835393

  12. What explains rare and conspicuous colours in a snail? A test of time-series data against models of drift, migration or selection

    PubMed Central

    Johannesson, K; Butlin, R K

    2017-01-01

    It is intriguing that conspicuous colour morphs of a prey species may be maintained at low frequencies alongside cryptic morphs. Negative frequency-dependent selection by predators using search images (‘apostatic selection') is often suggested without rejecting alternative explanations. Using a maximum likelihood approach we fitted predictions from models of genetic drift, migration, constant selection, heterozygote advantage or negative frequency-dependent selection to time-series data of colour frequencies in isolated populations of a marine snail (Littorina saxatilis), re-established with perturbed colour morph frequencies and followed for >20 generations. Snails of conspicuous colours (white, red, banded) are naturally rare in the study area (usually <10%) but frequencies were manipulated to levels of ~50% (one colour per population) in 8 populations at the start of the experiment in 1992. In 2013, frequencies had declined to ~15–45%. Drift alone could not explain these changes. Migration could not be rejected in any population, but required rates much higher than those recorded. Directional selection was rejected in three populations in favour of balancing selection. Heterozygote advantage and negative frequency-dependent selection could not be distinguished statistically, although overall the results favoured the latter. Populations varied idiosyncratically as mild or variable colour selection (3–11%) interacted with demographic stochasticity, and the overall conclusion was that multiple mechanisms may contribute to maintaining the polymorphisms. PMID:27649616

  13. Antibiotics conspicuously affect community profiles and richness, but not the density of bacterial cells associated with mucosa in the large and small intestines of mice.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Nathan J; Uwiera, Richard R E; Yanke, L Jay; Selinger, L Brent; Inglis, G Douglas

    2012-02-01

    The influence of three antibiotics (bacitracin, enrofloxacin, and neomycin sulfate) on the mucosa-associated enteric microbiota and the intestines of mice was examined. Antibiotics caused conspicuous enlargement of ceca and an increase in overall length of the intestine. However, there were no pathologic changes associated with increased cecal size or length of the intestine. Conspicuous reductions in the richness of mucosa-associated bacteria and changes to community profiles within the small (duodenum, proximal jejunum, middle jejunum, distal jejunum, and ileum) and large (cecum, ascending colon, and descending colon) intestine occurred in mice administered antibiotics. Communities in antibiotic-treated mice were dominated by a limited number of Clostridium-like (i.e. clostridial cluster XIVa) and Bacteroides species. The richness of mucosa-associated communities within the small and large intestine increased during the 14-day recovery period. However, community profiles within the large intestine did not return to baseline (i.e. relative to the control). Although antibiotic administration greatly reduced bacterial richness, densities of mucosa-associated bacteria were not reduced correspondingly. These data showed that the antibiotics, bacitracin, enrofloxacin, and neomycin sulfate, administered for 21 days to mice did not sterilize the intestine, but did impart a tremendous and prolonged impact on mucosa-associated bacterial communities throughout the small and large intestine.

  14. Duck TRIM27-L enhances MAVS signaling and is absent in chickens and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Alysson H; Miranzo-Navarro, Domingo; Campbell, Lee K; Aldridge, Jerry R; Webster, Robert G; Magor, Katharine E

    2015-10-01

    Wild waterfowl, including mallard ducks, are the natural reservoir of avian influenza A virus and they are resistant to strains that would cause fatal infection in chickens. Here we investigate potential involvement of TRIM proteins in the differential response of ducks and chickens to influenza. We examine a cluster of TRIM genes located on a single scaffold in the duck genome, which is a conserved synteny group with a TRIM cluster located in the extended MHC region in chickens and turkeys. We note a TRIM27-like gene is present in ducks, and absent in chickens and turkeys. Orthologous genes are predicted in many birds and reptiles, suggesting the gene has been lost in chickens and turkeys. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) we show that TRIM27-L, and the related TRIM27.1, are upregulated 5- and 9-fold at 1 day post-infection with highly pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/2004. To assess whether TRIM27.1 or TRIM27-L are involved in modulation of antiviral gene expression, we overexpressed them in DF1 chicken cells, and neither show any direct effect on innate immune gene expression. However, when co-transfected with duck RIG-I-N (d2CARD) to constitutively activate the MAVS pathway, TRIM27.1 weakly decreases, while TRIM27-L strongly activates innate immune signaling leading to increased transcription of antiviral genes MX1 and IFN-β. Furthermore, when both are co-expressed, the activation of the MAVS signaling pathway by TRIM27-L over-rides the inhibition by TRIM27.1. Thus, ducks have an activating TRIM27-L to augment MAVS signaling following RIG-I detection, while chickens lack both TRIM27-L and RIG-I itself.

  15. Is CFTR-delF508 Really Absent from the Apical Membrane of the Airway Epithelium?

    PubMed Central

    Borthwick, Lee A.; Botha, Phil; Verdon, Bernard; Brodlie, Malcolm J.; Gardner, Aaron; Bourn, David; Johnson, Gail E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding where mutant CFTR is localised in airway epithelia is essential in guiding the best therapeutic approach to correct the dysfunction of the CFTR protein. The widely held paradigm is that CF patients harbouring the commonest mutation, CFTR-delF508, trap CFTR within the endoplasmic reticulum and target it for degradation. However there are conflicting reports concerning expression and localisation of CFTR-delF508 in lung tissue. To attempt to resolve this fundamental issue we developed a novel approach to measure CFTR-delF508 in the lower airways of patients who have undergone lung transplantation for advanced CF. By sampling CF and non-CF epithelium simultaneously from the same individual, confounding factors of different airway microenvironments which may have influenced previous observations can be overcome. Methods Epithelia sampled by bronchial brushing above (CF) and below (non-CF) the bronchial anastomosis were stained for CFTR and the localisation and level of expression assessed (n = 12). Results There was no significant difference in the proportion of tall columnar cells showing CFTR immunostaining as a discrete band at the apical membrane in cells harbouring the CFTR-delF508 mutation compared to non-CF cells (p = 0.21, n = 12). However, the amount of CFTR expressed at the apical surface was reduced by ∼50% in CF cells compared to non-CF cells (p = 0.04, n = 5). Conclusions Our novel observation challenges the prevailing paradigm that CFTR is essentially absent from the apical membrane of respiratory cells harbouring the CFTR-delF508 mutation. Moreover, it raises the possibility that the new generation of CFTR potentiators may offer a realistic therapeutic option for CF patients. PMID:21826241

  16. Drosophila Eyes Absent Is Required for Normal Cone and Pigment Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Karandikar, Umesh C.; Jin, Meng; Jusiak, Barbara; Kwak, SuJin; Chen, Rui; Mardon, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    In Drosophila, development of the compound eye is orchestrated by a network of highly conserved transcriptional regulators known as the retinal determination (RD) network. The retinal determination gene eyes absent (eya) is expressed in most cells within the developing eye field, from undifferentiated retinal progenitors to photoreceptor cells whose differentiation begins at the morphogenetic furrow (MF). Loss of eya expression leads to an early block in retinal development, making it impossible to study the role of eya expression during later steps of retinal differentiation. We have identified two new regulatory regions that control eya expression during retinal development. These two enhancers are necessary to maintain eya expression anterior to the MF (eya-IAM) and in photoreceptors (eya-PSE), respectively. We find that deleting these enhancers affects developmental events anterior to the MF as well as retinal differentiation posterior to the MF. In line with previous results, we find that reducing eya expression anterior to the MF affects several early steps during early retinal differentiation, including cell cycle arrest and expression of the proneural gene ato. Consistent with previous observations that suggest a role for eya in cell proliferation during early development we find that deletion of eya-IAM leads to a marked reduction in the size of the adult retinal field. On the other hand, deletion of eya-PSE leads to defects in cone and pigment cell development. In addition we find that eya expression is necessary to activate expression of the cone cell marker Cut and to regulate levels of the Hedgehog pathway effector Ci. In summary, our study uncovers novel aspects of eya-mediated regulation of eye development. The genetic tools generated in this study will allow for a detailed study of how the RD network regulates key steps in eye formation. PMID:25057928

  17. Late outcomes for the surgical management of absent pulmonary valve syndrome in infants

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Renjie; Zhang, Haibo; Xu, Zhiwei; Liu, Jinfen; Su, Zhaokang; Ding, Wenxiang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Absent pulmonary valve syndrome (APVS) is a rare cardiac malformation that is usually associated with aneurysmal dilatation of pulmonary arteries and respiratory distress. The surgical mortality of neonates and infants with APVS has decreased tremendously, from 60% in 1980s to 10–20% recently. This study retrospectively reviews surgical outcomes of our 10-year experience in patients with APVS. METHODS From 2002 to 2012, 42 patients with APVS underwent surgical correction. Thirty-seven patients had APVS as a variant of tetralogy of Fallot, 4 with double outlet right ventricle and 1 with ventricular septal defect. Respiratory distress was present in 12 infants. Four patients needed continuous positive airway pressure and 5 required intubation with mechanical ventilation before surgery. RESULTS There was no hospital death and 3 late deaths. The mean follow-up time was 62.71 ± 34.31 months. Significant differences were found in the duration of postoperative ventilation between patients with or without respiratory distress (P = 0.009) and patients with left or right aortic arch (P = 0.012). The Kaplan–Meier curve indicated that overall survival at 5 and 10 years was 92.4%. The survival rates between patients with or without respiratory distress were 72.7 and 100%, respectively (P = 0.003). Overall mortality was associated with longer cardiopulmonary bypass time (P = 0.004) and lower weight at operation (P = 0.042). There were no significant differences in survival and postoperative data such as the duration of ventilation or intensive care unit stay and New York Heart Association class among the three methods of right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstruction. CONCLUSIONS Surgical treatment of APVS has got favourable outcomes in terms of mortality and reoperation rate. Different methods of RVOT reconstruction do not affect the surgical outcome. Patients required long-term follow-up for postoperative respiratory complications secondary to persistent

  18. Femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome with bifid hallux, absent tibia, and macrophallus: a report of a Bedouin baby.

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, M A; Obenbergerova, D; Al-Sawan, R; Saleh, Q A; Farah, S; Al-Awadi, S A; Farag, T I

    1996-01-01

    A male Bedouin baby with the clinical profile of femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome is described. The phenotype includes bilateral asymmetrical lower limb hypoplasia/aplasia with short remnants of both femora, absent right tibia, bifid right big toe, dysmorphic facies, thoracic/pelvic abnormalities, macrophallus, and bilateral cryptorchidism. This report re-emphasises the previously described rare association of femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome with preaxial polydactyly and suggests that the clinical spectrum of the syndrome could be stretched further to accommodate other unusual traits, for example, macrophallus and absent tibia. Images PMID:8929957

  19. Ventilation-perfusion-chest radiography match is less likely to represent pulmonary embolism if perfusion is decreased rather than absent.

    PubMed

    Kim, C K; Worsley, D F; Alavi, A

    2000-09-01

    The authors' goal was to determine whether the prevalence of pulmonary embolism in patients with matching ventilation-perfusion (V-Q) defects and chest radiographic opacities differs depending on the degree of perfusion deficit (absent versus decreased). The authors performed a retrospective analysis of the data obtained from the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) study. In 233 patients, angiograms were of diagnostic quality for 275 lung zones that showed matching V-Q defects and chest radiographic opacities (triple matches). Of these, V-Q scans and chest radiographs from 217 patients with triple matches in 255 lung zones were retrieved and reviewed. Areas corresponding to chest radiographic opacities were scored as having either decreased perfusion or absent perfusion by consensus. Information regarding the presence or absence of pulmonary embolism in corresponding lung zones was obtained from the PIOPED database. The overall prevalence of pulmonary embolism in all lung zones with triple matches was 27% (69 of 255). Of the 255 areas of triple matches, the perfusion was decreased in 153 (60%) and absent in 102 (40%). The prevalence of pulmonary embolism in areas of triple matches with decreased perfusion and triple matches with absent perfusion was 13% (20 of 153) and 48% (49 of 102), respectively (P = 0.0001 by the chi-square test). When these were divided further by lung zones, triple matches with decreased perfusion and triple matches with absent perfusion in the upper-middle lung zone were associated with a prevalence of 0% (O of 44), and 25% (9 of 36), respectively. The prevalence of pulmonary embolism in areas of triple matches with decreased perfusion and triple matches with absent perfusion in the lower lung zone was 18% (20 of 109), and 61% (40 of 66), respectively. A V-Q/chest radiographic match is less likely to represent pulmonary embolism if perfusion is decreased rather than absent. The overall prevalence of pulmonary

  20. Purinergic neuromuscular transmission is absent in the colon of P2Y1 knocked out mice

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Diana; Gil, Víctor; Martínez-Cutillas, Míriam; Mañé, Noemí; Martín, Maria Teresa; Jiménez, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Purinergic and nitrergic co-transmission is the dominant mechanism responsible for neural-mediated smooth muscle relaxation in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the present paper was to test whether or not P2Y1 receptors are involved in purinergic neurotransmission using P2Y1−/− knock-out mice. Tension and microelectrode recordings were performed on colonic strips. In wild type (WT) animals, electrical field stimulation (EFS) caused an inhibitory junction potential (IJP) that consisted of a fast IJP (MRS2500 sensitive, 1 μm) followed by a sustained IJP (Nω-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA) sensitive, 1 mm). The fast component of the IJP was absent in P2Y1−/− mice whereas the sustained IJP (l-NNA sensitive) was recorded. In WT animals, EFS-induced inhibition of spontaneous motility was blocked by the consecutive addition of l-NNA and MRS2500. In P2Y1−/− mice, EFS responses were completely blocked by l-NNA. In WT and P2Y1−/− animals, l-NNA induced a smooth muscle depolarization but ‘spontaneous’ IJP (MRS2500 sensitive) could be recorded in WT but not in P2Y1−/− animals. Finally, in WT animals, 1 μm MRS2365 caused a smooth muscle hyperpolarization that was blocked by 1 μm MRS2500. In contrast, 1 μm MRS2365 did not modify smooth muscle resting membrane potential in P2Y1−/− mice. β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD, 1 mm) partially mimicked the effect of MRS2365. We conclude that P2Y1 receptors mediate purinergic neurotransmission in the gastrointestinal tract and β-NAD partially fulfils the criteria to participate in rodent purinergic neurotransmission. The P2Y1−/− mouse is a useful animal model to study the selective loss of purinergic neurotransmission. PMID:22371472

  1. 1H–NMR Metabolomic Biomarkers of Poor Outcome after Hemorrhagic Shock are Absent in Hibernators

    PubMed Central

    Bogren, Lori K.; Murphy, Carl J.; Johnston, Erin L.; Sinha, Neeraj; Serkova, Natalie J.; Drew, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    rats. These same biomarkers are absent in AGS after HS with warm I/R. PMID:25211248

  2. Effect of surface structure on the dynamic magnetic response in Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddar, P.; Swaminathan, R.

    2005-03-01

    Surface magnetic spin structure plays a dominant role in determining the effective anisotropy in magnetic nanostructures. To probe the anisotropy in nanoparticle systems, we have developed an RF transverse susceptibility technique based on a resonant tunnel-diode oscillator (TDO). Transverse susceptibility measurements were performed on NiZn ferrite nanoparticles (synthesized using a RF induction plasma torch) over a wide temperature range (10K to 300K) and magnetic fields (-10kOe to 10kOe). As-synthesized polydisperse nanoparticles showed broad peaks at the characteristic anisotropy fields that are attributed to the presence of both the (100) and (111) surfaces and their respective surface anisotropy contributions. The peak positions and heights were found to be sensitive to the particle size dispersion and surface magnetic spin structure. The polydisperse particles were coated with oleic acid and size-selected using ultra-centrifugation. The anisotropy peaks are conspicuously absent in the size-selected smaller nanoparticles. This is understood within the framework of a surface structure model based on isotropic canted triangular spin structures on the dominant (111) surfaces in the smallest nanoparticles. Work at USF supported by NSF through Grant No. CTS-0408933. RS and MEM thank the Institute of Complex Engineering Systems (ICES), CMU for support.

  3. Deficits of Semantic Control Produce Absent or Reverse Frequency Effects in Comprehension: Evidence from Neuropsychology and Dual Task Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almaghyuli, Azizah; Thompson, Hannah; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Patients with multimodal semantic impairment following stroke (referred to here as "semantic aphasia" or SA) fail to show the standard effects of frequency in comprehension tasks. Instead, they show absent or even "reverse" frequency effects: i.e., better understanding of less common words. In addition, SA is associated with poor regulatory…

  4. The Concept of the Absent Curriculum: The Case of the Muslim Contribution and the English National Curriculum for History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Matthew L. N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of the "absent curriculum" on the premise that the study of curriculum has been prone to privileging curricular presence to the exclusion of curricular absence. In order to address this imbalance and to articulate a theory of absence in the curriculum, the paper applies ideas derived from the philosophy…

  5. The Concept of the Absent Curriculum: The Case of the Muslim Contribution and the English National Curriculum for History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Matthew L. N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of the "absent curriculum" on the premise that the study of curriculum has been prone to privileging curricular presence to the exclusion of curricular absence. In order to address this imbalance and to articulate a theory of absence in the curriculum, the paper applies ideas derived from the philosophy…

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic investigations on a βγ-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), a protein from Homo sapiens

    SciTech Connect

    Aravind, Penmatsa; Rajini, Bheemreddy; Sharma, Yogendra; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan

    2006-03-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of AIM1g1, a βγ-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma (AIM1) protein from H. sapiens, is reported. AIM1g1 is a single βγ-crystallin domain from the protein absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), which appears to play a role in the suppression of melanomas. This domain is known to bind calcium and its structure would help in identifying calcium-coordinating sites in vertebrate crystallins, which have hitherto been believed to have lost this ability during evolution. Crystallization of this domain was performed by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals diffracted to a maximum resolution of 1.86 Å and were found to belong to space group P6{sub 1} or P6{sub 5}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 54.98, c = 59.73 Å. Solvent-content analysis indicated the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit.

  7. Effect of a Noise-Optimized Second-Generation Monoenergetic Algorithm on Image Noise and Conspicuity of Hypervascular Liver Tumors: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Marin, Daniele; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Gupta, Sonia; Fu, Wanyi; Stinnett, Sandra S; Mileto, Achille; Bellini, Davide; Patel, Bhavik; Samei, Ehsan; Nelson, Rendon C

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the reduction in noise using a second-generation monoenergetic algorithm can improve the conspicuity of hypervascular liver tumors on dual-energy CT (DECT) images of the liver. An anthropomorphic liver phantom in three body sizes and iodine-containing inserts simulating hypervascular lesions was imaged with DECT and single-energy CT at various energy levels (80-140 kV). In addition, a retrospective clinical study was performed in 31 patients with 66 hypervascular liver tumors who underwent DECT during the late hepatic arterial phase. Datasets at energy levels ranging from 40 to 80 keV were reconstructed using first- and second-generation monoenergetic algorithms. Noise, tumor-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and CNR with a noise constraint (CNRNC) set with a maximum noise increase of 50% were calculated and compared among the different reconstructed datasets. The maximum CNR for the second-generation monoenergetic algorithm, which was attained at 40 keV in both phantom and clinical datasets, was statistically significantly higher than the maximum CNR for the first-generation monoenergetic algorithm (p < 0.001) or single-energy CT acquisitions across a wide range of kilovoltage values. With the second-generation monoenergetic algorithm, the optimal CNRNC occurred at 55 keV, corresponding to lower energy levels compared with first-generation algorithm (predominantly at 70 keV). Patient body size did not substantially affect the selection of the optimal energy level to attain maximal CNR and CNRNC using the second-generation monoenergetic algorithm. A noise-optimized second-generation monoenergetic algorithm significantly improves the conspicuity of hypervascular liver tumors.

  8. Breccias and Geological Setting of the Santa Fe, New Mexico USA Impact Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegtmeier, E. L.; Newsom, H. E.; Elston, W. E.; McElvain, T. H.

    Primary evidence for the new Santa Fe impact structure consists of spectacular shatter cones. In addition, breccia pods that form conspicuous walls in the region may have been emplaced from above into zones of subcrater dilation.

  9. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Kolle, Stefan; Weaver, James C.; Ortiz, Christine; Aizenberg, Joanna; Kolle, Mathias

    2015-02-01

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic architecture embedded within the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Patella pellucida. The bright colour of the limpet’s stripes originates from light interference in a periodically layered zig-zag architecture of crystallographically co-oriented calcite lamellae. Beneath the photonic multilayer, a disordered array of light-absorbing particles provides contrast for the blue colour. This unique mineralized manifestation of a synergy of two distinct optical elements at specific locations within the continuum of the limpet’s translucent protective shell ensures the vivid shine of the blue stripes, which can be perceived under water from a wide range of viewing angles. The stripes’ reflection band coincides with the spectral range of minimal light absorption in sea water, raising intriguing questions regarding their functional significance.

  10. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Kolle, Stefan; Weaver, James C; Ortiz, Christine; Aizenberg, Joanna; Kolle, Mathias

    2015-02-26

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic architecture embedded within the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Patella pellucida. The bright colour of the limpet's stripes originates from light interference in a periodically layered zig-zag architecture of crystallographically co-oriented calcite lamellae. Beneath the photonic multilayer, a disordered array of light-absorbing particles provides contrast for the blue colour. This unique mineralized manifestation of a synergy of two distinct optical elements at specific locations within the continuum of the limpet's translucent protective shell ensures the vivid shine of the blue stripes, which can be perceived under water from a wide range of viewing angles. The stripes' reflection band coincides with the spectral range of minimal light absorption in sea water, raising intriguing questions regarding their functional significance.

  11. Embryonic developmental process governing the conspicuousness of body stripes and blue tail coloration in the lizard Plestiodon latiscutatus.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Takeo; Hasegawa, Masami

    2017-01-01

    The combination of body stripes and vivid blue tail color has independently evolved in different lizard families. To understand how and when lizards developed this coloration, we microscopically compared the embryonic development of pigment cells in two island populations of Plestiodon latiscutatus that exhibit either striped and blue tailed or inconspicuously striped and blue tailed juveniles, based on the newly determined 12 normal developmental stages of embryos from shortly after egg laying to just before hatching. We focus on the role of the melanophores in the body stripe and the role of iridophore morphotypes in the extent of blue tail coloration. The melanophore density in the black background region was higher in lizards with vivid stripes than in lizards with drab stripes. Iridophores started to fill the dermal space that was not yet occupied by melanophores, which resulted in a higher iridophore density in stripes than in the inter-stripe regions. We also discovered that iridophores with thin platelets reflecting blue structural coloration appeared at a specific region in the tail at stage 11. The position of the tail where iridophores emerged coincided with the boundary area separating anterior brown and green colored tail from posterior blue colored tail after hatching. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Kolle, Stefan; Weaver, James C.; Ortiz, Christine; Aizenberg, Joanna; Kolle, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic architecture embedded within the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Patella pellucida. The bright colour of the limpet’s stripes originates from light interference in a periodically layered zig-zag architecture of crystallographically co-oriented calcite lamellae. Beneath the photonic multilayer, a disordered array of light-absorbing particles provides contrast for the blue colour. This unique mineralized manifestation of a synergy of two distinct optical elements at specific locations within the continuum of the limpet’s translucent protective shell ensures the vivid shine of the blue stripes, which can be perceived under water from a wide range of viewing angles. The stripes’ reflection band coincides with the spectral range of minimal light absorption in sea water, raising intriguing questions regarding their functional significance. PMID:25716102

  13. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ling; Kolle, Stefan; Weaver, James C.; Ortiz, Christine; Aizenberg, Joanna; Kolle, Mathias

    2015-02-26

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic architecture embedded within the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Patella pellucida. The bright colour of the limpet’s stripes originates from light interference in a periodically layered zig-zag architecture of crystallographically co-oriented calcite lamellae. Beneath the photonic multilayer, a disordered array of light-absorbing particles provides contrast for the blue colour. This unique mineralized manifestation of a synergy of two distinct optical elements at specific locations within the continuum of the limpet’s translucent protective shell ensures the vivid shine of the blue stripes, which can be perceived under water from a wide range of viewing angles. The stripes’ reflection band coincides with the spectral range of minimal light absorption in sea water, raising intriguing questions regarding their functional significance.

  14. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Ling; Kolle, Stefan; Weaver, James C.; ...

    2015-02-26

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic architecture embedded within the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Patella pellucida. The bright colour of the limpet’s stripes originates from light interference in a periodically layered zig-zag architecture of crystallographically co-oriented calcite lamellae. Beneath the photonic multilayer, a disordered array of light-absorbing particles provides contrast for the blue colour. This unique mineralized manifestation of a synergy of two distinct optical elements at specific locations within the continuummore » of the limpet’s translucent protective shell ensures the vivid shine of the blue stripes, which can be perceived under water from a wide range of viewing angles. The stripes’ reflection band coincides with the spectral range of minimal light absorption in sea water, raising intriguing questions regarding their functional significance.« less

  15. Cytochrome 572 is a conspicuous membrane protein with iron oxidation activity purified directly from a natural acidophilic microbial community

    SciTech Connect

    Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Singer, Steven; Shah, Manesh B; Thelen, Michael P.; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2008-01-01

    We have discovered and characterized a novel membrane cytochrome of an iron oxidizing microbial biofilm obtained from the surface of extremely acidic mine water. This protein was initially identified through proteogenomic analysis as one of many novel gene products of Leptospirillum group II, the dominant bacterium of this community (Ram et al, 2005, Science 308, 1915-20). Extraction of proteins directly from environmental biofilm samples followed by membrane fractionation, detergent solubilization and gel filtration chromatography resulted in the purification of an abundant yellow-red protein. Covalently bound to heme, the purified cytochrome has a unique spectral signature at 572 nm and is thus called Cyt572. It readily oxidizes Fe2+ even in the presence of Fe3+ over a pH range from 0.95 to 3.4. Independent experiments involving 2D blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and chemical crosslinking establish a homotetrameric structure for Cyt572. Also, circular dichroism spectroscopy indicates that the protein is largely beta-stranded, consistent with an outer membrane location. Although no significant sequence homology to the full-length cytochrome is detected in protein databases, environmental DNA sequences from both Leptospirillum groups II and III reveal at least 17 strain variants of Cyt572. Due to its abundance, cellular location and Fe2+ oxidation activity, we propose Cyt572 is the iron oxidase of the Leptospirillum bacteria, providing a critical function for fitness within the ecological niche of this acidophilic microbial community.

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic investigations on a betagamma-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), a protein from Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Aravind, Penmatsa; Rajini, Bheemreddy; Sharma, Yogendra; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan

    2006-03-01

    AIM1g1 is a single betagamma-crystallin domain from the protein absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), which appears to play a role in the suppression of melanomas. This domain is known to bind calcium and its structure would help in identifying calcium-coordinating sites in vertebrate crystallins, which have hitherto been believed to have lost this ability during evolution. Crystallization of this domain was performed by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals diffracted to a maximum resolution of 1.86 A and were found to belong to space group P6(1) or P6(5), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 54.98, c = 59.73 A. Solvent-content analysis indicated the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit.

  17. Fetal MRI correlates with postnatal CT angiogram assessment of pulmonary anatomy in tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve.

    PubMed

    Sun, Heather Y; Boe, Justin; Rubesova, Erika; Barth, Richard A; Tacy, Theresa A

    2014-01-01

    In tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve, pulmonary stenosis and regurgitation results in significant pulmonary artery dilatation. Branch pulmonary artery dilatation often compresses the tracheobronchial tree, causing fluid trapping in fetal life and air trapping and/or atelectasis after birth. Prenatal diagnosis predicts poor prognosis, which depends on the degree of respiratory insufficiency from airway compromise and lung parenchymal disease after birth. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been useful in evaluating the effects of congenital lung lesions on lung development and indicating severity of pulmonary hypoplasia. This report is the first demonstrating the utility of fetal MRI in tetralogy of Fallot/absent pulmonary valve patients, which predicted postnatal pulmonary artery size and visualized airway compression and lung parenchymal lesions. The distribution of lobar fluid trapping on fetal MRI correlated with air trapping on postnatal computed tomography angiogram. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Twenty Years of Anesthetic and Perioperative Management of Patients With Tetralogy of Fallot With Absent Pulmonary Valve.

    PubMed

    Jochman, John D; Atkinson, Douglas B; Quinonez, Luis G; Brown, Morgan L

    2017-06-01

    Review the authors' institutional experience of the induction and perioperative airway management of children with tetralogy of Fallot with an absent pulmonary valve. Retrospective chart review. Large academic children's hospital. Patients with the diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve undergoing primary cardiac repair over a 20-year period. None. Forty-four patients were identified with tetralogy of Fallot with an absent pulmonary valve from January 1995 through August 2014. Forty-two patients (95%) required surgery in their first year of life. Sixteen patients (36%) required mechanical ventilation preoperatively, including 11 neonates. Of the 28 patients not intubated preoperatively, only 1 (3.8%) exhibited minor airway obstruction following induction that was managed uneventfully. All intubations in the operating room were performed in the supine position. Five patients who were mechanically ventilated preoperatively in a lateral or prone position were supinated in the operating room without significant cardiopulmonary compromise. There were no patients who suffered cardiopulmonary arrest or required mechanical circulatory support. The median time to extubation was 2 days (range 1-13 days) in those patients who were not mechanically ventilated prior to their surgery. Ultimately, 5 patients required tracheostomy and 1 patient underwent lobectomy. Although, there was no mortality at 30 days, 4 children died within 1 year of their surgery. All the children who died had a genetic syndrome and required mechanical ventilation preoperatively. While there are theoretical concerns specific to the induction and airway management of tetralogy of Fallot with an absent pulmonary valve, there were no episodes of cardiorespiratory arrest or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the authors' series. Neonatal age at the time of surgery, preoperative need for mechanical ventilation, and concomitant genetic syndromes are risk factors for respiratory

  19. Echinorhynchus salmonis Müller, 1784 absent in Britain and Ireland: re-identification of museum specimens.

    PubMed

    Chubb, James C

    2004-03-01

    Collections of 'Echinorhynchus salmonis' from Britain and Ireland deposited in The Natural History Museum, London (1921.7.19.3-12 and 1952.10.30.122-127) were re-identified as Acanthocephalus clavula and Acanthocephalus lucii respectively. The amphipod, Pontoporeia affinis, European intermediate host of E. salmonis, does not occur in the British Isles, so it is concluded that E. salmonis is absent from British and Irish freshwater fishes.

  20. Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve in association with tetralogy of fallot and absent pulmonary valve syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abramian, A; Gembruch, U; Geipel, A; Müller, A M; Baier, B; Berg, C

    2011-01-01

    Ebstein's anomaly and absent pulmonary valve syndrome belong to the rarest congenital heart defects. Their association has never been reported so far. We present the unusual case of a fetus at 23 weeks of gestation with Ebstein's anomaly, tetralogy of Fallot, absent pulmonary valve and agenesis of the arterial duct. The main diagnostic features were apical displacement of the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve with an offset from the mitral valve of 8 mm, a pronounced atrialization of the right ventricle, a large malalignment ventricular septal defect with overriding aorta in combination with absence of the pulmonary valve leaflets, to and fro flow pattern over the stenotic pulmonary valve annulus, turbulent flow in the pulmonary trunk, massive dilatation of the pulmonary trunk plus the pulmonary arteries and a right aortic arch with retroesophageal course of an aberrant left subclavian artery. The arterial duct and the thymus were absent. The remaining fetal anatomy was unremarkable. Amniocentesis revealed a normal male karyotype; 22q11 microdeletion was ruled out. After being counseled on the unfavorable prognosis, the parents opted for termination of pregnancy. The prenatal cardiac findings were confirmed at autopsy; however, a severely hypoplastic thymus was found instead of the suspected aplasia. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The role of rare morph advantage and conspicuousness in the stable gold-dark colour polymorphism of a crater lake Midas cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Golcher-Benavides, Jimena; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Meyer, Axel

    2017-09-01

    Genetically based stable colour polymorphisms provide a unique opportunity to study the evolutionary processes that preserve genetic variability in the wild. Different mechanisms are proposed to promote the stability of polymorphisms, but only few empirical examples have been documented, resulting in an incomplete understanding of these mechanisms. A remarkable genetically determined stable colour polymorphism is found in the Nicaraguan Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus cf. citrinellus). All Midas cichlids start their life with a dark-grey coloration (dark morph), but individuals carrying the dominant "gold" allele (c. 10%) lose their melanophores later in life, revealing the underlying orange coloration (gold morph). How this polymorphism is maintained remains unclear. Two main hypotheses have been proposed, both suggesting differential predation upon colour morphs as the proximate mechanism. One predicts that the conspicuous gold morph is more likely to be preyed upon, but this disadvantage is balanced by their competitive dominance over the dark morph. The second hypothesis suggests a rare morph advantage where the rarer gold morph experiences less predation. Empirical evidence for either of these mechanisms is still circumstantial and inconclusive. We conducted two field experiments in a Nicaraguan crater lake using wax models simulating both morphs to determine predation pressure upon Midas cichlid colour morphs. First, we tested the interaction of coloration and depth on attack rate. Second, we tested the interaction of fish size and coloration. We contrasted the pattern of attacks from these experiments to the predicted predation patterns from the hypotheses proposed to explain the colour polymorphism's stability. Large models imitating colour morphs were attacked at similar rates irrespectively of their position in the water column. Yet, attacks upon small models resembling juveniles were directed mainly towards dark models. This resulted in a

  2. Structural Mapping of Folded Sedimentary Environments from Satellite Images: an Example from Central Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leith, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the Tadjik Depression, in Soviet Central Asia, in the absence of existing geologic or topographic maps, an enhanced LANDSAT multispectral scanner image was used in combination with field data to produce a 1:250000 geologic map of the Vakhsh fold-and-thrust belt and adjacent autochthon. Several structural conclusions are reached as a result of this mapping. Deformation of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata of the fold-and-thrust belt is, in the central Tadjik Depression, conspicuously absent north of a buried basement fault that marks the hinge-zone of the Late Mesozoic passive margin. But, in the eastern half of the depression, thrusting has moved coherent sheets northward, over the block fault, these sheets now lie flat atop the autochthon to the north. The crustal structure inherited from the Mesozoic extensional phase has strongly influenced the Late Cenozoic pattern of deformation, producing the fold-and-thrust belt that is markedly asymmetric. The development of the thrust system has included the progressive overlapping of thrust: the later thrusts apparently formed internal to the older thrusts, and subsequently overrode them.

