Science.gov

Sample records for structures dynamic characteristics

  1. Relations between structural and dynamic thermal characteristics of building walls

    SciTech Connect

    Kossecka, E.; Kosny, J.

    1996-10-01

    The effect of internal thermal structure on dynamic characteristics of walls is analyzed. The concept of structure factors is introduced and the conditions they impose on response factors are given. Simple examples of multilayer walls, representing different types of thermal resistance and capacity distribution, are analyzed to illustrate general relations between structure factors and response factors. The idea of the ``thermally equivalent wall``, a plane multilayer structure, with dynamic characteristics similar to those of a complex structure, in which three-dimensional heat flow occurs, is presented.

  2. Structural and dynamic characteristics in monolayer square ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, YinBo; Wang, FengChao; Wu, HengAn

    2017-07-01

    When water is constrained between two sheets of graphene, it becomes an intriguing monolayer solid with a square pattern due to the ultrahigh van der Waals pressure. However, the square ice phase has become a matter of debate due to the insufficient experimental interpretation and the slightly rhomboidal feature in simulated monolayer square-like structures. Here, we performed classical molecular dynamics simulations to reveal monolayer square ice in graphene nanocapillaries from the perspective of structure and dynamic characteristics. Monolayer square-like ice (instantaneous snapshot), assembled square-rhombic units with stacking faults, is a long-range ordered structure, in which the square and rhombic units are assembled in an order of alternative distribution, and the other rhombic unit forms stacking faults (polarized water chains). Spontaneous flipping of water molecules in monolayer square-like ice is intrinsic and induces transformations among different elementary units, resulting in the structural evolution of monolayer square ice in dynamics. The existence of stacking faults should be attributed to the spontaneous flipping behavior of water molecules under ambient temperature. Statistical averaging results (thermal average positions) demonstrate the inherent square characteristic of monolayer square ice. The simulated data and insight obtained here might be significant for understanding the topological structure and dynamic behavior of monolayer square ice.

  3. Structural and dynamic characteristics in monolayer square ice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, YinBo; Wang, FengChao; Wu, HengAn

    2017-07-28

    When water is constrained between two sheets of graphene, it becomes an intriguing monolayer solid with a square pattern due to the ultrahigh van der Waals pressure. However, the square ice phase has become a matter of debate due to the insufficient experimental interpretation and the slightly rhomboidal feature in simulated monolayer square-like structures. Here, we performed classical molecular dynamics simulations to reveal monolayer square ice in graphene nanocapillaries from the perspective of structure and dynamic characteristics. Monolayer square-like ice (instantaneous snapshot), assembled square-rhombic units with stacking faults, is a long-range ordered structure, in which the square and rhombic units are assembled in an order of alternative distribution, and the other rhombic unit forms stacking faults (polarized water chains). Spontaneous flipping of water molecules in monolayer square-like ice is intrinsic and induces transformations among different elementary units, resulting in the structural evolution of monolayer square ice in dynamics. The existence of stacking faults should be attributed to the spontaneous flipping behavior of water molecules under ambient temperature. Statistical averaging results (thermal average positions) demonstrate the inherent square characteristic of monolayer square ice. The simulated data and insight obtained here might be significant for understanding the topological structure and dynamic behavior of monolayer square ice.

  4. Dynamic energy absorption characteristics of hollow microlattice structures

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, YL; Schaedler, TA; Chen, X

    2014-10-01

    Hollow microlattice structures are promising candidates for advanced energy absorption and their characteristics under dynamic crushing are explored. The energy absorption can be significantly enhanced by inertial stabilization, shock wave effect and strain rate hardening effect. In this paper we combine theoretical analysis and comprehensive finite element method simulation to decouple the three effects, and then obtain a simple model to predict the overall dynamic effects of hollow microlattice structures. Inertial stabilization originates from the suppression of sudden crushing of the microlattice and its contribution scales with the crushing speed, v. Shock wave effect comes from the discontinuity across the plastic shock wave front during dynamic loading and its contribution scales with e. The strain rate effect increases the effective yield strength upon dynamic deformation and increases the energy absorption density. A mechanism map is established that illustrates the dominance of these three dynamic effects at a range of crushing speeds. Compared with quasi-static loading, the energy absorption capacity a dynamic loading of 250 m/s can be enhanced by an order of magnitude. The study may shed useful insight on designing and optimizing the energy absorption performance of hollow microlattice structures under various dynamic loads. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulation and Experimental Investigation of Structural Dynamic Frequency Characteristics Control

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xingwu; Chen, Xuefeng; You, Shangqin; He, Zhengjia; Li, Bing

    2012-01-01

    In general, mechanical equipment such as cars, airplanes, and machine tools all operate with constant frequency characteristics. These constant working characteristics should be controlled if the dynamic performance of the equipment demands improvement or the dynamic characteristics is intended to change with different working conditions. Active control is a stable and beneficial method for this, but current active control methods mainly focus on vibration control for reducing the vibration amplitudes in the time domain or frequency domain. In this paper, a new method of dynamic frequency characteristics active control (DFCAC) is presented for a flat plate, which can not only accomplish vibration control but also arbitrarily change the dynamic characteristics of the equipment. The proposed DFCAC algorithm is based on a neural network including two parts of the identification implement and the controller. The effectiveness of the DFCAC method is verified by several simulation and experiments, which provide desirable results. PMID:22666072

  6. The dynamical characteristics and wave structure of typhoon Rananim (2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Jie; Ni, Yunqi; Shen, Xinyong

    2009-05-01

    Typhoon Rananim (2004) was one of the severest typhoons landfalling the Chinese mainland from 1996 to 2004. It brought serious damage and induced prodigious economical loss. Using a new generation of mesoscale model, named the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system, with 1.667 km grid horizontal spacing on the finest nested mesh, Rananim was successfully simulated in terms of track, intensity, eye, eyewall, and spiral rainbands. We compared the structures of Rananim to those of hurricanes in previous studies and observations to assess the validity of simulation. The three-dimensional (3D) dynamic and thermal structures of eye and eyewall were studied based on the simulated results. The focus was investigation of the characteristics of the vortex Rossby waves in the inner-core region. We found that the Rossby vortex waves propagate azimuthally upwind against the azimuthal mean tangential flow around the eyewall, and their period was longer than that of an air parcel moving within the azimuthal mean tangential flow. They also propagated outward against the boundary layer inflow of the azimuthal mean vortex. Futhermore, we studied the connection between the spiral potential vorticity (PV) bands and spiral rainbands, and found that the vortex Rossby waves played an important role in the formation process of spiral rainbands.

  7. Dynamic characteristics of a magnetorheological pin joint for civil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yancheng; Li, Jianchun

    2014-03-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) pin joint is a novel device in which its joint moment resistance can be controlled in real-time by altering the applied magnetic field. The smart pin joint is intended to be used as a controllable connector between the columns and beams of a civil structure to instantaneously shift the structural natural frequencies in order to avoid resonance and therefore to reduce unwanted vibrations and hence prevent structural damage. As an intrinsically nonlinear device, modelling of this MR fluid based device is a challenging task and makes the design of a suitable control algorithm a cumbersome situation. Aimed at its application in civil structure, the main purpose of this paper is to test and characterise the hysteretic behaviour of MR pin joint. A test scheme is designed to obtain the dynamic performance of MR pin joint in the dominant earthquake frequency range. Some unique phenomena different from those of MR damper are observed through the experimental testing. A computationally-efficient model is proposed by introducing a hyperbolic element to accurately reproduce its dynamic behaviour and to further facilitate the design of a suitable control algorithm. Comprehensive investigations on the model accuracy and dependences of the proposed model on loading condition (frequency and amplitude) and input current level are reported in the last section of this paper.

  8. Improving the Dynamic Characteristics of Body-in-White Structure Using Structural Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Yahaya Rashid, Aizzat S.; Mohamed Haris, Sallehuddin; Alias, Anuar

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of a body-in-white (BIW) structure has significant influence on the noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) and crashworthiness of a car. Therefore, by improving the dynamic characteristics of BIW, problems and failures associated with resonance and fatigue can be prevented. The design objectives attempt to improve the existing torsion and bending modes by using structural optimization subjected to dynamic load without compromising other factors such as mass and stiffness of the structure. The natural frequency of the design was modified by identifying and reinforcing the structure at critical locations. These crucial points are first identified by topology optimization using mass and natural frequencies as the design variables. The individual components obtained from the analysis go through a size optimization step to find their target thickness of the structure. The thickness of affected regions of the components will be modified according to the analysis. The results of both optimization steps suggest several design modifications to achieve the target vibration specifications without compromising the stiffness of the structure. A method of combining both optimization approaches is proposed to improve the design modification process. PMID:25101312

  9. Dynamic Characteristics of a Model and Prototype for 3D-RC Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniuddin, Md. Khaja; Vasanthalakshmi, G.; Chethan, K.; Babu, R. Ramesh

    2016-06-01

    Infill walls provide durable and economical partitions that have relatively excellent thermal and sound insulation with high fire resistance. Monolithic infilled walls are provided within RC structures without being analyzed as a combination of concrete and brick elements, although in reality they act as a single unit during earthquakes. The performance of such structures during earthquakes has proved to be superior in comparison to bare frames in terms of stiffness, strength and energy dissipation. To know the dynamic characteristics of monolithic infill wall panels and masonry infill, modal, response spectrum and time history analyses have been carried out on a model and prototype of a 3D RC structure for a comparative study.

  10. Structural stiffness, strength and dynamic characteristics of large tetrahedral space truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, M. M., Jr.; Bush, H. G.; Card, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Physical characteristics of large skeletal frameworks for space applications are investigated by analyzing one concept: the tetrahedral truss, which is idealized as a sandwich plate with isotropic faces. Appropriate analytical relations are presented in terms of the truss column element properties which for calculations were taken as slender graphite/epoxy tubes. Column loads, resulting from gravity gradient control and orbital transfer, are found to be small for the class structure investigated. Fundamental frequencies of large truss structures are shown to be an order of magnitude lower than large earth based structures. Permissible loads are shown to result in small lateral deflections of the truss due to low-strain at Euler buckling of the slender graphite/epoxy truss column elements. Lateral thermal deflections are found to be a fraction of the truss depth using graphite/epoxy columns.

  11. Numerical study on air-structure coupling dynamic characteristics of the axial fan blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q. G.; Xie, B.; Li, F.; Gu, W. G.

    2013-12-01

    In order to understand the dynamic characteristics of the axial-flow fan blade due to the effect of rotating stress and the action of unsteady aerodynamic forces caused by the airflow, a numerical simulation method for air-structure coupling in an axial-flow fan with fixed rear guide blades was performed. The dynamic characteristics of an axial-flow fan rotating blade were studied by using the two-way air-structure coupling method. Based on the standard k-ε turbulence model, and using weak coupling method, the preceding six orders modal parameters of the rotating blade were obtained, and the distributions of stress and strain on the rotating blade were presented. The results show that the modal frequency from the first to the sixth order is 3Hz higher than the modal frequency without considering air-structure coupling interaction; the maximum stress and the maximum strain are all occurred in the vicinity of root area of the blade no matter the air-structure coupling is considered or not, thus, the blade root is the dangerous location subjected to fatigue break; the position of maximum deformation is at the blade tip, so the vibration of the blade tip is significant. This study can provide theoretical references for the further study on the strength analysis and mechanical optimal design.

  12. Nonlinear structural joint model updating based on instantaneous characteristics of dynamic responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zuo-Cai; Xin, Yu; Ren, Wei-Xin

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a new nonlinear joint model updating method for shear type structures based on the instantaneous characteristics of the decomposed structural dynamic responses. To obtain an accurate representation of a nonlinear system's dynamics, the nonlinear joint model is described as the nonlinear spring element with bilinear stiffness. The instantaneous frequencies and amplitudes of the decomposed mono-component are first extracted by the analytical mode decomposition (AMD) method. Then, an objective function based on the residuals of the instantaneous frequencies and amplitudes between the experimental structure and the nonlinear model is created for the nonlinear joint model updating. The optimal values of the nonlinear joint model parameters are obtained by minimizing the objective function using the simulated annealing global optimization method. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a single-story shear type structure subjected to earthquake and harmonic excitations is simulated as a numerical example. Then, a beam structure with multiple local nonlinear elements subjected to earthquake excitation is also simulated. The nonlinear beam structure is updated based on the global and local model using the proposed method. The results show that the proposed local nonlinear model updating method is more effective for structures with multiple local nonlinear elements. Finally, the proposed method is verified by the shake table test of a real high voltage switch structure. The accuracy of the proposed method is quantified both in numerical and experimental applications using the defined error indices. Both the numerical and experimental results have shown that the proposed method can effectively update the nonlinear joint model.

  13. Identifying dynamic characteristics of structures to estimate the performance of a smart wireless MA system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Gwanghee; Lee, WooSang; Lee, Giu; Lee, Donggi

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, a smart wireless MEMS-based accelerometer(MA) system has been designed and experimented for smart monitoring system of civil structures. In order to estimate the performance of a smart wireless MA system(SWMAS), dynamic characteristics of our model structure need to be identified. This system thus employed a high-performance AVR microcontroller, a wireless modem, and MA for multiplex communication capability and real time duplex communication. Various performance and experimental tests have been carried out to evaluate whether this system is suitable for monitoring system of civil structures. First, we examined its sensitivity, resolution, and noise, specifically to evaluate the performance of the smart wireless MA system. The results of experiments enabled us to estimate performance of the MA in SWMAS in comparison to the value of data sheet from MA. Second, characteristics of model structure were analyzed by the ambient vibration test based on the NExT combined with ERA. Finally, this analysis was compared to the one that was made by FE results, and the comparison proved that a smart wireless MA system was fitted in smart monitoring system effectively.

  14. Dynamic characteristics of a jacket type offshore structure considering non-linear behavior of pile foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Aaghaakouchak, A.A.; Asgarian, B.

    1996-12-31

    Dynamic characteristics of a typical six legged jacket type platform in Persian Gulf have been studied. An equivalent linearized pile stub has been used to model the pile-soil system. The properties of pile stub have been calculated for different levels of the pile-head deformations resulting from the action of different waves. Natural frequencies and mode shapes of resulting linear models have been determined and compared to each other.

  15. Influence of the random dynamic parameters of the human body on the dynamic characteristics of the coupled system of structure-crowd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agu, E.; Kasperski, M.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of human occupants may change the dynamic behaviour of structures considerably. While this effect is considered in mechanical engineering (e.g. interaction between driver seat and driver) and biomechanics (potentially damaging effects of vibrations) by using equivalent mass-spring-damper systems for the human body, the design practice in civil engineering still often clings to the so-called mass-only model, i.e. the occupants are considered only as additional masses when analysing the dynamic behaviour of floor slabs and stand structures. Recent research efforts aim to improve this situation by recommending averaged models for the human body. This approach seems to be reasonable for large crowds; however, for smaller groups, the question arises whether the random scatter in the dynamic characteristics of the human body leads to random scatter in the effective natural frequency and the effective damping of the coupled structure-crowd system. Based on a probabilistic model for the dynamic characteristics of the human body, an extensive study is presented in this paper. The key variables are the natural frequency of the bare structure, the ratio of the crowd's mass to the structure mass and the group size. The scatter in the effective dynamic characteristics of the coupled system is revealed by the 90%-confidence interval. Furthermore, the maximum span of the respective bounds is used to identify cases where the averaged model fails to predict the real behaviour of the coupled system.

  16. Dynamic characteristics of azimuthally correlated structures of axial instability of wire-array Z pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Jia Kun; Huang, Xian Bin; Ren, Xiao Dong; Chen, Guang Hua; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Kun Lun; Ouyang, Kai; Wei, Bing

    2017-04-01

    Particular attention was placed on observations of dynamic properties of the azimuthally correlated structures of axial instability of wire-array Z pinches, which were conducted at 10-MA (for short circuit load) pulsed power generator-the Primary Test Stand facility. Not well fabricated loads, which were expected to preset bubble or spike in plasma, were used to degrade the implosion symmetry in order to magnify the phenomenon of instability. The side-view sequence of evolution of correlation given by laser shadowgraphy clearly demonstrates the dynamic processes of azimuthal correlation of the bubble and spike. A possible mechanism presented here suggests that it is the substantial current redistribution especially in regions surrounding the bubble/spike resulting from change of inductance due to the presence of the bubble/spike that plays an essential part in establishment of azimuthal correlation of wire array and liner Z pinches.

  17. Effects of structural and dynamic family characteristics on the development of depressive and aggressive problems during adolescence. The TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Sijtsema, J J; Oldehinkel, A J; Veenstra, R; Verhulst, F C; Ormel, J

    2014-06-01

    Both structural (i.e., SES, familial psychopathology, family composition) and dynamic (i.e., parental warmth and rejection) family characteristics have been associated with aggressive and depressive problem development. However, it is unclear to what extent (changes in) dynamic family characteristics have an independent effect on problem development while accounting for stable family characteristics and comorbid problem development. This issue was addressed by studying problem development in a large community sample (N = 2,230; age 10-20) of adolescents using Linear Mixed models. Paternal and maternal warmth and rejection were assessed via the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran for Children (EMBU-C). Aggressive and depressive problems were assessed via subscales of the Youth/Adult Self-Report. Results showed that dynamic family characteristics independently affected the development of aggressive problems. Moreover, maternal rejection in preadolescence and increases in paternal rejection were associated with aggressive problems, whereas decreases in maternal rejection were associated with decreases in depressive problems over time. Paternal and maternal warmth in preadolescence was associated with fewer depressive problems during adolescence. Moreover, increases in paternal warmth were associated with fewer depressive problems over time. Aggressive problems were a stable predictor of depressive problems over time. Finally, those who increased in depressive problems became more aggressive during adolescence, whereas those who decreased in depressive problems became also less aggressive. Besides the effect of comorbid problems, problem development is to a large extent due to dynamic family characteristics, and in particular to changes in parental rejection, which leaves much room for parenting-based interventions.

  18. Application of holographic interferometry for analysis of the dynamic and modal characteristics of an advanced exotic metal airfoil structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fein, Howard

    1999-03-01

    Holographic Interferometry has been successfully employed to characterize the materials and behavior of diverse types of structures under stress. Specialized variations of this technology have also been applied to define dynamic and vibration related structural behavior. Such applications of holographic technique offer some of the most effective methods of modal and dynamic analysis available. Real-time dynamic testing of the modal and mechanical behavior of aerodynamic control and airfoil structures for advanced aircraft has always required advanced instrumentation for data collection in either actual flight test or wind-tunnel simulations. Advanced optical holography techniques are alternate methods which result in actual full-field behavioral data on the ground in a noninvasive environment. These methods offer significant insight in both the development and subsequent operational test and modeling of advanced exotic metal control structures and their integration with total vehicle system dynamics. Structures and materials can be analyzed with very low amplitude excitation and the resultant data can be used to adjust the accuracy mathematically derived structural and behavioral models. Holographic Interferometry offers a powerful tool to aid in the developmental engineering of exotic metal structures for high stress applications. Advanced Titanium alloy is a significant example of these sorts of materials which has found continually increased use in advanced aerodynamic, undersea, and other highly mobil platforms. Aircraft applications in particular must consider environments where extremes in vibration and impulsive mechanical stress can affect both operation and structural stability. These considerations present ideal requisites for analysis using advanced holographic methods in the initial design and test of structures made with such advanced materials. Holographic techniques are nondestructive, real- time, and definitive in allowing the identification of

  19. Time-Structured and Net Intraindividual Variability: Tools for Examining the Development of Dynamic Characteristics and Processes

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2009-01-01

    The study of intraindividual variability is the study of fluctuations, oscillations, adaptations, and “noise” in behavioral outcomes that manifest on micro-time scales. This paper provides a descriptive frame for the combined study of intraindividual variability and aging/development. At the conceptual level, we highlight that the study of intraindividual variability provides access to dynamic characteristics – construct-level descriptions of individuals' capacities for change (e.g., lability), and dynamic processes – the systematic changes individuals' exhibit in response to endogenous and exogenous influences (e.g., regulation). At the methodological level, we review how quantifications of net intraindividual variability (e.g., iSD) and models of time-structured intraindividual variability (e.g., time-series) are being used to measure and describe dynamic characteristics and processes. At the research design level, we point to the benefits of measurement burst study designs, wherein data are obtained across multiple time scales, for the study of development. PMID:20025395

  20. Dynamic characteristics of timber bridges as a measure of structural integrity

    Treesearch

    Angus Morison; C.D. VanKarsen; H.A. Evensen; J.B. Ligon; J.R. Erickson; R.J. Ross; J.W. Forsman

    2003-01-01

    Bridges require periodic inspections to ensure the safety of those using the structure. A myriad of techniques have been developed in order to quickly and accurately determine a structure's health. Unfortunately, timber structures are still, in most cases, subjectively evaluated. Decay is one of the most common damage mechanisms in these structures, and often...

  1. Determination of Dynamic Characteristics of the Frame Bearing Structures of the Vibrating Separating Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piven, V. V.; Umanskaya, O. L.

    2016-08-01

    Within the vibrating separating machines the vibration displacement of the members is transferred to a frame bearing structure, and over it the movement is transferred again to the suspension brackets of the sieve separating surfaces and to the foundation, on which the machine is fixed. The forced oscillations of the sieve separating surfaces ensure the separation process, and the vibration, transferred from the frame structure, disturbs this process. It is necessary to ensure the vibration displacement of the separating surfaces within the fixed limitations by means of optimal design of the frame bearing surfaces. The aim of the work is to decrease adverse vibrations towards the technological separation process. The calculated and graphical relations, acquired according to the presented methods, enable to estimate the influence of various structure solutions on vibration displacements of the structure elements at the stage of design.

  2. Identifying structural characteristics of humic acid to static and dynamic fluorescence quenching of phenanthrene, 9-phenanthrol, and naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Li, Hao; Yang, Yu; Zhang, Di; Wu, Min; Pan, Bo; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-10-01

    Fluorescence quenching is a sensitive and fast method to quantify the interactions between a fluorescent organic contaminant and a quencher, such as dissolved organic matter (DOM). Dynamic fluorescence quenching is resulted from molecular collision, not the real binding, and thus it complicates the binding data interpretation. On the other hand, static fluorescence quenching occurs for fluorescent contaminants of ground states, which decreases the concentration of freely dissolved contaminants. However, how a particular structure in DOM contributes to the static and dynamic fluorescence quenching of a fluorescent contaminant is still unclear, which has greatly hindered the application of fluorescence quenching technique. A humic acid (HA) extracted from sediment was chemically modified, i.e., bleaching, acid hydrolysis, and decarboxylation. HAs before and after these modifications were used in fluorescence quenching experiments for phenanthrene (PHE), 9-phenanthrol (PTR) and naphthalene (NAP). Different quenching mechanisms were observed for these chemicals depending on HA properties. For PHE and NAP, aromatic components showed static quenching, while carboxyl groups primarily showed dynamic quenching. Aromatic components and carbohydrates in HAs primarily bound (static quenching) rather than collided (dynamic quenching) with PTR. Carboxyl groups showed interactions with PTR through dynamic quenching only when carboxyl groups were on the benzene ring. Based on the results, we emphasized that dynamic quenching should be carefully excluded in fluorescence quenching studies. This line of study is important to establish a general relationship between DOM properties and static/dynamic quenching contributions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamics of lithium ions in borotellurite mixed former glasses: Correlation between the characteristic length scales of mobile ions and glass network structural units

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2014-10-28

    We have studied the mixed network former effect on the dynamics of lithium ions in borotellurite glasses in wide composition and temperature ranges. The length scales of ion dynamics, such as characteristic mean square displacement and spatial extent of sub-diffusive motion of lithium ions have been determined from the ac conductivity and dielectric spectra, respectively, in the framework of linear response theory. The relative concentrations of different network structural units have been determined from the deconvolution of the FTIR spectra. A direct correlation between the ion dynamics and the characteristic length scales and the relative concentration of BO{sub 4} units has been established for different compositions of the borotellurite glasses.

  4. Correlation of finite-element structural dynamic analysis with measured free vibration characteristics for a full-scale helicopter fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenigsberg, I. J.; Dean, M. W.; Malatino, R.

    1974-01-01

    The correlation achieved with each program provides the material for a discussion of modeling techniques developed for general application to finite-element dynamic analyses of helicopter airframes. Included are the selection of static and dynamic degrees of freedom, cockpit structural modeling, and the extent of flexible-frame modeling in the transmission support region and in the vicinity of large cut-outs. The sensitivity of predicted results to these modeling assumptions are discussed. Both the Sikorsky Finite-Element Airframe Vibration analysis Program (FRAN/Vibration Analysis) and the NASA Structural Analysis Program (NASTRAN) have been correlated with data taken in full-scale vibration tests of a modified CH-53A helicopter.

  5. Computational Methods for Structural Mechanics and Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. Jefferson (Editor); Housner, Jerrold M. (Editor); Tanner, John A. (Editor); Hayduk, Robert J. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Topics addressed include: transient dynamics; transient finite element method; transient analysis in impact and crash dynamic studies; multibody computer codes; dynamic analysis of space structures; multibody mechanics and manipulators; spatial and coplanar linkage systems; flexible body simulation; multibody dynamics; dynamical systems; and nonlinear characteristics of joints.

  6. Dynamics and characteristics of electric-field structures in the auroral return current region observed by Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklund, G. T.; Karlsson, T.; Figueiredo, S.; Johansson, T.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; André, M.; Buchert, S.; Kistler, L. M.

    2006-02-01

    The temporal evolution and other characteristics of intense quasi-static electric fields in the return current region are discussed using Cluster observations. A narrow-scale, divergent electric field, the high-altitude signature of a positive U-shaped potential structure, was observed at the poleward edge of the central plasma sheet, close to magnetic midnight at a geocentric distance of about 4.2 Earth radii. Its acceleration potential increased from less than 1 to 3 kV on a 100 s timescale, similar to the formation time for ionospheric plasma density holes, and consistent with previous results for this kind of structure. In the adjacent upward current region, an energy decrease in inverted-V ions was observed some minutes prior to this. The inverted-V potential decrease was roughly equal to the subsequent perpendicular potential increase in the return current region, suggesting that a potential redistribution took place between the two adjacent current branches. Other characteristics of this and three other return current structures are summarized, to illustrate both common and different features of these. The structures are characterized by (all values have been mapped to the ionospheric level) peak electric-field magnitudes of ap1 V m-1, bipolar or unipolar profiles, occurrence at plasma boundaries associated with plasma density gradients, perpendicular scale sizes of ap10 km, downward field-aligned currents of ap10 μA m-2, and upward electron beams with characteristic energies of a few hundred to a few thousand eV. The bipolar and unipolar electric-field profiles are proposed to reflect whether plasma populations, dense enough to support upward field-aligned currents (by which the return current can close) exist on both sides, or on one side only of the boundary.

  7. Defining Dynamic Route Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Jastrzebski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This poster describes a method for defining route structure from flight tracks. Dynamically generated route structures could be useful in guiding dynamic airspace configuration and helping controllers retain situational awareness under dynamically changing traffic conditions. Individual merge and diverge intersections between pairs of flights are identified, clustered, and grouped into nodes of a route structure network. Links are placed between nodes to represent major traffic flows. A parametric analysis determined the algorithm input parameters producing route structures of current day flight plans that are closest to todays airway structure. These parameters are then used to define and analyze the dynamic route structure over the course of a day for current day flight paths. Route structures are also compared between current day flight paths and more user preferred paths such as great circle and weather avoidance routing.

  8. Structural characteristics of hydrated protons in the conductive channels: effects of confinement and fluorination studied by molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Song, Yuechun; Ruan, Xuehua; Yan, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhao; Shen, Zhuanglin; Wu, Xuemei; He, Gaohong

    2016-09-21

    The relationship between the proton conductive channel and the hydrated proton structure is of significant importance for understanding the deformed hydrogen bonding network of the confined protons which matches the nanochannel. In general, the structure of hydrated protons in the nanochannel of the proton exchange membrane is affected by several factors. To investigate the independent effect of each factor, it is necessary to eliminate the interference of other factors. In this paper, a one-dimensional carbon nanotube decorated with fluorine was built to investigate the independent effects of nanoscale confinement and fluorination on the structural properties of hydrated protons in the nanochannel using classical molecular dynamics simulation. In order to characterize the structure of hydrated protons confined in the channel, the hydrogen bonding interaction between water and the hydrated protons has been studied according to suitable hydrogen bond criteria. The hydrogen bond criteria were proposed based on the radial distribution function, angle distribution and pair-potential energy distribution. It was found that fluorination leads to an ordered hydrogen bonding structure of the hydrated protons near the channel surface, and confinement weakens the formation of the bifurcated hydrogen bonds in the radial direction. Besides, fluorination lowers the free energy barrier of hydronium along the nanochannel, but slightly increases the barrier for water. This leads to disintegration of the sequential hydrogen bond network in the fluorinated CNTs with small size. In the fluorinated CNTs with large diameter, the lower degree of confinement produces a spiral-like sequential hydrogen bond network with few bifurcated hydrogen bonds in the central region. This structure might promote unidirectional proton transfer along the channel without random movement. This study provides the cooperative effect of confinement dimension and fluorination on the structure and hydrogen

  9. Wind Turbine Structural Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A workshop on wind turbine structural dynamics was held to review and document current United States work on the dynamic behavior of large wind turbines, primarily of the horizontal-axis type, and to identify and discuss other wind turbine configurations that may have lower cost and weight. Information was exchanged on the following topics: (1) Methods for calculating dynamic loads; (2) Aeroelasticity stability (3) Wind loads, both steady and transient; (4) Critical design conditions; (5) Drive train dynamics; and (6) Behavior of operating wind turbines.

  10. Microemulsions: Structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Friberg, S.E.; Bothorel, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book covers the state-of-the-art in stability, structure, applications, and dynamics representation of microemulsion systems. An international group of reviewers discuss the introductory investigations into macroemulsions and interfacial free energy, the derivation of the microemulsion systems from micellar solutions, and the correlation between structure and dynamics. Future developments in this area are also considered. The book presents following: contents; phase diagrams and pseudophase assumption; phase diagram and critical behavior of a quaternary microemulsion system; non-aqueous microemulsions; nonionics; molecular diffusion in microemulsions; dynamics of microemulsions; low interfacial tensions in microemulsion systems; oil recovery and microemulsions.

  11. Arctic ice shelves and ice islands: Origin, growth and disintegration, physical characteristics, structural-stratigraphic variability, and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, M.O. )

    1992-08-01

    Ice shelves are thick, floating ice masses most often associated with Antarctica where they are seaward extensions of the grounded Antarctic ice sheet and sources of many icebergs. However, there are also ice shelves in the Arctic, primarily located along the north coast of Ellesmere Island in the Canadian High Arctic. The only ice shelves in North America and the most extensive in the north polar region, the Ellesmere ice shelves originate from glaciers and from sea ice and are the source of ice islands, the tabular icebergs of the Arctic Ocean. The present state of knowledge and understanding of these ice features is summarized in this paper. It includes historical background to the discovery and early study of ice shelves and ice islands, including the use of ice islands as floating laboratories for polar geophysical research. Growth mechanisms and age, the former extent and the twentieth century disintegration of the Ellesmere ice shelves, and the processes and mechanisms of ice island calving are summarized. Surface features, thickness, thermal regime, and the size, shape, and numbers of ice islands are discussed. The structural-stratigraphic variability of ice islands and ice shelves and the complex nature of their growth and development are described. Large-scale and small-scale dynamics of ice islands are described, and the results of modeling their drift and recurrence intervals are presented. The conclusion identifies some unanswered questions and future research opportunities and needs. 97 refs., 18 figs.

  12. Structural dynamics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housner, J. M.; Anderson, M.; Belvin, W.; Horner, G.

    1985-04-01

    Dynamic analysis of large space antenna systems must treat the deployment as well as vibration and control of the deployed antenna. Candidate computer programs for deployment dynamics, and issues and needs for future program developments are reviewed. Some results for mast and hoop deployment are also presented. Modeling of complex antenna geometry with conventional finite element methods and with repetitive exact elements is considered. Analytical comparisons with experimental results for a 15 meter hoop/column antenna revealed the importance of accurate structural properties including nonlinear joints. Slackening of cables in this antenna is also a consideration. The technology of designing actively damped structures through analytical optimization is discussed and results are presented.

  13. Structural dynamics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housner, J. M.; Anderson, M.; Belvin, W.; Horner, G.

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic analysis of large space antenna systems must treat the deployment as well as vibration and control of the deployed antenna. Candidate computer programs for deployment dynamics, and issues and needs for future program developments are reviewed. Some results for mast and hoop deployment are also presented. Modeling of complex antenna geometry with conventional finite element methods and with repetitive exact elements is considered. Analytical comparisons with experimental results for a 15 meter hoop/column antenna revealed the importance of accurate structural properties including nonlinear joints. Slackening of cables in this antenna is also a consideration. The technology of designing actively damped structures through analytical optimization is discussed and results are presented.

  14. Dynamic Weighted Data Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    van "j Beethoven, Igor Stravinsky, Glan-Carlo Menotti, and Johann Sebastian Bach . Dynamic Weighted Data Structures Samuel W. Bent This thesis discusses...and Bonnie Hampton, who taught me much more than how to play the cello. Finally, for hours of artistic satisfaction, I thank Johannes Brahms, Ludwig

  15. Structural system identification: Structural dynamics model validation

    SciTech Connect

    Red-Horse, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    Structural system identification is concerned with the development of systematic procedures and tools for developing predictive analytical models based on a physical structure`s dynamic response characteristics. It is a multidisciplinary process that involves the ability (1) to define high fidelity physics-based analysis models, (2) to acquire accurate test-derived information for physical specimens using diagnostic experiments, (3) to validate the numerical simulation model by reconciling differences that inevitably exist between the analysis model and the experimental data, and (4) to quantify uncertainties in the final system models and subsequent numerical simulations. The goal of this project was to develop structural system identification techniques and software suitable for both research and production applications in code and model validation.

  16. Hysteresis in structural dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanyi, A.; Ivanyi, P.; Ivanyi, M. M.; Ivanyi, M.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper the Preisach hysteresis model is applied to determine the dynamic behavior of a steel column with mass on the top and loaded by an impulse force. The column is considered as a rigid element, while the fixed end of the column is modeled with a rotational spring of hysterestic characteristic. In the solution of the non-linear dynamical equation of motion the fix-point technique is inserted to the time marching iteration. In the investigation the non-linearity of the rotation spring is modeled with the Preisach hysteresis model. The variation of amplitude and the action time interval of force are changing. The results are plotted in figures.

  17. Dynamics of Computing Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huberman, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Complex systems, such as biological organisms and computing structures, lie between the realms of statistical mechanics and the physics of a few degrees of freedom. Moreover, they can exhibit self-organized behavior which in many cases is characterized by learning, recognition and fault tolerance. This talk will describe studies of adaptive parallel computers which are capable of reliable learning and recognition. The existence of attractors in their dynamical behavior leads to a novel self-repairing mechanism which has been tested by quantitative experiments. Moreover, we will show how these highly concurrent structures, which are capable of universal computation, can be used to study simple, fault-tolerant, perceptual tasks.

  18. Analysis of static and dynamic characteristic of spindle system and its structure optimization in camshaft grinding machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jianjun; Li, Chengzhe; Wu, Zhi

    2017-08-01

    As an important part of the valve opening and closing controller in engine, camshaft has high machining accuracy requirement in designing. Taking the high-speed camshaft grinder spindle system as the research object and the spindle system performance as the optimizing target, this paper firstly uses Solidworks to establish the three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of spindle system, then conducts static analysis and the modal analysis by applying the established FEM in ANSYS Workbench, and finally uses the design optimization function of the ANSYS Workbench to optimize the structure parameter in the spindle system. The study results prove that the design of the spindle system fully meets the production requirements, and the performance of the optimized spindle system is promoted. Besides, this paper provides an analysis and optimization method for other grinder spindle systems.

  19. Characteristics and Prediction of RNA Structure

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Daming; Zhang, Caiming; Han, Huijian; Crandall, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    RNA secondary structures with pseudoknots are often predicted by minimizing free energy, which is NP-hard. Most RNAs fold during transcription from DNA into RNA through a hierarchical pathway wherein secondary structures form prior to tertiary structures. Real RNA secondary structures often have local instead of global optimization because of kinetic reasons. The performance of RNA structure prediction may be improved by considering dynamic and hierarchical folding mechanisms. This study is a novel report on RNA folding that accords with the golden mean characteristic based on the statistical analysis of the real RNA secondary structures of all 480 sequences from RNA STRAND, which are validated by NMR or X-ray. The length ratios of domains in these sequences are approximately 0.382L, 0.5L, 0.618L, and L, where L is the sequence length. These points are just the important golden sections of sequence. With this characteristic, an algorithm is designed to predict RNA hierarchical structures and simulate RNA folding by dynamically folding RNA structures according to the above golden section points. The sensitivity and number of predicted pseudoknots of our algorithm are better than those of the Mfold, HotKnots, McQfold, ProbKnot, and Lhw-Zhu algorithms. Experimental results reflect the folding rules of RNA from a new angle that is close to natural folding. PMID:25110687

  20. Effect of source/sink ratios on yield components, growth dynamics and structural characteristics of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) bunches.

    PubMed

    Pallas, Benoît; Mialet-Serra, Isabelle; Rouan, Lauriane; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Dingkuhn, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Source/sink ratios are known to be one of the main determinants of oil palm growth and development. A long-term experiment (9 years) was conducted in Indonesia on mature oil palms subjected to continuous bunch ablation and partial defoliation treatments to artificially modify source/sink ratios. During the experiment, all harvested bunches were dissected and phenological measurements were carried out to analyse the effect of source/sink ratios on yield components explaining variations in bunch number, the number of fruits per bunch and oil dry weight per fruit. An integrative variable (supply/demand ratio) describing the ratio between the assimilate supply from sources and the growing organ demand for carbohydrate was computed for each plant on a daily basis from observations of the number of developing organs and their sink strength, and of climate variables. Defoliation and bunch ablation affected the bunch number and the fruit number per bunch. Variations in bunch number per month were mainly due to variations in the fraction of aborted inflorescence and in the ratio between female and male inflorescences. Under fluctuating trophic conditions, variations in fruit number per bunch resulted both from changes in fruit-set and in the number of branches (rachillae) per inflorescence. For defoliated plants, the decrease in the number of developing reproductive sinks appeared to be sufficient to maintain fruit weight and oil concentration at the control level, without any major decrease in the concentration of non-structural carbohydrate reserves. Computation of the supply/demand ratio revealed that each yield component had a specific phase of sensitivity to supply/demand ratios during inflorescence development. Establishing quantitative relationships between supply/demand ratios, competition and yield components is the first step towards a functional model for oil palm.

  1. Dynamic characteristics of pulsed supersonic fuel sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianthong, K.; Matthujak, A.; Takayama, K.; Milton, B. E.; Behnia, M.

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the dynamic characteristics of pulsed, supersonic liquid fuel sprays or jets injected into ambient air. Simple, single hole nozzles were employed with the nozzle sac geometries being varied. Different fuel types, diesel fuel, bio-diesel, kerosene, and gasoline were used to determine the effects of fuel properties on the spray characteristics. A vertical two-stage light gas gun was employed as a projectile launcher to provide a high velocity impact to produce the liquid jet. The injection pressure was around 0.88-1.24 GPa in all cases. The pulsed, supersonic fuel sprays were visualized by using a high-speed video camera and shadowgraph method. The spray tip penetration and velocity attenuation and other characteristics were examined and are described here. An instantaneous spray tip velocity of 1,542 m/s (Mach number 4.52) was obtained. However, this spray tip velocity can be sustained for only a very short period (a few microseconds). It then attenuates very quickly. The phenomenon of multiple high frequency spray pulses generated by a single shot impact and the changed in the angle of the shock structure during the spray flight, which had already been observed in previous studies, is again noted. Multiple shock waves from the conical nozzle spray were also clearly captured.

  2. Structural dynamics of myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Brunori, M

    2000-08-30

    Conformational fluctuations have been invoked to explain the observation that the diffusion of small ligands through a protein is a global phenomenon, as suggested (for example) by the oxygen induced fluorescence quenching of buried tryptophans. In enzymes processing large substrates, a channel to the catalytic site is often seen in the crystal structure; on the other hand in small globular proteins, it is not known if the cavities identified in the interior space are important in controlling their function by defining specific pathways in the diffusion to the active site. This point is addressed in this paper, which reports some relevant results obtained on myoglobin, the hydrogen atom of molecular biology. Protein conformational relaxations have been extensively investigated with myoglobin because the photosensivity of the adduct with CO, O2 and NO allows us to follow events related to the migration of the ligand through the matrix. Results obtained by laser photolysis, molecular dynamics simulations, X-ray diffraction of intermediate states of wt type and mutant myoglobins are briefly summarized. Crystallographic data on the photochemical intermediate of a new triple mutant of sperm whale myoglobin (Mb-YQR) show, for the first time, the photolyzed CO* sitting in one of the Xe-binding cavities, removed from the heme group. These results support the viewpoint that pre-existing 'packing defects' in the protein interior play a major role in controlling the dynamics of ligand binding, including oxygen, and thereby acquire a survival value.

  3. Structural stability, microbial biomass and community composition of sediments affected by the hydric dynamics of an urban stormwater infiltration basin. Dynamics of physical and microbial characteristics of stormwater sediment.

    PubMed

    Badin, Anne Laure; Monier, Armelle; Volatier, Laurence; Geremia, Roberto A; Delolme, Cécile; Bedell, Jean-Philippe

    2011-05-01

    The sedimentary layer deposited at the surface of stormwater infiltration basins is highly organic and multicontaminated. It undergoes considerable moisture content fluctuations due to the drying and inundation cycles (called hydric dynamics) of these basins. Little is known about the microflora of the sediments and its dynamics; hence, the purpose of this study is to describe the physicochemical and biological characteristics of the sediments at different hydric statuses of the infiltration basin. Sediments were sampled at five time points following rain events and dry periods. They were characterized by physical (aggregation), chemical (nutrients and heavy metals), and biological (total, bacterial and fungal biomasses, and genotypic fingerprints of total bacterial and fungal communities) parameters. Data were processed using statistical analyses which indicated that heavy metal (1,841 μg/g dry weight (DW)) and organic matter (11%) remained stable through time. By contrast, aggregation, nutrient content (NH₄⁺, 53-717 μg/g DW), pH (6.9-7.4), and biological parameters were shown to vary with sediment water content and sediment biomass, and were higher consecutive to stormwater flows into the basin (up to 7 mg C/g DW) than during dry periods (0.6 mg C/g DW). Coinertia analysis revealed that the structure of the bacterial communities is driven by the hydric dynamics of the infiltration basin, although no such trend was found for fungal communities. Hydric dynamics more than rain events appear to be more relevant for explaining variations of aggregation, microbial biomass, and shift in the microbial community composition. We concluded that the hydric dynamics of stormwater infiltration basins greatly affects the structural stability of the sedimentary layer, the biomass of the microbial community living in it and its dynamics. The decrease in aggregation consecutive to rewetting probably enhances access to organic matter (OM), explaining the consecutive release

  4. Prominence Structure and Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judy T.

    2009-01-01

    Nonerupting prominences are not dull, static objects. Rather, they are composed of fine-scale blobs and threads that are highly dynamic, often appearing to travel in opposite directions on adjacent tracks (denoted counterstreaming). Because the plasma is largely constrained to travel along the magnetic field, these cool, dense features can serve as tracers of the prominence magnetic structure, a valuable resource in view of the long-standing difficulty of observing the coronal field. Conversely, greater understanding of the fundamental magnetic geometry of filament channels can provide important constraints on the physical processes governing the accumulation, support, motion, and eruption of the cool plasma. Despite over a century of detailed observations, large gaps remain in our knowledge of filament channel/plasma formation and evolution. Resolving these issues will shed light on the physics of coronal heating, helicity transport throughout the solar cycle, and the origins of eruptive activity on the Sun. I will discuss the leading models for the magnetic and plasma structure, and outline how new observations and theory /modeling could solve long-standing uncertainties regarding this majestic solar phenomenon.

  5. Molecular Dynamics Investigations of the Local Structural Characteristics of DNA Oligonucleotides: Studies of Helical Axis Deformations, Conformational Sequence Dependence and Modified Nucleoside Perturbations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louise-May, Shirley

    The present DNA studies investigate the local structure of DNA oligonucleotides in order to characterize helical axis deformations, sequence dependent fine structure and modified nucleoside perturbations of selected oligonucleotide sequences. The molecular dynamics method is used to generate an ensemble of energetically feasible DNA conformations which can then be analyzed for dynamical conformational properties, some of which can be compared to experimentally derived values. A theory and graphical presentation for the analysis of helical deformations of DNA based on the configurational statistics of polymers, called "Persistence Analysis", was designed. The results of the analysis on prototype forms, static crystal structures and two solvated MD simulations of the sequence d(CGCGAATTCGCG) indicate that all of the expected features of bending can be sensitively and systematically identified by this approach. Comparison of the relative performance of three molecular dynamics potential functions commonly used for dynamical modeling of biological macromolecules; CHARMm, AMBER and GROMOS was investigated via in vacuo MD simulations on the dodecamer sequence d(CGCGAATTCGCG)_2 with respect to the conformational properties of each dynamical model and their ability to support A and B families of DNA. Vacuum molecular dynamics simulations using the CHARMm force field carried out on simple homo- and heteropolymers of DNA led to the conclusion that sequence dependent fine structure appears to be well defined for adenine-thymine rich sequences both at the base pair and base step level whereas much of the the fine structure found in cytosine -guanine rich sequences appears to be context dependent. The local conformational properties of the homopolymer poly (dA) -poly (dT) revealed one dynamical model which was found in general agreement with fiber models currently available. Investigation of the relative structural static and dynamical effect of the misincorporation of

  6. Structural dynamics verification facility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiraly, L. J.; Hirchbein, M. S.; Mcaleese, J. M.; Fleming, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    The need for a structural dynamics verification facility to support structures programs was studied. Most of the industry operated facilities are used for highly focused research, component development, and problem solving, and are not used for the generic understanding of the coupled dynamic response of major engine subsystems. Capabilities for the proposed facility include: the ability to both excite and measure coupled structural dynamic response of elastic blades on elastic shafting, the mechanical simulation of various dynamical loadings representative of those seen in operating engines, and the measurement of engine dynamic deflections and interface forces caused by alternative engine mounting configurations and compliances.

  7. Mass drivers. 2: Structural dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, W.; Bowen, S.; Fine, K.; Kaplan, D.; Kolm, M.; Kolm, H.; Newman, J.; Oneill, G. K.; Snow, W.

    1979-01-01

    Various structural and dynamical problems related to both small-scale forces between the drive coils and within the bucket structure as well as the overall combined large-scale dynamical interaction of the bucket stream and MDRE (Mass Drive Reaction Engine) structure are examined. The large-scale dynamics appear weakly stable. Finally, MDRE operation in an inverse-square-law gravitational field is discussed and the required curved shape of the guideway is computed.

  8. Regime of aggregate structures and magneto-rheological characteristics of a magnetic rod-like particle suspension: Monte Carlo and Brownian dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Kazuya; Satoh, Akira

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we address a suspension composed ferromagnetic rod-like particles to elucidate a regime change in the aggregate structures and the magneto-rheological characteristics. Monte Carlo simulations have been employed for investigating the aggregate structures in thermodynamic equilibrium, and Brownian dynamics simulations for magneto-rheological features in a simple shear flow. The main results obtained here are summarized as follows. For the case of thermodynamic equilibrium, the rod-like particles aggregate to form thick chain-like clusters and the neighboring clusters incline in opposite directions. If the external magnetic field is increased, the thick chain-like clusters in the magnetic field direction grow thicker by adsorbing the neighboring clusters that incline in the opposite direction. Hence, a significant phase change in the particle aggregates is not induced by an increase in the magnetic field strength. For the case of a simple shear flow, even a weak shear flow induces a significant regime change from the thick chain-like clusters of thermodynamic equilibrium into wall-like aggregates composed of short raft-like clusters. A strong external magnetic field drastically changes these aggregates into wall-like aggregates composed of thick chain-like clusters rather than the short raft-like clusters. The internal structure of these aggregates is not strongly influenced by a shear flow, and the formation of the short raft-like clusters is maintained inside the aggregates. The main contribution to the net viscosity is the viscosity component due to magnetic particle-particle interaction forces in relation to the present volumetric fraction. Hence, a larger magnetic interaction strength and also a stronger external magnetic field give rise to a larger magneto-rheological effect. However, the dependence of the viscosity on these factors is governed in a complex manner by whether or not the wall-like aggregates are composed mainly of short raft

  9. The dynamic characteristics of hydrostatic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zhicheng; Sun, Jingwu; Zhai, Wenjie; Liu, Qingming; Chi, Wei

    1993-07-01

    Results of a theoretical study of the characteristics of hydrostatic bearings performed in terms of the compressibility of the air-contained oil are presented. A formula for the stability criterion of a hydrostatic bearing system and a dynamic stiffness formula is derived. It is found that, under the sinusoidal load, each of the pressure compensation systems has its own load frequency-film characteristics. The greater that compressible volume, V(oa), of oil, the smaller the dynamic stiffness. V(oa) must be reduced in the design of high-precision hydrostatic bearings. If the load frequency is in the low-stiffness area, the dynamic stiffness is small. Methods to enhance the dynamic stiffness are discussed.

  10. Static and dynamic characteristics of large deployable space reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Raheb, M.; Wagner, P.

    1981-01-01

    A linear numerical model of the structural characteristics of deployable reflectors was developed. Due to cyclic symmetry of the reflector structure about its axis, only one of many segments is modeled using finite elements. The succeeding segments satisfy continuity of displacement and slope at the interface between consecutive segments. This process leads to (N/2+1) static or dynamic problems of smaller order and bandwidth where N is the number of segments. The solution of each reduced problem leads to motions having a distinct circumferential wave number. The dynamic coupling to the feed support structure is studied adopting modal synthesis.

  11. Linear contact interface parameter identification using dynamic characteristic equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The stiffness characteristics of the contact interfaces in joints or boundary conditions have a great effect on dynamic response of assembled structures. Predictive analytical/numerical modeling of mechanical structures is not possible without representing the contact interfaces accurately. Because of the complex mechanisms involved, contact interfaces introduce difficulties both in modeling the inherent dynamics and identification of the model parameters. In this paper an identification approach employing the dynamic characteristic equation is proposed for linear interface parameters. The proposed method is applicable to both analytical and numerical problems. The accuracy of the proposed method is investigated by simulation results of a beam with elastic boundary support and experimental results of a bolted lap-joint.

  12. Inbreeding in stochastic subdivided mating systems: the genetic consequences of host spatial structure, aggregated transmission dynamics and life history characteristics in parasite populations.

    PubMed

    Dharmarajan, Guha

    2015-03-01

    Inbreeding in parasite populations can have important epidemiological and evolutionary implications. However, theoretical models have predominantly focussed on the evolution of parasite populations under strong selection or in epidemic situations, and our understanding of neutral gene dynamics in parasite populations at equilibrium has been limited to verbal arguments or conceptual models. This study focusses on how host-parasite population dynamics affects observed levels of inbreeding in a random sample of parasites from an infinite population of hosts by bridging traditional genetic and parasitological processes utilizing a backward-forward branching Markov process embedded within a flexible statistical framework, the logarithmic-poisson mixture model. My results indicate that levels of inbreeding in parasites are impacted by demographic and/or transmission dynamics (subdivided mating, aggregated transmission dynamics and host spatial structure), and that this inbreeding is poorly estimated by 'equilibrium' levels of inbreeding calculated assuming regular systems of mating. Specifically, the model reveals that at low levels of inbreeding (F ≤ 0.1), equilibrium levels of inbreeding are lower than those observed, while at high levels of inbreeding the opposite pattern occurs. The model also indicates that inbreeding could have important epidemiological implications (e.g., the spread of recessive drug resistance genes) by directly impacting the observed frequency of rare homozygotes in parasite populations. My results indicate that frequencies of rare homozygotes are affected by aggregated transmission dynamics and host spatial structure, and also that an increase in the frequency of rare homozygotes can be caused by a decrease in effective population size solely due to the presence of a subdivided breeding system.

  13. Structural and dynamical characteristics of trehalose and sucrose matrices at different hydration levels as probed by FTIR and high-field EPR.

    PubMed

    Malferrari, M; Nalepa, A; Venturoli, G; Francia, F; Lubitz, W; Möbius, K; Savitsky, A

    2014-06-07

    Some organisms can survive complete dehydration and high temperatures by adopting an anhydrobiotic state in which the intracellular medium contains large amounts of disaccharides, particularly trehalose and sucrose. Trehalose is most effective also in protecting isolated in vitro biostructures. In an attempt to clarify the molecular mechanisms of disaccharide bioprotection, we compared the structure and dynamics of sucrose and trehalose matrices at different hydration levels by means of high-field W-band EPR and FTIR spectroscopy. The hydration state of the samples was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and the structural organization was probed by EPR using a nitroxide radical dissolved in the respective matrices. Analysis of the EPR spectra showed that the structure and dynamics of the dehydrated matrices as well as their evolution upon re-hydration differ substantially between trehalose and sucrose. The dehydrated trehalose matrix is homogeneous in terms of distribution of the residual water and spin-probe molecules. In contrast, dehydrated sucrose forms a heterogeneous matrix. It is comprised of sucrose polycrystalline clusters and several bulk water domains. The amorphous form was found only in 30% (volume) of the sucrose matrix. Re-hydration leads to a structural homogenization of the sucrose matrix, whilst in the trehalose matrix several domains develop differing in the local water/radical content and radical mobility. The molecular model of the matrices provides an explanation for the different protein-matrix dynamical coupling observed in dried ternary sucrose and trehalose matrices, and accounts for the superior efficacy of trehalose as a bioprotectant. Furthermore, for bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers it is shown that at low water content the protein-matrix coupling is modulated by the sugar/protein molar ratio in sucrose matrices only. This effect is suggested to be related to the preference for sucrose, rather than trehalose, as a

  14. On the Dynamic Measurements of Hydraulic Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasmatuchi, Vlad; Bosioc, Alin; Münch-Alligné, Cécile

    2016-11-01

    The present work introduces the implementation and validation of a faster method to measure experimentally the efficiency characteristics of hydraulic turbomachines at a model scale on a test rig. The case study is represented by a laboratory prototype of an in-line axial microturbine for water supply networks. The 2.65 kW one-stage variable speed turbine, composed by one upstream 5-blade runner followed by one counter-rotating downstream 7-blade runner, has been installed on the HES-SO Valais/Wallis universal test rig dedicated to assess performances of small hydraulic machinery following the IEC standard recommendations. In addition to the existing acquisition/control system of the test rig used to measure the 3D hill-chart of a turbine by classical static point-by-point method, a second digitizer has been added to acquire synchronized dynamic signals of the employed sensors. The optimal acceleration/deceleration ramps of the electrical drives have been previously identified in order to cope with the purpose of a reduced measurement time while avoiding errors and hysteresis on the acquired hydraulic characteristics. Finally, the comparison between the turbine efficiency hill-charts obtained by dynamic and static point-by-point methods shows a very good agreement in terms of precision and repeatability. Moreover, the applied dynamic method reduces significantly (by a factor of up to ten) the time necessary to measure the efficiency characteristics on model testing.

  15. Dynamic Characteristics of Excited Atomic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezuglov, N. N.; Dimitrijevic, M. S.; Klyucharev, A. N.; Mihajlov, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of excited atom interactions with other atoms, which often lead to associative ionization, is largely governed by stochastic diffusion of the valence electron through Rydberg states prior to the ionization. Such processes are associated with random changes of the energy state of the highly excited electron, and they are likely to influence the nuclear dynamics, especially at subthermal collision energies. Possibilities of manipulation of the chaotic dynamics of Rydberg states require a detailed exploration. For an electron in a given Rydberg state moving in a microwave field, which can be generated via interaction with another atom or molecule, there exists critical field strength, above which motion of the electron in the energy space is chaotic. Recently a way to block the dynamic chaos regime was shown, if a given Rydberg state is located somewhat above the middle between the two other states with the orbital quantum number differing by one, whereby level shifts can be controlled by employing Stark/Zeeman shifts in external DC electric/magnetic fields. The stochastic effects in collisions involving Rydberg particles, in which the initial and final reaction channels are connected via intermediate highly excited collision complexes with multiple crossings of energy levels, can be treated using the dynamic chaos approach (Chirikov criterion, Standard and Keppler mapping of time evolution of the Rydberg electron, solution of the Fokker-Plank- and Langevin-type of equations, etc.). Such approach to obtaining dynamics characteristics is a natural choice, since the treatment of Rydberg electron dynamics as a kind of diffusion process allowing one to bypass the multi-level-crossing problem, which can hardly be solved by conventional quantum chemistry methods.

  16. Dynamic Study of Bicycle Frame Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, M. S. M.; Nazri, N. A.; Zahari, S. N.; Abdullah, N. A. Z.; Priyandoko, G.

    2016-11-01

    Bicycle frames have to bear variety of loads and it is needed to ensure the frame can withstand dynamic loads to move. This paper focusing on dynamic study for bicycle frame structure with a purpose to avoid the problem regarding loads on the structure and to ensure the structure is safe when multiple loads are applied on it. The main objectives of dynamic study are to find the modal properties using two method; finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental modal analysis (EMA). The correlation between two studies will be obtained using percentage error. Firstly, 3D model of mountain bike frame structure has been draw using computer-aided design (CAD) software and normal mode analysis using MSC Nastran Patran was executed for numerical method meanwhile modal testing using impact hammer was performed for experimental counterpart. From the correlation result, it show that percentage error between FEA and EMA were below 10% due to noise, imperfect experiment setup during perform EMA and imperfect modeling of mountain bike frame structure in CAD software. Small percentage error differences makes both of the method can be applied to obtain the dynamic characteristic of structure. It is essential to determine whether the structure is safe or not. In conclusion, model updating method is required to reduce more percentage error between two results.

  17. Characteristic flow patterns generated by macrozoobenthic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrichs, M.; Graf, G.

