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Sample records for study cell morphology

  1. Morphology Studies of Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Ji Sun

    Energy is a prerequisite for creating and sustaining life. The need for energy increases globally as the world's population and economy grow. However, conventional energy sources---fossil fuels---generate carbon dioxide and contribute to global warming, perhaps the most serious environmental problem of our time. Carbon dioxide-free energy is required to stop global warming. Polymer solar cells have been attracting a great deal of interest as a source of renewable energy with a great potential for low cost. Polymer bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have been greatly improved; the power conversion efficiency is already up to 9.2% making the future of the polymer solar cell very promising. This thesis is a study of the morphology of polymer:fullerene BHJ, one of the most critical and challenging parts of high efficiency polymer solar cells. To discover the morphology, cross-section as well as top-down transmission electron microscopy were used. The contrast was achieved by utilizing phase contrast microscopy. Thermal annealing, dependence of BHJ thickness, processing additives, solution sequential process and solution sequential process with the use of cosolvent that affects/controls the BHJ morphology are studied in detail.

  2. Live-cell imaging study of mitochondrial morphology in mammalian cells exposed to X-rays.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, M; Kanari, Y; Yokoya, A; Narita, A; Fujii, K

    2015-09-01

    Morphological changes in mitochondria induced by X-irradiation in normal murine mammary gland cells were studied with a live-cell microscopic imaging technique. Mitochondria were visualised by staining with a specific fluorescent probe in the cells, which express fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator 2 (Fucci2) probes to visualise cell cycle. In unirradiated cells, the number of cells with fragmented mitochondria was about 20 % of the total cells through observation period (96 h). In irradiated cells, the population with fragmented mitochondria significantly increased depending on the absorbed dose. Particularly, for 8 Gy irradiation, the accumulation of fragmentation persists even in the cells whose cell cycle came to a stand (80 % in G1 (G0-like) phase). The fraction reached to a maximum at 96 h after irradiation. The kinetics of the fraction with fragmented mitochondria was similar to that for cells in S/G2/M phase (20 %) through the observation period (120 h). The evidences show that, in irradiated cells, some signals are continually released from a nucleus or cytoplasm even in the G0-like cells to operate some sort of protein machineries involved in mitochondrial fission. It is inferred that this delayed mitochondrial fragmentation is strongly related to their dysfunction, and hence might modulate radiobiological effects such as mutation or cell death.

  3. A morphological study of the retinal ganglion cells of the Afghan pika (Ochotona rufescens).

    PubMed

    Akaishi, Y; Uchiyama, H; Ito, H; Shimizu, Y

    1995-03-01

    The distribution and morphology of the retinal ganglion cells was studied in a relative of the rabbit, the Afghan pika. The total number of retinal ganglion cells was approximately 170,000. The total number of optic nerve fibers was between 160,000 and 190,000, corresponding to the total number of retinal ganglion cells. Retinal ganglion cells were found to have a horizontal region of high-density. The maximum density was 5250 cells/mm2. This region was located in the central retina below the optic disc. This area contained numerous closely packed small ganglion cells, while the peripheral retina (especially in the dorsal periphery) contained large ganglion cells more loosely dispersed. The retinal ganglion cells labeled by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were morphologically classified into three types based on dendritic length and ramification pattern.

  4. Morphological study of a connexin 43-GFP reporter mouse highlights glial heterogeneity, amacrine cells, and olfactory ensheathing cells.

    PubMed

    Theofilas, Panos; Steinhäuser, Christian; Theis, Martin; Derouiche, Amin

    2017-03-30

    Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the main astrocytic connexin and forms the basis of the glial syncytium. The morphology of connexin-expressing cells can be best studied in transgenic mouse lines expressing cytoplasmic fluorescent reporters, since immunolabeling the plaques can obscure the shapes of the individual cells. The Cx43kiECFP mouse generated by Degen et al. (FASEBJ 26:4576, 2012) expresses cytosolic ECFP and has previously been used to establish that Cx43 may not be expressed by all astrocytes within a population, and this can vary in a region-dependent way. To establish this mouse line as a tool for future astrocyte and connexin research, we sought to consolidate reporter authenticity, studying cell types and within-region population heterogeneity. Applying anti-GFP, all cell types related to astroglia were positive-namely, protoplasmic astrocytes in the hippocampus, cortex, thalamus, spinal cord, olfactory bulb, cerebellum with Bergmann glia and astrocytes also in the molecular layer, and retinal Müller cells and astrocytes. Labeled cell types further comprise white matter astrocytes, olfactory ensheathing cells, radial glia-like stem cells, retinal pigment epithelium cells, ependymal cells, and meningeal cells. We furthermore describe a retinal Cx43-expressing amacrine cell morphologically reminiscent of ON-OFF wide-field amacrine cells, representing the first example of a mammalian CNS neuron-expressing Cx43 protein. In double staining with cell type-specific markers (GFAP, S100ß, glutamine synthetase), Cx43 reporter expression in the hippocampus and cortex was restricted to GFAP(+) astrocytes. Altogether, this mouse line is a highly reliable tool for studies of Cx43-expressing CNS cells and astroglial cell morphology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Morphology studies on high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Florian; Klages, Merle; Scholta, Joachim; Jörissen, Ludwig; Morawietz, Tobias; Hiesgen, Renate; Kramer, Dominik; Zeis, Roswitha

    2014-06-01

    The electrode morphology influences the properties and performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Here we report our studies of two different electrodes for high-temperature PEMFC prepared by spraying and coating and their impact on the fuel cell performance. Differences in 3D microstructure and adhesion between catalyst layer and gas diffusion layer (GDL) of the electrodes were studied with X-ray microtomography. Scanning electrode microscope investigations show hairline cracks between agglomerates on the surface of the sprayed electrode, whereas the coated electrode shows a network of shrinkage cracks in the catalyst layer. The distribution of the electrode binder polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is related to the locally resolved conductivity, which was determined by scanning the electrode surfaces with a conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip. The macrostructures of the sprayed and coated electrodes are different but contain similar pore structures. The coated electrode has a higher PTFE concentration on the top region, which tends to form a nonconductive and less wettable "skin" on the electrode surface and delays the start-up of the fuel cell. In contrast to low-temperature PEMFC, the electrode morphology has only a minor impact on the steady-state cell performance of high-temperature PEMFC.

  6. Morphological, Biochemical, and Functional Study of Viral Replication Compartments Isolated from Adenovirus-Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Paloma; Anzures, Lourdes; Hernández-Mendoza, Armando; Guerrero, Adán; Wood, Christopher D.; Valdés, Margarita; Dobner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adenovirus (Ad) replication compartments (RC) are nuclear microenvironments where the viral genome is replicated and a coordinated program of late gene expression is established. These virus-induced nuclear sites seem to behave as central hubs for the regulation of virus-host cell interactions, since proteins that promote efficient viral replication as well as factors that participate in the antiviral response are coopted and concentrated there. To gain further insight into the activities of viral RC, here we report, for the first time, the morphology, composition, and activities of RC isolated from Ad-infected cells. Morphological analyses of isolated RC particles by superresolution microscopy showed that they were indistinguishable from RC within infected cells and that they displayed a dynamic compartmentalization. Furthermore, the RC-containing fractions (RCf) proved to be functional, as they directed de novo synthesis of viral DNA and RNA as well as RNA splicing, activities that are associated with RC in vivo. A detailed analysis of the production of viral late mRNA from RCf at different times postinfection revealed that viral mRNA splicing occurs in RC and that the synthesis, posttranscriptional processing, and release from RC to the nucleoplasm of individual viral late transcripts are spatiotemporally separate events. The results presented here demonstrate that RCf are a powerful system for detailed study into RC structure, composition, and activities and, as a result, the determination of the molecular mechanisms that induce the formation of these viral sites of adenoviruses and other nuclear-replicating viruses. IMPORTANCE RC may represent molecular hubs where many aspects of virus-host cell interaction are controlled. Here, we show by superresolution microscopy that RCf have morphologies similar to those of RC within Ad-infected cells and that they appear to be compartmentalized, as nucleolin and DBP display different localization in the

  7. ETM study of electroporation influence on cell morphology in human malignant melanoma and human primary gingival fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Skolucka, Nina; Daczewska, Malgorzata; Saczko, Jolanta; Chwilkowska, Agnieszka; Choromanska, Anna; Kotulska, Malgorzata; Kaminska, Iwona; Kulbacka, Julita

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate electroporation (EP) influence on malignant and normal cells. Methods Two cell lines including human malignant melanoma (Me-45) and normal human gingival fibroblast (HGFs) were used. EP parameters were the following: 250, 1 000, 1 750, 2 500 V/cm; 50 µs by 5 impulses for every case. The viability of cells after EP was estimated by MTT assay. The ultrastructural analysis was observed by transmission electron microscope (Zeiss EM 900). Results In the current study we observed the intracellular effect following EP on Me-45 and HGF cells. At the conditions applied, we did not observe any significant damage of mitochondrial activity in both cell lines treated by EP. Conversely, we showed that EP in some conditions can stimulate cells to proliferation. Some changes induced by EP were only visible in electron microscopy. In fibroblast cells we observed significant changes in lower parameters of EP (250 and 1 000 V/cm). After applying higher electric field intensities (2 500 V/cm) we detected many vacuoles, myelin-like bodies and swallowed endoplasmic reticulum. In melanoma cells such strong pathological modifications after EP were not observed, in comparison with control cells. The ultrastructure of both treated cell lines was changed according to the applied parameters of EP. Conclusions We can claim that EP conditions are cell line dependent. In terms of the intracellular morphology, human fibroblasts are more sensitive to electric field as compared with melanoma cells. Optimal conditions should be determined for each cell line. Summarizing our study, we can conclude that EP is not an invasive method for human normal and malignant cells. This technique can be safely applied in chemotherapy for delivering drugs into tumor cells. PMID:23569735

  8. Chromaffin cell calcium signal and morphology study based on multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongxiu; Wei, Shunhui; Qu, Anlian; Zhou, Zhuan

    1998-09-01

    Increasing or decreasing the internal calcium concentration can promote or prevent programmed cell death (PCD). We therefore performed a Ca2+ imaging study using Ca2+ indicator dye fura-2 and a sensitive cooled-CCD camera with a 12 bit resolution. Monochromatic beams of light with a wavelength of 345,380 nm were isolated from light emitted by a xenon lamp using a monochromator. The concentration of free calcium can be directly calculated from the ratio of two fluorescence values taken at two appropriately selected wavelength. Fluorescent light emitted from the cells was capture using a camera system. The cell morphology study is based on multispectral scanning, with smear images provided as three monochromatic images by illumination with light of 610,535 and 470 nm wavelengths. The nuclear characteristic parameters extracted from individual nuclei by system are nuclear area, nuclear diameter, nuclear density vector. The results of the restoration of images and the performance of a primitive logic for the detection of nuclei with PCD proved the usefulness of the system and the advantages of using multispectral images in the restoration and detection procedures.

  9. How well can morphology assess cell death modality? A proteomics study

    PubMed Central

    Chernobrovkin, Alexey L; Zubarev, Roman A

    2016-01-01

    While the focus of attempts to classify cell death programs has finally shifted in 2010s from microscopy-based morphological characteristics to biochemical assays, more recent discoveries have put the underlying assumptions of many such assays under severe stress, mostly because of the limited specificity of the assays. On the other hand, proteomics can quantitatively measure the abundances of thousands of proteins in a single experiment. Thus proteomics could develop a modern alternative to both semiquantitative morphology assessment as well as single-molecule biochemical assays. Here we tested this hypothesis by analyzing the proteomes of cells dying after been treated with various chemical agents. The most striking finding is that, for a multivariate model based on the proteome changes in three cells lines, the regulation patterns of the 200–500 most abundant proteins typically attributed to household type more accurately reflect that of the proteins directly interacting with the drug than any other protein subset grouped by common function or biological process, including cell death. This is in broad agreement with the 'rigid cell death mechanics' model where drug action mechanism and morphological changes caused by it are bijectively linked. This finding, if confirmed, will open way for a broad use of proteomics in death modality assessment. PMID:27752363

  10. Quantifying morphological heterogeneity: a study of more than 1,000,000 individual stored red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Piety, Nathaniel Z.; Gifford, Sean C.; Yang, Xiaoxi; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives The morphology of red blood cells (RBCs) deteriorates progressively during hypothermic storage. The degree of deterioration varies between individual cells, resulting in a highly heterogeneous population of cells contained within each RBC unit. Current techniques capable of categorizing the morphology of individual stored RBCs are manual, laborious, error-prone procedures that limit the number of cells that can be studied. Our objective was to create a simple, automated system for high-throughput RBC morphology classification. Materials and Methods A simple microfluidic device, designed to enable rapid, consistent acquisition of images of optimally oriented RBCs, was fabricated using soft lithography. A custom image analysis algorithm was developed to categorize the morphology of each individual RBC in the acquired images. The system was used to determine morphology of individual RBCs in several RBC units stored hypothermically for 6–8 weeks. Results The system was used to automatically determine the distribution of cell diameter within each morphological class for >1,000,000 individual stored RBCs (speed: >10,000 cells/hour; accuracy: 91.9% low-resolution, 75.3% high-resolution). Diameter mean and standard deviation by morphology class: discocyte 7.80±0.49μm, echinocyte 1 7.61±0.63μm, echinocyte 2 7.02±0.61μm, echinocyte 3 6.47±0.42μm, sphero-echinocyte 6.01±0.26μm, spherocyte 6.02±0.27μm, stomatocyte 1 6.95±0.61μm, stomatocyte 2 7.32 ± 0.47μm. Conclusion The automated morphology classification procedure described in this study is significantly simpler, faster and less subjective than conventional manual procedures. The ability to evaluate the morphology of individual RBCs automatically, rapidly and in statistically significant numbers enabled us to perform the most extensive study of stored RBC morphology to date. PMID:25900518

  11. Cystic Renal Oncocytoma and Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Morphologic and Immunohistochemical Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Skenderi, Faruk; Ulamec, Monika; Vranic, Semir; Bilalovic, Nurija; Peckova, Kvetoslava; Rotterova, Pavla; Kokoskova, Bohuslava; Trpkov, Kiril; Vesela, Pavla; Hora, Milan; Kalusova, Kristyna; Sperga, Maris; Perez Montiel, Delia; Alvarado Cabrero, Isabel; Bulimbasic, Stela; Branzovsky, Jindrich; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej

    2016-02-01

    Renal oncocytoma (RO) may present with a tubulocystic growth in 3% to 7% of cases, and in such cases its morphology may significantly overlap with tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TCRCC). We compared the morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of these tumors, aiming to clarify the differential diagnostic criteria, which facilitate the discrimination of RO from TCRCC. Twenty-four cystic ROs and 15 TCRCCs were selected and analyzed for: architectural growth patterns, stromal features, cytomorphology, ISUP nucleolar grade, necrosis, and mitotic activity. Immunohistochemical panel included various cytokeratins (AE1-AE3, OSCAR, CAM5.2, CK7), vimentin, CD10, CD117, AMACR, CA-IX, antimitochondrial antigen (MIA), EMA, and Ki-67. The presence of at least focal solid growth and islands of tumor cells interspersed with loose stroma, lower ISUP nucleolar grade, absence of necrosis, and absence of mitotic figures were strongly suggestive of a cystic RO. In contrast, the absence of solid and island growth patterns and presence of more compact, fibrous stroma, accompanied by higher ISUP nucleolar grade, focal necrosis, and mitotic figures were all associated with TCRCC. TCRCC marked more frequently for vimentin, CD10, AMACR, and CK7 and had a higher proliferative index by Ki-67 (>15%). CD117 was negative in 14/15 cases. One case was weakly CD117 reactive with cytoplasmic positivity. All cystic RO cases were strongly positive for CD117. The remaining markers (AE1-AE3, CAM5.2, OSCAR, CA-IX, MIA, EMA) were of limited utility. Presence of tumor cell islands and solid growth areas and the type of stroma may be major morphologic criteria in differentiating cystic RO from TCRCC. In difficult cases, or when a limited tissue precludes full morphologic assessment, immunohistochemical pattern of vimentin, CD10, CD117, AMACR, CK7, and Ki-67 could help in establishing the correct diagnosis.

  12. Solvent polarity and nanoscale morphology in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Ajith; Elsa Tom, Anju; Ison, V. V. E-mail: praveen@materials.iisc.ernet.in; Rao, Arun D.; Varman, K. Arul; Ranjith, K.; Ramamurthy, Praveen C. E-mail: praveen@materials.iisc.ernet.in; Vinayakan, R.

    2014-03-14

    Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated under identical experimental conditions, except by varying the solvent polarity used for spin coating the active layer components and their performance was evaluated systematically. Results showed that presence of nitrobenzene-chlorobenzene composition governs the morphology of active layer formed, which is due to the tuning of solvent polarity as well as the resulting solubility of the P3HT:PCBM blend. Trace amount of nitrobenzene favoured the formation of better organised P3HT domains, as evident from conductive AFM, tapping mode AFM and surface, and cross-sectional SEM analysis. The higher interfacial surface area thus generated produced cells with high efficiency. But, an increase in the nitrobenzene composition leads to a decrease in cell performance, which is due to the formation of an active layer with larger size polymer domain networks with poor charge separation possibility.

  13. Uptake of silica covered Quantum Dots into living cells: Long term vitality and morphology study on hyaluronic acid biomaterials.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Michele; Fiorica, Calogero; Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore; Militello, Valeria; Leone, Maurizio; Dubertret, Benoit; Pitarresi, Giovanna; Giammona, Gaetano

    2016-10-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are promising very bright and stable fluorescent probes for optical studies in the biological field but water solubility and possible metal bio-contamination need to be addressed. In this work, a simple silica-QD hybrid system is prepared and the uptake in bovine chondrocytes living cells without any functionalization of the external protective silica shield is demonstrated. Moreover, long term treated cells vitality (up to 14days) and the transfer of silica-QDs to the next cell generations are here reported. Confocal fluorescence microscopy was also used to determine the morphology of the so labelled cells and the relative silica-QDs distribution. Finally, we employ silica-QD stained chondrocytes to characterize, as proof of concept, hydrogels obtained from an amphiphilic derivative of hyaluronic acid (HA-EDA-C18) functionalized with different amounts of the RGD peptide.

  14. Morphologic and histochemical studies of bone cells from SL-3 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies of rat bone following space flight indicate a significant reduction in new bone formation as a result of hypogravity. In the present study of animals from SL-3 flight, the cellular activity of the bone forming cells, the osteoblasts, was investigated. Measurements of alkaline and acid phosphatase, Golgi activity, secretory granule size, and lysosomal activity, all indicated very little difference between flight and flight-simulated controls. However, there was a tendency for osteoblasts in compact bone of flight animals to show a smaller cytoplasmic volume compared to non-flight controls. If, as in previous studies, a significant reduction in bone formation occurred, it could be due to a normal level of procollagen degradation within these smaller osteoblasts, resulting in less collagen secretion per cell.

  15. Morphologic studies of lymphocyte nuclei in follicular and diffuse mixed small- and large-cell (lymphocytic-histiocytic) lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Dardick, I; Caldwell, D R; Moher, D; Jabi, M

    1988-08-01

    Twelve examples of mixed small- and large-cell lymphoma (eight follicular, one follicular and diffuse, and three diffuse) were investigated morphometrically using plastic-embedded tissue in order to study nuclear characteristics of lymphocyte populations in this form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and to test morphologic bases for current NHL classification systems. This study illustrates that there are many inaccuracies, illusions, and misconceptions in the morphologic criteria currently used to classify mixed small- and large-cell lymphoma. A principal finding was that lymphocyte nuclear profiles in mixed-cell lymphomas tend to be smaller in size (P less than .005) and more irregular in shape (P = .0001) than the morphologically similar counterparts in germinal centers of lymph nodes with reactive hyperplasia. Intercase comparison of mixed small- and large-cell lymphomas revealed a considerable range of mean nuclear area values, some of which were within the size range of normal, small lymphocytes. At the magnifications used for morphometric assessment, a high proportion of lymphocyte nuclear profiles had shallow invaginations, but only a limited number of profiles (4% to 14%) had deep (cleaved) indentations. Contrary to current definitions for this subtype of NHL, lymphocytes with "small" nuclei had the same proportion of the nuclear diameter occupied by nuclear invaginations as lymphocytes with "large" nuclei and, in fact, mean nuclear invagination depth was shallower in "small" nuclei than in "large" nuclei. Furthermore, regardless of whether it is nuclear area or shape that is evaluated, lymphocytes in mixed-cell lymphoma do not separate into two populations of small-cleaved and large noncleaved cells. Morphometry reveals that only four of the 12 examples of mixed small- and large-cell lymphoma had a proportion of the lymphocytes in the size range of fully transformed germinal center lymphocytes that exceeded 25%, and none of the cases approached 50% even

  16. Morphological properties of mouse retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Coombs, J; van der List, D; Wang, G-Y; Chalupa, L M

    2006-06-19

    The mouse retina offers an increasingly valuable model for vision research given the possibilities for genetic manipulation. Here we assess how the structural properties of mouse retinal ganglion cells relate to the stratification pattern of the dendrites of these neurons within the inner plexiform layer. For this purpose, we used 14 morphological measures to classify mouse retinal ganglion cells parametrically into different clusters. Retinal ganglion cells were labeled in one of three ways: Lucifer Yellow injection, 'DiOlistics' or transgenic expression of yellow fluorescent protein. The resulting analysis of 182 cells revealed 10 clusters of monostratified cells, with dendrites confined to either On or Off sublaminae of the inner plexiform layer, and four clusters of bistratified cells, dendrites spanning the On and Off sublaminae. We also sought to establish how these parametrically identified retinal ganglion cell clusters relate to cell types identified previously on the basis of immunocytochemical staining and the expression of yellow fluorescent protein. Cells labeled with an antibody against melanopsin were found to be located within a single cluster, while those labeled with the SMI-32 antibody were in four different clusters. Yellow fluorescent protein expressing cells were distributed within 13 of the 14 clusters identified here, which demonstrates that yellow fluorescent protein expression is a useful method for labeling virtually the entire population of mouse retinal ganglion cells. Collectively, these findings provide a valuable baseline for future studies dealing with the effects of genetic mutations on the morphological development of these neurons.

  17. Plastic solar cell interface and morphological characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guralnick, Brett W.

    Plastic solar cell research has become an intense field of study considering these devices may be lightweight, flexible and reduce the cost of photovoltaic devices. The active layer of plastic solar cells are a combination of two organic components which blend to form an internal morphology. Due to the poor electrical transport properties of the organic components it is important to understand how the morphology forms in order to engineer these materials for increased efficiency. The focus of this thesis is a detailed study of the interfaces between the plastic solar cell layers and the morphology of the active layer. The system studied in detail is a blend of P3HT and PCBM that acts as the primary absorber, which is the electron donor, and the electron acceptor, respectively. The key morphological findings are, while thermal annealing increases the crystallinity parallel to the substrate, the morphology is largely unchanged following annealing. The deposition and mixing conditions of the bulk heterojunction from solution control the starting morphology. The spin coating speed, concentration, solvent type, and solution mixing time are all critical variables in the formation of the bulk heterojunction. In addition, including the terminals or inorganic layers in the analysis is critical because the inorganic surface properties influence the morphology. Charge transfer in the device occurs at the material interfaces, and a highly resistive transparent conducting oxide layer limits device performance. It was discovered that the electron blocking layer between the transparent conducting oxide and the bulk heterojunction is compromised following annealing. The electron acceptor material can diffuse into this layer, a location which does not benefit device performance. Additionally, the back contact deposition is important since the organic material can be damaged by the thermal evaporation of Aluminum, typically used for plastic solar cells. Depositing a thin thermal and

  18. Wet-laid soy fiber reinforced hydrogel scaffold: Fabrication, mechano-morphological and cell studies.

    PubMed

    Wood, Andrew T; Everett, Dominique; Budhwani, Karim I; Dickinson, Brenna; Thomas, Vinoy

    2016-06-01

    Among materials used in biomedical applications, hydrogels have received consistent linear growth in interest over the past decade due to their large water volume and saliency to the natural extracellular matrix. These materials are often limited due to their sub-optimal mechanical properties which are typically improved via chemical or physical crosslinking. Chemical crosslinking forms strong inter-polymer bonds but typically uses reagents that are cytotoxic while physical crosslinking is more temperamental to environmental changes but can be formed without these toxic reagents. In this study, we added a fiber-reinforcement phase to a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel formed through successive freezing-thawing cycles by incorporating a non-woven microfiber mat formed by the wet-lay process. By reinforcing the hydrogel with a wet-laid fibrous mat, the ultimate tensile strength and modulus increased from 0.11 ± 0.01 MPa and 0.17 ± 0.02 kPa to 0.24 ± 0.02 MPa and 5.76 ± 1.12 kPa, respectively. An increase in toughness and elongation was also found increasing from 2.52 ± 0.37 MPa to 25.6 ± 3.84 and 51.89 ± 5.16% to 111.16 ± 9.68%, respectively. The soy fibers were also found to induce minimal cytotoxicity with endothelial cell viability showing 96.51% ± 1.91 living cells after a 48 h incubation. This approach to hydrogel-reinforcement presents a rapid, tunable method by which hydrogels can attain increased mechanical properties without sacrificing their inherent biologically favorable properties.

  19. Recent Advances in Morphological Cell Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shengyong; Zhao, Mingzhu; Wu, Guang; Yao, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent advances in image processing methods for morphological cell analysis. The topic of morphological analysis has received much attention with the increasing demands in both bioinformatics and biomedical applications. Among many factors that affect the diagnosis of a disease, morphological cell analysis and statistics have made great contributions to results and effects for a doctor. Morphological cell analysis finds the cellar shape, cellar regularity, classification, statistics, diagnosis, and so forth. In the last 20 years, about 1000 publications have reported the use of morphological cell analysis in biomedical research. Relevant solutions encompass a rather wide application area, such as cell clumps segmentation, morphological characteristics extraction, 3D reconstruction, abnormal cells identification, and statistical analysis. These reports are summarized in this paper to enable easy referral to suitable methods for practical solutions. Representative contributions and future research trends are also addressed. PMID:22272215

  20. Morphologic, biochemical, and cytogenetic studies of bone marrow and circulating blood cells in painters exposed to ethylene glycol ethers.

    PubMed

    Cullen, M R; Solomon, L R; Pace, P E; Buckley, P; Duffy, T P; McPhedran, P; Kelsey, K T; Redlich, C A

    1992-10-01

    In a previous cross-sectional survey, up to 15% of shipyard painters were found to have mild anemia or granulocytopenia, mostly acquired since employment. Environmental studies had suggested a possible etiologic role for ethylene glycol ethers, solvents to which the men were heavily exposed and which have established myelotoxic potential. To exclude alternative hypotheses, examine possible common patterns of injury, and identify potential risk factors and markers for such an effect, the affected painters were further studied. The painters were matched with two groups of controls: exposed painters without evidence of hematologic abnormality on the previous survey and unexposed controls. Altogether 25 subjects were studied by histopathologic examination of bone marrow, cytogenetic studies of marrow cells, and peripheral lymphocytes and peripheral red cell studies of membrane and metabolic function. Except for an unexpected finding of a race-associated effect on marrow histology, insignificant differences were seen among the groups in terms of marrow morphology and cellularity, stem cell growth kinetics, and marrow or peripheral cytogenetics. Two metabolic abnormalities of peripheral red cells related to exposure or clinical status of the subjects were found. Pyruvate kinase, an established marker of acquired myelodysplasia, was significantly depressed in the subjects with previously abnormal counts. Although reduced glutathione levels and holoenzyme activities of glutathione reductase (GSHR) did not differ among groups, exposed subjects had decreased saturation of GSHR with flavin adenine dinucleotide which could be restored in vitro, suggesting riboflavin deficiency or impaired riboflavin metabolism. Thus, although a unique pattern of bone marrow injury by histologic or genetic assay attributable to ethylene glycol ethers was not defined, biochemical effects of possible mechanistic importance were identified. The relevance of these findings as subclinical disease

  1. In vitro study of the effect of cyclic strains on the dermal fibroblast (GM3384) morphology--mapping of cell responses to strain field.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kelvin Y; Yang, Lingyan; Chen, Kevin; Li, Qing

    2012-09-01

    Cells can respond to mechanical forces and actively interact with mechanical stimulations in vitro. Understanding the effect of mechanical loading on cell morphology signifies a critical biomechanics issue in tissue engineering. In this study, human dermal fibroblasts (GM3384) underwent cyclic strain. This was done by culturing a monolayer of the cells onto a transparent membrane and applying a cyclic stress using a computer controlled bioreactor. The cells were mechanically stimulated at around 7% strain with 1 cycle per minute for 2 days. Finite element analysis (FEA) was then employed to characterize the strain field across the substrate membrane in the bioreactor. The results showed that strain distribution were non-uniform in the substrate membrane. The mapping of cell morphology with the strain field revealed that the cells exposed to the equibiaxial strain exhibited the classical spindle morphology while the cells subjected to uniaxial strain changed to a polygonal morphology. It is concluded that the nature of the strain has significant impact on the final cell morphology.

  2. Comparative study of the effect of chloro-, dichloro-, bromo-, and dibromoacetic acid on necrotic, apoptotic and morphological changes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (in vitro study).

    PubMed

    Michałowicz, Jaromir; Wróblewski, Wojciech; Mokra, Katarzyna; Maćczak, Aneta; Kwiatkowska, Marta

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the effect of monochloroacetic acid (MCAA), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was assessed. HAAs studied induced at millimolar concentrations necrotic alterations in PBMCs with the strongest effect noted for MBAA and DBAA. Chloro- and bromoacetic acids also provoked changes in PBMCs morphology because they caused a strong decrease in cell size (particularly DCAA and DBAA) and increase in cell granulation (mainly MBAA and DBAA). All HAAs studied, and DCAA and DBAA in particular (at lower concentrations than those, which caused necrosis) induced apoptotic changes, which was confirmed by analysis of alterations in cell membrane permeability and caspase 8, 9 and 3 activation. Moreover, HAAs examined (mainly dihalogenated acids) strongly increased transmembrane mitochondrial potential and enhanced ROS (mainly hydroxyl radical) formation, which was possibly associated with apoptotic changes provoked by those substances. The results showed that DBAA exhibited the strongest effects on PBMCs.

  3. Cytomorphometric analysis and morphological assessment of oral exfoliated cells in type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy individuals: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Khushboo; Rehani, Shweta; Kardam, Priyanka; Kumra, Madhumani; Sharma, Rashi; Singh, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    Context: Oral exfoliative cytology is a simple, nonaggressive technique that is well accepted by patients. Therefore, it is an attractive option, which aids in the diagnosis and observation of epithelial atypias associated with oral mucosal diseases. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the quantitative and qualitative alterations in exfoliative smears from type 2 diabetics and healthy individuals. Patients and Methods: The study includes 30 type 2 diabetics and 30 healthy persons of both sexes. PAP and hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained smears were prepared from buccal mucosa (BM), tongue (T), floor of the mouth (FOM), and palate (P). Under a light microscope, 50 clearly defined unfolded epithelial cells were quantitatively evaluated for cellular area (CA), nuclear area (NA), and cellular-to-nuclear area ratio (CA:NA) and assessed for morphological features. Statistical Analysis: Collected data was manually entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 13.5 for analysis. Student's t-test was used at 95% confidence interval. Results: Quantitative assessment of the overall mean CA was less, mean NA was more, and mean CA:NA was less in diabetics than that in healthy persons at all the four sites. Diabetic oral cells showed qualiative cytoplasmic and nuclear alterations: cytoplasmic vacuoles, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, pyknosis, peri-nuclear halo, binucleation, nuclear vacuoles, inflammation, and microbial colonies. Conclusion: Oral cytology from type 2 diabetics is associated with detectable cytomorphological changes with alteration in size of the cell and nucleus, which is site specific, indicating epithelial cell degeneration in cytoplasm and nucleus. PMID:28182082

  4. Conductometric study of shear-dependent processes in red cell suspensions. I. Effect of red blood cell aggregate morphology on blood conductance.

    PubMed

    Pribush, A; Meyerstein, D; Meyerstein, N

    2004-01-01

    The conductance and capacitance of flowing and quiescent red blood cell (RBC) suspensions were measured at a frequency of 0.2 MHz. The results demonstrate that the time-dependent changes in the conductance recorded during the aggregation process differ in nature for suspensions of short linear rouleaux, branched aggregates and RBC networks. It is shown that the conductance of RBC suspensions measured during the aggregation and disaggregation processes follows the morphological transformations of the RBC aggregates. Thus, this method enables characterization of the morphology of RBC aggregates formed in whole blood and in suspensions with physiological hematocrits both under flow conditions and in stasis. These results in combination with previous ones suggest that this technique can be used for studies of dynamic RBC aggregation and probably for diagnostic use.

  5. Cell Shape Dependent Regulation of Nuclear Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Co, Carlos; Ho, Chia-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that actin filaments are essential in how a cell controls its nuclear shape. However, little is known about the relative importance of membrane tension in determining nuclear morphology. In this study, we used adhesive micropatterned substrates to alter the cellular geometry (aspect ratio, size, and shape) that allowed direct membrane tension or without membrane lateral contact with the nucleus and investigate nuclear shape remodeling and orientation on a series of rectangular shapes. Here we showed that at low cell aspect ratios the orientation of the nucleus was regulated by actin filaments while cells with high aspect ratios can maintain nuclear shape and orientation even when actin polymerization was blocked. A model adenocarcinoma cell showed similar behavior in the regulation of nuclear shape in response to changes in cell shape but actin filaments were essential in maintaining cell shape. Our results highlight the two distinct mechanisms to regulate nuclear shape through cell shape control and the difference between fibroblasts and a model cancerous cell in cell adhesion and cell shape control. PMID:26210179

  6. A simulation study on the effects of dendritic morphology on layer V prefrontal pyramidal cell firing behavior

    PubMed Central

    Psarrou, Maria; Stefanou, Stefanos S.; Papoutsi, Athanasia; Tzilivaki, Alexandra; Cutsuridis, Vassilis; Poirazi, Panayiota

    2014-01-01

    Pyramidal cells, the most abundant neurons in neocortex, exhibit significant structural variability across different brain areas and layers in different species. Moreover, in response to a somatic step current, these cells display a range of firing behaviors, the most common being (1) repetitive action potentials (Regular Spiking—RS), and (2) an initial cluster of 2–5 action potentials with short interspike interval (ISIs) followed by single spikes (Intrinsic Bursting—IB). A correlation between firing behavior and dendritic morphology has recently been reported. In this work we use computational modeling to investigate quantitatively the effects of the basal dendritic tree morphology on the firing behavior of 112 three-dimensional reconstructions of layer V PFC rat pyramidal cells. Particularly, we focus on how different morphological (diameter, total length, volume, and branch number) and passive [Mean Electrotonic Path length (MEP)] features of basal dendritic trees shape somatic firing when the spatial distribution of ionic mechanisms in the basal dendritic trees is uniform or non-uniform. Our results suggest that total length, volume and branch number are the best morphological parameters to discriminate the cells as RS or IB, regardless of the distribution of ionic mechanisms in basal trees. The discriminatory power of total length, volume, and branch number remains high in the presence of different apical dendrites. These results suggest that morphological variations in the basal dendritic trees of layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC influence their firing patterns in a predictive manner and may in turn influence the information processing capabilities of these neurons. PMID:25278837

  7. Heterogeneity in polymer solar cells: local morphology and performance in organic photovoltaics studied with scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Groves, Chris; Reid, Obadiah G; Ginger, David S

    2010-05-18

    The use of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) could reduce production costs for solar cells because these materials are solution processable and can be manufactured by roll-to-roll printing. The nanoscale texture, or film morphology, of the donor/acceptor blends used in most OPVs is a critical variable that can dominate both the performance of new materials being optimized in the lab and efforts to move from laboratory-scale to factory-scale production. Although efficiencies of organic solar cells have improved significantly in recent years, progress in morphology optimization still occurs largely by trial and error, in part because much of our basic understanding of how nanoscale morphology affects the optoelectronic properties of these heterogeneous organic semiconductor films has to be inferred indirectly from macroscopic measurements. In this Account, we review the importance of nanoscale morphology in organic semiconductors and the use of electrical scanning probe microscopy techniques to directly probe the local optoelectronic properties of OPV devices. We have observed local heterogeneity of electronic properties and performance in a wide range of systems, including model polymer-fullerene blends such as poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), newer polyfluorene copolymer-PCBM blends, and even all polymer donor-acceptor blends. The observed heterogeneity in local photocurrent poses important questions, chiefly what information is contained and what is lost when using average values obtained from conventional measurements on macroscopic devices and bulk samples? We show that in many cases OPVs are best thought of as a collection of nanoscopic photodiodes connected in parallel, each with their own morphological and therefore electronic and optical properties. This local heterogeneity forces us to carefully consider the adequacy of describing OPVs solely by "average" properties such as the bulk carrier mobility

  8. Structural, Morphological, and Electron Transport Studies of Annealing Dependent In2O3 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, S.; Abdullah, H.; Shaari, S.; Muchtar, A.; Asshari, I.

    2015-01-01

    Indium oxide (In2O3) thin films annealed at various annealing temperatures were prepared by using spin-coating method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The objective of this research is to enhance the photovoltaic conversion efficiency in In2O3 thin films by finding the optimum annealing temperature and also to study the reason for high and low performance in the annealed In2O3 thin films. The structural and morphological characteristics of In2O3 thin films were studied via XRD patterns, atomic force microscopy (AFM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), EDX sampling, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The annealing treatment modified the nanostructures of the In2O3 thin films viewed through FESEM images. The In2O3-450°C-based DSSC exhibited better photovoltaic performance than the other annealed thin films of 1.54%. The electron properties were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) unit. The In2O3-450°C thin films provide larger diffusion rate, low recombination effect, and longer electron lifetime, thus enhancing the performance of DSSC. PMID:26146652

  9. Phase diagrams and morphological evolution in wrapping of rod-shaped elastic nanoparticles by cell membrane: A two-dimensional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xin; Gao, Huajian

    2014-06-01

    A fundamental understanding of cell-nanomaterial interaction is essential for biomedical diagnostics, therapeutics, and nanotoxicity. Here, we perform a theoretical analysis to investigate the phase diagram and morphological evolution of an elastic rod-shaped nanoparticle wrapped by a lipid membrane in two dimensions. We show that there exist five possible wrapping phases based on the stability of full wrapping, partial wrapping, and no wrapping states. The wrapping phases depend on the shape and size of the particle, adhesion energy, membrane tension, and bending rigidity ratio between the particle and membrane. While symmetric morphologies are observed in the early and late stages of wrapping, in between a soft rod-shaped nanoparticle undergoes a dramatic symmetry breaking morphological change while stiff and rigid nanoparticles experience a sharp reorientation. These results are of interest to the study of a range of phenomena including viral budding, exocytosis, as well as endocytosis or phagocytosis of elastic particles into cells.

  10. Genesis of flake-like morphology and dye-sensitized solar cell performance of Al-doped ZnO particles: a study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, D.; Mondal, B.; Mukherjee, K.

    2017-03-01

    In dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application, the particulate morphologies of photo-anode facilitate efficient dye loading and thus lead to better photo-conversion efficiency than their thin film counterpart. However, till date, the electronic and optical properties as well as the DSSC application of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) particles as photo-anode material is studied less than thin films. Herein, phase formation behavior, morphology evolution, optical properties, and dye-sensitized solar cell performance of wet chemically prepared ZnO and AZO (dopant level: 1-4 mol%) particles are studied. It is found that Al doping modulates significantly the ZnO morphology which in turn results the maximum dye adsorption as well as best photo-conversion efficiency at optimum dopant concentration. Specifically, the nanoparticle of ZnO turns predominantly to flake-like morphology with a higher surface area when 2 mol% Al is doped. Such morphology modulation is expected, since the crystallinity, lattice parameters, and lattice strain of ZnO changes appreciably with Al doping. The variations of optical properties (absorbance, diffused reflectance, and band gap) of AZO materials as compared to primitive ZnO are also identified through UV-vis studies. An attempt is made here to correlate the structural features with the photovoltaic performances of ZnO and AZO.

  11. Morphologic studies in the skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Sillence, D. O.; Horton, W. A.; Rimoin, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the delineation of the genetic skeletal dysplasias, a heterogeneous group of disorders, that consist of over 80 distinct conditions. Morphologic studies have added a further dimension to the delineation of these conditions, their diagnosis, and the investigation of their pathogenetic mechanisms. In certain diseases, the morphologic alterations are characteristic and pathognomonic. In others only nonspecific alterations are observed, whereas in still other disorders growth-plate structure is essentially normal. Histologic, histochemical, and electronmicroscopic studies of growth-plate cartilage have provided new insights into the complexity of morphogenetic events in normal growth through the demonstration of morphologic defects in the genetic disorders of skeletal growth. As yet, very little is known of the biochemical abnormalities underlying the morphologic abnormalities. However, the great variety of morphologic findings points to a number of different pathogenetic defects in the synthesis, release, and assembly of connective tissue macromolecules and in the cells involved in growth-plate metabolism. Images Figure 4 Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 10 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2 PMID:474720

  12. [Study of phototrophic purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides cell morphology of wild-type and ipt-transformant by atomic force and electron microscopy].

    PubMed

    Machulin, A V; Smolygina, L D; Suzina, N E; Serdiuk, O P

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study of phototrophic purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides cell morphology of wild-type and ipt-transformant was done by atomic force and electron microscopy. It was shown that transformation led to a decrease in the number or total disappearance of the flagella, as well as to changes in the structure of the outer membrane of the bacteria cell wall. On the wild-type cell surface phage-like structures were found, and in transformed cells at their places hollows were identified. This study significantly extends an understanding of the changes occurring in the ipt-transformants of phototrophic purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. This investigation not only confirmed earlier obtained data about the differences in the wild-type and ipt-transformant phototrophic purple bacteria cell wall, but also showed fine changes in the structure of its outer membrane.

  13. Topography and morphology of retinal ganglion cells in Falconiforms: a study on predatory and carrion-eating birds.

    PubMed

    Inzunza, O; Bravo, H; Smith, R L; Angel, M

    1991-02-01

    The topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells and their cell body size have been studied in five Falconiform species, including predatory (chilean eagle Buteo fuscenses australis, and sparrow hawk Falco sparverius) and carrion-eating (chimango caracara Milvago chimango; condor Vultur gryphus, and black vulture Coragyps atratus) birds. All these species had a well defined nasal fovea and a horizontal streak. Instead of a temporal fovea as in eagles and hawks, an afoveate temporal area is present in chimango, condor, and vulture. The highest ganglion cell density was found in the nasal fovea of Falco and Buteo with 65,000 and 62,000 cells/mm2, respectively. A negative correlation between ganglion cell density and cell body size was found in all the species studied. The specializations of the temporal retina showed a rather homogenous population of medium sized neurons, while the nasal foveas showed a homogeneous population of smaller ganglion cells. Finally, the peripheral retina showed a heterogeneous population of large, medium, and small ganglion cells. Predatory behavior appears to be closely related to foveal specializations, and is best exemplified in the eagle and hawk and to a lesser extent in the chimango.

  14. Morphological and functional studies on the epidermal cells of amphioxus ( Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense) at different developmental stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Bing-Yu; Sun, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Shi-Cui; Wu, Xian-Han

    1997-09-01

    Epidermal cells of amphioxus at different developmental stages were investigated by electron microscopy and colloidal carbon tracing experiments. Amphioxus epidermal cells showed different ultrastructural characteristics at larval and adult stages. The epidermal cells at all larval stages studied (24 96 h) had numerous vesicles containing electron dense materials in their apical cytoplasm. In tracing experiments, carbon particles were found in apical vesicles and interoellular spaces. Under scanning electron microscope, many crater-like protrusions were observed on the surface of the cells. These results indicated that amphioxus larval epidermal cells may be capable of endocytosis. The epidermal cells of 3-month and adult amphioxus were obviously secretory ones characterized by well-developed peripheral filaments, a prominent Golgi apparatus and abundant apical secretory vesicles. This study also showed that adult amphioxus body surface mucus contained lectin that could agglutinate human red blood cells. The authors propose that the epidermal cells of amphioxus larva and adult may contribute to the immune defense of the amimal by different means.

  15. Morphological study of semicrystalline polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rane, Shrish Yashwant

    1999-10-01

    This dissertation addresses several unresolved issues pertaining to the morphology of semi-crystalline polymers. The morphology of the simpler semi-crystalline polymers such as, polyethylene (PE) has been well characterized in the literature. Still large gaps exist in the quantitative understanding of the lamellar in the spherulites of these polymers. The intermediate regime between the lamellae and spherulites is still largely unexplored. Further information on this regime will enhance the establishment of vital structure-property relationships in commercially blown PE films. The lamellae may follow fractal scaling laws as they grow from the nucleus to form the spherulite. This mesoscale structure will be investigated by ultra low small angle (Bonse-Hart) scattering. Variables such as the orientation imported during processing and the branch content the effect the macro-properties of the finished polymer product. In the past the orientation of molecular chains has been studied by several authors using diffraction, birefringence and spectroscopic measurements. In this study the orientation of the lamellae will be quantified using small angle x-ray scattering and an attempt will be made to correlate the orientation to properties such as permeability and machine direction tear strength in blown films of commercial grades of high density polyethylene (HDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and the newer metallocene resins. The origin and cause of spherulitic banding in semi-crystalline polymers remains another mystery. The classical formalisms of lamellar banding by Keith and Padden which attribute it to the regular twisting of lamellae are not universal and fail to explain the bands present in other materials such as agates, where there is no evidence of lamellar structures. The phenomena of lamellar banding will be studied in bio-polyester systems, which exhibit distinct, well developed banded spherulites. The effect of copolymerization and thermal

  16. Morphological study of penumbral formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitai, Reizaburo; Watanabe, Hiroko; Otsuji, Ken'ichi

    2014-12-01

    Penumbrae are known to be areas of mainly horizontal magnetic field surrounding umbrae of relatively large and mature sunspots. In this paper, we observationally studied the formation of penumbrae in NOAA 10978, where several penumbral formations were observed in G-band images of the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode. Thanks to the continuous observation by Hinode, we could morphologically follow the evolution of sunspots and found that there are several paths to the penumbral formation: (1) active accumulation of magnetic flux, (2) rapid emergence of magnetic field, and (3) appearance of twisted or rotating magnetic tubes. In all of these cases, magnetic fields are expected to sustain high inclination at the edges of flux tube concentration longer than the characteristic growth time of downward magnetic pumping.

  17. Morphological studies of vertical arrays TiO2 nanotubes by electrochemical anodization technique for dye sensitized solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su'ait, M. S.; Alamgir, F.; Scardi, P.; Ahmad, A.

    2013-11-01

    A vertical array titanium dioxide nanotube (n-TiO2) for photovoltaic materials in dye sensitized solar cell has been synthesized by electrochemical anodization technique in NH4F aqueous solution. The morphological observation performed by SEM analysis on the scratch film showed that the distribution growths of TiO2 nanotubes on Ti subtract were uniform. The duration of growth is varied up to 12 h, with tubes length approximately 1 μm. However, at the maximum duration, a compact TiO2 layers were formed. This phenomenon is due to the field-assisted anodic oxidation at the interfaces of Ti/TiO2 is at equal rate with the field-assisted dissolution rate of the top TiO2 nanotube's surface, resulting from the decreased quantity of F- ions to form fluoro complexes, [TiF6]2-. A slight increase in the rate of the chemical dissolution reaction produced a precipitated TiO2. Hence, [TiF6]2- complexes which are required for tubes formation are difficult to exist.

  18. Cells with dendritic cell morphology and immunophenotype, binuclear morphology, and immunosuppressive function in dendritic cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Rong; Moulding, Dale; Himoudi, Nourredine; Adams, Stuart; Bouma, Gerben; Eddaoudi, Ayad; Basu, B Piku; Derniame, Sophie; Chana, Prabhjoat; Duncan, Andrew; Anderson, John

    2011-01-01

    Culturing of human peripheral blood CD14 positive monocytes is a method for generation of dendritic cells (DCs) for experimental purposes or for use in clinical grade vaccines. When culturing human DCs in this manner for clinical vaccine production, we noticed that 5-10% of cells within the bulk culture were binuclear or multiple nuclear, but had typical dendritic cell morphology and immunophenotype. We refer to the cells as binuclear cells in dendritic cell cultures (BNiDCs). By using single cell PCR analysis of mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms we demonstrated that approximately 20-25% of cells in DC culture undergo a fusion event. Flow sorted BNiDC express low HLA-DR and IL-12p70, but high levels of IL-10. In mixed lymphocyte reactions, purified BNiDC suppressed lymphocyte proliferation. Blockade of dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) decreased the number of binuclear cells in DC cultures. BNiDC represent a potentially tolerogenic population within DC preparations for clinical use.

  19. Cryptococcal Cell Morphology Affects Host Cell Interactions and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Judith N.; Charlier, Caroline; Baltes, Nicholas J.; Chrétien, Fabrice; Heitman, Joseph; Dromer, Françoise; Nielsen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a common life-threatening human fungal pathogen. The size of cryptococcal cells is typically 5 to 10 µm. Cell enlargement was observed in vivo, producing cells up to 100 µm. These morphological changes in cell size affected pathogenicity via reducing phagocytosis by host mononuclear cells, increasing resistance to oxidative and nitrosative stress, and correlated with reduced penetration of the central nervous system. Cell enlargement was stimulated by coinfection with strains of opposite mating type, and ste3aΔ pheromone receptor mutant strains had reduced cell enlargement. Finally, analysis of DNA content in this novel cell type revealed that these enlarged cells were polyploid, uninucleate, and produced daughter cells in vivo. These results describe a novel mechanism by which C. neoformans evades host phagocytosis to allow survival of a subset of the population at early stages of infection. Thus, morphological changes play unique and specialized roles during infection. PMID:20585559

  20. A novel mechanotactic 3D modeling of cell morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamaleddin Mousavi, Seyed; Hamdy Doweidar, Mohamed

    2014-08-01

    Cell morphology plays a critical role in many biological processes, such as cell migration, tissue development, wound healing and tumor growth. Recent investigations demonstrate that, among other stimuli, cells adapt their shapes according to their substrate stiffness. Until now, the development of this process has not been clear. Therefore, in this work, a new three-dimensional (3D) computational model for cell morphology has been developed. This model is based on a previous cell migration model presented by the same authors. The new model considers that during cell-substrate interaction, cell shape is governed by internal cell deformation, which leads to an accurate prediction of the cell shape according to the mechanical characteristic of its surrounding micro-environment. To study this phenomenon, the model has been applied to different numerical cases. The obtained results, which are qualitatively consistent with well-known related experimental works, indicate that cell morphology not only depends on substrate stiffness but also on the substrate boundary conditions. A cell located within an unconstrained soft substrate (several kPa) with uniform stiffness is unable to adhere to its substrate or to send out pseudopodia. When the substrate stiffness increases to tens of kPa (intermediate and rigid substrates), the cell can adequately adhere to its substrate. Subsequently, as the traction forces exerted by the cell increase, the cell elongates and its shape changes. Within very stiff (hard) substrates, the cell cannot penetrate into its substrate or send out pseudopodia. On the other hand, a cell is found to be more elongated within substrates with a constrained surface. However, this elongation decreases when the cell approaches it. It can be concluded that the higher the net traction force, the greater the cell elongation, the larger the cell membrane area, and the less random the cell alignment.

  1. Limb blastema cell: a stem cell for morphological regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Koji; Ohgo, Shiro; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    The limb blastema cell, which is a major source of mesenchymal components in the limb regenerate, serves as a stem cell that possesses an undifferentiated state and multipotency. A remarkable property of the limb blastema cell can be seen in its capability for morphogenesis. Elucidation of the molecular basis for morphological regeneration is essential for success in organ regeneration in humans, and characterization of limb blastema cells will provide many insights into how to create three-dimensional morphology during the regeneration process. In this review, we deal with positional memory, a key trait of the limb blastema cell in regard to morphological regeneration, making reference to classic surgical experiments, comparative descriptions of limb and fin blastemas, and genetic/epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. Urodele amphibians, anuran amphibians, and teleosts are likely to share fundamental mechanisms for morphological regeneration, but there are several differences in the process of regeneration, including the epigenetic conditions. Accumulation of knowledge of the molecular mechanisms and epigenetic modifications of gene activation in morphological regeneration of the model organisms for which an overview is provided in this review will lead to successful stimulation of regenerative capacity in amniotes, which only have a limited capability for morphological regeneration.

  2. Cell surgery and growth factors in dry age-related macular degeneration: visual prognosis and morphological study

    PubMed Central

    Limoli, Paolo Giuseppe; Limoli, Celeste; Vingolo, Enzo Maria; Scalinci, Sergio Zaccaria; Nebbioso, Marcella

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this research was to study the overall restoration effect on residual retinal cells through surgically grafted autologous cells onto the surrounding tissue, choroid and retina in order to produce a constant secretion of growth factors (GFs) in dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. Results 6 months after surgery, several values were statistically significant in the group with higher RTA. Also patient compliance analysis (PCA) in relation to functional change perception appeared to be very good. Methods Thirty-six eyes of 25 patients (range 64-84 years of age) affected by dry AMD were included in study, and divided in two groups by spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT): group A with retinal thickness average (RTA) less than 250 microns (μm) and group B with RTA equal to or more than 250 μm. Adipocytes, adipose-derived stem cells from the stromal-vascular fraction, and platelets from platelet-rich plasma were implanted in the suprachoroidal space. Particularly, the following parameters were evaluated: best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for far and near distance, retinal thickness maps, scotopic and photopic electroretinogram (ERG), and microperimetry (MY). All statistical analyses were performed with STATA 14.0 (Collage Station, Texas, USA). Conclusions The available set of GFs allowed biological retinal neuroenhancement. After 6 months it improved visual performance (VP), but the increase was better if RTA recorded by OCT was higher, probably in relation to the presence of areas with greater cellularity. PMID:27391437

  3. A Morphological identification cell cytotoxicity assay using cytoplasm-localized fluorescent probe (CLFP) to distinguish living and dead cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Fangfang; Shen, Zhengwei; Wen, Hui; Chen, Jialing; Zhang, Xiang; Lin, Ping; Yin, Dali; Cui, Huaqing; Chen, Xiaoguang

    2017-01-08

    Cell cytotoxicity assays include cell activity assays and morphological identification assays. Currently, all frequently used cytotoxicity assays belong to cell activity assays but suffer from detection limitations. Morphological identification of cell death remains as the gold standard, although the method is difficult to scale up. At present there is no generally accepted morphological identification based cell cytotoxicity assay. In this study, we applied previous developed cell cytoplasm-localized fluorescent probe (CLFP) to display cell morphologies. Under fluorescence microscopy, the fluorescence morphology and intensity of living cells are distinct from dead cells. Based on these characters we extracted the images of living cells from series of samples via computational analysis. Thus, a novel cell morphological identification cytotoxicity assay (CLFP assay) is developed. The performance of the CLFP assay was similar to cell activity assay (MTT assay), but the accuracy of the CLFP assay was superior when measuring the cytotoxicity of active compounds.

  4. The effect of Semax and its C-end peptide PGP on the morphology and proliferative activity of rat brain cells during experimental ischemia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stavchansky, Vasily V; Yuzhakov, Vadim V; Botsina, Alexandra Yu; Skvortsova, Veronika I; Bondurko, Lyubov N; Tsyganova, Marina G; Limborska, Svetlana A; Myasoedov, Nikolay F; Dergunova, Lyudmila V

    2011-10-01

    The neuropeptide preparation Semax (Met-Glu-His-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro) has been employed successfully in clinical practice for treating patients with severe brain blood circulation disorders. In spite of numerous studies, many aspects of the therapeutic effects of this preparation remain unknown. In this context, the effects of Semax and its C-end tripeptide PGP on the functional morphology of nervous tissue cells were studied in the normal rat brain and in a model of incomplete global rat brain ischemia. In control animals, both peptides activated the capillary network and caused similar morphological changes to neurons and the neuropil regions. We show here for the first time at the histological level that Semax and PGP increased proliferation of the neuroglia, blood vessel endothelium, and progenitor cells in the subventricular zone. In these experimental conditions, only Semax abated the manifestation of ischemic damage to the nervous tissue. This was probably attributable to a decrease in vascular stasis symptoms as well as the trophic effect of the peptide.

  5. Morphological study of lipid vesicles in presence of amphotericin B via modification of the microfluidic CellASIC platform and LED illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, J.; Decheva-Zarkova, M.; Pavlič, J. I.

    2016-02-01

    Giant lipid vesicles (liposomes) are the simplest model of the biological cell and can be easily formed from natural or synthetic lipid species with controlled composition and properties. This is the reason why they are the preferred objects for various scientific investigations. Amphotericin B (AmB) is a membrane active drug, used for treatment of systemic fungal infections. In this work we studied the morphological behavior of giant SOPC vesicles in asymmetrical presence of amphotericin B antibiotic in the vicinity of the lipid membrane. The visualization of the vesicles was carried out via inverted phase contrast microscopy. The illumination source was modified in a way that tungsten light bulb was replaced by 10 W white LED chip. All the experiments were performed using CellASIC ONIX Microfluidic Platform. The setup has been modified thus opening new opportunities for a variety of experimental realizations. The performed morphological studies showed strong and irreversible effect on the vesicle shape at the presence of amphotericin B in concentration 10-5 g/l in the outer for the liposome's membrane solution. At concentration 10-3 g/l AmB the effect was less visible and in 15-20 minutes the vesicles regained its initial spherical shape.

  6. Morphology control studies of TiO2 microstructures via surfactant-assisted hydrothermal process for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekphet, Woranan; Ke, Tsai-Chyuan; Su, Chaochin; Kathirvel, Sasipriya; Sireesha, Pedaballi; Akula, Suri Babu; Li, Wen-Ren

    2016-09-01

    The controlled morphological TiO2 particles have gained great importance in a wide variety of applications due to their promising physico-chemical properties. In this study, TiO2 microstructures with various shapes to utilize as scattering layer in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications were successfully synthesized via different hydrothermal conditions. The effects of the versatile preparation parameters including the amount of titania precursor and surfactant, the addition of ethanol/water, and the hydrothermal process temperature and time on the TiO2 morphology were investigated. The structural and morphological analysis clearly shown that the preparation conditions played crucial roles in the morphology, particle size, and crystalline phase of the TiO2 microparticles. Different kinds of shapes such as rice- (∼1.10 μm (l) and ∼0.41 μm (w)), star- (∼3.60 μm) and flower-like (3.75 μm) TiO2 morphological structures were obtained. The morphology and size of the TiO2 particles were mainly governed by the concentrations of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) precursor, amounts of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) surfactant and hydrothermal temperatures and durations. The as-prepared rice-shaped TiO2 was composed of mixed anatase and brookite binary phases, whereas the star- and flower-shaped TiO2 microstructures were consisted of ternary anatase, rutile, and brookite crystalline TiO2 phases. The three different rice-, star-, and flower-shaped TiO2 microstructures were employed as scattering layers for photoanodes in DSSCs. Among them, the star-like TiO2 photoanode based DSSC exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 9.56%, which was also better than those of the devices fabricated without scattering layer (a-TiO2, 8.38%) and with commercial P25 as scattering layer (a-TiO2/P25-TiO2, 8.52%) at the same film thickness of ∼14 μm.

  7. Morphologic changes in basal cells during repair of tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C. Z.; Evans, M. J.; Cox, R. A.; Burke, A. S.; Zhu, Q.; Herndon, D. N.; Barrow, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Basal cells are differentiated with respect to junctional adhesion mechanisms and play a role in attachment of columnar epithelium to the basal lamina. Although much is known about nonciliated and ciliated cell differentiation during the repair process after injury, little is known about the basal cell. We studied the morphology of basal cells and quantitated junctional adhesion structures during repair of tracheal epithelium exposed to toxic cotton smoke. Ten adult ewes were given a smoke injury to a portion of the upper cervical trachea and were killed at 4, 6, 8, 10, and 18 days after injury for morphometric studies. At 4 days, there was a stratified reparative epithelium over the basal lamina, which was two to four cells in depth. The basal cells were identified by their hemidesmosome (HD) attachment to the basal lamina. Basal cells were about 69% larger than controls and flattened rather than columnar. The amount of HD attachment was 192% greater than controls. In contrast, volume density of cytokeratin filaments had decreased about 47%. Basal cells had returned to normal numbers and size and a columnar shape by day 18. The amount of desmosome (D) and HD attachment and volume density of cytokeratins had also reached control levels by day 18. These data indicate that morphology of basal cells changes during the initial stages of reparative regeneration but returns to normal by 18 days. Morphologic changes appear to reflect changes in size of the cell associated with cell division rather than differentiation of recently divided basal cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1381564

  8. Morphological effect of oscillating magnetic nanoparticles in killing tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Dengfeng; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Guoxin; Shi, Hongcheng

    2014-04-01

    Forced oscillation of spherical and rod-shaped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via low-power and low-frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) was firstly used to kill cancer cells in vitro. After being loaded by human cervical cancer cells line (HeLa) and then exposed to a 35-kHz AMF, MNPs mechanically damaged cell membranes and cytoplasm, decreasing the cell viability. It was found that the concentration and morphology of the MNPs significantly influenced the cell-killing efficiency of oscillating MNPs. In this preliminary study, when HeLa cells were pre-incubated with 100 μg/mL rod-shaped MNPs (rMNP, length of 200 ± 50 nm and diameter of 50 to 120 nm) for 20 h, MTT assay proved that the cell viability decreased by 30.9% after being exposed to AMF for 2 h, while the cell viability decreased by 11.7% if spherical MNPs (sMNP, diameter of 200 ± 50 nm) were used for investigation. Furthermore, the morphological effect of MNPs on cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue assay: 39.5% rMNP-loaded cells and 15.1% sMNP-loaded cells were stained after being exposed to AMF for 2 h. It was also interesting to find that killing tumor cells at either higher (500 μg/mL) or lower (20 μg/mL) concentration of MNPs was less efficient than that achieved at 100 μg/mL concentration. In conclusion, the relatively asymmetric morphological rod-shaped MNPs can kill cancer cells more effectively than spherical MNPs when being exposed to AMF by virtue of their mechanical oscillations.

  9. [Effects of infusion media on human red blood cell morphology].

    PubMed

    Burova, O O; Gusev, A A; Petrikov, S S; Gusev, S A; Basyreva, L Iu

    2006-01-01

    The effect of various infusion media on the structure of human red blood cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro experiments used 10% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution, 10% glucose solution, 20% albumin solution, Rheopolyglucin, HyperHAES solution (18 g of NaCl in combination with 60 g of hydroxyethylstarch (HES), 200/0.5), Voluven (HES 130/0.4/9:1), and a combination of hypertensive NaCl solution and Rheopolyglucin. The morphofunctional response of red blood cells was studied in the clinical setting when 6% Voluven solution (HES 130/0.4/ 9:1) and hypertensive NaCl and glucose solutions were used. It was established that 10% NaCl solution caused considerable changes in the morphology of red blood cells both in the experiment and in patients with severe brain injury. The magnitude of structural changes increased as blood NaCl concentrations became higher. 10% glucose solution, Voluven, Rheopolyglucin, and albumin did not virtually affect the structure of red blood cells. Infusion of Voluven (500 ml of 6% solution for 40 minutes) induced no changes in the morphology of red blood cells in the clinical setting. Among the test solutions used to correct intracranial hypertension (HyperHAES, 10% NaCl, a combination of rheopolyglucin and 10% NaCl), HyperHAES exerted the least effect on the morphology of red blood cells.

  10. Morphological and physiological studies of rat kidney cortex slices undergoing isosmotic swelling and its reversal: a possible mechanism for ouabain-resistant control of cell volume.

    PubMed

    Russo, M A; Ernst, S A; Kapoor, S C; van Rossum, G D

    1985-01-01

    Slices of rat kidney cortex were induced to swell by preincubation at 1 degree C in an isotonic Ringer's solution, and their capacity to reverse swelling, by net extrusion of cellular water, was studied during subsequent incubation at 25 degrees C. The recovery from swelling was prevented by the respiratory inhibitor, antimycin A. On the other hand, extrusion of water was little affected by ouabain. The extrusion of water continuing in the presence of ouabain (but not that in its absence) was significantly reduced when furosemide was added or when medium Cl- was replaced by NO-3 or I-. There was substantial variability in the morphological appearance of cells within the cortical slices. Different segments of the nephron showed different structural changes during swelling and its reversal, the proximal tubules being most markedly affected. Proximal tubular cells of swollen slices showed disorganization of brush borders and expansion of their apical surfaces, and contained vesicles in their apical cytoplasm. Upon recovery at 25 degrees C, the apical portions of these cells showed reversal of the expansion, but some apical vesicles remained. These vesicles were much more numerous after recovery in the presence of ouabain, but they were much reduced in numbers, or totally absent, when recovery took place in the presence of furosemide or absence of Cl-, with or without ouabain. The vesicles seen in the presence of ouabain alone appeared to fuse with each other and with infoldings of the basolateral plasma membrane. Rather similar results were obtained with distal tubular cells in the slices. We suggest that volume regulation in the proximal and distal tubular cells proceeds by way of two mechanisms. The first consists of extrusion of water coupled to the ouabain-sensitive transport of Na+ and K+. The other proceeds by way of an ouabain-resistant entry of water into apical cytoplasmic vesicles, following furosemide-sensitive movements of Cl- and Na+; the vesicles then

  11. Organochlorines and metals induce changes in the mitochondria-rich cells of fish gills: an integrative field study involving chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M N; Paulino, M G; Sakuragui, M M; Ramos, C A; Pereira, C D S; Sadauskas-Henrique, H

    2013-01-15

    Through integrating chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses, this study investigated the effects of multiple pollutants on the gill mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) in two fish species, Astyanax fasciatus and Pimelodus maculatus, collected from five sites (FU10, FU20, FU30, FU40 and FU50) in the Furnas Hydroelectric Power Station reservoir. Water analyses revealed aluminum, iron and zinc as well as organochlorine (aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan, heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide and metolachlor) contamination at all of the sites, with the exception of FU10. Copper, chrome, iron and zinc were detected in the gills of both species, and aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide were detected in the gills of fish from all of the sites, with the exception of FU10. Fish collected at FU20, FU30 and FU50 exhibited numerous alterations in the surface architecture of their pavement cells and MRCs. The surface MRC density and MRC fractional area were lower in fish from FU20, FU30, FU40 and FU50 than in those from the reference site (FU10) in the winter, and some variability between the sites was observed in the summer. The organochlorine contamination at FU20 and FU50 was associated with variable changes in the MRCs and inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity, especially in P. maculatus. At FU30, the alterations in the MRCs were associated with the contaminants present, especially metals. A multivariate analysis demonstrated a positive association between the biological responses of both species and environmental contamination, indicating that under realistic conditions, a mixture of organochlorines and metals affected the MRCs by inhibiting NKA activity and inducing morphological changes, which may cause an ionic imbalance.