  3. Structural Mapping of Folded Sedimentary Environments from Satellite Images: an Example from Central Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leith, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the Tadjik Depression, in Soviet Central Asia, in the absence of existing geologic or topographic maps, an enhanced LANDSAT multispectral scanner image was used in combination with field data to produce a 1:250000 geologic map of the Vakhsh fold-and-thrust belt and adjacent autochthon. Several structural conclusions are reached as a result of this mapping. Deformation of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata of the fold-and-thrust belt is, in the central Tadjik Depression, conspicuously absent north of a buried basement fault that marks the hinge-zone of the Late Mesozoic passive margin. But, in the eastern half of the depression, thrusting has moved coherent sheets northward, over the block fault, these sheets now lie flat atop the autochthon to the north. The crustal structure inherited from the Mesozoic extensional phase has strongly influenced the Late Cenozoic pattern of deformation, producing the fold-and-thrust belt that is markedly asymmetric. The development of the thrust system has included the progressive overlapping of thrust: the later thrusts apparently formed internal to the older thrusts, and subsequently overrode them.

  4. American Art of Conspicuous Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Aurelia

    1999-01-01

    Characterizes the use of recycling "junk" as a means for creating art by exploring various recycling traditions that are present in the United States. Demonstrates to students that "junk" can be fashioned into beautiful works of art. Offers four works of art and provides discussion questions and project ideas for each artwork. (CMK)

  5. Pre-fusion F is absent on the surface of formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus

    PubMed Central

    Killikelly, April M.; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Graham, Barney S.

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a licensed vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can be partly attributed to regulatory hurdles resulting from vaccine enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) subsequent to natural RSV infection that was observed in clinical trials of formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) in antigen-naïve infants. To develop an effective vaccine that does not enhance RSV illness, it is important to understand how formalin and heat inactivation affected the antigenicity and immunogenicity of FI-RSV compared to native virus. Informed by atomic structures of RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein in prefusion (pre-F) and postfusion (post-F) conformations, we demonstrate that FI-RSV predominately presents post-F on the virion surface, whereas infectious RSV presents both pre-F and post-F conformations. This significant antigenic distinction has not been previously appreciated. Thus, a stabilized pre-F antigen is more representative of live RSV than F in its post-F conformation, as displayed on the surface of FI-RSV. This finding has major implications for discriminating current pre-F-based immunogens from FI-RSV used in historical vaccine trials. PMID:27682426

  6. Discovery of common sequences absent in the human reference genome using pooled samples from next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Koyutürk, Mehmet; Maxwell, Sean; Xiang, Min; Veigl, Martina; Cooper, Richard S; Tayo, Bamidele O; Li, Li; LaFramboise, Thomas; Wang, Zhenghe; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Chance, Mark R

    2014-08-16

    Sequences up to several megabases in length have been found to be present in individual genomes but absent in the human reference genome. These sequences may be common in populations, and their absence in the reference genome may indicate rare variants in the genomes of individuals who served as donors for the human genome project. As the reference genome is used in probe design for microarray technology and mapping short reads in next generation sequencing (NGS), this missing sequence could be a source of bias in functional genomic studies and variant analysis. One End Anchor (OEA) and/or orphan reads from paired-end sequencing have been used to identify novel sequences that are absent in reference genome. However, there is no study to investigate the distribution, evolution and functionality of those sequences in human populations. To systematically identify and study the missing common sequences (micSeqs), we extended the previous method by pooling OEA reads from large number of individuals and applying strict filtering methods to remove false sequences. The pipeline was applied to data from phase 1 of the 1000 Genomes Project. We identified 309 micSeqs that are present in at least 1% of the human population, but absent in the reference genome. We confirmed 76% of these 309 micSeqs by comparison to other primate genomes, individual human genomes, and gene expression data. Furthermore, we randomly selected fifteen micSeqs and confirmed their presence using PCR validation in 38 additional individuals. Functional analysis using published RNA-seq and ChIP-seq data showed that eleven micSeqs are highly expressed in human brain and three micSeqs contain transcription factor (TF) binding regions, suggesting they are functional elements. In addition, the identified micSeqs are absent in non-primates and show dynamic acquisition during primate evolution culminating with most micSeqs being present in Africans, suggesting some micSeqs may be important sources of human

  7. Comparison of Smoking, Drinking, and Marijuana Use between Students Present or Absent on the Day of a School-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovet, Pascal; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Faeh, David; Warren, Wick

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this population-based survey was to compare the prevalence of selected risk behaviors between students present or absent on the day of a school-based survey. The study population was a representative sample of all students of secondary schools in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean). Students absent on the day of the survey were traced and…

  8. Comparison of Smoking, Drinking, and Marijuana Use between Students Present or Absent on the Day of a School-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovet, Pascal; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Faeh, David; Warren, Wick

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this population-based survey was to compare the prevalence of selected risk behaviors between students present or absent on the day of a school-based survey. The study population was a representative sample of all students of secondary schools in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean). Students absent on the day of the survey were traced and…

  9. Here! But What about Those Who Are Not? Reinforcement among Chronically Absent Elementary Students, Its Effectiveness, and the Why behind the Absences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickelhaupt, Delane L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a description of an action research (AR) study done with chronically absent elementary school students. The AR sought to answer these questions: 1) do reinforcement and daily check-ins increase attendance and 2) why are some students absent? Related literature regarding attendance and the methods used for the study are described and…

  10. Bare lymphocyte syndrome. Consequences of absent class II major histocompatibility antigen expression for B lymphocyte differentiation and function.

    PubMed Central

    Clement, L T; Plaeger-Marshall, S; Haas, A; Saxon, A; Martin, A M

    1988-01-01

    The bare lymphocyte syndrome is a rare combined immunodeficiency disorder associated with the absence of class I and/or class II major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens. Although it has been inferred that the immune deficiency is a consequence of disordered MHC-restricted interactions among otherwise normal cells, the biological capabilities and differentiation of B lymphocytes deficient in class II MHC antigens have not been rigorously analyzed. We have examined the phenotypic and functional attributes of B cells with absent class II MHC antigens. Our data demonstrate that these B cells are intrinsically defective in their responses to membrane-mediated activation stimuli. In addition, virtually all the B cells had phenotypic evidence of arrested differentiation at an immature stage. Finally, these B cells also failed to express the C3d-EBV receptor normally present on all B lymphocytes. These data indicate that class II MHC molecules are vital participants in early events of the B cell activation cascade, and that other non-MHC membrane molecules may also be absent as a consequence of either arrested differentiation or as a result of the basic defect affecting the expression of MHC membrane antigens. PMID:3257764

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of absent pulmonary valve syndrome: report of 2 cases, most common and most rare presentations.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Alpana N; Rane, Hema S; Kamble, Rajesh C; Mestry, Pravin J; Maniar, Hemal; Shah, Yatin

    2010-05-01

    Absent pulmonary valve syndrome (APVS) is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly. Two variants of this anomaly are known. The postnatal outcome is generally poor. We report 2 patients who were referred to us for fetal echocardiography after abnormal findings on detailed sonography. We discuss the fetal echocardiographic features of this rare cardiac anomaly. We analyzed the fetal echocardiographic findings of APVS in the 2 patients. The study was performed on an ultrasound machine using a convex transducer and fetal echocardiographic presets. The axis, size, and situs of the heart were evaluated. Color and spectral Doppler evaluations of both inflow and outflow tracts were done, and M-mode measurements of the cardiac chambers and great arteries were obtained. Both patients had APVS. One fetus had the typical features of APVS, with a dilated pulmonary artery and branches, a subaortic ventricular septal defect, overriding of the aorta, and ductal agenesis. There was typical to-and-fro flow noted on color and spectral Doppler imaging. The other fetus showed rare findings of APVS, with an intact ventricular septum (IVS) and a patent ductus arteriosus associated with functional tricuspid atresia. Antenatal diagnosis of the common variant (associated with tetralogy of Fallot) of APVS is easy because of its typical features of a dilated main pulmonary and branch arteries and color Doppler detection of severe stenosis and insufficiency of the functionally absent pulmonary valve. However, the second variant of APVS can have various findings, which can make a specific diagnosis difficult.

  12. Absent or compressed basal cisterns on first CT scan: ominous predictors of outcome in severe head injury.

    PubMed

    Toutant, S M; Klauber, M R; Marshall, L F; Toole, B M; Bowers, S A; Seelig, J M; Varnell, J B

    1984-10-01

    The relationship of outcome to the appearance of the basal cisterns as seen on initial computerized tomography (CT) scanning was assessed in 218 consecutive severely head-injured patients entered into the second phase of the National Pilot Traumatic Coma Data Bank. Outcome could be directly related to the status of the basal cisterns on the initial CT scan. The mortality rates were 77%, 39%, and 22% among those with absent, compressed, and normal basal cisterns, respectively. This association between cisterns and outcome was shown to be strong after adjusting for Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (p less than 0.001). The state of the cisterns was more important for those with higher GCS scores (scores 6 to 8) than for those with lower scores (scores 3 to 5). Patients with GCS scores of 6 to 8, with cisterns absent or not visualized, suffered nearly a fourfold additional risk of poor outcome, compared to those with normal cisterns. This indicates that the status of the cisterns can be used as an early noninvasive method of identifying patients at high risk of death or severe disability, in whom the initial neurological examination would potentially suggest otherwise.

  13. Comparison of synthetic mammography, reconstructed from digital breast tomosynthesis, and digital mammography: evaluation of lesion conspicuity and BI-RADS assessment categories.

    PubMed

    Mariscotti, Giovanna; Durando, Manuela; Houssami, Nehmat; Fasciano, Mirella; Tagliafico, Alberto; Bosco, Davide; Casella, Cristina; Bogetti, Camilla; Bergamasco, Laura; Fonio, Paolo; Gandini, Giovanni

    2017-08-17

    To compare the interpretive performance of synthetic mammography (SM), reconstructed from digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), and full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in a diagnostic setting, covering different conditions of breast density and mammographic signs. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 231 patients, who underwent FFDM and DBT (from which SM images were reconstructed) between September 2014-September 2015. The study included 250 suspicious breast lesions, all biopsy proven: 148 (59.2%) malignant and 13 (5.2%) high-risk lesions were confirmed by surgery, 89 (35.6%) benign lesions had radiological follow-up. Two breast radiologists, blinded to histology, independently reviewed all cases. Readings were performed with SM alone, then with FFDM, collecting data on: probability of malignancy for each finding, lesion conspicuity, mammographic features and dimensions of detected lesions. Agreement between readers was good for BI-RADS classification (Cohen's k-coefficient = 0.93 ± 0.02) and for lesion dimension (Wilcoxon's p = 0.76). Visibility scores assigned to SM and FFDM for each lesion were similar for non-dense and dense breasts, however, there were significant differences (p = 0.0009) in distribution of mammographic features subgroups. SM and FFDM had similar sensitivities in non-dense (respectively 94 vs. 91%) and dense breasts (88 vs. 80%) and for all mammographic signs (93 vs. 87% for asymmetric densities, 96 vs. 75% for distortion, 92 vs. 85% for microcalcifications, and both 94% for masses). Based on all data, there was a significant difference in sensitivity for SM (92%) vs. FFDM (87%), p = 0.02, whereas the two modalities yielded similar results for specificity (SM: 60%, FFDM: 62%, p = 0.21). SM alone showed similar interpretive performance to FFDM, confirming its potential role as an alternative to FFDM in women having tomosynthesis, with the added advantage of halving the patient's dose exposure.

  14. Sources of Variation in a Two-Step Monitoring Protocol for Species Clustered in Conspicuous Points: Dolichotis patagonum as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Alonso Roldán, Virginia; Bossio, Luisina; Galván, David E.

    2015-01-01

    In species showing distributions attached to particular features of the landscape or conspicuous signs, counts are commonly made by making focal observations where animals concentrate. However, to obtain density estimates for a given area, independent searching for signs and occupancy rates of suitable sites is needed. In both cases, it is important to estimate detection probability and other possible sources of variation to avoid confounding effects on measurements of abundance variation. Our objective was to assess possible bias and sources of variation in a two-step protocol in which random designs were applied to search for signs while continuously recording video cameras were used to perform abundance counts where animals are concentrated, using mara (Dolichotis patagonum) as a case study. The protocol was successfully applied to maras within the Península Valdés protected area, given that the protocol was logistically suitable, allowed warrens to be found, the associated adults to be counted, and the detection probability to be estimated. Variability was documented in both components of the two-step protocol. These sources of variation should be taken into account when applying this protocol. Warren detectability was approximately 80% with little variation. Factors related to false positive detection were more important than imperfect detection. The detectability for individuals was approximately 90% using the entire day of observations. The shortest sampling period with a similar detection capacity than a day was approximately 10 hours, and during this period, the visiting dynamic did not show trends. For individual mara, the detection capacity of the camera was not significantly different from the observer during fieldwork. The presence of the camera did not affect the visiting behavior of adults to the warren. Application of this protocol will allow monitoring of the near-threatened mara providing a minimum local population size and a baseline for

  15. Absent menstrual periods - primary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hormones play a big role in a woman's menstrual cycle. Hormone problems can occur when: Changes occur to ... the brain where hormones that help manage the menstrual cycle are produced. The ovaries are not working correctly. ...

  16. Absent pulmonary valve

    MedlinePlus

    ... body. The skin will have a blue appearance (cyanosis), because the body's blood contains a low amount ... but may include: Blue coloring to the skin (cyanosis) Coughing Failure to thrive Poor appetite Rapid breathing ...

  17. Examining clinicians’ experiences providing sexual health services for LGBTQ youth: considering social and structural determinants of health in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Knight, R. E.; Shoveller, J. A.; Carson, A. M.; Contreras-Whitney, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Although barriers related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) youth’s experiences accessing sexual health services have been examined in detail, research into the experiences and perceptions of clinicians providing these services has been conspicuously absent. The aim of this article is to explore the perceptions and experiences of clinicians providing sexual health services for LGBTQ youth. Drawing on in-depth, semi-structured interviews, this study examines 24 clinicians’ experiences providing sexual health services to LGBTQ youth in five communities in British Columbia, Canada. Our findings reveal how many clinicians provide services to LGBTQ youth with a lack of cultural competency—either implicitly (e.g. by describing heteronormative practices) or explicitly (e.g. by expressing frustration that they had not been sufficiently provided with appropriate training related to LGBTQ youth sexual health). Institutional norms and values were identified as the dominant barriers in the effective provision of LGBTQ-tailored services. Many clinicians find themselves unprepared to provide culturally competent sexual health services that have both the capacity to address individual-level issues (e.g. promoting condom use) while considering (and adapting services to) the broader socio-cultural and structural conditions that can render LGBTQ youth socially vulnerable. PMID:24412811

  18. Examining clinicians' experiences providing sexual health services for LGBTQ youth: considering social and structural determinants of health in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Knight, R E; Shoveller, J A; Carson, A M; Contreras-Whitney, J G

    2014-08-01

    Although barriers related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) youth's experiences accessing sexual health services have been examined in detail, research into the experiences and perceptions of clinicians providing these services has been conspicuously absent. The aim of this article is to explore the perceptions and experiences of clinicians providing sexual health services for LGBTQ youth. Drawing on in-depth, semi-structured interviews, this study examines 24 clinicians' experiences providing sexual health services to LGBTQ youth in five communities in British Columbia, Canada. Our findings reveal how many clinicians provide services to LGBTQ youth with a lack of cultural competency-either implicitly (e.g., by describing heteronormative practices) or explicitly (e.g., by expressing frustration that they had not been sufficiently provided with appropriate training related to LGBTQ youth sexual health). Institutional norms and values were identified as the dominant barriers in the effective provision of LGBTQ-tailored services. Many clinicians find themselves unprepared to provide culturally competent sexual health services that have both the capacity to address individual-level issues (e.g. promoting condom use) while considering (and adapting services to) the broader socio-cultural and structural conditions that can render LGBTQ youth socially vulnerable. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Rare Site of Parasitic Dermoid Cyst at Uterovesical Fold of Peritoneum with Absent One-Sided Adnexa

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Alka; Ballega, Puneeti; Punia, RPS

    2016-01-01

    Teratomas are the most common type of germ cell tumour. It can be congenital or acquired and are usually found in gonads (testes and ovaries). Parasitic dermoid cysts are rare and their actual incidence is unknown. We are reporting a case of 25-year-old gravida two, para one and one living child, who underwent emergency cesarean section in view of symptomatic placenta previa. A parasitic dermoid cyst was found incidently in front of uterus which was attached to uterovasical fold of bladder. This cyst did not show any connection to uterus or adnexa. Uterus, uterine cavity, right side tube and ovary were normal. Her left sided fallopian tube and ovary was completely absent. She did not have any symptoms related to the dermoid cyst. Histopathology confirmed parasitic mature dermoid cyst. PMID:28208952

  20. Rare Site of Parasitic Dermoid Cyst at Uterovesical Fold of Peritoneum with Absent One-Sided Adnexa.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Sunita; Sehgal, Alka; Ballega, Puneeti; Punia, Rps

    2016-12-01

    Teratomas are the most common type of germ cell tumour. It can be congenital or acquired and are usually found in gonads (testes and ovaries). Parasitic dermoid cysts are rare and their actual incidence is unknown. We are reporting a case of 25-year-old gravida two, para one and one living child, who underwent emergency cesarean section in view of symptomatic placenta previa. A parasitic dermoid cyst was found incidently in front of uterus which was attached to uterovasical fold of bladder. This cyst did not show any connection to uterus or adnexa. Uterus, uterine cavity, right side tube and ovary were normal. Her left sided fallopian tube and ovary was completely absent. She did not have any symptoms related to the dermoid cyst. Histopathology confirmed parasitic mature dermoid cyst.

  1. Absent cervical spine pedicle and associated congenital spinal abnormalities - a diagnostic trap in a setting of acute trauma: case report.

    PubMed

    Guggenberger, Roman; Andreisek, Gustav; Scheffel, Hans; Wildermuth, Simon; Leschka, Sebastian; Stolzmann, Paul

    2010-11-09

    Congenital spinal abnormalities can easily be misdiagnosed on plain radiographs. Additional imaging is warranted in doubtful cases, especially in a setting of acute trauma. This patient presented at the emergency unit of our university hospital after a motor vehicle accident and was sent to our radiology department for imaging of the cervical spine. Initial clinical examination and plain radiographs of the cervical spine were performed but not conclusive. Additional CT of the neck helped establish the right diagnosis. CT as a three-dimensional imaging modality with the possibility of multiplanar reconstructions allows for the exact diagnosis and exclusion of acute traumatic lesions of the cervical spine, especially in cases of doubtful plain radiographs and when congenital spinal abnormalities like absent cervical spine pedicle with associated spina bifida may insinuate severe trauma.

  2. Absent cervical spine pedicle and associated congenital spinal abnormalities - a diagnostic trap in a setting of acute trauma: case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Congenital spinal abnormalities can easily be misdiagnosed on plain radiographs. Additional imaging is warranted in doubtful cases, especially in a setting of acute trauma. Case Presentation This patient presented at the emergency unit of our university hospital after a motor vehicle accident and was sent to our radiology department for imaging of the cervical spine. Initial clinical examination and plain radiographs of the cervical spine were performed but not conclusive. Additional CT of the neck helped establish the right diagnosis. Conclusion CT as a three-dimensional imaging modality with the possibility of multiplanar reconstructions allows for the exact diagnosis and exclusion of acute traumatic lesions of the cervical spine, especially in cases of doubtful plain radiographs and when congenital spinal abnormalities like absent cervical spine pedicle with associated spina bifida may insinuate severe trauma. PMID:21062465

  3. Vestibular responses to linear acceleration are absent in otoconia-deficient C57BL/6JEi-het mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Erway, L. C.; Bergstrom, R. A.; Schimenti, J. C.; Jones, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    Vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs) were measured in normal mice and in mice homozygous for the head tilt mutation (het/het, abbr. het). The het mice lack otoconia, the inertial mass critical for natural stimulation of inner ear gravity receptors. Our findings demonstrate that vestibular neural responses to pulsed linear acceleration are absent in het mice. The results: (1) confirm that adequate sensory stimuli fail to activate gravity receptors in the het model; and (2) serve as definitive evidence that far-field vestibular responses to pulsed linear acceleration depend critically on otolith end organs. The C57BL/6JEi-het mouse may be an excellent model of gravity receptor sensory deprivation.

  4. Tricuspid atresia with absent pulmonary valve and intact ventricular septum: intrauterine course and outcome of an unusual congenital heart defect.

    PubMed

    Lato, K; Gembruch, U; Geipel, A; Lachmann, R; Schneider, M; Hraska, V; Berg, C

    2010-02-01

    The extremely rare syndrome including absent pulmonary valve associated with membranous tricuspid atresia or severe tricuspid stenosis, intact ventricular septum and patent ductus arteriosus has been reported sporadically in the postnatal literature. This cardiac defect is characterized by right ventricular dysplasia with asymmetrical ventricular septal hypertrophy, ventricular septum bulging into the left ventricle, small right ventricular cavity, membranous tricuspid atresia or severe stenosis with abnormal papillary muscles and leaflets and absence of the pulmonary valve leaflets. The only prenatal case reported so far was diagnosed at 33 weeks of gestation and terminated shortly thereafter; the natural history of prenatally diagnosed cases is therefore unknown. We report on the intrauterine course of a case diagnosed at 17 weeks of gestation that had a favorable postnatal outcome after palliation.

  5. Associative history affects the associative change undergone by both presented and absent cues in human causal learning.

    PubMed

    LePelley, M E; McLaren, I P L

    2004-01-01

    R. A. Rescorla (2000) noted that a number of influential theories of associative learning do not take the associative history of cues (i.e., the prior training that they have received) into account when calculating the associative change undergone by those cues. The authors tested this assumption in a human causal learning paradigm and found associative history to be an important determinant of the learning undergone by cues that are presented on a trial. Moreover, associative history was also found to influence the amount of retrospective revaluation undergone by absent cues. These findings conflict with models of causal learning in which the associative change undergone by an element of a cue compound is governed by a summed error term (e.g., R. A. Rescorla & A. R. Wagner, 1972).

  6. Characterization of the first intragenic SATB2 duplication in a girl with intellectual disability, nearly absent speech and suspected hypodontia.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Ann-Sophie; Maas, Bianca; Wolff, Anna; Sutter, Christian; Janssen, Johannes W G; Hinderhofer, Katrin; Moog, Ute

    2015-05-01

    SATB2, a gene encoding a highly conserved DNA-binding protein, is known to have an important role in craniofacial and neuronal development. Only a few patients with SATB2 variants have been described so far. Recently, Döcker et al provided a summary of these patients and delineated the SAS (SATB2-associated syndrome). We here report on a girl with intellectual disability, nearly absent speech and suspected hypodontia who was shown to carry an intragenic SATB2 tandem duplication hypothesized to lead to haploinsufficiency of SATB2. Preliminary information on this patient had already been included in the article by Döcker et al. We want to give a detailed description of the patient's phenotype and genotype, providing further insight into the spectrum of the molecular mechanisms leading to SAS.

  7. Issues in motorcycle sensory and cognitive conspicuity: the impact of motorcycle low-beam headlights and riding experience on drivers' decisions to turn across the path of a motorcycle.

    PubMed

    Mitsopoulos-Rubens, Eve; Lenné, Michael G

    2012-11-01

    Crashes involving a passenger car and a motorcycle, where the car is turning across the path of the motorcycle, are a major crash type of motorcycle riders. It has been proposed that the incidence of such crashes could be reduced through improvements in motorcycle conspicuity. Operation of low-beam headlights on motorcycles has been discussed as one approach for improving the "sensory conspicuity" of motorcycles during daylight hours, whilst previous experience as a rider may serve to heighten "cognitive conspicuity" through raised awareness of motorcyclists on our roads. Twenty-three experienced car drivers with no riding experience ("drivers") and 20 experienced car drivers who were also motorcycle riders ("driver-riders") completed a series of trials in a driving simulator where their task in each trial was to turn ahead of an oncoming vehicle if they felt that they had sufficient room to do so safely. A key manipulation across trials was whether the oncoming vehicle was a motorcycle with headlights on, or a motorcycle with headlights off. Time gap (short, medium, long) was also manipulated. Results indicate that, at time gaps defined in the current study as short, low-beam headlights may confer some benefit in gap acceptance by encouraging drivers to accept fewer gaps ahead of a motorcycle with headlights on than ahead of a motorcycle with headlights off. No statistically significant differences in gap acceptance between the headlight conditions were found at either the medium or long time gaps. Irrespective of time gap, driver-riders were found to adopt a more efficient turn strategy than drivers with no direct riding experience. Overall, the present research provides support for the use of low-beam headlights and riding experience as tools through which to augment the sensory and cognitive conspicuity of motorcycles, respectively. It is proposed that further research aim to explore directly the precise mechanisms underlying the observed effects. Copyright

  8. An acetylated 120-kDa lysosomal transmembrane protein is absent from mucopolysaccharidosis IIIC fibroblasts: a candidate molecule for MPS IIIC.

    PubMed

    Ausseil, Jérôme; Landry, Karine; Seyrantepe, Volkan; Trudel, Stéphanie; Mazur, Alexander; Lapointe, Fanny; Pshezhetsky, Alexey V

    2006-01-01

    Genetic deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme, acetyl-CoA: alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase (N-acetyltransferase), which catalyses the transmembrane acetylation of heparan sulfate results in severe neurodegenerative disease, mucopolysaccharidosis IIIC. N-Acetyltransferase has never been characterized structurally and its gene has never been identified. We combined traditional methods of enzyme purification with organellar proteomics, isolating lysosomal membranes from mouse liver using differential centrifugation and osmolysis, followed by detergent extraction and purification of N-acetyltransferase by liquid chromatography. Partially purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 240 kDa and pI of 7.4 by gel filtration and chromatofocusing. Its specific activity varied with protein concentration typical of oligomeric enzymes or multienzyme complexes. Incubation of N-acetyltransferase with acetyl[14C]CoA in the absence of the acceptor of the acetyl group resulted in radioactive labeling of a 120-kDa polypeptide, suggesting that it represents a subunit containing the enzyme active site. Furthermore, following acetyl[14C]-labeling, the 120-kDa protein was present in the lysosomal membranes purified from the normal human skin fibroblasts but absent in those from the skin fibroblasts of MPS IIIC patients.

  9. The Histone Methyltransferase Gene Absent, Small, or Homeotic Discs-1 Like Is Required for Normal Hox Gene Expression and Fertility in Mice.

    PubMed

    Brinkmeier, Michelle L; Geister, Krista A; Jones, Morgan; Waqas, Meriam; Maillard, Ivan; Camper, Sally A

    2015-11-01

    Chromatin remodeling influences gene expression in developing and adult organisms. Active and repressive marks of histone methylation dictate the embryonic expression boundaries of developmentally regulated genes, including the Hox gene cluster. Drosophila ash1 (absent, small or homeotic discs 1) gene encodes a histone methyltransferase essential for regulation of Hox gene expression that interacts genetically with other members of the trithorax group (TrxG). While mammalian members of the mixed lineage leukemia (Mll) family of TrxG genes have roles in regulation of Hox gene expression, little is known about the expression and function of the mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila ash1 gene, Ash1-like (Ash1l). Here we report the expression of mouse Ash1l gene in specific structures within various organs and provide evidence that reduced Ash1l expression has tissue-specific effects on mammalian development and adult homeostasis. Mutants exhibit partially penetrant postnatal lethality and failure to thrive. Surviving mutants have growth insufficiency, skeletal transformations, and infertility associated with developmental defects in both male and female reproductive organs. Specifically, expression of Hoxa11 and Hoxd10 are altered in the epididymis of Ash1l mutant males and Hoxa10 is reduced in the uterus of Ash1l mutant females. In summary, we show that the histone methyltransferase Ash1l is important for the development and function of several tissues and for proper expression of homeotic genes in mammals. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  10. The Histone Methyltransferase Gene Absent, Small, or Homeotic Discs-1 Like Is Required for Normal Hox Gene Expression and Fertility in Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Brinkmeier, Michelle L.; Geister, Krista A.; Jones, Morgan; Waqas, Meriam; Maillard, Ivan; Camper, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling influences gene expression in developing and adult organisms. Active and repressive marks of histone methylation dictate the embryonic expression boundaries of developmentally regulated genes, including the Hox gene cluster. Drosophila ash1 (absent, small or homeotic discs 1) gene encodes a histone methyltransferase essential for regulation of Hox gene expression that interacts genetically with other members of the trithorax group (TrxG). While mammalian members of the mixed lineage leukemia (Mll) family of TrxG genes have roles in regulation of Hox gene expression, little is known about the expression and function of the mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila ash1 gene, Ash1-like (Ash1l). Here we report the expression of mouse Ash1l gene in specific structures within various organs and provide evidence that reduced Ash1l expression has tissue-specific effects on mammalian development and adult homeostasis. Mutants exhibit partially penetrant postnatal lethality and failure to thrive. Surviving mutants have growth insufficiency, skeletal transformations, and infertility associated with developmental defects in both male and female reproductive organs. Specifically, expression of Hoxa11 and Hoxd10 are altered in the epididymis of Ash1l mutant males and Hoxa10 is reduced in the uterus of Ash1l mutant females. In summary, we show that the histone methyltransferase Ash1l is important for the development and function of several tissues and for proper expression of homeotic genes in mammals. PMID:26333994

  11. Utility of virtual unenhanced images and split-bolus injection using spectral multidetector CT for the assessment of renal cell carcinoma conspicuity and radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Lin; Zeng, Hong; Sun, Changjiang; Huang, Ning; Zhang, Mengchao

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation dose and renal cell carcinoma conspicuity with virtual unenhanced images and split-bolus injection from spectral multidetector CT (MDCT). This prospective study was approved by the Ethics Committee, and informed consent was obtained. Ninety suspected patients of renal cell carcinoma diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and CEUS were randomly divided into two groups by a radiographer. Patients of the first group underwent spectral MDCT with virtual unenhanced imaging and split-bolus injection, while patients in the second group underwent conventional unenhanced as well as tri-phasic enhanced CT. Group A (split-bolus spectral MDCT group): The contrast material was administered at a dose of 1.5 mL/kg body weight at a flow rate of 4 mL/s, with a ratio of 7 to 5 before the CT scan with an interval of 60 seconds. Virtual unenhanced images were generated using a standard three-material decomposition algorithm, and the best mono-energy (keV) was calculated to show the tumour, renal artery and renal vein. Group B (conventional tri-phasic enhanced CT group): the contrast agent was injected with a dose of 1.5 mL/kg body weight at a flow rate of 4 mL/s. The corticomedullary phase scanning was performed once the arterial CT value reached 100 HU; the nephrographic phase was scanned 60 seconds later. And the excretory phase was scanned 5 min after onset of contrast injection. The LKR (lesion kidney ratio), CNR, and CT value of the corticomedullary and nephrographic phase were measured. The opacification of the renal collection system (including calices, infundibula and renal pelvis) was scored. The radiation dose was recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test, Fisher's exact test, the Mann-Whitney U-test, and k statistics. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in age, sex and body mass index (BMI), but there was significant difference in treatment methods

  12. Low kV versus dual-energy virtual monoenergetic CT imaging for proven liver lesions: what are the advantages and trade-offs in conspicuity and image quality? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hanson, G Jay; Michalak, Gregory J; Childs, Robert; McCollough, Brian; Kurup, Anil N; Hough, David M; Frye, Judson M; Fidler, Jeff L; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Halaweish, Ahmed F; Harmsen, W Scott; McCollough, Cynthia H; Fletcher, J G

    2017-10-05

    Single-energy low tube potential (SE-LTP) and dual-energy virtual monoenergetic (DE-VM) CT images both increase the conspicuity of hepatic lesions by increasing iodine signal. Our purpose was to compare the conspicuity of proven liver lesions, artifacts, and radiologist preferences in dose-matched SE-LTP and DE-VM images. Thirty-one patients with 72 proven liver lesions (21 benign, 51 malignant) underwent full-dose contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT (DECT). Half-dose images were obtained using single tube reconstruction of the dual-source SE-LTP projection data (80 or 100 kV), and by inserting noise into dual-energy projection data, with DE-VM images reconstructed from 40 to 70 keV. Three blinded gastrointestinal radiologists evaluated half-dose SE-LTP and DE-VM images, ranking and grading liver lesion conspicuity and diagnostic confidence (4-point scale) on a per-lesion basis. Image quality (noise, artifacts, sharpness) was evaluated, and overall image preference was ranked on per-patient basis. Lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was compared between techniques. Mean lesion size was 1.5 ± 1.2 cm. Across the readers, the mean conspicuity ratings for 40, 45, and 50 keV half-dose DE-VM images were superior compared to other half-dose image sets (p < 0.0001). Per-lesion diagnostic confidence was similar between half-dose SE-LTP compared to half-dose DE-VM images (p ≥ 0.05; 1.19 vs. 1.24-1.32). However, SE-LTP images had less noise and artifacts and were sharper compared to DE-VM images less than 70 keV (p < 0.05). On a per-patient basis, radiologists preferred SE-LTP images the most and preferred 40-50 keV the least (p < 0.0001). Lesion CNR was also higher in SE-LTP images than DE-VM images (p < 0.01). For the same applied dose level, liver lesions were more conspicuous using DE-VM compared to SE-LTP; however, SE-LTP images were preferred more than any single DE-VM energy level, likely due to lower noise and artifacts.