    2009-02-01

    A laboratory flume channel, equipped with an acoustic Doppler flow sensor and a bottom scanning laser, was used for detailed, non-intrusive flow measurements (at 2 cm s - 1 and 10 cm s - 1 ) around solitary biogenic structures, combined with high-resolution mapping of the structure shape and position. The structures were replicates of typical macrozoobenthic species commonly found in the Mecklenburg Bight and with a presumed influence on both, the near-bed current regime and sediment transport dynamics: a worm tube, a snail shell, a mussel, a sand mound, a pit, and a cross-stream track furrow. The flow was considerably altered locally by the different protruding structures (worm tube, snail, mussel and mound). They reduced the horizontal approach velocity by 72% to 79% in the wake zone at about 1-2 cm height, and the flow was deflected around the structures with vertical and lateral velocities of up to 10% and 20% of the free-stream velocity respectively in a region adjacent to the structures. The resulting flow separation (at flow Reynolds number of about 4000 and 20,000 respectively) divided an outer deflection region from an inner region with characteristic vortices and the wake region. All protruding structures showed this general pattern, but also produced individual characteristics. Conversely, the depressions (track and pit) only had a weak influence on the local boundary layer flow, combined with a considerable flow reduction within their cavities (between 29% and 53% of the free-stream velocity). A longitudinal vortex formed, below which a stagnant space was found. The average height affected by the structure-related mass flow rate deficit for the two velocities was 1.6 cm and 1.3 cm respectively (80% of height and 64%) for the protruding structures and 0.6 cm and 0.9 cm (90% and 127% of depth) for the depressions. Marine benthic soft-bottom macrozoobenthos species are expected to benefit from the flow modifications they induce, particularly in terms of

  18. Structure, the lattice dynamic, and the dielectric characteristics of Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, A. V.; Zakharchenko, I. N.; Anokhin, A. S.; Kuprina, Yu. A.; Kiseleva, L. I.; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.

    2017-05-01

    Solid solution Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6 films have been synthesized on a (111)Pt/(001)Si substrate by rf deposition in an oxygen atmosphere. The depolarized Raman spectra, the structure, and the dielectric characteristics of the films have been studied over a wide temperature range. It is found that the films were singlephase, had the tetragonal tungsten bronze structure, and had a pronounced axial texture with axis 001 directed perpendicular to the substrate surface. It is shown that the film material undergoes a diffuse phase transition to the state of a relaxor ferroelectric in the temperature range 300-425 K. Possible reasons of the regularities observed are discussed.

  19. Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.

  20. Dynamic and attitude control characteristics of an International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, Thomas R.; Cooper, Paul A.; Young, John W.; Mccutchen, Don K.

    1987-01-01

    The structural dynamic characteristics of the International Space Station (ISS), the interim reference configuration established for NASA's Space Station developmental program, are discussed, and a finite element model is described. Modes and frequencies of the station below 2.0 Hz are derived, and the dynamic response of the station is simulated for an external impulse load corresponding to a failed shuttle-docking maneuver. A three-axis attitude control system regulates the ISS orientation, with control moment gyros responding to attitude and attitude rate signals. No instabilities were found in the attitude control system.

  1. Dynamic and attitude control characteristics of an International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, Thomas R.; Cooper, Paul A.; Young, John W.; Mccutchen, Don K.

    1987-01-01

    The structural dynamic characteristics of the International Space Station (ISS), the interim reference configuration established for NASA's Space Station developmental program, are discussed, and a finite element model is described. Modes and frequencies of the station below 2.0 Hz are derived, and the dynamic response of the station is simulated for an external impulse load corresponding to a failed shuttle-docking maneuver. A three-axis attitude control system regulates the ISS orientation, with control moment gyros responding to attitude and attitude rate signals. No instabilities were found in the attitude control system.

  2. Numerical and Experimental Dynamic Characteristics of Thin-Film Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Leyland G.; Ramanathan, Suresh; Hu, Jia-Zhu; Pai, P. Frank

    2004-01-01

    Presented is a total-Lagrangian displacement-based non-linear finite-element model of thin-film membranes for static and dynamic large-displacement analyses. The membrane theory fully accounts for geometric non-linearities. Fully non-linear static analysis followed by linear modal analysis is performed for an inflated circular cylindrical Kapton membrane tube under different pressures, and for a rectangular membrane under different tension loads at four comers. Finite element results show that shell modes dominate the dynamics of the inflated tube when the inflation pressure is low, and that vibration modes localized along four edges dominate the dynamics of the rectangular membrane. Numerical dynamic characteristics of the two membrane structures were experimentally verified using a Polytec PI PSV-200 scanning laser vibrometer and an EAGLE-500 8-camera motion analysis system.

  3. Determination of Ice Characteristics for Marine Hydroengineering Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kantarzhi, I. G.; Maderich, V. S. Koshebutskii, V. I.

    2016-01-15

    Problems and potential approaches to determining ice characteristics for sea hydroengineering structures design are considered. A system for numerical modeling of ice dynamics is presented. The system may be used to define ice characteristics on approaches to structures with due regard for local hydrometeorological conditions and ice loads on structures. System application examples are presented for determining computational scenarios for ice loads at structures of the Pevek floating nuclear power plant (FNPP), as well as for the breakwater pier under reconstruction in Vanino. A scenario approach is used to determined ice loads.

  4. Hierarchical optimisation on scissor seat suspension characteristic and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlei; Zhang, Xinjie; Guo, Konghui; Lv, Jiming; Yang, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Scissor seat suspension has been applied widely to attenuate the cab vibrations of commercial vehicles, while its design generally needs a trade-off between the seat acceleration and suspension travel, which creates a typical optimisation issue. A complexity for this issue is that the optimal dynamics parameters are not easy to approach solutions fast and unequivocally. Hence, the hierarchical optimisation on scissor seat suspension characteristic and structure is proposed, providing a top-down methodology with the globally optimal and fast convergent solutions to compromise these design contradictions. In details, a characteristic-oriented non-parametric dynamics model of the scissor seat suspension is formulated firstly via databases, describing its vertical dynamics accurately. Then, the ideal vertical stiffness-damping characteristic is cascaded via the characteristic-oriented model, and the structure parameters are optimised in accordance with a structure-oriented multi-body dynamics model of the scissor seat suspension. Eventually, the seat effective amplitude transmissibility factor, suspension travel and the CPU time for solving are evaluated. The results show the seat suspension performance and convergent speed of the globally optimal solutions are improved well. Hence, the proposed hierarchical optimisation methodology regarding characteristic and structure of the scissor seat suspension is promising for its virtual development.

  5. Chiral hexagonal cellular sandwich structures: dynamic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spadoni, A.; Ruzzene, M.; Scarpa, F.

    2005-05-01

    Periodic cellular configurations with negative Poisson's ratio have attracted the attention of several researchers because of their superior dynamic characteristics. Among the geometries featuring a negative Poisson's ratio, the chiral topology possesses a geometric complexity that guarantees unique deformed configurations when excited at one of its natural frequencies. Specifically, localized deformations have been observed even at relatively low excitation frequencies. This is of particular importance as resonance can be exploited to minimize the power required for the appearance of localized deformations, thus giving practicality to the concept. The particular nature of these deformed configurations and the authority provided by the chiral geometry, suggest the application of the proposed structural configuration for the design of innovative lifting bodies, such as helicopter rotor blades or airplane wings. The dynamic characteristics of chiral structures are here investigated through a numerical model and experimental investigations. The numerical formulation uses dynamic shape functions to accurately describe the behavior of the considered structural assembly over a wide frequency range. The model is used to predict frequency response functions, and to investigate the occurrence of localized deformations. Experimental tests are also performed to demonstrate the accuracy of the model and to illustrate the peculiarities of the behavior of the considered chiral structures.

  6. Nonlinearities in spacecraft structural dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Larry; Latimer, Kelly

    1988-01-01

    In considering nonlinearities in spacecraft structural dynamics, the following are examined: (1) SCOLE Configuration-Equations of Motion; (2) Modeling Error Sources; (3) Approximate Solutions; (4) Comparison of Model Accuracy; (5) Linear and Nonlinear Damping; (6) Experimental Results; and, (7) Future Work.

  7. Structural and Environmental Characteristics of Stereotyped Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott; Thorns, Tracy; Oliver, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This study examined structural characteristics and environmental variables in the stereotypic behaviors of eight individuals with developmental disabilities. Findings indicated that structural characteristics (percentage of time, bout length, and bout length variability) were highly correlated. Also, stereotyped behaviors were more likely to occur…

  8. Evolutionary dynamics on random structures

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, S.M.; Reidys, C.M. |

    1997-04-01

    In this paper the authors consider the evolutionary dynamics of populations of sequences, under a process of selection at the phenotypic level of structures. They use a simple graph-theoretic representation of structures which captures well the properties of the mapping between RNA sequences and their molecular structure. Each sequence is assigned to a structure by means of a sequence-to-structure mapping. The authors make the basic assumption that every fitness landscape can be factorized through the structures. The set of all sequences that map into a particular random structure can then be modeled as a random graph in sequence space, the so-called neutral network. They analyze in detail how an evolving population searches for new structures, in particular how they switch from one neutral network to another. They verify that transitions occur directly between neutral networks, and study the effects of different population sizes and the influence of the relatedness of the structures on these transitions. In fitness landscapes where several structures exhibit high fitness, the authors then study evolutionary paths on the structural level taken by the population during its search. They present a new way of expressing structural similarities which are shown to have relevant implications for the time evolution of the population.

  9. Structural dynamics system model reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.; Rose, T. L.; Wada, B. K.

    1987-01-01

    Loads analysis for structural dynamic systems is usually performed by finite element models. Because of the complexity of the structural system, the model contains large number of degree-of-freedom. The large model is necessary since details of the stress, loads and responses due to mission environments are computed. However, a simplified model is needed for other tasks such as pre-test analysis for modal testing, and control-structural interaction studies. A systematic method of model reduction for modal test analysis is presented. Perhaps it will be of some help in developing a simplified model for the control studies.

  10. Hydrologic dynamics and ecosystem structure.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Iturbe, I

    2003-01-01

    Ecohydrology is the science that studies the mutual interaction between the hydrological cycle and ecosystems. Such an interaction is especially intense in water-controlled ecosystems, where water may be a limiting factor, not only because of its scarcity, but also because of its intermittent and unpredictable appearance. Hydrologic dynamics is shown to be a crucial factor for ecological patterns and processes. The probabilistic structure of soil moisture in time and space is presented as the key linkage between soil, climate and vegetation dynamics. Nutrient cycles, vegetation coexistence and plant response to environmental conditions are all intimately linked to the stochastic fluctuation of the hydrologic inputs driving an ecosystem.

  11. Structural dynamic analysis of composite beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, J. K.; Venkatesan, C.; Ramamurti, V.

    1990-12-01

    In the treatment of the structural dynamic problem of composite materials, two alternate types of formulations, based on the elastic modulus and compliance quantities, exist in the literature. The definitions of the various rigidities are observed to differ in these two approaches. Following these two types of formulation, the structural dynamic characteristics of a composite beam are analyzed. The results of the analysis are compared with those available in the literature. Based on the comparison, the influence of the warping function in defining the coupling terms in the modulus approach and also on the natural frequencies of the beam has been identified. It is found from the analysis that, in certain cases, the difference between the results of the two approaches is appreciable. These differences may be attributed to the constraints imposed on the deformation and flexibility of the beam by the choice of the description of the warping behaviour. Finally, the influence of material properties on the structural dynamic characteristics of the beam is studied for different composites for various angles of orthotropy.

  12. Dynamical structure of carboxypeptidase A.

    PubMed

    Makinen, M W; Troyer, J M; van der Werff, H; Berendsen, H J; van Gunsteren, W F

    1989-05-05

    Structural fluctuations of the apoenzyme form of carboxypeptidase A (EC 3.4.12.2) have been evaluated on the basis of molecular dynamics. The Konnert-Hendrickson refined coordinates of 2437 non-hydrogen atoms of the 307 amino acid residues derived from the X-ray structure of the holoenzyme served as the molecular model together with 548 calculated polar hydrogen atoms and 25 buried solvent molecules. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out at 277 K, and the averaged structural properties of the protein were evaluated for the terminal 20 picosecond portion of a 48 picosecond trajectory. The average atomic displacement from the initial X-ray structure was 2.49 A for all atoms and 1.79 A for C alpha atoms. The average root-mean-square (r.m.s.) fluctuation of all atoms was 0.67 A as compared to 0.54 A evaluated from the X-ray-defined temperature factors. Corresponding r.m.s. fluctuations for backbone atoms were 0.56 A by molecular dynamics and 0.49 A by X-ray. On the basis of these molecular dynamics studies of the isolated molecule, it is shown that amino acid residues corresponding to intermolecular contact sites of the crystalline enzyme are associated with high amplitude motion. All eight segments of alpha-helix and eight regions of beta-strand were well preserved except for unwinding of the five C-terminal residues of the alpha-helix 112-122 that form part of an intermolecular contact in the crystal. Four regions of beta-strand and one alpha-helix with residues adjacent to or in the active site constitute a core of constant secondary structure and are shown not to change in relative orientation to each other during the course of the trajectory. The absence of the zinc ion does not markedly influence the stereochemical relationships of active site residues in the dynamically averaged protein. The extent of motional fluctuations of each of the subsites of substrate recognition in the active site has been evaluated. Active site residues responsible for

  13. Dynamically variable negative stiffness structures

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Christopher B.; Shahan, David W.; Smith, Sloan P.; Keefe, Andrew C.; McKnight, Geoffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Variable stiffness structures that enable a wide range of efficient load-bearing and dexterous activity are ubiquitous in mammalian musculoskeletal systems but are rare in engineered systems because of their complexity, power, and cost. We present a new negative stiffness–based load-bearing structure with dynamically tunable stiffness. Negative stiffness, traditionally used to achieve novel response from passive structures, is a powerful tool to achieve dynamic stiffness changes when configured with an active component. Using relatively simple hardware and low-power, low-frequency actuation, we show an assembly capable of fast (<10 ms) and useful (>100×) dynamic stiffness control. This approach mitigates limitations of conventional tunable stiffness structures that exhibit either small (<30%) stiffness change, high friction, poor load/torque transmission at low stiffness, or high power active control at the frequencies of interest. We experimentally demonstrate actively tunable vibration isolation and stiffness tuning independent of supported loads, enhancing applications such as humanoid robotic limbs and lightweight adaptive vibration isolators. PMID:26989771

  14. Dynamically variable negative stiffness structures.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Christopher B; Shahan, David W; Smith, Sloan P; Keefe, Andrew C; McKnight, Geoffrey P

    2016-02-01

    Variable stiffness structures that enable a wide range of efficient load-bearing and dexterous activity are ubiquitous in mammalian musculoskeletal systems but are rare in engineered systems because of their complexity, power, and cost. We present a new negative stiffness-based load-bearing structure with dynamically tunable stiffness. Negative stiffness, traditionally used to achieve novel response from passive structures, is a powerful tool to achieve dynamic stiffness changes when configured with an active component. Using relatively simple hardware and low-power, low-frequency actuation, we show an assembly capable of fast (<10 ms) and useful (>100×) dynamic stiffness control. This approach mitigates limitations of conventional tunable stiffness structures that exhibit either small (<30%) stiffness change, high friction, poor load/torque transmission at low stiffness, or high power active control at the frequencies of interest. We experimentally demonstrate actively tunable vibration isolation and stiffness tuning independent of supported loads, enhancing applications such as humanoid robotic limbs and lightweight adaptive vibration isolators.

  15. Dose-structured population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ginn, Timothy R; Loge, Frank J

    2007-07-01

    Applied population dynamics modeling is relied upon with increasing frequency to quantify how human activities affect human and non-human populations. Current techniques include variously the population's spatial transport, age, size, and physiology, but typically not the life-histories of exposure to other important things occurring in the ambient environment, such as chemicals, heat, or radiation. Consequently, the effects of such 'abiotic' aspects of an ecosystem on populations are only currently addressed through individual-based modeling approaches that despite broad utility are limited in their applicability to realistic ecosystems [V. Grimm, Ten years of individual-based modeling in ecology: what have we learned and what could we learn in the future? Ecol. Model. 115 (1999) 129-148][1]. We describe a new category of population dynamics modeling, wherein population dynamical states of the biotic phases are structured on dose, and apply this framework to demonstrate how chemical species or other ambient aspects can be included in population dynamics in three separate examples involving growth suppression in fish, inactivation of microorganisms with ultraviolet irradiation, and metabolic lag in population growth. Dose-structuring is based on a kinematic approach that is a simple generalization of age-structuring, views the ecosystem as a multi-component mixture with reacting biotic/abiotic components. The resulting model framework accommodates (a) different memories of exposure as in recovery from toxic ambient conditions, (b) differentiation between exogenous and endogenous sources of variation in population response, and (c) quantification of acute or sub-acute effects on populations arising from life-history exposures to abiotic species. Classical models do not easily address the very important fact that organisms differ and have different experiences over their life cycle. The dose structuring is one approach to incorporate some of these elements into the

  16. Structurally Dynamic Spin Market Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Denis; Kuscsik, Zoltán

    The agent-based model of stock price dynamics on a directed evolving complex network is suggested and studied by direct simulation. The stationary regime is maintained as a result of the balance between the extremal dynamics, adaptivity of strategic variables and reconnection rules. The inherent structure of node agent "brain" is modeled by a recursive neural network with local and global inputs and feedback connections. For specific parametric combination the complex network displays small-world phenomenon combined with scale-free behavior. The identification of a local leader (network hub, agent whose strategies are frequently adapted by its neighbors) is carried out by repeated random walk process through network. The simulations show empirically relevant dynamics of price returns and volatility clustering. The additional emerging aspects of stylized market statistics are Zipfian distributions of fitness.

  17. Dynamic molecular graphs: "hopping" structures.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Rocha-Rinza, Tomas; Guevara-Vela, José Manuel; Cuevas, Gabriel; Gómez, Rosa María

    2014-05-05

    This work aims to contribute to the discussion about the suitability of bond paths and bond-critical points as indicators of chemical bonding defined within the theoretical framework of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. For this purpose, we consider the temporal evolution of the molecular structure of [Fe{C(CH2 )3 }(CO)3 ] throughout Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD), which illustrates the changing behaviour of the molecular graph (MG) of an electronic system. Several MGs with significant lifespans are observed across the BOMD simulations. The bond paths between the trimethylenemethane and the metallic core are uninterruptedly formed and broken. This situation is reminiscent of a "hopping" ligand over the iron atom. The molecular graph wherein the bonding between trimethylenemethane and the iron atom takes place only by means of the tertiary carbon atom has the longest lifespan of all the considered structures, which is consistent with the MG found by X-ray diffraction experiments and quantum chemical calculations. In contrast, the η(4) complex predicted by molecular-orbital theory has an extremely brief lifetime. The lifespan of different molecular structures is related to bond descriptors on the basis of the topology of the electron density such as the ellipticities at the FeCH2 bond-critical points and electron delocalisation indices. This work also proposes the concept of a dynamic molecular graph composed of the different structures found throughout the BOMD trajectories in analogy to a resonance hybrid of Lewis structures. It is our hope that the notion of dynamic molecular graphs will prove useful in the discussion of electronic systems, in particular for those in which analysis on the basis of static structures leads to controversial conclusions.

  18. Sierra Structural Dynamics User's Notes

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, Garth M.

    2015-10-19

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a users guide to the input for Sierra/SD. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

  19. Dynamics of electromechanical flow structures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B., Jr.; Melcher, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Free-surface gravity flows and capillary wicking provide examples of flow structures with fluid partially ducted at free surfaces by external forces. Wall-less electromechanical flow structures are developed which have a similar nature, but with polarization forces providing the orientation at free surfaces. Like their mechanical counterparts, these have the ability to ingest liquid or expel vapor through their walls. The structures consist of electrodes running in the flow direction z with slowly varying cross sections in a plane transverse to the flow. A formulation is given of the long-wave nonlinear (principal mode) dynamics, with use made of energy functions to represent a broad class of possible mechanical and electrical structure geometries.

  20. Evaluating the Dynamic Characteristics of Retrofitted RC Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ghods, Amir S.; Esfahani, Mohamad R.; Moghaddasie, Behrang

    2008-07-08

    The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the relationship between the damage and changes in dynamic characteristics of reinforced concrete members strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP). Modal analysis is a popular non-destructive method for evaluating health of structural systems. A total of 8 reinforced concrete beams with similar dimensions were made using concrete with two different compressive strengths and reinforcement ratios. Monotonic loading was applied with four-point-bending setup in order to generate different damage levels in the specimens while dynamic testing was conducted to monitor the changes in dynamic characteristics of the specimens. In order to investigate the effect of CFRP on static and dynamic properties of specimens, some of the beams were loaded to half of their ultimate load carrying capacity and then were retrofitted using composite laminates with different configuration. Retrofitted specimens demonstrated elevated load carrying capacity, higher flexural stiffness and lower displacement ductility. By increasing the damage level in specimens, frequencies of the beams were decreased and after strengthening these values were improved significantly. The intensity of the damage level in each specimen affects the shape of its mode as well. Fixed points and curvatures of mode shapes of beams tend to move toward the location of the damage in each case.

  1. Some Structural Characteristics of Music Television Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Donald L.; Fry, Virginia H.

    1987-01-01

    Indicates, by analyzing two types of montage structures, that music television is a hybrid form of television programing displaying visual characteristics of both television commercials and drama. Argues that this amalgam of different characteristics gives music television its distinctive look and power as a promotional tool for the record…

  2. Native dynamics from diversity in NMR structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammert, Heiko; Onuchic, Jose

    2015-03-01

    Protein function relies on the characteristic dynamics that arise in the protein's unique native structure, controlled by the smooth, funneled energy landscape evolved to enable fast and reliable folding. Structure-based models draw on energy landscape theory to build an ideally funneled energy landscape only from a protein's native structure. Simplified interactions of homogeneous strength are used to eliminate energetic frustration. The dynamics of the model are controlled by geometric constraints imposed by the native fold. The energy landscapes of many actual proteins are smooth enough to let such unfrustrated models describe their folding mechanisms. But conflicting functional demands upon the sequence may introduce sufficient frustration into the energetics to affect the dynamics. For such cases heterogeneous interactions can be optimized based on additional data. We use the diversity among the conformations deposited in a set of NMR structures to estimate the extent of fluctuations in the native state to build an improved model of protein S6. Qualitative modifications bring the observed mechanism into agreement with experiment, and matching of the entire fluctuation profile leads to similar contact maps as optimization based on either phi-values of sequence data.

  3. Fractal structures in nonlinear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Jacobo; Viana, Ricardo L.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the striking beauty inherent in their complex nature, fractals have become a fundamental ingredient of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory since they were defined in the 1970s. Moreover, fractals have been detected in nature and in most fields of science, with even a certain influence in the arts. Fractal structures appear naturally in dynamical systems, in particular associated with the phase space. The analysis of these structures is especially useful for obtaining information about the future behavior of complex systems, since they provide fundamental knowledge about the relation between these systems and uncertainty and indeterminism. Dynamical systems are divided into two main groups: Hamiltonian and dissipative systems. The concepts of the attractor and basin of attraction are related to dissipative systems. In the case of open Hamiltonian systems, there are no attractors, but the analogous concepts of the exit and exit basin exist. Therefore basins formed by initial conditions can be computed in both Hamiltonian and dissipative systems, some of them being smooth and some fractal. This fact has fundamental consequences for predicting the future of the system. The existence of this deterministic unpredictability, usually known as final state sensitivity, is typical of chaotic systems, and makes deterministic systems become, in practice, random processes where only a probabilistic approach is possible. The main types of fractal basin, their nature, and the numerical and experimental techniques used to obtain them from both mathematical models and real phenomena are described here, with special attention to their ubiquity in different fields of physics.

  4. Evolutionary dynamics in structured populations

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Martin A.; Tarnita, Corina E.; Antal, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary dynamics shape the living world around us. At the centre of every evolutionary process is a population of reproducing individuals. The structure of that population affects evolutionary dynamics. The individuals can be molecules, cells, viruses, multicellular organisms or humans. Whenever the fitness of individuals depends on the relative abundance of phenotypes in the population, we are in the realm of evolutionary game theory. Evolutionary game theory is a general approach that can describe the competition of species in an ecosystem, the interaction between hosts and parasites, between viruses and cells, and also the spread of ideas and behaviours in the human population. In this perspective, we review the recent advances in evolutionary game dynamics with a particular emphasis on stochastic approaches in finite sized and structured populations. We give simple, fundamental laws that determine how natural selection chooses between competing strategies. We study the well-mixed population, evolutionary graph theory, games in phenotype space and evolutionary set theory. We apply these results to the evolution of cooperation. The mechanism that leads to the evolution of cooperation in these settings could be called ‘spatial selection’: cooperators prevail against defectors by clustering in physical or other spaces. PMID:20008382

  5. Nonlinear structural crash dynamics analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayduk, R. J.; Thomson, R. G.; Wittlin, G.; Kamat, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    Presented in this paper are the results of three nonlinear computer programs, KRASH, ACTION and DYCAST used to analyze the dynamic response of a twin-engine, low-wing airplane section subjected to a 8.38 m/s (27.5 ft/s) vertical impact velocity crash condition. This impact condition simulates the vertical sink rate in a shallow aircraft landing or takeoff accident. The three distinct analysis techniques for nonlinear dynamic response of aircraft structures are briefly examined and compared versus each other and the experimental data. The report contains brief descriptions of the three computer programs, the respective aircraft section mathematical models, pertinent data from the experimental test performed at NASA Langley, and a comparison of the analyses versus test results. Cost and accuracy comparisons between the three analyses are made to illustrate the possible uses of the different nonlinear programs and their future potential.

  6. Feature extraction for structural dynamics model validation

    SciTech Connect

    Hemez, Francois; Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae; Nishio, Mayuko; Worden, Keith; Takeda, Nobuo

    2010-11-08

    This study focuses on defining and comparing response features that can be used for structural dynamics model validation studies. Features extracted from dynamic responses obtained analytically or experimentally, such as basic signal statistics, frequency spectra, and estimated time-series models, can be used to compare characteristics of structural system dynamics. By comparing those response features extracted from experimental data and numerical outputs, validation and uncertainty quantification of numerical model containing uncertain parameters can be realized. In this study, the applicability of some response features to model validation is first discussed using measured data from a simple test-bed structure and the associated numerical simulations of these experiments. issues that must be considered were sensitivity, dimensionality, type of response, and presence or absence of measurement noise in the response. Furthermore, we illustrate a comparison method of multivariate feature vectors for statistical model validation. Results show that the outlier detection technique using the Mahalanobis distance metric can be used as an effective and quantifiable technique for selecting appropriate model parameters. However, in this process, one must not only consider the sensitivity of the features being used, but also correlation of the parameters being compared.

  7. Chromatin structure in telomere dynamics.

    PubMed

    Galati, Alessandra; Micheli, Emanuela; Cacchione, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of a specific nucleoprotein structure, the telomere, is required to ensure the protection of chromosome ends from being recognized as DNA damage sites. Telomere shortening below a critical length triggers a DNA damage response that leads to replicative senescence. In normal human somatic cells, characterized by telomere shortening with each cell division, telomere uncapping is a regulated process associated with cell turnover. Nevertheless, telomere dysfunction has also been associated with genomic instability, cell transformation, and cancer. Despite the essential role telomeres play in chromosome protection and in tumorigenesis, our knowledge of the chromatin structure involved in telomere maintenance is still limited. Here we review the recent findings on chromatin modifications associated with the dynamic changes of telomeres from protected to deprotected state and their role in telomere functions.

  8. Sierra Structural Dynamics Theory Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, Garth M.

    2015-10-19

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Sierra/SD. For a more detailed description of how to use Sierra/SD , we refer the reader to Sierra/SD, User's Notes . Many of the constructs in Sierra/SD are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Sierra/SD are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature. This page intentionally left blank.

  9. Chromatin Structure in Telomere Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Galati, Alessandra; Micheli, Emanuela; Cacchione, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of a specific nucleoprotein structure, the telomere, is required to ensure the protection of chromosome ends from being recognized as DNA damage sites. Telomere shortening below a critical length triggers a DNA damage response that leads to replicative senescence. In normal human somatic cells, characterized by telomere shortening with each cell division, telomere uncapping is a regulated process associated with cell turnover. Nevertheless, telomere dysfunction has also been associated with genomic instability, cell transformation, and cancer. Despite the essential role telomeres play in chromosome protection and in tumorigenesis, our knowledge of the chromatin structure involved in telomere maintenance is still limited. Here we review the recent findings on chromatin modifications associated with the dynamic changes of telomeres from protected to deprotected state and their role in telomere functions. PMID:23471416

  10. Preliminary shuttle structural dynamics modeling design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and development of a structural dynamics model of the space shuttle are discussed. The model provides for early study of structural dynamics problems, permits evaluation of the accuracy of the structural and hydroelastic analysis methods used on test vehicles, and provides for efficiently evaluating potential cost savings in structural dynamic testing techniques. The discussion is developed around the modes in which major input forces and responses occur and the significant structural details in these modes.

  11. Structural Dynamics of Electronic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, E.

    2013-03-01

    The published work on analytical ("mathematical") and computer-aided, primarily finite-element-analysis (FEA) based, predictive modeling of the dynamic response of electronic systems to shocks and vibrations is reviewed. While understanding the physics of and the ability to predict the response of an electronic structure to dynamic loading has been always of significant importance in military, avionic, aeronautic, automotive and maritime electronics, during the last decade this problem has become especially important also in commercial, and, particularly, in portable electronics in connection with accelerated testing of various surface mount technology (SMT) systems on the board level. The emphasis of the review is on the nonlinear shock-excited vibrations of flexible printed circuit boards (PCBs) experiencing shock loading applied to their support contours during drop tests. At the end of the review we provide, as a suitable and useful illustration, the exact solution to a highly nonlinear problem of the dynamic response of a "flexible-and-heavy" PCB to an impact load applied to its support contour during drop testing.

  12. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of the Railway Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyulan, Çağlar; Gokasan, Metin

    2017-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a railway vehicle are checked into thoroughly by applying two different wheel-rail contact model: a heuristic nonlinear friction creepage model derived by using Kalker 's theory and Polach model including dead-zone clearance. This two models are matched with the quasi-static form of the LuGre model to obtain more realistic wheel-rail contact model. LuGre model parameters are determined using nonlinear optimization method, which it's objective is to minimize the error between the output of the Polach and Kalker model and quasi-static LuGre model for specific operating conditions. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation attitude and stable/unstable motion of the railway vehicle in the presence of nonlinearities which are yaw damping forces in the longitudinal suspension system are analyzed in great detail by changing the vehicle speed. Phase portraits of the lateral displacement of the leading wheelset of the railway vehicle are drawn below and on the critical speeds, where sub-critical Hopf bifurcation take place, for two wheel-rail contact model. Asymmetric periodic motions have been observed during the simulation in the lateral displacement of the wheelset under different vehicle speed range. The coexistence of multiple steady states cause bounces in the amplitude of vibrations, resulting instability problems of the railway vehicle. By using Lyapunov's indirect method, the critical hunting speeds are calculated with respect to the radius of the curved track parameter changes. Hunting, which is defined as the oscillation of the lateral displacement of wheelset with a large domain, is described by a limit cycle-type oscillation nature. The evaluated accuracy of the LuGre model adopted from Kalker's model results for prediction of critical speed is higher than the results of the LuGre model adopted from Polach's model. From the results of the analysis, the critical hunting speed must be resolved by investigating the track tests

  13. Predictive structural dynamic network analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Herskovits, Edward H

    2015-04-30

    Classifying individuals based on magnetic resonance data is an important task in neuroscience. Existing brain network-based methods to classify subjects analyze data from a cross-sectional study and these methods cannot classify subjects based on longitudinal data. We propose a network-based predictive modeling method to classify subjects based on longitudinal magnetic resonance data. Our method generates a dynamic Bayesian network model for each group which represents complex spatiotemporal interactions among brain regions, and then calculates a score representing that subject's deviation from expected network patterns. This network-derived score, along with other candidate predictors, are used to construct predictive models. We validated the proposed method based on simulated data and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study. For the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study, we built a predictive model based on the baseline biomarker characterizing the baseline state and the network-based score which was constructed based on the state transition probability matrix. We found that this combined model achieved 0.86 accuracy, 0.85 sensitivity, and 0.87 specificity. For the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study, the model based on the baseline biomarkers achieved 0.77 accuracy. The accuracy of our model is significantly better than the model based on the baseline biomarkers (p-value=0.002). We have presented a method to classify subjects based on structural dynamic network model based scores. This method is of great importance to distinguish subjects based on structural network dynamics and the understanding of the network architecture of brain processes and disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characteristics, dynamics and significance of marine snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alldredge, Alice L.; Silver, Mary W.

    Macroscopic aggregates of detritus, living organisms and inorganic matter known as marine snow, have significance in the ocean both as unique, partially isolated microenvironments and as transport agents: much of surface-derived matter in the ocean fluxes to the ocean interior and the sea floor as marine snow. As microhabitats, marine snow aggregates contain enriched microbial communities and chemical gradients within which processes of photosynthesis, decomposition, and nutrient regeneration occur at highly elevated levels. Microbial communities associated with marine snow undergo complex successional changes on time scales of hours to days which significantly alter the chemical and biological properties of the particles. Marine snow can be produced either de novo by living plants and animals especially as mucus feeding webs of zooplankton, or by the biologically-enhanced physical aggregation of smaller particles. By the latter pathway, microaggregates, phytoplankton, fecal pellets, organic debris and clay-mineral particles collide by differential settlement or physical shear and adhere by the action of various, biologically-generated, organic compounds. Diatom flocculation is a poorly understood source of marine snow of potential global significance. Rates of snow production and breakdown are not known but are critical to predicting flux and to understanding biological community structure and transformations of matter and energy in the water column. The greatest challenge to the study of marine snow at present is the development of appropriate technology to measure abundances and characteristics of aggregates in situ.

  15. Effects of rail dynamics and friction characteristics on curve squeal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, B.; Squicciarini, G.; Thompson, D. J.

    2016-09-01

    Curve squeal in railway vehicles is an instability mechanism that arises in tight curves under certain running and environmental conditions. In developing a model the most important elements are the characterisation of friction coupled with an accurate representation of the structural dynamics of the wheel. However, the role played by the dynamics of the rail is not fully understood and it is unclear whether this should be included in a model or whether it can be safely neglected. This paper makes use of previously developed time domain and frequency domain curve squeal models to assess whether the presence of the rail and the falling characteristics of the friction force can modify the instability mechanisms and the final response. For this purpose, the time-domain model has been updated to include the rail dynamics in terms of its state space representation in various directions. Frequency domain and time domain analyses results show that falling friction is not the only reason for squeal and rail dynamics can play an important role, especially under constant friction conditions.

  16. Lewis Structures Technology, 1988. Volume 1: Structural Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The specific purpose of the symposium was to familiarize the engineering structures community with the depth and range of research performed by the Structures Division of the Lewis Research Center and its academic and industrial partners. Sessions covered vibration control, fracture mechanics, ceramic component reliability, parallel computing, nondestructive testing, dynamical systems, fatigue and damage, wind turbines, hot section technology, structural mechanics codes, computational methods for dynamics, structural optimization, and applications of structural dynamics.

  17. Recent Progress in Heliogyro Solar Sail Structural Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkie, W.; Warren, J.; Horta, L.; Juang, J.; Gibbs, S.; Dowell, E.; Guerrant, D.; Lawrence, D.

    2014-06-01

    Results from recent National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) research on the structural dynamics and control characteristics of heliogyro solar sails are summarized. Specific areas under investigation include coupled nonlinear finite element analysis of heliogyro membrane blade with solar radiation pressure effects, system identification of spinning membrane structures, solarelastic stability analysis of heliogyro solar sails, including stability during blade deployment, and results from small-scale in vacuo dynamics experiments with spinning high-aspect ratio membranes. A low-cost, rideshare payload heliogyro technology demonstration mission concept, used as a mission context for these heliogyro structural dynamics and solarelasticity investigations, is also described.

  18. Recent Progress in Heliogyro Solar Sail Structural Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkie, William K.; Warren, Jerry E.; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Gibbs, Samuel C.; Dowell, E.; Guerrant, Daniel; Lawrence Dale

    2014-01-01

    Results from recent National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) research on the structural dynamics and control characteristics of heliogyro solar sails are summarized. Specific areas under investigation include coupled nonlinear finite element analysis of heliogyro membrane blade with solar radiation pressure effects, system identification of spinning membrane structures, solarelastic stability analysis of heliogyro solar sails, including stability during blade deployment, and results from small-scale in vacuo dynamics experiments with spinning high-aspect ratio membranes. A low-cost, rideshare payload heliogyro technology demonstration mission concept, used as a mission context for these heliogyro structural dynamics and solarelasticity investigations, is also described.

  19. Research in Structures and Dynamics, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayduk, R. J. (Compiler); Noor, A. K. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    A symposium on advanced and trends in structures and dynamics was held to communicate new insights into physical behavior and to identify trends in the solution procedures for structures and dynamics problems. Pertinent areas of concern were (1) multiprocessors, parallel computation, and database management systems, (2) advances in finite element technology, (3) interactive computing and optimization, (4) mechanics of materials, (5) structural stability, (6) dynamic response of structures, and (7) advanced computer applications.

  20. The structural dynamics of myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Brunori, M; Bourgeois, D; Vallone, B

    2004-09-01

    Conformational fluctuations in proteins were initially invoked to explain the observation that diffusion of small ligands through the matrix is a global phenomenon. Small globular proteins contain internal cavities that play a role not only in matrix dynamics but also in controlling function, tracing a pathway for the diffusion of the ligand to and from the active site. This is the main point addressed in this Review, which presents pertinent information obtained on myoglobin (Mb). Mb, a simple globular heme protein which binds reversibly oxygen and other ligands. The bond between the heme Fe(II) and gaseous ligands can be photodissociated by a laser pulse, generating a non-equilibrium population of protein structures that relaxes on a picosecond to millisecond time range. This process is associated with migration of the ligand to internal cavities of the protein, which are known to bind xenon. Some of the results obtained by laser photolysis, molecular dynamics simulations, and X-ray diffraction of intermediate states of wild-type and mutant myoglobins are summarized. The extended relaxation of the globin moiety directly observed by Laue crystallography reflects re-equilibration among conformational substates known to play an essential role in controlling protein function. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  1. Surface structure determines dynamic wetting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiayu; Do-Quang, Minh; Cannon, James J.; Yue, Feng; Suzuki, Yuji; Amberg, Gustav; Shiomi, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    Liquid wetting of a surface is omnipresent in nature and the advance of micro-fabrication and assembly techniques in recent years offers increasing ability to control this phenomenon. Here, we identify how surface roughness influences the initial dynamic spreading of a partially wetting droplet by studying the spreading on a solid substrate patterned with microstructures just a few micrometers in size. We reveal that the roughness influence can be quantified in terms of a line friction coefficient for the energy dissipation rate at the contact line, and that this can be described in a simple formula in terms of the geometrical parameters of the roughness and the line-friction coefficient of the planar surface. We further identify a criterion to predict if the spreading will be controlled by this surface roughness or by liquid inertia. Our results point to the possibility of selectively controlling the wetting behavior by engineering the surface structure. PMID:25683872

  2. Structural Dynamics and Control Interaction of Flexible Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert S. (Editor); Scofield, Harold N. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    A workshop on structural dynamics and control interaction of flexible structures was held to promote technical exchange between the structural dynamics and control disciplines, foster joint technology, and provide a forum for discussing and focusing critical issues in the separate and combined areas. Issues and areas of emphasis were identified in structure-control interaction for the next generation of flexible systems.

  3. Resolution of structural heterogeneity in dynamic crystallography.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhong; Chan, Peter W Y; Moffat, Keith; Pai, Emil F; Royer, William E; Šrajer, Vukica; Yang, Xiaojing

    2013-06-01

    Dynamic behavior of proteins is critical to their function. X-ray crystallography, a powerful yet mostly static technique, faces inherent challenges in acquiring dynamic information despite decades of effort. Dynamic `structural changes' are often indirectly inferred from `structural differences' by comparing related static structures. In contrast, the direct observation of dynamic structural changes requires the initiation of a biochemical reaction or process in a crystal. Both the direct and the indirect approaches share a common challenge in analysis: how to interpret the structural heterogeneity intrinsic to all dynamic processes. This paper presents a real-space approach to this challenge, in which a suite of analytical methods and tools to identify and refine the mixed structural species present in multiple crystallographic data sets have been developed. These methods have been applied to representative scenarios in dynamic crystallography, and reveal structural information that is otherwise difficult to interpret or inaccessible using conventional methods.

  4. Resolution of structural heterogeneity in dynamic crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhong; Chan, Peter W. Y.; Moffat, Keith; Pai, Emil F.; Royer, William E.; Šrajer, Vukica; Yang, Xiaojing

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic behavior of proteins is critical to their function. X-­ray crystallography, a powerful yet mostly static technique, faces inherent challenges in acquiring dynamic information despite decades of effort. Dynamicstructural changes’ are often indirectly inferred from ‘structural differences’ by comparing related static structures. In contrast, the direct observation of dynamic structural changes requires the initiation of a biochemical reaction or process in a crystal. Both the direct and the indirect approaches share a common challenge in analysis: how to interpret the structural heterogeneity intrinsic to all dynamic processes. This paper presents a real-space approach to this challenge, in which a suite of analytical methods and tools to identify and refine the mixed structural species present in multiple crystallographic data sets have been developed. These methods have been applied to representative scenarios in dynamic crystallography, and reveal structural information that is otherwise difficult to interpret or inaccessible using conventional methods. PMID:23695239

  5. Structure and Dynamics of Colliding Plasma Jets

    DOE PAGES

    Li, C.; Ryutov, D.; Hu, S.; ...

    2013-12-01

    Monoenergetic-proton radiographs of laser-generated, high-Mach-number plasma jets colliding at various angles shed light on the structures and dynamics of these collisions. The observations compare favorably with results from 2D hydrodynamic simulations of multistream plasma jets, and also with results from an analytic treatment of electron flow and magnetic field advection. In collisions of two noncollinear jets, the observed flow structure is similar to the analytic model’s prediction of a characteristic feature with a narrow structure pointing in one direction and a much thicker one pointing in the opposite direction. Spontaneous magnetic fields, largely azimuthal around the colliding jets and generatedmore » by the well-known ∇Te ×∇ne Biermann battery effect near the periphery of the laser spots, are demonstrated to be “frozen in” the plasma (due to high magnetic Reynolds number RM ~5×10⁴) and advected along the jet streamlines of the electron flow. These studies provide novel insight into the interactions and dynamics of colliding plasma jets.« less

  6. Structure and Dynamics of Colliding Plasma Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.; Ryutov, D.; Hu, S.; Rosenberg, M.; Zylstra, A.; Seguin, F.; Frenje, J.; Casey, D.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Manuel, M.; Rinderknecht, H.; Petrasso, R.; Amendt, P.; Park, H.; Remington, B.; Wilks, S.; Betti, R.; Froula, D.; Knauer, J.; Meyerhofer, D.; Drake, R.; Kuranz, C.; Young, R.; Koenig, M.

    2013-12-01

    Monoenergetic-proton radiographs of laser-generated, high-Mach-number plasma jets colliding at various angles shed light on the structures and dynamics of these collisions. The observations compare favorably with results from 2D hydrodynamic simulations of multistream plasma jets, and also with results from an analytic treatment of electron flow and magnetic field advection. In collisions of two noncollinear jets, the observed flow structure is similar to the analytic model’s prediction of a characteristic feature with a narrow structure pointing in one direction and a much thicker one pointing in the opposite direction. Spontaneous magnetic fields, largely azimuthal around the colliding jets and generated by the well-known ∇Te ×∇ne Biermann battery effect near the periphery of the laser spots, are demonstrated to be “frozen in” the plasma (due to high magnetic Reynolds number RM ~5×10⁴) and advected along the jet streamlines of the electron flow. These studies provide novel insight into the interactions and dynamics of colliding plasma jets.

  7. Effect of drive mechanisms on dynamic characteristics of spacecraft tracking-drive flexible systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shi-yao; Lei, Yong-jun; Wu, Xin-feng; Zhang, Da-peng

    2015-05-01

    Spacecraft tracking-drive flexible systems (STFS) consist of drive mechanisms and flexible structures, including solar array and a variety of large-scale antennas. The electromechanical interaction inside drive mechanisms makes it quite complicated to directly analyze the dynamic characteristics of an STFS. In this paper, an indirect dynamic characteristic analysis method for operating-state STFS is presented. The proposed method utilizes the structure dynamics approximation of drive mechanisms that converts the electromechanical model of an STFS into a structure dynamic model with elastic boundary conditions. The structure dynamics approximation and the dynamic characteristic analysis method are validated by experimental and analytical results, respectively. The analysis results indicate that the gear transmission ratio and viscous friction coefficient are the primary factors in approximating boundary stiffness and damping. Dynamic characteristics of an STFS with a large gear transmission ratio are close to that of a flexible structure with a cantilever boundary. Otherwise, torsion-mode natural frequencies of the STFS become smaller and corresponding modal damping ratios become larger, as a result of the local stiffness and damping features of drive mechanisms.

  8. Langevin dynamics for ramified structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, Vicenç; Iomin, Alexander; Horsthemke, Werner; Campos, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    We propose a generalized Langevin formalism to describe transport in combs and similar ramified structures. Our approach consists of a Langevin equation without drift for the motion along the backbone. The motion along the secondary branches may be described either by a Langevin equation or by other types of random processes. The mean square displacement (MSD) along the backbone characterizes the transport through the ramified structure. We derive a general analytical expression for this observable in terms of the probability distribution function of the motion along the secondary branches. We apply our result to various types of motion along the secondary branches of finite or infinite length, such as subdiffusion, superdiffusion, and Langevin dynamics with colored Gaussian noise and with non-Gaussian white noise. Monte Carlo simulations show excellent agreement with the analytical results. The MSD for the case of Gaussian noise is shown to be independent of the noise color. We conclude by generalizing our analytical expression for the MSD to the case where each secondary branch is n dimensional.

  9. Dynamic characteristics of a simple bursting neuron model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Koji; Sato, Shigeo; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro

    We present a simple neuron model that shows a rich property in spite of the simple structure derived from the simplification of the Hindmarsh-Rose, the Morris-Lecar, and the Hodgkin-Huxley models. The model is a typical example whose characteristics can be discussed through the concept of potential with active areas. A potential function is able to provide a global landscape for dynamics of a model, and the dynamics is explained in connection with the disposition of the active areas on the potential, and hence we are able to discuss the global dynamic behaviors and the common properties among these realistic models. The obtained outputs are broadly classified as simple oscillations, spiking, bursting, and chaotic oscillations. The bursting outputs are classified as with spike undershoot and without spike undershoot, and the bursts without spike undershoot are classified as with tapered and without tapered. We show the parameter dependence of these outputs and discuss the connection between these outputs and the potential with active areas.

  10. Morphological characteristics of motile plants for dynamic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2014-11-01

    Most plants have been considered as non-motile organisms. However, plants move in response to environmental changes for survival. In addition, some species drive dynamic motions in a short period of time. Mimosa pudica is a plant that rapidly shrinks its body in response to external stimuli. It has specialized organs that are omnidirectionally activated due to morphological features. In addition, scales of pinecone open or close up depending on humidity for efficient seed release. A number of previous studies on the dynamic motion of plants have been investigated in a biochemical point of view. In this study, the morphological characteristics of those motile organs were investigated by using X-ray CT and micro-imaging techniques. The results show that the dynamic motions of motile plants are supported by structural features related with water transport. These studies would provide new insight for better understanding the moving mechanism of motile plant in morphological point of view. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Grant Number: 2008-0061991).

  11. Dislocation dynamics and core structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Karin Shu

    2000-10-01

    Understanding the dynamics of dislocations is essential to the accurate prediction of the mechanical properties of materials. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in this area through the development of large computer simulations which seek to model plastic deformation by considering the interactions of many dislocations. However, the many-body nature of the problem, as well as the limitations inherent in the elasticity theory used to describe dislocation interactions, requires that such simulations make certain simplifying assumptions. The work reported here seeks to examine some of the issues relevant to these simulations in two ways. First, the dynamics of a single dislocation are studied through the development and analysis of a mesoscopic, two-dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of dislocation motion. The stress and temperature dependence of the dislocation velocity is studied, and finite-size effects are discussed. Through a simple analogy to models of crystal growth, it is shown that the simulated dislocations exhibit kinetic roughening with scaling exponents predicted by the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation. Second, the structure of dislocation cores is studied at the atomic level in diamond cubic materials. These studies are necessary for understanding dislocation properties at small distances, and can provide accurate parameters for use in larger scale continuum simulations. The first study uses periodic supercells and ab initio techniques to compare two possible reconstructions of the 90° partial dislocation core in diamond. The relative energies are found to depend upon the stress field experienced by a dislocation in the periodic array. By fitting the energies to an isotropic elasticity theory expression for the dislocation core energy, values for the core radius and shear modulus of diamond are extracted and found to agree well with theoretical estimates and experimental observations. A similar analysis using empirical potentials

  12. Numerical investigation of bubble nonlinear dynamics characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Jie Yang, Desen; Shi, Shengguo; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Haoyang; Jiang, Wei

    2015-10-28

    The complicated dynamical behaviors of bubble oscillation driven by acoustic wave can provide favorable conditions for many engineering applications. On the basis of Keller-Miksis model, the influences of control parameters, including acoustic frequency, acoustic pressure and radius of gas bubble, are discussed by utilizing various numerical analysis methods, Furthermore, the law of power spectral variation is studied. It is shown that the complicated dynamic behaviors of bubble oscillation driven by acoustic wave, such as bifurcation and chaos, further the stimulated scattering processes are revealed.

  13. Structural characteristics of hydration sites in lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Soda, Kunitsugu; Shimbo, Yudai; Seki, Yasutaka; Taiji, Makoto

    2011-06-01

    A new method is presented for determining the hydration site of proteins, where the effect of structural fluctuations in both protein and hydration water is explicitly considered by using molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). The whole hydration sites (HS) of lysozyme are composed of 195 single HSs and 38 clustered ones (CHS), and divided into 231 external HSs (EHS) and 2 internal ones (IHS). The largest CHSs, 'Hg' and 'Lβ', are the IHSs having 2.54 and 1.35 mean internal hydration waters respectively. The largest EHS, 'Clft', is located in the cleft region. The real hydration structure of a CHS is an ensemble of multiple structures. The transition between two structures occurs through recombinations of some H-bonds. The number of the experimental X-ray crystal waters is nearly the same as that of the estimated MDS hydration waters for 70% of the HSs, but significantly different for the rest of HSs.

  14. Characteristics of SBS dynamics in single-mode optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Gordeev, A A; Efimkov, V F; Zubarev, I G; Mikhailov, S I; Sobolev, V B

    2016-03-31

    The characteristics of the gain of Stokes pulses in single-mode optical fibres by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) of monochromatic and nonmonochromatic pump signals have been investigated by numerical simulation using a spectral approach. Conditions under which 'slow light' (caused by a group delay) can be implemented are found (it is reasonable to apply this term to a process in which a pulse is delayed with conservation of its shape). The plane-wave interaction model is shown to describe adequately the dynamics of this process in single-mode fibres. A number of gain modes are investigated for Stokes pulses with different time structures upon monochromatic and nonmonochromatic excitation. A new data transfer technique is proposed, which is based on the conversion of stepwise phase modulation of the input Stokes signal into amplitude modulation of the output signal. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  15. Design of helicopter rotor blades for optimum dynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, D. A.; Ko, T.; Korn, A. E.; Rossow, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    The possibilities and the limitations of tailoring blade mass and stiffness distributions to give an optimum blade design in terms of weight, inertia, and dynamic characteristics are investigated. Changes in mass or stiffness distribution used to place rotor frequencies at desired locations are determined. Theoretical limits to the amount of frequency shift are established. Realistic constraints on blade properties based on weight, mass moment of inertia size, strength, and stability are formulated. The extent hub loads can be minimized by proper choice of EL distribution is determined. Configurations that are simple enough to yield clear, fundamental insights into the structural mechanisms but which are sufficiently complex to result in a realistic result for an optimum rotor blade are emphasized.

  16. The dynamic characteristics of a valve-less micropump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dan; Li, Song-Jing

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the dynamic characteristics of a valve-less micropump. A dynamic mathematical model of the micropump based on a hydraulic analogue system and a simulation method using AMESim software are developed. By using the finite-element analysis method, the static analysis of the diaphragm is carried out to obtain the maximum deflection and volumetric displacement. Dynamic characteristics of the valve-less micropump under different excitation voltages and frequencies are simulated and tested. Because of the discrepancy between simulation results and experimental data at frequencies other than the natural frequency, the revised model for the diaphragm maximum volumetric displacement is presented. Comparison between the simulation results based on the revised model and experimental data shows that the dynamic mathematical model based on the hydraulic analogue system is capable of predicting dynamic characteristics of the valve-less micropump at any excitation voltage and frequency.

  17. Predicting Dynamic Separation Characteristics of General Configurations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    Cebeci et al. (15) and Le Balleur (16), among others. In addition, the method provides a foundation for ap- plying improved modeling techniques ...AD-A196 669 PREDICTING DYNAMIC SEPRATION CHRACTERISTICS OF / GENERAL CONFIGURRTIONS(U) ANALYTICAL METHODS INC REDMOND MA B "ASKEW ET AL. JUL 87 AMI...a NAME Of MONI1TORING ORGANIZATION Analytical Methods , Inc. ItgpabIAir Force Office of Scientific Research 6c. A DD0R ESS (City. S tote and ZIP Code

  18. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Summaries are presented of fiscal year 1989 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. Highlights from the branch's major work areas include aeroelasticity, vibration control, dynamic systems, and computation structural methods. A listing of the fiscal year 1989 branch publications is given.

  19. CHARACTERISTIC STRUCTURE OF STAR-FORMING CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Philip C.

    2015-06-20

    This paper presents a new method to diagnose the star-forming potential of a molecular cloud region from the probability density function of its column density (N-pdf). This method provides expressions for the column density and mass profiles of a symmetric filament having the same N-pdf as a filamentary region. The central concentration of this characteristic filament can distinguish regions and can quantify their fertility for star formation. Profiles are calculated for N-pdfs which are pure lognormal, pure power law, or a combination. In relation to models of singular polytropic cylinders, characteristic filaments can be unbound, bound, or collapsing depending on their central concentration. Such filamentary models of the dynamical state of N-pdf gas are more relevant to star-forming regions than are spherical collapse models. The star formation fertility of a bound or collapsing filament is quantified by its mean mass accretion rate when in radial free fall. For a given mass per length, the fertility increases with the filament mean column density and with its initial concentration. In selected regions the fertility of their characteristic filaments increases with the level of star formation.

  20. GPS in pioneering dynamic monitoring of long-period structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.; Sanli, A.

    2002-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology with 10-20-Hz sampling rates allows scientifically justified dynamic measurements of relative displacements of long-period structures. The displacement response of a simulated tall building in real time and permanent deployment of GPS units at the roof of a building are described. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first permanent deployment of GPS units (in the world) for continuous dynamic monitoring of a tall building. Data recorded from the building during a windy day is analyzed to determine the structural characteristics. When recorded during extreme motions caused by earthquakes and strong winds, such measurements can be used to compute average drift ratios and changes in dynamic characteristics, and therefore can be used by engineers and building owners or managers to assess the structural integrity and performance by establishing pre-established thresholds. Such information can be used to secure public safety and/or take steps to improve the performance of the building.

  1. Dynamic characteristics of observed sudden warmings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dartt, D. G.; Venne, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    The planetary wave dynamics of stratospheric sudden warmings in the Northern Hemisphere for a large number of observed events that occurred during winters from 1970 to 1975 and 1978 to 1981 are investigated. The analysis describes wave propagation and zonal flow interaction from the troposphere upwards to near 50 km, and in some years to near 80 km. Three primary topics are covered here: (1) the interaction of zonally propagating and quasi-stationary planetary waves during warming events; (2) planetary wave influence on zonal flow near the stratopause; and (3) planetary wave propagation to near 80 km as seen from Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (SAMS) data.

  2. Research in structures, structural dynamics and materials, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, William F. (Compiler); Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    Topics addressed include: composite plates; buckling predictions; missile launch tube modeling; structural/control systems design; optimization of nonlinear R/C frames; error analysis for semi-analytic displacement; crack acoustic emission; and structural dynamics.

  3. Research in structures, structural dynamics and materials, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, W.F.; Noor, A.K.

    1989-04-01

    Topics addressed include: composite plates; buckling predictions; missile launch tube modeling; structural/control systems design; optimization of nonlinear R/C frames; error analysis for semi-analytic displacement; crack acoustic emission; and structural dynamics.

  4. Simultaneous dynamic electrical and structural measurements of functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchini, C.; Thompson, P.; Stewart, M.; Muñiz-Piniella, A.; McMitchell, S. R. C.; Wooldridge, J.; Lepadatu, S.; Bouchenoire, L.; Brown, S.; Wermeille, D.; Bikondoa, O.; Lucas, C. A.; Hase, T. P. A.; Lesourd, M.; Dontsov, D.; Cain, M. G.

    2015-10-01

    A new materials characterization system developed at the XMaS beamline, located at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in France, is presented. We show that this new capability allows to measure the atomic structural evolution (crystallography) of piezoelectric materials whilst simultaneously measuring the overall strain characteristics and electrical response to dynamically (ac) applied external stimuli.

  5. Simultaneous dynamic electrical and structural measurements of functional materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vecchini, C.; Stewart, M.; Muñiz-Piniella, A.; Wooldridge, J.; Thompson, P.; McMitchell, S. R. C.; Bouchenoire, L.; Brown, S.; Wermeille, D.; Lucas, C. A.; Lepadatu, S.; Bikondoa, O.; Hase, T. P. A.; Lesourd, M.; Dontsov, D.; Cain, M. G.

    2015-10-15

    A new materials characterization system developed at the XMaS beamline, located at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in France, is presented. We show that this new capability allows to measure the atomic structural evolution (crystallography) of piezoelectric materials whilst simultaneously measuring the overall strain characteristics and electrical response to dynamically (ac) applied external stimuli.

  6. Dynamic characteristics and seismic stability of expanded polystyrene geofoam embankments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Zahra A.

    Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) geofoam has become a preferred material in various construction applications due to its light weight. Application of EPS accelerates the projects particularly on soft soils. The focus of this research is on the application of the EPS in embankments and its behavior mainly under harmonic vibration. The goal of this study was to investigate dynamic characteristics of freestanding vertical EPS geofoam embankment and address potential seismic issues that result from the distinguished dynamic behavior of such systems due to the layered and discrete block structure. A series of experimental studies on EPS 19 and a commercially available adhesive was conducted. Two-dimensional numerical analyses were performed to replicate the response of EPS geofoam embankment to horizontal and vertical harmonic motions. The results of the analyses have shown that for some acceleration amplitude levels interlayer sliding is expected to occur in EPS geofoam embankments almost immediately after the start of the base excitation; however, as a highly efficient energy dissipation mechanism sliding ceases rapidly. Shear keys and adhesive may be used to prevent interlayer sliding if they cover the proper extent of area of the embankment. EPS blocks placed in the corners of the embankment and at the edges of the segment prohibited from sliding may experience high stress concentrations. The embankment may show horizontal sway and rocking once sliding is prevented.

  7. Criticality Characteristics of Current Oil Price Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drożdż, S.; Kwapień, J.; Oświęcimka, P.