  12. Studies on the function of cell surface glycoproteins. II. Possible role of surface glycoproteins in the control of cytoskeletal organization and surface morphology

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Immunoglobulin from goat antiserum directed against purified surface membranes from transformed BHK21/C13 cells (anti-M) has been shown to cause both control and transformed hamster cells to round and detach from the substrate (see accompanying paper). This paper documents the effects of the antiserum on the cytoskeletal organization and cell surface morphology of control BHK21/C13 cells examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. As a result of antiserum-induced rounding, the normally smooth cell surface becomes covered with filopodia and blebs, and the organization of all three components of the filamentous cytoskeleton is altered. In terms of cell surface morphology and cytoskeletal organization, the cells resemble rounded, postmitotic or trypsinized BHK cells rather than cells treated with either anticytoskeletal drugs or lectins. Immunocytochemical and radioimmune assay experiments support the suggestion that the rounding reaction induced by anti-M serum results from the specific interaction of antibodies with molecules on the cell surface. It is suggested that anti-M serum induces alterations in cytoskeletal organization via a transmembrane signal and that cytoskeletal reorganization is a fundamental part of the rounding and detachment process. PMID:457749

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES IN EXPERIMENTAL CRETINISM.

    PubMed

    Tatum, A L

    1913-06-01

    In summarizing the findings of this paper it may be said that degenerative changes have been noted in practically every parenchymatous organ. Among these the most striking has been that of serous imbibition by the most active cells of these organs. In regard to the changes in the glands of internal secretion, the findings corroborate the statements of Cushing in regard to hypophysectomy, that removal of one gland of internal secretion results in changes in all the other glands. In this case, degenerative changes predominate in the hypophysis, thymus, ovary, and testis, while hyperplasia is seen in the islands of Langerhans and the medullas of the adrenal glands. Finally, in the rabbit athyroidism is responsible for grave degenerative changes in practically all organs and tissues of the body, and many of the symptoms of cretinism have an anatomical basis in organic cellular changes.

  14. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Morphology and Migration on Microtextured Titanium

    PubMed Central

    Banik, Brittany L.; Riley, Thomas R.; Platt, Christina J.; Brown, Justin L.

    2016-01-01

    The implant used in spinal fusion procedures is an essential component to achieving successful arthrodesis. At the cellular level, the implant impacts healing and fusion through a series of steps: first, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) need to adhere and proliferate to cover the implant; second, the MSCs must differentiate into osteoblasts; third, the osteoid matrix produced by the osteoblasts needs to generate new bone tissue, thoroughly integrating the implant with the vertebrate above and below. Previous research has demonstrated that microtextured titanium is advantageous over smooth titanium and PEEK implants for both promoting osteogenic differentiation and integrating with host bone tissue; however, no investigation to date has examined the early morphology and migration of MSCs on these surfaces. This study details cell spreading and morphology changes over 24 h, rate and directionality of migration 6–18 h post-seeding, differentiation markers at 10 days, and the long-term morphology of MSCs at 7 days, on microtextured, acid-etched titanium (endoskeleton), smooth titanium, and smooth PEEK surfaces. The results demonstrate that in all metrics, the two titanium surfaces outperformed the PEEK surface. Furthermore, the rough acid-etched titanium surface presented the most favorable overall results, demonstrating the random migration needed to efficiently cover a surface in addition to morphologies consistent with osteoblasts and preosteoblasts. PMID:27243001

  15. Heme-oxygenase-1 implications in cell morphology and the adhesive behavior of prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gueron, Geraldine; Giudice, Jimena; Valacco, Pia; Paez, Alejandra; Elguero, Belen; Toscani, Martin; Jaworski, Felipe; Leskow, Federico Coluccio; Cotignola, Javier; Marti, Marcelo; Binaghi, Maria; Navone, Nora; Vazquez, Elba

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Although previous studies in PCa have focused on cell adherens junctions (AJs), key players in metastasis, they have left the molecular mechanisms unexplored. Inflammation and the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical in the regulation of cell adhesion and the integrity of the epithelium. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) counteracts oxidative and inflammatory damage. Here, we investigated whether HO-1 is implicated in the adhesive and morphological properties of tumor cells. Genes differentially regulated by HO-1 were enriched for cell motility and adhesion biological processes. HO-1 induction, increased E-cadherin and β-catenin levels. Immunofluorescence analyses showed a striking remodeling of E-cadherin/β-catenin based AJs under HO-1 modulation. Interestingly, the enhanced levels of E-cadherin and β-catenin coincided with a markedly change in cell morphology. To further our analysis we sought to identify HO-1 binding proteins that might participate in the regulation of cell morphology. A proteomics approach identified Muskelin, as a novel HO-1 partner, strongly implicated in cell morphology regulation. These results define a novel role for HO-1 in modulating the architecture of cell-cell interactions, favoring a less aggressive phenotype and further supporting its anti-tumoral function in PCa. PMID:24961479

  16. Tissue culture studies in Hodgkin’s disease morphologic, cytogenic, cell surface, and enzymatic properties of cultures derived from splenic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Long, JC; Zamecnik, PC; Aisenberg, AC; Atkins, L

    1977-01-01

    Monolayer and suspension cell cultures prepared from Hodgkin's disease tumors in the spleen were examined microscopically and by cytogenetics, tested for lymphocyte and monocyte cell surface properties, and assayed for enzymes by histochemical and spectrophotometric techniques. Hodgkin's disease monolayer cultures were composed of rapidly proliferating round and polygonal cells that were capable of propagation in vitro for an indefinite period of time. Abnormal aneuploid chromosomes were found in short-term Hodgkin's disease monolayers that had been passaged 16-20 times, and in established cell lines carried in culture longer than 3 yr and passaged more than 200 times. Cells fromHodgkin's disease monolayers contained lysozyme (muramidase), fluoride-resistant alpha naphthol acetate esterase, acid and alkaline phosphatase, and chymotrypsin-like activity. The monolayers did not exhibit specific cell surface markers or phagocytosis. Suspension cultures derived from Hodgkin's disease monolayers were composed of cells with aneuploid karyotypes and similar enzymes. The Hodgkin's disease suspension culture cells had surface receptors for complement and IgGFc, lacked surface or cytoplasmic immunoglobulin, and did not form Erosettes, react with an antithymocyte serum, nor exhibit phagocytosis. Normal monolayer culture cells, derived from adult spleen and human fetal spleen and thymus, were composed of spindle cells with a diploid number of chromosomes that could be carried for only a finite period of time in vitro. Normal cultured cells contained similar esterases and phosphatases, but were devoid of lysozyme and chymotrypsin-like activity. The morphologic, cytogenetic, cell surface, and enzymatic findings indicate that our Hodgkin's disease monolayer and suspension cultures are composed of cells with many properties suggesting an origin from monocytes (macrophages) rather than lymphocytes or fibroblasts. The presence of aneuploid karyotypes is consistent with a neoplastic

  17. Optical scattering modeling of etched ZnO:Al superstrates and device simulation studies of a-Si:H solar cells with different texture morphologies.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xia; Li, Weimin; Aberle, Armin G; Venkataraj, Selvaraj

    2016-08-20

    Transparent conductive oxide (TCO) materials have been widely used as the front electrodes of thin-film amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells. To improve the performance of solar cells, textured front TCO is required as the optical layer which effectively scatters the incoming light and thus enhances the photon absorption within the device. One promising TCO material is aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO), which is most commonly prepared by magnetron sputtering. After deposition, sputtered AZO films are typically wet-chemically etched using diluted hydrochloric (HCl) or hydrofluoric (HF) acid to obtain rough surface morphologies. In this paper, we report the effects of a textured AZO front electrode on the performance of a-Si:H solar cells based on optical scattering modeling and electrical device simulations, involving four different AZO surface morphologies. The simulated light scattering behaviors indicate that a better textured surface not only scatters more light, but also allows more light get transmitted into the absorber (∼90% of visible light), due to greatly reduced front reflection by the rough surface. Device simulation results show that the two-step AZO texturing process should give improved a-Si:H solar cell performance, with an enhanced short-circuit current density of 16.5  mA/cm2, which leads to a high photovoltaic (PV) efficiency of 9.9%.

  18. Correlating the morphological and light scattering properties of biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Marina

    The scattered light pattern from a biological cell is greatly influenced by the internal structure and optical properties of the cell. This research project examines the relationships between the morphological and scattering properties of biological cells through numerical simulations. The mains goals are: (1) to develop a procedure to analytically model biological cells, (2) to quantitatively study the effects of a range of cell characteristics on the features of the light scattering patterns, and (3) to classify cells based on the features of their light scattering patterns. A procedure to create an analytical cell model was developed which extracted structural information from the confocal microscopic images of cells and allowed for the alteration of the cell structure in a controlled and systematic way. The influence of cell surface roughness, nuclear size, and mitochondrial volume density, spatial distribution, size and shape on the light scattering patterns was studied through numerical simulations of light scattering using the Discrete Dipole Approximation. It was found that the light scattering intensity in the scattering angle range of 25° to 45° responded to changes in the surface fluctuation of the cell and the range of 90° to 110° was well suited for characterization of mitochondrial density and nuclear size. A comparison of light scattering pattern analysis methods revealed that the angular distribution of the scattered light and Gabor filters were most helpful in differentiating between the cell characteristics. In addition, a measured increase in the Gabor energy of the light scattering patterns in response to an increase in the complexity of the cell models suggested that a complex nuclear structure and mitochondria should be included when modeling biological cells for light scattering simulations. Analysis of the scattering pattern features with Gabor filters resulted in discrimination of the cell models according to cell surface roughness

  19. Morphology and Performance of Polymer Solar Cell Characterized by DPD Simulation and Graph Theory.

    PubMed

    Du, Chunmiao; Ji, Yujin; Xue, Junwei; Hou, Tingjun; Tang, Jianxin; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-11-19

    The morphology of active layers in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critical to the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Currently, there is limited information for the morphology from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Meanwhile, there are limited approaches to predict the morphology /efficiency of OPV. Here we use Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) to determine 3D morphology of BHJ solar cells and show DPD to be an efficient approach to predict the 3D morphology. Based on the 3D morphology, we estimate the performance indicator of BHJ solar cells by using graph theory. Specifically, we study poly (3-hexylthiophene)/[6, 6]-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) BHJ solar cells. We find that, when the volume fraction of PCBM is in the region 0.4 ∼ 0.5, P3HT/PCBM will show bi-continuous morphology and optimum performance, consistent with experimental results. Further, the optimum temperature (413 K) for the morphology and performance of P3HT/PCBM is in accord with annealing results. We find that solvent additive plays a critical role in the desolvation process of P3HT/PCBM BHJ solar cell. Our approach provides a direct method to predict dynamic 3D morphology and performance indicator for BHJ solar cells.

  20. Morphology and Performance of Polymer Solar Cell Characterized by DPD Simulation and Graph Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Chunmiao; Ji, Yujin; Xue, Junwei; Hou, Tingjun; Tang, Jianxin; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-11-01

    The morphology of active layers in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critical to the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Currently, there is limited information for the morphology from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Meanwhile, there are limited approaches to predict the morphology /efficiency of OPV. Here we use Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) to determine 3D morphology of BHJ solar cells and show DPD to be an efficient approach to predict the 3D morphology. Based on the 3D morphology, we estimate the performance indicator of BHJ solar cells by using graph theory. Specifically, we study poly (3-hexylthiophene)/[6, 6]-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) BHJ solar cells. We find that, when the volume fraction of PCBM is in the region 0.4 ∼ 0.5, P3HT/PCBM will show bi-continuous morphology and optimum performance, consistent with experimental results. Further, the optimum temperature (413 K) for the morphology and performance of P3HT/PCBM is in accord with annealing results. We find that solvent additive plays a critical role in the desolvation process of P3HT/PCBM BHJ solar cell. Our approach provides a direct method to predict dynamic 3D morphology and performance indicator for BHJ solar cells.

  1. Morphology and Performance of Polymer Solar Cell Characterized by DPD Simulation and Graph Theory

    PubMed Central

    Du, Chunmiao; Ji, Yujin; Xue, Junwei; Hou, Tingjun; Tang, Jianxin; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of active layers in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critical to the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Currently, there is limited information for the morphology from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Meanwhile, there are limited approaches to predict the morphology /efficiency of OPV. Here we use Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) to determine 3D morphology of BHJ solar cells and show DPD to be an efficient approach to predict the 3D morphology. Based on the 3D morphology, we estimate the performance indicator of BHJ solar cells by using graph theory. Specifically, we study poly (3-hexylthiophene)/[6, 6]-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) BHJ solar cells. We find that, when the volume fraction of PCBM is in the region 0.4 ∼ 0.5, P3HT/PCBM will show bi-continuous morphology and optimum performance, consistent with experimental results. Further, the optimum temperature (413 K) for the morphology and performance of P3HT/PCBM is in accord with annealing results. We find that solvent additive plays a critical role in the desolvation process of P3HT/PCBM BHJ solar cell. Our approach provides a direct method to predict dynamic 3D morphology and performance indicator for BHJ solar cells. PMID:26581407

  2. [Study on morphology and anatomy of Akebia trifoliate seeds].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiao-Ri; Li, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Hong-Ran; Li, Jun-De; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-12-01

    Akebia trifoliate has been reported to have many pharmacological activities and the roots, petioles and seeds are used to different symptoms. However, the structure and anatomy of its seeds was almost not reported until now. In the present study, we investigated the morphological characters of the fruit and seed, and the anatomical characters of the testa, micropyle, embryo and endosperm, which could provide evidences for the study on classification, identification and application of A. trifoliate. Our results showed that the testa of A. trifoliate consisted of an epidermic cell layer, the sclerenchyma cells layer, the parenchyma cells layer and an innermost pigment layer. At the micropylar region, the outermost epidermal cells were specialized the white caruncle-like structure and the testa included a lot of lignified tissues. Endosperm comprises two layer cells. Outermost yellowish-brown layer cells contains lots of fat droplets, and innermost white layer cells contains lots of aleurone grains and crystalloids.

  3. Cadmium induces direct morphological changes in mesangial cell culture.

    PubMed

    L'Azou, Béatrice; Dubus, Isabelle; Ohayon-Courtès, Céline; Labouyrie, Jean; Perez, Laurent; Pouvreau, Carole; Juvet, Ludivine; Cambar, Jean

    2002-10-15

    The cadmium produced by industrial and agricultural practice represents a major environmental pollutant which may induce severe damage, especially in the kidney where cadmium accumulates. While cadmium is known to severely impair renal tubular functions, glomerular structures are also potential targets. The present study investigated the effects of cadmium on glomerular mesangial cell cultures after short- and long-term exposures, requiring for each endpoint specific culture conditions. After 30 min exposure to 1 microM CdCl(2), used as non-lethal concentration, 0.14 ng/microg proteins of cadmium was internalized by the cells as evaluated by atomic emision spectrometry and induced a significant, cell surface reduction (8.9+/-1.9%). These morphological changes could be correlated to smooth muscle alpha-actin disorganization, without quantitative change in its protein expression level as evaluated by Western-blot and Northern-blot analysis (SMAmRNA/28sRNA, 1.78 CdCl(2) vs. 1.42 control). For longer exposure times, in complex medium, cadmium uptake was efficient (0.36 ng/microg proteins) and induced changes in the actin cytoskeleton with no loss of cell membrane integrity. This study suggests that cultured mesangial cells provide an alternative model to study the effect of cadmium, and underlines the importance of using well-defined conditions to study further intracellular mechanisms.

  4. Variations in cell morphology in the canine cruciate ligament complex.

    PubMed

    Smith, K D; Vaughan-Thomas, A; Spiller, D G; Clegg, P D; Innes, J F; Comerford, E J

    2012-08-01

    Cell morphology may reflect the mechanical environment of tissues and influence tissue physiology and response to injury. Normal cruciate ligaments (CLs) from disease-free stifle joints were harvested from dog breeds with a high (Labrador retriever) and low (Greyhound) risk of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture. Antibodies against the cytoskeletal components vimentin and alpha tubulin were used to analyse cell morphology; nuclei were stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and images were collected using conventional and confocal microscopy. Both cranial and caudal CLs contained cells of heterogenous morphologies. Cells were arranged between collagen bundles and frequently had cytoplasmic processes. Some of these processes were long (type A cells), others were shorter, thicker and more branched (type B cells), and some had no processes (type C cells). Processes were frequently shown to contact other cells, extending longitudinally and transversely through the CLs. Cells with longer processes had fusiform nuclei, and those with no processes had rounded nuclei and were more frequent in the mid-substance of both CLs. Cells with long processes were more commonly noted in the CLs of the Greyhound. As contact between cells may facilitate direct communication, variances in cell morphology between breeds at a differing risk of CCL rupture may reflect differences in CL physiology.

  5. Effect of hydroxyapatite surface morphology on cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Takashi; Hieda, Yohki; Kogai, Yasumichi

    2016-12-01

    We obtained hydroxyapatite (HAp) materials as a block by mixing HAp nanoparticles and polymer, and then calcining the mixtures. The surface morphology of the HAp materials was tuned by varying heat treatment conditions. After calcining the mixtures at 1200 or 800°C for 4h, the surface morphology of the HAp materials was flat or convexo-concave, respectively. The flat surface morphology, which showed micrometer-ordered grain boundaries, was formed by the aggregation of HAp nanoparticles. On the other hand, the convexo-concave surface morphology resulted from the agglomeration of HAp nanoparticles after heat treatment at 800°C for 4h with nanometer-ordered particle size. We tested cell adhesion to HAp materials with flat or convexo-concave surface morphology and found that cells adhered well to the flat HAp materials but not to the convexo-concave HAp materials. This technique for selectively preparing HAp materials with flat or convexo-concave surface morphology was very easy because we merely mixed commercial HAp nanoparticles with polymer and then calcined the mixtures. As a result, the heat treatment temperature affected the surface morphology of our HAp materials, and their surface morphologies contributed to cell adhesion independently of other material properties.

  6. Novel computer vision algorithm for the reliable analysis of organelle morphology in whole cell 3D images--A pilot study for the quantitative evaluation of mitochondrial fragmentation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lautenschläger, Janin; Lautenschläger, Christian; Tadic, Vedrana; Süße, Herbert; Ortmann, Wolfgang; Denzler, Joachim; Stallmach, Andreas; Witte, Otto W; Grosskreutz, Julian

    2015-11-01

    The function of intact organelles, whether mitochondria, Golgi apparatus or endoplasmic reticulum (ER), relies on their proper morphological organization. It is recognized that disturbances of organelle morphology are early events in disease manifestation, but reliable and quantitative detection of organelle morphology is difficult and time-consuming. Here we present a novel computer vision algorithm for the assessment of organelle morphology in whole cell 3D images. The algorithm allows the numerical and quantitative description of organelle structures, including total number and length of segments, cell and nucleus area/volume as well as novel texture parameters like lacunarity and fractal dimension. Applying the algorithm we performed a pilot study in cultured motor neurons from transgenic G93A hSOD1 mice, a model of human familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In the presence of the mutated SOD1 and upon excitotoxic treatment with kainate we demonstrate a clear fragmentation of the mitochondrial network, with an increase in the number of mitochondrial segments and a reduction in the length of mitochondria. Histogram analyses show a reduced number of tubular mitochondria and an increased number of small mitochondrial segments. The computer vision algorithm for the evaluation of organelle morphology allows an objective assessment of disease-related organelle phenotypes with greatly reduced examiner bias and will aid the evaluation of novel therapeutic strategies on a cellular level.

  7. Aminothiol WR-1065 protects endothelial cell morphology against alterations induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Podolski, J L; Mooteri, S N; Drab-Weiss, E A; Onoda, J M; Saclarides, T J; Rubin, D B

    1998-12-01

    In septic patients, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) damages the vascular endothelium, which manifests as tissue edema and impaired healing. This pathology occurs when LPS distorts endothelial cell morphology partly by generating free radicals. A radioprotector that scavenges free radicals, the aminothiol WR-1065 ([N-2-mercaptoethyl]-1-3-diaminopropane) was found in a prior study to normalize the morphology of irradiated endothelial cells (Mooteri SN, Podolski JL, Drab EA, et al: Radiat Res 145:217-224, 1996). The aim of this study was to determine whether WR-1065 also normalized endothelial cell morphology following exposure to LPS. For this aim, portions of bovine aortic endothelial cell cultures were denuded and exposed to LPS at 1 ng/mL. After 30 min, the apical membrane expressed increased integrin receptor to fibronectin, alpha5beta1. After 5 h, the morphology of the cells at the leading edge was distorted, and cell-cell contact was lessened. Also, filamentous actin-containing stress fibers were dissipated; however, filamentous actin content per cell was unchanged. Treatment with 2 mM WR-1065 for 2 h prior to LPS exposure attenuated the increased expression of alpha5beta1 and promoted cell-cell contact in the migrating endothelial cells. WR-1065 also promoted the retention of stress fibers and actin cytoskeletal shape in cells treated with LPS. Thus, LPS distorted endothelial cell morphology after increasing apical membrane expression of alpha5beta1 and dissipating stress fibers, effects prevented by WR-1065.

  8. CD1a immunopositivity in perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms: true expression or technical artifact? A streptavidin-biotin and polymer-based detection system immunohistochemical study of perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms and their morphologic mimics.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, William A; Folpe, Andrew L

    2011-03-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms comprise a family of rare neoplasms composed of morphologically distinctive perivascular epithelioid cells exhibiting a "myomelanocytic" immunophenotype. The distinction of perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms from other tumors with melanocytic and smooth muscle differentiation can be difficult. A recent study has suggested that perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms routinely express CD1a, a Langerhans cell-associated transmembrane glycoprotein involved in antigen presentation and that expression of this marker may be helpful in the distinction of perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms from various mimics. We evaluated a series of perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms and potential mimics for CD1a expression. A total of 54 cases (27 perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms, 11 leiomyosarcomas, 10 melanomas, 6 clear cell sarcomas) were evaluated in 2 laboratories (Mayo Clinic Rochester: 31 cases, Carolinas Medical Center: 23 cases). Selected positive cases were retested at Carolinas Medical Center (11 cases) and Mayo Clinic Rochester (10 cases). Mayo Clinic Rochester methods were as follows: MTB1 clone (1:20, Novocastra, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK), heat-induced epitope retrieval in EDTA (pH 8.0), and Dako Advance detection system (Dako Corp, Carpinteria, CA) with background-reducing diluent. Carolinas Medical Center methods were as follows: MTB1 clone (1:30; CellMarque, Rocklin, CA), heat-induced epitope retrieval in Medium Cell Conditioner #1 (pH 8.0-9.0), and streptavidin-biotin detection system with diaminobenzidine chromogen, with and without biotin blocking. Scores were as follows: 1+, 5% to 25%; 2+, 26% to 50%; and 3+, more than 51%. Langerhans cells served as a positive internal control in all tested cases. All Mayo Clinic Rochester cases were negative. Sixteen Carolinas Medical Center perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms (14 renal angiomyolipomas, 1 soft tissue perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm, 1

  9. Surface topography during neural stem cell differentiation regulates cell migration and cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Czeisler, Catherine; Short, Aaron; Nelson, Tyler; Gygli, Patrick; Ortiz, Cristina; Catacutan, Fay Patsy; Stocker, Ben; Cronin, James; Lannutti, John; Winter, Jessica; Otero, José Javier

    2016-12-01

    We sought to determine the contribution of scaffold topography to the migration and morphology of neural stem cells by mimicking anatomical features of scaffolds found in vivo. We mimicked two types of central nervous system scaffolds encountered by neural stem cells during development in vitro by constructing different diameter electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber mats, a substrate that we have shown to be topographically similar to brain scaffolds. We compared the effects of large fibers (made to mimic blood vessel topography) with those of small-diameter fibers (made to mimic radial glial process topography) on the migration and differentiation of neural stem cells. Neural stem cells showed differential migratory and morphological reactions with laminin in different topographical contexts. We demonstrate, for the first time, that neural stem cell biological responses to laminin are dependent on topographical context. Large-fiber topography without laminin prevented cell migration, which was partially reversed by treatment with rock inhibitor. Cell morphology complexity assayed by fractal dimension was inhibited in nocodazole- and cytochalasin-D-treated neural precursor cells in large-fiber topography, but was not changed in small-fiber topography with these inhibitors. These data indicate that cell morphology has different requirements on cytoskeletal proteins dependent on the topographical environment encountered by the cell. We propose that the physical structure of distinct scaffolds induces unique signaling cascades that regulate migration and morphology in embryonic neural precursor cells. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3485-3502, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mitochondrial dynamics and morphology in beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Linsey; Shirihai, Orian S

    2012-12-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics contribute to the regulation of mitochondrial shape as well as various mitochondrial functions and quality control. This is of particular interest in the beta-cell because of the key role mitochondria play in the regulation of beta-cell insulin secretion function. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested to contribute to the development of Type 2 Diabetes. Genetic tools that shift the balance of mitochondrial fusion and fission result in alterations to beta-cell function and viability. Additionally, conditions that induce beta-cell dysfunction, such as exposure to a high nutrient environment, disrupt mitochondrial morphology and dynamics. While it has been shown that mitochondria display a fragmented morphology in islets of diabetic patients and animal models, the mechanism behind this is currently unknown. Here, we review the current literature on mitochondrial morphology and dynamics in the beta-cell as well as some of the unanswered question in this field.

  11. Thyroid status alters gill ionic metabolism and chloride cell morphology as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy in a teleost Anabas testudineus (Bloch): short and long term in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, P; Beyo, R S; Prasad, G; Sunny, F; Oommen, O V

    2007-12-01

    Gill is the main organ of osmotic regulation in teleosts and chloride cells are the sites of ion transport across gill epithelium. Thyroid hormones are implicated in the regulation of osmotic balance in teleosts also. Treatment with 6-propyl thiouracil (6-PTU) inhibited the membrane bound enzyme Na+K+ ATPase in the gill while triiodothyronine (T3) injection stimulated it in a short-term in vivo study in the teleost Anabas testudineus. Na+, K+ and Ca2+ ions were also decreased in the 6-PTU treated fish and the T3 treatment increased their concentrations in the gill lamellae. The gill morphology also changed according to the thyroid status in the long term study. 6-PTU treatment altered the typical serrated morphology of the gill lamellae, while the T3 treatment reversed it. T3 injection increased the density of pavement and chloride cells as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that physiological status of the thyroid influences gill Na+ pump activity and chloride cell morphological changes. Further, the study suggests a regulatory role of T3 on gill ions (Na+, K+ and Ca2+), Na+K+ and Ca2+ ATPase activity and the different gill cell types in A. testudineus.

  12. The biogenesis protein PEX14 is an optimal marker for the identification and localization of peroxisomes in different cell types, tissues, and species in morphological studies.

    PubMed

    Grant, Phillip; Ahlemeyer, Barbara; Karnati, Srikanth; Berg, Timm; Stelzig, Ingra; Nenicu, Anca; Kuchelmeister, Klaus; Crane, Denis I; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2013-10-01

    Catalase and ABCD3 are frequently used as markers for the localization of peroxisomes in morphological experiments. Their abundance, however, is highly dependent on metabolic demands, reducing the validity of analyses of peroxisomal abundance and distribution based solely on these proteins. We therefore attempted to find a protein which can be used as an optimal marker for peroxisomes in a variety of species, tissues, cell types and also experimental designs, independently of peroxisomal metabolism. We found that the biogenesis protein peroxin 14 (PEX14) is present in comparable amounts in the membranes of every peroxisome and is optimally suited for immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and immunoelectron microscopy. Using antibodies against PEX14, we could visualize peroxisomes with almost undetectable catalase content in various mammalian tissue sections (submandibular and adrenal gland, kidney, testis, ovary, brain, and pancreas from mouse, cat, baboon, and human) and cell cultures (primary cells and cell lines). Peroxisome labeling with catalase often showed a similar tissue distribution to the mitochondrial enzyme mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (both responsible for the degradation of reactive oxygen species), whereas ABCD3 exhibited a distinct labeling only in cells involved in lipid metabolism. We increased the sensitivity of our methods by using QuantumDots™, which have higher emission yields compared to classic fluorochromes and are unsusceptible to photobleaching, thereby allowing more exact quantification without artificial mistakes due to heterogeneity of individual peroxisomes. We conclude that PEX14 is indeed the best marker for labeling of peroxisomes in a variety of tissues and cell types in a consistent fashion for comparative morphometry.

  13. The morphologic and immunohistochemical spectrum of papillary renal cell carcinoma: study including 132 cases with pure type 1 and type 2 morphology as well as tumors with overlapping features.

    PubMed

    Chevarie-Davis, Myriam; Riazalhosseini, Yasser; Arseneault, Madeleine; Aprikian, Armen; Kassouf, Wassim; Tanguay, Simon; Latour, Mathieu; Brimo, Fadi

    2014-07-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinomas (pRCC) are classically divided into type 1 and 2 tumors. However, many cases do not fulfill all the criteria for either type. We describe the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical (IHC) features of 132 pRCCs to better characterize the frequency and nature of tumors with overlapping features. Cases were reviewed and classified; IHC evaluation of CK7, EMA, TopoIIα, napsin A, and AMACR was performed on 95 cases. The frequencies of type 1, type 2, and "overlapping" pRCC were 25%, 28%, and 47%, respectively. The 2 categories of "overlapping" tumors were: (1) cases with bland cuboidal cells but no basophilic cytoplasm (type A); and (2) cases with predominantly type 1 histology admixed with areas showing prominent nucleoli (type B). The pathologic stage of "overlapping" cases showed concordance with type 1 tumors. Using the 2 discriminatory markers (CK7, EMA), "type A" cases were similar to type 1. Although the high-nuclear grade areas of "type B" tumors showed some staining differences from their low-nuclear grade counterpart, their IHC profile was closer to type 1. Single nucleotide polymorphism array results, although preliminary and restricted to only 9 cases (3 with overlapping features), also seemed to confirm those findings. In conclusion, we demonstrate that variations in cytoplasmic quality and/or presence of high-grade nuclei in tumors otherwise displaying features of type 1 pRCCs are similar in stage and IHC profile those with classic type 1 histology, suggesting that their spectrum might be wider than originally described.

  14. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy study of the characteristics and morphology of pericytes and novel desmin-immunopositive perivascular cells before and after castration in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Jindatip, Depicha; Fujiwara, Ken; Kouki, Tom; Yashiro, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Pericytes are perivascular cells associated with microcirculation. Typically, they are localized close to the capillary wall, underneath the basement membrane, and have sparse cytoplasm and poorly developed cell organelles. However, the specific properties of pericytes vary by organ and the conditions within organs. We recently demonstrated that pericytes in rat anterior pituitary gland produce type I and III collagens. The present study attempted to determine the morphological characteristics of these pituitary pericytes. Castrated rats were used as a model of hormonal and vascular changes in the gland. Pericytes, as determined by desmin immunohistochemistry, were more numerous and stained more intensely in castrated rats. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that pituitary pericytes displayed the typical characteristics of pericytes. In pituitary sections from castrated rats, the Golgi apparatus of pericytes was well developed and the rough endoplasmic reticulum was elongated. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy revealed four pericyte shapes: oval, elongate, triangular, and multiangular. As compared with normal rats, the proportion of oval pericytes was lower, and the proportions of the other three shapes were higher, in castrated rats. These results suggest that pericytes change their fine structure and cell shape in response to hormonal and vascular changes in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, a novel type of perivascular cell was found by desmin immunoelectron microscopy. The morphological properties of these cells were dissimilar to those of pericytes. The cells were localized in the perivascular space, had no basement membrane, and contained dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum. This new cell type will require further study of its origin and characteristics.

  15. A Study of the Effect of Heat-Treatment on the Morphology of Nafion Ionomer Dispersion for Use in the Passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ting; Zhang, Haifeng; Zou, Zhiqing; Khatun, Sufia; Akins, Daniel; Adam, Yara; Suarez, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Aggregation in heat-treated Nafion ionomer dispersion and 117 membrane are investigated by 1H and 19F Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra, spin-lattice relaxation time, and self-diffusion coefficient measurements. Results demonstrate that heat-treatment affects the average Nafion particle size in aqueous dispersions. Measurements on heat-treated Nafion 117 membrane show changes in the 1H isotropic chemical shift and no significant changes in ionic conductivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of prepared cathode catalyst layer containing the heat-treated dispersions reveals that the surface of the electrode with the catalyst ink that has been pretreated at ca. 80 °C exhibits a compact and uniform morphology. The decrease of Nafion ionomer’s size results in better contact between catalyst particles and electrolyte, higher electrochemically active surface area, as well as significant improvement in the DMFC’s performance, as verified by electrochemical analysis and single cell evaluation. PMID:24958431

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL ABERRATION OF ARTHROBACTER GLOBIFORMIS CELLS DUE TO BIOTIN DEFICIENCY.

    PubMed

    CHAN, E C

    1964-03-01

    Chan, E. C. S. (University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada). Morphological aberration of Arthrobacter globiformis cells due to biotin deficiency. J. Bacteriol. 87:641-651. 1964.-Morphological aberration of Arthrobacter globiformis strain 425 was shown to occur during growth in a chemically defined medium without added biotin. Such aberrant cells could revert back to normal coccoid forms upon inoculation into fresh medium supplemented with the vitamin. This abnormal cellular development occurred even when there was good growth (turbidity) or increase in total cell mass. Light photomicrographs of negative and cell-wall stains of the organism at different times of the morphological growth cycle are presented in support of these observations. The relationship between cellular aberration and the biochemical role of biotin is briefly discussed.

  17. Single-cell resolution of morphological changes in hemogenic endothelium.

    PubMed

    Bos, Frank L; Hawkins, John S; Zovein, Ann C

    2015-08-01

    Endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT) occurs within a population of hemogenic endothelial cells during embryogenesis, and leads to the formation of the adult hematopoietic system. Currently, the prospective identification of specific endothelial cells that will undergo EHT, and the cellular events enabling this transition, are not known. We set out to define precisely the morphological events of EHT, and to correlate cellular morphology with the expression of the transcription factors RUNX1 and SOX17. A novel strategy was developed to allow for correlation of immunofluorescence data with the ultrastructural resolution of scanning electron microscopy. The approach can identify single endothelial cells undergoing EHT, as identified by the ratio of RUNX1 to SOX17 immunofluorescence levels, and the morphological changes associated with the transition. Furthermore, this work details a new technical resource that is widely applicable for correlative analyses of single cells in their native tissue environments.

  18. Endothelial cell responses in terms of adhesion, proliferation, and morphology to stiffness of polydimethylsiloxane elastomer substrates.

    PubMed

    Ataollahi, Forough; Pramanik, Sumit; Moradi, Ali; Dalilottojari, Adel; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2015-07-01

    Extracellular environments can regulate cell behavior because cells can actively sense their mechanical environments. This study evaluated the adhesion, proliferation and morphology of endothelial cells on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/alumina (Al2 O3 ) composites and pure PDMS. The substrates were prepared from pure PDMS and its composites with 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 wt % Al2 O3 at a curing temperature of 50°C for 4 h. The substrates were then characterized by mechanical, structural, and morphological analyses. The cell adhesion, proliferation, and morphology of cultured bovine aortic endothelial (BAEC) cells on substrate materials were evaluated by using resazurin assay and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-1,3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-acetylated LDL (Dil-Ac-LDL) cell staining, respectively. The composites (PDMS/2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 wt % Al2 O3 ) exhibited higher stiffness than the pure PDMS substrate. The results also revealed that stiffer substrates promoted endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation and also induced spread morphology in the endothelial cells compared with lesser stiff substrates. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of time on cell proliferation depended on stiffness. Therefore, this study concludes that the addition of different Al2 O3 percentages to PDMS elevated substrate stiffness which in turn increased endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation significantly and induced spindle shape morphology in endothelial cells.

  19. Neuronize: a tool for building realistic neuronal cell morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Juan P.; Mata, Susana; Bayona, Sofia; Pastor, Luis; DeFelipe, Javier; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a tool, Neuronize, for building realistic three-dimensional models of neuronal cells from the morphological information extracted through computer-aided tracing applications. Neuronize consists of a set of methods designed to build 3D neural meshes that approximate the cell membrane at different resolution levels, allowing a balance to be reached between the complexity and the quality of the final model. The main contribution of the present study is the proposal of a novel approach to build a realistic and accurate 3D shape of the soma from the incomplete information stored in the digitally traced neuron, which usually consists of a 2D cell body contour. This technique is based on the deformation of an initial shape driven by the position and thickness of the first order dendrites. The addition of a set of spines along the dendrites completes the model, building a final 3D neuronal cell suitable for its visualization in a wide range of 3D environments. PMID:23761740

  20. Morphological study of the northern pike (Esox lucius) tongue.

    PubMed

    Sadeghinezhad, Javad; Rahmati-holasoo, Hooman; Fayyaz, Sahel; Zargar, Ashkan

    2015-09-01

    The northern pike (Esox lucius) is a fresh water species belonging to the Esocidae family. It is a carnivorous fish feeding mostly on invertebrates and fishes. Due to the scantiness of relevant literature regarding the morphology of the tongue in fish we carried out this study with the aim of providing information on the dorsal surface morphology and histological structures of the tongue in E. lucius. The tongues of five E. lucius were examined using light- and scanning electron- microscopy (SEM) techniques. The SEM studies revealed the presence of numerous teeth, longitudinal mucosal strands and scattered taste buds spread on the tongue surface. Histological studies using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining showed that the musculature was not visible in the tongue of E. lucius. The tongue is composed of mucosa, and submucosa supported by osteocartilagionous skeleton. The mucosa consists of several layers of unicellular mucous cells interrupted by numerous teeth. The derivation of teeth from the underlying bronchial skeleton was visible in longitudinal section. The scattered taste buds with a typical onion shape were also present. Overall, the morphological features of the E. lucius tongue together suggested its mechanical and sensory roles. The findings of this study together with morphological and physiological data from other fishes contribute to the knowledge of the nutrition and feeding behavior in aquaculture species.

  1. Effects of hypergravity on adipose-derived stem cell morphology, mechanical property and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Tavakolinejad, Alireza; Rabbani, Mohsen; Janmaleki, Mohsen

    2015-08-21

    Alteration in specific inertial conditions can lead to changes in morphology, proliferation, mechanical properties and cytoskeleton of cells. In this report, the effects of hypergravity on morphology of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) are indicated. ADSCs were repeatedly exposed to discontinuous hypergravity conditions of 10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g by utilizing centrifuge (three times of 20 min exposure, with an interval of 40 min at 1 g). Cell morphology in terms of length, width and cell elongation index and cytoskeleton of actin filaments and microtubules were analyzed by image processing. Consistent changes observed in cell elongation index as morphological change. Moreover, cell proliferation was assessed and mechanical properties of cells in case of elastic modulus of cells were evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Increase in proliferation and decrease in elastic modulus of cells are further results of this study. Staining ADSC was done to show changes in cytoskeleton of the cells associated to hypergravity condition specifically in microfilament and microtubule components. After exposing to hypergravity, significant changes were observed in microfilaments and microtubule density as components of cytoskeleton. It was concluded that there could be a relationship between changes in morphology and MFs as the main component of the cells.

  2. Nanoparticle Induced Cell Magneto-Rotation: Monitoring Morphology, Stress and Drug Sensitivity of a Suspended Single Cancer Cell

    PubMed Central

    Elbez, Remy; McNaughton, Brandon H.; Patel, Lalit; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Kopelman, Raoul

    2011-01-01

    Single cell analysis has allowed critical discoveries in drug testing, immunobiology and stem cell research. In addition, a change from two to three dimensional growth conditions radically affects cell behavior. This already resulted in new observations on gene expression and communication networks and in better predictions of cell responses to their environment. However, it is still difficult to study the size and shape of single cells that are freely suspended, where morphological changes are highly significant. Described here is a new method for quantitative real time monitoring of cell size and morphology, on single live suspended cancer cells, unconfined in three dimensions. The precision is comparable to that of the best optical microscopes, but, in contrast, there is no need for confining the cell to the imaging plane. The here first introduced cell magnetorotation (CM) method is made possible by nanoparticle induced cell magnetization. By using a rotating magnetic field, the magnetically labeled cell is actively rotated, and the rotational period is measured in real-time. A change in morphology induces a change in the rotational period of the suspended cell (e.g. when the cell gets bigger it rotates slower). The ability to monitor, in real time, cell swelling or death, at the single cell level, is demonstrated. This method could thus be used for multiplexed real time single cell morphology analysis, with implications for drug testing, drug discovery, genomics and three-dimensional culturing. PMID:22180784

  3. Counting white blood cells using morphological granulometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theera-Umpon, Nipon; Gader, Paul D.

    2000-04-01

    We describe a modification of the mixture proportion estimation algorithm based on the granulometric mixing theorem. The modified algorithm is applied to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, the algorithm can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The direct application of the original algorithm does not converge well for more than two classes. The modified algorithm uses prior statistics to initially segment the mixed pattern spectrum and then applies the one-primitive estimation algorithm to each initial component. Applying the algorithm to one class at a time results in better convergence. The counts produced by the modified algorithm on six classes of cells--myeloblast, promyelocyte, myelocyte, metamyelocyte, band, and PolyMorphoNuclear--are very close to the human expert's numbers; the deviation of the algorithm counts is similar to the deviation of counts produced by human experts. The important technical contributions are that the modified algorithm uses prior statistics for each shape class in place or prior knowledge of the total number of objects in an image, and it allows for more than one primitive from each class.

  4. Remodeling of the fibroblast cytoskeletal architecture during the replication cycle of Ectromelia virus: A morphological in vitro study in a murine cell line.

    PubMed

    Szulc-Dabrowska, Lidia; Gregorczyk, Karolina P; Struzik, Justyna; Boratynska-Jasinska, Anna; Szczepanowska, Joanna; Wyzewski, Zbigniew; Toka, Felix N; Gierynska, Malgorzata; Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Niemialtowski, Marek G

    2016-08-01

    Ectromelia virus (ECTV, the causative agent of mousepox), which represents the same genus as variola virus (VARV, the agent responsible for smallpox in humans), has served for years as a model virus for studying mechanisms of poxvirus-induced disease. Despite increasing knowledge on the interaction between ECTV and its natural host-the mouse-surprisingly, still little is known about the cell biology of ECTV infection. Because pathogen interaction with the cytoskeleton is still a growing area of research in the virus-host cell interplay, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the consequences of ECTV infection on the cytoskeleton in a murine fibroblast cell line. The viral effect on the cytoskeleton was reflected by changes in migration of the cells and rearrangement of the architecture of tubulin, vimentin, and actin filaments. The virus-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements observed in these studies contributed to the efficient cell-to-cell spread of infection, which is an important feature of ECTV virulence. Additionally, during later stages of infection L929 cells produced two main types of actin-based cellular protrusions: short (actin tails and "dendrites") and long (cytoplasmic corridors). Due to diversity of filopodial extensions induced by the virus, we suggest that ECTV represents a valuable new model for studying processes and pathways that regulate the formation of cytoskeleton-based cellular structures. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The phagocytic function of Sertoli cells: a morphological, biochemical, and endocrinological study of lysosomes and acid phosphatase localization in the rat testis.

    PubMed

    Chemes, H

    1986-10-01

    The lysosomal population of the seminiferous tubules of the rat was studied by conventional electron microscopy and electron microscopic histochemistry. Biochemical determinations of acid phosphatase were carried out in whole cell suspensions of seminiferous tubular cells or in different cell populations purified by sedimentation in albumin gradients. Lysosomes were rarely found in spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes. Young spermatids showed up to six lysosomes per section, and this number increased as spermatid maturation proceeded. Residual bodies had a very heterogeneous lysosomal content. Sertoli cells showed cyclical variations in their lysosomes. These were present in small numbers from stages I-IV of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium and progressively increased to be numerous in Sertoli cells at stages VI-VIII. After spermiation, their rapidly decreased. Acid phosphatase contents were (nanomoles of nitrophenol formed per mg protein/min): whole cell suspension, 67.5 +/- 7.8; pachytene spermatocytes (72% purity), 76.5 +/- 10.6; round spermatids (73% purity), 95.0 +/- 2.8; residual bodies (88% purity), 96.0 +/- 14.2; and Sertoli cell-enriched fraction, 278.5 +/- 75.7. In a group of rats, endogenous LH and testosterone were lowered by administration of anti-LH antibodies. There was an intense degeneration of meiotic spermatocytes, which were phagocytized and digested by these immature testosterone-depleted Sertoli cells. It is concluded that lysosomes of the seminiferous epithelium show cyclical variations, with an increase toward the time of spermiation and a decrease after the residual bodies have been digested; the acid phosphatase and lysosomal contents of Sertoli cells are higher than those of germ cells, residual body disposal is probably initiated by autophagy and completed by Sertoli cell phagocytosis; and the phagocytic function of Sertoli cells is not hormone (testosterone) dependent.

  6. Morphological study of the hoof in yak.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Ren, X; Yu, S; Cui, Y

    2016-01-01

    The fore- and hindlimb of yak have been studied by the gross anatomical methods and standard histological techniques. The artery of ungula was also determined by X-ray and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene casting. Anatomical features of the forelimb of yak resemble those of hindlimb, including hoof periphery, hoof coronal, hoof wall, hoof sole, and hoof sphere. The forelimb and hindlimb are almost the same in histological structure. The epidermis comprised all 5 strata: stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum and stratum basale. The papillary layers and dermal lamellae contained a variable amount of capillary as well as collagen and elastic fibres. Many venules and arteriovenous anastomosis were distributed among the reticular layer. Subcutaneous tissue was composed of rich adipose and connective tissue in hoof periphery, hoof coronal, and, especially, hoof sphere. Major arteria in forelimb of yak include arteria digitalis palmaris communis III and arteriae digitales palmares propriae III and IV axialis. Those in hindlimb include arteria digitalis plantaris communis III and arteria digitalis plantaris propria III and IV axialis. Our findings highlight the main morphological features of yak and provide a morphological basis useful to researchers using yak hoof.

  7. Supramolecular Approaches to Nanoscale Morphological Control in Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Haruk, Alexander M; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M

    2015-06-11

    Having recently surpassed 10% efficiency, solar cells based on organic molecules are poised to become a viable low-cost clean energy source with the added advantages of mechanical flexibility and light weight. The best-performing organic solar cells rely on a nanostructured active layer morphology consisting of a complex organization of electron donating and electron accepting molecules. Although much progress has been made in designing new donor and acceptor molecules, rational control over active layer morphology remains a central challenge. Long-term device stability is another important consideration that needs to be addressed. This review highlights supramolecular strategies for generating highly stable nanostructured organic photovoltaic active materials by design.

  8. Changes, and the Relevance Thereof, in Mitochondrial Morphology during Differentiation into Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ji Won; Park, So Hee; Kang, Yun Gyeong; Wu, Yanru; Choi, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    The roles of mitochondria in various physiological functions of vascular endothelial cells have been investigated extensively. Morphological studies in relation to physiological functions have been performed. However, there have been few reports of morphological investigations related to stem cell differentiation. This was the first morphological study of mitochondria in relation to endothelial differentiation and focused on quantitative analysis of changes in mitochondrial morphology, number, area, and length during differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into endothelial-like cells. To induce differentiation, we engaged vascular endothelial growth factors and flow-induced shear stress. Cells were classified according to the expression of von Willebrand factor as hMSCs, differentiating cells, and almost fully differentiated cells. Based on imaging analysis, we investigated changes in mitochondrial number, area, and length. In addition, mitochondrial networks were quantified on a single-mitochondrion basis by introducing a branch form factor. The data indicated that the mitochondrial number, area per cell, and length were decreased with differentiation. The mitochondrial morphology became simpler with progression of differentiation. These findings could be explained in view of energy level during differentiation; a higher level of energy is needed during differentiation, with larger numbers of mitochondria with branches. Application of this method to differentiation into other lineages will explain the energy levels required to control stem cell differentiation. PMID:27517609

  9. Morphological and functional platelet abnormalities in Berkeley sickle cell mice.

    PubMed

    Shet, Arun S; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Jirouskova, Marketa; Janczak, Christin A; Stevens, Jacqueline R M; Adamson, Adewole; Mohandas, Narla; Manci, Elizabeth A; Cynober, Therese; Coller, Barry S

    2008-01-01

    Berkeley sickle cell mice are used as animal models of human sickle cell disease but there are no reports of platelet studies in this model. Since humans with sickle cell disease have platelet abnormalities, we studied platelet morphology and function in Berkeley mice (SS). We observed elevated mean platelet forward angle light scatter (FSC) values (an indirect measure of platelet volume) in SS compared to wild type (WT) (37+/-3.2 vs. 27+/-1.4, mean+/-SD; p<0.001), in association with moderate thrombocytopenia (505+/-49 x 10(3)/microl vs. 1151+/-162 x 10(3)/microl; p<0.001). Despite having marked splenomegaly, SS mice had elevated levels of Howell-Jolly bodies and "pocked" erythrocytes (p<0.001 for both) suggesting splenic dysfunction. SS mice also had elevated numbers of thiazole orange positive platelets (5+/-1% vs. 1+/-1%; p<0.001), normal to low plasma thrombopoietin levels, normal plasma glycocalicin levels, normal levels of platelet recovery, and near normal platelet life spans. Platelets from SS mice bound more fibrinogen and antibody to P-selectin following activation with a threshold concentration of a protease activated receptor (PAR)-4 peptide compared to WT mice. Enlarged platelets are associated with a predisposition to arterial thrombosis in humans and some humans with SCD have been reported to have large platelets. Thus, additional studies are needed to assess whether large platelets contribute either to pulmonary hypertension or the large vessel arterial occlusion that produces stroke in some children with sickle cell disease.

  10. Morphology control of the perovskite films for efficient solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lingling; Zhang, Danfei; Ma, Yingzhuang; Lu, Zelin; Chen, Zhijian; Wang, Shufeng; Xiao, Lixin; Gong, Qihuang

    2015-06-21

    In the past two years, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells has significantly increased up to 20.1%. These state-of-the-art new devices surpass other third-generation solar cells to become the most promising rival to the silicon-based solar cells. Since the morphology of the perovskite film is one of the most crucial factors to affect the performance of the device, many approaches have been developed for its improvement. This review provides a systematical summary of the methods for morphology control. Introductions and discussions on the mechanisms and relevant hotspots are also given. Understanding the growth process of perovskite crystallites has great benefits for further efficiency improvement and enlightens us to exploit new technologies for large-scale, low-cost and high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  11. Morphology and connectivity of the small bistratified A8 amacrine cell in the mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sammy C.S.; Meyer, Arndt; Schubert, Timm; Hüser, Laura; Dedek, Karin; Haverkamp, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Amacrine cells comprise ~30 morphological types in the mammalian retina. The synaptic connectivity and function of a few GABAergic wide-field amacrine cells have recently been studied, however, with the exception of the rod pathway-specific AII amacrine cell the connectivity of glycinergic small-field amacrine cells has not been investigated in the mouse retina. Here, we studied the morphology and connectivity pattern of the small-field A8 amacrine cell. A8 cells in mouse retina are bistratified with lobular processes in the ON sublamina and arboreal dendrites in the OFF sublamina of the inner plexiform layer. The distinct bistratified morphology was first visible at postnatal day 8, reaching the adult shape at P13, around eye opening. The connectivity of A8 cells to bipolar cells and ganglion cells was studied by double and triple immunolabeling experiments using various cell markers combined with synaptic markers. Our data suggest that A8 amacrine cells receive glutamatergic input from both OFF and ON cone bipolar cells. Furthermore, A8 cells are coupled to ON cone bipolar cells by gap junctions, and provide inhibitory input via glycine receptor (GlyR) subunit α1 to OFF cone bipolar cells and to ON A-type ganglion cells. Measurements of spontaneous glycinergic postsynaptic currents and GlyR immunolabeling revealed that A8 cells express GlyRs containing the α2 subunit. Taken together, the bistratified A8 cell makes very similar synaptic contacts with cone bipolar cells as the rod pathway-specific AII amacrine cell. However, unlike AII cells, A8 amacrine cells provide glycinergic input to ON A-type ganglion cells. PMID:25630271

  12. Modeling the Excess Cell Surface Stored in a Complex Morphology of Bleb-Like Protrusions

    PubMed Central

    Wessler, Timothy; Yang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Alex; Roach, Nathan; Elston, Timothy C.; Wang, Qi; Jacobson, Ken; Forest, M. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Cells transition from spread to rounded morphologies in diverse physiological contexts including mitosis and mesenchymal-to-amoeboid transitions. When these drastic shape changes occur rapidly, cell volume and surface area are approximately conserved. Consequently, the rounded cells are suddenly presented with a several-fold excess of cell surface whose area far exceeds that of a smooth sphere enclosing the cell volume. This excess is stored in a population of bleb-like protrusions (BLiPs), whose size distribution is shown by electron micrographs to be skewed. We introduce three complementary models of rounded cell morphologies with a prescribed excess surface area. A 2D Hamiltonian model provides a mechanistic description of how discrete attachment points between the cell surface and cortex together with surface bending energy can generate a morphology that satisfies a prescribed excess area and BLiP number density. A 3D random seed-and-growth model simulates efficient packing of BLiPs over a primary rounded shape, demonstrating a pathway for skewed BLiP size distributions that recapitulate 3D morphologies. Finally, a phase field model (2D and 3D) posits energy-based constitutive laws for the cell membrane, nematic F-actin cortex, interior cytosol, and external aqueous medium. The cell surface is equipped with a spontaneous curvature function, a proxy for the cell surface-cortex couple, that is a priori unknown, which the model “learns” from the thin section transmission electron micrograph image (2D) or the “seed and growth” model image (3D). Converged phase field simulations predict self-consistent amplitudes and spatial localization of pressure and stress throughout the cell for any posited stationary morphology target and cell compartment constitutive properties. The models form a general framework for future studies of cell morphological dynamics in a variety of biological contexts. PMID:27015526

  13. Morphology and expression status investigations of specific surface markers on B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Niu, Suli; Chan, Ryan; Berini, Pierre; Wang, Chen; Zou, Shan

    2013-11-01

    The morphology of cells and expression status of specific surface markers [cluster of differentiation (CD)], such as CD5, CD19, CD20, CD38, and CD45, have long been considered as the essential indicators for the diagnosis and prognosis of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Clinically, it is difficult to simultaneously obtain cell morphology and distribution of surface markers with flow cytometry, especially for some surrogate markers such as CD38. Here, as an alternative and complementary prognostic method, fluorescence microscopy and image processing method are introduced to directly visualize the cells from patients and to quantitatively determine the expression status of surface markers. In this study, the morphological parameters of B-CLL cells were measured to establish the correlation between the cellular morphology and the surface marker expression. It was clear that the CD38+ and CD38- B-CLL cells from the same CD38+ patients had hardly any size differences; however, an increase in perimeter was observed for CD38- patients. Moreover, the expression level of the receptors on the cell was independent of the cell size. There was no evidence showing that the expression intensities of CD19 and CD38 were related to each other for the CD38+ B-CLL cells. On the same cells, CD5 was more selectively expressed on the cell membrane; however, the expression patterns suggested that the cell membrane of CD38- B-CLL cells contained the least expression level of CD19.

  14. Physical Explanation of Coupled Cell-Cell Rotational Behavior and Interfacial Morphology: A Particle Dynamics Model

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Fong Yew

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported persistent rotational behavior between adherent cell-cell pairs cultured on micropatterned substrates, and this rotation is often accompanied by a sigmoidal deflection of the cell-cell interface. Interestingly, the cell-cell rotation runs in the opposite reference frame from what could be expected of single cell locomotion. Specifically, the rotation of the cell pair consists of each individual cell protruding from the inwardly regressive arm of the cell-cell interface, and retracting from the other outwardly protrusive arm. To this author’s knowledge, the cause of this elusive behavior has not yet been clarified. Here, we propose a physical model based on particle dynamics, accounting for actomyosin forcing, viscous dissipation, and cortical tension. The results show that a correlation in actomyosin force vectors leads to both persistent rotational behavior and interfacial deflection in a simulated cell cluster. Significantly, the model, without any artificial cues, spontaneously and consistently reproduces the same rotational reference frame as experimentally observed. Further analyses show that the interfacial deflection depends predominantly on cortical tension, whereas the cluster rotation depends predominantly on actomyosin forcing. Together, these results corroborate the hypothesis that both rotational and morphological phenomena are, in fact, physically coupled by an intracellular torque of a common origin. PMID:24268142

  15. Physical explanation of coupled cell-cell rotational behavior and interfacial morphology: a particle dynamics model.

    PubMed

    Leong, Fong Yew

    2013-11-19

    Previous studies have reported persistent rotational behavior between adherent cell-cell pairs cultured on micropatterned substrates, and this rotation is often accompanied by a sigmoidal deflection of the cell-cell interface. Interestingly, the cell-cell rotation runs in the opposite reference frame from what could be expected of single cell locomotion. Specifically, the rotation of the cell pair consists of each individual cell protruding from the inwardly regressive arm of the cell-cell interface, and retracting from the other outwardly protrusive arm. To this author's knowledge, the cause of this elusive behavior has not yet been clarified. Here, we propose a physical model based on particle dynamics, accounting for actomyosin forcing, viscous dissipation, and cortical tension. The results show that a correlation in actomyosin force vectors leads to both persistent rotational behavior and interfacial deflection in a simulated cell cluster. Significantly, the model, without any artificial cues, spontaneously and consistently reproduces the same rotational reference frame as experimentally observed. Further analyses show that the interfacial deflection depends predominantly on cortical tension, whereas the cluster rotation depends predominantly on actomyosin forcing. Together, these results corroborate the hypothesis that both rotational and morphological phenomena are, in fact, physically coupled by an intracellular torque of a common origin.

  16. Effects of dinitrotoluenes on morphological cell transformation and intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells.

    PubMed

    Holen, I; Mikalsen, S O; Sanner, T

    1990-01-01

    The effects of four isomers of dinitrotoluene (DNT) and technical DNT (a mixture of DNT isomers and other compounds, with 2,4-DNT as the major constituent) were studied in two short-term in vitro assays. None of the isomers or technical DNT induced an increase in morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. Four DNT metabolites (2,4-diaminotoluene, 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene, 2-amino-6-nitrotoluene, and 2,4-dinitobenzoic acid), representing different stages in reduction or oxidation of DNT isomers, were also negative for induction of morphological transformation. The DNT isomers were tested in an intercellular communication assay based on dye transfer. 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, and technical DNT inhibited intercellular communication in the SHE cell line BPNi at toxic concentrations. This may be reminiscent of in vivo data showing promoting activity of these compound. 2,3-DNT and 3,4-DNT did not inhibit communication.

  17. Tendon cell outgrowth rates and morphology associated with kevlar-49.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M; Gordon, K E

    1988-12-01

    A rat tendon cell model was used to evaluate the in vitro biocompatibility of kevlar-49. The cell response to kevlar was compared to carbon AS-4 and nylon sutures. Three trials were run and cell growth rates were statistically similar for all the materials tested. A separate experiment was conducted in which the same fiber materials were placed in the same Petri dish. Again, the rates were similar for each material. Finally, the cells were observed with a scanning electron microscope, and the three classic cell morphologies associated with this tendon cell model were observed. Also, cellular attachment to the fiber and cellular encapsulation of the fiber were identical for the three materials tested. Kevlar-49 proved to be comparable to carbon AS4 and nylon sutures in terms of cellular response and cell outgrowth rates.

  18. Isolation and morphology of Stem Cells from Deciduous Tooth (SHED) and Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (hDPSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham Zainal; Manogaran, Thanaletchumi; Abidin, Intan Zarina Zainol; Senafi, Sahidan; Wahab, Rohaya Megat Abdul

    2016-11-01

    Dental pulp is a tissue obtained from pulp chamber of deciduous and permanent tooth which contain stem cells. Stem cell isolation procedure is performed to obtain cells from tissue using enzymatic digestion. The aim of this study is to isolate and observe the morphology of stem cells during passage 0 and passage 3. Dental pulp from deciduous and permanent tooth was enzymatically digested using collagenase Type I and cells obtained were cultured in DMEM-KO that contains 10% fetal bovine serum, 1% antibiotic-antimycotic solution and 0.001× GlutaMax®. During culture, cell morphology was observed under the microscope on day 3, 16 and 33 and captured using cellB software. Giemsa staining was conducted on cells at passage 3. Cells attached at the bottom of the flask on day 3 and started forming small colonies. Cells became confluent after approximately 4 weeks. Both Stem Cells from Deciduous Tooth (SHED) and Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (hDPSC) exhibited fibroblast-like morphology during passage 0 and passage 3. Meanwhile, Giemsa staining at passage 3 revealed single intact nucleus surrounded by fibroblastic cytoplasm structure. It can be concluded that SHED and hDPSC showed consistent fibroblast-like morphology throughout culture period.

  19. Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes.

    PubMed

    Park, YongKeun; Best, Catherine A; Badizadegan, Kamran; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Henle, Mark L; Levine, Alex J; Popescu, Gabriel

    2010-04-13

    The human red blood cell (RBC) membrane, a fluid lipid bilayer tethered to an elastic 2D spectrin network, provides the principal control of the cell's morphology and mechanics. These properties, in turn, influence the ability of RBCs to transport oxygen in circulation. Current mechanical measurements of RBCs rely on external loads. Here we apply a noncontact optical interferometric technique to quantify the thermal fluctuations of RBC membranes with 3 nm accuracy over a broad range of spatial and temporal frequencies. Combining this technique with a new mathematical model describing RBC membrane undulations, we measure the mechanical changes of RBCs as they undergo a transition from the normal discoid shape to the abnormal echinocyte and spherical shapes. These measurements indicate that, coincident with this morphological transition, there is a significant increase in the membrane's shear, area, and bending moduli. This mechanical transition can alter cell circulation and impede oxygen delivery.

  20. Dynamic and reversible surface topography influences cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Jennifer D; Wen, Jessica H; del Álamo, Juan C; Engler, Adam J

    2013-08-01

    Microscale and nanoscale surface topography changes can influence cell functions, including morphology. Although in vitro responses to static topography are novel, cells in vivo constantly remodel topography. To better understand how cells respond to changes in topography over time, we developed a soft polyacrylamide hydrogel with magnetic nickel microwires randomly oriented in the surface of the material. Varying the magnetic field around the microwires reversibly induced their alignment with the direction of the field, causing the smooth hydrogel surface to develop small wrinkles; changes in surface roughness, ΔRRMS , ranged from 0.05 to 0.70 μm and could be oscillated without hydrogel creep. Vascular smooth muscle cell morphology was assessed when exposed to acute and dynamic topography changes. Area and shape changes occurred when an acute topographical change was imposed for substrates exceeding roughness of 0.2 μm, but longer-term oscillating topography did not produce significant changes in morphology irrespective of wire stiffness. These data imply that cells may be able to use topography changes to transmit signals as they respond immediately to changes in roughness.

  1. Morphological studies of the vestibular nerve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstroem, B.

    1973-01-01

    The anatomy of the intratemporal part of the vestibular nerve in man, and the possible age related degenerative changes in the nerve were studied. The form and structure of the vestibular ganglion was studied with the light microscope. A numerical analysis of the vestibular nerve, and caliber spectra of the myelinated fibers in the vestibular nerve branches were studied in individuals of varying ages. It was found that the peripheral endings of the vestibular nerve form a complicated pattern inside the vestibular sensory epithelia. A detailed description of the sensory cells and their surface organelles is included.

  2. Organic solar cells: an overview focusing on active layer morphology.

    PubMed

    Benanti, Travis L; Venkataraman, D

    2006-01-01

    Solar cells constructed of organic materials are becoming increasingly efficient due to the discovery of the bulk heterojunction concept. This review provides an overview of organic solar cells. Topics covered include: a brief history of organic solar cell development; device construction, definitions, and characteristics; and heterojunction morphology and its relation to device efficiency in conjugated polymer/fullerene systems. The aim of this article is to show that researchers are developing a better understanding of how material structure relates to function and that they are applying this knowledge to build more efficient light-harvesting devices.