  13. The Accordion Maneuver: A Noninvasive Strategy for Absent or Delayed Callus Formation in Cases of Limb Lengthening

    PubMed Central

    Makhdom, Asim M.; Cartaleanu, Adrian Sever; Rendon, Juan Sebastian; Villemure, Isabelle; Hamdy, Reggie C.

    2015-01-01

    The distraction osteogenesis (DO) technique has been used worldwide to treat many orthopaedic conditions. Although successful, absent or delayed callus formation in the distraction gap can lead to significant morbidities. An alternate cycle of distraction-compression (accordion maneuver) is one approach to accelerate bone regeneration. The primary aim of our study is to report our experience with the accordion maneuver during DO and to provide a detailed description of this technique, as performed in our center. The secondary aim is to present a review of the literature regarding the use of accordion maneuver. We reviewed the database of all patients undergoing limb lengthening from the year of 1997 to 2012. Four patients (6.15%) out of 65 showed poor bone regenerate in their tibiae and therefore accordion maneuver was applied for a mean of 6.75 weeks. Of these, three patients have had successful outcome with this technique. The literature showed that this technique is successful approach to trigger bone healing. However, details of how and when to apply this combination of distraction-compression forces were lacking. In conclusion, the accordion technique is safe noninvasive approach to promote bone formation, thus avoiding more invasive surgical procedures in cases of poor callus formation in limb lengthening. PMID:26557996

  14. Update of guidelines for the prevention and treatment of infection in patients with an absent or dysfunctional spleen.

    PubMed

    Davies, J M; Barnes, R; Milligan, D

    2002-01-01

    Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of infection in patients with an absent or dysfunctional spleen were first published by the British Committee for Standards in Haematology in 1996. Key aspects of these guidelines related to anti-infective prophylaxis, immunisation schedules and treatment of proven or suspected infection. A recent review of the guidelines was undertaken, with a view to updating the recommendations where necessary The guideline review process did not reveal any major change in patient groups considered at risk. Occupational exposure to certain pathogens may, however, be a new risk factor for some infections. The recommendations for anti-infective prophylaxis remain unchanged. New recommendations for vaccination include the use of meningococcal group C vaccine in previously non-immunised hyposplenic patients and a need to consider the use of seven-valent pneumococcal vaccine. Recommendations for treatment of suspected or proven infection have not been significantly amended, but a local protocol should take into account relevant resistance patterns. There is an identified urgent need for further research into the effectiveness of varying vaccination strategies in the hyposplenic patient, and audit of infective episodes in this patient group should continue long term. Key guidelines are summarised below, together with grades of recommendation.

  15. Next-Generation Sequencing Techniques Reveal that Genomic Imprinting Is Absent in Day-Old Gallus gallus domesticus Brains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Li, Kaiyang; Zhang, Daixi; Li, Junying; Xu, Guiyun; Zheng, Jiangxia; Yang, Ning; Qu, Lujiang

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a phenomenon characterized by parent-of-origin-specific gene expression. While widely documented in viviparous mammals and plants, imprinting in oviparous birds remains controversial. Because genomic imprinting is temporal- and tissue-specific, we investigated this phenomenon only in the brain tissues of 1-day-old chickens (Gallus gallus). We used next-generation sequencing technology to compare four transcriptomes pooled from 11 chickens, generated from reciprocally crossed families, to the DNA sequences of their parents. Candidate imprinted genes were then selected from these sequence alignments and subjected to verification experiments that excluded all but one SNP. Subsequent experiments performed with two new sets of reciprocally crossed families resulted in the exclusion of that candidate SNP as well. Attempts to find evidence of genomic imprinting from long non-coding RNAs yielded negative results. We therefore conclude that genomic imprinting is absent in the brains of 1-day-old chickens. However, due to the temporal and tissue specificity of imprinting, our results cannot be extended to all growth stages and tissue types.

  16. Retinal Expression of the Drosophila eyes absent Gene Is Controlled by Several Cooperatively Acting Cis-regulatory Elements.

    PubMed

    Weasner, Bonnie M; Weasner, Brandon P; Neuman, Sarah D; Bashirullah, Arash; Kumar, Justin P

    2016-12-01

    The eyes absent (eya) gene of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a member of an evolutionarily conserved gene regulatory network that controls eye formation in all seeing animals. The loss of eya leads to the complete elimination of the compound eye while forced expression of eya in non-retinal tissues is sufficient to induce ectopic eye formation. Within the developing retina eya is expressed in a dynamic pattern and is involved in tissue specification/determination, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell fate choice. In this report we explore the mechanisms by which eya expression is spatially and temporally governed in the developing eye. We demonstrate that multiple cis-regulatory elements function cooperatively to control eya transcription and that spacing between a pair of enhancer elements is important for maintaining correct gene expression. Lastly, we show that the loss of eya expression in sine oculis (so) mutants is the result of massive cell death and a progressive homeotic transformation of retinal progenitor cells into head epidermis.

  17. Bilateral Malar Reconstruction Using Patient-Specific Polyether Ether Ketone Implants in Treacher-Collins Syndrome Patients With Absent Zygomas.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, David C G; George, Alan; Forrest, Christopher R; Phillips, John H

    2017-03-01

    The authors performed bilateral malar reconstruction using polyether ether ketone implants in 3 patients with Treacher-Collins syndrome with absent, as opposed to hypoplastic, zygomata. These patient-specific implants were fabricated using computed-aided design software reformatted from three-dimensional bony preoperative computed tomography images. The first time the authors performed this procedure the implant compressed the globe resulting in temporary anisocoria that was quickly recognized intraoperatively. The implant was immediately removed and the patient made a full-recovery with no ocular disturbance. The computer-aided design and manufacturing process was adjusted to include periorbital soft-tissue boundaries to aid in contouring the new implants. The same patient, and 2 further patients, subsequently underwent malar reconstruction using this soft tissue periorbital boundary fabrication process with an additional 2 mm relief removed from the implant's orbital surface. These subsequent procedures were performed without complication and with pleasing aesthetic results. The authors describe their experience and the salutary lessons learnt.

  18. Potential misdiagnosis of 3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase deficiency associated with absent or trace urinary 3-methylcrotonylglycine.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Lynne A; Finegold, David N; Vockley, Jerry; Walters, Nicole; Chambaz, Celine; Suormala, Terttu; Koch, Hans Georg; Matern, Dietrich; Barshop, Bruce A; Cropcho, Lorna J; Baumgartner, Matthias R; Gibson, K Michael

    2007-11-01

    We report 2 patients with isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase deficiency whose urine was devoid of, or contained only trace, 3-methylcrotonylglycine, the pathognomonic marker for this disorder. The first patient, a girl with trisomy 21, was detected through newborn screening with an elevated 5 carbon hydroxycarnitine species level, and the second patient came to clinical attention at the age of 5 months because of failure to thrive and developmental delay. Investigation of urinary organic acids revealed an elevated 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid level but no demonstrable 3-methylcrotonylglycine in both patients. Enzyme studies in cultured fibroblasts confirmed isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase deficiency with residual activities of 5% to 7% and 12% of the median control value, respectively. Incorporation of 14C-isovaleric acid into intact fibroblasts was essentially normal, showing that the overall pathway was at least partially functional and potentially explaining the absence of 3-methylcrotonylglycine in urine. Mutation analysis of the MCCA and MCCB genes revealed that both patients were compound heterozygous for a missense mutation, MCCB-c.1015G-->A (p.V339M), and a second mutation that leads to undetectable MCCB messenger (poly A+) RNA. Absent or trace 3-methylcrotonylglycine levels in urine raises the potential for misdiagnosis in the clinical biochemical genetics laboratory based solely on urine organic acid analysis using combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  19. Retinal Expression of the Drosophila eyes absent Gene Is Controlled by Several Cooperatively Acting Cis-regulatory Elements

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Sarah D.; Bashirullah, Arash; Kumar, Justin P.

    2016-01-01

    The eyes absent (eya) gene of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a member of an evolutionarily conserved gene regulatory network that controls eye formation in all seeing animals. The loss of eya leads to the complete elimination of the compound eye while forced expression of eya in non-retinal tissues is sufficient to induce ectopic eye formation. Within the developing retina eya is expressed in a dynamic pattern and is involved in tissue specification/determination, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell fate choice. In this report we explore the mechanisms by which eya expression is spatially and temporally governed in the developing eye. We demonstrate that multiple cis-regulatory elements function cooperatively to control eya transcription and that spacing between a pair of enhancer elements is important for maintaining correct gene expression. Lastly, we show that the loss of eya expression in sine oculis (so) mutants is the result of massive cell death and a progressive homeotic transformation of retinal progenitor cells into head epidermis. PMID:27930646

  20. The "eyes absent" (eya) gene in the eye-bearing hydrozoan jellyfish Cladonema radiatum: conservation of the retinal determination network.

    PubMed

    Graziussi, Daria Federica; Suga, Hiroshi; Schmid, Volker; Gehring, Walter Jakob

    2012-06-01

    Eyes absent (Eya) is a member of the Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN), a set of genes responsible for eye specification in Drosophila. Eya is a dual function protein, working as a transcription factor in the nucleus and as a tyrosine phosphatase in the cytoplasm. It had been shown that Pax and Six family genes, main components of the RDGN, are present in the hydrozoan Cladonema radiatum and that they are expressed in the eye. However, nothing had been known about the Eya family in hydrozoan jellyfish. Here we report the presence of an Eya homologue (CrEya) in Cladonema. Real-time PCR analysis and in situ hybridization showed that CrEya is expressed in the eye. Furthermore, the comprehensive survey of eukaryote genomes revealed that the acquisition of the N-terminal transactivation domain, including the EYA Domain 2 and its adjacent sequence shared by all eumetazoans, happened early in evolution, before the separation of Cnidaria and Bilateria. Our results uncover the evolution of the two domains and show a conservation of the expression pattern of the Eya gene between Cnidaria and Bilateria, which, together with previous data, supports the hypothesis of the monophyletic origin of metazoans eyes. We additionally show that CrEya is also expressed in the oocytes, where two other members of the RDGN, CrPaxB, and Six4/5-Cr, are known to be expressed. These data suggest that several members of the RDGN have begun to be localized also into the different context of egg development early in the course of metazoan evolution.

  1. It only takes once: The absent-exempt heuristic and reactions to comparison-based sexual risk information

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Michelle L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Beekman, Janine B.; Gerrard, Meg

    2015-01-01

    Three studies (N = 545) investigated the effects of social comparison on a type of heuristic called “absent-exempt” (AE; feeling exempt from future risk). Study 1 examined how comparison with an infected peer (comparison target) who was similar or non-similar in terms of sexual risk (number of partners, lack of condom use), influenced willingness and intentions to engage in sex without a condom and conditional perceived vulnerability to a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Participants generally reported lower willingness and higher conditional vulnerability if they compared with a similar-risk level target. However, high-risk students who compared with a low-risk comparison target engaged in what appeared to be AE thinking, reporting the highest willingness and lowest conditional vulnerability. Intentions to have sex without a condom were not influenced. Study 2 included a direct measure of AE thinking, and compared the impact of a low-risk comparison target with a Public Service Announcement (PSA) stating that negative outcomes (e.g., STDs) can happen even to low-risk targets. Among high-risk participants, comparing with the low-risk target led to an increase in AE thinking. As expected, the effects in Studies 1 and 2 were strongest among participants high in tendencies to socially compare. Study 3 explored whether AE thinking could be decreased by encouraging more reasoned processing. Results indicated that asking participants to think about the illogicality of AE thinking reduces AE endorsement and increases STD testing intentions. Findings suggest that comparison-based information can have a stronger influence on health cognitions than analytic-based information (e.g., most PSAs). Implications for dual-processing models of decision-making and their applicability to interventions and health messages are discussed. PMID:26098587

  2. Identification of novel direct targets of Drosophila Sine oculis and Eyes absent by integration of genome-wide data sets.

    PubMed

    Jin, Meng; Aibar, Sara; Ge, Zhongqi; Chen, Rui; Aerts, Stein; Mardon, Graeme

    2016-07-01

    Drosophila eye development is a complex process that involves many transcription factors (TFs) and interactions with their cofactors and targets. The TF Sine oculis (So) and its cofactor Eyes absent (Eya) are highly conserved and are both necessary and sufficient for eye development. Despite their many important roles during development, the direct targets of So are still largely unknown. Therefore the So-dependent regulatory network governing eye determination and differentiation is poorly understood. In this study, we intersected gene expression profiles of so or eya mutant eye tissue prepared from three different developmental stages and identified 1731 differentially expressed genes across the Drosophila genome. A combination of co-expression analyses and motif discovery identified a set of twelve putative direct So targets, including three known and nine novel targets. We also used our previous So ChIP-seq data to assess motif predictions for So and identified a canonical So binding motif. Finally, we performed in vivo enhancer reporter assays to test predicted enhancers from six candidate target genes and find that at least one enhancer from each gene is expressed in the developing eye disc and that their expression patterns overlap with that of So. We furthermore confirmed that the expression level of predicted direct So targets, for which antibodies are available, are reduced in so or eya post-mitotic knockout eye discs. In summary, we expand the set of putative So targets and show for the first time that the combined use of expression profiling of so with its cofactor eya is an effective method to identify novel So targets. Moreover, since So is highly conserved throughout the metazoa, our results provide the basis for future functional studies in a wide variety of organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytosine DNA methylation is found in Drosophila melanogaster but absent in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and other yeast species.

    PubMed

    Capuano, Floriana; Mülleder, Michael; Kok, Robert; Blom, Henk J; Ralser, Markus

    2014-04-15

    The methylation of cytosine to 5-methylcytosine (5-meC) is an important epigenetic DNA modification in many bacteria, plants, and mammals, but its relevance for important model organisms, including Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, is still equivocal. By reporting the presence of 5-meC in a broad variety of wild, laboratory, and industrial yeasts, a recent study also challenged the dogma about the absence of DNA methylation in yeast species. We would like to bring to attention that the protocol used for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry involved hydrolysis of the DNA preparations. As this process separates cytosine and 5-meC from the sugar phosphate backbone, this method is unable to distinguish DNA- from RNA-derived 5-meC. We employed an alternative LC-MS/MS protocol where by targeting 5-methyldeoxycytidine moieties after enzymatic digestion, only 5-meC specifically derived from DNA is quantified. This technique unambiguously identified cytosine DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana (14.0% of cytosines methylated), Mus musculus (7.6%), and Escherichia coli (2.3%). Despite achieving a detection limit at 250 attomoles (corresponding to <0.00002 methylated cytosines per nonmethylated cytosine), we could not confirm any cytosine DNA methylation in laboratory and industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces boulardii, Saccharomyces paradoxus, or Pichia pastoris. The protocol however unequivocally confirmed DNA methylation in adult Drosophila melanogaster at a value (0.034%) that is up to 2 orders of magnitude below the detection limit of bisulphite sequencing. Thus, 5-meC is a rare DNA modification in drosophila but absent in yeast.

  4. Proliferation of transformed somatotroph cells related to low or absent expression of protein kinase a regulatory subunit 1A protein.

    PubMed

    Lania, Andrea G; Mantovani, Giovanna; Ferrero, Stefano; Pellegrini, Caterina; Bondioni, Sara; Peverelli, Erika; Braidotti, Paola; Locatelli, Marco; Zavanone, Mario L; Ferrante, Emanuela; Bosari, Silvano; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Spada, Anna

    2004-12-15

    The two regulatory subunits (R1 and R2) of protein kinase A (PKA) are differentially expressed in cancer cell lines and exert diverse roles in growth control. Recently, mutations of the PKA regulatory subunit 1A gene (PRKAR1A) have been identified in patients with Carney complex. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of the PKA regulatory subunits R1A, R2A, and R2B in a series of 30 pituitary adenomas and the effects of subunit activation on cell proliferation. In these tumors, neither mutation of PRKAR1A nor loss of heterozygosity was identified. By real-time PCR, mRNA of the three subunits was detected in all of the tumors, R1A being the most represented in the majority of samples. By contrast, immunohistochemistry documented low or absent R1A levels in all tumors, whereas R2A and R2B were highly expressed, thus resulting in an unbalanced R1/R2 ratio. The low levels of R1A were, at least in part, due to proteasome-mediated degradation. The effect of the R1/R2 ratio on proliferation was assessed in GH3 cells, which showed a similar unbalanced pattern of R subunits expression, and in growth hormone-secreting adenomas. The R2-selective cAMP analog 8-Cl cAMP and R1A RNA silencing, stimulated cell proliferation and increased Cyclin D1 expression, respectively, in human and rat adenomatous somatotrophs. These data show that a low R1/R2 ratio promoted proliferation of transformed somatotrophs and are consistent with the Carney complex model in which R1A inactivating mutations further unbalance this ratio in favor of R2 subunits. These results suggest that low expression of R1A protein may favor cAMP-dependent proliferation of transformed somatotrophs.

  5. Neural processes mediating the preparation and release of focal motor output are suppressed or absent during imagined movement

    PubMed Central

    Eagles, Jeremy S.; Carlsen, Anthony N.

    2016-01-01

    Movements that are executed or imagined activate a similar subset of cortical regions, but the extent to which this activity represents functionally equivalent neural processes is unclear. During preparation for an executed movement, presentation of a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS) evokes a premature release of the planned movement with the spatial and temporal features of the tasks essentially intact. If imagined movement incorporates the same preparatory processes as executed movement, then a SAS should release the planned movement during preparation. This hypothesis was tested using an instructed-delay cueing paradigm during which subjects were required to rapidly release a handheld weight while maintaining the posture of the arm or to perform first-person imagery of the same task while holding the weight. In a subset of trials, a SAS was presented at 1500, 500, or 200 ms prior to the release cue. Task-appropriate preparation during executed and imagined movements was confirmed by electroencephalographic recording of a contingent negative variation waveform. During preparation for executed movement, a SAS often resulted in premature release of the weight with the probability of release progressively increasing from 24 % at −1500 ms to 80 % at −200 ms. In contrast, the SAS rarely (<2 % of trials) triggered a release of the weight during imagined movement. However, the SAS frequently evoked the planned postural response (suppression of bicep brachii muscle activity) irrespective of the task or timing of stimulation (even during periods of postural hold without preparation). These findings provide evidence that neural processes mediating the preparation and release of the focal motor task (release of the weight) are markedly attenuated or absent during imagined movement and that postural and focal components of the task are prepared independently. PMID:25744055

  6. Increased Expression and Activation of Absent in Melanoma 2 Inflammasome Components in Lymphocytic Infiltrates of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Dihlmann, Susanne; Erhart, Philipp; Mehrabi, Arianeb; Nickkholgh, Arash; Lasitschka, Felix; Böckler, Dittmar; Hakimi, Maani

    2014-01-01

    Chronic vascular inflammation is a key hallmark in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Recent investigations have suggested that the inflammasome, a cytosolic multiprotein complex that recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns, plays a role in atherosclerosis. However, its role in AAA inflammation has not yet been investigated. This pilot study analyzed inflammasome activation and its intramural localization in 24 biopsy samples from 11 patients with asymptomatic AAA versus 12 aortic samples from apparently healthy controls. Using a histological inflammation scale, we identified grade 2/3 inflammatory changes with lymphoid aggregates/tertiary lymphoid organs in 21 out of 24 AAA samples, whereas only 7 of the 12 control samples exhibited local grade 1 inflammatory changes. Strong expression levels of “apoptosis-associated speck-like protein with a caspase recruitment domain” (ASC), caspase-1, caspase-5 and “absent in melanoma 2” (AIM2) were detected by immunohistochemistry in both sporadic infiltrating lymphoid cells and lymphoid aggregates located in the outer media and adventitia of AAA samples. In contrast, inflammasome-positive cells were restricted to cholesterol plaque–associated areas and to single infiltrating cells in control aortas. Analysis of gene expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed significantly increased median mRNA levels of the inflammasome core components PYCARD (ASC), CASP1 (Caspase-1) and IL1B (IL-1β) in AAA tissue compared with normal aorta. Moreover, significantly increased median amounts of AIM2 protein and mature caspase-5 (p20) were found in samples associated with high rupture risk compared with paired low rupture risk samples of the same AAA patient. We conclude from our data that AAA-associated lymphoid cells are capable of inflammasome signaling, suggesting that inflammasome activation is involved in the chronic inflammatory process driving AAA progression. PMID:24618883

  7. Reduced dose CT with model-based iterative reconstruction compared to standard dose CT of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis in oncology patients: intra-individual comparison study on image quality and lesion conspicuity.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Linda Nayeli; Kamaya, Aya; Boulay-Coletta, Isabelle; Fleischmann, Dominik; Molvin, Lior; Tian, Lu; Fisher, George; Wang, Jia; Willmann, Jürgen K

    2017-04-17

    To compare image quality and lesion conspicuity of reduced dose (RD) CT with model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) compared to standard dose (SD) CT in patients undergoing oncological follow-up imaging. Forty-four cancer patients who had a staging SD CT within 12 months were prospectively included to undergo a weight-based RD CT with MBIR. Radiation dose was recorded and tissue attenuation and image noise of four tissue types were measured. Reproducibility of target lesion size measurements of up to 5 target lesions per patient were analyzed. Subjective image quality was evaluated for three readers independently utilizing 4- or 5-point Likert scales. Median radiation dose reduction was 46% using RD CT (P < 0.01). Median image noise across all measured tissue types was lower (P < 0.01) in RD CT. Subjective image quality for RD CT was higher (P < 0.01) in regard to image noise and overall image quality; however, there was no statistically significant difference regarding image sharpness (P = 0.59). There were subjectively more artifacts on RD CT (P < 0.01). Lesion conspicuity was subjectively better in RD CT (P < 0.01). Repeated target lesion size measurements were highly reproducible both on SD CT (ICC = 0.987) and RD CT (ICC = 0.97). RD CT imaging with MBIR provides diagnostic imaging quality and comparable lesion conspicuity on follow-up exams while allowing dose reduction by a median of 46% compared to SD CT imaging.

  8. Migrant labor in South Africa: a comparative analysis of the academic achievement of father-present and father-absent adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mboya, M M; Nesengani, R I

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether there are significant differences in academic achievement between father-present and father-absent (due to migrant labor) adolescents. Data were collected from 276 high school students in South Africa. Academic achievement was measured by the Human Sciences Research Council's (HSRC) Scholastic Achievement Test, covering biology, English (second language), and mathematics. Father-present students were found to score significantly higher than father-absent students. The findings suggest that a father's absence due to work conditions has deleterious effects on the scholastic performance of young people.

  9. The absent discourse of communication: understanding ethics of provider-patient relationship in six hospitals in urban India.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Rakhi; Madhiwalla, Neha; Jesani, Amar; Samant, Padmaja; Badhwar, Vijaya; Surve, Sweta

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the complexities of a provider-patient relationship is considered to be of critical importance especially in medical ethics. It is important to understand this relation from the perspectives of all stakeholders. This article derives from a qualitative study conducted across six obstetric care providing institutions in the cities of Mumbai and Navi Mumbai, India, over a period of 10 months. Thirty obstetricians were interviewed in-depth to understand what they perceived as the most important aspect in developing a good provider-patient relationship. The study found that while most providers highlighted the point of communication as the most critical part of the provider-patient relationship, they admitted that they could not engage in communication with the patients for various reasons. Obstetric consultants and residents said that they were too overburdened to spend time communicating with patients; providers working in public hospitals added that the lack of education of their patients posed a hindrance in effective communication. However, providers practicing in private institutions explained that they faced a challenge in communicating with patients because their patients came from educated families who tended to trust the provider less and were generally more critical of the provider's clinical judgement. The article shows how provider-patient communication exists as an idea among medical providers but is absent in daily clinical practice. This gives rise to a discourse shaped around an absence. The authors conclude by decoding the term 'communication' - they read the word against the context of its use in the interviews, and argue that for the providers 'communication' was not intended to be a trope towards setting up a dialogue-based, egalitarian provider-patient relationship. Providers used the word in lieu of 'counselling', 'guiding', 'talking to'. It concludes that, despite the providers' insisting on the significance of communication and

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of absent pulmonary valve syndrome from first trimester onwards: novel insights into pathophysiology, associated conditions and outcome.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, I; Jehle, C; Herberg, U; Breuer, J; Brockmeier, K; Bennink, G; Hellmund, A; Strizek, B; Gembruch, U; Geipel, A; Berg, C

    2017-05-01

    To assess the spectrum of associated anomalies, intrauterine course and outcome in fetuses with absent pulmonary valve syndrome (APVS). All cases with a prenatal diagnosis of APVS at two centers over a period of 13 years were analyzed retrospectively. APVS was diagnosed in the presence of rudimentary or dysplastic pulmonary valve leaflets with to-and-fro blood flow in the pulmonary trunk on color and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound. Data on demographic characteristics, presence of associated conditions, Doppler studies and pregnancy outcome were reviewed. During the study period, 40 cases of APVS were diagnosed prenatally. Thirty-seven (92.5%) cases were associated with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and three (7.5%) had an intact ventricular septum. Patency of the ductus arteriosus (DA) was found in 17/37 (45.9%) TOF cases and in all three cases with an intact ventricular septum. Mean gestational age at diagnosis was 19.7 (range, 12-34) weeks with 10 (25.0%) cases (all with TOF) diagnosed in the first trimester. TOF was an isolated finding in 15 (37.5%) cases. Chromosomal anomalies, cardiac defects and extracardiac anomalies were present in 18 (45.0%), four (10.0%) and three (7.5%) cases, respectively. Among the 40 cases, there were 19 (47.5%) terminations of pregnancy, six (15.0%) intrauterine deaths, four (10.0%) neonatal deaths and 11 (27.5%) survivors. Patency of the DA, reversed flow during atrial contraction in the ductus venosus, umbilical artery or fetal middle cerebral artery, and hydrops/increased nuchal translucency thickness were significantly associated with non-survival. All 10 cases diagnosed in the first trimester had a patent DA and abnormal Doppler parameters, eight had hydrops and/or increased nuchal translucency, six were associated with trisomy 13 or 18 and none survived. APVS diagnosed in the first trimester is significantly associated with TOF, patency of the DA, abnormal Doppler parameters, lethal trisomies and intrauterine mortality. Cases of

  11. Microstructures and crystallographic fabric evolution during melt-present and melt-absent conditions in the partially molten middle crust: the Patos shear zone (Borborema Province, NE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira Viegas, Luís Gustavo; Archanjo, Carlos; Vauchez, Alain

    2013-04-01

    The Patos shear zone is an exposed segment of the partially molten middle crust characterized by a 600 km long, E-trending transcurrent structure that deforms the Precambrian rocks of the Borborema Province. High-temperature (HT) mylonites with low melt fractions (~ 5%) constitute most of the shear belt, while a narrow strip of highly strained mylonites to ultramylonites outlines its southern margin. Migmatites and "transitional" mylonites occur sandwiched between these tectonites. A progressive microfabric development is recorded from melt-bearing mylonites to high-strain ultramylonites. A microstructural study was carried out to understand the fabric evolution from melt-assisted to melt-absent deformation. Fabrics were investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and crystallographic preferred orientations were measured by Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). Melt-bearing HT-mylonites display solid-state microstructures with coarse quartz ribbons and sutured grain boundaries. K-feldspar clasts are often fractured and show peripheral myrmekite. Towards the contact with anatexites the microfabric becomes typically magmatic with abundant interstitial quartz. Transitional mylonites, located immediately south of the migmatites, are marked by progressive grain size reduction of recrystallized felsic phases. High-strain mylonites have a fine-grained quartz-feldspar matrix with relics of quartz ribbons and fractured K-feldspar. Melt-bearing mylonites display quartz [0001] axes forming maxima mainly on Y, while quartz fabrics in the anatexite are weaker and diffuse, suggesting deformation in the magmatic state. In transitional and high-strain mylonites the measured quartz CPOs show [0001] concentrations between Z and Y. K-feldspar and plagioclase fabrics record mainly the activity of (010)[001] and (010)[100] slip systems in all rock types, with local activity of the (100)[010] slip system in the transitional mylonites. These data suggest that the

  12. Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect in a patient with absent inferior caval vein connection: a novel technique using a steerable guide catheter.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Yoichi; Akagi, Teiji; Ito, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    An alternative approach for transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect is necessary in patients with absent inferior caval vein connection. In this report, we describe the successful transcatheter atrial septal defect closure via the transjugular approach using a steerable guide catheter.

  13. Finding the Two-Way Street: Women from Mother-Present/Father-Absent Homes and Their Ability to Make Close Female Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marote, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    This heuristic study involving seven coresearchers, which included the author, explores the experiences of women from mother-present/father-absent homes and their ability to form and maintain close female friendships. The heuristic research model was chosen to provide the opportunity to conduct research in a very personalized, collaborative way…

  14. Migrant Labor in South Africa: A Comparative Analysis of the Academic Achievement of Father-Present and Father-Absent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mboya, Mzobanzi M.; Nesengani, Ralintho I.

    1999-01-01

    Study seeks to determine whether there are significant differences in academic achievement between father-present and father-absent (due to migrant labor) adolescents. Academic achievement of 276 high school students in South Africa was measured covering biology, English (second language), and mathematics.. Father-present students were found to…

  15. Migrant Labor in South Africa: A Comparative Analysis of the Academic Achievement of Father-Present and Father-Absent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mboya, Mzobanzi M.; Nesengani, Ralintho I.

    1999-01-01

    Study seeks to determine whether there are significant differences in academic achievement between father-present and father-absent (due to migrant labor) adolescents. Academic achievement of 276 high school students in South Africa was measured covering biology, English (second language), and mathematics.. Father-present students were found to…

  16. Nanospan, an alternatively spliced isoform of sarcospan, localizes to the sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle and is absent in limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2F.

    PubMed

    Peter, Angela K; Miller, Gaynor; Capote, Joana; DiFranco, Marino; Solares-Pérez, Alhondra; Wang, Emily L; Heighway, Jim; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón M; Vergara, Julio; Crosbie-Watson, Rachelle H

    2017-06-06

    Sarcospan (SSPN) is a transmembrane protein that interacts with the sarcoglycans (SGs) to form a tight subcomplex within the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex that spans the sarcolemma and interacts with laminin in the extracellular matrix. Overexpression of SSPN ameliorates Duchenne muscular dystrophy in murine models. Standard cloning approaches were used to identify nanospan, and nanospan-specific polyclonal antibodies were generated and validated. Biochemical isolation of skeletal muscle membranes and two-photon laser scanning microscopy were used to analyze nanospan localization in muscle from multiple murine models. Duchenne muscular dystrophy biopsies were analyzed by immunoblot analysis of protein lysates as well as indirect immunofluorescence analysis of muscle cryosections. Nanospan is an alternatively spliced isoform of sarcospan. While SSPN has four transmembrane domains and is a core component of the sarcolemmal dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, nanospan is a type II transmembrane protein that does not associate with the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. We demonstrate that nanospan is enriched in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) fractions and is not present in the T-tubules. SR fractions contain membranes from three distinct structural regions: a region flanking the T-tubules (triadic SR), a SR region across the Z-line (ZSR), and a longitudinal SR region across the M-line (LSR). Analysis of isolated murine muscles reveals that nanospan is mostly associated with the ZSR and triadic SR, and only minimally with the LSR. Furthermore, nanospan is absent from the SR of δ-SG-null (Sgcd(-/-)) skeletal muscle, a murine model for limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2F. Analysis of skeletal muscle biopsies from Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients reveals that nanospan is preferentially expressed in type I (slow) fibers in both control and Duchenne samples. Furthermore, nanospan is significantly reduced in Duchenne biopsies. Alternative splicing of proteins from the SG

  17. Nanospan, an alternatively spliced isoform of sarcospan, localizes to the sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle and is absent in limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2F.