    2008-10-01

    Methodology that recently leads us to predict to an amazing accuracy the date (July 11, 2008) of reverse of the oil price up trend is briefly summarized and some further aspects of the related oil price dynamics elaborated. This methodology is based on the concept of discrete scale invariance whose finance-prediction-oriented variant involves such elements as log-periodic self-similarity, the universal preferred scaling factor λ≈2, and allows a phenomenon of the "super-bubble". From this perspective the present (as of August 22, 2008) violent - but still log-periodically decelerating - decrease of the oil prices is associated with the decay of such a "super-bubble" that has started developing about one year ago on top of the longer-term oil price increasing phase (normal bubble) whose ultimate termination is evaluated to occur in around mid 2010.

  8. Dynamic characteristics of tweeting and tweet topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyun Woong; Choi, M. Y.; Kim, Ho Sung; Lee, Keumsook

    2012-02-01

    Twitter, having more than 200 million world users and more than 4 million Korean users, is still growing fast. Because Twitter users can `tweet' about any topic within the 140-character limit, and other users who follow the users and see the tweets can `retweet' them, Twitter is regarded as a new medium of transferring and sharing information. Nevertheless, the propensities of Twitter users to tweet or to retweet still remain unclear. In order to investigate these propensities, we propose a simple model for the dynamics of the total number of tweets about specific topics. We then observe that the topics can be categorized into three kinds according to predictability and sustainability: predictable events, unpredictable events, and sustainable events. Comparing model results with real data, we infer the tweet propensities motivated by external causes as well as retweet propensities.

  9. Structure and Dynamics of Cellulose Molecular Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Howard; Zhang, Xin; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Mao, Yimin; Briber, Robert

    Molecular dissolution of microcrystalline cellulose has been achieved through mixing with ionic liquid 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc), and organic solvent dimethylformamide (DMF). The mechanism of cellulose dissolution in tertiary mixtures has been investigated by combining quasielastic and small angle neutron scattering (QENS and SANS). As SANS data show that cellulose chains take Gaussian-like conformations in homogenous solutions, which exhibit characteristics of having an upper critical solution temperature, the dynamic signals predominantly from EMIMAc molecules indicate strong association with cellulose in the dissolution state. The mean square displacement quantities support the observation of the stoichiometric 3:1 EMIMAc to cellulose unit molar ratio, which is a necessary criterion for the molecular dissolution of cellulose. Analyses of dynamics structure factors reveal the temperature dependence of a slow and a fast process for EMIMAc's bound to cellulose and in DMF, respectively, as well as a very fast process due possibly to the rotational motion of methyl groups, which persisted to near the absolute zero.

  10. Dynamic characteristics of laser-Doppler flux data.

    PubMed

    Popivanov, D; Mineva, A; Dushanova, J

    1999-01-01

    Methods for tracking the dynamics of the blood flow microcirculation obtained by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) technique are described. It was shown that LDF signals have complex dynamics. It was mainly characterized by fractal structures and chaos, though multiperiodic, trend-like and stochastic components were also established. Procedures for (i) describing the dynamic structure and (ii) tracking the dynamic changes in time of LDF data are proposed. Examples illustrating the efficiency of these procedures are given using both simulated and LDF data collected in experiments with reactive hyperemia. Irrespective of the universality of the methods, the procedures should be specified according to the problem-oriented clinical and experimental studies.

  11. Lumped mass modelling for the dynamic analysis of aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abu-Saba, Elias G.; Shen, Ji Yao; Mcginley, William M.; Montgomery, Raymond C.

    1992-01-01

    Aircraft structures may be modelled by lumping the masses at particular strategic points and the flexibility or stiffness of the structure is obtained with reference to these points. Equivalent moments of inertia for the section at these positions are determined. The lumped masses are calculated based on the assumption that each point will represent the mass spread on one half of the space on each side. Then these parameters are used in the differential equation of motion and the eigen characteristics are determined. A comparison is made with results obtained by other established methods. The lumped mass approach in the dynamic analysis of complicated structures provides an easier means of predicting the dynamic characteristics of these structures. It involves less computer time and avoids computational errors that are inherent in the numerical solution of complicated systems.

  12. Dynamic testing of complex structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birs, C.; Anderson, P.

    1973-01-01

    Response of structure is determined under impulses large enough to create severe strains. Electrodynamic shaker can provide impulses to nearly any point on structure and can deliver repeated pulses of varying force and duration.

  13. Dynamics and control of large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurre, G. S.; Ryan, R. S.; Scofield, H. N.; Sims, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt is made to gather data useful to investigators in the fields of large space structure dynamics and control modeling, design and testing. Attention is given to structural dynamics and its relationship to such allied engineering fields as flutter analysis, as well as to problems in the prediction of atmospheric density at orbital altitude. The first challenge posed by large space structure control is the design of control systems with natural frequencies above several major structural frequencies. The establishment of a sufficiently accurate structural model, plant excitation, and shape maintenance, are noted to be additional problems.

  14. Dynamics and control characteristics of a reference Space Station configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, Thomas R.; Cooper, Paul A.; Young, John W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the structural dynamic characteristics of a NASA reference space station configuration as defined in the November 1987 Space Station Program - Systems Engineering and Integration Engineering Data Book. The modes and frequencies of the station below 2.0 Hz were obtained and selected results along with rigid body properties are presented. A three-axis attitude control system using control moment gyros responding to attitude and attitude rate signals is used to regulate the orientation of the station. The stability of the control system with non-collocated sensors is investigated for both compensated and uncompensated control signals. Results from a closed-loop simulation of a commanded attitude change about three axes, and from a closed-loop simulation of the response of the station to an externally applied unit force impulse at the docking port are presented. These simulation results are used to evaluate the possible degree of control/structures interaction which could occur during normal operation of the station.

  15. Structural dynamic and aeroelastic considerations for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cazier, F. W., Jr.; Doggett, Robert V., Jr.; Ricketts, Rodney H.

    1991-01-01

    The specific geometrical, structural, and operational environment characteristics of hypersonic vehicles are discussed with particular reference to aerospace plane type configurations. A discussion of the structural dynamic and aeroelastic phenomena that must be addressed for this class of vehicles is presented. These phenomena are in the aeroservothermoelasticity technical area. Some illustrative examples of recent experimental and analytical work are given. Some examples of current research are pointed out.

  16. Brain structure characteristics in intellectually superior schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vaskinn, Anja; Hartberg, Cecilie B; Sundet, Kjetil; Westlye, Lars T; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid; Agartz, Ingrid

    2015-04-30

    The current study aims to fill a gap in the knowledge base by investigating the structural brain characteristics of individuals with schizophrenia and superior intellectual abilities. Subcortical volumes, cortical thickness and cortical surface area were examined in intellectually normal and intellectually superior participants with schizophrenia and their IQ-matched healthy controls, as well as in intellectually low schizophrenia participants. We replicated significant diagnostic group effects on hippocampal and ventricular size after correction for multiple comparisons. There were no statistically significant effects of intellectual level or of the interaction between diagnostic group and intellectual level. Effect sizes indicated that differences between schizophrenia and healthy control participants were of similar magnitude at both intellectual levels for all three types of morphological data. A secondary analysis within the schizophrenia group, including participants with low intellectual abilities, yielded numerical, but no statistically significant differences on any structural brain measure. The present findings indicate that the brain structure abnormalities in schizophrenia are present at all intellectual levels, and individuals with schizophrenia and superior intellectual abilities have brain structure abnormalities of the same magnitude as individuals with schizophrenia and normal intellectual abilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Global asymptotic stability of dynamic dissipative compensators for multibody flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelkar, Atul G.; Joshi, Suresh M.; Alberts, Thomas E.

    1993-01-01

    The stability characteristics of dynamic dissipative compensators are investigated for multibody flexible space structures having nonlinear dynamics. The problem addressed is that of proving asymptotic stability of dynamic dissipative compensators. The stability proof uses the Liapunov approach and exploits the inherent passivity of such systems. For such systems these compensators are shown to be robust to parametric uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics. The results are applicable to a large class of structures such as flexible space structures with articulated flexible appendages.

  18. Evolutionary link community structure discovery in dynamic weighted networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiang; Liu, Caihong; Wang, Jiajia; Wang, Xiang; Zhou, Bin; Zou, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Traditional community detection methods are often restricted in static network analysis. In fact, most of networks in real world obviously show dynamic characteristics with time passing. In this paper, we design a link community structure discovery algorithm in dynamic weighted networks, which can not only reveal the evolutionary link community structure, but also detect overlapping communities by mapping link communities to node communities. Meanwhile, our algorithm can also get the hierarchical structure of link communities by tuning a parameter. The proposed algorithm is based on weighted edge fitness and weighted partition density so as to determine whether to add a link to a community and whether to merge two communities to form a new link community. Experiments on both synthetic and real world networks demonstrate the proposed algorithm can detect evolutionary link community structure in dynamic weighted networks effectively.

  19. Symbiotic relationship between brain structure and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rubinov, Mikail; Sporns, Olaf; van Leeuwen, Cees; Breakspear, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background Brain structure and dynamics are interdependent through processes such as activity-dependent neuroplasticity. In this study, we aim to theoretically examine this interdependence in a model of spontaneous cortical activity. To this end, we simulate spontaneous brain dynamics on structural connectivity networks, using coupled nonlinear maps. On slow time scales structural connectivity is gradually adjusted towards the resulting functional patterns via an unsupervised, activity-dependent rewiring rule. The present model has been previously shown to generate cortical-like, modular small-world structural topology from initially random connectivity. We provide further biophysical justification for this model and quantitatively characterize the relationship between structure, function and dynamics that accompanies the ensuing self-organization. Results We show that coupled chaotic dynamics generate ordered and modular functional patterns, even on a random underlying structural connectivity. Consequently, structural connectivity becomes more modular as it rewires towards these functional patterns. Functional networks reflect the underlying structural networks on slow time scales, but significantly less so on faster time scales. In spite of ordered functional topology, structural networks remain robustly interconnected – and therefore small-world – due to the presence of central, inter-modular hub nodes. The noisy dynamics of these hubs enable them to persist despite ongoing rewiring and despite their comparative absence in functional networks. Conclusion Our results outline a theoretical mechanism by which brain dynamics may facilitate neuroanatomical self-organization. We find time scale dependent differences between structural and functional networks. These differences are likely to arise from the distinct dynamics of central structural nodes. PMID:19486538

  20. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhaoqi; Han, Yunfeng; Ren, Yingyu; Yang, Qiuyi; Jin, Ningde

    2016-08-01

    In this article, the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of oil-in-water emulsions under the addition of surfactant were experimentally investigated. Firstly, based on the vertical upward oil-water two-phase flow experiment in 20 mm inner diameter (ID) testing pipe, dynamic response signals of oil-in-water emulsions were recorded using vertical multiple electrode array (VMEA) sensor. Afterwards, the recurrence plot (RP) algorithm and multi-scale weighted complexity entropy causality plane (MS-WCECP) were employed to analyse the nonlinear characteristics of the signals. The results show that the certainty is decreasing and the randomness is increasing with the increment of surfactant concentration. This article provides a novel method for revealing the nonlinear dynamic characteristics, complexity, and randomness of oil-in-water emulsions with experimental measurement signals.

  1. Algebraic Structure of Dynamical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-22

    cryptography , computer science, and even biology. Viewed as a purely mathematical object, one can ask questions about the behavior of the dynamical system...6 Cryptography and Substitution Ciphers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3...associated with them. However, we will discuss how one of our main results can be applied to cryptography . In Section 3, we formulate three of our main

  2. SSME structural dynamic model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, M. J.; Tilley, D. M.; Welch, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) as a complete assembly, with detailed emphasis on LOX and High Fuel Turbopumps is developed. The advantages of both complete engine dynamics, and high fidelity modeling are incorporated. Development of this model, some results, and projected applications are discussed.

  3. The analysis on characteristic of pre-stressed reticulated mega-structure with grid sub-structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chunye; Yin, Zhixiang

    2017-04-01

    The author brings a new structure named pre-stressed mega grid structure which can be applied to super large span architectural structure through combining the advantages of mega grid structure and beam string structure. This new structure has many advantages, such as, light weight, strong rigidity and large span. This article has secondly developed ANSYS software with APDL language for modeling establishment and solving integration, and also edited related programs. Referring to the contractive analysis of dynamic characteristics, static characteristics of pre-stressed mega grid structure and mega grid structure; and by adopting time history method to analyze the seismic response of pre-stressed mega grid structure. One may get the conclusions of strengths in deflection characteristics and mechanical characteristics of pre-stressed mega grid structure. Through analyzing the dynamic characteristics, static characteristics and seismic response of pre-stressed mega grid structure which is across 280m by the method of changing original pre-stress, loss ratio of main structure and the number of grids. It may get conclusions of range of evaluation of all above parameters.

  4. Dynamics of a bistable Miura-origami structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hongbin; Li, Suyi; Ji, Huimin; Wang, K. W.

    2017-05-01

    Origami-inspired structures and materials have shown extraordinary properties and performances originating from the intricate geometries of folding. However, current state of the art studies have mostly focused on static and quasistatic characteristics. This research performs a comprehensive experimental and analytical study on the dynamics of origami folding through investigating a stacked Miura-Ori (SMO) structure with intrinsic bistability. We fabricate and experimentally investigated a bistable SMO prototype with rigid facets and flexible crease lines. Under harmonic base excitation, the SMO exhibits both intrawell and interwell oscillations. Spectrum analyses reveal that the dominant nonlinearities of SMO are quadratic and cubic, which generate rich dynamics including subharmonic and chaotic oscillations. The identified nonlinearities indicate that a third-order polynomial can be employed to approximate the measured force-displacement relationship. Such an approximation is validated via numerical study by qualitatively reproducing the phenomena observed in the experiments. The dynamic characteristics of the bistable SMO resemble those of a Helmholtz-Duffing oscillator (HDO); this suggests the possibility of applying the established tools and insights of HDO to predict origami dynamics. We also show that the bistability of SMO can be programmed within a large design space via tailoring the crease stiffness and initial stress-free configurations. The results of this research offer a wealth of fundamental insights into the dynamics of origami folding, and provide a solid foundation for developing foldable and deployable structures and materials with embedded dynamic functionalities.

  5. Dynamics of a bistable Miura-origami structure.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hongbin; Li, Suyi; Ji, Huimin; Wang, K W

    2017-05-01

    Origami-inspired structures and materials have shown extraordinary properties and performances originating from the intricate geometries of folding. However, current state of the art studies have mostly focused on static and quasistatic characteristics. This research performs a comprehensive experimental and analytical study on the dynamics of origami folding through investigating a stacked Miura-Ori (SMO) structure with intrinsic bistability. We fabricate and experimentally investigated a bistable SMO prototype with rigid facets and flexible crease lines. Under harmonic base excitation, the SMO exhibits both intrawell and interwell oscillations. Spectrum analyses reveal that the dominant nonlinearities of SMO are quadratic and cubic, which generate rich dynamics including subharmonic and chaotic oscillations. The identified nonlinearities indicate that a third-order polynomial can be employed to approximate the measured force-displacement relationship. Such an approximation is validated via numerical study by qualitatively reproducing the phenomena observed in the experiments. The dynamic characteristics of the bistable SMO resemble those of a Helmholtz-Duffing oscillator (HDO); this suggests the possibility of applying the established tools and insights of HDO to predict origami dynamics. We also show that the bistability of SMO can be programmed within a large design space via tailoring the crease stiffness and initial stress-free configurations. The results of this research offer a wealth of fundamental insights into the dynamics of origami folding, and provide a solid foundation for developing foldable and deployable structures and materials with embedded dynamic functionalities.

  6. Structure, Dynamics and Environment of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, Francoise; Terlevich, Roberto

    This contribution presents a summary of the discussion on structure, dynamics and environment of Galaxies, held on Friday May 26 evening, after the Sherry/Coffee interval and the oral presentation of two dozen posters papers.

  7. Analyzing dynamic characteristics of NC table with SVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linhong; Wu, Bo

    2008-12-01

    This article employs SVD (singular value decomposition) method to study dynamic characteristics of NC (numerical control) table. Acceleration signals of the NC table at three directions were tested; the singular spectrum of the signals was acquired with SVD; principal components of the signals were found out; the dynamic characteristics of the signals and its contributing factors were studied through extracting dynamic characteristics of principal components; and quantitative analysis was made on signals and principal components through calculating signal energy. The results indicated that signal characteristics of the previous two principal components are apparent, based on which dynamic characteristics of chaotic signal can be extracted; signal at perpendicular direction of table is greatly correlated with that at the horizontal moving direction, indicating that they are excited from the same vibration source. But signals perpendicular to each other in terms of moving direction at the horizontal level is rarely correlated; total signal energy is maximum at moving direction, minimum at horizontal non-moving direction and in the middle at perpendicular non-moving direction; bending vibration of lead screw at perpendicular direction is far more violent than that at horizontal direction.

  8. Understanding Microbial Communities: Function, Structure and Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-11

    microbial communities: Function, structure and dynamics’, at the Isaac Newton Institute, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, from August to...dynamics’, at the Isaac Newton Institute, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, from August to December 2014. The programme involved over 150...Communities: Function, Structure and Dynamics’, at the Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge University, UK, from 19th August 2014 – 19th December 2014

  9. Structural Dynamic Behavior of Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thresher, Robert W.; Mirandy, Louis P.; Carne, Thomas G.; Lobitz, Donald W.; James, George H. III

    2009-01-01

    The structural dynamicist s areas of responsibility require interaction with most other members of the wind turbine project team. These responsibilities are to predict structural loads and deflections that will occur over the lifetime of the machine, ensure favorable dynamic responses through appropriate design and operational procedures, evaluate potential design improvements for their impact on dynamic loads and stability, and correlate load and control test data with design predictions. Load prediction has been a major concern in wind turbine designs to date, and it is perhaps the single most important task faced by the structural dynamics engineer. However, even if we were able to predict all loads perfectly, this in itself would not lead to an economic system. Reduction of dynamic loads, not merely a "design to loads" policy, is required to achieve a cost-effective design. The two processes of load prediction and structural design are highly interactive: loads and deflections must be known before designers and stress analysts can perform structural sizing, which in turn influences the loads through changes in stiffness and mass. Structural design identifies "hot spots" (local areas of high stress) that would benefit most from dynamic load alleviation. Convergence of this cycle leads to a turbine structure that is neither under-designed (which may result in structural failure), nor over-designed (which will lead to excessive weight and cost).

  10. Structure and dynamics of self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lengerich, Henrik; James, Richard

    2013-03-01

    We investigate structures that are composed of many identical building blocks. Of particular interest are equilibrium structures where every building block sees the same environment - we call these ``objective structures''. For example, carbon nanotubes and virus capsids are both objective structures. The dynamics of assembly is investigated through experiments and simulations. The experiment consist of a macro-scale shaker containing identical neutrally buoyant magnetic particles. Simulations model the translation and rotation of particles using Langevin dynamics. This kind of modelling is applicable to both our experiment and to molecular assembly.

  11. Structure and dynamics of Saturn's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, A. P.; Beebe, R. F.; Conrath, B. J.; Hunt, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    The large-scale structure and dynamics of Saturn's atmosphere, as revealed in the visible markings, wind patterns, and horizontal variation of temperature, are discussed. The large-scale thermal structure is addressed, including the mean vertical structure and the seasons and jets of the horizontal temperature structure. Earth-based and Voyager wind observations are used to discuss the internal rate of rotation, the zonal wind profile, the eddies, and the eddy transport. Dynamic models of the atmospheric circulation are reviewed, discussing the depth of the zonal flow, upwelling and downwelling, deep convection, eddy-mean flow interactions, long-lived ovals, and the zonal velocity profile.

  12. Dynamic Response of Embedded Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-15

    1 (202) 767-6963 AFOSR/Nh 00 FORM 1473, 83 APR EDITION OF I JAN 73 IS OBSOLETE. Uwc A ____________ SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE...4. Baker W. E., Westine P. S., Dodge F. T., "Similarity Methods in Engineering Dynamics", Hayden Book Company, Inc., New Jerset, 1978. 5. Bazant , Z...P., "Size Effect in Blunt Fracture: Concrete, Rock, Metal", ASCE, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 110, No. 4, April 1984. 6. Bazant , Z. P

  13. Safe on-orbit experiment for measurement of large structures dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) on-orbit experiment for measurement of large structures dynamics consists of a dynamic sensing system designed to record and analyze the dynamic characteristics of the SAFE. The early availability of the SAFE and its basic large space structure characteristics make it a logical candidate for verification of the sensing system and the evaluation technique. The characteristics of the solar array which place it well within the generic class of large space structures are: (1) large size, (2) low natural frequencies, (3) mechanical complexity of its extendable/retractable mast, and (4) the inability to dynamically test in the Earth's atmosphere and in one g. The fourth characteristic is due to its size, air damping dominance of the blanket, and structural instability in one g. The specific characteristics of the solar array are shown and the applicability to large space structures is illustrated.

  14. From structure to function, via dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetter, O.; Soriano, J.; Geisel, T.; Battaglia, D.

    2013-01-01

    Neurons in the brain are wired into a synaptic network that spans multiple scales, from local circuits within cortical columns to fiber tracts interconnecting distant areas. However, brain function require the dynamic control of inter-circuit interactions on time-scales faster than synaptic changes. In particular, strength and direction of causal influences between neural populations (described by the so-called directed functional connectivity) must be reconfigurable even when the underlying structural connectivity is fixed. Such directed functional influences can be quantified resorting to causal analysis of time-series based on tools like Granger Causality or Transfer Entropy. The ability to quickly reorganize inter-areal interactions is a chief requirement for performance in a changing natural environment. But how can manifold functional networks stem "on demand" from an essentially fixed structure? We explore the hypothesis that the self-organization of neuronal synchronous activity underlies the control of brain functional connectivity. Based on simulated and real recordings of critical neuronal cultures in vitro, as well as on mean-field and spiking network models of interacting brain areas, we have found that "function follows dynamics", rather than structure. Different dynamic states of a same structural network, characterized by different synchronization properties, are indeed associated to different functional digraphs (functional multiplicity). We also highlight the crucial role of dynamics in establishing a structure-to-function link, by showing that whenever different structural topologies lead to similar dynamical states, than the associated functional connectivities are also very similar (structural degeneracy).

  15. Midfrequency band dynamics of large space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppolino, Robert N.; Adams, Douglas S.; Levine, Marie B.

    2004-09-01

    High and low intensity dynamic environments experienced by a spacecraft during launch and on-orbit operations, respectively, induce structural loads and motions, which are difficult to reliably predict. Structural dynamics in low- and mid-frequency bands are sensitive to component interface uncertainty and non-linearity as evidenced in laboratory testing and flight operations. Analytical tools for prediction of linear system response are not necessarily adequate for reliable prediction of mid-frequency band dynamics and analysis of measured laboratory and flight data. A new MATLAB toolbox, designed to address the key challenges of mid-frequency band dynamics, is introduced in this paper. Finite-element models of major subassemblies are defined following rational frequency-wavelength guidelines. For computational efficiency, these subassemblies are described as linear, component mode models. The complete structural system model is composed of component mode subassemblies and linear or non-linear joint descriptions. Computation and display of structural dynamic responses are accomplished employing well-established, stable numerical methods, modern signal processing procedures and descriptive graphical tools. Parametric sensitivity and Monte-Carlo based system identification tools are used to reconcile models with experimental data and investigate the effects of uncertainties. Models and dynamic responses are exported for employment in applications, such as detailed structural integrity and mechanical-optical-control performance analyses.

  16. Dynamic characteristics of controlled MR-STMDs of Wolgograd Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, F.

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes the dynamic characteristics of an adaptive tuned mass damper concept that is based on a real-time semi-actively controlled MR damper (MR-STMD) and is installed in the Wolgograd Bridge. The measurements and simulations of the prototype MR-STMD on the 15.6 m Empa bridge at different disturbing force levels demonstrate that the MR-STMD can cope with the nonlinear effect by which the resonance frequency and damping ratio of the Empa bridge depend on the amplitude and thereby on the excitation level. Whereas the efficiency of the MR-STMD is hardly affected by the aforementioned nonlinear effects, the passive TMD shows strong de-tuning. The tests for fast changes in frequency and amplitude of the disturbing force show that the response of the Empa bridge with the MR-STMD is smaller both during steady state and transient conditions than with a passive TMD, and the relative motion amplitudes in the MR-STMD are smaller or equal to those in the passive TMD. The force tracking accuracies of the prototype MR-STMD and of the Wolgograd MR-STMD are shown to be accurate, which generates precise frequency tuning of the MR-STMD in real-time and thereby explains the achievements described above. The test results indicate that the real-time controlled MR-STMD is an efficient and robust tool for the mitigation of structural vibrations.

  17. Design of helicopter rotor blades for optimum dynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, D. A.; Ko, T.; Korn, A.; Rossow, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    The mass and stiffness distributions for helicopter rotor blades are tailored in such a way to give a predetermined placement of blade natural frequencies. The optimal design is pursued with respect of minimum weight, sufficient inertia, and reasonable dynamic characteristics. Finite element techniques are used as a tool. Rotor types include hingeless, articulated, and teetering.

  18. Dynamic characteristics of peripheral jet ACV. II - Pitching motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, T.; Maeda, H.

    The dynamic pitching characteristics of peripheral jet ACV (Air Cushion Vehicle) which have a stability curtain are investigated analytically and experimentally. The measured values of moment, lift and cushion pressure are compared with numerical results noting applicability to the pitching motion. The response of ACV to the sinusoidal pitching oscillation of the ground is also studied.

  19. Nonlinear Dynamics and Control of Flexible Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    of which might be used for space applications. This project was a collaborative one involving structural, electrical and mechanical engineers and...methods for vibration analysis and new models to analyze chaotic dynamics in nonlinear structures with large deformations and friction forces. Finally... electrical and mechanical engineers and resulted in nine doctoral dissertations and two masters theses wholly or partially supported by this grant

  20. Dynamic Structure of Plasma Fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Lisa M.; Ma, Wenjiang; Mosher, Deane F.

    2016-01-01

    Fibronectin is a large vertebrate glycoprotein that is found in soluble and insoluble forms and involved in diverse processes. Protomeric fibronectin is a dimer of subunits, each of which comprises 29 to 31 modules—12 type I, two type II, and 15-17 type III. Plasma fibronectin is secreted by hepatocytes and circulates in a compact conformation before it binds to cell surfaces, converts to an extended conformation, and is assembled into fibronectin fibrils. Here we review biophysical and structural studies that have shed light on how plasma fibronectin transitions from the compact to the extended conformation. The three types of modules each have a well-organized secondary and tertiary structure as defined by NMR and crystallography and have been likened to “beads on a string”. There are flexible sequences in the N-terminal tail, between the fifth and sixth type I modules, between the first two and last two of the type III modules, and at the C-terminus. Several specific module-module interactions have been identified that likely maintain the compact quaternary structure of circulating fibronectin. The quaternary structure is perturbed in response to binding events, including binding of fibronectin to the surface of vertebrate cells for fibril assembly and to bacterial adhesins. PMID:27185500

  1. SSME structural dynamic model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    The high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) is a major component of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) powerhead. The device is a three stage centrifugal pump that is directly driven by a two stage hot gas turbine. The purpose of the pump is to deliver fuel (liquid hydrogen) from the low pressure fuel turbopump (LPFTP) through the main fuel valve (MFV) to the thrust chamber coolant circuits. In doing so, the pump pressurizes the fuel from an inlet pressure of approximately 178 psi to a discharge pressure of over 6000 psi. At full power level (FPL), the pump rotates at a speed of over 37,000 rpm while generating approximately 77,000 horsepower. Obviously, a pump failure at these speeds and power levels could jeopardize the mission. Results are summarized for work in which the solutions obtained from analytical models of the fuel turbopump impellers are compared with the results obtained from dynamic tests.

  2. The Structure and Dynamics of GRB Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Granot, Jonathan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-10-25

    There are several lines of evidence which suggest that the relativistic outflows in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are collimated into narrow jets. The jet structure has important implications for the true energy release and the event rate of GRBs, and can constrain the mechanism responsible for the acceleration and collimation of the jet. Nevertheless, the jet structure and its dynamics as it sweeps up the external medium and decelerates, are not well understood. In this review I discuss our current understanding of GRB jets, stressing their structure and dynamics.

  3. A review of dynamic characteristics of magnetically levitated vehicle systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.

    1995-11-01

    The dynamic response of magnetically levitated (maglev) ground transportation systems has important consequences for safety and ride quality, guideway design, and system costs. Ride quality is determined by vehicle response and by environmental factors such as humidity and noise. The dynamic response of the vehicles is the key element in determining ride quality, while vehicle stability is an important safety-related element. To design a guideway that provides acceptable ride quality in the stable region, vehicle dynamics must be understood. Furthermore, the trade-off between guideway smoothness and levitation and control systems must be considered if maglev systems are to be economically feasible. The link between the guideway and the other maglev components is vehicle dynamics. For a commercial maglev system, vehicle dynamics must be analyzed and tested in detail. This report, which reviews various aspects of the dynamic characteristics, experiments and analysis, and design guidelines for maglev systems, discusses vehicle stability, motion dependent magnetic force components, guideway characteristics, vehicle/ guideway interaction, ride quality, suspension control laws, aerodynamic loads and other excitations, and research needs.

  4. Structural dynamics payload loads estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engels, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for the prediction of loads on large space structures are discussed. Existing approaches to the problem of loads calculation are surveyed. A full scale version of an alternate numerical integration technique to solve the response part of a load cycle is presented, and a set of short cut versions of the algorithm developed. The implementation of these techniques using the software package developed is discussed.

  5. On Dynamics of Spinning Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, K. K.; Ibrahim, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides details of developments pertaining to vibration analysis of gyroscopic systems, that involves a finite element structural discretization followed by the solution of the resulting matrix eigenvalue problem by a progressive, accelerated simultaneous iteration technique. Thus Coriolis, centrifugal and geometrical stiffness matrices are derived for shell and line elements, followed by the eigensolution details as well as solution of representative problems that demonstrates the efficacy of the currently developed numerical procedures and tools.

  6. GPS in dynamic monitoring of long-period structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2000-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology with high sampling rates (??? 10 samples per second) allows scientifically justified and economically feasible dynamic measurements of relative displacements of long-period structures-otherwise difficult to measure directly by other means, such as the most commonly used accelerometers that require post-processing including double integration. We describe an experiment whereby the displacement responses of a simulated tall building are measured clearly and accurately in real-time. Such measurements can be used to assess average drift ratios and changes in dynamic characteristics, and therefore can be used by engineers and building owners or managers to assess the building performance during extreme motions caused by earthquakes and strong winds. By establishing threshold displacements or drift ratios and identifying changing dynamic characteristics, procedures can be developed to use such information to secure public safety and/or take steps to improve the performance of the building. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. Dynamics of rotationally periodic large space structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdaniel, T. J.; Chang, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of large area rotationally periodic space structures presented in the paper combines the finite element method, transfer matrix procedures, approximation methods, and periodic structure analysis to obtain computational efficiency. The computations used in the analysis indicate that additive damping mechanisms can be evaluated from the frequency response of the structure. The transient response can also be obtained from the frequency response to complete the dynamic analysis.

  8. Dynamic Structural Health Monitoring of slender structures using optical sensors.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Paulo; Travanca, Rui; Rodrigues, Hugo; Melo, José; Jara, José; Varum, Humberto; André, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the research activities at the Instituto de Telecomunicações--Pólo de Aveiro and University of Aveiro, in the field of fiber Bragg grating based sensors and their applications in dynamic measurements for Structural Health Monitoring of slender structures such as towers. In this work we describe the implementation of an optical biaxial accelerometer based on fiber Bragg gratings inscribed on optical fibers. The proof-of-concept was done with the dynamic monitoring of a reinforced concrete structure and a slender metallic telecommunication tower. Those structures were found to be suitable to demonstrate the feasibility of FBG accelerometers to obtain the structures' natural frequencies, which are the key parameters in Structural Health Monitoring and in the calibration of numerical models used to simulate the structure behavior.

  9. Dynamic Structural Health Monitoring of Slender Structures Using Optical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Paulo; Travanca, Rui; Rodrigues, Hugo; Melo, José; Jara, José; Varum, Humberto; André, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the research activities at the Instituto de Telecomunicações—Pólo de Aveiro and University of Aveiro, in the field of fiber Bragg grating based sensors and their applications in dynamic measurements for Structural Health Monitoring of slender structures such as towers. In this work we describe the implementation of an optical biaxial accelerometer based on fiber Bragg gratings inscribed on optical fibers. The proof-of-concept was done with the dynamic monitoring of a reinforced concrete structure and a slender metallic telecommunication tower. Those structures were found to be suitable to demonstrate the feasibility of FBG accelerometers to obtain the structures' natural frequencies, which are the key parameters in Structural Health Monitoring and in the calibration of numerical models used to simulate the structure behavior. PMID:22778661

  10. Flight-vehicle materials, structures, and dynamics - Assessment and future directions. Vol. 5 - Structural dynamics and aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Editor); Venneri, Samuel L. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Various papers on flight vehicle materials, structures, and dynamics are presented. Individual topics addressed include: general modeling methods, component modeling techniques, time-domain computational techniques, dynamics of articulated structures, structural dynamics in rotating systems, structural dynamics in rotorcraft, damping in structures, structural acoustics, structural design for control, structural modeling for control, control strategies for structures, system identification, overall assessment of needs and benefits in structural dynamics and controlled structures. Also discussed are: experimental aeroelasticity in wind tunnels, aeroservoelasticity, nonlinear aeroelasticity, aeroelasticity problems in turbomachines, rotary-wing aeroelasticity with application to VTOL vehicles, computational aeroelasticity, structural dynamic testing and instrumentation.

  11. Flight-vehicle materials, structures, and dynamics - Assessment and future directions. Vol. 5 - Structural dynamics and aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Editor); Venneri, Samuel L. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Various papers on flight vehicle materials, structures, and dynamics are presented. Individual topics addressed include: general modeling methods, component modeling techniques, time-domain computational techniques, dynamics of articulated structures, structural dynamics in rotating systems, structural dynamics in rotorcraft, damping in structures, structural acoustics, structural design for control, structural modeling for control, control strategies for structures, system identification, overall assessment of needs and benefits in structural dynamics and controlled structures. Also discussed are: experimental aeroelasticity in wind tunnels, aeroservoelasticity, nonlinear aeroelasticity, aeroelasticity problems in turbomachines, rotary-wing aeroelasticity with application to VTOL vehicles, computational aeroelasticity, structural dynamic testing and instrumentation.

  12. Program of Research in Structures and Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Structures and Dynamics Program was first initiated in 1972 with the following two major objectives: to provide a basic understanding and working knowledge of some key areas pertinent to structures, solid mechanics, and dynamics technology including computer aided design; and to provide a comprehensive educational and research program at the NASA Langley Research Center leading to advanced degrees in the structures and dynamics areas. During the operation of the program the research work was done in support of the activities of both the Structures and Dynamics Division and the Loads and Aeroelasticity Division. During the period of 1972 to 1986 the Program provided support for two full-time faculty members, one part-time faculty member, three postdoctoral fellows, one research engineer, eight programmers, and 28 graduate research assistants. The faculty and staff of the program have published 144 papers and reports, and made 70 presentations at national and international meetings, describing their research findings. In addition, they organized and helped in the organization of 10 workshops and national symposia in the structures and dynamics areas. The graduate research assistants and the students enrolled in the program have written 20 masters theses and 2 doctoral dissertations. The overall progress is summarized.

  13. Nonlinear dynamic characteristic analysis of jointed beam with clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Guo, Hong-Wei; Liu, Rong-Qiang; Wu, Juan; Kou, Zi-Ming; Deng, Zong-Quan

    2016-12-01

    The impact and elasticity of discontinuous beams with clearance frequently affect the dynamic response of structures used in space missions. This study investigates the dynamic response of jointed beams which are the periodic units of deployable structures. The vibration process of jointed beams includes free-play and impact stages. A method for the dynamic analysis of jointed beams with clearance is proposed based on mode superposition and instantaneous static deformation. Transfer matrix, which expresses the relationship of the responses before and after the impact of jointed beams, is derived to calculate the response of the jointed beams after a critical position. The dynamic responses of jointed beams are then simulated. The effects of various parameters on the displacement and velocity of beams are investigated.

  14. Rocket/launcher structural dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferragut, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The equations of motion describing the interactions between a rocket and a launcher were derived using Lagrange's Equation. A rocket launching was simulated. The motions of both the rocket and the launcher can be considered in detail. The model contains flexible elements and rigid elements. The rigid elements (masses) were judiciously utilized to simplify the derivation of the equations. The advantages of simultaneous shoe release were illustrated. Also, the loading history of the interstage structure of a boosted configuration was determined. The equations shown in this analysis could be used as a design tool during the modification of old launchers and the design of new launchers.

  15. Technical issues in dynamics and control of large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. F.; Anderson, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    Examples of large space systems currently being considered by NASA include a large communications antenna system (the Land Mobile Satellite System), a precision antenna system (the Large Deployable Reflector System), and a preliminary concept for NASA's space station. Each system has low natural vibration frequencies, stringent pointing requirements, and, for the antennas, demanding surface accuracy requirements. A review is provided of the progress being made in structural ground tests with respect to surface accuracy, deployment, and erection of large structures. Attention is given to the dynamic loads on large space structures, on-orbit testing, space vibration control devices, and the characteristics of distributed control.

  16. Dynamics of adaptive structures: Design through simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, S.

    1993-01-01

    The use of a helical bi-morph actuator/sensor concept by mimicking the change of helical waveform in bacterial flagella is perhaps the first application of bacterial motions (living species) to longitudinal deployment of space structures. However, no dynamical considerations were analyzed to explain the waveform change mechanisms. The objective is to review various deployment concepts from the dynamics point of view and introduce the dynamical considerations from the outset as part of design considerations. Specifically, the impact of the incorporation of the combined static mechanisms and dynamic design considerations on the deployment performance during the reconfiguration stage is studied in terms of improved controllability, maneuvering duration, and joint singularity index. It is shown that intermediate configurations during articulations play an important role for improved joint mechanisms design and overall structural deployability.

  17. Structural dynamics of liganded myoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Frauenfelder, H.; Petsko, G.A.

    1980-10-01

    X-ray crystallography can reveal the magnitudes and principal directions of the mean-square displacements of every atom in a protein. This structural information is complementary to the temporal information obtainable by spectroscopic techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance. Determination of the temperature dependence of the mean-square displacements makes it possible to separate large conformational motions from simple thermal vibrations. The contribution of crystal lattice disorder to the overall apparent displacement can be estimated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. This technique has been applied to high resolution x-ray diffraction data from sperm whale myoglobin in its Met iron and oxy cobalt forms. Both crystal structures display regions of large conformational motions, particularly at the chain termini and in the region of the proximal histidine. Overall, the mean-square displacement increases with increasing distance from the center of gravity of the molecule. Some regions of the heme pocket in oxy cobalt myoglobin are more rigid than the corresponding regions in Met myoglobin.

  18. Structural dynamics of liganded myoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Frauenfelder, H; Petsko, G A

    1980-01-01

    X-ray crystallography can reveal the magnitudes and principal directions of the mean-square displacements of every atom in a protein. This structural information is complementary to the temporal information obtainable by spectroscopic techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance. Determination of the temperature dependence of the mean-square displacements makes it possible to separate large conformational motions from simple thermal vibrations. The contribution of crystal lattice disorder to the overall apparent displacement can be estimated by Mössbauer spectroscopy. This technique has been applied to high resolution x-ray diffraction data from sperm whale myoglobin in its Met iron and oxy cobalt forms. Both crystal structures display regions of large conformational motions, particularly at the chain termini and in the region of the proximal histidine. Overall, the mean-square displacement increases with increasing distance from the center of gravity of the molecule. Some regions of the heme pocket in oxy cobalt myoglobin are more rigid than the corresponding regions in Met myoglobin. Images Figure 2 Figure 7 PMID:7248456

  19. Causal Structures of Dynamic Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Beth A.; Lindesay, James

    2010-10-01

    Dynamic space-times, especially those manifesting horizons, provide useful laboratories for examining how macroscopic quantum behaviors consistently co-generate gravitational phenomena. For this reason, the behaviors and large-scale causal structures of spatially coherent dynamic black holes will be explored in this presentation. Geodesic motions on an evaporating black hole will also be presented. Research recently completed with Beth Brown, including her final Penrose diagram for an accreting black hole, will be presented.

  20. Dynamic Calibration and Verification Device of Measurement System for Dynamic Characteristic Coefficients of Sliding Bearing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Runlin; Wei, Yangyang; Shi, Zhaoyang; Yuan, Xiaoyang

    2016-07-30

    The identification accuracy of dynamic characteristics coefficients is difficult to guarantee because of the errors of the measurement system itself. A novel dynamic calibration method of measurement system for dynamic characteristics coefficients is proposed in this paper to eliminate the errors of the measurement system itself. Compared with the calibration method of suspension quality, this novel calibration method is different because the verification device is a spring-mass system, which can simulate the dynamic characteristics of sliding bearing. The verification device is built, and the calibration experiment is implemented in a wide frequency range, in which the bearing stiffness is simulated by the disc springs. The experimental results show that the amplitude errors of this measurement system are small in the frequency range of 10 Hz-100 Hz, and the phase errors increase along with the increasing of frequency. It is preliminarily verified by the simulated experiment of dynamic characteristics coefficients identification in the frequency range of 10 Hz-30 Hz that the calibration data in this frequency range can support the dynamic characteristics test of sliding bearing in this frequency range well. The bearing experiments in greater frequency ranges need higher manufacturing and installation precision of calibration device. Besides, the processes of calibration experiments should be improved.

  1. Dynamic Calibration and Verification Device of Measurement System for Dynamic Characteristic Coefficients of Sliding Bearing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Runlin; Wei, Yangyang; Shi, Zhaoyang; Yuan, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    The identification accuracy of dynamic characteristics coefficients is difficult to guarantee because of the errors of the measurement system itself. A novel dynamic calibration method of measurement system for dynamic characteristics coefficients is proposed in this paper to eliminate the errors of the measurement system itself. Compared with the calibration method of suspension quality, this novel calibration method is different because the verification device is a spring-mass system, which can simulate the dynamic characteristics of sliding bearing. The verification device is built, and the calibration experiment is implemented in a wide frequency range, in which the bearing stiffness is simulated by the disc springs. The experimental results show that the amplitude errors of this measurement system are small in the frequency range of 10 Hz–100 Hz, and the phase errors increase along with the increasing of frequency. It is preliminarily verified by the simulated experiment of dynamic characteristics coefficients identification in the frequency range of 10 Hz–30 Hz that the calibration data in this frequency range can support the dynamic characteristics test of sliding bearing in this frequency range well. The bearing experiments in greater frequency ranges need higher manufacturing and installation precision of calibration device. Besides, the processes of calibration experiments should be improved. PMID:27483283

  2. Origin and Structure of Dynamic Cooperative Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wardil, Lucas; Hauert, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Societies are built on social interactions among individuals. Cooperation represents the simplest form of a social interaction: one individual provides a benefit to another one at a cost to itself. Social networks represent a dynamical abstraction of social interactions in a society. The behaviour of an individual towards others and of others towards the individual shape the individual's neighbourhood and hence the local structure of the social network. Here we propose a simple theoretical framework to model dynamic social networks by focussing on each individual's actions instead of interactions between individuals. This eliminates the traditional dichotomy between the strategy of individuals and the structure of the population and easily complements empirical studies. As a consequence, altruists, egoists and fair types are naturally determined by the local social structures, while globally egalitarian networks or stratified structures arise. Cooperative interactions drive the emergence and shape the structure of social networks. PMID:25030202

  3. Origin and Structure of Dynamic Cooperative Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardil, Lucas; Hauert, Christoph

    2014-07-01

    Societies are built on social interactions among individuals. Cooperation represents the simplest form of a social interaction: one individual provides a benefit to another one at a cost to itself. Social networks represent a dynamical abstraction of social interactions in a society. The behaviour of an individual towards others and of others towards the individual shape the individual's neighbourhood and hence the local structure of the social network. Here we propose a simple theoretical framework to model dynamic social networks by focussing on each individual's actions instead of interactions between individuals. This eliminates the traditional dichotomy between the strategy of individuals and the structure of the population and easily complements empirical studies. As a consequence, altruists, egoists and fair types are naturally determined by the local social structures, while globally egalitarian networks or stratified structures arise. Cooperative interactions drive the emergence and shape the structure of social networks.

  4. Strength of concrete structures under dynamic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Kumpyak, O. G. Galyautdinov, Z. R. Kokorin, D. N.

    2016-01-15

    The use of elastic supports is one the efficient methods of decreasing the dynamic loading. The paper describes the influence of elastic supports on the stress-strain state of steel concrete structures exposed to one-time dynamic loading resulting in failure. Oblique bending beams on elastic supports and their elastic, elastoplastic, and elastoplastic consolidation behavior are considered in this paper. For numerical calculations the developed computer program is used based on the finite element method. Research findings prove high efficiency of elastic supports under dynamic loading conditions. The most effective behavior of elastic supports is demonstrated at the elastoplastic stage. A good agreement is observed between the theoretical and experimental results.

  5. Analysis of the Dynamic Characteristics of Elliptical Gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xing; Nagamura, Kazuteru; Ikejo, Kiyotaka

    To date, elliptical gear has been commonly used in automobile, automatic machinery, pumps, flow meters and printing presses for its particular non-uniform rotation. However, the dynamic characteristics of elliptical gears have not been clarified yet. In this study, The calculation as well as the experiment of two elliptical gears, which are a single elliptical gear and a double elliptical gear, is carried out to analyze the dynamic characteristics of elliptical gears. General factors including the torque, the rotation speed and the tooth root stress of the test gears are investigated. According to the analysis conducted in this study, the dynamic input torque variation of elliptical gear becomes larger along with the increase of operating gear rotation speed and the experimental one increases much faster than the calculated one over the Critical Rotation Speed of Tooth Separation (CRSTS) of elliptical gear. The experimental input rotation speed varies according to the variation of input torque, leading to the difference between the experimental output rotation speed and the desired one. The calculation results of the CRSTS of elliptical gears are almost equal to the experimental ones. The dynamic load variation ratios of elliptical gear at different angular position as well as their changing trends with operating gear rotation speed are quite different from each other. And the experimental dynamic load variation ratios of elliptical gear show difference from the calculated ones because of tooth separation and tooth impact. The agreement of the calculation and experimental results proves the validity of this study.

  6. Nonlinear Dynamics of Structures with Material Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, P.; Wagg, D. J.; Pinna, C.; Whear, R.; Briody, C.

    2016-09-01

    Structures usually experience deterioration during their working life. Oxidation, corrosion, UV exposure, and thermo-mechanical fatigue are some of the most well-known mechanisms that cause degradation. The phenomenon gradually changes structural properties and dynamic behaviour over their lifetime, and can be more problematic and challenging in the presence of nonlinearity. In this paper, we study how the dynamic behaviour of a nonlinear system changes as the thermal environment causes certain parameters to vary. To this end, a nonlinear lumped mass modal model is considered and defined under harmonic external force. Temperature dependent material functions, formulated from empirical test data, are added into the model. Using these functions, bifurcation parameters are defined and the corresponding nonlinear responses are observed by numerical continuation. A comparison between the results gives a preliminary insight into how temperature induced properties affects the dynamic response and highlights changes in stability conditions of the structure.

  7. Flow graphs: interweaving dynamics and structure.

    PubMed

    Lambiotte, R; Sinatra, R; Delvenne, J-C; Evans, T S; Barahona, M; Latora, V

    2011-07-01

    The behavior of complex systems is determined not only by the topological organization of their interconnections but also by the dynamical processes taking place among their constituents. A faithful modeling of the dynamics is essential because different dynamical processes may be affected very differently by network topology. A full characterization of such systems thus requires a formalization that encompasses both aspects simultaneously, rather than relying only on the topological adjacency matrix. To achieve this, we introduce the concept of flow graphs, namely weighted networks where dynamical flows are embedded into the link weights. Flow graphs provide an integrated representation of the structure and dynamics of the system, which can then be analyzed with standard tools from network theory. Conversely, a structural network feature of our choice can also be used as the basis for the construction of a flow graph that will then encompass a dynamics biased by such a feature. We illustrate the ideas by focusing on the mathematical properties of generic linear processes on complex networks that can be represented as biased random walks and their dual consensus dynamics, and show how our framework improves our understanding of these processes.

  8. Unifying dynamical and structural stability of equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoldi, Jean-François; Haegeman, Bart

    2016-09-01

    We exhibit a fundamental relationship between measures of dynamical and structural stability of linear dynamical systems-e.g. linearized models in the vicinity of equilibria. We show that dynamical stability, quantified via the response to external perturbations (i.e. perturbation of dynamical variables), coincides with the minimal internal perturbation (i.e. perturbations of interactions between variables) able to render the system unstable. First, by reformulating a result of control theory, we explain that harmonic external perturbations reflect the spectral sensitivity of the Jacobian matrix at the equilibrium, with respect to constant changes of its coefficients. However, for this equivalence to hold, imaginary changes of the Jacobian's coefficients have to be allowed. The connection with dynamical stability is thus lost for real dynamical systems. We show that this issue can be avoided, thus recovering the fundamental link between dynamical and structural stability, by considering stochastic noise as external and internal perturbations. More precisely, we demonstrate that a linear system's response to white-noise perturbations directly reflects the intensity of internal white-noise disturbance that it can accommodate before becoming stochastically unstable.

  9. Solar chromospheric fine scale structures: dynamics and energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziotziou, K.

    2012-01-01

    The solar chromosphere is a very inhomogeneous and dynamic layer of the solar atmosphere that exhibits several phenomena on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. High-resolution and long-duration observations, employing mostly lines, such as Halpha, the Ca II infrared lines and the Ca II H and K lines, obtained both from ground-based telescope facilities (e.g. DST, VTT, THEMIS, SST, DOT), as well as state-of-the-art satellites (e.g. SOHO, TRACE, HINODE) reveal an incredibly rich, dynamic and highly structured chromospheric environment. What is known in literature as the chromospheric fine-scale structure mainly consists of small fibrilar-like features that connect various parts of quiet/active regions or span across the chromospheric network cell interiors, showing a large diversity of both physical and dynamic characteristics. The highly dynamic, fine-scale chromospheric structures are mostly governed by flows which reflect the complex geometry and dynamics of the local magnetic field and play an important role in the propagation and dissipation of waves. A comprehensive study of these structures requires deep understanding of the physical processes involved and investigation of their intricate link with structures/processes at lower photospheric levels. Furthermore, due to their large number present on the solar surface, it is essential to investigate their impact on the mass and energy transport to higher atmospheric layers through processes such as magnetic reconnection and propagation of waves. The in-depth study of all aforementioned characteristics and processes, with the further addition of non-LTE physics, as well as the use of three-dimensional numerical simulations poses a fascinating challenge for both theory and numerical modeling of chromospheric fine-scale structures.

  10. Chemical structure and dynamics: Annual report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Colson, S.D.

    1994-07-01

    The Chemical Structure and Dynamics program responds to the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding of chemistry at the wide variety of environmentally-important interfaces. The research program is built around the established relationship between structure, thermodynamics, and kinetics. This research effort continues to evolve into a program of rigorous studies of fundamental molecular processes in model systems (e.g., well-characterized surfaces, single-component solutions, clusters, and biological molecules), and studies of complex systems found in the environment. Experimental studies of molecular and supramolecular structures and thermodynamics are key to understanding the nature of matter, and lead to direct comparison with computational results. Kinetic and mechanistic measurements, combined with real-time dynamics measurements of atomic and molecular motions during chemical reactions, provide for a molecular-level description of chemical reactions. The anticipated results of this work are the achievement of a quantitative understanding of chemical processes at complex interfaces, the development of new techniques for the detection and measurement of species at such interfaces, and the interpretation and extrapolation of the observations in terms of models of interfacial chemistry. The Chemical Structure and Dynamics research program includes five areas described in detail in this report: Reaction mechanisms at solid interfaces; Solution and solution interfaces; Structure and dynamics of biological systems; Analytical methods development; and atmospheric chemistry. Extended abstracts are presented for 23 studies.

  11. Multiscale structure in eco-evolutionary dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Blake C.

    In a complex system, the individual components are neither so tightly coupled or correlated that they can all be treated as a single unit, nor so uncorrelated that they can be approximated as independent entities. Instead, patterns of interdependency lead to structure at multiple scales of organization. Evolution excels at producing such complex structures. In turn, the existence of these complex interrelationships within a biological system affects the evolutionary dynamics of that system. I present a mathematical formalism for multiscale structure, grounded in information theory, which makes these intuitions quantitative, and I show how dynamics defined in terms of population genetics or evolutionary game theory can lead to multiscale organization. For complex systems, "more is different," and I address this from several perspectives. Spatial host--consumer models demonstrate the importance of the structures which can arise due to dynamical pattern formation. Evolutionary game theory reveals the novel effects which can result from multiplayer games, nonlinear payoffs and ecological stochasticity. Replicator dynamics in an environment with mesoscale structure relates to generalized conditionalization rules in probability theory. The idea of natural selection "acting at multiple levels" has been mathematized in a variety of ways, not all of which are equivalent. We will face down the confusion, using the experience developed over the course of this thesis to clarify the situation.

  12. Study on Dynamic Characteristics of Ammonia Refrigerator System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Minoru; Ikegami, Yasuyuki; Hirao, Yasuhiro; Sudoh, Gaku; Shingoh, Masashi; Uehara, Haruo

    The dynamic characteristics of ammonia refrigerator system are observed when the expansion valve's opening is slightly changed. The refrigerator system is constructed with the reciprocal compressor, the plate type heat exchanger for the condenser and the evaporator, and the expansion valve. A simple simulation model for this refrigerator system is proposed to develop the computer-simulator of this ammonia refrigerator system and those simulation results are compared to above experimental results. For the development of the computer-simulator, simple but useful models, which can represent the dynamic characteristics of the refrigerator, are adopted for each components of the refrigerator system. The simulation shows the overall good agreement with experiment, without the time constant in the variation of the temperature at the evaporator outlet.

  13. Unified power flow controller: modeling and dynamic characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, D. H.; Loc, H. D.

    2005-12-01

    Unified power flow controller (UPFC) consists two converters. There are three purposes of this paper, firstly to illustrate the UPFC device based VSC designs, then to describe a decoupling method the UPFC's controller into two separate control systems of the shunt and the series converters respectively in realizing an appropriate coordination between them. Finally, using the Matlab tool to build a discrete simulator for the UPFC with 12 pulse converters. The simulation results show that the developed UPFC model is reflected the static and dynamic characteristics of the UPFC. The harmonics of the output of the model were analyzed. Using the simple power system with UPFC as an example, the dynamics characteristics were studied. The fault status of the system with UPFC was analyzed too.

  14. Recent advances in structural dynamics of large space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinson, Larry D.

    Recent progress in the area of structural dynamics of large space structures is reviewed. Topics include system identification, large angle slewing of flexible structures, definition of scaling limitations in structural models, and recent results on a tension-stabilized antenna concept known as the hoop-column. Increasingly complex laboratory experiments guide most of the activities leading to realistic technological developments. Theoretical progress in system identification based on system realization theory resulting in unification of several methods is reviewed. Experimental results from implementation of a theoretical large-angle slewing control approach are shown. Status and results of the development of a research computer program for analysis of the transient dynamics of large angle motion of flexible structures are presented. Correlation of results from analysis and vibration tests of the hoop-column antenna concept is summarized.

  15. Space station structures and dynamics test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Carleton J.; Townsend, John S.; Ivey, Edward W.

    1987-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a low-Earth orbit space station poses unique challenges for development and implementation of new technology. The technology arises from the special requirement that the station be built and constructed to function in a weightless environment, where static loads are minimal and secondary to system dynamics and control problems. One specific challenge confronting NASA is the development of a dynamics test program for: (1) defining space station design requirements, and (2) identifying the characterizing phenomena affecting the station's design and development. A general definition of the space station dynamic test program, as proposed by MSFC, forms the subject of this report. The test proposal is a comprehensive structural dynamics program to be launched in support of the space station. The test program will help to define the key issues and/or problems inherent to large space structure analysis, design, and testing. Development of a parametric data base and verification of the math models and analytical analysis tools necessary for engineering support of the station's design, construction, and operation provide the impetus for the dynamics test program. The philosophy is to integrate dynamics into the design phase through extensive ground testing and analytical ground simulations of generic systems, prototype elements, and subassemblies. On-orbit testing of the station will also be used to define its capability.

  16. Structure of the Benzene - by Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, Melanie; Erlekam, Undine; Von Helden, Gert; Meijer, Gerard; Bunker, Philip R.; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Van Der Avoird, Ad

    2013-06-01

    The benzene dimer is the prototype system for Van der Waals interactions between aromatic molecules. Here, we report a joint experimental and theoretical study regarding normal (C_6H_6)_2 and the partially deuterated (C_6D_6)(C_6H_6) isotopologue. Interestingly, although its tilted T-shaped equilibrium structure corresponds to an asymmetric rotor, both isotopologues exhibit the rotational spectrum of a symmetric rotor, with a characteristic quartet splitting pattern due to internal tunneling motions: each transition exhibits a -2 : -1 : +1 : +2 splitting ratio with respect to its center. We unravel these splittings with the aid of the unrivalled resolution of the supersonic-jet FT-microwave experiment which provides accurate split-patterns, by means of a reduced-dimensionality model for the internal dynamics of the (rotating) dimer that reproduces them. They turn out to originate from a concerted tunneling mechanism involving both the hindered rotation of the stem in the T-shaped dimer around its sixfold axis and tilt tunneling. We also show that the observed intensities of the tunneling components are not solely determined by nuclear spin statistical weights. Rather, taking small differences in the dissociation energies of different dimer nuclear spin species into account, the kinetics of the dimer formation and equilibration can bias the populations of the tunneling symmetry species. Using Stark shift measurements, we determine the dipole moment of (C_6H_6)_2 to be μ = 0.580(51) D, in agreement with the value of 0.63 D calculated with the assumption that the dipole moment is mainly determined by the dipoles induced in both monomers by the electric field of the quadrupole of the other monomer. M. Schnell, U. Erlekam, P. R. Bunker, G. v. Helden, J.-U. Grabow, G. Meijer, A. van der Avoird, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., DOI: 10.1002/anie.201300653 and 10.1002/ange.201300653

  17. The structure and dynamics of interactive documents

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, J.T.