  3. Morphological Spectrum of Basal Cell Carcinoma in Southern Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Flora Dorothy; Naik, Ramdas; Khadilkar, Urmila Niranjan; Kini, Hema; Kini, Ullal Anand

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer worldwide, which appears over sun-exposed skin as slow-growing, locally invasive lesion that rarely metastasizes. Many phenotypic presentations are possible. BCCs are more common in males and tend to occur in older people. Majority is found on the head and neck. Many histopathological subtypes have been defined including nodular, micronodular, cystic, superficial, pigmented, adenoid, infiltrating, sclerosing, keratotic, infundibulocystic, metatypical, basosquamous and fibroepitheliomatous. Mixed patterns are common. Aim The aim was to study morphological spectrum of BCC in a tertiary care hospital in southern Karnataka. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis of 100 cases of BCCs reported in the Department of Pathology over a 9-year period from 2006 to 2014. Results The mean age of presentation was 62 years. There was slight female preponderance (56%). The most common location was face (65%) and the most common presentation was ulceration (45%). Of the 100 BCCs, 50% were nodular, 13% infiltrating, 6% basosquamous, 4% superficial, 3% keratotic, 3% multinodular and 1% mixed. Conclusion BCC, besides being the commonest cutaneous cancer, is also known for its numerous histological patterns which are shown to have prognostic implications. This study reveals the frequency of the various histological patterns of BCC in southern Karnataka, where it has been rarely studied before. PMID:27504291

  4. Quantitative methods to characterize morphological properties of cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mancia, Annalaura; Elliott, John T; Halter, Michael; Bhadriraju, Kiran; Tona, Alessandro; Spurlin, Tighe A; Middlebrooks, Bobby L; Baatz, John E; Warr, Gregory W; Plant, Anne L

    2012-07-01

    Descriptive terms are often used to characterize cells in culture, but the use of nonquantitative and poorly defined terms can lead to ambiguities when comparing data from different laboratories. Although recently there has been a good deal of interest in unambiguous identification of cell lines via their genetic markers, it is also critical to have definitive, quantitative metrics to describe cell phenotypic characteristics. Quantitative metrics of cell phenotype will aid the comparison of data from experiments performed at different times and in different laboratories where influences such as the age of the population and differences in culture conditions or protocols can potentially affect cellular metabolic state and gene expression in the absence of changes in the genetic profile. Here, we present examples of robust methodologies for quantitatively assessing characteristics of cell morphology and cell-cell interactions, and of growth rates of cells within the population. We performed these analyses with endothelial cell lines derived from dolphin, bovine and human, and with a mouse fibroblast cell line. These metrics quantify some characteristics of these cells lines that clearly distinguish them from one another, and provide quantitative information on phenotypic changes in one of the cell lines over large number of passages.

  5. Effects of hypergravity on adipose-derived stem cell morphology, mechanical property and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Tavakolinejad, Alireza; Rabbani, Mohsen; Janmaleki, Mohsen

    2015-08-21

    Alteration in specific inertial conditions can lead to changes in morphology, proliferation, mechanical properties and cytoskeleton of cells. In this report, the effects of hypergravity on morphology of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) are indicated. ADSCs were repeatedly exposed to discontinuous hypergravity conditions of 10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g by utilizing centrifuge (three times of 20 min exposure, with an interval of 40 min at 1 g). Cell morphology in terms of length, width and cell elongation index and cytoskeleton of actin filaments and microtubules were analyzed by image processing. Consistent changes observed in cell elongation index as morphological change. Moreover, cell proliferation was assessed and mechanical properties of cells in case of elastic modulus of cells were evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Increase in proliferation and decrease in elastic modulus of cells are further results of this study. Staining ADSC was done to show changes in cytoskeleton of the cells associated to hypergravity condition specifically in microfilament and microtubule components. After exposing to hypergravity, significant changes were observed in microfilaments and microtubule density as components of cytoskeleton. It was concluded that there could be a relationship between changes in morphology and MFs as the main component of the cells. - Highlights: • Hypergravity (10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g) affects on adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs). • ADSCs after exposure to the hypergravity are more slender. • The height of ADSCs increases in all test groups comparing their control group. • Hypergravity decreases ADSCs modulus of elasticity and cell actin fiber content. • Hypergravity enhances proliferation rate of ADSCs.

  6. Effect of surface potential on epithelial cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Yun; Kao, Wei-Lun; You, Yun-Wen; Chu, Yi-Hsuan; Chu, Kuo-Jui; Chen, Peng-Jen; Wu, Chen-Yi; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Shyue, Jing-Jong

    2016-05-01

    Cell adhesion is the basis of individual cell survival, division and motility. Hence, understanding the effects that the surface properties have on cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology are crucial. In particular, surface charge/potential has been identified as an important factor that affects cell behavior. However, how cells respond to incremental changes in surface potential remains unclear. By using binary self-assembled monolayer (SAM) modified Au surfaces that are similar in mechanical/chemical properties and provide a series of surface potentials, the effect of surface potential on the behavior of cells can be studied. In this work, the effect of surface potential on epithelial cells, including human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), were examined. The results showed that the adhesion density of epithelial cells increased with increasing surface potential, which is similar to but varied more significantly compared with fibroblasts. The proliferation rate is found to be independent of surface potential in both cell types. Furthermore, epithelial cells show no morphological change with respect to surface potential, whereas the morphology of the fibroblasts clearly changed with the surface potential. These differences between the cell types were rationalized by considering the difference in extracellular matrix composition. Laminin-dominant epithelial cells showed higher adhesion density and less morphological change than did fibronectin-dominant fibroblasts because the more significant adsorption of positively charged laminin on the surface enhanced the adhesion of epithelial cells. In contrast, due to the dominance of negatively charged fibronectin that adsorbed weakly on the surface, fibroblasts had to change their morphology to fit the inhomogeneous fibronectin-adsorbed area.

  7. Systematic morphological profiling of human gene and allele function via Cell Painting.

    PubMed

    Rohban, Mohammad Hossein; Singh, Shantanu; Wu, Xiaoyun; Berthet, Julia B; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Shrestha, Yashaswi; Varelas, Xaralabos; Boehm, Jesse S; Carpenter, Anne E

    2017-03-18

    We hypothesized that human genes and disease-associated alleles might be systematically functionally annotated using morphological profiling of cDNA constructs, via a microscopy-based Cell Painting assay. Indeed, 50% of the 220 tested genes yielded detectable morphological profiles, which grouped into biologically meaningful gene clusters consistent with known functional annotation (e.g., the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK cascade). We used novel subpopulation-based visualization methods to interpret the morphological changes for specific clusters. This unbiased morphologic map of gene function revealed TRAF2/c-REL negative regulation of YAP1/WWTR1-responsive pathways. We confirmed this discovery of functional connectivity between the NF-κB pathway and Hippo pathway effectors at the transcriptional level, thereby expanding knowledge of these two signaling pathways that critically regulate tumor initiation and progression. We make the images and raw data publicly available, providing an initial morphological map of major biological pathways for future study.

  8. Supramolecular Approaches to Nanoscale Morphological Control in Organic Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haruk, Alexander M.; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Having recently surpassed 10% efficiency, solar cells based on organic molecules are poised to become a viable low-cost clean energy source with the added advantages of mechanical flexibility and light weight. The best-performing organic solar cells rely on a nanostructured active layer morphology consisting of a complex organization of electron donating and electron accepting molecules. Although much progress has been made in designing new donor and acceptor molecules, rational control over active layer morphology remains a central challenge. Long-term device stability is another important consideration that needs to be addressed. This review highlights supramolecular strategies for generating highly stable nanostructured organic photovoltaic active materials by design. PMID:26110382

  9. A spectral and morphologic method for white blood cell classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Chang, Li; Zhou, Mei; Li, Qingli; Liu, Hongying; Guo, Fangmin

    2016-10-01

    The identification of white blood cells is important as it provides an assay for diagnosis of various diseases. To overcome the complexity and inaccuracy of traditional methods based on light microscopy, we proposed a spectral and morphologic method based on hyperspectral blood images. We applied mathematical morphology-based methods to extract spatial information and supervised method is employed for spectral analysis. Experimental results show that white blood cells could be segmented and classified into five types with an overall accuracy of more than 90%. Moreover, the experiments including spectral features reached higher accuracy than the spatial-only cases, with a maximum improvement of nearly 20%. By combing both spatial and spectral features, the proposed method provides higher classification accuracy than traditional methods.

  10. Formulation strategies for optimizing the morphology of polymeric bulk heterojunction organic solar cells: a brief review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vongsaysy, Uyxing; Bassani, Dario M.; Servant, Laurent; Pavageau, Bertrand; Wantz, Guillaume; Aziz, Hany

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells represent one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy with a low fabrication cost. Control over BHJ morphology is one of the key factors in obtaining high-efficiency devices. This review focuses on formulation strategies for optimizing the BHJ morphology. We address how solvent choice and the introduction of processing additives affect the morphology. We also review a number of recent studies concerning prediction methods that utilize the Hansen solubility parameters to develop efficient solvent systems.

  11. Morphological alterations of Vero cell exposed to coplanar PCB 126 and noncoplanar PCB 153.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kaili; Shen, Chaofeng; Chen, Lei; Chen, Xincai; Chen, Yingxu

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread, persistent environmental contaminants that display a complex spectrum of toxicological properties. Exposure to PCBs has been associated with morphological anomalies in cell cultures. However, most mechanistic studies of PCBs' toxic activity have been focused on coplanar congeners. It is of importance to determine whether PCB treatment would influence cell configuration and whether these changes would depend on the structural characteristics of PCBs. In this study, we investigated cell morphological alteration in Vero cell cultures after exposure to coplanar PCB 126 and noncoplanar PCB 153. The survival of Vero cells was measured through the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test. Cytotoxicity results suggested that PCB congeners had a toxic, antiproliferative effect on Vero cells. Morphological studies described structural modifications and provided evidence that apoptosis might be the main cell death pathway in PCB 153-treated cells. The comparison between PCB 126 and PCB 153 indicated that the cell death mechanisms involved in coplanar or noncoplanar PCB congener exposure were different in Vero cells.

  12. Integrated molecular and morphological studies of Daucus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ninety-four nuclear orthologs were used to analyze phylogenetic structure in 92 accessions of 13 species and two subspecies of Daucus, and 15 accessions of related genera. A near parallel set of accessions was used for morphological analyses of germplasm. Reiterative analyses examined data of both a...

  13. Integrated molecular and morphological studies of Daucus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ninety-four nuclear orthologs were used to analyze phylogenetic structure in 89 accessions of 13 species and two subspecies of Daucus, and an additional ten accessions of related genera. A near parallel set of accessions were used for morphological analyses of germplasm planted in a common garden in...

  14. Limits of Applicability of the Voronoi Tessellation Determined by Centers of Cell Nuclei to Epithelium Morphology.

    PubMed

    Kaliman, Sara; Jayachandran, Christina; Rehfeldt, Florian; Smith, Ana-Sunčana

    2016-01-01

    It is well accepted that cells in the tissue can be regarded as tiles tessellating space. A number of approaches were developed to find an appropriate mathematical description of such cell tiling. A particularly useful approach is the so called Voronoi tessellation, built from centers of mass of the cell nuclei (CMVT), which is commonly used for estimating the morphology of cells in epithelial tissues. However, a study providing a statistically sound analysis of this method's accuracy is not available in the literature. We addressed this issue here by comparing a number of morphological measures of the cells, including area, perimeter, and elongation obtained from such a tessellation with identical measures extracted from direct imaging acquired by staining the cell membranes. After analyzing the shapes of 15,000 MDCK II epithelial cells under several conditions, we find that CMVT reasonably well reproduces many of the morphological properties of the tissue with an error that is between 10 and 15%. Moreover, cross-correlations between different morphological measures are reproduced qualitatively correctly by this method. However, all of the properties including the cell perimeters, number of neighbors, and anisotropy measures often suffer from systematic or size dependent errors. These discrepancies originate from the polygonal nature of the tessellation which sets the limits of the applicability of CMVT.

  15. Comparison of the Cell-Wall Composition of Morphologically Distinct Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Tatsuro

    1965-01-01

    Yamaguchi, Tatsuro (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan). Comparison of the cell-wall composition of morphologically distinct actinomycetes. J. Bacteriol. 89:444–453. 1965.—Cell-wall composition of various morphologically distinct actinomycetes was studied to determine the relationship, if any, between cell-wall composition and morphological criteria in actinomycete taxonomy. The methods used were similar to those of Cummins and Harris. At least five types of cell-wall composition were obtained; however, these were not always correlated with groupings by the conventional classification system. For instance, the sporangium-forming actinomycetes, Actinoplanaceae, had three types of cell-wall composition; the composition of cell walls of Promicromonospora, Micromonospora, and Microbispora was the same as, or similar to, that of Actinomyces, Actinoplanes, and Streptosporangium, respectively; Chainia, Actinopycnidium, Actinosporangium, and Microellobosporia had the same cell-wall composition as Streptomyces, whereas that of Streptoverticillium was slightly different. Possible implications of cell-wall composition and morphological differentiation of hyphae for the taxonomy and phylogeny of actinomycetes are also discussed. PMID:14255713

  16. Limits of Applicability of the Voronoi Tessellation Determined by Centers of Cell Nuclei to Epithelium Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Kaliman, Sara; Jayachandran, Christina; Rehfeldt, Florian; Smith, Ana-Sunčana

    2016-01-01

    It is well accepted that cells in the tissue can be regarded as tiles tessellating space. A number of approaches were developed to find an appropriate mathematical description of such cell tiling. A particularly useful approach is the so called Voronoi tessellation, built from centers of mass of the cell nuclei (CMVT), which is commonly used for estimating the morphology of cells in epithelial tissues. However, a study providing a statistically sound analysis of this method's accuracy is not available in the literature. We addressed this issue here by comparing a number of morphological measures of the cells, including area, perimeter, and elongation obtained from such a tessellation with identical measures extracted from direct imaging acquired by staining the cell membranes. After analyzing the shapes of 15,000 MDCK II epithelial cells under several conditions, we find that CMVT reasonably well reproduces many of the morphological properties of the tissue with an error that is between 10 and 15%. Moreover, cross-correlations between different morphological measures are reproduced qualitatively correctly by this method. However, all of the properties including the cell perimeters, number of neighbors, and anisotropy measures often suffer from systematic or size dependent errors. These discrepancies originate from the polygonal nature of the tessellation which sets the limits of the applicability of CMVT. PMID:27932987

  17. Targeted cellular ablation based on the morphology of malignant cells

    PubMed Central

    Ivey, Jill W.; Latouche, Eduardo L.; Sano, Michael B.; Rossmeisl, John H.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Verbridge, Scott S.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is especially challenging due to a shortage of methods to preferentially target diffuse infiltrative cells, and therapy-resistant glioma stem cell populations. Here we report a physical treatment method based on electrical disruption of cells, whose action depends strongly on cellular morphology. Interestingly, numerical modeling suggests that while outer lipid bilayer disruption induced by long pulses (~100 μs) is enhanced for larger cells, short pulses (~1 μs) preferentially result in high fields within the cell interior, which scale in magnitude with nucleus size. Because enlarged nuclei represent a reliable indicator of malignancy, this suggested a means of preferentially targeting malignant cells. While we demonstrate killing of both normal and malignant cells using pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to treat spontaneous canine GBM, we proposed that properly tuned PEFs might provide targeted ablation based on nuclear size. Using 3D hydrogel models of normal and malignant brain tissues, which permit high-resolution interrogation during treatment testing, we confirmed that PEFs could be tuned to preferentially kill cancerous cells. Finally, we estimated the nuclear envelope electric potential disruption needed for cell death from PEFs. Our results may be useful in safely targeting the therapy-resistant cell niches that cause recurrence of GBM tumors. PMID:26596248

  18. Targeted cellular ablation based on the morphology of malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Jill W; Latouche, Eduardo L; Sano, Michael B; Rossmeisl, John H; Davalos, Rafael V; Verbridge, Scott S

    2015-11-24

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is especially challenging due to a shortage of methods to preferentially target diffuse infiltrative cells, and therapy-resistant glioma stem cell populations. Here we report a physical treatment method based on electrical disruption of cells, whose action depends strongly on cellular morphology. Interestingly, numerical modeling suggests that while outer lipid bilayer disruption induced by long pulses (~100 μs) is enhanced for larger cells, short pulses (~1 μs) preferentially result in high fields within the cell interior, which scale in magnitude with nucleus size. Because enlarged nuclei represent a reliable indicator of malignancy, this suggested a means of preferentially targeting malignant cells. While we demonstrate killing of both normal and malignant cells using pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to treat spontaneous canine GBM, we proposed that properly tuned PEFs might provide targeted ablation based on nuclear size. Using 3D hydrogel models of normal and malignant brain tissues, which permit high-resolution interrogation during treatment testing, we confirmed that PEFs could be tuned to preferentially kill cancerous cells. Finally, we estimated the nuclear envelope electric potential disruption needed for cell death from PEFs. Our results may be useful in safely targeting the therapy-resistant cell niches that cause recurrence of GBM tumors.

  19. Targeted cellular ablation based on the morphology of malignant cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, Jill W.; Latouche, Eduardo L.; Sano, Michael B.; Rossmeisl, John H.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Verbridge, Scott S.

    2015-11-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is especially challenging due to a shortage of methods to preferentially target diffuse infiltrative cells, and therapy-resistant glioma stem cell populations. Here we report a physical treatment method based on electrical disruption of cells, whose action depends strongly on cellular morphology. Interestingly, numerical modeling suggests that while outer lipid bilayer disruption induced by long pulses (~100 μs) is enhanced for larger cells, short pulses (~1 μs) preferentially result in high fields within the cell interior, which scale in magnitude with nucleus size. Because enlarged nuclei represent a reliable indicator of malignancy, this suggested a means of preferentially targeting malignant cells. While we demonstrate killing of both normal and malignant cells using pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to treat spontaneous canine GBM, we proposed that properly tuned PEFs might provide targeted ablation based on nuclear size. Using 3D hydrogel models of normal and malignant brain tissues, which permit high-resolution interrogation during treatment testing, we confirmed that PEFs could be tuned to preferentially kill cancerous cells. Finally, we estimated the nuclear envelope electric potential disruption needed for cell death from PEFs. Our results may be useful in safely targeting the therapy-resistant cell niches that cause recurrence of GBM tumors.

  20. Morphological Study of the Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) Tongue.

    PubMed

    Sadeghinezhad, J; Sheibani, M T; Memarian, I; Chiocchetti, R

    2017-01-24

    This study described the morphological features of the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) tongue using light and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The keratinized filiform papillae were distributed all over the entire dorsal surface of the tongue and contained small processes. They were changed into a cylindrical shape in the body and conical shape in the root. The fungiform papillae were found on the apex and margin of the tongue. Few taste pores were observed on the dorsal surface of each papilla. The foliate papillae on the margins of the tongue were composed of several laminae and epithelial fissures. Taste buds were not seen within the non-keratinized epithelium. The vallate papillae were six in total and arranged in a "V" shape just rostral to the root. Each papilla was surrounded by a groove and pad. Taste buds were seen within their lateral walls. Lyssa was visible on the ventral surface of the tongue tip and was found as cartilaginous tissue surrounded by thin connective tissue fibres. The core of the tongue was composed of lingual glands, skeletal muscle and connective tissue. These glands were confined to the posterior portion of the tongue and were composed of many serous cells and a few mucous cells. The results of this study contributed to the knowledge of the morphological characteristics of the tongue of wild mammals and provided data for the comparison with other mammals.

  1. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells: long term culture characterization and impact of insulin on cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Palma-Vera, S; Einspanier, R; Schoen, J

    2014-09-01

    In vitro models that resemble cell function in vivo are needed to understand oviduct physiology. This study aimed to assess cell functions and insulin effects on bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOECs) cultured in an air-liquid interface. BOECs (n=6) were grown in conditioned Ham's F12, DMEM or Ham's F12/DMEM with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) for 3 weeks. After selecting the most suitable medium (Ham's F12), increasing insulin concentrations (1 ng/mL, 20 ng/mL and 5 μg/mL) were applied, and cell morphology and trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER; n=4) were evaluated after 3 and 6 weeks. Keratin immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression of oviductal glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) were conducted (n=4) to assess cell differentiation. BOECs grown without insulin supplementation or with 1 ng/mL of insulin displayed polarization and secretory activity. However, cells exhibited only 50% of the height of their in vivo counterparts. Cultures supplemented with 20 ng/mL insulin showed the highest quality, but the 5 μg/mL concentration induced massive growth. TEER correlated negatively with insulin concentration (r=-0.459; p=0.009). OVGP1 and PGR transcripts were still detectable after 3 and 6 weeks. Cellular localization of keratins closely resembled that of BOECs in vivo. Cultures showed heterogeneous expression of PGR and OVGP1 in response to estradiol (10 pg/mL). In summary, BOECs grown for long term in an air-liquid interface expressed markers of cell differentiation. Additionally, insulin supplementation (20 ng/mL) improved the cell morphology in vitro.

  2. Morphology control of zinc regeneration for zinc-air fuel cell and battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xizhong

    2014-12-01

    Morphology control is crucial both for zinc-air batteries and for zinc-air fuel cells during zinc regeneration. Zinc dendrite should be avoided in zinc-air batteries and zinc pellets are yearned to be formed for zinc-air fuel cells. This paper is mainly to analyze the mechanism of shape change and to control the zinc morphology during charge. A numerical three-dimensional model for zinc regeneration is established with COMSOL software on the basis of ionic transport theory and electrode reaction electrochemistry, and some experiments of zinc regeneration are carried out. The deposition process is qualitatively analyzed by the kinetics Monte Carlo method to study the morphological change from the electrocrystallization point of view. Morphological evolution of deposited zinc under different conditions of direct currents and pulse currents is also investigated by simulation. The simulation shows that parametric variables of the flowing electrolyte, the surface roughness and the structure of the electrode, the charging current and mode affect morphological evolution. The uniform morphology of deposited zinc is attained at low current, pulsating current or hydrodynamic electrolyte, and granular morphology is obtained by means of an electrode of discrete columnar structure in combination with high current and flowing electrolyte.

  3. ACME: automated cell morphology extractor for comprehensive reconstruction of cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Mosaliganti, Kishore R; Noche, Ramil R; Xiong, Fengzhu; Swinburne, Ian A; Megason, Sean G

    2012-01-01

    The quantification of cell shape, cell migration, and cell rearrangements is important for addressing classical questions in developmental biology such as patterning and tissue morphogenesis. Time-lapse microscopic imaging of transgenic embryos expressing fluorescent reporters is the method of choice for tracking morphogenetic changes and establishing cell lineages and fate maps in vivo. However, the manual steps involved in curating thousands of putative cell segmentations have been a major bottleneck in the application of these technologies especially for cell membranes. Segmentation of cell membranes while more difficult than nuclear segmentation is necessary for quantifying the relations between changes in cell morphology and morphogenesis. We present a novel and fully automated method to first reconstruct membrane signals and then segment out cells from 3D membrane images even in dense tissues. The approach has three stages: 1) detection of local membrane planes, 2) voting to fill structural gaps, and 3) region segmentation. We demonstrate the superior performance of the algorithms quantitatively on time-lapse confocal and two-photon images of zebrafish neuroectoderm and paraxial mesoderm by comparing its results with those derived from human inspection. We also compared with synthetic microscopic images generated by simulating the process of imaging with fluorescent reporters under varying conditions of noise. Both the over-segmentation and under-segmentation percentages of our method are around 5%. The volume overlap of individual cells, compared to expert manual segmentation, is consistently over 84%. By using our software (ACME) to study somite formation, we were able to segment touching cells with high accuracy and reliably quantify changes in morphogenetic parameters such as cell shape and size, and the arrangement of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Our software has been developed and tested on Windows, Mac, and Linux platforms and is available

  4. Effects of temperature and cellular interactions on the mechanics and morphology of human cancer cells investigated by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Liu, LianQing; Xi, Ning; Wang, YueChao; Xiao, XiuBin; Zhang, WeiJing

    2015-09-01

    Cell mechanics plays an important role in cellular physiological activities. Recent studies have shown that cellular mechanical properties are novel biomarkers for indicating the cell states. In this article, temperature-controllable atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied to quantitatively investigate the effects of temperature and cellular interactions on the mechanics and morphology of human cancer cells. First, AFM indenting experiments were performed on six types of human cells to investigate the changes of cellular Young's modulus at different temperatures and the results showed that the mechanical responses to the changes of temperature were variable for different types of cancer cells. Second, AFM imaging experiments were performed to observe the morphological changes in living cells at different temperatures and the results showed the significant changes of cell morphology caused by the alterations of temperature. Finally, by co-culturing human cancer cells with human immune cells, the mechanical and morphological changes in cancer cells were investigated. The results showed that the co-culture of cancer cells and immune cells could cause the distinct mechanical changes in cancer cells, but no significant morphological differences were observed. The experimental results improved our understanding of the effects of temperature and cellular interactions on the mechanics and morphology of cancer cells.

  5. Morphological cladistic study of coregonine fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.R.; Todd, T.N.

    1992-01-01

    A cladistic analysis of 50 characters from 26 taxa of coregonine fishes and two outgroup taxa yields a phylogenetic tree with two major branches, best summarized as two genera - Prosopium and Coregonus. Presence of teeth on the palatine, long maxillae, and long supra-maxillae are primitive, whereas loss of teeth, short or notched maxillae, and short supermaxillae are derived traits. P. coulteri and C. huntsmani are morphologically and phylogenetically primitive members of their groups. The widespread species, P. cylindraceum and P. williamsoni are morphologically advanced in parallel with the subgenus Coregonus (whitefishes): they share subterminal mouths, short jaws, and reduced teeth. Prosopium gemmifer parallels the ciscoes, subgenus Leucichthys. The whitefishes, C. ussuriensis, C. lavaretus, C. clupeaformis, and C. nasus are a monophyletic group, the subgenus Coregonus. The subgenus Leucichthys is a diverse, relatively plesiomorphic assemblage, widespread in the Holarctic region. This assemblage includes the inconnu, Stenodus.

  6. Three-dimensional numerical model of cell morphology during migration in multi-signaling substrates.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyed Jamaleddin; Doweidar, Mohamed Hamdy

    2015-01-01

    Cell Migration associated with cell shape changes are of central importance in many biological processes ranging from morphogenesis to metastatic cancer cells. Cell movement is a result of cyclic changes of cell morphology due to effective forces on cell body, leading to periodic fluctuations of the cell length and cell membrane area. It is well-known that the cell can be guided by different effective stimuli such as mechanotaxis, thermotaxis, chemotaxis and/or electrotaxis. Regulation of intracellular mechanics and cell's physical interaction with its substrate rely on control of cell shape during cell migration. In this notion, it is essential to understand how each natural or external stimulus may affect the cell behavior. Therefore, a three-dimensional (3D) computational model is here developed to analyze a free mode of cell shape changes during migration in a multi-signaling micro-environment. This model is based on previous models that are presented by the same authors to study cell migration with a constant spherical cell shape in a multi-signaling substrates and mechanotaxis effect on cell morphology. Using the finite element discrete methodology, the cell is represented by a group of finite elements. The cell motion is modeled by equilibrium of effective forces on cell body such as traction, protrusion, electrostatic and drag forces, where the cell traction force is a function of the cell internal deformations. To study cell behavior in the presence of different stimuli, the model has been employed in different numerical cases. Our findings, which are qualitatively consistent with well-known related experimental observations, indicate that adding a new stimulus to the cell substrate pushes the cell to migrate more directionally in more elongated form towards the more effective stimuli. For instance, the presence of thermotaxis, chemotaxis and electrotaxis can further move the cell centroid towards the corresponding stimulus, respectively, diminishing the

  7. Semantic processing during morphological priming: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Iakimova, Galina; Ziegler, Johannes C; Colé, Pascale

    2014-09-04

    Previous research has yielded conflicting results regarding the onset of semantic processing during morphological priming. The present study was designed to further explore the time-course of morphological processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). We conducted a primed lexical decision study comparing a morphological (LAVAGE - laver [washing - wash]), a semantic (LINGE - laver [laundry - wash]), an orthographic (LAVANDE - laver [lavender - wash]), and an unrelated control condition (HOSPICE - laver [nursing home - wash]), using the same targets across the four priming conditions. The behavioral data showed significant effects of morphological and semantic priming, with the magnitude of morphological priming being significantly larger than the magnitude of semantic priming. The ERP data revealed significant morphological but no semantic priming at 100-250 ms. Furthermore, a reduction of the N400 amplitude in the morphological condition compared to the semantic and orthographic condition demonstrates that the morphological priming effect was not entirely due to the semantic or orthographic overlap between the prime and the target. The present data reflect an early process of semantically blind morphological decomposition, and a later process of morpho-semantic decomposition, which we discuss in the context of recent morphological processing theories.

  8. Three-Dimensional Numerical Model of Cell Morphology during Migration in Multi-Signaling Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Jamaleddin; Hamdy Doweidar, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Cell Migration associated with cell shape changes are of central importance in many biological processes ranging from morphogenesis to metastatic cancer cells. Cell movement is a result of cyclic changes of cell morphology due to effective forces on cell body, leading to periodic fluctuations of the cell length and cell membrane area. It is well-known that the cell can be guided by different effective stimuli such as mechanotaxis, thermotaxis, chemotaxis and/or electrotaxis. Regulation of intracellular mechanics and cell’s physical interaction with its substrate rely on control of cell shape during cell migration. In this notion, it is essential to understand how each natural or external stimulus may affect the cell behavior. Therefore, a three-dimensional (3D) computational model is here developed to analyze a free mode of cell shape changes during migration in a multi-signaling micro-environment. This model is based on previous models that are presented by the same authors to study cell migration with a constant spherical cell shape in a multi-signaling substrates and mechanotaxis effect on cell morphology. Using the finite element discrete methodology, the cell is represented by a group of finite elements. The cell motion is modeled by equilibrium of effective forces on cell body such as traction, protrusion, electrostatic and drag forces, where the cell traction force is a function of the cell internal deformations. To study cell behavior in the presence of different stimuli, the model has been employed in different numerical cases. Our findings, which are qualitatively consistent with well-known related experimental observations, indicate that adding a new stimulus to the cell substrate pushes the cell to migrate more directionally in more elongated form towards the more effective stimuli. For instance, the presence of thermotaxis, chemotaxis and electrotaxis can further move the cell centroid towards the corresponding stimulus, respectively, diminishing the

  9. Brain morphology in children with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shiohama, Tadashi; Fujii, Katsunori; Miyashita, Toshiyuki; Mizuochi, Hiromi; Uchikawa, Hideki; Shimojo, Naoki

    2017-04-01

    Brain morphology is tightly regulated by diverse signaling pathways. Hedgehog signaling is a candidate pathway considered responsible for regulating brain morphology. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), caused by a PTCH1 mutation in the hedgehog signaling pathway, occasionally exhibits macrocephaly and medulloblastoma. Although cerebellar enlargement occurs in ptch1 heterozygous-deficient mice, its impact on human brain development remains unknown. We investigated the brain morphological characteristics of children with NBCCS. We evaluated brain T1-weighted images from nine children with NBCCS and 15 age-matched normal control (NC) children (mean [standard deviation], 12.2 [2.8] vs. 11.6 [2.3] years old). The diameters of the cerebrum, corpus callosum, and brain stem and the cerebellar volume were compared using two-tailed t-tests with Welch's correction. The transverse diameters (150.4 [9.9] vs. 136.0 [5.5] mm, P = 0.002) and longitudinal diameters (165.4 [8.0] vs. 151.3 [8.7] mm, P = 0.0007) of the cerebrum, cross-sectional area of the cerebellar vermis (18.7 [2.6] vs. 11.8 [1.7] cm(2) , P = 0.0001), and total volume of the cerebellar hemispheres (185.1 [13.0] vs. 131.9 [10.4] cm(3) , P = 0.0001) were significantly larger in the children with NBCCS than in NC children. Thinning of the corpus callosum and ventricular enlargement were also confirmed in children with NBCCS. We demonstrate that, on examination of the brain morphology, an increase in the size of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and cerebral ventricles is revealed in children with NBCCS compared to NC children. This suggests that constitutively active hedgehog signaling affects human brain morphology and the PI3K/AKT and RAS/MAPK pathways.

  10. Cellient™ automated cell block versus traditional cell block preparation: a comparison of morphologic features and immunohistochemical staining.

    PubMed

    Wagner, David G; Russell, Donna K; Benson, Jenna M; Schneider, Ashley E; Hoda, Rana S; Bonfiglio, Thomas A

    2011-10-01

    Traditional cell block (TCB) sections serve as an important diagnostic adjunct to cytologic smears but are also used today as a reliable preparation for immunohistochemical (IHC) studies. There are many ways to prepare a cell block and the methods continue to be revised. In this study, we compare the TCB with the Cellient™ automated cell block system. Thirty-five cell blocks were obtained from 16 benign and 19 malignant nongynecologic cytology specimens at a large university teaching hospital and prepared according to TCB and Cellient protocols. Cell block sections from both methods were compared for possible differences in various morphologic features and immunohistochemical staining patterns. In the 16 benign cases, no significant morphologic differences were found between the TCB and Cellient cell block sections. For the 19 malignant cases, some noticeable differences in the nuclear chromatin and cellularity were identified, although statistical significance was not attained. Immunohistochemical or special stains were performed on 89% of the malignant cases (17/19). Inadequate cellularity precluded full evaluation in 23% of Cellient cell block IHC preparations (4/17). Of the malignant cases with adequate cellularity (13/17), the immunohistochemical staining patterns from the different methods were identical in 53% of cases. The traditional and Cellient cell block sections showed similar morphologic and immunohistochemical staining patterns. The only significant difference between the two methods concerned the lower overall cell block cellularity identified during immunohistochemical staining in the Cellient cell block sections.

  11. Morphological Awareness and Chinese Children's Literacy Development: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoying; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Wenling; Wu, Xinchun; Li, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Qiu; Zhu, Jin; Shu, Hua; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Xi; Wang, Qiuying; Yin, Li; He, Yeqin; Packard, Jerome; Gaffney, Janet S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between morphological awareness and Chinese children's literacy development. Of the 169 children from elementary schools in Beijing, China, who participated in the study, about half received enhanced instruction on the morphology of characters and words in the first and second grade. At…

  12. Association between trochlear morphology and chondromalacia patella: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Duran, Semra; Cavusoglu, Mehtap; Kocadal, Onur; Sakman, Bulent

    This study aimed to compare trochlear morphology seen in magnetic resonance imaging between patients with chondromalacia patella and age-matched control patients without cartilage lesion. Trochlear morphology was evaluated using the lateral trochlear inclination, medial trochlear inclination, sulcus angle and trochlear angle on the axial magnetic resonance images. Consequently, an association between abnormal trochlear morphology and chondromalacia patella was identified in women. In particular, women with flattened lateral trochlea are at an increased risk of patellar cartilage structural damage.

  13. [Vestibular compensation studies]. [Vestibular Compensation and Morphological Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perachio, Adrian A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The following topics are reported: neurophysiological studies on MVN neurons during vestibular compensation; effects of spinal cord lesions on VNC neurons during compensation; a closed-loop vestibular compensation model for horizontally canal-related MVN neurons; spatiotemporal convergence in VNC neurons; contributions of irregularly firing vestibular afferents to linear and angular VOR's; application to flight studies; metabolic measures in vestibular neurons; immediate early gene expression following vestibular stimulation; morphological studies on primary afferents, central vestibular pathways, vestibular efferent projection to the vestibular end organs, and three-dimensional morphometry and imaging.

  14. Morphological properties of mouse retinal ganglion cells during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Julie L; Van Der List, Deborah; Chalupa, Leo M

    2007-08-20

    Quantitative methods were used to assess dendritic stratification and other structural features of developing mouse retinal ganglion cells from birth to after eye opening. Cells were labeled by transgenic expression of yellow fluorescent protein, DiOlistics or diffusion of DiI, and subsequently imaged in three dimensions on a confocal microscope followed by morphometric analysis of 13 different structural properties. At postnatal day 1 (P1), the dendrites of all cells ramified across the vertical extent of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). By P3/4, dendrites were largely confined to different strata of the IPL. The stratification of dendrites initially reflected a retraction of widely ramifying dendritic processes, but for the most part this was due to the subsequent vertical expansion of the IPL. By P8, distinct cell classes could be recognized, although these had not yet attained adult-like properties. The structural features differentiating cell classes were found to follow three different developmental trends. The mean values of one set of morphological parameters were essentially unchanged throughout postnatal development; another set of measures showed a rapid rise with age to adult values; and a third set of measures first increased with age and later decreased, with the regressive events initiated around the time of eye opening. These findings suggest that the morphological development of retinal ganglion cells is regulated by diverse factors operating during different but overlapping time periods. Our results also suggest that dendritic stratification may be more highly specified in the developing mammalian retina than has been previously realized.

  15. Diabetic neuropathy: electrophysiological and morphological study of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration in transgenic mice that express IFNbeta in beta cells.

    PubMed

    Serafín, Anna; Molín, Jessica; Márquez, Merce; Blasco, Ester; Vidal, Enric; Foradada, Laia; Añor, Sonia; Rabanal, Rosa M; Fondevila, Dolors; Bosch, Fàtima; Pumarola, Martí

    2010-05-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most frequent complications in diabetes but there are no treatments beyond glucose control, due in part to the lack of an appropriate animal model to assess an effective therapy. This study was undertaken to characterize the degenerative and regenerative responses of peripheral nerves after induced sciatic nerve damage in transgenic rat insulin I promoter / human interferon beta (RIP/IFNbeta) mice made diabetic with a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) as an animal model of diabetic complications. In vivo, histological and immunohistological studies of cutaneous and sciatic nerves were performed after left sciatic crush. Functional tests, cutaneous innervation, and sciatic nerve evaluation showed pronounced neurological reduction in all groups 2 weeks after crush. All animals showed a gradual recovery but this was markedly slower in diabetic animals in comparison with normoglycemic animals. The delay in regeneration in diabetic RIP/IFNbeta mice resulted in an increase in active Schwann cells and regenerating neurites 8 weeks after surgery. These findings indicate that diabetic-RIP/IFNbeta animals mimic human diabetic neuropathy. Moreover, when these animals are submitted to nerve crush they have substantial deficits in nerve regrowth, similar to that observed in diabetic patients. When wildtype animals were treated with the same dose of STZ, no differences were observed with respect to nontreated animals, indicating that low doses of STZ and the transgene are not implicated in development of the degenerative and regenerative events observed in our study. All these findings indicate that RIP/IFNbeta transgenic mice are a good model for diabetic neuropathy.

  16. Morphology, drug release, antibacterial, cell proliferation, and histology studies of chamomile-loaded wound dressing mats based on electrospun nanofibrous poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/polystyrene blends.

    PubMed

    Motealleh, Behrooz; Zahedi, Payam; Rezaeian, Iraj; Moghimi, Morvarid; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Zarandi, Mohammad Amin

    2014-07-01

    For the first time, it has been tried to achieve optimum conditions for electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone)/polystyrene (PCL/PS) nanofibrous samples as active wound dressings containing chamomile via D-optimal design approach. In this work, systematic in vitro and in vivo studies were carried out by drug release rate, antibacterial and antifungal evaluations, cell culture, and rat wound model along with histology observation. The optimized samples were prepared under the following electrospinning conditions: PCL/PS ratio (65/35), PCL concentration 9%(w/v), PS concentration 14%(w/v), distance between the syringe needle tip and the collector 15.5 cm, applied voltage 18 kV, and solution flow rate 0.46 mL h(-1) . The FE-SEM micrographs showed electrospun PCL/PS (65/35) nanofibrous sample containing 15% chamomile had a minimum average diameter (∼175 nm) compared to the neat samples (∼268 nm). The drug released resulted in a gradual and high amount of chamomile from the optimized PCL/PS nanofibrous sample (∼70%) in respect to PCL and PS nanofibers after 48 h. This claim was also confirmed by antibacterial and antifungal evaluations in which an inhibitory zone with a diameter of about 7.6 mm was formed. The rat wound model results also indicated that the samples loaded with 15% chamomile extract were remarkably capable to heal the wounds up to 99 ± 0.5% after 14 days post-treatment periods. The adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells and their viability on the optimized samples were confirmed by MTT analysis. Also, the electrospun nanofibrous mats based on PCL/PS (65/35) showed a high efficiency in the wound closure and healing process compared to the reference sample, PCL/PS nanofibers without chamomile. Finally, the histology analysis revealed that the formation of epithelial tissues, the lack of necrosis and collagen fibers accumulation in the dermis tissues for the above optimized samples.

  17. Evaluation of the effects of Cimicifugae Rhizoma on the morphology and viability of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    JEONG, SU-HYEON; LEE, JI-EUN; KIM, BO-BAE; KO, YOUNGKYUNG; PARK, JUN-BEOM

    2015-01-01

    Cimicifugae Rhizoma is a traditional herbal medicine used to treat various diseases in Korea, China and Japan. Cimicifugae Rhizoma is primarily derived from Cimicifuga heracleifolia Komarov or Cimicifuga foetida Linnaeus. Cimicifugae Rhizoma has been used as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic remedy. The present study was performed to evaluate the extracts of Cimicifugae Rhizoma on the morphology and viability of human stem cells derived from gingiva. Stem cells derived from gingiva were grown in the presence of Cimicifugae Rhizoma at final concentrations that ranged from 0.001 to 1,000 µg/ml. The morphology of the cells was viewed under an inverted microscope and the analysis of cell proliferation was performed using a Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay on days 1, 3, 5 and 7. Under an optical microscope, the control cells exhibited a spindle-shaped, fibroblast-like morphology. The shapes of the cells in the groups treated with 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/ml Cimicifugae Rhizoma were similar to the shapes in the control group. Significant alterations in morphology were noted in the 100 and 1,000 µg/ml groups when compared with the control group. The cells in the 100 and 1,000 µg/ml groups were rounder, and fewer cells were present. The cultures that were grown in the presence of Cimicifugae Rhizoma at a concentration of 0.001 µg/ml on day 1 had an increased CCK-8 value. The cultures grown in the presence of Cimicifugae Rhizoma at a concentration of 10 µg/ml on day 7 had a reduced CCK-8 value. Within the limits of this study, Cimicifugae Rhizoma influenced the viability of stem cells derived from the gingiva, and its direct application onto oral tissues may have adverse effects at high concentrations. The concentration and application time of Cimicifugae Rhizoma should be meticulously controlled to obtain optimal results. PMID:26622366

  18. Morphology in Malay-English Biliteracy Acquisition: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study examined the effect of English morphological instruction on the development of English as well as Malay morphological awareness and word reading abilities among Malay-English bilingual fourth graders in Singapore, where English is the medium of instruction. The intervention group experienced semester-long instruction in…

  19. [Metastatic oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in cervical lymph nodes associated to HPV infection type 16 and 45; clinical, morphological and molecular study of two cases].

    PubMed

    Soria-Céspedes, Danny; Canchola Aguilar, Guadalupe; Lara-Torres, César Octavio; Sánchez-Marle, Juan Felipe; Hernández-Peña, Roberto Enrique; Ortiz-Hidalgo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma has been identified as a distinct entity within squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. In contrast to carcinomas associated with alcohol and/or tobacco, this subtype occurs at younger age, with frequent absence of classic risk factors, correlation with oral sexual habits, strong predilection for the palatial tonsils and the base of the tongue (lingual tonsils), basaloid or lymphoepithelial differentiation, higher degree of radiosensitivity, and overall better survival. We report two cases of lymph node, metastatic, poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma that were positive by immunohistochemistry for p16 with detection of HPV-16 and HPV-45 by PCR.

  20. Suitable parameter choice on quantitative morphology of A549 cell in epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhou-Xin; Yu, Hai-Bin; Li, Jian-Sheng; Shen, Jun-Ling; Du, Wen-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of morphological changes in cells is an integral part of study on epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), however, only a few papers reported the changes in quantitative parameters and no article compared different parameters for demanding better parameters. In the study, the purpose was to investigate suitable parameters for quantitative evaluation of EMT morphological changes. A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line was selected for the study. Some cells were stimulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) for EMT, and other cells were as control without TGF-β1 stimulation. Subsequently, cells were placed in phase contrast microscope and three arbitrary fields were captured and saved with a personal computer. Using the tools of Photoshop software, some cells in an image were selected, segmented out and exchanged into unique hue, and other part in the image was shifted into another unique hue. The cells were calculated with 29 morphological parameters by Image Pro Plus software. A parameter between cells with or without TGF-β1 stimulation was compared statistically and nine parameters were significantly different between them. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) of a parameter was described with SPSS software and F-test was used to compare two areas under the curves (AUCs) in Excel. Among them, roundness and radius ratio were the most AUCs and were significant higher than the other parameters. The results provided a new method with quantitative assessment of cell morphology during EMT, and found out two parameters, roundness and radius ratio, as suitable for quantification. PMID:26182364

  1. Variable cell morphology approach for individual-based modeling of microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Storck, Tomas; Picioreanu, Cristian; Virdis, Bernardino; Batstone, Damien J

    2014-05-06

    An individual-based, mass-spring modeling framework has been developed to investigate the effect of cell properties on the structure of biofilms and microbial aggregates through Lagrangian modeling. Key features that distinguish this model are variable cell morphology described by a collection of particles connected by springs and a mechanical representation of deformable intracellular, intercellular, and cell-substratum links. A first case study describes the colony formation of a rod-shaped species on a planar substratum. This case shows the importance of mechanical interactions in a community of growing and dividing rod-shaped cells (i.e., bacilli). Cell-substratum links promote formation of mounds as opposed to single-layer biofilms, whereas filial links affect the roundness of the biofilm. A second case study describes the formation of flocs and development of external filaments in a mixed-culture activated sludge community. It is shown by modeling that distinct cell-cell links, microbial morphology, and growth kinetics can lead to excessive filamentous proliferation and interfloc bridging, possible causes for detrimental sludge bulking. This methodology has been extended to more advanced microbial morphologies such as filament branching and proves to be a very powerful tool in determining how fundamental controlling mechanisms determine diverse microbial colony architectures.

  2. Variable Cell Morphology Approach for Individual-Based Modeling of Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Storck, Tomas; Picioreanu, Cristian; Virdis, Bernardino; Batstone, Damien J.

    2014-01-01

    An individual-based, mass-spring modeling framework has been developed to investigate the effect of cell properties on the structure of biofilms and microbial aggregates through Lagrangian modeling. Key features that distinguish this model are variable cell morphology described by a collection of particles connected by springs and a mechanical representation of deformable intracellular, intercellular, and cell-substratum links. A first case study describes the colony formation of a rod-shaped species on a planar substratum. This case shows the importance of mechanical interactions in a community of growing and dividing rod-shaped cells (i.e., bacilli). Cell-substratum links promote formation of mounds as opposed to single-layer biofilms, whereas filial links affect the roundness of the biofilm. A second case study describes the formation of flocs and development of external filaments in a mixed-culture activated sludge community. It is shown by modeling that distinct cell-cell links, microbial morphology, and growth kinetics can lead to excessive filamentous proliferation and interfloc bridging, possible causes for detrimental sludge bulking. This methodology has been extended to more advanced microbial morphologies such as filament branching and proves to be a very powerful tool in determining how fundamental controlling mechanisms determine diverse microbial colony architectures. PMID:24806936

  3. Filopodial morphology correlates to the capture efficiency of primary T-cells on nanohole arrays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Gil-Sung; Seol, Jin-Kyeong; Hyung, Jung-Hwan; Park, No-Won; Lee, Mi-Ri; Lee, Myung Kyu; Fan, Rong; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2014-06-01

    Nanostructured surfaces emerge as a new class of material for capture and separation of cell populations including primary immune cells and disseminating rare tumor cells, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Although it has been speculated that nanoscale topological structures on cell surface are involved in the cell capture process, there are no studies that systematically analyze the relation between cell surface structures and the capture efficiency. Here we report on the first mechanistic study by quantifying the morphological parameters of cell surface nanoprotrusions, including filopodia, lamellipodia, and microvilli in the early stage of cell capture (< 20 min) in correlation to the efficiency of separating primary T lymphocytes. This was conducted by using a set of nanohole arrays (NHAs) with varying hole and pitch sizes. Our results showed that the formation of filopodia (e.g., width of filopodia and the average number of the filopodial filaments per cell) depends on the feature size of the nanostructures and the cell separation efficiency is strongly correlated to the number of filopodial fibers, suggesting a possible role of early stage mechanosensing and cell spreading in determining the efficiency of cell capture. In contrast, the length of filopodial filaments was less significantly correlated to the cell capture efficiency and the nanostructure dimensions of the NHAs. This is the first mechanistic study on nanostructure-based immune cell capture and provides new insights to not only the biology of cell-nanomaterial interaction but also the design of new rare cell capture technologies with improved efficiency and specificity.

  4. Testicular structure and germ cells morphology in salamanders

    PubMed Central

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Mejía-Roa, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Testes of salamanders or urodeles are paired elongated organs that are attached to the dorsal wall of the body by a mesorchium. The testes are composed of one or several lobes. Each lobe is morphologically and functionally a similar testicular unit. The lobes of the testis are joined by cords covered by a single peritoneal epithelium and subjacent connective tissue. The cords contain spermatogonia. Spermatogonia associate with Sertoli cells to form spermatocysts or cysts. The spermatogenic cells in a cyst undergo their development through spermatogenesis synchronously. The distribution of cysts displays the cephalo-caudal gradient in respect to the stage of spermatogenesis. The formation of cysts at cephalic end of the testis causes their migration along the lobules to the caudal end. Consequently, the disposition in cephalo-caudal regions of spermatogenesis can be observed in longitudinal sections of the testis. The germ cells are spermatogonia, diploid cells with mitotic activity; primary and second spermatocytes characterized by meiotic divisions that develop haploid spermatids; during spermiogenesis the spermatids differentiate to spermatozoa. During spermiation the cysts open and spermatozoa leave the testicular lobules. After spermiation occurs the development of Leydig cells into glandular tissue. This glandular tissue regressed at the end of the reproductive cycle. PMID:26413406

  5. Monitoring cell morphology during necrosis and apoptosis by quantitative phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugnano, Martina; Calabuig, Alejandro; Grilli, Simonetta; Miccio, Lisa; Ferraro, Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Cellular morphology changes and volume alterations play significant roles in many biological processes and they are mirrors of cell functions. In this paper, we propose the Digital Holographic microscope (DH) as a non-invasive imaging technique for a rapid and accurate extraction of morphological information related to cell death. In particular, we investigate the morphological variations that occur during necrosis and apoptosis. The study of necrosis is extremely important because it is often associated with unwarranted loss of cells in human pathologies such as ischemia, trauma, and some forms of neurodegeneration; therefore, a better elucidation in terms of cell morphological changes could pave the way for new treatments. Also, apoptosis is extremely important because it's involved in cancer, both in its formation and in medical treatments. Because the inability to initiate apoptosis enhances tumour formation, current cancer treatments target this pathway. Within this framework, we have developed a transmission off-axis DH apparatus integrated with a micro incubator for investigation of living cells in a temperature and CO2 controlled environment. We employ DH to analyse the necrosis cell death induced by laser light (wavelength 473 nm, light power 4 mW). We have chosen as cellular model NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts because their adhesive features such as morphological changes, and the time needed to adhere and spread have been well characterized in the literature. We have monitored cell volume changes and morphological alterations in real time in order to study the necrosis process accurately and quantitatively. Cell volume changes were evaluated from the measured phase changes of light transmitted through cells. Our digital holographic experiments showed that after exposure of cells to laser light for 90-120 min., they swell and then take on a balloon-like shape until the plasma membrane ruptures and finally the cell volume decreases. Furthermore, we

  6. Cell-Substrate Interactions Feedback to Direct Cell Migration along or against Morphological Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Girish; Ho, Chia-Chi; Co, Carlos C.

    2015-01-01

    In response to external stimuli, cells polarize morphologically into teardrop shapes prior to moving in the direction of their blunt leading edge through lamellipodia extension and retraction of the rear tip. This textbook description of cell migration implies that the initial polarization sets the direction of cell migration. Using microfabrication techniques to control cell morphologies and the direction of migration without gradients, we demonstrate that after polarization, lamelipodia extension and attachment can feedback to change and even reverse the initial morphological polarization. Cells do indeed migrate faster in the direction of their morphologically polarization. However, feedback from subsequent lamellipodia extension and attachment can be so powerful as to induce cells to reverse and migrate against their initial polarization, albeit at a slower speed. Constitutively active mutants of RhoA show that RhoA stimulates cell motility when cells are guided either along or against their initial polarization. Cdc42 activation and inhibition, which results in loss of directional motility during chemotaxis, only reduces the speed of migration without altering the directionality of migration on the micropatterns. These results reveal significant differences between substrate directed cell migration and that induced by chemotactic gradients. PMID:26186588

  7. Chronic Replication Problems Impact Cell Morphology and Adhesion of DNA Ligase I Defective Cells.

    PubMed

    Cremaschi, Paolo; Oliverio, Matteo; Leva, Valentina; Bione, Silvia; Carriero, Roberta; Mazzucco, Giulia; Palamidessi, Andrea; Scita, Giorgio; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Montecucco, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Moderate DNA damage resulting from metabolic activities or sub-lethal doses of exogenous insults may eventually lead to cancer onset. Human 46BR.1G1 cells bear a mutation in replicative DNA ligase I (LigI) which results in low levels of replication-dependent DNA damage. This replication stress elicits a constitutive phosphorylation of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) checkpoint kinase that fails to arrest cell cycle progression or to activate apoptosis or cell senescence. Stable transfection of wild type LigI, as in 7A3 cells, prevents DNA damage and ATM activation. Here we show that parental 46BR.1G1 and 7A3 cells differ in important features such as cell morphology, adhesion and migration. Comparison of gene expression profiles in the two cell lines detects Bio-Functional categories consistent with the morphological and migration properties of LigI deficient cells. Interestingly, ATM inhibition makes 46BR.1G1 more similar to 7A3 cells for what concerns morphology, adhesion and expression of cell-cell adhesion receptors. These observations extend the influence of the DNA damage response checkpoint pathways and unveil a role for ATM kinase activity in modulating cell biology parameters relevant to cancer progression.

  8. Comparison of morphologic features and outcome of resected recurrent and nonrecurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the penis: a study of 81 cases.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Reuter, Victor; Lezcano, Cecilia; Velazquez, Elsa F; Torres, Jose; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2009-09-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is considered a loco-regional disease with a fairly predictable pattern of progression. Widespread dissemination occurs in at least one-third of the patients. Local recurrence (defined as the presence of tumor after a primary treatment affecting any remainder tissue, including skin, erectile corpora, or urethra) present in up to 30% of the patients increases the risk of regional inguinal and pelvic lymph nodes metastases. The aim of this study was to identify adverse pathologic prognostic factors in patients with recurrent tumors. Clinicopathologic features of 81 surgically treated patients (25 with recurrent and 56 with nonrecurrent SCC) were evaluated; 56 patients (19 with recurrent and 37 with nonrecurrent tumors) additionally received groin dissections. Follow-up (2 to 372 mo, mean of 71 mo) was obtained in all patients. Comparison of recurrent tumors at the time of the primary diagnosis and of recurrence showed that histologic subtype and grade were identical in 76% of the cases and converted to a higher grade tumor in 24% of the cases, especially, in patients treated with local excisions and circumcisions. Most of the recurrences (67%) seemed at or before 12 months. Comparison of recurrent and nonrecurrent tumors showed that high grade tumors (basaloid and sarcomatoid) tended to be significantly associated with recurrent tumors, whereas low grade variants (papillary, warty and verrucous) were more frequent in the nonrecurrent group; recurrent tumors invaded into deeper anatomic levels than nonrecurrent tumors. The incidence of inguinal lymph node metastasis was higher in recurrent tumors (79% vs. 49%, P=0.0272). Cancer-specific survival was of 46% versus 76% at 3 years of follow-up in recurrent and nonrecurrent tumors, respectively. Patients with recurrent tumors had a median survival of 2.9 years; no major changes in survival were noted after 3 years of follow-up. Mortality was higher in the recurrent group (56% vs. 29

  9. Changes in cell morphology due to plasma membrane wounding by acoustic cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Schlicher, Robyn K.; Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Radhakrishna, Harish; Apkarian, Robert P.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic cavitation-mediated wounding (i.e., sonoporation) has great potential to improve medical and laboratory applications requiring intracellular uptake of exogenous molecules; however, the field lacks detailed understanding of cavitation-induced morphological changes in cells and their relative importance. Here, we present an in-depth study of the effects of acoustic cavitation on cells using electron and confocal microscopy coupled with quantitative flow cytometry. High resolution images of treated cells show that morphologically different types of blebs can occur after wounding conditions caused by ultrasound exposure as well as by mechanical shear and strong laser ablation. In addition, these treatments caused wound-induced non-lytic necrotic death resulting in cell bodies we call wound-derived perikarya (WD-P). However, only cells exposed to acoustic cavitation experienced ejection of intact nuclei and nearly instant lytic necrosis. Quantitative analysis by flow cytometry indicates that wound-derived perikarya are the dominant morphology of nonviable cells, except at the strongest wounding conditions, where nuclear ejection accounts for a significant portion of cell death after ultrasound exposure. PMID:20350691

  10. Influence of curvature on the morphology of brain microvascular endothelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Mao; Yang, Zhen; Wong, Andrew; Searson, Peter; Searson Group Team

    2013-03-01

    There are hundreds or thousands of endothelial cells around the perimeter of a single artery or vein, and hence an individual cell experiences little curvature. In contrast, a single endothelial cell may wrap around itself to form the lumen of a brain capillary. Curvature plays a key role in many biological, chemical and physical processes, however, its role in dictating the morphology and polarization of brain capillary endothelial cells has not been investigated. We hypothesize that curvature and shear flow play a key role in determining the structure and function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have developed the ``rod'' assay to study the influence of curvature on the morphology of confluent monolayers of endothelial cells. In this assay cells are plated onto glass rods pulled down to the desired diameter in the range from 5 - 500 μm and coated with collagen. We show that curvature has a significant influence on the morphology of endothelial cells and may have an important role in blood-brain barrier function.

  11. A Complex Interaction Between Reduced Reelin Expression and Prenatal Organophosphate Exposure Alters Neuronal Cell Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Brian R.; Ross, Brennan; Chou, Joan Wang; Khankan, Rana; Khialeeva, Elvira; Bui, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are both likely to contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and major depressive disorders. Prior studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that the combinatorial effect of two factors—reduced expression of reelin protein and prenatal exposure to the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos oxon—gives rise to acute biochemical effects and to morphological and behavioral phenotypes in adolescent and young adult mice. In the current study, we examine the consequences of these factors on reelin protein expression and neuronal cell morphology in adult mice. While the cell populations that express reelin in the adult brain appear unchanged in location and distribution, the levels of full length and cleaved reelin protein show persistent reductions following prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos oxon. Cell positioning and organization in the hippocampus and cerebellum are largely normal in animals with either reduced reelin expression or prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos oxon, but cellular complexity and dendritic spine organization is altered, with a skewed distribution of immature dendritic spines in adult animals. Paradoxically, combinatorial exposure to both factors appears to generate a rescue of the dendritic spine phenotypes, similar to the mitigation of behavioral and morphological changes observed in our prior study. Together, our observations support an interaction between reelin expression and chlorpyrifos oxon exposure that is not simply additive, suggesting a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors in regulating brain morphology. PMID:27364165

  12. Intratumoral morphologic and molecular heterogeneity of rhabdoid renal cell carcinoma: challenges for personalized therapy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajesh R; Murugan, Paari; Patel, Lalit R; Voicu, Horatiu; Yoo, Suk-Young; Majewski, Tadeusz; Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Wani, Khalida; Tannir, Nizar; Karam, Jose A; Jonasch, Eric; Wood, Christopher G; Creighton, Chad J; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Broaddus, Russell R; Tamboli, Pheroze; Baggerly, Keith A; Aldape, Kenneth D; Czerniak, Bogdan; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Sircar, Kanishka

    2015-09-01

    Rhabdoid histology in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma is associated with a poor prognosis. The prognosis of patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma may also be influenced by molecular alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between histologic features and salient molecular changes in rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. We macrodissected the rhabdoid and clear-cell epithelioid components from 12 cases of rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. We assessed cancer-related mutations from eight cases using a clinical next-generation exome-sequencing platform. The transcriptome of rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (n=8) and non-rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (n=37) was assessed by RNA-seq and gene expression microarray. VHL (63%) showed identical mutations in all regions from the same tumor. BAP1 (38%) and PBRM1 (13%) mutations were identified in the rhabdoid but not in the epithelioid component and were mutually exclusive in 3/3 cases and 1 case, respectively. SETD2 (63%) mutations were discordant between different histologic regions in 2/5 cases, with mutations called only in the epithelioid and rhabdoid components, respectively. The transcriptome of rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma was distinct from advanced-stage and high-grade clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. The diverse histologic components of rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma, however, showed a similar transcriptomic program, including a similar prognostic gene expression signature. Rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma is transcriptomically distinct and shows a high rate of SETD2 and BAP1 mutations and a low rate of PBRM1 mutations. Driver mutations in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma are often discordant across different morphologic regions, whereas the gene expression program is relatively stable. Molecular profiling of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma may improve by assessing for gene expression and sampling tumor foci from different

  13. Intratumoral Morphologic and Molecular Heterogeneity of Rhabdoid Renal Cell Carcinoma: Challenges for Personalized Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajesh R.; Murugan, Paari; Patel, Lalit R.; Voicu, Horatiu; Yoo, Suk-Young; Majewski, Tadeusz; Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Wani, Khalida; Tannir, Nizar; Karam, Jose A.; Jonasch, Eric; Wood, Christopher G.; Creighton, Chad J.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Broaddus, Russell R.; Tamboli, Pheroze; Baggerly, Keith A.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Czerniak, Bogdan; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Sircar, Kanishka

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdoid histology in clear cell renal cell carcinoma is associated with a poor prognosis. The prognosis of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma may also be influenced by molecular alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between histologic features and salient molecular changes in rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We macrodissected the rhabdoid and clear cell epithelioid components from 12 cases of rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We assessed cancer related mutations from 8 cases using a clinical next generation exome sequencing platform. The transcriptome of rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n=8) and non-rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n=37) was assessed by RNA-seq and gene expression microarray. VHL (63%) showed identical mutations in all regions from the same tumor. BAP1 (38%) and PBRM1 (13%) mutations were identified in the rhabdoid but not the epithelioid component and were mutually exclusive in 3/3 cases and 1 case, respectively. SETD2 (63%) mutations were discordant between different histologic regions in 2/5 cases, with mutations called only in the epithelioid and rhabdoid components, respectively. The transcriptome of rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma was distinct from advanced stage and high grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The diverse histologic components of rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma, however, showed a similar transcriptomic program, including a similar prognostic gene expression signature. Rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma is transcriptomically distinct and shows a high rate of SETD2 and BAP1 mutations and a low rate of PBRM1 mutations. Driver mutations in clear cell renal cell carcinoma are often discordant across different morphologic regions whereas the gene expression program is relatively stable. Molecular profiling of clear cell renal cell carcinoma may improve by assessing for gene expression and sampling tumor foci from different histologic

  14. Modifications in astrocyte morphology and calcium signaling induced by a brain capillary endothelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Elizabeth J

    2002-04-15

    Astrocytes extend specialized endfoot processes to perisynaptic and perivascular regions, and thus are positioned to mediate the bidirectional flow of metabolic, ionic, and other transmissive substances between neurons and the blood stream. While mutual structural and functional interactions between neurons and astrocytes have been documented, less is known about the interactions between astrocytes and cerebrovascular cells. For example, although the ability of astrocytes to induce structural and functional changes in endothelial cells is established, the reciprocity of brain endothelial cells to induce changes in astrocytes is undetermined. This issue is addressed in the present study. Changes in primary cultures of neonatal mouse cortical astrocytes were investigated following their coculture with mouse brain capillary endothelial (bEnd3) cells. The presence of bEnd3 cells altered the morphology of astrocytes by transforming them from confluent monolayers into networks of elongated multicellular columns. These columns did not occur when either bEnd3 cells or astrocytes were cocultured with other cell types, suggesting that astrocytes undergo specific morphological consequences when placed in close proximity to brain endothelial cells. In addition to these structural changes, the pharmacological profile of astrocytes was modified by coculture with bEnd3 cells. Astrocytes in the cocultures showed an increased Ca2+ responsiveness to bradykinin and glutamate, but no change in responsiveness to ATP, as compared to controls. Coculturing the astrocytes with a neuronal cell line resulted in increased responsiveness of the glial responses to glutamate but not to bradykinin. These studies indicate that brain endothelial cells induce changes in astrocyte morphology and pharmacology.

  15. Human aortic endothelial cell morphology influenced by topography of porous silicon substrates.

    PubMed

    Formentín, Pilar; Catalán, Úrsula; Fernández-Castillejo, Sara; Alba, Maria; Baranowska, Malgorzata; Solà, Rosa; Pallarès, Josep; Marsal, Lluís F

    2015-10-01

    Porous silicon has received much attention because of its optical properties and for its usefulness in cell-based biosensing, drug delivery, and tissue engineering applications. Surface properties of the biomaterial are associated with cell adhesion and with proliferation, migration, and differentiation. The present article analyzes the behavior of human aortic endothelial cells in macro- and nanoporous collagen-modified porous silicon samples. On both substrates, cells are well adhered and numerous. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed to study the effects of porosity on the morphology of the cells. On macroporous silicon, filopodia is not observed but the cell spreads on the surface, increasing the lamellipodia surface which penetrates the macropore. On nanoporous silicon, multiple filopodia were found to branch out from the cell body. These results demonstrate that the pore size plays a key role in controlling the morphology and growth rate of human aortic endothelial cells, and that these forms of silicon can be used to control cell development in tissue engineering as well as in basic cell biology research.