    PubMed

    Peter, Angela K; Miller, Gaynor; Capote, Joana; DiFranco, Marino; Solares-Pérez, Alhondra; Wang, Emily L; Heighway, Jim; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón M; Vergara, Julio; Crosbie-Watson, Rachelle H

    2017-01-01

    Sarcospan (SSPN) is a transmembrane protein that interacts with the sarcoglycans (SGs) to form a tight subcomplex within the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex that spans the sarcolemma and interacts with laminin in the extracellular matrix. Overexpression of SSPN ameliorates Duchenne muscular dystrophy in murine models. Standard cloning approaches were used to identify nanospan, and nanospan-specific polyclonal antibodies were generated and validated. Biochemical isolation of skeletal muscle membranes and two-photon laser scanning microscopy were used to analyze nanospan localization in muscle from multiple murine models. Duchenne muscular dystrophy biopsies were analyzed by immunoblot analysis of protein lysates as well as indirect immunofluorescence analysis of muscle cryosections. Nanospan is an alternatively spliced isoform of sarcospan. While SSPN has four transmembrane domains and is a core component of the sarcolemmal dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, nanospan is a type II transmembrane protein that does not associate with the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. We demonstrate that nanospan is enriched in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) fractions and is not present in the T-tubules. SR fractions contain membranes from three distinct structural regions: a region flanking the T-tubules (triadic SR), a SR region across the Z-line (ZSR), and a longitudinal SR region across the M-line (LSR). Analysis of isolated murine muscles reveals that nanospan is mostly associated with the ZSR and triadic SR, and only minimally with the LSR. Furthermore, nanospan is absent from the SR of δ-SG-null (Sgcd(-/-)) skeletal muscle, a murine model for limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2F. Analysis of skeletal muscle biopsies from Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients reveals that nanospan is preferentially expressed in type I (slow) fibers in both control and Duchenne samples. Furthermore, nanospan is significantly reduced in Duchenne biopsies. Alternative splicing of proteins from the SG

  18. Structural evolution of the membrane-coating module of the nuclear pore complex

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoping; Mitchell, Jana M.; Wozniak, Richard W.; Blobel, Günter; Fan, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The coatomer module of the nuclear pore complex borders the cylinder-like nuclear pore-membrane domain of the nuclear envelope. In evolution, a single coatomer module increases in size from hetero-heptamer (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to hetero-octamer (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) to hetero-nonamer (Metazoa). Notably, the heptamer–octamer transition proceeds through the acquisition of the nucleoporin Nup37. How Nup37 contacts the heptamer remained unknown. Using recombinant nucleoporins, we show that Sp-Nup37 specifically binds the Sp-Nup120 member of the hetero-heptamer but does not bind an Sc-Nup120 homolog. To elucidate the Nup37–Nup120 interaction at the atomic level, we carried out crystallographic analyses of Sp-Nup37 alone and in a complex with an N-terminal, ∼110-kDa fragment of Sp-Nup120 comprising residues 1–950. Corroborating structural predictions, we determined that Nup37 folds into a seven-bladed β-propeller. Several disordered surface regions of the Nup37 β-propeller assume structure when bound to Sp-Nup120. The N-terminal domain of Sp-Nup1201–950 also folds into a seven-bladed propeller with a markedly protruding 6D–7A insert and is followed by a contorted helical domain. Conspicuously, this 6D–7A insert contains an extension of 50 residues which also is highly conserved in Metazoa but is absent in Sc-Nup120. Strikingly, numerous contacts with the Nup37 β-propeller are located on this extension of the 6D–7A insert. Another contact region is situated toward the end of the helical region of Sp-Nup1201–950. Our findings provide information about the evolution and the assembly of the coatomer module of the nuclear pore complex. PMID:23019579

  19. An Analytic Contemplation of the Conspicuous Vicissitudes in the Histomorphology of Corpuscles of Stannius of a Freshwater Catfish Mystus tengara (Hamilton, 1822) due to the Exposure of ZnS Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nilanjana; Bhattacharjee, Baibaswata

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced surface photooxidation property associated with the ZnS nanoparticles caused the reduction of dissolved oxygen content in water in a dose dependent manner, when ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes are exposed to the water in various concentrations. This property was more prominent for ZnS nanoparticles with smaller sizes. Mystus tengara, exposed to ZnS nanoparticles, responded to hypoxia with varied behavioural, physiological, and cellular responses in order to maintain homeostasis and organ function in an oxygen-depleted environment. The histomorphology of corpuscles of Stannius of the fish showed conspicuous vicissitudes under exposure of ZnS nanoparticles. The population of the cell type with granular cytoplasm showed significant increase at the expense of the other that consisted of agranular cytoplasm with increasing nanoparticle concentration. This can be explained as the defence mechanism of the fish against ZnS nanoparticle induced hypoxia and environmental acidification. The altering histomorphology has been studied employing an analytical approach.

  20. Canopy-Forming Seaweeds in Urchin-Dominated Systems in Eastern Canada: Structuring Forces or Simple Prey for Keystone Grazers?

    PubMed Central

    Blain, Caitlin; Gagnon, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Models of benthic community dynamics for the extensively studied, shallow rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada emphasize kelp-urchin interactions. These models may bias the perception of factors and processes that structure communities, for they largely overlook the possible contribution of other seaweeds to ecosystem resilience. We examined the persistence of the annual, acidic (H2SO4), brown seaweed Desmarestia viridis in urchin barrens at two sites in Newfoundland (Canada) throughout an entire growth season (February to October). We also compared changes in epifaunal assemblages in D. viridis and other conspicuous canopy-forming seaweeds, the non-acidic conspecific Desmarestia aculeata and kelp Agarum clathratum. We show that D. viridis can form large canopies within the 2-to-8 m depth range that represent a transient community state termed “Desmarestia bed”. The annual resurgence of Desmarestia beds and continuous occurrence of D. aculeata and A. clathratum, create biological structure for major recruitment pulses in invertebrate and fish assemblages (e.g. from quasi-absent gastropods to >150 000 recruits kg−1 D. viridis). Many of these pulses phase with temperature-driven mass release of acid to the environment and die-off in D. viridis. We demonstrate experimentally that the chemical makeup of D. viridis and A. clathratum helps retard urchin grazing compared to D. aculeata and the highly consumed kelp Alaria esculenta. In light of our findings and related studies, we propose fundamental changes to the study of community shifts in shallow, rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada. In particular, we advocate the need to regard certain canopy-forming seaweeds as structuring forces interfering with top-down processes, rather than simple prey for keystone grazers. We also propose a novel, empirical model of ecological interactions for D. viridis. Overall, our study underscores the importance of studying organisms together with cross-scale environmental variability

  1. The Arabidopsis ABHD11 Mutant Accumulates Polar Lipids in Leaves as a Consequence of Absent Acylhydrolase Activity1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Anitha; Vijayaraj, Panneerselvam; Vijayakumar, Arun Kumar; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2016-01-01

    Alpha/beta hydrolase domain (ABHD)-containing proteins are structurally related with diverse catalytic activities. In various species, some ABHD proteins have been characterized and shown to play roles in lipid homeostasis. However, little is known about ABHD proteins in plants. Here, we characterized AT4G10030 (AtABHD11), an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homolog of a human ABHD11 gene. In silico analyses of AtABHD11 revealed homology with other plant species with a conserved GXSXG lipid motif. Interestingly, Arabidopsis abhd11 mutant plants exhibited an enhanced growth rate compared with wild-type plants. Quantitative analyses of the total lipids showed that the mutant abhd11 has a high amount of phospholipid and galactolipid in Arabidopsis leaves. The overexpression of AtABHD11 in Escherichia coli led to a reduction in phospholipid levels. The bacterially expressed recombinant AtABHD11 hydrolyzed lyso(phospho)lipid and monoacylglycerol. Furthermore, using whole-genome microarray and real-time PCR analyses of abhd11 and wild-type plants, we noted the up-regulation of MGD1, -2, and -3 and DGD1. Together, these findings suggested that AtABHD11 is a lyso(phospho)lipase. The disruption of AtABHD11 caused the accumulation of the polar lipids in leaves, which in turn promoted a higher growth rate compared with wild-type plants. PMID:26589672

  2. A genetic model for absent chylomicron formation: mice producing apolipoprotein B in the liver, but not in the intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Young, S G; Cham, C M; Pitas, R E; Burri, B J; Connolly, A; Flynn, L; Pappu, A S; Wong, J S; Hamilton, R L; Farese, R V

    1995-01-01

    The formation of chylomicrons by the intestine is important for the absorption of dietary fats and fat-soluble vitamins (e.g., retinol, alpha-tocopherol). Apo B plays an essential structural role in the formation of chylomicrons in the intestine as well as the VLDL in the liver. We have developed genetically modified mice that express apo B in the liver but not in the intestine. By electron microscopy, the enterocytes of these mice lacked nascent chylomicrons in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Because these mice could not form chylomicrons, the intestinal villus enterocytes were massively engorged with fat, which was contained in cytosolic lipid droplets. These mice absorbed D-xylose normally, but there was virtually no absorption of retinol palmitate or cholesterol. The levels of alpha-tocopherol in the plasma were extremely low. Of note, the absence of chylomicron synthesis in the intestine did not appear to have a significant effect on the plasma levels of the apo B-containing lipoproteins produced by the liver. The mice lacking intestinal apo B expression represent the first genetic model of defective absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins and provide a useful animal model for studying nutrition and lipoprotein metabolism. Images PMID:8675665

  3. The Arabidopsis ABHD11 Mutant Accumulates Polar Lipids in Leaves as a Consequence of Absent Acylhydrolase Activity.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Anitha; Vijayaraj, Panneerselvam; Vijayakumar, Arun Kumar; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2016-01-01

    Alpha/beta hydrolase domain (ABHD)-containing proteins are structurally related with diverse catalytic activities. In various species, some ABHD proteins have been characterized and shown to play roles in lipid homeostasis. However, little is known about ABHD proteins in plants. Here, we characterized AT4G10030 (AtABHD11), an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homolog of a human ABHD11 gene. In silico analyses of AtABHD11 revealed homology with other plant species with a conserved GXSXG lipid motif. Interestingly, Arabidopsis abhd11 mutant plants exhibited an enhanced growth rate compared with wild-type plants. Quantitative analyses of the total lipids showed that the mutant abhd11 has a high amount of phospholipid and galactolipid in Arabidopsis leaves. The overexpression of AtABHD11 in Escherichia coli led to a reduction in phospholipid levels. The bacterially expressed recombinant AtABHD11 hydrolyzed lyso(phospho)lipid and monoacylglycerol. Furthermore, using whole-genome microarray and real-time PCR analyses of abhd11 and wild-type plants, we noted the up-regulation of MGD1, -2, and -3 and DGD1. Together, these findings suggested that AtABHD11 is a lyso(phospho)lipase. The disruption of AtABHD11 caused the accumulation of the polar lipids in leaves, which in turn promoted a higher growth rate compared with wild-type plants. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Impairment of the intestinal barrier is evident in untreated but absent in suppressively treated HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Epple, H-J; Schneider, T; Troeger, H; Kunkel, D; Allers, K; Moos, V; Amasheh, M; Loddenkemper, C; Fromm, M; Zeitz, M; Schulzke, J-D

    2009-02-01

    Impairment of the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier contributes to progression of HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the HIV-induced intestinal barrier defect and to identify underlying mechanisms. Epithelial barrier function was characterised by impedance spectroscopy and [(3)H]mannitol fluxes in duodenal biopsies from 11 untreated and 8 suppressively treated HIV-infected patients, and 9 HIV-seronegative controls. The villus/crypt ratio was determined microscopically. Epithelial apoptoses were analysed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labelling (TUNEL) and caspase-3 staining. Tight junction protein expression was quantified by densitometric analysis of immunoblots. Mucosal cytokine production was determined by cytometric bead array. Only in untreated but not in treated HIV-infected patients, epithelial resistance was reduced (13 (1) vs 23 (2) ohm cm(2), p<0.01) and mannitol permeability was increased compared with HIV-negative controls (19 (3) vs 9 (1) nm/s, p<0.05). As structural correlates, epithelial apoptoses and expression of the pore-forming claudin-2 were increased while expression of the sealing claudin-1 was reduced in untreated compared with treated patients and HIV-negative controls. Furthermore, villous atrophy was evident and mucosal production of interleukin 2 (IL2), IL4 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) was increased in untreated but not in treated HIV-infected patients. Incubation with IL2, IL4, TNFalpha and IL13 reduced the transepithelial resistance of rat jejunal mucosa. Suppressive HAART abrogates HIV-induced intestinal barrier defect and villous atrophy. The HIV-induced barrier defect is due to altered tight junction protein composition and elevated epithelial apoptoses. Mucosal cytokines are mediators of the HIV-induced mucosal barrier defect and villous atrophy.

  5. Expression of the Na+/l- symporter (NIS) is markedly decreased or absent in gastric cancer and intestinal metaplastic mucosa of Barrett esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Altorjay, Áron; Dohán, Orsolya; Szilágyi, Anna; Paroder, Monika; Wapnir, Irene L; Carrasco, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Background The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is a plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates iodide (I-) transport in the thyroid, lactating breast, salivary glands, and stomach. Whereas NIS expression and regulation have been extensively investigated in healthy and neoplastic thyroid and breast tissues, little is known about NIS expression and function along the healthy and diseased gastrointestinal tract. Methods Thus, we investigated NIS expression by immunohistochemical analysis in 155 gastrointestinal tissue samples and by immunoblot analysis in 17 gastric tumors from 83 patients. Results Regarding the healthy Gl tract, we observed NIS expression exclusively in the basolateral region of the gastric mucin-producing epithelial cells. In gastritis, positive NIS staining was observed in these cells both in the presence and absence of Helicobacter pylori. Significantly, NIS expression was absent in gastric cancer, independently of its histological type. Only focal faint NIS expression was detected in the direct vicinity of gastric tumors, i.e., in the histologically intact mucosa, the expression becoming gradually stronger and linear farther away from the tumor. Barrett mucosa with junctional and fundic-type columnar metaplasia displayed positive NIS staining, whereas Barrett mucosa with intestinal metaplasia was negative. NIS staining was also absent in intestinalized gastric polyps. Conclusion That NIS expression is markedly decreased or absent in case of intestinalization or malignant transformation of the gastric mucosa suggests that NIS may prove to be a significant tumor marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric malignancies and also precancerous lesions such as Barrett mucosa, thus extending the medical significance of NIS beyond thyroid disease. PMID:17214887

  6. Genomic Subtractive Hybridization and Selective Capture of Transcribed Sequences Identify a Novel Salmonella typhimurium Fimbrial Operon and Putative Transcriptional Regulator That Are Absent from the Salmonella typhi Genome

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Brian J.; Graham, James E.; Curtiss, Roy

    1999-01-01

    Salmonella typhi, the etiologic agent of typhoid fever, is adapted to the human host and unable to infect nonprimate species. The genetic basis for host specificity in S. typhi is unknown. The avirulence of S. typhi in animal hosts may result from a lack of genes present in the broad-host-range pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Genomic subtractive hybridization was successfully employed to isolate S. typhimurium genomic sequences which are absent from the S. typhi genome. These genomic subtracted sequences mapped to 17 regions distributed throughout the S. typhimurium chromosome. A positive cDNA selection method was then used to identify subtracted sequences which were transcribed by S. typhimurium following macrophage phagocytosis. A novel putative transcriptional regulator of the LysR family was identified as transcribed by intramacrophage S. typhimurium. This putative transcriptional regulator was absent from the genomes of the human-adapted serovars S. typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A. Mutations within this gene did not alter the level of S. typhimurium survival within macrophages or virulence within mice. A subtracted genomic fragment derived from the ferrichrome operon also hybridized to the intramacrophage cDNA. Nucleotide sequence analysis of S. typhimurium and S. typhi chromosomal sequences flanking the ferrichrome operon identified a novel S. typhimurium fimbrial operon with a high level of similarity to sequences encoding Proteus mirabilis mannose-resistant fimbriae. The novel fimbrial operon was absent from the S. typhi genome. The absence of specific genes may have allowed S. typhi to evolve as a highly invasive, systemic human pathogen. PMID:10496884

  7. Impact of a Federal Healthy Start Program on feto-infant morbidity associated with absent fathers: a quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Salihu, Hamisu M.; August, Euna M.; Mbah, Alfred K.; Alio, Amina P.; Berry, Estrellita “Lo”; Aliyu, Muktar H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The absence of fathers during pregnancy increases the risk of feto-infant morbidities, including low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), and small-for-gestational age (SGA). Previous research has shown that the Central Hillsborough Healthy Start project (CHHS) – a federally funded initiative in Tampa, Florida – has effectively improved birth outcomes. This study explores the effectiveness of the CHHS project in ameliorating the adverse effects of fathers’ absence during pregnancy. Methods This retrospective cohort study used CHHS records linked to vital statistics and hospital discharge data (1998–2007). The study population consisted of women who had a singleton birth with an absent father during pregnancy. Women were categorized based on residence in the CHHS service area. Propensity score matching was used to match cases (CHHS) to controls (rest of Florida). Conditional logistic regression was employed to generate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for matched observations. Results Women residing in the CHHS service area were more likely to be high school graduates, black, younger (<35 years), and to have adequate prenatal care compared to controls (p<0.01). These differences disappeared after propensity score matching. Mothers with absent fathers in the CHHS service area had a reduced likelihood of LBW (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.65–0.89), PTB (OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.62–0.84), very low birth weight (OR=0.50, 95% CI= 0.35–0.72) and very preterm birth (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.34–0.69) compared to their counterparts in the rest of the state. Conclusions This study demonstrates that a Federal Healthy Start project contributed to a significant reduction in adverse fetal birth outcomes in families with absent fathers. PMID:24549651

  8. A 12-year-old girl with absent radial pulse: arterial thoracic outlet syndrome with subclavian artery aneurysm and thrombosis of the brachial artery.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, S; Cannizzaro, E; Kellenberger, C J; Saurenmann, R K

    2012-11-01

    Brachial arterial occlusion is rare in children and adolescents. Once a traumatic cause is excluded, the differential diagnosis consists of a variety of rare conditions. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl whose presenting symptoms--an absent radial pulse and Raynaud's phenomenon of the right hand--could be easily mistaken for a vasculitis. She was found to have arterial thoracic outlet syndrome with right subclavian artery compression and aneurysm formation caused by an anomalous first rib and consecutive thromboembolic occlusion of the brachial artery. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this condition are reviewed.

  9. Structural transitions in laterally compressed two-dimensional Coulomb clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Rancova, O.; Anisimovas, E.; Varanavicius, T.

    2011-03-15

    We model structural transitions of small-size Wigner crystals in laterally compressed two-dimensional traps. Ground and metastable configurations are calculated and their transformations are linked to conspicuous changes in the heat capacity of the system. We show that various types of structural transitions are reflected by characteristic features in the behavior of the heat capacity. For deeper understanding, results produced by the Monte Carlo numerical calculations are compared to predictions of simple one-dimensional models.

  10. Genomic Subtraction Identifies Salmonella typhimurium Prophages, F-Related Plasmid Sequences, and a Novel Fimbrial Operon, stf, Which Are Absent in Salmonella typhi

    PubMed Central

    Emmerth, Melanie; Goebel, Werner; Miller, Samuel I.; Hueck, Christoph J.

    1999-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium causes systemic and fatal infection in inbred mice, while the related serotype Salmonella typhi is avirulent for mammals other than humans. In order to identify genes from the virulent strain S. typhimurium ATCC 14028 that are absent in S. typhi Ty2, and therefore might be involved in S. typhimurium mouse virulence, a PCR-supported genomic subtractive hybridization procedure was employed. We have identified a novel putative fimbrial operon, stfACDEFG, located at centisome 5 of the S. typhimurium chromosome, which is absent in S. typhi, Salmonella arizonae, and Salmonella bongori but was detected in several other Salmonella serotypes. The fimbrial genes represent a genomic insertion in S. typhimurium compared to the respective region between fhuB and hemL in Escherichia coli K-12. In addition, the subtraction procedure yielded F plasmid-related sequences from the S. typhimurium virulence plasmid, a number of DNA fragments representing parts of lambdoid prophages and putative sugar transporters, and several fragments with unknown sequences. The majority of subtracted chromosomal sequences map to three distinct locations, around centisomes 5, 27, and 57. PMID:10482505

  11. UBE2A deficiency syndrome: Mild to severe intellectual disability accompanied by seizures, absent speech, urogenital, and skin anomalies in male patients.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Nicole; Bulk, Saskia; Green, Andrew; Jaeckle-Santos, Lane; Baker, Linda A; Zinn, Andrew R; Kleefstra, Tjitske; van der Smagt, Jasper J; Vianne Morgante, Angela Maria; de Vries, Bert B A; van Bokhoven, Hans; de Brouwer, Arjan P M

    2010-12-01

    We describe three patients with a comparable deletion encompassing SLC25A43, SLC25A5, CXorf56, UBE2A, NKRF, and two non-coding RNA genes, U1 and LOC100303728. Moderate to severe intellectual disability (ID), psychomotor retardation, severely impaired/absent speech, seizures, and urogenital anomalies were present in all three patients. Facial dysmorphisms include ocular hypertelorism, synophrys, and a depressed nasal bridge. These clinical features overlap with those described in two patients from a family with a similar deletion at Xq24 that also includes UBE2A, and in several patients of Brazilian and Polish families with point mutations in UBE2A. Notably, all five patients with an Xq24 deletion have ventricular septal defects that are not present in patients with a point mutation, which might be attributed to the deletion of SLC25A5. Taken together, the UBE2A deficiency syndrome in male patients with a mutation in or a deletion of UBE2A is characterized by ID, absent speech, seizures, urogenital anomalies, frequently including a small penis, and skin abnormalities, which include generalized hirsutism, low posterior hairline, myxedematous appearance, widely spaced nipples, and hair whorls. Facial dysmorphisms include a wide face, a depressed nasal bridge, a large mouth with downturned corners, thin vermilion, and a short, broad neck. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Structuralism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piaget, Jean

    Provided is an overview of the analytical method known as structuralism. The first chapter discusses the three key components of the concept of a structure: the view of a system as a whole instead of so many parts; the study of the transformations in the system; and the fact that these transformations never lead beyond the system but always…

  13. Structuralism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piaget, Jean

    Provided is an overview of the analytical method known as structuralism. The first chapter discusses the three key components of the concept of a structure: the view of a system as a whole instead of so many parts; the study of the transformations in the system; and the fact that these transformations never lead beyond the system but always…

  14. An Analytic Contemplation of the Conspicuous Vicissitudes in the Histomorphology of Corpuscles of Stannius of a Freshwater Catfish Mystus tengara (Hamilton, 1822) due to the Exposure of ZnS Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nilanjana

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced surface photooxidation property associated with the ZnS nanoparticles caused the reduction of dissolved oxygen content in water in a dose dependent manner, when ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes are exposed to the water in various concentrations. This property was more prominent for ZnS nanoparticles with smaller sizes. Mystus tengara, exposed to ZnS nanoparticles, responded to hypoxia with varied behavioural, physiological, and cellular responses in order to maintain homeostasis and organ function in an oxygen-depleted environment. The histomorphology of corpuscles of Stannius of the fish showed conspicuous vicissitudes under exposure of ZnS nanoparticles. The population of the cell type with granular cytoplasm showed significant increase at the expense of the other that consisted of agranular cytoplasm with increasing nanoparticle concentration. This can be explained as the defence mechanism of the fish against ZnS nanoparticle induced hypoxia and environmental acidification. The altering histomorphology has been studied employing an analytical approach. PMID:26693386

  15. Improving motorcycle conspicuity through innovative headlight configurations.

    PubMed

    Ranchet, Maud; Cavallo, Viola; Dang, Nguyen-Thong; Vienne, Fabrice

    2016-09-01

    Most motorcycle crashes involve another vehicle that violated the motorcycle's right-of-way at an intersection. Two kinds of perceptual failures of other road users are often the cause of such accidents: motorcycle-detection failures and motion-perception errors. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different headlight configurations on motorcycle detectability when the motorcycle is in visual competition with cars. Three innovative headlight configurations were tested: (1) standard yellow (central yellow headlight), (2) vertical white (one white light on the motorcyclist's helmet and two white lights on the fork in addition to the central white headlight), and (3) vertical yellow (same configuration as (2) with yellow lights instead of white). These three headlight configurations were evaluated in comparison to the standard configuration (central white headlight) in three environments containing visual distractors formed by car lights: (1) daytime running lights (DRLs), (2) low beams, or (3) DRLs and low beams. Video clips of computer-generated traffic situations were displayed briefly (250ms) to 57 drivers. The results revealed a beneficial effect of standard yellow configuration and the vertical yellow configuration on motorcycle detectability. However, this effect was modulated by the car-DRL environment. Findings and practical recommendations are discussed with regard to possible applications for motorcycles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Shadows of an Absent Partner

    PubMed Central

    Corradi, Gerardo R.; de Tezanos Pinto, Felicitas; Mazzitelli, Luciana R.; Adamo, Hugo P.

    2012-01-01

    The P5-ATPases are important components of eukaryotic cells. They have been shown to influence protein biogenesis, folding, and transport. The knowledge of their biochemical properties is, however, limited, and the transported ions are still unknown. We expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae the yeast Spf1 P5A-ATPase containing the GFP fused at the N-terminal end. The GFP-Spf1 protein was localized in the yeast endoplasmic reticulum. Purified preparations of GFP-Spf1 hydrolyzed ATP at a rate of ∼0.3–1 μmol of Pi/mg/min and formed a phosphoenzyme in a simple reaction medium containing no added metal ions except Mg2+. No significant differences were found between the ATPase activity of GFP-Spf1 and recombinant Spf1. Omission of protease inhibitors from the purification buffers resulted in a high level of endogenous proteolysis at the C-terminal portion of the GFP-Spf1 molecule that abolished phosphoenzyme formation. The Mg2+ dependence of the GFP-Spf1 ATPase was similar to that of other P-ATPases where Mg2+ acts as a cofactor. The addition of Mn2+ to the reaction medium decreased the ATPase activity. The enzyme manifested optimal activity at a near neutral pH. When chased by the addition of cold ATP, 90% of the phosphoenzyme remained stable after 5 s. In contrast, the phosphoenzyme rapidly decayed to less than 20% when chased for 3 s by the addition of ADP. The greater effect of ADP accelerating the disappearance of EP suggests that GFP-Spf1 accumulated the E1∼P phosphoenzyme. This behavior may reflect a limiting countertransported substrate needed to promote turnover or a missing regulatory factor. PMID:22745129

  17. Tooth formation - delayed or absent

    MedlinePlus

    ... missing teeth they never developed. Cosmetic or orthodontic dentistry can correct this problem. Causes Specific diseases can ... process. In: Dean JA, ed. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent . 10th ed. St. ...

  18. Basement membrane of mouse bone marrow sinusoids shows distinctive structure and proteoglycan composition: a high resolution ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Inoue, S; Osmond, D G

    2001-11-01

    Venous sinusoids in bone marrow are the site of a large-scale traffic of cells between the extravascular hemopoietic compartment and the blood stream. The wall of the sinusoids consists solely of a basement membrane interposed between a layer of endothelial cells and an incomplete covering of adventitial cells. To examine its possible structural specialization, the basement membrane of bone marrow sinusoids has now been examined by high resolution electron microscopy of perfusion-fixed mouse bone marrow. The basement membrane layer was discontinuous, consisting of irregular masses of amorphous material within a uniform 60-nm-wide space between apposing endothelial cells and adventitial cell processes. At maximal magnifications, the material was resolved as a random arrangement of components lacking the "cord network" formation seen in basement membranes elsewhere. Individual components exhibited distinctive ultrastructural features whose molecular identity has previously been established. By these morphological criteria, the basement membrane contained unusually abundant chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) revealed by 3-nm-wide "double tracks," and moderate amounts of both laminin as dense irregular coils and type IV collagen as 1-1.5-nm-wide filaments, together with less conspicuous amounts of amyloid P forming pentagonal frames. In contrast, 4.5-5-nm-wide "double tracks" characteristic of heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) were absent. The findings demonstrate that, in comparison with "typical" basement membranes in other tissues, the bone marrow sinusoidal basement membrane is uniquely specialized in several respects. Its discontinuous nature, lack of network organization, and absence of HSPG, a molecule that normally helps to maintain membrane integrity, may facilitate disassembly and reassembly of basement membrane material in concert with movements of adventitial cell processes as maturing hemopoietic cells pass through the sinusoidal wall: the

  19. Quantifying kinematics of purposeful movements to real, imagined, or absent functional objects: Implications for modelling trajectories for robot-assisted ADL tasks**

    PubMed Central

    Wisneski, Kimberly J; Johnson, Michelle J

    2007-01-01

    Background Robotic therapy is at the forefront of stroke rehabilitation. The Activities of Daily Living Exercise Robot (ADLER) was developed to improve carryover of gains after training by combining the benefits of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) training (motivation and functional task practice with real objects), with the benefits of robot mediated therapy (repeatability and reliability). In combining these two therapy techniques, we seek to develop a new model for trajectory generation that will support functional movements to real objects during robot training. We studied natural movements to real objects and report on how initial reaching movements are affected by real objects and how these movements deviate from the straight line paths predicted by the minimum jerk model, typically used to generate trajectories in robot training environments. We highlight key issues that to be considered in modelling natural trajectories. Methods Movement data was collected as eight normal subjects completed ADLs such as drinking and eating. Three conditions were considered: object absent, imagined, and present. This data was compared to predicted trajectories generated from implementing the minimum jerk model. The deviations in both the plane of the table (XY) and the saggital plane of torso (XZ) were examined for both reaches to a cup and to a spoon. Velocity profiles and curvature were also quantified for all trajectories. Results We hypothesized that movements performed with functional task constraints and objects would deviate from the minimum jerk trajectory model more than those performed under imaginary or object absent conditions. Trajectory deviations from the predicted minimum jerk model for these reaches were shown to depend on three variables: object presence, object orientation, and plane of movement. When subjects completed the cup reach their movements were more curved than for the spoon reach. The object present condition for the cup reach showed more

  20. Quantifying kinematics of purposeful movements to real, imagined, or absent functional objects: implications for modelling trajectories for robot-assisted ADL tasks.

    PubMed

    Wisneski, Kimberly J; Johnson, Michelle J

    2007-03-23

    Robotic therapy is at the forefront of stroke rehabilitation. The Activities of Daily Living Exercise Robot (ADLER) was developed to improve carryover of gains after training by combining the benefits of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) training (motivation and functional task practice with real objects), with the benefits of robot mediated therapy (repeatability and reliability). In combining these two therapy techniques, we seek to develop a new model for trajectory generation that will support functional movements to real objects during robot training. We studied natural movements to real objects and report on how initial reaching movements are affected by real objects and how these movements deviate from the straight line paths predicted by the minimum jerk model, typically used to generate trajectories in robot training environments. We highlight key issues that to be considered in modelling natural trajectories. Movement data was collected as eight normal subjects completed ADLs such as drinking and eating. Three conditions were considered: object absent, imagined, and present. This data was compared to predicted trajectories generated from implementing the minimum jerk model. The deviations in both the plane of the table (XY) and the sagittal plane of torso (XZ) were examined for both reaches to a cup and to a spoon. Velocity profiles and curvature were also quantified for all trajectories. We hypothesized that movements performed with functional task constraints and objects would deviate from the minimum jerk trajectory model more than those performed under imaginary or object absent conditions. Trajectory deviations from the predicted minimum jerk model for these reaches were shown to depend on three variables: object presence, object orientation, and plane of movement. When subjects completed the cup reach their movements were more curved than for the spoon reach. The object present condition for the cup reach showed more curvature than in the object

  1. Double-outlet right ventricle with absent left ventricle and mitral atresia in a fetus with a deletion 22q12.

    PubMed

    L'herminé-Coulomb, Aurore; Houyel, Lucille; Aboura, Azzedine; Audibert, François; Dal Soglio, Dorothée; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2004-09-01

    Interstitial deletions of chromosomal region 22q12 are rare. We report the prenatal diagnosis of a de novo interstitial deletion 22q12. The fetus was karyotyped because of a complex cardiac anomaly. Conventional and molecular cytogenetics showed a female karyotype with a de novo pericentric inversion of one chromosome 22 associated with a deletion of the chromosomal region 22q12 leading to a partial monosomy 22q12. At autopsy, the fetus showed double-outlet right ventricle (DORV) with absent left ventricle and mitral atresia. This observation suggests that one or several genes for the early looping step of heart development may reside in chromosomal region 22q12. Further studies are needed to identify these genes, and to search microdeletions of 22q12 region in patients with DORV. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Positive Family History, Infection, Low Absolute Lymphocyte Count (ALC) and Absent Thymic Shadow: Diagnostic Clues for all Molecular Forms of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Laurie M; Railey, Mary Dell; Buckley, Rebecca H

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) is a syndrome uniformly fatal during infancy unless recognized and treated successfully by bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. Because SCID infants have no abnormal physical appearance, diagnosis is usually delayed unless newborn screening is performed. Objective In this study, we sought to evaluate the presenting features of all 172 SCID patients transplanted at this institution over the past 31 years. Methods We reviewed original charts from 172 consecutive classic SCID patients who received either T cell-depleted HLA-haploidentical (N=154) or HLA-identical (N=18) non-ablative related marrow transplants at Duke University Medical Center from 1982–2013. Results The mean age at presentation was 4.87 months. When there was a family history of early infant death or known SCID (63/172 or 37%), the mean presentation age was much earlier, 2.0 months compared to 6.6 months. Failure to thrive was common, with 84 patients (50%) having a weight less than the 5th percentile. The leading infections included oral moniliasis (43%), viral infections (61/172 35.5%) and Pneumocystis jiroveci (26%) pneumonia. The group mean ALC was 1454/cmm; 88% of the infants had an ALC less than 3000/cmm. Absent thymic shadow was seen in 92% of infants with electronic radiographic data available. An absence of T cell function was found in all patients. Conclusions SCID infants appear normal at birth but later present with failure to thrive and/or recurrent fungal, viral and bacterial infections. Low ALCs and absent thymic shadow on chest x-ray are key diagnostic clues. The absence of T cell function confirms the diagnosis. PMID:25824440

  3. [Prognostic factors of perinatal short-term outcome in severe placental insufficiency using Doppler sonography to assess end-diastolic absent and reverse blood flow in umbilical arteries].