    1999-04-01

    Advances in information technology continue to accelerate as the new millennium approaches. With these advances, electronic information management is becoming increasingly important and is now supported by a seemingly bewildering array of hardware and software whose sole purpose is the design and implementation of interactive documents employing multimedia applications. Multimedia memory and storage applications such as Compact Disk-Read Only Memory (CD-ROMs) are already a familiar interactive tool in both the entertainment and business sectors. Even home enthusiasts now have the means at their disposal to design and produce CD-ROMs. More recently, Digital Video Disk (DVD) technology is carving its own niche in these markets and may (once application bugs are corrected and prices are lowered) eventually supplant CD-ROM technology. CD-ROM and DVD are not the only memory and storage applications capable of supporting interactive media. External, high-capacity drives and disks such as the Iomega{copyright} zip{reg_sign} and jaz{reg_sign} are also useful platforms for launching interactive documents without the need for additional hardware such as CD-ROM burners and copiers. The main drawback here, however, is the relatively high unit price per disk when compared to the unit cost of CD-ROMs. Regardless of the application chosen, there are fundamental structural characteristics that must be considered before effective interactive documents can be created. Additionally, the dynamics of interactive documents employing hypertext links are unique and bear only slight resemblance to those of their traditional hard-copy counterparts. These two considerations form the essential content of this paper.

  18. Controlling Proton Delivery through Catalyst Structural Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Allan Jay P; Ginovska, Bojana; Kumar, Neeraj; Hou, Jianbo; Raugei, Simone; Helm, Monte L; Appel, Aaron M; Bullock, R Morris; O'Hagan, Molly

    2016-10-17

    The fastest synthetic molecular catalysts for H2 production and oxidation emulate components of the active site of hydrogenases. The critical role of controlled structural dynamics is recognized for many enzymes, including hydrogenases, but is largely neglected in designing synthetic catalysts. Our results demonstrate the impact of controlling structural dynamics on H2 production rates for [Ni(P(Ph)2 N(C6H4R)2 )2 ](2+) catalysts (R=n-hexyl, n-decyl, n-tetradecyl, n-octadecyl, phenyl, or cyclohexyl). The turnover frequencies correlate inversely with the rates of chair-boat ring inversion of the ligand, since this dynamic process governs protonation at either catalytically productive or non-productive sites. These results demonstrate that the dynamic processes involved in proton delivery can be controlled through modification of the outer coordination sphere, in a manner similar to the role of the protein architecture in many enzymes. As a design parameter, controlling structural dynamics can increase H2 production rates by three orders of magnitude with a minimal increase in overpotential.

  19. Modeling joint friction in structural dynamics.

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, Daniel Joseph

    2005-05-01

    The presence of mechanical joints--typified by the lap joint--in otherwise linear structures has been accommodated in structural dynamics via ad hoc methods for a century. The methods range from tuning linear models to approximate non-linear behavior in restricted load ranges to various methods which introduce joint dissipation in a post-processing stage. Other methods, employing constitutive models for the joints are being developed and their routine use is on the horizon.

  20. Polar cusp: optical and particle characteristics-dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Sandholt, P.E.; Egeland, A.; Asheim, S.; Lybekk, B.; Hardy, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Photometric observations from two stations on Svalbard, Norway, were used to map the location and dynamics of polar-cusp auroras. Coordinated observations of low-energy electron precipitation from satellite HILAT and optical observations from the ground are discussed. Cases are presented showing the dynamical behavior of cusp auroras and the local magnetic field related to changes in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and irregularities in the solar wind plasma. Dynamical phenomena with different time scales are studied. South and northward expansions of the midday sector of the auroral oval are discussed in relation to IMF variations and geomagnetic substorm activity. Intensifications and rapid poleward motions of discrete auroral structures in the cusp region are shown to be associated with local Pi type magnetic pulsations, each event lasting a few minutes. These small scale dynamical phenomena are discussed in relation to different models of plasma penetration across the dayside magnetopause, from the magnetosheath to the polar cusp region of the magnetosphere.

  1. Dynamic Structures around Star Formation Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Minho

    1995-01-01

    Star formation is a dynamic and complex activity. In this thesis, we will study characteristic activities in star formation regions: protostellar collapse, bipolar outflow, and large scale rotation. In Chapter 1, we study a protostellar collapse in a low-mass star formation region. A dark cloud core, B335, is modeled as an inside-out collapse. The radiative transfer code uses the Monte Carlo method. Line profiles for several transitions of CS and rm H_2CO are computed and they agreed with the observations very well. In Chapter 2, we investigate kinematic structures in a high-mass star formation region. Monoceros R2 dense core region was observed with molecular lines. We suggest that the main part can be explained as a parsec scale toroid around the H scII region with its symmetry axis parallel to the CO outflow and the magnetic field. The Omega~ r^{-1} rotation profile indicates that rotation alone cannot support the dense core. We modeled the toroid with a 2-dimensional radiative transfer code. Our simple model can reproduce the intensities and profiles of observed CS transitions very well. In Chapter 3, extremely high velocity (EHV) wings are studied with CO lines. The results of our survey suggest that EHV wings are common around infrared sources of moderate to high luminosity in dense regions. Line ratios imply that the EHV gas is usually optically thin and warm. Characteristic velocities range from 20 to 40 km rm s^ {-1}, yielding timescales of 1600-4200 yr. Since most sources in this study are producing some ionizing photons, these short timescales suggest that neutral winds coexist with ionizing photons. We examined two possible sources for the extremely high velocity CO emission: a neutral stellar wind; and swept-up or entrained molecular gas. Neither can be ruled out. In Chapter 4, molecular outflows associated with GL 2591 and W28 A2 were studied with the (C scI) line. Upper limits are set on the (C scI) emission in the EHV line wings. These limits are

  2. TERPRED: A Dynamic Structural Data Analysis Tool

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Karl; Cramer, Carole L.; Jennings, Steven F.; Huang, Xiuzhen

    2012-01-01

    Computational protein structure prediction mainly involves the main-chain prediction and the side-chain confirmation determination. In this research, we developed a new structural bioinformatics tool, TERPRED for generating dynamic protein side-chain rotamer libraries. Compared with current various rotamer sampling methods, our work is unique in that it provides a method to generate a rotamer library dynamically based on small sequence fragments of a target protein. The Rotamer Generator provides a means for existing side-chain sampling methods using static pre-existing rotamer libraries, to sample from dynamic target-dependent libraries. Also, existing side-chain packing algorithms that require large rotamer libraries for optimal performance, could possibly utilize smaller, target-relevant libraries for improved speed. PMID:25302339

  3. Natural Poisson structures of nonlinear plasma dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A.N.

    1982-06-01

    Hamiltonian field theories, for models of nonlinear plasma dynamics, require a Poisson bracket structure for functionals of the field variables. These are presented, applied, and derived for several sets of field variables: coherent waves, incoherent waves, particle distributions, and multifluid electrodynamics. Parametric coupling of waves and plasma yields concise expressions for ponderomotive effects (in kinetic and fluid models) and for induced scattering.

  4. Structural dynamics of tropical moist forest gaps

    Treesearch

    Maria O. Hunter; Michael Keller; Douglas Morton; Bruce Cook; Michael Lefsky; Mark Ducey; Scott Saleska; Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira; Juliana Schietti

    2015-01-01

    Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest...

  5. DYNAMIC TESTS OF STRUCTURAL ALUMINUM ALLOYS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A series of dynamic tests was conducted on three grades of structural aluminum alloys: (a) 6061-T6, (b) 6063 - T5 , and (c) 5456-H321. The effects of...at the maximum test rates. The 6063 - T5 aluminum shoed no change in yield stress and a 5.8% increase in tensile strength at the maximum test rate

  6. Dynamic Characteristics of Retinal Ganglion Cell Responses in Goldfish

    PubMed Central

    Schellart, Nico A. M.; Spekreijse, Henk

    1972-01-01

    A cross-correlation technique has been applied to quantify the dependence of the dynamic characteristics of retinal ganglion cell responses in goldfish on intensity, wavelength, spatial configuration, and spot size. Both theoretical and experimental evidence justify the use of the cross-correlation procedure which allows the completion of rather extensive measurements in a relatively short time. The findings indicate the following. (a) The shape of the amplitude characteristics depends on the energy per unit of time (power) falling within the center of a receptive field rather than on the intensity of the stimulus spot. For spot diameters of up to 1 mm, identical amplitude characteristics can be obtained by interchanging area and intensity. Therefore the receptor processes do not contribute to the change in the amplitude characteristics as a function of the power of the stimulus light. (b) For high frequencies the amplitude characteristics obtained as a function of power join together in a common envelope if plotted on an absolute sensitivity scale. For spontaneous ganglion cells this envelope holds over a range of three log units and the shape is identical for central and peripheral processes. (c) The amplitude characteristics of the central and peripheral processes converging to a ganglion cell are identical, irrespective of the sign (on or off) and the spectral coding of the response. Therefore we have no evidence for interneurons in the goldfish retina unique to the periphery of the receptive field. PMID:5007262

  7. Relaxation and dynamical characteristics of nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevskaya, G. E.; Shadrin, V. S.

    1988-04-01

    We study the volt-ampere, volt-farad, and magnetofarad characteristics of homeo-tropically oriented MBBA samples of different thicknesses. The characteristics are obtained for different rates of change of the displacement voltage. It is shown that the volt-farad and magnetofarad curves have an obvious threshold. Increase in the scan rate leads to a shift of the threshold in the volt-farad curves to the higher voltage region. The dynamical volt-ampere curves have regions where the variation of the current is nonmonotonic at small scan rates and have a sharp maximum for large rates. Comparison of the volt-ampere and volt-farad characteristics shows that the physical processes causing the threshold in the volt-farad curves and the features of the volt-ampere curves are related to one another. A discussion of the results is given.

  8. Proteins with Novel Structure, Function and Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a small enzyme that ligates two RNA fragments with the rate of 10(exp 6) above background was evolved in vitro (Seelig and Szostak, Nature 448:828-831, 2007). This enzyme does not resemble any contemporary protein (Chao et al., Nature Chem. Biol. 9:81-83, 2013). It consists of a dynamic, catalytic loop, a small, rigid core containing two zinc ions coordinated by neighboring amino acids, and two highly flexible tails that might be unimportant for protein function. In contrast to other proteins, this enzyme does not contain ordered secondary structure elements, such as alpha-helix or beta-sheet. The loop is kept together by just two interactions of a charged residue and a histidine with a zinc ion, which they coordinate on the opposite side of the loop. Such structure appears to be very fragile. Surprisingly, computer simulations indicate otherwise. As the coordinating, charged residue is mutated to alanine, another, nearby charged residue takes its place, thus keeping the structure nearly intact. If this residue is also substituted by alanine a salt bridge involving two other, charged residues on the opposite sides of the loop keeps the loop in place. These adjustments are facilitated by high flexibility of the protein. Computational predictions have been confirmed experimentally, as both mutants retain full activity and overall structure. These results challenge our notions about what is required for protein activity and about the relationship between protein dynamics, stability and robustness. We hypothesize that small, highly dynamic proteins could be both active and fault tolerant in ways that many other proteins are not, i.e. they can adjust to retain their structure and activity even if subjected to mutations in structurally critical regions. This opens the doors for designing proteins with novel functions, structures and dynamics that have not been yet considered.

  9. Structure and dynamics of aqueous solution of uranyl ions

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, Manish; Choudhury, Niharendu

    2014-04-24

    The present work describes a molecular dynamics simulation study of structure and dynamics of aqueous solution of uranyl ions in water. Structural properties of the system in terms of radial distribution functions and dynamical characteristics as obtained through velocity autocorrelation function and mean square displacements have been analyzed. The results for radial distribution functions show the oxygen of water to form the first solvation shell at 2.4 Å around the uranium atom, whereas the hydrogen atoms of water are distributed around the uranium atom with the major peak at around 3.0 Å. Analyses of transport behaviors of ions and water through MSD indicates that the diffusion of the uranyl ion is much less as compared to that of the water molecules. It is also observed that the dynamical behavior of water molecules gets modified due to the presence of uranyl ion. The effect of increase in concentration of uranyl ions on the structure and dynamics of water molecules is also studied.

  10. Dynamic object management for distributed data structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Totty, Brian K.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1992-01-01

    In distributed-memory multiprocessors, remote memory accesses incur larger delays than local accesses. Hence, insightful allocation and access of distributed data can yield substantial performance gains. The authors argue for the use of dynamic data management policies encapsulated within individual distributed data structures. Distributed data structures offer performance, flexibility, abstraction, and system independence. This approach is supported by data from a trace-driven simulation study of parallel scientific benchmarks. Experimental data on memory locality, message count, message volume, and communication delay suggest that data-structure-specific data management is superior to a single, system-imposed policy.

  11. Structure and dynamics of calmodulin in solution.

    PubMed Central

    Wriggers, W; Mehler, E; Pitici, F; Weinstein, H; Schulten, K

    1998-01-01

    To characterize the dynamic behavior of calmodulin in solution, we have carried out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the Ca2+-loaded structure. The crystal structure of calmodulin was placed in a solvent sphere of radius 44 A, and 6 Cl- and 22 Na+ ions were included to neutralize the system and to model a 150 mM salt concentration. The total number of atoms was 32,867. During the 3-ns simulation, the structure exhibits large conformational changes on the nanosecond time scale. The central alpha-helix, which has been shown to unwind locally upon binding of calmodulin to target proteins, bends and unwinds near residue Arg74. We interpret this result as a preparative step in the more extensive structural transition observed in the "flexible linker" region 74-82 of the central helix upon complex formation. The major structural change is a reorientation of the two Ca2+-binding domains with respect to each other and a rearrangement of alpha-helices in the N-terminus domain that makes the hydrophobic target peptide binding site more accessible. This structural rearrangement brings the domains to a more favorable position for target binding, poised to achieve the orientation observed in the complex of calmodulin with myosin light-chain kinase. Analysis of solvent structure reveals an inhomogeneity in the mobility of water in the vicinity of the protein, which is attributable to the hydrophobic effect exerted by calmodulin's binding sites for target peptides. PMID:9545028

  12. Dynamic structural disorder in supported nanoscale catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehr, J. J.; Vila, F. D.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the origin and physical effects of "dynamic structural disorder" (DSD) in supported nano-scale catalysts. DSD refers to the intrinsic fluctuating, inhomogeneous structure of such nano-scale systems. In contrast to bulk materials, nano-scale systems exhibit substantial fluctuations in structure, charge, temperature, and other quantities, as well as large surface effects. The DSD is driven largely by the stochastic librational motion of the center of mass and fluxional bonding at the nanoparticle surface due to thermal coupling with the substrate. Our approach for calculating and understanding DSD is based on a combination of real-time density functional theory/molecular dynamics simulations, transient coupled-oscillator models, and statistical mechanics. This approach treats thermal and dynamic effects over multiple time-scales, and includes bond-stretching and -bending vibrations, and transient tethering to the substrate at longer ps time-scales. Potential effects on the catalytic properties of these clusters are briefly explored. Model calculations of molecule-cluster interactions and molecular dissociation reaction paths are presented in which the reactant molecules are adsorbed on the surface of dynamically sampled clusters. This model suggests that DSD can affect both the prefactors and distribution of energy barriers in reaction rates, and thus can significantly affect catalytic activity at the nano-scale.

  13. Dynamic structural disorder in supported nanoscale catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Rehr, J. J.; Vila, F. D.

    2014-04-07

    We investigate the origin and physical effects of “dynamic structural disorder” (DSD) in supported nano-scale catalysts. DSD refers to the intrinsic fluctuating, inhomogeneous structure of such nano-scale systems. In contrast to bulk materials, nano-scale systems exhibit substantial fluctuations in structure, charge, temperature, and other quantities, as well as large surface effects. The DSD is driven largely by the stochastic librational motion of the center of mass and fluxional bonding at the nanoparticle surface due to thermal coupling with the substrate. Our approach for calculating and understanding DSD is based on a combination of real-time density functional theory/molecular dynamics simulations, transient coupled-oscillator models, and statistical mechanics. This approach treats thermal and dynamic effects over multiple time-scales, and includes bond-stretching and -bending vibrations, and transient tethering to the substrate at longer ps time-scales. Potential effects on the catalytic properties of these clusters are briefly explored. Model calculations of molecule-cluster interactions and molecular dissociation reaction paths are presented in which the reactant molecules are adsorbed on the surface of dynamically sampled clusters. This model suggests that DSD can affect both the prefactors and distribution of energy barriers in reaction rates, and thus can significantly affect catalytic activity at the nano-scale.

  14. Structural Dynamics and Control Interaction of Flexible Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert S. (Editor); Scofield, Harold N. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    A Workshop was held to promote technical exchange between the structural dynamic and control disciplines, foster joint technology, and provide a forum for discussing and focusing critical issues in the separate and combined areas. The workshop was closed by a panel meeting. Panel members' viewpoints and their responses to questions are included.

  15. Research in Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M. (Compiler); Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Structural Dynamics and Materials (SDM) Conference was held on April 2 to 4, 1990 in Long Beach, California. This publication is a compilation of presentations of the work-in-progress sessions and does not contain papers from the regular sessions since those papers are published by AIAA in the conference proceedings.

  16. Students' Conceptions as Dynamically Emergent Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David E.

    2014-07-01

    There is wide consensus that learning in science must be considered a process of conceptual change rather than simply information accrual. There are three perspectives on students' conceptions and conceptual change in science that have significant presence in the science education literature: students' ideas as misconceptions, as coherent systems of conceptual elements, and as fragmented knowledge elements. If misconceptions, systems of elements, or fragments are viewed implicitly as "regular things", these perspectives are in opposition. However, from a complex dynamic systems perspective, in which students' conceptions are viewed as dynamically emergent structures, the oppositions are lessened, and the integrated view has significant implications for theory and practice.

  17. Stereoisomerism, crystal structures, and dynamics of belt-shaped cyclonaphthylenes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhe; Suenaga, Takuya; Sarkar, Parantap; Sato, Sota; Kotani, Motoko

    2016-01-01

    The chemistry of a belt-shaped cyclic array of aromatic panels, a so-called “nanohoop,” has increasingly attracted much interest, partly because it serves as a segmental model of single-wall carbon nanotubes with curved sp2-carbon networks. Although the unique molecular structure of nanohoops is expected to deepen our understanding in curved π-systems, its structural chemistry is still in its infancy despite structural variants rapidly accumulated over the past several years. For instance, structural characteristics that endow the belt shapes with rigidity, an important structural feature relevant to carbon nanotubes, have not been clarified to date. We herein report the synthesis and structures of a series of belt-shaped cyclonaphthylenes. Random synthesis methods using three precursor units with different numbers of naphthylene panels allowed us to prepare 6 congeners consisting of 6 to 11 naphthylene panels, and relationships between the rigidity and the panel numbers, i.e., molecular structures, were investigated. Fundamental yet complicated stereoisomerism in the belt-shaped structures was disclosed by mathematical methods, and dynamics in the panel rotation was revealed by dynamic NMR studies with the aid of theoretical calculations. PMID:27357686

  18. Dynamics and mechanism of structural diffusion in linear hydrogen bond.

    PubMed

    Chaiwongwattana, Sermsiri; Phonyiem, Mayuree; Vchirawongkwin, Viwat; Prueksaaroon, Supakit; Sagarik, Kritsana

    2012-01-15

    Dynamics and mechanism of proton transfer in a protonated hydrogen bond (H-bond) chain were studied, using the CH(3)OH(2)(+)(CH(3)OH)(n) complexes, n = 1-4, as model systems. The present investigations used B3LYP/TZVP calculations and Born-Oppenheimer MD (BOMD) simulations at 350 K to obtain characteristic H-bond structures, energetic and IR spectra of the transferring protons in the gas phase and continuum liquid. The static and dynamic results were compared with the H(3)O(+)(H(2)O)(n) and CH(3)OH(2)(+)(H(2)O)(n) complexes, n = 1-4. It was found that the H-bond chains with n = 1 and 3 represent the most active intermediate states and the CH(3)OH(2)(+)(CH(3)OH)(n) complexes possess the lowest threshold frequency of proton transfer. The IR spectra obtained from BOMD simulations revealed that the thermal energy fluctuation and dynamics help promote proton transfer in the shared-proton structure with n = 3 by lowering the vibrational energy for the interconversion between the oscillatory shuttling and structural diffusion motions, leading to a higher population of the structural diffusion motion than in the shared-proton structure with n = 1. Additional explanation on the previously proposed mechanisms was introduced, with the emphases on the energetic of the transferring proton, the fluctuation of the number of the CH(3)OH molecules in the H-bond chain, and the quasi-dynamic equilibriums between the shared-proton structure (n = 3) and the close-contact structures (n ≥ 4). The latter prohibits proton transfer reaction in the H-bond chain from being concerted, since the rate of the structural diffusion depends upon the lifetime of the shared-proton intermediate state. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Nonlinear characteristics of joints as elements of multi-body dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.

    1989-01-01

    As the connecting elements in multi-body structures, joints play a pivotal role in the overall dynamic response of these systems. Obviously, the linear stiffness of the joint strongly influences the system frequencies, but the joints are also likely to be the dominant sources of damping and nonlinearities, especially in aircraft and space structures. The general characteristics of such joints will be discussed. Then the state of the art in nonlinear joint characterization techniques will be surveyed. Finally, the impact that joints have on the overall response of structures will be evaluated.

  20. Dynamics and structure of stretched flames

    SciTech Connect

    Law, C.K.

    1993-12-01

    This program aims to gain fundamental understanding on the structure, geometry, and dynamics of laminar premixed flames, and relate these understanding to the practical issues of flame extinction and stabilization. The underlying fundamental interest here is the recent recognition that the response of premixed flames can be profoundly affected by flame stretch, as manifested by flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and flame/flow unsteadiness. As such, many of the existing understanding on the behavior of premixed flames need to be qualitatively revised. The research program consists of three major thrusts: (1) detailed experimental and computational mapping of the structure of aerodynamically-strained planar flames, with emphasis on the effects of heat loss, nonequidiffusion, and finite residence time on the flame thickness, extent of incomplete reaction, and the state of extinction. (2) Analytical study of the geometry and dynamics of stretch-affected wrinkled flame sheets in simple configurations, as exemplified by the Bunsen flame and the spatially-periodic flame, with emphasis on the effects of nonlinear stretch, the phenomena of flame cusping, smoothing, and tip opening, and their implications on the structure and burning rate of turbulent flames. (3) Stabilization and blowoff of two-dimensional inverted premixed and stabilization and determining the criteria governing flame blowoff. The research is synergistically conducted through the use of laser-based diagnostics, computational simulation of the flame structure with detailed chemistry and transport, and mathematical analysis of the flame dynamics.

  1. The structural characteristics of video games: a psycho-structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Wood, Richard T A; Griffiths, Mark D; Chappell, Darren; Davies, Mark N O

    2004-02-01

    There is little doubt that video game playing is a psychological and social phenomenon. This paper outlines the main structural characteristics of video game playing (i.e., those characteristics that either induce gaming in the first place or are inducements to continue gaming irrespective of the individual's psychological, physiological, or socio-economic status). This online study is the first ever to assess what structural characteristics (if any) are important to a group of self-selected video game players (n = 382). The main variables examined were sound, graphics, background and setting, duration of game, rate of play, advancement rate, use of humor, control options, game dynamics, winning and losing features, character development, brand assurance, and multi-player features. Although there were many major gender differences, one of the main overall findings was the importance of a high degree of realism (i.e., realistic sound, graphics, and setting). Other important characteristics included a rapid absorption rate, character development, the ability to customize the game, and multiplayer features. Suggestions for future research are outlined.

  2. Structural Characteristics of Synthetic Amorphous Calcium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, F. Marc; MacDonald, Jason; Feng, Jian; Phillips, Brian L.; Ehm, Lars; Tarabrella, Cathy; Parise, John B.; Reeder, Richard J.

    2008-08-06

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is an important phase involved in calcification by a wide variety of invertebrate organisms and is of technological interest in the development of functional materials. Despite widespread scientific interest in this phase a full characterization of structure is lacking. This is mainly due to its metastability and difficulties in evaluating structure using conventional structure determination methods. Here we present new findings from the application of two techniques, pair distribution function analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which provide new insight to structural aspects of synthetic ACC. Several important results have emerged from this study of ACC formed in vitro using two common preparation methods: (1) ACC exhibits no structural coherence over distances > 15 {angstrom} and is truly amorphous; (2) most of the hydrogen in ACC is present as structural H{sub 2}O, about half of which undergoes restricted motion on the millisecond time scale near room temperature; (3) the short- and intermediate-range structure of ACC shows no distinct match to any known structure in the calcium carbonate system; and (4) most of the carbonate in ACC is monodentate making it distinctly different from monohydrocalcite. Although the structure of synthetic ACC is still not fully understood, the results presented provide an important baseline for future experiments evaluating biogenic ACC and samples containing certain additives that may play a role in stabilization of ACC, crystallization kinetics, and final polymorph selection.

  3. Characteristics of ripple structures revealed in OH airglow images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Li, Tao; Dou, Xiankang; Fang, Xin; Cao, Bing; She, Chiao-Yao; Nakamura, Takuji; Manson, Alan; Meek, Chris; Thorsen, Denise

    2017-03-01

    Small-scale ripple structures observed in OH airglow images are most likely induced by either dynamic instability due to large wind shear or convective instability due to superadiabatic lapse rate. Using the data set taken in the mesopause region with an OH all-sky imager at Yucca Ridge Field Station, Colorado (40.7°N, 104.9°W), from September 2003 to December 2005, we study the characteristics and seasonal variations of ripple structures. By analyzing the simultaneous background wind and temperature observed by the nearby sodium temperature/wind lidar at Fort Collins, Colorado (40.6°N, 105°W), and a nearby medium-frequency radar at Platteville, Colorado (40.2°N, 105.8°W), we are able to statistically study the possible relation between ripples and the background atmosphere conditions. Characteristics and seasonal variations of ripples are presented in detail in this study. The occurrence frequency of ripples exhibits clear seasonal variability, with peak in autumn. The occurrence of ripples shows a local time dependence, which is most likely associated with the solar tides. The lifetime and spatial scale of these ripples are typically 5-20 min and 5-10 km, respectively, and most of the ripples move preferentially either southward or northward. However, more than half of the observed ripples do not advect with background flow; they have higher Richardson numbers than those ripples that advect with background flow. It is possible that they are not instability features but wave structures that are hard to be distinguished from the real instability features.

  4. Prediction of vibration characteristics in beam structure using sub-scale modeling with experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zai, Behzad Ahmed; Sami, Saad; Khan, M. Amir; Ahmad, Furqan; Park, Myung Kyun

    2015-09-01

    Geometric or sub-scale modeling techniques are used for the evaluation of large and complex dynamic structures to ensure accurate reproduction of load path and thus leading to true dynamic characteristics of such structures. The sub-scale modeling technique is very effective in the prediction of vibration characteristics of original large structure when the experimental testing is not feasible due to the absence of a large testing facility. Previous researches were more focused on free and harmonic vibration case with little or no consideration for readily encountered random vibration. A sub-scale modeling technique is proposed for estimating the vibration characteristics of any large scale structure such as Launch vehicles, Mega structures, etc., under various vibration load cases by utilizing precise scaled-down model of that dynamic structure. In order to establish an analytical correlation between the original structure and its scaled models, different scale models of isotropic cantilever beam are selected and analyzed under various vibration conditions( i.e. free, harmonic and random) using finite element package ANSYS. The developed correlations are also validated through experimental testing. The prediction made from the vibratory response of the scaled-down beam through the established sets of correlation are found similar to the response measured from the testing of original beam structure. The established correlations are equally applicable in the prediction of dynamic characteristics of any complex structure through its scaled-down models. This paper presents modified sub-scale modeling technique that enables accurate prediction of vibration characteristics of large and complex structure under not only sinusoidal but also for random vibrations.

  5. Dynamic structure factor in warm dense beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plagemann, K.-U.; Sperling, P.; Thiele, R.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Fortmann, C.; Döppner, T.; Lee, H. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Redmer, R.

    2012-05-01

    We calculate the dynamic structure factor (DSF) in warm dense beryllium by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamic conductivity is derived from the Kubo-Greenwood formula, and a Drude-like behaviour is observed. The corresponding dielectric function is used to determine the DSF. Since the ab initio approach is so far only applicable for wavenumbers k = 0, the k-dependence of the dielectric function is modelled via the Mermin ansatz. We present the results for the dielectric function and DSF of warm dense beryllium and compare these with perturbative treatments such as the Born-Mermin approximation. We found considerable differences between the results of these approaches; this underlines the need for a first-principles determination of the DSF of warm dense matter.

  6. Structural Conduciveness, Personality Characteristics and Death Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    The author hypothesizes that death anxiety varies with social status and age as well as structural variables and personality traits. Results indicate structural variables predict certain types of death anxiety as well as personality factors. Personality is a somewhat better predictor of death fear and reluctance to interact. (Author)

  7. Bubbly flow model for the dynamic characteristics of cavitating pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennen, C.

    1978-01-01

    The recent experimental transfer matrices obtained by Ng and Brennen (1978) for some axial flow pumps revealed some dynamic characteristics which were unaccounted for by any existing theoretical analysis; their visual observations suggested that the bubbly cavitating flow in the blade passages could be responsible for these effects. A theoretical model of the dynamic response of this bubbly blade-passage flow is described in the present paper. Void-fraction fluctuations in this flow result not only from pressure fluctuations but also because the fluctuating angle of attack causes fluctuations in the rate of production of bubbles near the leading edge. The latter causes kinematic waves which interact through the boundary conditions with the dynamic waves caused by pressure fluctuation. The resulting theoretical transfer functions which results are in good qualitative agreement with the experiments; with appropriate choices of two parameters good quantitative agreement is also obtained. The theoretical model also provides one possible explanation of the observation that the pump changes from an essentially passive dynamic element in the absence of cavitation to a progressively more active element as the extent of cavitation increases.

  8. Bubbly flow model for the dynamic characteristics of cavitating pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennen, C.

    1978-01-01

    The recent experimental transfer matrices obtained by Ng and Brennen (1978) for some axial flow pumps revealed some dynamic characteristics which were unaccounted for by any existing theoretical analysis; their visual observations suggested that the bubbly cavitating flow in the blade passages could be responsible for these effects. A theoretical model of the dynamic response of this bubbly blade-passage flow is described in the present paper. Void-fraction fluctuations in this flow result not only from pressure fluctuations but also because the fluctuating angle of attack causes fluctuations in the rate of production of bubbles near the leading edge. The latter causes kinematic waves which interact through the boundary conditions with the dynamic waves caused by pressure fluctuation. The resulting theoretical transfer functions which results are in good qualitative agreement with the experiments; with appropriate choices of two parameters good quantitative agreement is also obtained. The theoretical model also provides one possible explanation of the observation that the pump changes from an essentially passive dynamic element in the absence of cavitation to a progressively more active element as the extent of cavitation increases.

  9. Dynamic characteristics of a molten carbonate fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Akira; Matsumoto, Shuichi; Tanaka, Toshihide; Ohtsuki, Jitsuji

    Dynamic characteristics have been investigated for a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) prototype stack, which is, an eletrochemical energy conversion device for electric power generation. The authors identify the MCFC stack and construct a control strategy for MCFC plants in operation. Both an experimental approach and a theoretical approach are described. Basic data are first obtained with respect to indicial responses of an MCFC stack including a cathode gas recycle loop for cooling use. These data are assumed to be sets of dead time and first-order lag, and a matrix transfer function is derived. A physically based model is then developed to describe the dynamics of the MCFC stack. This model consists of a semiempirical MCFC performance model and a thermodynamical gas flow model. The potential of this model for examining control problems for MCFC plant operations is discussed.

  10. Dynamic characteristics of the LLNL Precision Engineering Research Lathe

    SciTech Connect

    Franse, J.; Roblee, J.W.; Modemann, K.

    1988-08-31

    The dynamic characteristics of the Precision Engineering Research Lathe (PERL) have been investigated experimentally, up to a frequency of 1000 Hz. In successive tests, the exciting force was applied to either the X slide or the (non-rotating) spindle, and in the X or Z direction. These are the critical directions for turning operations on this T base type lathe. Each of these tests was furthermore done with the servo system active and with the servo system off (slides clamped, control loops open). The applied force fluctuations and the resulting relative displacement, between a capacitive probe mounted on the X slide and the spindle, were measured during the experiments. From these data, the relative dynamic compliances between the tool and the workpiece, in the Z and X directions, have been determined. The most important resonant frequencies, modes, and compliances are reported. Their consequences with regard to the surface quality of diamond turned parts are also discussed. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Static and dynamic characteristics of parallel-grooved seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwatsubo, Takuzo; Yang, Bo-Suk; Ibaraki, Ryuji

    1987-01-01

    Presented is an analytical method to determine static and dynamic characteristics of annular parallel-grooved seals. The governing equations were derived by using the turbulent lubrication theory based on the law of fluid friction. Linear zero- and first-order perturbation equations of the governing equations were developed, and these equations were analytically investigated to obtain the reaction force of the seals. An analysis is presented that calculates the leakage flow rate, the torque loss, and the rotordynamic coefficients for parallel-grooved seals. To demonstrate this analysis, we show the effect of changing number of stages, land and groove width, and inlet swirl on stability of the boiler feed water pump seals. Generally, as the number of stages increased or the grooves became wider, the leakage flow rate and rotor-dynamic coefficients decreased and the torque loss increased.

  12. Charge dynamic characteristics in corona-charged polytetrafluoroethylene film electrets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang-Jin; Xiao, Hui-Ming; Zhu, Chun-Feng

    2004-08-01

    In this work, the charge dynamics characteristics of injection, transport and decay in porous and non-porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film electrets were investigated by means of corona charging, isothermal and thermal stimulating surface-potential decay measurements. The results showed that the initial surface potential, whether positively or negatively charging, is much higher in non-porous PTFE than in porous PTFE. For porous film the value of initial surface potentials increases with increase of film thickness. Higher charging temperature can remarkably improve charge stability. The charge dynamics are correlated to materials microstructure according to their scanning electron micrographs. For non-porous PTFE films, polarizability change of C-F bonds is the main origin of electret charges; but for porous PTFE film a large number of bulk and interface type traps are expected because of the greater area of interface and higher crystallinity.

  13. Video Game Structural Characteristics: A New Psychological Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Daniel; Delfabbro, Paul; Griffiths, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Excessive video game playing behaviour may be influenced by a variety of factors including the structural characteristics of video games. Structural characteristics refer to those features inherent within the video game itself that may facilitate initiation, development and maintenance of video game playing over time. Numerous structural…

  14. Video Game Structural Characteristics: A New Psychological Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Daniel; Delfabbro, Paul; Griffiths, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Excessive video game playing behaviour may be influenced by a variety of factors including the structural characteristics of video games. Structural characteristics refer to those features inherent within the video game itself that may facilitate initiation, development and maintenance of video game playing over time. Numerous structural…

  15. Human dynamics scaling characteristics for aerial inbound logistics operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Guo, Jin-Li

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, the study of power-law scaling characteristics of real-life networks has attracted much interest from scholars; it deviates from the Poisson process. In this paper, we take the whole process of aerial inbound operation in a logistics company as the empirical object. The main aim of this work is to study the statistical scaling characteristics of the task-restricted work patterns. We found that the statistical variables have the scaling characteristics of unimodal distribution with a power-law tail in five statistical distributions - that is to say, there obviously exists a peak in each distribution, the shape of the left part closes to a Poisson distribution, and the right part has a heavy-tailed scaling statistics. Furthermore, to our surprise, there is only one distribution where the right parts can be approximated by the power-law form with exponent α=1.50. Others are bigger than 1.50 (three of four are about 2.50, one of four is about 3.00). We then obtain two inferences based on these empirical results: first, the human behaviors probably both close to the Poisson statistics and power-law distributions on certain levels, and the human-computer interaction behaviors may be the most common in the logistics operational areas, even in the whole task-restricted work pattern areas. Second, the hypothesis in Vázquez et al. (2006) [A. Vázquez, J. G. Oliveira, Z. Dezsö, K.-I. Goh, I. Kondor, A.-L. Barabási. Modeling burst and heavy tails in human dynamics, Phys. Rev. E 73 (2006) 036127] is probably not sufficient; it claimed that human dynamics can be classified as two discrete university classes. There may be a new human dynamics mechanism that is different from the classical Barabási models.

  16. User's Manual for Computer Program ROTOR. [to calculate tilt-rotor aircraft dynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasue, M.

    1974-01-01

    A detailed description of a computer program to calculate tilt-rotor aircraft dynamic characteristics is presented. This program consists of two parts: (1) the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of the rotor blade and wing are developed from structural data (mass distribution and stiffness distribution); and (2) the frequency response (to gust and blade pitch control inputs) and eigenvalues of the tilt-rotor dynamic system, based on the natural frequencies and mode shapes, are derived. Sample problems are included to assist the user.

  17. Chemical structure and dynamics: Annual report 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Colson, S.D.; McDowell, R.S.

    1997-03-01

    The Chemical Structure and Dynamics (CS&D) program is a major component of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide a state-of-the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. We respond to the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding of chemistry at a wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in environmental chemistry and in nuclear waste processing and storage; and (3) developing state-of-the-art analytical methods for characterizing waste tanks and pollutant distributions, and for detecting and monitoring trace atmospheric species.

  18. Annual Report 2000. Chemical Structure and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Colson, Steven D.; McDowell, Robin S.

    2001-04-15

    This annual report describes the research and accomplishments of the Chemical Structure and Dynamics Program in the year 2000, one of six research programs at the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) - a multidisciplinary, national scientific user facility and research organization. The Chemical Structure and Dynamics (CS&D) program is meeting the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding by 1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; 2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes relevant to environmental chemistry; and 3) developing state-of-the-art research and analytical methods for characterizing complex materials of the types found in natural and contaminated systems.

  19. Chemical structure and dynamics. Annual report 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Colson, S.D.; McDowell, R.S.

    1996-05-01

    The Chemical Structure and Dynamics program is a major component of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), providing a state-of-the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. We respond to the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding of chemistry at a wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in environmental chemistry and in nuclear waste processing and storage; and (3) developing state-of-the-art analytical methods for the characterization of waste tanks and pollutant distributions, and for detection and monitoring of trace atmospheric species.

  20. Dynamic structural network evolution in compressed granular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Lia; Puckett, James; Daniels, Karen; Bassett, Danielle

    The heterogeneous dynamic behavior of granular packings under shear or compression is not well-understood. In this study, we use novel techniques from network science to investigate the structural evolution that occurs in compressed granular systems. Specifically, we treat particles as network nodes, and pressure-dependent forces between particles as layer-specific network edges. Then, we use a generalization of community detection methods to multilayer networks, and develop quantitative measures that characterize changes in the architecture of the force network as a function of pressure. We observe that branchlike domains reminiscent of force chains evolve differentially as pressure is applied: topological characteristics of these domains at rest predict their coalescence or dispersion under pressure. Our methods allow us to study the dynamics of mesoscale structure in granular systems, and provide a direct way to compare data from systems under different external conditions or with different physical makeup.

  1. Study of Dynamic Characteristics of Aeroelastic Systems Utilizing Randomdec Signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. S.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing the random decrement method in conjunction with a signature analysis procedure to determine the dynamic characteristics of an aeroelastic system for the purpose of on-line prediction of potential on-set of flutter was examined. Digital computer programs were developed to simulate sampled response signals of a two-mode aeroelastic system. Simulated response data were used to test the random decrement method. A special curve-fit approach was developed for analyzing the resulting signatures. A number of numerical 'experiments' were conducted on the combined processes. The method is capable of determining frequency and damping values accurately from randomdec signatures of carefully selected lengths.

  2. Dynamic characteristics of photonic crystal quantum dot lasers.

    PubMed

    Banihashemi, Mehdi; Ahmadi, Vahid

    2014-04-20

    In this paper, we analyze the dynamic characteristics of quantum dot (QD) photonic crystal lasers by solving Maxwell equations coupled to rate equations through linear susceptibility of QDs. Here, we study the effects of the quality factor of the microcavity and temperature on the delay, relaxation oscillation frequency, and output intensity of the lasers. Moreover, we investigate the dependence of the Purcell factor on temperature. We show that when the quality factor of the microcavity is so high that we can consider its linewidth as a delta function in comparison with QDs, the Purcell factor significantly drops with increasing temperature.

  3. Impact dynamics research on composite transport structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.

    1984-01-01

    The experimental and analytical efforts being undertaken to investigate the response of composite and aluminum structures under crash loading conditions were reviewed. A Boeing 720 airplane was used in the controlled-impact demonstration test. Energy absorption of composite materials, the tearing of fuselage skin panels, the friction and abrasion behavior of composite skins, and the crushing behavior and dynamic response of composite beams were among the topics addressed.

  4. Impact dynamics research on composite transport structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental and analytical efforts being undertaken to investigate the response of composite and aluminum structures under crash loading conditions were reviewed. A Boeing 720 airplane was used in the controlled-impact demonstration test. Energy absorption of composite materials, the tearing of fuselage skin panels, the friction and abrasion behavior of composite skins, and the crushing behavior and dynamic response of composite beams were among the topics addressed.

  5. Feature Extraction for Structural Dynamics Model Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, Charles; Nishio, Mayuko; Hemez, Francois; Stull, Chris; Park, Gyuhae; Cornwell, Phil; Figueiredo, Eloi; Luscher, D. J.; Worden, Keith

    2016-01-13

    As structural dynamics becomes increasingly non-modal, stochastic and nonlinear, finite element model-updating technology must adopt the broader notions of model validation and uncertainty quantification. For example, particular re-sampling procedures must be implemented to propagate uncertainty through a forward calculation, and non-modal features must be defined to analyze nonlinear data sets. The latter topic is the focus of this report, but first, some more general comments regarding the concept of model validation will be discussed.

  6. Structure And Dynamics Of Finite Dust Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Block, D.; Kroll, M.; Arp, O.; Piel, A.; Kaeding, S.; Ivanov, Y.; Melzer, A.; Henning, C.; Baumgartner, H.; Bonitz, M.

    2008-09-07

    Two novel three-dimensional (3D) diagnostics, stereoscopic imaging and digital holography, enable us to provide a critical comparison of experimental results with simulations and theory and thus to gain a detailed insight into the structural and dynamical properties of strongly coupled dust clouds. Special attention is paid to the influence of screening and the role of metastable states in dust clouds containing just a very few particles.

  7. CASTOR: Structural dynamics in the MIR station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vialaneix, J. P.; Bousquet, P.; Dancet, Y.; Guay, P.; Mercier, F.

    1996-10-01

    Prediction and reduction of space structure vibrations have become critical issues over the last ten years. Motivating factors include optical systems with high stability requirements, large antennas, sensitive micro gravity payloads, compatibility of flexible appendages with attitude control, and large orbital infrastructure surviving. The experiment "CASTOR" (French acronym for ChAracterisation of STructures in ORbit) is dedicated to the identification of the structural dynamic modes of the MIR station and to the investigation of the dynamic behaviour—in zero g conditions—of a truss mock-up equipped with various passive and active damping technologies. The measured modal parameters of MIR are to be compared with the results of a finite element model analysis. The differences between in-flight and on-ground dynamics of the truss will be thoroughly analysed. This project has been conceived and is managed by CNES. The flight hardware will be delivered by the end of 1995, and the experimental work will be performed by a French cosmonaut within the framework of the CASSIOPEE mission in June 1996. In the first place, a comprehensive overview of CNES activities in the prediction of in-flight structural dynamics, and of similar experimental efforts found in literature will be discussed. Afterwards, the motivations behind the CASTOR experiment will be shown, followed by a full description of its equipment. The results of the ground tests and analyses, and the in-orbit test plan will then be presented extensively. Particular emphasis will be laid on the performances of the active damping systems which will be validated in flight. In conclusion, the potential re-utilisation of the experiment material within the framework of later flights will be highlighted.

  8. Space structure (dynamics and control) theme development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard A.; Gates, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    A study was made to define the long-range technical objectives and goals for the Space Structure (Dynamics and Control) theme area. The approach was to evaluate ongoing and proposed technology activities such that the technology gaps and voids could be identified. After the technology needs were identified, a set of recommended experimental activities was defined including the technical objectives of each and their relationship.

  9. Dynamics of overlapping structures in modular networks.

    PubMed

    Almendral, J A; Leyva, I; Li, D; Sendiña-Nadal, I; Havlin, S; Boccaletti, S

    2010-07-01

    Modularity is a fundamental feature of real networks, being intimately bounded to their functionality, i.e., to their capability of performing parallel tasks in a coordinated way. Although the modular structure of real graphs has been intensively studied, very little is known on the interactions between functional modules of a graph. Here, we present a general method based on synchronization of networking oscillators, that is able to detect overlapping structures in multimodular environments. We furthermore report the full analytical and theoretical description on the relationship between the overlapping dynamics and the underlying network topology. The method is illustrated by means of a series of applications.

  10. 8B structure in Fermionic Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henninger, K. R.; Neff, T.; Feldmeier, H.

    2015-04-01

    The structure of the light exotic nucleus 8B is investigated in the Fermionic Molecular Dynamics (FMD) model. The decay of 8B is responsible for almost the entire high- energy solar-neutrino flux, making structure calculations of 8B important for determining the solar core temperature. 8B is a proton halo candidate thought to exhibit clustering. FMD uses a wave-packet basis and is well-suited for modelling clustering and halos. For a multiconfiguration treatment we construct the many-body Hilbert space from antisymmetrised angular-momentum projected 8-particle states. First results show formation of a proton halo.

  11. Dynamic Deployment Simulations of Inflatable Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of using Control Volume (CV) method and the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method in LSDYNA to simulate the dynamic deployment of inflatable space structures is investigated. The CV and ALE methods were used to predict the inflation deployments of three folded tube configurations. The CV method was found to be a simple and computationally efficient method that may be adequate for modeling slow inflation deployment sine the inertia of the inflation gas can be neglected. The ALE method was found to be very computationally intensive since it involves the solving of three conservative equations of fluid as well as dealing with complex fluid structure interactions.

  12. Dynamic Analyses Including Joints Of Truss Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith

    1991-01-01

    Method for mathematically modeling joints to assess influences of joints on dynamic response of truss structures developed in study. Only structures with low-frequency oscillations considered; only Coulomb friction and viscous damping included in analysis. Focus of effort to obtain finite-element mathematical models of joints exhibiting load-vs.-deflection behavior similar to measured load-vs.-deflection behavior of real joints. Experiments performed to determine stiffness and damping nonlinearities typical of joint hardware. Algorithm for computing coefficients of analytical joint models based on test data developed to enable study of linear and nonlinear effects of joints on global structural response. Besides intended application to large space structures, applications in nonaerospace community include ground-based antennas and earthquake-resistant steel-framed buildings.

  13. NASA Handbook for Spacecraft Structural Dynamics Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Dennis L.; Scharton, Terry D.

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in the area of structural dynamics and vibrations, in both methodology and capability, have the potential to make spacecraft system testing more effective from technical, cost, schedule, and hardware safety points of view. However, application of these advanced test methods varies widely among the NASA Centers and their contractors. Identification and refinement of the best of these test methodologies and implementation approaches has been an objective of efforts by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on behalf of the NASA Office of the Chief Engineer. But to develop the most appropriate overall test program for a flight project from the selection of advanced methodologies, as well as conventional test methods, spacecraft project managers and their technical staffs will need overall guidance and technical rationale. Thus, the Chief Engineer's Office has recently tasked JPL to prepare a NASA Handbook for Spacecraft Structural Dynamics Testing. An outline of the proposed handbook, with a synopsis of each section, has been developed and is presented herein. Comments on the proposed handbook are solicited from the spacecraft structural dynamics testing community.

  14. Handbook on dynamics of jointed structures.

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, Nicoli M.; Lauffer, James P.; Jew, Michael D.; Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Gregory, Danny Lynn; Starr, Michael James; Resor, Brian Ray

    2009-07-01

    The problem of understanding and modeling the complicated physics underlying the action and response of the interfaces in typical structures under dynamic loading conditions has occupied researchers for many decades. This handbook presents an integrated approach to the goal of dynamic modeling of typical jointed structures, beginning with a mathematical assessment of experimental or simulation data, development of constitutive models to account for load histories to deformation, establishment of kinematic models coupling to the continuum models, and application of finite element analysis leading to dynamic structural simulation. In addition, formulations are discussed to mitigate the very short simulation time steps that appear to be required in numerical simulation for problems such as this. This handbook satisfies the commitment to DOE that Sandia will develop the technical content and write a Joints Handbook. The content will include: (1) Methods for characterizing the nonlinear stiffness and energy dissipation for typical joints used in mechanical systems and components. (2) The methodology will include practical guidance on experiments, and reduced order models that can be used to characterize joint behavior. (3) Examples for typical bolted and screw joints will be provided.

  15. The Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.; Welch, Sharon S.; Moore, Christopher L.

    1995-01-01

    The Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment (PASDE) is a Hitchhiker payload scheduled to fly as part of the International Space Station (ISS) Phase-1 flight program to the Russian Space Station Mir. The objective of the first flight of PASDE on STS-74 is to obtain video images of the Mir Kvant-2 solar array response to various structural dynamic excitation events. This experiment will demonstrate the use of photogrammetric techniques for on-orbit structural dynamics measurements. Photogrammetric measurements will provide a low cost alternative to appendage mounted accelerometers to the ISS program. The PASDE experiment hardware consists of three instruments each containing two video cameras, two video tape recorders, a modified video signal time inserter, and associated avionics boxes. The instruments were designed and built at the NASA Langley Research Center, and are integrated into standard Hitchhiker canisters at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The Hitchhiker canisters are then installed into the Space Shuttle cargo bay in locations selected to achieve good video coverage and photogrammetric geometry. The measurement resolution of the instruments is expected to be on the order of 0.25 cm (0.1 in.).

  16. The Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.; Welch, Sharon S.; Moore, Christopher L.

    1995-09-01

    The Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment (PASDE) is a Hitchhiker payload scheduled to fly as part of the International Space Station (ISS) Phase-1 flight program to the Russian Space Station Mir. The objective of the first flight of PASDE on STS-74 is to obtain video images of the Mir Kvant-2 solar array response to various structural dynamic excitation events. This experiment will demonstrate the use of photogrammetric techniques for on-orbit structural dynamics measurements. Photogrammetric measurements will provide a low cost alternative to appendage mounted accelerometers to the ISS program. The PASDE experiment hardware consists of three instruments each containing two video cameras, two video tape recorders, a modified video signal time inserter, and associated avionics boxes. The instruments were designed and built at the NASA Langley Research Center, and are integrated into standard Hitchhiker canisters at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The Hitchhiker canisters are then installed into the Space Shuttle cargo bay in locations selected to achieve good video coverage and photogrammetric geometry. The measurement resolution of the instruments is expected to be on the order of 0.25 cm (0.1 in.).

  17. Radiation characteristics and implosion dynamics of Z-pinch dynamic hohlraums performed on PTS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xian Bin; Ren, Xiao Dong; Dan, Jia Kun; Wang, Kun Lun; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Shao Tong; Zhang, Si Qun; Cai, Hong Chun; Li, Jing; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu Ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei Ping; Deng, Jian Jun

    2017-09-01

    The preliminary experimental results of Z-pinch dynamic hohlraums conducted on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) facility are presented herein. Six different types of dynamic hohlraums were used in order to study the influence of load parameters on radiation characteristics and implosion dynamics, including dynamic hohlraums driven by single and nested arrays with different array parameters and different foams. The PTS facility can deliver a current of 6-8 MA in the peak current and 60-70 ns in the 10%-90% rising time to dynamic hohlraum loads. A set of diagnostics monitor the implosion dynamics of plasmas, the evolution of shock waves in the foam and the axial/radial X-ray radiation, giving the key parameters characterizing the features of dynamic hohlraums, such as the trajectory and related velocity of shock waves, radiation temperature, and so on. The experimental results presented here put our future study on Z-pinch dynamic hohlraums on the PTS facility on a firm basis.

  18. Uncertain structural dynamics of aircraft panels and fuzzy structures analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, Victor W.; Buehrle, Ralph D.

    2002-11-01

    Aircraft fuselage panels, seemingly simple structures, are actually complex because of the uncertainty of the attachments of the frame stiffeners and longitudinal stringers. It is clearly important to understand the dynamics of these panels because of the subsequent radiation into the passenger cabin, even when complete information is not available for all portions of the finite-element model. Over the last few years a fuzzy structures analysis (FSA) approach has been undertaken at Penn State and NASA Langley to quantify the uncertainty in modeling aircraft panels. A new MSC.Nastran [MSC.Software Corp. (Santa Ana, CA)] Direct Matrix Abstraction Program (DMAP) code was written and tested [AIAA paper 2001-1320, 42nd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conf., Seattle, WA, 16 April 2001] and was applied to simple fuselage panel models [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2410(A) (2001)]. Recently the work has focused on understanding the dynamics of a realistic aluminum fuselage panel, typical of today's aircraft construction. This presentation will provide an overview of the research and recent results will be given for the fuselage panel. Comparison between experiments and the FSA results will be shown for different fuzzy input parameters. [Work supported by NASA Research Cooperative Agreement NCC-1-382.

  19. Controlling Proton Delivery through Catalyst Structural Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, Allan Jay P.; Ginovska, Bojana; Kumar, Neeraj; Hou, Jianbo; Raugei, Simone; Helm, Monte L.; Appel, Aaron M.; Bullock, R. Morris; O'Hagan, Molly

    2016-09-27

    The fastest synthetic molecular catalysts for production and oxidation of H2 emulate components of the active site of natural hydrogenases. The role of controlled structural dynamics is recognized as a critical component in the catalytic performance of many enzymes, including hydrogenases, but is largely neglected in the design of synthetic molecular cata-lysts. In this work, the impact of controlling structural dynamics on the rate of production of H2 was studied for a series of [Ni(PPh2NC6H4-R2)2]2+ catalysts including R = n-hexyl, n-decyl, n-tetradecyl, n-octadecyl, phenyl, or cyclohexyl. A strong correlation was observed between the ligand structural dynamics and the rates of electrocatalytic hydrogen production in acetonitrile, acetonitrile-water, and protic ionic liquid-water mixtures. Specifically, the turnover frequencies correlate inversely with the rates of ring inversion of the amine-containing ligand, as this dynamic process dictates the positioning of the proton relay in the second coordination sphere and therefore governs protonation at either catalytically productive or non-productive sites. This study demonstrates that the dynamic processes involved in proton delivery can be controlled through modifications of the outer coordination sphere of the catalyst, similar to the role of the protein architecture in many enzymes. The present work provides new mechanistic insight into the large rate enhancements observed in aqueous protic ionic liquid media for the [Ni(PPh2NR2)]2+ family of catalysts. The incorporation of controlled structural dynamics as a design parameter to modulate proton delivery in molecular catalysts has enabled H2 production rates that are up to three orders of magnitude faster than the [Ni(PPh2NPh2)]2+complex. The observed turnover frequencies are up to 106 s-1 in acetonitrile-water, and over 107 s-1 in protic ionic liquid-water mixtures, with a minimal increase in overpotential. This material is based upon work supported as part of

  20. Characteristics of dynamic triaxial testing of asphalt mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulloa Calderon, Alvaro

    Due to the increasing traffic loads and tire pressures, a serious detrimental impact has occurred on flexible pavements in the form of excessive permanent deformation once the critical combination of loading and environmental conditions are reached. This distress, also known as rutting, leads to an increase in road roughness and ultimately jeopardizes the road users' safety. The flow number (FN) simple performance test for asphalt mixtures was one of the final three tests selected for further evaluation from the twenty-four test/material properties initially examined under the NCHRP 9-19 project. Currently, no standard triaxial testing conditions in terms of the magnitude of the deviator and confining stresses have been specified. In addition, a repeated haversine axial compressive load pulse of 0.1 second and a rest period of 0.9 second are commonly used as part of the triaxial testing conditions. The overall objective of this research was to define the loading conditions that created by a moving truck load in the hot mixed asphalt (HMA) layer. The loading conditions were defined in terms of the triaxial stress levels and the corresponding loading time. Dynamic mechanistic analysis with circular stress distribution was used to closely simulate field loading conditions. Extensive mechanistic analyses of three different asphalt pavement structures subjected to moving traffic loads at various speeds and under braking and non-braking conditions were conducted using the 3D-Move model. Prediction equations for estimating the anticipated deviator and confining stresses along with the equivalent deviator stress pulse duration as a function of pavement temperature, vehicle speed, and asphalt mixture's stiffness have been developed. The magnitude of deviator stress, sigmad and confining stress, sigmac, were determined by converting the stress tensor computed in the HMA layer at 2" below pavement surface under a moving 18-wheel truck using the octahedral normal and shear

  1. Brownian Dynamics Simulation of Protein Solutions: Structural and Dynamical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Mereghetti, Paolo; Gabdoulline, Razif R.; Wade, Rebecca C.

    2010-01-01

    The study of solutions of biomacromolecules provides an important basis for understanding the behavior of many fundamental cellular processes, such as protein folding, self-assembly, biochemical reactions, and signal transduction. Here, we describe a Brownian dynamics simulation procedure and its validation for the study of the dynamic and structural properties of protein solutions. In the model used, the proteins are treated as atomically detailed rigid bodies moving in a continuum solvent. The protein-protein interaction forces are described by the sum of electrostatic interaction, electrostatic desolvation, nonpolar desolvation, and soft-core repulsion terms. The linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation is solved to compute electrostatic terms. Simulations of homogeneous solutions of three different proteins with varying concentrations, pH, and ionic strength were performed. The results were compared to experimental data and theoretical values in terms of long-time self-diffusion coefficients, second virial coefficients, and structure factors. The results agree with the experimental trends and, in many cases, experimental values are reproduced quantitatively. There are no parameters specific to certain protein types in the interaction model, and hence the model should be applicable to the simulation of the behavior of mixtures of macromolecules in cell-like crowded environments. PMID:21112303

  2. Strength and dynamic characteristics analyses of wound composite axial impeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jifeng; Olortegui-Yume, Jorge; Müller, Norbert

    2012-03-01

    A low cost, light weight, high performance composite material turbomachinery impeller with a uniquely designed blade patterns is analyzed. Such impellers can economically enable refrigeration plants to use water as a refrigerant (R718). A strength and dynamic characteristics analyses procedure is developed to assess the maximum stresses and natural frequencies of these wound composite axial impellers under operating loading conditions. Numerical simulation using FEM for two-dimensional and three-dimensional impellers was investigated. A commercially available software ANSYS is used for the finite element calculations. Analysis is done for different blade geometries and then suggestions are made for optimum design parameters. In order to avoid operating at resonance, which can make impellers suffer a significant reduction in the design life, the designer must calculate the natural frequency and modal shape of the impeller to analyze the dynamic characteristics. The results show that using composite Kevlar fiber/epoxy matrix enables the impeller to run at high tip speed and withstand the stresses, no critical speed will be matched during start-up and shut-down, and that mass imbalances of the impeller shall not pose a critical problem.