  16. Acetate Salts as Nonhalogen Additives To Improve Perovskite Film Morphology for High-Efficiency Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiliang; Zhou, Pengcheng; Zhou, Weiran; Wei, Xiangfeng; Chen, Tao; Yang, Shangfeng

    2016-06-22

    A two-step method has been popularly adopted to fabricate a perovskite film of planar heterojunction organo-lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, this method often generates uncontrollable film morphology with poor coverage. Herein, we report a facile method to improve perovskite film morphology by incorporating a small amount of acetate (CH3COO(-), Ac(-)) salts (NH4Ac, NaAc) as nonhalogen additives in CH3NH3I solution used for immersing PbI2 film, resulting in improved CH3NH3PbI3 film morphology. Under the optimized NH4Ac additive concentration of 10 wt %, the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) reaches 17.02%, which is enhanced by ∼23.2% relative to that of the pristine device without additive, whereas the NaAc additive does not lead to an efficiency enhancement despite the improvement of the CH3NH3PbI3 film morphology. SEM study reveals that NH4Ac and NaAc additives can both effectively improve perovskite film morphology by increasing the surface coverage via diminishing pinholes. The improvement on CH3NH3PbI3 film morphology is beneficial for increasing the optical absorption of perovskite film and improving the interfacial contact at the perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD interface, leading to the increase of short-circuit current and consequently efficiency enhancement of the PSC device for NH4Ac additive only.

  17. Morphology of the Epidermis of the Neotropical Catfish Pimelodella lateristriga (Lichtenstein, 1823) with Emphasis in Club Cells

    PubMed Central

    Damasceno, Eduardo Medeiros; Monteiro, Juliana Castro; Duboc, Luiz Fernando; Dolder, Heidi; Mancini, Karina

    2012-01-01

    The epidermis of Ostariophysi fish is composed of 4 main cell types: epidermal cells (or filament containing cells), mucous cells, granular cells and club cells. The morphological analysis of the epidermis of the catfish Pimelodella lateristriga revealed the presence of only two types of cells: epidermal and club cells. The latter were evident in the middle layer of the epidermis, being the largest cells within the epithelium. Few organelles were located in the perinuclear region, while the rest of the cytoplasm was filled with a non-vesicular fibrillar substance. Club cells contained two irregular nuclei with evident nucleoli and high compacted peripheral chromatin. Histochemical analysis detected prevalence of protein within the cytoplasm other than carbohydrates, which were absent. These characteristics are similar to those described to most Ostariophysi studied so far. On the other hand, the epidermal cells differ from what is found in the literature. The present study described three distinct types, as follows: superficial, abundant and dense cells. Differences among them were restricted to their cytoplasm and nucleus morphology. Mucous cells were found in all Ostariophysi studied so far, although they were absent in P. lateristriga, along with granular cells, also typical of other catfish epidermis. The preset study corroborates the observations on club cells' morphology in Siluriformes specimens, and shows important differences in epidermis composition and cell structure of P. lateristriga regarding the literature data. PMID:23226253

  18. Morphological Studies of Nucleologenesis in Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Lara-Martínez, Reyna; De Lourdes Segura-Valdez, María; De La Mora-De La Mora, Ignacio; López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Jiménez-García, Luis Felipe

    2016-05-01

    The nucleolus is a nuclear organelle involved in ribosome biogenesis. In most eukaryotes this structure disperses during prophase through anaphase and reorganizes at telophase by a process known as nucleologenesis. This process involves new transcription of ribosomal DNA at the nucleolar organizer region and the formation of prenucleolar bodies fusing to it. In Giardia lamblia, for a long time considered the only anucleolated eukaryote, a very small nucleolus has been recently described. In order to evaluate whether nucleologenesis is also present in Giardia, we analyzed the distribution of nucleolar material during telophase using different light and electron microscopy techniques including silver staining for the nucleolar organizer. Results indicate that in G. lamblia, nucleolar elements persist mainly as an intranuclear peripheral organelle during all stages of division, including telophase, however, no prenucleolar bodies are detected in the nucleoplasm. Therefore, in the parasite, nucleolar material is present throughout cell division including telophase and formation of prenucleolar bodies may not be required for nucleologenesis.

  19. Supervised classification of etoposide-treated in vitro adherent cells based on noninvasive imaging morphology.

    PubMed

    Mölder, Anna Leida; Persson, Johan; El-Schich, Zahra; Czanner, Silvester; Gjörloff-Wingren, Anette

    2017-04-01

    Single-cell studies using noninvasive imaging is a challenging, yet appealing way to study cellular characteristics over extended periods of time, for instance to follow cell interactions and the behavior of different cell types within the same sample. In some cases, e.g., transplantation culturing, real-time cellular monitoring, stem cell studies, in vivo studies, and embryo growth studies, it is also crucial to keep the sample intact and invasive imaging using fluorophores or dyes is not an option. Computerized methods are needed to improve throughput of image-based analysis and for use with noninvasive microscopy such methods are poorly developed. By combining a set of well-documented image analysis and classification tools with noninvasive microscopy, we demonstrate the ability for long-term image-based analysis of morphological changes in single cells as induced by a toxin, and show how these changes can be used to indicate changes in biological function. In this study, adherent cell cultures of DU-145 treated with low-concentration (LC) etoposide were imaged during 3 days. Single cells were identified by image segmentation and subsequently classified on image features, extracted for each cell. In parallel with image analysis, an MTS assay was performed to allow comparison between metabolic activity and morphological changes after long-term low-level drug response. Results show a decrease in proliferation rate for LC etoposide, accompanied by changes in cell morphology, primarily leading to an increase in cell area and textural changes. It is shown that changes detected by image analysis are already visible on day 1 for [Formula: see text] etoposide, whereas effects on MTS and viability are detected only on day 3 for [Formula: see text] etoposide concentration, leading to the conclusion that the morphological changes observed occur before and at lower concentrations than a reduction in cell metabolic activity or viability. Three classifiers are compared and we

  20. The relationship of fibroblast translocations to cell morphology and stress fibre density.

    PubMed

    Lewis, L; Verna, J M; Levinstone, D; Sher, S; Marek, L; Bell, E

    1982-02-01

    Translocation of human fibroblasts in culture was studied using techniques of time-lapse cinemicrography, indirect immunofluorescence, and computer analysis. An inverse relationship between the velocity of cells during the last hour of life and the density of stress fibers seen by immune staining was demonstrated. Translocating cells generally assumed one of two interconvertible morphologies: a triangular tailed shape or tailed fibroblast (TF), and a tailless form that resembled a half-moon, which we call a half-moon fibroblast (HMF). The tail of TFs formed only on regions of substrate that had been previously traversed by cells. The half-moon morphology developed either on previously used or on virgin substrate. Cells adopted the HMF rather than the TF morphology with a four-fold greater frequency. HMFs translocated slightly faster than TFs. The foregoing observation suggest that the fibroblast tail is not an organelle essential for translocation. Since our technique allowed us to distinguish between cells which were cycling and those which had left cycle, we compared their velocities and found them to be similar. Also the average velocities of cells of different population-doubling levels (10th, 30th, 40th) were approximately equal.

  1. Effects of tacrolimus on morphology, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from gingiva tissue

    PubMed Central

    HA, DONG-HO; YONG, CHUL SOON; KIM, JONG OH; JEONG, JEE-HEON; PARK, JUN-BEOM

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a 23-membered macrolide lactone with potent immunosuppressive activity that is effective in the prophylaxis of organ rejection following kidney, heart and liver transplantation. Tacrolimus also exerts a variety of actions on bone metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of tacrolimus on the morphology and viability of human stem cells derived from the gingiva. Gingival-derived stem cells were grown in the presence of tacrolimus at final concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 100 µg/ml. The morphology of the cells was viewed under an inverted microscope and the cell viability was analyzed using Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) on days 1, 3, 5 and 7. Alizarin Red S staining was used to assess mineralization of treated cells. The control group showed spindle-shaped, fibroblast-like morphology and the shapes of the cells in 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/ml tacrolimus were similar to those of the control group. All groups except the 100 µg/ml group showed increased cell proliferation over time. Cultures grown in the presence of tacrolimus at 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/ml were not identified to be significantly different compared with the control at days 1, 3 and 5 using the CCK-8 assays. Increased mineralized deposits were noted with increased incubation time. Treatment with tacrolimus from 0.001 to 1 µg/ml led to an increase in mineralization compared with the control group. Within the limits of this study, tacrolimus at the tested concentrations (ranging from 0.001 to 10 µg/ml) did not result in differences in the viability of stem cells derived from gingiva; however it did enhance osteogenic differentiation of the stem cells. PMID:27177273

  2. A morphological study of the tracheal epithelium of the snake Natrix maura.

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, L M

    1990-01-01

    The epithelium of the trachea of the Natrix maura snake was studied by conventional light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The epithelium is formed of basal, ciliated, endocrine and secretory cells. It shows different thickness and distribution of the cells, depending on the area (covering the cartilaginous or the membranous zone). Secretory cells show a morphology similar to that found in lizards but it is different from the mucous cells reported in the extrapulmonary airways of turtles, birds and mammals. The ultrastructure of the secretory cells is similar to that reported for serous cells in the airways of mammals. Intra-epithelial plasma cells are also found within the epithelium. The present results show that there are marked morphological differences between the tracheal epithelium of lizards and snakes and that of turtles, birds and mammals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2272908

  3. Morphological Study of Directionally Freeze-Cast Nickel Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hyungyung; Kim, Min Jeong; Choi, Hyelim; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choe, Heeman; Dunand, David C.

    2016-03-01

    Nickel foams, consisting of 51 to 62 pct aligned, elongated pores surrounded by a network of Ni walls, were fabricated by reduction and sintering of directionally cast suspensions of nanometric NiO powders in water. Use of dispersant in the slurry considerably affected the foam morphology and microstructure at both the micro- and macro-scale, most likely by modifying ice solidification into dendrites (creating the aligned, elongated macro-pores) and NiO powder accumulation in the inter-dendritic space (creating the Ni walls with micro-pores). The mean width of the Ni walls, in foams solidified with and without dispersant, was 21 ± 5 and 75 ± 13 µm, respectively. Additionally, the foams with the dispersant showed less dense walls and rougher surfaces than those without the dispersant. Moreover, the fraction of closed pores present in the foam walls with the dispersant was higher than that of the samples without dispersant. We finally verified the potential energy application of the Ni foam produced in this study by carrying out a preliminary single-cell performance test with the Ni foam sample as the gas diffusion layer on the anode side of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

  4. Kinetoplast morphology and segregation pattern as a marker for cell cycle progression in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Minocha, Neha; Kumar, Devanand; Rajanala, Kalpana; Saha, Swati

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosomatids are typified by uniquely configured mitochondrial DNA--the kinetoplast. The replication timing of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) is closely linked to nuclear S phase, but nuclear and kinetoplast compartments display staggered timing of segregation, post-replication. Kinetoplast division is completed before nuclear division in Trypanosoma species while nuclear division is completed first in Crithidia species. Leishmania donovani is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, a form of leishmanial infection that is often fatal. Cell cycle related studies in Leishmania are hampered by difficulties in synchronizing these cells. This report examines the replication/segregation pattern and morphology of the kinetoplast in L. donovani with the aim of determining if these traits can be used to assign cell cycle stage to individual cells. By labeling replicating cells with bromodeoxyuridine after synchronization with hydroxyurea, we find that although both nuclear and kDNA initiate replication in early S phase, nuclear division precedes kinetoplast segregation in 80% of the cells. The kinetoplast is roundish/short rod-like in G1 and in early to mid-S phase, but prominently elongated/bilobed in late S phase and early G2/M. These morphological traits and segregation pattern of the kinetoplast can be used as a marker for cell cycle stage in a population of asynchronously growing L. donovani promastigotes, in place of cell synchronization procedures or instead of using antibody staining for cell cycle stage marker proteins.

  5. Morphology-Controlled High-Efficiency Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells without Additive Solvent Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il Ku; Jo, Jun Hyung; Yun, Jung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on nano-morphology-controlled small-molecule organic solar cells without solvent treatment for high power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs). The maximum high PCE reaches up to 7.22% with a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) thickness of 320 nm. This high efficiency was obtained by eliminating solvent additives such as 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) to find an alternative way to control the domain sizes in the BHJ layer. Furthermore, the generalized transfer matrix method (GTMM) analysis has been applied to confirm the effects of applying a different thickness of BHJs for organic solar cells from 100 to 320 nm, respectively. Finally, the study showed an alternative way to achieve high PCE organic solar cells without additive solvent treatments to control the morphology of the bulk-heterojunction.

  6. Morphological and biochemical characterization of mitochondria in Torpedo red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Pica, A; Scacco, S; Papa, F; De Nitto, E; Papa, S

    2001-02-01

    A study is presented on the morphology and respiratory functions of mitochondria from Torpedo marmorata red blood cells. In vivo staining of red blood cells and transmission electron microscopy showed the existence of a considerable number of vital and orthodox mitochondria which decreased from young erythroblasts to mature erythrocytes from 60-50 to 30-20 per cell. In erythrocytes mitochondria exhibited a canonical, functional respiratory chain. The content and activity of cytochromes in erythrocytes were, however, significantly lower as compared to mammalian tissues.

  7. Retinal ganglion cells in the eastern newt Notophthalmus viridescens: topography, morphology, and diversity.

    PubMed

    Pushchin, Igor I; Karetin, Yuriy A

    2009-10-20

    The topography and morphology of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the eastern newt were studied. Cells were retrogradely labeled with tetramethylrhodamine-conjugated dextran amines or horseradish peroxidase and examined in retinal wholemounts. Their total number was 18,025 +/- 3,602 (mean +/- SEM). The spatial density of RGCs varied from 2,100 cells/mm(2) in the retinal periphery to 4,500 cells/mm(2) in the dorsotemporal retina. No prominent retinal specializations were found. The spatial resolution estimated from the spatial density of RGCs varied from 1.4 cycles per degree in the periphery to 1.95 cycles per degree in the region of the peak RGC density. A sample of 68 cells was camera lucida drawn and subjected to quantitative analysis. A total of 21 parameters related to RGC morphology and stratification in the retina were estimated. Partitionings obtained by using different clustering algorithms combined with automatic variable weighting and dimensionality reduction techniques were compared, and an effective solution was found by using silhouette analysis. A total of seven clusters were identified and associated with potential cell types. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA-on-Ranks with post hoc Mann-Whitney U tests showed significant pairwise between-cluster differences in one or more of the clustering variables. The average silhouette values of the clusters were reasonably high, ranging from 0.52 to 0.79. Cells assigned to the same cluster displayed similar morphology and stratification in the retina. The advantages and limitations of the methodology adopted are discussed. The present classification is compared with known morphological and physiological RGC classifications in other salamanders.

  8. [Collagenous colitis. Morphologic and immunohistochemical study].

    PubMed

    Genova, G; Arena, N; Guddo, F; Vita, C; Reitano, R; Nagar, C; Tralongo, V

    1993-01-01

    Collagenous colitis is a clinico-pathological entity characterized by chronic diarrhoeas and deposition of collagen beneath the epithelium surface of large bowel. We revised 265 endoscopy biopsy specimens of the large bowel from 198 consecutive patients with "aspecific chronic colitis". Morphometric study showed that were not significant differences among various tracts in the same patients regarding to the thickness of basament membrane. It was more than 11.9 +/- 0.49 mu only in 13 pts (6.6%), while it was 3.96 +/- 1.4 mu in the others. Immunohistochemistry study confirmed the normality of subepithelial basement membrane and the below deposition of the large quantity of collagen IV.

  9. Cell morphology of extrusion foamed poly(lactic acid) using endothermic chemical foaming agent.

    PubMed

    Matuana, Laurent M; Faruk, Omar; Diaz, Carlos A

    2009-12-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was foamed with an endothermic chemical foaming agent (CFA) through an extrusion process. The effects of polymer melt flow index, CFA content, and processing speed on the cellular structures, void fraction, and cell-population density of foamed PLA were investigated. The apparent melt viscosity of PLA was measured to understand the effect of melt index on the cell morphology of foamed PLA samples. The void fraction was strongly dependent on the PLA melt index. It increased with increasing melt index, reaching a maximum value, after which it decreased. Melt index showed no significant effect on the cell-population density of foamed samples within the narrow range studied. A gas containment limit was observed in PLA foamed with CFA. Both the void fraction and cell-population density increased with an initial increase in CFA content, reached a maximum value, and then decreased as CFA content continued to increase. The processing speed also affected the morphology of PLA foams. The void fraction reached a maximum value as the extruder's screw speed increased to 40 rpm and a further increase in the processing speed tended to reduce the void fraction of foamed samples. By contrast, cell-population density increased one order of magnitude by increasing the screw speed from 20 to 120 rpm. The experimental results indicate that a homogeneous and finer cellular morphology could be successfully achieved in PLA foamed in an extrusion process with a proper combination of polymer melt flow index, CFA content, and processing speed.

  10. A two-stage morphological classifier of foci occurring in cell transformation assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni F.; Urani, Chiara; Bussinelli, Luca

    2009-02-01

    Cell Transformation Assays (CTA) rely on the detection of phenotypic changes, namely foci, induced by chemicals (e.g., xenobiotics or candidate drugs) in mammalian cells such as C3H10T1/2 mouse fibroblasts. A focus is a cell colony and as such is made visible by standardized techniques of light microscopy. Foci exhibit a variety of morphological features, by which three "Types" have been defined. Types II and III consist of cells having undergone neoplastic transformation. The assignment of a focus to a Type is based on the evaluation of phenotypic features by a trained human expert. An automated, two-stage morphological classifier of foci is described herewith. Morphological descriptors are extracted from light microscope images by the "spectrum enhancement" algorithm, which separates structure from texture. Said descriptors are submitted to a classifier, the first stage of which is trained to discriminate transformed cells from normal ones and the 2nd stage to discriminate Type III from Type II. The classifier operating in recognition mode (on images not used for training) is satisfactory in terms of confusion matrix entries. The whole procedure is aimed at removing subjectivity from the scoring and classification of foci and thus make CTA a more powerful tool in carcinogenesis studies.

  11. Morphological characteristics of blood cells in monitor lizards: is erythrocyte size linked to actual body size?

    PubMed

    Frýdlová, Petra; Hnízdo, Jan; Chylíková, Lenka; Simková, Olga; Cikánová, Veronika; Velenský, Petr; Frynta, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Blood cell morphology and count are not uniform across species. Recently, between-species comparisons revealed that the size of red blood cells is associated with body size in some lizard taxa, and this finding was interpreted in the context of the metabolic theory. In the present study, we examined the numbers and the size of blood cells in 2 species of monitor lizards, the mangrove-dwelling monitor (Varanus indicus) and the savannah monitor (V. exanthematicus), and we compared these traits in individuals of different body size. The results revealed that during the course of ontogeny, the size of red blood cells increases with body mass. Because the mass-specific metabolic rate decreases with body size and the cell volume-to-surface ratio decreases with the cell size, changes in the erythrocyte size might be the result of oxygen transport adjustment.

  12. Retinal ganglion cells in the Pacific redfin, Tribolodon brandtii dybowski, 1872: morphology and diversity.

    PubMed

    Pushchin, Igor; Karetin, Yuriy

    2014-04-15

    We studied the morphology and diversity of retinal ganglion cells in the Pacific redfin, Tribolodon brandtii. These cells were retrogradely labeled with horseradish peroxidase and examined in retinal whole mounts. A sample of 203 cells was drawn with a camera lucida. A total of 19 structural parameters were estimated for each cell, and a variety of clustering algorithms were used to classify the cells. The optimal solution was determined by using silhouette analysis. It was based on three variables associated with dendritic field size and dendrite stratification in the retina. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA-on-ranks with post hoc Mann-Whitney U tests showed significant pairwise between-cluster differences in two or more of the original variables. In total, eight cell types were discovered. The advantages and drawbacks of the methodology adopted are discussed. The present classification is compared with classifications proposed for other teleosts.

  13. Morphological study of tooth development in podoplanin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Takara, Kenyo; Maruo, Naoki; Oka, Kyoko; Kaji, Chiaki; Hatakeyama, Yuji; Sawa, Naruhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Yamashita, Junro; Kojima, Hiroshi; Sawa, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Podoplanin is a mucin-type highly O-glycosylated glycoprotein identified in several somatyic cells: podocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, lymph node stromal fibroblastic reticular cells, osteocytes, odontoblasts, mesothelial cells, glia cells, and others. It has been reported that podoplanin-RhoA interaction induces cytoskeleton relaxation and cell process stretching in fibroblastic cells and osteocytes, and that podoplanin plays a critical role in type I alveolar cell differentiation. It appears that podoplanin plays a number of different roles in contributing to cell functioning and growth by signaling. However, little is known about the functions of podoplanin in the somatic cells of the adult organism because an absence of podoplanin is lethal at birth by the respiratory failure. In this report, we investigated the tooth germ development in podoplanin-knockout mice, and the dentin formation in podoplanin-conditional knockout mice having neural crest-derived cells with deficiency in podoplanin by the Wnt1 promoter and enhancer-driven Cre recombinase: Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice. In the Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice, the tooth and alveolar bone showed no morphological abnormalities and grow normally, indicating that podoplanin is not critical in the development of the tooth and bone.

  14. Morphological study of tooth development in podoplanin-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Takara, Kenyo; Maruo, Naoki; Oka, Kyoko; Kaji, Chiaki; Hatakeyama, Yuji; Sawa, Naruhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Yamashita, Junro; Kojima, Hiroshi; Sawa, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Podoplanin is a mucin-type highly O-glycosylated glycoprotein identified in several somatyic cells: podocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, lymph node stromal fibroblastic reticular cells, osteocytes, odontoblasts, mesothelial cells, glia cells, and others. It has been reported that podoplanin-RhoA interaction induces cytoskeleton relaxation and cell process stretching in fibroblastic cells and osteocytes, and that podoplanin plays a critical role in type I alveolar cell differentiation. It appears that podoplanin plays a number of different roles in contributing to cell functioning and growth by signaling. However, little is known about the functions of podoplanin in the somatic cells of the adult organism because an absence of podoplanin is lethal at birth by the respiratory failure. In this report, we investigated the tooth germ development in podoplanin-knockout mice, and the dentin formation in podoplanin-conditional knockout mice having neural crest-derived cells with deficiency in podoplanin by the Wnt1 promoter and enhancer-driven Cre recombinase: Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice. In the Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice, the tooth and alveolar bone showed no morphological abnormalities and grow normally, indicating that podoplanin is not critical in the development of the tooth and bone. PMID:28222099

  15. Putative role of border cells in generating spontaneous morphological activity within Kölliker's organ.

    PubMed

    Dayaratne, M W Nishani; Vlajkovic, Srdjan M; Lipski, Janusz; Thorne, Peter R

    2015-12-01

    Kölliker's organ is a transient epithelial structure, comprising a major part of the organ of Corti during pre-hearing stages of development. The auditory system is spontaneously active during development, which serves to retain and refine neural connections. Kölliker's organ is considered a key candidate for generating such spontaneous activity, most likely through purinergic (P2 receptor) signalling and inner hair cell (IHC) activation. Associated with the spontaneous neural activity, ATP released locally by epithelial cells induces rhythmic morphological changes within Kölliker's organ, the purpose of which is not understood. These changes are accompanied by a shift in cellular refractive index, allowing optical detection of this activity in real-time. Using this principle, we investigated the origin of spontaneous morphological activity within Kölliker's organ. Apical turns of Wistar rat cochleae (P9-11) were dissected, and the purinergic involvement was studied following acute tissue exposure to a P2 receptor agonist (ATPγS) and antagonist (suramin). ATPγS induced a sustained darkening throughout Kölliker's organ, reversed by suramin. This effect was most pronounced in the region closest to the inner hair cells, which also displayed the highest frequency of intrinsic morphological events. Additionally, suramin alone induced swelling of this region, suggesting a tight regulation of cell volume by ATP-mediated mechanisms. Histological analysis of cochlear tissues demonstrates the most profound volume changes in the border cell region immediately adjacent to the IHCs. Together, these results underline the role of purinergic signalling in initiating morphological events within Kölliker's organ, and suggest a key involvement of border cells surrounding IHCs in regulating this spontaneous activity.

  16. GNG11 (G-protein γ subunit 11) suppresses cell growth with induction of reactive oxygen species and abnormal nuclear morphology in human SUSM-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Takauji, Yuki; Kudo, Ikuru; En, Atsuki; Matsuo, Ryo; Hossain, Mohammad; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Miki, Kensuke; Fujii, Michihiko; Ayusawa, Dai

    2017-04-05

    Enforced expression of GNG11, G-protein γ subunit 11, induces cellular senescence in normal human diploid fibroblasts. We here examined the effect of the expression of GNG11 on the growth of immortalized human cell lines, and found that it suppressed the growth of SUSM-1 cells, but not of HeLa cells. We then compared these two cell lines to understand the molecular basis for the action of GNG11. We found that expression of GNG11 induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and abnormal nuclear morphology in SUSM-1 cells but not in HeLa cells. Increased ROS generation by GNG11 would likely be caused by the down-regulation of the antioxidant enzymes in SUSM-1 cells. We also found that SUSM-1 cells, even under normal culture conditions, showed higher levels of ROS and higher incidence of abnormal nuclear morphology than HeLa cells, and that abnormal nuclear morphology was relevant to the increased ROS generation in SUSM-1 cells. Thus, SUSM-1 and HeLa cells showed differences in the regulation of ROS and nuclear morphology, which might account for their different responses to the expression of GNG11. Then, SUSM-1 cells may provide a unique system to study the regulatory relationship between ROS generation, nuclear morphology, and G-protein signaling.

  17. Assessing the potential of colony morphology for dissecting the CFU-F population from human bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Gothard, D; Dawson, J I; Oreffo, R O C

    2013-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provide an ideal cell source for bone tissue engineering strategies. However, bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) populations that contain MSCs are highly heterogeneous expressing a wide variety of proliferative and differentiation potentials. Current MSC isolation methods employing magnetic-activated and fluorescent-activated cell sorting can be expensive and time consuming and, in the absence of specific MSC markers, fail to generate homogeneous populations. We have investigated the potential of various colony morphology descriptors to provide correlations with cell growth potential. Density-independent colony forming unit-fibroblastic (CFU-F) capacity is a MSC prerequisite and resultant colonies display an array of shapes and sizes that might be representative of cell function. Parent colonies were initially categorised according to their diameter and cell density and grouped before passage for the subsequent assessment of progeny colonies. Whereas significant morphological differences between distinct parent populations indicated a correlation with immunophenotype, enhanced CFU-F capacity was not observed when individual colonies were isolated according to these morphological parameters. Colony circularity, an alternative morphological measure, displayed a strong correlation with subsequent cell growth potential. The current study indicates the potential of morphological descriptors for predicting cell growth rate and suggests new directions for research into dissection of human BMSC CFU-F populations.

  18. Multifrequency study of a new Hybrid Morphology Radio Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gasperin, F.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid Morphology Radio Sources (HyMoRS) are a class of radio galaxies having the lobe morphology of a Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type I on one side of the active nucleus and of a FR type II on the other. The origin of the different morphologies between FR I and FR II sources has been widely discussed in the past 40 years, and HyMoRS may be the best way to understand whether this dichotomy is related to the intrinsic nature of the source and/or to its environment. However, these sources are extremely rare (≲ 1% of radio galaxies) and only for a few of them a detailed radio study, that goes beyond the morphological classification, has been conducted. In this paper we report the discovery of one new HyMoRS; we present X-ray and multi-frequency radio observations. We discuss the source morphological, spectral and polarisation properties and confirm that HyMoRS are intrinsically bimodal with respect to these observational characteristics. We notice that HyMoRS classification based just on morphological properties of the source is hazardous.

  19. Spontaneous activity of morphologically identified ganglion cells in the developing ferret retina.

    PubMed

    Liets, Lauren C; Olshausen, Bruno A; Wang, Guo-Yong; Chalupa, Leo M

    2003-08-13

    Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from morphologically identified ganglion cells in the intact retina of developing ferrets. As early as 3 d after birth, all ganglion cells exhibited bursts of spontaneous activity, with the interval between bursts gradually decreasing with maturity. By 2 weeks after birth, ganglion cells could be morphologically differentiated into three major classes (alpha, beta, and gamma), and at this time each cell class was characterized by a distinct pattern of spontaneous activity. Dual patch-clamp recordings from pairs of neighboring cells revealed that cells of all morphological classes burst in a coordinated manner, regardless of cell type. These observations suggest that a common mechanism underlies the bursting patterns exhibited by all ganglion cell classes, and that class-specific firing patterns emerge coincident with retinal ganglion cell morphological differentiation.

  20. Morphology evolution in high-performance polymer solar cells processed from nonhalogenated solvent

    DOE PAGES

    Cai, Wanzhu; Liu, Peng; Jin, Yaocheng; ...

    2015-05-26

    A new processing protocol based on non-halogenated solvent and additive is developed to produce polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiencies better than those processed from commonly used halogenated solvent-additive pair. Morphology studies show that good performance correlates with a finely distributed nanomorphology with a well-defined polymer fibril network structure, which leads to balanced charge transport in device operation.

  1. Distinct Morphology of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, José O.; Cao, Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Mansky, Louis M.

    2016-01-01

    The Gag polyprotein is the main retroviral structural protein and is essential for the assembly and release of virus particles. In this study, we have analyzed the morphology and Gag stoichiometry of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-like particles and authentic, mature HTLV-1 particles by using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). HTLV-1-like particles mimicked the morphology of immature authentic HTLV-1 virions. Importantly, we have observed for the first time that the morphology of these virus-like particles (VLPs) has the unique local feature of a flat Gag lattice that does not follow the curvature of the viral membrane, resulting in an enlarged distance between the Gag lattice and the viral membrane. Other morphological features that have been previously observed with other retroviruses include: (1) a Gag lattice with multiple discontinuities; (2) membrane regions associated with the Gag lattice that exhibited a string of bead-like densities at the inner leaflet; and (3) an arrangement of the Gag lattice resembling a railroad track. Measurement of the average size and mass of VLPs and authentic HTLV-1 particles suggested a consistent range of size and Gag copy numbers in these two groups of particles. The unique local flat Gag lattice morphological feature observed suggests that HTLV-1 Gag could be arranged in a lattice structure that is distinct from that of other retroviruses characterized to date. PMID:27187442

  2. Systematic morphological profiling of human gene and allele function via Cell Painting

    PubMed Central

    Rohban, Mohammad Hossein; Singh, Shantanu; Wu, Xiaoyun; Berthet, Julia B; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Shrestha, Yashaswi; Varelas, Xaralabos; Boehm, Jesse S; Carpenter, Anne E

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that human genes and disease-associated alleles might be systematically functionally annotated using morphological profiling of cDNA constructs, via a microscopy-based Cell Painting assay. Indeed, 50% of the 220 tested genes yielded detectable morphological profiles, which grouped into biologically meaningful gene clusters consistent with known functional annotation (e.g., the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK cascade). We used novel subpopulation-based visualization methods to interpret the morphological changes for specific clusters. This unbiased morphologic map of gene function revealed TRAF2/c-REL negative regulation of YAP1/WWTR1-responsive pathways. We confirmed this discovery of functional connectivity between the NF-κB pathway and Hippo pathway effectors at the transcriptional level, thereby expanding knowledge of these two signaling pathways that critically regulate tumor initiation and progression. We make the images and raw data publicly available, providing an initial morphological map of major biological pathways for future study. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24060.001 PMID:28315521

  3. Expression of VHL Causes Three-Dimensional Morphological Changes in Renal Cells Indicative of Proximal Tubule Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chiatar, Shivannah S; Eze, Ogechukwu P; Schoenfeld, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene are responsible for the VHL hereditary cancer syndrome, and are associated with the majority of clear cell renal cell carcinomas. In this study, scanning electron microscopy of VHL-negative renal carcinoma cells was utilized to examine the effects of VHL re-expression on the morphology of these cells. Significant differences were observed between the morphology of VHL-negative control cells and those with reintroduced VHL, with VHL expression mediating an apical surface that mounded upward, as opposed to the flat surfaces seen with VHL-negative cells. In long term cultures, rounded VHL-expressing cells grew in clusters on top the monolayer, and microvilli were observed on the apical face of these cells, in a manner suggestive of proximal tubule differentiation. In contrast, VHL-negative cells remained flat and did not develop microvilli in long-term cultures. Since VHL is a key member of an ubiquitin E3 ligase complex whose best known target is hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-α), we looked at the effects of HIF-α expression on cell morphology. Knockdown of HIF-2α in cells that only express this isoform had no effect on the morphology of the cells. These results indicate that VHL expression directs three dimensional morphological changes in renal cells indicative of differentiation, and while dysregulation of HIF-α may be necessary for tumorigenesis following VHL loss, it is not the major determinant of these VHL-mediated morphological changes. PMID:24308012

  4. Morphological and physiological evidence for interstitial cell of Cajal-like cells in the guinea pig gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Brigitte; Balemba, Onesmo B; Nelson, Mark T; Ward, Sean M; Mawe, Gary M

    2007-03-01

    Gallbladder smooth muscle (GBSM) exhibits spontaneous rhythmic electrical activity, but the origin and propagation of this activity are not understood. We used morphological and physiological approaches to determine whether interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are present in the guinea pig extrahepatic biliary tree. Light microscopic studies involving Kit tyrosine kinase immunohistochemistry and laser confocal imaging of Ca(2+) transients revealed ICC-like cells in the gallbladder. One type of ICC-like cell had elongated cell bodies with one or two primary processes and was observed mainly along GBSM bundles and nerve fibres. The other type comprised multipolar cells that were located at the origin and intersection of muscle bundles. Electron microscopy revealed ICC-like cells that were rich in mitochondria, caveolae and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and formed close appositions between themselves and with GBSM cells. Rhythmic Ca(2+) flashes, which represent Ca(2+) influx during action potentials, were synchronized in any given GBSM bundle and associated ICC-like cells. Gap junction uncouplers (1-octanol, carbenoxolone, 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid and connexin mimetic peptide) eliminated or greatly reduced Ca(2+) flashes in GBSM, but they persisted in ICC-like cells, whereas the Kit tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imanitib mesylate, eliminated or reduced action potentials and Ca(2+) flashes in both cell types, as well as associated tissue contractions. This study provides morphological and physiological evidence for the existence of ICC-like cells in the gallbladder and presents data supporting electrical coupling between ICC-like and GBSM cells. The results support a role for ICC-like cells in the generation and propagation of spontaneous rhythmicity, and hence, the excitability of gallbladder.

  5. Structural, morphological and electroluminescence studies of Zno:Co nanophosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anju; Vishwakarma, H. L.

    2016-09-01

    The nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) doped with various concentrations of cobalt (Co) were synthesized by chemical precipitation method in the presence of capping agent polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The effect of doping concentration on structural and morphological properties has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cell volume, bond length, texture coefficient, lattice constants and dislocation density are also studied. Here, we also compared the interplaner spacing and relative peak intensities from their standard values with different angles. Crystallite sizes have been calculated by Debye-Scherrer's formula whose values are decreasing with increase in cobalt content up to 3 %. It has been seen that the growth orientation of the prepared ZnO nanorods was (101). The XRD analysis also ensures that ZnO has a hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure. The electroluminescence (EL) cells were prepared by placing pure and cobalt-doped ZnO nanoparticles between ITO-coated conducting glass plate and aluminium foil. Alternating voltage of various frequencies was applied, and EL brightness at different voltages was measured and corresponding current was also recorded. The voltage dependence of electroluminescence (EL) brightness of the ZnO:Co shows exponential increase. The linear voltage-current characteristic indicates ohmic nature. The EL brightness at a particular voltage is found to increase by increasing Co doping, but for higher percentage of Co the EL brightness is reduced. It is also seen that Co does not influence the threshold voltage. The brightness is also affected by increasing the frequency of AC signal.

  6. NOTCH2 signaling confers immature morphology and aggressiveness in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Osanai, Makoto; Lee, Gang-Hong

    2015-10-01

    The NOTCH family of membranous receptors plays key roles during development and carcinogenesis. Since NOTCH2, yet not NOTCH1 has been shown essential for murine hepatogenesis, NOTCH2 rather than NOTCH1 may be more relevant to human hepatocarcinogenesis; however, no previous studies have supported this hypothesis. We therefore assessed the role of NOTCH2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by immunohistochemistry and cell culture. Immunohistochemically, 19% of primary HCCs showed nuclear staining for NOTCH2, indicating activated NOTCH2 signaling. NOTCH2-positive HCCs were on average in more advanced clinical stages, and exhibited more immature cellular morphology, i.e. higher nuclear-cytoplasmic ratios and nuclear densities. Such features were not evident in NOTCH1‑positive HCCs. In human HCC cell lines, abundant NOTCH2 expression was associated with anaplasia, represented by loss of E-cadherin. When NOTCH2 signaling was stably downregulated in HLF cells, an anaplastic HCC cell line, the cells were attenuated in potential for in vitro invasiveness and migration, as well as in vivo tumorigenicity accompanied by histological maturation. Generally, inverse results were obtained for a differentiated HCC cell line, Huh7, manipulated to overexpress activated NOTCH2. These findings suggested that the NOTCH2 signaling may confer aggressive behavior and immature morphology in human HCC cells.

  7. RASSF1A promoter methylation in high-grade serous ovarian cancer: A direct comparison study in primary tumors, adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues and paired circulating tumor DNA.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Lydia; Chebouti, Issam; Pavlakis, Kitty; Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine; Lianidou, Evi S

    2017-02-10

    The RASSF1A promoter is frequently methylated in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). We examined RASSF1A promoter methylation in primary tumors, adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues and corresponding circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) samples of patients with HGSC, using a real-time methylation specific PCR (real-time MSP) and a methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting analysis (MS-HRMA) assay for the detection and semi-quantitative estimation of methylation, respectively. Two groups of primary HGSC tumor FFPE samples were recruited (Group A n=67 and Group B n=61), along with matched adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues (n=58) and corresponding plasma samples (n=59) for group B. Using both assays, RASSF1A promoter was found highly methylated in primary tumors of both groups, and at lower percentages in the adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues. Interestingly, RASSF1A promoter methylation was also observed in ctDNA by real-time MSP. Overall survival (OS) was significantly associated with RASSF1A promoter methylation in primary tumor samples using MS-HRMA (P=0.023). Our results clearly indicate that RASSF1A promoter is methylated in adjacent tissue surrounding the tumor in HGSC patients. We report for the first time that RASSF1A promoter methylation provides significant prognostic information in HGSC patients.

  8. Acquisition of L2 English Morphology: A Family Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yanyin; Widyastuti, Ima

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the status of morphology in the L2 English of three members of a family from Indonesia (parents and their 5-year-old daughter) who have lived, studied or worked in Australia for a year. The investigation is contextualized against various learning settings in which the informants have learned English: formal instruction in…

  9. Biocompatible mesoporous silica nanoparticles with different morphologies for animal cell membrane penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Trewyn, B.; Nieweg, J.; Zhao, Y,; Lin, V.

    2007-11-24

    Two MCM-41 type, fluorescein-labeled mesoporous silica nanomaterials (MSNs) consisting of spherical and tube-shaped particles were synthesized and characterized. Both materials have hexagonally arranged mesopores with high surface area (>950 m{sup 2}/g) and a narrow distribution of pore diameters. The cellular uptake efficiency and kinetics of both MSNs were measured in a cancer cell line (CHO) and a noncancerous cell line (fibroblasts) by flow cytometry and fluorescence confocal microscopy. The correlation between the particle morphology and aggregation of MSNs to the effectiveness of cellular uptake was investigated. We envision that our study on the morphology dependent endocytosis of MSNs would lead to future developments of efficient transmembrane nanodevices for intracellular sensing and gene/drug delivery.

  10. Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Changela, H. G.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; DeGregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) constitutes a major proportion, 70-99%, of the total organic carbon found in primitive chondrites [1, 2]. One characteristic morphological component of IOM is nanoglobules [3, 4]. Some nanoglobules exhibit large N-15 and D enrichments relative to solar values, indicating that they likely originated in the ISM or the outskirts of the protoplanetary disk [3]. A recent study of samples from the Tagish Lake meteorite with varying levels of hydrothermal alteration suggest that nanoglobule abundance decreases with increasing hydrothermal alteration [5]. The aim of this study is to further document the morphologies of IOM from a range of primitive chondrites in order to determine any correlation of morphology with petrographic grade and chondrite class that could constrain the formation and/or alteration mechanisms.

  11. Endothelial Cell Morphology and Migration are Altered by Changes in Gravitational Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melhado, Caroline; Sanford, Gary; Harris-Hooker, Sandra

    1997-01-01

    Endothelial cell migration is important to vascular wall regeneration following injury or stress. However, the mechanism(s) governing this response is not well understood. The microgravity environment of space may complicate the response of these cells to injury. To date, there are no reports in this area. We examined how bovine aortic (BAEC) and pulmonary (BPEC) endothelial cells respond to denudation injury under hypergravity (HGrav) and simulated microgravity (MGrav), using image analysis. In 10% FBS, the migration of confluent BAEC and BPEC into the denuded area was not affected by HGrav or MGrav. However, in low FBS (0.5%), signficantly retarded migration under MGrav, and increased migration under HGrav was found. MGrav also decreased the migration of postconfluent BPEC while HGrav showed no difference. Both MGrav and HGrav strongly decreased the migration of postconfluent BAEC. Also, both cell lines showed significant morphological changes by scanning electron microscopy. These studies indicate that endothelial cell function is affected by changes in gravity.

  12. Multifractal characterization of morphology of human red blood cells membrane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Ţălu, Ş; Stach, S; Kaczmarska, M; Fornal, M; Grodzicki, T; Pohorecki, W; Burda, K

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show applicability of multifractal analysis in investigations of the morphological changes of ultra-structures of red blood cells (RBCs) membrane skeleton measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Human RBCs obtained from healthy and hypertensive donors as well as healthy erythrocytes irradiated with neutrons (45 μGy) were studied. The membrane skeleton of the cells was imaged using AFM in a contact mode. Morphological characterization of the three-dimensional RBC surfaces was realized by a multifractal method. The nanometre scale study of human RBCs surface morphology revealed a multifractal geometry. The generalized dimensions Dq and the singularity spectrum f(α) provided quantitative values that characterize the local scale properties of their membrane skeleton organization. Surface characterization was made using areal ISO 25178-2: 2012 topography parameters in combination with AFM topography measurement. The surface structure of human RBCs is complex with hierarchical substructures resulting from the organization of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton. The analysed AFM images confirm a multifractal nature of the surface that could be useful in histology to quantify human RBC architectural changes associated with different disease states. In case of very precise measurements when the red cell surface is not wrinkled even very fine differences can be uncovered as was shown for the erythrocytes treated with a very low dose of ionizing radiation.

  13. Collagenous gastritis: a morphologic and immunohistochemical study of 40 patients.

    PubMed

    Arnason, Thomas; Brown, Ian S; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Anderson, William; O'Brien, Blake H; Wilson, Claire; Winter, Harland; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2015-04-01

    Collagenous gastritis is a rare condition defined histologically by a superficial subepithelial collagen layer. This study further characterizes the morphologic spectrum of collagenous gastritis by evaluating a multi-institutional series of 40 patients (26 female and 14 male). The median age at onset was 16 years (range 3-89 years), including 24 patients (60%) under age 18. Twelve patients (30%) had associated celiac disease, collagenous sprue, or collagenous colitis. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed in biopsies from all patients and tenascin, gastrin, eotaxin, and IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical stains were applied to a subset. The distribution of subepithelial collagen favored the body/fundus in pediatric patients and the antrum in adults. There were increased surface intraepithelial lymphocytes (>25 lymphocytes/100 epithelial cells) in five patients. Three of these patients had associated celiac and/or collagenous sprue/colitis, while the remaining two had increased duodenal lymphocytosis without specific etiology. An eosinophil-rich pattern (>30 eosinophils/high power field) was seen in 21/40 (52%) patients. Seven patients' biopsies demonstrated atrophy of the gastric corpus mucosa. Tenascin immunohistochemistry highlighted the subepithelial collagen in all 21 specimens evaluated and was a more sensitive method of collagen detection in biopsies from two patients with subtle subepithelial collagen. No increased eotaxin expression was identified in 16 specimens evaluated. One of the twenty-three biopsies tested had increased IgG4-positive cells (100/high power field) with an IgG4/IgG ratio of 55%. In summary, collagenous gastritis presents three distinct histologic patterns including a lymphocytic gastritis-like pattern, an eosinophil-rich pattern, and an atrophic pattern. Eotaxin and IgG4 were not elevated enough to implicate these pathways in the pathogenesis. Tenascin immunohistochemistry can be used as a sensitive method of collagen detection.

  14. In vitro and in vivo studies of an aqueous extract of Matricaria recutita (German chamomile) on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, on the morphology of red blood cells and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Pinto, Angélica B.; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D.; Carvalho, Jorge J.; Pereira, Mário J. S.; Fonseca, Adenilson S.; Bernardo-Filho, Mário

    2013-01-01

    Background: Natural products might alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) and these results may be correlated with modifications of the shape of the red blood cells (RBC). The biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals can be also altered. Objective: This investigation aimed to determine biological effects of an aqueous extract of chamomile (CE). Materials and Methods: To study the effect of the CE on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc, in vitro and in vivo assays were performed. The effect of the CE on the morphology of RBC was observed under light microscope. The images were acquired, processed, and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC determined. To analyze the effect of the CE on biodistribution of the sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in Wistar rats, these animals were treated or not with a CE. Na99mTcO4 was injected, the rats were sacrificed, the organs were removed, weighted and percentage of radioactivity/gram calculated. Result: In the in vitro experiment, the radioactivity on blood cells compartment and on insoluble fractions of plasma was diminished. The shape and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC were altered in in vitro assays. An increase of the percentage of radioactivity of Na99mTcO4 was observed in stomach after in vivo treatment. Conclusion: These results could be due to substances of the CE or by the products of the metabolism of this extract in the animal organism. These findings are examples of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, which could lead to misdiagnosis in clinical practice with unexpected consequences. PMID:24143045

  15. Complex morphology of gastrin-releasing G-cells in the antral region of the mouse stomach.

    PubMed

    Frick, Claudia; Rettenberger, Amelie Therese; Lunz, Malena Luisa; Breer, Heinz

    2016-11-01

    Gastrin-releasing enteroendocrine cells (G-cells) are usually described as flask-shaped cells with a large base and a small apical pole, integrated in the epithelium lining the basal region of the antral invaginations in the stomach. By means of a transgenic mouse line in which the enhanced version of GFP is endogenously expressed under the control of a gastrin promoter, we have analyzed the spatial distribution and morphological features of G-cells. We found that G-cells were not only located at the basal region of the invagination but to a lesser extent also at the upper region. Visualization of the entire cellular morphology revealed that G-cells show complex morphologies. Basally located G-cells are roundish-shaped cells which project a prominent apical process towards the lumen and extend basal protrusions containing the hormone gastrin that were frequently found in close proximity to blood vessels and occasionally in the vicinity of nerve fibers. Inspection of G-cells in the upper region of antral invaginations disclosed a novel population of G-cells. These cells have a spindle-like contour and long apical and basal processes which extend vertically along the antral invagination, parallel to the lumen. This G-cell population seems to be in contact with a network of nerve fibers. While the functional role of these untypical G-cells is still elusive, the results of this study provide some useful indications to possible roles of these G-cells.

  16. [Morphological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with a focal tall-cell component].

    PubMed

    Abrosimov, A Iu; Kozhushnaia, S M

    2012-01-01

    The morphological features of papillary thyroid macro- and microcarcinomas of classical structure with the focal presence or absence of a tall-cell component were comparatively studied. Histological specimens of 55 neoplasms were examined in 53 patients. A trend was seen for the higher rate of regional metastasis in a group of tall-cell tumors. Additional studies of groups of patients matched for sex, age, and extrathyroid tumor extension are required to make a final conclusion on the metastatic potential and prognostic features of tumors with a tall-cell component. To solve this task, it is expedient to separate neoplasms with a focal tall-cell component from the bulk of classical papillary carcinomas.

  17. Stabilization of gene expression and cell morphology after explant recycling during fin explant culture in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Chenais, Nathalie; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Le Bail, Pierre-Yves; Labbe, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    The development of fin primary cell cultures for in vitro cellular and physiological studies is hampered by slow cell outgrowth, low proliferation rate, poor viability, and sparse cell characterization. Here, we investigated whether the recycling of fresh explants after a first conventional culture could improve physiological stability and sustainability of the culture. The recycled explants were able to give a supplementary cell culture showing faster outgrowth, cleaner cell layers and higher net cell production. The cells exhibited a highly stabilized profile for marker gene expression including a low cytokeratin 49 (epithelial marker) and a high collagen 1a1 (mesenchymal marker) expression. Added to the cell spindle-shaped morphology, motility behavior, and actin organization, this suggests that the cells bore stable mesenchymal characteristics. This contrast with the time-evolving expression pattern observed in the control fresh explants during the first 2 weeks of culture: a sharp decrease in cytokeratin 49 expression was concomitant with a gradual increase in col1a1. We surmise that such loss of epithelial features for the benefit of mesenchymal ones was triggered by an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process or by way of a progressive population replacement process. Overall, our findings provide a comprehensive characterization of this new primary culture model bearing mesenchymal features and whose stability over culture time makes those cells good candidates for cell reprogramming prior to nuclear transfer, in a context of fish genome preservation.

  18. A new live-cell reporter strategy to simultaneously monitor mitochondrial biogenesis and morphology.

    PubMed

    Hodneland Nilsson, Linn Iren; Nitschke Pettersen, Ina Katrine; Nikolaisen, Julie; Micklem, David; Avsnes Dale, Hege; Vatne Røsland, Gro; Lorens, James; Tronstad, Karl Johan

    2015-11-24

    Changes in mitochondrial amount and shape are intimately linked to maintenance of cell homeostasis via adaptation of vital functions. Here, we developed a new live-cell reporter strategy to simultaneously monitor mitochondrial biogenesis and morphology. This was achieved by making a genetic reporter construct where a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), controls expression of mitochondria targeted green fluorescent protein (mitoGFP). HeLa cells with the reporter construct demonstrated inducible expression of mitoGFP upon activation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) with AICAR. We established stable reporter cells where the mitoGFP reporter activity corresponded with mitochondrial biogenesis both in magnitude and kinetics, as confirmed by biochemical markers and confocal microscopy. Quantitative 3D image analysis confirmed accordant increase in mitochondrial biomass, in addition to filament/network promoting and protecting effects on mitochondrial morphology, after treatment with AICAR. The level of mitoGFP reversed upon removal of AICAR, in parallel with decrease in mtDNA. In summary, we here present a new GFP-based genetic reporter strategy to study mitochondrial regulation and dynamics in living cells. This combinatorial reporter concept can readily be transferred to other cell models and contexts to address specific physiological mechanisms.

  19. Primary Esophageal Extranasal NK/T Cell Lymphoma With Biphasic Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zi-Yin; Cao, Qing-Hua; Liu, Fang; Lu, Xiao-Fang; Li, Shu-Rong; Li, Chang-Zhao; Chen, Shao-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report a case of esophageal extranasal NK/T cell lymphoma with biphasic morphologic features revealed by a deep large piecemeal biopsy. A 40-year-old man present with pharyngalgia, dysphagia, recurrent fever, and 5-kg weight loss for 8 months. Endoscopy demonstrated progressing longitudinal ulcers and mucosal bridges along the esophagus. The first and second biopsies obtained superficial mucosa with scattered bland-looking small lymphocytes. A subsequent large piecemeal snare abscission for biopsy showed atypical lymphoid cells infiltrating into the deep lamina propria and muscularis mucosae, whereas the superficial lamina propria was highly edematous with scant small lymphocytes. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed that both underlying atypical cells and superficial small lymphocytes were neoplastic, sharing an identical immunophenotype: positive for CD2, CD3, CD43, CD8, CD56, TIA-1 and granzyme B. Epstein-Barr virus–encoded small RNAs were found in both cells. The histologic findings were diagnostic of primary esophageal extranasal NK/T cell lymphoma. However, the patient developed bone marrow depression during chemotherapy and died of massive cerebral hemorrhage after the first cycle of chemotherapy. Primary esophageal extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma nasal type is extremely rare. We show the biphasic morphology of this disease, which highlights the importance of deep biopsy for accurate diagnosis. PMID:26181557

  20. Systematic studies of morphological changes of precision polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Few, Chip S; Wagener, Kenneth B; Thompson, Donovan L

    2014-01-01

    The morphological changes of polyethylenes bearing precisely spaced "defects" are reviewed, focusing on the effects of defect frequency, size, and functionality on crystallization and crystalline structure. The precise defect interval is imparted through acyclic diene metathesis polymerization of structurally symmetric diene monomers. Studies have included structural characterization by differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X-ray scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and infrared spectroscopy. The collective results are presented separately for functionalized polyethylenes and for those containing alkyl chain branches, as these two classes of polymers vary greatly in morphology.

  1. A Comparison between Growth Morphology of "Eutectic" Cells/Dendrites and Single-Phase Cells/Dendrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.

    2003-01-01

    Directionally solidified (DS) intermetallic and ceramic-based eutectic alloys with an in-situ composite microstructure containing finely distributed, long aspect ratio, fiber, or plate reinforcements are being seriously examined for several advanced aero-propulsion applications. In designing these alloys, additional solutes need to be added to the base eutectic composition in order to improve heir high-temperature strength, and provide for adequate toughness and resistance to environmental degradation. Solute addition, however, promotes instability at the planar liquid-solid interface resulting in the formation of two-phase eutectic "colonies." Because morphology of eutectic colonies is very similar to the single-phase cells and dendrites, the stability analysis of Mullins and Sekerka has been extended to describe their formation. Onset of their formation shows a good agreement with this approach; however, unlike the single-phase cells and dendrites, there is limited examination of their growth speed dependence of spacing, morphology, and spatial distribution. The purpose of this study is to compare the growth speed dependence of the morphology, spacing, and spatial distribution of eutectic cells and dendrites with that for the single-phase cells and dendrites.

  2. Morphological Variability and Distinct Protein Profiles of Cultured and Endosymbiotic Symbiodinium cells Isolated from Exaiptasia pulchella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasaribu, Buntora; Weng, Li-Chi; Lin, I.-Ping; Camargo, Eddie; Tzen, Jason T. C.; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Ho, Shin-Lon; Lin, Mong-Rong; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen

    2015-10-01

    Symbiodinium is a dinoflagellate that plays an important role in the physiology of the symbiotic relationships of Cnidarians such as corals and sea anemones. However, it is very difficult to cultivate free-living dinoflagellates after being isolated from the host, as they are very sensitive to environmental changes. How these symbiont cells are supported by the host tissue is still unclear. This study investigated the characteristics of Symbiodinium cells, particularly with respect to the morphological variability and distinct protein profiles of both cultured and endosymbiotic Symbiodinium which were freshly isolated from Exaiptasia pulchella. The response of the cellular morphology of freshly isolated Symbiodinium cells kept under a 12 h L:12 h D cycle to different temperatures was measured. Cellular proliferation was investigated by measuring the growth pattern of Symbiodinium cells, the results of which indicated that the growth was significantly reduced in response to the extreme temperatures. Proteomic analysis of freshly isolated Symbiodinium cells revealed twelve novel proteins that putatively included transcription translation factors, photosystem proteins, and proteins associated with energy and lipid metabolism, as well as defense response. The results of this study will bring more understandings to the mechanisms governing the endosymbiotic relationship between the cnidarians and dinoflagellates.

  3. Morphology and chirality control self-assembly of sickle hemoglobin inside red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuejin; Lei, Huan; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George

    2012-02-01

    Sickle cells exhibit abnormal morphology and membrane mechanics in the deoxygenated state due to the polymerization of the interior sickle hemoglobin (HbS). In this study, the dynamics of self-assembly behavior of HbS in solution and corresponding induced cell morphologies have been investigated by dissipative particle dynamics approach. A coarse-grained HbS model, which contains hydrophilic and hydrophobic particles, is constructed to match the structural properties and physical description (including crowding effects) of HbS. The hydrophobic interactions are shown to be necessary with chirality being the main driver for the formation of HbS fibers. In the absence of chain chirality, only the self-assembled small aggregates are observed whereas self-assembled elongated step-like bundle microstructures appear when we consider the chain chirality. Several typical cell morphologies (sickle, granular, elongated shapes), induced by the growth of HbS fibers, are revealed and their deviations from the biconcave shape are quantified by the asphericity and elliptical shape factors.

  4. Retinoic acid improves morphology of cultured peritoneal mesothelial cells from patients undergoing dialysis.

    PubMed

    Retana, Carmen; Sanchez, Elsa I; Gonzalez, Sirenia; Perez-Lopez, Alejandro; Cruz, Armando; Lagunas-Munoz, Jesus; Alfaro-Cruz, Carmen; Vital-Flores, Socorro; Reyes, José L

    2013-01-01

    Patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis are classified according to their peritoneal permeability as low transporter (low solute permeability) or High transporter (high solute permeability). Factors that determine the differences in permeability between them have not been fully disclosed. We investigated morphological features of cultured human peritoneal mesothelial cells from low or high transporter patients and its response to All trans retinoic Acid (ATRA, vitamin A active metabolite), as compared to non-uremic human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Control cells were isolated from human omentum. High or low transporter cells were obtained from dialysis effluents. Cells were cultured in media containing ATRA (0, 50, 100 or 200 nM). We studied length and distribution of microvilli and cilia (scanning electron microscopy), epithelial (cytokeratin, claudin-1, ZO-1 and occludin) and mesenchymal (vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin) transition markers by immunofluorescence and Western blot, and transforming growth factor β1 expression by Western blot. Low and high transporter exhibited hypertrophic cells, reduction in claudin-1, occludin and ZO-1 expression, cytokeratin and vimentin disorganization and positive α-smooth muscle actin label. Vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor-β1 were overexpressed in low transporter. Ciliated cells were diminished in low and high transporters. Microvilli number and length were severely reduced in high transporter. ATRA reduced hypertrophic cells number in low transporter. It also improved cytokeratin and vimentin organization, decreased vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin expression, and increased claudin 1, occludin and ZO-1 expression, in low and high transporter. In low transporter, ATRA reduced transforming growth factor-β1 expression. ATRA augmented percentage of ciliated cells in low and high transporter. It also augmented cilia length in high transporter. Alterations in

  5. Cartography of cell morphology in tomato pericarp at the fruit scale.

    PubMed

    Legland, D; Devaux, M-F; Bouchet, B; Guillon, F; Lahaye, M

    2012-07-01

    In fleshy fruits, the variability of cell morphology at the fruit scale is largely unknown. It presents both a huge variability and a high level of organization. Better knowledge of cell morphology heterogeneity within the fruit is necessary to understand fruit development, to model fruit mechanical behaviour, or to investigate variations of physico-chemical measurements. A generic approach is proposed to build cartographies of cell morphology at the fruit scale, which depict regions corresponding to different cell morphologies. The approach is based on: (1) sampling the whole fruit at known positions; (2) imaging and quantifying local cell morphology; (3) pooling measurements to take biological variability into account and (4) projecting results in a morphology model of the whole fruit. The result is a synthetic representation of cell morphology variations within the whole fruit. The method was applied to the characterization of cell morphology in tomato pericarp. Two different imaging scales that provided complementary descriptions were used: 3D confocal microscopy and macroscopy. The approach is generic and can be adapted to other fruits or other products.

  6. Morphological changes among hippocampal dentate granule cells exposed to early kindling-epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shatrunjai P.; He, Xiaoping; McNamara, James O.; Danzer, Steve C.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with changes in the morphology of hippocampal dentate granule cells. These changes are evident in numerous models that are associated with substantial neuron loss and spontaneous recurrent seizures. By contrast, previous studies have shown that in the kindling model, it is possible to administer a limited number of stimulations sufficient to produce a lifelong enhanced sensitivity to stimulus evoked seizures without associated spontaneous seizures and minimal neuronal loss. Here we examined whether stimulation of the amygdala sufficient to evoke five convulsive seizures (class IV or greater on Racine’s scale) produce morphological changes similar to those observed in models of epilepsy associated with substantial cell loss. The morphology of GFP-expressing granule cells from Thy-1 GFP mice was examined either one day or one month after the last evoked seizure. Interestingly, significant reductions in dendritic spine density were evident one day after the last seizure, the magnitude of which had diminished by one month. Further, there was an increase in the thickness of the granule cell layer one day after the last evoked seizure, which was absent a month later. We also observed an increase in the area of the proximal axon, which again returned to control levels a month later. No differences in the number of basal dendrites were detected at either time point. These findings demonstrate that the early stages of kindling epileptogenesis produce transient changes in the granule cell body layer thickness, molecular layer spine density and axon proximal area, but do not produce striking rearrangements of granule cell structure. PMID:23893783

  7. Morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) blood cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Raskin, R.E.; Balazs, G.H.; Whittaker, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Objective - To identify and characterize blood cells from free-ranging Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas. Sample Population - 26 green turtles from Puako on the island of Hawaii and Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu. Procedure - Blood was examined, using light and electron microscopy and cytochemical stains that included benzidine peroxidase, chloroacetate esterase, alpha naphthyl butyrate esterase, acid phosphatase, Sudan black B, periodic acid-Schiff, and toluidine blue. Results - 6 types of WBC were identified: lymphocytes, monocytes, thrombocytes, heterophils, basophils, and eosinophils (small and large). Morphologic characteristics of mononuclear cells and most granulocytes were similar to those of cells from other reptiles except that green turtles have both large and small eosinophils. Conclusions - Our classification of green turtle blood cells clarifies imporoper nomenclature reported previously and provides a reference for future hematologic studies in this species.

  8. Morphological cell transformation of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells by the cyanotoxin, cylindrospermopsin.

    PubMed

    Maire, M-A; Bazin, E; Fessard, V; Rast, C; Humpage, A R; Vasseur, P

    2010-06-15

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanotoxin which has been implicated in human intoxication and animal mortality. Genotoxic activity of this hepatotoxin is known but its carcinogenic activity remains to be elucidated. In this work, CYN was assessed for its cell-transforming activity using the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay. This in vitro assay is used to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of chemical, physical and biological agents in SHE cells, which are primary, normal, diploid, genetically stable and capable of metabolic activation. We demonstrated that CYN induced a significant increase in morphological cell transformation in SHE cells following a 7-day continuous treatment in the range of non-cytotoxic concentrations 1 x 10(-7)-1 x 10(-2) ng/mL.

  9. Dendritic Morphology of Caudal Periaqueductal Gray Projecting Retinal Ganglion Cells in Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chaoran; Pu, Mingliang; Cui, Qi; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the morphological features of the caudal periaqueductal gray (cPAG)-projecting retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in Mongolian gerbils using retrograde labeling, in vitro intracellular injection, confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction approaches. cPAG-projecting RGCs exhibit small somata (10–17 µm) and irregular dendritic fields (201–298 µm). Sizes of somata and dendritic fields do not show obvious variation at different distance from the optic disk (eccentricity). Dendrites are moderately branched. Morphological analysis (n = 23) reveals that cPAG-projecting RGCs ramified in sublamina a and b in the inner plexiform layer. These cells exhibit different stratification patterns based on the thickness of dendritic bands in sublaminas a and b: majority of analyzed cells (16 out of 23) have two bands of arborizations share similar thickness. The rest of analyzed cells (7 out of 23) exhibit thinner band in sublamina a than in sublamina b. Together, the present study suggests that cPAG of Mongolian gerbil could receive direct retinal inputs from two types of bistratified RGCs. Furthermore, a small subset of melanopsin-expressing RGCs (total 41 in 6 animals) is shown to innervate the rostral PAG (rPAG). Functional characteristics of these non-visual center projecting RGCs remain to be determined. PMID:25054882

  10. Nanopattern-induced changes in morphology and motility of smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yim, Evelyn K F; Reano, Ron M; Pang, Stella W; Yee, Albert F; Chen, Christopher S; Leong, Kam W

    2005-09-01

    Cells are known to be surrounded by nanoscale topography in their natural extracellular environment. The cell behavior, including morphology, proliferation, and motility of bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (SMC) were studied on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surfaces comprising nanopatterned gratings with 350 nm linewidth, 700 nm pitch, and 350 nm depth. More than 90% of the cells aligned to the gratings, and were significantly elongated compared to the SMC cultured on non-patterned surfaces. The nuclei were also elongated and aligned. Proliferation of the cells was significantly reduced on the nanopatterned surfaces. The polarization of microtubule organizing centers (MTOC), which are associated with cell migration, of SMC cultured on nanopatterned surfaces showed a preference towards the axis of cell alignment in an in vitro wound healing assay. In contrast, the MTOC of SMC on non-patterned surfaces preferentially polarized towards the wound edge. It is proposed that this nanoimprinting technology will provide a valuable platform for studies in cell-substrate interactions and for development of medical devices with nanoscale features.

  11. Transcorneal electrical stimulation alters morphology and survival of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve damage.