    PubMed

    Frauenschuh, I; Wirbelauer, J; Karl, S; Girschick, G; Rehn, M; Zollner, U; Frambach, T; Dietl, J; Müller, T

    2015-02-01

    Significant placental insufficiency, indicated by Doppler ultrasound findings of absent or reverse end-diastolic flow velocities (AREDV), is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Analysis of blood flow in the ductus venosus should assist in early intrauterine recognition of threatened foetuses. 58 high-risk pregnancies with umbilical AREDV were repeatedly examined (n=364). Doppler findings were correlated with neonatal signs of deterioration (ratio of normoblasts to leukocytes, pH, base excess, Apgar score), as well as short-term morbidity [need for intubation, duration of assisted respiration, evidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH grade III+IV)] against the analysis of the blood flow findings (normal or increased pulsitility, absence or reverse end-diastolic flow) in the umbilical arteries (AU), the middle cerebral arteries (ACM) and ductus venosus (DV) relating these to birth weight and the duration of the pregnancy. The median period of observation was 12.8 days, 48% of the foetuses showed an abnormal ductus venosus flow and 26% an absent venous or reverse end-diastolic flow. The median date of delivery was 30 weeks, with a mean birth weight of 816 g. 93% were live births with 12% dying postnatally. Although the criteria for postnatal morbidity (BPD, NEC, IVH III+IV) and mortality did not correlate with changes in arterial and venous Doppler parameters in our group, there was a significant relationship between the normoblast count, known to be a marker of chronic hypoxia. The Apgar 10 minte score, umbilical arterial pH and base excess were correlated with changes in the DV flow curves. Healthy survival started, irrespective of arterial or venous blood flow criteria, from 27+0 weeks of pregnancy. If born between 27.0 and 30+6 weeks, the infants were more likely to be healthy the less the blood flow had been compromised. A birth weight

  4. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ)-evoked bradycardia, hypotension, and diuresis are absent in N/OFQ peptide (NOP) receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Melissa A; Ansonoff, Michael A; Pintar, John E; Kapusta, Daniel R

    2008-09-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of the opioid-like peptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) produces bradycardia, hypotension, and diuresis in mice. We hypothesized that these responses are solely caused by selective activation of central N/OFQ peptide (NOP) receptors. To test this premise, we first examined whether i.c.v. N/OFQ produced dose-dependent diuretic and cardiovascular depressor responses in commercially available C57BL/6 mice. Next, using doses established in these studies, we examined the renal excretory and cardiovascular responses to i.c.v. N/OFQ in conscious transgenic NOP receptor knockout mice (NOP(-/-)). In metabolic studies, i.c.v. N/OFQ, but not saline vehicle, dose-dependently increased urine output (V) in NOP(+/+); this response was significant at 3 nmol (N/OFQ, V = 0.39 +/- 0.10 ml/2 h; saline, 0.08 +/- 0.05 ml/2 h). The N/OFQ-evoked diuresis was absent in littermate NOP(-/-) (N/OFQ, V = 0.06 +/- 0.06 ml/2 h; saline, 0.03 +/- 0.03 ml/2 h). There were no significant changes in urinary sodium or potassium excretion or free water clearance in either group. In telemetry studies, i.c.v. N/OFQ dose dependently lowered heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). At 3 nmol N/OFQ, both HR and MAP were reduced in NOP(+/+) (peak DeltaHR = -217 +/- 31 bpm; peak DeltaMAP =-47 +/- 7 mm Hg) compared with saline (peak DeltaHR =-14 +/- 5 bpm; peak DeltaMAP = 2 +/- 3 mm Hg). These N/OFQ-evoked bradycardic and hypotensive responses were absent in NOP(-/-) (peak DeltaHR =-13 +/- 17 bpm; peak DeltaMAP =-2 +/- 4 mm Hg, respectively). Basal 24-h cardiovascular and renal excretory function were not different between NOP(-/-) and NOP(+/+) mice. These results establish that the bradycardia, hypotension and diuresis produced by centrally administered N/OFQ are mediated by selective activation of NOP receptors.

  5. Absent otoacoustic emissions predict otitis media in young Aboriginal children: A birth cohort study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in an arid zone of Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Deborah; Weeks, Sharon; Jacoby, Peter; Elsbury, Dimity; Finucane, Janine; Stokes, Annette; Monck, Ruth; Coates, Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common paediatric illness for which antibiotics are prescribed. In Australian Aboriginal children OM is frequently asymptomatic and starts at a younger age, is more common and more likely to result in hearing loss than in non-Aboriginal children. Absent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) may predict subsequent risk of OM. Methods 100 Aboriginal and 180 non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia were followed regularly from birth to age 2 years. Tympanometry was conducted at routine field follow-up from age 3 months. Routine clinical examination by an ENT specialist was to be done 3 times and hearing assessment by an audiologist twice. TEOAEs were measured at ages <1 and 1–2 months. Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the association between absent TEOAEs and subsequent risk of OM. Results At routine ENT specialist clinics, OM was detected in 55% of 184 examinations in Aboriginal children and 26% of 392 examinations in non-Aboriginal children; peak prevalence was 72% at age 5–9 months in Aboriginal children and 40% at 10–14 months in non-Aboriginal children. Moderate-severe hearing loss was present in 32% of 47 Aboriginal children and 7% of 120 non-Aboriginal children aged 12 months or more. TEOAE responses were present in 90% (46/51) of Aboriginal children and 99% (120/121) of non-Aboriginal children aged <1 month and in 62% (21/34) and 93% (108/116), respectively, in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children at age 1–2 months. Aboriginal children who failed TEOAE at age 1–2 months were 2.6 times more likely to develop OM subsequently than those who passed. Overall prevalence of type B tympanograms at field follow-up was 50% (n = 78) in Aboriginal children and 20% (n = 95) in non-Aboriginal children. Conclusion The burden of middle ear disease is high in all children, but particularly in Aboriginal children, one-third of whom suffer from moderate-severe hearing

  6. De novo analysis of the transcriptome of Pratylenchus zeae to identify transcripts for proteins required for structural integrity, sensation, locomotion and parasitism.

    PubMed

    Fosu-Nyarko, John; Tan, Jo-Anne C H; Gill, Reetinder; Agrez, Vaughan G; Rao, Uma; Jones, Michael G K

    2016-05-01

    The root lesion nematode Pratylenchus zeae, a migratory endoparasite, is an economically important pest of major crop plants (e.g. cereals, sugarcane). It enters host roots, migrates through root tissues and feeds from cortical cells, and defends itself against biotic and abiotic stresses in the soil and in host tissues. We report de novo sequencing of the P. zeae transcriptome using 454 FLX, and the identification of putative transcripts encoding proteins required for movement, response to stimuli, feeding and parasitism. Sequencing generated 347,443 good quality reads which were assembled into 10,163 contigs and 139,104 singletons: 65% of contigs and 28% of singletons matched sequences of free-living and parasitic nematodes. Three-quarters of the annotated transcripts were common to reference nematodes, mainly representing genes encoding proteins for structural integrity and fundamental biochemical processes. Over 15,000 transcripts were similar to Caenorhabditis elegans genes encoding proteins with roles in mechanical and neural control of movement, responses to chemicals, mechanical and thermal stresses. Notably, 766 transcripts matched parasitism genes employed by both migratory and sedentary endoparasites in host interactions, three of which hybridized to the gland cell region, suggesting that they might be secreted. Conversely, transcripts for effectors reported to be involved in feeding site formation by sedentary endoparasites were conspicuously absent. Transcripts similar to those encoding some secretory-excretory products at the host interface of Brugia malayi, the secretome of Meloidogyne incognita and products of gland cells of Heterodera glycines were also identified. This P. zeae transcriptome provides new information for genome annotation and functional analysis of possible targets for control of pratylenchid nematodes.

  7. Don't it make my brown eyes blue: co-witness misinformation about a target's appearance can impair target-absent line-up performance.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Rachel; Henderson, Nicola

    2009-04-01

    Misinformation from another witness has been shown to impair eyewitness reports, but little is known about how it may influence eyewitness identification. In Experiment 1, adult pairs comprising one participant and one experimental confederate viewed a video clip of a staged theft. Half of the participants were then misinformed by the confederate that the thief's accomplice had blue eyes (in fact, they were brown). Next, individual participants described the accomplice and completed a target-absent photographic line-up task comprising blue-eyed members. Misinformed participants were several times more likely than controls to describe the accomplice as having blue eyes, and twice as likely to identify someone from the line-up. In Experiment 2, when line-up members' eye colour was digitally altered from blue to brown, the line-up effect disappeared, suggesting that the increase in identifications in Experiment 1 was not a generalised increase in willingness to choose from the line-up. In Experiment 3, we discounted the possibility that discussion alone could account for the line-up misinformation effect, by subjecting all participants to co-witness discussion.

  8. Assessment of the 'no eosinophils' rule: are eosinophils truly absent in pityriasis lichenoides, connective tissue disease, and graft-vs.-host disease?

    PubMed

    Sharon, Victoria R; Konia, Thomas H; Barr, Keira L; Fung, Maxwell A

    2012-04-01

    Eosinophils are often present in the inflammatory infiltrate of an interface dermatitis, but the diagnostic specificity of eosinophils in interface dermatitis has not been formally evaluated. We retrospectively identified 97 examples of interface dermatitis with clinically confirmed diagnoses, including lupus erythematosus (LE), lichen planus, pityriasis lichenoides (PL), graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD), dermatomyositis (DM) and drug reaction. Diagnoses were clinically confirmed by at least two dermatologists. Slides were reviewed in a blinded fashion by at least two dermatopathologists. The average eosinophil count per 10 ×200 (×20 objective) fields was lowest for PL (0.2), DM (0.3), GVHD (0.4), and LE (0.5) [defined as Group 1] and was higher for lichen planus, drug reactions, erythema multiforme (major and minor) and viral exanthems [defined as Group 2]. Distinction between Group 1 and Group 2 was maximized using an eosinophil count cutoff of 1.1. In conclusion, eosinophils are usually rare to absent in PL, DM, most forms of LE and GVHD. While final interpretation requires a composite assessment of all features, our results suggest that the presence of even a single eosinophil within nine or ten ×20 fields argues against a diagnosis of PL, DM or LE. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) expressed in human dental pulp mediates IL-1β secretion in response to cytoplasmic DNA.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuheng; Song, Zhi; Jiang, Lan; Chen, Lingling; Wang, Runfu; Qin, Wei; Liu, Pengcheng; Lin, Zhengmei

    2015-04-01

    The inflammasome has been determined to play an important role in inflammatory diseases in recent years. Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), an inflammasome that recognizes cytoplasmic DNA, has recently been identified as a critical regulator of immune responses. In this study, we explored whether AIM2 was expressed in human dental pulp and defined the role of AIM2 in regulating interleukin (IL)-1β secretion. We demonstrated that AIM2 was only detected in the odontoblast layer of healthy dental pulp, whereas strong expression was observed in inflamed dental pulp. Stimulation with interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and cytoplasmic DNA significantly activated the AIM2 inflammasome and increased IL-1β secretion in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the knockdown of AIM2 downregulated both cleaved-caspase-1 expression and IL-1β release in HDPCs. These results suggest that AIM2 expressed in human dental pulp plays an important role in the immune defense by activating the inflammasome signaling pathway.

  10. Rendered invisible? The absent presence of egg providers in U.K. debates on the acceptability of research and therapy for mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Haimes, Erica; Taylor, Ken

    2015-12-01

    Techniques for resolving some types of inherited mitochondrial diseases have recently been the subject of scientific research, ethical scrutiny, media coverage and regulatory initiatives in the UK. Building on research using eggs from a variety of providers, scientists hope to eradicate maternally transmitted mutations in mitochondrial DNA by transferring the nuclear DNA of a fertilised egg, created by an intending mother at risk of transmitting mitochondrial disease, and her male partner, into an enucleated egg provided by another woman. In this article we examine how egg providers for mitochondrial research and therapy have been represented in stakeholder debates. A systematic review of key documents and parliamentary debates shows that the balance of consideration tilts heavily towards therapeutic egg providers; research egg providers have been ignored and rendered invisible. However, mapping the various designations of therapeutic egg providers shows that their role is so heavily camouflaged that they have only an absent presence in discussions. We explore this puzzling ambivalence towards egg providers whose contributions are necessary to the success of current mitochondrial research and proposed therapies. We suggest that labels that diminish the contributions of egg providers serve certain governance objectives in managing possible future claims about, and by, therapeutic egg providers. We demonstrate that the social positioning of research egg providers is entangled within that of therapeutic egg providers which means that the former can also never receive their due recognition. This article contributes to the wider literature on the governance of new technological interventions.

  11. Purkinje cell-specific males absent on the first (mMof) gene deletion results in an ataxia-telangiectasia-like neurological phenotype and backward walking in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakesh; Hunt, Clayton R.; Gupta, Arun; Nannepaga, Suraj; Pandita, Raj K.; Shay, Jerry W.; Bachoo, Robert; Ludwig, Thomas; Burns, Dennis K.; Pandita, Tej K.

    2011-01-01

    The brains of ataxia telangiectasia (AT) patients display an aberrant loss of Purkinje cells (PCs) that is postulated to contribute to the observed deficits in motor coordination as well as in learning and cognitive function. AT patients have mutations in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene [Savitsky et al. (1995) Science 268:1749–1753]. However, in Atm-deficient mice, the neurological defects are limited, and the PCs are not deformed or lost as observed in AT patients [Barlow et al. (1996) Cell 86:159–171]. Here we report that PC-specific deletion of the mouse males absent on the first (mMof) gene (Cre−), which encodes a protein that specifically acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac) and influences ATM function, is critical for PC longevity. Mice deficient for PC-specific Mof display impaired motor coordination, ataxia, a backward-walking phenotype, and a reduced life span. Treatment of MofF/F/Pcp2-Cre+ mice with histone deacetylase inhibitors modestly prolongs PC survival and delays death. Therefore, Mof expression and H4K16 acetylation are essential for PC survival and function, and their absence leads to PC loss and cerebellar dysfunction similar to that observed in AT patients. PMID:21321203

  12. Purkinje cell-specific males absent on the first (mMof) gene deletion results in an ataxia-telangiectasia-like neurological phenotype and backward walking in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Hunt, Clayton R; Gupta, Arun; Nannepaga, Suraj; Pandita, Raj K; Shay, Jerry W; Bachoo, Robert; Ludwig, Thomas; Burns, Dennis K; Pandita, Tej K

    2011-03-01

    The brains of ataxia telangiectasia (AT) patients display an aberrant loss of Purkinje cells (PCs) that is postulated to contribute to the observed deficits in motor coordination as well as in learning and cognitive function. AT patients have mutations in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene [Savitsky et al. (1995) Science 268:1749-1753]. However, in Atm-deficient mice, the neurological defects are limited, and the PCs are not deformed or lost as observed in AT patients [Barlow et al. (1996) Cell 86:159-171]. Here we report that PC-specific deletion of the mouse males absent on the first (mMof) gene (Cre(-)), which encodes a protein that specifically acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac) and influences ATM function, is critical for PC longevity. Mice deficient for PC-specific Mof display impaired motor coordination, ataxia, a backward-walking phenotype, and a reduced life span. Treatment of Mof(F/F)/Pcp2-Cre(+) mice with histone deacetylase inhibitors modestly prolongs PC survival and delays death. Therefore, Mof expression and H4K16 acetylation are essential for PC survival and function, and their absence leads to PC loss and cerebellar dysfunction similar to that observed in AT patients.

  13. Anti-viral gene induction is absent upon secondary challenge with double-stranded RNA in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Green, Timothy J; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Robinson, Nick; Raftos, David; Speck, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Oyster farming is one of the most important aquaculture industries in the world. However, its productivity is increasingly limited by viral disease and we do not yet have management practices, such as protective vaccination, that can control these disease outbreaks. Hence, in the current study we investigated the expression of known anti-viral genes in oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in response to primary and secondary encounter with a virus associated molecular pattern (dsRNA), and tested whether a common form of epigenetic gene regulation (DNA methylation) was associated with the expression of these anti-viral genes. Injection of dsRNA into the adductor muscle resulted in the rapid and transient expression of virus recognition receptors (TLR & MDA5), whereas several anti-viral signalling (IRF & SOC-1) and effector (PKR & viperin) genes were still up-regulated at one week post primary challenge (p < 0.05). This primary encounter with dsRNA appeared to deplete the immune system because anti-viral gene induction was absent in the gills when oysters were given a second injection of dsRNA at 1-week post-primary injection. The expression of DNA methylation genes (DNMT1, DNMT3b, TDG, TET2) and DNA methylation profiles up-stream of specific anti-viral genes (STING, SOC-1 & Viperin) did not change in response to dsRNA injection (p > 0.05). These results collectively suggest that C. gigas does not have an enhanced anti-viral gene response (immune-priming) to secondary dsRNA challenge and that the sustained up-regulation of anti-viral signalling and effector genes following primary challenge is unlikely to be associated with upstream DNA methylation levels.

  14. Inflammation-related induction of absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) in vascular cells and atherosclerotic lesions suggests a role in vascular pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Maani; Peters, Andreas; Becker, Anja; Böckler, Dittmar; Dihlmann, Susanne

    2014-03-01

    Absent in melanoma (AIM2) was recently identified to act as a cytosolic DNA sensor in innate immunity. Considering the role of chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis, we hypothesized that AIM2 may act as a damage signal that is activated in response to cellular stress likewise in vascular cells of larger arteries. We thus addressed AIM2 expression in healthy arterial wall and in different vascular lesions. In addition, AIM2 expression was characterized in cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAoECs), smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs), and T/G-HA-vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in response to different stimuli. Carotid and aortic lesions from patients who underwent surgery and normal arterial specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for AIM2 expression. Cultured HAoECs, HAoSMCs, and T/G-HA-VSMCs were stimulated in vitro with proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ) or poly(dA:dT) and analyzed for AIM2 transcript and protein expression. AIM2 was detected in ECs of the intima and vasa vasorum of normal carotid artery and aorta. Moreover, AIM2 was moderately expressed in VSMCs of normal media and intima layers, as well as in VSMCs of atherosclerotic lesions. Increased AIM2 expression was detected around the necrotic core of atherosclerotic carotid lesions and in the vasa vasorum neovasculature of aortic aneurysms. Subsequent in vitro analysis identified an endogenous AIM2 expression in cultured HAoECs, HAoSMCs, and T/G-HA-VSMCs that was markedly increased upon treatment of the cells with tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, or cytosolic DNA. ECs and VSMC are able to respond to inflammatory signals by upregulation of AIM2 expression, indicating a role of AIM2 in vascular pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of definition and procedures used for absent blood culture data on the rate of intravascular catheter infection during parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Austin, P D; Hand, K S; Elia, M

    2016-06-01

    Diagnosis of intravascular catheter infection may be affected by the definition and procedures applied in the absence of blood culture data. To examine the extent to which different definitions of catheter infection and procedures for handling absent blood culture data can affect reported catheter infection rates. Catheter infection rates were established in a cohort of hospitalized patients administered parenteral nutrition according to three clinical and four published definitions. Paired and unpaired comparisons were made using available case analyses, sensitivity analyses and intention-to-categorize analyses. Complete data were available for each clinical definition (N = 193), and there were missing data (4.1-26.9%) for the published definitions. In an available case analysis, the catheter infection rate was 13.0-36.8% for the clinical definitions and 2.1-12.4% for the published definitions. For the published definitions, the rate was 1.6-32.1% in a sensitivity analysis and 11.4-16.9% in an intention-to-categorize analysis, with suggestion of bias towards a higher catheter infection rate in those with missing data, in keeping with the analyses of the clinical definitions. For paired comparisons, the strength of agreement between definitions varied from 'poor' (Cohen's kappa <0.21) to 'very good' (Cohen's kappa ≥0.81). The use of different definitions of catheter infection and procedures applied in the absence of blood culture data produced widely different catheter infection rates, which could compromise measurements or comparisons of service quality or study outcome. As such, there is a need to establish and use a valid, consistent and practical definition. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a Prediction Model for Diagnosis of Acute Poisoning in Patients with Altered Mental Status and Absent History of Alcohol/Drug Ingestion.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Robert

    2017-09-05

    Diagnosis of acute poisoning in patients with altered mental status and absent history is a challenging diagnostic problem in clinical practice. The aims of the study were to develop a simple clinical tool to stratify risk of acute poisoning in patients with altered mental states and no history of alcohol/drug ingestion, and develop a prediction model using initial observations from which a simple risk score could be derived. The study was carried out on non-trauma patients aged 15 years and older admitted with altered mental states and no history of alcohol or drug ingestion. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were carried out and a score was derived and validated. There were 607 patients included, with mean age of 60.3 years and 54% were male. The regression model performed moderately well on both the training and validation sets with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.834 and 0.844, respectively. The risk score correlated with the regression model (R(2) = 0.969). At cutoff thresholds of 20% for the model and 2 for the score, sensitivity and specificity of the regression model (67.6% and 85.6%) and the score (67.6% and 85.4%) were moderate, while positive predictive values were low (43.4%) and negative predictive values were high (94.2%) for both the regression model and the score. A prediction model with a derived risk score was developed with a high negative predictive value and may have potential in assessing risk of poisoning in altered mental status and may have value in a prehospital environment or at triage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A 3.4-kb Copy-Number Deletion near EPAS1 Is Significantly Enriched in High-Altitude Tibetans but Absent from the Denisovan Sequence.

    PubMed

    Lou, Haiyi; Lu, Yan; Lu, Dongsheng; Fu, Ruiqing; Wang, Xiaoji; Feng, Qidi; Wu, Sijie; Yang, Yajun; Li, Shilin; Kang, Longli; Guan, Yaqun; Hoh, Boon-Peng; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Jin, Li; Su, Bing; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-07-02

    Tibetan high-altitude adaptation (HAA) has been studied extensively, and many candidate genes have been reported. Subsequent efforts targeting HAA functional variants, however, have not been that successful (e.g., no functional variant has been suggested for the top candidate HAA gene, EPAS1). With WinXPCNVer, a method developed in this study, we detected in microarray data a Tibetan-enriched deletion (TED) carried by 90% of Tibetans; 50% were homozygous for the deletion, whereas only 3% carried the TED and 0% carried the homozygous deletion in 2,792 worldwide samples (p < 10(-15)). We employed long PCR and Sanger sequencing technologies to determine the exact copy number and breakpoints of the TED in 70 additional Tibetan and 182 diverse samples. The TED had identical boundaries (chr2: 46,694,276-46,697,683; hg19) and was 80 kb downstream of EPAS1. Notably, the TED was in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD; r(2) = 0.8) with EPAS1 variants associated with reduced blood concentrations of hemoglobin. It was also in complete LD with the 5-SNP motif, which was suspected to be introgressed from Denisovans, but the deletion itself was absent from the Denisovan sequence. Correspondingly, we detected that footprints of positive selection for the TED occurred 12,803 (95% confidence interval = 12,075-14,725) years ago. We further whole-genome deep sequenced (>60×) seven Tibetans and verified the TED but failed to identify any other copy-number variations with comparable patterns, giving this TED top priority for further study. We speculate that the specific patterns of the TED resulted from its own functionality in HAA of Tibetans or LD with a functional variant of EPAS1. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A rare P2X7 variant Arg307Gln with absent pore formation function protects against neuroinflammation in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ben J; Field, Judith; Dutertre, Sébastien; Ou, Amber; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Scott, Rodney; Lea, Rodney; Taylor, Bruce V; Stankovich, Jim; Butzkueven, Helmut; Gresle, Melissa; Laws, Simon M; Petrou, Steven; Hoffjan, Sabine; Akkad, Denis A; Graham, Colin A; Hawkins, Stanley; Glaser, Anna; Bedri, Sahl Khalid; Hillert, Jan; Matute, Carlos; Antiguedad, Alfredo; Wiley, James S

    2015-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic relapsing-remitting inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterized by oligodendrocyte damage, demyelination and neuronal death. Genetic association studies have shown a 2-fold or greater prevalence of the HLA-DRB1*1501 allele in the MS population compared with normal Caucasians. In discovery cohorts of Australasian patients with MS (total 2941 patients and 3008 controls), we examined the associations of 12 functional polymorphisms of P2X7, a microglial/macrophage receptor with proinflammatory effects when activated by extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In discovery cohorts, rs28360457, coding for Arg307Gln was associated with MS and combined analysis showed a 2-fold lower minor allele frequency compared with controls (1.11% for MS and 2.15% for controls, P = 0.0000071). Replication analysis of four independent European MS case-control cohorts (total 2140 cases and 2634 controls) confirmed this association [odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, P = 0.026]. A meta-analysis of all Australasian and European cohorts indicated that Arg307Gln confers a 1.8-fold protective effect on MS risk (OR = 0.57, P = 0.0000024). Fresh human monocytes heterozygous for Arg307Gln have >85% loss of 'pore' function of the P2X7 receptor measured by ATP-induced ethidium uptake. Analysis shows Arg307Gln always occurred with 270His suggesting a single 307Gln-270His haplotype that confers dominant negative effects on P2X7 function and protection against MS. Modeling based on the homologous zP2X4 receptor showed Arg307 is located in a region rich in basic residues located only 12 Å from the ligand binding site. Our data show the protective effect against MS of a rare genetic variant of P2RX7 with heterozygotes showing near absent proinflammatory 'pore' function.

  19. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS): detecting anxiety disorder and depression in employees absent from work because of mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuijsen, K; de Boer, A G E M; Verbeek, J; Blonk, R; van Dijk, F J H

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To (1) evaluate the psychometric properties and (2) examine the ability to detect cases with anxiety disorder and depression in a population of employees absent from work because of mental health problems. Methods: Internal consistency, construct validity, and criterion validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) were assessed. Furthermore, the ability to identify anxiety disorders or depression was evaluated by calculating posterior probabilities of these disorders following positive and negative test results for different cut off scores of the DASS-Depression and DASS-Anxiety subscales. Results: Internal consistency of the DASS subscales was high, with Cronbach's alphas of 0.94, 0.88, and 0.93 for depression, anxiety, and stress respectively. Factor analysis revealed a three factor solution, which corresponded well with the three subscales of the DASS. Construct validity was further supported by moderately high correlations of the DASS with indices of convergent validity (0.65 and 0.75), and lower correlations of the DASS with indices of divergent validity (range -0.22 to 0.07). Support for criterion validity was provided by a statistically significant difference in DASS scores between two diagnostic groups. A cut off score of 5 for anxiety and 12 for depression is recommended. The DASS showed probabilities of anxiety and depression after a negative test result of 0.05 and 0.06 respectively. Probabilities of 0.29 for anxiety disorder and 0.33 for depression after a positive test result reflect relatively low specificity of the DASS. Conclusion: The psychometric properties of the DASS are suitable for use in an occupational health care setting. The DASS can be helpful in ruling out anxiety disorder and depression in employees with mental health problems. PMID:12782751

  20. Hypoalgesia related to elevated resting blood pressure is absent in adolescents and young adults with a history of functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Bruehl, Stephen; Dengler-Crish, Christine M; Smith, Craig A; Walker, Lynn S

    2010-04-01

    Elevated resting blood pressure (BP) is hypoalgesic in healthy individuals, but this effect is absent in adults with chronic somatic pain. This study tested whether BP-related hypoalgesia is similarly altered in individuals with a history of chronic visceral pain in childhood. Resting BP was assessed in 94 adolescents and young adults with a known history of childhood functional abdominal pain (FAP) and 55 comparable healthy controls. Responses to an acute heat pain stimulus were then evaluated following exposure to two laboratory stressors. A significant participant type x systolic BP (SBP) interaction (p<.005) revealed that elevated resting SBP was associated with significantly higher heat pain threshold (p<.001) in healthy controls, but was unrelated to pain threshold in the FAP group. A similar pattern was observed for heat pain tolerance, with elevated SBP linked to significantly higher pain tolerance (p<.05) in healthy controls, but unrelated to tolerance in the FAP group. Dysfunction in BP-related hypoalgesia associated with FAP was evident regardless of whether childhood FAP had resolved or still persisted at the time of laboratory testing. Subgroup analyses indicated that BP-related hypoalgesia (in healthy controls) and FAP-linked absence of this hypoalgesia was observed only among females. Result suggest that childhood visceral chronic pain may be associated with relatively long-lasting dysfunction in overlapping systems modulating pain and BP that persists even after FAP resolves. Potential implications for later hypertension risk are discussed. Copyright 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent Uptrend in Whole-Grain Intake Is Absent for Low-Income Adolescents, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2012

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Cindy W.; Leak, Tashara M.; Laraia, Barbara A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Whole-grain consumption reduces risk of chronic disease, yet adolescents consume suboptimal amounts. It is unclear whether trends in consumption of whole grains have been positive among adolescents, and research assessing disparities by socioeconomic status is limited. The objective of our study was to evaluate recent trends in whole-grain consumption by US adolescents. Methods We examined data on 3,265 adolescents aged 13 to18 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2012. Intake of whole and refined grains was analyzed by using generalized linear models, and odds of no whole-grain intake were examined with logistic regression, adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic factors. We evaluated trends and examined heterogeneity of trends with respect to annual household income. Results Daily whole-grain consumption among adolescents increased overall by about a quarter-ounce–equivalent per day (oz-eq/d) (P trend <.001). We found a significant relationship between whole-grain intake and income. Daily whole grains (recommended as ≥3 oz-eq/d), increased (0.6 to 1.0 oz-eq/d) among high-income adolescents (P trend < .001) but remained at 0.5 oz-eq/d for low-income adolescents. The ratio of whole grains to total grains (recommended to be at least 50%) rose from 7.6% to 14.2% for high-income adolescents (P trend < .001), with no significant trend for the low-income group. Consumption of refined grains did not change. Odds of having no whole grains trended downward, but only for the high-income adolescents (P trend = .01). Conclusion These data show significant (albeit modest) trends toward increased intake of whole grains among high-income adolescents nationwide that are absent among low-income peers. Future interventions and policies should address barriers to whole-grain consumption among this vulnerable group. PMID:28682743

  2. Recent Uptrend in Whole-Grain Intake Is Absent for Low-Income Adolescents, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Tester, June M; Leung, Cindy W; Leak, Tashara M; Laraia, Barbara A

    2017-07-06

    Whole-grain consumption reduces risk of chronic disease, yet adolescents consume suboptimal amounts. It is unclear whether trends in consumption of whole grains have been positive among adolescents, and research assessing disparities by socioeconomic status is limited. The objective of our study was to evaluate recent trends in whole-grain consumption by US adolescents. We examined data on 3,265 adolescents aged 13 to18 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2012. Intake of whole and refined grains was analyzed by using generalized linear models, and odds of no whole-grain intake were examined with logistic regression, adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic factors. We evaluated trends and examined heterogeneity of trends with respect to annual household income. Daily whole-grain consumption among adolescents increased overall by about a quarter-ounce-equivalent per day (oz-eq/d) (P trend <.001). We found a significant relationship between whole-grain intake and income. Daily whole grains (recommended as ≥3 oz-eq/d), increased (0.6 to 1.0 oz-eq/d) among high-income adolescents (P trend < .001) but remained at 0.5 oz-eq/d for low-income adolescents. The ratio of whole grains to total grains (recommended to be at least 50%) rose from 7.6% to 14.2% for high-income adolescents (P trend < .001), with no significant trend for the low-income group. Consumption of refined grains did not change. Odds of having no whole grains trended downward, but only for the high-income adolescents (P trend = .01). These data show significant (albeit modest) trends toward increased intake of whole grains among high-income adolescents nationwide that are absent among low-income peers. Future interventions and policies should address barriers to whole-grain consumption among this vulnerable group.

  3. A 3.4-kb Copy-Number Deletion near EPAS1 Is Significantly Enriched in High-Altitude Tibetans but Absent from the Denisovan Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Haiyi; Lu, Yan; Lu, Dongsheng; Fu, Ruiqing; Wang, Xiaoji; Feng, Qidi; Wu, Sijie; Yang, Yajun; Li, Shilin; Kang, Longli; Guan, Yaqun; Hoh, Boon-Peng; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Jin, Li; Su, Bing; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan high-altitude adaptation (HAA) has been studied extensively, and many candidate genes have been reported. Subsequent efforts targeting HAA functional variants, however, have not been that successful (e.g., no functional variant has been suggested for the top candidate HAA gene, EPAS1). With WinXPCNVer, a method developed in this study, we detected in microarray data a Tibetan-enriched deletion (TED) carried by 90% of Tibetans; 50% were homozygous for the deletion, whereas only 3% carried the TED and 0% carried the homozygous deletion in 2,792 worldwide samples (p < 10−15). We employed long PCR and Sanger sequencing technologies to determine the exact copy number and breakpoints of the TED in 70 additional Tibetan and 182 diverse samples. The TED had identical boundaries (chr2: 46,694,276–46,697,683; hg19) and was 80 kb downstream of EPAS1. Notably, the TED was in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD; r2 = 0.8) with EPAS1 variants associated with reduced blood concentrations of hemoglobin. It was also in complete LD with the 5-SNP motif, which was suspected to be introgressed from Denisovans, but the deletion itself was absent from the Denisovan sequence. Correspondingly, we detected that footprints of positive selection for the TED occurred 12,803 (95% confidence interval = 12,075–14,725) years ago. We further whole-genome deep sequenced (>60×) seven Tibetans and verified the TED but failed to identify any other copy-number variations with comparable patterns, giving this TED top priority for further study. We speculate that the specific patterns of the TED resulted from its own functionality in HAA of Tibetans or LD with a functional variant of EPAS1. PMID:26073780

  4. Rod-like microglia are restricted to eyes with laser-induced ocular hypertension but absent from the microglial changes in the contralateral untreated eye.

    PubMed

    de Hoz, Rosa; Gallego, Beatriz I; Ramírez, Ana I; Rojas, Blanca; Salazar, Juan J; Valiente-Soriano, Francisco J; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Villegas-Perez, Maria P; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Triviño, Alberto; Ramírez, José M

    2013-01-01

    In the mouse model of unilateral laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) the microglia in both the treated and the normotensive untreated contralateral eye have morphological signs of activation and up-regulation of MHC-II expression in comparison with naïve. In the brain, rod-like microglia align to less-injured neurons in an effort to limit damage. We investigate whether: i) microglial activation is secondary to laser injury or to a higher IOP and; ii) the presence of rod-like microglia is related to OHT. Three groups of mice were used: age-matched control (naïve, n=15); and two lasered: limbal (OHT, n=15); and non-draining portion of the sclera (scleral, n=3). In the lasered animals, treated eyes as well as contralateral eyes were analysed. Retinal whole-mounts were immunostained with antibodies against, Iba-1, NF-200, MHC-II, CD86, CD68 and Ym1. In the scleral group (normal ocular pressure) no microglial signs of activation were found. Similarly to naïve eyes, OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes had ramified microglia in the nerve-fibre layer related to the blood vessel. However, only eyes with OHT had rod-like microglia that aligned end-to-end, coupling to form trains of multiple cells running parallel to axons in the retinal surface. Rod-like microglia were CD68+ and were related to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) showing signs of degeneration (NF-200+RGCs). Although MHC-II expression was up-regulated in the microglia of the NFL both in OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes, no expression of CD86 and Ym1 was detected in ramified or in rod-like microglia. After 15 days of unilateral lasering of the limbal and the non-draining portion of the sclera, activated microglia was restricted to OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes. However, rod-like microglia were restricted to eyes with OHT and degenerated NF-200+RGCs and were absent from their contralateral eyes. Thus, rod-like microglia seem be related to the neurodegeneration associated with HTO.