  3. Dynamic characteristics and mechatronics model for maglev blood pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kun; Chen, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic bearing system(MBs) has been developed in the new-generation blood pump due to its low power consumption, low blood trauma and high durability. However, MBs for a blood pump were almost influenced by a series of factors such as hemodynamics, rotation speeds and actuator response in working fluids, compared with those applied in other industrial fields. In this study, the dynamic characteristics of MBs in fluid environments, including the influence of the pumping fluid and rotation of the impeller on the radial dynamic model were investigated by measuring the frequency response to sinusoidal excitation upon coils, and the response of radial displacement during a raise in the speed. The excitation tests were conducted under conditions in which the blood pump was levitated in air and water and with or without rotation. The experimental and simulated results indicate that rotations of the impeller affected the characteristics of MBs in water apparently, and the vibration in water was decreased, compared with that in air due to the hydraulic force. During the start-up and rotation, the actuator failed to operate fully and timely, and the voltage supplied can be chosen under the consideration of the rotor displacement and consumption.

  4. The Dynamic Characteristic and Hysteresis Effect of an Air Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löcken, F.; Welsch, M.

    2015-02-01

    In many applications of vibration technology, especially in chassis, air springs present a common alternative to steel spring concepts. A design-independent and therefore universal approach is presented to describe the dynamic characteristic of such springs. Differential and constitutive equations based on energy balances of the enclosed volume and the mountings are given to describe the nonlinear and dynamic characteristics. Therefore all parameters can be estimated directly from physical and geometrical properties, without parameter fitting. The numerically solved equations fit very well to measurements of a passenger car air spring. In a second step a simplification of this model leads to a pure mechanical equation. While in principle the same parameters are used, just an empirical correction of the effective heat transfer coefficient is needed to handle some simplification on this topic. Finally, a linearization of this equation leads to an analogous mechanical model that can be assembled from two common spring- and one dashpot elements in a specific arrangement. This transfer into "mechanical language" enables a system description with a simple force-displacement law and a consideration of the nonobvious hysteresis and stiffness increase of an air spring from a mechanical point of view.

  5. [Adsorption dynamics and breakthrough characteristics based on the fluidization condition].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Yao; Huang, Xing; Yuan, Yi-Long; Chen, Rui-Hui; Zhou, Hang; Zhou, Dan-Dan

    2014-02-01

    Few studies on the adsorption dynamics and breakthrough characteristics based on the fluidization condition have been reported. In a fluidized bed adsorption reactor with phenol as the adsorbate and granular activated carbon as the adsorbent, the adsorption efficiency, adsorption dynamic characteristics, adsorption breakthrough curves and adsorption capacities were studied and compared with those of a fixed bed operated under the same conditions. The results showed that the adsorption efficiencies exceeded 93% in 5 min in both the fluidized conditions and fixed conditions at the superficial velocities of 8 mm x s(-1) and 13 mm x s(-1). Meanwhile, the above adsorption reactions fitted to Pseudo-second-order with linear correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The adsorption capacity of fluidized conditions was 8.77 mg x g(-1) and 24.70 mg x g(-1) at the superficial velocities of 6 mm x s(-1) and 8 mm x s(-1). Generally, the fluidized bed reactor showed a higher adsorption efficiency and greater adsorption capacity than the fixed bed reactor.

  6. Experiment of static and dynamic characteristics of spiral grooved seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwatsubo, T.; Sheng, B. C.; Ono, M.

    1991-01-01

    The leakages and the dynamic characteristics of six types of spiral grooved seals are experimentally investigated. The effect of the helix angle of the seal is investigated mainly under the condition of the same nominal clearances, land and groove lengths, and groove depths. The dynamic characteristics are measured for various parameters such as preswirl velocity, pressure difference between inlet and outlet of the seal, whirling amplitude, whirling speed, and rotating speed of the rotor. The results are also compared with leakage increases with the increase of the helix angle, but as the rotating speed increases, the leakages of the larger helix angle seals quickly drop. The leakage of the smooth-stator (SS)/smooth-grooved rotor (SGR) seal drops faster than that of the spiral-grooved stator (SGS)/smooth-rotor (SR) seal. It is found that a circumferential flow can be produced by the flow along the helix angle direction, and this circumferential flow acts as a negative swirl. For the present helix angle range, there is an optimum helix angle with which the seal has a comparatively positive effect on the rotor stability. Compared with the SGS/SR seals, the SS/SGR seal has a worse effect on the rotor stability.

  7. Dynamics of driven flow with exclusion in graphenelike structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinchcombe, R. B.; de Queiroz, S. L. A.

    2015-05-01

    We present a mean-field theory for the dynamics of driven flow with exclusion in graphenelike structures, and numerically check its predictions. We treat first a specific combination of bond transmissivity rates, where mean field predicts, and numerics to a large extent confirms, that the sublattice structure characteristic of honeycomb networks becomes irrelevant. Dynamics, in the various regions of the phase diagram set by open boundary injection and ejection rates, is then in general identical to that of one-dimensional systems, although some discrepancies remain between mean-field theory and numerical results, in similar ways for both geometries. However, at the critical point for which the characteristic exponent is z =3 /2 in one dimension, the mean-field value z =2 is approached for very large systems with constant (finite) aspect ratio. We also treat a second combination of bond (and boundary) rates where, more typically, sublattice distinction persists. For the two rate combinations, in continuum or late-time limits, respectively, the coupled sets of mean-field dynamical equations become tractable with various techniques and give a two-band spectrum, gapless in the critical phase. While for the second rate combination quantitative discrepancies between mean-field theory and simulations increase for most properties and boundary rates investigated, theory still is qualitatively correct in general, and gives a fairly good quantitative account of features such as the late-time evolution of density profile differences from their steady-state values.

  8. A generalized gamma(s)-family of self-starting algorithms for computational structural dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namburu, Raju R.; Tamma, Kumar K.

    1992-01-01

    A generalized gamma(s)-family of self-starting single-step formulations are presented in order to provide simplified yet effective dynamic attributes to include features towards eliminating the need to involve accelerations in the computational process for structural dynamic problems. By appropriately selecting the parameters pertaining to gamma(s)(s = 1, 2, 3), both explicit and implicit formulations are obtained. The stability and accuracy characteristics of the gamma(s)-family of representations are presented to validate the robustness of the formulations for structural dynamic problems. Numerous illustrative examples are described and the results are in excellent agreement and validate the applicability of these formulations for structural dynamic computations.

  9. A generalized gamma(s)-family of self-starting algorithms for computational structural dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namburu, Raju R.; Tamma, Kumar K.

    1992-01-01

    A generalized gamma(s)-family of self-starting single-step formulations are presented in order to provide simplified yet effective dynamic attributes to include features towards eliminating the need to involve accelerations in the computational process for structural dynamic problems. By appropriately selecting the parameters pertaining to gamma(s)(s = 1, 2, 3), both explicit and implicit formulations are obtained. The stability and accuracy characteristics of the gamma(s)-family of representations are presented to validate the robustness of the formulations for structural dynamic problems. Numerous illustrative examples are described and the results are in excellent agreement and validate the applicability of these formulations for structural dynamic computations.

  10. Dynamic Probabilistic Instability of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2009-01-01

    A computationally effective method is described to evaluate the non-deterministic dynamic instability (probabilistic dynamic buckling) of thin composite shells. The method is a judicious combination of available computer codes for finite element, composite mechanics and probabilistic structural analysis. The solution method is incrementally updated Lagrangian. It is illustrated by applying it to thin composite cylindrical shell subjected to dynamic loads. Both deterministic and probabilistic buckling loads are evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. A universal plot is obtained for the specific shell that can be used to approximate buckling loads for different load rates and different probability levels. Results from this plot show that the faster the rate, the higher the buckling load and the shorter the time. The lower the probability, the lower is the buckling load for a specific time. Probabilistic sensitivity results show that the ply thickness, the fiber volume ratio and the fiber longitudinal modulus, dynamic load and loading rate are the dominant uncertainties in that order.

  11. NMR studies of protein structure and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Lewis E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in solution NMR spectroscopy have significantly extended the spectrum of problems that can now be addressed with this technology. In particular, studies of proteins with molecular weights on the order of 100 kDa are now possible at a level of detail that was previously reserved for much smaller systems. An example of the sort of information that is now accessible is provided in a study of malate synthase G, a 723 residue enzyme that has been a focal point of research efforts in my laboratory. Details of the labeling schemes that have been employed and optimal experiments for extraction of structural and dynamics information on this protein are described. NMR studies of protein dynamics, in principle, give insight into the relation between motion and function. A description of deuterium-based spin relaxation methods for the investigation of side chain dynamics is provided. Examples where millisecond (ms) time scale dynamics play an important role and where relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy has been particularly informative, including applications involving the membrane enzyme PagP and mutants of the Fyn SH3 domain that fold on a ms time scale, are presented.

  12. Structure and dynamics of coupled viscous liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninarello, Andrea; Berthier, Ludovic; Coslovich, Daniele

    2015-09-01

    We perform Monte-Carlo simulations to analyse the structure and microscopic dynamics of a viscous Lennard-Jones liquid coupled to a quenched reference configuration of the same liquid. The coupling between the two replicas is introduced via a field ɛ conjugate to the overlap Q between the two particle configurations. This allows us to study the evolution of various static and dynamic correlation functions across the (ɛ, T) equilibrium phase diagram. As the temperature is decreased, we identify increasingly marked precursors of a first-order phase transition between a low-Q and a high-Q phase induced by the field ɛ. We show in particular that both static and dynamic susceptibilities have a maximum at a temperature-dependent value of the coupling field, which defines a 'Widom line'. We also show that, in the high-overlap regime, diffusion and structural relaxation are strongly decoupled because single-particle motion mostly occurs via discrete hopping on the sites defined by the reference configuration. These results, obtained using conventional numerical tools, provide encouraging signs that an equilibrium phase transition exists in coupled viscous liquids, but also demonstrate that important numerical challenges must be overcome to obtain more conclusive numerical evidence.

  13. The structural dynamics of social class.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Michael W; Park, Jun Won

    2017-08-01

    Individual agency accounts of social class persist in society and even in psychological science despite clear evidence for the role of social structures. This article argues that social class is defined by the structural dynamics of society. Specifically, access to powerful networks, groups, and institutions, and inequalities in wealth and other economic resources shape proximal social environments that influence how individuals express their internal states and motivations. An account of social class that highlights the means by which structures shape and are shaped by individuals guides our understanding of how people move up or down in the social class hierarchy, and provides a framework for interpreting neuroscience studies, experimental paradigms, and approaches that attempt to intervene on social class disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A further characteristic of abstract convexity structures on topological spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Shu-Wen; Xia, Shunyou

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we give a characteristic of abstract convexity structures on topological spaces with selection property. We show that if a convexity structure defined on a topological space has the weak selection property then satisfies H0-condition. Moreover, in a compact convex subset of a topological space with convexity structure, the weak selection property implies the fixed point property.

  15. Measurement and analysis of structural dynamics properties of robotic joint transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shiuh-Jer; Chen, Chin-Yih

    1993-02-01

    This study utilizes two techniques to identify the structural dynamic characteristics of each joint transmission system of an ITRI-U type robot. The driving system of each joint is modeled as a mass-spring-damper mechanism that has a second-order dynamic mathematical equation.

  16. Solar Prominence Fine Structure and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We review recent observational and theoretical results on the fine structure and dynamics of solar prominences, beginning with an overview of prominence classifications, the proposal of possible new ``funnel prominence'' classification, and a discussion of the recent ``solar tornado'' findings. We then focus on quiescent prominences to review formation, down-flow dynamics, and the ``prominence bubble'' phenomena. We show new observations of the prominence bubble Rayleigh-Taylor instability triggered by a Kelvin-Helmholtz shear flow instability occurring along the bubble boundary. Finally we review recent studies on plasma composition of bubbles, emphasizing that differential emission measure (DEM) analysis offers a more quantitative analysis than photometric comparisons. In conclusion, we discuss the relation of prominences to coronal magnetic flux ropes, proposing that prominences can be understood as partially ionized condensations of plasma forming the return flow of a general magneto-thermal convection in the corona.

  17. Dynamic structure of dense krypton gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egelstaff, P. A.; Salacuse, J. J.; Schommers, W.; Ram, J.

    1984-07-01

    We have made molecular-dynamics computer simulations of dense krypton gas (10.6×1027 atoms/m3 and 296 K) using reasonably realistic pair potentials. Comparisons are made with the recent experimental data

    [P. A. Egelstaff et al., Phys. Rev. A 27, 1106 (1983)]
    for the dynamic structure factor S(q,ω) over the range 0.4
  18. An Overview of Structural Characteristics in Problematic Video Game Playing.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Mark D; Nuyens, Filip

    2017-01-01

    There are many different factors involved in how and why people develop problems with video game playing. One such set of factors concerns the structural characteristics of video games (i.e., the structure, elements, and components of the video games themselves). Much of the research examining the structural characteristics of video games was initially based on research and theorizing from the gambling studies field. The present review briefly overviews the key papers in the field to date. The paper examines a number of areas including (i) similarities in structural characteristics of gambling and video gaming, (ii) structural characteristics in video games, (iii) narrative and flow in video games, (iv) structural characteristic taxonomies for video games, and (v) video game structural characteristics and game design ethics. Many of the studies carried out to date are small-scale, and comprise self-selected convenience samples (typically using self-report surveys or non-ecologically valid laboratory experiments). Based on the small amount of empirical data, it appears that structural features that take a long time to achieve in-game are the ones most associated with problematic video game play (e.g., earning experience points, managing in-game resources, mastering the video game, getting 100% in-game). The study of video games from a structural characteristic perspective is of benefit to many different stakeholders including academic researchers, video game players, and video game designers, as well as those interested in prevention and policymaking by making the games more socially responsible. It is important that researchers understand and recognize the psycho-social effects and impacts that the structural characteristics of video games can have on players, both positive and negative.

  19. A new computational structure for real-time dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Izaguirre, A. ); Hashimoto, Minoru )

    1992-08-01

    The authors present an efficient structure for the computation of robot dynamics in real time. The fundamental characteristic of this structure is the division of the computation into a high-priority synchronous task and low-priority background tasks, possibly sharing the resources of a conventional computing unit based on commercial microprocessors. The background tasks compute the inertial and gravitational coefficients as well as the forces due to the velocities of the joints. In each control sample period, the high-priority synchronous task computes the product of the inertial coefficients by the accelerations of the joints and performs the summation of the torques due to the velocities and gravitational forces. Kircanski et al. (1986) have shown that the bandwidth of the variation of joint angles and of their velocities is an order of magnitude less than the variation of joint accelerations. This result agrees with the experiments the authors have carried out using a PUMA 260 robot. Two main strategies contribute to reduce the computational burden associated with the evaluation of the dynamic equations. The first involves the use of efficient algorithms for the evaluation of the equations. The second is aimed at reducing the number of dynamic parameters by identifying beforehand the linear dependencies among these parameters, as well as carrying out a significance analysis of the parameters' contribution to the final joint torques. The actual code used to evaluate this dynamic model is entirely computer generated from experimental data, requiring no other manual intervention than performing a campaign of measurements.

  20. Fundamental structures of dynamic social networks

    PubMed Central

    Sekara, Vedran; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Lehmann, Sune

    2016-01-01

    Social systems are in a constant state of flux, with dynamics spanning from minute-by-minute changes to patterns present on the timescale of years. Accurate models of social dynamics are important for understanding the spreading of influence or diseases, formation of friendships, and the productivity of teams. Although there has been much progress on understanding complex networks over the past decade, little is known about the regularities governing the microdynamics of social networks. Here, we explore the dynamic social network of a densely-connected population of ∼1,000 individuals and their interactions in the network of real-world person-to-person proximity measured via Bluetooth, as well as their telecommunication networks, online social media contacts, geolocation, and demographic data. These high-resolution data allow us to observe social groups directly, rendering community detection unnecessary. Starting from 5-min time slices, we uncover dynamic social structures expressed on multiple timescales. On the hourly timescale, we find that gatherings are fluid, with members coming and going, but organized via a stable core of individuals. Each core represents a social context. Cores exhibit a pattern of recurring meetings across weeks and months, each with varying degrees of regularity. Taken together, these findings provide a powerful simplification of the social network, where cores represent fundamental structures expressed with strong temporal and spatial regularity. Using this framework, we explore the complex interplay between social and geospatial behavior, documenting how the formation of cores is preceded by coordination behavior in the communication networks and demonstrating that social behavior can be predicted with high precision. PMID:27555584

  1. Fundamental structures of dynamic social networks.

    PubMed

    Sekara, Vedran; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Lehmann, Sune

    2016-09-06

    Social systems are in a constant state of flux, with dynamics spanning from minute-by-minute changes to patterns present on the timescale of years. Accurate models of social dynamics are important for understanding the spreading of influence or diseases, formation of friendships, and the productivity of teams. Although there has been much progress on understanding complex networks over the past decade, little is known about the regularities governing the microdynamics of social networks. Here, we explore the dynamic social network of a densely-connected population of ∼1,000 individuals and their interactions in the network of real-world person-to-person proximity measured via Bluetooth, as well as their telecommunication networks, online social media contacts, geolocation, and demographic data. These high-resolution data allow us to observe social groups directly, rendering community detection unnecessary. Starting from 5-min time slices, we uncover dynamic social structures expressed on multiple timescales. On the hourly timescale, we find that gatherings are fluid, with members coming and going, but organized via a stable core of individuals. Each core represents a social context. Cores exhibit a pattern of recurring meetings across weeks and months, each with varying degrees of regularity. Taken together, these findings provide a powerful simplification of the social network, where cores represent fundamental structures expressed with strong temporal and spatial regularity. Using this framework, we explore the complex interplay between social and geospatial behavior, documenting how the formation of cores is preceded by coordination behavior in the communication networks and demonstrating that social behavior can be predicted with high precision.

  2. Dynamics on Scale-Invariant Structures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christou, Alexis

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. We investigate dynamical processes on random and regular fractals. The (static) problem of percolation in the semi -infinite plane introduces many pertinent ideas including real space renormalisation group (RSRG) fugacity transformations and scaling forms. We study the percolation probability to determine the surface critical behaviour and to establish exponent relations. The fugacity approach is generalised to study random walks on diffusion-limited aggregates (DLA). Using regular and random models, we calculate the walk dimensionality and demonstrate that it is consistent with a conjecture by Aharony and Stauffer. It is shown that the kinetically grown DNA is in a distinct dynamic universality class to lattice animals. Similarly, the speculation of Helman -Coniglio-Tsallis regarding diffusion on self-avoiding walks (SAWs) is shown to be incorrect. The results are corroborated by an exact enumeration analysis of the internal structure of SAWs. A 'spin' and field theoretic Hamiltonian formulation for the conformational and resistance properties of random walks is presented. We consider Gaussian random walks, SAWs, spiral SAWs and valence walks. We express resistive susceptibilities as correlation functions and hence epsilon-expansions are calculated for the resistance exponents. For SAWs, the local crosslinks are shown to be irrelevant and we calculate corrections to scaling. A scaling description is introduced into an equation -of-motion method in order to study spin wave damping in d-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg ferro-, antiferro- and ferri- magnets near p_{rm c} . Dynamic scaling is shown to be obeyed by the Lorentzian spin wave response function and lifetime. The ensemble of finite clusters and multicritical behaviour is also treated. In contrast, the relaxational dynamics of the dilute Anisotropic Heisenberg model is shown to violate conventional dynamic scaling near the

  3. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Maria O.; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas; Cook, Bruce; Lefsky, Michael; Ducey, Mark; Saleska, Scott; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Schietti, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down) differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up), and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered by the wisdom of a field observer. We offer a new definition of a forest gap that is driven by forest dynamics and consistent with precise ranging measurements from airborne lidar data and tall, multi-layered tropical forest structure. We used 1000 ha of multi-temporal lidar data (2008, 2012) at two sites, the Tapajos National Forest and Ducke Reserve, to study gap dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon. Here, we identified dynamic gaps as contiguous areas of significant growth, that correspond to areas > 10 m2, with height <10 m. Applying the dynamic definition at both sites, we found over twice as much area in gap at Tapajos National Forest (4.8 %) as compared to Ducke Reserve (2.0 %). On average, gaps were smaller at Ducke Reserve and closed slightly more rapidly, with estimated height gains of 1.2 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1 at Tapajos. At the Tapajos site, height growth in gap centers was greater than the average height gain in gaps (1.3 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1). Rates of height growth between lidar acquisitions reflect the interplay between gap edge mortality, horizontal ingrowth and gap size at the two sites. We estimated that approximately 10 % of gap area closed via horizontal ingrowth at Ducke Reserve as opposed to 6 % at Tapajos National Forest. Height loss (interpreted as repeat damage and/or mortality) and horizontal ingrowth accounted for similar proportions of gap area at Ducke Reserve (13 % and 10 %, respectively). At Tapajos, height loss had a much stronger signal (23

  4. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Maria O; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas; Cook, Bruce; Lefsky, Michael; Ducey, Mark; Saleska, Scott; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Schietti, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down) differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up), and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered by the wisdom of a field observer. We offer a new definition of a forest gap that is driven by forest dynamics and consistent with precise ranging measurements from airborne lidar data and tall, multi-layered tropical forest structure. We used 1000 ha of multi-temporal lidar data (2008, 2012) at two sites, the Tapajos National Forest and Ducke Reserve, to study gap dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon. Here, we identified dynamic gaps as contiguous areas of significant growth, that correspond to areas > 10 m2, with height <10 m. Applying the dynamic definition at both sites, we found over twice as much area in gap at Tapajos National Forest (4.8%) as compared to Ducke Reserve (2.0%). On average, gaps were smaller at Ducke Reserve and closed slightly more rapidly, with estimated height gains of 1.2 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1 at Tapajos. At the Tapajos site, height growth in gap centers was greater than the average height gain in gaps (1.3 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1). Rates of height growth between lidar acquisitions reflect the interplay between gap edge mortality, horizontal ingrowth and gap size at the two sites. We estimated that approximately 10% of gap area closed via horizontal ingrowth at Ducke Reserve as opposed to 6% at Tapajos National Forest. Height loss (interpreted as repeat damage and/or mortality) and horizontal ingrowth accounted for similar proportions of gap area at Ducke Reserve (13% and 10%, respectively). At Tapajos, height loss had a much stronger signal (23% versus 6

  5. AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, 33rd, Dallas, TX, Apr. 13-15, 1992, Technical Papers. Pt. 4 - Structural dynamics II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The present conference discusses composites damage tolerance, shell and cylinder buckling, computational structural mechanics, adaptive structures, structural risk and reliability, the analysis of composite structures, the thermal analysis of structures, the finite-element analysis of rotorcraft vibration, spacecraft dynamics, and rotor aeroelasticity. Also discussed are rotorcraft dynamics, structural damping, control analyses and control experiments, dynamic methods, experimental dynamics and testing, composite structural dynamics and damage, aeroelasticity, future directions in flight mechanics and structures, rotorcraft aeroelasticity, dynamics applications, unsteady aerodynamics, eigensolution methods, nonlinear dynamics, sensitivity analysis and topology optimization, shape optimization, modeling of material behavior, and ceramic-matrix composites.

  6. Fluid mechanics of dynamic stall. II - Prediction of full scale characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    Analytical extrapolations are made from experimental subscale dynamics to predict full scale characteristics of dynamic stall. The method proceeds by establishing analytic relationships between dynamic and static aerodynamic characteristics induced by viscous flow effects. The method is then validated by predicting dynamic test results on the basis of corresponding static test data obtained at the same subscale flow conditions, and the effect of Reynolds number on the static aerodynamic characteristics are determined from subscale to full scale flow conditions.

  7. Fluid mechanics of dynamic stall. II - Prediction of full scale characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    Analytical extrapolations are made from experimental subscale dynamics to predict full scale characteristics of dynamic stall. The method proceeds by establishing analytic relationships between dynamic and static aerodynamic characteristics induced by viscous flow effects. The method is then validated by predicting dynamic test results on the basis of corresponding static test data obtained at the same subscale flow conditions, and the effect of Reynolds number on the static aerodynamic characteristics are determined from subscale to full scale flow conditions.

  8. Algebraic Dynamic Programming over general data structures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Dynamic programming algorithms provide exact solutions to many problems in computational biology, such as sequence alignment, RNA folding, hidden Markov models (HMMs), and scoring of phylogenetic trees. Structurally analogous algorithms compute optimal solutions, evaluate score distributions, and perform stochastic sampling. This is explained in the theory of Algebraic Dynamic Programming (ADP) by a strict separation of state space traversal (usually represented by a context free grammar), scoring (encoded as an algebra), and choice rule. A key ingredient in this theory is the use of yield parsers that operate on the ordered input data structure, usually strings or ordered trees. The computation of ensemble properties, such as a posteriori probabilities of HMMs or partition functions in RNA folding, requires the combination of two distinct, but intimately related algorithms, known as the inside and the outside recursion. Only the inside recursions are covered by the classical ADP theory. Results The ideas of ADP are generalized to a much wider scope of data structures by relaxing the concept of parsing. This allows us to formalize the conceptual complementarity of inside and outside variables in a natural way. We demonstrate that outside recursions are generically derivable from inside decomposition schemes. In addition to rephrasing the well-known algorithms for HMMs, pairwise sequence alignment, and RNA folding we show how the TSP and the shortest Hamiltonian path problem can be implemented efficiently in the extended ADP framework. As a showcase application we investigate the ancient evolution of HOX gene clusters in terms of shortest Hamiltonian paths. Conclusions The generalized ADP framework presented here greatly facilitates the development and implementation of dynamic programming algorithms for a wide spectrum of applications. PMID:26695390

  9. Reconstruction of dynamic forces during impact tests of a crushable structure

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, V.I.; Carne, T.G.; Mayes, R.L.; Davie, N.T.

    1993-12-31

    A force reconstruction technique is being used to assess the dynamic performance of a crushable structure (a bomb nose) in both the axial (90{degree}) and slapdown (30{degree}) impact conditions. The dynamic force characteristics for the current nose design, determined from these tests, will be used to write a dynamic force specification for a new nose design that will replace the current nose. Two structures for experimentally determining the dynamic force -- deflection characteristics of the old and new noses have been designed and constructed. One structure has the same dynamic characteristics as the bomb and is being used for axial and slapdown orientations with rocket-propelled testing. The second structure has the same mass as the bomb and is being used for iterative axial testing of candidate designs with a pneumatic ram. The structural characteristics of these two structures have been determined and are presented. A force reconstruction algorithm using the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT) has been developed for each of the two structures. The force reconstruction algorithms have been verified for both structures using laboratory data. The force reconstruction process and the resulting algorithms are described. Data verifying the force reconstruction algorithms is presented.

  10. Viruses as nanoparticles: Structure versus collective dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirotkin, S.; Mermet, A.; Bergoin, M.; Ward, V.; Van Etten, J. L.

    2014-08-01

    In order to test the application of the "nanoparticle" concept to viruses in terms of low-frequency dynamics, large viruses (140-190 nm) were compared to similar-sized polymer colloids using ultra-small-angle x-ray scattering and very-low-frequency Raman or Brillouin scattering. While both viruses and polymer colloids show comparable highly defined morphologies, with comparable abilities of forming self-assembled structures, their respective abilities to confine detectable acoustic vibrations, as expected for such monodisperse systems, differed. Possible reasons for these different behaviors are discussed.

  11. Atomic Structure and Dynamics in Debye Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Qi, Y. Y.; Wang, J. G.; Janev, R. K.

    2009-05-02

    Atomic structure and dynamics in Debye plasmas are investigated by a series of methods including the classical, semi-classical and quantum-mechanical ones. It's found that both the binding energies and number of bound states are reduced, and the wave functions become broaden due to the plasma screening interactions. Taking into account the Coulomb screening on the energy levels, wave functions and interactions, we have studied the photo processes, electron-impact processes and heavy particle collisions in a large plasma screening conditions. Our works demonstrated that the screening effect is important in the Debye plasmas, which should be considered in the simulation and diagnostics of plasmas.

  12. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of respiratory airflow in human nasal cavity and its characteristic dimension study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Yingxi; Sun, Xiuzhen; Yu, Shen; Yu, Chi

    2008-04-01

    To study the airflow distribution in human nasal cavity during respiration and the characteristic parameters of nasal structure, three-dimensional, anatomically accurate representations of 30 adult nasal cavity models were reconstructed based on processed tomography images collected from normal people. The airflow fields in nasal cavities were simulated by fluid dynamics with finite element software ANSYS. The results showed that the difference of human nasal cavity structure led to different airflow distribution in the nasal cavities and variation of the main airstream passing through the common nasal meatus. The nasal resistance in the regions of nasal valve and nasal vestibule accounted for more than half of the overall resistance. The characteristic model of nasal cavity was extracted on the basis of characteristic points and dimensions deduced from the original models. It showed that either the geometric structure or the airflow field of the two kinds of models was similar. The characteristic dimensions were the characteristic parameters of nasal cavity that could properly represent the original model in model studies on nasal cavity.

  13. Load deflection characteristics of inflated structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgarten, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A single, closed form relationship to relate load to the deformed dimensions of the horizontal torus was developed. Wall elasticity was included in the analysis, and special care was taken to predict the final footprint area of the loaded structure. The test fixture utilized is shown. The tori used for the bulk of the testing were rubber inner tubes for a 32 and 160 pneumatic tire. The inner tube being tested was plumbed, to a mercury-filled manometer, which had a 50 inch measurement capacity, by use of a special adapter. The adapter fit over the valve stem and allowed air to be added from a shop-air source and to be bled through the standard valve mechanism. In this fashion, tests requiring the maintenance of a constant indication of air pressure could be run with little difficulty.

  14. Static and dynamic analyses of tensegrity structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Yoshitaka

    Tensegrity structures are a class of truss structures consisting of a continuous set of tension members (cables) and a discrete set of compression members (bars). Since tensegrity structures are light weight and can be compactly stowed and deployed, cylindrical tensegrity modules have been proposed for space structures. From a view point of structural dynamics, tensegrity structures pose a new set of problems, i.e., initial shape finding. Initial configurations of tensegrity structures must be computed by imposing a pre-stressability condition to initial equilibrium equations. There are ample qualitative statements regarding the initial geometry of cylindrical and spherical tensegrity modules. Quantitative initial shape anlyses have only been performed on one-stage and two-stage cylindrical modules. However, analytical expressions for important geometrical parameters such as twist angles and overlap ratios lack the definition of the initial shape of both cylindrical and spherical tensegrity modules. In response to the above needs, a set of static and dynamic characterization procedures for tensegrity modules was first developed. The procedures were subsequently applied to Buckminster Fuller's spherical tensegrity modules. Both the initial shape and the corresponding pre-stress mode were analytically obtained by using the graphs of the tetrahedral, octahedral (cubic), and icosahedral (dodecahedral) groups. For pre-stressed configurations, modal analyses were conducted to classify a large number of infinitesimal mechanism modes. The procedures also applied tocyclic cylindrical tensegrity modules with an arbitrary number of stages. It was found that both the Maxwell number and the number of infinitesimal mechanism modes are independent of the number of stages in the axial direction. A reduced set of equilibrium equations was derived by incorporating cyclic symmetry and the flip, or quasi-flip, symmetry of the cylindrical modules. For multi-stage modules with more than

  15. Design of helicopter rotor blades for optimum dynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, D. A.; Ko, T.; Korn, A. E.; Rossow, M. P.

    1983-01-01

    The possibilities and limitations of tailoring blade mass and stiffness distributions to give an optimum blade design in terms of weight, inertia, and dynamic characteristics are discussed. The extent that changes in mass of stiffness distribution can be used to place rotor frequencies at desired locations is determined. Theoretical limits to the amount of frequency shift are established. Realistic constraints on blade properties based on weight, mass, moment of inertia, size, strength, and stability are formulated. The extent that the hub loads can be minimized by proper choice of E1 distribution, and the minimum hub loads which can be approximated by a design for a given set of natural frequencies are determined. Aerodynamic couplings that might affect the optimum blade design, and the relative effectiveness of mass and stiffness distribution on the optimization procedure are investigated.

  16. Dynamics and Stability and Control Characteristics of the X-37

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhary, Ashwani; Nguyen, Viet; Tran, Hoi; Poladian, David; Falangas, Eric; Turner, Susan G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the stability and control analysis and the control design results for the Boeing/NASA/AFRL X-37. The X-37 is a flight demonstrator vehicle that will go into space and after its mission, autonomously reenter and land on a conventional runway. This paper studies the dynamics and control of the X-37 from atmospheric reentry through landing. A nominal trajectory that lands on the Edwards Air Force Base Lakebed is considered for all the analysis and design. The X-37's longitudinal and lateral/directional bare-airframe characteristics are presented. The level of maneuvering control power is assessed. Vehicle trim with multiple surfaces is discussed. Special challenges where the wings loose roll effectiveness are discussed and solutions are presented. Aerodynamic uncertainties and flexibility modeling issues are presented. Control design results and robustness analysis methods are presented. Results are provided for the Entry, Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM), and Approach and Land phases.

  17. The interplay between dynamic heterogeneities and structure of bulk liquid water: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Demontis, Pierfranco; Gulín-González, Jorge; Masia, Marco; Sant, Marco; Suffritti, Giuseppe B

    2015-06-28

    In order to study the interplay between dynamical heterogeneities and structural properties of bulk liquid water in the temperature range 130-350 K, thus including the supercooled regime, we use the explicit trend of the distribution functions of some molecular properties, namely, the rotational relaxation constants, the atomic mean-square displacements, the relaxation of the cross correlation functions between the linear and squared displacements of H and O atoms of each molecule, the tetrahedral order parameter q and, finally, the number of nearest neighbors (NNs) and of hydrogen bonds (HBs) per molecule. Two different potentials are considered: TIP4P-Ew and a model developed in this laboratory for the study of nanoconfined water. The results are similar for the dynamical properties, but are markedly different for the structural characteristics. In particular, for temperatures higher than that of the dynamic crossover between "fragile" (at higher temperatures) and "strong" (at lower temperatures) liquid behaviors detected around 207 K, the rotational relaxation of supercooled water appears to be remarkably homogeneous. However, the structural parameters (number of NNs and of HBs, as well as q) do not show homogeneous distributions, and these distributions are different for the two water models. Another dynamic crossover between "fragile" (at lower temperatures) and "strong" (at higher temperatures) liquid behaviors, corresponding to the one found experimentally at T(∗) ∼ 315 ± 5 K, was spotted at T(∗) ∼ 283 K and T(∗) ∼ 276 K for the TIP4P-Ew and the model developed in this laboratory, respectively. It was detected from the trend of Arrhenius plots of dynamic quantities and from the onset of a further heterogeneity in the rotational relaxation. To our best knowledge, it is the first time that this dynamical crossover is detected in computer simulations of bulk water. On the basis of the simulation results, the possible mechanisms of the two

  18. Floating clamping mechanism of PT fuel injector and its dynamic characteristics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinqing; Liang, Sheng; Xia, Tian; Wang, Dong; Qian, Shuhua

    2012-05-01

    PT fuel injector is one of the most important parts of modern diesel engine. To satisfy the requirements of the rapid and accurate test of PT fuel injector, the self-adaptive floating clamping mechanism was developed and used in the relevant bench. Its dynamic characteristics directly influence the test efficiency and accuracy. However, due to its special structure and complex oil pressure signal, related documents for evaluating dynamic characteristics of this mechanism are lack and some dynamic characteristics of this mechanism can't be extracted and recognized effectively by traditional methods. Aiming at the problem above-mentioned, a new method based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is presented. Firstly, combining with the actual working process, the dynamic liquid pressure signal of the mechanism is acquired. By analyzing the pressure fluctuation during the whole working process in time domain, oil leakage and hydraulic shock in the clamping chamber are discovered. Secondly, owing to the nonlinearity and nonstationarity of pressure signal, empirical mode decomposition is used, and the signal is decomposed and reconstructed into forced vibration, free vibration and noise. By analyzing forced vibration in the time domain, machining error and installation error of cam are revealed. Finally, free vibration component is analyzed in time-frequency domain with HHT, the traits of free vibration in the time-frequency domain are revealed. Compared with traditional methods, Hilbert spectrum has higher time-frequency resolutions and higher credibility. The improved mechanism based on the above analyses can guarantee the test accuracy of injector injection. This new method based on the analyses of the pressure signal and combined with HHT can provide scientific basis for evaluation, design improvement of the mechanism, and give references for dynamic characteristics analysis of the hydraulic system in the interrelated fields.

  19. Nucleon Structure from Dynamical Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Huey-Wen Lin

    2007-06-01

    We present lattice QCD numerical calculations of hadronic structure functions and form factors from full-QCD lattices, with a chirally symmetric fermion action, domain-wall fermions, for the sea and valence quarks. The lattice spacing is about 0.12 fm with physical volume approximately (2 fm)3 for RBC 2-flavor ensembles and (3 fm)3 for RBC/UKQCD 2+1-flavor dynamical ones. The lightest sea quark mass is about 1/2 the strange quark mass for the former ensembles and 1/4 for the latter ones. Our calculations include: isovector vector- and axial-charge form factors and the first few moments of the polarized and unpolarized structure functions of the nucleon. Nonperturbative renormalization in RI/MOM scheme is applied.

  20. Nucleon Structure from Dynamical Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H.-W.

    2007-06-13

    We present lattice QCD numerical calculations of hadronic structure functions and form factors from full-QCD lattices, with a chirally symmetric fermion action, domain-wall fermions, for the sea and valence quarks. The lattice spacing is about 0.12 fm with physical volume approximately (2 fm)3 for RBC 2-flavor ensembles and (3 fm)3 for RBC/UKQCD 2+1-flavor dynamical ones. The lightest sea quark mass is about 1/2 the strange quark mass for the former ensembles and 1/4 for the latter ones. Our calculations include: isovector vector- and axial-charge form factors and the first few moments of the polarized and unpolarized structure functions of the nucleon. Nonperturbative renormalization in RI/MOM scheme is applied.

  1. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, L. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, Johann R.; Williamson, Mark A.; Tamalonis, Anthony J.; Hebden, Andrew S.; Wiencek, Thomas; Alderman, Oliver L. G.; Guthrie, Malcolm; Leibowitz, L.; Parise, John B.

    2014-11-20

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 +/- 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  2. Dynamic versus Static Hadronic Structure Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2009-01-09

    'Static' structure functions are the probabilistic distributions computed from the square of the light-front wavefunctions of the target hadron. In contrast, the 'dynamic' structure functions measured in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering include the effects of rescattering associated with the Wilson line. Initial- and final-state rescattering, neglected in the parton model, can have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, producing single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, the breakdown of the Lam-Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, nuclear shadowing, and non-universal nuclear antishadowing|novel leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also review how 'direct' higher-twist processes--where a proton is produced in the hard subprocess itself--can explain the anomalous proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions.

  3. Uranus Cloud Structure and Dynamics Near Equinox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, Lawrence

    2006-08-01

    We propose two half nights of NIRC2 near-IR AO observations of Uranus while it nears its 2007 equinox and exhibits asymmetries suggestive of a highly phase-shifted seasonal response to solar forcing. Narrow- and broad-band imaging and grism spectroscopy, making use of recent advances in methane absorption modeling, and improved cross calibration of narrow-band imagery, will greatly improve constraints on the spatially resolved vertical cloud structure of deep bands and discrete storm systems, which are important constraints on parent gas mixing ratios. Combining our two half-nights with two others proposed by the Hammel team will provide the time baseline needed to determine wind speeds with high accuracy. Combined analysis of these and July 2006 observations will constrain evolution and dynamics of longer-lived discrete features. Selected observations of Neptune will characterize its current activity level and provide important comparisons with the deep cloud structur! e of Uranus.

  4. Dynamics and Emergent Structures in Active Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, Aparna

    2014-03-01

    In this talk, we consider an active fluid of colloidal sized particles, with the primary manifestation of activity being a self-replenishing velocity along one body axis of the particle. This is a minimal model for varied systems such as bacterial colonies, cytoskeletal filament motility assays vibrated granular particles and self propelled diffusophoretic colloids, depending on the nature of interaction among the particles. Using microscopic Brownian dynamics simulations, coarse-graining using the tools of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and analysis of macroscopic hydrodynamic theories, we characterize emergent structures seen in these systems, which are determined by the symmetry of the interactions among the active units, such as propagating density waves, dense stationary bands, asters and phase separated isotropic clusters. We identify a universal mechanism, termed ``self-regulation,'' as the underlying physics that leads to these structures in diverse systems. Support from NSF through DMR-1149266 and DMR-0820492.

  5. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; Leibowitz, L.

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  6. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; ...

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. Onmore » melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.« less

  7. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Skinner, L B; Benmore, C J; Weber, J K R; Williamson, M A; Tamalonis, A; Hebden, A; Wiencek, T; Alderman, O L G; Guthrie, M; Leibowitz, L; Parise, J B

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Structure and Dynamics in Hyperbranched Nanohybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrissopoulou, K.; Fotiadou, S.; Anastasiadis, S. H.; Frick, B.

    2012-02-01

    The structure and dynamics of a hyperbranched polyester-amide (Hybrane^ 1200, Mn=1200, Tg=45^oC) polymer and its nanocomposites with natural montmorillonite (Na^+-MMT) are investigated to offer a detailed picture of its behavior in bulk and under confinement and reveal its potential use for various applications. The static properties were studied utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the dynamics using energy-resolved elastic and quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). XRD reveals that the polymer chains reside within the galleries of the Na^+-MMT producing an intercalated nanocomposite. The elastically scattered intensity for the polymer exhibits two distinct relaxation steps, which are attributed to the methyl group rotation and to the segmental motion. The intensity for the nanocomposite shows the first step broader than the respective of the pure polymer indicating restricted local motion whereas it indicates frozen dynamics under confinement at temperatures higher than the bulk polymer glass transition temperature, Tg. The QENS spectra measured at temperatures covering the regimes below and above Tg are in agreement with the elastic measurements. Sponsored by the Greek GSRT (σYNEP γA σIA; 09σYN-42-580) and by the EU (CP-IP 246095-2).

  9. Molecular structures and intramolecular dynamics of pentahalides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ischenko, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper reviews advances of modern gas electron diffraction (GED) method combined with high-resolution spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations in studies of the impact of intramolecular dynamics in free molecules of pentahalides. Some recently developed approaches to the electron diffraction data interpretation, based on direct incorporation of the adiabatic potential energy surface parameters to the diffraction intensity are described. In this way, complementary data of different experimental and computational methods can be directly combined for solving problems of the molecular structure and its dynamics. The possibility to evaluate some important parameters of the adiabatic potential energy surface - barriers to pseudorotation and saddle point of intermediate configuration from diffraction intensities in solving the inverse GED problem is demonstrated on several examples. With increasing accuracy of the electron diffraction intensities and the development of the theoretical background of electron scattering and data interpretation, it has become possible to investigate complex nuclear dynamics in fluxional systems by the GED method. Results of other research groups are also included in the discussion.

  10. Physicochemical, rheological and structural characteristics of starch in maize tortillas.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Uribe, Juan P; Ramos-López, Gonzalo; Yee-Madeira, Hernani; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2010-06-01

    Fresh and stored maize (white and blue) tortillas were evaluated for physicochemical, rheological and structural characteristics assessed by calorimetry, x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, dynamic viscoelastic tests, and high-performance size-exclusion chromatography. Two endotherms were found in studies of fresh and stored tortillas. The low temperature endotherm (50-56 degrees C) was due to reorganized (retrograded) amylopectin, while the high temperature endotherm (105-123 degrees C) was attributed to retrograded amylose. The enthalpy value for the lower temperature transition was minor than that of the high temperature transition. Fresh tortillas showed an amorphous starch arrangement by x-ray diffraction study. Stored samples showed the presence of peaks at 2theta = 17 masculine and 23 masculine, indicating re-crystallization of starch components. FTIR results confirmed the development of higher levels of starch crystals during storage. Differences in the viscoelastic parameters were also observed between fresh and stored samples. At the longest storage times, white tortillas were more rigid than blue tortillas. Molar mass values for starch increased for both white and blue tortillas as storage time progressed, though relatively higher values were obtained for white tortillas. More starch reorganization occurred in white tortillas, in accordance to calorimetric, x-ray diffraction, FTIR and rheological results. These results corroborate that changes occurring in tortillas during storage are related to reorganization of starch components, and the maize variety more than the color plays an important role.

  11. Dynamics of Stride Interval Characteristics during Continuous Stairmill Climbing.

    PubMed

    Raffalt, Peter C; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Renz, Jessica J; Mukherjee, Mukul; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that statistical persistence in stride intervals characteristics exist during walking, running and cycling and were speed-dependent among healthy young adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if such statistical persistence in stride time interval, stride length and stride speed also exists during self-paced continuous stairmill climbing and if the strength is dependent on stepping rate. Stride time, stride length, and stride speed were collected from nine healthy participants during 3 min of stairmill climbing at 100, 110, and 120% of their preferred stepping rate (PSR) and 5 min of treadmill walking at preferred walking speed (PWS). The amount of variability (assessed by standard deviation and coefficient of variation) and dynamics (assessed by detrended fluctuation analysis and sample entropy) of the stride time, stride length, and stride speed time series were investigated. The amounts of variability were significantly higher during stairmill climbing for the stride time, stride length, and stride speed and did only change with increased stepping rate for stride speed. In addition to a more irregular pattern during stairmill climbing, the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) revealed that the stride length fluctuations were statistical anti-persistent for all subjects. On a group level both stride time and stride speed fluctuations were characterized by an uncorrelated pattern which was more irregular compared to that during treadmill walking. However, large inter-participant differences were observed for these two variables. In addition, the dynamics did not change with increase in stepping rate.

  12. Physical characteristics of cometary dust from dynamical studies - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Progress made in the determination of the physical characteristics of cometary dust particles from studies of dust tail dynamics is reviewed. Applications of the combined dynamical photometric approach of Finson and Probstein (1968) to studies of cometary tails exhibiting continuous light intensity variations are discussed, with attention given to determinations of the particle-size-related distribution function of the solar radiation pressure exerted on the particles, the contribution of comets to the interplanetary dust, calculations of dust ejection rates and a Monte Carlo approach to the analysis of dust tails. Investigations of dust streamers and striae, which are believed to be related to comet outbursts entailing brief but sharp enhancements of dust production, are then reviewed, with particular attention given to observations of Comet West 1976 VI. Finally, the question of cometary particle type is addressed, and it is pointed out that the presence of submicron absorbing particles in the striae of Comet West is not incompatible with the presence of micron-size dielectric particles in the inner coma.

  13. Dynamics of Stride Interval Characteristics during Continuous Stairmill Climbing

    PubMed Central

    Raffalt, Peter C.; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Renz, Jessica J.; Mukherjee, Mukul; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that statistical persistence in stride intervals characteristics exist during walking, running and cycling and were speed-dependent among healthy young adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if such statistical persistence in stride time interval, stride length and stride speed also exists during self-paced continuous stairmill climbing and if the strength is dependent on stepping rate. Stride time, stride length, and stride speed were collected from nine healthy participants during 3 min of stairmill climbing at 100, 110, and 120% of their preferred stepping rate (PSR) and 5 min of treadmill walking at preferred walking speed (PWS). The amount of variability (assessed by standard deviation and coefficient of variation) and dynamics (assessed by detrended fluctuation analysis and sample entropy) of the stride time, stride length, and stride speed time series were investigated. The amounts of variability were significantly higher during stairmill climbing for the stride time, stride length, and stride speed and did only change with increased stepping rate for stride speed. In addition to a more irregular pattern during stairmill climbing, the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) revealed that the stride length fluctuations were statistical anti-persistent for all subjects. On a group level both stride time and stride speed fluctuations were characterized by an uncorrelated pattern which was more irregular compared to that during treadmill walking. However, large inter-participant differences were observed for these two variables. In addition, the dynamics did not change with increase in stepping rate. PMID:28878688

  14. The dynamic impact characteristics of tennis balls with tennis rackets.

    PubMed

    Haake, S J; Carré, M J; Goodwill, S R

    2003-10-01

    The dynamic properties of six types of tennis balls were measured using a force platform and high-speed digital video images of ball impacts on rigidly clamped tennis rackets. It was found that the coefficient of restitution reduced with velocity for impacts on a rigid surface or with a rigidly clamped tennis racket. Pressurized balls had the highest coefficient of restitution, which decreased by 20% when punctured. Pressureless balls had a coefficient of restitution approaching that of a punctured ball at high speeds. The dynamic stiffness of the ball or the ball-racket system increased with velocity and pressurized balls had the highest stiffness, which decreased by 35% when punctured. The characteristics of pressureless balls were shown to be similar to those of punctured balls at high velocity and it was found that lowering the string tension produced a smaller range of stiffness or coefficient of restitution. It was hypothesized that players might consider high ball stiffness to imply a high coefficient of restitution. Plots of coefficient of restitution versus stiffness confirmed the relationship and it was found that, generally, pressurized balls had a higher coefficient of restitution and stiffness than pressureless balls. The players might perceive these parameters through a combination of sound, vibration and perception of ball speed off the racket.

  15. Seismic characteristics and identification of negative flower structures, positive flower structures, and positive structural inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, T.P.

    1985-04-01

    Negative and positive flower structures and positive inverted structures imply specific modes of formation, and their distinctive characteristics make them important criteria for the identification of certain structural styles. A negative flower structure from the Andaman Sea consists of a shallow synform bounded by upward-spreading strands of a wrench fault that have mostly normal separations. Paralleling monoclines and oblique, en echelon normal faults flank the divergent wrench fault. A positive flower structure from the Ardmore basin, Oklahoma, consists of a shallow antiform displaced by the upward diverging strands of a wrench fault that have mostly reverse separations. En echelon folds are present on either side of this convergent wrench fault. Positive structural inversion at the Rambutan oil field, South Sumatra basin, has formed a shallow anticlinorium and has partly uplifted the underlying graben. Deeper fault segments bounding the graben have retained their normal fault profiles, but at shallow levels some of these faults have reverse separations.

  16. High-dynamic-range MCP structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, David C.; Timothy, J. G.

    1991-01-01

    We report on the development of a new high-dynamic-range two-stage Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) imaging tube designed for improved high count rate performance at FUV and EUV wavelengths. The new two-stage MAMA tube employs two 25-mm-diameter format MCPs placed in tandem with a small gap between the plates. The front (input) MCP is designed to be a low-gain converter plate that supports an opaque photocathode and converts the detected photons to electrons, while the second (output) MCP is of higher conductivity and thus maintains the overall gain of the multiplier at high count rates. The second MCP is mounted in proximity focus with a (224 x 960)-pixel fine-fine coincidence MAMA array for high-spatial-resolution imaging studies. The applied voltage across each MCP can be controlled independently. We report on the gain and dynamic range performance characteristics of the two-stage MAMA tube in two different configurations: first, with the output MCP having moderate conductivity (about 100 MOhm); and second, with the output MCP having very high conductivity (about 2 MOhm). These results are compared and contrasted with those of the more conventional MAMA tube configuration which employs a single high-gain curved-channel MCP.

  17. Chemical Structure and Dynamics annual report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Colson, S.D.; McDowell, R.S.

    1998-03-01

    The Chemical Structure and Dynamics (CS and D) program is a major component of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide a state-of-the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. The authors respond to the need for a fundamental, molecular level understanding of chemistry at a wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by: (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in environmental chemistry and in nuclear waste processing and storage; and (3) developing state-of-the-art analytical methods for characterizing complex materials of the types found in stored wastes and contaminated soils, and for detecting and monitoring trace atmospheric species. The focus of the research is defined primarily by DOE`s environmental problems: fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface environment, processing and storage of waste materials, cellular effects of chemical and radiological insult, and atmospheric chemistry as it relates to air quality and global change. Twenty-seven projects are described under the following topical sections: Reaction mechanisms at interfaces; High-energy processes at environmental interfaces; Cluster models of the condensed phase; and Miscellaneous.

  18. Modeling Insurgent Network Structure and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbay, Michael; Thirkill-Mackelprang, Ashley

    2010-03-01

    We present a methodology for mapping insurgent network structure based on their public rhetoric. Indicators of cooperative links between insurgent groups at both the leadership and rank-and-file levels are used, such as joint policy statements or joint operations claims. In addition, a targeting policy measure is constructed on the basis of insurgent targeting claims. Network diagrams which integrate these measures of insurgent cooperation and ideology are generated for different periods of the Iraqi and Afghan insurgencies. The network diagrams exhibit meaningful changes which track the evolution of the strategic environment faced by insurgent groups. Correlations between targeting policy and network structure indicate that insurgent targeting claims are aimed at establishing a group identity among the spectrum of rank-and-file insurgency supporters. A dynamical systems model of insurgent alliance formation and factionalism is presented which evolves the relationship between insurgent group dyads as a function of their ideological differences and their current relationships. The ability of the model to qualitatively and quantitatively capture insurgent network dynamics observed in the data is discussed.

  19. Dynamical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols over IG region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manish; Singh, Ramesh P.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-05-01

    The dynamical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic (IG) region are primarily dependent on the geographical settings and meteorological conditions. Detailed analysis of multi satellite data and ground observations have been carried out over three different cities i.e. Kanpur, Greater Noida and Amritsar during 2010-2013. Level-3 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) terra daily global grid product with spatial resolution of 1° × 1° shows the mean AOD at 500 nm wavelength value of 0.73, 0.70 and 0.67 with the standard deviation of 0.43, 0.39 and 0.36 respectively over Amritsar, Greater Noida and Kanpur. Our detailed analysis shows characteristic behavior of aerosols from west to east in the IG region depending upon the proximity of desert regions of Arabia. We have observed large influx of dusts from the Thar desert and Arabia peninsula during pre-monsoon season (April-June), highly affecting Amritsar which is close to the desert region.

  20. Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalkofen, Wolfgang

    1998-01-01

    The problem of chromospheric dynamics and heating consists of two problems: one, concerning the magnetic network on the boundary of supergranulation cells (CB), where the oscillation period is seven minutes, and the other, concerning the cell interior (CI), where the oscillation period is three minutes. The observational data on the oscillations and the emission of radiation can be used to determine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere provided answers are known to three critical questions, concerning: the nature of the waves powering the bright points, the origin of the observed oscillation periods and the mechanism of chromospheric heating. The recent modeling of the dynamics of the CI, which combines a sophisticated treatment of gas dynamics and radiative transfer in a one-dimensional model with empirical velocity input from the observations, answered the first of these questions: the waves powering K(sub 2upsilon), bright points are propagating acoustic waves. This firm conclusion declares invalid the model of Leibacher & Stein, which explains the observed period with standing acoustic waves in a chromospheric cavity. On the third question, the heating of the chromosphere in the CI, their model predicts that the temperature in the chromosphere is declining in the outward direction up to a height of at least I Mm most of the time, so even the time-average temperature is dropping monotonically in the outward direction, implying that lines formed in the chromosphere up to a height of at least 1 Mm appear in absorption most of the time and everywhere in the CI. The problem of the CI can be resolved with a two-component model, which combines a model for K(sub 2upsilon), bright points with a model for the background. The bright point model has the same aims as the CS94 model, except that the empirical driving from the LRK93 observations is replaced by impulsive excitation, as suggested by the properties of the Klein-Gordon equation.

  1. Structural optimization for nonlinear dynamic response.

    PubMed

    Dou, Suguang; Strachan, B Scott; Shaw, Steven W; Jensen, Jakob S

    2015-09-28

    Much is known about the nonlinear resonant response of mechanical systems, but methods for the systematic design of structures that optimize aspects of these responses have received little attention. Progress in this area is particularly important in the area of micro-systems, where nonlinear resonant behaviour is being used for a variety of applications in sensing and signal conditioning. In this work, we describe a computational method that provides a systematic means for manipulating and optimizing features of nonlinear resonant responses of mechanical structures that are described by a single vibrating mode, or by a pair of internally resonant modes. The approach combines techniques from nonlinear dynamics, computational mechanics and optimization, and it allows one to relate the geometric and material properties of structural elements to terms in the normal form for a given resonance condition, thereby providing a means for tailoring its nonlinear response. The method is applied to the fundamental nonlinear resonance of a clamped-clamped beam and to the coupled mode response of a frame structure, and the results show that one can modify essential normal form coefficients by an order of magnitude by relatively simple changes in the shape of these elements. We expect the proposed approach, and its extensions, to be useful for the design of systems used for fundamental studies of nonlinear behaviour as well as for the development of commercial devices that exploit nonlinear behaviour.

  2. Structural Dynamics of the Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casañas, Arnau; Querol, Jordi; Fita, Ignasi; Verdaguer, Núria

    Vaults are ubiquitous, highly conserved, 13 MDa ribonucleoprotein particles, involved in a diversity of cellular processes, including multidrug resistance, transport mechanisms and signal transmission. There are between 104 and 106 vault particles per mammalian cell and they do not trigger autoimmunity. The vault particle shows a hollow barrel-shaped structure organized in two identical moieties, each consisting of 39 copies of the major vault protein (MVP). Other data indicated that vault halves can dissociate at acidic pH. The high resolution, crystal structure of the of the seven N-terminal domains (R1-R7) of MVP, forming the central vault barrel, together with that of the native vault particle (solved at 8 Å resolution), revealed the interactions governing vault association and suggested a pH-dependent mechanism for a reversible dissociation induced by low pH. Vault particles posses many features making them very promising vehicles for the delivery of therapeutic agents including self-assembly, 100 nm size range, emerging atomic-level structural information, natural presence in humans ensuring biocompability, recombinant production system, existing features for targeting species to the large lumen and a dynamic structure that may be controlled for manipulation of drug release kinetics. All these attributes provide vaults with enormous potential as a drug/gene delivery platform.

  3. The 3D lightweight structural characteristics of the beetle forewing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinxiang; Tuo, Wanyong; Guo, Zhensheng; Yan, Lili

    2017-02-01

    The present paper renewedly expounds upon the characteristics of the 3D lightweight structure of beetle forewings and notes that two biomimetic structures (models) that have appeared in recent years do not comply with these characteristics based on a comparison of the structures of the biological prototypes. The first model features transverse tubules based on observations of circular holes in cross-sectional figures of the Cybister forewing. The second is a biomimetic spherical cavity model with hollow trabeculae that reportedly exhibits superior mechanical properties because its structures are most similar to the biological prototype. Finally, a false biomimetic proposition that the mechanical properties of biomimetic structures with "fiber winding" patterns are superior to those of structures constructed of pure "epoxy" is also noted. Hopefully, the present study can serve to improve the state of research on biomimetic applications of beetle forewing structures.