    PubMed

    Henrich-Noack, Petra; Voigt, Nadine; Prilloff, Sylvia; Fedorov, Anton; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2013-05-24

    Traumatic optic nerve injury leads to retrograde death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), but transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) can increase the cell survival rate. To understand the mechanisms and to further define the TES-induced effects we monitored in living animals RGC morphology and survival after optic nerve crush (ONC) in real time by using in vivo confocal neuroimaging (ICON) of the retina. ONC was performed in rats and ICON was performed before crush and on post-lesion days 3, 7 and 15 which allowed us to repeatedly record RGC number and size. TES or sham-stimulation were performed immediately after the crush and on post-injury day 11. Three days after ONC we detected a higher percentage of surviving RGCs in the TES group as compared to sham-treated controls. However, the difference was below significance level on day 7 and disappeared completely by day 15. The death rate was more variable amongst the TES-treated rats than in the control group. Morphological analysis revealed that average cell size changed significantly in the control group but not in stimulated animals and the morphological alterations of surviving neurons were smaller in TES-treated compared to control cells. In conclusion, TES delays post-traumatic cell death significantly. Moreover, we found "responder animals" which also benefited in the long-term from the treatment. Our in vivo cellular imaging results provide evidence that TES reduces ONC-associated neuronal swelling and shrinkage especially in RGCs which survived long-term. Further studies are now needed to determine the differences of responders vs. non-responders.

  12. UV-C pre-adaptation of Salmonella: effect on cell morphology and membrane fatty acids composition.

    PubMed

    Maâlej, Lobna; Chatti, Abdelwaheb; Khefacha, Sana; Salma, Kloula; Gottardi, David; Vannini, Lucia; Guerzoni, Maria Elizabetta; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2014-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet radiations (UV-C) on the fatty acids composition of three serovars of Salmonella: S. typhimurium, S. hadar and S. zanzibar. Results obtained show that UV-C treatment increases significantly (P ≤ 0.05) the percentage of cyclic fatty acids. The atomic force microscopy was used to study the morphology and cell surface of irradiated strains. Results show that UV-C rays induce morphological changes and alter the bacterial cell surface (presence of grooves and irregularities).

  13. Morphological Characteristics of Electrophysiologically Characterized Layer Vb Pyramidal Cells in Rat Barrel Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Loucif, Alexandre J. C.; Schubert, Dirk; Möck, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Layer Vb pyramidal cells are the major output neurons of the neocortex and transmit the outcome of cortical columnar signal processing to distant target areas. At the same time they contribute to local tactile information processing by emitting recurrent axonal collaterals into the columnar microcircuitry. It is, however, not known how exactly the two types of pyramidal cells, called slender-tufted and thick-tufted, contribute to the local circuitry. Here, we investigated in the rat barrel cortex the detailed quantitative morphology of biocytin-filled layer Vb pyramidal cells in vitro, which were characterized for their intrinsic electrophysiology with special emphasis on their action potential firing pattern. Since we stained the same slices for cytochrome oxidase, we could also perform layer- and column-related analyses. Our results suggest that in layer Vb the unambiguous action potential firing patterns "regular spiking (RS)" and "repetitive burst spiking (RB)" (previously called intrinsically burst spiking) correlate well with a distinct morphology. RS pyramidal cells are somatodendritically of the slender-tufted type and possess numerous local intralaminar and intracolumnar axonal collaterals, mostly reaching layer I. By contrast, their transcolumnar projections are less well developed. The RB pyramidal cells are somatodendritically of the thick-tufted type and show only relatively sparse local axonal collaterals, which are preferentially emitted as long horizontal or oblique infragranular collaterals. However, contrary to many previous slice studies, a substantial number of these neurons also showed axonal collaterals reaching layer I. Thus, electrophysiologically defined pyramidal cells of layer Vb show an input and output pattern which suggests RS cells to be more "locally segregating" signal processors whereas RB cells seem to act more on a "global integrative" scale. PMID:27706253

  14. ANALYSES OF THE INTERACTIONS WITHIN BINARY MIXTURES OF CARCINOGENIC PAHS USING MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSES OF THE INTERACTIONS WITHIN BINARY MIXTURES OF CARCINOGENIC PAHS USING MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF C3HIOT1/2 CL8 CELLS.

    Studies of defined mixtures of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have identified three major categories of interacti...

  15. Morphologic maturation of tachykinin peptide-expressing cells in the postnatal rabbit retina.

    PubMed

    Casini, G; Trasarti, L; Andolfi, L; Bagnoli, P

    1997-04-18

    Tachykinin (TK) peptides, which include substance P, neurokinin A, two neurokinin A-related peptides and neurokinin B, are widely present in the nervous system, including the retina, where they act as neurotransmitters/modulators as well as growth factors. In the present study, we investigated the maturation of TK-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the rabbit retina with the aim of further contributing to the knowledge of the development of transmitter-identified retinal cell populations. In the adult retina, the pattern of TK immunostaining is consistent with the presence of TK peptides in amacrine, displaced amacrine, interplexiform and ganglion cells. In the newborn retina, intensely immunostained TK-IR somata are located in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and in the inner nuclear layer (INL) adjacent to the inner plexiform layer (IPL). They are characterized by an oval-shaped cell body originating a single process without ramifications. TK-IR processes are occasionally observed in the IPL and in the outer plexiform layer (OPL). Long TK-IR fiber bundles are observed in the ganglion cell axon layer. TK-IR profiles resembling small somata are rarely observed in the INL adjacent to the OPL. At postnatal day (PND) 2, some TK-IR cells display more complex morphologic features, including processes with secondary ramifications. Long TK-IR processes in the IPL are often seen to terminate with growth cones. Between PND 6 and PND 11 (eye opening), there is a dramatic increase in the number of immunolabeled processes with growth cones both in the IPL and in the OPL and the mature lamination of TK-IR fibers in laminae 1, 3 and 5 of the IPL is established. TK-IR cells attain mature morphological characteristics and the rare, putative TK-IR somata in the distal INL are no longer observed. After eye opening, growth cones are not present and the pattern typical of the adult is reached. These observations indicate that the development of TK-IR cells can be divided into an early phase

  16. Changes in morphology, cell wall composition and soluble proteome in Rhodobacter sphaeroides cells exposed to chromate.

    PubMed

    Italiano, Francesca; Rinalducci, Sara; Agostiano, Angela; Zolla, Lello; De Leo, Francesca; Ceci, Luigi R; Trotta, Massimo

    2012-10-01

    The response of the carotenoidless Rhodobacter sphaeroides mutant R26 to chromate stress under photosynthetic conditions is investigated by biochemical and spectroscopic measurements, proteomic analysis and cell imaging. Cell cultures were found able to reduce chromate within 3-4 days. Chromate induces marked changes in the cellular dimension and morphology, as revealed by atomic force microscopy, along with compositional changes in the cell wall revealed by infrared spectroscopy. These effects are accompanied by significant changes in the level of several proteins: 15 proteins were found up-regulated and 15 down-regulated. The protein content found in chromate exposed cells is in good agreement with the biochemical, spectroscopic and microscopic results. Moreover at the present stage no specific chromate-reductase could be found in the soluble proteome, indicating that detoxification of the pollutant proceeds via aspecific reductants.

  17. Double-Staining Method for Differentiation of Morphological Changes and Membrane Integrity of Campylobacter coli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Jose L.; Mascellaro, Salvatore; Moreno, Yolanda; Ferrús, María A.; Hernández, Javier

    2002-01-01

    We developed a double-staining procedure involving NanoOrange dye (Molecular Probes, Eugene, Oreg.) and membrane integrity stains (LIVE/DEAD BacLight kit; Molecular Probes) to show the morphological and membrane integrity changes of Campylobacter coli cells during growth. The conversion from a spiral to a coccoid morphology via intermediary forms and the membrane integrity changes of the C. coli cells can be detected with the double-staining procedure. Our data indicate that young or actively growing cells are mainly spiral shaped (green-stained cells), but older cells undergo a degenerative change to coccoid forms (red-stained cells). Club-shaped transition cell forms were observed with NanoOrange stain. Chlorinated drinking water affected the viability but not the morphology of C. coli cells. PMID:12324366

  18. Estimation and extraction of B-cell linear epitopes predicted by mathematical morphology approaches.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hao-Teng; Liu, Chih-Hong; Pai, Tun-Wen

    2008-01-01

    B-cell epitope prediction facilitates the design and synthesis of short peptides for various immunological applications. Several algorithms have been developed to predict B-cell linear epitopes (LEs) from primary sequences of antigens, providing important information for immunobiological experiments and antibody design. This paper describes two robust methods, LE prediction with/without local peak extraction (LEP-LP and LEP-NLP), based on antigenicity scale and mathematical morphology for the prediction of B-cell LEs. Previous studies revealed that LEs could occur in regions with low-to-moderate but not globally high antigenicity scales. Hence, we developed a method adopting mathematical morphology to extract local peaks from a linear combination of the propensity scales of physico-chemical characteristics at each antigen residue. Comparison among LEP-LP/LEP-NLP, BepiPred and BEPITOPE revealed that our algorithms performed better in retrieving epitopes with low-to-moderate antigenicity and achieved comparable performance according to receiver operation characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. Of the identified LEs, over 30% were unable to be predicted by BepiPred and BEPITOPE employing an average threshold of antigenicity index or default settings. Our LEP-LP method provides a bioinformatics approach for predicting B-cell LEs with low- to-moderate antigenicity. The web-based server was established at http://biotools.cs.ntou.edu.tw/lepd_antigenicity. php for free use.

  19. Toward bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with thermally stable active layer morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinaletti, Ilaria; Kesters, Jurgen; Bertho, Sabine; Conings, Bert; Piersimoni, Fortunato; D'Haen, Jan; Lutsen, Laurence; Nesladek, Milos; Van Mele, Bruno; Van Assche, Guy; Vandewal, Koen; Salleo, Alberto; Vanderzande, Dirk; Maes, Wouter; Manca, Jean V.

    2014-01-01

    When state-of-the-art bulk heterojunction organic solar cells with ideal morphology are exposed to prolonged storage or operation at elevated temperatures, a thermally induced disruption of the active layer blend can occur, in the form of a separation of donor and acceptor domains, leading to diminished photovoltaic performance. Toward the long-term use of organic solar cells in real-life conditions, an important challenge is, therefore, the development of devices with a thermally stable active layer morphology. Several routes are being explored, ranging from the use of high glass transition temperature, cross-linkable and/or side-chain functionalized donor and acceptor materials, to light-induced dimerization of the fullerene acceptor. A better fundamental understanding of the nature and underlying mechanisms of the phase separation and stabilization effects has been obtained through a variety of analytical, thermal analysis, and electro-optical techniques. Accelerated aging systems have been used to study the degradation kinetics of bulk heterojunction solar cells in situ at various temperatures to obtain aging models predicting solar cell lifetime. The following contribution gives an overview of the current insights regarding the intrinsic thermally induced aging effects and the proposed solutions, illustrated by examples of our own research groups.

  20. Stabilization of gene expression and cell morphology after explant recycling during fin explant culture in goldfish

    SciTech Connect

    Chenais, Nathalie; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Le Bail, Pierre-Yves; Labbe, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    The development of fin primary cell cultures for in vitro cellular and physiological studies is hampered by slow cell outgrowth, low proliferation rate, poor viability, and sparse cell characterization. Here, we investigated whether the recycling of fresh explants after a first conventional culture could improve physiological stability and sustainability of the culture. The recycled explants were able to give a supplementary cell culture showing faster outgrowth, cleaner cell layers and higher net cell production. The cells exhibited a highly stabilized profile for marker gene expression including a low cytokeratin 49 (epithelial marker) and a high collagen 1a1 (mesenchymal marker) expression. Added to the cell spindle-shaped morphology, motility behavior, and actin organization, this suggests that the cells bore stable mesenchymal characteristics. This contrast with the time-evolving expression pattern observed in the control fresh explants during the first 2 weeks of culture: a sharp decrease in cytokeratin 49 expression was concomitant with a gradual increase in col1a1. We surmise that such loss of epithelial features for the benefit of mesenchymal ones was triggered by an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process or by way of a progressive population replacement process. Overall, our findings provide a comprehensive characterization of this new primary culture model bearing mesenchymal features and whose stability over culture time makes those cells good candidates for cell reprogramming prior to nuclear transfer, in a context of fish genome preservation. - Highlights: • Recycled fin explants outgrow cells bearing stable mesenchymal traits. • Cell production and quality is enhanced in the recycled explant culture system. • Fresh fin primary culture is highly variable and loose epithelial traits over time.

  1. A rapid method combining Golgi and Nissl staining to study neuronal morphology and cytoarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Pilati, Nadia; Barker, Matthew; Panteleimonitis, Sofoklis; Donga, Revers; Hamann, Martine

    2008-06-01

    The Golgi silver impregnation technique gives detailed information on neuronal morphology of the few neurons it labels, whereas the majority remain unstained. In contrast, the Nissl staining technique allows for consistent labeling of the whole neuronal population but gives very limited information on neuronal morphology. Most studies characterizing neuronal cell types in the context of their distribution within the tissue slice tend to use the Golgi silver impregnation technique for neuronal morphology followed by deimpregnation as a prerequisite for showing that neuron's histological location by subsequent Nissl staining. Here, we describe a rapid method combining Golgi silver impregnation with cresyl violet staining that provides a useful and simple approach to combining cellular morphology with cytoarchitecture without the need for deimpregnating the tissue. Our method allowed us to identify neurons of the facial nucleus and the supratrigeminal nucleus, as well as assessing cellular distribution within layers of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. With this method, we also have been able to directly compare morphological characteristics of neuronal somata at the dorsal cochlear nucleus when labeled with cresyl violet with those obtained with the Golgi method, and we found that cresyl violet-labeled cell bodies appear smaller at high cellular densities. Our observation suggests that cresyl violet staining is inadequate to quantify differences in soma sizes.

  2. Effect of solvent and cell composition on morphology and photovoltaic characteristics of polymer solar cells of poly(3-hexylthiophene)/indene-C60 bisadduct composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Masaru; Cui, Dong; Wei, Huang; Yamamoto, Hideki; Yoshida, Yuji

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the solvent effect on the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs) by focusing on the film morphology. PSCs consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the fullerene derivative indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) were fabricated using two different solvents, chlorobenzene (CB) and chloroform (CF). The short-circuit current density (J sc) changed depending on the solvent and cell composition. When the ratio of ICBA was higher than that of P3HT, a high J sc was obtained from the CB based cells. When the ratio of P3HT was higher than that of ICBA, the CF cells showed a higher J sc than the CB cells. The high-performance cells had a clear microphase-separated morphology while phase separation was limited in the low-performance cells. Solubility parameter analysis suggested that the cell composition changed the interaction parameter of the system and thereby affected the phase separation behavior.

  3. Subepithelial B cells in the human palatine tonsil. I. Morphologic, cytochemical and phenotypic characterization.

    PubMed

    Dono, M; Burgio, V L; Tacchetti, C; Favre, A; Augliera, A; Zupo, S; Taborelli, G; Chiorazzi, N; Grossi, C E; Ferrarini, M

    1996-09-01

    This study describes the purification of a subset of tonsillar B cells which share phenotypic, morphologic and cytochemical features with subepithelial (SE) B cells. These cells, which represented the 5-10% of the total tonsillar B cells, were found in the Percoll gradient fraction of highest density, together with resting follicular mantle (FM) B cells. The latter B cells, however, expressed surface CD5 and could be removed by an immune rosetting procedure. The remaining small CD5- B cells had a surface phenotype (IgM+, IgD+, CD23-, CD38+/-, CD10-, CD44+) that was different from that of FM (IgM+, IgD+, CD23+, CD39+, CD38-, CD10-, CD44+2) and of germinal center (GC) (CD23-, CD39-, CD38+, CD10+, CD44+/-, IgG+) B cells isolated from the same cell suspensions. Furthermore, the absence of surface activation markers (CD71 and CD69) and of surface IgG allowed us to distinguish small CD5- B cells from activated and memory cells migrating within Percoll fractions of lower density. In situ immunohistochemical studies revealed that B cells with an identical phenotype as that of small CD5- B cells could be detected predominantly in the SE region (lamina propria) of the tonsil, and also within the epithelium lining the cryptae. This area was also comprised of a relatively minor proportion of activated B cells, not found in the small CD5- B cell fraction owing to the separation procedure used. Consistent with the notion that the SE area could be a site of B cell activation was also the presence of activated macrophages and of plasma cells. Thirty to forty percent of small CD5- B cells isolated in suspension were positive for the endogeneous alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. In contrast, only a few FM B cells were ALP+, while GC cells were consistently ALP-. In situ studies also demonstrated a prevalent expression of ALP activity by the B cells in the SE area. At the ultrastructural level, small CD5- B cells were clearly different from both FM and GC B cells. They displayed a

  4. Using wavelet denoising and mathematical morphology in the segmentation technique applied to blood cells images.

    PubMed

    Boix, Macarena; Cantó, Begoña

    2013-04-01

    Accurate image segmentation is used in medical diagnosis since this technique is a noninvasive pre-processing step for biomedical treatment. In this work we present an efficient segmentation method for medical image analysis. In particular, with this method blood cells can be segmented. For that, we combine the wavelet transform with morphological operations. Moreover, the wavelet thresholding technique is used to eliminate the noise and prepare the image for suitable segmentation. In wavelet denoising we determine the best wavelet that shows a segmentation with the largest area in the cell. We study different wavelet families and we conclude that the wavelet db1 is the best and it can serve for posterior works on blood pathologies. The proposed method generates goods results when it is applied on several images. Finally, the proposed algorithm made in MatLab environment is verified for a selected blood cells.

  5. Physiological and morphological characterization of ganglion cells in the salamander retina

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Jacoby, Roy; Wu, Samuel M.

    2016-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) integrate visual information from the retina and transmit collective signals to the brain. A systematic investigation of functional and morphological characteristics of various types of RGCs is important to comprehensively understand how the visual system encodes and transmits information via various RGC pathways. This study evaluated both physiological and morphological properties of 67 RGCs in dark-adapted flat-mounted salamander retina by examining light-evoked cation and chloride current responses via voltage-clamp recordings and visualizing morphology by Lucifer yellow fluorescence with a confocal microscope. Six groups of RGCs were described: asymmetrical ON–OFF RGCs, symmetrical ON RGCs, OFF RGCs, and narrow-, medium- and wide-field ON–OFF RGCs. Dendritic field diameters of RGCs ranged 102–490 µm: narrow field (<200 µm, 31% of RGCs), medium field (200–300 µm, 45%) and wide field (>300 µm, 24%). Dendritic ramification patterns of RGCs agree with the sub-lamina A/B rule. 34% of RGCs were monostratified, 24% bistratified and 42% diffusely stratified. 70% of ON RGCs and OFF RGCs were monostratified. Wide-field RGCs were diffusely stratified. 82% of RGCs generated light-evoked ON–OFF responses, while 11% generated ON responses and 7% OFF responses. Response sensitivity analysis suggested that some RGCs obtained separated rod/cone bipolar cell inputs whereas others obtained mixed bipolar cell inputs. 25% of neurons in the RGC layer were displaced amacrine cells. Although more types may be defined by more refined classification criteria, this report is to incorporate more physiological properties into RGC classification. PMID:26731645

  6. Physiological and morphological characterization of ganglion cells in the salamander retina.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Jacoby, Roy; Wu, Samuel M

    2016-02-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) integrate visual information from the retina and transmit collective signals to the brain. A systematic investigation of functional and morphological characteristics of various types of RGCs is important to comprehensively understand how the visual system encodes and transmits information via various RGC pathways. This study evaluated both physiological and morphological properties of 67 RGCs in dark-adapted flat-mounted salamander retina by examining light-evoked cation and chloride current responses via voltage-clamp recordings and visualizing morphology by Lucifer yellow fluorescence with a confocal microscope. Six groups of RGCs were described: asymmetrical ON-OFF RGCs, symmetrical ON RGCs, OFF RGCs, and narrow-, medium- and wide-field ON-OFF RGCs. Dendritic field diameters of RGCs ranged 102-490 μm: narrow field (<200 μm, 31% of RGCs), medium field (200-300 μm, 45%) and wide field (>300 μm, 24%). Dendritic ramification patterns of RGCs agree with the sublamina A/B rule. 34% of RGCs were monostratified, 24% bistratified and 42% diffusely stratified. 70% of ON RGCs and OFF RGCs were monostratified. Wide-field RGCs were diffusely stratified. 82% of RGCs generated light-evoked ON-OFF responses, while 11% generated ON responses and 7% OFF responses. Response sensitivity analysis suggested that some RGCs obtained separated rod/cone bipolar cell inputs whereas others obtained mixed bipolar cell inputs. 25% of neurons in the RGC layer were displaced amacrine cells. Although more types may be defined by more refined classification criteria, this report is to incorporate more physiological properties into RGC classification.

  7. Effects of biaxial oscillatory shear stress on endothelial cell proliferation and morphology.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Amlan; Chakraborty, Sutirtha; Jala, Venkatakrishna R; Haribabu, Bodduluri; Sharp, M Keith; Berson, R Eric

    2012-03-01

    Wall shear stress (WSS) on anchored cells affects their responses, including cell proliferation and morphology. In this study, the effects of the directionality of pulsatile WSS on endothelial cell proliferation and morphology were investigated for cells grown in a Petri dish orbiting on a shaker platform. Time and location dependent WSS was determined by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). At low orbital speed (50 rpm), WSS was shown to be uniform (0-1 dyne/cm(2)) across the bottom of the dish, while at higher orbital speed (100 and 150 rpm), WSS remained fairly uniform near the center and fluctuated significantly (0-9 dyne/cm(2)) near the side walls of the dish. Since WSS on the bottom of the dish is two-dimensional, a new directional oscillatory shear index (DOSI) was developed to quantify the directionality of oscillating shear. DOSI approached zero for biaxial oscillatory shear of equal magnitudes near the center and approached one for uniaxial pulsatile shear near the wall, where large tangential WSS dominated a much smaller radial component. Near the center (low DOSI), more, smaller and less elongated cells grew, whereas larger cells with greater elongation were observed in the more uniaxial oscillatory shear (high DOSI) near the periphery of the dish. Further, cells aligned with the direction of the largest component of shear but were randomly oriented in low magnitude biaxial shear. Statistical analyses of the individual and interacting effects of multiple factors (DOSI, shear magnitudes and orbital speeds) showed that DOSI significantly affected all the responses, indicating that directionality is an important determinant of cellular responses.

  8. Ovine Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Morphologic, Phenotypic and Functional Characterization for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Sanjurjo-Rodríguez, Clara; Castro-Viñuelas, Rocío; Hermida-Gómez, Tamara; Fernández-Vázquez, Tania; Fuentes-Boquete, Isaac Manuel; de Toro-Santos, Francisco Javier; Blanco-García, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Knowledge of ovine mesenchymal stromal cells (oMSCs) is currently expanding. Tissue engineering combining scaffolding with oMSCs provides promising therapies for the treatment of osteochondral diseases. Purpose The aim was to isolate and characterize oMSCs from bone marrow aspirates (oBMSCs) and to assess their usefulness for osteochondral repair using β-tricalcium phosphate (bTCP) and type I collagen (Col I) scaffolds. Methods Cells isolated from ovine bone marrow were characterized morphologically, phenotypically, and functionally. oBMSCs were cultured with osteogenic medium on bTCP and Col I scaffolds. The resulting constructs were evaluated by histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy studies. Furthermore, oBMSCs were cultured on Col I scaffolds to develop an in vitro cartilage repair model that was assessed using a modified International Cartilage Research Society (ICRS) II scale. Results oBMSCs presented morphology, surface marker pattern and multipotent capacities similar to those of human BMSCs. oBMSCs seeded on Col I gave rise to osteogenic neotissue. Assessment by the modified ICRS II scale revealed that fibrocartilage/hyaline cartilage was obtained in the in vitro repair model. Conclusions The isolated ovine cells were demonstrated to be oBMSCs. oBMSCs cultured on Col I sponges successfully synthesized osteochondral tissue. The data suggest that oBMSCs have potential for use in preclinical models prior to human clinical studies. PMID:28141815

  9. Ultrasound-microbubble mediated cavitation of plant cells: effects on morphology and viability.

    PubMed

    Qin, Peng; Xu, Lin; Zhong, Wenjing; Yu, Alfred C H

    2012-06-01

    The interaction between ultrasound pulses and microbubbles is known to generate acoustic cavitation that may puncture biological cells. This work presents new experimental findings on the bioeffects of ultrasound-microbubble mediated cavitation in plant cells with emphasis on direct observations of morphological impact and analysis of viability trends in tobacco BY-2 cells that are widely studied in higher plant physiology. The tobacco cell suspensions were exposed to 1 MHz ultrasound pulses in the presence of 1% v/v microbubbles (10% duty cycle; 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency; 70 mm between probe and cells; 1-min exposure time). Few bioeffects were observed at low peak negative pressures (<0.4 MPa) where stable cavitation presumably occurred. In contrast, at 0.9 MPa peak negative pressure (with more inertial cavitation activities according to our passive cavitation detection results), random pores were found on tobacco cell wall (observed via scanning electron microscopy) and enhanced exogenous uptake into the cytoplasm was evident (noted in our fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran uptake analysis). Also, instant lysis was observed in 23.4% of cells (found using trypan blue staining) and programmed cell death was seen in 23.3% of population after 12 h (determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling [TUNEL]). These bioeffects generally correspond in trend with those for mammalian cells. This raises the possibility of developing ultrasound-microbubble mediated cavitation into a targeted gene transfection paradigm for plant cells and, conversely, adopting plant cells as experimental test-beds for sonoporation-based gene therapy in mammalian cells.

  10. Identification of a nuclear-localized nuclease from wheat cells undergoing programmed cell death that is able to trigger DNA fragmentation and apoptotic morphology on nuclei from human cells.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Fernando; Cejudo, Francisco J

    2006-08-01

    PCD (programmed cell death) in plants presents important morphological and biochemical differences compared with apoptosis in animal cells. This raises the question of whether PCD arose independently or from a common ancestor in plants and animals. In the present study we describe a cell-free system, using wheat grain nucellar cells undergoing PCD, to analyse nucleus dismantling, the final stage of PCD. We have identified a Ca2+/Mg2+ nuclease and a serine protease localized to the nucleus of dying nucellar cells. Nuclear extracts from nucellar cells undergoing PCD triggered DNA fragmentation and other apoptotic morphology in nuclei from different plant tissues. Inhibition of the serine protease did not affect DNA laddering. Furthermore, we show that the nuclear extracts from plant cells triggered DNA fragmentation and apoptotic morphology in nuclei from human cells. The inhibition of the nucleolytic activity with Zn2+ or EDTA blocked the morphological changes of the nucleus. Moreover, nuclear extracts from apoptotic human cells triggered DNA fragmentation and apoptotic morphology in nuclei from plant cells. These results show that degradation of the nucleus is morphologically and biochemically similar in plant and animal cells. The implication of this finding on the origin of PCD in plants and animals is discussed.

  11. Crystal Morphologies of Organolead Trihalide in Mesoscopic/Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Vasiliev, Alexander L; Wu, Wenwen; Yang, Mengjin; Pang, Shuping; Zhu, Kai; Padture, Nitin P

    2015-06-18

    The crystal morphology of organolead trihalide perovskite (OTP) light absorbers can have profound influence on the perovskite solar cells (PSCs) performance. Here we have used a combination of conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), in cross-section and plan-view, to characterize the morphologies of a solution-processed OTP (CH3NH3PbI3 or MAPbI3) within mesoporous TiO2 scaffolds and within capping and planar layers. Studies of TEM specimens prepared with and without the use of focused ion beam (FIB) show that FIBing is a viable method for preparing TEM specimens. HRTEM studies, in conjunction with quantitative X-ray diffraction, show that MAPbI3 perovskite within mesoporous TiO2 scaffold has equiaxed grains of size 10-20 nm and relatively low crystallinity. In contrast, the grain size of MAPbI3 perovskite in the capping and the planar layers can be larger than 100 nm in our PSCs, and the grains can be elongated and textured, with relatively high crystallinity. The observed differences in the performance of planar and mesoscopic-planar hybrid PSCs can be attributed in part to the striking differences in their perovskite-grain morphologies.

  12. The influence of morphology on charge transport/recombination dynamics in planar perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Man; Wang, Yi; Wang, Hao-Yi; Han, Jun; Qin, Yujun; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Ai, Xi-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    The photovoltaic performance of planar perovskite solar cell is significantly influenced by the morphology of perovskite film. In this work, five kinds of devices with different perovskite film morphologies were prepared by varying the concentration of CH3NH3Cl in precursor solutions. We found that best morphology of perovskite film results in the excellent photovoltaic performance with an average efficiency of 15.52% and a champion efficiency of 16.38%. Transient photovoltage and photocurrent measurements are performed to elucidate the mechanism of photoelectric conversion processes, which shows that the charge recombination is effectively suppressed and the charge transport is obviously promoted by optimized morphology.

  13. Foveolar Müller Cells of the Pied Flycatcher: Morphology and Distribution of Intermediate Filaments Regarding Cell Transparency.

    PubMed

    Zueva, Lidia; Golubeva, Tatiana; Korneeva, Elena; Makarov, Vladimir; Khmelinskii, Igor; Inyushin, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Specialized intermediate filaments (IFs) have critical importance for the clearness and uncommon transparency of vertebrate lens fiber cells, although the physical mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Recently, an unusual low-scattering light transport was also described in retinal Müller cells. Exploring the function of IFs in Müller cells, we have studied the morphology and distribution pattern of IFs and other cytoskeletal filaments inside the Müller cell main processes in the foveolar part of the avian (pied flycatcher) retina. We found that some IFs surrounded by globular nanoparticles (that we suggest are crystallines) are present in almost every part of the Müller cells that span the retina, including the microvilli. Unlike IFs implicated in the mechanical architecture of the cell, these IFs are not connected to any specific cellular membranes. Instead, they are organized into bundles, passing inside the cell from the endfeet to the photoreceptor, following the geometry of the processes, and repeatedly circumventing numerous obstacles. We believe that the presently reported data effectively confirm that the model of nanooptical channels built of the IFs may provide a viable explanation of Müller cell transparency.

  14. Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage of osteoblast differentiation in osteoblastic progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Dun; Chen, Hai-Xiao; Yu, Hai-Qiang; Liang, Yong; Wang, Carrie; Lian, Qing-Quan; Deng, Hai-Teng; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2010-08-15

    Bone remodeling relies on a dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption, mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Under certain stimuli, osteoprogenitor cells may differentiate into premature osteoblasts and further into mature osteoblasts. This process is marked by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation. In this study, we induced osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells and divided the process into three stages. In the first stage (day 3), the MC3T3-E1 cell under osteoblast differentiation did not express ALP or deposit a mineralized nodule. In the second stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell expressed ALP but did not form a mineralized nodule. In the third stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell had ALP activity and formed mineralized nodules. In the present study, we focused on morphological and proteomic changes of MC3T3-E1 cells in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation - a period when premature osteoblasts transform into mature osteoblasts. We found that mean cell area and mean stress fiber density were increased in this stage due to enhanced cell spreading and decreased cell proliferation. We further analyzed the proteins in the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton using a proteomic approach and found upregulation of IQGAP1, gelsolin, moesin, radixin, and Cfl1. After analyzing the focal adhesion signaling pathway, we found the upregulation of FLNA, LAMA1, LAMA5, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A6, and COL5A2 as well as the downregulation of COL4A1, COL4A2, and COL4A4. In conclusion, the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton and focal adhesion play critical roles in regulating cell spreading and actin skeleton formation in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation.

  15. Morphological Characterization of Bushy Cells and Their Inputs in the Laboratory Mouse (Mus musculus) Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Amanda M.; Connelly, Catherine J.; Graham, Heather; Ryugo, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Spherical and globular bushy cells of the AVCN receive huge auditory nerve endings specialized for high fidelity neural transmission in response to acoustic events. Recent studies in mice and other rodent species suggest that the distinction between bushy cell subtypes is not always straightforward. We conducted a systematic investigation of mouse bushy cells along the rostral-caudal axis in an effort to understand the morphological variation that gives rise to reported response properties in mice. We combined quantitative light and electron microscopy to investigate variations in cell morphology, immunostaining, and the distribution of primary and non-primary synaptic inputs along the rostral-caudal axis. Overall, large regional differences in bushy cell characteristics were not found; however, rostral bushy cells received a different complement of axosomatic input compared to caudal bushy cells. The percentage of primary auditory nerve terminals was larger in caudal AVCN, whereas non-primary excitatory and inhibitory inputs were more common in rostral AVCN. Other ultrastructural characteristics of primary auditory nerve inputs were similar across the rostral and caudal AVCN. Cross sectional area, postsynaptic density length and curvature, and mitochondrial volume fraction were similar for axosomatic auditory nerve terminals, although rostral auditory nerve terminals contained a greater concentration of synaptic vesicles near the postsynaptic densities. These data demonstrate regional differences in synaptic organization of inputs to mouse bushy cells rather than the morphological characteristic of the cells themselves. PMID:23991186

  16. Morphology Analysis and Optimization: Crucial Factor Determining the Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wenjin; Liu, Xingming; Guo, Xiangru; Niu, Qiaoli; Yi, Jianpeng; Xia, Ruidong; Min, Yong

    2017-03-24

    This review presents an overall discussion on the morphology analysis and optimization for perovskite (PVSK) solar cells. Surface morphology and energy alignment have been proven to play a dominant role in determining the device performance. The effect of the key parameters such as solution condition and preparation atmosphere on the crystallization of PVSK, the characterization of surface morphology and interface distribution in the perovskite layer is discussed in detail. Furthermore, the analysis of interface energy level alignment by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is presented to reveals the correlation between morphology and charge generation and collection within the perovskite layer, and its influence on the device performance. The techniques including architecture modification, solvent annealing, etc. were reviewed as an efficient approach to improve the morphology of PVSK. It is expected that further progress will be achieved with more efforts devoted to the insight of the mechanism of surface engineering in the field of PVSK solar cells.

  17. Fractal morphology of Beta vulgaris L. cell suspension culture permeabilized with Triton X-100®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas-Ocampo, M.; Alamilla-Beltrán, L.; Vanegas-Espinoza, P. E.; Camacho-Díaz, B. H.; Campos-Mendiola, R.; Gutiérrez-López, G.; Jiménez-Aparicio, A.

    2012-02-01

    In this work, morphology of Beta vulgaris L. cells permeabilized with 0.7mM of Triton X-100® was evaluated using digital image processing and concepts of fractal dimension (perimeter- area relations). Important morphometric changes were found when the contact-time with chemical agent was increased. The size of cells decreased, the cells lost the roundness and their shape was more sinuous; this behaviour was a result of a probable shrinkage caused by the excess of exposure with the permeabilization agent. Morphology of B. vulgaris cells after permeabilization, exhibited a fractal nature since the slope of the ratio of the logarithm of the perimeter vs logarithm of the area was higher than unit. Fractal geometry of the cell morphology was affected as a result of the exposure to Triton X-100®. Those changes can be attributed to the loss of turgor and structure of the cell wall.

  18. DamX Controls Reversible Cell Morphology Switching in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Khandige, Surabhi; Asferg, Cecilie Antoinette; Rasmussen, Karina Juhl; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Overgaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability to change cell morphology is an advantageous characteristic adopted by multiple pathogenic bacteria in order to evade host immune detection and assault during infection. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) exhibits such cellular dynamics and has been shown to transition through a series of distinct morphological phenotypes during a urinary tract infection. Here, we report the first systematic spatio-temporal gene expression analysis of the UPEC transition through these phenotypes by using a flow chamber-based in vitro infection model that simulates conditions in the bladder. This analysis revealed a novel association between the cell division gene damX and reversible UPEC filamentation. We demonstrate a lack of reversible bacterial filamentation in a damX deletion mutant in vitro and absence of a filamentous response by this mutant in a murine model of cystitis. While deletion of damX abrogated UPEC filamentation and secondary surface colonization in tissue culture and in mouse infections, transient overexpression of damX resulted in reversible UPEC filamentation. In this study, we identify a hitherto-unknown damX-mediated mechanism underlying UPEC morphotypical switching. Murine infection studies showed that DamX is essential for establishment of a robust urinary tract infection, thus emphasizing its role as a mediator of virulence. Our study demonstrates the value of an in vitro methodology, in which uroepithelium infection is closely simulated, when undertaking targeted investigations that are challenging to perform in animal infection models. PMID:27486187

  19. Titanium oxide morphology controls charge collection efficiency in quantum dot solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kolay, Ankita; Kumar, P Naresh; Kumar, Sarode Krishna; Deepa, Melepurath

    2017-02-08

    Charge transfer at the TiO2/quantum dots (QDs) interface, charge collection at the TiO2/QDs/current collector (FTO or SnO2:F) interface, and back electron transfer at the TiO2/QDs/S(2-) interface are processes controlled by the electron transport layer or TiO2. These key processes control the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs). Here, four TiO2 morphologies, porous nanoparticles (PNPs), nanowires (NWs), nanosheets (NSHs) and nanoparticles (NPs), were sensitized with CdS and the photovoltaic performances were compared. The marked differences in the cell parameters on going from one morphology to the other have been explained by correlating the shape, structure and the above-described interfacial properties of a given TiO2 morphology to the said parameters. The average magnitudes of PCEs follow the order: NWs (5.96%) > NPs (4.95%) > PNPs (4.85%) > NSHs (2.5%), with the champion cell based on NWs exhibiting a PCE of 6.29%. For NWs, an optimal balance between the fast photo-excited electron injection to NWs at the NW/CdS interface, the high resistance offered at the TiO2 NW/CdS/S(2-) interfaces to electron recombination with the oxidized electrolyte or with the holes in CdS, the low electron transport resistance in NWs, and low dark currents, yields the highest efficiency due to directional unhindered transport of electrons afforded by the NWs. For NSHs, electron trapping in the two dimensional sheets, and a high electron recombination rate prevent the effective transfer of electrons to FTO, thus reducing short circuit current density significantly, resulting in a poor performance. This study provides a deep understanding of charge transfer, transport and collection processes necessary for the design of efficient QDSCs.

  20. Zebrafish mesonephric renin cells are functionally conserved and comprise two distinct morphological populations.

    PubMed

    Rider, Sebastien A; Christian, Helen C; Mullins, Linda J; Howarth, Amelia R; MacRae, Calum A; Mullins, John J

    2017-04-01

    Zebrafish provide an excellent model in which to assess the role of the renin-angiotensin system in renal development, injury, and repair. In contrast to mammals, zebrafish kidney organogenesis terminates with the mesonephros. Despite this, the basic functional structure of the nephron is conserved across vertebrates. The relevance of teleosts for studies relating to the regulation of the renin-angiotensin system was established by assessing the phenotype and functional regulation of renin-expressing cells in zebrafish. Transgenic fluorescent reporters for renin (ren), smooth muscle actin (acta2), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (pdgfrb) were studied to determine the phenotype and secretory ultrastructure of perivascular renin-expressing cells. Whole kidney ren transcription responded to altered salinity, pharmacological renin-angiotensin system inhibition, and renal injury. Mesonephric ren-expressing cells occupied niches at the preglomerular arteries and afferent arterioles, forming intermittent epithelioid-like multicellular clusters exhibiting a granular secretory ultrastructure. In contrast, renin cells of the efferent arterioles were thin bodied and lacked secretory granules. Renin cells expressed the perivascular cell markers acta2 and pdgfrb Transcriptional responses of ren to physiological challenge support the presence of a functional renin-angiotensin system and are consistent with the production of active renin. The reparative capability of the zebrafish kidney was harnessed to demonstrate that ren transcription is a marker for renal injury and repair. Our studies demonstrate substantive conservation of renin regulation across vertebrates, and ultrastructural studies of renin cells reveal at least two distinct morphologies of mesonephric perivascular ren-expressing cells.

  1. Genomic variations leading to alterations in cell morphology of Campylobacter spp

    PubMed Central

    Esson, Diane; Mather, Alison E.; Scanlan, Eoin; Gupta, Srishti; de Vries, Stefan P. W.; Bailey, David; Harris, Simon R.; McKinley, Trevelyan J.; Méric, Guillaume; Berry, Sophia K.; Mastroeni, Pietro; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Christie, Graham; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Parkhill, Julian; Maskell, Duncan J.; Grant, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease, is normally helical. However, it can also adopt straight rod, elongated helical and coccoid forms. Studying how helical morphology is generated, and how it switches between its different forms, is an important objective for understanding this pathogen. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic factors involved in generating the helical shape of Campylobacter. A C. jejuni transposon (Tn) mutant library was screened for non-helical mutants with inconsistent results. Whole genome sequence variation and morphological trends within this Tn library, and in various C. jejuni wild type strains, were compared and correlated to detect genomic elements associated with helical and rod morphologies. All rod-shaped C. jejuni Tn mutants and all rod-shaped laboratory, clinical and environmental C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli contained genetic changes within the pgp1 or pgp2 genes, which encode peptidoglycan modifying enzymes. We therefore confirm the importance of Pgp1 and Pgp2 in the maintenance of helical shape and extended this to a wide range of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. Genome sequence analysis revealed variation in the sequence and length of homopolymeric tracts found within these genes, providing a potential mechanism of phase variation of cell shape. PMID:27910897

  2. The rap GTPases regulate B cell morphology, immune-synapse formation, and signaling by particulate B cell receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kevin B L; Freeman, Spencer A; Zabetian, Saba; Brugger, Hayley; Weber, Michele; Lei, Victor; Dang-Lawson, May; Tse, Kathy W K; Santamaria, Rene; Batista, Facundo D; Gold, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    B lymphocytes spread and extend membrane processes when searching for antigens and form immune synapses upon contacting cells that display antigens on their surface. Although these dynamic morphological changes facilitate B cell activation, the signaling pathways underlying these processes are not fully understood. We found that activation of the Rap GTPases was essential for these changes in B cell morphology. Rap activation was important for B cell receptor (BCR)- and lymphocyte-function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1)-induced spreading, for BCR-induced immune-synapse formation, and for particulate BCR ligands to induce localized F-actin assembly and membrane-process extension. Rap activation and F-actin assembly were also required for optimal BCR signaling in response to particulate antigens but not soluble antigens. Thus by controlling B cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization, Rap might play a key role in the activation of B cells by particulate and cell-associated antigens.

  3. Postnatal ovary development in the rat: morphologic study and correlation of morphology to neuroendocrine parameters.

    PubMed

    Picut, Catherine A; Dixon, Darlene; Simons, Michelle L; Stump, Donald G; Parker, George A; Remick, Amera K

    2015-04-01

    Histopathologic examination of the immature ovary is a required end point on juvenile toxicity studies and female pubertal and thyroid function assays. To aid in this evaluation and interpretation of the immature ovary, the characteristic histologic features of rat ovary through the developmental periods are described. These histologic features are correlated with published changes in neuroendocrine profiles as the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis matures. During the neonatal stage (postnatal day [PND] 0-7), ovarian follicle development is independent of pituitary gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone [LH] or follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]), and follicles remain preantral. Antral development of "atypical" follicles occurs in the early infantile period (PND 8-14) when the ovary becomes responsive to pituitary gonadotropins. In the late infantile period (PND 15-20), the zona pellucida appears, the hilus forms, and antral follicles mature by losing their "atypical" appearance. The juvenile stage (PND 21-32) is the stage when atresia of medullary follicles occurs corresponding to a nadir in FSH levels. In the peripubertal period (PND 33-37), atresia subsides as FSH levels rebound, and LH begins its bimodal surge pattern leading to ovulation. This report will provide pathologists with baseline morphologic and endocrinologic information to aid in identification and interpretation of xenobiotic effects in the ovary of the prepubertal rat.

  4. Postnatal Ovary Development in the Rat: Morphologic Study and Correlation of Morphology to Neuroendocrine Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Picut, Catherine A.; Dixon, Darlene; Simons, Michelle L.; Stump, Donald G.; Parker, George A.; Remick, Amera K.

    2014-01-01

    Histopathologic examination of the immature ovary is a required end point on juvenile toxicity studies and female pubertal and thyroid function assays. To aid in this evaluation and interpretation of the immature ovary, the characteristic histologic features of rat ovary through the developmental periods are described. These histologic features are correlated with published changes in neuroendocrine profiles as the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis matures. During the neonatal stage (postnatal day [PND] 0–7), ovarian follicle development is independent of pituitary gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone [LH] or follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]), and follicles remain preantral. Antral development of “atypical” follicles occurs in the early infantile period (PND 8–14) when the ovary becomes responsive to pituitary gonadotropins. In the late infantile period (PND 15–20), the zona pellucida appears, the hilus forms, and antral follicles mature by losing their “atypical” appearance. The juvenile stage (PND 21–32) is the stage when atresia of medullary follicles occurs corresponding to a nadir in FSH levels. In the peripubertal period (PND 33–37), atresia subsides as FSH levels rebound, and LH begins its bimodal surge pattern leading to ovulation. This report will provide pathologists with baseline morphologic and endocrinologic information to aid in identification and interpretation of xenobiotic effects in the ovary of the prepubertal rat. PMID:25107574

  5. Morphology of human embryonic kidney cells in culture after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.; Kunze, M. E.; Williams, K.; Morrison, D. R.; Lewis, M. L.; Barlow, G. H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability of human embyronic kidney cells to differentiate into small epithelioid, large epithelioid, domed, and fenestrated morphological cell types following space flight is examined. Kidney cells exposed to 1 day at 1 g, then 1 day in orbit, and a 12 minute passage through the electrophoretic separator are compared with control cultures. The data reveal that 70 percent of small epithelioid, 16 percent of large epithelioid, 9 percent of dome-forming, and 5 percent of fenestrated cells formed in the space exposed cells; the distributions correlate well with control data. The formation of domed cells from cells cultured from low electrophoretic mobility fractions and small epithelioid cells from high mobility fractions is unaffected by space flight conditions. It is concluded that storage under microgravity conditions does not influence the morphological differentiation of human embryonic kidney cells in low-passage culture.

  6. Morphological and functional differentiation in BE(2)-M17 human neuroblastoma cells by treatment with Trans-retinoic acid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Immortalized neuronal cell lines can be induced to differentiate into more mature neurons by adding specific compounds or growth factors to the culture medium. This property makes neuronal cell lines attractive as in vitro cell models to study neuronal functions and neurotoxicity. The clonal human neuroblastoma BE(2)-M17 cell line is known to differentiate into a more prominent neuronal cell type by treatment with trans-retinoic acid. However, there is a lack of information on the morphological and functional aspects of these differentiated cells. Results We studied the effects of trans-retinoic acid treatment on (a) some differentiation marker proteins, (b) types of voltage-gated calcium (Ca2+) channels and (c) Ca2+-dependent neurotransmitter ([3H] glycine) release in cultured BE(2)-M17 cells. Cells treated with 10 μM trans-retinoic acid (RA) for 72 hrs exhibited marked changes in morphology to include neurite extensions; presence of P/Q, N and T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels; and expression of neuron specific enolase (NSE), synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25), nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 (nAChR-α7) and other neuronal markers. Moreover, retinoic acid treated cells had a significant increase in evoked Ca2+-dependent neurotransmitter release capacity. In toxicity studies of the toxic gas, phosgene (CG), that differentiation of M17 cells with RA was required to see the changes in intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations following exposure to CG. Conclusion Taken together, retinoic acid treated cells had improved morphological features as well as neuronal characteristics and functions; thus, these retinoic acid differentiated BE(2)-M17 cells may serve as a better neuronal model to study neurobiology and/or neurotoxicity. PMID:23597229

  7. Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland with Four Morphological Features

    PubMed Central

    Rosero, David S; Alvarez, Ramiro; Gambó, Paula; Alastuey, María; Valero, Alberto; Torrecilla, Nerea; Roche, A. Belén; Simón, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Acinic cell carcinoma arising in salivary glands is a rare tumor, accounting for 2% to 5% of the primary neoplasms of the parotid gland. When these tumors are well-differentiated, the neoplasia has innocuous aspect, due to the similarity to normal parotid tissue. This makes the diagnosis difficult. Initially the malignancy of this tumor was uncertain; however, recent studies have declared it as malignant. The female / male ratio is 3:2. The nodule usually presents as solitary and well defined shape. Several authors have used different terms to describe histomorphological patterns of these tumors. Four descriptive categories (solid, microcystic, papillary-cystic and follicular) are useful for pathologists. Here we report a case of a 49 yr old man with a left parotid nodule of 5 cm. Parotidectomy was performed at the Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, in Zaragoza (Spain). The microscopy showed a tumor with acinic semblance, having the four morphologic patterns previously described. The morphological and immunohistochemical study was consistent with the diagnosis of acinic cell carcinoma. PMID:27499783

  8. Cytotoxicity and morphological effects induced by carvacrol and thymol on the human cell line Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, María; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Pichardo, Silvia; Moreno, F Javier; Bermúdez, José María; Aucejo, Susana; Cameán, Ana María

    2014-02-01

    Essential oils used as additives in the food industry due to its flavour, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Therefore, human can be exposed orally to these compounds through the ingestion of foods. In this sense, the present work aims to assess toxicological effects of oregano essential oil on the digestive tract. In concrete, the cytotoxic effects of two components of the oregano essential oils, carvacrol and thymol, and their mixture, on the intestinal cells line Caco-2 after 24 and 48 h of exposure are studied. The basal cytotoxicity endpoints assayed (total protein content, neutral red uptake and the tetrazolium salt reduction) and the annexin/propidium iodide staining indicated that carvacrol and the mixture carvacrol/thymol induced toxic effects. Moreover, a morphological study was performed in order to determine the ultrastructural cellular damages caused by these substances. The main morphological alterations were vacuolated cytoplasm, altered organelles and finally cell death. In addition, although no cytotoxic effects were recorded for thymol at any concentration and time of exposure, ultrastructural changes evidenced cellular damage such as lipid degeneration, mitochondrial damage, nucleolar segregation and apoptosis.

  9. Late steps of parvoviral infection induce changes in cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Pakkanen, Kirsi; Nykky, Jonna; Vuento, Matti

    2008-11-01

    Previously, virus-induced non-filopodial extensions have not been encountered in connection with viral infections. Here, we report emergence of long extensions protruding from Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK) and A72 (canine fibroma) cells infected with canine parvovirus for 72 h. These extensions significantly differ in length and number from those appearing in control cells. The most striking feature in the extensions is the length, reaching up to 130 microm, almost twice the average length of a healthy NLFK cell. In A72 cells, the extensions were even longer, up to 200 microm. The results presented here also suggest that the events leading to the growth of these extensions start earlier in infection and abnormal extension growth is detectable already at 24-h post-infection (p.i.). These extensions may have a vital role in the cell-to-cell transmission of the virus.

  10. A spectral graph theoretic approach to quantification and calibration of collective morphological differences in cell images

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Shi; Lin, Chung-Chih; Tsai, Yuh-Show; Ku, Tien-Chuan; Huang, Yi-Hung; Hsu, Chun-Nan

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: High-throughput image-based assay technologies can rapidly produce a large number of cell images for drug screening, but data analysis is still a major bottleneck that limits their utility. Quantifying a wide variety of morphological differences observed in cell images under different drug influences is still a challenging task because the result can be highly sensitive to sampling and noise. Results: We propose a graph-based approach to cell image analysis. We define graph transition energy to quantify morphological differences between image sets. A spectral graph theoretic regularization is applied to transform the feature space based on training examples of extremely different images to calibrate the quantification. Calibration is essential for a practical quantification method because we need to measure the confidence of the quantification. We applied our method to quantify the degree of partial fragmentation of mitochondria in collections of fluorescent cell images. We show that with transformation, the quantification can be more accurate and sensitive than that without transformation. We also show that our method outperforms competing methods, including neighbourhood component analysis and the multi-variate drug profiling method by Loo et al. We illustrate its utility with a study of Annonaceous acetogenins, a family of compounds with drug potential. Our result reveals that squamocin induces more fragmented mitochondria than muricin A. Availability: Mitochondrial cell images, their corresponding feature sets (SSLF and WSLF) and the source code of our proposed method are available at http://aiia.iis.sinica.edu.tw/. Contact: chunnan@iis.sinica.edu.tw Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20529919

  11. Tuning perovskite morphology by polymer additive for high efficiency solar cell.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Yu; Chu, Cheng-Ya; Huang, Yu-Ching; Huang, Chien-Wen; Chang, Shuang-Yuan; Chen, Chien-An; Chao, Chi-Yang; Su, Wei-Fang

    2015-03-04

    Solution processable planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell is a very promising new technology for low cost renewable energy. One of the most common cell structures is FTO/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx/spiro-OMeTAD/Au. The main issues of this type of solar cell are the poor coverage and morphology control of the perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx film on TiO2. For the first time, we demonstrate that the problems can be easily resolved by using a polymer additive in perovskite precursor solution during the film formation process. A 25% increase in power conversion efficiency at a value of 13.2% is achieved by adding 1 wt % of poly(ethylene glycol) in the perovskite layer using a 150 °C processed TiO2 nanoparticle layer. The morphology of this new perovskite was carefully studied by SEM, XRD, and AFM. The results reveal that the additive controls the size and aggregation of perovskite crystals and helps the formation of smooth film over TiO2 completely. Thus, the Voc and Jsc are greatly increased for a high efficiency solar cell. The amount of additive is optimized at 1 wt % due to its insulating characteristics. This research provides a facile way to fabricate a high efficiency perovskite solar cell by the low temperature solution process (<150 °C), which has the advancement of conserving energy over the traditional high temperature sintering TiO2 compact layer device.

  12. Hybrid Solar Cells with Prescribed Nanoscale Morphologies Based onHyperbranched Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A.; Chen, Chih-Ping; Kanaras, AntoniosG.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-09-09

    In recent years, the search to develop large-area solar cells at low cost has led to research on photovoltaic (PV) systems based on nanocomposites containing conjugated polymers. These composite films can be synthesized and processed at lower costs and with greater versatility than the solid state inorganic semiconductors that comprise today's solar cells. However, the best nanocomposite solar cells are based on a complex architecture, consisting of a fine blend of interpenetrating and percolating donor and acceptor materials. Cell performance is strongly dependent on blend morphology, and solution-based fabrication techniques often result in uncontrolled and irreproducible blends, whose composite morphologies are difficult to characterize accurately. Here we incorporate 3-dimensional hyper-branched colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals in solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells, yielding reproducible and controlled nanoscale morphology.

  13. Control of cell morphology of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus for enhanced cell stability during industrial processing.

    PubMed

    Senz, Martin; van Lengerich, Bernhard; Bader, Johannes; Stahl, Ulf

    2015-01-02

    The viability of bacteria during industrial processing is an essential quality criterion for bacterial preparations, such as probiotics and starter cultures. Therefore, producing stable microbial cultures during proliferation is of great interest. A strong correlation between the culture medium and cellular morphology was observed for the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, which is commonly used in the dairy industry as a probiotic supplement and as a starter culture. The cell shapes ranged from single short rods to long filamentous rods. The culture medium composition could control this phenomenon of pleomorphism, especially the use of peptone in combination with an adequate heating of the medium during preparation. Furthermore, we observed a correlation between the cell size and stability of the microorganisms during industrial processing steps, such as freeze-drying, extrusion encapsulation and storage following dried preparations. The results revealed that short cells are more stable than long cells during each of the industrially relevant processing steps. As demonstrated for L. acidophilus NCFM, the adaptation of the medium composition and optimized medium preparation offer the possibility to increase the concentration of viable cells during up- and survival rate during down-stream processing.

  14. A rapid and sensitive automated image-based approach for in vitro and in vivo characterization of cell morphology and quantification of cell number and neurite architecture.

    PubMed

    Tapias, Victor; Greenamyre, J Timothy

    2014-04-01

    Stereological methods for tissue cell counting, specifically for neuron quantification, decrease systematic error and sampling bias; however, they are tedious, labor intensive, and time consuming. Approaches for cell (neuron) quantification in vitro are not accurate, sensitive, or subsequently reproducible. Neuronal phenotype is related to alterations in cell morphology and neurite pattern. The techniques currently available for quantification of these features present several limitations. In this unit, we provide validated automated procedures for in vivo and in vitro quantification of cell number, morphological cell changes, and neurite morphometry in a fast, simple, and reliable manner. Our method counts up to 8 times as many neurons in less than 5% to 10% of the time required for stereological analysis (optical fractionator). In summary, this technology offers an unparalleled opportunity to examine features of cells at high resolution in a complex three-dimensional environment. These techniques provide an exceptional in vivo and in vitro system for neurotoxicity studies, disease modeling, and drug discovery.

  15. Endothelial Cell Morphology and Migration are Altered by Changes in Gravitational Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melhado, Caroline; Sanford, Gary; Harris-Hooker, Sandra

    1997-01-01

    vascular cells. However, few studies have been directed at assessing the effect of altered gravitational field on vascular cell fiction and metabolism, Using image analysis we examined how bovine aortic endothelial cells altered their morphological characteristics and their response to a denudation injury when cells were subjected to simulated microgravity and hypergravity.

  16. Automated cell-by-cell tissue imaging and single-cell analysis for targeted morphologies by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Hang; Smith, Brian K; Shrestha, Bindesh; Márk, László; Vertes, Akos

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is an emerging technology for the mapping of molecular distributions in tissues. In most of the existing studies, imaging is performed by sampling on a predefined rectangular grid that does not reflect the natural cellular pattern of the tissue. Delivering laser pulses by a sharpened optical fiber in laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry (MS) has enabled the direct analysis of single cells and subcellular compartments. Cell-by-cell imaging had been demonstrated using LAESI-MS, where individual cells were manually selected to serve as natural pixels for tissue imaging. Here we describe a protocol for a novel cell-by-cell LAESI imaging approach that automates cell recognition and addressing for systematic ablation of individual cells. Cell types with particular morphologies can also be selected for analysis. First, the cells are recognized as objects in a microscope image. The coordinates of their centroids are used by a stage-control program to sequentially position the cells under the optical fiber tip for laser ablation. This approach increases the image acquisition efficiency and stability, and enables the investigation of extended or selected tissue areas. In the LAESI process, the ablation events result in mass spectra that represent the metabolite levels in the ablated cells. Peak intensities of selected ions are used to represent the metabolite distributions in the tissue with single-cell resolution.

  17. Morphological studies of resonances in plasmonic metasurfaces for SPR sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelek, Jakub; Kwiecien, Pavel; Richter, Ivan; Homola, Jiří

    2015-05-01

    We investigate selected periodic arrays of nanostructures inspired by metasurfaces originally used in metamaterial structures and evaluate their potential for surface plasmon resonance applicable in sensing. Building blocks including rectangles, cut wires, crosses, fishnets, split ring resonators were ordered on suitable substrates and their reflection (R), transmission (T), and loss energy (L) spectra were calculated. The numerical studies were performed using our efficient in-house two-dimensional rigorous coupled-wave analysis technique. Our technique incorporates all the key improvements of the method available, taking into account both proper Fourier factorization rules, adaptive spatial resolution techniques, as well as structural symmetries. Using the R, T, and L spectra, we investigated spectral sensitivity of SPR and calculated the respective SPR sensor characteristics, such as figures of merit (FOM), enabling direct comparison of various structural morphologies for potential sensing applications. Also, optimization of the structures in terms of FOM has been performed to identify the most promising candidates. Additionally, to allow for interpretation of spectral resonant features and the interplay of individual and surface lattice resonances, we were gradually changing the morphology of individual building blocks from one type of element to another one. We believe that this study will bring insight into plasmonic behavior of nanostructured metasurfaces and will further benefit research into SPR biosensors.

  18. Parametric analysis of colony morphology of non-labelled live human pluripotent stem cells for cell quality control

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Ryuji; Matsumoto, Megumi; Sasaki, Hiroto; Joto, Risako; Okada, Mai; Ikeda, Yurika; Kanie, Kei; Suga, Mika; Kinehara, Masaki; Yanagihara, Kana; Liu, Yujung; Uchio-Yamada, Kozue; Fukuda, Takayuki; Kii, Hiroaki; Uozumi, Takayuki; Honda, Hiroyuki; Kiyota, Yasujiro; Furue, Miho K

    2016-01-01

    Given the difficulties inherent in maintaining human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in a healthy state, hPSCs should be routinely characterized using several established standard criteria during expansion for research or therapeutic purposes. hPSC colony morphology is typically considered an important criterion, but it is not evaluated quantitatively. Thus, we designed an unbiased method to evaluate hPSC colony morphology. This method involves a combination of automated non-labelled live-cell imaging and the implementation of morphological colony analysis algorithms with multiple parameters. To validate the utility of the quantitative evaluation method, a parent cell line exhibiting typical embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like morphology and an aberrant hPSC subclone demonstrating unusual colony morphology were used as models. According to statistical colony classification based on morphological parameters, colonies containing readily discernible areas of differentiation constituted a major classification cluster and were distinguishable from typical ESC-like colonies; similar results were obtained via classification based on global gene expression profiles. Thus, the morphological features of hPSC colonies are closely associated with cellular characteristics. Our quantitative evaluation method provides a biological definition of ‘hPSC colony morphology’, permits the non-invasive monitoring of hPSC conditions and is particularly useful for detecting variations in hPSC heterogeneity. PMID:27667091

  19. Design of Bicontinuous Donor/Acceptor Morphologies for Use as Organic Solar Cell Active Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipp, Dylan; Mok, Jorge; Verduzco, Rafael; Ganesan, Venkat

    Two of the primary challenges limiting the marketability of organic solar cells are i) the smaller device efficiency of the organic solar cell relative to the conventional silicon-based solar cell and ii) the long term thermal instability of the device active layer. The achievement of equilibrium donor/acceptor morphologies with the characteristics believed to yield high device performance characteristics could address each of these two challenges. In this work, we present the results of a combined simulations and experiments-based approach to investigate if a conjugated BCP additive can be used to control the self-assembled morphologies taken on by conjugated polymer/PCBM mixtures. First, we use single chain in mean field Monte Carlo simulations to identify regions within the conjugated polymer/PCBM composition space in which addition of copolymers can lead to bicontinuous equilibrium morphologies with high interfacial areas and nanoscale dimensions. Second, we conduct experiments as directed by the simulations to achieve such morphologies in the PTB7 + PTB7- b-PNDI + PCBM model blend. We characterize the results of our experiments via a combination of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray scattering techniques and demonstrate that the morphologies from experiments agree with those predicted in simulations. Accordingly, these results indicate that the approach utilized represents a promising approach to intelligently design the morphologies taken on by organic solar cell active layers.

  20. Morphological signs of apoptosis in axotomized ganglion cells of the rabbit retina.

    PubMed

    Germain, F; Fernández, E; de la Villa, P

    2007-02-09

    Optic nerve section in mammals induces apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). However, a small population of RGCs survives for a relatively long time. These cells experience significant morphological changes due to the apoptotic process, but some of these changes are not clearly differentiated from those experienced in necrotic cells. In the present work, rabbit RGCs were studied 1 month after optic nerve section using light microscopy after neurobiotin injection, transmission electron microscopy (EM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Apoptosis was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling and characteristic signs of apoptosis were observed in the EM images. Ultrastructural analyses showed vacuolar degeneration in the cytoplasm and normal cellular structure loss. Signs of membrane changes were observed in axotomized RGCs by SEM. Early changes seen in the cell membrane suggest that axotomy may cause important changes in the cytoskeleton. We conclude that characteristic signs of apoptosis at the cell membrane level are clearly observed in rabbit RGCs after axotomy and they may be responsible for the cellular death.

  1. Auxin regulates SNARE-dependent vacuolar morphology restricting cell size.

    PubMed

    Löfke, Christian; Dünser, Kai; Scheuring, David; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen

    2015-03-05

    The control of cellular growth is central to multicellular patterning. In plants, the encapsulating cell wall literally binds neighbouring cells to each other and limits cellular sliding/migration. In contrast to its developmental importance, growth regulation is poorly understood in plants. Here, we reveal that the phytohormone auxin impacts on the shape of the biggest plant organelle, the vacuole. TIR1/AFBs-dependent auxin signalling posttranslationally controls the protein abundance of vacuolar SNARE components. Genetic and pharmacological interference with the auxin effect on vacuolar SNAREs interrelates with auxin-resistant vacuolar morphogenesis and cell size regulation. Vacuolar SNARE VTI11 is strictly required for auxin-reliant vacuolar morphogenesis and loss of function renders cells largely insensitive to auxin-dependent growth inhibition. Our data suggests that the adaptation of SNARE-dependent vacuolar morphogenesis allows auxin to limit cellular expansion, contributing to root organ growth rates.

  2. Variation in Langerhans cell number and morphology between the upper and lower regions of the human esophageal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Zavala, Walther D; De Simone, Dino Sanchez; Sacerdote, Fabio L; Cavicchia, Juan C

    2002-12-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are dendritic components of stratified epithelia, presenting antigens to other cells of the immune system that play a crucial role in local defense. The paucity of information about their significance in the esophageal mucosa was addressed by studying their distribution and morphology in this particular location. LCs were identified by immunohistochemical detection of CD1a, a cell-specific marker, using a monoclonal antibody, as well as by electron microscopic identification of characteristic Birbeck granules, among other typical morphological features. Cell counts carried out at 25 and 35 cm distal to the dental arch demonstrated significant differences in number and size between the two locations. The upper region contained 10.4 +/- 0.8 cells (mean +/- SEM) vs. 18.4 +/- 1.4 cells in the lower region. Also, cells in the lower region were larger and appeared to have longer dendritic processes. To our knowledge this is the first report of regional differences in number and morphology of LCs in human esophageal mucosa.