  5. Rod-Like Microglia Are Restricted to Eyes with Laser-Induced Ocular Hypertension but Absent from the Microglial Changes in the Contralateral Untreated Eye

    PubMed Central

    de Hoz, Rosa; Gallego, Beatriz I.; Ramírez, Ana I.; Rojas, Blanca; Salazar, Juan J.; Valiente-Soriano, Francisco J.; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Villegas-Perez, Maria P.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Triviño, Alberto; Ramírez, José M.

    2013-01-01

    In the mouse model of unilateral laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) the microglia in both the treated and the normotensive untreated contralateral eye have morphological signs of activation and up-regulation of MHC-II expression in comparison with naïve. In the brain, rod-like microglia align to less-injured neurons in an effort to limit damage. We investigate whether: i) microglial activation is secondary to laser injury or to a higher IOP and; ii) the presence of rod-like microglia is related to OHT. Three groups of mice were used: age-matched control (naïve, n=15); and two lasered: limbal (OHT, n=15); and non-draining portion of the sclera (scleral, n=3). In the lasered animals, treated eyes as well as contralateral eyes were analysed. Retinal whole-mounts were immunostained with antibodies against, Iba-1, NF-200, MHC-II, CD86, CD68 and Ym1. In the scleral group (normal ocular pressure) no microglial signs of activation were found. Similarly to naïve eyes, OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes had ramified microglia in the nerve-fibre layer related to the blood vessel. However, only eyes with OHT had rod-like microglia that aligned end-to-end, coupling to form trains of multiple cells running parallel to axons in the retinal surface. Rod-like microglia were CD68+ and were related to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) showing signs of degeneration (NF-200+RGCs). Although MHC-II expression was up-regulated in the microglia of the NFL both in OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes, no expression of CD86 and Ym1 was detected in ramified or in rod-like microglia. After 15 days of unilateral lasering of the limbal and the non-draining portion of the sclera, activated microglia was restricted to OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes. However, rod-like microglia were restricted to eyes with OHT and degenerated NF-200+RGCs and were absent from their contralateral eyes. Thus, rod-like microglia seem be related to the neurodegeneration associated with HTO. PMID:24367610

  6. Skin vasoreactivity to insulin iontophoresis is reduced in elderly subjects and is absent in treated non-insulin-dependent diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Marco; Cupisti, Adamasco; Ricco, Roberto; Santoro, Gino; Pentimone, Ferdinando; Carpi, Angelo

    2004-12-01

    subjects and show that this effect is reduced by aging and is absent in treated NIDDM patients. The local skin vasodilatatory effect induced by insulin seems to involve mechanisms different from those underlying the skin postischemic hyperemia.

  7. Anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta accompanied by absent pulmonary valve syndrome and right-sided aortic arch: a rare case in adult congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Khajali, Zahra; Mohammadzadeh, Ali; Khayatzadeh, Marzieh

    2015-04-01

    We present a rare congenital heart disease in a 20-year-old man with anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta, accompanied by absent pulmonary valve syndrome, and a right-sided aortic arch suspected initially in transthoracic echocardiography and subsequently confirmed by cardiac catheterisation and computed tomography angiography.

  8. Osmolality and respiratory regulation in humans: respiratory compensation for hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is absent after infusion of hypertonic saline in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Moen, Vibeke; Brudin, Lars; Rundgren, Mats; Irestedt, Lars

    2014-10-01

    results indicate that osmolality has an influence on ventilation. Respiratory compensation for hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis was suppressed during hyperosmolality. Water loading caused a decrease in plasma osmolality and metabolic acidosis, and although the decrease in SID was smaller compared with salt loading, the expected respiratory compensation was observed. Ventilation was also stimulated in men, therefore independently of progesterone levels. We propose that the influence of osmolality on ventilation consists mainly as depression in conditions of hyperosmolality and that this depression is absent during hypoosmolality.

  9. Fine structure of mycorrhiza in Neottia nidus-avis (L.) L. C. Rich. (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Dörr, I; Kollmann, R

    1969-12-01

    The fine structural features of the symbiotic relationship between Neottia and the fungus Rhizoctonia have been examined. Different stages of development of the fungus within the orchid's root cells are described. The fungus-attacked Neottia cells show striking changes. The central vacuole is partly filled by a conspicuous plasmatic network while the nucleus enlarges considerably. Of special interest is the development of an extended rough-surfaced ER.

  10. From symbolizing to non-symbolizing within the scope of a link: from dreams to shouts of terror caused by an absent presence.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ruggero

    2012-08-01

    This article examines pathologies in the creation of symbols and those pathologies' ensuing consequences. It relies mainly on the vertices provided by Bion and Meltzer. It studies the different forms in which these lapses occur in symbolic processes, where they may create vacuums in symbolic networks or give rise to 'lies', and even destroy or de-symbolize established symbols. Based on Bion's concept of the minus-contained (-contained), I propose that when a symbol is attacked, a particular mental structure with its own peculiar characteristics comes about. This structure not only creates a vacuum in that mental zone, it ends up damaging the entire symbolization process. This contribution aims to describe that structure from the metapsychological point of view - contained. I end by synthesizing the possible widening of what could be a Bionian negative grid.

  11. Normal Range of Fetal Nasal Bone Length during the Second Trimester in an Afro-Caribbean Population and Likelihood Ratio for Trisomy 21 of Absent or Hypoplastic Nasal Bone.

    PubMed

    Gautier, Manuella; Gueneret, Michèle; Plavonil, Corinne; Jolivet, Eugénie; Schaub, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    To establish the normal reference range of fetal nasal bone length (NBL) during the second trimester in an Afro-Caribbean population and the likelihood ratio (LR) for fetal trisomy 21. Prenatal records of euploid, non-malformed singleton fetuses who underwent second-trimester ultrasonographic scans at 20-24 weeks of gestation were retrospectively analyzed for NBL and gestational age (GA). Only Afro-Caribbean couples were selected. The relationship between fetal NBL and GA was determined. The data of all fetuses with Down syndrome were provided by the French West Indies Register of Congenital Malformations (REMALAN). There was a significant linear association between fetal NBL and GA (R2 = 0. 354). The 50th percentile for NBL increased from 5.0 to 7.0 mm from week 20 to 24 of gestation. The nasal bone (NB) was absent or hypoplastic in 8.6% of the euploid fetuses and in 69.2% of the trisomy 21 fetuses. The LR for trisomy 21 of absent or hypoplastic NB in an Afro-Caribbean population was 8.02, but only 2.32 when this sign was isolated. The reference range for fetal NBL at 20-24 weeks of gestation in an Afro-Caribbean population and the LR for trisomy 21 of absent or hypoplastic NB differed from the other populations. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Analysis of the skin surface and inner structure around pores on the face.

    PubMed

    Mizukoshi, Koji; Takahashi, Kazuhiro

    2014-02-01

    Facial pores do not appear to close again in old skin. Therefore, the tissue structure around the pore has been speculated to keep the pore open. To elucidate the reason for pore enlargement, we examined the relationship between the skin surface and inner skin structural characteristics in the same regions especially around the pore. Samples of the skin surface were obtained from the cheek and examined using a laser image processor to obtain three-dimensional (3D) data. The inner structure of the skin was analyzed using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The conspicuous pore not only had a concave structure but also a discontinuous convex structure on the skin surface surrounding the pore. Furthermore, CLSM image indicated that the skin inner structure developed a discontinuous dermal papilla structure and isotropic dermal fiber structure. There were structural changes in the skin surface around conspicuous pores, including not only a concave structure but also a convex structure with skin inner structure changing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Path integration absent in scent-tracking fimbria-fornix rats: evidence for hippocampal involvement in "sense of direction" and "sense of distance" using self-movement cues.

    PubMed

    Whishaw, I Q; Gorny, B

    1999-06-01

    Allothetic and idiothetic navigation strategies use very different cue constellations and computational processes. Allothetic navigation requires the use of the relationships between relatively stable external (visual, olfactory, auditory) cues, whereas idiothetic navigation requires the integration of cues generated by self-movement and/or efferent copy of movement commands. The flexibility with which animals can switch between these strategies and the neural structures that support these strategies are not well understood. By capitalizing on the proclivity of foraging rats to carry large food pellets back to a refuge for eating, the present study examined the contribution of the hippocampus to the use of allothetic versus idiothetic navigation strategies. Control rats and fimbria-fornix-ablated rats were trained to follow linear, polygonal, and octagonal scent trails that led to a piece of food. The ability of the rats to return to the refuge with the food via the shortest route using allothetic cues (visual cues and/or the odor trail available) or using ideothetic cues (the odor trail removed and the rats blindfolded or tested in infrared light) was examined. Control rats "closed the polygon" by returning directly home in all cue conditions. Fimbria-fornix rats successfully used allothetic cues (closed the polygon using visual cues or tracked back on the string) but were insensitive to the direction and distance of the refuge and were lost when restricted to idiothetic cues. The results support the hypothesis that the hippocampal formation is necessary for navigation requiring the integration of idiothetic cues.

  14. Caveolin-1 expression is variably displayed in astroglial-derived tumors and absent in oligodendrogliomas: concrete premises for a new reliable diagnostic marker in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Cassoni, Paola; Senetta, Rebecca; Castellano, Isabella; Ortolan, Erika; Bosco, Martino; Magnani, Ivana; Ducati, Alessandro

    2007-05-01

    Caveolins are basic constituents of flask-shaped cell membrane microdomains (caveolae), which are involved in many cell functions, including signalling, trafficking, and cellular growth control. The distribution of caveolae within the normal brain and in brain tumors is controversial. In the present study, we describe the expression of caveolin-1 (cav-1) in 64 brain tumors of different grade, of either astroglial or oligodendroglial origin. All studied astrocitomas of any grade (from II to IV) were cav-1 positive, displaying staining patterns and intensity specifically associated to the different tumor grades. In all glioblastomas and gliosarcomas, cav-1 staining was extremely intense, typically localized at the cell membrane and recognized a variable percentage of cells, including the majority of spindle cells and palisade-oriented perinecrotic cells. In anaplastic astrocytomas, a less intense membrane staining or a cytoplasmic dotlike immunoreactivity were present, the latter being almost the exclusive pattern observed in diffuse astrocitomas grade II. In contrast to astroglial tumors, the striking totality of grade II oligodendrogliomas and the large majority of grade III were lacking cav-1 expression. Interestingly, a cav-1 distribution overlapping the pattern described in tissues was observed also in primary cell cultures of human glioblastomas and astrocytomas, and also in one established glioblastoma cell line (U251 MG), analyzed by means of confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. In conclusion, among astroglial tumors cav-1 expression varies in distribution, pattern, and intensity specifically according to tumor types and grades. The association between tumor progression and a more structured membranous pattern of cav-1 expression could suggest the hypothesis of a neoplastic shift towards a mesenchymal phenotype, whose behavioral and biologic significance worth further studies. Finally, the lack of cav-1 immunoreactivity in oligodendrogliomas suggests its

  15. Coupling of proton flow to ATP synthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus: F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase is absent from about half of chromatophores.

    PubMed

    Feniouk, B A; Cherepanov, D A; Junge, W; Mulkidjanian, A Y

    2001-11-01

    F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase (H(+)-ATP synthase, F(0)F(1)) utilizes the transmembrane protonmotive force to catalyze the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (P(i)). Structurally the enzyme consists of a membrane-embedded proton-translocating F(0) portion and a protruding hydrophilic F(1) part that catalyzes the synthesis of ATP. In photosynthetic purple bacteria a single turnover of the photosynthetic reaction centers (driven by a short saturating flash of light) generates protonmotive force that is sufficiently large to drive ATP synthesis. Using isolated chromatophore vesicles of Rhodobacter capsulatus, we monitored the flash induced ATP synthesis (by chemoluminescence of luciferin/luciferase) in parallel to the transmembrane charge transfer through F(0)F(1) (by following the decay of electrochromic bandshifts of intrinsic carotenoids). With the help of specific inhibitors of F(1) (efrapeptin) and of F(0) (venturicidin), we decomposed the kinetics of the total proton flow through F(0)F(1) into (i) those coupled to the ATP synthesis and (ii) the de-coupled proton escape through F(0). Taking the coupled proton flow, we calculated the H(+)/ATP ratio; it was found to be 3.3+/-0.6 at a large driving force (after one saturating flash of light) but to increase up to 5.1+/-0.9 at a smaller driving force (after a half-saturating flash). From the results obtained, we conclude that our routine chromatophore preparations contained three subsets of chromatophore vesicles. Chromatophores with coupled F(0)F(1) dominated in fresh material. Freezing/thawing or pre-illumination in the absence of ADP and P(i) led to an increase in the fraction of chromatophores with at least one de-coupled F(0)(F(1)). The disclosed fraction of chromatophores that lacked proton-conducting F(0)(F(1)) (approx. 40% of the total amount) remained constant upon these treatments.

  16. Absent fetal movement response with a blunted cardioacceleratory fetal response to external vibratory acoustic stimulation in a fetus with the Pena-Shokeir syndrome (fetal akinesia and hypokinesia sequence).

    PubMed

    Sherer, D M; Sanko, S R; Metlay, L A; Woods, J R

    1992-01-01

    We present a case that describes a partial fetal response to external vibratory acoustic stimulation in that, although no fetal movements were elicited, a blunted, brief positive cardioacceleratory response was noted. This fetus exhibited features of the Pena-Shokeir syndrome, characterized by skeletal neurogenic atrophy, yet with a normal auditory system at autopsy. This observation may suggest that the prolonged increase in the basal fetal heart noted after fetal vibratory acoustic stimulation is sustained by active fetal movements, absent in this fetus due to joint contractures.

  17. (E)-5,5'-di(thiophen-2-yl)-3,3'-bi[thiophen-3(2H)-ylidene]-2,2'-diones--from conspicuous blue impurities to "quasi-metallic" golden-bronze crystals.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nicholas R; White, Andrew J P

    2013-06-21

    (E)-5,5'-Di(thiophen-2-yl)-3,3'-bi[thiophen-3(2H)-ylidene]-2,2'-dione () has caught the eye of several chemists who have encountered it as a trace by-product in a variety of reactions. We report here the first deliberate synthesis of this intense blue dye (λ(max) 635 nm; ε(max) 32,400 L cm(-1) mol(-1)). We prove on the basis of predictions made with TDDFT that 1a has previously been misassigned as a structural isomer and we correct the visible absorption data that was reported. Derivatives of 1a equipped with pentyl (1b) and butylsulfanyl (1c) groups are readily prepared with our divergent synthetic route (3-7% yield over five steps). Crystals of 1b and 1c exhibit an attractive "quasi-metallic" golden-bronze lustre. This effect is rare in molecular crystals and is observed only with the most intense dyes.

  18. Fluid-absent metamorphism in the Adirondacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valley, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Results on late Proterozoic metamorphism of granulite in the Adirondacks are presented. There more than 20,000 sq km of rock are at granulite facies. Low water fugacites are implied by orthopyroxene bearing assemblages and by stability of k'spar-plag-quartz assemblages. After mentioning the popular concept of infiltration of carbon dioxide into Precambrian rocks and attendent generation of granulite facies assemblages, several features of Adirondack rocks pertinent to carbon dioxide and water during their metamorphism are summarized: wollastonite occurs in the western lowlands; contact metamorphism by anorthosite preceeding granulite metamorphism is indicated by oxygen isotopes. Oxygen fugacity lies below that of the QFM buffer; total P sub water + P sub carbon dioxide determined from monticellite bearing assemblages are much less than P sub total (7 to 7.6 kb). These and other features indicate close spatial association of high- and low-P sub carbon dioxide assemblages and that a vapor phase was not present during metamorphism. Thus Adirondack rocks were not infiltrated by carbon dioxide vapor. Their metamorphism, at 625 to 775 C, occurred either when the protoliths were relatively dry or after dessication occurred by removal of a partial melt phase.

  19. Excitatory and inhibitory learning with absent stimuli.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Sherwood, Andrew; Holland, Peter C

    2008-04-01

    Three experiments showed that 2 associatively activated stimulus representations may engage in excitatory or inhibitory learning, depending on their temporal relationship. Experiment 1a suggested that simultaneously activated stimulus representations show evidence of inhibitory learning in an acquisition test. Experiment 1b showed similar evidence of inhibition in a summation test. Experiment 2 found that activation of 2 stimulus representations in a serial compound resulted in excitatory learning between the antecedent and the subsequent (forward) and inhibitory learning between the subsequent and the antecedent (backward). The results show the dynamic influence of temporal contiguity on mediated learning.

  20. Soil Compaction Absent in Plantation Thinning

    Treesearch

    Tony King; Sharon Haines

    1979-01-01

    We examine the effects on soil bulk density by using a TH-105 Thinner Harvester and two forwarders in a mechanically thinned slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) plantation. Points in the machine tracks were sampled before and after harvesting at depths of 5 and 10 cm (2 and 4 in) for moisture and bulk density. Both the standard gravimetric method...

  1. Blepharophimosis syndrome with absent tear production.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jacqueline K; Stout, Ann U; Aaby, Aazy A; Ng, John D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to present a case of congenital alacrima in a patient with blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES). A 9-month-old boy presented with characteristic clinical findings of BPES confirmed by genetic testing. On further history taking and evaluation, the patient was noted to have no tear production, despite clinically present palpebral lobes of the lacrimal glands. BPES is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by narrowed horizontal palpebral fissures, severe bilateral symmetric ptosis, epicanthus inversus, and telecanthus. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the second reported case of congenital alacrima in this syndrome. The first case described in the literature was in a 9-month-old girl who had congenital absence of the lacrimal glands. BPES may present with alacrima requiring vigilant lifelong lubrication and careful consideration in decisions for eyelid surgery including ptosis repair.

  2. Q fever is absent from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hilbink, F; Penrose, M; Kovacova, E; Kazar, J

    1993-10-01

    To investigate the presence of Coxiella burnetii in sheep and cattle, the two major ruminant populations of New Zealand, its seroprevalence was determined in aborting cattle and sheepdogs. These groups of animals were chosen because of their accessibility and the fact that they would be good indicators for the presence of the organism. A total of 2181 bovine and 12,556 canine samples were all seronegative. On the basis of these results and previous reports it is argued that New Zealand is free of coxiellosis or Q fever.

  3. An Absent Body in a Present Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcussen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The wilderness expedition experience will always be a confluence of emotional, cognitive and bodily processes. The author wants to show that the body is an important but often forgotten part of the wilderness expedition experience. In society, the focus on the body is often polarised. Sometimes, there is an extreme focus on the thin and fit body…

  4. Lemierre's syndrome: forgotten, but not absent.

    PubMed

    Bahall, Mandreker; Giddings, Stanley; Bahall, Krishni

    2017-08-07

    Lemierre's syndrome is rare, with no known reported cases in the Caribbean thus far. We highlight a case of a young woman who presented with diabetic ketoacidosis precipitated by oral pharyngeal sepsis, whose condition rapidly deteriorated within 24 hours requiring ventilation and administration of antibiotics. Her sepsis was accompanied by internal jugular vein thrombosis in keeping with a diagnosis of Lemierre's syndrome, which was treated aggressively with antibiotics, intensive care and mechanical ventilatory support in the intensive care unit. She made a full recovery. Though this is the first reported case in the Caribbean of this 'forgotten disease', it must not be forgotten because prognosis and outcome are markedly improved with prompt and aggressive treatment. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Cytokines in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats: persistent mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and absent expression of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed

    Issazadeh, S; Lorentzen, J C; Mustafa, M I; Höjeberg, B; Müssener, A; Olsson, T

    1996-09-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats is typically a brief and monophasic disease with sparse demyelination. However, inbred DA rats develop a demyelinating, prolonged and relapsing encephalomyelitis after immunization with rat spinal cord in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. This model enables studies of mechanisms related to chronicity and demyelination, two hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we have investigated, in situ, the dynamics of cytokine mRNA expression in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral lymphoid organs (lymph node cells and splenocytes) of diseased DA rats. We demonstrate that peripheral lymphoid cells stimulated in vitro with encephalitogenic peptides 69-87 and 87-101 of myelin basic protein responded with high mRNA expression for proinflammatory cytokines; interferon-gamma, interleukin-12 (IL-12), tumour necrosis factors alpha and beta, IL-1 beta and cytolysin. A high expression of mRNA for these proinflammatory cytokines was also observed in the CNS where it was accompanied by classical signs of inflammation such as expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II, CD4, CD8 and IL-2 receptor. The expression of mRNA for proinflammatory cytokines was remarkably long-lasting in DA rats as compared to LEW rats which display a brief and monophasic EAE. Furthermore, mRNAs for putative immunodownmodulatory cytokines, i.e. transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), IL-10 and IL-4 were almost absent in DA rats, in both the CNS and in vitro stimulated peripheral lymphoid cells, while their levels were elevated in the CNS of LEW rats during the recovery phase. We conclude that the MS-like prolonged and relapsing EAE in DA rats is associated with a prolonged production of proinflammatory cytokines and/or low or absent production of immunodownmodulatory cytokines.

  6. Concealed by conspicuousness: distractive prey markings and backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrova, Marina; Stobbe, Nina; Schaefer, H. Martin; Merilaita, Sami

    2009-01-01

    High-contrast markings, called distractive or dazzle markings, have been suggested to draw and hold the attention of a viewer, thus hindering detection or recognition of revealing prey characteristics, such as the body outline. We tested this hypothesis in a predation experiment with blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and artificial prey. We also tested whether this idea can be extrapolated to the background appearance and whether high-contrast markings in the background would improve prey concealment. We compared search times for a high-contrast range prey (HC-P) and a low-contrast range prey (LC-P) in a high-contrast range background (HC-B) and a low-contrast range background (LC-B). The HC-P was more difficult to detect in both backgrounds, although it did not match the LC-B. Also, both prey types were more difficult to find in the HC-B than in the LC-B, in spite of the mismatch of the LC-P. In addition, the HC-P was more difficult to detect, in both backgrounds, when compared with a generalist prey, not mismatching either background. Thus, we conclude that distractive prey pattern markings and selection of microhabitats with distractive features may provide an effective way to improve camouflage. Importantly, high-contrast markings, both as part of the prey coloration and in the background, can indeed increase prey concealment. PMID:19324754

  7. Going green to be seen: status, reputation, and conspicuous conservation.

    PubMed

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Tybur, Joshua M; Van den Bergh, Bram

    2010-03-01

    Why do people purchase proenvironmental "green" products? We argue that buying such products can be construed as altruistic, since green products often cost more and are of lower quality than their conventional counterparts, but green goods benefit the environment for everyone. Because biologists have observed that altruism might function as a "costly signal" associated with status, we examined in 3 experiments how status motives influenced desire for green products. Activating status motives led people to choose green products over more luxurious nongreen products. Supporting the notion that altruism signals one's willingness and ability to incur costs for others' benefit, status motives increased desire for green products when shopping in public (but not private) and when green products cost more (but not less) than nongreen products. Findings suggest that status competition can be used to promote proenvironmental behavior.

  8. 31 CFR 50.12 - Clear and conspicuous disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....12 Section 50.12 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK... a “surcharge.” (2) Premium to reflect definition of act of terrorism. If an insurer makes an initial..., consistent with the definition of an act of terrorism as amended by the Terrorism Risk Insurance...

  9. 31 CFR 50.12 - Clear and conspicuous disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....12 Section 50.12 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK... a “surcharge.” (2) Premium to reflect definition of act of terrorism. If an insurer makes an initial..., consistent with the definition of an act of terrorism as amended by the Terrorism Risk Insurance...

  10. 31 CFR 50.12 - Clear and conspicuous disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....12 Section 50.12 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK... a “surcharge.” (2) Premium to reflect definition of act of terrorism. If an insurer makes an initial..., consistent with the definition of an act of terrorism as amended by the Terrorism Risk Insurance...

  11. Conspicuous Consumption in Higher Education: The Case of Academic Bling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    Spring is a time for gardening, blossoms, and baseball. At American college and universities, it is also a time for commencement ceremonies. Students are recognized for their scholastic achievements as faculty and staff close out another academic school year. Family and friends applaud the graduates and celebrate their success. Students show their…

  12. Conspicuous Invisibility: Shadowing as a Data Collection Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Shadowing entails a researcher closely following a subject over a period of time to investigate what people actually do in the course of their everyday lives, not what their roles dictate of them. Behaviors, opinions, actions, and explanations for those actions are reflected in the resulting thick, descriptive data. There is little written that…

  13. Conspicuous Consumption in Higher Education: The Case of Academic Bling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    Spring is a time for gardening, blossoms, and baseball. At American college and universities, it is also a time for commencement ceremonies. Students are recognized for their scholastic achievements as faculty and staff close out another academic school year. Family and friends applaud the graduates and celebrate their success. Students show their…

  14. Morbid Obesity in Disasters: Bringing the "Conspicuously Invisible" into Focus.

    PubMed

    Gray, Lesley; MacDonald, Carol

    2016-10-20

    It is a frightening reality for some people to be caught up in the midst of a disaster, alone and vulnerable due to their relative size, shape or weight. A literature search failed to find any empirical reports of data specific to body mass index (BMI) in disaster situations. A handful of largely anecdotal reports described situations in which people categorised as morbidly obese were negatively impacted in disasters because of their size and/or weight. While a small number of toolkits and training resources were found, there remains a paucity of research in relation to obesity and emergency planning or disaster risk reduction. This is somewhat surprising, considering the concern about increasing levels of obesity globally. Research is urgently needed to prioritise and address the specific considerations of people with morbid obesity and how communities plan, prepare, respond, and recover from disasters and public health emergencies.

  15. Conspicuous Invisibility: Shadowing as a Data Collection Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Shadowing entails a researcher closely following a subject over a period of time to investigate what people actually do in the course of their everyday lives, not what their roles dictate of them. Behaviors, opinions, actions, and explanations for those actions are reflected in the resulting thick, descriptive data. There is little written that…

  16. A case of gastric adenocarcinoma with conspicuous binuclear cytologic features.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hideaki; Furuya, Chiemi; Yamanouchi, Tsuyoshi; Ikemoto, Kenzo; Katoh, Tomoe; Onoda, Masahiko; Kondo, Tomoko; Oga, Atsunori

    2013-01-01

    Binuclear cells have been occasionally observed in nonneoplastic and carcinoma cells. However, in clinical cases, few reports have analyzed and discussed the origins and features, including the proliferative capacity, of binuclear cells. We describe the case of a 75-year-old man with gastric cancer with microscopically prominent binuclear cells in the resected tissue and ascitic fluid. Image cytometry and chromosomal analysis were performed on cells isolated from the ascitic fluid. The DNA histogram pattern showed aneuploidy and the fluorescence in situ hybridization pattern of centromeres 7 and 11 was similar to that of most other mononuclear cancer cells. Furthermore, the binuclear cells showed low proliferative capability based on 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation. Our results demonstrated that the binuclear cells were derived from mononuclear aneuploid cells through incomplete cell division, and, in this case, may have impaired proliferative capacity.

  17. 31 CFR 50.12 - Clear and conspicuous disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....12 Section 50.12 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK... a “surcharge.” (2) Premium to reflect definition of act of terrorism. If an insurer makes an initial..., consistent with the definition of an act of terrorism as amended by the Terrorism Risk Insurance...

  18. 31 CFR 50.12 - Clear and conspicuous disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... circumstances of the disclosure. See § 50.17 for model forms. (b)(1) Description of premium. An insurer may describe the premium charged for insured losses covered by the Program as a portion or percentage of an... provided to the policyholder must reflect the premium charged for insured losses covered by the Act...

  19. The nervous and the immune systems: conspicuous physiological analogies.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Julio

    2015-02-01

    From all biological constituents of complex organisms, two are highly sophisticated: the nervous and the immune systems. Interestingly, their goals and processes appear to be distant from each other; however, their physiological mechanisms keep notorious similarities. Both construct intelligence, learn from experience, and keep memory. Their precise responses to innumerable stimuli are delicately modulated, and the exposure of the individual to thousands of potential challenges integrates their functionality; they use a large part of their constituents not in excitatory activities but in the maintenance of inhibitory mechanisms to keep silent vast intrinsic potentialities. The nervous and immune systems are integrated by a basic cell lineage (neurons and lymphocytes, respectively) but each embodies countless cell subgroups with different and specialized deeds which, in contrast with cells from other organs, labyrinthine molecular arrangements conduct to "one cell, one function". Also, nervous and immune actions confer identity that differentiates every individual from countless others in the same species. Both systems regulate and potentiate their responses aided by countless biological resources of variable intensity: hormones, peptides, cytokines, pro-inflammatory molecules, etc. How the immune and the nervous systems buildup memory, learning capability, and exquisite control of excitatory/inhibitory mechanisms constitute major intellectual challenges for contemporary research.

  20. Conspicuous impacts of inconspicuous hosts on the Lyme disease epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Brisson, Dustin; Dykhuizen, Daniel E; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2007-01-01

    Emerging zoonotic pathogens are a constant threat to human health throughout the world. Control strategies to protect public health regularly fail, due in part to the tendency to focus on a single host species assumed to be the primary reservoir for a pathogen. Here, we present evidence that a diverse set of species can play an important role in determining disease risk to humans using Lyme disease as a model. Host-targeted public health strategies to control the Lyme disease epidemic in North America have focused on interrupting Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss) transmission between blacklegged ticks and the putative dominant reservoir species, white-footed mice. However, B. burgdorferi ss infects more than a dozen vertebrate species, any of which could transmit the pathogen to feeding ticks and increase the density of infected ticks and Lyme disease risk. Using genetic and ecological data, we demonstrate that mice are neither the primary host for ticks nor the primary reservoir for B. burgdorferi ss, feeding 10% of all ticks and 25% of B. burgdorferi-infected ticks. Inconspicuous shrews feed 35% of all ticks and 55% of infected ticks. Because several important host species influence Lyme disease risk, interventions directed at a multiple host species will be required to control this epidemic. PMID:18029304

  1. Integrated ultrasound and biochemical screening for trisomy 21 using fetal nuchal translucency, absent fetal nasal bone, free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11 to 14 weeks.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Simona; Bindra, Renu; Rembouskos, Georgios; Spencer, Kevin; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2003-04-01

    Screening for trisomy 21 by a combination of maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and maternal serum free beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 11 to 14 weeks of gestation is associated with a detection rate of 90% for a false-positive rate of 5%. Recent evidence suggests that in about 70% of fetuses with trisomy 21, the nasal bone is not visible at the 11th- to 14th-week scan (Cicero et al., 2001). The aim of this study was to examine whether fetal NT thickness and the level of maternal serum biochemical markers is independent of the presence or absence of the nasal bone, and to estimate the performance of a screening test that integrates the two sonographic and the two biochemical markers. This was a retrospective case-control study comprising 100 trisomy 21 and 400 chromosomally normal singleton pregnancies at 11 to 14 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound examination was carried out for measurement of fetal NT and assessment of the presence or absence of the fetal nasal bone. Maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were measured using the Kryptor rapid random-access immunoassay analyser (Brahms Diagnostica GmbH, Berlin). The distribution of fetal NT, maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in trisomy 21 fetuses with absent and present nasal bone was examined. The nasal bone was absent in 69 and present in 31 of the trisomy 21 fetuses. There were no significant differences in median maternal age, median gestational age, NT delta, free beta-hCG MoM and PAPP-A MoM in trisomy 21 fetuses with and without a visible nasal bone. For a false-positive rate of 5%, it was estimated that screening with the four markers in combination with maternal age would be associated with a detection rate of 97%. For a false-positive rate of 0.5%, the detection rate was 90.5%. An integrated sonographic and biochemical test at 11 to 14 weeks can potentially identify about 90% of trisomy 21 fetuses for a false-positive rate of 0.5%. Copyright 2003 John

  2. Judicial Structuring of Collective Bargaining in Local School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colton, David L.; Graber, Edith E.

    Collective bargaining relationships in school districts are affected by court actions in a variety of ways. Courts have acted as a "surrogate legislature" by providing legal structures where legislation is absent and by modifying legislation through the process of statutory construction. This paper examines the courts' role in structuring…

  3. Caste Structures and E-Governance in a Developing Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de', Rahul

    Castes, or endogamous kinship relationships, are prevalent in communities across the world and particularly in developing countries. Caste plays a strong role in determining community structures and political power. However, the role of caste as a factor in shaping e-governance design and outcomes is absent in the literature. This paper addresses this particular gap by examining some cases from India.

  4. De novo 9q gain in an infant with tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve: Patient report and review of congenital heart disease in 9q duplication syndrome.