  4. Structural and dynamical properties of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoshal, Gourab

    Recent years have witnessed a substantial amount of interest within the physics community in the properties of networks. Techniques from statistical physics coupled with the widespread availability of computing resources have facilitated studies ranging from large scale empirical analysis of the worldwide web, social networks, biological systems, to the development of theoretical models and tools to explore the various properties of these systems. Following these developments, in this dissertation, we present and solve for a diverse set of new problems, investigating the structural and dynamical properties of both model and real world networks. We start by defining a new metric to measure the stability of network structure to disruptions, and then using a combination of theory and simulation study its properties in detail on artificially generated networks; we then compare our results to a selection of networks from the real world and find good agreement in most cases. In the following chapter, we propose a mathematical model that mimics the structure of popular file-sharing websites such as Flickr and CiteULike and demonstrate that many of its properties can solved exactly in the limit of large network size. The remaining part of the dissertation primarily focuses on the dynamical properties of networks. We first formulate a model of a network that evolves under the addition and deletion of vertices and edges, and solve for the equilibrium degree distribution for a variety of cases of interest. We then consider networks whose structure can be manipulated by adjusting the rules by which vertices enter and leave the network. We focus in particular on degree distributions and show that, with some mild constraints, it is possible by a suitable choice of rules to arrange for the network to have any degree distribution we desire. In addition we define a simple local algorithm by which appropriate rules can be implemented in practice. Finally, we conclude our

  5. Response and characteristics of structures subjected to S-H waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the dynamic characteristics of a coupled translational-rotational system is given. The formulation of the problem considers the soil-structure interaction effects by utilizing the impedance functions at the foundation of a structure. Due to the fact that the coefficient matrix in the characteristic equation is frequency dependent in nature, iterations have to be performed to find the nature frequencies of the system. Examples and discussions are presented. Comparisons of the analytical results from various approaches are also given.

  6. Structure and dynamics of layered molecular assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Jennifer Conrad

    This dissertation focuses on the goal of understanding and controlling layered material properties from a molecular perspective. With this understanding, materials can be synthetically tailored to exhibit predetermined bulk properties. This investigation describes the optical response of a family of metal-phosphonate (MP) monolayers and multilayers, materials that are potentially useful because the films are easy to synthesize and are chemically and thermally stable. MP films have shown potential in a variety of chemical sensing and optical applications, and in this dissertation, the suitability of MP films for optical information storage is explored For this application, the extent of photonic energy transport within and between optically active layers is an important factor in determining the stability and specificity of optical modifications made to a material. Intralayer and interlayer energy transport processes can be studied selectively in MP films because the composition, and thus the properties, of each layer are controlled synthetically. It was determined by fluorescence relaxation dynamics in conjunction with atomic force microscopy (AFM) that the substrate and layer morphologies are key factors in determining the layer optical and physical properties. The initial MP layers in a multilayer are structurally heterogeneous, characterized by randomly distributed islands that are ~50 A in diameter. The population dynamics measured for these layers are non-exponential, chromophore concentration-independent, and identical for two different chromophores. The data is explained in the context of an excitation hopping model in a system where the surface is characterized by islands of aggregated chromophores as well as non-aggregated monomers. Within a MP monolayer, the dynamics are dominated by intra-island excitation hopping. Forster (dipolar) energy transfer between the energetically overlapped chromophores does not play a significant role in determining the

  7. Structural Characteristics of University Engineering Students' Conceptions of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiufeng; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Fraser, Duncan M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines structural characteristics of university engineering students' conceptions of energy elicited through paragraph writing and their relations with categories of their conceptions specific to energy in solution processes identified through interviews. Reports that structures of students' conceptions are characterized primarily by…

  8. Structural Characteristics of University Engineering Students' Conceptions of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiufeng; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Fraser, Duncan M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines structural characteristics of university engineering students' conceptions of energy elicited through paragraph writing and their relations with categories of their conceptions specific to energy in solution processes identified through interviews. Reports that structures of students' conceptions are characterized primarily by…

  9. Charge transport and structural dynamics in ultra-thin films of polymerized ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heres, Maximilian; Cosby, Tyler; Berdzinski, Stefan; Strehmel, Veronica; Benson, Roberto; Sangoro, Joshua

    Ion conduction and structural dynamics in a series of ultra-thin films of imidazolium based polymerized ionic liquids are investigated using broadband dielectric spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and ellipsometry. No alteration in the characteristic charge transport rate is observed between bulk sample and films as thin as 12nm. These results are discussed within the recent approaches proposed to explain the confinement effects on structural dynamics in polymers and low molecular weight ionic liquids. NSF DRM Polymers Program.

  10. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 3: Structure Medium Interaction, Case Studies in Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Structure and medium interactions topics are addressed. Topics include: a failure analysis of underground concrete structures subjected to blast loadings, an optimization design procedure for concrete slabs, and a discussion of the transient response of a cylindrical shell submerged in a fluid. Case studies in dynamics are presented which include an examination of a shock isolation platform for a seasparrow launcher, a discussion of hydrofoil fatigue load environments, and an investigation of the dynamic characteristics of turbine generators and low tuned foundations.

  11. Characterization of photonic amorphous structures with different characteristic lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Cheng-Chi; Hung, Yu-Chueh

    2016-04-01

    Photonic amorphous structure (PAS) has attracted increasing research attention due to their interesting characteristics, such as noniridescent structural colors and isotropic photonic band gap. In this work, we present PAS with different characteristic lengths and analyze their structural and topological properties. First, a Fourier spectral method was used to solve Cahn-Hilliard equation and generate a spinodal binary phase structure. By changing the time of the evolution of phase field, mobility, and standard deviation, the characteristic length of amorphous structures can be adjusted. We present the numerical analysis based on finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to characterize the density of state (DOS) of PAS based on different time of the evolution of phase field. The corresponding spatial Fourier spectrum of PAS is calculated to examine the characteristic length, and the photonic band gap properties will be discussed in association with the characteristic length. These results are crucial for design of new optical materials display devices base on dielectric amorphous photonic structures.

  12. Nonparametric inference of network structure and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peixoto, Tiago P.

    The network structure of complex systems determine their function and serve as evidence for the evolutionary mechanisms that lie behind them. Despite considerable effort in recent years, it remains an open challenge to formulate general descriptions of the large-scale structure of network systems, and how to reliably extract such information from data. Although many approaches have been proposed, few methods attempt to gauge the statistical significance of the uncovered structures, and hence the majority cannot reliably separate actual structure from stochastic fluctuations. Due to the sheer size and high-dimensionality of many networks, this represents a major limitation that prevents meaningful interpretations of the results obtained with such nonstatistical methods. In this talk, I will show how these issues can be tackled in a principled and efficient fashion by formulating appropriate generative models of network structure that can have their parameters inferred from data. By employing a Bayesian description of such models, the inference can be performed in a nonparametric fashion, that does not require any a priori knowledge or ad hoc assumptions about the data. I will show how this approach can be used to perform model comparison, and how hierarchical models yield the most appropriate trade-off between model complexity and quality of fit based on the statistical evidence present in the data. I will also show how this general approach can be elegantly extended to networks with edge attributes, that are embedded in latent spaces, and that change in time. The latter is obtained via a fully dynamic generative network model, based on arbitrary-order Markov chains, that can also be inferred in a nonparametric fashion. Throughout the talk I will illustrate the application of the methods with many empirical networks such as the internet at the autonomous systems level, the global airport network, the network of actors and films, social networks, citations among

  13. Equilibrium and Dynamical Characteristics of Imidazole Langmuir Monolayers on Graphite Sheets.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Javier; Elola, M Dolores; Laria, D

    2015-07-23

    Using molecular dynamics techniques, we examine structural and dynamical characteristics of liquid-like imidazole (Im) monolayers physisorbed onto a planar graphite sheet, at T = 384 K. Our simulations reveal that molecular orientations in the saturated monolayer exhibit a bistable distribution, characterized by an inner parallel arrangement of the molecules in close contact with the substrate and a slanted alignment, in those lying in adjacent, outer locations. Compared to the results found in three-dimensional, bulk phases, the analysis of the spatial correlations between sites participating in hydrogen bonding shows a clear enhancement of the intermolecular interactions, which also leads to stronger dipolar correlations. As a result, the gross structural features of the monolayer can be cast in terms of mesoscopic domains, comprising units articulated via winding hydrogen bonds, that persist along typical time intervals of a few tens of picoseconds. On the dynamical side, a similar comparison of the characteristic decorrelation time for orientational motions shows a 4-fold increment. Contrasting, the reduction of the system dimensionality leads to a larger diffusion constant. Possible substrate-induced anisotropies in the diffusive motions are also investigated.

  14. Structure, dynamics, and function of biomolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Frauenfelder, H.; Berendzen, J.R.; Garcia, A.; Gupta, G.; Olah, G.A.; Terwilliger, T.C.; Trewhella, J.; Wood, C.C.; Woodruff, W.H.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors enhanced Los Alamos' core competency in Bioscience and Biotechnology by building on present strengths in experimental techniques, theory, high-performance computing, modeling, and simulation applied to biomolecular structure, dynamics, and function. Specifically, the authors strengthened their capabilities in neutron/x-ray scattering, x-ray crystallography, NMR, laser, and optical spectroscopies. Initially they focused on supporting the Los alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in the design and implementation of new neutron scattering instrumentation, they developed new methods for analysis of scattering data, and they developed new projects to study the structures of biomolecular complexes. The authors have also worked to strengthen interactions between theory and experiment, and between the biological and physical sciences. They sponsored regular meetings of members from all interested LANL technical divisions, and supported two lecture series: ''Biology for Physicists'' and ''Issues in Modern Biology''. They also supported the formation of interdisciplinary/inter-divisional teams to develop projects in science-based bioremediation and an integrated structural biology resource. Finally, they successfully worked with a multidisciplinary team to put forward the Laboratory's Genome and Beyond tactical goal.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation of water at mineral surfaces: Structure, dynamics, energetics and hydrogen bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinichev, A. G.; Wang, J.; Kirkpatrick, R.

    2006-05-01

    groups. The H2O density profiles and other structural and dynamic characteristics of water at the two siloxane surfaces are very different from each other and from the hydroxide surfaces, since the muscovite surface is negatively charged and hydrophilic, while the talc surface is electrostatically neutral and hydrophobic. In general, at hydrophilic neutral surfaces both donating and accepting H-bonds from the H2O molecules are contributing to the development of the interfacial H-bond network, whereas at hydrophilic but charged surfaces only accepting or donating H-bonds with H2O molecules are possible. At the hydrophobic talc surface H-bonds among H2O molecules dominate the interfacial H-bond network and the water-surface interactions are very weak. The first water layer at all substrates is well ordered parallel to the surface, reflecting substrate crystal structures and indicating the reduced translational and orientational mobility of interfacial H2O molecules. At longer time scale (~100ps) their dynamics can be decomposed into a slow, virtually frozen, regime due to the substrate- bound H2O and a faster regime of almost free water reflecting the dynamics far from the surface. At shorter times (>10ps) the two dynamical regimes are superimposed. The much higher ordering of interfacial water (compared to bulk liquid) can not be adequately described as simply "ice-like". To some extent, it rather resembles the behavior of supercooled water.

  16. Structural signatures of dynamic heterogeneities in monolayers of colloidal ellipsoids

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhongyu; Ni, Ran; Wang, Feng; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Wang, Yuren; Han, Yilong

    2014-01-01

    When a liquid is supercooled towards the glass transition, its dynamics drastically slows down, whereas its static structure remains relatively unchanged. Finding a structural signature of the dynamic slowing down is a major challenge, yet it is often too subtle to be uncovered. Here we discover the structural signatures for both translational and rotational dynamics in monolayers of colloidal ellipsoids by video microscopy experiments and computer simulations. The correlation lengths of the dynamic slowest-moving clusters, the static glassy clusters, the static local structural entropy and the dynamic heterogeneity follow the same power-law divergence, suggesting that the kinetic slowing down is caused by a decrease in the structural entropy and an increase in the size of the glassy cluster. Ellipsoids with different aspect ratios exhibit single- or double-step glass transitions with distinct dynamic heterogeneities. These findings demonstrate that the particle shape anisotropy has important effects on the structure and dynamics of the glass. PMID:24807069

  17. Dynamic characteristics of gas-water interfacial plasma under water

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, S. J.; Zhang, Y. C.; Ke, B.; Ding, F.; Tang, Z. L.; Yang, K.; Zhu, X. D.

    2012-06-15

    Gas-water interfacial plasmas under water were generated in a compact space in a tube with a sandglass-like structure, where two metal wires were employed as electrodes with an applied 35 kHz ac power source. The dynamic behaviors of voltage/current were investigated for the powered electrode with/without water cover to understand the effect of the gas-water interface. It is found that the discharge exhibits periodic pulsed currents after breakdown as the powered electrode is covered with water, whereas the electrical current reveals a damped oscillation with time with a frequency about 10{sup 6} Hz as the powered electrode is in a vapor bubble. By increasing water conductivity, a discharge current waveform transition from pulse to oscillation presents in the water covering case. These suggest that the gas-water interface has a significant influence on the discharge property.

  18. A Fast Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for the Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics Analysis of Indoor Substation Rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L. W.; Zou, A. X.

    2017-05-01

    In order to find a high efficiency, energy saving structure of the indoor substation room, a novel computational fluid dynamics method is proposed to model its flow and heat transfer characteristics. As an automatic optimization system, the efficient methods for mesh generation and numerical calculation are necessary. The mesh of the whole room including the transformer and its heat transfer fins is created using a structured mesh scheme, and a detection technology is adopted to recognize all the obstacles. In order to improve the numerical efficiency, a fast computational fluid dynamics (FFD) method is adopted to establish the three dimensional dynamic model with heat source. The comparisons between the FFD model and the experimental data show that the FFD can model the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the indoor substation efficiently. By modifying the related parameters in the model, this method can be used in the simulation of other indoor substation rooms to optimize their structure and operation.

  19. Dynamics of influence on hierarchical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotouhi, Babak; Rabbat, Michael G.

    2013-08-01

    Dichotomous spin dynamics on a pyramidal hierarchical structure (the Bethe lattice) are studied. The system embodies a number of classes, where a class comprises nodes that are equidistant from the root (head node). Weighted links exist between nodes from the same and different classes. The spin (hereafter state) of the head node is fixed. We solve for the dynamics of the system for different boundary conditions. We find necessary conditions so that the classes eventually repudiate or acquiesce in the state imposed by the head node. The results indicate that to reach unanimity across the hierarchy, it suffices that the bottommost class adopts the same state as the head node. Then the rest of the hierarchy will inevitably comply. This also sheds light on the importance of mass media as a means of synchronization between the topmost and bottommost classes. Surprisingly, in the case of discord between the head node and the bottommost classes, the average state over all nodes inclines towards that of the bottommost class regardless of the link weights and intraclass configurations. Hence the role of the bottommost class is signified.

  20. Dynamics and structure of planetary rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent research efforts were directed towards sharpening the understanding of kinematical and dynamical properties of the Uranian rings, with the combination of Earth-based and Voyager observations, and in obtaining and interpreting new observations of the Saturn system from the remarkable stellar occultation of 3 Jul. 1989. Some of the highlights studied include: (1) a detailed comparison of structure and dynamics of the Uranus rings from joint analysis of high quality Earth-based data and the complete set of Voyager occultation measurements; (2) a comprehensive search for weak normal modes excited in the Uranian rings, analogous to the m = 2 and m = 0 normal modes previously identified for the delta and gamma rings; (3) an ongoing search for faint rings and ring arcs of Uranus, using both Voyager images of the rings and Earth-based and spacecraft stellar occultation data; (4) a comparison of upper stratospheric temperatures of Uranus inferred from Voyager ultraviolet occultations with results of ground-based occultation observations; and (5) observations of the 3 Jul. 1989 Saturn occultation of 28 Sgr.

  1. Dynamics of influence on hierarchical structures.

    PubMed

    Fotouhi, Babak; Rabbat, Michael G

    2013-08-01

    Dichotomous spin dynamics on a pyramidal hierarchical structure (the Bethe lattice) are studied. The system embodies a number of classes, where a class comprises nodes that are equidistant from the root (head node). Weighted links exist between nodes from the same and different classes. The spin (hereafter state) of the head node is fixed. We solve for the dynamics of the system for different boundary conditions. We find necessary conditions so that the classes eventually repudiate or acquiesce in the state imposed by the head node. The results indicate that to reach unanimity across the hierarchy, it suffices that the bottommost class adopts the same state as the head node. Then the rest of the hierarchy will inevitably comply. This also sheds light on the importance of mass media as a means of synchronization between the topmost and bottommost classes. Surprisingly, in the case of discord between the head node and the bottommost classes, the average state over all nodes inclines towards that of the bottommost class regardless of the link weights and intraclass configurations. Hence the role of the bottommost class is signified.

  2. Lagrangian coherent structures and inertial particle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Sudharsan, M; Brunton, Steven L; Riley, James J

    2016-03-01

    In this work we investigate the dynamics of inertial particles using finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE). In particular, we characterize the attractor and repeller structures underlying preferential concentration of inertial particles in terms of FTLE fields of the underlying carrier fluid. Inertial particles that are heavier than the ambient fluid (aerosols) attract onto ridges of the negative-time fluid FTLE. This negative-time FTLE ridge becomes a repeller for particles that are lighter than the carrier fluid (bubbles). We also examine the inertial FTLE (iFTLE) determined by the trajectories of inertial particles evolved using the Maxey-Riley equations with nonzero Stokes number and density ratio. Finally, we explore the low-pass filtering effect of Stokes number. These ideas are demonstrated on two-dimensional numerical simulations of the unsteady double-gyre flow.

  3. Lagrangian coherent structures and inertial particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudharsan, M.; Brunton, Steven L.; Riley, James J.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we investigate the dynamics of inertial particles using finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE). In particular, we characterize the attractor and repeller structures underlying preferential concentration of inertial particles in terms of FTLE fields of the underlying carrier fluid. Inertial particles that are heavier than the ambient fluid (aerosols) attract onto ridges of the negative-time fluid FTLE. This negative-time FTLE ridge becomes a repeller for particles that are lighter than the carrier fluid (bubbles). We also examine the inertial FTLE (iFTLE) determined by the trajectories of inertial particles evolved using the Maxey-Riley equations with nonzero Stokes number and density ratio. Finally, we explore the low-pass filtering effect of Stokes number. These ideas are demonstrated on two-dimensional numerical simulations of the unsteady double-gyre flow.

  4. Chromatin Higher-order Structure and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Christopher L.; Ghosh, Rajarshi P.

    2010-01-01

    The primary role of the nucleus as an information storage, retrieval, and replication site requires the physical organization and compaction of meters of DNA. Although it has been clear for many years that nucleosomes constitute the first level of chromatin compaction, this contributes a relatively small fraction of the condensation needed to fit the typical genome into an interphase nucleus or set of metaphase chromosomes, indicating that there are additional “higher order” levels of chromatin condensation. Identifying these levels, their interrelationships, and the principles that govern their occurrence has been a challenging and much discussed problem. In this article, we focus on recent experimental advances and the emerging evidence indicating that structural plasticity and chromatin dynamics play dominant roles in genome organization. We also discuss novel approaches likely to yield important insights in the near future, and suggest research areas that merit further study. PMID:20452954

  5. Dynamic structure of active nematic shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhou, Ye; Rahimi, Mohammad; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2016-11-01

    When a thin film of active, nematic microtubules and kinesin motor clusters is confined on the surface of a vesicle, four +1/2 topological defects oscillate in a periodic manner between tetrahedral and planar arrangements. Here a theoretical description of nematics, coupled to the relevant hydrodynamic equations, is presented here to explain the dynamics of active nematic shells. In extensile microtubule systems, the defects repel each other due to elasticity, and their collective motion leads to closed trajectories along the edges of a cube. That motion is accompanied by oscillations of their velocities, and the emergence and annihilation of vortices. When the activity increases, the system enters a chaotic regime. In contrast, for contractile systems, which are representative of some bacterial suspensions, a hitherto unknown static structure is predicted, where pairs of defects attract each other and flows arise spontaneously.

  6. Dynamic structure of active nematic shells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Zhou, Ye; Rahimi, Mohammad; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    When a thin film of active, nematic microtubules and kinesin motor clusters is confined on the surface of a vesicle, four +1/2 topological defects oscillate in a periodic manner between tetrahedral and planar arrangements. Here a theoretical description of nematics, coupled to the relevant hydrodynamic equations, is presented here to explain the dynamics of active nematic shells. In extensile microtubule systems, the defects repel each other due to elasticity, and their collective motion leads to closed trajectories along the edges of a cube. That motion is accompanied by oscillations of their velocities, and the emergence and annihilation of vortices. When the activity increases, the system enters a chaotic regime. In contrast, for contractile systems, which are representative of some bacterial suspensions, a hitherto unknown static structure is predicted, where pairs of defects attract each other and flows arise spontaneously. PMID:27869130

  7. Dynamic structural correlation via nonlinear programming techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, T.; Ojalvo, I. U.

    1988-01-01

    A solution to the correlation between structural dynamic test results and finite element analyses of the same components is presented in this paper. Basically, the method can be categorized as a Levenberg-Marquardt type Gauss-Newton method which requires only the differences between FE modal analyses and test results and their first derivatives with respect to preassigned design variables. With proper variable normalization and equation scaling, the method has been made numerically better-conditioned and the inclusion of the Levenberg-Marquardt technique overcomes any remaining difficulty encountered in inverting singular or near-singular matrices. An important feature is that each iteration requires only one function evaluation along with the associated design sensitivity analysis and so the procedure is computationally efficient.

  8. Dynamically hot galaxies. I - Structural properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Ralf; Burstein, David; Faber, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    Results are reported from an analysis of the structural properties of dynamically hot galaxies which combines central velocity dispersion, effective surface brightness, and effective radius into a new 3-space (k), in which the axes are parameters that are physically meaningful. Hot galaxies are found to divide into groups in k-space that closely parallel conventional morphological classifications, namely, luminous ellipticals, compacts, bulges, bright dwarfs, and dwarf spheroidals. A major sequence is defined by luminous ellipticals, bulges, and most compacts, which together constitute a smooth continuum in k-space. Several properties vary smoothly with mass along this continuum, including bulge-to-disk ratio, radio properties, rotation, degree of velocity anisotropy, and 'unrelaxed'. A second major sequence is comprised of dwarf ellipticals and dwarf spheroidals. It is suggested that mass loss is a major factor in hot dwarf galaxies, but the dwarf sequence cannot be simply a mass-loss sequence, as it has the wrong direction in k-space.

  9. Dynamic structure factor of vibrating fractals.

    PubMed

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Klafter, Joseph; Granek, Rony

    2012-02-10

    Motivated by novel experimental work and the lack of an adequate theory, we study the dynamic structure factor S(k,t) of large vibrating fractal networks at large wave numbers k. We show that the decay of S(k,t) is dominated by the spatially averaged mean square displacement of a network node, which evolves subdiffusively in time, ((u[over →](i)(t)-u[over →](i)(0))(2))∼t(ν), where ν depends on the spectral dimension d(s) and fractal dimension d(f). As a result, S(k,t) decays as a stretched exponential S(k,t)≈S(k)e(-(Γ(k)t)(ν)) with Γ(k)∼k(2/ν). Applications to a variety of fractal-like systems are elucidated.

  10. Wheat yield dynamics: a structural econometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Afsin; Akdi, Yilmaz; Arslan, Fahrettin

    2007-10-15

    In this study we initially have tried to explore the wheat situation in Turkey, which has a small-open economy and in the member countries of European Union (EU). We have observed that increasing the wheat yield is fundamental to obtain comparative advantage among countries by depressing domestic prices. Also the changing structure of supporting schemes in Turkey makes it necessary to increase its wheat yield level. For this purpose, we have used available data to determine the dynamics of wheat yield by Ordinary Least Square Regression methods. In order to find out whether there is a linear relationship among these series we have checked each series whether they are integrated at the same order or not. Consequently, we have pointed out that fertilizer usage and precipitation level are substantial inputs for producing high wheat yield. Furthermore, in respect for our model, fertilizer usage affects wheat yield more than precipitation level.

  11. Chemical structure and dynamics. Annual report 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Colson, S.D.

    1995-07-01

    The Chemical Structure and Dynamics program was organized as a major component of Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a state-of-the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. Our program responds to the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding of chemistry at the wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces, and (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in environmental chemistry and in nuclear waste processing and storage. This research effort was initiated in 1989 and will continue to evolve over the next few years into a program of rigorous studies of fundamental molecular processes in model systems, such as well-characterized surfaces, single-component solutions, clusters, and biological molecules; and studies of complex systems found in the environment (multispecies, multiphase solutions; solid/liquid, liquid/liquid, and gas/surface interfaces; colloidal dispersions; ultrafine aerosols; and functioning biological systems). The success of this program will result in the achievement of a quantitative understanding of chemical reactions at interfaces, and more generally in condensed media, that is comparable to that currently available for gas-phase reactions. This understanding will form the basis for the development of a priori theories for predictions of macroscopic chemical behavior in condensed and heterogeneous media, adding significantly to the value of field-scale environmental models, the prediction of short- and long-term nuclear waste storage stabilities, and other problems related to the primary missions of the DOE.

  12. Multiscale Dynamics of Solar Magnetic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.

    2012-03-01

    Multiscale topological complexity of the solar magnetic field is among the primary factors controlling energy release in the corona, including associated processes in the photospheric and chromospheric boundaries. We present a new approach for analyzing multiscale behavior of the photospheric magnetic flux underlying these dynamics as depicted by a sequence of high-resolution solar magnetograms. The approach involves two basic processing steps: (1) identification of timing and location of magnetic flux origin and demise events (as defined by DeForest et al.) by tracking spatiotemporal evolution of unipolar and bipolar photospheric regions, and (2) analysis of collective behavior of the detected magnetic events using a generalized version of the Grassberger-Procaccia correlation integral algorithm. The scale-free nature of the developed algorithms makes it possible to characterize the dynamics of the photospheric network across a wide range of distances and relaxation times. Three types of photospheric conditions are considered to test the method: a quiet photosphere, a solar active region (NOAA 10365) in a quiescent non-flaring state, and the same active region during a period of M-class flares. The results obtained show (1) the presence of a topologically complex asymmetrically fragmented magnetic network in the quiet photosphere driven by meso- and supergranulation, (2) the formation of non-potential magnetic structures with complex polarity separation lines inside the active region, and (3) statistical signatures of canceling bipolar magnetic structures coinciding with flaring activity in the active region. Each of these effects can represent an unstable magnetic configuration acting as an energy source for coronal dissipation and heating.

  13. Multiscale Dynamics of Solar Magnetic Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Multiscale topological complexity of the solar magnetic field is among the primary factors controlling energy release in the corona, including associated processes in the photospheric and chromospheric boundaries.We present a new approach for analyzing multiscale behavior of the photospheric magnetic flux underlying these dynamics as depicted by a sequence of high-resolution solar magnetograms. The approach involves two basic processing steps: (1) identification of timing and location of magnetic flux origin and demise events (as defined by DeForest et al.) by tracking spatiotemporal evolution of unipolar and bipolar photospheric regions, and (2) analysis of collective behavior of the detected magnetic events using a generalized version of the Grassberger-Procaccia correlation integral algorithm. The scale-free nature of the developed algorithms makes it possible to characterize the dynamics of the photospheric network across a wide range of distances and relaxation times. Three types of photospheric conditions are considered to test the method: a quiet photosphere, a solar active region (NOAA 10365) in a quiescent non-flaring state, and the same active region during a period of M-class flares. The results obtained show (1) the presence of a topologically complex asymmetrically fragmented magnetic network in the quiet photosphere driven by meso- and supergranulation, (2) the formation of non-potential magnetic structures with complex polarity separation lines inside the active region, and (3) statistical signatures of canceling bipolar magnetic structures coinciding with flaring activity in the active region. Each of these effects can represent an unstable magnetic configuration acting as an energy source for coronal dissipation and heating.

  14. Annual Report 1998: Chemical Structure and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    SD Colson; RS McDowell

    1999-05-10

    The Chemical Structure and Dynamics (CS&D) program is a major component of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Labo- ratory (EMSL), developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide a state-of- the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. We respond to the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding of chemistry at a wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interracial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in envi- ronmental chemistry and in nuclear waste proc- essing and storage; and (3) developing state-of- the-art analytical methods for characterizing com- plex materials of the types found in stored wastes and contaminated soils, and for detecting and monitoring trace atmospheric species. Our program aims at achieving a quantitative understanding of chemical reactions at interfaces and, more generally, in condensed media, compa- rable to that currently available for gas-phase reactions. This understanding will form the basis for the development of a priori theories for pre- dicting macroscopic chemical behavior in con- densed and heterogeneous media, which will add significantly to the value of field-scale envi- ronmental models, predictions of short- and long- term nuclear waste storage stabilities, and other areas related to the primary missions of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  15. Invasion dynamics of competing species with stage-structure.

    PubMed

    Bewick, Sharon; Wang, Guoqing; Younes, Hannah; Li, Bingtuan; Fagan, William F

    2017-08-03

    The spread of an invasive species often results in a decline and subsequent disappearance of native competitors. Several models, primarily based on spatially explicit Lotka-Volterra competition dynamics, have been developed to understand this phenomenon. In general, the goal of these models is to relate fundamental life history traits, for example dispersal ability and competition strength, to the rate of spread of the invasive species, which is also the rate at which the invasive species displaces its native competitor. Stage-structure is often an important determinant of population dynamics, but it has received little attention within the context of Lotka-Volterra invasion models. For many species, behaviors like dispersal and competition depend on life-stage. To describe the processes of invasion in these species, it is important to understand how behaviors that vary as a function of life-stage can impact spread rate. In this paper, we develop a spatially explicit, stage-structured Lotka-Volterra competition model. By comparing spread speed predictions from this model to spread speed predictions from an analogous single-stage model, we are able to determine when stage-structure is important and how stage-dependent behavior can alter the characteristics of an invasion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Dynamic Exchange of Myosin VI on Endocytic Structures*

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Lisa M.; Arden, Susan D.; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma; Sellers, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The actin-based molecular motor myosin VI functions in the endocytic uptake pathway, both during the early stages of clathrin-mediated uptake and in later transport to/from early endosomes. This study uses fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to examine the turnover rate of myosin VI during endocytosis. The results demonstrate that myosin VI turns over dynamically on endocytic structures with a characteristic half-life common to both the large insert isoform of myosin VI on clathrin-coated structures and the no-insert isoform on early endosomes. This half-life is shared by the myosin VI-binding partner Dab2 and is identical for full-length myosin VI and the cargo-binding tail region. The 4-fold slower half-life of an artificially dimerized construct of myosin VI on clathrin-coated structures suggests that wild type myosin VI does not function as a stable dimer, but either as a monomer or in a monomer/dimer equilibrium. Taken together, these FRAP results offer insight into both the basic turnover dynamics and the monomer/dimer nature of myosin VI. PMID:22992744

  17. Dynamic characteristics of power-tower space stations with 15-foot truss bays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    A power tower space station concept which generates power with photovoltaic arrays and where the truss structure has a bay size of 15 ft is described. Rigid body and flexible body dynamic characteristics are presented for a 75-kW Initial Operating Capability (IOC) and 150-kW and 300-kW growth stations. The transient response of the IOC and 300-kW growth stations to shuttle dock, orbit reboost, and mobile remote manipulator system translation loads are studied. Displacements, accelerations, and bending moments at various locations on the IOC and 300-kW growth stations are presented.

  18. Dynamic characteristics of a WPC—comparison of transfer matrix method and FE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guo-Long; Nie, Wu

    2003-12-01

    To find the difference in dynamic characteristics between conventional monohull ship and wave penetrating catamaran (WPC), a WPC was taken as an object; its dynamic characteristics were computed by transfer matrix method and finite element method respectively. According to the comparison of the nature frequency results and mode shape results, the fact that FEM method is more suitable to dynamic characteristics analysis of a WPC was pointed out, special features on dynamic characteristics of WPC were given, and some beneficial suggestions are proposed to optimize the strength of a WPC in design period.

  19. Dynamic characteristics of Non Newtonian fluid Squeeze film damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaksha, C. P.; Shivaprakash, S.; Jagadish, H. P.

    2016-09-01

    The fluids which do not follow linear relationship between rate of strain and shear stress are termed as non-Newtonian fluid. The non-Newtonian fluids are usually categorized as those in which shear stress depends on the rates of shear only, fluids for which relation between shear stress and rate of shear depends on time and the visco inelastic fluids which possess both elastic and viscous properties. It is quite difficult to provide a single constitutive relation that can be used to define a non-Newtonian fluid due to a great diversity found in its physical structure. Non-Newtonian fluids can present a complex rheological behaviour involving shear-thinning, viscoelastic or thixotropic effects. The rheological characterization of complex fluids is an important issue in many areas. The paper analyses the damping and stiffness characteristics of non-Newtonian fluids (waxy crude oil) used in squeeze film dampers using the available literature for viscosity characterization. Damping and stiffness characteristic will be evaluated as a function of shear strain rate, temperature and percentage wax concentration etc.

  20. Cryoemission of Nitrous Oxide and Ethanol: Dynamic and Energy Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobyshev, A.; Strzhemechny, Yu.; Aldiyarov, A.; Korshikov, E.; Kurnosov, V.; Sokolov, D.

    2017-04-01

    We studied dynamic and spectral characteristics of light emission produced during cryodeposition of nitrous oxide and ethanol onto metal substrates at a temperature of 10 K and a pressure of a gas phase of 10^{-2} Torr. It was established that this radiation is comprised of a large number of individual flashes of varying amplitude, wavelength and duration. Our measurements indicated that for nitrous oxide the rise time required to reach the maximum intensity of a single flash is 0.015 × 10^{-3} s, whereas for ethanol such time is 0.3× 10^{-3} s (i.e., 20 times greater). We attribute such discrepancy to the significant difference between the intrinsic molecular dipole moments of nitrous oxide (μ = 0.097 D) and ethanol (μ = 1.68 D). Emission spectra of both nitrous oxide and ethanol were measured in the wavelength range of 350-1050 nm. They consist of discrete peaks located at 517, 562, 690, 726, 805 and 866 nm for nitrous oxide and 387, 392, 822, 995 and 1019 nm for ethanol. To explain the obtained results, we consider two models based on the assumptions of existence of isomeric states of the nitrous oxide molecules, as well as of processes of molecular dipole ordering/disordering during cryodeposition from the gas phase.

  1. Measurement of human pilot dynamic characteristics in flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, James T.

    1987-01-01

    Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Least Square Error (LSE) estimation techniques were applied to the problem of identifying pilot-vehicle dynamic characteristics in flight simulation. A brief investigation of the effects of noise, input bandwidth and system delay upon the FFT and LSE techniques was undertaken using synthetic data. Data from a piloted simulation conducted at NASA Ames Research Center was then analyzed. The simulation was performed in the NASA Ames Research Center Variable Stability CH-47B helicopter operating in fixed-basis simulator mode. The piloting task consisted of maintaining the simulated vehicle over a moving hover pad whose motion was described by a random-appearing sum of sinusoids. The two test subjects used a head-down, color cathode ray tube (CRT) display for guidance and control information. Test configurations differed in the number of axes being controlled by the pilot (longitudinal only versus longitudinal and lateral), and in the presence or absence of an important display indicator called an 'acceleration ball'. A number of different pilot-vehicle transfer functions were measured, and where appropriate, qualitatively compared with theoretical pilot- vehicle models. Some indirect evidence suggesting pursuit behavior on the part of the test subjects is discussed.

  2. Dynamics of wake structure in clapping propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daegyoum; Gharib, Morteza

    2009-11-01

    Some animals such as insects and frogs use a pair of symmetric flaps for locomotion. In some cases, these flappers operate in close proximity or even touch each other. In order to understand the underlying physics of these kinds of motion, we have studied the wake structures induced by clapping and their associated thrust performance. A simple mechanical model with two acrylic plates was used to simulate the power stroke of the clapping motion and three-dimensional flow fields were obtained using defocusing digital particle image velocimetry. Our studies show that the process of vortex connection plays a critical role in forming a downstream closed vortex loop. Under some kinematic conditions, this vortex loop changes its shape dynamically, which is analogous to the process of an elliptical vortex ring switching its minor and major axis. As the length of the plate along the rotating shaft decreases to change an aspect ratio, the downstream motion of the vortex is retarded due to the outward motion of side edge vortices and less propulsive force is generated per the surface area of the plate. The impact of compliance and stroke angle of the plate on wake structures and thrust magnitudes are also presented.

  3. Indoor footstep localization from structural dynamics instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poston, Jeffrey D.; Buehrer, R. Michael; Tarazaga, Pablo A.

    2017-05-01

    Measurements from accelerometers originally deployed to measure a building's structural dynamics can serve a new role: locating individuals moving within a building. Specifically, this paper proposes measurements of footstep-generated vibrations as a novel source of information for localization. The complexity of wave propagation in a building (e.g., dispersion and reflection) limits the utility of existing algorithms designed to locate, for example, the source of sound in a room or radio waves in free space. This paper develops enhancements for arrival time determination and time difference of arrival localization in order to address the complexities posed by wave propagation within a building's structure. Experiments with actual measurements from an instrumented public building demonstrate the potential of locating footsteps to sub-meter accuracy. Furthermore, this paper explains how to forecast performance in other buildings with different sensor configurations. This localization capability holds the potential to assist public safety agencies in building evacuation and incidence response, to facilitate occupancy-based optimization of heating or cooling and to inform facility security.

  4. Structure and Dynamics of Heteroprotein Coacervates.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Paulo D S; Tavares, Guilherme M; Croguennec, Thomas; Nicolas, Aurélie; Hamon, Pascaline; Roiland, Claire; Bouhallab, Saïd

    2016-08-09

    Under specific conditions, mixing two oppositely charged proteins induces liquid-liquid phase separation. The denser phase, or coacervate phase, can be potentially applied as a system to protect or encapsulate different bioactive molecules with a broad range of food and/or medical applications. The optimization of the design and efficiency of such systems requires a precise understanding of the structure and the equilibrium of the nanocomplexes formed within the coacervate. Here, we report on the nanocomplexes and the dynamics of the coacervates formed by two well-known, oppositely charged proteins β-lactoglobulin (β-LG, pI ≈ 5.2) and lactoferrin (LF, pI ≈ 8.5). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments indicate the coexistence of several nanocomplexes as the primary units for the coacervation. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of the occurrence of an equilibrium between quite unstable nanocomplexes in the coacervate phase. Combined with in silico docking experiments, these data support the fact that coacervation in the present heteroprotein system depends not only on the structural composition of the coacervates but also on the association rates of the proteins forming the nanocomplexes.

  5. Digital system for structural dynamics simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauter, A. I.; Lagace, L. J.; Wojnar, M. K.; Glor, C.

    1982-01-01

    State-of-the-art digital hardware and software for the simulation of complex structural dynamic interactions, such as those which occur in rotating structures (engine systems). System were incorporated in a designed to use an array of processors in which the computation for each physical subelement or functional subsystem would be assigned to a single specific processor in the simulator. These node processors are microprogrammed bit-slice microcomputers which function autonomously and can communicate with each other and a central control minicomputer over parallel digital lines. Inter-processor nearest neighbor communications busses pass the constants which represent physical constraints and boundary conditions. The node processors are connected to the six nearest neighbor node processors to simulate the actual physical interface of real substructures. Computer generated finite element mesh and force models can be developed with the aid of the central control minicomputer. The control computer also oversees the animation of a graphics display system, disk-based mass storage along with the individual processing elements.

  6. Electronic Structure and Dynamics of Nitrosyl Porphyrins

    PubMed Central

    Scheidt, W. Robert; Barabanschikov, Alexander; Pavlik, Jeffrey W.; Silvernail, Nathan J.; Sage, J. Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signalling molecule employed to regulate essential physiological processes. Thus, there is great interest in understanding the interaction of NO with heme, which is found at the active site of many proteins that recognize NO, as well those involved in its creation and elimination. We summarize what we have learned from investigations of the structure, vibrational properties, and conformational dynamics of NO complexes with ferrous porphyrins, as well as computational investigations in support of these experimental studies. Multi-temperature crystallographic data reveals variations in the orientational disorder of the nitrosyl ligand. In some cases, equilibria among NO orientations can be analyzed using the vant Hoff relationship and the free energy and the enthalpy of the solid-state transitions evaluated experimentally. DFT calculations predict that intrinsic barriers to torsional rotations are smaller than thermal energies at physiological temperatures, and the coincidence of observed NO orientations with minima in molecular mechanics potentials indicates that nonbonded interactions with other chemical groups control the conformational freedom of the bound NO. In favorable cases, reduced disorder at low temperatures exposes subtle structural features including off-axis tilting of the Fe–NO bond and anisotropy of the equatorial Fe–N bonds. We also present the results of nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) measurements on oriented single crystals of [Fe(TPP)(NO)] and [Fe(TPP)(1-MeIm)(NO)]. These describe the anisotropic vibrational motion of Fe in five-and six-coordinate heme-NO complexes, and reveal vibrations of all Fe-ligand bonds as well as low frequency molecular distortions associated with the doming of the heme upon ligand binding. Quantitative comparison with predicted frequencies, amplitudes and directions facilitates identification of vibrational modes, but also suggests that commonly used DFT functionals are not

  7. Electronic structure and dynamics of nitrosyl porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Scheidt, W Robert; Barabanschikov, Alexander; Pavlik, Jeffrey W; Silvernail, Nathan J; Sage, J Timothy

    2010-07-19

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule employed to regulate essential physiological processes. Thus, there is great interest in understanding the interaction of NO with heme, which is found at the active site of many proteins that recognize NO, as well as those involved in its creation and elimination. We summarize what we have learned from investigations of the structure, vibrational properties, and conformational dynamics of NO complexes with ferrous porphyrins, as well as computational investigations in support of these experimental studies. Multitemperature crystallographic data reveal variations in the orientational disorder of the nitrosyl ligand. In some cases, equilibria among NO orientations can be analyzed using the van't Hoff relationship and the free energy and enthalpy of the solid-state transitions evaluated experimentally. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations predict that intrinsic barriers to torsional rotation are smaller than thermal energies at physiological temperatures, and the coincidence of observed NO orientations with minima in molecular mechanics potentials indicates that nonbonded interactions with other chemical groups control the conformational freedom of the bound NO. In favorable cases, reduced disorder at low temperatures exposes subtle structural features including off-axis tilting of the Fe-NO bond and anisotropy of the equatorial Fe-N bonds. We also present the results of nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy measurements on oriented single crystals of [Fe(TPP)(NO)] and [Fe(TPP)(1-MeIm)(NO)]. These describe the anisotropic vibrational motion of iron in five- and six-coordinate heme-NO complexes and reveal vibrations of all Fe-ligand bonds as well as low-frequency molecular distortions associated with the doming of the heme upon ligand binding. A quantitative comparison with predicted frequencies, amplitudes, and directions facilitates identification of the vibrational modes but also suggests that commonly used DFT

  8. Structural and dynamic properties of vitreous and crystalline barium disilicate: molecular dynamics simulation and Raman scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, A. M.; Rino, J. P.; Pizani, P. S.; Zanotto, E. D.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we use a molecular dynamics simulation and Raman scattering measurements to study the vibrational and structural characteristics of barium disilicate, BaSi2O5, in vitreous and crystalline states. Our proposed atomic interaction potential describes the structural and dynamic behaviour of this material very well and can also be used for further extended studies. In addition, Raman spectroscopy enabled validation of the predictions of the potential by comparing the simulated vibrational density of states with the spectrum of the material in its vitreous state. Furthermore, we characterized the kinetics of the crystallization process through in situ Raman measurements as a function of temperature.

  9. Structure and dynamics of cationic van-der-Waals clusters. II. Dynamics of protonated argon clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritschel, T.; Zuhrt, Ch.; Zülicke, L.; Kuntz, P. J.

    2007-01-01

    A diatomics-in-molecules (DIM) model with ab-initio input data, which in part I successfully described the structure and bonding properties of protonated argon clusters ArnH+, is used here to investigate some aspects of the dynamics of such aggregates for n up to 30. The simple triatomic ionic fragment, Ar2H+, is studied in some detail with respect to normal vibrations, characteristics of classical intramolecular dynamics as reflected in the Fourier spectra of dynamical variables, and accurate quantum states of the vibrational motion. For larger clusters ArnH+ (n ≤30), the normal vibrational frequencies (and displacement eigenvectors) are calculated and related to the cluster structure. In addition, the Fourier spectra are analyzed with respect to their variation with changing internal energy and cluster size. As expected, the clusters show some floppy character. Even a little vibrational excitation can lead to internal rearrangement and to Ar-atom evaporation from the clusters; this is studied in more detail for one small complex (n = 3). Electronic excitation to one of the low-lying excited states, which are all globally repulsive, leads to complete fragmentation (atomization) of the clusters. A variety of conceivable elementary collision processes involving protonated argon clusters are discussed. Some of these may play a role in the gas-phase formation of medium-sized ArnH+ aggregates.

  10. Resistive switching characteristic of electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Wang, Hao; Sun, Gongchen; Ma, Xiaoyu; Gao, Jianguang; Wu, Wengang

    2017-08-01

    The resistive switching characteristic of SiO2 thin film in electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor (EOS) structures under certain bias voltage is reported. To analyze the mechanism of the resistive switching characteristic, a batch of EOS structures were fabricated under various conditions and their electrical properties were measured with a set of three-electrode systems. A theoretical model based on the formation and rupture of conductive filaments in the oxide layer is proposed to reveal the mechanism of the resistive switching characteristic, followed by an experimental investigation of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) to verify the proposed theoretical model. It is found that different threshold voltage, reverse leakage current and slope value features of the switching I-V characteristic can be observed in different EOS structures with different electrolyte solutions as well as different SiO2 layers made by different fabrication processes or in different thicknesses. With a simple fabrication process and significant resistive switching characteristic, the EOS structures show great potential for chemical/biochemical applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61274116) and the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2015CB352100).

  11. Solitary waves and nonlinear dynamic coherent structures in magnetic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankeyev, A. P.; Smagin, V. V.; Borich, M. A.; Zhuravlev, A. S.

    2009-03-01

    Within the framework of the extended nonlinear Schrödinger equation (ENSE), two types of nonlinear states of magnetization in a ferromagnet-dielectric-metal metamagnetic structure have been obtained and investigated. These states have an internal structure; e.g., a periodic sequence of compound solitons is formed by kink-antikink pairs (shock waves), and coherent periodic breather structures are formed by “bright” quasi-solitons. Conditions have been found under which the envelope of these states is described by a modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation. It is shown that the compound solitons are described by an mKdV equation with repulsion, and the breather structures, by an mKdV equation with attraction. It is shown also that the characteristic properties of the solutions are determined by the sign of the group-velocity dispersion rather than by the sign of the group velocity itself. The results obtained can be used for searching new nonlinear dynamic coherent structures, e.g., compound solitons and breathers in high-dispersion magnetic metamaterials.

  12. Knottin cyclization: impact on structure and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Heitz, Annie; Avrutina, Olga; Le-Nguyen, Dung; Diederichsen, Ulf; Hernandez, Jean-François; Gracy, Jérôme; Kolmar, Harald; Chiche, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Background Present in various species, the knottins (also referred to as inhibitor cystine knots) constitute a group of extremely stable miniproteins with a plethora of biological activities. Owing to their small size and their high stability, knottins are considered as excellent leads or scaffolds in drug design. Two knottin families contain macrocyclic compounds, namely the cyclotides and the squash inhibitors. The cyclotide family nearly exclusively contains head-to-tail cyclized members. On the other hand, the squash family predominantly contains linear members. Head-to-tail cyclization is intuitively expected to improve bioactivities by increasing stability and lowering flexibility as well as sensitivity to proteolytic attack. Results In this paper, we report data on solution structure, thermal stability, and flexibility as inferred from NMR experiments and molecular dynamics simulations of a linear squash inhibitor EETI-II, a circular squash inhibitor MCoTI-II, and a linear analog lin-MCoTI. Strikingly, the head-to-tail linker in cyclic MCoTI-II is by far the most flexible region of all three compounds. Moreover, we show that cyclic and linear squash inhibitors do not display large differences in structure or flexibility in standard conditions, raising the question as to why few squash inhibitors have evolved into cyclic compounds. The simulations revealed however that the cyclization increases resistance to high temperatures by limiting structure unfolding. Conclusion In this work, we show that, in contrast to what could have been intuitively expected, cyclization of squash inhibitors does not provide clear stability or flexibility modification. Overall, our results suggest that, for squash inhibitors in standard conditions, the circularization impact might come from incorporation of an additional loop sequence, that can contribute to the miniprotein specificity and affinity, rather than from an increase in conformational rigidity or protein stability

  13. Recombination Dynamics in Quantum Well Semiconductor Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouquet, Julie Elizabeth

    Time-resolved and time-integrated photoluminescence as a function of excitation energy density have been observed in order to study recombination dynamics in GaAs/Al(,x)Ga(,1 -x)As quantum well structures. The study of room temperature photoluminescence from the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) -grown multiple quantum well structure and photoluminescence peak energy as a function of tem- perature shows that room temperature recombination at excitation densities above the low 10('16) cm('-3) level is due to free carriers, not excitons. This is the first study of time-resolved photoluminescence of impurities in quantum wells; data taken at different emission wave- lengths at low temperatures shows that the impurity-related states at photon energies lower than the free exciton peaks luminesce much more slowly than the free exciton states. Results from a similar structure grown by metal -organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are explained by saturation of traps. An unusual increase in decay rate observed tens of nanoseconds after excitation is probably due to carriers falling out of the trap states. Since this is the first study of time-resolved photoluminescence of MOCVD-grown quantum well structures, this unusual behavior may be realted to the MOCVD growth process. Further investigations indi- cate that the traps are not active at low temperatures; they become active at approximately 150 K. The traps are probably associated with the (hetero)interfaces rather than the bulk Al(,x)Ga(,1-x)As material. The 34 K photoluminescence spectrum of this sample revealed a peak shifted down by approximately 36 meV from the main peak. Time-resolved and time-integrated photoluminescence results here show that this peak is not a stimulated phonon emission sideband, but rather is an due to an acceptor impurity, probably carbon. Photo- luminescence for excitation above and below the barrier bandgap shows that carriers are efficiently collected in the wells in both single and multiple

  14. Cognitive Flexibility through Metastable Neural Dynamics Is Disrupted by Damage to the Structural Connectome

    PubMed Central

    Hellyer, Peter J.; Scott, Gregory; Shanahan, Murray; Sharp, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Current theory proposes that healthy neural dynamics operate in a metastable regime, where brain regions interact to simultaneously maximize integration and segregation. Metastability may confer important behavioral properties, such as cognitive flexibility. It is increasingly recognized that neural dynamics are constrained by the underlying structural connections between brain regions. An important challenge is, therefore, to relate structural connectivity, neural dynamics, and behavior. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a pre-eminent structural disconnection disorder whereby traumatic axonal injury damages large-scale connectivity, producing characteristic cognitive impairments, including slowed information processing speed and reduced cognitive flexibility, that may be a result of disrupted metastable dynamics. Therefore, TBI provides an experimental and theoretical model to examine how metastable dynamics relate to structural connectivity and cognition. Here, we use complementary empirical and computational approaches to investigate how metastability arises from the healthy structural connectome and relates to cognitive performance. We found reduced metastability in large-scale neural dynamics after TBI, measured with resting-state functional MRI. This reduction in metastability was associated with damage to the connectome, measured using diffusion MRI. Furthermore, decreased metastability was associated with reduced cognitive flexibility and information processing. A computational model, defined by empirically derived connectivity data, demonstrates how behaviorally relevant changes in neural dynamics result from structural disconnection. Our findings suggest how metastable dynamics are important for normal brain function and contingent on the structure of the human connectome. PMID:26085630

  15. Cognitive Flexibility through Metastable Neural Dynamics Is Disrupted by Damage to the Structural Connectome.

    PubMed

    Hellyer, Peter J; Scott, Gregory; Shanahan, Murray; Sharp, David J; Leech, Robert

    2015-06-17

    Current theory proposes that healthy neural dynamics operate in a metastable regime, where brain regions interact to simultaneously maximize integration and segregation. Metastability may confer important behavioral properties, such as cognitive flexibility. It is increasingly recognized that neural dynamics are constrained by the underlying structural connections between brain regions. An important challenge is, therefore, to relate structural connectivity, neural dynamics, and behavior. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a pre-eminent structural disconnection disorder whereby traumatic axonal injury damages large-scale connectivity, producing characteristic cognitive impairments, including slowed information processing speed and reduced cognitive flexibility, that may be a result of disrupted metastable dynamics. Therefore, TBI provides an experimental and theoretical model to examine how metastable dynamics relate to structural connectivity and cognition. Here, we use complementary empirical and computational approaches to investigate how metastability arises from the healthy structural connectome and relates to cognitive performance. We found reduced metastability in large-scale neural dynamics after TBI, measured with resting-state functional MRI. This reduction in metastability was associated with damage to the connectome, measured using diffusion MRI. Furthermore, decreased metastability was associated with reduced cognitive flexibility and information processing. A computational model, defined by empirically derived connectivity data, demonstrates how behaviorally relevant changes in neural dynamics result from structural disconnection. Our findings suggest how metastable dynamics are important for normal brain function and contingent on the structure of the human connectome.

  16. Identification of dynamic characteristics of flexible rotors as dynamic inverse problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roisman, W. P.; Vajingortin, L. D.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of dynamic and balancing of flexible rotors were considered, which were set and solved as the problem of the identification of flexible rotor systems, which is the same as the inverse problem of the oscillation theory dealing with the task of the identifying the outside influences and system parameters on the basis of the known laws of motion. This approach to the problem allows the disclosure the picture of disbalances throughout the rotor-under-test (which traditional methods of flexible rotor balancing, based on natural oscillations, could not provide), and identify dynamic characteristics of the system, which correspond to a selected mathematical model. Eventually, various methods of balancing were developed depending on the special features of the machines as to their design, technology, and operation specifications. Also, theoretical and practical methods are given for the flexible rotor balancing at far from critical rotation frequencies, which does not necessarily require the knowledge forms of oscillation, dissipation, and elasticity and inertia characteristics, and to use testing masses.

  17. Ultrafast structural dynamics of photoexcited adenine.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sayan; Puranik, Mrinalini

    2017-08-02

    We report deep UV initiated excited state dynamics of the canonical nucleobase adenine (Ade) through Resonance Raman (RR) intensity analysis. RR spectra of Ade at excitation wavelengths throughout the Bb absorption band in the 210-230 nm wavelength range are measured and subsequently converted to scattering cross-sections. The time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) formalism has been employed for self-consistent simulations of the resulting wavelength dependent Raman excitation profiles (REP) and absorption spectrum of Ade. These simulations yield instantaneous nuclear dynamics of Ade within tens of femtoseconds (fs) of photoabsorption as structural distortions, linewidth broadening and solvation parameters. The instantaneous geometrical distortions of the purine ring following photoexcitation into the Bb state are analyzed vis-à-vis the low energy La state (∼260 nm) of Ade. We find that while photoabsorption by the La state causes major distortions of the imidazole ring, pyrimidine ring suffers maximal changes following Bb excitation. Seven in-plane stretching vibrations out of fifteen resonantly enhanced modes of Ade are found to contribute 76% of the total internal reorganization energy (981 cm(-1)) in the Bb excited state. In addition, the inertial response of the solvation shell to photoexcitation is found to be of 1190 cm(-1) in magnitude, and with a relaxation time of 26.5 fs. A parallel comparison is drawn between the UV-C initiated photodynamics of Ade (6-aminopurine) with that of two substituted purines, viz., 6-chloroguanine (6-ClG or 2-amino-6-chloropurine) and guanine (2-amino-6-oxo-purie) which were reported earlier.

  18. Force-time curve characteristics of dynamic and isometric muscle actions of elite women olympic weightlifters.

    PubMed

    Haff, G Gregory; Carlock, Jon M; Hartman, Michael J; Kilgore, J Lon; Kawamori, Naoki; Jackson, Janna R; Morris, Robert T; Sands, William A; Stone, Michael H

    2005-11-01

    Six elite women weightlifters were tested to evaluate force-time curve characteristics and intercorrelations of isometric and dynamic muscle actions. Subjects performed isometric and dynamic mid-thigh clean pulls at 30% of maximal isometric peak force and 100 kg from a standardized position on a 61.0 x 121.9 cm AMTI forceplate. Isometric peak force showed strong correlations to the athletes' competitive snatch, clean and jerk, and combined total (r = 0.93, 0.64, and 0.80 respectively). Isometric rate of force development showed moderate to strong relationships to the athletes' competitive snatch, clean and jerk, and combined total (r = 0.79, 0.69, and 0.80 respectively). The results of this study suggest that the ability to perform maximal snatch and clean and jerks shows some structural and functional foundation with the ability to generate high forces rapidly in elite women weightlifters.

  19. Bioinspired, dynamic, structured surfaces for biofilm prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Alexander K.

    Bacteria primarily exist in robust, surface-associated communities known as biofilms, ubiquitous in both natural and anthropogenic environments. Mature biofilms resist a wide range of biocidal treatments and pose persistent pathogenic threats. Treatment of adherent biofilm is difficult, costly, and, in medical systems such as catheters, frequently impossible. Adding to the challenge, we have discovered that biofilm can be both impenetrable to vapors and extremely nonwetting, repelling even low surface tension commercial antimicrobials. Our study shows multiple contributing factors, including biochemical components and multiscale reentrant topography. Reliant on surface chemistry, conventional strategies for preventing biofilm only transiently affect attachment and/or are environmentally toxic. In this work, we look to Nature's antifouling solutions, such as the dynamic spiny skin of the echinoderm, and we develop a versatile surface nanofabrication platform. Our benchtop approach unites soft lithography, electrodeposition, mold deformation, and material selection to enable many degrees of freedom—material, geometric, mechanical, dynamic—that can be programmed starting from a single master structure. The mechanical properties of the bio-inspired nanostructures, verified by AFM, are precisely and rationally tunable. We examine how synthetic dynamic nanostructured surfaces control the attachment of pathogenic biofilms. The parameters governing long-range patterning of bacteria on high-aspect-ratio (HAR) nanoarrays are combinatorially elucidated, and we discover that sufficiently low effective stiffness of these HAR arrays mechanoselectively inhibits ˜40% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm attachment. Inspired by the active echinoderm skin, we design and fabricate externally actuated dynamic elastomer surfaces with active surface microtopography. We extract from a large parameter space the critical topographic length scales and actuation time scales for achieving

  20. Influence of Cholesterol on Phospholipid Bilayer Structure and Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Boughter, Christopher T; Monje-Galvan, Viviana; Im, Wonpil; Klauda, Jeffery B

    2016-11-17

    In this study, the influence of cholesterol on lipid bilayers is investigated by changing phospholipid headgroup, cholesterol concentration, chain saturation, and temperature. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to characterize bilayers containing phosphatidylcholine (PC) head groups with either fully saturated dimyristoyl (DM) or monounsaturated dioleoyl (DO) acyl chains and cholesterol concentrations ranging from 5 to 50%. To further explore the effects of cholesterol on bilayers with different head groups, we also performed MD simulations of bilayer systems having 15% cholesterol with phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidylserine (PS), each having DM chains and at a temperature above the solid gel phase transition. Additionally, bilayers of DMPA, DMPE, and DMPS with 15% cholesterol were simulated at temperatures below the solid gel phase transition temperatures. Compared to membranes without cholesterol, cholesterol in the model bilayers increases chain order in bilayers with the highest order in the liquid ordered and solid gel phases. Head group properties and acyl chain saturation are also found to critically impact bilayer dynamics, largely through the formation of hydrogen bonds between membrane components. These results provide a better understanding of the basic characteristics on structure and dynamics of cholesterol-containing membranes by revealing molecular details of interactions between cholesterol and phospholipids as well as add to the library of simulation data necessary for the MD community to accurately represent relevant models of atomic-scale systems.