  3. The use of optical coherence tomography for morphological study of scaffolds

    SciTech Connect

    Veksler, B A; Kuz'min, V L; Kobzev, E D; Meglinski, I V

    2012-05-31

    Aimed at possible widening of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) field of application, an attempt is made to use OCT in tissue engineering and cell transplantology as a tool for morphological studies of substrate materials by the example of scaffolds. By means of the traditional fibreoptical OCT scheme the images of inner structure of scaffolds are obtained, and simultaneously the spatial distribution of the intralipid flow velocity is reconstructed using the Doppler OCT. It is shown that combined use of traditional OCT and Doppler OCT schemes allows revealing the regions of the scaffold demonstrating optimal effect of shear stress, which is a key factor of cell growth.

  4. The use of optical coherence tomography for morphological study of scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veksler, B. A.; Kuz'min, V. L.; Kobzev, E. D.; Meglinski, I. V.

    2012-05-01

    Aimed at possible widening of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) field of application, an attempt is made to use OCT in tissue engineering and cell transplantology as a tool for morphological studies of substrate materials by the example of scaffolds. By means of the traditional fibreoptical OCT scheme the images of inner structure of scaffolds are obtained, and simultaneously the spatial distribution of the intralipid flow velocity is reconstructed using the Doppler OCT. It is shown that combined use of traditional OCT and Doppler OCT schemes allows revealing the regions of the scaffold demonstrating optimal effect of shear stress, which is a key factor of cell growth.

  5. Protein SUMOylation is Involved in Cell-cycle Progression and Cell Morphology in Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Di Genova, Bruno M; da Silva, Richard C; da Cunha, Júlia P C; Gargantini, Pablo R; Mortara, Renato A; Tonelli, Renata R

    2016-11-19

    The unicellular protozoa Giardia lamblia is a food- and waterborne parasite that causes giardiasis. This illness is manifested as acute and self-limited diarrhea and can evolve to long-term complications. Successful establishment of infection by Giardia trophozoites requires adhesion to host cells and colonization of the small intestine, where parasites multiply by mitotic division. The tight binding of trophozoites to host cells occurs by means of the ventral adhesive disc, a spiral array of microtubules and associated proteins such as giardins. In this work we show that knock down of the Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier (SUMO) results in less adhesive trophzoites, decreased cell proliferation and deep morphological alterations, including at the ventral disc. Consistent with the reduced proliferation, SUMO knocked-down trophozoites were arrested in G1 and in S phases of the cell cycle. Mass spectrometry analysis of anti-SUMO immunoprecipitates was performed to identify SUMO substrates possibly involved in these events. Among the identified SUMOylation targets, α-tubulin was further validated by Western blot and confirmed to be a SUMO target in Giardia trophozoites.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Barrall, Geoffrey Alden

    1995-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample`s density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques.

  7. A Morphological Study of the Petunia integrifolia Complex (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    ANDO, TOSHIO; ISHIKAWA, NOBUYUKI; WATANABE, HITOSHI; KOKUBUN, HISASHI; YANAGISAWA, YOSHIKI; HASHIMOTO, GORO; MARCHESI, EDUARDO; SUÁREZ, ENRIQUE

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Petunia inflata has been treated taxonomically in various ways: it has been described as an independent species, treated as a synonym of P. integrifolia, and also regarded as a subspecies of P. integrifolia. The present study was designed to resolve the ambiguity involving the P. integrifolia complex (P. integrifolia plus P. inflata). • Methods Tentative identification (either integrifolia group or inflata group) was carried out in the field based on the observation of live specimens at the restricted type localities. The accuracy of the tentative identification was later tested with principal component and cluster analyses of data obtained by measuring 21 morphological characters on cultivated live specimens sourced from 113 natural populations of the P. integrifolia complex in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. • Key Results There was a clear, statistically significant gap between the morphological measurements of the two groups, ensuring the accuracy of identification carried out in the field except for a probable hybrid swarm. Previously, the condition of the pedicel in the fruiting state was considered an important character distinguishing between these two groups; however, the condition of the pedicel was rather variable in the integrifolia group. The two groups were found to have geographically distinct distributions: the integrifolia group occurred in southern regions, whereas the inflata group occurred in northern regions. • Conclusions Based on the available evidence, it is suggested that the two groups are allopatric species, P. integrifolia and P. inflata, in agreement with the opinion of Fries (1911). PMID:16103037

  8. Morphology of the bicipital aponeurosis: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S D; Yogesh, A S; Mittal, P S; Joshi, S S

    2014-02-01

    The bicipital aponeurosis (BA) is a fascial expansion which arises from the tendon of biceps brachii and dissipates some of the force away from its enthesis. It helps in dual action of biceps brachii as supinator and flexor of forearm. The aim of the present work was to study the morphology of BA. Thirty cadavericupper limbs (16 right and 14 left side limbs) were dissected and dimensions ofthe BA were noted. The average width of aponeurosis at its commencement on the right was 15.74 mm while on the left it was 17.57 mm. The average angle between tendon and aponeurosis on the right was 21.16° and on the left it was 21.78°. The fibres from the short head of the biceps brachii contributed to the formation of proximal part of aponeurosis. Fascial sheath over the tendon oflong head of biceps brachii was seen to form the distal part of the aponeurosis. In 5 cases, large fat globules were present between the sheath and the tendon. Histologically: The aponeurosis showed presence of thick collagen bundles. Fascials heath covering the tendon of long head extended towards the aponeurosis and passed superficial to the tendon of biceps. Blood vessels and adipose tissue were found to be present between fascial sheath and the tendon. This morphological description of BA may be helpful 1) in elucidating the dynamic role that BA plays in normal functioning and 2) to the surgeons in the repair of ruptured biceps brachii tendon.

  9. Bioeffective Ultrasound at Very Low Doses: Reversible Manipulation of Neuronal Cell Morphology and Function in Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratore, Robert; LaManna, Justine; Szulman, Erin; Kalisz, M. S. Andrew; Lamprecht, Michael; Simon, M. S. Melissa; Yu, M. S. Zhe; Xu, Nina; Morrison, Barclay

    2009-04-01

    Direct and safe manipulation of neurons by external means is an increasingly studied therapeutic modality with the potential to treat many neurological diseases. Anticipating such future applications, we investigated reversible bioeffects of very low dose focused ultrasound on neuronal cell morphology and function in vitro. To test morphological changes, undifferentiated PC12 cells were serum-cultured. The culture plates were placed on an inverted optical microscope. An f/1.1 ultrasound transducer with a water-filled coupling cone was focused on the culture and excited with 30-ms 4.67-MHz 100-kPa pulses. To test functional changes, rat hippocampal slices were cultured and individually transferred to the well of a 60-channel multi electrode array. An f/2.1 ultrasound transducer with a water-filled coupling cone was focused on a culture and excited with 100-μs 4.04-MHz 77-kPa pulses. The culture was stimulated before and after the ultrasonic stimulus with a 100-μs 100-μA biphasic electrical stimulus. Optical microscopy of PC12 cultures under insonification revealed that cells that were clustered near the ultrasound focal region elongated by approximately 2 μm during insonification and returned to approximately their original shapes following insonification. We conclude that the acoustic radiation force is capable of reversibly deforming cultured cells. In the rat hippocampal cultures, the ultrasonically and electrically evoked responses exhibited similar biphasic waveforms. In addition, robust electrically evoked responses following insonification indicated that the insonified cultures remained viable. We conclude that low-dose ultrasound can stimulate neurons; the mechanism is currently under investigation.

  10. Effects of hierarchical micro/nano-topographies on the morphology, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qianli; Elkhooly, Tarek A; Liu, Xujie; Zhang, Ranran; Yang, Xing; Shen, Zhijian; Feng, Qingling

    2016-09-01

    Coating the surfaces of titanium-based implants with appropriate hierarchical micro/nano-topographies resembling the structure of natural bone significantly enhances their biological performance. However, the relationship between nanostructures surfaces and their effects on modulating cellular response is not clearly understood. Moreover, it is not clear whether the surface chemistry or topography is the main factor on modulating cellular behavior, because the commonly used surface modification techniques for titanium-based implants simultaneously modify surface topography and chemistry. The aim of this study is to investigate osteoblast-like cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation on hierarchical micro/nano-topographies with similar surface chemistry but different nano-scale features. Micro-arc oxidation and post hydrothermal treatment were employed to fabricate micro/nano-topographies on titanium. According to the morphological features, they were classified as microcrater (micro-topography), nanoplate (hierarchical topography with nanoplates) and nanoleaf (hierarchical topography with nanoleaves). The response of osteoblast like cells (SaOS-2) was studied on each surface after sputtering with a thin layer of gold (Au) to minimize the influence of surface chemistry. The morphological evaluation after histochemical staining revealed that the adherent cells were polygonal-shaped on microcrater surface, roundish on nanoplate surface and elongated on nanoleaf surface. Additionally, compared to microcrater surface, nanoplate surface slowed down cell proliferation and exhibited no enhancement on cell differentiation. However, nanoleaf surface supported cell proliferation and promoted cell differentiation. The results indicate that tuning morphological features of nanostructures on micro-topography can serve as a promising strategy to specifically modulate cellular response, such as cell morphology, proliferation, differentiation and mineralization.

  11. Analysis of cancer cell morphology in fluorescence microscopy image exploiting shape descriptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Mi-Sun; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Sudong; Ryu, Gyu Ha; Kim, Myoung-Hee

    2016-04-01

    Cancer cell morphology is closely related to their phenotype and activity. These characteristics are important in drug-response prediction for personalized cancer therapeutics. We used multi-channel fluorescence microscopy images to analyze the morphology of highly cohesive cancer cells. First, we detected individual nuclei regions in single-channel images using advanced simple linear iterative clustering. The center points of the nuclei regions were used as seeds for the Voronoi diagram method to extract spatial arrangement features from cell images. Human cancer cell populations form irregularly shaped aggregates, making their detection more difficult. We overcame this problem by identifying individual cells using an image-based shape descriptor. Finally, we analyzed the correlation between cell agglutination and cell shape.

  12. Viral morphogenesis and morphological changes in human neuronal cells following Tioman and Menangle virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yaiw, K C; Hyatt, A; Vandriel, R; Crameri, S G; Eaton, B; Wong, M H; Wang, L F; Ng, M L; Bingham, J; Shamala, D; Wong, K T

    2008-01-01

    Tioman virus (TioPV) and Menangle virus (MenPV) are two antigenically and genetically related paramyxoviruses (genus: Rubulavirus, family: Paramyxoviridae) isolated from Peninsular Malaysia (2001) and Australia (1997), respectively. Both viruses are potential zoonotic agents. In the present study, the infectivity, growth kinetics, morphology and morphogenesis of these two paramyxoviruses in a human neuronal cell (SK-N-SH) line were investigated. Sub-confluent SK-N-SH cells were infected with TioPV and MenPV at similar multiplicity of infection. These cells were examined by conventional and immunoelectron microscopy, and virus titres in the supernatants were assayed. Syncytia were observed for both infections in SK-N-SH cells and were more pronounced during the early stages of TioPV infection. The TioPV titre increased consistently (10(1)) every 12 h after infection. In MenPV-infected cells, cellular material was frequently observed within budding virions, and microfilaments and microtubules were abundant. Viral budding was common, and extracellular MenPVs tended to be more pleomorphic compared to TioPVs, which appeared to be more spherical in appearance. The MenPV cytoplasmic viral inclusion appeared to be comparatively smaller, loose and interspersed with randomly scattered circle-like particles, whereas huge tubule-like cytoplasmic inclusions were observed in TioPV-infected cells. Both viruses also displayed different cellular pathology in the SK-N-SH cells. The intracellular ultrastructural characteristics of these two viruses in infected neuronal cells may allow them to be differentiated by electron microscopy.

  13. Morphological features (defects) in fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Fowler, M. W.; Simon, L. C.; Grot, S.

    Reliability and durability issues in fuel cells are becoming more important as the technology and the industry matures. Although research in this area has increased, systematic failure analysis, such as a failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), are very limited in the literature. This paper presents a categorization scheme of causes, modes, and effects related to fuel cell degradation and failure, with particular focus on the role of component quality, that can be used in FMEAs for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The work also identifies component defects imparted on catalyst-coated membranes (CCM) by manufacturing and proposes mechanisms by which they can influence overall degradation and reliability. Six major defects have been identified on fresh CCM materials, i.e., cracks, orientation, delamination, electrolyte clusters, platinum clusters, and thickness variations.

  14. A novel role for atypical MAPK kinase ERK3 in regulating breast cancer cell morphology and migration

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mahdi, Rania; Babteen, Nouf; Thillai, Kiruthikah; Holt, Mark; Johansen, Bjarne; Wetting, Hilde Ljones; Seternes, Ole-Morten; Wells, Claire M

    2015-01-01

    ERK3 is an atypical Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK6). Despite the fact that the Erk3 gene was originally identified in 1991, its function is still unknown. MK5 (MAP kinase- activated protein kinase 5) also called PRAK is the only known substrate for ERK3. Recently, it was found that group I p21 protein activated kinases (PAKs) are critical effectors of ERK3. PAKs link Rho family of GTPases to actin cytoskeletal dynamics and are known to be involved in the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. In this study we demonstrate that ERK3 protein levels are elevated as MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells adhere to collagen I which is concomitant with changes in cellular morphology where cells become less well spread following nascent adhesion formation. During this early cellular adhesion event we observe that the cells retain protrusive activity while reducing overall cellular area. Interestingly exogenous expression of ERK3 delivers a comparable reduction in cell spread area, while depletion of ERK3 expression increases cell spread area. Importantly, we have detected a novel specific endogenous ERK3 localization at the cell periphery. Furthermore we find that ERK3 overexpressing cells exhibit a rounded morphology and increased cell migration speed. Surprisingly, exogenous expression of a kinase inactive mutant of ERK3 phenocopies ERK3 overexpression, suggesting a novel kinase independent function for ERK3. Taken together our data suggest that as cells initiate adhesion to matrix increasing levels of ERK3 at the cell periphery are required to orchestrate cell morphology changes which can then drive migratory behavior. PMID:26588708

  15. Morphological and molecular study of Symphyla from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Moncada, Diego A.; Calle-Osorno, Jaime; Ruiz-Lopez, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The symphylans are a poorly studied group. In Colombia the number of symphylan species is unknown with only Scutigerella immaculata (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) being reported previously. The aim of this research was to collect and identify the symphylan pests of flower crops in Colombia. Morphological descriptions showed that our specimens shared more than one of the characters that define different genera within Scutigerellidae. The COI barcode haplotype showed interspecific level genetic divergence with Scutigerella causeyae (at least 23%) and Hanseniella sp. (22%). Furthermore, our Colombian symphylans shared the same COI haplotype as some Symphyla found in Cameroon indicating a wide geographical distribution of this taxon. Our results suggest the presence of a new genus or subgenus in the class Symphyla. PMID:25829846

  16. Dynamic potential and surface morphology study of sertraline membrane sensors.

    PubMed

    Khater, M M; Issa, Y M; Hassib, H B; Mohammed, S H

    2015-05-01

    New rapid, sensitive and simple electrometric method was developed to determine sertraline hydrochloride (Ser-Cl) in its pure raw material and pharmaceutical formulations. Membrane sensors based on heteropolyacids as ion associating material were prepared. Silicomolybdic acid (SMA), silicotungstic acid (STA) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) were used. The slope and limit of detection are 50.00, 60.00 and 53.24 mV/decade and 2.51, 5.62 and 4.85 μmol L(-1) for Ser-ST, Ser-PM and Ser-SM membrane sensors, respectively. Linear range is 0.01-10.00 for the three sensors. These new sensors were used for the potentiometric titration of Ser-Cl using sodium tetraphenylborate as titrant. The surface morphologies of the prepared membranes with and without the modifier (ion-associate) were studied using scanning and atomic force microscopes.

  17. Dynamic potential and surface morphology study of sertraline membrane sensors

    PubMed Central

    Khater, M.M.; Issa, Y.M.; Hassib, H.B.; Mohammed, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    New rapid, sensitive and simple electrometric method was developed to determine sertraline hydrochloride (Ser-Cl) in its pure raw material and pharmaceutical formulations. Membrane sensors based on heteropolyacids as ion associating material were prepared. Silicomolybdic acid (SMA), silicotungstic acid (STA) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) were used. The slope and limit of detection are 50.00, 60.00 and 53.24 mV/decade and 2.51, 5.62 and 4.85 μmol L−1 for Ser-ST, Ser-PM and Ser-SM membrane sensors, respectively. Linear range is 0.01–10.00 for the three sensors. These new sensors were used for the potentiometric titration of Ser-Cl using sodium tetraphenylborate as titrant. The surface morphologies of the prepared membranes with and without the modifier (ion-associate) were studied using scanning and atomic force microscopes. PMID:26257944

  18. Physical Model Study: Rill Erosion Morphology and Flow Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmeier, S.; Klik, A.; Nouwakpo, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    Using common catchment size erosion model software either lack of knowledge or lack in process ability of watershed characteristics leads to increasing simplifications in model assumptions. Referring to open channel hydraulics, erosion model equations are prevalently based on stepwise uniform flow condition requirements. Approaching balance of gravitational and frictional resistance forces, channel roughness is fundamental model input. The fusion of simplified model assumptions and the use of lumped roughness determination cause ambivalence in model calibration. By means of a physical model experiment at the National Soil Erosion Laboratory (NSERL), West Lafayette, USA, channel roughness was itemized into skin friction and channel shape friction due to rill morphology. Particularly the Manning-Strickler equation was analyzed concerning the applicability of constant and holistic factors describing boundary friction impacts. The insufficiency in using the Manning-Strickler equation for non-uniform flow conditions is widely advised, whereas lack in predictability in rill erosion development inhibits proper model adoptions. The aim of the present study is to determine the impact of channel morphology on roughness assessment in rill erosion scale. Therefore a 1.9 meter long, 0.6 meter wide and 0.3 meter deep flume with an inclination of 10 % was filled with a loamy soil representing a section of a hill slope. The soil was prepared and saturated by simulated rainfall before each model run. A single erosion channel was enforced to develop by means of steady state runoff. Two different erosion channel types were initiated and observed: I.) a Straight Constrained Rill (SCR) shape by concentration of the runoff into a prepared straight initial rill and II.) a Free Developing Rill (FDR) by back-cut erosion through the plain soil body. Discharge of the outflow was measured in 5 minute interval and outflow sediment concentration was measured every minute. A top view stereo

  19. [Morphological manifestations of systemic atherosclerosis found in fundus (experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Budzinskaia, M V; Fedorov, A A; Pliukhova, A A; Voevodina, T M; Balatskaia, N V

    2013-01-01

    Results of angiography and morphology of 32 eyes (16 chinchilla rabbits) with experimental atherosclerosis are presented. N.N. Anichkov and S.S. Khalatova experimental hypercholesterolemia model (1912) was used. The animals were divided into the following groups: initial and advanced atherosclerosis, control group, follow-up 3 and 6 months. After 3 months progressive reduction of perfused retinal vessels and early degenerative changes of neurons and photoreceptors were found. In 6 months these changes became more significant and generalized. Due to ongoing small vessel reduction blood flow went to the major vessels and changed its distribution followed by ischemia of adjacent retina. No changes in choriocapillary layer and retinal pigment epithelium were found in any of groups studied.

  20. The acetabular point: a morphological and ontogenetic study

    PubMed Central

    RISSECH, C.; SAÑUDO, J. R.; MALGOSA, A.

    2001-01-01

    The acetabular point was analysed by studying human pelvic bones from 326 individuals ranging from newborns to age 97 y. The bones were categorised into 3 groups according to the degree of fusion for the 3 elements of the pelvis: nonfused (59), semifused (5) and fused (262). The acetabular point in immature pelvic bones is clearly represented by the point of the fusion lines for each bony element at the level of the acetabular fossa. In adult pelvic bones the acetabular fossa has an irregular clover-leaf shape, the superior lobe being smaller than the anterior and posterior lobes. Cross-sectional analysis of acetabular morphology suggested that the acetabular point in adult pelvic bones is always represented by the indentation between the superior and the anterior lobes of the acetabular fossa. PMID:11465866

  1. Massive obesity and the kidney. A morphologic and statistical study.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    The renal morphology of 5 grossly obese patients with normal renal function and many of the features of the Pickwickian syndrome was studied at autopsy. The most striking feature was that of increased glomerular size. Measurements of two parameters of glomerular areas indicated statistically significant glomerular enlargement for both as compared to controls. Glomerulomegaly was primarily the result of vascular dilatation and a variable mesangial component. This abnormality was related to several factors, including increased blood volume, hypoxia, and increased right ventricular pressure. Polycythemia, commonly noted in other similar conditions with glomerulomegaly, is believed to be of no importance in the pathogenesis of glomerular enlargement. Images Figure 3-6 Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1180328

  2. In situ visualization of intracellular morphology of epidermal cells using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egawa, Mariko; Tokunaga, Kyoya; Hosoi, Junichi; Iwanaga, Shinya; Ozeki, Yasuyuki

    2016-08-01

    Visualization of epidermal cells is important because the differentiation patterns of keratinocytes (KCs) are considered to be related to the functions and condition of skin. Optical microscopy has been widely used to investigate epidermal cells, but its applicability is still limited because of the need for sample fixation and staining. Here, we report our staining-free observation of epidermal cells in both tissue and culture by stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy that provides molecular vibrational contrast. SRS allowed us to observe a variety of cellular morphologies in skin tissue, including ladder-like structures in the spinous layer, enucleation of KCs in the granular layer, and three-dimensional cell column structures in the stratum corneum. We noticed that some cells in the spinous layer had a brighter signal in the cytoplasm than KCs. To examine the relevance of the observation of epidermal layers, we also observed cultured epidermal cells, including KCs at various differentiation stages, melanocytes, and Langerhans cell-like cells. Their SRS images also demonstrated various morphologies, suggesting that the morphological differences observed in tissue corresponded to the cell lineage. These results indicate the possible application of SRS microscopy to dermatological investigation of cell lineages and types in the epidermis by cellular-level analysis.

  3. The observation report of red blood cell morphology in Thailand teenager by using data mining technique.

    PubMed

    Saichanma, Sarawut; Chulsomlee, Sucha; Thangrua, Nonthaya; Pongsuchart, Pornsuri; Sanmun, Duangmanee

    2014-01-01

    It is undeniable that laboratory information is important in healthcare in many ways such as management, planning, and quality improvement. Laboratory diagnosis and laboratory results from each patient are organized from every treatment. These data are useful for retrospective study exploring a relationship between laboratory results and diseases. By doing so, it increases efficiency in diagnosis and quality in laboratory report. Our study will utilize J48 algorithm, a data mining technique to predict abnormality in peripheral blood smear from 1,362 students by using 13 data set of hematological parameters gathered from automated blood cell counter. We found that the decision tree which is created from the algorithm can be used as a practical guideline for RBC morphology prediction by using 4 hematological parameters (MCV, MCH, Hct, and RBC). The average prediction of RBC morphology has true positive, false positive, precision, recall, and accuracy of 0.940, 0.050, 0.945, 0.940, and 0.943, respectively. A newly found paradigm in managing medical laboratory information will be helpful in organizing, researching, and assisting correlation in multiple disciplinary other than medical science which will eventually lead to an improvement in quality of test results and more accurate diagnosis.

  4. The Observation Report of Red Blood Cell Morphology in Thailand Teenager by Using Data Mining Technique

    PubMed Central

    Saichanma, Sarawut; Chulsomlee, Sucha; Thangrua, Nonthaya; Pongsuchart, Pornsuri; Sanmun, Duangmanee

    2014-01-01

    It is undeniable that laboratory information is important in healthcare in many ways such as management, planning, and quality improvement. Laboratory diagnosis and laboratory results from each patient are organized from every treatment. These data are useful for retrospective study exploring a relationship between laboratory results and diseases. By doing so, it increases efficiency in diagnosis and quality in laboratory report. Our study will utilize J48 algorithm, a data mining technique to predict abnormality in peripheral blood smear from 1,362 students by using 13 data set of hematological parameters gathered from automated blood cell counter. We found that the decision tree which is created from the algorithm can be used as a practical guideline for RBC morphology prediction by using 4 hematological parameters (MCV, MCH, Hct, and RBC). The average prediction of RBC morphology has true positive, false positive, precision, recall, and accuracy of 0.940, 0.050, 0.945, 0.940, and 0.943, respectively. A newly found paradigm in managing medical laboratory information will be helpful in organizing, researching, and assisting correlation in multiple disciplinary other than medical science which will eventually lead to an improvement in quality of test results and more accurate diagnosis. PMID:24683415

  5. Red Blood Cell Dispersion in Morphologically-Inspired Microfluidic Models of Alveolar Capillary Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauber, Hagit; Fishler, Rami; Waisman, Dan; Sznitman, Josue

    2014-11-01

    Microfluidics is frequently used to study blood flow characteristics in microcapillary networks and investigate transport properties of red blood cells (RBC). To date, most of microfluidic studies have not focused on the specific morphology of alveolar capillary networks (ACN), with characteristic length scales of ~ 5 μm, known to give rise to organ-specific blood flow characteristics. To better understand flow characteristics and dispersion of RBCs in ACNs, we have designed morphologically-inspired microfluidic models of alveolar capillary beds at a real scale. We fabricate lab-on-chip devices featuring confined staggered pillar arrays with diameters of ~ 10 μm, representative of the dense ACN capillary meshes. Devices are supplied by an external reservoir containing whole blood at various hematocrit levels, to mimic RBC perfusion (Re < 0.01) within alveolar capillaries. Whole-field velocity patterns are imaged (PIV) and RBC motion is tracked using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) from which dispersion coefficients are extracted. Our efforts are aimed at delivering a real-scale quantitative description of the pulmonary ACN microcirculation.

  6. Investigation of cell morphology for disease diagnostics via high content screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatau, Shyam

    2013-03-01

    Ninety percent of all cancer-related deaths are caused by metastatic disease, i.e. the spreading of a subset of cells from a primary tumor in an organ to distal sites in other organs. Understanding this progression from localized to metastatic disease is essential for further developing effective therapeutic and treatment strategies. However, despite research efforts, no distinct genetic, epigenetic, or proteomic signature of cancer metastasis has been identified so far. Metastasis is a physical event: through invasion and migration through the dense, tortuous stromal matrix, intravasation, shear forces of blood flow, successful re-attachment to blood vessel walls, migration, the colonization of a distal site, and, finally, reactivation following dormancy, metastatic cells may share precise physical properties. Cell morphology is the most direct physical property that can be measured. In this work, we develop a high throughput cell phenotyping process and investigate the morphological signature of primary tumor cells and liver metastatic pancreatic cancer cells.

  7. Morphology control of polymer: Fullerene solar cells by nanoparticle self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenluan

    During the past two decades, research in the field of polymer based solar cells has attracted great effort due to their simple processing, mechanical flexibility and potential low cost. A standard polymer solar cell is based on the concept of a bulk-heterojunction composed of a conducting polymer as the electron donor and a fullerene derivative as the electron acceptor. Since the exciton lifetime is limited, this places extra emphasis on control of the morphology to obtain improved device performance. In this thesis, detailed characterization and novel morphological design of polymer solar cells was studied, in addition, preliminary efforts to transfer laboratory scale methods to industrialized device fabrication was made. Magnetic contrast neutron reflectivity was used to study the vertical concentration distribution of fullerene nanoparticles within poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2- b]thiophene (pBTTT) thin film. Due to the wide space between the side chains of polymer, these fullerene nanoparticles intercalate between them creating a stable co-crystal structure. Therefore, a high volume fraction of fullerene was needed to obtain optimal device performance as phase separated conductive pathways are required and resulted in a homogeneous fullerene concentration profile through the film. Small angle neutron scattering was used to find there is amorphous fullerene even at lower concentration since it was previously believed that all fullerene formed a co-crystal. These fullerene molecules evolve into approximately 15 nm sized agglomerates at higher concentrations to improve electron transport. Unfortunately, thermal annealing gives these agglomerates mobility to form micrometer sized crystals and reduce the device performance. In standard poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCMBM) solar cells, a higher concentration of PCBM at the cathode interface is desired due to the band alignment structure. This was

  8. Actin-myosin network influences morphological response of neuronal cells to altered osmolarity.

    PubMed

    Bober, Brian G; Love, James M; Horton, Steven M; Sitnova, Mariya; Shahamatdar, Sina; Kannan, Ajay; Shah, Sameer B

    2015-04-01

    Acute osmotic fluctuations in the brain occur during a number of clinical conditions and can result in a variety of adverse neurological symptoms. Osmotic perturbation can cause changes in the volumes of intra- and extracellular fluid and, due to the rigidity of the skull, can alter intracranial pressure thus making it difficult to analyze purely osmotic effects in vivo. The present study aims to determine the effects of changes in osmolarity on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells in vitro, and the role of the actin-myosin network in regulating this response. Cells were exposed to hyper- or hypoosmotic media and morphological and cytoskeletal responses were recorded. Hyperosmotic shock resulted in a drop in cell body volume and planar area, a persisting shape deformation, and increases in cellular translocation. Hypoosmotic shock did not significantly alter planar area, but caused a transient increase in cell body volume and an increase in cellular translocation via the development of small protrusions rich in actin. Disruption of the actin-myosin network with latrunculin and blebbistatin resulted in changes to volume and shape regulation, and a decrease in cellular translocation. In both osmotic perturbations, no apparent disruptions to cytoskeletal integrity were observed by light microscopy. Overall, because osmotically induced changes persisted even after volume regulation occurred, it is possible that osmotic stress may play a larger role in neurological dysfunction than currently believed.

  9. Methyl jasmonate affects morphology, number and activity of endoplasmic reticulum bodies in Raphanus sativus root cells.

    PubMed

    Gotté, Maxime; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Bernard, Sophie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Driouich, Azeddine

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies are ER-derived structures that are found in Brassicaceae species and thought to play a role in defense. Here, we have investigated the occurrence, distribution and function of ER bodies in root cells of Raphanus sativus using a combination of microscopic and biochemical methods. We have also assessed the response of ER bodies to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a phytohormone that mediates plant defense against wounding and pathogens. Our results show that (i) ER bodies do occur in different root cell types from the root cap region to the differentiation zone; (ii) they do accumulate a PYK10-like protein similar to the major marker protein of ER bodies that is involved in defense in Arabidopsis thaliana; and (iii) treatment of root cells with MeJA causes a significant increase in the number of ER bodies and the activity of β-glucosidases. More importantly, MeJA was found to induce the formation of very long ER bodies that results from the fusion of small ones, a phenomenon that has not been reported in any other study so far. These findings demonstrate that MeJA impacts the number and morphology of functional ER bodies and stimulates ER body enzyme activities, probably to participate in defense responses of radish root. They also suggest that these structures may provide a defensive system specific to root cells.

  10. Controlling Morphology and Molecular Packing of Alkane Substituted Phthalocyanine Blend Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jurow, Matthew J; Hageman, Brian A; Dimasi, Elaine; Nam, Chang-Yong; Pabon, Cesar; Black, Charles T; Drain, Charles Michael

    2013-02-07

    Systematic changes in the exocyclic substiution of core phthalocyanine platform tune the absorption properties to yield commercially viable dyes that function as the primary light absorbers in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. Blends of these complementary phthalocyanines absorb a broader portion of the solar spectrum compared to a single dye, thereby increasing solar cell performance. We correlate grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering structural data with solar cell performance to elucidate the role of nanomorphology of active layers composed of blends of phthalocyanines and a fullerene derivative. A highly reproducible device architecture is used to assure accuracy and is relevant to films for solar windows in urban settings. We demonstrate that the number and structure of the exocyclic motifs dictate phase formation, hierarchical organization, and nanostructure, thus can be employed to tailor active layer morphology to enhance exciton dissociation and charge collection efficiencies in the photovoltaic devices. These studies reveal that disordered films make better solar cells, short alkanes increase the optical density of the active layer, and branched alkanes inhibit unproductive homogeneous molecular alignment.

  11. The Effects of Ethanol on the Morphological and Biochemical Properties of Individual Human Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Yun; Park, Hyun Joo; Best-Popescu, Catherine; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Yong Keun

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the results of a study on the effects of ethanol exposure on human red blood cells (RBCs) using quantitative phase imaging techniques at the level of individual cells. Three-dimensional refractive index tomograms and dynamic membrane fluctuations of RBCs were measured using common-path diffraction optical tomography, from which morphological (volume, surface area, and sphericity); biochemical (hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and Hb content); and biomechanical (membrane fluctuation) parameters were retrieved at various concentrations of ethanol. RBCs exposed to the ethanol concentration of 0.1 and 0.3% v/v exhibited cell sphericities higher than those of normal cells. However, mean surface area and sphericity of RBCs in a lethal alcoholic condition (0.5% v/v) are not statistically different with those of healthy RBCs. Meanwhile, significant decreases of Hb content and concentration in RBC cytoplasm at the lethal condition were observed. Furthermore, dynamic fluctuation of RBC membranes increased significantly upon ethanol treatments, indicating ethanol-induced membrane fluidization. PMID:26690915

  12. Comparing Two Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell Lines (IPECs): Morphological Differentiation, Function and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Nossol, Constanze; Barta-Böszörményi, Anicò; Kahlert, Stefan; Zuschratter, Werner; Faber-Zuschratter, Heidi; Reinhardt, Nicole; Ponsuksili, Siriluk; Wimmers, Klaus; Diesing, Anne-Kathrin; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef

    2015-01-01

    The pig shows genetical and physiological resemblance to human, which predestines it as an experimental animal model especially for mucosal physiology. Therefore, the intestinal epithelial cell lines 1 and J2 (IPEC-1, IPEC-J2) - spontaneously immortalised cell lines from the porcine intestine - are important tools for studying intestinal function. A microarray (GeneChip Porcine Genome Array) was performed to compare the genome wide gene expression of IPECs. Different significantly up-regulated pathways were identified, like “lysosome”, “pathways in cancer”, “regulation of actin cytoskeleton” and “oxidative phosphorylation” in IPEC-J2 in comparison to IPEC-1. On the other hand, “spliceosome”, “ribosome”, “RNA-degradation” and “tight junction” are significantly down-regulated pathways in IPEC-J2 in comparison to IPEC-1. Examined pathways were followed up by functional analyses. ATP-, oxygen, glucose and lactate-measurement provide evidence for up-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in IPEC-J2. These cells seem to be more active in their metabolism than IPEC-1 cells due to a significant higher ATP-content as well as a higher O2- and glucose-consumption. The down-regulated pathway “ribosome” was followed up by measurement of RNA- and protein content. In summary, IPEC-J2 is a morphologically and functionally more differentiated cell line in comparison to IPEC-1. In addition, IPEC-J2 cells are a preferential tool for in vitro studies with the focus on metabolism. PMID:26147118

  13. Induction of morphological changes in death-induced cancer cells monitored by holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    El-Schich, Zahra; Mölder, Anna; Tassidis, Helena; Härkönen, Pirkko; Falck Miniotis, Maria; Gjörloff Wingren, Anette

    2015-03-01

    We are using the label-free technique of holographic microscopy to analyze cellular parameters including cell number, confluence, cellular volume and area directly in the cell culture environment. We show that death-induced cells can be distinguished from untreated counterparts by the use of holographic microscopy, and we demonstrate its capability for cell death assessment. Morphological analysis of two representative cell lines (L929 and DU145) was performed in the culture flasks without any prior cell detachment. The two cell lines were treated with the anti-tumour agent etoposide for 1-3days. Measurements by holographic microscopy showed significant differences in average cell number, confluence, volume and area when comparing etoposide-treated with untreated cells. The cell volume of the treated cell lines was initially increased at early time-points. By time, cells decreased in volume, especially when treated with high doses of etoposide. In conclusion, we have shown that holographic microscopy allows label-free and completely non-invasive morphological measurements of cell growth, viability and death. Future applications could include real-time monitoring of these holographic microscopy parameters in cells in response to clinically relevant compounds.

  14. Morphologic Plasticity and Periodicity: Porcine Cerebral Microvascular Cells in Culture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    The cells were subcultured no Bandeiraea Simplicifolia (BSA-1), Ulex europaeus ( UEA -1), earlier than 7 d by treatment with trypsin-EDTA. The Triticum...EP013, DdCUMENTATION ,AG,.) I FILE COPY! * lb. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS 2 AA 967 -- 3. DISTRIBUTIONIAVAILAaITY OFROT _2 967 Approved for public release...ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Naval Medical ResearchI (if applicable) I INaval Medical Command 6-. ADDRESS (Cty

  15. New paradigm to assess brain cell morphology by diffusion-weighted MR spectroscopy in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Palombo, Marco; Ligneul, Clémence; Najac, Chloé; Le Douce, Juliette; Flament, Julien; Escartin, Carole; Hantraye, Philippe; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Bonvento, Gilles; Valette, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The brain is one of the most complex organs, and tools are lacking to assess its cellular morphology in vivo. Here we combine original diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy acquisition and novel modeling strategies to explore the possibility of quantifying brain cell morphology noninvasively. First, the diffusion of cell-specific metabolites is measured at ultra-long diffusion times in the rodent and primate brain in vivo to observe how cell long-range morphology constrains metabolite diffusion. Massive simulations of particles diffusing in synthetic cells parameterized by morphometric statistics are then iterated to fit experimental data. This method yields synthetic cells (tentatively neurons and astrocytes) that exhibit striking qualitative and quantitative similarities with histology (e.g., using Sholl analysis). With our approach, we measure major interspecies difference regarding astrocytes, whereas dendritic organization appears better conserved throughout species. This work suggests that the time dependence of metabolite diffusion coefficient allows distinguishing and quantitatively characterizing brain cell morphologies noninvasively. PMID:27226303

  16. MIRO1 influences the morphology and intracellular distribution of mitochondria during embryonic cell division in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Shohei; Nakajima, Masaki; Fujimoto, Masaru; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro

    2011-02-01

    Regulating the morphology and intracellular distribution of mitochondria is essential for embryo development in animals. However, the importance of such regulation is not clearly defined in plants. The evolutionarily conserved Miro proteins are known to be involved in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology and motility. We previously demonstrated that MIRO1, an Arabidopsis thaliana orthologue of the Miro protein, is required for embryogenesis. An insertional mutation in the MIRO1 gene causes arrest of embryonic cell division, leading to abortion of the embryo at an early stage. Here we investigated the role of MIRO1 in the regulation of mitochondrial behaviour in egg cells and early-stage embryos using GFP-labeled mitochondria. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy revealed that, in miro1 mutant egg cells, mitochondria are abnormally enlarged, although egg cell formation is nearly unaffected. After fertilization and subsequent zygotic cell division, the homozygous miro1 mutant two-celled embryo contained a significantly reduced number of mitochondria in its apical cell compared with the wild type, suggesting that the miro1 mutation inhibits proper intracellular distribution of mitochondria, leading to an arrest of embryonic cell division. Our findings suggest that proper mitochondrial morphology and intracellular distribution are maintained by MIRO1 and are vital for embryonic cell division.

  17. Relative biological effectiveness of accelerated heavy ions for induction of morphological transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Z B; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, F; Suzuki, M; Furusawa, Y; Kato, T; Ikenaga, M

    1998-09-01

    Syrian hamster embryo cells were used to study the morphological transformation induced by accelerated heavy ions with different linear energy transfer (LET) ranging from 13 to 400 keV/micron. Exponentially growing cells were irradiated with 12C or 28Si ion beams generated by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), then inoculated to culture dishes. Morphologically altered colonies were scored as transformants. Over the LET range examined, the frequency of transformation induced by the heavy ions increased sharply at very low doses no greater than 5 cGy. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the heavy ions relative to X-rays first increased with LET, reached a maximum value of about 7 at 100 keV/micron, then decreased with the further increase of LET. Our findings confirmed that high LET heavy ions are much more effective than X-rays for the induction of in vitro cell transformation.

  18. Engineering Cyanobacterial Cell Morphology for Enhanced Recovery and Processing of Biomass.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Adam; Chandler, Jenna; MacCready, Joshua S; Huang, Jingcheng; Osteryoung, Katherine W; Ducat, Daniel C

    2017-02-24

    Cyanobacteria are emerging as alternative crop species for the production of fuels, chemicals, and biomass. Yet, the success of these microbes depends upon the development of cost-effective technologies that permit scaled cultivation and cell harvesting. Here, we investigate the feasibility of engineering cell morphology in order to improve biomass recovery and decrease energetic costs associated with lysing cyanobacterial cells. Specifically, we modify the levels of Min system proteins in Synechococcus elongatus sp. PCC 7942. The Min system has established functions in controlling cell division by regulating assembly of FtsZ, a tubulin-like protein required to define the bacterial division plane. We show that altering expression of two FtsZ-regulatory proteins, MinC and Cdv3, permits control over cell morphology by disrupting FtsZ localization and cell division, without preventing continued cell growth. By varying the expression of these proteins, we can tune the length of cyanobacterial cells across a broad dynamic range: anywhere from a ∼20% increased length relative to wildtype to near-millimeter lengths. Highly elongated cells exhibit increased rates of sedimentation under low centrifugal forces or by gravity-assisted settling. Furthermore, hyperelongated cells are also more susceptible to lysis through the application of mild physical stress. Collectively, these results demonstrate a novel approach towards decreasing harvesting and processing costs associated with mass cyanobacterial cultivation through altering morphology at the cellular level.Importance: We show that the cell length of a model cyanobacterial species can be programmed through the rational manipulation of expression of protein factors that suppress cell division. In some instances, we are able to increase the size of these cells to near millimeter lengths through this approach. The resulting elongated cells have favorable properties with regard to cell harvesting and lysis. Furthermore

  19. Imaging Nuclear Morphology and Organization in Cleared Plant Tissues Treated with Cell Cycle Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    de Souza Junior, José Dijair Antonino; de Sa, Maria Fatima Grossi; Engler, Gilbert; Engler, Janice de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Synchronization of root cells through chemical treatment can generate a large number of cells blocked in specific cell cycle phases. In plants, this approach can be employed for cell suspension cultures and plant seedlings. To identify plant cells in the course of the cell cycle, especially during mitosis in meristematic tissues, chemical inhibitors can be used to block cell cycle progression. Herein, we present a simplified and easy-to-apply protocol to visualize mitotic figures, nuclei morphology, and organization in whole Arabidopsis root apexes. The procedure is based on tissue clearing, and fluorescent staining of nuclear DNA with DAPI. The protocol allows carrying out bulk analysis of nuclei and cell cycle phases in root cells and will be valuable to investigate mutants like overexpressing lines of genes disturbing the plant cell cycle.

  20. Alterations in zebrafish development induced by simvastatin: Comprehensive morphological and physiological study, focusing on muscle.

    PubMed

    Campos, Laise M; Rios, Eduardo A; Guapyassu, Livia; Midlej, Victor; Atella, Georgia C; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Benchimol, Marlene; Mermelstein, Claudia; Costa, Manoel L

    2016-11-01

    The cholesterol synthesis inhibitor simvastatin, which is used to treat cardiovascular diseases, has severe collateral effects. We decided to comprehensively study the effects of simvastatin in zebrafish development and in myogenesis, because zebrafish has been used as a model to human diseases, due to its handling easiness, the optical clarity of its embryos, and the availability of physiological and structural methodologies. Furthermore, muscle is an important target of the drug. We used several simvastatin concentrations at different zebrafish developmental stages and studied survival rate, morphology, and physiology of the embryos. Our results show that high levels of simvastatin induce structural damage whereas low doses induce minor structural changes, impaired movements, and reduced heart beating. Morphological alterations include changes in embryo and somite size and septa shape. Physiological changes include movement reduction and slower heartbeat. These effects could be reversed by the addition of exogenous cholesterol. Moreover, we quantified the total cell number during zebrafish development and demonstrated a large reduction in cell number after statin treatment. Since we could classify the alterations induced by simvastatin in three distinct phenotypes, we speculate that simvastatin acts through more than one mechanism and could affect both cell replication and/or cell death and muscle function. Our data can contribute to the understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of the mechanisms of action of simvastatin.

  1. Morphology of retinal ganglion cells in the flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus): a lucifer yellow investigation.

    PubMed

    Dann, J F; Buhl, E H

    1990-11-15

    The morphology of retinal ganglion cells was determined in megachiroptera, commonly known as flying foxes. Retinal ganglion cells were intracellularly injected with the fluorescent dye Lucifer yellow in fixed retinae from adult little red flying foxes (Pteropus scapulatus) captured in their natural habitat. Ganglion cells closely resembled the three main classes of cat retinal ganglion cells, and therefore were classified into alpha-, beta-, and gamma-type cells. The size of the alpha- and beta-type somas and dendritic fields increased with increasing distance from the area centralis. However, this eccentricity dependence was not as pronounced as in the cat. The gamma-type cells were sub-divided into mono-, bi-, and diffusely stratified, in accordance with the ramification of their dendrites within the inner plexiform layer. The alpha- and beta-type cells were uni-stratified in either the sublamina of the inner plexiform layer closest to the ganglion cell layer or in that closest to the inner nuclear layer. These laminae correspond to those in the cat retina which contain the dendritic ramifications of ganglion cells whose central receptive fields respond best to onset of light (the "on-centre" cells), or to ganglion cells whose centres respond optimally to light being extinguished (the "off-centre" cells). Thus the flying fox retina contains a morphological correlate of the "on"/"off" dichotomy of alpha and beta cells in the cat retina. In general the flying fox retinal ganglion cells exhibit a degree of morphological complexity reminiscent of cat retinal cells and this may reflect similar functional properties.

  2. Nanomechanical clues from morphologically normal cervical squamous cells could improve cervical cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Li; Feng, Jiantao; Sun, Quanmei; Liu, Jing; Hua, Wenda; Li, Jing; Ao, Zhuo; You, Ke; Guo, Yanli; Liao, Fulong; Zhang, Youyi; Guo, Hongyan; Han, Jinsong; Xiong, Guangwu; Zhang, Lufang; Han, Dong

    2015-09-01

    Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis.Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03662c

  3. Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Di, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-Guang; Lin, Qi-Li

    2011-12-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (L(WECPN)) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport noise exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors, plasma NE levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.

  4. Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe*

    PubMed Central

    Di, Guo-qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-guang; Lin, Qi-li

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (L WECPN) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport noise exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors, plasma NE levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe. PMID:22135145

  5. Morphological Characterization of a Low-Bandgap Crystalline Polymer: PCBM Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Haiyun; Akgun, Bulent; Russell, Thomas P.

    2011-07-01

    Understanding the morphology of polymer-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is necessary to improve device efficiencies. Blends of a low-bandgap silole-containing conjugated polymer, poly[(4,4'-bis(2-ethylhexyl)dithieno[3,2-b;2',3'-d]silole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(4,7-bis(2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-5,5'-diyl] (PSBTBT) with [6,6]phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were investigated under different processing conditions. The surface morphologies and vertical segregation of the “As-Spun”, “Pre-Annealed”, and “Post-Annealed” films were studied by scanning force microscopy, contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry, and neutron reflectivity. The results showed that PSBTBT was enriched at the cathode interface in the “As-Spun” films and thermal annealing increased the segregation of PSBTBT to the free surface, while thermal annealing after deposition of the cathode increased the PCBM concentration at the cathode interface. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction and small-angle neutron scattering showed that the crystallization of PSBTBT and segregation of PCBM occurred during spin coating, and thermal annealing increased the ordering of PSBTBT and enhanced the segregation of the PCBM, forming domains ~10 nm in size, leading to an improvement in photovoltaic performance.

  6. Morphological and ultrastructural changes in bacterial cells as an indicator of antibacterial mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Cushnie, T P Tim; O'Driscoll, Noëlle H; Lamb, Andrew J

    2016-12-01

    Efforts to reduce the global burden of bacterial disease and contend with escalating bacterial resistance are spurring innovation in antibacterial drug and biocide development and related technologies such as photodynamic therapy and photochemical disinfection. Elucidation of the mechanism of action of these new agents and processes can greatly facilitate their development, but it is a complex endeavour. One strategy that has been popular for many years, and which is garnering increasing interest due to recent technological advances in microscopy and a deeper understanding of the molecular events involved, is the examination of treated bacteria for changes to their morphology and ultrastructure. In this review, we take a critical look at this approach. Variables affecting antibacterial-induced alterations are discussed first. These include characteristics of the test organism (e.g. cell wall structure) and incubation conditions (e.g. growth medium osmolarity). The main body of the review then describes the different alterations that can occur. Micrographs depicting these alterations are presented, together with information on agents that induce the change, and the sequence of molecular events that lead to the change. We close by highlighting those morphological and ultrastructural changes which are consistently induced by agents sharing the same mechanism (e.g. spheroplast formation by peptidoglycan synthesis inhibitors) and explaining how changes that are induced by multiple antibacterial classes (e.g. filamentation by DNA synthesis inhibitors, FtsZ disruptors, and other types of agent) can still yield useful mechanistic information. Lastly, recommendations are made regarding future study design and execution.

  7. Morphology and etching studies on YBCO and CuO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakaran, D.; Subramanian, C.; Balakumar, S.; Ramasamy, P.

    1999-06-01

    Single crystals of YBCO (Y123) and CuO have been grown from a BaO-CuO (28:72) flux using a low axial gradient furnace (∼1°C/cm). Growth morphology of the grown crystals was studied using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Cell parameter values and chemical composition of the grown crystals were determined from the X-ray diffraction data and inductively coupled plasma analysis, respectively. Etching studies were done for both the crystals using different etchants. Oxygen stoichiometry of the YBCO crystal was determined by iodometry titration analysis.

  8. Oleic acid induces specific alterations in the morphology, gene expression and steroid hormone production of cultured bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Yenuganti, Vengala Rao; Viergutz, Torsten; Vanselow, Jens

    2016-06-01

    After parturition, one of the major problems related to nutritional management that is faced by the majority of dairy cows is negative energy balance (NEB). During NEB, excessive lipid mobilization takes place and hence the levels of free fatty acids, among them oleic acid, increase in the blood, but also in the follicular fluid. This accumulation can be associated with serious metabolic and reproductive disorders. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of physiological concentrations of oleic acid on cell morphology, apoptosis, necrosis, proliferation and steroid production, and on the abundance of selected transcripts in cultured bovine granulosa cells. Increasing oleic acid concentrations induced intracellular lipid droplet accumulation, thus resulting in a foam cell-like morphology, but had no effects on apoptosis, necrosis or proliferation. Oleic acid also significantly reduced the transcript abundance of the gonadotropin hormone receptors, FSHR and LHCGR, steroidogenic genes STAR, CYP11A1, HSD3B1 and CYP19A1, the cell cycle regulator CCND2, but not of the proliferation marker PCNA. In addition, treatment increased the transcript levels of the fatty acid transporters CD36 and SLC27A1, and decreased the production of 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone. From these data it can be concluded that oleic acid specifically affects morphological and physiological features and gene expression levels thus altering the functionality of granulosa cells. Suggestively, these effects might be partly due to the reduced expression of FSHR and thus the reduced responsiveness to FSH stimulation.

  9. Continuous lateral gradients in film morphology for position sensitive detection and organic solar cell optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campoy-Quiles, M.; Randon, V.; Mróz, M. M.; Jarzaguet, M.; Garriga, M.; Cabanillas-González, J.

    2013-07-01

    We present a method to fabricate binary organic donor and acceptor blends exhibiting a controlled lateral gradient in morphology. Upon combining photometry, ellipsometry and Xray maps together with photoinduced absorption measurements, we show how the gradual exposure to solvent vapor results in a varying degree of polymer crystallinity for the polythiophene/soluble fullerene system along one direction. These morphologically graded samples are characterized by a spectral photoresponse that depends on the specific location in the area of the device where the light beam impinges, a property that stands as proof-of-concept for position sensitive detection. Moreover, we demonstrate that the development of graded morphologies is an effective one-step method which allows for fast performance optimization of organic solar cells. Finally, the appropriateness of eight different solvents for morphology control via vapor annealing is evaluated in a time-effective way using the advanced method, which helps to identify boiling point and solubility as the key processing parameters.

  10. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies

    DOE PAGES

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; ...

    2016-05-19

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%–46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml–1. The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the additionmore » of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. Furthermore, these established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta.« less

  11. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; Chen, Jihua; Khodakovskaya, Mariya

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%-46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml-1. The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the addition of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. These established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta.

  12. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; Chen, Jihua; Khodakovskaya, Mariya

    2016-05-19

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%–46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml–1. The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the addition of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. Furthermore, these established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta.

  13. Automatic Robust Neurite Detection and Morphological Analysis of Neuronal Cell Cultures in High-content Screening

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chaohong; Schulte, Joost; Sepp, Katharine J.; Littleton, J. Troy

    2011-01-01

    Cell-based high content screening (HCS) is becoming an important and increasingly favored approach in therapeutic drug discovery and functional genomics. In HCS, changes in cellular morphology and biomarker distributions provide an information-rich profile of cellular responses to experimental treatments such as small molecules or gene knockdown probes. One obstacle that currently exists with such cell-based assays is the availability of image processing algorithms that are capable of reliably and automatically analyzing large HCS image sets. HCS images of primary neuronal cell cultures are particularly challenging to analyze due to complex cellular morphology. Here we present a robust method for quantifying and statistically analyzing the morphology of neuronal cells in HCS images. The major advantages of our method over existing software lie in its capability to correct non-uniform illumination using the contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization method; segment neuromeres using Gabor-wavelet texture analysis; and detect faint neurites by a novel phase-based neurite extraction algorithm that is invariant to changes in illumination and contrast and can accurately localize neurites. Our method was successfully applied to analyze a large HCS image set generated in a morphology screen for polyglutamine-mediated neuronal toxicity using primary neuronal cell cultures derived from embryos of a Drosophila Huntington’s Disease (HD) model. PMID:20405243

  14. Morphology Evolution of High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells via Vapor Induced Intermediate Phases.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Lijian; Dong, Shiqi; De Marco, Nicholas; Hsieh, Yao-Tsung; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Sun, Pengyu; Yang, Yang

    2016-12-07

    Morphology is critical component to achieve high device performance hybrid perovskite solar cells. Here, we develop a vapor induced intermediate phase (VIP) strategy to manipulate the morphology of perovskite films. By exposing the perovskite precursor films to different saturated solvent vapor atmospheres, e.g., dimethylformamide and dimethylsufoxide, dramatic film morphological evolution occurs, associated with the formation of different intermediate phases. We observe that the crystallization kinetics is significantly altered due to the formation of these intermediate phases, yielding highly crystalline perovskite films with less defect states and high carrier lifetimes. The perovskite solar cells with the reconstructed films exhibits the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 19.2% under 1 sun AM 1.5G irradiance, which is among the highest planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Also, the perovskite solar cells with VIP processing shows less hysteresis behavior and a stabilized power output over 18%. Our work opens up a new direction for morphology control through intermediate phase formation, and paves the way toward further enhancing the device performances of perovskite solar cells.

  15. Cellular Differentiation in Moss Protonemata: A Morphological and Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Pressel, Silvia; Ligrone, Roberto; Duckett, Jeffrey G.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous studies of protonemal morphogenesis in mosses have focused on the cytoskeletal basis of tip growth and the production of asexual propagules. This study provides the first comprehensive description of the differentiation of caulonemata and rhizoids, which share the same cytology, and the roles of the cytoskeleton in organelle shaping and spatial arrangement. Methods Light and electron microscope observations were carried out on in vitro cultured and wild protonemata from over 200 moss species. Oryzalin and cytochalasin D were used to investigate the role of the cytoskeleton in the cytological organization of fully differentiated protonemal cells; time-lapse photography was employed to monitor organelle positions. Key Results The onset of differentiation in initially highly vacuolate subapical cells is marked by the appearance of tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) profiles with crystalline inclusions, closely followed by an increase in rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). The tonoplast disintegrates and the original vacuole is replaced by a population of vesicles and small vacuoles originating de novo from RER. The cytoplasm then becomes distributed throughout the cell lumen, an event closely followed by the appearance of endoplasmic microtubules (MTs) in association with sheets of ER, stacks of vesicles that subsequently disperse, elongate mitochondria and chloroplasts and long tubular extensions at both poles of the nucleus. The production of large vesicles by previously inactive dictysomes coincides with the deposition of additional cell wall layers. At maturity, the numbers of endoplasmic microtubules decline, dictyosomes become inactive and the ER is predominantly smooth. Fully developed cells remain largely unaffected by cytochalasin; oryzalin elicits profound cytological changes. Both inhibitors elicit the formation of giant plastids. The plastids and other organelles in fully developed cells are largely stationary. Conclusions

  16. Comparison of Morphological and Functional Endothelial Cell Changes after Cataract Surgery: Phacoemulsification Versus Manual Small-Incision Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ganekal, Sunil; Nagarajappa, Ashwini

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the morphological (cell density, coefficient of variation and standard deviation) and functional (central corneal thickness) endothelial changes after phacoemulsification versus manual small-incision cataract surgery (MSICS). Design: Prospective randomized control study. Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized control study, patients were randomly allocated to undergo phacoemulsification (Group 1, n = 100) or MSICS (Group 2, n = 100) using a random number Table. The patients underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation and specular microscopy preoperatively and at 1and 6 weeks postoperatively. Functional and morphological endothelial evaluation was Noncon ROBO PACHY SP-9000 specular microscope. Phacoemulsification was performed, the chop technique and MSICS, by the viscoexpression technique. Results: The mean difference in central corneal thickness at baseline and 1 week between Group 1 and Group 2 was statistically significant (P = 0.027). However, this difference at baseline when compared to 6 week and 1 week, 6 weeks was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The difference in mean endothelial cell density between groups at 1 week and 6 weeks was statistically significant (P = 0.016). The mean coefficient of variation and mean standard deviation between groups were not statistically significant (P > 0.05, both comparisons). Conclusion: The central corneal thickness, coefficient of variation, and standard deviation were maintained in both groups indicating that the function and morphology of endothelial cells was not affected despite an initial reduction in endothelial cell number in MSICS. Thus, MSICS remains a safe option in the developing world. PMID:24669147

  17. The posterior meniscofemoral ligament: morphologic study and anatomic classification.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung-Ho; Kim, Deog-Im; Choi, Seung-Gyu; Lee, Jun-Hee; Kim, Yi-Suk

    2012-07-01

    The meniscofemoral ligaments (MFLs) run from the medial femoral condyle to the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus and consist of anterior MFL (aMFL) and/or posterior MFL (pMFL) components according to whether it passes anterior or posterior to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence and morphologic features of the MFLs in Koreans and formulate an anatomic classification system of MFLs to aid the detailed interpretation of medical imaging or biomechanical data. One hundred knees from 52 cadavers were studied. Eighty-seven knees had pMFLs, whereas an aMFL was only found in one knee from a male cadaver. The pMFLs and PCLs were longer in males than in females (P < 0.05). The most common type of MFL was the high crossing of a typical pMFL against the PCL in both genders. Regarding other types, the incidence of absent pMFLs was higher in males than in females and the oblique bundle of the PCL was easily confused with the pMFL in several cases in both genders. These results provide the basis for the classification system of the MFL and will contribute to better outcomes for evaluating the MFL and PCL when using medical imaging such as arthro-CT scan or MRI through a better understanding of the anatomy of the MFL and PCL.

  18. Morphological and microstructural studies on aluminizing coating of carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Samsu, Zaifol; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Daud, Abd Razak; Hussein, Hishammuddin

    2013-11-27

    Hot dip aluminizing is one of the most effective methods of surface protection for steels and is gradually gaining popularity. The morphology and microstructure of an inter-metallic layer form on the surface of low carbon steel by hot dip aluminization treatment had been studied in detail. This effect has been investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The result shows that the reaction between the steel and the molten aluminium leads to the formation of Fe–Al inter-metallic compounds on the steel surface. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic studies showed that a two layer coating was formed consisting of an external Al layer and a (Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5}) inter metallic on top of the substrate after hot dip aluminizing process. The inter-metallic layer is ‘thick’ and exhibits a finger-like growth into the steel. Microhardness testing shown that the intermetallic layer has high hardness followed by steel substrate and the lowest hardness was Al layer.

  19. Morphological Study of Palatal Rugae in a Sudanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla; Hamid, Awrad

    2015-01-01

    Palatal rugae patterns have unique characteristics and have been proposed as an alternative method to establish identity when other means, such as fingerprints and dental records, are not attainable. This study was conducted to determine the morphological characteristics of palatine rugae and to assess the existence of side asymmetry in them in Sudanese Arabs. It also assesses the possibility of determining sex using logistic regression. One hundred dental casts for 50 males and 50 females aged between 18 and 23 were studied for palatal rugae dimensions, shapes, and orientations, as well as sexual dimorphism and side symmetry. The most predominant rugae were primary, and the most prevalent shapes in both sexes were wavy, curved, and straight forms. The predominant orientation was forward. Side asymmetry existed more in the orientations than in the shapes, but no side asymmetry was recorded in the dimensions. There was no significant sexual dimorphism in the rugae dimensions, shapes, and orientations, except for forward-directed rugae (P < 0.037). A predictive value of 60% was obtained in assigning sex using dimensions and orientations and of 58% using shapes alone. Therefore, the palatal rugae are not recommended for assigning sex effectively among Sudanese Arabs unless it is the only means available. PMID:25737723

  20. Effects of aging on mouse tongue epithelium focusing on cell proliferation rate and morphological aspects.

    PubMed

    Carrard, Vinicius Coelho; Pires, Aline Segatto; Badauy, Cristiano Macabu; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Lauxen, Isabel Silva; Sant'Ana Filho, Manoel

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cell proliferation rate and certain morphological features of mouse epithelium as aging progresses. Tongue biopsies were performed on female mice (Mus domesticus domesticus) at 2, 8, 14 and 20 months of age as indicative of adolescence, adulthood, early senescence and senescence, respectively. Histological sections of tongue were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and subjected to silver staining for active nucleolar organizer region counting. Cell proliferation rate and epithelial thickness analysis were carried out. Analysis of variance detected no differences between the groups in terms of numbers of silver-stained dots associated with nucleolar proteins. There was an increase in mean epithelial thickness in adult animals, followed by a gradual reduction until senescence. Mean keratin thickness presented an increase at 8 and 20 months of age. This difference is probably related to puberty, growth or dietary habits. Aging has no influence on oral epithelial proliferation rate in mice. A gradual reduction in epithelial thickness is a feature of aging in mammals. A conspicuous increase in the keratin layer was observed in senescence as an adaptative response to the reduction in epithelial thickness. These results suggest that aging affects the oral epithelium maturation process through a mechanism that is not related to cell proliferation.

  1. Distinctive Features of the Human Marginal Zone and Cajal–Retzius Cells: Comparison of Morphological and Immunocytochemical Features at Midgestation

    PubMed Central

    Tkachenko, Lyubov A.; Zykin, Pavel A.; Nasyrov, Ruslan A.; Krasnoshchekova, Elena I.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a long history of research of cortical marginal zone (MZ) organization and development, a number of issues remain unresolved. One particular issue is the problem of Cajal–Retzius cells (C–R) identification. It is currently based on morphology and Reelin expression. The aim of this research is to investigate MZ cytoarchitectonics and Reelin-producing cells morphotypes in the superior temporal, pre- and postcentral cortex at GW24–26. We used Reelin (Reln) as the marker for C–R cells and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neurofilament heavy chain protein (N200) as markers of neuronal maturation. The MZ of all of the investigated areas had the distinct cytoarchitectonic of alternating cell sparse (MZP, SR) and cell dense (SGL, DGL) layers. The distribution of the neuromarkers across the MZ also showed layer specificity. MAP2-positive cells were only found in the SGL. N200 and Reelin-positive neurons in the MZP. N200-positive processes were forming a plexus at the DGL level. All of the N200-positive neurons found were in the MZP and had distinctive morphological features of C–R cells. All of the N200-positive neurons in MZ were also positive for Reelin, whereas MAP2-positive cells lack Reelin. Thus, the joint use of two immunomarkers allowed us to discern the C–R cells based on their morphotype and neurochemistry and indicate that the Reelin-positive cells of MZ at 24–26 GW were morphologically C–R cells. In the current study, we identified three C–R cells morphotypes. Using a 3D reconstruction, we made sure that all of them belonged to the single morphotype of triangular C–R cells. This approach will allow future studies to separate C–R cells from other Reelin-producing neurons which appear at later corticogenesis stages. In addition, our findings support the assumption that a plexus could be formed not only with C–R cells processes but also possibly by other cell processes by the poorly researched DGL, which is only allocated

  2. Lung morphology: a cadaver study in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Prakash; Bhardwaj, Ajay Kumar; Shashirekha, M; Suma, H Y; Krishna, G Gowtham; Singh, Gajendra

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of anatomical variations of lung is required by clinicians for accurate interpretation on different imaging techniques. During routine dissection in the anatomy department, a single lung extending uniformly throughout the thoracic cavity was detected in a 35 year old male cadaver. Thereafter a cadaver study was undertaken to report the prevalence of variations involving number, lobes and fissures of lung in Indian population. The thoracic cavities of 29 properly embalmed cadavers containing lungs were dissected and morphological features like number, fissures and lobes were observed for the presence of anatomical variations. The aforementioned single lung cadaver had associated dextrocardia. One accessory lobe on the inferior aspect was observed in 27.2% of lungs studied, whereas supernumerary fissures which were most common in right lower lobe were detected in 35% of lung specimens. The transverse fissure on the right lung was absent in 7.1% and incomplete in 50% of lung specimens. In the right lung, the oblique fissure was absent in 7.1% and incomplete in 39.3% of specimens. The oblique fissure was absent in 10.7% and incomplete in 35.7% of left lungs. Comparative analysis of our work with previous data in the literature suggest that different studies performed on radiological images reported greater prevalence of incomplete or absent pulmonary fissures as compared to various cadaver studies. Our aforementioned findings regarding the variations seen in fissures and lobes of both lungs were different from previous studies. Variations of lung anatomy are important for both the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases involving all the domains of medicine.