    PubMed

    Amarillo, Ina E; O'Connor, Shawn; Lee, Caroline K; Willing, Marcia; Wambach, Jennifer A

    2015-12-01

    Genomic disruptions, altered epigenetic mechanisms, and environmental factors contribute to the heterogeneity of congenital heart defects (CHD). In recent years, chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) has led to the identification of numerous copy number variations (CNV) in patients with CHD. Genes disrupted by and within these CNVs thus represent excellent candidate genes for CHD. Microduplications of 9q (9q+) have been described in patients with CHD, however, the critical gene locus remains undetermined. Here we discuss an infant with tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve, fetal hydrops, and a 3.76 Mb de novo contiguous gain of 9q34.2-q34.3 detected by CMA, and confirmed by karyotype and FISH studies. This duplicated interval disrupted RXRA (retinoid X receptor alpha; OMIM #180245) at intron 1. We also review CHD findings among previously reported patients with 9q (9q+) duplication syndrome. This is the first report implicating RXRA in CHD with 9q duplication, providing additional data in understanding the genetic etiology of tetralogy of Fallot, CHD, and disorders linked to 9q microduplication syndrome. This report also highlights the significance of CMA in the clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling of patients and families with complex CHD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase VmpA absent in Escherichia coli K12 strains affects motility and biofilm formation in the enterohemorrhagic O157:H7 serotype.

    PubMed

    Branchu, Priscilla; Hindré, Thomas; Fang, Xin; Thomas, Robynn; Gomelsky, Mark; Claret, Laurent; Harel, Josée; Gobert, Alain P; Martin, Christine

    2013-03-15

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that resists the acidic gastric environment, colonizes the gut epithelium, and causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, especially in children. The genomic island OI-47 of E. coli O157:H7 contains a gene, z1528, encoding an EAL-domain protein potentially involved in c-di-GMP hydrolysis that is absent in non-pathogenic E. coli. This gene, designated vmpA, is co-transcribed with ycdT, which is present in non pathogenic E. coli and encodes a diguanylate cyclase involved in c-di-GMP synthesis. To test for vmpA function, we constructed a vmpA knockout mutant. We also overexpressed vmpA, purified the VmpA protein and assayed for its activity in vitro. We found that VmpA possesses c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity and that the vmpA mutation results in increased biofilm formation, and reduced swimming motility, which is consistent with the function determined in vitro. Unexpectedly, suppressor mutations arise frequently in the vmpA background suggesting that VmpA plays an important regulatory role in E. coli O157:H7. These findings represent an example of remarkable flexibility in the organization of c-di-GMP signaling pathways in closely related species.

  6. Absent minds and absent agents: attention-lapse induced alienation of agency.

    PubMed

    Cheyne, James Allan; Carriere, Jonathan S A; Smilek, Daniel

    2009-06-01

    We report a novel task designed to elicit transient attention-lapse induced alienation (ALIA) of agency experiences in normal participants. When attention-related action slips occur during the task, participants reported substantially decreased self control as well as a high degree of perceived agency attributed to the errant hand. In addition, participants reported being surprised by, and annoyed with, the actions of the errant hand. We argue that ALIA experiences occur because of constraints imposed by the close and precise temporal relations between intention formation and a contrary action employed in this paradigm. We note similarities between ALIA experiences and anarchic hand sign (AHS) and argue that, despite important differences, both ALIA experiences and AHS phenomenology reflect failures of executive control to intervene and cancel contrary affordance-driven habitual motor plans.

  7. The panorama of future sick-leave diagnoses among young adults initially long-term sickness absent due to neck, shoulder, or back diagnoses. An 11-year prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vaez, Marjan; Hagberg, Jan; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about future sick-leave diagnoses among individuals on long-term sickness absence. The aim of this study was to describe the panorama of sick-leave diagnoses over time among young adults initially sick-listed for ≥ 28 days due to back, neck, or shoulder diagnoses Methods An 11-year prospective population-based cohort study including all 213 individuals in a Swedish municipality who, in 1985, were aged 25–34 years and had a new sick-leave spell ≥ 28 days due to neck, shoulder, or back diagnoses. Results Over the 11-year period, the young adults in this cohort had 176,825 sick-leave days in 7,878 sick-leave periods (in 4,610 sick-leave spells) due to disorders in 17 of the 18 ICD-8 diagnostic categories (International Classification of Diseases, Revision 8). Musculoskeletal or mental diagnoses accounted for most of the sick-leave days, whereas most of the sick-leave periods were due to musculoskeletal, respiratory, or infectious disorders, or to unclassified symptoms. Most cohort members had had four to eight different sick-leave diagnoses over the 11 years, although some had had up to 11 diagnoses. Only two individuals (1%) had been sickness absent solely due to musculoskeletal diagnoses. Conclusion Although the young adults initially were sick listed with back, neck, or shoulder diagnoses, their sickness absence during the follow up were due to a wide variety of other medical diagnoses. It might be that the ill-health content of sickness absence due to back pain is greater than usually assumed. More research on prognoses of sick-leave diagnoses among long-term sick listed is warranted.

  8. Adrenergic Receptors in Individual Ventricular Myocytes: The Beta-1 and Alpha-1B Are in All Cells, the Alpha-1A Is in a Subpopulation, and the Beta-2 and Beta-3 Are Mostly Absent.

    PubMed

    Myagmar, Bat-Erdene; Flynn, James M; Cowley, Patrick M; Swigart, Philip M; Montgomery, Megan D; Thai, Kevin; Nair, Divya; Gupta, Rumita; Deng, David X; Hosoda, Chihiro; Melov, Simon; Baker, Anthony J; Simpson, Paul C

    2017-03-31

    It is unknown whether every ventricular myocyte expresses all 5 of the cardiac adrenergic receptors (ARs), β1, β2, β3, α1A, and α1B. The β1 and β2 are thought to be the dominant myocyte ARs. Quantify the 5 cardiac ARs in individual ventricular myocytes. We studied ventricular myocytes from wild-type mice, mice with α1A and α1B knockin reporters, and β1 and β2 knockout mice. Using individual isolated cells, we measured knockin reporters, mRNAs, signaling (phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phospholamban), and contraction. We found that the β1 and α1B were present in all myocytes. The α1A was present in 60%, with high levels in 20%. The β2 and β3 were detected in only ≈5% of myocytes, mostly in different cells. In intact heart, 30% of total β-ARs were β2 and 20% were β3, both mainly in nonmyocytes. The dominant ventricular myocyte ARs present in all cells are the β1 and α1B. The β2 and β3 are mostly absent in myocytes but are abundant in nonmyocytes. The α1A is in just over half of cells, but only 20% have high levels. Four distinct myocyte AR phenotypes are defined: 30% of cells with β1 and α1B only; 60% that also have the α1A; and 5% each that also have the β2 or β3. The results raise cautions in experimental design, such as receptor overexpression in myocytes that do not express the AR normally. The data suggest new paradigms in cardiac adrenergic signaling mechanisms. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Structure and chemistry of silica, metal oxides, and phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Heaney, P.J.; Banfield, J.A.

    1993-12-31

    This chapter addresses the structures and chemical properties of the rockforming oxides and phosphates. In one sense these materials are less complex than the chain and sheet silicates discussed previously. In general their unit cells are smaller and formulas shorter. Moreover, the baroque chemical variation that makes amphiboles a joy for mineralogists and a nightmare for health scientists is virtually absent within some oxides. Instead, the oxides express their individuality through structural permutation, illustrating the important concept of polymorphism. 230 refs., 25 figs.

  10. Percent absent end-diastolic velocity in the umbilical artery waveform as a predictor of intrauterine fetal demise of the donor twin after selective laser photocoagulation of communicating vessels in twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kontopoulos, E V; Quintero, R A; Chmait, R H; Bornick, P W; Russell, Z; Allen, M H

    2007-07-01

    Absent end-diastolic velocity (AEDV) in the umbilical artery of the donor twin is a known risk factor for intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD) of this fetus after selective laser photocoagulation of communicating vessels (SLPCV) for twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). The aim of this study was to assess the proportion of time, expressed as a percentage, of the cardiac cycle spent in AEDV (%AEDV) as a predictor of IUFD of the donor. All patients referred for possible SLPCV underwent complete preoperative staging evaluation including Doppler assessment of the umbilical artery. %AEDV was calculated retrospectively as 100 x (time of the cycle spent in AEDV divided by duration of total cardiac cycle). Patients without AEDV were considered to have a %AEDV of 0. Follow-up Doppler studies were performed 16-24 h after SLPCV. IUFD of the donor was recorded if the donor twin died any time prior to delivery. Of 401 patients undergoing SLPCV, 127 had AEDV. Preoperative AEDV of the donor twin was associated with an increased risk of IUFD of the donor (40.9% vs. 14.2%, P < 0.0001). %AEDV was measured in 72/127 (56.7%) donors with AEDV for whom digital images were available. Within these 72 patients, the mean %AEDV was significantly higher in patients with IUFD of the donor (36.5% vs. 29.6%, P = 0.01). IUFD of the donor was similar in patients with AEDV, regardless of whether %AEDV was measured (36% vs. 47%, P = 0.2). A %AEDV > 30 was associated with a 4.3-fold increase in the risk of IUFD of the donor (95% CI, 1.4-12.7), a sensitivity of 77% and a negative predictive value of 81.3%. Logistic regression showed that %AEDV, but not number of anastomoses, placental location, presence of artery-to-artery anastomoses or the presence or absence of EDV was associated significantly with IUFD of the donor. %AEDV is a novel Doppler parameter in the assessment of patients with TTTS. %AEDV, rather than AEDV alone, is a significant risk factor for IUFD of the donor twin and %AEDV > 30 is

  11. Deformed microbial mat structures in a semiarid temperate coastal setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadrado, Diana G.; Pan, Jerónimo; Gómez, Eduardo A.; Maisano, Lucía

    2015-07-01

    This study focuses on sedimentary structures formed by microbial consortia, in a particular coastal setting, an ancient tidal channel, separated from the ocean by a sandy spit and connected by a blind tidal channel at the opposite end. Most studies in modern and ancient environments consider water movement as the triggering mechanism acting in the formation and deformation of sedimentary structures. As such, the paper documents the presence of several microbial structures such as shrinkage cracks, flip-over mats, microbial chips, and multidirectional ripples which are related to tidal processes, while bulges and gas domes structures are formed after occasional inundation events. However, the more conspicuous structures covering a great area at the study site are folds and roll-ups, the product of deformation of microbially induced structures by the action of sporadic spring-tidal currents due to strong winds. Therefore, the objective of this research is to document modern sedimentary structures in a coastal area and to provide a mechanistic explanation for their formation, based on the interplaying effects of the moisture variation and high shear stress. Also, several microbial sedimentary structures are distinguished throughout vertical sediment cores, such as microbial chips, detached mat, sponge fabrics, tears, and concentric structures, which are identified in a sedimentary profile. Through the recognition and interpretation of modern sedimentary deformation structures, this study contributes empirical tools for the reconstruction of analogous paleoenvironments in fossil studies.

  12. Some structural determinants of melody recall.

    PubMed

    Boltz, M

    1991-05-01

    Sophisticated musicians were asked to recall, using musical notation, a set of unfamiliar folk tunes that varied in rhythmic structure and referents of tonality. The results showed that memory was facilitated by tonic triad members marking phrase endings, but only when their presence was highlighted by a corresponding pattern of temporal accents. Conversely, recall significantly declined when tonal information was either absent or obscured by rhythmic structure. Error analyses further revealed that the retention of overall pitch contour and information at phrase ending points varied as a function of these manipulations. The results are discussed in terms of a framework that links the acts of perceiving and remembering to a common attentional scheme.

  13. Compact Structure Patterns in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Chitturi, Bhadrachalam; Shi, Shuoyong; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V

    2016-10-23

    Globular proteins typically fold into tightly packed arrays of regular secondary structures. We developed a model to approximate the compact parallel and antiparallel arrangement of α-helices and β-strands, enumerated all possible topologies formed by up to five secondary structural elements (SSEs), searched for their occurrence in spatial structures of proteins, and documented their frequencies of occurrence in the PDB. The enumeration model grows larger super-secondary structure patterns (SSPs) by combining pairs of smaller patterns, a process that approximates a potential path of protein fold evolution. The most prevalent SSPs are typically present in superfolds such as the Rossmann-like fold, the ferredoxin-like fold, and the Greek key motif, whereas the less frequent SSPs often possess uncommon structure features such as split β-sheets, left-handed connections, and crossing loops. This complete SSP enumeration model, for the first time, allows us to investigate which theoretically possible SSPs are not observed in available protein structures. All SSPs with up to four SSEs occurred in proteins. However, among the SSPs with five SSEs, approximately 20% (218) are absent from existing folds. Of these unobserved SSPs, 80% contain two or more uncommon structure features. To facilitate future efforts in protein structure classification, engineering, and design, we provide the resulting patterns and their frequency of occurrence in proteins at: http://prodata.swmed.edu/ssps/. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Unusual crystalline structures in photoreceptors of Lonchoplanella axi (Plathelminthes, Rhabdocoela, 'Typhloplanoida'): functional aspects and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Sopott-Ehlers, B

    2000-10-01

    Lonchoplanella axi has a pair of small dot-like pigment-cup ocelli. Each eye is composed of a single cup cell and two sensory cells of the rhabdomeric type. The most conspicuous differentiations in the sensory cells are spindle-shaped crystalline structures accompanying the nuclei. These structures flank the dorsolateral, respectively ventrolateral side of the nucleus. It is supposed that these 'spindles' serve rather as an additional shading device than as dioptrics. Since such structures in photoreceptors have hitherto not been reported for representatives of the Plathelminthes, it is concluded that the spindle-shaped crystalline bodies in the eyes of Lonchoplanella axi are an autapomorphic feature of this species or even an autapomorphy of the taxon Mariplanellinae.

  15. Dipole moment, solution, and solid state structure (-)-epicatechin, a monomer unit of procyanidin polymers

    Treesearch

    Frank R. Fronczek; Garret Gannuch; Wayne L. Mattice; Fred L. Tobiason; Jeff L. Broker; Richard W. Hemingway

    1984-01-01

    The structure of (-)-epicatechin has been determined in the crystalline state. Crystals are orthorhombic. P212121, a=670.8(1), b=1329.1 (3), c=1426.2(4) pm, Z=4. Dc=1.516 g cm-3, R=0.041 for 1624 observations. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds are absent. The...

  16. Structural, ultrastructural, microradiographic, and electron-probe studies of an unusual case of regional odontodysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Kerebel, B.; Kerebel, L.M.

    1982-09-01

    Structural, ultrastructural, microradiographic, and electron microprobe studies of an unusual case of odontodysplasia were performed. Two cusps were absent from one molar. Normal prismatic enamel and mantle dentin were present on the two others. The dentinal mass resembled osteodentin. The mineral content of enamel and dentin was decreased compared to that of the controls.

  17. Structure Topology Optimization of Brake Pad in Large- megawatt Wind Turbine Brake Considering Thermal- structural Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. F.; Yin, J.; Liu, Y.; Sha, Z. H.; Ma, F. J.

    2016-11-01

    There always exists severe non-uniform wear of brake pad in large-megawatt wind turbine brake during the braking process, which has the brake pad worn out in advance and even threats the safety production of wind turbine. The root cause of this phenomenon is the non-uniform deformation caused by thermal-structural coupling effect between brake pad and disc while braking under the conditions of both high speed and heavy load. For this problem, mathematical model of thermal-structural coupling analysis is built. Based on the topology optimization method of Solid Isotropic Microstructures with Penalization, SIMP, structure topology optimization of brake pad is developed considering the deformation caused by thermal-structural coupling effect. The objective function is the minimum flexibility, and the structure topology optimization model of brake pad is established after indirect thermal- structural coupling analysis. Compared with the optimization result considering non-thermal- structural coupling, the conspicuous influence of thermal effect on brake pad wear and deformation is proven as well as the rationality of taking thermal-structural coupling effect as optimization condition. Reconstructed model is built according to the result, meanwhile analysis for verification is carried out with the same working condition. This study provides theoretical foundation for the design of high-speed and heavy-load brake pad. The new structure may provide design reference for improving the stress condition between brake pad and disc, enhancing the use ratio of friction material and increasing the working performance of large-megawatt wind turbine brake.

  18. Physical and Structural Characteristics of Weddell Sea Pack Ice,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    surface melting is rare or absent in the Weddell Sea; in the Arctic, downward percolating meltwater flushes through the ice and lowers its salinity...snow ice , is commonly assumed to be of very re- detail, the physical properties and structural char- stricted occurrence in undeformed ice sheets and...belief has been that most sea ice is cally occurs in the top 20 cm or so of the ice sheet , congelation ice ; that is, it is formed by direct so it is

  19. A Structural Analysis of the Lewiston Basin, Clarkston, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alloway, M.; Watkinson, A.; Reidel, S. P.

    2010-12-01

    The Lewiston Structure is located in southeastern Washington / west-central Idaho and is a generally E-W trending asymmetric, non-cylindrical anticline in the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) that transfers displacement into the Limekiln fault system to the southeast. A serial cross-section analysis and 3-D construction of this structure shows how the fold varies along its trend and sheds light on the deformational history of the Lewiston Basin. Construction of the fold’s 3-D form shows that the fold’s wavelength increases and amplitude decreases eastward along its trend. Balanced cross-sections show approximately 5% shortening across the structure which is consistent with the Yakima Fold Belt (YFB). Although the structure is similar to the YFB, it does not form part of a belt and its local nature has been suggested to mark the cratonic boundary of the Cretaceous. Discovery of an angular unconformity in the Grande Ronde Basalt - reverse polarity unit 1 (GRB-R1) proves that the NE trending section of the fold was deforming during emplacement of R1 and allows separation of the fold into two structural domains. Analysis of the two domains using the Gauss method for heterogeneous fault-slip data indicate NW-SE shortening during R1 time and N-S shortening for post CRBG emplacement. Furthermore, slip data for strain-inversion and specification of spatial-distribution patterns help identify the existence of a transpressional tectonic environment. The nature of faulting associated with the Lewiston Structure is a topic of some debate, namely the presence of a reverse fault on the southern limb of the fold conspicuously hidden by the Snake River. The reverse fault under debate outcrops to the east of the field area and is GRB-R2 (reverse polarity unit 2) thrust over Pliocene gravels. Better control on unit thicknesses and map contacts rule out the possibility of a reverse fault exposed on the surface of the southern limb of the fold in the field area. This major fault

  20. Public Investments in Training: Perspectives on Macro-Level Structural Issues and Micro-Level Delivery Systems. EQW Working Papers WP24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascio, Wayne F.

    Training issues can be examined from at least two perspectives: the structural level (macro-level) and the micro-level. Structural issues in the delivery of training include the following: absent or uneven corporate commitment, inadequate expenditures by businesses, degrees awarded by schools that do not guarantee skill mastery, poaching of…

  1. Impact structures seen by magnetic anomaly maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isac, Anca; Mandea, Mioara; Purucker, Michael

    2010-05-01

    The terrestrial planets are open systems and impacting was and it can be a very important process for the planetary evolution. Earth has an active dynamo, however neither Moon and Mars have an active one. The magnetized rocks in their crusts suggest that in their earlier history, dynamos may have been operating in the metallic core of these bodies. Because of its large iron core the possibility of an ancient operating Martian dynamo is more likely, but the small lunar core and the age of the magnetized lunar rocks, have brought in debate a possible dynamo origin of lunar magnetism. The magnetic fields have been observed at global scale only for the Earth, Mars and Moon, and very conspicuous magnetic anomalies have been estimated for these three bodies. For this study, we firstly have used the largest impact structures for the Earth, Mars and Moon. Thereafter, we have extended our work to smaller martian and lunar impact craters (30 km diameters), cataloging them in order to obtain information about the impact crater magnetic signatures, positions, shapes and diameters. We superposed ULCN 2005 or Kaguya 2008 gridded topography on Lunar Prospector magnetic map for Moon and Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) gridded data on Mars Global Surveyor magnetic data for Mars, as a systematic search for Quasi-Circular Depressions. The results obtain for Mars and Moon, obtained for a larger number of craters allow us to have a statistical view on the indicated parameters.

  2. Race Differences in Family Experience and Early Sexual Initiation: Dynamic Models of Family Structure and Family Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Lawrence L.; Thomson, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Examines the effects of family structure on age at first sexual intercourse before marriage for a recent cohort of women. For neither White nor Black women are results consistent with hypotheses positing earlier initiation of sexual activity for women with prolonged exposure to a single-mother or father-absent family. (BF)

  3. [Phenomenological study on the process to onset and the structure of symptoms in eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Itaya, Y; Yamada, T

    2000-01-01

    Psychogenic experiences occurring prior to the onset of eating disorders had previously been ignored as not corresponding to the symptoms. Recently, we have been considering these experiences as outbreak conditions, and have done phenomenological analysis of the experiences themselves with the following results. We found that patients have experienced 1.) "shame", and following that, and from the phenomenological consideration of the experience of "shame", we have observed 2.) "alienation" occurring in each patients, leading to "isolation." In "isolation", the patient is driven to despair due to existential anxiety, and as the ultimate in despair, the patient shows the attitude of 3.) "One wishing to be oneself in despair." (Kierkegaard, S.), or "haughtiness" which is the attitude of "a person who understands himself or herself to be a free design, and considers others as 'existence-others' reached through this design." (Sartre, J. P.) Here, the patient shows "consumption" as a symptom in either of the forms of surfeit (bulimia) or the consumption of one's own body (anorexia): wasting. 4.) These are defined as "conspicuous consumption" (Veblen, T. B.). 5.) Conspicuous consumption has been analyzed as a primitive form of exchange by Mauss, M., and has been mentioned repeatedly in the intellectual lineage of Bataille, G., Baudrillard, J., et al. This action is concerned with the acquisition of social status in order to save one's own face, and shows what forms the depth-psychological base stratum in the "class system" of human beings, as well as illuminating the "social functions of dignity and class distribution." We have discovered a continuous course from the psychogenic experiences occurring at the onset and previously considered trifling and therefore ignored, proceeding to the symptoms and to the structure of the symptoms. In particular, by using a phenomenological analysis of shame and symptom structure, we show a new hypothesis about the structure of symptoms

  4. [A new type of flagellar structure. Type 9+n

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    The ultrastructural study of the Eoacanthocephala sperm cell shows a variation from 0 to 5 in the number of the axial fibers in the axoneme. All the species of the order Eoacanthocephala available to us show this variation; moreover, every individual possesses simultaneously several different structural types. So, we are dealing with a new flagellar organization: 9+n, with 0 less than or equal to n less than or equal to 5. In the Quadrigyridae and the Tenuisentidae families, n varies from 0 to 4, with a maximum of 2 for most individuals, exceptionally at 1 for some individuals. In the Neoechinorhynchidae family, n varies from 0 to 5 with a conspicuous prevalence of 3 (from 84 to 99%, according to the individual). These results prompted us to reexamine the two other orders of Acanthocephala in which the structural types 9+2 or 9+0 have been considered as fixed. Indeed, we have found a few flagella the structure of which is different from the prevalent one. It seems, therefore, that the number of the central fibers of the axoneme in the Acanthocephala sperm cell is never absolutely fixed. PMID:557042

  5. Detection of new emission structures around planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, C. T.; Dopita, M. A.; Martinis, J.

    1998-12-01

    Deep monochromatic observations are presented for 22 galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) performed through narrow-band interference filters, in the direct imaging mode with i) the New Zealand (MJUO) f/7.8 Mc-Lellan telescope, ii) the Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP) f/6 120-cm telescope, and iii) and the Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) ATT 2.3 metre telescope. Some of them are observed for the first time. Conspicuous secondary structures are detected far around the conventional nebular pictures. Such features could be relics of early mass ejections during the post-AGB phase of the progenitors. Alternatively, they are more plausibly projections of external loops/bubbles of the ``bar-bell'' shape upon the waist (for face-on PNe). We suggest that such structures (cf. Sh 1-89, Hua 1997) are intrinsic to all PNe. Their apparently diverse morphologies would ``simply'' result from projections of a same PN intrinsic structure at different view angles onto the plane of sky and with respect to the major axis as well. In addition we report the detection of a new nebula in the field of NGC 3699 (50'' distant). Absolute fluxes are provided for three emission lines. The observations were carried out at the Siding Spring Observatory operated by the Australian National University, Australia. NGC 6853 was observed at the Haute Provence Observatory-CNRS 1.20-m telescope, France.

  6. The Mount Evans batholith in the Colorado Front Range: revision of its age and reinterpretation of its structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Reed, J.C.; Dewitt, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Mount Evans batholith is composed of a main phase of massive to conspicuously foliated monzogranite and granodiorite and undeformed aplite and pegmatite. The Mount Evans batholith was previously considered to be part of the 1.7 Ga Routt Plutonic Suite. New U-Pb zircon ages on four samples (granodiorite, monzogranite, and granite), however, indicate that the batholith was emplaced at 1442 ?? 2 Ma and belongs to the Berthoud Plutonic Suite. Most of the batholith has igneous textures and structures, except in the vicinity of the Idaho Springs-Ralston shear zone where those features are tectonically recrystallized and foliated. The Mount Evans batholith is anomalous in composition and structure compared to most other 1.4 Ga plutons of the southwestern US. The differences probably reflect different sources of partial melting; the specific tectonic setting where rocks of such disparate origin are temporally and spatially juxtaposed is not understood. -from Authors

  7. Forum: The Lecture and Student Learning. The Lecture's Absent Audience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciullo, Nick J.

    2017-01-01

    According to the "Oxford English Dictionary" ("OED"), the noun "lecture" dates from the 14th century and means the "action of reading, perusal. Also, that which is read or perused." This definition, while accurate and resonates today in many college classrooms, ignores a key feature of any lecture. The…

  8. The (Absent) Politics of Neo-Liberal Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Despite its ideological saturation, recent neo-liberal education policy has been deeply depoliticising in the sense of reducing properly political concerns to matters of technical efficiency. This depoliticisation is reflected in the hegemony of a managerial discourse and the decontestation of terms like "quality" and…

  9. The (Absent) Politics of Neo-Liberal Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Despite its ideological saturation, recent neo-liberal education policy has been deeply depoliticising in the sense of reducing properly political concerns to matters of technical efficiency. This depoliticisation is reflected in the hegemony of a managerial discourse and the decontestation of terms like "quality" and…

  10. Power, trust, and risk: some reflections on an absent issue.

    PubMed

    Grimen, Harald

    2009-03-01

    In modern discussions among health professionals there is a strange lack of discussions of power. This is most notably true for the discussions about proper physician-patient relations and the discussions about trust. This article explores some of the consequences of this absence. It is argued that the absence of the issue of power hampers a serious and open moral discussion of important institutional forms in the health care system. It is also argued that some of the proposals for how to organize physician-patient interaction are rather unrealistic, mainly because the issue of power is neglected. Finally, the article develops some ideas about how power ought to be approached in modern health care.

  11. Obligatory symbiotic Wolbachia endobacteria are absent from Loa loa

    PubMed Central

    Büttner, Dietrich W; Wanji, Samuel; Bazzocchi, Chiara; Bain, Odile; Fischer, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Background Many filarial nematodes harbour Wolbachia endobacteria. These endobacteria are transmitted vertically from one generation to the next. In several filarial species that have been studied to date they are obligatory symbionts of their hosts. Elimination of the endobacteria by antibiotics interrupts the embryogenesis and hence the production of microfilariae. The medical implication of this being that the use of doxycycline for the treatment of human onchocerciasis and bancroftian filariasis leads to elimination of the Wolbachia and hence sterilisation of the female worms. Wolbachia play a role in the immunopathology of patients and may contribute to side effects seen after antifilarial chemotherapy. In several studies Wolbachia were not observed in Loa loa. Since these results have been doubted, and because of the medical significance, several independent methods were applied to search for Wolbachia in L. loa. Methods Loa loa and Onchocerca volvulus were studied by electron microscopy, histology with silver staining, and immunohistology using antibodies against WSP, Wolbachia aspartate aminotransferase, and heat shock protein 60. The results achieved with L. loa and O. volvulus were compared. Searching for Wolbachia, genes were amplified by PCR coding for the bacterial 16S rDNA, the FTSZ cell division protein, and WSP. Results No Wolbachia endobacteria were discovered by immunohistology in 13 male and 14 female L. loa worms and in numerous L. loa microfilariae. In contrast, endobacteria were found in large numbers in O. volvulus and 14 other filaria species. No intracellular bacteria were seen in electron micrographs of oocytes and young morulae of L. loa in contrast to O. volvulus. In agreement with these results, Wolbachia DNA was not detected by PCR in three male and six female L. loa worms and in two microfilariae samples of L. loa. Conclusions Loa loa do not harbour obligatory symbiotic Wolbachia endobacteria in essential numbers to enable their efficient vertical transmission or to play a role in production of microfilariae. Exclusively, the filariae cause the immunopathology of loiasis is patients and the adverse side effects after antifilarial chemotherapy. Doxycycline cannot be used to cure loiais but it probably does not represent a risk for L. loa patients when administered to patients with co-infections of onchocerciasis. PMID:12801420

  12. The absent mind: further investigations of sustained attention to response.

    PubMed

    Manly, T; Robertson, I H; Galloway, M; Hawkins, K

    1999-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that performance on a brief and conceptually simple laboratory task (the Sustained Attention to Response Test: SART) was predictive of everyday attentional failures and action slips in brain injured patients and normal control participants. The SART is a go-no-go paradigm in which the no-go target appears rarely and unpredictably. Performance on this measure was previously interpreted as requiring sustained attention to response rather than a putative 'response inhibition' capacity. Three further studies are presented which support this claim. They demonstrate that performance is crucially determined by the duration of time over which attention must be maintained on one's own actions that this demand underpins the task's relationship to everyday attentional lapses. In keeping with a number of recent studies it suggests that inefficiencies in the maintenance of attentional control may be apparent over much briefer periods than is traditionally considered using vigilance measures and analysis.

  13. Lipid oxidation volatiles absent in milk after selected ultrasound processing.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Pablo; Torkamani, Amir Ehsan; Leong, Thomas; Kolb, Veronika; Watkins, Peter; Ajlouni, Said; Singh, Tanoj Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasonic processing can suit a number of potential applications in the dairy industry. However, the impact of ultrasound treatment on milk stability during storage has not been fully explored under wider ranges of frequencies, specific energies and temperature applications. The effect of ultrasonication on lipid oxidation was investigated in various types of milk. Four batches of raw milk (up to 2L) were sonicated at various frequencies (20, 400, 1000, 1600 and 2000kHz), using different temperatures (4, 20, 45 and 63°C), sonication times and ultrasound energy inputs up to 409kJ/kg. Pasteurized skim milk was also sonicated at low and high frequency for comparison. In selected experiments, non-sonicated and sonicated samples were stored at 4°C and were drawn periodically up to 14days for SPME-GCMS analysis. The cavitational yield, characterized in all systems in water, was highest between 400kHz and 1000kHz. Volatile compounds from milk lipid oxidation were detected and exceeded their odor threshold values at 400kHz and 1000kHz at specific energies greater than 271kJ/kg in raw milk. However, no oxidative volatile compounds were detected below 230kJ/kg in batch systems at the tested frequencies under refrigerated conditions. Skim milk showed a lower energy threshold for oxidative volatile formation. The same oxidative volatiles were detected after various passes of milk through a 0.3L flow cell enclosing a 20kHz horn and operating above 90kJ/kg. This study showed that lipid oxidation in milk can be controlled by decreasing the sonication time and the temperature in the system depending on the fat content in the sample among other factors.

  14. Hyperactive Students Are Never Absent and Other Truths about Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsten, Char; Grant, Jim; Hollas, Betty; Reynolds, Laureen

    2008-01-01

    Teachers sometimes feel that much of what they learned about teaching was learned in the classroom---not the college classroom, but the room in which they teach. As every teacher knows--or eventually learns--a good sense of humor is essential to having a happy, healthy teaching experience. This book points out some of the things they always forget…

  15. Absent Audiences: Youth Identity Formation in Preparations for Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the use of audiences in preparation for public presentation by an urban youth organization in Camden, New Jersey (U.S.). Camden is an impoverished city with few opportunities for youth. The organization, a hybrid of youth development, technology, business, and college preparation, prepared youth for good jobs or college.…

  16. Absent Audiences: Youth Identity Formation in Preparations for Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the use of audiences in preparation for public presentation by an urban youth organization in Camden, New Jersey (U.S.). Camden is an impoverished city with few opportunities for youth. The organization, a hybrid of youth development, technology, business, and college preparation, prepared youth for good jobs or college.…

  17. Repeated bout effect is absent in resistance trained men

    PubMed Central

    Falvo, Michael J.; Schilling, Brian K.; Bloomer, Richard J.; Smith, Webb A.

    2009-01-01

    A prior bout of exercise is well known to confer protection from subsequent eccentric bouts (i.e. repeated bout effect; RBE), which may be fostered through neural adaptations, specifically a shift in the frequency content of the surface electromyogram (EMG). It is currently not clear whether chronically resistance trained men are capable of a RBE driven by neural adaptations. Eleven resistance trained men (23.5 ± 3.4 yrs) performed 100 eccentric actions of the barbell bench press exercise, followed by an equivalent bout 14 days later. Indirect markers of muscle damage (i.e. force production, soreness) along with surface EMG were measured before and through 48 h of recovery. Median frequency and maximal isometric force demonstrated time main effects (p > 0.05), but no RBE. A prior bout of eccentric exercise does not confer a RBE for indirect markers of muscle injury or elicit changes in the frequency content of the EMG signal in resistance trained men. PMID:19059793

  18. Consciousness and epilepsy: why are patients with absence seizures absent?

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Hal

    2011-01-01

    Epileptic seizures cause dynamic, reversible changes in brain function and are often associated with loss of consciousness. Of all seizure types, absence seizures lead to the most selective deficits in consciousness, with relatively little motor or other manifestations. Impaired consciousness in absence seizures is not monolithic, but varies in severity between patients and even between episodes in the same patient. In addition, some aspects of consciousness may be more severely involved than other aspects. The mechanisms for this variability are not known. Here we review the literature on human absence seizures and discuss a hypothesis for why effects on consciousness may be variable. Based on behavioral studies, electrophysiology, and recent neuroimaging and molecular investigations, we propose absence seizures impair focal, not generalized brain functions. Imapired consciousness in absence seizures may be caused by focal disruption of information processing in specific corticothalamic networks, while other networks are spared. Deficits in selective and varying cognitive functions may lead to impairment in different aspects of consciousness. Further investigations of the relationship between behavior and altered network function in absence seizures may improve our understanding of both normal and impaired consciousness. PMID:16186030

  19. Genetics Home Reference: thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... gene provides instructions for making a protein called RNA-binding motif protein 8A. This protein is believed ... that cause TAR syndrome reduce the amount of RNA-binding motif protein 8A in cells. The deletions ...