  1. Structural dynamics technology research in NASA: Perspective on future needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The perspective of a NASA ad hoc study group on future research needs in structural dynamics within the aerospace industry is presented. The common aspects of the design process across the industry are identified and the role of structural dynamics is established through a discussion of various design considerations having their basis in structural dynamics. The specific structural dynamics issues involved are identified and assessed as to their current technological status and trends. Projections of future requirements based on this assessment are made and areas of research to meet them are identified.

  2. Modeling flood event characteristics using D-vine structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafaei, Maryam; Fakheri-Fard, Ahmad; Dinpashoh, Yagob; Mirabbasi, Rasoul; De Michele, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    The authors investigate the use of drawable (D-)vine structures to model the dependences existing among the main characteristics of a flood event, i.e., flood volume, flood peak, duration, and peak time. Firstly, different three- and four-dimensional probability distributions were built considering all the permutations of the conditioning variables. The Frank copula was used to model the dependence of each pair of variables. Then, the appropriate D-vine structures were selected using information criteria and a goodness-of-fit test. The influence of varying the data length on the selected D-vine structure was also investigated. Finally, flood event characteristics were simulated using the four-dimensional D-vine structure.

  3. Molecular dynamics models and thermodynamic characteristics of hydrogen bonds in 1,2-ethanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usacheva, T. M.; Zhuravlev, V. I.; Lifanova, N. V.; Matveev, V. K.

    2017-06-01

    A correlation between the lifetimes of hydrogen bonds and the thermodynamic characteristics of their formation and breaking, and the experimental relaxation times of dielectric spectra and the energy characteristics of relaxation processes, is observed via molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the rearranging of the network structure of 1,2-ethanediol. The MD torsional frequency of the transition of gauche conformer tGg' at 224.1 cm-1 and the experimental frequency of the band maximum of torsional vibrations at 230 cm-1 in the infrared spectrum correlate with the oscillation frequency of molecules at 240 cm-1 inside clusters in the Dissado-Hill (DH) model. The MD and DH models indicate a predominantly parallel alignment of the electric dipole moments of conformers tGg' in the three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds of the liquid 1,2-ethanediol phase.

  4. Integrated analysis and design of thick composite structures for optimal passive damping characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The development of novel composite mechanics for the analysis of damping in composite laminates and structures and the more significant results of this effort are summarized. Laminate mechanics based on piecewise continuous in-plane displacement fields are described that can represent both intralaminar stresses and interlaminar shear stresses and the associated effects on the stiffness and damping characteristics of a composite laminate. Among other features, the mechanics can accurately model the static and damped dynamic response of either thin or thick composite laminates, as well as, specialty laminates with embedded compliant damping layers. The discrete laminate damping theory is further incorporated into structural analysis methods. In this context, an exact semi-analytical method for the simulation of the damped dynamic response of composite plates was developed. A finite element based method and a specialty four-node plate element were also developed for the analysis of composite structures of variable shape and boundary conditions. Numerous evaluations and applications demonstrate the quality and superiority of the mechanics in predicting the damped dynamic characteristics of composite structures. Finally, additional development was focused on the development of optimal tailoring methods for the design of thick composite structures based on the developed analytical capability. Applications on composite plates illustrated the influence of composite mechanics in the optimal design of composites and the potential for significant deviations in the resultant designs when more simplified (classical) laminate theories are used.

  5. Structural dynamics and vibrations of damped, aircraft-type structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Maurice I.

    1992-01-01

    Engineering preliminary design methods for approximating and predicting the effects of viscous or equivalent viscous-type damping treatments on the free and forced vibration of lightly damped aircraft-type structures are developed. Similar developments are presented for dynamic hysteresis viscoelastic-type damping treatments. It is shown by both engineering analysis and numerical illustrations that the intermodal coupling of the undamped modes arising from the introduction of damping may be neglected in applying these preliminary design methods, except when dissimilar modes of these lightly damped, complex aircraft-type structures have identical or nearly identical natural frequencies. In such cases, it is shown that a relatively simple, additional interaction calculation between pairs of modes exhibiting this 'modal response' phenomenon suffices in the prediction of interacting modal damping fractions. The accuracy of the methods is shown to be very good to excellent, depending on the normal natural frequency separation of the system modes, thereby permitting a relatively simple preliminary design approach. This approach is shown to be a natural precursor to elaborate finite element, digital computer design computations in evaluating the type, quantity, and location of damping treatment.

  6. Dynamic insight into protein structure utilizing red edge excitation shift.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Amitabha; Haldar, Sourav

    2014-01-21

    Proteins are considered the workhorses in the cellular machinery. They are often organized in a highly ordered conformation in the crowded cellular environment. These conformations display characteristic dynamics over a range of time scales. An emerging consensus is that protein function is critically dependent on its dynamics. The subtle interplay between structure and dynamics is a hallmark of protein organization and is essential for its function. Depending on the environmental context, proteins can adopt a range of conformations such as native, molten globule, unfolded (denatured), and misfolded states. Although protein crystallography is a well established technique, it is not always possible to characterize various protein conformations by X-ray crystallography due to transient nature of these states. Even in cases where structural characterization is possible, the information obtained lacks dynamic component, which is needed to understand protein function. In this overall scenario, approaches that reveal information on protein dynamics are much appreciated. Dynamics of confined water has interesting implications in protein folding. Interfacial hydration combines the motion of water molecules with the slow moving protein molecules. The red edge excitation shift (REES) approach becomes relevant in this context. REES is defined as the shift in the wavelength of maximum fluorescence emission toward higher wavelengths, caused by a shift in the excitation wavelength toward the red edge of absorption spectrum. REES arises due to slow rates (relative to fluorescence lifetime) of solvent relaxation (reorientation) around an excited state fluorophore in organized assemblies such as proteins. Consequently, REES depends on the environment-induced motional restriction imposed on the solvent molecules in the immediate vicinity of the fluorophore. In the case of a protein, the confined water in the protein creates a dipolar field that acts as the solvent for a fluorophore

  7. Entropy-driven structure and dynamics in carbon nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, N. W.; Wang, Q.; Rios, O.; Keffer, D. J.

    2014-04-01

    New carbon composite materials are being developed that contain carbon nanocrystallites in the range of 5-17 Å in radius dispersed within an amorphous carbon matrix. Evaluating the applicability of these materials for use in battery electrodes requires a molecular-level understanding of the thermodynamic, structural, and dynamic properties of the nanocrystallites. Herein, molecular dynamics simulations reveal the molecular-level mechanisms for such experimental observations as the increased spacing between carbon planes in nanocrystallites as a function of decreasing crystallite size. As the width of this spacing impacts Li-ion capacity, an explanation of the origin of this distance is relevant to understanding anode performance. It is thus shown that the structural configuration of these crystallites is a function of entropy. The magnitude of out-of-plane ripples, binding energy between layers, and frequency of characteristic planar modes are reported over a range of nanocrystallite sizes and temperatures. This fundamental information for layered carbon nanocrystallites may be used to explain enhanced lithium ion diffusion within the carbon composites.

  8. Dynamic structural transformations of coordination supramolecular systems upon exogenous stimulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-Peng; Chen, Jing; Liu, Chun-Sen; Du, Miao

    2015-02-18

    Reactions in the solid state, especially single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SC-SC) transformations, provide an appealing pathway to obtain target crystalline materials with modified properties via a solvent-free green chemistry approach. This feature article focuses on the progress to date in the context of coordination supramolecular systems (CSSs), especially coordination polymers (CPs) or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which show interesting dynamic natures upon exposure to various exogenous stimuli, including concentration, temperature, light and mechanical force, as well as their synergic effect. In essence, dynamic CSSs normally possess crucial crystalline-reactive characteristics: (i) metal ions or clusters with unstable or metastable electronic configurations and coordination geometries; (ii) organic ligands bearing physicochemically active functional groups for subsequent reactions; (iii) polymeric networks of high flexibility for structural bending, rotation, swelling, or shrinking; (iv) guest moieties to be freely exchanged or eliminated by varying the environmental conditions. The significant changes in catalytic, sorption, magnetic, or luminescent properties accompanied by the structural transformations will also be discussed, which reveal the proof-of-concept thereof in designing new functional crystalline materials.

  9. Entropy-driven structure and dynamics in carbon nanocrystallites

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, Nicholas W; Wang, Qifei; Rios, Orlando; Keffer, David J

    2014-01-01

    New carbon composite materials are being developed that contain carbon nanocrystallites in the range of 5 17 A in radius dispersed within an amorphous carbon matrix. Evaluating the applicability of these materials for use in battery electrodes requires a molecular-level understanding of the thermodynamic, structural, and dynamic properties of the nanocrystallites. Herein, molecular dynamics simulations reveal the molecular-level mechanisms for such experimental observations as the increased spacing between carbon planes in nanocrystallites as a function of decreasing crystallite size. As the width of this spacing impacts Li-ion capacity, an explanation of the origin of this distance is relevant to understanding anode performance. It is thus shown that the structural configuration of these crystallites is a function of entropy. The magnitude of out-of-plane ripples, binding energy between layers, and frequency of characteristic planar modes are reported over a range of nanocrystallite sizes and temperatures. This fundamental information for layered carbon nanocrystallites may be used to explain enhanced lithium ion diffusion within the carbon composites.

  10. AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, 33rd, Dallas, TX, Apr. 13-15, 1992, Technical Papers. Pt. 3 - Structural dynamics I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The present conference on structural dynamics encompasses finite-element analyses of rotorcraft vibration, spacecraft dynamics, dynamic analyses, rotor aeroelasticity, rotorcraft dynamics, damping, control analysis and experiments, and experimental dynamics and testing. Specific issues addressed include NASA/industry design-analysis methods for vibrations, controlling a large flexible structure to mimic a rigid one, the dynamic response of rapidly heated space structures, interval prediction in structural dynamic analysis, mode localization in computer disk drives, and a discrete transfer-matrix method for rotating beams. Also addressed are the dynamics of axially moving continua on an elastic foundation, stiffness and stress in a fluid-filled circular diaphragm, linear structure control by the modal force technique, directional filters for sensing 1D structural dynamics, and an adaptive multilevel substructuring method for efficient modeling of complex structures.

  11. Simulation, fabrication, and dynamics characteristics of electrostatically actuated switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postnikov, A. V.; Amirov, Ildar I.; Naumov, V. V.; Kalnov, V. A.

    2008-03-01

    A MEMS capacitive-type sensor is basically an electrostatic transducer that depends on electrical energy in terms of constant voltage (voltage drive) or constant charge storage (current drive) to facilitate monitoring of capacitance change due to an external mechanical excitation, such as force, acoustical pressure or acceleration. Microfabricated cantilever beams are widely used in MEMS capacitive-type sensors as the sensing element1. One such representative of movable microdevices are the surface micromachined mechanical resonators that come in many geometrical configurations, such as laterally movable comb resonators, laterally and vertically movable beam resonators, and torsional resonators. The successful design and fabrication of these devices requires computer-aided design _CAD_ simulation tools capable of accurately simulating the electromechanical performance of MEMS devices. Accurate simulations are critical for the expeditious development of commercial products at reasonable cost. All CAD simulation tools require accurate measurements to verify models and to provide the values of the constants used in the models. In particular, in the case of micromechanical resonators, it is challenging to determine the mechanical properties of both static and dynamic behaviors of such micromechanical resonators2,3. The testing of these movable structures is usually performed using electrostatic excitation and detection by capacitive, piezoresistive, and optical methods4. This paper presents the design, fabrication and testing of capacitive aluminum resonator with various movable membrane geometries, fabricated with surface micromachining.

  12. Dynamics of water confined in lyotropic liquid crystals: Molecular dynamics simulations of the dynamic structure factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantha, Sriteja; Yethiraj, Arun

    2016-02-01

    The properties of water under confinement are of practical and fundamental interest. In this work, we study the properties of water in the self-assembled lyotropic phases of Gemini surfactants with a focus on testing the standard analysis of quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments. In QENS experiments, the dynamic structure factor is measured and fit to models to extract the translational diffusion constant, DT, and rotational relaxation time, τR. We test this procedure by using simulation results for the dynamic structure factor, extracting the dynamic parameters from the fit as is typically done in experiments, and comparing the values to those directly measured in the simulations. We find that the de-coupling approximation, where the intermediate scattering function is assumed to be a product of translational and rotational contributions, is quite accurate. The jump-diffusion and isotropic rotation models, however, are not accurate when the degree of confinement is high. In particular, the exponential approximations for the intermediate scattering function fail for highly confined water and the values of DT and τR can differ from the measured value by as much as a factor of two. Other models have more fit parameters, however, and with the range of energies and wave-vectors accessible to QENS, the typical analysis appears to be the best choice. In the most confined lamellar phase, the dynamics are sufficiently slow that QENS does not access a large enough time scale.

  13. Dynamics of water confined in lyotropic liquid crystals: Molecular dynamics simulations of the dynamic structure factor.

    PubMed

    Mantha, Sriteja; Yethiraj, Arun

    2016-02-28

    The properties of water under confinement are of practical and fundamental interest. In this work, we study the properties of water in the self-assembled lyotropic phases of Gemini surfactants with a focus on testing the standard analysis of quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments. In QENS experiments, the dynamic structure factor is measured and fit to models to extract the translational diffusion constant, D(T), and rotational relaxation time, τ(R). We test this procedure by using simulation results for the dynamic structure factor, extracting the dynamic parameters from the fit as is typically done in experiments, and comparing the values to those directly measured in the simulations. We find that the de-coupling approximation, where the intermediate scattering function is assumed to be a product of translational and rotational contributions, is quite accurate. The jump-diffusion and isotropic rotation models, however, are not accurate when the degree of confinement is high. In particular, the exponential approximations for the intermediate scattering function fail for highly confined water and the values of D(T) and τ(R) can differ from the measured value by as much as a factor of two. Other models have more fit parameters, however, and with the range of energies and wave-vectors accessible to QENS, the typical analysis appears to be the best choice. In the most confined lamellar phase, the dynamics are sufficiently slow that QENS does not access a large enough time scale.

  14. Effect of temperature on the dynamic characteristics of the glass-carbon fiber hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Yon Afif; Susilo, Didik Djoko; Raharjo, Wijang W.

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of temperature on the dynamic characteristics of hybrid composites. Hybrid composites consisting of unsaturated polyester resin and glass fiber reinforced with carbon fiber. The volume fraction used in this study was 0.4. The hybrid composite was made using hand lay-up technique. The dynamic characteristics were obtained through vibration testing. The testing was conducted according to ASTM E756. The variables studied were composite without heating, heating at 100 °C, 200 °C and 280 °C. The experiments were done in three mounting configurations, i.e. upright, downward and horizontal configurations. The natural frequency and damping ratio was determined using half-power bandwidth method. The results showed that heating of composite structure affects the natural frequency and damping ratio of the hybrid composite. Heating until 100 °C will increase the natural frequency of the hybrid composite and decrease the damping ratio, but heating at the temperature above 100 °C will decrease the natural frequency and will damage the hybrid composite structure. The composite mounting configurations do not give significant effect to natural frequency and damping ratio of the hybrid composites.

  15. Optimizing Dynamical Network Structure for Pinning Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orouskhani, Yasin; Jalili, Mahdi; Yu, Xinghuo

    2016-04-01

    Controlling dynamics of a network from any initial state to a final desired state has many applications in different disciplines from engineering to biology and social sciences. In this work, we optimize the network structure for pinning control. The problem is formulated as four optimization tasks: i) optimizing the locations of driver nodes, ii) optimizing the feedback gains, iii) optimizing simultaneously the locations of driver nodes and feedback gains, and iv) optimizing the connection weights. A newly developed population-based optimization technique (cat swarm optimization) is used as the optimization method. In order to verify the methods, we use both real-world networks, and model scale-free and small-world networks. Extensive simulation results show that the optimal placement of driver nodes significantly outperforms heuristic methods including placing drivers based on various centrality measures (degree, betweenness, closeness and clustering coefficient). The pinning controllability is further improved by optimizing the feedback gains. We also show that one can significantly improve the controllability by optimizing the connection weights.

  16. Optimizing Dynamical Network Structure for Pinning Control

    PubMed Central

    Orouskhani, Yasin; Jalili, Mahdi; Yu, Xinghuo

    2016-01-01

    Controlling dynamics of a network from any initial state to a final desired state has many applications in different disciplines from engineering to biology and social sciences. In this work, we optimize the network structure for pinning control. The problem is formulated as four optimization tasks: i) optimizing the locations of driver nodes, ii) optimizing the feedback gains, iii) optimizing simultaneously the locations of driver nodes and feedback gains, and iv) optimizing the connection weights. A newly developed population-based optimization technique (cat swarm optimization) is used as the optimization method. In order to verify the methods, we use both real-world networks, and model scale-free and small-world networks. Extensive simulation results show that the optimal placement of driver nodes significantly outperforms heuristic methods including placing drivers based on various centrality measures (degree, betweenness, closeness and clustering coefficient). The pinning controllability is further improved by optimizing the feedback gains. We also show that one can significantly improve the controllability by optimizing the connection weights. PMID:27067020

  17. Magnetospheric structure and dynamics: A multisatellite approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, W.J.

    1991-03-20

    This report reviews progress during the first year of a contract to study magnetospheric structure and dynamics. Four areas of scientific investigation are highlighted. Pressure gradients form in the geotail because ions drift preferentially toward the dusk flank. These pressure gradients drive field aligned currents that close in the ionosphere and which provide a natural explanation of the Harang discontinuity when the full electrodynamics are modelled. Observations made during a passage by DE 2 through the dayside cusp at a time when the IMF was directed northwards are consistent with magnetic merging occurring on field line that map to the poleward cusp boundary. The authors infer that tail lobe field lines were merging with magnetosheath field lines at the magnetopause tailward of the external cusp. During the March 1989 magnetic storm, the DMSP F9 spacecraft observed extensive substantial decreases in equatorial ion density in the post-dusk sector. Modelling calculations show that the depletions were caused by unusually large upward flows moving the equatorial F region peak above 850 km. Calculations of ion cyclotron wave group velocities show that they are sensitive to both the hot and cold plasma populations. Calculated group delays agree with their earlier observations.

  18. Phenomenology, Structure, and Dynamic of Psychedelic States.

    PubMed

    Preller, Katrin H; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2016-12-27

    Classic serotonergic hallucinogens or psychedelics produce an altered states of consciousness (ASC) that is characterized by profound alterations in sensory perception, mood, thought including the perception of reality, and the sense of self. Over the past years, there has been considerable progress in the search for invariant and common features of psychedelic states. In the first part of this review, we outline contemporary approaches to characterize the structure of ASCs by means of three primary etiology-independent dimensions including oceanic boundlessness, anxious ego-dissolution, and visionary restructuralization as well as by 11 lower-order factors, all of which can be reliably measured by the altered state of consciousness questionnaire (APZ-OAV). The second part sheds light on the dynamic nature of psychedelic experiences. Frequently, psychedelic subjects progress through different stages over time and levels of changes along a perception-hallucination continuum of increasing arousal and ego-dissolution. We then review in detail the acute effects of psychedelics on sensory perception, emotion, cognition, creativity, and time perception along with possible neural mechanisms underlying them. The next part of this review outlines the influence of non-pharmacological factors (predictors) on the acute psychedelic experience, such as demographics, genetics, personality, mood, and setting, and also discusses some long-term effects succeeding the acute experience. The last part presents some recent concepts and models attempting to understand different facets of psychedelic states of consciousness from a neuroscientific perspective.

  19. Optimizing Dynamical Network Structure for Pinning Control.

    PubMed

    Orouskhani, Yasin; Jalili, Mahdi; Yu, Xinghuo

    2016-04-12

    Controlling dynamics of a network from any initial state to a final desired state has many applications in different disciplines from engineering to biology and social sciences. In this work, we optimize the network structure for pinning control. The problem is formulated as four optimization tasks: i) optimizing the locations of driver nodes, ii) optimizing the feedback gains, iii) optimizing simultaneously the locations of driver nodes and feedback gains, and iv) optimizing the connection weights. A newly developed population-based optimization technique (cat swarm optimization) is used as the optimization method. In order to verify the methods, we use both real-world networks, and model scale-free and small-world networks. Extensive simulation results show that the optimal placement of driver nodes significantly outperforms heuristic methods including placing drivers based on various centrality measures (degree, betweenness, closeness and clustering coefficient). The pinning controllability is further improved by optimizing the feedback gains. We also show that one can significantly improve the controllability by optimizing the connection weights.

  20. Electronic-structural dynamics in graphene.

    PubMed

    Gierz, Isabella; Cavalleri, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    We review our recent time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments, which measure the transient electronic structure of optically driven graphene. For pump photon energies in the near infrared ([Formula: see text]), we have discovered the formation of a population-inverted state near the Dirac point, which may be of interest for the design of THz lasing devices and optical amplifiers. At lower pump photon energies ([Formula: see text]), for which interband absorption is not possible in doped samples, we find evidence for free carrier absorption. In addition, when mid-infrared pulses are made resonant with an infrared-active in-plane phonon of bilayer graphene ([Formula: see text]), a transient enhancement of the electron-phonon coupling constant is observed, providing interesting perspective for experiments that report light-enhanced superconductivity in doped fullerites in which a similar lattice mode was excited. All the studies reviewed here have important implications for applications of graphene in optoelectronic devices and for the dynamical engineering of electronic properties with light.

  1. Electronic-structural dynamics in graphene

    PubMed Central

    Gierz, Isabella; Cavalleri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We review our recent time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments, which measure the transient electronic structure of optically driven graphene. For pump photon energies in the near infrared (ℏωpump=950 meV), we have discovered the formation of a population-inverted state near the Dirac point, which may be of interest for the design of THz lasing devices and optical amplifiers. At lower pump photon energies (ℏωpump<400 meV), for which interband absorption is not possible in doped samples, we find evidence for free carrier absorption. In addition, when mid-infrared pulses are made resonant with an infrared-active in-plane phonon of bilayer graphene (ℏωpump=200 meV), a transient enhancement of the electron-phonon coupling constant is observed, providing interesting perspective for experiments that report light-enhanced superconductivity in doped fullerites in which a similar lattice mode was excited. All the studies reviewed here have important implications for applications of graphene in optoelectronic devices and for the dynamical engineering of electronic properties with light. PMID:27822486

  2. On the modal characteristics of damaging structures subjected to earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Auletta, Gianluca; Iacovino, Chiara; Mossucca, Antonello; Nigro, Antonella; Nigro, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    Structural Health Monitoring, especially for structures located in seismic prone areas, has assumed a meaning of great importance in last years, for the possibility to make a more objective and more rapid estimation of the damage occurred on buildings after a seismic event. In the last years many researchers are working to set-up new methodologies for Non-destructive Damage Evaluation based on the variation of the dynamic behaviour of structures under seismic loads. The NDE methods for damage detection and evaluation can be classified into four levels, according to the specific criteria provided by the Rytter. Each level of identification is correlated with specific information related to monitored structure. In fact, by increasing the level it is possible to obtain more information about the state of the health of the structures, to know if damage occurred on the structures, to quantify and localize the damage and to evaluate its impact on the monitored structure. Several authors discussed on the possibility to use the mode shape curvature to localize damage on structural elements, for example, by applying the curvature-based method to frequency response function instead of mode shape, and demonstrated the potential of this approach by considering real data. Damage detection approach based on dynamic monitoring of structural properties over time has received a considerable attention in recent scientific literature. In earthquake engineering field, the recourse to experimental research is necessary to understand the mechanical behaviour of the various structural and non-structural components. In this paper a new methodology to detect and localize a possible damage occurred on a framed structure after an earthquake is presented and discussed. The main outcomes retrieved from many numerical non linear dynamic models of reinforced concrete framed structures characterized by 3, 5 and 8 floors with different geometric configurations and designed for gravity loads only

  3. Sensitivity based method for structural dynamic model improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, R. M.; Du, H.; Ong, J. H.

    1993-05-01

    Sensitivity analysis, the study of how a structure's dynamic characteristics change with design variables, has been used to predict structural modification effects in design for many decades. In this paper, methods for calculating the eigensensitivity, frequency response function sensitivity and its modified new formulation are presented. The implementation of these sensitivity analyses to the practice of finite element model improvement using vibration test data, which is one of the major applications of experimental modal testing, is discussed. Since it is very difficult in practice to measure all the coordinates which are specified in the finite element model, sensitivity based methods become essential and are, in fact, the only appropriate methods of tackling the problem of finite element model improvement. Comparisons of these methods are made in terms of the amount of measured data required, the speed of convergence and the magnitudes of modelling errors. Also, it is identified that the inverse iteration technique can be effectively used to minimize the computational costs involved. The finite element model of a plane truss structure is used in numerical case studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of the applications of these sensitivity based methods to practical engineering structures.

  4. Dynamic protein interaction networks and new structural paradigms in signaling

    PubMed Central

    Csizmok, Veronika; Follis, Ariele Viacava; Kriwacki, Richard W.; Forman-Kay, Julie D.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding signaling and other complex biological processes requires elucidating the critical roles of intrinsically disordered proteins and regions (IDPs/IDRs), which represent ~30% of the proteome and enable unique regulatory mechanisms. In this review we describe the structural heterogeneity of disordered proteins that underpins these mechanisms and the latest progress in obtaining structural descriptions of ensembles of disordered proteins that are needed for linking structure and dynamics to function. We describe the diverse interactions of IDPs that can have unusual characteristics such as “ultrasensitivity” and “regulated folding and unfolding”. We also summarize the mounting data showing that large-scale assembly and protein phase separation occurs within a variety of signaling complexes and cellular structures. In addition, we discuss efforts to therapeutically target disordered proteins with small molecules. Overall, we interpret the remodeling of disordered state ensembles due to binding and post-translational modifications within an expanded framework for allostery that provides significant insights into how disordered proteins transmit biological information. PMID:26922996

  5. Femtosecond resolution of soft mode dynamics in structural phase transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, Thomas P.; Wiederrecht, Gary P.; Nelson, Keith A.; Garrett, Mark H.; Jensen, Hans P.; Warde, Cardinal

    1992-01-01

    The microscopic pathway along which ions or molecules in a crystal move during structural phase transition can often be described in terms of a collective vibrational mode of the lattice. In many cases, this mode, called a 'soft' phonon mode because of its characteristically low frequency near the phase transition temperature, is difficult to characterize through conventional frequency-domain spectroscopies such as light or neutron scattering. A femtosecond time-domain analog of light-scattering spectroscopy called impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) has been used to examine the soft modes of two perovskite ferroelectric crystals. The low-frequency lattice dynamics of KNbO3 and BaTiO3 are clarified in a manner that permits critical evaluation of microscopic models for their ferroelectric transitions. The results illustrate the advantages of ISRS over conventional Raman spectroscopy of low-frequency, heavily damped soft modes.

  6. Research and applications in structural dynamics and aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, Irving

    1992-01-01

    Results of some recently completed research programs in aeroelasticity and structural dynamics at the NASA Langley Research Center are presented. It is shown that multifunctional active controls can be used to control flutter and loads on future advanced fighter configurations. A description and early results of an experimental program are presented in order to provide a well documented data base for validating unsteady aerodynamic codes. It is shown that the degradation in aeroelastic behavior due to thermal effects on a hypersonic vehicle can be offset by the use of active controls. The feasibility of using adaptive materials to control flutter is demonstrated experimentally. A description of the latest unstructured grid methods for use in advanced computational unsteady aerodynamic codes is presented. A program to improve the ability of FEMs to predict rotorcraft vibrational characteristics is described. The use of aeroelastic tailoring to improve the performance of tilt rotor vehicles is examined.

  7. Effect of non-structural elements on the dynamic behaviour of moment-resisting framed structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Auletta, Gianluca

    2015-04-01

    Effects of earthquakes on building structures have studied from many researchers on the recent scientific and technique literature. The phenomenon is clear: inertia forces are governed from structural and non-structural stiffness and masses. The distribution of seismic lateral loads and their magnitude are strongly correlated to the fundamental period of the structure. Therefore, an accurate evaluation of the fundamental period is a crucial aspect for both static and dynamic seismic analyses. In fact, the fundamental period determines the global seismic demand through the spectral acceleration directly evaluated from the linear and/or nonlinear acceleration response spectra (provided from codes or derived from detailed analyses of site effects). Recent earthquakes highlighted the significant effects derived from the interaction between structural and non-structural elements on the main dynamic parameters of a structure and on the lateral distribution of the inertial forces. Usually, non-structural elements acts together with the structural elements, adding both masses and stiffness. Using numerical and experimental campaigns, many researchers have studied the effects of infill walls on the dynamic behaviour of buildings and several simplified models have been proposed to take into account the presence of non-structural elements within linear and nonlinear numerical models. As example, Kliner and Bertero tested a 1/3 scaled structure (moment-resisting infilled frame model) and determine its behaviour during earthquakes. They found that the infills increased the stiffness of the frame in about 5 times. Consequently, in these cases the fundamental period reduces and the inertia forces generally increases. Meharabi et al. tested a 6-storey, three bay, reinforced concrete moment resisting frame, designed according to the provision of UBC-91, and they shown that the lateral force resistance of an infilled frame was higher than that of bare frame. It was concluded that a

  8. Statistical characteristics of dynamics for population migration driven by the economic interests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Jie; Wang, Xu-Ming; Zhao, Ning; Hao, Rui

    2016-06-01

    Population migration typically occurs under some constraints, which can deeply affect the structure of a society and some other related aspects. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the characteristics of population migration. Data from the China Statistical Yearbook indicate that the regional gross domestic product per capita relates to the population size via a linear or power-law relation. In addition, the distribution of population migration sizes or relative migration strength introduced here is dominated by a shifted power-law relation. To reveal the mechanism that creates the aforementioned distributions, a dynamic model is proposed based on the population migration rule that migration is facilitated by higher financial gains and abated by fewer employment opportunities at the destination, considering the migration cost as a function of the migration distance. The calculated results indicate that the distribution of the relative migration strength is governed by a shifted power-law relation, and that the distribution of migration distances is dominated by a truncated power-law relation. These results suggest the use of a power-law to fit a distribution may be not always suitable. Additionally, from the modeling framework, one can infer that it is the randomness and determinacy that jointly create the scaling characteristics of the distributions. The calculation also demonstrates that the network formed by active nodes, representing the immigration and emigration regions, usually evolves from an ordered state with a non-uniform structure to a disordered state with a uniform structure, which is evidenced by the increasing structural entropy.

  9. Dynamics of pseudotachylytes in volcanic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallee, Y.; Mitchell, T. M.; Heap, M. J.; Hirose, T.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Pseudotachylytes in volcanic systems and structures may play a major role in strain localisation and deformation. Pseudotachylyte formation is typically initiated by nonequilibrium melting of silicate rocks. Such processes may however approach chemical equilibrium if slip is sufficiently sustained. The chemical mixing of initially disequilibrium silicate melts is controlled by diffusion and convection. The latter is strongly enhanced by frictional slip. The rheological properties of silicate melts depend on chemical composition, temperature, the presence of crystals and bubbles, as well as strain rate (at high rates). Thus the complexity of dynamics and rheological behaviour of pseudotachylyte formation associated with volcanic structures requires experimental investigation. Here, high-velocity (1500 rpm equivalent to 2 m/s) friction experiments on andesitic and basaltic volcanic rocks are combined with rheological, geochemical and microstructural analyses as well as neutron-computed-tomography to constrain the development of pseudotachylytes in volcanic structures and their rheological control on the frictional properties of volcano-tectonic faults. The formation of a frictional melt occurs at 1050+/-50 °C and coincides with a peak in the coefficient of friction (1.25 for the andesite and 0.6 for the basalt). As friction is sustained, the coefficient of friction decreases by about 20% to stabilisation while the temperature rises by ca. 300 °C. Post-experiment FE-SEM and SEM image analysis combined with electron microprobe data show a gradation from the host rock, to a thin, outer region of chemically heterogeneous initial melts (protomelts), and an inner region of chemically homogeneous frictional melts in the core of the slip zone. The initial protomelts chemically reflect the composition of the local crystal assemblage and as such, their rheological behaviour may vary locally. The frictional melt in the slip zone, however, chemically reflects the composition

  10. SMI: a structural dynamics toolbox for integrated modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael; Baier, Horst

    2002-07-01

    In cooperation with the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the Institute of Lightweight Structures (LLB), Technische Universtitaet Muenchen, has developed the Structural Modeling Interface Toolbox (SMI), a Matlab based software package for creation of a dynamical model of a telescope structure. It is called Interface, since it uses the modal data of a finite element (FE) analysis and creates a dynamic model to be used within a time-dependent control loop simulation in the Matlab/Simulink environment. SMI is part of the Integrated Modeling Toolbox (IMT) developed in a joint effort by ESO, Astrium GmbH and LLB. Since SMI can read modal data in a general format, it is not depending on the FE-software. In addition to that, an interface to the FE-package ANSYS has been developed. It allows the variation of parameters and some settings for the FE-analysis directly within SMI. Both, force excitation like windloads and base excitation like micro seismic perturbations can be included. Several tools for model reduction are provided. Some of them are modal based, like effective modal masses, others are general model reduction procedures from control engineering like balanced truncation. For the evaluation of the reduced models, transfer functions of different models can be displayed in a Bode-plot. Time characteristics like step response or impulse response are also available. Moreover, for a typical excitation PSD the response PSD can be computed. This response can either be compared to the response of an exact model or to measured data and the rms-error can be calculated. The final result is a linear statespace model of the structure and a Simulink block, which can be included into a Simulink model.

  11. The interplay between dynamic heterogeneities and structure of bulk liquid water: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Demontis, Pierfranco; Suffritti, Giuseppe B.; Gulín-González, Jorge; Sant, Marco

    2015-06-28

    In order to study the interplay between dynamical heterogeneities and structural properties of bulk liquid water in the temperature range 130–350 K, thus including the supercooled regime, we use the explicit trend of the distribution functions of some molecular properties, namely, the rotational relaxation constants, the atomic mean-square displacements, the relaxation of the cross correlation functions between the linear and squared displacements of H and O atoms of each molecule, the tetrahedral order parameter q and, finally, the number of nearest neighbors (NNs) and of hydrogen bonds (HBs) per molecule. Two different potentials are considered: TIP4P-Ew and a model developed in this laboratory for the study of nanoconfined water. The results are similar for the dynamical properties, but are markedly different for the structural characteristics. In particular, for temperatures higher than that of the dynamic crossover between “fragile” (at higher temperatures) and “strong” (at lower temperatures) liquid behaviors detected around 207 K, the rotational relaxation of supercooled water appears to be remarkably homogeneous. However, the structural parameters (number of NNs and of HBs, as well as q) do not show homogeneous distributions, and these distributions are different for the two water models. Another dynamic crossover between “fragile” (at lower temperatures) and “strong” (at higher temperatures) liquid behaviors, corresponding to the one found experimentally at T{sup ∗} ∼ 315 ± 5 K, was spotted at T{sup ∗} ∼ 283 K and T{sup ∗} ∼ 276 K for the TIP4P-Ew and the model developed in this laboratory, respectively. It was detected from the trend of Arrhenius plots of dynamic quantities and from the onset of a further heterogeneity in the rotational relaxation. To our best knowledge, it is the first time that this dynamical crossover is detected in computer simulations of bulk water. On the basis of the simulation results, the possible

  12. Structural and dynamical heterogeneity in a glass-forming liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Matharoo, Gurpreet S.; Razul, M. S. Gulam; Poole, Peter H.

    2006-11-15

    We use the 'isoconfigurational ensemble' [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 135701 (2004)] to analyze both dynamical and structural properties in simulations of a glass-forming molecular liquid. We show that spatially correlated clusters of low-potential-energy molecules are observable on the time scale of structural relaxation, despite the absence of spatial correlations of potential energy in the instantaneous structure of the system. We find that these structural heterogeneities correlate with dynamical heterogeneities in the form of clusters of low molecular mobility.

  13. Structural characteristics of university engineering students' conceptions of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Fraser, Duncan M.

    2002-05-01

    This study examined structural characteristics of university engineering students' conceptions of energy elicited through paragraph writing and their relations with categories of their conceptions specific to energy in solution processes identified through interviews. We found that structures of students' conceptions are characterized primarily by characteristic, example-of/type-of, and lead-to types of relations, and these relations correspond with categories of students' conceptions. More specifically, categories of students' conceptions are exclusively related to energy transformation, and students failed to apply the notion of energy conservation demonstrated in structures of their conceptions to explain the temperature change in solution processes. It is concluded that although paragraph writing and interviews solicit different student conceptions, the conceptions identified from the two sources are related and paragraph writing tends to provide a more holistic picture of students' conceptions. This conclusion has clear implications for science curriculum development and instruction.

  14. Dynamic structure factor of the normal Fermi gas from the collisionless to the hydrodynamic regime

    SciTech Connect

    Watabe, Shohei; Nikuni, Tetsuro

    2010-09-15

    The dynamic structure factor of a normal Fermi gas is investigated by using the moment method for the Boltzmann equation. We determine the spectral function at finite temperatures over the full range of crossover from the collisionless regime to the hydrodynamic regime. We find that the Brillouin peak in the dynamic structure factor exhibits a smooth crossover from zero to first sound as functions of temperature and interaction strength. The dynamic structure factor obtained using the moment method also exhibits a definite Rayleigh peak ({omega}{approx}0), which is a characteristic of the hydrodynamic regime. We compare the dynamic structure factor obtained by the moment method with that obtained from the hydrodynamic equations.

  15. Dynamic Response Analysis of Fuzzy Stochastic Truss Structures under Fuzzy Stochastic Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Juan; Chen, Jian-Jun; Gao, Wei

    2006-08-01

    A novel method (Fuzzy factor method) is presented, which is used in the dynamic response analysis of fuzzy stochastic truss structures under fuzzy stochastic step loads. Considering the fuzzy randomness of structural physical parameters, geometric dimensions and the amplitudes of step loads simultaneously, fuzzy stochastic dynamic response of the truss structures is developed using the mode superposition method and fuzzy factor method. The fuzzy numerical characteristics of dynamic response are then obtained by using the random variable’s moment method and the algebra synthesis method. The influences of the fuzzy randomness of structural physical parameters, geometric dimensions and step load on the fuzzy randomness of the dynamic response are demonstrated via an engineering example, and Monte-Carlo method is used to simulate this example, verifying the feasibility and validity of the modeling and method given in this paper.

  16. The relevance of network micro-structure for neural dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pernice, Volker; Deger, Moritz; Cardanobile, Stefano; Rotter, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The activity of cortical neurons is determined by the input they receive from presynaptic neurons. Many previous studies have investigated how specific aspects of the statistics of the input affect the spike trains of single neurons and neurons in recurrent networks. However, typically very simple random network models are considered in such studies. Here we use a recently developed algorithm to construct networks based on a quasi-fractal probability measure which are much more variable than commonly used network models, and which therefore promise to sample the space of recurrent networks in a more exhaustive fashion than previously possible. We use the generated graphs as the underlying network topology in simulations of networks of integrate-and-fire neurons in an asynchronous and irregular state. Based on an extensive dataset of networks and neuronal simulations we assess statistical relations between features of the network structure and the spiking activity. Our results highlight the strong influence that some details of the network structure have on the activity dynamics of both single neurons and populations, even if some global network parameters are kept fixed. We observe specific and consistent relations between activity characteristics like spike-train irregularity or correlations and network properties, for example the distributions of the numbers of in- and outgoing connections or clustering. Exploiting these relations, we demonstrate that it is possible to estimate structural characteristics of the network from activity data. We also assess higher order correlations of spiking activity in the various networks considered here, and find that their occurrence strongly depends on the network structure. These results provide directions for further theoretical studies on recurrent networks, as well as new ways to interpret spike train recordings from neural circuits. PMID:23761758

  17. Crystallization characteristics in supercooled liquid zinc during isothermal relaxation: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Li-Li; Liu, Rang-Su; Tian, Ze-An; Liu, Hai-Rong; Hou, Zhao-Yang; Peng, Ping

    2016-08-01

    The crystallization characteristics in supercooled liquid Zn during isothermal relaxation were investigated using molecular dynamics simulations by adopting the cluster-type index method (CTIM) and the tracing method. Results showed that the crystallization process undergo three different stages. The size of the critical nucleus was found to be approximately 90-150 atoms in this system; the growth of nuclei proceeded via the successive formation of hcp and fcc structures with a layered distribution; and finally, the system evolved into a much larger crystal with a distinct layered distribution of hcp and fcc structures with an 8R stacking sequence of ABCBACAB by adjusting all of the atoms in the larger clusters according to a certain rule.

  18. Crystallization characteristics in supercooled liquid zinc during isothermal relaxation: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li-li; Liu, Rang-su; Tian, Ze-an; Liu, Hai-rong; Hou, Zhao-yang; Peng, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The crystallization characteristics in supercooled liquid Zn during isothermal relaxation were investigated using molecular dynamics simulations by adopting the cluster-type index method (CTIM) and the tracing method. Results showed that the crystallization process undergo three different stages. The size of the critical nucleus was found to be approximately 90–150 atoms in this system; the growth of nuclei proceeded via the successive formation of hcp and fcc structures with a layered distribution; and finally, the system evolved into a much larger crystal with a distinct layered distribution of hcp and fcc structures with an 8R stacking sequence of ABCBACAB by adjusting all of the atoms in the larger clusters according to a certain rule. PMID:27526660

  19. Study of the structure and dynamics of complex biological networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samal, Areejit

    2008-12-01

    In this thesis, we have studied the large scale structure and system level dynamics of certain biological networks using tools from graph theory, computational biology and dynamical systems. We study the structure and dynamics of large scale metabolic networks inside three organisms, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Staphylococcus aureus. We also study the dynamics of the large scale genetic network controlling E. coli metabolism. We have tried to explain the observed system level dynamical properties of these networks in terms of their underlying structure. Our studies of the system level dynamics of these large scale biological networks provide a different perspective on their functioning compared to that obtained from purely structural studies. Our study also leads to some new insights on features such as robustness, fragility and modularity of these large scale biological networks. We also shed light on how different networks inside the cell such as metabolic networks and genetic networks are interrelated to each other.

  20. Dynamics and structure of turbulent premixed flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilger, R. W.; Swaminathan, N.; Ruetsch, G. R.; Smith, N. S. A.

    1995-01-01

    In earlier work (Mantel & Bilger, 1994) the structure of the turbulent premixed flame was investigated using statistics based on conditional averaging with the reaction progress variable as the conditioning variable. The DNS data base of Trouve and Poinsot (1994) was used in this investigation. Attention was focused on the conditional dissipation and conditional axial velocity in the flame with a view to modeling these quantities for use in the conditional moment closure (CMC) approach to analysis of kinetics in premixed flames (Bilger, 1993). Two remarkable findings were made: there was almost no acceleration of the axial velocity in the flame front itself; and the conditional scalar dissipation remained as high, or higher, than that found in laminar premixed flames. The first finding was surprising since in laminar flames all the fluid acceleration occurs through the flame front, and this could be expected also for turbulent premixed flames at the flamelet limit. The finding gave hope of inventing a new approach to the dynamics of turbulent premixed flames through use of rapid distortion theory or an unsteady Bernoulli equation. This could lead to a new second order closure for turbulent premixed flames. The second finding was contrary to our measurements with laser diagnostics in lean hydrocarbon flames where it is found that conditional scalar dissipation drops dramatically below that for laminar flamelets when the turbulence intensity becomes high. Such behavior was not explainable with a one-step kinetic model, even at non-unity Lewis number. It could be due to depletion of H2 from the reaction zone by preferential diffusion. The capacity of the flame to generate radicals is critically dependent on the levels of H2 present (Bilger, et al., 1991). It seemed that a DNS computation with a multistep reduced mechanism would be worthwhile if a way could be found to make this feasible. Truly innovative approaches to complex problems often come only when there is the

  1. Structural Dynamics Branch research and accomplishments for FY 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Presented here is a collection of FY 1990 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Highlights are from the branch's major work areas: aeroelasticity, vibration control, dynamic systems, and computational structural methods. A listing is given of FY 1990 branch publications.

  2. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments for fiscal year 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This publication contains a collection of fiscal year 1987 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. Highlights from the branch's four major work areas, Aeroelasticity, Vibration Control, Dynamic Systems, and Computational Structural Methods, are included in the report as well as a complete listing of the FY87 branch publications.

  3. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments to FY 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains a collection of fiscal year 1992 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA LeRC. Highlights from the branch's major work areas--Aeroelasticity, Vibration Control, Dynamic Systems, and Computational Structural Methods are included in the report as well as a listing of the fiscal year 1992 branch publications.

  4. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments for FY 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Fiscal year 1988 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center are described. Highlights from the branch's major work areas -- aeroelasticity, vibration control, dynamic systems, and computational structural methods -- are included as well as a complete listing of the FY 88 branch publications.

  5. Identification of the dynamic characteristics of a viscoelastic, nonlinear adhesive joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naraghi, T.; Nobari, A. S.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear mechanical characteristics of an adhesive (Sikaflex-252) are identified over frequency range, using eigenvalues of nonlinear system and inverse eigen-sensitivity method and experimental data. Sikaflex-252 is selected as an adhesive which is mainly used as a joining medium (joint) in structural applications. In order to simulate the viscoelastic behaviour of the adhesive, the frequency dependent Young's modulus and damping coefficient are assumed in identification process leading to the updating process being repeated for different ranges of frequencies to identify stiffness and damping properties of the adhesive. Using the optimum equivalent linear frequency response function (OELF) concept, in order to realize the nonlinear nature of the adhesive, modal tests are performed under two different random excitation levels which illustrate the stiffness softening characteristic of adhesive which can have serious implications regarding dynamic stability of structures. Furthermore, based on the identified characteristics, the paper examines the possibility of tuning of the Standard Linear Solid model (SLS), in representing the adhesive viscoelastic behaviour. Results of this attempt proved that the S.L.S. model with tuned parameters significantly improves the fidelity of finite element (FE) model to experimental results.

  6. Construction of discrete-continual models in structure analysis for extreme dynamic loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotin, V. V.; Trifonov, O. V.

    2009-12-01

    We propose a new method for constructing design models of high-rise buildings and structures, which is based on the treatment of the set of bearing structures as discrete-continual inelastic damageable system admitting large spatial displacements and rotations. We derive a relation for the virtual work functional with respect to increments of integral stress characteristics, which can be viewed as a starting point for solving applied problems of simulation of structural dynamics under the action of extreme forces. To take into account the processes of damage and failure of buildings and structures, we propose a generalized scheme for constructing a nonlinear physical model of deformation on the level of integral stress characteristics in the bearing structures of a storey. As an example of application of this model, we consider the problem of dynamic behavior of a multistorey building under a spatial seismic load.

  7. Titan's lower troposphere: thermal structure and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnay, B.; Lebonnois, S.

    2011-12-01

    A new climate model for Titan's atmosphere has been developed, using the physics of the IPSL Titan 2-dimensional climate model with the current version of the LMDZ General Circulation Model's dynamical core. The GCM covers altitudes from the surface to 500 km with the diurnal cycle and the gravitational tides included. 1. Boundary layer and thermal structure The HASI profile of potential temperature shows a layer at 300 m, an other at 800 m and a slope change at 2 km ([5],[2]). Dune spacing on Titan is consistent with a 2-3 km boundary layer ([3]). We have reproduced this profile (see figure) and interpreted the layer at 300 m as a convective boundary layer, the layer at 800 m is a residual layer corresponding to the maximum diurnal vertical extension of the PBL. We interpret the slope change at 2 km as produced by the seasonal displacement of the ITCZ. This layer traps the circulation in the first two km and is responsible of the dune spacing. Finally we interpret the fog discovered in summer polar region ([1]) has clouds produced by the diurnal cycle of the PBL (as fair weather cumulus on Earth). 2. Surface winds 2.1 Effect of gravitational and thermal tides We analysed tropospheric winds and the influence of both the thermal and the gravitational tides. The impact of gravitational tides on the circulation is extremely small. Thermal tides have a visible effect, though quite tenuous. 2.2 Effect of topography We produced topography maps derived from spherical harmonic interpolation ([6]) on the reference ellipsoid ([4]). Surface temperatures at high altitude appear higher that the ambient air. Vertical air movements produce anabatic winds developing on smooth and long slopes. This could be one of the main causes controlling the direction of surface winds and the direction of dunes. References [1] Brown et al.: Discovery of fog at the south pole of Titan, Astrophys. J. 706 (2009), pp. L110-L113 [2] Griffith et al.: Titan's Tropical Storms in an Evolving Atmosphere

  8. Visualizing Structure and Dynamics of Disaccharide Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, J. F.; Beckham, G. T.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effect of several solvent models on the conformational properties and dynamics of disaccharides such as cellobiose and lactose. Significant variation in timescale for large scale conformational transformations are observed. Molecular dynamics simulation provides enough detail to enable insight through visualization of multidimensional data sets. We present a new way to visualize conformational space for disaccharides with Ramachandran plots.

  9. Dynamic Arrest in Charged Colloidal Systems Exhibiting Large-Scale Structural Heterogeneities

    SciTech Connect

    Haro-Perez, C.; Callejas-Fernandez, J.; Hidalgo-Alvarez, R.; Rojas-Ochoa, L. F.; Castaneda-Priego, R.; Quesada-Perez, M.; Trappe, V.

    2009-01-09

    Suspensions of charged liposomes are found to exhibit typical features of strongly repulsive fluid systems at short length scales, while exhibiting structural heterogeneities at larger length scales that are characteristic of attractive systems. We model the static structure factor of these systems using effective pair interaction potentials composed of a long-range attraction and a shorter range repulsion. Our modeling of the static structure yields conditions for dynamically arrested states at larger volume fractions, which we find to agree with the experimentally observed dynamics.

  10. Low-dimensional dynamics of structured random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljadeff, Johnatan; Renfrew, David; Vegué, Marina; Sharpee, Tatyana O.

    2016-02-01

    Using a generalized random recurrent neural network model, and by extending our recently developed mean-field approach [J. Aljadeff, M. Stern, and T. Sharpee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 088101 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.088101], we study the relationship between the network connectivity structure and its low-dimensional dynamics. Each connection in the network is a random number with mean 0 and variance that depends on pre- and postsynaptic neurons through a sufficiently smooth function g of their identities. We find that these networks undergo a phase transition from a silent to a chaotic state at a critical point we derive as a function of g . Above the critical point, although unit activation levels are chaotic, their autocorrelation functions are restricted to a low-dimensional subspace. This provides a direct link between the network's structure and some of its functional characteristics. We discuss example applications of the general results to neuroscience where we derive the support of the spectrum of connectivity matrices with heterogeneous and possibly correlated degree distributions, and to ecology where we study the stability of the cascade model for food web structure.

  11. Low-dimensional dynamics of structured random networks

    PubMed Central

    Aljade, Johnatan; Renfrew, David; Vegué, Marina; Sharpee, Tatyana O.

    2016-01-01

    Using a generalized random recurrent neural network model, and by extending our recently developed mean-field approach, we study the relationship between the network connectivity structure and its low dimensional dynamics. Each connection in the network is a random number with mean 0 and variance that depends on pre- and post-synaptic neurons through a sufficiently smooth function g of their identities. We find that these networks undergo a phase transition from a silent to a chaotic state at a critical point we derive as a function of g. Above the critical point, although unit activation levels are chaotic, their autocorrelation functions are restricted to a low-dimensional subspace. This provides a direct link between the network's structure and some of its functional characteristics. We discuss example applications of the general results to neuroscience where we derive the support of the spectrum of connectivity matrices with heterogeneous and possibly correlated degree distributions, and to ecology where we study the stability of the cascade model for food web structure. PMID:26986347

  12. Dynamics and structural changes of small water clusters on ionization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han Myoung; Kim, Kwang S

    2013-07-05

    Despite utmost importance in understanding water ionization process, reliable theoretical results of structural changes and molecular dynamics (MD) of water clusters on ionization have hardly been reported yet. Here, we investigate the water cations [(H2O)(n = 2-6)(+)] with density functional theory (DFT), Möller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory (MP2), and coupled cluster theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)]. The complete basis set limits of interaction energies at the CCSD(T) level are reported, and the geometrical structures, electronic properties, and infrared spectra are investigated. The characteristics of structures and spectra of the water cluster cations reflect the formation of the hydronium cation moiety (H3O(+)) and the hydroxyl radical. Although most density functionals fail to predict reasonable energetics of the water cations, some functionals are found to be reliable, in reasonable agreement with high-level ab initio results. To understand the ionization process of water clusters, DFT- and MP2-based Born-Oppenheimer MD (BOMD) simulations are performed on ionization. On ionization, the water clusters tend to have an Eigen-like form with the hydronium cation instead of a Zundel-like form, based on reliable BOMD simulations. For the vertically ionized water hexamer, the relatively stable (H2O)5(+) (5sL4A) cluster tends to form with a detached water molecule (H2O).

  13. Structural properties of CHAPS micelles, studied by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Fernando E; Garay, A Sergio; Rodrigues, Daniel E

    2014-04-10

    Detergents are essential tools to study biological membranes, and they are frequently used to solubilize lipids and integral membrane proteins. Particularly the nondenaturing zwitterionic detergent usually named CHAPS was designed for membrane biochemistry and integrates the characteristics of the sulfobetaine-type detergents and bile salts. Despite the available experimental data little is known about the molecular structure of its micelles. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the aggregation in micelles of several numbers of CHAPS (≤ 18) starting from a homogeneous water dilution. The force field parameters to describe the interactions of the molecule were developed and validated. After 50 ns of simulation almost all the systems result in the formation of stable micelles. The molecular shape (gyration radii, volume, surface) and the molecular structure (RDF, salt bridges, H-bonds, SAS) of the micelles were characterized. It was found that the main interactions that lead to the stability of the micelles are the electrostatic ones among the polar groups of the tails and the OH's from the ring moiety. Unlike micelles of other compounds, CHAPS show a grainlike heterogeneity with hydrophobic micropockets. The results are in complete agreement with the available experimental information from NMR, TEM, and SAXS studies, allowing the modeling of the molecular structure of CHAPS micelles. Finally, we hope that the new force field parameters for this detergent will be a significant contribution to the knowledge of such an interesting molecule.

  14. Hydration structure of salt solutions from ab initio molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bankura, Arindam; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Klein, Michael L.

    2013-01-07

    The solvation structures of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Cl{sup -} ions in aqueous solution have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) based Car-Parrinello (CP) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. CPMD trajectories were collected for systems containing three NaCl or KCl ion pairs solvated by 122 water molecules using three different but commonly employed density functionals (BLYP, HCTH, and PBE) with electron correlation treated at the level of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The effect of including dispersion forces was analyzed through the use of an empirical correction to the DFT-GGA scheme. Special attention was paid to the hydration characteristics, especially the structural properties of the first solvation shell of the ions, which was investigated through ion-water radial distribution functions, coordination numbers, and angular distribution functions. There are significant differences between the present results obtained from CPMD simulations and those provided by classical MD based on either the CHARMM force field or a polarizable model. Overall, the computed structural properties are in fair agreement with the available experimental results. In particular, the observed coordination numbers 5.0-5.5, 6.0-6.4, and 6.0-6.5 for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Cl{sup -}, respectively, are consistent with X-ray and neutron scattering studies but differ somewhat from some of the many other recent computational studies of these important systems. Possible reasons for the differences are discussed.

  15. Hydration structure of salt solutions from ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankura, Arindam; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Klein, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The solvation structures of Na^+, K^+, and Cl^- ions in aqueous solution have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) based Car-Parrinello (CP) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. CPMD trajectories were collected for systems containing three NaCl or KCl ion pairs solvated by 122 water molecules using three different but commonly employed density functionals (BLYP, HCTH, and PBE) with electron correlation treated at the level of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The effect of including dispersion forces was analyzed through the use of an empirical correction to the DFT-GGA scheme. Special attention was paid to the hydration characteristics, especially the structural properties of the first solvation shell of the ions, which was investigated through ion-water radial distribution functions, coordination numbers, and angular distribution functions. There are significant differences between the present results obtained from CPMD simulations and those provided by classical MD based on either the CHARMM force field or a polarizable model. Overall, the computed structural properties are in fair agreement with the available experimental results. In particular, the observed coordination numbers 5.0-5.5, 6.0-6.4, and 6.0-6.5 for Na^+, K^+, and Cl^-, respectively, are consistent with X-ray and neutron scattering studies but differ somewhat from some of the many other recent computational studies of these important systems. Possible reasons for the differences are discussed.

  16. Hydration structure of salt solutions from ab initio molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bankura, Arindam; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Klein, Michael L

    2013-01-07

    The solvation structures of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) ions in aqueous solution have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) based Car-Parrinello (CP) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. CPMD trajectories were collected for systems containing three NaCl or KCl ion pairs solvated by 122 water molecules using three different but commonly employed density functionals (BLYP, HCTH, and PBE) with electron correlation treated at the level of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The effect of including dispersion forces was analyzed through the use of an empirical correction to the DFT-GGA scheme. Special attention was paid to the hydration characteristics, especially the structural properties of the first solvation shell of the ions, which was investigated through ion-water radial distribution functions, coordination numbers, and angular distribution functions. There are significant differences between the present results obtained from CPMD simulations and those provided by classical MD based on either the CHARMM force field or a polarizable model. Overall, the computed structural properties are in fair agreement with the available experimental results. In particular, the observed coordination numbers 5.0-5.5, 6.0-6.4, and 6.0-6.5 for Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-), respectively, are consistent with X-ray and neutron scattering studies but differ somewhat from some of the many other recent computational studies of these important systems. Possible reasons for the differences are discussed.