  3. How Specific Is the Connection between Morphological Awareness and Spelling? A Study of French Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalis, S.; Deacon, S. H.; Pacton, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between morphological awareness and spelling. We show that French children in Grades 3 and 4 appear to use morphological information in spelling; spelling of sounds for which there are several alternatives was more accurate in derived than in nonderived words. The link between morphological awareness and…

  4. Effects of Angular Frequency During Clinorotation on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Morphology and Migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luna, Carlos; Yew, Alvin G.; Hsieh, Adam H.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Ground-based microgravity simulation can reproduce the apparent effects of weightlessness in spaceflight using clinostats that continuously reorient the gravity vector on a specimen, creating a time-averaged nullification of gravity. In this work, we investigated the effects of clinorotation speed on the morphology, cytoarchitecture, and migration behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Methods: We compared cell responses at clinorotation speeds of 0, 30, 60, and 75 rpm over 8 hours in a recently developed lab-on-chip-based clinostat system. Time lapse light microscopy was used to visualize changes in cell morphology during and after cessation of clinorotation. Cytoarchitecture was assessed by actin and vinculin staining, and chemotaxis was examined using time lapse light microscopy of cells in NGF (100 ng/ml) gradients. Results: Among clinorotated groups, cell area distributions indicated a greater inhibition of cell spreading with higher angular frequency (p is less than 0.005), though average cell area at 30 rpm after 8 hours became statistically similar to control (p = 0.794). Cells at 75rpm clinorotation remained viable and were able to re-spread after clinorotation. In chemotaxis chambers clinorotation did not alter migration patterns in elongated cells, but most clinorotated cells exhibited cell retraction, which strongly compromised motility.

  5. Morphology, properties, and performance of electrodeposited n-CdSe in liquid junction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkiewicz, M.; Ling, I.; Parsons, W.S.

    1982-09-01

    The authors describe the mechanisms for galvanostatic electrodeposition of CdSe in terms of competition between chemical reactions that lead to Se formation and electrochemical reduction of Se as polyselenide, at the interfaces between selenium and selenide. This mechanism leads to a cauliflower morphology for the resulting film. This morphology is ideal for a photoanode in the liquid junction solar cell configuration, and the authors describe the performance of such an electrode. In spite of the unique morphology, solid-state properties of the film can be evaluated and the methodology for these evaluations is presented. The performance of the liquid junction solar cells is limited by the dark current and the dielectric properties of the material. The authors also describe the effects of metal ions such as Zn/sup +2/, Ru/sup +3/, and Ga/sup +3/ on the various electrode properties.

  6. Fibrillarin, a nucleolar protein, is required for normal nuclear morphology and cellular growth in HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, Mohammed Abdullahel; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Ma, Nan; Takata, Hideaki; Yokoyama, Masami; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi . E-mail: kfukui@bio.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2007-08-24

    Fibrillarin is a key small nucleolar protein in eukaryotes, which has an important role in pre-rRNA processing during ribosomal biogenesis. Though several functions of fibrillarin are known, its function during the cell cycle is still unknown. In this study, we confirmed the dynamic localization of fibrillarin during the cell cycle of HeLa cells and also performed functional studies by using a combination of immunofluorescence microscopy and RNAi technique. We observed that depletion of fibrillarin has almost no effect on the nucleolar structure. However, fibrillarin-depleted cells showed abnormal nuclear morphology. Moreover, fibrillarin depletion resulted in the reduction of the cellular growth and modest accumulation of cells with 4n DNA content. Our data suggest that fibrillarin would play a critical role in the maintenance of nuclear shape and cellular growth.

  7. Morphological responses of mitochondria-rich cells to hypersaline environment in the Australian mudskipper, Periophthalmus minutus.

    PubMed

    Itoki, Naoko; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Masahiro; Takeda, Tatsusuke; Ishimatsu, Atsushi

    2012-07-01

    A population of the Australian mudskipper, Periophthalmus minutus, was found to inhabit mudflat that remained uncovered by tide for more than 20 days in some neap tides. During these prolonged emersion periods, P. minutus retreated into burrows containing little water, with a highest recorded salinity of 84 ± 7.4 psu (practical salinity unit). To explore the mechanical basis for this salinity tolerance in P. minutus, we determined the densities of mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) in the inner and outer opercula and the pectoral fin skin, in comparison with P. takita, [corrected] from an adjacent lower intertidal habitat, and studied morphological responses of MRCs to exposure to freshwater (FW), and 100% (34-35 psu) and 200% seawater (SW). Periophthalmus minutus showed a higher density of MRCs in the inner operculum (3365 ± 821 cells mm(-2)) than in the pectoral fin skin (1428 ± 161) or the outer operculum (1100 ± 986), all of which were higher than the MRC densities in p. takita. [corrected]. No mortality occurred in 100% or 200% SW, but half of the fish died within four days in FW. Neither 200% SW nor FW exposure affected MRC density. Transfer to 200% SW doubled MRC size after 9-14 days with no change in the proportion of MRCs with apical pits or plasma sodium concentration. In contrast, transfer to FW resulted in a rapid closing of pits and a significant reduction in plasma sodium concentration. These results suggest that P. minutus has evolved morphological and physiological mechanisms to withstand hypersaline conditions that they may encounter in their habitat.

  8. Cytokines profile and peripheral blood mononuclear cells morphology in Rett and autistic patients.

    PubMed

    Pecorelli, Alessandra; Cervellati, Franco; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Montagner, Giulia; Waldon, PhiAnh; Hayek, Joussef; Gambari, Roberto; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    A potential role for immune dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been well established. However, immunological features of Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder closely related to autism, have not been well addressed yet. By using multiplex Luminex technology, a panel of 27 cytokines and chemokines was evaluated in serum from 10 RTT patients with confirmed diagnosis of MECP2 mutation (typical RTT), 12 children affected by classic autistic disorder and 8 control subjects. The cytokine/chemokine gene expression was assessed by real time PCR on mRNA of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Moreover, ultrastructural analysis of PBMCs was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Significantly higher serum levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-9, IL-13 were detected in RTT compared to control subjects, and IL-15 shows a trend toward the upregulation in RTT. In addition, IL-1β and VEGF were the only down-regulated cytokines in autistic patients with respect to RTT. No difference in cytokine/chemokine profile between autistic and control groups was detected. These data were also confirmed by ELISA real time PCR. At the ultrastructural level, the most severe morphological abnormalities were observed in mitochondria of both RTT and autistic PBMCs. In conclusion, our study shows a deregulated cytokine/chemokine profile together with morphologically altered immune cells in RTT. Such abnormalities were not quite as evident in autistic subjects. These findings indicate a possible role of immune dysfunction in RTT making the clinical features of this pathology related also to the immunology aspects, suggesting, therefore, novel possible therapeutic interventions for this disorder.

  9. Sublethal concentrations of carbapenems alter cell morphology and genomic expression of Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilms.

    PubMed

    Van Laar, Tricia A; Chen, Tsute; You, Tao; Leung, Kai P

    2015-03-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae, a Gram-negative bacterium, is normally associated with pneumonia in patients with weakened immune systems. However, it is also a prevalent nosocomial infectious agent that can be found in infected surgical sites and combat wounds. Many of these clinical strains display multidrug resistance. We have worked with a clinical strain of K. pneumoniae that was initially isolated from a wound of an injured soldier. This strain demonstrated resistance to many commonly used antibiotics but sensitivity to carbapenems. This isolate was capable of forming biofilms in vitro, contributing to its increased antibiotic resistance and impaired clearance. We were interested in determining how sublethal concentrations of carbapenem treatment specifically affect K. pneumoniae biofilms both in morphology and in genomic expression. Scanning electron microscopy showed striking morphological differences between untreated and treated biofilms, including rounding, blebbing, and dimpling of treated cells. Comparative transcriptome analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology identified a large number of open reading frames (ORFs) differentially regulated in response to carbapenem treatment at 2 and 24 h. ORFs upregulated with carbapenem treatment included genes involved in resistance, as well as those coding for antiporters and autoinducers. ORFs downregulated included those coding for metal transporters, membrane biosynthesis proteins, and motility proteins. Quantitative real-time PCR validated the general trend of some of these differentially regulated ORFs. Treatment of K. pneumoniae biofilms with sublethal concentrations of carbapenems induced a wide range of phenotypic and gene expression changes. This study reveals some of the mechanisms underlying how sublethal amounts of carbapenems could affect the overall fitness and pathogenic potential of K. pneumoniae biofilm cells.

  10. ALS/FTLD-linked TDP-43 regulates neurite morphology and cell survival in differentiated neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jeong-Ho; Yu, Tae-Hoon; Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Jun, Mi-Hee; Ban, Byung-Kwan; Jang, Deok-Jin; Lee, Jin-A

    2013-08-01

    Tar-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been characterized as a major component of protein aggregates in brains with neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, physiological roles of TDP-43 and early cellular pathogenic effects caused by disease associated mutations in differentiated neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological roles of TDP-43 and the effects of missense mutations associated with diseases in differentiated cortical neurons. The reduction of TDP-43 by siRNA increased abnormal neurites and decreased cell viability. ALS/FTLD-associated missense mutant proteins (A315T, Q331K, and M337V) were partially mislocalized to the cytosol and neurites when compared to wild-type and showed abnormal neurites similar to those observed in cases of loss of TDP-43. Interestingly, cytosolic expression of wild-type TDP-43 with mutated nuclear localization signals also induced abnormal neurtie morphology and reduction of cell viability. However, there was no significant difference in the effects of cytosolic expression in neuronal morphology and cell toxicity between wild-type and missense mutant proteins. Thus, our results suggest that mislocalization of missense mutant TDP-43 may contribute to loss of TDP-43 function and affect neuronal morphology, probably via dominant negative action before severe neurodegeneration in differentiated cortical neurons. Highlights: • The function of nuclear TDP-43 in neurite morphology in mature neurons. • Partial mislocalization of TDP-43 missense mutants into cytosol from nucleus. • Abnormal neurite morphology caused by missense mutants of TDP-43. • The effect of cytosolic expression of TDP-43 in neurite morphology and in cell survival.

  11. IRetinal Organization in the retinal degeneration 10 (rd10) Mutant Mouse: a Morphological and ERG Study

    PubMed Central

    Gargini, Cludia; Terzibasi, Eva; Mazzoni, Francesca; Strettoi, Enrica

    2008-01-01

    Retinal degeneration 10 (rd10) mice are a model of autosomal recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), identified by Chang et al. in 2002. These mice carry a spontaneous mutation of the rod-phosphodiesterase (PDE) gene, leading to a rod degeneration that starts around P18. Later, cones are also lost. Because of photoreceptor degeneration does not overlap with retinal development, and light responses can be recorded for about a month after birth, rd10 mice mimic typical human RP more closely than the well-known rd1 mutants. Aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the morphology and function of the rd10 mouse retina during the period of maximum photoreceptor degeneration, thus contributing useful data for exploiting this novel model to study RP. We analyze the morphology and survival of retinal cells in rd10 mice of various ages with quantitative immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy; we also study retinal function with the electroretinogram (ERG), recorded between P18 and P30. We find that photoreceptor death (peaking around P25) is accompanied and followed by dendritic retraction in bipolar and horizontal cells, which eventually undergo secondary degeneration. ERG reveals alterations in the physiology of the inner retina as early as P18 (before any obvious morphological change of inner neurons) and yet consistently with a reduced band amplification by bipolar cells. Thus, changes in the rd10 retina are very similar to what previously found in rd1 mutants. However, an overall slower decay of retinal structure and function predict that rd10 mice might become excellent models for rescue approaches. PMID:17111372

  12. Morphologic and proteomic characterization of exosomes released by cultured extravillous trophoblast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Atay, Safinur; Gercel-Taylor, Cicek; Kesimer, Mehmet; Taylor, Douglas D.

    2011-05-01

    Exosomes represent an important intercellular communication vehicle, mediating events essential for the decidual microenvironment. While we have demonstrated exosome induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, to date, no extensive characterization of trophoblast-derived exosomes has been provided. Our objective was to provide a morphologic and proteomic characterization of these exosomes. Exosomes were isolated from the conditioned media of Swan71 human trophoblast cells by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation. These were analyzed for density (sucrose density gradient centrifugation), morphology (electron microscopy), size (dynamic light scattering) and protein composition (Ion Trap mass spectrometry and western immunoblotting). Based on density gradient centrifugation, microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit a density between 1.134 and 1.173 g/ml. Electron microscopy demonstrated that microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit the characteristic cup-shaped morphology of exosomes. Dynamic light scattering showed a bell-shaped curve, indicating a homogeneous population with a mean size of 165 nm {+-} 0.5 nm. Ion Trap mass spectrometry demonstrated the presence of exosome marker proteins (including CD81, Alix, cytoskeleton related proteins, and Rab family). The MS results were confirmed by western immunoblotting. Based on morphology, density, size and protein composition, we defined the release of exosomes from extravillous trophoblast cells and provide their first extensive characterization. This characterization is essential in furthering our understanding of 'normal' early pregnancy.

  13. Nanofiber Composite Membranes for Alkaline Fuel Cells: Generation of Compositional, Morphological, and Functional Property Relationships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    properties of nanofiber composite anion-exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells. A new membrane fabrication strategy, utilizing polymer fiber...electrospinning, will be employed to make hydroxide-conducting membranes with an entirely new morphology, where one electrospun polymer provides pathways...for ion conductivity and the second electrospun polymer restricts ionomer swelling and imparts mechanical strength to the membrane. The functional

  14. Morphological transformations in polymer brushes in binary mixtures: DPD study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianli; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2014-11-04

    Morphological transformations in polymer brushes in a binary mixture of good and bad solvents are studied using dissipative particle dynamics simulations drawing on a characteristic example of polyisoprene natural rubber in an acetone-benzene mixture. A coarse-grained DPD model of this system is built based on the experimental data in the literature. We focus on the transformation of dense, collapsed brush in bad solvent (acetone) to expanded brush solvated in good solvent (benzene) as the concentration of benzene increases. Compared to a sharp globule-to-coil transition observed in individual tethered chains, the collapsed-to-expanded transformation in brushes is found to be gradual without a prominent transition point. The transformation becomes more leveled as the brush density increases. At low densities, the collapsed brush is highly inhomogeneous and patterned into bunches composed of neighboring chains due to favorable polymer-polymer interaction. At high densities, the brush is expanded even in bad solvent due to steric restrictions. In addition, we considered a model system similar to the PINR-acetone-benzene system, but with the interactions between the solvent components worsened to the limit of miscibility. Enhanced contrast between good and bad solvents facilitates absorption of the good solvent by the brush, shifting the collapsed-to-expanded transformation to lower concentrations of good solvent. This effect is especially pronounced for higher brush densities.

  15. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindl, M.; Bonten, C.

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  16. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    SciTech Connect

    Poindl, M. E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C. E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  17. [Cultivation and morphological characteristics of rat adipose tissue-derived vascular endothelial cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yunfeng; Chen, Xizhe; Tian, Weidong; Yan, Zhengbin; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2006-08-01

    The subcutaneous adipose tissue from the inguen of four Sprague-Dawley rats was obtained, then digested with one volume of collagenase type I and cultured with BGJb medium. The obtained adipose stromal cells were induced in human endothelial-SFM for 7 d. The cells were observed under inverted microscope every day and identified by transmission electron microscope and immunocytochemical staining with factor VIII antigen. The results showed the induced cells uniformly had characteristic cobblestone morphology of endothelial cells. Factor VIII antigen staining was positive in cytoplasm. Under transmission electron microscope, the cells displayed many finger like microvilli and numerous lysosomes, mitochondria, a few coarse endoplasmic reticulum and Weibel-Palade bodies. The characteristics of the rat adipose tissue-derived endothelial cells were consistent with those of vascular endothelial cells derived from other tissues. It seems that subcutaneous adipose tissue may represent a new alternative source of endogenous vascular endothelial cells.

  18. The serotonin receptor 5-HT₇R regulates the morphology and migratory properties of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Holst, Katrin; Guseva, Daria; Schindler, Susann; Sixt, Michael; Braun, Armin; Chopra, Himpriya; Pabst, Oliver; Ponimaskin, Evgeni

    2015-08-01

    Dendritic cells are potent antigen-presenting cells endowed with the unique ability to initiate adaptive immune responses upon inflammation. Inflammatory processes are often associated with an increased production of serotonin, which operates by activating specific receptors. However, the functional role of serotonin receptors in regulation of dendritic cell functions is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that expression of serotonin receptor 5-HT7 (5-HT7R) as well as its downstream effector Cdc42 is upregulated in dendritic cells upon maturation. Although dendritic cell maturation was independent of 5-HT7R, receptor stimulation affected dendritic cell morphology through Cdc42-mediated signaling. In addition, basal activity of 5-HT7R was required for the proper expression of the chemokine receptor CCR7, which is a key factor that controls dendritic cell migration. Consistent with this, we observed that 5-HT7R enhances chemotactic motility of dendritic cells in vitro by modulating their directionality and migration velocity. Accordingly, migration of dendritic cells in murine colon explants was abolished after pharmacological receptor inhibition. Our results indicate that there is a crucial role for 5-HT7R-Cdc42-mediated signaling in the regulation of dendritic cell morphology and motility, suggesting that 5-HT7R could be a new target for treatment of a variety of inflammatory and immune disorders.

  19. Liver-cell patterning lab chip: mimicking the morphology of liver lobule tissue.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chen-Ta; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Chen, Rong-Jhe; Chin, Chung-Kuang; Gong, Song-En; Chang, Hwan-You; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Hsu, Long; Yew, Tri-Rung; Chang, Shau-Feng; Liu, Cheng-Hsien

    2013-09-21

    A lobule-mimetic cell-patterning technique for on-chip reconstruction of centimetre-scale liver tissue of heterogeneous hepatic and endothelial cells via an enhanced field-induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) trap is demonstrated and reported. By mimicking the basic morphology of liver tissue, the classic hepatic lobule, the lobule-mimetic-stellate-electrodes array was designed for cell patterning. Through DEP manipulation, well-defined and enhanced spatial electric field gradients were created for in-parallel manipulation of massive individual cells. With this liver-cell patterning labchip design, the original randomly distributed hepatic and endothelial cells inside the microfluidic chamber can be manipulated separately and aligned into the desired pattern that mimicks the morphology of liver lobule tissue. Experimental results showed that both hepatic and endothelial cells were orderly guided, snared, and aligned along the field-induced orientation to form the lobule-mimetic pattern. About 95% cell viability of hepatic and endothelial cells was also observed after cell-patterning demonstration via a fluorescent assay technique. The liver function of CYP450-1A1 enzyme activity showed an 80% enhancement for our engineered liver tissue (HepG2+HUVECs) compared to the non-patterned pure HepG2 for two-day culturing.

  20. MicroRNA-181c targets Bcl-2 and regulates mitochondrial morphology in myocardial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjiang; Li, Jing; Chi, Hongjie; Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Xiaoming; Cai, Jun; Yang, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important mechanism for the development of heart failure. Mitochondria are central to the execution of apoptosis in the intrinsic pathway. The main regulator of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is Bcl-2 family which includes pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by inhibiting mRNA translation and/or inducing mRNA degradation. It has been proposed that microRNAs play critical roles in the cardiovascular physiology and pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study has found that microRNA-181c, a miRNA expressed in the myocardial cells, plays an important role in the development of heart failure. With bioinformatics analysis, we predicted that miR-181c could target the 3′ untranslated region of Bcl-2, one of the anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. Thus, we have suggested that miR-181c was involved in regulation of Bcl-2. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis using the Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay System. Cultured myocardial cells were transfected with the mimic or inhibitor of miR-181c. We found that the level of miR-181c was inversely correlated with the Bcl-2 protein level and that transfection of myocardial cells with the mimic or inhibitor of miR-181c resulted in significant changes in the levels of caspases, Bcl-2 and cytochrome C in these cells. The increased level of Bcl-2 caused by the decrease in miR-181c protected mitochondrial morphology from the tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis. PMID:25898913

  1. Understanding Solvent Manipulation of Morphology in Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuxia; Zhan, Chuanlang; Yao, Jiannian

    2016-10-06

    Film morphology greatly influences the performance of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ)-structure-based solar cells. It is known that an interpenetrating bicontinuous network with nanoscale-separated donor and acceptor phases for charge transfer, an ordered molecular packing for exciton diffusion and charge transport, and a vertical compositionally graded structure for charge collection are prerequisites for achieving highly efficient BHJ organic solar cells (OSCs). Therefore, control of the morphology to obtain an ideal structure is a key problem. For this solution-processing BHJ system, the solvent participates fully in film processing. Its involvement is critical in modifying the nanostructure of BHJ films. In this review, we discuss the effects of solvent-related methods on the morphology of BHJ films, including selection of the casting solvent, solvent mixture, solvent vapor annealing, and solvent soaking. On the basis of a discussion on interaction strength and time between solvent and active materials, we believe that the solvent-morphology-performance relationship will be clearer and that solvent selection as a means to manipulate the morphology of BHJ films will be more rational.

  2. Hybrid morphology dependence of CdTe:CdSe bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Furui; Qu, Shengchun; Zhang, Weifeng; Wang, Zhanguo

    2014-01-01

    A nanocrystal thin-film solar cell operating on an exciton splitting pattern requires a highly efficient separation of electron-hole pairs and transportation of separated charges. A hybrid bulk-heterojunction (HBH) nanostructure providing a large contact area and interpenetrated charge channels is favorable to an inorganic nanocrystal solar cell with high performance. For this freshly appeared structure, here in this work, we have firstly explored the influence of hybrid morphology on the photovoltaic performance of CdTe:CdSe bulk-heterojunction solar cells with variation in CdSe nanoparticle morphology. Quantum dot (QD) or nanotetrapod (NT)-shaped CdSe nanocrystals have been employed together with CdTe NTs to construct different hybrid structures. The solar cells with the two different hybrid active layers show obvious difference in photovoltaic performance. The hybrid structure with densely packed and continuously interpenetrated two phases generates superior morphological and electrical properties for more efficient inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells, which could be readily realized in the NTs:QDs hybrid. This proved strategy is applicable and promising in designing other highly efficient inorganic hybrid solar cells.

  3. Organic solar cells: a rigorous model of the donor-acceptor interface for various bulk heterojunction morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raba, Adam; Leroy, Yann; Cordan, Anne-Sophie

    2014-02-01

    Theoretical studies of organic solar cells are mostly based on one dimensional models. Despite their accuracy to reproduce most of the experimental trends, they intrinsically cannot correctly integrate the effects of morphology in cells based on a bulk heterojunction structure. Therefore, accounting for these effects requires the development of two dimensional models, in which donor and acceptor domains are explicitly distinct. In this context, we propose an analytical approach, which focuses on the description of the interface between the two domains. Assuming pinned charge transfer states, we rigorously derive the corresponding boundary conditions and explore the differences between this model and other existing models in the literature for various morphologies of the active layer. On one hand, all tested models are equivalent for an ideal interdigitated bulk heterojunction solar cell with a planar donor-acceptor interface, but divergences between the models rise for small sizes of the donor domain. On the other hand, we carried out a comparison on a less ideal case of cell, with a rough interface between the two domains. Simulations with such cells exhibit distinct behaviors for each model. We conclude that the boundary condition for the interface between the materials is of great importance for the study of solar cells with a non-planar interface. The model must account initially for the roughness of the interface.

  4. Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells: Effect of Nanostructured TiO2 Morphologies on Photovoltaic Properties.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Taro; Shen, Qing

    2012-07-19

    There is a great deal of interest in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) fabricated with nanostructured TiO2 electrodes. Many different dye molecules have been designed and synthesized to achieve high photovoltaic conversion efficiency. Recently, as an alternative to organic dyes, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been studied for their light-harvesting capability compared with other sensitizers. Accordingly, an attractive configuration to exploit these fascinating properties of semiconductor QDs is the quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) due to their high photoactivity, process realization, and low cost of production. The morphology of TiO2 electrodes included with surface orientation is important for satisfactory assembly of QDSCs in order to improve the efficiency. Breakthroughs allowing an increase in efficiency will advance on two areas of electrode morphology control, namely, (A) TiO2 nanotube electrodes and (B) inverse opal TiO2 electrodes.

  5. Anti-CD antibody microarray for human leukocyte morphology examination allows analyzing rare cell populations and suggesting preliminary diagnosis in leukemia.

    PubMed

    Khvastunova, Alina N; Kuznetsova, Sofya A; Al-Radi, Liubov S; Vylegzhanina, Alexandra V; Zakirova, Anna O; Fedyanina, Olga S; Filatov, Alexander V; Vorobjev, Ivan A; Ataullakhanov, Fazly

    2015-07-27

    We describe a method for leukocyte sorting by a microarray of anti-cluster-of-differentiation (anti-CD) antibodies and for preparation of the bound cells for morphological or cytochemical examination. The procedure results in a "sorted" smear with cells positive for certain surface antigens localised in predefined areas. The morphology and cytochemistry of the microarray-captured normal and neoplastic peripheral blood mononuclear cells are identical to the same characteristics in a smear. The microarray permits to determine the proportions of cells positive for the CD antigens on the microarray panel with high correlation with flow cytometry. Using the anti-CD microarray we show that normal granular lymphocytes and lymphocytes with radial segmentation of the nuclei are positive for CD3, CD8, CD16 or CD56 but not for CD4 or CD19. We also show that the described technique permits to obtain a pure leukemic cell population or to separate two leukemic cell populations on different antibody spots and to study their morphology or cytochemistry directly on the microarray. In cases of leukemias/lymphomas when circulating neoplastic cells are morphologically distinct, preliminary diagnosis can be suggested from full analysis of cell morphology, cytochemistry and their binding pattern on the microarray.

  6. Morphological study of fossa ovalis and its clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, S.D.; Chawre, H.K.; Joshi, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been implicated in the etiology of a number of different pathologies, including cryptogenic stroke, decompression sickness in divers, etc. It can act as a channel for paradoxical embolism. PFO is not an uncommon condition, with a probe-patency in 15–35% population. The fossa ovalis (FOv) varies in size and shape from heart to heart; the prominence of annulus FOv also varies. The entire FOv may be redundant and aneurysmal. The anatomico-functional characterization of interatrial septum seems to be of paramount importance for both atrial septal defect (ASD) and PFO, not only for the device selection, but also for the evaluation of the outcome of this procedure. Method This study was conducted in 50 apparently normal hearts available in Department of Anatomy. After opening the right atrium, the shape of FOv was observed. The size was measured with the digital vernier caliper; the prominence and extent of limbus, and the redundancy or otherwise of FOv were noted; probe patency was confirmed. Results In the majority, FOv was oval (82%); average transverse diameter was 14.53 mm and vertical 12.60 mm. In 90%, the rim of the annulus was raised; in 20%, a recess was found deep to the margin of the annulus; and 18% showed probe patency. Conclusion As no study of this nature has been carried out in the Indian population, this provides pertinent information on the morphology of FOv, which may be useful for device selection in treating ASD and PFO. PMID:27133322

  7. Multiphoton laser tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of basal cell carcinoma: morphologic features for non-invasive diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Seidenari, Stefania; Arginelli, Federica; Dunsby, Christopher; French, Paul; König, Karsten; Magnoni, Cristina; Manfredini, Marco; Talbot, Clifford; Ponti, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Multiphoton laser tomography (MPT) combined with fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) is a non-invasive imaging technique, which gives access to the cellular and extracellular morphology of the skin. The aim of our study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of MPT/FLIM descriptors for basal cell carcinoma (BCC), to improve BCC diagnosis and the identification of tumor margins. In the preliminary study, FLIM images referring to 35 BCCs and 35 healthy skin samples were evaluated for the identification of morphologic descriptors characteristic of BCC. In the main study, the selected parameters were blindly evaluated on a test set comprising 63 BCCs, 63 healthy skin samples and 66 skin lesions. Moreover, FLIM values inside a region of interest were calculated on 98 healthy skin and 98 BCC samples. In the preliminary study, three epidermal descriptors and 7 BCC descriptors were identified. The specificity of the diagnostic criteria versus 'other lesions' was extremely high, indicating that the presence of at least one BCC descriptor makes the diagnosis of 'other lesion' extremely unlikely. FLIM values referring to BCC cells significantly differed from those of healthy skin. In this study, we identified morphological and numerical descriptors enabling the differentiation of BCC from other skin disorders and its distinction from healthy skin in ex vivo samples. In future, MPT/FLIM may be applied to skin lesions to provide direct clinical guidance before biopsy and histological examination and for the identification of tumor margins allowing a complete surgical removal.

  8. Morphological analysis of nuclear separation and cell division during the life cycle of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Woldringh, C L

    1976-01-01

    Quantitative electron microscope observations were performed on Escherichia coli B/r after balanced growth with doubling times (tau) of 32 and 60 min. The experimental approach allowed the timing of morphological events during the cell cycle by classifying serially sectioned cells according to length. Visible separation of the nucleoplasm was found to coincide with the time of termination of chromosome replication as predicted by the Cooper-Helmstetter model. The duration of the process of constrictive cell division (10 min) appeared to be independent of the growth rate for tau equals 60 min or less but to increase with increase doubling time in more slowly growing cells. Physiological division, i.e., compartmentalization prior to physical separation of the cells, was only observed to occur in the last minute of the cell cycle. The morphological results indicate that cell elongation continues during the division process in cells with tau equals 32 min, but fails to continue in cells with tau equals 60 min. Images PMID:1107308

  9. Systematic high-content genome-wide RNAi screens of endothelial cell migration and morphology

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Steven P.; Gould, Cathryn M.; Nowell, Cameron J.; Karnezis, Tara; Achen, Marc G.; Simpson, Kaylene J.; Stacker, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    Many cell types undergo migration during embryogenesis and disease. Endothelial cells line blood vessels and lymphatics, which migrate during development as part of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and other types of vessel remodelling. These processes are also important in wound healing, cancer metastasis and cardiovascular conditions. However, the molecular control of endothelial cell migration is poorly understood. Here, we present a dataset containing siRNA screens that identify known and novel components of signalling pathways regulating migration of lymphatic endothelial cells. These components are compared to signalling in blood vascular endothelial cells. Further, using high-content microscopy, we captured a dataset of images of migrating cells following transfection with a genome-wide siRNA library. These datasets are suitable for the identification and analysis of genes involved in endothelial cell migration and morphology, and for computational approaches to identify signalling networks controlling the migratory response and integration of cell morphology, gene function and cell signaling. This may facilitate identification of protein targets for therapeutically modulating angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the context of human disease. PMID:28248931

  10. Effects of FGF-2 on human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells morphology and chondrogenesis enhancement in Transwell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Kabiri, Azadeh; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Hashemibeni, Batool; Kazemi, Mohammad; Mardani, Mohammad; Esmaeili, Abolghasem

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated effects of FGF-2 on hADSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the level of gene expressions of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF-2 induces chondrogenesis in hADSCs, which Bullet Increasing information will decrease quality if hospital costs are very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result of this study may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering. -- Abstract: Injured cartilage is difficult to repair due to its poor vascularisation. Cell based therapies may serve as tools to more effectively regenerate defective cartilage. Both adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are regarded as potential stem cell sources able to generate functional cartilage for cell transplantation. Growth factors, in particular the TGF-b superfamily, influence many processes during cartilage formation, including cell proliferation, extracellular matrix synthesis, maintenance of the differentiated phenotype, and induction of MSCs towards chondrogenesis. In the current study, we investigated the effects of FGF-2 on hADSC morphology and chondrogenesis in Transwell culture. hADSCs were obtained from patients undergoing elective surgery, and then cultured in expansion medium alone or in the presence of FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). mRNA expression levels of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The morphology, doubling time, trypsinization time and chondrogenesis of hADSCs were also studied. Expression levels of SOX-9, collagen type II, and aggrecan were all significantly increased in hADSCs expanded in presence of FGF-2. Furthermore FGF-2 induced a slender morphology, whereas doubling time and trypsinization time decreased. Our results suggest that FGF-2 induces hADSCs chondrogenesis in Transwell culture, which may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering.

  11. Inflectional morphology in primary progressive aphasia: an elicited production study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen M; Brandt, Temre H; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Ogar, Jennifer M; Salli, Chelsey; Wilson, Lisa; Peralta, Karen; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2014-09-01

    Inflectional morphology lies at the intersection of phonology, syntax and the lexicon, three language domains that are differentially impacted in the three main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To characterize spared and impaired aspects of inflectional morphology in PPA, we elicited inflectional morphemes in 48 individuals with PPA and 13 healthy age-matched controls. We varied the factors of regularity, frequency, word class, and lexicality, and used voxel-based morphometry to identify brain regions where atrophy was predictive of deficits on particular conditions. All three PPA variants showed deficits in inflectional morphology, with the specific nature of the deficits dependent on the anatomical and linguistic features of each variant. Deficits in inflecting low-frequency irregular words were associated with semantic PPA, with lexical/semantic deficits, and with left temporal atrophy. Deficits in inflecting pseudowords were associated with non-fluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants, with phonological deficits, and with left frontal and parietal atrophy.

  12. Inflectional morphology in primary progressive aphasia: An elicited production study

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephen M.; Brandt, Temre H.; Henry, Maya L.; Babiak, Miranda; Ogar, Jennifer M.; Salli, Chelsey; Wilson, Lisa; Peralta, Karen; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Inflectional morphology lies at the intersection of phonology, syntax and the lexicon, three language domains that are differentially impacted in the three main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To characterize spared and impaired aspects of inflectional morphology in PPA, we elicited inflectional morphemes in 48 individuals with PPA and 13 healthy age-matched controls. We varied the factors of regularity, frequency, word class, and lexicality, and used voxel-based morphometry to identify brain regions where atrophy was predictive of deficits on particular conditions. All three PPA variants showed deficits in inflectional morphology, with the specific nature of the deficits dependent on the anatomical and linguistic features of each variant. Deficits in inflecting low-frequency irregular words were associated with semantic PPA, with lexical/semantic deficits, and with left temporal atrophy. Deficits in inflecting pseudowords were associated with non-fluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants, with phonological deficits, and with left frontal and parietal atrophy. PMID:25129631

  13. The study of multiphase polymer-blend morphologies by HVEM

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanaugh, T.J.; Nauman, E.B.; Buttle, K.; Turner, J.N.

    1996-12-31

    Multiphase polymer blends are important in the polymer industry. Most commercial blends consist of two main polymers combined with a third, compatibilizing polymer, typically a graft or block copolymer. The most common examples are those involving the impact modification of a brittle thermoplastic by the microdispersion of a rubber into the matrix. Recently, a model of ternary polymer blend has provided a wealth of morphologies for examination. Even though this model can give an excellent basis for the design of a polymer blend, experimental verification is necessary. A correlation of blend properties such as impact strength with blend morphology must also be made. The focus is to confirm the predicted morphologies in binary and ternary blends using HVEM.

  14. Effects of chitooligosaccharides on human red blood cell morphology and membrane protein structure.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, João C; Eaton, Peter; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Rocha, Susana; Vitorino, Rui; Amado, Francisco; Gomes, Joana; Santos-Silva, Alice; Pintado, Manuela E; Malcata, F Xavier

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies of chitosan have increased the interest in its conversion to chitooligosaccharides (COSs) because these compounds are water-soluble and have potential use in several biomedical applications. Furthermore, such oligomers may be more advantageous than chitosans because of their much higher absorption profiles at the intestinal level, which permit their facilitated access to systemic circulation and potential distribution throughout the entire human body. In that perspective, it is important to clarify their effect on blood further, namely, on human red blood cells (RBCs). The aim of this work was thus to study the effect of two COS mixtures with different molecular weight (MW) ranges, <3 and <5 kDa, at various concentrations (5.0-0.005 mg/mL) on human RBCs. The interactions of these two mixtures with RBC membrane proteins and with hemoglobin were assessed, and the RBC morphology and surface structure were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In the presence of either COS mixture, no significant hemolysis was observed; however, at COS concentrations >0.1 mg/mL, changes in membrane binding hemoglobin were observed. Membrane protein changes were also observed with increasing COS concentration, including a reduction in both alpha- and beta-spectrin and in band 3 protein, and the development of three new protein bands: peroxiredoxin 2, calmodulin, and hemoglobin chains. Morphologic evaluation by OM showed that at high concentrations COSs interact with RBCs, leading to RBC adhesion, aggregation, or both. An increase in the roughness of the RBC surface with increasing COS concentration was observed by AFM. Overall, these findings suggest that COS damage to RBCs was dependent on the COS MW and concentration, and significant damage resulted from either a higher MW or a greater concentration (>0.1 mg/mL).

  15. A simple ImageJ macro tool for analyzing mitochondrial network morphology in mammalian cell culture.

    PubMed

    Valente, Andrew J; Maddalena, Lucas A; Robb, Ellen L; Moradi, Fereshteh; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2017-03-14

    Mitochondria exist in a dynamic cycle of fusion and fission whose balance directly influences the morphology of the 'mitochondrial network', a term that encompasses the branched, reticular structure of fused mitochondria as well as the separate, punctate individual organelles within a eukaryotic cell. Over the past decade, the significance of the mitochondrial network has been increasingly appreciated, motivating the development of various approaches to analyze it. Here, we describe the Mitochondrial Network Analysis (MiNA) toolset, a relatively simple pair of macros making use of existing ImageJ plug-ins, allowing for semi-automated analysis of mitochondrial networks in cultured mammalian cells. MiNA is freely available at https://github.com/ScienceToolkit/MiNA. The tool incorporates optional preprocessing steps to enhance the quality of images before converting the images to binary and producing a morphological skeleton for calculating nine parameters to quantitatively capture the morphology of the mitochondrial network. The efficacy of the macro toolset is demonstrated using a sample set of images from SH-SY5Y, C2C12, and mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) cell cultures treated under different conditions and exhibiting hyperfused, fused, and fragmented mitochondrial network morphologies.

  16. Morphological features of IFN-γ–stimulated mesenchymal stromal cells predict overall immunosuppressive capacity

    PubMed Central

    Klinker, Matthew W.; Marklein, Ross A.; Lo Surdo, Jessica L.; Wei, Cheng-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) lines can vary significantly in their functional characteristics, and the effectiveness of MSC-based therapeutics may be realized by finding predictive features associated with MSC function. To identify features associated with immunosuppressive capacity in MSCs, we developed a robust in vitro assay that uses principal-component analysis to integrate multidimensional flow cytometry data into a single measurement of MSC-mediated inhibition of T-cell activation. We used this assay to correlate single-cell morphological data with overall immunosuppressive capacity in a cohort of MSC lines derived from different donors and manufacturing conditions. MSC morphology after IFN-γ stimulation significantly correlated with immunosuppressive capacity and accurately predicted the immunosuppressive capacity of MSC lines in a validation cohort. IFN-γ enhanced the immunosuppressive capacity of all MSC lines, and morphology predicted the magnitude of IFN-γ–enhanced immunosuppressive activity. Together, these data identify MSC morphology as a predictive feature of MSC immunosuppressive function. PMID:28283659

  17. Perinatal hemochromatosis. Clinical, morphologic, and quantitative iron studies.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, M. M.; Beverley, D. W.; Valberg, L. S.; Cutz, E.; Phillips, M. J.; Shaheed, W. A.

    1987-01-01

    Three sibling and two isolated-case perinates (4 newborn, 1 stillborn) died with siderotic cirrhosis and widespread parenchymal siderosis, the latter similar to that seen in both hereditary and secondary hemochromatosis. Reticuloendothelial siderosis was absent, as occurs in primary hemochromatosis. Studies of iron metabolism were performed antemortem in two of the siblings and ante-, post- and internatally in their mother, who showed hyperferremia antenatally. The only finding in the affected family suggestive of hereditary hemochromatosis was the commonly associated HLA haplotype (A3, B7) in the mother and an infant. Liver morphology, including immunocytochemistry and ultrastructure, was similar in the 5 infants and suggested that liver disease commenced as massive necrosis in midfetal life. Histologic grading and chemical assays for iron and copper on liver and spleen of the 5 index cases were compared with 26 controls; placentas were compared with 12 control placentas. Hepatic iron concentration, but not hepatic copper concentration, was significantly increased in index cases, compared with controls. Hepatic iron to copper ratio was significantly increased in index cases, compared with controls, but this ratio was unaltered in spleen and placenta. Total hepatic iron, but not total hepatic copper, was significantly increased in index cases, compared with a subgroup of 11 controls of low gestational age, similar to the fetal stage when liver disease commenced in utero. The results suggest that, irrespective of the fetal liver disease being genetic or acquired, hepatic iron overload was directly involved in pathogenesis. Images Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3307444

  18. Morphological study of borosilicate glass surface irradiated by heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T. S.; Du, X.; Yuan, W.; Duan, B. H.; D. Zhang, J.; Chen, L.; Peng, H. B.; Yang, D.; Zhang, G. F.; Zhu, Z. H.

    2016-11-01

    Borosilicate glass is a candidate material for radiation waste formation and other optical applications in various fields. To understand the radiation effect of borosilicate glass, heavy ion (Arq+, Krq+ and Xeq+) irradiations were used to simulate the alpha and recoiled nuclei irradiations in this study. The surface morphology of glass has been compared to ion irradiation doses and ion energies. The surface topography evolution of irradiated samples is characterized by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Micro-bumps are observed on the sample surface after irradiationwith 5 MeV Xeq+ over 5 × 1013 ions·cm-2. The size and density of the bumps increaseswith increasing irradiation dose. At a lowdose, bumps are on the nanometer (nm) scale and rather rare.While the dose is higher than 9 × 1015 ions·cm-2, the size of bumps is on the scale of a few microns, and the density is saturated. However, the height of the bumps increases froma fewnmto over 150nmwith further irradiation. The distribution of micro-bumps is nearly homogeneous. The bumps are condensed and swell up, and there is no crystallized structure according to the TEMdiffraction pattern. Elementmigration and concentrations are observedwith SIMS imaging. The arrayed micro-bumps are a new finding, and they might be used to change the surface properties. Bump formation is caused by phase separation, and volume swelling is induced by ion irradiation.

  19. Morphologic effects of bromocriptine on spontaneously occurring pituitary prolactin-cell hyperplasia in old Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed Central

    McComb, D. J.; Hellmann, P.; Thorner, M. O.; Scott, D.; Evans, W. S.; Kovacs, K.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of bromocriptine (BEC), a dopaminergic agonist, on nontumorous pituitary prolactin (PRL) cells of aging female Long-Evans rats, was studied histologically, immunocytologically, electron-microscopically, and morphometrically. Rats were arbitrarily divided into two control groups, one with normal (less than 20 ng/ml) and one with elevated serum PRL concentrations, and into four BEC-treated groups, all of which had increased serum PRL levels prior to commencement of BEC administration. In hyperprolactinemic control rats, compared with normoprolactinemic control rats, pituitary weight and percentage of pituitary PRL cells were increased. The morphologic features of PRL cells in these two groups did not differ markedly, which suggested that hyperprolactinemia was due to increased PRL-cell number and not increased PRL-cell function. Compared with age-matched hyperprolactinemic control rats, hyperprolactinemic rats treated with BEC showed a reversible decrease in serum PRL levels, pituitary weight as well as percentage of pituitary PRL cells, and by ultrastructural morphometry an increase in the volume density of lysosomes. BEC caused no striking changes in nuclear and cytoplasmic areas, volume densities of RER, Golgi regions, mitochondria, lipid droplets, and size and volume densities of forming and storage granules. Since spontaneously hyperplastic PRL cells show less conspicuous morphologic changes following BEC treatment than PRL cells rendered hyperplastic by estrogen administration or pituitary transplantation, it is suggested that PRL cells with no increased endocrine function respond less markedly to dopaminergic suppression than endocrinologically hyperactive PRL cells. It can be concluded that BEC suppresses spontaneous proliferation of PRL cells which occurs with aging. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3942200

  20. Optimization of molecular organization and nanoscale morphology for high performance low bandgap polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ming; Wang, Mengye; Lin, Changjian; Lin, Zhiqun

    2014-03-01

    Rational design and synthesis of low bandgap (LBG) polymers with judiciously tailored HOMO and LUMO levels have emerged as a viable route to high performance polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) exceeding 10%. In addition to engineering the energy-level of LBG polymers, the photovoltaic performance of LBG polymer-based solar cells also relies on the device architecture, in particular the fine morphology of the photoactive layer. The nanoscale interpenetrating networks composed of nanostructured donor and acceptor phases are the key to providing a large donor-acceptor interfacial area for maximizing the exciton dissociation and offering a continuous pathway for charge transport. In this Review Article, we summarize recent strategies for tuning the molecular organization and nanoscale morphology toward an enhanced photovoltaic performance of LBG polymer-based solar cells.

  1. Optimization of molecular organization and nanoscale morphology for high performance low bandgap polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    He, Ming; Wang, Mengye; Lin, Changjian; Lin, Zhiqun

    2014-04-21

    Rational design and synthesis of low bandgap (LBG) polymers with judiciously tailored HOMO and LUMO levels have emerged as a viable route to high performance polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) exceeding 10%. In addition to engineering the energy-level of LBG polymers, the photovoltaic performance of LBG polymer-based solar cells also relies on the device architecture, in particular the fine morphology of the photoactive layer. The nanoscale interpenetrating networks composed of nanostructured donor and acceptor phases are the key to providing a large donor-acceptor interfacial area for maximizing the exciton dissociation and offering a continuous pathway for charge transport. In this Review Article, we summarize recent strategies for tuning the molecular organization and nanoscale morphology toward an enhanced photovoltaic performance of LBG polymer-based solar cells.

  2. The distribution and morphological characteristics of serotonergic cells in the brain of monotremes.

    PubMed

    Manger, P R; Fahringer, H M; Pettigrew, J D; Siegel, J M

    2002-01-01

    The distribution and cellular morphology of serotonergic neurons in the brain of two species of monotremes are described. Three clusters of serotonergic neurons were found: a hypothalamic cluster, a cluster in the rostral brainstem and a cluster in the caudal brainstem. Those in the hypothalamus consisted of two groups, the periventricular hypothalamic organ and the infundibular recess, that were intimately associated with the ependymal wall of the third ventricle. Within the rostral brainstem cluster, three distinct divisions were found: the dorsal raphe nucleus (with four subdivisions), the median raphe nucleus and the cells of the supralemniscal region. The dorsal raphe was within and adjacent to the periaqueductal gray matter, the median raphe was associated with the midline ventral to the dorsal raphe, and the cells of the supralemniscal region were in the tegmentum lateral to the median raphe and ventral to the dorsal raphe. The caudal cluster consisted of three divisions: the raphe obscurus nucleus, the raphe pallidus nucleus and the raphe magnus nucleus. The raphe obscurus nucleus was associated with the dorsal midline at the caudal-most part of the medulla oblongata. The raphe pallidus nucleus was found at the ventral midline of the medulla around the inferior olive. Raphe magnus was associated with the midline of the medulla and was found rostral to both the raphe obscurus and raphe pallidus. The results of our study are compared in an evolutionary context with those reported for other mammals and reptiles.

  3. Hsp90 mediates the crosstalk between galactose metabolism and cell morphology pathways in yeast.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Rajaneesh Karimpurath; Leu, Jun-Yi

    2017-02-01

    Galactose metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is carried out by a specialized GAL pathway consisting of structural and regulatory proteins. It is known that cells with unbalanced Gal proteins accumulate toxic metabolic intermediates and exhibit severe growth defects. Recently, we found that the molecular chaperone Hsp90 controls the abundance of multiple Gal proteins, possibly to prevent these defects. Hsp90 regulates various cellular processes including cell morphology in response to environmental cues. Yeast cells are known to resort to filamentous growth upon exposure to galactose or other environmental stresses. Our previous and current findings support the "Hsp90 titration model" of Hsp90 buffering, which links the cell morphology and galactose pathways. Our results suggest that, when a large proportion of Hsp90 molecules are used to help Gal proteins, the Hsp90 client proteins in cell morphology pathways are left unattended, leading to filamentous growth. It remains unclear whether this phenomenon serves any biological function or simply reflects a cellular constraint. Nonetheless, it provides an alternative explanation why the GAL pathway is degenerated in some yeast species.

  4. The selective role of ECM components on cell adhesion, morphology, proliferation and communication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina; Ngezahayo, Anaclet; Chichkov, Boris N

    2013-06-10

    Cell binding to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell and tissue functions. In this context, each tissue consists of a unique ECM composition, which may be responsible for tissue-specific cell responses. Due to the complexity of ECM-cell interactions-which depend on the interplay of inside-out and outside-in signaling cascades, cell and tissue specificity of ECM-guidance is poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate the role of different ECM components like laminin, fibronectin, and collagen type I with respect to the essential cell behaviour patterns: attachment dynamics such as adhesion kinetic and force, formation of focal adhesion complexes, morphology, proliferation, and intercellular communication. A detailed in vitro comparison of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, and chondrocytes reveals significant differences in their cell responses to the ECM: cell behaviour follows a cell specific ligand priority ranking, which was independent of the cell type origin. Fibroblasts responded best to fibronectin, chondrocytes best to collagen I, the other cell types best to laminin. This knowledge is essential for optimization of tissue-biomaterial interfaces in all tissue engineering applications and gives insight into tissue-specific cell guidance.

  5. Repressed synthesis of ribosomal proteins generates protein-specific cell cycle and morphological phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Mamata; Bommakanti, Ananth; Shamsuzzaman, Md; Gregory, Brian; Samsel, Leigh; Zengel, Janice M; Lindahl, Lasse

    2013-12-01

    The biogenesis of ribosomes is coordinated with cell growth and proliferation. Distortion of the coordinated synthesis of ribosomal components affects not only ribosome formation, but also cell fate. However, the connection between ribosome biogenesis and cell fate is not well understood. To establish a model system for inquiries into these processes, we systematically analyzed cell cycle progression, cell morphology, and bud site selection after repression of 54 individual ribosomal protein (r-protein) genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that repression of nine 60S r-protein genes results in arrest in the G2/M phase, whereas repression of nine other 60S and 22 40S r-protein genes causes arrest in the G1 phase. Furthermore, bud morphology changes after repression of some r-protein genes. For example, very elongated buds form after repression of seven 60S r-protein genes. These genes overlap with, but are not identical to, those causing the G2/M cell cycle phenotype. Finally, repression of most r-protein genes results in changed sites of bud formation. Strikingly, the r-proteins whose repression generates similar effects on cell cycle progression cluster in the ribosome physical structure, suggesting that different topological areas of the precursor and/or mature ribosome are mechanistically connected to separate aspects of the cell cycle.

  6. Control over the morphology and segregation of Zebrafish germ cell granules during embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Markus J; Mackenzie, Natalia C; Dumstrei, Karin; Nakkrasae, La-Iad; Stebler, Jürg; Raz, Erez

    2008-01-01

    Background Zebrafish germ cells contain granular-like structures, organized around the cell nucleus. These structures share common features with polar granules in Drosophila, germinal granules in Xenopus and chromatoid bodies in mice germ cells, such as the localization of the zebrafish Vasa, Piwi and Nanos proteins, among others. Little is known about the structure of these granules as well as their segregation in mitosis during early germ-cell development. Results Using transgenic fish expressing a fluorescently labeled novel component of Zebrafish germ cell granules termed Granulito, we followed the morphology and distribution of the granules. We show that whereas these granules initially exhibit a wide size variation, by the end of the first day of development they become a homogeneous population of medium size granules. We investigated this resizing event and demonstrated the role of microtubules and the minus-end microtubule dependent motor protein Dynein in the process. Last, we show that the function of the germ cell granule resident protein the Tudor domain containing protein-7 (Tdrd7) is required for determination of granule morphology and number. Conclusion Our results suggest that Zebrafish germ cell granules undergo a transformation process, which involves germ cell specific proteins as well as the microtubular network. PMID:18507824

  7. The Latin-Greek Connection: Building Vocabulary through Morphological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Padak, Nancy; Newton, Joanna; Newton, Evangeline

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors make a case for teaching vocabulary in the elementary grades through a focus on the morphological structure of words, in particular English words that are derived through Latin and Greek roots and affixes. The authors present a set of engaging instructional ideas for the use of Latin and Greek derivations to teach…

  8. [Experiments using rats on Kosmos biosatellites: morphologic and biochemical studies].

    PubMed

    Il'in, E A; Kaplanskiĭ, A S; Savina, E A

    1989-01-01

    Results of morphological and biochemical investigations of rats flown on Cosmos biosatellites are discussed. It is emphasized that most changes occurring during exposure to microgravity are directly or indirectly related to lower musculoskeletal loads which in turn produce deconditioning of different physiological systems and organism as a whole. It is concluded that this deconditioning is associated with both metabolic and structural changes.

  9. Human lung morphology models for particle deposition studies.

    PubMed

    Martonen, T B; Schroeter, J D; Hwang, D; Fleming, J S; Conway, J H

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge of human lung morphology is of paramount importance in calculating deposition patterns of inhaled particulate matter (PM) to be used in the definition of ambient air quality standards. Due to the inherently complex nature of the branching structure of the airway network, practical assumptions must be made for modeling purposes. The most commonly used mathematical models reported in the literature that describe PM deposition use Weibel's model A morphology. This assumes the airways of the lung to be a symmetric, dichotomously branching system. However, computer simulations of this model, when compared to scintigraphy images, have shown it to lack physiological realism (Martonen et al., 1994a). Therefore, a more physiologically realistic model of the lung is needed to improve the current PM dosimetry models. Herein, a morphological model is presented that is based on laboratory data from planar gamma camera and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Key elements of this model include: The parenchymal wall of the lung is defined in mathematical terms, the whole lung is divided into distinct left and right components, a set of branching angles is derived from experimental measurements, and the branching network is confined within the discrete left and right components (i.e., there is no overlapping of airways). In future work, this new, more physiologically realistic morphological model can be used to calculate PM deposition patterns for risk assessment protocols.

  10. EVALUATION OF BENZO[C]CHRYSENE DIHYDRODIOLS IN THE MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLAST C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EVALUATION OF BENZO[c]CHRYSENE DIHYDRODIOLS IN THE MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLAST C3H10T?CL8 CELLS

    Abstract The morphological cell transforming activities of three dihydrodiols of benzo[c]chrysene (B[c]C), trans-B[c]C-7,8-diol, trans-B[c]C-9...

  11. Investigation on 3D morphological changes of in vitro cells through digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memmolo, Pasquale; Miccio, Lisa; Merola, Francesco; Netti, Paolo A.; Coppola, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Pietro

    2013-04-01

    We report the investigation of the identification and measurement of region of interest (ROI) in quantitative phase-contrast maps (QPMs) of biological cells by digital holographic microscopy (DHM), with the aim to analyze the 3D positions and 3D morphology together. We consider as test case for our tool the in vitro bull sperm head morphometry analysis. Extraction and measurement of various morphological parameters are performed by using two methods: the anisotropic diffusion filter, that is based on the Gaussian diffusivity function which allows more accuracy of the edge position, and the simple thresholding filter. In particular we consider the calculation of area, ellipticity, perimeter, major axis, minor axis and shape factor as a morphological parameter, instead, for the estimation of 3D position, we compute the centroid, the weighted centroid and the maximum phase values. A statistical analysis on a data set composed by N = 14 holograms relative to bovine spermatozoa and its reference holograms is reported.

  12. Aberrant synaptic input to retinal ganglion cells varies with morphology in a mouse model of retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Christopher W; Toychiev, Abduqodir H; Ivanova, Elena; Sagdullaev, Botir T

    2014-01-01

    Retinal degeneration describes a group of disorders which lead to progressive photoreceptor cell death, resulting in blindness. As this occurs, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) begin to develop oscillatory physiological activity. Here, we studied the morphological and physiological properties of RGCs in rd1 mice, aged 30–60 days, to determine how this aberrant activity correlates with morphology. Patch-clamp recordings of excitatory and inhibitory currents were performed, then dendritic structures were visualized by infusion of fluorescent dye. Only RGCs with oscillatory activity were selected for further analysis. Oscillatory frequency and power were calculated using power spectral density analysis of recorded currents. Dendritic arbor stratification, total length, and area were measured from confocal microscope image stacks. These measurements were used to sort RGCs by cluster analysis using Ward’s method. This resulted in a total of 10 clusters, with monostratified and bistratified cells having 5 clusters each. Both populations exhibited correlations between arbor stratification and aberrant inhibitory input, while excitatory input did not vary with arbor distribution. These findings illustrate the relationship between aberrant activity and RGC morphology at early stages of retinal degeneration. PMID:25099614

  13. Epididymis of Viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus): A Morphological Comparative Study in Relation to Sexual Maturity.

    PubMed

    Cruceño, A A M; Aguilera-Merlo, C I; Chaves, E M; Mohamed, F H

    2017-02-01

    The morphological variations and the androgen receptor (AR) expression were studied in viscacha epididymis in relation to sexual maturity. The animals were divided into immature, pre-pubertal and adult, according to their corporal weight and testicular histology. The epididymides were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry for AR and morphometric analysis. In pre-pubertal and adult animals, four well-differentiated segments (initial, caput, corpus and cauda) were observed, while in immature animals, three segments were identified (initial-caput segment, corpus and cauda). In each segment, the structural parameters and the relative cell distribution were different between the groups. The serum testosterone levels of pre-pubertal and adults showed a very significant increase related to sexual maturity. The AR expression in epithelial and fibromuscular stromal cells was different between the groups. In conclusion, the present work demonstrates that the morphological characteristics of the viscacha epididymis vary while sexual maturity is reached, the development of initial and caput is subsequent to corpus and cauda development and the androgens might play an important role during this process.

  14. The selective role of ECM components on cell adhesion, morphology, proliferation and communication in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina; Ngezahayo, Anaclet; Chichkov, Boris N.

    2013-06-10

    Cell binding to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell and tissue functions. In this context, each tissue consists of a unique ECM composition, which may be responsible for tissue-specific cell responses. Due to the complexity of ECM-cell interactions—which depend on the interplay of inside-out and outside-in signaling cascades, cell and tissue specificity of ECM-guidance is poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate the role of different ECM components like laminin, fibronectin, and collagen type I with respect to the essential cell behaviour patterns: attachment dynamics such as adhesion kinetic and force, formation of focal adhesion complexes, morphology, proliferation, and intercellular communication. A detailed in vitro comparison of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, and chondrocytes reveals significant differences in their cell responses to the ECM: cell behaviour follows a cell specific ligand priority ranking, which was independent of the cell type origin. Fibroblasts responded best to fibronectin, chondrocytes best to collagen I, the other cell types best to laminin. This knowledge is essential for optimization of tissue-biomaterial interfaces in all tissue engineering applications and gives insight into tissue-specific cell guidance. -- Highlights: • We analyse the impact of ECM components on cell behaviour in vitro. • We compare five different cell types, using the same culture conditions. • The ECM significantly guides all cell responses. • Cell behaviour follows a cell specific ligand-priority ranking. • This gives insight in tissue formation and is essential for biomedical applications.

  15. Three dimensional morphological studies of Larger Benthic Foraminifera at the population level using micro computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles

    2015-04-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) are long-living marine (at least 1 year), single-celled organisms with complex calcium carbonate shells. Their morphology has been intensively studied since the middle of the nineteenth century. This led to a broad spectrum of taxonomic results, important from biostratigraphy to ecology in shallow water tropical to warm temperate marine palaeo-environments. However, it was necessary for the traditional investigation methods to cut or destruct specimens for analysing the taxonomically important inner structures. X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) is one of the newest techniques used in morphological studies. The greatest advantage is the non-destructive acquisition of inner structures. Furthermore, the running improve of microCT scanners' hard- and software provides high resolution and short time scans well-suited for LBF. Three-dimensional imaging techniques allow to select and extract each chamber and to measure easily its volume, surface and several form parameters used for morphometric analyses. Thus, 3-dimensional visualisation of LBF-tests is a very big step forward from traditional morphology based on 2-dimensional data. The quantification of chamber form is a great opportunity to tackle LBF structures, architectures and the bauplan geometry. The micrometric digital resolution is the only way to solve many controversies in phylogeny and evolutionary trends of LBF. For the present study we used micro-computed tomography to easily investigate the chamber number of every specimen from statistically representative part of populations to estimate population dynamics. Samples of living individuals are collected at monthly intervals from fixed locations. Specific preparation allows to scan up to 35 specimens per scan within 2 hours and to obtain the complete digital dataset for each specimen of the population. MicroCT enables thus a fast and precise count of all chambers built by the foraminifer from its

  16. Corticosterone induced morphological changes of hippocampal and amygdaloid cell lines are dependent on 5-HT7 receptor related signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Zhang, C; Wang, R; Govindarajan, S S; Barish, P A; Vernon, M M; Fu, C; Acharya, A P; Chen, L; Boykin, E; Yu, J; Pan, J; O'Donnell, J M; Ogle, W O

    2011-05-19

    Stress is an unavoidable life experience. It induces mood, cognitive dysfunction and plasticity changes in chronically stressed individuals. Among the various brain regions that have been studied, the hippocampus and amygdala have been observed to have different roles in controlling the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (limbic-HPA axis). This study investigated how the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) affects neuronal cells. The first aim is to test whether administration of CORT to hippocampal and amygdaloid cell lines induces different changes in the 5-HT receptor subtypes. The second goal is to determine whether stress induced morphological changes in these two cell lines were involved in the 5-HT receptor subtypes expression. We now show that 5-HT(7) receptor mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in HT-22 cells, but downregulated in AR-5 cells by exposure to a physiologically relevant level of CORT (50 μM) for 24 h, which was later confirmed by primary hippocampal and amygdaloid neuron cultures. Additionally, pretreatment of cells with 5-HT(7) antagonist SB-269970 or agonist LP-44 reversed CORT induced cell lesion in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, CORT induced different changes in neurite length, number of neurites and soma size in HT-22 and AR-5 cells were also reversed by pretreatment with either SB-269970 or LP-44. The different effects of 5-HT(7) receptors on cell lines were observed in two members of the Rho family small GTPase expression: the Cdc-42 and RhoA. These observed results support the hypothesis that 5-HT may differentially modulate neuronal morphology in the hippocampus and amygdala depending on the expression levels of the 5-HT receptor subtypes during stress hormone insults.

  17. Three-dimensional morphological imaging of human induced pluripotent stem cells by using low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Kakuno, Yumi; Goto, Kentaro; Fukami, Tadashi; Sugiyama, Norikazu; Iwai, Hidenao; Mizuguchi, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    There is an increasing need for non-invasive imaging techniques in the field of stem cell research. Label-free techniques are the best choice for assessment of stem cells because the cells remain intact after imaging and can be used for further studies such as differentiation induction. To develop a high-resolution label-free imaging system, we have been working on a low-coherence quantitative phase microscope (LC-QPM). LC-QPM is a Linnik-type interference microscope equipped with nanometer-resolution optical-path-length control and capable of obtaining three-dimensional volumetric images. The lateral and vertical resolutions of our system are respectively 0.5 and 0.93 μm and this performance allows capturing sub-cellular morphological features of live cells without labeling. Utilizing LC-QPM, we reported on three-dimensional imaging of membrane fluctuations, dynamics of filopodia, and motions of intracellular organelles. In this presentation, we report three-dimensional morphological imaging of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS cells). Two groups of monolayer hiPS cell cultures were prepared so that one group was cultured in a suitable culture medium that kept the cells undifferentiated, and the other group was cultured in a medium supplemented with retinoic acid, which forces the stem cells to differentiate. The volumetric images of the 2 groups show distinctive differences, especially in surface roughness. We believe that our LC-QPM system will prove useful in assessing many other stem cell conditions.

  18. Stepwise morphological changes and cytoskeletal reorganization of human mesenchymal stem cells treated by short-time cyclic uniaxial stretch.

    PubMed

    Parandakh, Azim; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Khani, Mohammad-Mehdi

    2017-02-15

    This study aimed to investigate stepwise remodeling of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in response to cyclic stretch through rearrangement and alignment of cells and cytoskeleton regulation toward smooth muscle cell (SMC) fate in different time spans. Image analysis techniques were utilized to calculate morphological parameters. Cytoskeletal reorganization was observed by investigating F-actin filaments using immunofluorescence staining, and expression level of contractile SMC markers was followed by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. Applying cyclic uniaxial stretch on cultured hMSCs, utilizing a costume-made device, led to alteration in fractal dimension (FD) and cytoskeleton structure toward continuous alignment and elongation of cells by elevation of strain duration. Actin filaments became more aligned perpendicular to the axis of mechanical stretch by increasing uniaxial loading duration. At first, FD met a significant decrease in 4 h loading duration then increased significantly by further loading up to 16 h, followed by another decrease up to 1 d of uniaxial stretching. HMSCs subjected to 24 h cyclic uniaxial stretching significantly expressed early and intermediate contractile SM markers. It was hypothesized that the increase in FD after 4 h while cells continuously became more aligned and elongated was due to initiation of change in phenotype that influenced arrangement of cells. At this point, change in cell phenotype started leading to change in morphology while mechanical loading still caused cell alignment and rearrangement. Results can be helpful when optimized engineered cells are needed based on mechanical condition for functional engineered tissue and cell therapy.