  20. Archaeal Lineages within the Human Microbiome: Absent, Rare or Elusive?

    PubMed Central

    Horz, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Archaea are well-recognized components of the human microbiome. However, they appear to be drastically underrepresented compared to the high diversity of bacterial taxa which can be found on various human anatomic sites, such as the gastrointestinal environment, the oral cavity and the skin. As our “microbial” view of the human body, including the methodological concepts used to describe them, has been traditionally biased towards bacteria, the question arises whether our current knowledge reflects the actual ratio of archaea versus bacteria or whether we have failed so far to unravel the full diversity of human-associated archaea. This review article hypothesizes that distinct archaeal lineages within humans exist, which still await our detection. First, previously unrecognized taxa might be quite common but they have eluded conventional detection methods. Two recent prime examples are described that demonstrate that this might be the case for specific archaeal lineages. Second, some archaeal taxa might be overlooked because they are rare and/or in low abundance. Evidence for this exists for a broad range of phylogenetic lineages, however we currently do not know whether these sporadically appearing organisms are mere transients or important members of the so called “rare biosphere” with probably basic ecosystem functions. Lastly, evidence exists that different human populations harbor different archaeal taxa and/or the abundance and activity of shared archaeal taxa may differ and thus their impact on the overall microbiome. This research line is rather unexplored and warrants further investigation. While not recapitulating exhaustively all studies on archaeal diversity in humans, this review highlights pertinent recent findings that show that the choice of appropriate methodological approaches and the consideration of different human populations may lead to the detection of archaeal lineages previously not associated with humans. This in turn will help understand variations found in the overall microbiomes from different individuals and ultimately may lead to the emergence of novel concepts/mechanisms impacting human health. PMID:25950865

  1. Clinical manifestations of the thrombocytopenia and absent radii (TAR) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gounder, D S; Pullon, H W; Ockelford, P A; Nicol, R O

    1989-10-01

    Six patients with the classical features of the TAR syndrome were diagnosed at birth. In one case an older sibling was also affected. The characteristic features of foreshortened forearms and radially deviated hands were noted in all cases at presentation and confirmed radiologically. With one exception skeletal abnormalities of the lower limbs were also present. Varying degrees of thrombocytopenia were present at birth with three of the five patients having platelet counts below 50 x 10(9)/L. Bone marrow examination was performed in two patients and revealed an absence of normal megakaryocytes. Two patients with severe thrombocytopenia had bleeding complications during infancy requiring transfusion support. Severe gastroenteritis occurred in two patients, in one of whom it was attributed to cow's milk intolerance. In all patients the platelet count has risen progressively since birth. Orthopedic surgical procedures have been performed without hemorrhagic complications.

  2. Consequences of retinal image clarity versus occlusion (absent) versus diffusion.

    PubMed Central

    Jampolsky, A

    1994-01-01

    A series of clinical questions and stated hypotheses suggested in the pre-1960s regarding the differences between stimuli of occlusion and diffusion are presented (Part I) and are answered and confirmed by a series of experiments and data in animals and humans. A diffusion stimulus is extremely destructive to development of the acuity system in an eye per se (as well as producing myopia), and a unilateral diffusion stimulus is also destructive to development of the binocular system. Real occlusion is a no-stimulus condition that can be used to preserve normal acuity and binocular development, and as a delay tactic to successfully counteract the detrimental effect of diffusion. Binocular input differences (especially if one is a diffusion stimulus) are a major cause of strabismus in both the immature and mature binocular systems. The hypothesis was proposed that preoperative full-time alternate occlusion in infantile esotropia enhanced the binocularity outcome (for which supportive experimental data in animals and humans from our laboratories are discussed in Part III). Animal experiments during the 1960s and 1970s are reviewed relative to the confusion and conflict generated (Part II), since many of these experiments were based on the false assumptions that the unilateral eyelid closure model was a no-stimulus condition (because of the small amount of light transmitted). In fact, it was a worst-case severe stimulus with both monocular and binocular detrimental consequences. And the unilateral eyelid closure model usually produced either undetected or ignored strabismus in the animal experiments, with such strabismus severely compounding the detrimental effects of the eyelid closure model. Further confusion was added by the amblyopia therapeutic model in animals of "reverse eyelid occlusion" (which was really reverse diffusion) and which the author maintains was a gross distortion of the clinician's real occlusive patch over the better eye in the therapy of amblyopia of the poorer eye. These confusions and conflicts were at variance with long-standing clinical percepts. Part III provides data from the series of animal and human experiments from our laboratories at Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute, which clarify the confusion and conflicts of some of the animal experiments described. Our data support the original hypotheses (Part I) enabling the clinician to use occlusion measures in selected patients to expand the therapeutic timing options and to improve visual outcomes. Binocular system outcomes are shown to be improved by our recent data in animal and human experiments, thus supporting the beneficial sensory effects of preoperative full-time alternate occlusion regimes in infantile esotropia. PMID:7886872

  3. Hyperactive Students Are Never Absent and Other Truths about Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsten, Char; Grant, Jim; Hollas, Betty; Reynolds, Laureen

    2008-01-01

    Teachers sometimes feel that much of what they learned about teaching was learned in the classroom---not the college classroom, but the room in which they teach. As every teacher knows--or eventually learns--a good sense of humor is essential to having a happy, healthy teaching experience. This book points out some of the things they always forget…

  4. Modern Universities, Absent Citizenship? Historical Perspectives. CIRCLE Working Paper 39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talcott, William

    2005-01-01

    The historical study of university campuses can tell us much about the changing character and presuppositions of citizenship. Likewise, the study of citizenship can shed considerable light on the nature of universities. Throughout American history, various elite institutions can be seen struggling to establish a semblance of order and control in…

  5. Genetic diversity and population structure of the Ethiopian sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] germplasm collection maintained by the USDA-ARS, National Plant Germplasm System using SSR markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic diversity and population structure present in the Ethiopia sorghum collection maintained by the USDA-ARS, National Plant Germplasm System (USDA-ARS-NPGS) is unknown. In addition, passport information is absent for 83% of these accessions which limit its evaluation and utility. Therefor...

  6. Particle accelerations and current structures of Weibel and Filamentation instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, C. M.; Huynh, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Particle accelerations of the Wibel instability (WI) and the Filamentation instability(FI) are studied by using PIC simuations, comparing them side-by-side. Although two instabilities are almost identical in the linear growth phase, significant differences are found in the nonlinear phase in their particle accelerations and current structures. The FI shows enhanced electron acceleration, whereas particle acceleration is almost absent in the WI. The different particle accelerations between the FI and the WI seem to be associated with their different current structures; a hollow electron current structure for the FI and a center filled current structure for that of the WI. Different electron distributions seem to bring in different current filament structures, eventually leading to different magnetic characteristics.

  7. Employing analogies for ducted MHD waves in dense coronal structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwin, P. M.; Roberts, B.

    1988-01-01

    Analogies of fast MHD waves propagating along a dense coronal structure are exploited to examine how the size and shape of the inhomogeneity affect the properties of the Love- and Pekeris-type waves. The profile's shape determines the dispersive nature of the waves. Excited impulsively, magnetic Love and Pekeris waves give rise to quasi-periodic oscillations with a duration and time scale that depend on the cross-sectional area and strength of the inhomogeneity. More diffuse coronal inhomogeneities support impulsively generated periodic oscillations, with the quasi-periodic signature being absent.

  8. Confinement in F4 Exceptional Gauge Group Using Domain Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafibakhsh, Shahnoosh; Shahlaei, Amir

    2017-03-01

    We calculate the potential between static quarks in the fundamental representation of the F4 exceptional gauge group using domain structures of the thick center vortex model. As non-trivial center elements are absent, the asymptotic string tension is lost while an intermediate linear potential is observed. SU(2) is a subgroup of F4. Investigating the decomposition of the 26 dimensional representation of F4 to the SU(2) representations, might explain what accounts for the intermediate linear potential, in the exceptional groups with no center element.

  9. Design of structurally distinct proteins using strategies inspired by evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, T. M.; Williams, B.; Williams, T.; Xu, X.; Eletsky, A.; Federizon, J. F.; Szyperski, T.; Kuhlman, B.

    2016-05-06

    Natural recombination combines pieces of preexisting proteins to create new tertiary structures and functions. In this paper, we describe a computational protocol, called SEWING, which is inspired by this process and builds new proteins from connected or disconnected pieces of existing structures. Helical proteins designed with SEWING contain structural features absent from other de novo designed proteins and, in some cases, remain folded at more than 100°C. High-resolution structures of the designed proteins CA01 and DA05R1 were solved by x-ray crystallography (2.2 angstrom resolution) and nuclear magnetic resonance, respectively, and there was excellent agreement with the design models. Finally, this method provides a new strategy to rapidly create large numbers of diverse and designable protein scaffolds.

  10. Design of structurally distinct proteins using strategies inspired by evolution

    DOE PAGES

    Jacobs, T. M.; Williams, B.; Williams, T.; ...

    2016-05-06

    Natural recombination combines pieces of preexisting proteins to create new tertiary structures and functions. In this paper, we describe a computational protocol, called SEWING, which is inspired by this process and builds new proteins from connected or disconnected pieces of existing structures. Helical proteins designed with SEWING contain structural features absent from other de novo designed proteins and, in some cases, remain folded at more than 100°C. High-resolution structures of the designed proteins CA01 and DA05R1 were solved by x-ray crystallography (2.2 angstrom resolution) and nuclear magnetic resonance, respectively, and there was excellent agreement with the design models. Finally, thismore » method provides a new strategy to rapidly create large numbers of diverse and designable protein scaffolds.« less

  11. Design of structurally distinct proteins using strategies inspired by evolution

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, TM; Williams, B; Williams, T; Xu, X; Eletsky, A; Federizon, JF; Szyperski, T; Kuhlman, B

    2016-01-01

    Natural recombination combines pieces of pre-existing proteins to create new tertiary structures and functions. We describe a computational protocol, called SEWING, which is inspired by this process and builds new proteins from connected or disconnected pieces of existing structures. Helical proteins designed with SEWING contain structural features absent from other de novo designed proteins and in some cases remain folded to over 100 °C. High resolution structures of the designed proteins CA01 and DA05R1 were solved by X-ray crystallography (2.2 Å resolution) and NMR respectively, and there was excellent agreement with the design models. This method provides a new strategy to rapidly create large numbers of diverse and designable protein scaffolds. PMID:27151863

  12. Selection of the intrinsic polarization properties of animal optical materials creates enhanced structural reflectivity and camouflage

    PubMed Central

    Feller, Kathryn D.; Jordan, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    Many animals use structural coloration to create bright and conspicuous visual signals. Selection of the size and shape of the optical structures animals use defines both the colour and intensity of the light reflected. The material used to create these reflectors is also important; however, animals are restricted to a limited number of materials: commonly chitin, guanine and the protein, reflectin. In this work we highlight that a particular set of material properties can also be under selection in order to increase the optical functionality of structural reflectors. Specifically, polarization properties, such as birefringence (the difference between the refractive indices of a material) and chirality (which relates to molecular asymmetry) are both under selection to create enhanced structural reflectivity. We demonstrate that the structural coloration of the gold beetle Chrysina resplendens and silvery reflective sides of the Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus are two examples of this phenomenon. Importantly, these polarization properties are not selected to control the polarization of the reflected light as a source of visual information per se. Instead, by creating higher levels of reflectivity than are otherwise possible, such internal polarization properties improve intensity-matching camouflage. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application’. PMID:28533453

  13. Triatoma virus structural polyprotein expression, processing and assembly into virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Eugenia, Rubén; Méndez, Fernando; Querido, Jailson F B; Silva, Marcelo Sousa; Guérin, Diego M A; Rodríguez, José F

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the current wealth of structural information concerning dicistrovirus particle structure, very little is known about their morphogenetic pathways. Here, we describe the expression of the two ORFs encoded by the Triatoma virus (TrV) genome. TrV, a member of the Cripavirus genus of the Dicistroviridae family, infects blood-sucking insects belonging to the Triatominae subfamily that act as vectors for the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of the Chagas disease. We have established a baculovirus-based model for the expression of the NS (non-structural) and P1 (structural) polyproteins. A preliminary characterization of the proteolytic processing of both polyprotein precursors has been performed using this system. We show that the proteolytic processing of the P1 polyprotein is strictly dependent upon the coexpression of the NS polyprotein, and that NS/P1 coexpression leads to the assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) exhibiting a morphology and a protein composition akin to natural TrV empty capsids. Remarkably, the unprocessed P1 polypeptide assembles into quasi-spherical structures conspicuously larger than VLPs produced in NS/P1-coexpressing cells, likely representing a previously undescribed morphogenetic intermediate. This intermediate has not been found in members of the related Picornaviridae family currently used as a model for dicistrovirus studies, thus suggesting the existence of major differences in the assembly pathways of these two virus groups. © 2015 The Authors.

  14. Structural and mechanical architecture of the intestinal villi and crypts in the rat intestine: integrative reevaluation from ultrastructural analysis.

    PubMed

    Hosoyamada, Yasue; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2005-08-01

    The ultrastructure of the rat intestinal interstitium was analyzed from the viewpoint of mechanical dynamics to stabilize the intestinal villi, crypts and mucosal folds. In the rat, the small intestine lacks circular folds, but the large intestine possesses spiral folds. The intestinal villi, the largest in the duodenum, decreased in size in the jejunum and ileum successively, and were absent in the large intestine. The intestinal interstitium consisted of lamina propria mucosae (LPM) and tela submucosa (TSM) separated by muscularis mucosae (MM), the LPM was subdivided into an upper part within the villi and a lower part among the crypts in the small intestine. The light microscopic density of interstitium in the intestinal wall was lowest in the upper LPM, moderately dense in the lower LPM and highest in the TSM, and that among the intestinal region was highest in the duodenum and decreased successively in the jejunum and ileum. In the large intestine, the TSM bulged to form spiral folds with very low density. The intestinal epithelium in the villi possessed wide intercellular spaces and that in the crypts had closed intercellular spaces. At electron microscopic level, the upper and lower LPM contained subepithelial supportive meshwork that consisted of collagen fibrils and myofibroblast processes. The lower LPM and TSM contained conspicuous bundles of collagen fibrils and, in addition, TSM contained minor populations of scattered collagen fibrils near the smooth muscle layer (SML). The diameter of collagen fibrils was the largest in the bundles of TSM, and decreased from the duodenum through the jejunum and ileum to the large intestine. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesize that the intestinal villi are mechanically stabilized by the balance between the expansive interstitial pressure and inward pull by the subepithelial supportive meshwork. This hypothesis explains the hitherto neglected fact that the intestinal epithelium possesses wide

  15. Information Structure and Linguistic Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierer, Ernesto

    1972-01-01

    This document describes a format for analyzing the information content of sentences and the language patterns that accompany particular information content. The author writes in terms of information structures, each information structure having a corresponding linguistic structure composed of distinctive features. The information structure of a…

  16. The structure of APG turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gungor, Ayse G.; Maciel, Yvan; Simens, Mark P.; Soria, Julio

    2013-11-01

    A boundary layer under influence of a strong APG is studied using DNS. Transition to turbulence is triggered using a trip wire which is modelled using the immersed boundary method. The Reynolds number close to the exit of the numerical domain is Reθ = 2175 and the shape-factor H = 2 . 5 . Two dimensional two-point spatial correlation functions are obtained in this region and close to the transition region. Cvu with a reference point close to the transition region shows a flow periodicity until Reθ ~ 1600 . This periodicity is related to the shear layer instability of the separation bubble created as a result of the APG. The Cvv and Cww correlations obtained far from the transition region at Reθ = 2175 and at y / δ = 0 . 4 coincide with results obtained for a ZPG boundary layer. Implying that the structure of the v , w fluctuations is the same as in ZPG. However, Cuu indicates that the structure of the u fluctuation in an APG boundary layer is almost twice as short as the ZPG structures. The APG structures are also less correlated with the flow at the wall. The near wall structure of strong APG flows is different from ZPG flows in that streaks are much shorter or absent. Funded in part by ITU, NSERC of Canada, ARC Discovery Grant, and Multiflow program of the ERC.

  17. Structural ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wachtman, J.B. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The present work discusses opportunities for application of structural ceramics in heat engines, industrial-wear parts, prosthetics and bearings; conceptual and detailed design principles for structural ceramics; the processing, consolidation, and properties of members of the SiC family of structural ceramics; and the silicon nitride and sialon families of hot-pressed, sintered, and reaction-bonded, structural ceramics. Also discussed are partially-stabilized zirconia and zirconia-toughened ceramics for structural applications, the processing methods and mechanisms of fiber-reinforcement in ceramic-matrix fiber-reinforced composites, and the tribological properties of structural ceramics.

  18. A fresh look at Bass Islands through Bois Blanc distribution, structure, and trap potential, Erie County Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, J.P. Jr.; Pees, S.T.

    1995-09-01

    Subsurface Upper Silurian and Lower Devonian strata have been correlated and mapped through a 55 sq. mi. (143 sq. km.) area of dense well control in Waterford and LeBoeuf Townships. Mapped strata include the Bass Islands. Helderberg, Oriskany and Bois Blanc Formation. The latter thicken in areas where {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} salt is absent. In most of LeBoeuf Township the Oriskany and Helderberg are absent and the Bois Blanc rests directly by unconformity on Bass Islands dolomite. In Waterford Township the Oriskany and Helderberg are generally present below pre-Bois Blanc and pre-Oriskany unconformities. Structural closure on the nose in Bois Blanc and Oriskany sandstones is provided by the combination of structural and stratigraphic factors and good gas shows have been tested from the formations.

  19. A functional and structural study of the major metalloprotease secreted by the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Daniel; Russi, Silvia; Vendrell, Josep; Monod, Michel; Pallarès, Irantzu

    2013-10-01

    Fungalysins are secreted fungal peptidases with the ability to degrade the extracellular matrix proteins elastin and collagen and are thought to act as virulence factors in diseases caused by fungi. Fungalysins constitute a unique family among zinc-dependent peptidases that bears low sequence similarity to known bacterial peptidases of the thermolysin family. The crystal structure of the archetype of the fungalysin family, Aspergillus fumigatus metalloprotease (AfuMep), has been obtained for the first time. The 1.8 Å resolution structure of AfuMep corresponds to that of an autoproteolyzed proenzyme with separate polypeptide chains corresponding to the N-terminal prodomain in a binary complex with the C-terminal zinc-bound catalytic domain. The prodomain consists of a tandem of cystatin-like folds whose C-terminal end is buried into the active-site cleft of the catalytic domain. The catalytic domain harbouring the key catalytic zinc ion and its ligands, two histidines and one glutamic acid, undergoes a conspicuous rearrangement of its N-terminal end during maturation. One key positively charged amino-acid residue and the C-terminal disulfide bridge appear to contribute to its structural-functional properties. Thus, structural, biophysical and biochemical analysis were combined to provide a deeper comprehension of the underlying properties of A. fumigatus fungalysin, serving as a framework for the as yet poorly known metallopeptidases from pathogenic fungi.

  20. Cranial Bosses of Choerosaurus dejageri (Therapsida, Therocephalia): Earliest Evidence of Cranial Display Structures in Eutheriodonts

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Julien; Manger, Paul R.; Fernandez, Vincent; Rubidge, Bruce S.

    2016-01-01

    Choerosaurus dejageri, a non-mammalian eutheriodont therapsid from the South African late Permian (~259 Ma), has conspicuous hemispheric cranial bosses on the maxilla and the mandible. These bosses, the earliest of this nature in a eutheriodont, potentially make C. dejageri a key species for understanding the evolutionary origins of sexually selective behaviours (intraspecific competition, ritualized sexual and intimidation displays) associated with cranial outgrowths at the root of the clade that eventually led to extant mammals. Comparison with the tapinocephalid dinocephalian Moschops capensis, a therapsid in which head butting is strongly supported, shows that the delicate structure of the cranial bosses and the gracile structure of the skull of Choerosaurus would be more suitable for display and low energy combat than vigorous head butting. Thus, despite the fact that Choerosaurus is represented by only one skull (which makes it impossible to address the question of sexual dimorphism), its cranial bosses are better interpreted as structures involved in intraspecific selection, i.e. low-energy fighting or display. Display structures, such as enlarged canines and cranial bosses, are widespread among basal therapsid clades and are also present in the putative basal therapsid Tetraceratops insignis. This suggests that sexual selection may have played a more important role in the distant origin and evolution of mammals earlier than previously thought. Sexual selection may explain the subsequent independent evolution of cranial outgrowths and pachyostosis in different therapsid lineages (Biarmosuchia, Dinocephalia, Gorgonopsia and Dicynodontia). PMID:27548428

  1. Characterization of the Structure and DNA Complexity of Mung Bean Mitochondrial Nucleoids

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yih-Shan; Hsiao, Lin-June; Cheng, Ning; Litvinchuk, Alexandra; Dai, Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Electron microscopic images of mitochondrial nucleoids isolated from mung bean seedlings revealed a relatively homogeneous population of particles, each consisting of a chromatin-like structure associated with a membrane com-ponent. Association of F-actin with mitochondrial nucleoids was also observed. The mitochondrial nucleoid structure identified in situ showed heterogeneous genomic organization. After pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), a large proportion of the mitochondrial nucleoid DNA remained in the well, whereas the rest migrated as a 50-200 kb smear zone. This PFGE migration pattern was not af-fected by high salt, topoisomerase I or latrunculin B treatments; however, the mobility of a fraction of the fast-moving DNA decreased conspicuously following an in-gel ethidium-enhanced UV-irradiation treatment, suggesting that molecules with intricately compact structures were present in the 50-200 kb region. Approximately 70% of the mitochondrial nucleoid DNA molecules examined via electron microscopy were open circles, supercoils, complex forms, and linear molecules with interspersed sigma-shaped structures and/or loops. Increased sensitivity of mtDNA to DNase I was found after mitochondrial nucleoids were pretreated with high salt. This result indicates that some loosely bound or peripheral DNA binding proteins protected the mtDNA from DNase I degradation. PMID:21347700

  2. Website Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Larry S.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation reports the results of an exploratory data analysis investigation of the relationship between the structures used for information organization and access and the associated storage structures within state government websites. Extending an earlier claim that hierarchical directory structures are both the preeminent information…

  3. Website Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Larry S.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation reports the results of an exploratory data analysis investigation of the relationship between the structures used for information organization and access and the associated storage structures within state government websites. Extending an earlier claim that hierarchical directory structures are both the preeminent information…

  4. 16 CFR 1500.121 - Labeling requirements; prominence, placement, and conspicuousness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., layout, or color with other printed matter on the label. This regulation contains the Commission's... statements are “HARMFUL OR FATAL IF SWALLOWED,” “VAPOR HARMFUL,” “FLAMMABLE,” and “SKIN AND EYE IRRITANT... shall appear in the same size and style of type, and shall appear in the same color or have the same...

  5. Morbid Obesity in Disasters: Bringing the “Conspicuously Invisible” into Focus

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Lesley; MacDonald, Carol

    2016-01-01

    It is a frightening reality for some people to be caught up in the midst of a disaster, alone and vulnerable due to their relative size, shape or weight. A literature search failed to find any empirical reports of data specific to body mass index (BMI) in disaster situations. A handful of largely anecdotal reports described situations in which people categorised as morbidly obese were negatively impacted in disasters because of their size and/or weight. While a small number of toolkits and training resources were found, there remains a paucity of research in relation to obesity and emergency planning or disaster risk reduction. This is somewhat surprising, considering the concern about increasing levels of obesity globally. Research is urgently needed to prioritise and address the specific considerations of people with morbid obesity and how communities plan, prepare, respond, and recover from disasters and public health emergencies. PMID:27775636

  6. 16 CFR § 1500.121 - Labeling requirements; prominence, placement, and conspicuousness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... this section) is to be computed as follows: (i) In the case of a rectangular package, where one entire... requirement for sharp contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on...

  7. 16 CFR 1500.121 - Labeling requirements; prominence, placement, and conspicuousness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section) is to be computed as follows: (i) In the case of a... requirement for sharp contrast are: black letters on a dark blue or dark green background, dark red letters on...

  8. Selection of a conspicuous male genitalic trait in the seedbug Lygaeus simulans

    PubMed Central

    Tadler, A.

    1999-01-01

    Phenotypic selection of a male genitalic trait based on insemination success in the seedbug Lygaeus simulans, Deckert 1985, was demonstrated in this study. In a laboratory experiment, 97 pairs of virgin animals copulated once. The females consisted of six groups of full sisters, all sisters of a group having been raised in the same box. Related females were used in order to lower the variance of female preferences and to thereby increase the chances of detecting selection of male traits by female choice. The males were independent, i.e. each male descended from a unique pair of parents. Multiple regressions of insemination success on linear and nonlinear terms of a male genitalic trait (processus gonopori length) and male weight revealed stabilizing selection on the genitalic trait. According to functional considerations this selection is most probably the result of female choice of male processus length.

  9. The Anthropocene: a conspicuous stratigraphical signal of anthropogenic changes in production and consumption across the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Mark; Zalasiewicz, Jan; Waters, Colin N.; Edgeworth, Matt; Bennett, Carys; Barnosky, Anthony D.; Ellis, Erle C.; Ellis, Michael A.; Cearreta, Alejandro; Haff, Peter K.; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A.; Leinfelder, Reinhold; McNeill, John R.; Odada, Eric; Oreskes, Naomi; Revkin, Andrew; Richter, Daniel deB; Steffen, Will; Summerhayes, Colin; Syvitski, James P.; Vidas, Davor; Wagreich, Michael; Wing, Scott L.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Zhisheng, An

    2016-03-01

    Biospheric relationships between production and consumption of biomass have been resilient to changes in the Earth system over billions of years. This relationship has increased in its complexity, from localized ecosystems predicated on anaerobic microbial production and consumption to a global biosphere founded on primary production from oxygenic photoautotrophs, through the evolution of Eukarya, metazoans, and the complexly networked ecosystems of microbes, animals, fungi, and plants that characterize the Phanerozoic Eon (the last ˜541 million years of Earth history). At present, one species, Homo sapiens, is refashioning this relationship between consumption and production in the biosphere with unknown consequences. This has left a distinctive stratigraphy of the production and consumption of biomass, of natural resources, and of produced goods. This can be traced through stone tool technologies and geochemical signals, later unfolding into a diachronous signal of technofossils and human bioturbation across the planet, leading to stratigraphically almost isochronous signals developing by the mid-20th century. These latter signals may provide an invaluable resource for informing and constraining a formal Anthropocene chronostratigraphy, but are perhaps yet more important as tracers of a biosphere state that is characterized by a geologically unprecedented pattern of global energy flow that is now pervasively influenced and mediated by humans, and which is necessary for maintaining the complexity of modern human societies.

  10. Critique of medicinal conspicuousness of Parsley(Petroselinum crispum): a culinary herb of Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Sidra; Hussain, Shahzad; Malik, Farnaz

    2014-01-01

    WHO estimates, around 80% of the especially developing world is indigent on complementary and alternative medicines which are prodigiously derived from herbal material. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is an important culinary herb originated from the Mediterranean region. It possesses small and dark seeds with volatile oil content. Petroselinum crispum is now planted throughout the world due to its usage in food industry, perfume manufacturing, soaps, and creams. Its main constituents subsume coumarins, furanocoumarins (bergapten, imperatori), ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids, apiole, various terpenoic compounds, phenyl propanoids, phathalides, and tocopherol. Due to these constituents, it has been annunciated to possess a number of possible medicinal emblematics including, antimicrobial, antianemic, menorrhagic, anticoagulant, antihyperlipidemic, antihepatotoxic, antihypertensive, diuretic effects, hypoglycaemic, hypouricemic, anti oxidative and estrogenic activities. In Morocco, Parsley is mostly used as an elixir to treat arterial hypertension, diabetes, cardiac and renal diseases. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of parsley, made it propitious in food systems. Its ELI17 gene has been corroborated as a particularly fast-responding gene. There is a requisite for extensive research to avail the maximal benefits of this significant medicinal plant. The aim of this review paper is to divulge the chemical constituents of parsley that are explicitly related to substantial medicinal facets.

  11. A Conspicuous Gap in Cultural Studies: Popular Music in the English Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knippling, Jim

    2013-01-01

    For the author, the key analytic question about a popular song is not "What does it mean?" or "What hidden or coded meaning does it express?" but "What does its popularity tell us about the cultural moment when it resonated with its public?" How did the song "create its audience," so to speak? Obviously, a 1973 hit song, if it could time-travel,…

  12. 16 CFR 1500.121 - Labeling requirements; prominence, placement, and conspicuousness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... as a tube or cone used for a firework or a wet cell battery casing containing sulfuric acid, which is... shall appear in lines that are generally parallel to any base on which the package rests as it is...

  13. Subcutaneoscopic excision of external angular dermoid cyst in children without conspicuous scarring.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Vikesh; Acharya, Himanshu; Agarwal, Pawan; Sekhon, Virender; Sharma, Dhananjaya

    2013-08-01

    External angular dermoid cysts are benign lesions that are excised through an incision over the eyebrow. This leaves a visible scar that may not be cosmetically acceptable. Herein, we describe a minimally invasive subcutaneoscopic technique that involves placing incisions above the hairline to avoid scarring on the face. This is a retrospective review of three consecutive cases of dermoid cysts. Each patient underwent subcutaneoscopic excision between March 2012 and September 2012. With the patient under general anesthesia, a 6-mm incision was made on the scalp above the hairline. After a wide subcutaneous tunnel was created, a 5-mm port with a 30° telescope was placed for an optical port. Insufflation was done with CO2 at pressure of 8 mmHg and flow rate of 1 L/min. Two para-optical stab incisions were used to insert a 3-mm Maryland dissector and a 3-mm hook for dissection. The cyst was excised and removed through one of the ports. All three cases underwent successful subcutaneoscopic excision without the need for conversion. The mean operative time was 42 min. There were no complications, and all patients had excellent cosmesis. Subcutaneoscopic excision of dermoid cyst is a technically feasible procedure in pediatric patients, as demonstrated by our three cases. It provides excellent cosmesis and avoids scarring on the face. © 2013 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Annual observations of conspicuous canker activity on whitebark pine (2003 to 2007)

    Treesearch

    Michael P. Murray

    2011-01-01

    Whitebark pine's (Pinus albicaulis) notable ecological values, combined with its precarious state, underscore the need for monitoring its health and dynamics. Populations of whitebark pine are in decline throughout most of its range. White pine blister rust, caused by the fungus Cronartium ribicola, has denuded stands since introduction during the early 1900s (...

  15. Conspicuous disease: The surveillance of silicosis in South Africa, 1910-1970.

    PubMed

    Breckenridge, Keith Derek

    2015-11-01

    Scholarly understanding of the nature of the science around silicosis has been strongly influenced, in recent years, by the idea that the mine doctors were responsible for hiding an epidemic, on the mines and in the countryside. In this paper, I try to show that the opposite was in fact the case, and that the science and government institutions for the regulation of silicosis and tuberculosis in white and black male workers were distinctively elaborated, and very largely successful in tracking and controlling the disease. This singular visibility, funded by the mines, stands in marked contrast with disease in general in South Africa, and forms a major part of the explanation for the very strong association of silicosis with mine work.

  16. Status-Relevant Experiences and Conspicuous Consumption - the Moderating Role of Prenatal Androgen Exposure.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Gert; Palacios-Fenech, Javier

    2016-09-20

    In this paper we study consumers' interest in acquiring and displaying expensive luxury products. Based on recent insights in consumer psychology, which build on developments in evolutionary biology, we consider luxury products as "costly signals": wasteful and costly goods, whose purpose is to communicate one's biological fitness, and social status, to others. In line with previous research, we show that experiences that trigger mate attraction goals (Study 1: Exposure to others in bathing outfit) or status display goals (Study 2: Experiencing a vicarious victory of one's favorite sports team) can increase people's interest in luxury products. However, we demonstrate that some individuals are predictably more responsive to those experiences than others. We used a physiological measure (the proportion of the length of the index finger and ring finger of the right hand, 2D:4D) as a proxy for individual differences in exposure to prenatal androgens (i.e., testosterone). This measure has been related to dominant and competitive behavior later in life. We predict and find that individuals with a low 2D:4D (i.e., high exposure to prenatal androgens) were more responsive to the status-relevant experiences: they became more interested in luxury goods after these experiences. This was not the case for high 2D:4D individuals.

  17. 16 CFR 14.9 - Requirements concerning clear and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... language-speaking consumers. As part of this special effort, advertisements, brochures and sales documents..., or other publication that is not in English, the disclosure shall appear in the predominant...

  18. 16 CFR 14.9 - Requirements concerning clear and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... language-speaking consumers. As part of this special effort, advertisements, brochures and sales documents..., or other publication that is not in English, the disclosure shall appear in the predominant...

  19. 16 CFR 14.9 - Requirements concerning clear and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... language-speaking consumers. As part of this special effort, advertisements, brochures and sales documents..., or other publication that is not in English, the disclosure shall appear in the predominant...

  20. 16 CFR 14.9 - Requirements concerning clear and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... language-speaking consumers. As part of this special effort, advertisements, brochures and sales documents..., or other publication that is not in English, the disclosure shall appear in the predominant...