  17. Experimental/analytical approaches to modeling, calibrating and optimizing shaking table dynamics for structural dynamic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trombetti, Tomaso

    This thesis presents an Experimental/Analytical approach to modeling and calibrating shaking tables for structural dynamic applications. This approach was successfully applied to the shaking table recently built in the structural laboratory of the Civil Engineering Department at Rice University. This shaking table is capable of reproducing model earthquake ground motions with a peak acceleration of 6 g's, a peak velocity of 40 inches per second, and a peak displacement of 3 inches, for a maximum payload of 1500 pounds. It has a frequency bandwidth of approximately 70 Hz and is designed to test structural specimens up to 1/5 scale. The rail/table system is mounted on a reaction mass of about 70,000 pounds consisting of three 12 ft x 12 ft x 1 ft reinforced concrete slabs, post-tensioned together and connected to the strong laboratory floor. The slip table is driven by a hydraulic actuator governed by a 407 MTS controller which employs a proportional-integral-derivative-feedforward-differential pressure algorithm to control the actuator displacement. Feedback signals are provided by two LVDT's (monitoring the slip table relative displacement and the servovalve main stage spool position) and by one differential pressure transducer (monitoring the actuator force). The dynamic actuator-foundation-specimen system is modeled and analyzed by combining linear control theory and linear structural dynamics. The analytical model developed accounts for the effects of actuator oil compressibility, oil leakage in the actuator, time delay in the response of the servovalve spool to a given electrical signal, foundation flexibility, and dynamic characteristics of multi-degree-of-freedom specimens. In order to study the actual dynamic behavior of the shaking table, the transfer function between target and actual table accelerations were identified using experimental results and spectral estimation techniques. The power spectral density of the system input and the cross power spectral

  18. Movement Characteristics Analysis and Dynamic Simulation of Collaborative Measuring Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    guoqing, MA; li, LIU; zhenglin, YU; guohua, CAO; yanbin, ZHENG

    2017-03-01

    Human-machine collaboration is becoming increasingly more necessary, and so collaborative robot applications are also in high demand. We selected a UR10 robot as our research subject for this study. First, we applied D-H coordinate transformation of the robot to establish a link system, and we then used inverse transformation to solve the robot’s inverse kinematics and find all the joints. Use Lagrange method to analysis UR robot dynamics; use ADAMS multibody dynamics simulation software to dynamic simulation; verifying the correctness of the derived kinetic models.

  19. Damping characteristics of composite petal structure for an 8-m diameter telescope at cryogenic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, Alain C.; Romney, Bruce; Mihara, Roger

    2004-10-01

    Concerns have been raised in the engineering community about the potentially extremely low levels of structural damping in structures at cryogenic temperatures. Experiments conducted on material coupons have shown that material damping at those temperatures can be orders of magnitude lower than that at room temperature. Whether structural damping in built-up structures at those temperatures can be that low is unknown, but if it was, the telescope resonances could exacerbate microdynamics originating from the structure itself and residual vibrations propagating from the instrument module to the telescope. Since the effect of those vibrations might not be compensated for optically, the observatory might not meet its wavefront and jitter error budgets. The structural damping characteristics of built-up structures in the micrometer to nanometer regime and at cryogenic temperatures are to a large extent unknown. Characterization on structures traceable to future flight designs is therefore necessary to develop an understanding of these characteristics, as well as devise means to mitigate those effects. To address those concerns and to reduce the technical risks in these areas, Lockheed Martin tested the dynamics characteristics of its Single Petal Testbed (SPT) flight-like petal structure at full-scale, from room temperature down to -175C (98K). The SPT was designed by the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center and fabricated by Programmed Composites Inc. Significant changes in dynamics characteristics with temperature were observed, but primarily in mode shapes as opposed to modal frequencies and modal dampings. The modal damping remained fairly constant throughout the temperature range and, to the extent changes could be detected, the trends were more towards an increase than a decrease in damping at 98K, which was highly unexpected. A detailed analysis of these results extracted from dynamics tests conducted during the cool down portion of the last thermal cycle

  20. Dynamics of water confined in lyotropic liquid crystals: Molecular dynamics simulations of the dynamic structure factor

    SciTech Connect

    Mantha, Sriteja; Yethiraj, Arun

    2016-02-24

    The properties of water under confinement are of practical and fundamental interest. Here in this work we study the properties of water in the self-assembled lyotropic phases of gemini surfactants with a focus on testing the standard analysis of quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments. In QENS experiments the dynamic structure factor is measured and fit to models to extract the translational diffusion constant, DT , and rotational relaxation time, τR. We test this procedure by using simulation results for the dynamic structure factor, extracting the dynamic parameters from the fit as is typically done in experiments, and comparing the values to those directly measured in the simulations. We find that the decoupling approximation, where the intermediate scattering function is assumed to be a product of translational and rotational contributions, is quite accurate. The jump-diffusion and isotropic rotation models, however, are not accurate when the degree of confinement is high. In particular, the exponential approximations for the intermediate scattering function fail for highly confined water and the values of DT and τR can differ from the measured value by as much as a factor of two. Other models have more fit parameters, however, and with the range of energies and wave-vectors accessible to QENS, the typical analysis appears to be the best choice. In the most confined lamellar phase, the dynamics are sufficiently slow that QENS does not access a large enough time scale and neutron spin echo measurements would be a valuable technique in addition to QENS.

  1. Dynamics of water confined in lyotropic liquid crystals: Molecular dynamics simulations of the dynamic structure factor

    DOE PAGES

    Mantha, Sriteja; Yethiraj, Arun

    2016-02-24

    The properties of water under confinement are of practical and fundamental interest. Here in this work we study the properties of water in the self-assembled lyotropic phases of gemini surfactants with a focus on testing the standard analysis of quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments. In QENS experiments the dynamic structure factor is measured and fit to models to extract the translational diffusion constant, DT , and rotational relaxation time, τR. We test this procedure by using simulation results for the dynamic structure factor, extracting the dynamic parameters from the fit as is typically done in experiments, and comparing the valuesmore » to those directly measured in the simulations. We find that the decoupling approximation, where the intermediate scattering function is assumed to be a product of translational and rotational contributions, is quite accurate. The jump-diffusion and isotropic rotation models, however, are not accurate when the degree of confinement is high. In particular, the exponential approximations for the intermediate scattering function fail for highly confined water and the values of DT and τR can differ from the measured value by as much as a factor of two. Other models have more fit parameters, however, and with the range of energies and wave-vectors accessible to QENS, the typical analysis appears to be the best choice. In the most confined lamellar phase, the dynamics are sufficiently slow that QENS does not access a large enough time scale and neutron spin echo measurements would be a valuable technique in addition to QENS.« less

  2. Evaluation of Airfoil Dynamic Stall Characteristics for Maneuverability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In severe maneuvers, out of necessity for a military aircraft or inadvertently for a civil aircraft, a helicopter airfoil will stall in a dynamic manner and provide lift beyond what would be calculated based on static airfoil tests. The augmented lift that occurs in dynamic stall is related to a vortex that is shed near the leading edge of the airfoil. However, directly related to the augmented lift that results from the dynamic stall vortex are significant penalties in pitching moment and drag. An understanding of the relationship between the augmented lift in dynamic stall and the associated moment and drag penalties is the purpose of this paper. This relationship is characterized using data obtained in two-dimensional wind tunnel tests and related to the problem of helicopter maneuverability.

  3. The effects of bolted joints on dynamic response of structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, I.; Khalid, A.; Manshoor, B.; Araby, S.; Ghazali, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    Joint is an universal fastening technology for structural members; in particular bolted joints are extensively used in mechanical structures due to their simple maintenance and low cost. However, the components of bolted joints are imperative because failure could be catastrophic and endanger lives. Hence, in this study, the effects of bolted joints on vibrating structures are investigated by determining the structural dynamic properties, such as mode shapes, damping ratios and natural frequencies, and these are compared with the monolithic structures (welding). Two approaches of experimental rigs are developed: a beam and a frame where both are subjected to dynamic loading. The analysis reveals the importance of bolted joints in increasing the damping properties and minimizing the vibration magnitude of structures, this indicates the significant influence of bolted joints on the dynamic behaviour of assembled structures. The outcome of this study provides a good model for predicting the experimental variable response in different types of structural joints.

  4. Prediction of Dynamic Stall Characteristics Using Advanced Nonlinear Panel Methods,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This paper presents preliminary results of work in which a surface singularity panel method is being extended for modelling the dynamic interaction...between a separated wake and a surface undergoing an unsteady motion. The method combines the capabilities of an unsteady time-stepping code and a... technique for modelling extensive separation using free vortex sheets. Routines are developed for treating the dynamic interaction between the separated

  5. Dynamic response analysis of closed-loop control system for random intelligent truss structure under random forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Jianjun; Zhou, Yabin; Cui, Mingtao

    2004-07-01

    Considering the randomness of structural damping, physical parameters of structural materials, geometric dimensions of active bars and passive bars, applied loads and control forces simultaneously, the problems of dynamic response analysis of closed-loop control system based on probability for the random intelligent truss structures are studied in this paper. The computational expressions of numerical characteristics of structural dynamic response of closed-loop control system are derived by means of the mode superposition method. Through the engineering examples, the influences of the randomness of them on structural dynamic response are inspected and some significant conclusions are obtained.

  6. Synthesis and surface structural characteristics of new polysiloxane xerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasukhin, A. S.; Neudachina, L. K.; Yatluk, Yu. G.; Adamova, L. V.; Osipova, V. A.; Gorbunova, E. M.; Moskaleva, Yu. S.; Larina, T. Yu.

    2011-03-01

    Pyridylethylaminopropylpolysiloxane xerogel (PEAPPSX) was synthesized by sol-gel technology. The composition of the substance was determined via elemental analysis and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The surface structural characteristics of the xerogel were determined by electron microscopy and low-temperature nitrogen sorption; thermal analysis was also performed. It was established that the content of functional groups in PEAPPSX was 2.43 mmol/g, and that xerogel is a mesoporous substance with a developed surface (121.71 m2/g).

  7. Laser fields in dynamically ionized plasma structures for coherent acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu-Thanh, Ph.; Tückmantel, T.; Pukhov, A.; Kostyukov, I.

    2015-10-01

    With the emergence of the CAN (Coherent Amplification Network) laser technology, a new scheme for direct particle acceleration in periodic plasma structures has been proposed. By using our full electromagnetic relativistic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code equipped with ionisation module, we simulate the laser fields dynamics in the periodic structures of different materials. We study how the dynamic ionization influences the field structure.

  8. METAPOPULATION STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF POND BREEDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our review indicates that pond breeding amphibians exhibit highly variable spatial and temporal population dynamics, such that no single generalized model can realistically describe these animals. We propose that consideration of breeding pond permanence, and adaptations to pond ...

  9. [Anti-fouling characteristics of the novel precoating reagent in dynamic membrane bioreactor].

    PubMed

    Ye, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Han-Min; Yang, Feng-Lin; Cui, Xia

    2007-11-01

    Further research was made on precoating reagents in dynamic membrane process, in which novel precoating reagent-polyvinyl alcohol microsphere (PVA-MS) was prepared through emulsive polymerization of PVA and glutaraldehyde (GA). Furthermore, polymerization mechanism and anti-fouling characteristics through adsorption of membrane major fouling substances EPS upon PVA-MS were studied. The results showed that hemiacetals reaction played a major role in emulsive polymerization process, as the quantity of hydroxyl on PVA was decreased a little, PVA-MS surface behaved good hydrophilic, and the adsorption of protein and amylose upon PVA microsphere was stable and low, which was 0.543 mg x g(-1) and 0.694 mg x g(-1) respectively. In addition, PVA-MS surface behaved electronic negativity, which acted electrostatic repulsion to active sludge floc. Upon this characteristics and data, it was concluded that membrane fouling was delayed in microscopy structure. Diameter of PVA-MS in precoating liquid was about 1.14 microm, and Zeta-potential of precoating liquid with different precoating reagent concentration was less than - 39 mV, which made PVA microsphere diffused and stable from each other, then sedimentate rapidly on porous support membrane surface and internal wall of hole path. Besides, the morphology of PVA-MS and dynamic membrane formed from PVA-MS on support membrane were observed through SEM.

  10. The structural dynamics of macromolecular processes

    PubMed Central

    Russel, Daniel; Lasker, Keren; Phillips, Jeremy; Schneidman-Duhovny, Dina; Velázquez-Muriel, Javier A.; Sali, Andrej

    2009-01-01

    Summary Dynamic processes involving macromolecular complexes are essential to cell function. These processes take place over a wide variety of length scales from nanometers to micrometers, and over time scales from nanoseconds to many minutes. As a result, information from a variety of different experimental and computational approaches is required. We review the relevant sources of information and introduce a framework for integrating the data to produce representations of dynamic processes. PMID:19223165

  11. Planetary Interior Structure Revealed by Spin Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, J.; Peale, S. J.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.; Holin, I. V.

    2002-12-01

    The spin state of a planet depends on the distribution of mass within the interior, gradual and discrete changes in its moments of inertia, dissipation mechanisms at the surface and below, and external torques. Detailed measurements of the spin dynamics can therefore reveal much about planetary interior structure, interactions at the core-mantle and atmosphere-surface boundaries, and mass redistribution events. Studies of the spin precession, polar wobble, and length of day variations have been used to determine Earth's moments of inertia and rigidity and to study the effects of atmospheric angular momentum changes, post-glacial rebound, and large earthquakes. In planetary investigations the spin measurements are particularly important because other means of constraining interior properties require in-situ or orbiting sensors (e.g. seismometers, magnetometers, and Doppler tracking of spacecraft). Here we describe the successful implementation of a new Earth-based radar technique (Holin, 1992) that provides spin state measurements with unprecedented accuracy. Our first observations were designed to characterize Mercury's core. Peale (1976) showed that the measurement of four quantities (the obliquity of the planet, the amplitude of its longitude librations, and the second-degree gravitational harmonics) are sufficient to determine the size and state of Mercury's core. The existence of a molten core would place strong constraints on the thermal and rotational histories of the planet, with profound implications for the composition and rotation state of the planet at the time of formation. A solid core would have a fundamental impact on theories of planetary magnetic field generation. We observed Mercury with the Goldstone radar and the Green Bank Telescope in May-June 2002. We illuminated the planet with a monochromatic signal, recorded the scattered power at the two antennas, and cross-correlated the echoes in the time domain. We obtained strong correlations which

  12. Structure and dynamics of the magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi

    This thesis addresses several topics concerning the structure and dynamics of the magnetopause. These topics include the role of the magnetopause in global convection, the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability, which accounts for momentum transport at the magnetopause, the formation of flux ropes by the tearing and twisting modes and particle diffusion across the magnetopause resulting from the destruction of magnetic surfaces. We first establish an analytic electric field model for an open magnetosphere and introduce a magnetopause to control the reconnection rate and momentum transport. A realistic magnetospheric configuration is realized by 'stretch transformation'. The role of magnetic nulls in the electric field is approached with a technique for direct calculation of electric fields along field lines. Results indicate that electric fields associated with A-type or B-type nulls are generally singular. We then consider kinetic effects on the K-H instability. Contrary to the logical assumption that Landau damping damps the instability, it can instead enhance the growth and increase the spatial extent of the instability because the heating of resonance particles enhances the pressure perturbation. We use a gravitational analogy to determine the effect of curvature on K-H instability and find that the critical Richardson number for stability increases from 1/4 for incompressible fluids to 1/2 for compressible fluids. The flux rope, which accounts for flux transfer events (FTE), can be formed by a tearing or twisting mode. The tearing mode is self excited by the free energy associated with the magnetic configuration, while the twisting mode must be externally driven. The shear flow generates the twisting mode and reduces the growth rate of the tearing mode. The flux ropes resulting from the twisting mode closely resemble FTE's which have a longer pitch length than that from tearing mode. Particle diffusion across the magnetopause is addressed by considering the

  13. Tyrosine aminotransferase: biochemical and structural properties and molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Mehere, P.; Robinson, H.; Han, Q.; Lemkul, J. A.; Vavricka, C. J.; Bevan, D. R.; Li, J.

    2010-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using {alpha}-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  14. Tyrosine Aminotransferase: Biochemical and Structural Properties and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    P Mehere; Q Han; J Lemkul; C Vavricka; H Robinson; D Bevan; J Li

    2011-12-31

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using {alpha}-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  15. Dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics associated with the glass transition of amorphous trehalose-water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lindong; Elliott, Gloria D

    2014-06-21

    The glass transition temperature Tg of biopreservative formulations is important for predicting the long-term storage of biological specimens. As a complementary tool to thermal analysis techniques, which are the mainstay for determining Tg, molecular dynamics simulations have been successfully applied to predict the Tg of several protectants and their mixtures with water. These molecular analyses, however, rarely focused on the glass transition behavior of aqueous trehalose solutions, a subject that has attracted wide scientific attention via experimental approaches. Important behavior, such as hydrogen-bonding dynamics and self-aggregation has yet to be explored in detail, particularly below, or in the vicinity of, Tg. Using molecular dynamics simulations of several dynamic and thermodynamic properties, this study reproduced the supplemented phase diagram of trehalose-water mixtures (i.e., Tg as a function of the solution composition) based on experimental data. The structure and dynamics of the hydrogen-bonding network in the trehalose-water systems were also analyzed. The hydrogen-bonding lifetime was determined to be an order of magnitude higher in the glassy state than in the liquid state, while the constitution of the hydrogen-bonding network exhibited no noticeable change through the glass transition. It was also found that trehalose molecules preferred to form small, scattered clusters above Tg, but self-aggregation was substantially increased below Tg. The average cluster size in the glassy state was observed to be dependent on the trehalose concentration. Our findings provided insights into the glass transition characteristics of aqueous trehalose solutions as they relate to biopreservation.

  16. Structural optimization with constraints from dynamics in Lagrange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfeiffer, F.; Kneppe, G.; Ross, C.

    1990-01-01

    Structural optimization problems are mostly solved under constraints from statics, such as stresses, strains, or displacements under static loads. But in the design process, dynamic quantities like eigenfrequencies or accelerations under dynamic loads become more and more important. Therefore, it is obvious that constraints from dynamics must be considered in structural optimization packages. This paper addresses the dynamics branch in MBB-LAGRANGE. It will concentrate on two topics, namely on the different formulations for eigenfrequency constraints and on frequency response constraints. For the latter the necessity of a system reduction is emphasized. The methods implemented in LAGRANGE are presented and examples are given.

  17. An experimental study on the static and dynamic characteristics of pump annular seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwatsubo, T.; Sheng, B. C.; Matsumoto, T.

    1989-01-01

    A test apparatus was constructed and was applied to investigate static and dynamic characteristics of annular seals for turbopumps. The fluid forces acting on the seals were measured for various parameters such as the preswirl velocity, the pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of the seal, the whirling amplitude, and the ratio of whirling speed to spinning speed of the rotor. Influence of these parameters on the static and dynamic characteristics was investigated from the experimental results. As a result, preswirl affects the dynamic characteristics strongly. Especially, the preswirl opposing the rotating direction has a stabilizing role on the rotor system.

  18. Dynamic Stall Characteristics of Drooped Leading Edge Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Sahin, Mehmet; Gopal, Naveen

    2000-01-01

    Helicopters in high-speed forward flight usually experience large regions of dynamic stall over the retreating side of the rotor disk. The rapid variations in the lift and pitching moments associated with the stall process can result in vibratory loads, and can cause fatigue and failure of pitch links. In some instances, the large time lag between the aerodynamic forces and the blade motion can trigger stall flutter. A number of techniques for the alleviation of dynamic stall have been proposed and studied by researchers. Passive and active control techniques have both been explored. Passive techniques include the use of high solidity rotors that reduce the lift coefficients of individual blades, leading edge slots and leading edge slats. Active control techniques include steady and unsteady blowing, and dynamically deformable leading edge (DDLE) airfoils. Considerable amount of experimental and numerical data has been collected on the effectiveness of these concepts. One concept that has not received as much attention is the drooped-leading edge airfoil idea. It has been observed in wind tunnel studies and flight tests that drooped leading edge airfoils can have a milder dynamic stall, with a significantly milder load hysteresis. Drooped leading edge airfoils may not, however, be suitable at other conditions, e.g. in hover, or in transonic flow. Work needs to be done on the analysis and design of drooped leading edge airfoils for efficient operation in a variety of flight regimes (hover, dynamic stall, and transonic flow). One concept that is worthy of investigation is the dynamically drooping airfoil, where the leading edge shape is changed roughly once-per-rev to mitigate the dynamic stall.

  19. Effects of carbon nanofiller characteristics on PTT chain conformation and dynamics: A computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadinezhad, Ahmad; Kelich, Payam

    2017-01-01

    The effects of nanofiller chemistry and geometry on static and dynamic properties of an aromatic polyester, poly (trimethylene terephthalate), were addressed thanks to long-run classical molecular dynamics simulation. Two carbon nanofillers, graphene and carbon nanotube, were employed, where graphene was used in pristine and functionalized forms and carbon nanotube was used in two different diameters. The nanofiller geometry and chemistry were found to exert significant effects on conformation and dynamic behavior of PTT chain at the interface within the time scale the simulation was performed. It was found that PTT chain underwent interaction of van der Waals type with nanofiller via two subsequent phases, adsorption and orientation. The former stage, with definite characteristic time, involved translation of polymer chain toward interface while the latter was controlled by vibrational motions of chain atoms. The consequence of interaction was an increase in conformational order of polymer chain by transition to folded shape being favorable for any subsequent structural ordering (crystallization). The interaction of polymer with nanofiller gave rise to a reduction in overall mobility of polymer chain characterized by crossover from normal diffusive motion to subdiffusive mode.

  20. Dynamic thermal characteristics of heat pipe via segmented thermal resistance model for electric vehicle battery cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feifei; Lan, Fengchong; Chen, Jiqing

    2016-07-01

    Heat pipe cooling for battery thermal management systems (BTMSs) in electric vehicles (EVs) is growing due to its advantages of high cooling efficiency, compact structure and flexible geometry. Considering the transient conduction, phase change and uncertain thermal conditions in a heat pipe, it is challenging to obtain the dynamic thermal characteristics accurately in such complex heat and mass transfer process. In this paper, a ;segmented; thermal resistance model of a heat pipe is proposed based on thermal circuit method. The equivalent conductivities of different segments, viz. the evaporator and condenser of pipe, are used to determine their own thermal parameters and conditions integrated into the thermal model of battery for a complete three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The proposed ;segmented; model shows more precise than the ;non-segmented; model by the comparison of simulated and experimental temperature distribution and variation of an ultra-thin micro heat pipe (UMHP) battery pack, and has less calculation error to obtain dynamic thermal behavior for exact thermal design, management and control of heat pipe BTMSs. Using the ;segmented; model, the cooling effect of the UMHP pack with different natural/forced convection and arrangements is predicted, and the results correspond well to the tests.

  1. Numerical study on dynamic characteristics for sharp opening procedure of boundary-layer suction slot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yubao; Yin, Hang; Huang, Hongyan; Yu, Daren

    2017-08-01

    Based on the sharp forward of shock train and taking the forthcoming unstart for a background, the dynamic characteristics for sharp opening procedure of boundary-layer suction slot are investigated numerically using the dynamic mesh technique. Results indicate that the climbing path of shock train with the complex background waves exhibits a sharp and slow forward state at different time. The compression waves in the primary shock sweep the trailing edge of the separation bubble, and the recirculation within the shock train is communicated with the separation bubble, which reveals that the flow is in a critical state and is about to be unstart at the subsequent time. Furthermore, the dynamic pattern for sharp opening procedure of boundary-layer suction slot can be classified into four distinct stages, namely, the formation of the jet plume without suction mass loss, the formation of the barrier shock with suction mass loss characterized by gradient increase and subsequent two oscillations, the evolution of the barrier shock and jet plume with suction mass loss that ramps up via a series of discrete step increases, and the formation of the stable structure accompanied by the linear suction mass loss.

  2. Dynamic characteristics of a continuous optimization method based on fictitious play theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Yong

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a continuous optimization algorithm based on fictitious play theory and investigate the dynamic characteristics of the proposed algorithm. Fictitious play is a model for a learning rule in evolutionary game theory, and it can be used as an optimization method when all players have an identical utility function. In order to apply fictitious play to a continuous optimization algorithm, we consider two methods, equal width and equal frequency, of discretizing continuous values into a finite set of a player's strategies. The equal-frequency method turns out to outperform the equal-width method in terms of minimizing inseparable functions. To understand the mechanism of the equal-frequency method, we investigate two important quantities, the mixed strategy and the best response, in the algorithm from the statistical physics viewpoint. We find that the dynamics of the mixed strategies can be described as a 1/ f noise. In addition, we adopt the set of best responses as the probability measure and find that the probability distribution of the set can be best characterized by a multifractal; moreover, the support of the measure has a fractal dimension. The dynamics of the proposed algorithm with equal-frequency discretization contains a complex and rich structure that can be related to the optimization mechanism.

  3. Improving structure-based function prediction using molecular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Dariya S.; Radmer, Randall J.; Altman, Russ B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The number of molecules with solved three-dimensional structure but unknown function is increasing rapidly. Particularly problematic are novel folds with little detectable similarity to molecules of known function. Experimental assays can determine the functions of such molecules, but are time-consuming and expensive. Computational approaches can identify potential functional sites; however, these approaches generally rely on single static structures and do not use information about dynamics. In fact, structural dynamics can enhance function prediction: we coupled molecular dynamics simulations with structure-based function prediction algorithms that identify Ca2+ binding sites. When applied to 11 challenging proteins, both methods showed substantial improvement in performance, revealing 22 more sites in one case and 12 more in the other, with a modest increase in apparent false positives. Thus, we show that treating molecules as dynamic entities improves the performance of structure-based function prediction methods. PMID:19604472

  4. Effects of Piezoelectric (PZT) Sensor Bonding and the Characteristics of the Host Structure on Impedance Based Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalloh, Abdul

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of certain factors on the impedance signal in structural health monitoring. These factors were: the quality of the bond between the sensor and the host structure, and the characteristics of the host structure, such as geometry, mass, and material properties. This work was carried out to answer a set of questions, related to these factors, that were developed by the project team. The project team was comprised of Dr. Doug Ramers and Dr. Abdul Jalloh of the Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, Mr. Arnaldo Colon- Perez, a student intern from the University of Puerto Rico of Turabo, and Mr. John Lassiter and Mr. Bob Engberg of the Structural and Dynamics Test Group at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This study was based on a review of the literature on structural health monitoring to investigate the factors referred to above because there was not enough time to plan and conduct the appropriate tests at MSFC during the tenure of the Summer Faculty Fellowship Program project members. The surveyed literature documents works on structural health monitoring that were based on laboratory tests that were conducted using bolted trusses and other civil engineering type structures for the most part. These are not the typical types of structures used in designing and building NASA s space vehicles and systems. It was therefore recommended that tests be conducted using NASA type structures, such as pressure vessels, to validate the observations made in this report.

  5. Dynamic Characteristics Analysis of Analogue Networks Design Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemliak, Alexander M.

    The process of designing analogue circuits is formulated as a controlled dynamic system. For analysis of such system's properties it is suggested to use the concept of Lyapunov's function for a dynamic system. Various forms of Lyapunov's function are suggested. Analyzing the behavior of Lyapunov's function and its first derivative allowed us to determine significant correlation between this function's properties and processor time used to design the circuit. Numerical results prove the possibility of forecasting the behavior of various designing strategies and processor time based on the properties of Lyapunov's function for the process of designing the circuit.

  6. Energy flux and characteristic energy of an elemental auroral structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanchester, B. S.; Palmer, J. R.; Rees, M. H.; Lummerzheim, D.; Kaila, K.; Turunen, T.

    1994-01-01

    Electron density profiles acquired with the EISCAT radar at 0.2 s time resolution, together with TV images and photometric intensities, were used to study the characteristics of thin (less than 1 km) auroral arc structures that drifted through the field of view of the instruments. It is demonstrated that both high time and space resolution are essential for deriving the input parameters of the electron flux responsible for the elemental auroral structures. One such structure required a 400 mW/sq m (erg/sq cm s) downward energy flux carried by an 8 keV monochromatic electron flux equivalent to a current density of 50 micro Angstrom/sq m.

  7. Energy flux and characteristic energy of an elemental auroral structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanchester, B. S.; Palmer, J. R.; Rees, M. H.; Lummerzheim, D.; Kaila, K.; Turunen, T.

    1994-01-01

    Electron density profiles acquired with the EISCAT radar at 0.2 s time resolution, together with TV images and photometric intensities, were used to study the characteristics of thin (less than 1 km) auroral arc structures that drifted through the field of view of the instruments. It is demonstrated that both high time and space resolution are essential for deriving the input parameters of the electron flux responsible for the elemental auroral structures. One such structure required a 400 mW/sq m (erg/sq cm s) downward energy flux carried by an 8 keV monochromatic electron flux equivalent to a current density of 50 micro Angstrom/sq m.

  8. Structure and dynamics of liquid ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Saiz, L.; Padro, J.A.; Guardia, E.

    1997-01-02

    Molecular dynamics simulations of liquid ethanol at four thermodynamic states ranging from T = 173 K to T = 348 K were carried out using the transferable OPLS potential model of W.L. Jorgensen. Both static and dynamic properties are analyzed. The resulting properties show an overall agreement with available experimental data. Special attention is paid to the hydrogen bonds and to their influence on the molecular behavior. Results for liquid ethanol are compared with those for methanol in earlier computer simulation studies. 30 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Sequence-, structure-, and dynamics-based comparisons of structurally homologous CheY-like proteins

    PubMed Central

    He, Yi; Maisuradze, Gia G.; Yin, Yanping; Kachlishvili, Khatuna; Rackovsky, S.; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2017-01-01

    We recently introduced a physically based approach to sequence comparison, the property factor method (PFM). In the present work, we apply the PFM approach to the study of a challenging set of sequences—the bacterial chemotaxis protein CheY, the N-terminal receiver domain of the nitrogen regulation protein NT-NtrC, and the sporulation response regulator Spo0F. These are all response regulators involved in signal transduction. Despite functional similarity and structural homology, they exhibit low sequence identity. PFM sequence comparison demonstrates a statistically significant qualitative difference between the sequence of CheY and those of the other two proteins that is not found using conventional alignment methods. This difference is shown to be consonant with structural characteristics, using distance matrix comparisons. We also demonstrate that residues participating strongly in native contacts during unfolding are distributed differently in CheY than in the other two proteins. The PFM result is also in accord with dynamic simulation results of several types. Molecular dynamics simulations of all three proteins were carried out at several temperatures, and it is shown that the dynamics of CheY are predicted to differ from those of NT-NtrC and Spo0F. The predicted dynamic properties of the three proteins are in good agreement with experimentally determined B factors and with fluctuations predicted by the Gaussian network model. We pinpoint the differences between the PFM and traditional sequence comparisons and discuss the informatic basis for the ability of the PFM approach to detect physical differences between these sequences that are not apparent from traditional alignment-based comparison. PMID:28143938

  10. Morphological, structural, and spectral characteristics of amorphous iron sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklute, E. C.; Jensen, H. B.; Rogers, A. D.; Reeder, R. J.

    2015-04-01

    Current or past brine hydrologic activity on Mars may provide suitable conditions for the formation of amorphous ferric sulfates. Once formed, these phases would likely be stable under current Martian conditions, particularly at low- to mid-latitudes. Therefore, we consider amorphous iron sulfates (AIS) as possible components of Martian surface materials. Laboratory AIS were created through multiple synthesis routes and characterized with total X-ray scattering, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, visible/near-infrared (VNIR), thermal infrared (TIR), and Mössbauer techniques. We synthesized amorphous ferric sulfates (Fe(III)2(SO4)3 · ~ 6-8H2O) from sulfate-saturated fluids via vacuum dehydration or exposure to low relative humidity (<11%). Amorphous ferrous sulfate (Fe(II)SO4 · ~ 1H2O) was synthesized via vacuum dehydration of melanterite. All AIS lack structural order beyond 11 Å. The short-range (<5 Å) structural characteristics of amorphous ferric sulfates resemble all crystalline reference compounds; structural characteristics for the amorphous ferrous sulfate are similar to but distinct from both rozenite and szomolnokite. VNIR and TIR spectral data for all AIS display broad, muted features consistent with structural disorder and are spectrally distinct from all crystalline sulfates considered for comparison. Mössbauer spectra are also distinct from crystalline phase spectra available for comparison. AIS should be distinguishable from crystalline sulfates based on the position of their Fe-related absorptions in the visible range and their spectral characteristics in the TIR. In the NIR, bands associated with hydration at ~1.4 and 1.9 µm are significantly broadened, which greatly reduces their detectability in soil mixtures. AIS may contribute to the amorphous fraction of soils measured by the Curiosity rover.

  11. Damping characteristics of friction damped braced frame and its effectiveness in the mega-sub controlled structure system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yeda; Zhang, Xunan; Sheldon, Cherry

    2007-06-01

    Based on energy dissipation and structural control principle, a new structural configuration, called the mega-sub controlled structure (MSCS) with friction damped braces (FDBs), is first presented. Meanwhile, to calculate the damping coefficient in the slipping state a new analytical method is proposed. The damping characteristics of one-storey friction damped braced frame (FDBF) are investigated, and the influence of the structural parameters on the energy dissipation and the practical engineering design are discussed. The nonlinear dynamic equations and the analytical model of the MSCS with FDBs are established. Three building structures with different structural configurations, which were designed with reference to the conventional mega-sub structures such as used in Tokyo City Hall, are comparatively investigated. The results illustrate that the structure presented in the paper has excellent dynamic properties and satisfactory control effectiveness.

  12. Molecular structural characteristics as determinants of estrogen receptor selectivity.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, S; Turner, J V; Glass, B D

    2008-09-29

    Recent reports that a wide variety of natural and man-made compounds are capable of competing with natural hormones for estrogen receptors serve as timely examples of the need to advance screening techniques to support human health and ascertain ecological risk. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) can potentially serve as screening tools to identify and prioritize untested compounds for further empirical evaluations. Computer-based QSAR molecular models have been used to describe ligand-receptor interactions and to predict chemical structures that possess desired pharmacological characteristics. These have recently included combined and differential relative binding affinities of potential estrogenic compounds at estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta. In the present study, artificial neural network (ANN) QSAR models were developed that were able to predict differential relative binding affinities of a series of structurally diverse compounds with estrogenic activity. The models were constructed with a dataset of 93 compounds and tested with an additional dataset of 30 independent compounds. High training correlations (r2=0.83-0.91) were observed while validation results for the external compounds were encouraging (r2=0.62-0.86). The models were used to identify structural features of phytoestrogens that are responsible for selective ligand binding to ERalpha and ERbeta. Numerous structural characteristics are required for complexation with receptors. In particular, size, shape and polarity of ligands, heterocyclic rings, lipophilicity, hydrogen bonding, presence of quaternary carbon atom, presence, position, length and configuration of a bulky side chain, were identified as the most significant structural features responsible for selective binding to ERalpha and ERbeta.

  13. Structure and dynamics in self-organized C60 fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Archita

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript on 'structure and dynamics in self-organized C60 fullerenes' has three sections dealing with: (A) pristine C60 aggregate structure and geometry in solvents of varying dielectric constant. Here, using positronium (Ps) as a fundamental probe which maps changes in the local electron density of the microenvironment, the onset concentration for stable C60 aggregate formation and its phase behavior is deduced from the specific interactions of the Ps atom with the surrounding. (B) A novel methanofullerene dyad, based on a hydrophobic (acceptor C60 moiety)-hydrophilic (bridge with benzene and ester functionalities)-hydrophobic (donor didodecyloxybenzene) network is chosen for investigation of characteristic self-assembly it undergoes leading to supramolecular aggregates. The pi-electronic amphiphile, necessitating a critical dielectric constant epsilon > or = 30 in binary THF-water mixtures, dictated the formation of bilayer vesicles as precursors for spherical fractal aggregates upon complete dyad extraction into a more polar water phase. (C) While the molecular orientation is dependent on the packing density, the ordering of the molecular arrangement, indispensable for self-assembly depends on the balance between the structures demanded by inter-molecular and molecule-substrate interactions. The molecular orientation in a monolayer affects the orientation in a multilayer, formed on the monolayer, suggesting the possibility of the latter to act as a template for controlling the structure of the three dimensionally grown self-assembled molecular aggregation. A systematic study on the electronic structure and orientation associated with C60 functionalized aminothiol self-assembled monolayers on Au(111) surface is presented using surface sensitive Ultra-Violet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) and C-K edge Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The results revealed drastic modifications to d-band structure of Au(111) and the

  14. Ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, N. M.; Heinonen, R. A.; Starrett, C. E.; Saumon, D.

    2015-06-25

    In this study, the ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense matter is determined using the recently developed pseudoatom molecular dynamics method [Starrett et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 013104 (2015)]. The method uses density functional theory to determine ion-ion pair interaction potentials that have no free parameters. These potentials are used in classical molecular dynamics simulations. This constitutes a computationally efficient and realistic model of dense plasmas. Comparison with recently published simulations of the ion-ion dynamic structure factor and sound speed of warm dense aluminum finds good to reasonable agreement. Using this method, we make predictions of the ion-ion dynamical structure factor and sound speed of a warm dense mixture—equimolar carbon-hydrogen. This material is commonly used as an ablator in inertial confinement fusion capsules, and our results are amenable to direct experimental measurement.

  15. Ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense mixtures

    DOE PAGES

    Gill, N. M.; Heinonen, R. A.; Starrett, C. E.; ...

    2015-06-25

    In this study, the ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense matter is determined using the recently developed pseudoatom molecular dynamics method [Starrett et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 013104 (2015)]. The method uses density functional theory to determine ion-ion pair interaction potentials that have no free parameters. These potentials are used in classical molecular dynamics simulations. This constitutes a computationally efficient and realistic model of dense plasmas. Comparison with recently published simulations of the ion-ion dynamic structure factor and sound speed of warm dense aluminum finds good to reasonable agreement. Using this method, we make predictions of the ion-ionmore » dynamical structure factor and sound speed of a warm dense mixture—equimolar carbon-hydrogen. This material is commonly used as an ablator in inertial confinement fusion capsules, and our results are amenable to direct experimental measurement.« less

  16. Riboswitch Structure and Dynamics by smFRET Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Suddala, Krishna C.; Walter, Nils G.

    2016-01-01

    Riboswitches are structured non-coding RNA elements that control the expression of their embedding messenger RNAs by sensing the intracellular concentration of diverse metabolites. As the name suggests, riboswitches are dynamic in nature so that studying their inherent conformational dynamics and ligand-mediated folding is important for understanding their mechanism of action. Single molecule fluorescence energy transfer (smFRET) microscopy is a powerful and versatile technique for studying the folding pathways and intra- and intermolecular dynamics of biological macromolecules, especially RNA. The ability of smFRET to monitor intramolecular distances and their temporal evolution make it a particularly insightful tool for probing the structure and dynamics of riboswitches. Here, we detail the general steps for using prism-based total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy for smFRET studies of the structure, dynamics and ligand binding mechanisms of riboswitches. PMID:25432756

  17. Virtual instrument based measurement system for analysis of static and dynamic characteristics of temperature transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Baczewski, Michał

    2014-11-01

    The present work shows the structure of a measurement system dedicated to examine static and dynamic characteristics of sensors used to measure temperature. The measurement system was built on the basis of a set of signal conditioners connected with a data acquisition card built in a PC. The data acquisition was completed with the use of a virtual measurement device developed in the LabVIEW environment. A was used as the source of reference temperature. During the experiments, the sensors were submersed in water of given temperature with the use of a computer controlled arm. The article also presents the results of the calibration procedure which was carried out, as well as selected application schemes.

  18. Structures and Dynamics Division: Research and technology plans for FY 1983 and accomplishments for FY 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives, expected results, approach, and milestones for research projects of the IPAD Project Office and the impact dynamics, structural mechanics, and structural dynamics branches of the Structures and Dynamics Division are presented. Research facilities are described. Topics covered include computer aided design; general aviation/transport crash dynamics; aircraft ground performance; composite structures; failure analysis, space vehicle dynamics; and large space structures.

  19. Dynamic Response of Concrete and Concrete Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-30

    dia.) are designated as Andesite , Seattle gravel, and a lightweight aggregate called Solite. The fourth material with a manufactured limestone...up to more than 30 KSI at 120/sec. In preliminary tests [16], the Andesite specimens had a static strength of 16.1 KSl and dynamic strengths varying

  20. Program Structure Combines Segmentation and Dynamic Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiffany, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Programing techniques incorporate advantages of overlaying into segmented loads while retaining all dynamic load advantages of segmentation, employing those capabilities that best suit mode of operation, whether batch or interactive. User is allowed to load a program automatically in a variable manner, based solely on a single data input to the program, to maintain minimal field lengths for interactive use.

  1. Segmenting Dynamic Human Action via Statistical Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Dare; Andersson, Annika; Saffran, Jenny; Meyer, Meredith

    2008-01-01

    Human social, cognitive, and linguistic functioning depends on skills for rapidly processing action. Identifying distinct acts within the dynamic motion flow is one basic component of action processing; for example, skill at segmenting action is foundational to action categorization, verb learning, and comprehension of novel action sequences. Yet…

  2. Segmenting Dynamic Human Action via Statistical Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Dare; Andersson, Annika; Saffran, Jenny; Meyer, Meredith

    2008-01-01

    Human social, cognitive, and linguistic functioning depends on skills for rapidly processing action. Identifying distinct acts within the dynamic motion flow is one basic component of action processing; for example, skill at segmenting action is foundational to action categorization, verb learning, and comprehension of novel action sequences. Yet…

  3. Dynamic network structure of interhemispheric coordination

    PubMed Central

    Doron, Karl W.; Bassett, Danielle S.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Fifty years ago Gazzaniga and coworkers published a seminal article that discussed the separate roles of the cerebral hemispheres in humans. Today, the study of interhemispheric communication is facilitated by a battery of novel data analysis techniques drawn from across disciplinary boundaries, including dynamic systems theory and network theory. These techniques enable the characterization of dynamic changes in the brain’s functional connectivity, thereby providing an unprecedented means of decoding interhemispheric communication. Here, we illustrate the use of these techniques to examine interhemispheric coordination in healthy human participants performing a split visual field experiment in which they process lexical stimuli. We find that interhemispheric coordination is greater when lexical information is introduced to the right hemisphere and must subsequently be transferred to the left hemisphere for language processing than when it is directly introduced to the language-dominant (left) hemisphere. Further, we find that putative functional modules defined by coherent interhemispheric coordination come online in a transient manner, highlighting the underlying dynamic nature of brain communication. Our work illustrates that recently developed dynamic, network-based analysis techniques can provide novel and previously unapproachable insights into the role of interhemispheric coordination in cognition. PMID:23112199

  4. Auditory virtual environment with dynamic room characteristics for music performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Daniel Dhaham

    A room-adaptive system was designed to simulate an electro-acoustic space that changes room characteristics in real-time according to the content of sound. In this specific case, the focus of the sound components is on the different styles and genres of music. This system is composed of real-time music recognition algorithms that analyze the different elements of music, determine the desired room characteristics, and output the acoustical parameters via multi-channel room simulation mechanisms. The system modifies the acoustic properties of a space and enables it to "improvise" its acoustical parameters based on the sounds of the music performances.

  5. Stochastic modeling of uncertain mass characteristics in rigid body dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Lanae A.; Mignolet, Marc P.

    2017-03-01

    This paper focuses on the formulation, assessment, and application of a modeling strategy of uncertainty on the mass characteristics of rigid bodies, i.e. mass, position of center of mass, and inertia tensor. These characteristics are regrouped into a 4×4 matrix the elements of which are represented as random variables with joint probability density function derived following the maximum entropy framework. This stochastic model is first shown to satisfy all properties expected of the mass and tensor of inertia of rigid bodies. Its usefulness and computational efficiency are next demonstrated on the behavior of a rigid body in pure rotation exhibiting significant uncertainty in mass distribution.

  6. Controlled multibody dynamics simulation for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housner, J. M.; Wu, S. C.; Chang, C. W.

    1989-01-01

    Multibody dynamics discipline, and dynamic simulation in control structure interaction (CSI) design are discussed. The use, capabilities, and architecture of the Large Angle Transient Dynamics (LATDYN) code as a simulation tool are explained. A generic joint body with various types of hinge connections; finite element and element coordinate systems; results of a flexible beam spin-up on a plane; mini-mast deployment; space crane and robotic slewing manipulations; a potential CSI test article; and multibody benchmark experiments are also described.

  7. Tribute to the contribution of Gerard Lallenment to structural dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2001-01-01

    The Society for Experimental Mechanics and the International Modal Analysis Conference recognize the remarkable contribution to experimental mechanics, mechanical engineering and structural dynamics of Professor Gerard Lallement, from the University of Franche-Comte, France. A special session is organized during the IMAC-XX to outline the many achievements of Gerard Lallement in the fields of modal analysis, structural system identification, the theory and practice of structural modification, component mode synthesis and finite element model updating. The purpose of this publication is not to provide an exhaustive account of Gerard Lallement's contribution to structural dynamics. Numerous references are provided that should help the interested reader learn more about the many aspects of his work. Instead, the significance of this work is illustrated by discussing the role of structural dynamics in industrial applications and its future challenges. The technical aspects of Gerard Lallement's work are illustrated with a discussion of structural modification, modeling error localization and model updating.

  8. Approximating the head characteristics and characteristic surfaces of dynamic pumps by means of an exponential function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekun, G. D.

    2009-08-01

    Results obtained from statistical and experimental studies of the head characteristics of commercially available centrifugal and free-vortex pumps are presented. A regression equation in the form of an exponential function written in a reduced-relative system of coordinates for approximating the head characteristics of blade pumps is obtained.

  9. Exploring Ultrafast Structural Dynamics for Energetic Enhancement or Disruption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    due to the extreme timescale ( ps) and highly dynamic environment. A more precise understanding of the excited states, energy flow processes...materials undergo rapid physical and chemical changes under nonequilibrium conditions. The fundamental challenges involve understanding the energy flow...processes at ultrafast time scales that follow dynamical stimuli, energy localization and delocalization, changes in lattice structure, decomposition

  10. Dynamic Structure of Emotions Among Individuals with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Nesselroade, John R.; Shifren, Kim; McArdle, John J.

    2004-01-01

    With few exceptions, the dynamics underlying the mood structures of individuals with Parkinson's Disease have consistently been overlooked. Based on 12 participants' daily self-reports over 72 days, we identified 10 participants whose covariance matrices for positive and negative affect were similar enough to warrant pooling. Dynamic factor models…

  11. Structure and Dynamics of Interacting Nanoparticles in Semidilute Polymer Solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Pollng-Skutvik, Ryan; Mongcopa, Katrina Irene S.; Faraone, Antonio; ...

    2016-08-17

    We investigate the structure and dynamics of silica nanoparticles and polymer chains in semidilute solutions of high molecular weight polystyrene in 2-butanone to determine the effect of long-range interparticle interactions on the coupling between particle and polymer dynamics. Particles at concentrations of 1–10 wt % are well dispersed in the semidilute polymer solutions and exhibit long-range electrostatic repulsions between particles. Because the particles are comparably sized to the radius of gyration of the polymer, the particle dynamics is predicted to couple to that of the polymer. We verify that the polymer structure and dynamics are not significantly affected by themore » particles, indicating that the particle–polymer coupling does not change with increasing particle loading. We find that the coupling between the dynamics of comparably sized particles and polymer results in subdiffusive particle dynamics, as expected. Over the interparticle distance, however, the particle dynamics is hindered and not fully described by the relaxation of the surrounding polymer chains. Instead, the particle dynamics is inversely related to the structure factor, suggesting that physical particle–polymer coupling on short length scales and interparticle interactions on long length scales both present energetic barriers to particle motion that lead to subdiffusive dynamics and de Gennes narrowing, respectively.« less

  12. Structure and Dynamics of Interacting Nanoparticles in Semidilute Polymer Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Pollng-Skutvik, Ryan; Mongcopa, Katrina Irene S.; Faraone, Antonio; Narayanan, Suresh; Conrad, Jacinta C.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2016-08-17

    We investigate the structure and dynamics of silica nanoparticles and polymer chains in semidilute solutions of high molecular weight polystyrene in 2-butanone to determine the effect of long-range interparticle interactions on the coupling between particle and polymer dynamics. Particles at concentrations of 1–10 wt % are well dispersed in the semidilute polymer solutions and exhibit long-range electrostatic repulsions between particles. Because the particles are comparably sized to the radius of gyration of the polymer, the particle dynamics is predicted to couple to that of the polymer. We verify that the polymer structure and dynamics are not significantly affected by the particles, indicating that the particle–polymer coupling does not change with increasing particle loading. We find that the coupling between the dynamics of comparably sized particles and polymer results in subdiffusive particle dynamics, as expected. Over the interparticle distance, however, the particle dynamics is hindered and not fully described by the relaxation of the surrounding polymer chains. Instead, the particle dynamics is inversely related to the structure factor, suggesting that physical particle–polymer coupling on short length scales and interparticle interactions on long length scales both present energetic barriers to particle motion that lead to subdiffusive dynamics and de Gennes narrowing, respectively.

  13. Structure and Dynamics of Interacting Nanoparticles in Semidilute Polymer Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Pollng-Skutvik, Ryan; Mongcopa, Katrina Irene S.; Faraone, Antonio; Narayanan, Suresh; Conrad, Jacinta C.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2016-08-17

    We investigate the structure and dynamics of silica nanoparticles and polymer chains in semidilute solutions of high molecular weight polystyrene in 2-butanone to determine the effect of long-range interparticle interactions on the coupling between particle and polymer dynamics. Particles at concentrations of 1–10 wt % are well dispersed in the semidilute polymer solutions and exhibit long-range electrostatic repulsions between particles. Because the particles are comparably sized to the radius of gyration of the polymer, the particle dynamics is predicted to couple to that of the polymer. We verify that the polymer structure and dynamics are not significantly affected by the particles, indicating that the particle–polymer coupling does not change with increasing particle loading. We find that the coupling between the dynamics of comparably sized particles and polymer results in subdiffusive particle dynamics, as expected. Over the interparticle distance, however, the particle dynamics is hindered and not fully described by the relaxation of the surrounding polymer chains. Instead, the particle dynamics is inversely related to the structure factor, suggesting that physical particle–polymer coupling on short length scales and interparticle interactions on long length scales both present energetic barriers to particle motion that lead to subdiffusive dynamics and de Gennes narrowing, respectively.

  14. Nonlinear dynamic analysis and characteristics diagnosis of seasonally perturbed predator-prey systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huayong; Huang, Tousheng; Dai, Liming

    2015-05-01

    Predator-prey interaction widely exists in nature and the research on predator-prey systems is an important field in ecology. The nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a seasonally perturbed predator-prey system are studied in this research. To study the nonlinear characteristics affected by a wide variety of system parameters, the PR approach is employed and periodic, quasiperiodic, chaotic behaviors and the behaviors between period and quasiperiod are found in the system. Periodic-quasiperiodic-chaotic region diagrams are generated for analyzing the global characteristics of the predator-prey system with desired ranges of system parameters. The ecological significances of the dynamical characteristics are discussed and compared with the theoretical research results existing in the literature. The approach of this research demonstrates effectiveness and efficiency of PR method in analyzing the complex dynamical characteristics of nonlinear ecological systems.

  15. Association between brain structure and phenotypic characteristics in pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Poeppl, Timm B; Nitschke, Joachim; Santtila, Pekka; Schecklmann, Martin; Langguth, Berthold; Greenlee, Mark W; Osterheider, Michael; Mokros, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    Studies applying structural neuroimaging to pedophiles are scarce and have shown conflicting results. Although first findings suggested reduced volume of the amygdala, pronounced gray matter decreases in frontal regions were observed in another group of pedophilic offenders. When compared to non-sexual offenders instead of community controls, pedophiles revealed deficiencies in white matter only. The present study sought to test the hypotheses of structurally compromised prefrontal and limbic networks and whether structural brain abnormalities are related to phenotypic characteristics in pedophiles. We compared gray matter volume of male pedophilic offenders and non-sexual offenders from high-security forensic hospitals using voxel-based morphometry in cross-sectional and correlational whole-brain analyses. The significance threshold was set to p < .05, corrected for multiple comparisons. Compared to controls, pedophiles exhibited a volume reduction of the right amygdala (small volume corrected). Within the pedophilic group, pedosexual interest and sexual recidivism were correlated with gray matter decrease in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (r = -.64) and insular cortex (r = -.45). Lower age of victims was strongly associated with gray matter reductions in the orbitofrontal cortex (r = .98) and angular gyri bilaterally (r = .70 and r = .93). Our findings of specifically impaired neural networks being related to certain phenotypic characteristics might account for the heterogeneous results in previous neuroimaging studies of pedophilia. The neuroanatomical abnormalities in pedophilia seem to be of a dimensional rather than a categorical nature, supporting the notion of a multifaceted disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural Dynamic Analyses And Test Predictions For Spacecraft Structures With Non-Linearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergniaud, Jean-Baptiste; Soula, Laurent; Newerla, Alfred

    2012-07-01

    The overall objective of the mechanical development and verification process is to ensure that the spacecraft structure is able to sustain the mechanical environments encountered during launch. In general the spacecraft structures are a-priori assumed to behave linear, i.e. the responses to a static load or dynamic excitation, respectively, will increase or decrease proportionally to the amplitude of the load or excitation induced. However, past experiences have shown that various non-linearities might exist in spacecraft structures and the consequences of their dynamic effects can significantly affect the development and verification process. Current processes are mainly adapted to linear spacecraft structure behaviour. No clear rules exist for dealing with major structure non-linearities. They are handled outside the process by individual analysis and margin policy, and analyses after tests to justify the CLA coverage. Non-linearities can primarily affect the current spacecraft development and verification process on two aspects. Prediction of flights loads by launcher/satellite coupled loads analyses (CLA): only linear satellite models are delivered for performing CLA and no well-established rules exist how to properly linearize a model when non- linearities are present. The potential impact of the linearization on the results of the CLA has not yet been properly analyzed. There are thus difficulties to assess that CLA results will cover actual flight levels. Management of satellite verification tests: the CLA results generated with a linear satellite FEM are assumed flight representative. If the internal non- linearities are present in the tested satellite then there might be difficulties to determine which input level must be passed to cover satellite internal loads. The non-linear behaviour can also disturb the shaker control, putting the satellite at risk by potentially imposing too high levels. This paper presents the results of a test campaign performed in

  17. Spontaneous functional network dynamics and associated structural substrates in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xuhong; Yuan, Lin; Zhao, Tengda; Dai, Zhengjia; Shu, Ni; Xia, Mingrui; Yang, Yihong; Evans, Alan; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Recent imaging connectomics studies have demonstrated that the spontaneous human brain functional networks derived from resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) include many non-trivial topological properties, such as highly efficient small-world architecture and densely connected hub regions. However, very little is known about dynamic functional connectivity (D-FC) patterns of spontaneous human brain networks during rest and about how these spontaneous brain dynamics are constrained by the underlying structural connectivity. Here, we combined sub-second multiband R-fMRI data with graph-theoretical approaches to comprehensively investigate the dynamic characteristics of the topological organization of human whole-brain functional networks, and then employed diffusion imaging data in the same participants to further explore the associated structural substrates. At the connection level, we found that human whole-brain D-FC patterns spontaneously fluctuated over time, while homotopic D-FC exhibited high connectivity strength and low temporal variability. At the network level, dynamic functional networks exhibited time-varying but evident small-world and assortativity architecture, with several regions (e.g., insula, sensorimotor cortex and medial prefrontal cortex) emerging as functionally persistent hubs (i.e., highly connected regions) while possessing large temporal variability in their degree centrality. Finally, the temporal characteristics (i.e., strength and variability) of the connectional and nodal properties of the dynamic brain networks were significantly associated with their structural counterparts. Collectively, we demonstrate the economical, efficient, and flexible characteristics of dynamic functional coordination in large-scale human brain networks during rest, and highlight their relationship with underlying structural connectivity, which deepens our understandings of spontaneous brain network dynamics in humans. PMID:26388757

  18. Elucidation of kinematical and dynamical structure of the Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, T.; Gouda, N.; Ueda, H.; Koyama, H.; Kan-ya, Y.; Taruya, A.

    2008-07-01

    Future space mission of astrometric satellite, GAIA and JASMINE (Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for Infrared Exploration), will produce astrometric parameter, such as positions, parallaxes, and proper motions of stars in the Galactic bulge. Then kinematical information will be obtained in the future. Accordingly it is expected that our understanding of the dynamical structure will be greatly improved. Therefore it is important to make a method to construct a kinematical and dynamical structure of the Galactic bulge immediately.

  19. Solution structure and dynamics of ADF from Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rahul; Pathak, Prem Prakash; Shukla, Vaibhav Kumar; Jain, Anupam; Srivastava, Shubhra; Tripathi, Sarita; Krishna Pulavarti, S V S R; Mehta, Simren; Sibley, L David; Arora, Ashish

    2011-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii ADF (TgADF) belongs to a functional subtype characterized by strong G-actin sequestering activity and low F-actin severing activity. Among the characterized ADF/cofilin proteins, TgADF has the shortest length and is missing a C-terminal helix implicated in F-actin binding. In order to understand its characteristic properties, we have determined the solution structure of TgADF and studied its backbone dynamics from ¹⁵N-relaxation measurements. TgADF has conserved ADF/cofilin fold consisting of a central mixed β-sheet comprised of six β-strands that are partially surrounded by three α-helices and a C-terminal helical turn. The high G-actin sequestering activity of TgADF relies on highly structurally and dynamically optimized interactions between G-actin and G-actin binding surface of TgADF. The equilibrium dissociation constant for TgADF and rabbit muscle G-actin was 23.81 nM, as measured by ITC, which reflects very strong affinity of TgADF and G-actin interactions. The F-actin binding site of TgADF is partially formed, with a shortened F-loop that does not project out of the ellipsoid structure and a C-terminal helical turn in place of the C-terminal helix α4. Yet, it is more rigid than the F-actin binding site of Leishmania donovani cofilin. Experimental observations and structural features do not support the interaction of PIP2 with TgADF, and PIP2 does not affect the interaction of TgADF with G-actin. Overall, this study suggests that conformational flexibility of G-actin binding sites enhances the affinity of TgADF for G-actin, while conformational rigidity of F-actin binding sites of conventional ADF/cofilins is necessary for stable binding to F-actin.

  20. Structural Dynamics of an Actin Spring

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, L.; Riera, C.S.; Shin, Jennifer H.

    2011-01-01

    Actin-based motility in cells is usually associated with either polymerization/depolymerization in the presence of cross-linkers or contractility in the presence of myosin motors. Here, we focus on a third distinct mechanism involving actin in motility, seen in the dynamics of an active actin spring that powers the acrosomal reaction of the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) sperm. During this process, a 60-μm bent and twisted bundle of cross-linked actin uncoils and becomes straight in a few seconds in the presence of Ca2+. This straightening, which occurs at a constant velocity, allows the acrosome to forcefully penetrate the egg. Synthesizing ultrastructural information with the kinetics, energetics, and imaging of calcium binding allows us to construct a dynamical theory for this mechanochemical engine consistent with our experimental observations. It also illuminates the general mechanism by which energy may be stored in conformational changes and released cooperatively in ordered macromolecular assemblies. PMID:21320427