  19. Quantification of Dynamic Morphological Drug Responses in 3D Organotypic Cell Cultures by Automated Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Härmä, Ville; Schukov, Hannu-Pekka; Happonen, Antti; Ahonen, Ilmari; Virtanen, Johannes; Siitari, Harri; Åkerfelt, Malin; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Nees, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Glandular epithelial cells differentiate into complex multicellular or acinar structures, when embedded in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix. The spectrum of different multicellular morphologies formed in 3D is a sensitive indicator for the differentiation potential of normal, non-transformed cells compared to different stages of malignant progression. In addition, single cells or cell aggregates may actively invade the matrix, utilizing epithelial, mesenchymal or mixed modes of motility. Dynamic phenotypic changes involved in 3D tumor cell invasion are sensitive to specific small-molecule inhibitors that target the actin cytoskeleton. We have used a panel of inhibitors to demonstrate the power of automated image analysis as a phenotypic or morphometric readout in cell-based assays. We introduce a streamlined stand-alone software solution that supports large-scale high-content screens, based on complex and organotypic cultures. AMIDA (Automated Morphometric Image Data Analysis) allows quantitative measurements of large numbers of images and structures, with a multitude of different spheroid shapes, sizes, and textures. AMIDA supports an automated workflow, and can be combined with quality control and statistical tools for data interpretation and visualization. We have used a representative panel of 12 prostate and breast cancer lines that display a broad spectrum of different spheroid morphologies and modes of invasion, challenged by a library of 19 direct or indirect modulators of the actin cytoskeleton which induce systematic changes in spheroid morphology and differentiation versus invasion. These results were independently validated by 2D proliferation, apoptosis and cell motility assays. We identified three drugs that primarily attenuated the invasion and formation of invasive processes in 3D, without affecting proliferation or apoptosis. Two of these compounds block Rac signalling, one affects cellular cAMP/cGMP accumulation. Our approach supports

  20. Breaking the barriers of all-polymer solar cells: Solving electron transporter and morphology problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavvalapalli, Nagarjuna

    All-polymer solar cells (APSC) are a class of organic solar cells in which hole and electron transporting phases are made of conjugated polymers. Unlike polymer/fullerene solar cell, photoactive material of APSC can be designed to have hole and electron transporting polymers with complementary absorption range and proper frontier energy level offset. However, the highest reported PCE of APSC is 5 times less than that of polymer/fullerene solar cell. The low PCE of APSC is mainly due to: i) low charge separation efficiency; and ii) lack of optimal morphology to facilitate charge transfer and transport; and iii) lack of control over the exciton and charge transport in each phase. My research work is focused towards addressing these issues. The charge separation efficiency of APSC can be enhanced by designing novel electron transporting polymers with: i) broad absorption range; ii) high electron mobility; and iii) high dielectric constant. In addition to with the above parameters chemical and electronic structure of the repeating unit of conjugated polymer also plays a role in charge separation efficiency. So far only three classes of electron transporting polymers, CN substituted PPV, 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole derived polymers and rylene diimide derived polymers, are used in APSC. Thus to enhance the charge separation efficiency new classes of electron transporting polymers with the above characteristics need to be synthesized. I have developed a new straightforward synthetic strategy to rapidly generate new classes of electron transporting polymers with different chemical and electronic structure, broad absorption range, and high electron mobility from readily available electron deficient monomers. In APSCs due to low entropy of mixing, polymers tend to micro-phase segregate rather than forming the more useful nano-phase segregation. Optimizing the polymer blend morphology to obtain nano-phase segregation is specific to the system under study, time consuming, and not

  1. Device and morphological engineering of organic solar cells for enhanced charge transport and photovoltaic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Nirmal; Khatiwada, Devendra; Dubey, Ashish; Qiao, Qiquan

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated polymers are potential materials for photovoltaic applications due to their high absorption coefficient, mechanical flexibility, and solution-based processing for low-cost solar cells. A bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure made of donor-acceptor composite can lead to high charge transfer and power conversion efficiency. Active layer morphology is a key factor for device performance. Film formation processes (e.g., spray-coating, spin-coating, and dip-coating), post-treatment (e.g., annealing and UV ozone treatment), and use of additives are typically used to engineer the morphology, which optimizes physical properties, such as molecular configuration, miscibility, lateral and vertical phase separation. We will review electronic donor-acceptor interactions in conjugated polymer composites, the effect of processing parameters and morphology on solar cell performance, and charge carrier transport in polymer solar cells. This review provides the basis for selection of different processing conditions for optimized nanomorphology of active layers and reduced bimolecular recombination to enhance open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, and fill factor of BHJ solar cells.

  2. Lipophilic organic pollutants induce changes in phospholipid and membrane protein composition leading to Vero cell morphological change.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ting T; Wang, Lei; Jia, Ru W; Fu, Xiao H; Chua, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Membrane damage related to morphological change in Vero cells is a sensitive index of the composite biotoxicity of trace lipophilic chemicals. However, judging whether the morphological change in Vero cells happens and its ratio are difficult because it is not a quantitative characteristic. To find biomarkers of cell morphological change for quantitatively representing the ratio of morphological changed cell, the mechanism of cell membrane damage driven by typical lipophilic chemicals, such as trichlorophenol (TCP) and perfluorooctanesulphonate (PFOS), was explored. The ratio of morphologically changed cells generally increased with increased TCP or PFOS concentrations, and the level of four major components of phospholipids varied with concentrations of TCP or PFOS, but only the ratio of phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) decreased regularly as TCP or PFOS concentrations increased. Analysis of membrane proteins showed that the level of vimentin in normal cell membranes is high, while it decreases or vanishes after TCP exposure. These variations in phospholipid and membrane protein components may result in membrane leakage and variation in rigid structure, which leads to changes in cell morphology. Therefore, the ratio of PC/PE and amount of vimentin may be potential biomarkers for representing the ratio of morphological changed Vero cell introduced by trace lipophilic compounds, thus their composite bio-toxicity.

  3. Vertical and lateral morphology effects on solar cell performance for a thiophene–quinoxaline copolymer:PC 70BM blend

    DOE PAGES

    Hansson, Rickard; Ericsson, Leif K. E.; Holmes, Natalie P.; ...

    2015-02-13

    The distribution of electron donor and acceptor in the active layer is known to strongly influence the electrical performance of polymer solar cells for most of the high performance polymer:fullerene systems. The formulation of the solution from which the active layer is spincoated plays an important role in the quest for morphology control. We have studied how the choice of solvent and the use of small amounts of a low vapour pressure additive in the coating solution influence the film morphology and the solar cell performance for blends of poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (TQ1) and [6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM). We havemore » investigated the lateral morphology using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), the vertical morphology using dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (d-SIMS) and variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE), and the surface composition using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). The lateral phase-separated domains observed in films spincoated from single solvents, increase in size with increasing solvent vapour pressure and decreasing PC70BM solubility, but are not observed when 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) is added. A strongly TQ1-enriched surface layer is formed in all TQ1:PC70BM blend films and rationalized by surface energy differences. The photocurrent and power conversion efficiency strongly increased upon the addition of CN, while the leakage current decreased by one to two orders of magnitude. The higher photocurrent correlates with the finer lateral structure and stronger TQ1-enrichment at the interface with the electron-collecting electrode. This indicates that the charge transport and collection are not hindered by this polymer-enriched surface layer. Neither the open-circuit voltage nor the series resistance of the devices are sensitive to the differences in morphology.« less

  4. Cytopathic Changes in Rat Microglial Cells Induced by Pathogenic Acanthamoeba culbertsoni: Morphology and Cytokine Release

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ho-Joon; Cho, Myung-Soo; Jung, Suk-Yul; Kim, Hyung-Il; Park, Sun; Seo, Jang-Hoon; Yoo, Jung-Chil; Im, Kyung-Il

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether pathogenic Acanthamoeba culbertsoni trophozoites and lysate can induce cytopathic changes in primary-culture microglial cells, morphological changes were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, the secretion of two kinds of cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), from microglial cells was observed. Trophozoites of pathogenic A. culbertsoni made contact with microglial cells and produced digipodia. TEM revealed that microglial cells cocultured with amoebic trophozoites underwent a necrotic process, accompanied by lysis of the cell membrane. TEM of microglial cells cocultured with amoebic lysate showed that the membranes of the small cytoplasmic vacuoles as well as the cell membrane were lysed. The amounts of TNF-α secreted from microglial cells cocultured with A. culbertsoni trophozoites or lysate increased at 6 h of incubation. The amounts of IL-1β secreted from microglial cells cocultured with A. culbertsoni trophozoites at 6 h of incubation was similar to those secreted from the control group, but the amounts decreased during cultivation with A. culbertsoni lysate. These results suggest that pathogenic A. culbertsoni induces the cytopathic effects in primary-culture rat microglial cells, with the effects characterized by necrosis of microglial cells and changes in levels of secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β from microglial cells. PMID:11427438

  5. The morphologies of breast cancer cell lines in three-dimensionalassays correlate with their profiles of gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Paraic A.; Lee, Genee Y.; Myers, Connie A.; Neve, RichardM.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Spellman, Paul T.; Lorenz, Katrin; Lee, Eva H.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, MinaJ.

    2007-01-31

    3D cell cultures are rapidly becoming the method of choice for the physiologically relevant modeling of many aspects of non-malignant and malignant cell behavior ex vivo. Nevertheless, only a limited number of distinct cell types have been evaluated in this assay to date. Here we report the first large scale comparison of the transcriptional profiles and 3D cell culture phenotypes of a substantial panel of human breast cancer cell lines. Each cell line adopts a colony morphology of one of four main classes in 3D culture. These morphologies reflect, at least in part, the underlying gene expression profile and protein expression patterns of the cell lines, and distinct morphologies were also associated with tumor cell invasiveness and with cell lines originating from metastases. We further demonstrate that consistent differences in genes encoding signal transduction proteins emerge when even tumor cells are cultured in 3D microenvironments.

  6. Lectin-mediated effects on bone resorption in vitro: a morphological and functional study

    SciTech Connect

    Popoff, S.N.

    1986-01-01

    Lectins have been used to study the structure and function of a variety of cells and tissues. The authors used 4 different lectins, concanavalin A (con A), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), soybean agglutinin (SBA) and peanut agglutinin (PNA) as in vitro biological probes to study the osteoclast, a multinucleated bone cell that is widely accepted as the primary effector cell responsible for normal bone resorption. They evaluated the effects of each of these lectins on osteoclastic bone resorbing activity and then examined mechanisms that may be responsible for the activation and/or inhibition of osteoclastic activity. Using con A and hemocyanin, a marker molecule used to visualize cell-bound con A via scanning electron microscopy, they demonstrated that osteoclasts have specific con A binding sites on their cell surface. They conducted a series of /sup 45/Ca bone release assays demonstrating that con A has a dose-dependent biphasic effect on bone resorption; stimulation at low concentrations and inhibition at higher concentrations. The findings suggest that the specificity of lectin binding to cell surface receptors may play an important role in the induction of altered cell function. Recently, cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system have been proposed as surrogates of less readily available osteoclasts. They used a macrophage-devitalized bone culture system to evaluate the effects of con A and SBA on the attachment of macrophages to bone and their subsequent functional activity. The results showed that con A, but not SBA, alters the morphology and function of macrophages on a devitalized bone surface. The results support the hypothesis that certain, specific saccharides regulate the interaction between macrophages and bone.

  7. Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: morphologic and immunohistopathologic studies.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, M; Keene, D R; Blank, E; Hori, H; Sakai, L Y; Sherwin, L A; Hollister, D W

    1988-12-01

    A 32-wk-gestation female with type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis has been studied. The clinical features were typical, and radiographs revealed short ribs, hypoplastic ilia, absence of ossification of sacrum, pubis, ischia, tali, calcanei, and many vertebral bodies; the long bones were short with mild metaphyseal flaring. The femoral cylinder index was 6.3. Comparison with previous cases placed the patient toward the mild end of the achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis spectrum (Whitley-Gorlin prototype IV). Light microscopy revealed hypercellular cartilage with decreased matrix traversed by numerous fibrous vascular canals. The growth plate was markedly abnormal. Ultrastructural studies revealed prominently dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing a fine granular material with occasional fibrils in all chondrocytes. Immunohistologic studies indicated irregular large areas of cartilage matrix staining with monoclonal antibody to human type III collagen. The relative intensity of matrix staining for type II collagen appeared diminished. More striking, however, were intense focal accumulations of type II collagen within small rounded perinuclear structures of most chondrocytes but not other cell types. These results strongly suggest intracellular retention of type II collagen within vacuolar structures, probably within the dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum observed in all chondrocytes by electron microscopy (EM), and imply the presence of an abnormal, poorly secreted type II collagen molecule. Biochemical studies (see companion paper) suggest that this patient had a new dominant lethal disorder caused by a structural abnormality of type II collagen.

  8. Mechanical and Electrical Behavior of Organic Solar Cells Probed Through Detailed Morphological Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awartani, Omar Marwan

    One of the main advantages of organic solar cells is their potential to be used in flexible or even stretchable applications. Most research in the field of organic solar cells is focused on materials synthesis, device physics, and the relationship between morphology and the optoelectronic performance. In order for this technology to be commercially competitive, especially for flexible applications, a more complete picture that explores the mechanical properties of organic materials and how they relate to their optoelectronic properties is necessary. This thesis consists of two main research tracks: The first track focuses mainly on the effect of morphology on the mechanical, electrical and optical performance of organic solar cells controlled through varying processing conditions. Two mechanical properties are investigated including the elastic modulus and crack onset strain of P3HT, PCBM and blend (BHJ) films. The second track utilizes the high achievable ductility of organic semiconducting films that is investigated in the first track of the thesis, to create novel solar cell device architectures and to gain insight into the performance and recombination losses of organic solar cells. Processing ductile BHJ films is used to create organic solar cells with controlled level of polarization with both opaque and semi-transparent architectures. Moreover, using the strain-alignment method the efficiency of low and high order P3HT aggregates is probed within the same film to show similar internal quantum efficiency for the two different morphological P3HT domains. This selective probing technique provides significant insight into performance loss mechanisms in organic solar cells.

  9. MeCP2 Affects Skeletal Muscle Growth and Morphology through Non Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Conti, Valentina; Gandaglia, Anna; Galli, Francesco; Tirone, Mario; Bellini, Elisa; Campana, Lara; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Brunelli, Silvia; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism spectrum disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene and affecting roughly 1 out of 10.000 born girls. Symptoms range in severity and include stereotypical movement, lack of spoken language, seizures, ataxia and severe intellectual disability. Notably, muscle tone is generally abnormal in RTT girls and women and the Mecp2-null mouse model constitutively reflects this disease feature. We hypothesized that MeCP2 in muscle might physiologically contribute to its development and/or homeostasis, and conversely its defects in RTT might alter the tissue integrity or function. We show here that a disorganized architecture, with hypotrophic fibres and tissue fibrosis, characterizes skeletal muscles retrieved from Mecp2-null mice. Alterations of the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway accompany the muscle phenotype. A conditional mouse model selectively depleted of Mecp2 in skeletal muscles is characterized by healthy muscles that are morphologically and molecularly indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice raising the possibility that hypotonia in RTT is mainly, if not exclusively, mediated by non-cell autonomous effects. Our results suggest that defects in paracrine/endocrine signaling and, in particular, in the GH/IGF axis appear as the major cause of the observed muscular defects. Remarkably, this is the first study describing the selective deletion of Mecp2 outside the brain. Similar future studies will permit to unambiguously define the direct impact of MeCP2 on tissue dysfunctions.

  10. Morphologic characterization and distribution of endocrine cells in the large intestine of the opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied, 1826).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Daiane Cristina Marques; Cupertino, Marli do Carmo; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Soares, Ítalo Augusto da Costa; Fonseca, Cláudio César; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; Sartori, Sirlene Souza Rodrigues

    2013-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the morphology and distribution of argyrophil, argentaffins, and insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the large intestine of the opossum Didelphis aurita. Fragments of the large intestine of 10 male specimens of the opossum D. aurita were collected, processed, and submitted for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy. The tunics of the large intestine of D. aurita presented morphological characteristics that have already been described for eutherian mammals. The morphometric data showed that the inner circular layer of all portions and regions analyzed is thicker relative to the longitudinal layer, and these layers in the rectum are thicker compared to the cecum and ascending colon. The majority of mucus-secreting cells have acid and neutral mucins, suggesting that the production of mucus is mixed. The number of these cells increases in the region of the cecum toward the rectum. Important findings include the occurrence of argyrophil, argentaffins, and insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in all segments of the large intestine of the opossum (D. aurita). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the presence of insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the large intestine of the opossum (D. aurita).

  11. Toker cells of the breast. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of 40 cases.

    PubMed

    Di Tommaso, Luca; Franchi, Giada; Destro, Annarita; Broglia, Fabiana; Minuti, Francesco; Rahal, Daoud; Roncalli, Massimo

    2008-09-01

    Toker cells are epithelial cells with clear cytoplasm usually free of cytologic atypia localized within the nipple epidermis. Rarely, they can be so numerous and atypical as to require a careful distinction from malignant cells of Paget's disease. The purpose of this paper was to better define the prevalence of these atypical Toker cells and to investigate phenotypic markers that can be helpful in the differential diagnosis with Paget's disease. Forty cases containing Toker cells were identified in the nipples of 390 patients (10.2%) who underwent complete breast mastectomy. In 24 cases (60%), Toker cells were cytologically bland and benign, disappearing after a few consecutive sections ("normal Toker cells"). In 11 cases (27.5%), Toker cells were more numerous and persistent on serial sections, still retaining bland cytologic features ("hyperplastic Toker cells"). In 5 cases (12.5%), hyperplastic Toker cells also became cytologically atypical ("hyperplastic and atypical Toker cells"). On immunohistochemistry, Toker cells were positive for estrogen (25/25) and progesterone (20/23) receptors, and negative for CD138 (18/19) and p53 (14/14); some hyperplastic and atypical Toker cells (4 cases) and hyperplastic Toker cells (1 case) showed faint immunoreactivity for HER2/NEU. For comparison, Paget's disease were negative for estrogen (6/10) and progesterone (7/10) receptors, and positive for CD138 (7/10), p53 (6/10), and HER2/NEU (9/10). Both Toker cells and Paget's disease stained positive for cytokeratin 7 and epithelial membrane antigen, and negative for p63. In conclusion, Toker cells are detectable in 10% of the nipples and are usually cytologically bland, but in 10% of the cases they can be morphologically atypical. The combined use of CD138/p53 is very helpful in distinguishing these atypical Toker cells from those of Paget's disease.

  12. Glioma grading using cell nuclei morphologic features in digital pathology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Syed M. S.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    2016-03-01

    This work proposes a computationally efficient cell nuclei morphologic feature analysis technique to characterize the brain gliomas in tissue slide images. In this work, our contributions are two-fold: 1) obtain an optimized cell nuclei segmentation method based on the pros and cons of the existing techniques in literature, 2) extract representative features by k-mean clustering of nuclei morphologic features to include area, perimeter, eccentricity, and major axis length. This clustering based representative feature extraction avoids shortcomings of extensive tile [1] [2] and nuclear score [3] based methods for brain glioma grading in pathology images. Multilayer perceptron (MLP) is used to classify extracted features into two tumor types: glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and low grade glioma (LGG). Quantitative scores such as precision, recall, and accuracy are obtained using 66 clinical patients' images from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) [4] dataset. On an average ~94% accuracy from 10 fold crossvalidation confirms the efficacy of the proposed method.

  13. Glioma Grading Using Cell Nuclei Morphologic Features in Digital Pathology Images

    PubMed Central

    Reza, Syed M. S.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes a computationally efficient cell nuclei morphologic feature analysis technique to characterize the brain gliomas in tissue slide images. In this work, our contributions are two-fold: 1) obtain an optimized cell nuclei segmentation method based on the pros and cons of the existing techniques in literature, 2) extract representative features by k-mean clustering of nuclei morphologic features to include area, perimeter, eccentricity, and major axis length. This clustering based representative feature extraction avoids shortcomings of extensive tile [1] [2] and nuclear score [3] based methods for brain glioma grading in pathology images. Multilayer perceptron (MLP) is used to classify extracted features into two tumor types: glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and low grade glioma (LGG). Quantitative scores such as precision, recall, and accuracy are obtained using 66 clinical patients’ images from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) [4] dataset. On an average ~94% accuracy from 10 fold cross-validation confirms the efficacy of the proposed method. PMID:27942094

  14. Rapid morphological oscillation of mitochondrion-rich cell in estuarine mudskipper following salinity changes.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, T; Yokota, S; Ando, M

    2000-05-01

    Morphological changes in the chloride cells or mitochondrion-rich (MR) cells in the skin under the pectoral fin of the estuarine mudskipper (Periophthalmus modestus) were examined in relation to intertidal salinity oscillation in river mouth. MR cells were distinguished between those in contact with the water (cells labeled with both mitochondrial probe DASPEI and Concanavalin-A, an apical surface marker of MR cells) and those that are not (DASPEI-positive only). After transfer of the fish from seawater to freshwater, no difference in the total MR cell density was observed, but the subpopulation of MR cells that are Concanavalin-A-positive decreased dramatically within 30 min. After 6 hr in freshwater, the fish were returned to seawater; the number of Con-A-positive MR cells increased to the initial levels rapidly. Thus, in seawater, mudskippers seem to open the apical crypts of the MR cells to secrete salt; in freshwater, they close the crypt of the MR cells tentatively, and tolerate hypotonicity until the rising tide. This unique response of chloride cells may also be seen in gills of other estuarine species.

  15. Gene Therapy Restores Hair Cell Stereocilia Morphology in Inner Ears of Deaf Whirler Mice.

    PubMed

    Chien, Wade W; Isgrig, Kevin; Roy, Soumen; Belyantseva, Inna A; Drummond, Meghan C; May, Lindsey A; Fitzgerald, Tracy S; Friedman, Thomas B; Cunningham, Lisa L

    2016-02-01

    Hereditary deafness is one of the most common disabilities affecting newborns. Many forms of hereditary deafness are caused by morphological defects of the stereocilia bundles on the apical surfaces of inner ear hair cells, which are responsible for sound detection. We explored the effectiveness of gene therapy in restoring the hair cell stereocilia architecture in the whirlin mouse model of human deafness, which is deaf due to dysmorphic, short stereocilia. Wild-type whirlin cDNA was delivered via adeno-associated virus (AAV8) by injection through the round window of the cochleas in neonatal whirler mice. Subsequently, whirlin expression was detected in infected hair cells (IHCs), and normal stereocilia length and bundle architecture were restored. Whirlin gene therapy also increased inner hair cell survival in the treated ears compared to the contralateral nontreated ears. These results indicate that a form of inherited deafness due to structural defects in cochlear hair cells is amenable to restoration through gene therapy.

  16. Morphologic and phenotypic changes of human neuroblastoma cells in culture induced by cytosine arabinoside

    SciTech Connect

    Ponzoni, M.; Lanciotti, M.; Melodia, A.; Casalaro, A.; Cornaglia-Ferraris, P. )

    1989-03-01

    The effects of cytosine-arabinoside (ARA-C) on the growth and phenotypic expression of a new human neuroblastoma (NB) cell line (GI-ME-N) have been extensively tested. Low doses of ARA-C allowing more than 90% cell viability induce morphological differentiation and growth inhibition. Differentiated cells were larger and flattened with elongated dendritic processes; such cells appeared within 48 hours after a dose of ARA-C as low as 0.1 {mu}g/ml. The new morphological aspect reached the maximum expression after 5-6 days of culture being independent from the addition of extra drug to the culture. A decrease in ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation was also observed within 24 hours and the cell growth was completely inhibited on the sixth day. Moreover, ARA-C strongly inhibited anchorage-independent growth in soft agar assay. Membrane immunofluorescence showed several dramatic changes in NB-specific antigen expression after 5 days of treatment with ARA-C. At the same time ARA-C also modulated cytoskeletal proteins and slightly increased catecholamine expression. These findings suggest that noncytotoxic doses of ARA-C do promote the differentiation of GI-ME-N neuroblastoma cells associated with reduced expression of the malignant phenotype.

  17. Keratin-containing inclusions affect cell morphology and distribution of cytosolic cellular components.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Shinichiro; Harada, Masaru; Kumemura, Hiroto; Omary, M Bishr; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Taniguchi, Eitaro; Koga, Hironori; Yoshida, Takafumi; Maeyama, Michiko; Baba, Shinji; Ueno, Takato; Sata, Michio

    2005-04-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the presence of protein aggregates bundled with intermediate filaments (IFs) and similar structures, known as Mallory bodies (MBs), are observed in various liver diseases. IFs are anchored at desmosomes and hemidesmosomes, however, interactions with other intercellular junctions have not been determined. We investigated the effect of IF inclusions on junction-associated and cytosolic proteins in various cultured cells. We performed gene transfection of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged cytokeratin (CK) 18 mutant arg89cys (GFP-CK18 R89C) in cultured cells and observed CK aggregations as well as loss of IF networks. Among various junction-associated proteins, zonula occludens-1 and beta-catenin were colocalized with CK aggregates on immunofluorescent analyses. Similar results were obtained on immunostaining for cytosolic proteins, 14-3-3 zeta protein, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and DsRed. E-cadherin, a basolateral membrane protein in polarized epithelia, was present on both the apical and basolateral domains in GFP-CK18 R89C-transfected cells. Furthermore, cells containing CK aggregates were significantly larger than GFP-tagged wild type CK18 (GFP-WT CK18)-transfected or non-transfected cells (P < 0.01) and sometimes their morphology was significantly altered. Our data indicate that CK aggregates affect not only cell morphology but also the localization of various cytosolic components, which may affect the cellular function.

  18. Comparisons of cell culture medium using distribution of morphological features in microdevice.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroto; Enomoto, Junko; Ikeda, Yurika; Honda, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Junji; Kato, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    As the number of available cell types grows, it becomes necessary to develop more effective ways to optimize the cell-culture medium for each cell line and culture condition. However, because of the vast number of parameters that must be decided, such as the combination of components, optimization is both laborious and costly. Microdevices are a cost-effective way to perform such evaluations because they use only a small volume of media and enable high-throughput analyses. However, assays performed in microdevices are themselves minimized, and each assay unit (well/chamber) commonly contains an insufficient number of cells for comprehensive evaluations such as gene-expression or flow-cytometry analyses. To address this issue, we introduced image-based analysis in conjunction with microdevice assays; this approach allows quantification of every cell in each assay unit. To quantitatively profile differences in cellular behaviors in a microdevice under different culture media conditions, we developed a non-staining image-based analysis method that utilizes cellular morphology. Our approach combines the structural advantages of microdevices, which can increase the stability of images, and the quantitative advantages of an image-based cell evaluation technique that utilizes time-course population change in several morphological features. Our results demonstrate that cellular changes due to small alterations in the concentration of serum in medium or differences in the basal medium can be profiled using only microscopic images.

  19. A direct evidence of morphological degradation on a nanometer scale in polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Christoph J; Palumbiny, Claudia M; Niedermeier, Martin A; Jendrzejewski, Christian; Santoro, Gonzalo; Roth, Stephan V; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2013-12-10

    In situ measurement of a polymer solar cell using micro grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (μGISAXS) and current-voltage tracking is demonstrated. While measuring electric characteristics under illumination, morphological changes are probed by μGISAXS. The X-ray beam (green) impinges on the photo active layer with a shallow angle and scatters on a 2d detector. Degradation is explained by the ongoing nanomorphological changes observed.

  20. Morphological characterization of testicular cells, spermatogenesis and formation of spermatophores in a fish ectoparasite Argulus bengalensis Ramakrishna, 1951 (Crustacea: Branchiura).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Anirban; Manna, Subha; Saha, Samar Kumar

    2014-02-01

    The present study has been carried out to describe the cell morphology of the developing male gametes in a fish ectoparasite, Argulus bengalensis Ramakrishna, 1951. With respect to cell volume and nucleoplasmic index, spermatogonia are the smallest and primary spermatocytes are the largest in this lineage. The spermatogonia and the differentiating spermatogenic cells are in separate niches and confined to different enclaves within each testicular lobe. Spermiogenesis occurs within the inner enclave of each testicular lobe. During this process the nucleus becomes streamlined; an acrosome is formed, axoneme is originated, and residual cytoplasm is discarded through the flagellum. The sperm cell morphology displays a general pattern comprising head, mid-piece, and a full length flagellum. In the axoneme 9+2 arrangement of the microtubule is conserved. In addition to the axoneme, some more singlet microtubules are found surrounding a fiber sheath and around one of the mitochondria adjacent to the axoneme. This arrangement indicates a close phylogenetic relationship with pentastomida. In the present study, structure and formation of spermatophore are described in this branchiuran parasite.

  1. Effects of Asiasari radix on the morphology and viability of mesenchymal stem cells derived from the gingiva.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Su-Hyeon; Lee, Ji-Eun; Jin, Seong-Ho; Ko, Youngkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2014-12-01

    Medicinal herbs used in traditional Oriental medicine, which have been in use clinically for thousands of years, are attractive sources of novel therapeutics or preventatives. Asiasari radix (A. radix) has been suggested for use in the treatment of dental diseases, including toothache and aphthous stomatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of A. radix extracts on the morphology and viability of human stem cells derived from the gingiva. An Asiasarum heterotropoides extract was centrifuged and freeze-dried in a lyophilizer. Stem cells derived from the gingiva were grown in the presence of A. radix at concentrations ranging between 0.1 µg/ml and 1 mg/ml (0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 µg/ml). Cell morphology was evaluated with an optical microscope and the viability of the cells was quantitatively analyzed with a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay for up to seven days. The untreated control group exhibited normal fibroblast morphology. The shapes of the cells following 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 µg/ml A. radix treatments were similar to those of the control group. However, a significant change was noted in the 1,000 µg/ml group on day 1, when compared with the untreated group. Furthermore, on day 7, the shapes of the cells following 100 and 1,000 µg/ml A. radix treatments were rounder and fewer cells were present, when compared with those of the control group. The cultures that grew in the presence of A. radix did not exhibit any changes in the CCK‑8 assay on day 2; however, significant reductions in cell viability were noticed following 100 and 1,000 µg/ml A. radix treatment on days 5 and 7. Within the limits of this study, A. radix influenced the viability of the stem cells derived from the gingiva. Thus, the direct application of A. radix to oral tissues may produce adverse effects at high doses. Therefore, the concentration and application time of A. radix requires meticulous control to obtain optimal results. These effects require consideration

  2. [Morphological and histological study of eggs of six species of the Triatoma genus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)].

    PubMed

    Obara, Marcos T; da Rosa, João A; da Silva, Nilza N; Ceretti, Walter; Urbinatti, Paulo R; Barata, José M S; Jurberg, José; Galvão, Cleber

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the morphological and histological characteristics of eggs from six triatomine species in order to obtain a generic and specific characterization of this group of Trypanosoma cruzi vectors and better understand their phylogenetic and taxonomic aspects. The eggs of the respective species came from the collection of the Laboratório de Triatomíneos e Culicídeos da Faculdade de Saúde Pública/USP, from the Insetário do Serviço Especial de Saúde de Araraquara - SESA and from the Triatomine insectary of the Laboratório Nacional e Internacional de Referência em Taxonomia de Triatomíneos (FIOCRUZ), in Rio de Janeiro. Morphological studies were done with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Histological analyses used only optical microscopy. All of the species analyzed showed a predominance of hexagonal cells. The exchorion of Triatoma breyeri Del Ponte, T. costalimai Verano Galvão, and T. tibiamaculata (Pinto) consists of unornamented cells, overlapping or slightly separated, with a smooth, padded appearance. Meanwhile, in T. matogrossensis Leite Barbosa, T. sherlocki Papa, Juberg, Carcavallo, Cerqueira Barata, and T. williami Galvão, Souza Lima, the exchorion cells are ornamented on their entire surface with perforations and fissures. Egg histology showed undulations, pores, and orifices. The study helps to expand the generic and specific knowledge of the Triatominae subfamily. The characteristics identified in the exchorion of the eggshells can help separate close species. These new parameters will back the elaboration of future dichotomous keys, help to determine each vector species role and expand knowledge of the various species.

  3. Distribution and morphology of retinal ganglion cells in the Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Ikushima, M; Watanabe, M; Ito, H

    1986-06-25

    A ganglion cell density map was produced from the Nissl-stained retinal whole mount of the Japanese quail. Ganglion cell density diminished nearly concentrically from the central area toward the retinal periphery. The mean soma area of ganglion cells in isodensity zones increased as the cell density decreased. The histograms of soma areas in each zone indicated that a population of small-sized ganglion cells persists into the peripheral retina. The total number of ganglion cells was estimated at about 2.0 million. Electron microscopic examination of the optic nerve revealed thin unmyelinated axons to comprise 69% of the total fiber count (about 2.0 million). Since there was no discrepancy between both the total numbers of neurons in the ganglion cell layer and optic nerve fibers, it is inferred that displaced amacrine cells are few, if any. The spectrum in optic nerve fiber diameter showed a unimodal skewed distribution quite similar to the histogram of soma areas of ganglion cells in the whole retina. This suggests a close correlation between soma areas and axon diameters. Retinal ganglion cells filled from the optic nerve with horseradish peroxidase were classified into 7 types according to such morphological characteristics as size, shape and location of the soma, as well as dendritic arborization pattern. Taking into account areal ranges of somata of each cell type, it can be assumed that most of the ganglion cells in the whole retinal ganglion cell layer are composed of type I, II and III cells, and that the population of uniformly small-sized ganglion cells corresponds to type I cells and is an origin of unmyelinated axons in the optic nerve.

  4. Subcellular localization of caspase-3 activation correlates with changes in apoptotic morphology in MOLT-4 leukemia cells exposed to X-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yongdong; Hu, Junbo; Xie, Daxin; Qin, Jichao; Zhong, Yisheng; Li, Xiaolan; Xiao, Wei; Wu, Jianhong; Tao, Deding; Zhang, Manchao; Zhu, Yunfeng; Song, Yuping; Reed, Eddie; Li, Qingdi Q; Gong, Jianping

    2005-09-01

    Caspase-3 is a critical effector caspase for apoptosis, which cleaves proteins, including cytoskeletal and associated proteins, kinases, and members of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis-related proteins. This leads to changes in apoptotic morphology, such as membrane externalization and cytoplasm and nuclear condensation. It has been reported that pro-caspase-3 is activated in the cytosol. However, it remains obscure how caspase-3 activation correlates to serial changes in cell morphology during apoptosis. The current study was therefore undertaken to assess the relationship between caspase-3 activation and its subcellular localization and alterations in apoptotic morphology in MOLT-4 human leukemia cells exposed to X-ray irradiation. Fluorescence labeled inhibitor of caspases (FLICA) was used to detect caspase-3 activity in apoptotic cells in this project; cell morphology and caspase-3 sub-localization were determined by confocal microscopy. Our data showed that MOLT-4 cells presented typical morphological changes in apoptosis, such as membrane reversion, DNA fragmentation, and formation of apoptotic cell bodies following 10 Gray (Gy) of X-ray irradiation. Caspase-3 was activated 2 h after X-ray irradiation, and its activity increased markedly after 4-6-h exposure. Membrane reversion in MOLT-4 leukemia cells was detected by Annexin V assay at 4 h following X-ray irradiation, 2 h after the elevated caspase-3 activity was measured. Cytologically, activation of caspase-3 was first observed close to the inside surface of the cellular membrane, then transferred to the cytoplasm, and finally translocated to the nuclear region. We conclude that caspase-3 is activated in MOLT-4 cells following exposure to X-rays, and that the enhanced caspase-3 activity and its sub-localization shifting is correlated to changes in apoptotic morphology. The spatial shift of activated caspase-3 in X-ray-induced apoptotic MOLT-4 leukemia cells is a process of crucial importance for apoptosis.

  5. Study cell invasion by optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying; Hoban, Paul R.; Sule-Suso, Joseph; Holley, Sarah; El Haj, Alicia J.; Bahrami, Fariba; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2006-02-01

    Cancer is a world-wide health problem associated with an increasing death rate. The mechanisms of how normal cells transform into cancer cells are not fully understood. Intensive investigations have been undertaken to identify genes whose unregulated expression are involved in this process. In this study, we have grown, on collagen gel, adherent mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) knocked out for Cyl-1 (MEF Cyl1-/-) which have been transfected with the human proto-oncogene cyclin D1 (CCND1) under the control of an inducible expression system. CCND1 expression can be regulated in the fibroblasts via the presence of an inducer, isopropyl β-D-Thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). In the absence of IPTG, CCND1 expression is silenced. The migration ability of the resultant cells on the collagen gel has been monitored by complementary optical techniques: the conventional light microscopy; optical coherence tomography and Fourier Transform Infrared Microspcopic Spectroscopy (FTIR) using Synchrotron beam source. It is found that the cells expressing CCND1 exhibited cell invasion morphology and had different matrix compositions near the cell layer in comparison to the cells not expressing CCND1. The results from this study are consistent with published findings that expression of CCND1 has oncogenic potential and is involved in cell invasion in vitro. Application of complementary optical techniques proves to be an efficient way obtaining morphological and composition information of cell invasion.

  6. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Morphological Awareness Intervention: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimo, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have established that morphological awareness is an important skill because it contributes unique variance to word-level reading and reading comprehension; however, few studies include students with reading disorders. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate whether training morphological awareness would improve morphological…

  7. Effect of substrate morphology slope distributions on light scattering, nc-Si:H film growth, and solar cell performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Yun; Santbergen, Rudi; Jäger, Klaus; Sever, Martin; Krč, Janez; Topič, Marko; Hänni, Simon; Zhang, Chao; Heidt, Anna; Meier, Matthias; van Swaaij, René A C M M; Zeman, Miro

    2014-12-24

    Thin-film silicon solar cells are often deposited on textured ZnO substrates. The solar-cell performance is strongly correlated to the substrate morphology, as this morphology determines light scattering, defective-region formation, and crystalline growth of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H). Our objective is to gain deeper insight in these correlations using the slope distribution, rms roughness (σ(rms)) and correlation length (lc) of textured substrates. A wide range of surface morphologies was obtained by Ar plasma treatment and wet etching of textured and flat-as-deposited ZnO substrates. The σ(rms), lc and slope distribution were deduced from AFM scans. Especially, the slope distribution of substrates was represented in an efficient way that light scattering and film growth direction can be more directly estimated at the same time. We observed that besides a high σ(rms), a high slope angle is beneficial to obtain high haze and scattering of light at larger angles, resulting in higher short-circuit current density of nc-Si:H solar cells. However, a high slope angle can also promote the creation of defective regions in nc-Si:H films grown on the substrate. It is also found that the crystalline fraction of nc-Si:H solar cells has a stronger correlation with the slope distributions than with σ(rms) of substrates. In this study, we successfully correlate all these observations with the solar-cell performance by using the slope distribution of substrates.

  8. Morphological Changes in CHO and VERO Cells Treated with T-2 Mycotoxin. Correlation with Inhibition of Protein Synthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-21

    Changes in CHO and VERO Cells Treated with T-2 Mycotoxin . Correlation with Publication Inhibition of Protein Synthesis 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and African green monkey kidney (VERO) cells to T-2 mycotoxin resulted in several morphological changes which appeared to be...Data Entered) . . . .. 0 Morphological Changes in CHO and VERO Cells Treated with T-2 • Mycotoxin . Correlation with Inhibition of Protein Synthesis

  9. Quantitative characterization and comparative study of feather melanosome internal morphology using surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Straker, Lorian Cobra

    2016-03-01

    A successful feather development implies in a precise orchestration of cells in the follicle, which culminates in one of the most complex epidermal structures in nature. Melanocytes contribute to the final structure by delivering melanosomes to the barb and barbule cells. Disturbance to the tissue during the feather growth can damage the final structure. Here, melanosomes seen in an unusual outgrowth on the barb cortex of a flight feather are reported and compared to commonly observed melanosomes embedded in the cortex. Transmission Electron Microscopy in scanning-transmission mode (STEM) generated images coupled with secondary electron detection. The two classes of melanosomes were registered on images combining transmitted and secondary electron signals. Image processing allowed surface analyses of roughness and texture of the internal morphology of these organelles. Results showed that the two classes of melanosomes are significantly distinct internally, indicating that different physiological processes up to feather maturation could have occurred. Surface analysis methods are not regularly used in cell biology studies, but here it is shown that it has great potential for microscopic image analysis, which could add robust information to studies of cell biology events.

  10. From nano to micro: topographical scale and its impact on cell adhesion, morphology and contact guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Sathe, Sharvari R.; Yim, Evelyn K. F.

    2016-05-01

    Topography, among other physical factors such as substrate stiffness and extracellular forces, is known to have a great influence on cell behaviours. Optimization of topographical features, in particular topographical dimensions ranging from nanoscale to microscale, is the key strategy to obtain the best cellular performance for various applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this review, we provide a comprehensive survey on the significance of sizes of topography and their impacts on cell adhesion, morphology and alignment, and neurite guidance. Also recent works mimicking the hierarchical structure of natural extracellular matrix by combining both nanoscale and microscale topographies are highlighted.

  11. Assessing epithelial cell nuclear morphology by using azimuthal light scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chung-Chieh; Lau, Condon; Tunnell, James W.; Hunter, Martin; Kalashnikov, Maxim; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Fulghum, Stephen F.; Badizadegan, Kamran; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2006-11-01

    We describe azimuthal light scattering spectroscopy (ϕ/LSS), a novel technique for assessing epithelial-cell nuclear morphology. The difference between the spectra measured at azimuthal angles ϕ=0° and ϕ=90° preferentially isolates the single backscattering contribution due to large (˜10 μm) structures such as epithelial cell nuclei by discriminating against scattering from smaller organelles and diffusive background. We demonstrate the feasibility of using ϕ/LSS for cancer detection by showing that spectra from cancerous colon tissue exhibit significantly greater azimuthal asymmetry than spectra from normal colonic tissues.

  12. [In vitro modification of the morphology and the growth of cells infected with scrapie (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Markovits, P; Dormont, D; Maunoury, R; Delamarche, C; Delpech, A; Dianoux, L; Latarjet, R

    1982-02-15

    Seven cell lines originated either in brains or in neuroblastomas of Mice, were infected with Scrapie. After 12 to 16 in vitro passages, 6 lines out of 7 showed changes of their morphology, and of their growth, resembling those occurring in the course of a malignant transformation. The Scrapie infected cells acquired the capacity to form 2 to 4 times more colonies in liquid medium than the controls, and to develop large tridimensional colonies in semisolid medium. The role of Scrapie in these changes is discussed.

  13. Evaluation of cytotoxicity, morphological alterations and oxidative stress in Chinook salmon cells exposed to copper oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, Koigoora; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C; Rao, Janapala Venkateswara

    2016-05-01

    The current study is aimed to study cytotoxicity and oxidative stress mediated changes induced by copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) in Chinook salmon cells (CHSE-214). To this end, a number of biochemical responses are evaluated in CHSE-214 cells which are as follows [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide] MTT, neutral red uptake (NRU), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), protein carbonyl (PC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), oxidised glutathione (GSSG), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione sulfo-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of CuO NPs to CHSE-214 cells after 24 h exposure was found to be 19.026 μg ml(-1). Viability of cells was reduced by CuO NPs, and the decrease was dose dependent as revealed by the MTT and NRU assay. CHSE-214 cells exposed to CuO NPs induced morphological changes. Initially, cells started to detach from the surface (12 h), followed by polyhedric, fusiform appearance (19 h) and finally the cells started to shrink. Later, the cells started losing their cellular contents leading to their death only after 24 h. LDH, PC, LPO, GSH, GPx, GST, SOD, CAT, 8-OHdG and ROS responses were seen significantly increased with the increase in the concentration of CuO NPs when compared to their respective controls. However, significant decrease in GSSG was perceptible in CHSE-214 cells exposed to CuO NPs in a dose-dependent manner. Our data demonstrated that CuO NPs induced cytotoxicity in CHSE-214 cells through the mediation of oxidative stress. The current study provides a baseline for the CuO NPs-mediated cytotoxic assessment in CHSE-214 cells for the future studies.

  14. Identification and quantitation of morphological cell types in electrophoretically separated human embryonic kidney cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, K. B.; Kunze, M. E.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Four major cell types were identified by phase microscopy in early passage human embryonic kidney cell cultures. They are small and large epithelioid, domed, and fenestrated cells. Fibroblasts are also present in some explants. The percent of each cell type changes with passage number as any given culture grows. As a general rule, the fraction of small epithelioid cells increases, while the fraction of fenestrated cells, always small, decreases further. When fibroblasts are present, they always increase in percentage of the total cell population. Electrophoretic separation of early passage cells showed that the domed cells have the highest electrophoretic mobility, fibroblasts have an intermediate high mobility, small epithelioid cells have a low mobility, broadly distributed, and fenestrated cells have the lowest mobility. All cell types were broadly distributed among electrophoretic subfractions, which were never pure but only enriched with respect to a given cell type.

  15. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanoparticles with Controlled Morphologies and High Drug/Dye Loadings for Multicargo Delivery in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Croissant, Jonas G; Fatieiev, Yevhen; Omar, Haneen; Anjum, Dalaver H; Gurinov, Andrey; Lu, Jie; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Zink, Jeffrey I; Khashab, Niveen M

    2016-07-04

    Despite the worldwide interest generated by periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) bulk materials, the design of PMO nanomaterials with controlled morphology remains largely unexplored and their properties unknown. In this work, we describe the first study of PMO nanoparticles (NPs) based on meta-phenylene bridges, and we conducted a comparative structure-property relationship investigation with para-phenylene-bridged PMO NPs. Our findings indicate that the change of the isomer drastically affects the structure, morphology, size, porosity and thermal stability of PMO materials. We observed a much higher porosity and thermal stability of the para-based PMO which was likely due to a higher molecular periodicity. Additionally, the para isomer could generate multipodal NPs at very low stirring speed and upon this discovery we designed a phenylene-ethylene bridged PMO with a controlled Janus morphology. Unprecedentedly high payloads could be obtained from 40 to 110 wt % regardless of the organic bridge of PMOs. Finally, we demonstrate for the first time the co-delivery of two cargos by PMO NPs. Importantly, the cargo stability in PMOs did not require the capping of the pores, unlike pure silica, and the delivery could be autonomously triggered in cancer cells by acidic pH with nearly 70 % cell killing.

  16. FoxP2 protein levels regulate cell morphology changes and migration patterns in the vertebrate developing telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Calero, Elena; Botella-Lopez, Arancha; Bahamonde, Olga; Perez-Balaguer, Ariadna; Martinez, Salvador

    2016-07-01

    In the mammalian telencephalon, part of the progenitor cells transition from multipolar to bipolar morphology as they invade the mantle zone. This associates with changing patterns of radial migration. However, the molecules implicated in these morphology transitions are not well known. In the present work, we analyzed the function of FoxP2 protein in this process during telencephalic development in vertebrates. We analyzed the expression of FoxP2 protein and its relation with cell morphology and migratory patterns in mouse and chicken developing striatum. We observed FoxP2 protein expressed in a gradient from the subventricular zone to the mantle layer in mice embryos. In the FoxP2 low domain cells showed multipolar migration. In the striatal mantle layer where FoxP2 protein expression is higher, cells showed locomoting migration and bipolar morphology. In contrast, FoxP2 showed a high and homogenous expression pattern in chicken striatum, thus bipolar morphology predominated. Elevation of FoxP2 in the striatal subventricular zone by in utero electroporation promoted bipolar morphology and impaired multipolar radial migration. In mouse cerebral cortex we obtained similar results. FoxP2 promotes transition from multipolar to bipolar morphology by means of gradiental expression in mouse striatum and cortex. Together these results indicate a role of FoxP2 differential expression in cell morphology control of the vertebrate telencephalon.

  17. Effect of lentivirus-mediated survivin transfection on the morphology and apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells derived from degenerative human disc in vitro

    PubMed Central

    MA, XUEXIAO; LIN, YAZHOU; YANG, KUN; YUE, BIN; XIANG, HONGFEI; CHEN, BOHUA

    2015-01-01

    Lower back pain is a common concern, and 40% of all cases involve the degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). However, the excessive apoptosis of disc cells plays an important role in IVD degeneration, particularly in the nucleus pulposus (NP). Thus, anti-apoptotic gene therapy to attenuate or reverse the degenerative process within the NP is being developed. Survivin is a unique inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) and has been extensively investigated in cancer cells. However, little is known of the effects of survivin transfection on NP cells derived from degenerative human disc. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of lentivirus (LV)-mediated survivin transfection on the morphology and apoptosis of NP cells derived from degenerative human disc in vitro. NP cells were transfected with LV-mediated survivin. Subsequently, cell morphology was observed and the survivin mRNA expression levels were measured by RT-qPCR. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry and by measuring caspase-3 activity. The results revealed that the morphology of the NP cells derived from degenerative human disc transfected with LV-mediated survivin was significantly altered as evidenced by cytomorphosis, the reduction of the cytoplasm and cell shrinkage. Following transfection, survivin gene expression significantly increased in the transfected cells and subsequent generation cells; however, no significant differences in the cell apoptotic rate and caspase-3 activity were observed. We found that transfection of the survivin gene into NP cells led to the stable expression of survivin and induced marked changes in cell morphology. Furthermore, no significant anti-apoptotic effects were observed following LV-mediated survivin transfection. Overall, our findings demonstrate that LV carrying surviving may be used to successfully enforce the expression of survivin in NP cells. However, cell morphology was evidently altered, whereas the apoptotic rate did not decrease. Comprehensive

  18. Identification of immune cell infiltration in hematoxylin-eosin stained breast cancer samples: texture-based classification of tissue morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkki, Riku; Linder, Nina; Kovanen, Panu E.; Pellinen, Teijo; Lundin, Johan

    2016-03-01

    The characteristics of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment of breast cancer capture clinically important information. Despite the heterogeneity of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, it has been shown that the degree of infiltration assessed by visual evaluation of hematoxylin-eosin (H and E) stained samples has prognostic and possibly predictive value. However, quantification of the infiltration in H and E-stained tissue samples is currently dependent on visual scoring by an expert. Computer vision enables automated characterization of the components of the tumor microenvironment, and texture-based methods have successfully been used to discriminate between different tissue morphologies and cell phenotypes. In this study, we evaluate whether local binary pattern texture features with superpixel segmentation and classification with support vector machine can be utilized to identify immune cell infiltration in H and E-stained breast cancer samples. Guided with the pan-leukocyte CD45 marker, we annotated training and test sets from 20 primary breast cancer samples. In the training set of arbitrary sized image regions (n=1,116) a 3-fold cross-validation resulted in 98% accuracy and an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.98 to discriminate between immune cell -rich and - poor areas. In the test set (n=204), we achieved an accuracy of 96% and AUC of 0.99 to label cropped tissue regions correctly into immune cell -rich and -poor categories. The obtained results demonstrate strong discrimination between immune cell -rich and -poor tissue morphologies. The proposed method can provide a quantitative measurement of the degree of immune cell infiltration and applied to digitally scanned H and E-stained breast cancer samples for diagnostic purposes.

  19. Following the biochemical and morphological changes of Bacillus atrophaeus cells during the sporulation process using Bioaerosol Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Herbert J; Pitesky, Maurice E; Fergenson, David P; Steele, Paul T; Horn, Joanne; Frank, Matthias; Gard, Eric E

    2006-10-01

    Bioaerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS), a real-time single cell analytical technique, was used to follow the biochemical and morphological changes within a group of Bacillus atrophaeus cells by measuring individual cells during the process of sporulation. A mutant of B. atrophaeus that lacks the ability to produce dipicolinic acid (DPA) was also analyzed. Single cell aerodynamic sizing was used to follow gross morphological changes, and chemical analysis of single cells by mass spectrometry was used to follow some biochemical changes of B. atrophaeus cells during endospore formation.

  20. Phenomenology based multiscale models as tools to understand cell membrane and organelle morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, N.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    An intriguing question in cell biology is “how do cells regulate their shape?” It is commonly believed that the observed cellular morphologies are a result of the complex interaction among the lipid molecules (constituting the cell membrane), and with a number of other macromolecules, such as proteins. It is also believed that the common biophysical processes essential for the functioning of a cell also play an important role in cellular morphogenesis. At the cellular scale—where typical dimensions are in the order of micrometers—the effects arising from the molecular scale can either be modeled as equilibrium or non-equilibrium processes. In this chapter, we discuss the dynamically triangulated Monte Carlo technique to model and simulate membrane morphologies at the cellular scale, which in turn can be used to investigate several questions related to shape regulation in cells. In particular, we focus on two specific problems within the framework of isotropic and anisotropic elasticity theories: namely, (i) the origin of complex, physiologically relevant, membrane shapes due to the interaction of the membrane with curvature remodeling proteins, and (ii) the genesis of steady state cellular shapes due to the action of non-equilibrium forces that are generated by the fission and fusion of transport vesicles and by the binding and unbinding of proteins from the parent membrane. PMID:27087801

  1. Early B cell factor 1 regulates adipocyte morphology and lipolysis in white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Mejhert, Niklas; Fretz, Jackie A; Arner, Erik; Lorente-Cebrián, Silvia; Ehrlund, Anna; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Gong, Xiaowei; Strömblad, Staffan; Douagi, Iyadh; Laurencikiene, Jurga; Dahlman, Ingrid; Daub, Carsten O; Rydén, Mikael; Horowitz, Mark C; Arner, Peter

    2014-06-03

    White adipose tissue (WAT) morphology characterized by hypertrophy (i.e., fewer but larger adipocytes) associates with increased adipose inflammation, lipolysis, insulin resistance, and risk of diabetes. However, the causal relationships and the mechanisms controlling WAT morphology are unclear. Herein, we identified EBF1 as an adipocyte-expressed transcription factor with decreased expression/activity in WAT hypertrophy. In human adipocytes, the regulatory targets of EBF1 were enriched for genes controlling lipolysis and adipocyte morphology/differentiation, and in both humans and murine models, reduced EBF1 levels associated with increased lipolysis and adipose hypertrophy. Although EBF1 did not affect adipose inflammation, TNFα reduced EBF1 gene expression. High-fat diet intervention in Ebf1(+/-) mice resulted in more pronounced WAT hypertrophy and attenuated insulin sensitivity compared with wild-type littermate controls. We conclude that EBF1 is an important regulator of adipose morphology and fat cell lipolysis and may constitute a link between WAT inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, adipose hypertrophy, and insulin resistance.

  2. Early B-cell Factor 1 Regulates Adipocyte Morphology and Lipolysis in White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui; Mejhert, Niklas; Fretz, Jackie A.; Arner, Erik; Lorente-Cebrián, Silvia; Ehrlund, Anna; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Gong, Xiaowei; Strömblad, Staffan; Douagi, Iyadh; Laurencikiene, Jurga; Dahlman, Ingrid; Daub, Carsten O.; Rydén, Mikael; Horowitz, Mark C.; Arner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Summary White adipose tissue (WAT) morphology characterized by hypertrophy (i.e. fewer but larger adipocytes) associates with increased adipose inflammation, lipolysis, insulin resistance and risk of diabetes. However, the causal relationships and the mechanisms controlling WAT morphology are unclear. Herein, we identified EBF1 as an adipocyte-expressed transcription factor with decreased expression/activity in WAT hypertrophy. In human adipocytes, the regulatory targets of EBF1 were enriched for genes controlling lipolysis and adipocyte morphology/differentiation and in both humans and murine models, reduced EBF1 levels associated with increased lipolysis and adipose hypertrophy. Although EBF1 did not affect adipose inflammation, TNFα reduced EBF1 gene expression. High fat diet-intervention in Ebf1+/− mice resulted in more pronounced WAT hypertrophy and attenuated insulin sensitivity compared with wild-type littermate controls. We conclude that EBF1 is an important regulator of adipose morphology and fat cell lipolysis and may constitute a link between WAT inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, adipose hypertrophy and insulin resistance. PMID:24856929

  3. Morphological transformations of native petroleum emulsions. I. Viscosity studies.

    PubMed

    Evdokimov, Igor N; Efimov, Yaroslav O; Losev, Aleksandr P; Novikov, Mikhail A

    2008-07-15

    Emulsions of water in as-recovered native crude oils of diverse geographical origin evidently possess some common morphological features. At low volume fractions varphi of water, the viscosity behavior of emulsions is governed by the presence of flocculated clusters of water droplets, whereas characteristic tight gels, composed of visually monodisperse small droplets, are responsible for the viscosity anomaly at varphi approximately 0.4-0.5. Once formed, small-droplet gel domains apparently retain their structural integrity at higher varphi, incorporating/stabilizing new portions of water as larger-sized droplets. The maximum hold-up of disperse water evidently is the close-packing limit of varphi approximately 0.74. At higher water contents (up to varphi approximately 0.83), no inversion to O/W morphology takes place, but additional water emerges as a separate phase. The onset of stratified flow (W/O emulsion gel + free water) is the cause of the observed viscosity decrease, contrary to the conventional interpretation of the viscosity maximum as a reliable indicator of the emulsion inversion point.

  4. Changes in the morphology and protein expression of germ cells and Sertoli cells in plateau pikas testes during non-breeding season

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Cao, Guangming; Zhang, Yanming; Qu, Jiapeng; Li, Wei; Wan, Xinrong; Li, Yu-xia; Zhang, Zhibin; Wang, Yan-ling; Gao, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Plateau pikas are seasonally breeding small herbivores that inhabit the meadow ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Testis regression in plateau pikas begins in early June, and the male pikas are completely infertile, with a dramatically reduced testis size, in late July. In this study, a decreased germ cell number in the testes was first noted in early June. By late June, only Sertoli cells and a small number of spermatogonia remained. Interestingly, large gonocyte-like germ cells were observed in early July. In late July, the number of gonocyte-like cells per tubule increased significantly, and most of the Sertoli cell nuclei moved to and clustered in the center of the seminiferous tubules. The gonocyte-like germ cells and Sertoli cells began to express AP-2γ and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) proteins, which were detected in the germ cells and Sertoli cells of juvenile pikas but not in adult testes. Simultaneously, LC3 puncta dramatically increased in the seminiferous tubules of the pikas’ testes during the non-breeding season. Our study found that spermatogonia and Sertoli cells in non-breeding adult pikas morphologically resembled those in juvenile pikas and expressed specific markers, indicating that de-differentiation-like transitions may occur during this process. PMID:26939551

  5. The Morphological and Molecular Changes of Brain Cells Exposed to Direct Current Electric Field Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Simon J.; Lagacé, Marie; St-Amour, Isabelle; Arsenault, Dany; Cisbani, Giulia; Chabrat, Audrey; Fecteau, Shirley; Lévesque, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The application of low-intensity direct current electric fields has been experimentally used in the clinic to treat a number of brain disorders, predominantly using transcranial direct current stimulation approaches. However, the cellular and molecular changes induced by such treatment remain largely unknown. Methods: Here, we tested various intensities of direct current electric fields (0, 25, 50, and 100V/m) in a well-controlled in vitro environment in order to investigate the responses of neurons, microglia, and astrocytes to this type of stimulation. This included morphological assessments of the cells, viability, as well as shape and fiber outgrowth relative to the orientation of the direct current electric field. We also undertook enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and western immunoblotting to identify which molecular pathways were affected by direct current electric fields. Results: In response to direct current electric field, neurons developed an elongated cell body shape with neurite outgrowth that was associated with a significant increase in growth associated protein-43. Fetal midbrain dopaminergic explants grown in a collagen gel matrix also showed a reorientation of their neurites towards the cathode. BV2 microglial cells adopted distinct morphological changes with an increase in cyclooxygenase-2 expression, but these were dependent on whether they had already been activated with lipopolysaccharide. Finally, astrocytes displayed elongated cell bodies with cellular filopodia that were oriented perpendicularly to the direct current electric field. Conclusion: We show that cells of the central nervous system can respond to direct current electric fields both in terms of their morphological shape and molecular expression of certain proteins, and this in turn can help us to begin understand the mechanisms underlying the clinical benefits of direct current electric field. PMID:25522422

  6. Physiological and cell morphology adaptation of Bacillus subtilis at near-zero specific growth rates: a transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Overkamp, Wout; Ercan, Onur; Herber, Martijn; van Maris, Antonius J A; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-02-01

    Nutrient scarcity is a common condition in nature, but the resulting extremely low growth rates (below 0.025 h(-1) ) are an unexplored research area in Bacillus subtilis. To understand microbial life in natural environments, studying the adaptation of B. subtilis to near-zero growth conditions is relevant. To this end, a chemostat modified for culturing an asporogenous B. subtilis sigF mutant strain at extremely low growth rates (also named a retentostat) was set up, and biomass accumulation, culture viability, metabolite production and cell morphology were analysed. During retentostat culturing, the specific growth rate decreased to a minimum of 0.00006 h(-1) , corresponding to a doubling time of 470 days. The energy distribution between growth and maintenance-related processes showed that a state of near-zero growth was reached. Remarkably, a filamentous cell morphology emerged, suggesting that cell separation is impaired under near-zero growth conditions. To evaluate the corresponding molecular adaptations to extremely low specific growth, transcriptome changes were analysed. These revealed that cellular responses to near-zero growth conditions share several similarities with those of cells during the stationary phase of batch growth. However, fundamental differences between these two non-growing states are apparent by their high viability and absence of stationary phase mutagenesis under near-zero growth conditions.

  7. Morphology-dependent light trapping in thin-film organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Grote, Richard R; Brown, Steven J; Driscoll, Jeffrey B; Osgood, Richard M; Schuller, Jon A

    2013-09-09

    The active layer materials used in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells often self-assemble into highly ordered morphologies, resulting in significant optical anisotropies. However, the impact of these anisotropies on light trapping in nanophotonic OPV architectures has not been considered. In this paper, we show that optical anisotropies in a canonical OPV material, P3HT, strongly affect absorption enhancements in ultra-thin textured OPV cells. In particular we show that plasmonic and gap-mode solar cell architectures redistribute electromagnetic energy into the out-of-plane field component, independent of the active layer orientation. Using analytical and numerical calculations, we demonstrate how the absorption in these solar cell designs can be significantly increased by reorienting polymer domains such that strongly absorbing axes align with the direction of maximum field enhancement.

  8. Zinc air refuelable battery: alternative zinc fuel morphologies and cell behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Krueger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Multicell zinc/air batteries have been tested previously in the laboratory and as part of the propulsion system of an electric bus; cut zinc wire was used as the anode material. This battery is refueled by a hydraulic transport of 0.5-1 mm zinc particles into hoppers above each cell. We report an investigation concerning alternative zinc fuel morphologies, and energy losses associated with refueling and with overnight or prolonged standby. Three types of fuel pellets were fabricated, tested and compared with results for cut wire: spheres produced in a fluidized bed electrolysis cell; elongated particles produced by gas-atomization; and pellets produced by chopping 1 mm porous plates made of compacted zinc fines. Relative sizes of the particles and cell gap dimensions are critical. All three types transported within the cell 1553 and showed acceptable discharge characteristics, but a fluidized bed approach appears especially attractive for owner/user recovery operations.

  9. Principles of connectivity among morphologically defined cell types in adult neocortex.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaolong; Shen, Shan; Cadwell, Cathryn R; Berens, Philipp; Sinz, Fabian; Ecker, Alexander S; Patel, Saumil; Tolias, Andreas S

    2015-11-27

    Since the work of Ramón y Cajal in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, neuroscientists have speculated that a complete understanding of neuronal cell types and their connections is key to explaining complex brain functions. However, a complete census of the constituent cell types and their wiring diagram in mature neocortex remains elusive. By combining octuple whole-cell recordings with an optimized avidin-biotin-peroxidase staining technique, we carried out a morphological and electrophysiological census of neuronal types in layers 1, 2/3, and 5 of mature neocortex and mapped the connectivity between more than 11,000 pairs of identified neurons. We categorized 15 types of interneurons, and each exhibited a characteristic pattern of connectivity with other interneuron types and pyramidal cells. The essential connectivity structure of the neocortical microcircuit could be captured by only a few connectivity motifs.

  10. A morphological classification of retinal ganglion cells in the Japanese catshark Scyliorhinus torazame.

    PubMed

    Muguruma, Kaori; Stell, William K; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (GCs) in the Japanese catshark Scyliorhinus torazame were labeled retrogradely with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA3000). First the labeled cells were classified into 5 morphological types (types I-III: small GCs; types IV and V: large GCs) according to the size of the soma and the dendritic arborization pattern as seen in retinal wholemounts. Type I cells were stellate, with dendrites radiating in different directions. Type II cells had bipolar dendritic trees, with 2 primary dendrites extending in opposite directions. Type III cells had a single thick primary dendrite. Type IV cells were stellate, with dendrites covering a large area centered on the cell body. Type V cells were asymmetric, with most dendrites extending opposite to the axon as a large, fan-shaped dendritic field. Subsequently a wholemount was cross-sectioned, and we classified cells further into multiple subtypes according to the level of dendritic arborization within the inner plexiform layer. The present results suggest the existence of many types of GCs in elasmobranchs in addition to the 3 types of large GCs that have been characterized previously. Some of the newly described GC subtypes in the catshark retina appear to be similar to some of those reported in actinopterygians.

  11. Target morphology and cell memory: a model of regenerative pattern formation

    PubMed Central

    Bessonov, Nikolai; Levin, Michael; Morozova, Nadya; Reinberg, Natalia; Tosenberger, Alen; Volpert, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing body of work on molecular components required for regenera